• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 How to use this soil survey
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 Summary of tables
 Foreword
 Climate
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Prime farmland
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Formation of soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 Index to map
 General soil map
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Arecibo area of northern Puerto Rico
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027412/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Arecibo area of northern Puerto Rico
Physical Description: vii, 169 p., 49 p. of plates : ill., maps (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Acevido, Gilberto
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Puerto Rico (Mayagüez Campus) -- College of Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Puerto Rico -- Arecibo   ( lcsh )
Soil-surveys -- Puerto Rico -- Arecibo Area   ( nal )
Soils -- Maps -- Puerto Rico -- Arecibo Area   ( nal )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 91.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with the College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Issued March 1982"--P. iii.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027412
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001252742
oclc - 08661262
notis - AGA3313

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title
    How to use this soil survey
        Page ia
        Page ib
    Front Matter
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
        Page v
    Summary of tables
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Climate
        Page 1
    How this survey was made
        Page 2
    General soil map units
        Page 3
        Soils on coastal plains
            Page 3
        Soils on flood plains
            Page 4
        Soils on uplands
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 7
        Soils descriptions
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
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            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
    Prime farmland
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 47
        Crops and pasture
            Page 47
            Page 48
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 49
        Recreation
            Page 49
        Engineering
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
    Soil properties
        Page 55
        Engineering index properties
            Page 55
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 56
        Soil and water features
            Page 57
            Page 58
    Classification of the soils
        Page 59
    Formation of soils
        Page 59
        Factors of soils formation
            Page 59
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
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        Page 64
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        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    References
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Glossary
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Tables
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
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    Index to map
        Page 170
        Page 171
    General soil map
        Page 172
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
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Full Text





United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
College of Agricultural Sciences
University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus



soil survey of
Arecibo Area

Northern Puerto Rico





HOW TO US


Locate your area of interest on
S the "Index to Map Sheets" (the _
last page of this publication).

/f( Kokomo
__ y --- I= -^ I __I- -- -- -- -- -

1



Note the number of the map
2. sheet and turn to that sheet.




Locate your area of interest
3* on the map sheet.

J__ \\ \






SWaF AsB

BaC BaC








AsB Ce
Ia ?Fa
List the map unit symbols
re that are in your area. S y m b ol s




HBa
Fa BaC WaF
AsB ^ ^ Ce



Fa\- aI y ti -- 'WaF





HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5. which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described.






.-K Z, -- -...













See "Summary of Tables" (following the
Contents) for location of additional data .. ._
on a specific soil use.









-=







Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or
students; to specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was performed in the period 1971-75. Soil
names and descriptions were approved in 1979. Unless otherwise indicated,
statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1977.
This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the
College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus.
The survey is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Atlantico,
Caonillas, and Norte Soil Conservation Districts.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.
Cover: An area of pineapples on Vega Alta sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent
slopes.























I I
















contents


Index to map units...................................................... iv Woodland management and productivity ............ 49
Sum m ary of tables.................................................. vi Recreation .................................................................... 49
Forew ord...................................... ................................ vii Engineering .................................................................. 50
C lim ate ............................................................................. 1 Soil properties ............................................................... 55
How this survey w as m ade ............................................ 2 Engineering index properties........................ ............ 55
G general soil m ap units............................................... 3 Physical and chem ical properties.............................. 56
Soils on coastal plains........................................... 3 Soil and w ater features............................................... 57
Soils on flood plains................................................... 4 Classification of the soils......................................... 59
Soils on uplands ........................................................ 4 Form ation of the soils................................................ 59
Detailed soil m ap units .............................................. 7 Factors of soil form ation.......................... ................. 59
Soil descriptions ........................................................ 7 Soil series and their m orphology................................... 60
Prim e farm land ......................... ..................................... 44 References ................................................... ............ 91
Use and management of the soils.......................... 47 Glossary ....................... 93
Crops and pasture....................................................... 47 Tables ........................................ 99


soil series

Aceitunas series ........................ ...................................... 60 Juncal series.................................................................... 75
Adjuntas series ................................................................ 61 Lirios series...................................................................... 76
Algarrobo series ......................................................... 61 Los G uineos series ......................................................... 76
Alm irante series.................................................................... 62 M araguez series .............................................................. 77
Alonso series ........................ ........................................... 63 M aricao series ................................................................. 77
Arecibo series............................................................ 63 M atanzas series............................................................... 78
Bajura series ......................... ........................................ 64 M oca series................................. .................................. 78
Bayam on series.......................... ...................................... 64 M orado series.................................................................. 79
Caguabo series......................................................... 65 M ucara series .................................................................. 79
Caracoles series..................... ....................................... 65 Naranjo series.................................................................. 80
Carrizales series ....................... ...................................... 66 Palm ar series ................................................................... 80
Catano series.............. ........................................ 66 Pellejas series.................................................................. 81
Colinas series .......................... ... ............................ .......... 66 Perchas series................................................................. 81
Coloso series ................................................................... 67 Reilly series...................................................................... 82
Consejo series........................ ......................................... 67 Rio Lajas series................................. ............................ 82
Consum o series............................................................... 68 Sabana Seca series........................................................ 82
Corozal series..................... ............................................ 68 San G erm an series ......................................................... 83
Corozo series................................................................... 69 San Sebastian series...................................................... 83
Coto series....................................................................... 69 Santa Clara series........................................................... 84
Cuchillas series.............................. .................................. 70 Soller series ............................. ........................................ 84
Daguey series.......................... ......................................... 70 Tanam a series................................................................. 85
Espinosa series ..................... .......................................... 71 Tiburones series.............................................................. 85
G arrochales series........................ ................................. 71 Toa series.................................... .................................. 85
G uerrero series.......................................................... 72 Tropopsam m ents............................................................. 86
Hum atas series ................................................................ 72
Hydraquents ............................................................... Vega Alta series ......................... 86
Ingenio series............................................................. 73 Vega Baja series ............................................................. 87
Islote series ...................................................................... 74 Vigia series ....................................................................... 87
Jareales series........................................................... 74 Vivi series .... .... ............ ............................................... 88
Jobos series................................... .................................. 75 Voladora series................................................................ 88
Issued March 1982
iII
















index to map units


AaC-Aceitunas sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent CpF-Consumo clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes............ 18
slopes........................................................................ 7 CrC- Corozal clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes.................. 18
AcC-Aceitunas clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes............ 8 CsC-Corozo fine sand, 2 to 12 percent slopes......... 19
AdF2-Adjuntas clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes, CtB-Coto clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes....................... 19
eroded....................................................................... 8 CtC- Coto clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes....................... 19
AgC-Algarrobo fine sand, 2 to 12 percent slopes.... 8 CuF-Cuchillas silty clay loam, 40 to 60 percent
AIB- Almirante sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes.... 8 slopes..................................................................... 19
AIC-Almirante sandy loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes.. 9 CvF-Cuchillas-Rock outcrop complex, 40 to 60
AmB-Almirante sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent percent slopes ................................... .......... 20
slopes........................................................................ 9 DaD2- Daguey clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes,
AmC-Almirante sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent eroded................................................ ........... 20
slopes........................................................................ 9 EaB- Espinosa sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes... 20
AnB-Almirante clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes.............. 10 EaC-Espinosa sandy loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes. 21
AnC-Almirante clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes.............. 10 EbB-Espinosa sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent
AoD2-Alonso clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, slopes.......................................... ......... ......... 21
eroded..................................................................... 10 EbC- Espinosa sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent
AoE2-Alonso clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes, slopes............................... ............... 21
eroded..................................................................... 10 EcB- Espinosa clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes............... 21
AoF2-Alonso clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes, eroded. 11 EcC-Espinosa clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes.............. 22
ArC--Arecibo fine sand, 2 to 12 percent slopes......... 11 Ga-Garrochales muck....................................... 22
Ba-Bajura clay............................................................. 11 GeC-Guerrero sand, 2 to 12 percent slopes............ 22
BcB-Bayamon sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes... 11 HD-Hydraquents, frequently flooded........................ 22
BcC-Bayamon sandy loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes. 12 HmE-Humatas clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes........... 22
BsB-Bayamon sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent HmF-Humatas clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes........... 23
slopes................................................................... 12 HS- Hydraquents, saline ............................ ........... 23
BsC-Bayamon sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent InD-Ingenio clay loam, 5 to 20 percent slopes......... 23
slopes.......... ........................................ ............... 12 InE- Ingenio clay loam, 20 to 40 percent slopes....... 24
ByB-Bayamon clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes................ 12 IsC-Islote sandy clay loam, 2 to 12 percent slopes. 24
ByC-Bayamon clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes............ 13 Ja-Jareales clay.................. .......................... ................ 24
CaF-Caguabo clay loam, 20 to 60 percent slopes... 13 JoC-Jobos sandy loam, 2 to 12 percent slopes....... 25
CbF-Caguabo-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 60 JuD2-Juncal clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded. 25
percent slopes ....................................................... 13 JuE2-Juncal clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes, eroded. 25
CcD-Caracoles loam, 5 to 20 percent slopes......... 14 LcE2-Lirios clay loam, 20 to 40 percent slopes,
CcE- Caracoles loam, 20 to 40 percent slopes......... 14 eroded................................................. ............... 26
CeC-Carrizales fine sand, 2 to 12 percent slopes.... 14 LcF2-Lirios clay loam, 40 to 60 percent slopes,
Cf- Catano sand ............................... ......... 14 eroded ................................................. .................. ... 26
Cg-Coastal beaches.................................. .. 15 LgD-Los Guineos clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes...... 26
CID2-Colinas clay loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, LgE-Los Guineos clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes....... 27
eroded........................................... 15 LgF-Los Guineos clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes....... 27
CIE2-Colinas clay loam, 20 to 40 percent slopes, LME-Los Guineos-Maricao-Rock outcrop
eroded ...................................... ..... 15 association, steep.......... ............................ .............. 27
CIF2-Colinas clay loam, 40 to 60 percent slopes, MaF2-Maraguez silty clay loam, 40 to 60 percent
eroded ...................... .................... .. 15 slopes, eroded ......................................................... 28
CmF2-Colinas cobbly clay loam, 20 to 60 percent McF-Maricao clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes.............. 28
slopes, eroded ..................................... .... 16 MmF-Matanzas-Rock outcrop complex, 5 to 60
Cn- Coloso silty clay...................................... 16 percent slopes ......................................................... 28
CoE-Consejo clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes.......... 16 MnB-Matanzas clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes............... 29
CoF-Consejo clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes.............. 17 MoC2-Moca clay, 2 to 12 percent slopes, eroded... 29
CpE-Consumo clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes........... 18 MoD2-Moca clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, eroded. 29


iv





















MoE2-Moca clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes, eroded. 30 SoC-Soller clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes.................. 36
MpF2-Morado clay loam, 40 to 60 percent slopes, SoD-Soller clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes.................. 36
eroded..................................................................... 30 SoF-Soller clay, 20 to 60 percent slopes.................. 36
MuE-Mucara clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes............. 30 SpD-Soller cobbly clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes..... 37
MuF-Mucara clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes............. 31 SpF-Soller cobbly clay, 20 to 60 percent slopes...... 37
NaD-Naranjo clay, 5 to 20 percent slopes ............... 31 SrF-Soller-Rock outcrop complex, 5 to 60 percent
NaE-Naranjo clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes........... 31 slopes....................................... ................ 38
NaF-Naranjo clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes ............ 32 TaB-Tanama clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes .................. 38
Pa-Palmar muck.......................................................... 32 TaC2-Tanama clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes, eroded. 38
PeF-Pellejas clay loam, 40 to 60 percent slopes..... 32 TaD2-Tanama clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes,
PhC2-Perchas clay, 2 to 12 percent slopes, eroded. 32 eroded............................................ ............ 39
PhD2-Perchas clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, Tb-Tiburones muck..................................................... 39
eroded.................... ... ........................................... 33 To- Toa silty clay loam .................................................. 39
Ps-Pits, gravel ............................................................. 33 TP-Tropopsamments, hummocky ............................... 39
Pt- Pits, sand .......................... ........................................ 33 Ur- Urban land................................................................ 40
Re-Reilly gravelly silt loam ....................................... 33 VaB-Vega Alta sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent
RIC-Rio Lajas sand, 2 to 12 percent slopes........... 33 slopes...................................... .................... 40
Rm-Riverwash............................................................. 34 VaC2-Vega Alta sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent
Ro-Rock outcrop, limestone........................................ 34 slopes, eroded ......................................................... 40
Rr-Rock outcrop, sandstone..................................... 34 VcB-Vega Alta clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes ............ 41
RsF-Rock outcrop-San German complex, 20 to 60 VcC2-Vega Alta clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes,
percent slopes .......................... ............................... 34 eroded....................................................................... 42
RtF-Rock outcrop-Tanama complex, 12 to 60 VeB-Vega Baja clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes .............. 42
percent slopes .............................................. 34 Vg- Vigia m uck ............................................................... 42
SaB-Sabana Seca clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes......... 35 Vm-Vivi loam ................................ ......... 42
SgD-San German gravelly clay loam, 5 to 20
percent slopes ................................................. 35 VoC2-Voladora clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes,
SgF-San German gravelly clay loam, 20 to 60 eroded............................................... ........... 43
percent slopes ................................... 35 VoD2-Voladora clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes,
SmF-San Sebastian gravelly clay, 20 to 60 percent eroded............................................... ............. 43
slopes........................................................................ 35 VoE2-Voladora clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes,
SnC-Santa Clara clay, 2 to 12 percent slopes......... 36 eroded............................................... ............. 43

















v
















summary of tables


Temperature and precipitation (tables 1, 2, and 3) ...........................100, 101, 102
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) ............................ 103
Acres. Percent.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (tables 5 and 6) .............................. 105, 110
Plantains. Bananas. Taniers. Pineapple. Coffee. Spring
sugarcane. 18-month sugarcane. Ratoon sugarcane.
Merkergrass. Pangolagrass. Paragrass. Guineagrass.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 7)............................................... 115
Total acreage. Major managenrnt concerns.
Woodland management and productivity (table 8)....................................... 116
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 9).................................................................. 119
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Building site development (table 10) .............................................................. 126
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements. Small
commercial buildings. Local roads and streets.
Sanitary facilities (table 11) .................................... .................................. 133
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 12).................................................................... 141
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Water management (table 13)............................................................... 148
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees. Features affecting-Drainage, Irrigation,
Terraces and diversions, Grassed waterways.
Engineering index properties (table 14) ........................................ ............... 154
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of soils (table 15) .................................... 160
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Organic matter.
Soil and water features (table 16).................................................................. 165
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock.
Risk of corrosion.
Classification of the soils (table 17).................................................................. 169
Family or higher taxonomic class.
vi
















foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in the Arecibo Area. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters,
and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the
management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






Ivan R. Emmanuelli
Director
Soil Conservation Service








vii



































SAN JUAN
AGUADILLA ARECIBO 1
I DESECHEO

FAJARDO *,


SAgrMAYAicutGUE Ex t SCAGUAS


I VIBQUBS
PONCE




0 10 20
I- I 1 Miles

*. .) f Agricultural Experiment Station 0 10 210 Kilometers
I MONA


Location of the Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico.










soil survey of

Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto

Rico

By Gilberto Acevido, Soil Conservation Service

Fieldwork by Roberto E. Gierbolini, Joaquin Torres-Mas, Angel Santana
William Francia-Rivera, Julio E. Trigo, G. Torres-Ricci, and
Luis H. Rivera, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
the College of Agricultural Sciences
University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus




THE ARECIBO AREA is in the north-central part of Puerto Rico's total. Other major crops in the area are
Puerto Rico and consists of 402,384 acres, or about 629 sugarcane, coffee, tobacco, citrus fruits, plantains,
square miles. Arecibo, which is 48 miles west of San taniers, and yams. Pangolagrass and stargrass are used
Juan, is the largest city in the survey area. for improved pasture for beef and dairy cattle, and some
The survey area is made up of three major farms produce hay. The cultivation of flooded rice is
physiographic regions: (1) the nearly level to sloping underway on the coastal plains.
coastal plains, including the alluvial flood plains along Some of the major nonfarm industries in the area are
the Arecibo, Manati, and Camuy Rivers, cover 24 the production and processing of pharmaceuticals,
percent of the area; (2) the limestone upland hills paper, and petrochemicals and the canning of
(haystacks), which have a karst topography on the north vegetables, coffee, and fruit.
coast, make up about 40 percent of the survey area; and
(3) the volcanic and intrusive upland hills in the southern
part of the survey area cover about 34 percent of the climate
acreage. The highest point in the Arecibo Area, an Prepared by the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina.
altitude of 4,398 feet above sea level, is in Cerro Punta.
Two lakes in the central uplands, the Dos Bocas (557 The Arecibo Area has hot days during most months
acres) and the Caonillas (503 acres), and the Tortuguero except January and February, and nights are warm all
Lagoon (658 acres) on the northern coastal plain are the year. In the mountains of the interior, temperatures are
main bodies of fresh water in the survey area. appreciably lower than elsewhere, but freezing
The population of the Arecibo Area is about 480,900, temperatures are unknown anywhere in the area. Rainfall
many of whom are employed by agricultural enterprises. is abundant in most of the survey area throughout the
The 319 dairy farms in the area produce about 45 year but is at a minimum in February and March.
percent-155 million quarts per year-of the total milk Tables 1 and 2 give data on temperature and
production in Puerto Rico. The pineapple production is precipitation for the survey area as recorded at Arecibo
about 40,000 tons per year, which is 90 percent of on the northern coast and precipitation data as recorded

1







2



in the mountains at Adjuntas. Further precipitation data used. They observed the steepness, length, and shape
are given for the Adjuntas substation in table 3. of slopes; the size of streams and the general pattern of
In winter at Arecibo the average temperature is 75 drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; and the
degrees F, and the average daily minimum temperature kinds of rock. They dug many holes to study soil profiles.
is 65 degrees. The lowest temperature on record, which A profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in
occurred at Arecibo on July 2, 1974, is 55 degrees. In a soil. It extends from the surface down into the parent
summer the average temperature is 80 degrees, and the material, which has been changed very little by leaching
average daily maximum temperature is 90 degrees. The or by plant roots.
highest recorded temperature, which occurred on August
4, 1972, is 97 degrees. The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
Growing degree days are shown in table 1. They are profiles they studied and compared those profiles with
equivalent to "heat units." During the month, growing others in nearby areas and in more distant places. They
degree days accumulate by the amount that the average classified and named the soils according to nationwide
temperature each day exceeds a base temperature (60 uniform procedures. They drew the boundaries of the
degrees F). soils on aerial photographs. These photographs show
Of the total annual precipitation, 27 inches, or 50 trees, buildings, fields, roads, and other details that help
percent, usually falls at Arecibo in April through in drawing boundaries accurately. The soil maps at the
September, which includes the growing season for most back of this publication were prepared from aerial
crops. During this same April through September period, photographs.
52 inches, or 65 percent, of the annual precipitation is The areas shown on a soil map are called map units.
recorded at Adjuntas 1NW. In 2 years out of 10, the Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some
rainfall in April through September is less than 22 inches are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in this
at Arecibo and less than 41 inches at Adjuntas 1NW. survey area are described under "General soil map
The heaviest 1-day rainfall during the period of record units" and "Detailed soil map units."
was 9 inches at Arecibo on September 17, 1975, and
12.8 inches at Adjuntas 1NW on September 16, 1975. While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
Thunderstorms occur on about 40 days each year, and soils are taken for laboratory measurements and for
most occur in summer, engineering tests. All soils are field tested to determine
The average relative humidity in midafternoon is about their characteristics. Interpretations of those
70 percent. Humidity is higher at night, and the average characteristics may be modified during the survey. Data
at dawn is about 80 percent. The sun shines 60 percent are assembled from other sources, such as test results,
of the time possible in summer and winter. The records, field experience, and state and local specialists.
prevailing wind is from the northeast. Average windspeed For example, data on crop yields under defined
is highest, 14 miles per hour, in July. management are assembled from farm records and from
From June through November, an occasional tropical field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
depression skirts or crosses the area and heavy rainfall But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
causes severe flooding. Every 10 to 20 years, a Butonly part of asoil survey is done whenthe soils
hurricane Causes wind damage as well as flooding. have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
Son aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
how this survey was made information then needs to be organized so that it can be
used by farmers, woodland managers, engineers,
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils are planners, developers and builders, home buyers, and
in the survey area, where they are, and how they can be others.







3








general soil map units


The general soil map at the back of this publication The association has few limitations as a site for
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of buildings and roads, and the soils are a good source of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general roadfill. These soils have been used as a source of sand
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map for industrial purposes.
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up 2. Guerrero-Carrizales-Jobos association
one unit can occur in other units but in a different Deep, gently sloping to sloping, excessively drained and
pattern, moderately well drained, sandy and loamy soils
The general soil map can be used to compare the This association is on the coast between the towns of
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of Camuy and Barceloneta. The association covers about 3
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, pen oerera. eeo sois ae
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. percent of the association, Carrizales soils 31 percent,
percent of the association, Carrizales soils 31 percent,
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for Jobos soils 25 percent, and minor soils 7 percent.
planning the management of a farm or field or for The Guerrero soils are excessively drained and have a
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. sandy surface layer. The Carrizales soils are excessively
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place drained and are sandy throughout. The Jobos soils are
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that moderately well drained and have a loamy surface layer.
affect management. The minor scils are Rio Lajas sand and Catano sand.
This association is used mainly for pasture, coconuts,
soils on coastal plains and food crops. Supplemental irrigation is necessary in
areas used for food crops.
Most of the soils in this group are nearly level to The association is generally suitable as a site for
sloping and are in small valleys on coastal plains and in buildings and roads.
depressional areas and lagoons. Many of the soils are
well suited to and used for cultivated crops. 3. Almirante-Espinosa-Vega Alta association
1. Algarrobo-Corozo-Arecibo association Deep, gently sloping to sloping, well drained, loamy and
clayey soils
Deep, gently sloping to sloping, excessively drained and si
wel n sn soii drained s ls This association is in an area between the towns of
we drained, sany soVega Alta and Camuy. It is on limestone hills and is on
This association is on the coastal plains between the terraces along the coast. The association covers about 8
towns of Manati and Dorado. The association covers percent of the survey area. Almirante soils make up
about 1 percent of the survey area. Algarrobo soils make about 45 percent of the association, Espinosa soils 30
up about 45 percent of the association, Corozo soils 37 percent, Vega Alta soils 15 percent, and minor soils 10
percent, Arecibo soils 13 percent, and minor soils 5 percent.
percent. The Almirante and Vega Alta soils are clayey, and the
The Algarrobo and Arecibo soils are excessively Espinosa soils are loamy.
drained. The Corozo soils are well drained. The minor soils in this association are moderately
The minor soils are Tropopsamments, Hydraquents, deep Islote soils and highly weathered Bayamon soils.
and Coastal beaches. Tropopsamments are on small Exposed limestone bedrock is in a few areas.
hills and ridges along the coast. Hydraquents are in This association is used mainly for sugarcane, food
depressions or lagoons. Coastal beaches consist of crops, pineapples, and pasture. The association is
nearly level, narrow strips of fine sand along the coast. suitable for cultivated crops and is generally suitable for
This association is used mainly for pasture and nonfarm development.
coconuts. Low fertility, high acidity, and low available. Bays
water capacity are the main limitations for cultivated 4. Bayamon-Matanzas association
:rops. Deep, gently sloping to sloping, well drained, clayey soils







3








general soil map units


The general soil map at the back of this publication The association has few limitations as a site for
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of buildings and roads, and the soils are a good source of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general roadfill. These soils have been used as a source of sand
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map for industrial purposes.
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up 2. Guerrero-Carrizales-Jobos association
one unit can occur in other units but in a different Deep, gently sloping to sloping, excessively drained and
pattern, moderately well drained, sandy and loamy soils
The general soil map can be used to compare the This association is on the coast between the towns of
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of Camuy and Barceloneta. The association covers about 3
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, pen oerera. eeo sois ae
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. percent of the association, Carrizales soils 31 percent,
percent of the association, Carrizales soils 31 percent,
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for Jobos soils 25 percent, and minor soils 7 percent.
planning the management of a farm or field or for The Guerrero soils are excessively drained and have a
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. sandy surface layer. The Carrizales soils are excessively
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place drained and are sandy throughout. The Jobos soils are
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that moderately well drained and have a loamy surface layer.
affect management. The minor scils are Rio Lajas sand and Catano sand.
This association is used mainly for pasture, coconuts,
soils on coastal plains and food crops. Supplemental irrigation is necessary in
areas used for food crops.
Most of the soils in this group are nearly level to The association is generally suitable as a site for
sloping and are in small valleys on coastal plains and in buildings and roads.
depressional areas and lagoons. Many of the soils are
well suited to and used for cultivated crops. 3. Almirante-Espinosa-Vega Alta association
1. Algarrobo-Corozo-Arecibo association Deep, gently sloping to sloping, well drained, loamy and
clayey soils
Deep, gently sloping to sloping, excessively drained and si
wel n sn soii drained s ls This association is in an area between the towns of
we drained, sany soVega Alta and Camuy. It is on limestone hills and is on
This association is on the coastal plains between the terraces along the coast. The association covers about 8
towns of Manati and Dorado. The association covers percent of the survey area. Almirante soils make up
about 1 percent of the survey area. Algarrobo soils make about 45 percent of the association, Espinosa soils 30
up about 45 percent of the association, Corozo soils 37 percent, Vega Alta soils 15 percent, and minor soils 10
percent, Arecibo soils 13 percent, and minor soils 5 percent.
percent. The Almirante and Vega Alta soils are clayey, and the
The Algarrobo and Arecibo soils are excessively Espinosa soils are loamy.
drained. The Corozo soils are well drained. The minor soils in this association are moderately
The minor soils are Tropopsamments, Hydraquents, deep Islote soils and highly weathered Bayamon soils.
and Coastal beaches. Tropopsamments are on small Exposed limestone bedrock is in a few areas.
hills and ridges along the coast. Hydraquents are in This association is used mainly for sugarcane, food
depressions or lagoons. Coastal beaches consist of crops, pineapples, and pasture. The association is
nearly level, narrow strips of fine sand along the coast. suitable for cultivated crops and is generally suitable for
This association is used mainly for pasture and nonfarm development.
coconuts. Low fertility, high acidity, and low available. Bays
water capacity are the main limitations for cultivated 4. Bayamon-Matanzas association
:rops. Deep, gently sloping to sloping, well drained, clayey soils






4 Soil survey



This association is mainly in the southern part of the The association covers 4 percent of the survey area.
Cano Tiburones area, near the towns of Manati and Toa soils make up about 37 percent of the association,
Vega Baja, and is in the southwestern part of the town Coloso soils 34 percent, Bajura soils 19 percent, and
of Arecibo and in the town of Vega Alta. The acreage is minor soils 10 percent.
in small valleys between limestone hills and on the The Toa soils in this association are well drained and
coastal plains. The association makes up 7 percent of are at the highest elevations. The Coloso soils are
the survey area. Bayamon soils make up about 95 somewhat poorly drained and are at intermediate
percent of the association, Matanzas soils 3 percent, positions. The Bajura soils are poorly drained and are at
and minor soils 2 percent. the lowest elevations.
The Bayamon soils have bedrock at a depth of 60 The minor soils consist mainly of Reilly and Vivi soils.
inches or more, but limestone bedrock is at a depth of Both are nearly level and well drained.
less than 60 inches in the Matanzas soils. The soils of this association are mainly used for
The most extensive minor soils in this association are sugarcane but are suitable for other cultivated crops. A
Almirante soils. Some areas have limestone bedrock flooding hazard and the clayey texture and slow drainage
exposed at the surface, of some of the soils are the main limitations for farming
This association is mainly used for sugarcane, and nonfarm use.
pineapples, and pasture. It is suitable for cultivated
crops, but the clayey texture of the soils and the depth soils on uplands
to rock in the Matanzas soils limit some types of
nonfarm development. Most of the soils in this group are gently sloping to
very steep. The soils are mostly used for cultivated
5. Tiburones-Palmar-Garrochales association crops, coffee, and improved pasture and are generally
Deep, nearly level, poorly drained, mucky soils suitable for farming.
This association is on flats and in depressional areas 7. Rock outcrop-Tanama-San Sebastian association
along the coast. Most of the acreage is between the
towns of Arecibo and Manati, but a small area is near Rock outcrop and shallow to deep, sloping to very steep,
the town of Vega Baja. This association covers about 1 well drained, clayey soils
percent of the survey area. Tiburones soils make up This association is between the town of Vega Alta and
about 65 percent of the association, Palmar soils 20 the towns of Ciales, Utuado, and Camuy. The
percent, Garrochales soils 10 percent, and minor soils 5 association covers about 21 percent of the survey area.
percent. The Rock outcrop-Tanama complex makes up about 40
The Tiburones, Palmar, and Garrochales soils are percent of the association, Tanama soils 30 percent,
deep, poorly drained, and acid. They formed in organic San Sebastian soils 25 percent, and minor soils 5
material. The minor soils in the association are organic percent.
Vigia soils and mineral Jareales soils. Rock outcrop mainly consists of exposed limestone
This association is used mainly for pasture. Some bedrock. The Tanama soils are shallow to limestone
small areas are in sugarcane, and some areas are in bedrock. The San Sebastian soils are deep.
swamps. Wetness, a high water table, and poor tilth are The minor soils are Soller, San German, and Colinas
the main limitations of these soils for cultivated crops.
Wetness and poor soil stability are the major limitations soils.
for nonfarm development. The suitability of the soils for Pasture is the major use of this association. Some
wildlife habitat is good. areas are in brush and hardwoods. The major limitations
for nonfarm development are slope, the areas of
s on f d p exposed rock, and depth to the limestone rock. The
soils on flood plains association is well suited for woodland and wildlife
Most of these soils are nearly level. The soils are habitat.
along the rivers and streams of the coastal plains and
are in land valleys. Sugarcane, cultivated crops, and 8. Moca-Perchas association
improved pasture cover much of the area, and these Deep, gently sloping to steep, moderately well drained
soils generally have good potential for farming, and poorly drained, clayey soils
6. Toa-Coloso-Bajura association This association is the area of Wards Quebrada,
Bayaney, Aibonito, Angeles, and Barahona. The
Deep, nearly level, well drained to poorly drained, loamy association makes up about 2 percent of the survey
to clayey soils area. Moca soils make up about 60 percent of the
This association is in the southern part of the town of association, Perchas soils 30 percent, and minor soils 10
Arecibo and near the towns of Manati and Vega Baja. percent.






4 Soil survey



This association is mainly in the southern part of the The association covers 4 percent of the survey area.
Cano Tiburones area, near the towns of Manati and Toa soils make up about 37 percent of the association,
Vega Baja, and is in the southwestern part of the town Coloso soils 34 percent, Bajura soils 19 percent, and
of Arecibo and in the town of Vega Alta. The acreage is minor soils 10 percent.
in small valleys between limestone hills and on the The Toa soils in this association are well drained and
coastal plains. The association makes up 7 percent of are at the highest elevations. The Coloso soils are
the survey area. Bayamon soils make up about 95 somewhat poorly drained and are at intermediate
percent of the association, Matanzas soils 3 percent, positions. The Bajura soils are poorly drained and are at
and minor soils 2 percent. the lowest elevations.
The Bayamon soils have bedrock at a depth of 60 The minor soils consist mainly of Reilly and Vivi soils.
inches or more, but limestone bedrock is at a depth of Both are nearly level and well drained.
less than 60 inches in the Matanzas soils. The soils of this association are mainly used for
The most extensive minor soils in this association are sugarcane but are suitable for other cultivated crops. A
Almirante soils. Some areas have limestone bedrock flooding hazard and the clayey texture and slow drainage
exposed at the surface, of some of the soils are the main limitations for farming
This association is mainly used for sugarcane, and nonfarm use.
pineapples, and pasture. It is suitable for cultivated
crops, but the clayey texture of the soils and the depth soils on uplands
to rock in the Matanzas soils limit some types of
nonfarm development. Most of the soils in this group are gently sloping to
very steep. The soils are mostly used for cultivated
5. Tiburones-Palmar-Garrochales association crops, coffee, and improved pasture and are generally
Deep, nearly level, poorly drained, mucky soils suitable for farming.
This association is on flats and in depressional areas 7. Rock outcrop-Tanama-San Sebastian association
along the coast. Most of the acreage is between the
towns of Arecibo and Manati, but a small area is near Rock outcrop and shallow to deep, sloping to very steep,
the town of Vega Baja. This association covers about 1 well drained, clayey soils
percent of the survey area. Tiburones soils make up This association is between the town of Vega Alta and
about 65 percent of the association, Palmar soils 20 the towns of Ciales, Utuado, and Camuy. The
percent, Garrochales soils 10 percent, and minor soils 5 association covers about 21 percent of the survey area.
percent. The Rock outcrop-Tanama complex makes up about 40
The Tiburones, Palmar, and Garrochales soils are percent of the association, Tanama soils 30 percent,
deep, poorly drained, and acid. They formed in organic San Sebastian soils 25 percent, and minor soils 5
material. The minor soils in the association are organic percent.
Vigia soils and mineral Jareales soils. Rock outcrop mainly consists of exposed limestone
This association is used mainly for pasture. Some bedrock. The Tanama soils are shallow to limestone
small areas are in sugarcane, and some areas are in bedrock. The San Sebastian soils are deep.
swamps. Wetness, a high water table, and poor tilth are The minor soils are Soller, San German, and Colinas
the main limitations of these soils for cultivated crops.
Wetness and poor soil stability are the major limitations soils.
for nonfarm development. The suitability of the soils for Pasture is the major use of this association. Some
wildlife habitat is good. areas are in brush and hardwoods. The major limitations
for nonfarm development are slope, the areas of
s on f d p exposed rock, and depth to the limestone rock. The
soils on flood plains association is well suited for woodland and wildlife
Most of these soils are nearly level. The soils are habitat.
along the rivers and streams of the coastal plains and
are in land valleys. Sugarcane, cultivated crops, and 8. Moca-Perchas association
improved pasture cover much of the area, and these Deep, gently sloping to steep, moderately well drained
soils generally have good potential for farming, and poorly drained, clayey soils
6. Toa-Coloso-Bajura association This association is the area of Wards Quebrada,
Bayaney, Aibonito, Angeles, and Barahona. The
Deep, nearly level, well drained to poorly drained, loamy association makes up about 2 percent of the survey
to clayey soils area. Moca soils make up about 60 percent of the
This association is in the southern part of the town of association, Perchas soils 30 percent, and minor soils 10
Arecibo and near the towns of Manati and Vega Baja. percent.







Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 5



The Moca soils are moderately well drained, and the the survey area. Some small areas are near Lake Dos
Perchas soils are poorly drained. The minor soils are Bocas and Lake Caohillas. The association covers about
Naranjo and Colinas soils on side slopes and ridgetops. 8 percent of the survey area. Mucara soils make up
This association is mainly used for pasture and about 45 percent of the association, Morado soils 25
sugarcane. Some areas are in food crops. The clayey percent, Maraquez soils 20 percent, and soils of minor
texture and the permeability and drainage of the soils are extent 10 percent.
the main limitations for farming. The texture, drainage, The Mucara and Morado soils are moderately deep,
and slope of the soils are the main limitations for and the Maraguez soils are deep. The soils of minor
nonfarm development. extent are mainly steep to very steep, shallow Caguabo
soils.
9. Humatas-Los Guineos-Alonso association This association is used mainly for coffee, food crops,
Deep, moderately steep to very steep, well drained and and pasture, and the soils are suitable for woodland.
moderately well drained, clayey soils Some of the acreage is in brush. Slope and the depth to
bedrock are the main limitations for nonfarm
This association is mainly on side slopes and development.
ridgetops in the mountainous southeastern part of the
survey area. A small area is in the southwestern part. 12. Colinas-Naranjo-Juncal association
The association makes up about 14 percent of the
survey area. Humatas soils make up about 55 percent of Deep and moderately deep, moderately well drained and
the association, Los Guineos soils 25 percent, Alonso well drained, clayey to loamy soils
soils 10 percent, and minor soils 10 percent.
The Humatas and Alonso soils are well drained, and the This association is on foot slopes, ridgetops, and side
Los Guineos soils are moderately well drained. The slopes. The association covers about 7 percent of the
minor soils are Consumo and Daguey soils, survey area. Colinas soils make up about 70 percent of
This association is used mainly for coffee, food crops, the association, Naranjo soils 15 percent, Juncal soils 10
and pasture. Some small areas are in sun-grown coffee percent, and soils of minor extent 5 percent.
and brush. Slope and an erosion hazard are the main The Colinas soils are well drained and moderately
limitations for cultivation, but the soils are generally deep, the Naranjo soils are well drained and deep, and
suitable for farming and woodland. Slope and the clayey the Juncal soils are moderately well drained and deep.
texture are the main limitations for nonfarm The minor soils are shallow San German soils and
development. moderately deep Soller soils.
10. Pellejas-Lirios-lngenio association This association is used mainly for pasture. Some
Deep, sloping to very steep, well drained, loamy soils areas are in sugarcane and food crops, and the soils are
suitable for woodland. Slope is the main limitation of the
This association is mainly in the vicinity of the towns of soils for nonfarm development.
Utuado and Jayuya. A small area is near the towns of
Ciales and Morovis. The association makes up about 12 13. Soller-San German-Rock outcrop association
percent of the survey area. Pellejas soils make up about Shallow and moderately deep, sloping to very steep, well
54 percent of the association, Lirios soils 35 percent, drained, loamy and clayey soils; rock outcrop
Ingenio soils 6 percent, and soils of minor extent 5
percent.
The Pellejas soils are on side slopes and ridgetops, This association is mainly in the middle part of the
the Lirios soils are on side slopes, and the Ingenio soils survey area. The association covers about 12 percent of
are on ridgetops. The minor soils are Adjuntas, Consejo, the survey area. The Soller-Rock outcrop complex
and Vivi soils. The Adjuntas and Consejo soils are near makes up about 75 percent of the association, San
copper mines, and the Vivi soils are near rivers and German soils 20 percent, and soils of minor extent 5
streams. percent.
This association is used mainly for coffee, food crops, The Soller soils are moderately deep, and the San
and pasture. Some small areas are in woodland. Slope is German soils are shallow. The minor soils are
the main limitation for nonfarm use. moderately deep Colinas soils and deep Naranjo and
Juncal soils.
11. Mucara-Morado-Maraguez association Most areas of this association are used for pasture
Moderately deep and deep, moderately steep to very and food crops. Some areas are in brush, native pasture,
steep, well drained, clayey to loamy soils and hardwoods. The association is well suited for
Sw r y pasture, woodland, and wildlife habitat. Slope and the
This association is on mountainous ridgetops, side depth to rock are the main limitations for nonfarm
slopes, and foot slopes mainly in the southeastern part of development.










7








detailed soil map units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of Los Guineos-Maricao-Rock outcrop association, steep, is
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The an example.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be of these included soils have properties that differ
used to plan the management needed for those uses. substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given differences could significantly affect use and
under "Use and management of the soils." management of the soils in the map unit. The included
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
for which the unit is named. a special symbol on the soil maps.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes have little or no soil material and support little or no
general facts about the soil and gives the principal vegetation. Riverwash is an example. Miscellaneous
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
specific uses. small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up the soil maps.
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of tables")
a series have major horizons that are similar in give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
composition, thickness, and arrangement, defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in soil descriptions
slope, stoniness, wetness, degree of erosion, and other
characteristics that affect their use. On the basis of such AaC-Aceitunas sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent



example, Soler cobbly clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, is Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown
one of several phases in the Soller series. sandy clay loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil mainly
Some map units are made up of two or more major is yellowish red and red clay that extends to a depth of
differences. These map units are called soil series is divided intomplexes or sophases.il 60 inches or more.
associations. Included with thsoil is deep, slooil in mapping and we small drained. It isas of
A soil complex consists of the areas shown on the detailed soil maps are phases in as of between limestone hills and areas on the



an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they sinkholes. Included areas make up 10 to 15 percent of
cannot b si ss. The name of a soil phase commonly coastal plains. Slopes range from about 100 to 500 feet
indicates and proportionure that affect soils use or management. For inhe permeability ane from 20 to 100 city of this




in all areas. Matanzas-Rock outcrop complex, 5 to 60 Aceitunas soil are moderate. Runoff and natural fertility
example, Ser cobbly ay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, is an example are medium. Reaction incally, the surface layer is dark reddish brownil is
one of several phases in the Soller series. sandy clay loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil mainly




A soil association is are made up of two or more major is yellowish redongly ad or strongly that extends to a depth fcid.
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or soil 60 inches or more.




geographically associated soils that are shown as one T his soil is well suited for sugarcane, plantains, sweet
A soil complex consists the maps. Because of two or mor anticipated soils in such Coto soils, pangolareas of exposed bedrockgrass, and merkergrass all
uan intricate pattern or in such small areas that they sinkholes. Included areas make up 10 to 15 percent ofMinimum
cannot neessary to map the soils separately on the soil maps. The pattern tillage and using cover crops and contour stripcropping
pattern andtive proportion of the soils are somewhat similar Thelp to reduce runoffmeability and available wmoderater capacity of this
in all areas. Matanzas-Rock outcrop complex, 5 to 60 Aceitunas soil are moderate. Runoff and natural fertility
percent slopes, is an example. are medium. Reaction in the surface layer and subsoil is
A soil association is made up of two or more very strongly acid or strongly acid.
geographically associated soils that are shown as one This soil is well suited for sugarcane, plantains, sweet
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil potatoes, pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass, all
uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical of which respond well to lime and fertilizer. Minimum
or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern tillage and using cover crops and contour stripcropping
and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat similar. help to reduce runoff and a moderate erosion hazard in







7








detailed soil map units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of Los Guineos-Maricao-Rock outcrop association, steep, is
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The an example.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be of these included soils have properties that differ
used to plan the management needed for those uses. substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given differences could significantly affect use and
under "Use and management of the soils." management of the soils in the map unit. The included
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
for which the unit is named. a special symbol on the soil maps.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes have little or no soil material and support little or no
general facts about the soil and gives the principal vegetation. Riverwash is an example. Miscellaneous
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
specific uses. small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up the soil maps.
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of tables")
a series have major horizons that are similar in give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
composition, thickness, and arrangement, defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in soil descriptions
slope, stoniness, wetness, degree of erosion, and other
characteristics that affect their use. On the basis of such AaC-Aceitunas sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent



example, Soler cobbly clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, is Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown
one of several phases in the Soller series. sandy clay loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil mainly
Some map units are made up of two or more major is yellowish red and red clay that extends to a depth of
differences. These map units are called soil series is divided intomplexes or sophases.il 60 inches or more.
associations. Included with thsoil is deep, slooil in mapping and we small drained. It isas of
A soil complex consists of the areas shown on the detailed soil maps are phases in as of between limestone hills and areas on the



an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they sinkholes. Included areas make up 10 to 15 percent of
cannot b si ss. The name of a soil phase commonly coastal plains. Slopes range from about 100 to 500 feet
indicates and proportionure that affect soils use or management. For inhe permeability ane from 20 to 100 city of this




in all areas. Matanzas-Rock outcrop complex, 5 to 60 Aceitunas soil are moderate. Runoff and natural fertility
example, Ser cobbly ay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, is an example are medium. Reaction incally, the surface layer is dark reddish brownil is
one of several phases in the Soller series. sandy clay loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil mainly




A soil association is are made up of two or more major is yellowish redongly ad or strongly that extends to a depth fcid.
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or soil 60 inches or more.




geographically associated soils that are shown as one T his soil is well suited for sugarcane, plantains, sweet
A soil complex consists the maps. Because of two or mor anticipated soils in such Coto soils, pangolareas of exposed bedrockgrass, and merkergrass all
uan intricate pattern or in such small areas that they sinkholes. Included areas make up 10 to 15 percent ofMinimum
cannot neessary to map the soils separately on the soil maps. The pattern tillage and using cover crops and contour stripcropping
pattern andtive proportion of the soils are somewhat similar Thelp to reduce runoffmeability and available wmoderater capacity of this
in all areas. Matanzas-Rock outcrop complex, 5 to 60 Aceitunas soil are moderate. Runoff and natural fertility
percent slopes, is an example. are medium. Reaction in the surface layer and subsoil is
A soil association is made up of two or more very strongly acid or strongly acid.
geographically associated soils that are shown as one This soil is well suited for sugarcane, plantains, sweet
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil potatoes, pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass, all
uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical of which respond well to lime and fertilizer. Minimum
or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern tillage and using cover crops and contour stripcropping
and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat similar. help to reduce runoff and a moderate erosion hazard in






8 Soil survey



areas used for cultivated crops. Using proper stocking subsoil is very strongly acid. The hazard of erosion is
rates and deferred grazing and controlling weeds are severe.
some of the main pasture management concerns. Slope and the erosion hazard make this soil poorly
Slope is the main limitation of this soil for such suited for cultivated crops. The soil, however, is well
nonfarm uses as septic tank absorption fields and as a suited to such pasture plants as pangolagrass and
building site. stargrass. Liming helps to lower the acidity of the soil.
The capability subclass is Ille. Using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing and
controlling weeds are the main pasture management
AcC-Aceitunas clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This concerns.
soil is deep, sloping, and well drained. It is in small The soil is well suited to Honduras pine, but the slope
valleys between limestone hills and is on the coastal is a major limitation for the use of harvesting equipment
plains. Slopes range from about 100 to 500 feet in Slope also limits the soil for most types of nonfarm
length. The areas range from 20 to 100 acres. development. The soil is subject to landslides, and low
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown clay strength limits excavations.
about 6 inches thick. The subsoil mainly is yellowish red The capability subclass is Vile.
and red clay to a depth of 60 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of AgC-Algarrobo fine sand, 2 to 12 percent slopes.
Coto soils, areas of exposed bedrock, and areas of This soil is deep, gently sloping to sloping, and
sinkholes. Included areas make up 10 to 15 percent of excessively drained. It is on coastal plains. Slopes range
this unit. from about 100 to 400 feet long. The areas of the soil
The permeability and available water capacity of this range from 20 to 200 acres.
Aceitunas soil are moderate. Runoff and natural fertility Typically, the surface layer is gray, loose fine sand
are medium. Reaction in the surface layer and subsoil is about 11 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray,
very strongly acid or strongly acid. very friable fine sand 21 inches thick. The subsoil is 5
Inches of black and brown, very friable sandy loam. The
This soil is well suited for sugarcane, plantains, sweet next 31 inches is extremely firm, gray and bro
next 31 inches is extremely firm, gray and brown clay.
potatoes, pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass, all Te undeling lae is very firm sandy clay loam to a
The underlying layer is very firm sandy clay loam to a
of which respond well to lime and fertilizer. Tilth can be d nder.and
improved by incorporating organic matter into the soil nue i is soi in ppg re re
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Corozo
and tilling when the soil has rthe optimm moisture and Arecibo soils and soils from which the surface layer
content. Using proper stocking rates and deferred has been removed for industrial purposes. Included soils
grazing and controlling weeds are the main pasture m a e u to percent o the unit
make up 10 to 15 percent of the unit.
management concerns. eThe permeability of this Algarrobo soil is rapid in the
The slope and clayey texture of this soil are the main upper part and slow in the lower part. The available
limitations for nonfarm use, especially for septic tank water capacity is low. Runoff is slow, and tilth is good.
absorption fields and as a building site. Reaction in the surface layer and subsoil is extremely
The capability subclass is Ille. acid to strongly acid.
This soil is well suited for coconuts and for such
AdF2-Adjuntas clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes, pasture plants as pangolagrass and merkergrass. The
eroded. This soil is moderately deep, very steep, and major limitations are the low available water capacity, the
well drained. It is on side slopes and ridgetops on acidity, and a low fertility level. Establishing and
volcanic uplands. Slopes are 100 to 500 feet long. The maintaining a mixture of pangolagrass and legumes,
areas range from 50 to 100 acres. preventing overgrazing, using proper stocking rates and
Typically, the surface layer is brown, firm clay about 5 deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and
inches thick. The subsoil is 19 inches thick. The upper fertilizing are the main pasture management concerns.
12 inches is brown, firm clay; the lower 7 inches is mixed This soil has few limitations for most types of nonfarm
yellow, white, and brownish yellow clay that is friable. use.
The substratum is 24 inches of partially weathered rock. The capability subclass is VIIls.
Semiconsolidated rock is at a depth of 48 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of AIB-Almirante sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Consejo, Consumo, and Humatas soils. Also included This soil is deep, gently sloping, and well drained. It is in
are areas of soils where erosion has removed most of small valleys between limestone hills and on the coastal
the surface layer. Included areas make up 10 to 20 plains. Slopes range from 400 to 800 feet in length. The
percent of the unit. areas of the soil range from 50 to 300 acres.
The permeability and available water capacity of this Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown,
Adjuntas soil are moderate. Runoff is very rapid. The soil loose sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is
is medium in fertility. Reaction in the surface layer and multicolored, firm clay to a depth of 60 inches or more.







Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 9



Included with this soil in mapping are areas of AmB-Almirante sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent
Espinosa and Bayamon soils that make up 10 to 15 slopes. This soil is deep, gently sloping, and well
percent of the unit. drained. It is in small valleys between limestone hills and
The permeability of this Almirante soil is moderate. on the coastal plains. Slopes range from 100 to 200 feet
The available water capacity is low. Runoff is slow. in length. The areas of the soil range from 20 to 80
Reaction of the surface layer and subsoil is very strongly acres.
acid. This soil is medium to low in natural fertility. Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown,
This soil is well suited for sugarcane, sweet potatoes, friable sandy clay loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil
and pineapples. Low available water capacity, acidity, is multicolored, firm clay to a depth of 60 inches or
and a low to moderate fertility level are the main more.
limitations. Supplemental irrigation is often necessary. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The soil has good tilth, and crops respond well to lime Espinosa and Bayamon soils that make up about 5
and fertilizer. percent of the unit.
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as The permeability of this Almirante soil is moderate,
stargrass, pangolagrass, and merkergrass. The acidity and the available water capacity is moderate. Runoff is
and low available water capacity of the soil are the main medium. The soil is medium in natural fertility. Reaction
limitations. Using proper stocking rates and deferred of the surface layer and the subsoil is very strongly acid.
grazing, controlling weeds, and using lime and fertilizer The hazard of erosion is moderate.
are the main pasture management concerns. This soil is well suited for sugarcane, pineapples,
This soil has few limitations for most types of nonfarm plantains, and sweet potatoes. Crops on this soil
use. respond well to lime and fertilizer.
The capability subclass is Ills. The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. The major
Limitation is acidity. Using proper stocking rates and
slopes. This soil is deep, sloping, and well drained. It is irri rin ntrin wp an in l an
in small valleys between limestone hills and on the deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and using lime and
coastal plains. Slopes range from 400 to 600 feet in fertilizer and supplemental irrigation are the main pasture
length. The areas of the soil range from 30 to 300 acres, management concerns.
Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown, This soil has few limitations for most types of nonfarm
loose sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is use.
multicolored, firm clay to a depth of 60 inches or more. The capability subclass is lie.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of A s c l 5 t 12
Espinosa and Bayamon soils that make up 10 to 15 AmC-Almirante sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent
percent of the unitB slopes. This soil is deep, sloping, and well drained. It is
The permeability of this Almirante soil is moderate, in small valleys between limestone hills and on the
The permeability of this Almirante soil is moderate,
and the available water capacity is low. The subsoil has coastal plains. Slopes range from 100 to 300 feet in
moderate permeability and moderate available water length. The areas of the soil range from 20 to 150 acres.
capacity. Runoff is medium. Reaction of the surface Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown,
layer and subsoil is very strongly acid. Fertility is low to friable sandy clay loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil
moderate. is multicolored, firm clay to a depth of 60 inches or
This soil is suited for cultivated crops and is especially more.
suitable for sugarcane, sweet potatoes, and pineapples. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
An erosion hazard, acidity, and the low available water Espinosa and Bayamon soils that make up about 5
capacity are the main limitations for crops and pasture. percent of the unit.
Applying lime and fertilizer, incorporating organic matter The permeability of this Almirante soil is moderate,
into the soil, and using supplemental irrigation are the and the available water capacity is moderate. Runoff is
main management practices for crops. medium. This soil is medium in natural fertility. Reaction
The soil is well suited for pasture plants such as of the surface layer and subsoil is very strongly acid.
pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Using proper This soil is well suited for cultivated crops such as
stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, sugarcane, pineapples, sweet potatoes, and plantains.
liming and fertilizing, and using supplemental irrigation Crops respond well to applications of lime and fertilizer.
are the main pasture management concerns. The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
Slope is the main limitation of this soil for most types stargrass, merkergrass, and pangolagrass. Applying lime
of nonfarm use, especially for septic tank absorption and fertilizer, using proper stocking rate and deferred
fields and as a building site. grazing, and controlling weeds are the main pasture
The capability subclass is IVe. management concerns.







10 Soil survey



Slope is the main limitation of this soil for nonfarm Slope and the clayey texture of the soil are the main
use, especially for septic tank absorption fields and as a limitations for nonfarm use.
building site. The capability subclass is Ille.
The capability subclass is Ille.
AoD2-Alonso clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes,
AnB-Almirante clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This eroded. This soil is deep, moderately steep, and well
soil is deep, gently sloping, and well drained. It is in drained. It is on side slopes, foot slopes, and ridgetops
small valleys between limestone hills and on the coastal on the humid volcanic uplands. Slopes are 100 to 300
plains. Slopes range from 400 to 700 feet in length. The feet long. The areas of the soil range from 20 to 50
areas of the soil range from 20 to 400 acres. acres.
Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown, Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown clay
firm clay about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is about 7 inches thick. The subsoil is reddish brown clay
multicolored, firm clay to a depth of 60 inches or more. 38 inches thick. The upper 16 inches of the subsoil is
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of firm, and the lower 22 inches is firm to friable. The
Espinosa and Bayamon soils that make up 10 to 15 substratum is red, gray, and brown clay to a depth of 60
percent of the unit. inches or more.
The permeability of this Almirante soil is moderate, Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
and the available water capacity is moderate. Runoff is Humatas soils that make up 10 to 15 percent of the unit
medium. Reaction of the surface layer and subsoil is The permeability of this Alonso soil is moderate, and
very strongly acid. Fertility is medium. The hazard of the available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid.
erosion is slight to moderate. Natural fertility is medium. Reaction throughout the soil is
This soil is well suited for sugarcane, pineapples, very strongly acid.
sweet potatoes, and plantains. Crops respond well to This soil is well suited for cultivated crops such as
applications of lime and fertilizer. plantains, coffee, taniers, and yams. Crops respond well
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as to applications of lime and fertilizer.
stargrass, pangolagrass, and merkergrass. Using proper The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, pangolagrass, molassesgrass, and merkergrass.
and liming and fertilizing are the main pasture Applying lime and fertilizer, using proper stocking rates
management concerns. and deferred grazing, and controlling weeds are the main
The clayey texture of this soil is the main limitation for pasture management concerns.
nonfarm use. This soil is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta
The capability subclass is lie. eucalyptus. Slope limits the use of harvesting equipment
Slope is the main limitation of this soil for nonfarm
AnC-Almirante clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This use, especially for septic tank absorption fields and as a
soil is deep, sloping, and well drained. It is in small building site.
valleys between limestone hills and on the coastal The capability subclass is Ille.
plains. Slopes range from 200 to 600 feet in length. The
areas of the soil range from 20 to 300 acres. AoE2-Alonso clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes,
Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown, eroded. This soil is deep, steep, and well drained. It is
firm clay about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is on sides slopes and ridgetops on the humid volcanic
multicolored, firm clay to a depth of 60 inches or more. uplands. Slopes are 100 to 800 feet long. The areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of the soil range from 20 to 300 acres.
Espinosa and Bayamon soils that make up 10 to 15 Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown clay
percent of the unit. about 7 inches thick. The subsoil is reddish brown day
The permeability of this Almirante soil is moderate, 38 inches thick. The upper 16 inches of the subsoil is
and the available water capacity is moderate. Runoff is firm, and the lower 22 inches is firm to friable. The
medium. Reaction of the surface layer and subsoil is substratum is red, gray, and brown clay to a depth of 60
very strongly acid. This soil is medium in natural fertility. inches or more.
This soil is well suited for sugarcane, pineapples, Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
sweet potatoes, and plantains. Crops respond well to Humatas soils and areas of Alonso soils with slopes of
applications of lime and fertilizer. Tillage is somewhat more than 40 percent. Included soils make up 5 to 10
limited by the high clay content of the soil. percent of the unit.
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as The permeability of this Alonso soil is moderate, and
stargrass, pangolagrass, and merkergrass. Applying lime the available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid.
and fertilizer, using proper stocking rates and deferred Reaction throughout the soil is very strongly acid.
grazing, and controlling weeds are the main pasture Slope, rapid runoff, and an erosion hazard limit this
management concerns. soil for cultivated crops, but some areas have been used






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 11



for shade-grown coffee, plantains, taniers, bananas, and stratified sand between depths of 68 and 74 inches.
oranges. Tillage is further restricted by the clayey texture Stratified layers of brown and white loamy sand and
of the soil. Crops on this soil respond well to lime and sandy loam are at a depth of more than 74 inches.
fertilizer. Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
This soil is well suited for pangolagrass, Algarrobo and Corozo soils and areas of sand pits used
molassesgrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Using a for industrial purposes. Included areas make up 5 to 10
controlled stocking rate and deferred grazing, controlling percent of the unit.
weeds, and liming and fertilizing are the main pasture The permeability of this Arecibo soil is rapid, and the
management concerns. available water capacity is very low. Runoff is slow, and
Honduras pine and robusta eucalyptus are well suited fertility is low. Reaction is very strongly acid.
to this soil, but slope limits the use of harvesting This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
equipment. pangolagrass and merkergrass. The low available water
Slope, the clayey texture, and low strength are the capacity, strong acidity, and low fertility make the soil
main limitations of the soil for nonfarm use. Road banks poorly suited for cultivated crops. Maintaining a mixture
on this soil are unstable. of legumes and pangolagrass, using proper stocking
The capability subclass is IVe. rates, controlling grazing and weeds, and liming and
fertilizing are the main pasture management concerns.
AoF2-Alonso clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes, This soil has few limitations for most types of nonfarm
eroded. This soil is deep, very steep, and well drained. It development, but some areas are subject to seepage.
is on side slopes and ridgetops on uplands. Slopes are The capability subclass VIs.
100 to 800 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 20
to 400 acres. Ba-Bajura clay. This soil is deep, nearly level, and
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown clay poorly drained. It is on flood plains. Slopes range from
about 7 inches thick. The subsoil is reddish brown clay 300 to 2,000 feet long. The areas of the soil range from
38 inches thick. The upper 16 inches of the subsoil is 50 to 800 acres.
firm, and the lower 22 inches is firm to friable. The
substratum is brown, red, and gray clay to a depth of 60 Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown,
inches or more. very firm clay about 7 inches thick. The subsoil is
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of mottled, black, very firm clay 8 inches thick. The
Humatas soils that make up 5 to 15 percent of the unit. substratum is gray and yellowish brown, firm clay to a
The permeability of this Alonso soil is moderate, and depth of 60 inches or more.
the available water capacity is high. Runoff is very rapid. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Reaction throughout the soil is very strongly acid. Coloso soils and some wet spots. Included areas make
Slope limits the use of equipment and makes this soil up 10 to 15 percent of the unit.
poorly suited for cultivated crops. Most areas are in The permeability of this Bajura soil is slow, and the
shade-grown coffee, bananas, and oranges. Some small available water capacity is high. Runoff is slow. Natural
areas are in taniers, yams, and plantains, fertility and organic matter content are high. Reaction is
The soil is well suited for pasture plants such as slightly acid in the surface layer and neutral in the
stargrass, pangolagrass, molassesgrass, and subsoil and substratum. The shrink-swell potential is
merkergrass. Using a controlled stocking rate and high.
deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and Drained areas of this soil are well suited for cultivated
fertilizing are the main pasture management concerns, crops, mainly sugarcane; undrained areas are suitable
This soil is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta for rice. The clayey texture makes the soil sticky and
eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of harvesting hinders tillage.
equipment. Controlling brush and fertilizing help to This soil is well suited for pangolagrass and stargrass.
reduce seedling mortality. Using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing,
Slope also limits this soil for most types of nonfarm controlling weeds, and fertilizing are the main pasture
use. management concerns. Controlled grazing is especially
The capability subclass is Vie. needed when the soil is wet.
Poor drainage, a flood hazard, and the high shrink-
ArC-Arecibo fine sand, 2 to 12 percent slopes, swell potential are the main limitations of the soil for
This soil is deep, gently sloping to sloping, and nonfarm development.
excessively drained. It is on the coastal plains. Slopes The capability subclass is Illw.
range from 50 to 200 feet long. The areas of the soil
range from 20 to 80 acres. BcB-Bayamon sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Typically, the soil is gray, white, and brown loose fine This soil is deep, gently sloping, and well drained. It is in
sand to a depth of 68 inches and black and brown small valleys between limestone hills and on the coastal






12 Soil survey



plains. Slopes range from 200 to 600 feet long. The BsB-Bayamon sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent
areas of the soil range from 50 to 100 acres, slopes. This soil is deep, gently sloping, and well
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown and drained. It is in small valleys between limestone hills and
red, loose sandy loam about 11 inches thick. The subsoil on the coastal plains. Slopes range from 200 to 800 feet
is red, friable clay to a depth of 60 inches or more. long. The areas of the soil range from 50 to 300 acres.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown and
Almirante soils that make up 5 to 10 percent of the unit. red sandy clay loam about 11 inches thick. The subsoil
The permeability of this Bayamon soil is moderate. is red, friable clay to a depth of 60 inches or more.
The available water capacity is moderate. Runoff is slow. Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
Reaction is very strongly acid throughout. The soil is low Almirante soils that make up 5 to 15 percent of the unit
in natural fertility. The permeability and available water capacity of this
This soil is well suited for pineapples, sweet potatoes, Bayamon soil are moderate. Runoff is medium. This soil
cassava, and sugarcane, especially if supplemental is very strongly acid throughout. Natural fertility is
irrigation is used. Low available water capacity, strong medium.
acidity, and low fertility are the main limitations. Crops on This soil is well suited for sugarcane, pineapples,
this soil respond well to applications of lime and fertilizer, sweet potatoes, and plantains. The soil has good tilth,
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as and crops respond well to applications of lime and
stargrass, pangolagrass, and merkergrass. Strong acidity fertilizer.
and low available water capacity are the major The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
limitations. Using proper stocking rates and deferred stargrass, pangolagrass, and merkergrass. Using proper
grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and fertilizing are stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds,
the main pasture management concerns. liming and fertilizing, and providing irrigation during some
This soil has few limitations for most types of nonfarm dry periods are the main pasture management concerns.
use. This soil has few limitations for most types of nonfarm
The capability subclass is Ills. use.
The capability subclass is lie.
BcC-Bayamon sandy loam, 5 to 12 percent BsC-Bayamon sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent
slopes. This soil is deep, sloping, and well drained. It is soil is deep, sloping, and well drained. It is
slopes. This soil is deep, sloping, and well drained. It is
in small valleys between limestone hills and on the
on the coastal plains and in small valleys between
coastal plains. Slopes range from 200 to 1,000 feet long. limestone hills. Slopes range from 200 to 1,000 feet
The areas of the soil range from 50 to 100 acres. long.e as of soil range from 50 to 400 acres.
long. The areas of the soil range from 50 to 400 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown and Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown and
red, loose sandy loam about 11 inches thick. The subsoil red sandy clay loam about 11 inches thick. The subsoil
is red, friable clay to a depth of 60 inches or more. is red, friable clay to a depth of 60 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
Almirante soils that make up 5 to 15 percent of the unit. Almirante soils that make up 5 to 15 percent of the unit
The permeability of this Bayamon soil is moderate. The permeability and available water capacity of this
The available water capacity is moderate. Runoff is Bayamon soil are moderate. Runoff is medium. This soil
medium. Reaction is very strongly acid throughout. is very strongly acid throughout. Fertility is medium.
Natural fertility is low. This soil is well suited for pineapples, sugarcane,
This soil is suitable for cultivated crops, especially for sweet potatoes, and plantains. The hazard of erosion
sugarcane, sweet potatoes, cassava, and pineapples. An and strong acidity are the main limitations. The soil has
erosion hazard, strong acidity, and low available water good tilth, and crops respond well to applications of lime
capacity are the major limitations for cultivated crops, and fertilizer. Irrigation is needed during some dry
The main management practices include applying lime periods.
and using irrigation. This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as stargrass, pangolagrass, and merkergrass. Applying lime
pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. The major and fertilizer, using proper stocking rates and deferred
limitations are the strong acidity and low available water grazing, and controlling weeds are the main pasture
capacity. Using proper stocking rates and deferred management concerns.
grazing, controlling weeds, liming and fertilizing, and Slope is the main limitation of this soil for most types
providing irrigation are the main pasture management of nonfarm use.
concerns. The capability subclass is Ille.
Slope is the main limitation of the soil for nonfarm
development. ByB-Bayamon clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This
The capability subclass is IVe. soil is deep, gently sloping, and well drained. It is in






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 13


small valleys between limestone hills and on the coastal CaF-Caguabo clay loam, 20 to 60 percent slopes.
plains. Slopes range from 200 to 1,500 feet long. The This soil is shallow, steep to very steep, and well
areas of the soil range from 50 to 500 acres, drained. It is on ridgetops and side slopes that are on
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown and volcanic uplands. Slopes range from 200 to 800 feet
red clay about 11 inches thick. The subsoil is red clay to long. The areas of the soil range from 20 to 100 acres.
a depth of 60 inches or more. Typically, the surface layer is dark brown clay loam
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is dark yellowish brown
Almirante soils and areas of Matanzas soils that have gravelly clay loam 7 inches thick. The substratum is a
limestone bedrock at a depth of less than 60 inches. mixture of highly weathered and partially weathered
Included soils make up 5 to 15 percent of the unit. volcanic rock about 5 inches thick. Hard and
The permeability and available water capacity of this semiconsolidated rock is at a depth of 18 inches.
Bayamon soil are moderate. Runoff is slow. Reaction Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
throughout the soil is very strongly acid. Natural fertility is Mucara soils and small areas where the surface is
medium, covered by bedrock exposures or stones and boulders.
This soil is well suited for cultivated crops, especially Included areas make up 10 to 15 percent of the unit.
for pineapples, sugarcane, sweet potatoes, and The permeability of this Caguabo soil is moderate, and
plantains. Strong acidity is the main limitation. Crops on the available water capacity is low. Runoff is rapid.
this soil respond to applications of lime and fertilizer. Natural fertility is high, but the root zone is shallow.
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as Reaction in the surface layer and subsoil is slightly acid.
stargrass, pangolagrass, and merkergrass. The major Slope and the depth to rock make this soil poorly
limitation is strong acidity. Using proper stocking rates suited for cultivated crops, but a few small areas are in
and deferred grazing, fertilizing and liming, and tobacco, food crops, bananas, and coffee. Slope hinders
controlling weeds are the main pasture management the use of some management practices, such as
concerns, applying fertilizer.
The clayey texture of the soil is the main limitation for The soil is well suited to stargrass, guineagrass, and
nonfarm development. pangolagrass. Using proper stocking rates and deferred
The capability subclass is lie. grazing and fertilizing are the main pasture management

ByC-Bayamon clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This concerns.
soil is deep, sloping, and well drained. It is in small This soil is suitable for Honduras pine and robusta
valleys between limestone hills and on the coastal eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of harvesting
plains. Slopes range from 50 to 200 feet long. The areas equipment. Brush removal and fertilizing help to reduce
of the soil range from 30 to 300 acres. the rate of seedling mortality.
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown and Slope and the depth to rock limit this soil for most
red clay about 11 inches thick. The subsoil is red clay to types of nonfarm development.
a depth of 60 inches or more. The capability subclass is VIls.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
Almirante soils and areas of exposed bedrock and CbF-Caguabo-Rock outcrop complex, 20 to 60
sinkholes. Included areas make up 5 to 10 percent of percent slopes. This complex consists of shallow, steep
the unit. and very steep soils and areas of exposed bedrock. The
The permeability and available water capacity of this complex is on side slopes and ridgetops on volcanic
Bayamon soil are moderate. Runoff is medium. Reaction uplands. Slopes range from 200 to 800 feet long. The
throughout the soil is very strongly acid. Natural fertility is areas of the complex range from 80 to 400 acres. The
medium, complex is about 65 percent well drained Caguabo soils,
This soil is well suited for cultivated crops, especially 30 percent exposed rock, and 5 percent other soils. The
for pineapples, sugarcane, sweet potatoes, and Caguabo soils and exposed rock are so intricately mixed
plantains. Strong acidity and slope are the main that it was not practical to map them separately.
limitations. Crops on this soil respond well to applications Typically, the surface layer of the Caguabo soil is dark
of lime and fertilizer. brown clay loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as yellowish brown gravelly clay loam 7 inches thick. The
stargrass, pangolagrass, and merkergrass. Using proper substratum is a mixture of highly weathered and partially
stocking rates and deferred grazing, fertilizing and liming, weathered volcanic rock 5 inches thick. Hard and
and controlling weeds are the main pasture management semiconsolidated rock is at a depth of 18 inches.
concerns. Included with this complex in mapping are mainly
Slope and the clayey texture of the soil are the main areas of Mucara soils.
limitations for nonfarm development. The Caguabo soil in this complex has moderate
The capability subclass is Ille. permeability and low available water capacity. Runoff is







14 Soil survey



rapid, and the root zone is shallow. Reaction in the the coastal plains. Slopes range from 100 to 800 feet
surface layer and subsoil is slightly acid. long. The areas of the soil range from 50 to 100 acres.
Slope, the depth to rock, and the areas of exposed Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, loose fine
rock make this complex poorly suited for crops or sand about 8 inches thick. The substratum is brown and
pasture. The complex is suitable for Honduras pine and yellow, loose fine sand to a depth of 60 inches or more.
robusta eucalyptus, but the slope and exposed rock Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
restrict the use of harvesting equipment. Jobos and Guerrero soils that make up 10 to 15 percent
Slope and the depth to rock limit this complex for of the unit.
most types of nonfarm development. The permeability of this Carrizales soil is rapid, and the
The capability subclass is VIIs. available water capacity is low. Runoff is slow. Reaction
5 is strongly acid in the surface layer and very strongly
CcD-Caracoles loam, 5 to 20 percent slopes. This acid in the substratum. Fertility is low.
soil is very shallow, sloping or moderately steep, and
well drained. It is on side slopes and ridgetops along the This soil is suitable for cultivated crops but is limited
coast. Slopes are 100 to 200 feet long. The areas of the by the low available water capacity, strong acidity, and
soil range from 20 to 100 acres. rapid permeability. The soil is used for sweet potatoes,
Typically, the surface layer is 6 inches of very dark cassavas, and coconuts. Applying lime and fertilizer and
grayish brown loam over semiconsolidated, calcareous providing irrigation are the main management concerns.
sandstone. The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of stargrass and pangolagrass. The major limitations are
Islote soils and a few areas of exposed bedrock. strong acidity and low available water capacity. Using
Included areas make up 5 to 15 percent of the unit. proper stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling
The permeability of this Caracoles soil is moderately weeds, and using lime and fertilizer are the main pasture
rapid. The available water capacity is low. Runoff is management concerns.
medium. Reaction of the surface layer is neutral. The The sandy texture of the soil is the main limitation for
root zone is shallow, and fertility is medium. nonfarm development, especially for septic tank
The depth to rock and the low available water capacity absorption fields.
make this soil poorly suited for farming. Some areas of The capability subclass is Vis.
the soil are drought for long periods.
Slope and the depth to rock are the main limitations of Cf-Catano sand. This soil is deep, nearly level, and
the soil for most types of nonfarm development, excessively drained. It is in narrow strips along the coast
The capability subclass is Vis. The areas range from 10 to 100 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is light gray and very dark
CcE-Caracoles loam, 20 to 40 percent slopes, grayish brown, loose sand about 5 inches thick. The
This soil is very shallow, steep, and well drained. It is on subsoil is dark brown, loose sand 11 inches thick. The
side slopes and ridgetops along the coast. Slopes are substratum is brown and gray, loose sand to a depth of
100 to 200 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 20 60 inches or more.
to 80 acres. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Typically, the surface layer is 6 inches of very dark Coastal beaches and Tropopsamments, hummocky. The
grayish brown loam over semiconsolidated, calcareous Coastal beaches consist of sand washed by sea waves
sandstone. and the Tropopsamments of sand hills that are drifted
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of and piled by the wind. Included soils make up 5 to 10
exposed bedrock. percent of the unit.
The permeability of this Caracoles soil is moderately The permeability of this Catano soil is rapid, and the
rapid, and the available water capacity is low. Runoff is available water capacity is low. Runoff is slow. Natural
rapid. Reaction in the surface layer is neutral. Natural fertility is low.
fertility is medium, and the root zone is shallow. fertiity is low.
Slope, the depth to rock, and the low available water This soil is poorly suited for cultivated crops but is well
capacity make this soil poorly suited for farming. Some suited for pangolagrass and merkergrass. The major
areas of the soil are drought for long periods, limitations for these pasture plants are the low available
Slope and the depth to rock are the main limitations of water capacity and low fertility. Applying fertilizer and
the soil for most types of nonfarm development. using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing are the
The capability subclass is VIls. main pasture management concerns.
The texture limits this soil for some nonfarm uses,
CeC-Carrizales fine sand, 2 to 12 percent slopes, such as septic tank absorption fields, but the soil is a
This soil is deep, gently sloping to sloping, and good source of industrial sand.
excessively drained. It is in small valleys and on hills on The capability subclass is Vis.







Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 15



Cg-Coastal beaches. This unit consists of narrow yellowish brown, friable clay loam to a depth of 21
strips of deep sand along the coast and a few small inches and yellow and white soft limestone at a depth of
areas of Tropopsamments, hummocky. more than 21 inches.
This unit is unsuitable for most uses other than Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
recreation. Coconut palms and salt-tolerant plants cover Soller and Naranjo soils and small areas from which the
some areas of the unit, but most areas have no surface layer has been removed by erosion. Included
vegetation. areas make up 10 to 20 percent of the unit.
The capability subclass is Vllls. The permeability of this Colinas soil is moderate. The
available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid. The root
CID2-Colinas clay loam, 12 to 20 percent slopes, zone is shallow, and natural fertility is medium. Reaction
eroded. This soil is moderately deep, moderately steep, is moderately alkaline. Slippage of the soil is common in
and well drained. It is on the side slopes, ridgetops, and roadbanks, ditches, and drainageways.
foot slopes of low, rolling hills. Slopes range from 200 to Slope and the depth to limestone make this soil poorly
500 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 20 to 100 suited for cultivated crops, but some areas are in
acres. sugarcane. Crops on the soil respond well to fertilizer
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown, applications, but cultivation is limited because the soil is
firm clay loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is dark sticky when wet.
brown, friable clay loam 6 inches thick. The substratum The soil is suitable for such pasture plants as
extends to a depth of 60 inches or more. It is light pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Using proper
yellowish brown, friable clay loam to a depth of 21 stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds,
inches and yellow and white soft limestone at a depth of and fertilizing are the main pasture management
more than 21 inches. concerns.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil is suitable for Honduras mahogany, but slope
Naranjo and Soller soils that make up 10 to 20 percent limits the use of equipment. Planting on the contour
of the unit. helps to reduce runoff and control erosion. Controlling
The permeability of this Colinas soil is moderate. The brush and weeds, hand planting, and fertilizing help to
available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid. The root improve the survival rate of seedlings.
zone is shallow, and natural fertility is medium. Reaction Slope and a susceptibility to landslides limit this soil
is moderately alkaline. Slippage of the soil is common in for nonfarm development.
roadbanks, ditches, and drainageways. The capability subclass is Vie.
The depth to limestone and the slope limit this soil for
cultivated crops, but some small areas are used for CIF2-Colinas clay loam, 40 to 60 percent slopes,
sugarcane. eroded. This soil is moderately deep, very steep, and
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as well drained. It is on side slopes and ridgetops. Slopes
pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Using proper range from 100 to 300 feet long. The areas of the soil
stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, range from 20 to 500 acres.
and fertilizing are the chief pasture management Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown,
concerns. firm clay loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is dark
This soil is suitable for Honduras pine, Honduras brown, friable clay loam 6 inches thick. The substratum
mahogany, mahoe, and teak, but slope limits the use of extends to a depth to 60 inches or more. It is light
equipment. Planting on the contour helps to reduce yellowish brown, friable clay loam to a depth of 21
runoff and control erosion. Controlling brush and weeds, inches and yellow and white soft limestone at a depth of
hand planting, and fertilizing help to improve the survival more than 21 inches.
rate of seedlings. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Slope is the main limitation of this soil for nonfarm Naranjo and Soller soils, areas from which the surface
development. layer has been removed by erosion, and areas that have
The capability subclass is IVe. cobblestones on the surface. Included areas make up as
much as 25 percent of the acreage of some units.
CIE2-Colinas clay loam, 20 to 40 percent slopes, The permeability of this Colinas soil is moderate. The
eroded. This soil is moderately deep, steep, and well available water capacity is high. Runoff is very rapid. The
drained. It is on side slopes and ridgetops. Slopes range root zone is shallow, and fertility is medium. Reaction is
from 100 to 400 feet long. The areas of the soil range moderately alkaline. Slippage of this soil is common in
from 20 to 300 acres. roadbanks, ditches, and drainageways.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown, Slope and the depth to limestone make this soil poorly
firm clay loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is dark suited for cultivated crops, but some small areas are
brown, friable clay loam 6 inches thick. The substratum used for sugarcane, corn, pigeon peas, and other food
extends to a depth of 60 inches or more. It is light crops. Crops on the soil respond well to applications of






16 Soil survey



fertilizer, but cultivation is limited because the soil is Cn-Coloso silty clay. This soil is deep, nearly level,
sticky when wet. and somewhat poorly drained. It is on flood plains. The
The soil is suited to such pasture plants as areas range from 50 to 500 acres.
pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Using proper Typically, the surface layer is brown, firm silty day
stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, about 7 inches thick. The subsoil is brown, firm, mottled
and fertilizing are the main pasture management clay 8 inches thick. The substratum extends to a depth
concerns. of 60 inches or more. It is brown and gray, firm clay
The soil is suited for Honduras mahogany, but slope mottled with dark yellowish brown.
limits the use of equipment. Planting on the contour Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
helps to reduce runoff and control soil erosion. Bajura and Toa soils. Also included are small areas of
Controlling brush and weeds, hand planting, and Coloso soils that are calcareous throughout. Included
fertilizing help to improve the survival rate of seedlings. soils make up 10 to 15 percent of the unit.
Slope and a susceptibility to landslides limit the soil for The permeability of this Coloso soil is slow, and the
nonfarm development, available water capacity is high. Runoff is slow. Natural
nonarm development fertility and organic matter content are high. Reaction is
The capability subclass is Vile. slightly acid in the surface layer and neutral in the
subsoil and substratum. The subsoil and substratum
CmF2-Colinas cobbly clay loam, 20 to 60 percent have a high shrink-swell potential.
slopes, eroded. This soil is moderately deep, steep to Drained areas of this soil are well suited for cultivated
very steep, and well drained. It is on side slopes and crops, especially sugarcane. Undrained areas are
ridgetops. Slopes range from 100 to 400 feet long. The suitable for rice (fig. 1). Crops on this soil respond well to
areas of the soil range from 20 to 500 acres. applications of fertilizer.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown, The soil is well suited for stargrass, pangolagrass, and
firm cobbly clay loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is merkergrass, but drainage is needed. Using proper
dark brown, friable clay loam 6 inches thick. The stocking rates, controlling weeds, fertilizing, and
substratum extends to a depth of 60 inches or more. It is controlling grazing when the soil is wet are the main
light yellowish brown, friable clay loam to a depth of 21 pasture management concerns.
inches and yellow and white soft limestone at a depth of A hazard of flooding and the high shrink-swell potential
more than 21 inches. are the main limitations of the soil for nonfarm
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of development.
Naranjo and Soller soils and small areas of exposed The capability subclass is IIW.
limestone bedrock. Included soils make up as much as CoE-Consejo clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes. This
25 percent of the acreage of some units. soil is deep, steep, and well drained. It is on side slopes
The permeability of this Colinas soil is moderate. The and ridgetops on the humid volcanic uplands. Slopes are
available water capacity is high. Runoff is very rapid. The 100 to 300 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 10
root zone is shallow, and natural fertility is medium. to 50 acres.
Reaction is moderately alkaline. Slippage of the soil is Typically, the surface layer is dark brown and dark
common in roadbanks, ditches, and drainageways. yellowish brown, firm clay about 5 inches thick. The
Slope, the depth to limestone, and the cobblestones in subsoil is multicolored clay 23 inches thick. The upper
the surface layer make this soil poorly suited for 13 inches of the subsoil is firm, and the lower 10 inches
cultivated crops. Some small areas are used for corn, is friable. The substratum is multicolored, friable clay
pigeon peas, and other food crops, but the cultivation of loam to a depth of 60 inches or more.
such areas must be done by hand. Crops on the soil Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
respond well to applications of fertilizers. Adjuntas, Consumo, and Humatas soils that make up to
The soil is suitable for such pasture plants as 10 to 15 percent of the unit.
pangolagrass and stargrass. Using proper stocking rates The permeability of this Consejo soil is moderate. The
and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and fertilizing available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid. Reaction
are the main pasture management concerns, is extremely acid throughout. Slippage of the soil is
This soil is suitable for Honduras mahogany, but slope common in roadbanks and drainageways.
limits the use of equipment. Planting on the contour This soil has been used for such crops as shade-
helps to reduce runoff and erosion. Controlling brush and grown coffee and plantains, taniers, yams, bananas, and
weeds, hand planting, and fertilizing help to improve the oranges. Slope, rapid runoff, strong acidity, and an
survival rate of seedlings, erosion hazard are the main limitations for cultivated
Slope, the cobblestones in the surface layer, and a crops. Crops on this soil respond well to applications of
susceptibility to landslides limit this soil for nonfarm lime and fertilizer.
development. The soil is well suited for pangolagrass and stargrass.
The capability subclass is Vile. Using proper stocking ,ates and deferred grazing,






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 17






































Figure 1.-An area of Coloso silty clay used for rice.



controlling weeds, and liming and fertilizing are the main subsoil is multicolored clay 23 inches thick. The upper
pasture management concerns. 13 inches of the subsoil is firm, and the lower 10 inches
This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, but slope is friable. The substratum is multicolored, friable clay
limits the use of equipment. Controlling brush and loam to a depth of 60 inches or more.
weeds, hand planting, and fertilizing help to improve the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
survival rate of seedlings. Adjuntas and Consumo soils that make up 10 to 15
Slope, the clayey texture, and a susceptibility to percent of the unit.
landslides limit this soil for most types of nonfarm The permeability of this Consejo soil is moderate, and
development, the available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid.
The capability subclass is IVe. Reaction is extremely acid throughout. Slippage of the
soil is common in ditches and drainageways.
CoF-Consejo clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes. This Slope makes this soil poorly suited for cultivated
soil is deep, very steep, and well drained. It is on side crops. Some areas are used for shade-grown coffee and
slopes and ridgetops on the humid volcanic uplands. food crops, and crops on this soil respond well to
Slopes are 200 to 800 feet long. The areas of the soil applications of lime and fertilizers. However, the use of
range from 10 to 200 acres. equipment is restricted.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown and dark This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
yellowish brown, firm clay about 5 inches thick. The stargrass and pangolagrass. Using proper stocking rates







18 Soil survey



and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and have slopes of less than 40 percent or that are severely
fertilizing are the main pasture management concerns, eroded. Included soils make up 10 to 15 percent of the
The soil is well suited for Honduras pine, but slope unit.
limits the use of equipment. Controlling brush and The permeability and available water capacity of this
weeds, hand planting, and fertilizing help to improve the Consumo soil are moderate. Runoff is very rapid. Natural
rate of seedling survival, fertility is medium.
Slope, the clayey texture, and a susceptibility to Slope, very rapid runoff, and an erosion hazard are the
landslides limit the soil for most types of nonfarm main limitations of this soil for cultivated crops. Some
development, areas have been used for shade-grown coffee, oranges,
The capability subclass is Vie. and bananas. Crops on the soil respond well to
applications of lime and fertilizer, but such applications
CpE-Consumo clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes. This are limited by slope and the clayey texture hinders
soil is deep, steep, and well drained. It is on side slopes cultivation.
and ridgetops on the humid uplands. Slopes are 200 to The soil is well suited for pangolagrass, stargrass, and
500 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 20 to 50 molassesgrass. Using proper stocking rates and deferred
acres. grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and fertilizing are
Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, friable the main pasture management concerns.
clay about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is red, firm clay 12 This soil is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta
inches thick. The substratum is multicolored, friable silty eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of equipment
clay loam to a depth of 50 inches or more. Controlling brush and weeds, hand planting, and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of fertilizing help to reduce the rate of seedling mortality.
Humatas soils that make up 5 to 10 percent of the unit. Slope, the clayey texture, and a susceptibility to
The permeability and available water capacity of this landslides are the main limitations of the soil for nonfarm
Consumo soil are moderate. Runoff is rapid. Natural development.
fertility is medium. Reaction is very strongly acid The capability subclass is Vile.
throughout. Slippage of the soil is common in ditches
and drainageways. CrC-Corozal clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This soil
Slope, rapid runoff, and erosion are the main is deep, sloping, and somewhat poorly drained. It is on
limitations of this soil for cultivated crops. The soil is well hilltops and small terraces. Slopes are 200 to 400 feet
suited for shade-grown coffee, and some areas are used long. The areas of the soil range from 20 to 100 acres.
for food crops such as taniers, yams, and bananas. Typically, the surface layer is 6 inches of reddish
Crops on this soil respond well to applications of lime brown, friable clay mottled with grayish brown. The
and fertilizer, but the clayey texture hinders cultivation, subsoil is 35 inches thick. It is red and yellowish brown,
This soil is well suited for pangolagrass, mottled clay that is firm in the upper 7 inches. The
molassesgrass, and stargrass. Using a controlled substratum is multicolored, highly weathered saprolite to
stocking rate and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, a depth of 60 inches or more.
and liming and fertilizing are the main pasture Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
management concerns. Daguey soils and small areas of Corozal soils that have
The soil is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta slopes of 12 to 20 percent. Included soils make up 10 to
eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of equipment. 15 percent of the unit.
Controlling brush and weeds, hand planting, and The permeability of this Corozal soil is slow, and the
fertilizing help to reduce the rate of seedling mortality, available water capacity is high. Runoff is medium.
Slope, the clayey texture, and a susceptibility to Reaction is very strongly acid in the surface layer and
landslides limit this soil for nonfarm development, extremely acid in the lower layers. Natural fertility is
The capability subclass is Vie. medium.
This soil is well suited for such crops as plantains and
CpF-Consumo clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes. This taniers. Erosion and strong acidity are the main
soil is deep, very steep, and well drained. It is on side limitations, and the clayey texture hinders cultivation.
slopes and ridgetops on the humid uplands. Slopes are Crops on this soil respond well to lime and fertilizer.
200 to 1,000 feet long. The areas of the soil range from This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
50 to 300 acres, stargrass and pangolagrass. Using proper stocking rates
Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, friable and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and
clay about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is red, firm clay 12 fertilizing are the main pasture management concerns.
inches thick. The substratum is multicolored, friable silty The clayey texture, wetness, and a shrink-swell
clay loam to a depth of 50 inches or more. potential limit this soil for most types of nonfarm
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of development.
Humatas soils and small areas of Consumo soils that The capability subclass is Ille.






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 19



CsC-Corozo fine sand, 2 to 12 percent slopes. Low strength and the clayey texture are the main
This soil is deep, gently sloping to sloping, and well limitations of this soil for nonfarm development.
drained. It is on the coastal plains. Slopes range from The capability subclass is lie.
about 100 to 400 feet long. The areas of the soil range
from 20 to 200 acres. CtC-Coto clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This soil is
Typically, the surface layer is gray, loose fine sand deep, sloping, and well drained. It is in small valleys
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray, loose between limestone hills and on coastal plains. Slopes
sand 14 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored and are 100 to 300 feet long. The areas of the soil range
extends to a depth of 60 inches or more. It is sandy from 5 to 9 acres.
loam to a depth of 24 inches; firm clay between depths Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown, firm
of 24 and 33 inches; and firm loamy sand and sandy clay about 8 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth
loam at a depth of more than 33 inches. of 75 inches. It is multicolored clay that is mottled in the
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of lower part.
Algarrobo soils and areas where the subsoil is exposed. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Included areas make up 5 to 10 percent of the unit. exposed limestone bedrock that make up 5 to 10
The permeability of this Corozo soil is rapid in the percent of the unit.
surface and subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil. The permeability of this Coto soil is moderate, and the
The available water capacity is low. Runoff is slow. available water capacity is high. Runoff is medium.
Reaction is very strongly acid throughout. Natural fertility Reaction is very strongly acid in the surface layer and
is low. strongly acid in the subsoil. Natural fertility is medium.
The low fertility level and low available water capacity This soil is well suited for such cultivated crops as
make this soil poorly suited for cultivated crops. The soil sugarcane, plantains, sweet potatoes, tobacco, corn, and
is well suited for such pasture plants as pangolagrass pigeon peas. It is used for papaya, citrus fruits, West
and merkergrass. Using proper stocking rates and Indian cherries, and avocados. Crops on this soil
deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and fertilizing are respond well to applications of lime and fertilizer.
the chief pasture management concerns. The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
This soil-has few limitations for most types of nonfarm pangolagrass and stargrass. Using proper stocking rates
development, but the sandy texture causes a hazard of and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and
seepage. fertilizing are the main pasture concerns.
The capability subclass is Vis. Slope and the clayey texture limit this soil for nonfarm
development.
CtB-Coto clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is The capability subclass is Ille.
deep, gently sloping, and well drained. It is in small
valleys between limestone hills and on coastal plains. CuF-Cuchillas silty clay loam, 40 to 60 percent
Slopes are 200 to 400 feet long. The areas of the soil slopes. This soil is moderately deep, very steep, and
range from 5 to 20 acres, well drained. It is on side slopes and ridgetops on the
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown, firm humid volcanic uplands. Slopes are 100 to 500 feet long.
clay about 8 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth The areas of the soil range from 50 to 200 acres.
of 75 inches. It is multicolored clay that is mottled in the Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, firm silty clay
lower part. loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is dark yellowish
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of brown, firm silty clay loam 10 inches thick. The
Espinosa soils and exposed limestone bedrock. Included substratum is dark yellowish brown, firm clay loam 12
areas make up about 5 to 10 percent of the unit. inches thick. Semiconsolidated volcanic rock is at a
The permeability of this Coto soil is moderate, and the depth of 28 inches.
available water capacity is high. Runoff is medium. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Reaction is very strongly acid in the surface layer and Maricao soils, areas of severely eroded soils, and areas
strongly acid in the subsoil. Natural fertility is medium. of exposed bedrock. Included areas make up 5 to 10
This soil is well suited for sugarcane, plantains, sweet percent of the map unit.
potatoes, tobacco, corn, and pigeon peas. It is used for The permeability of this Cuchillas soil is moderate, and
papaya, citrus fruits, West Indian cherries, and avocados, the available water capacity is high. Runoff is very rapid.
Crops on this soil respond well to applications of lime Natural fertility is high. Reaction in the surface layer and
and fertilizer, subsoil is strongly acid.
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as Slope, rapid runoff, and an erosion hazard make this
pangolagrass and stargrass. Using proper stocking rates soil poorly suited for cultivated crops. Some small areas
and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and are in coffee, but most of the cultivation must be done
fertilizing are the main pasture management concerns, by hand.






20 Soil survey



The soil is well suited for pangolagrass. Using proper percent. Included areas make up 10 to 15 percent of the
stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, unit.
and fertilizing are the chief pasture management The permeability of this Daguey soil is moderate, and
concerns, the available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid, and
This soil is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta natural fertility is medium. Reaction in the surface layer
eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of equipment, and subsoil is very strongly acid.
Removing brush and applying fertilizer help to reduce the This soil is well suited for cultivated crops such as
rate of seedling mortality, coffee, plantains, yams, and taniers. Slope is the main
Slope is the main limitation of this soil for nonfarm limitation for farming. Crops on this soil respond well to
development. applications of lime and fertilizer.
The capability subclass is Vile. The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
pangolagrass and merkergrass. Using proper stocking
CvF-Cuchillas-Rock outcrop complex, 40 to 60 rates and deferred grazing and liiming and fertilizing are
percent slopes. This complex is on the side slopes and the main pasture management concerns.
ridgetops of the humid volcanic uplands. It consists of The soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras
areas of very steep, well drained soils and areas of mahogany, robusta eucalyptus, kadam, and mahoe.
exposed bedrock. Slopes are 100 to 500 feet long. The Slope limits the use of equipment, and the soil is slippery
areas of the complex are 50 to 300 acres. They are when wet. Controlling weeds and brush, hand planting,
about 75 percent moderately deep Cuchillas soils, 15 and fertilizing help to improve the survival rate of
percent exposed bedrock, and 10 percent other soils. seedlings
The Cuchillas soils and exposed rock are so intermingled Slope and the clayey texture limit this soil for nonfarm
Slope and the clayey texture limit this soil for nonfarm
that it was not practical to map them separately.
Typically, the Cuchillas soils have a surface layer of development.
The capability subclass is Ille.
brown, firm silty clay loam about 6 inches thick. The
subsoil is yellowish brown, firm silty clay loam 10 inches EaB-Espinosa sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
thick. The substratum is yellowish brown, firm clay loam This soil is deep, gently sloping, and well drained. It is in
12 inches thick. Semiconsolidated volcanic rock is at a
htht volcanic rock is at a small valleys between limestone hills and on the coastal
depth of 28 inches.
Complex in appin are area plains. Slopes are 400 to 800 feet long. The areas of the
Included with this complex in mapping are areas of
Maricao soils. soil range from 20 to 60 acres.
Cuchilas soils in this complex have moderate Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable sandy
The Cuchillas soils in this complex have moderate loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is firm and
permeability. The available water capacity is high. Runoff loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is firm and
is very rapid. Natural fertility is high. Reaction in the multicolored and extends to a depth of 60 inches or
surface layer and subsoil is strongly acid. more. It is sandy clay to a depth of 16 inches and clay at
Slope makes this complex poorly suited for farming. a dept more than 16 inc .
The complex is mainly in brush, shrubs, and low quality Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
native grass. Some small areas are in coffee. Almirante soils and small areas of exposed bedrock.
Included areas make up 10 to 1!5 percent of the unit
This complex is well suited for Honduras pine and included areas make up 10 to 15 percent of te unt
robusta eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of The permeability of this Espinosa soil is rapid in the
equipment. Controlling brush and fertilizing help to surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. The available
improve the survival rate of seedlings, water capacity is low to moderate, and runoff is slow.
Slope and the areas of exposed rock limit this This soil is medium to low in natural fertility. Reaction of
complex for most types of nonfarm development. the surface layer and subsoil is very strongly acid.
The capability subclass is VIIs. This soil is well suited for sugarcane, sweet potatoes,
and pineapples. The strong acidity, low available water
DaD2-Daguey clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, capacity, and low to moderate fertility are the main
eroded. This soil is deep, moderately steep, and well limitations. Crops on this soil respond well to lime and
drained. It is on the ridgetops and side slopes of the fertilizer, and irrigation is needed in some areas.
humid volcanic uplands. Slopes are 200 to 1,000 feet The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
long. The areas of the soil range from 20 to 100 acres. stargrass, pangolagrass, and merkergrass. Using proper
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, firm clay stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds,
about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored, firm and liming and fertilizing are the main pasture
clay 48 inches thick. The substratum is multicolored, very management concerns.
friable silty clay loam to a depth of 60 inches or more. This soil has few limitations for most types of nonfarm
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of development.
Humatas soils and soils that have slopes of 20 to 40 The capability subclass is Ills.






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 21


EaC-Espinosa sandy loam, 5 to 12 percent This soil has few limitations for most types of nonfarm
slopes. This soil is deep, sloping, and well drained. It is development.
in small valleys between limestone hills and on the The capability subclass is lie.
coastal plains. Slopes are 400 to 800 feet long. The
areas of the soil range from 20 to 100 acres. EbC-Espinosa sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable sandy slopes. This soil is deep, sloping, and well drained. It is
loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored in small valleys between limestone hills and on the
and firm and extends to a depth of 60 inches or more. It coastal plains. Slopes are 400 to 800 feet long. The
is sandy clay to a depth of 16 inches and clay at a depth areas of the soil range from 20 to 60 acres.
of more than 16 inches. Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable sandy
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of clay loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is firm and
Almirante soils and small areas of exposed bedrock. multicolored and extends to a depth of 60 inches or
Included areas make up 10 to 15 percent of the unit. more. It is sandy clay to a depth of 16 inches and clay at
The permeability of this Espinosa soil is rapid in the a depth of more than 16 inches.
surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. The available Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
water capacity is low to moderate. Runoff is medium. Almirante soils and small areas of exposed bedrock.
Natural fertility is medium. Reaction throughout is very Included areas make up 10 to 15 percent of the unit.
strongly acid. The permeability and available water capacity of this
This soil is well suited for sugarcane, sweet potatoes, Espinosa soil are moderate. Runoff and natural fertility
and pineapples. An erosion hazard, strong acidity, and are medium. Reaction throughout is very strongly acid.
low available water capacity are the main limitations. This soil is well suited for sugarcane, sweet potatoes,
Crops on this soil respond well to applications of lime pineapples, and plantains and is used for vegetables and
and fertilizer, and irrigation is needed in some areas. citrus fruits. Crops on this soil respond well to
The soil is well suited for pangolagrass, stargrass, and applications of lime and fertilizer, and irrigation is needed
The soil is well suited for pangolagrass, stargrass, and in s m places.
merkergrass. Using proper stocking rates and deferred in se p s.
This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and fertilizing are
the main pasture management concerns. pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Using proper

development management concerns.
The capability subclass is Ve. Slope is the main limitation of the soil for nonfarm
development.
EbB-Espinosa sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent The capability subclass is Ille.
slopes. This soil is deep, gently sloping, and well
drained. It is in small valleys between limestone hills and EcB-Espinosa clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This soil
on the coastal plains. Slopes are 400 to 800 feet long. is deep, gently sloping, and well drained. It is in small
The areas of the soil range from 20 to 60 acres in size. valleys between limestone hills and on the coastal
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable sandy plains. Slopes are 400 to 1,000 feet long. The areas of
clay loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is firm and the soil range from 20 to 200 acres.
multicolored and extends to a depth of 60 inches or Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable clay
more. It is sandy clay to a depth of 16 inches and clay at about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored, firm
a depth of more than 16 inches. clay to a depth of 60 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Almirante soils and small areas of exposed bedrock. Almirante soils and small areas of exposed bedrock.
Included areas make up 10 to 15 percent of the unit. Included areas make up 10 to 15 percent of the unit.
The permeability and available water capacity of this The permeability of this Espinosa soil is moderate, and
Espinosa soil are moderate. Runoff and natural fertility the available water capacity is high. Runoff and fertility
are medium. Reaction throughout is very strongly acid. are medium. Reaction throughout is very strongly acid.
This soil is well suited for sugarcane, sweet potatoes, This soil is well suited for sugarcane, pineapples,
pineapples, and plantains and is used for vegetables and sweet potatoes, and plantains. Some areas are used for
citrus fruits. Crops on this soil respond well to vegetables and citrus fruits. Crops on this soil respond
applications of lime and fertilizer, well to applications of lime and fertilizer.
The soil is well suited for pangolagrass, stargrass, and This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
merkergrass. Irrigation is needed in some areas. Using stargrass, pangolagrass, and merkergrass. Using proper
proper stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling stocking rates and deferred grazing, fertilizing and liming,
weeds, and liming and fertilizing are the main pasture and controlling weeds and brush are the main pasture
management concerns. management concerns.






22 Soil survey



The clayey texture is the main limitation of the soil for GeC-Guerrero sand, 2 to 12 percent slopes. This
nonfarm development, soil is deep, gently sloping to sloping, and excessively
The capability subclass is lie. drained. It is on undulating hills on the coastal plains and
between limestone hills. Slopes are 100 to 800 feet long.
EcC-Espinosa clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This The areas of the soil range from 20 to 200 acres.
soil is deep, sloping, and well drained. It is in small Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown,
valleys between limestone hills and on the coastal friable sand about 10 inches thick. The subsurface layer
plains. Slopes are 200 to 500 feet long. The areas of the is dark yellowish brown, friable sand 14 inches thick. The
soil range from 20 to 100 acres. subsoil is multicolored and firm and extends to a depth
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable clay of 60 inches or more. It is sandy clay in the upper part
about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored, firm and clay in the lower part.
clay to a depth of 60 inches or more. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Jobos and Carrizales soils that make up 10 to 15
Almirante soils and small areas of exposed bedrock. percent of the unit.
Included areas make up 10 to 15 percent of the unit. The permeability of this Guerrero soil is rapid in the
The permeability of this Espinosa soil is moderate, and surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
the available water capacity is high. Runoff and fertility subsoil. The available water capacity is moderate. Runoff
are medium. Reaction throughout is very strongly acid. is slow to medium, and natural fertility is low. Reaction is
This soil is well suited for sugarcane, pineapples, medium acid to slightly acid in the surface and
sweet potatoes, and plantains and is used for vegetables subsurface layers and very strongly acid in the subsoil.
and citrus fruits. An erosion hazard, strong acidity, and The available water capacity and low fertility level
slope are the main limitations. Crops on this soil respond make this soil poorly suited for cultivated crops. The soil
well to applications of lime and fertilizer, but the clayey is mainly used for coconuts. Some small areas are used
texture hinders tillage when the soil is wet. for cassavas and sweet potatoes.
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
stargrass, pangolagrass, and merkergrass. Using proper pangolagrass. Sprinkler irrigation is needed in some
stocking rates and deferred grazing, fertilizing and liming, areas. Using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing,
and controlling weeds are the main pasture management fertilizing and liming, and controlling brush are the main
concerns. pasture management concerns.
Slope and the clayey texture are the main limitations This soil has few limitations for nonfarm development,
of the soil for nonfarm development, but seepage is a hazard in some areas.
The capability subclass is Ille. The capability subclass is Vis.

Ga-Garrochales muck. This soil is deep, nearly HD-Hydraquents, frequently flooded. This unit
level, and poorly drained. It is on bottom lands and in consists of deep, nearly level, poorly drained soils on
depressional areas on the humid coastal lowlands. The flood plains. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent, and the
areas range from 10 to 60 acres. areas of the soil range from 50 to 300 acres.
Typically, the soil is black and brown, friable organic Generally, the surface layer ranges from loam to clay
material to a depth of about 46 inches. The underlying loam. The substratum is clay.
layer is 10 inches of blue and gray silt loam underlain by Included with this unit in mapping are small areas of
grayish brown organic material that extends to a depth Coloso, Bajura, Vega Alta, and Jobos soils that make up
of more than 60 inches. 10 to 20 percent of the unit.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The permeability of these Hydraquents is slow. The
Tiburones and Palmar soils and soils that have a surface available water capacity is high. Runoff is very slow.
layer of silt loam. Included soils make up 5 to 15 percent These soils have a high level of natural fertility. The
of the unit. water table is at or near the surface throughout the year.
The permeability of this Garrochales soil is slow, and Reaction throughout the soils is slightly acid to mildly
the available water capacity is high. Runoff is slow. alkaline.
A high water table, a hazard of flooding, and poor Flooding, poor drainage, and excessive wetness make
drainage make this soil generally unsuitable for most these soils unsuitable for most uses other than wetland
uses other than pasture. Most areas of the soil are in wildlife habitat.
water-tolerant plants such as cattails, sedges, and The capability subclass is VIIIw.
papyrus. The soil is suitable for paragrass. Using proper
stocking rates and deferred grazing and fertilizing are the HmE-Humatas clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes. This
main pasture management concerns, soil is deep, steep, and well drained. It is on the side
The capability subclass is VIIw. slopes and ridgetops of humid volcanic uplands. Slopes






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 23


are 100 to 500 feet long. The areas of the soil range The soil is well suited for pangolagrass, stargrass, and
from 20 to 200 acres. merkergrass. Using proper stocking rates and deferred
Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, friable grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and fertilizing are
clay about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is yellowish red, the main pasture management concerns.
firm clay 25 inches thick. The substratum is variegated, This soil is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta
very friable saprolite to a depth of 60 inches or more. eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of equipment.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Planting on the contour helps to reduce erosion.
Daguey and Consumo soils that make up 5 to 15 Controlling brush and weeds, hand planting, and
percent of the unit. fertilizing help to improve the survival rate of seedlings.
The permeability and available water capacity of this Slope and the clayey texture limit the soil for most
Humatas soil are moderate. Runoff is rapid, and fertility types of nonfarm development. Slippage of the soil is
is medium. Reaction throughout the soil is very strongly common in roadbanks, ditches, and drainageways.
acid. The capability subclass is Vie.
This soil is suitable for such crops as shade-grown
coffee, tobacco, taniers, yams, bananas, oranges, and HS-Hydraquents, saline. This unit consists of deep,
plantains, but controlling erosion is a major management poorly drained, nearly level soils that are flooded most of
concern. Slope and the clayey texture hinder tillage. the year. The unit is in lagoons in depressional areas
Crops on this soil respond well to applications of lime near coastal inlets. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent,
and fertilizer, and the areas of the soil range from 50 to 400 acres.
Generally, the surface layer ranges from sand to clay.
The soil is well suited for pangolagrass, stargrass, and e rat ranges from sandy cly clay.
merkergrass. Using proper stocking rates and deferred Included with this unit in mapping are small areas of
grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and fertilizing are Catano, Carrizales, Jobos, and Baura soils that make up
Catano, Carrizales, Jobos, and Bajura soils that make up
the main pasture management concerns.
This soil is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta The permeability of these Hydraquents is slow, and
eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of equipment. the available water capacity is high. Runoff is very slow.
Planting on the contour helps to control erosion, and The water table is at or near the surface throughout the
controlling brush and weeds and fertilizing help to year. Reaction is slightly acid to strongly alkaline
improve the survival rate of seedlings, throughout.
Slope and the clayey texture limit the soil for nonfarm Flooding, poor drainage, and wetness make these
development. Slippage of the soil is common in soils unsuitable for most uses other than wetland wildlife
roadbanks, ditches, and drainageways. habitat.
The capability subclass is IVe. The capability subclass is VIIIw.

HmF-Humatas clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes. This IrD-lngenio clay loam, 5 to 20 percent slopes.
soil is deep, very steep, and well drained. It is on the This soil is deep, sloping to moderately steep, and well
side slopes and ridgetops of humid volcanic uplands. drained. It is on the ridgetops and side slopes of humid
Slopes are 200 to 1,200 feet long. The areas of the soil uplands. Slopes are 200 to 800 feet long. The areas of
range from 20 to 400 acres. the soil range from 20 to 100 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown, friable Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, firm clay
clay about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is yellowish red, loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored
firm clay 25 inches thick. The substratum is variegated, clay 32 inches thick and is firm in the lower part. The
very friable saprolite to a depth of 60 inches on more. substratum is multicolored saprolite that extends to a
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of depth of 60 inches or more.
Consumo soils that make up 10 to 15 percent of the Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Lirios
unit. soils that make up 5 to 10 percent of the unit.
The permeability and available water capacity of this The permeability and available water capacity of this
Humatas soil are moderate. Runoff is very rapid, and Ingenio soil are moderate. Runoff is rapid, and fertility is
fertility is medium. Reaction is very strongly acid medium. Reaction is medium acid in the surface layer
throughout the soil. and neutral in the lower layers.
Slope and an erosion hazard make this soil poorly This soil is well suited for coffee, plantains, yams,
suited for cultivated crops. The soil is mainly used for taniers, and sweet potatoes. Some areas are in citrus
shade-grown coffee, bananas, and oranges, and some fruits and bananas. An erosion hazard is the main
small areas are used for yams, taniers, and plantains. management concern. Crops on this soil respond well to
Crops on this soil respond well to applications of lime applications of lime and fertilizer.
and fertilizer, but slope and the clayey texture restrict The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
tillage. pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Applying lime







24 Soil survey



and fertilizer, using proper stocking rates and deferred is medium. Reaction throughout the soil is very strongly
grazing, and controlling weeds are the chief pasture acid.
management concerns. Slope and an erosion hazard make this soil poorly
This soil is well suited for Honduras pine (fig. 2) and suited for cultivated crops. The soil is used mostly for
robusta eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of coffee, taniers, yams, plantains, and sweet potatoes.
equipment. Controlling brush and fertilizing help to Some small areas are used for citrus fruits and bananas.
improve the survival rate of seedlings. Slips are common in ditches and drainageways in this
soil. Crops on this soil respond well to applications of
lime and fertilizer.
: This soil is well suited for pangolagrass and stargrass.
.i Applying lime and fertilizer, using proper stocking rates
and deferred grazing, and controlling weeds are the main
pasture management concerns.
SThis soil is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta
eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of equipment.
Fertilizing, hand planting on the contour, and controlling
weeds help to improve the survival rate of seedlings.
Slope is the main limitation of this soil for most types
of nonfarm development.
The capability subclass is IVe.

IsC-lslote sandy clay loam, 2 to 12 percent
slopes. This soil is moderately deep, gently sloping to
sloping, and well drained. It is on low hills and small
terraces. Slopes are 100 to 400 feet long. The areas of
the soil range from 10 to 60 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable sandy
clay loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is brown and
red, firm clay 22 inches thick. Partially cemented
calcareous sandstone is at a depth of 30 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Islote soils that have a surface layer of sandy loam and
clay and small areas of severely eroded soils. Included
soils make up 5 to 15 percent of the unit.
Figure 2.-Honduras pine on Ingenio clay loam, 5 to 20 The permeability of this Islote soil is moderately rapid
percent slopes, in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. The
available water capacity is moderate. Runoff is slow to
So medium. Natural fertility is medium. Reaction is medium
Slope limits the soil for most types of nonfarm acid in the surface layer and slightly acid to neutral in
development. the subsoil. The subsoil has a moderate shrink-swell
The capability subclass is Ille. potential.
This soil is used mainly for sugarcane. Some small
InE-Ingenio clay loam, 20 to 40 percent slopes. areas are in sweet potatoes and pigeon peas. The
This soil is deep, steep, and well drained. It is on the clayey texture of the subsoil hinders cultivation. Crops on
side slopes of humid uplands. Slopes are 100 to 300 this soil respond well to applications of fertilizer.
feet long. The areas of the soil range from 10 to 50 This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
acres. pangolagrass, paragrass, and merkergrass. Some spots
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, firm clay are in native pasture and brush. Using proper stocking
loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored rates, fertilizing, and deferred grazing are the main
clay 32 inches thick and is firm in the lower part. The pasture management concerns.
substratum is multicolored saprolite that extends to a The capability subclass is Ille.
depth of 60 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Lirios Ja-Jareales clay. This soil is deep, nearly level, and
soils and small areas of severely eroded soils. Included poorly drained. It is on the coastal lowlands. The areas
soils make up 5 to 10 percent of the map unit. range from 20 to 100 acres.
The permeability and available water capacity of this Typically, the surface layer is 6 inches of very dark
Ingenio soil are moderate. Runoff is rapid. Natural fertility gray, firm clay. The subsoil is black and gray, mottled






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 25



clay 22 inches thick. The substratum is black organic moderately well drained. It is on low, rolling hills and foot
material to a depth of 60 inches or more. slopes in the humid limestone area. Slopes are 100 to
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 500 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 10 to 100
Bajura soils, Vigia soils, and calcareous soils. Included acres.
soils make up 10 to 15 percent of the unit. Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, firm clay
The permeability of this Jareales soil is very slow in about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is mottled, yellowish
the surface layer and subsoil and slow in the substratum, brown clay 32 inches thick. The substratum is yellowish
The available water capacity is high. Runoff is slow. The brown, mottled silty clay loam to a depth of 60 inches.
natural fertility and organic matter content of the soil are Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
high. Reaction is neutral in the surface layer and subsoil Naranjo soils, small areas of slightly eroded Juncal soils,
and slightly acid in the substratum. The surface layer and and small areas of soils with a surface layer of clay
subsoil have a high shrink-swell potential. loam. Included soils make up 10 to 15 percent of the
Drained areas of this soil are well suited for cultivated unit.
crops, and most of the drained areas are used for The permeability of this Juncal soil is moderate, and
sugarcane. Undrained areas are suitable for rice. the available water capacity is high. Runoff and natural
This soil is well suited for stargrass, pangolagrass, and fertility are medium. Reaction is medium acid in the
paragrass. Using proper stocking rates and deferred surface layer and subsoil and moderately alkaline in the
grazing, controlling weeds, fertilizing, and preventing substratum. The soil has moderate shrink-swell potential.
grazing when the soil is too wet are the main pasture This soil is well suited for such cultivated crops as
management concerns. taniers, yams, pigeon peas, and plantains, but the slope
Wetness is the main limitation of the soil for nonfarm and clayey texture hinder cultivation. Crops on this soil
development, respond well to fertilizers.
The capability subclass is IVw. The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
pangolagrass, improved bermudagrass, and merkergrass.
JoC-Jobos sandy loam, 2 to 12 percent slopes. Using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing,
This soil is deep, gently sloping to sloping, and controlling weeds, and fertilizing are the chief pasture
moderately well drained. It is in small valleys and on management concerns.
undulating hills on the coastal plains and between This soil is well suited for Honduras pine and
limestone hills. Slopes are 100 to 800 feet long. The Honduras mahogany, but slope limits the use of
areas of the soil range from 20 to 100 acres. equipment. Equipment is further restricted because the
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable sandy soil is sticky and slippery when wet. Controlling brush
loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored and weeds and fertilizing help to improve the survival
clay to a depth of 60 inches or more. rate of the seedlings.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Slope, low strength, and the moderate shrink-swell
Guerrero soils and small areas of Jobos soils that have potential are the main limitations of the soil for nonfarm
a surface layer of clay. Included soils make up 10 to 15 development.
percent of the unit. The capability subclass is Ille.
The permeability of this Jobos soil is rapid in the
surface layer and slow in the subsoil. The available water JuE2-Juncal clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes,
capacity is moderate. Runoff is slow to medium. Natural eroded. This soil is deep, steep, and moderately well
fertility is low. Reaction throughout is very strongly acid. drained. It is on side slopes and ridgetops in the humid
The subsoil has a moderate shrink-swell potential. limestone areas. Slopes are 100 to 200 feet long. The
This soil is occasionally used for cultivated crops such areas of the soil range from 10 to 50 acres.
as sweet potatoes and cassavas. Some areas are in Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, firm clay
sugarcane and coconuts. Crops on this soil respond well about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is mottled, yellowish
to applications of fertilizer, but droughtiness makes brown clay 32 inches thick. The substratum is mottled,
sprinkler irrigation necessary in some areas. yellowish brown silty clay loam to a depth of 60 inches
This soil is well suited for pangolagrass and stargrass. or more.
Some small areas are in native pasture and brush. The Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
low fertility and the available water capacity are the Naranjo soils and slightly eroded soils. Also included are
major limitations. Using proper stocking rates and areas of Juncal soils that have slopes of 40 to 60
deferred grazing, fertilizing and liming, and controlling percent and spots of Colinas soils. Included soils make
weeds are the main pasture management concerns, up 5 to 10 percent of the map unit.
The capability subclass is VIs. The permeability of this Juncal soil is moderate, and
the available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid, and
JuD2-Juncal clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, natural fertility is medium. Reaction is medium acid in the
eroded. This soil is deep, moderately steep, and surface layer and subsoil and moderately alkaline in the






26 Soil survey



substratum. The soil has a moderate shrink-swell LcF2-Lirios clay loam, 40 to 60 percent slopes,
potential. eroded. This soil is deep, very steep, and well drained. It
This soil is well suited for such cultivated crops as is on the side slopes and narrow ridgetops of uplands.
taniers, yams, pigeon peas, and plantains. Slope and the Slopes are 100 to 300 feet long. The areas of the soil
clayey texture of the soil are the main limitations. Crops range from 50 to 200 acres.
on this soil respond well to applications of fertilizer. Typically, the surface layer is strong brown, friable clay
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is red and reddish
pangolagrass, improved bermudagrass, and merkergrass. yellow, firm clay 18 inches thick. The substratum is
Using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing, multicolored saprolite that extends to a depth of 60
controlling weeds, and fertilizing are the chief pasture inches or more.
management concerns. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This soil is well suited for Honduras pine and Humatas and Pellejas soils and small areas of severely
Honduras mahogany, but slope limits the use of eroded soils. Included soils make up 5 to 15 percent of
equipment. Equipment use is further restricted because the unit.
the soil is sticky and slippery when wet. Controlling brush The permeability of this Lirios soil is moderate, and the
and weeds and fertilizing help to improve the survival available water capacity is high. Runoff is very rapid.
rate of seedlings. Natural fertility is medium. Reaction is strongly acid in
Slope, low strength, and the moderate shrink-swell the surface layer and very strongly acid in the lower
potential are the main limitations of the soil for nonfarm layers.
development. Slope and an erosion hazard make this soil poorly
The capability subclass is IVe. suited for cultivated crops, but some areas are used for
shade-grown coffee, bananas, oranges, yams,
LcE2-Lirios clay loam, 20 to 40 percent slopes, taniers, and tobacco. Crops respond well to the
eroded. This soil is deep, steep, and well drained. It is application of lime and fertilizers, but such application is
on the side slopes and narrow ridgetops of uplands. limited by slope.
Slopes are 100 to 500 feet long. The areas of the soil The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
range from 10 to 60 acres, pangolagrass. Using proper stocking rates and deferred
Typically, the surface layer is strong brown, friable clay grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and fertilizing are
loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is red and reddish the chief pasture management concerns.
yellow, firm clay 18 inches thick. The substratum is This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras
multicolored saprolite to a depth of 60 inches or more. mahogany, and robusta eucalyptus, but slope limits the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of use of equipment. The soil is slippery when wet
Ingenio and Humatas soils and small areas of severely Controlling brush and weeds, fertilizing, and hand
eroded soils. Included soils make up 5 to 15 percent of planting help to improve the survival rate of seedlings.
the unit. Slope is the main limitation of this soil for nonfarm
The permeability of this Lirios soil is moderate, and the development.
available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid. Natural The capability subclass is Vie.
fertility is medium. Reaction is strongly acid in the
surface layer and very strongly acid in the lower layers. LgD-Los Guineos clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes
This soil is well suited for plantains, yams, taniers, This soil is deep, moderately steep, and moderately well
tobacco, bananas, coffee, and sweet potatoes. Slope is drained. It is on the ridgetops and side slopes of humid
a limitation, however, and slippage is common in volcanic uplands. Slopes are 100 to 800 feet long. The
roadbanks, ditches, and drainageways. Crops on this soil areas of the soil range from 20 to 60 acres.
respond well to applications of lime and fertilizer. Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable clay
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is brown and red,
pangolagrass and merkergrass. Using proper stocking mottled, firm clay 40 inches thick. The substratum is
rates and deferred grazing and controlling weeds are the variegated clay saprolite to a depth of 60 inches or
chief pasture management concerns, more.
This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
mahogany, and robusta eucalyptus. Slope limits the use Humatas soils that make up 5 to 10 percent of the unit
of equipment, and the soil is slippery when wet. The permeability and available water capacity of this
Controlling brush and weeds, fertilizing, and hand Los Guineos soil are moderate. Runoff is rapid. Natural
planting help to improve the survival rate of seedlings, fertility is medium. Reaction throughout the soil is very
Slope and low strength are the main limitations of the strongly acid.
soil for most types of nonfarm development. This soil is well suited for coffee, taniers, bananas, and
The capability subclass is IVe. plantains. Slope is the main management concern.







Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 27



Crops on this soil respond well to applications of lime mottled, firm clay 40 inches thick. The substratum is
and fertilizer, variegated clay saprolite to a depth of 60 inches or
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as more.
pangolagrass and merkergrass. Using proper stocking Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
rates and deferred grazing and liming and fertilizing are Humatas and Consumo soils that make up 10 to 15
the main pasture management concerns. percent of the unit.
This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, mahoe, and The permeability and available water capacity of this
robusta eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of Los Guineos soil are moderate. Runoff is very rapid.
equipment. The soil is slippery when wet. Controlling Natural fertility is medium. Reaction throughout the soil is
weeds and brush, fertilizing, and hand planting help to very strongly acid.
improve the survival rate of seedlings. This soil is well suited for shade-grown coffee. Some
Slope and the clayey texture are the main limitations small areas are used for bananas, oranges, and taniers,
of the soil for nonfarm development, but slope restricts the use of equipment and the soil is
The capability subclass is IVe. slippery and sticky when wet. Crops on this soil respond
well to applications of lime and fertilizers, but slope limits
LgE-Los Guineos clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes, such applications.
This soil is deep, steep, and moderately well drained. It The soil is well suited for pangolagrass and stargrass.
is on the side slopes and ridgetops of humid volcanic Using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing,
uplands. Slopes are 100 to 800 feet long. The areas of controlling weeds, and liming and fertilizing are the main
the soil range from 50 to 200 acres. management concerns.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable clay This soil is well suited for Honduras ine and robusta
about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is brown and red, eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of equipment. The
mottled, firm clay 40 inches thick. The substratum is soil is slippery when wet and is subject to slippage.
variegated clay saprolite to a depth of 60 inches or Controlling brush and weeds, fertilizing, and hand
.Controlling brush and weeds, fertilizing, and hand
more.
planting help to reduce the rate of seedling mortality.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of p to rehee rateof seedling mortality.
Humatas soils and spots of severely eroded soils. Slope, the clayey texture, and low strength limit this
Included soils make up 5 to 15 percent of the unit. soil for most types of nonfarm development.
The permeability and available water capacity of this The capability subclass is Vile.
Los Guineos soils are moderate. Runoff is rapid. The LME-Los Gk
natural fertility is medium. Reaction throughout the soil is LME-Los Guineos-Manicao-Rock outcrop
very strongly acid. association, steep. This unit consists of deep, steep
This soil is well suited for shade-grown coffee. Some and very steep soils and areas of exposed volcanic rock.
areas are used for taniers, bananas, oranges, and The unit is on the side slopes and ridgetops of humid
plantains, but slope limits the use of equipment and the volcanic uplands. Slopes are 100 to 400 feet long. The
soil is sticky and slippery when wet. Crops on this soil areas of this unit range from 100 to 800 acres. The
respond well to applications of lime and fertilizer, acreage is about 50 percent moderately well drained Los
The soil is well suited for pangolagrass and stargrass. Guineos soils, 30 percent well drained Maricao soils, 15
Using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing, percent exposed rock, and 5 percent other soils. The
controlling weeds, and liming and fertilizing are the main soils and exposed rock are mapped together because
pasture management concerns. there are no major differences in their use.
This soil is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta Typically, the surface layer of the Los Guineos soils is
eucalyptus, but slope restricts the use of equipment. The dark brown, friable clay about 6 inches thick. The subsoil
soil is slippery and subject to slippage when wet. is red and brown, mottled, firm clay 40 inches thick. The
Controlling weeds and brush, fertilizing, and hand substratum is variegated clay saprolite to a depth of 60
planting help to improve the survival rate of seedlings. inches or more.
Slope, the clayey texture, and low strength limit this Typically, the surface layer of the Maricao soils is
soil for most types of nonfarm development, yellowish red, friable clay about 6 inches thick. The
The capability subclass is Vie. subsoil is yellowish red and red, mottled clay 14 inches
thick. The substratum is variegated clay saprolite to a
LgF-Los Guineos clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes, depth of 60 inches or more.
This soil is deep, very steep, and moderately well Included with this unit in mapping are small areas of
drained. It is on the side slopes and ridgetops of humid Cuchillas soils.
volcanic uplands. Slopes are 100 to 600 feet long. The The Los Guineos and Maricao soils in this unit have
areas of the soil range from 50 to 300 acres. moderate permeability and moderate available water
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable clay capacity. Runoff is very rapid. Natural fertility is medium.
about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is brown and red, The reaction of both soils is strongly acid and very






28 Sol survey


strongly acid in the surface layer and very strongly acid 200 to 600 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 20
in the subsoil and substratum, to 100 acres.
Slope and the exposed rock make this unit poorly Typically, the surface layer is yellowish red day about
suited for cultivated crops. Most areas are in brushy 6 inches thick. The subsoil is yellowish red and red,
pasture and forest, and some small areas are in coffee, mottled clay 14 inches thick. The substratum is
The unit is well suited for pangolagrass and stargrass. variegated clay saprolite to a depth of 60 inches or
Using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing and more.
liming and fertilizing are the main pasture management Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
concerns. Humatas and Cuchillas soils that make up 5 to 10
This unit is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta percent of the unit.
eucalyptus, but slope and the exposed rock limit the use The permeability and available water capacity of this
of equipment, and the soil is slippery when wet. Maricao soil are moderate. Runoff is very rapid. Natural
Slope and the rocky surface limit this unit for most fertility is medium. Reaction is very strongly acid
types of nonfarm development, throughout the soil.
The capability subclass is Vile. Slope and an erosion hazard make this soil poorly
suited for cultivated crops. Most areas are in native
MaF2-Maraguez silty clay loam, 40 to 60 percent pasture and brush, and some small areas are in shade-
slopes, eroded. This soil is deep, very steep, and well grown coffee, bananas, oranges, taniers, and yams.
drained. It is on the side slopes and ridgetops of humid Slope and the clayey texture of the soil especially limit
volcanic uplands. Slopes are 200 to 800 feet long. The tillage. Crops on this soil respond well to the application
areas of the soil range from 50 to 200 acres. of lime and fertilizers, but such application is also limited
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown silty clay by slope.
loam about 7 inches thick. The subsoil is yellowish The soil is well suited for pangolagrass and stargrass.
brown and is 14 inches thick. The upper part of the Using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing,
subsoil is silty clay loam, and the lower part is clay loam. controlling weeds, and liming and fertilizing are the main
The substratum is mainly yellowish brown and brownish pasture management concerns.
yellow loam to a depth of 60 inches or more. This soil is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Mucara eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of equipment
soils and areas of Maraguez soils that have slopes of 20 Controlling brush and weeds, fertilizing, and hand
planting help to improve the survival rate of seedlings.
to 40 percent. Included soils make up 5 to 15 percent of Slope is the major limitation of this soil for nonfarm
the unit. Slope is the major limitation of this soil for nonfarm
development and makes the soil susceptible to
The permeability of this Maraguez soil is moderate in landslides.
the surface layer and subsoil and moderately rapid in the The capability subclass is Vile.
substratum. The available water capacity is low. Runoff
is very rapid. Natural fertility is medium. Reaction is MmF-Matanzas-Rock outcrop complex, 5 to 60
medium acid in the surface layer and slightly acid in the percent slopes. This unit consists of deep, sloping to
lower layers. very steep, well drained soils and areas of limestone
Slope and an erosion hazard make this soil poorly rock. The unit is in small valleys and on coastal plains.
suited for cultivated crops. Most areas are used for Slopes range from 200 to 600 feet long. The areas of
shade-grown coffee, bananas, and oranges. Crops on the unit range from 20 to 100 acres and consist of about
this soil respond well to fertilizer applications. 65 percent Matanzas soils, 30 percent rock, and 5
The soil is well suited for pangolagrass and stargrass. percent other soils. The Matanzas soils and exposed
Using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing, rock are so intermingled that it was not practical to map
controlling weeds, and fertilizing are the main pasture them separately.
management concerns. Typically, the surface layer of the Matanzas soils is
This soil is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta dark reddish brown clay about 8 inches thick. The
eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of equipment. subsoil is red clay 34 inches thick. Limestone bedrock is
Controlling brush and weeds, fertilizing, and hand at a depth of 42 inches.
planting help to reduce the rate of seedling mortality. Included with this complex in mapping are areas of
Slope limits this soil for most types of nonfarm Bayamon soils.
development. The Matanzas soils in this unit have moderate
The capability subclass is Vile. permeability and high available water capacity. Runoff is
slow. Natural fertility is medium. Reaction throughout the
McF-Maricao clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes. This soil is neutral.
soil is deep, very steep, and well drained. It is on the The rocky surface hinders tillage and makes this
ridgetops and side slopes of humid uplands. Slopes are complex poorly suited for cultivated crops. Some small







Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 29



areas are used for plantains, yams, and taniers, but most the soil is very strongly acid. The subsoil has a high
of the cultivation is done by hand. Crops on this complex shrink-swell potential.
respond well to applications of fertilizer. This soil is well suited for plantains and taniers. Some
The complex is well suited for such pasture plants as small areas are in sugarcane, coffee, and bananas.
pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Using proper Cultivation of the soil is hindered by the clayey texture.
stocking rates, deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and Crops on this soil respond well to applications of lime
fertilizing are the main pasture management concerns, and fertilizer.
The rocky surface is the main limitation of the complex The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
for nonfarm development, pangolagrass and merkergrass. An erosion hazard and
The capability subclass is Vis. strong acidity are the main limitations. Using proper
stocking rates and deferred grazing, fertilizing and liming,
MnB-Matanzas clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This and controlling weeds are the main pasture management
soil is deep, gently sloping, and well drained. It is in concerns.
valleys between limestone hills and on the coastal This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, kadam, and
plains. Slopes are 200 to 1,000 feet long. The areas mahoe. The use of equipment is limited because the soil
range from 20 to 100 acres, is sticky and slippery when wet. Controlling weeds and
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown clay brush, hand planting, and fertilizing help to improve the
about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is red clay 34 inches survival rate of seedlings.
thick. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of 42 inches. The high shrink-swell potential and low strength of the
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of soil are the main limitations for nonfarm development.
Bayamon soils and small areas of exposed limestone The capability subclass is Ille.
bedrock. Included areas make up 5 to 10 percent of the
unit. MoD2-Moca clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes,
The permeability of this Matanzas soil is moderate, eroded. This soil is deep, moderately steep, and
and the available water capacity is high. Runoff is slow. moderately well drained. It is on low, rolling hills in the
Natural fertility is medium. Reaction throughout the soil is humid volcanic areas. Slopes are 200 to 600 feet long.
neutral. The areas of the soil range from 20 to 100 acres.
This soil is well suited for cultivation. It is used mostly Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown, firm
for plantains, yams, and taniers. Some small areas are in clay about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored,
citrus fruits, West Indian cherries, and avocados. Crops mottled clay 24 inches thick. The substratum is
on this soil respond well to applications of fertilizer, multicolored, mottled clay to a depth of 60 inches or
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as more.
pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Using proper Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, Vega Alta soils that make up 5 to 10 percent of the unit.
and fertilizing are the main pasture management The permeability of this Moca soil is moderately slow,
concerns. and the available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid.
The depth to rock and clayey texture are the main Natural fertility is medium. Reaction throughout the soil is
limitations of this soil for nonfarm development, very strongly acid. The subsoil has a high shrink-swell
The capability subclass is lie. potential.
This soil is mainly used for plantains and taniers.
MoC2-Moca clay, 2 to 12 percent slopes, eroded. Some areas are in sugarcane, coffee, and bananas.
This soil is deep, gently sloping to sloping, and Slope is the main limitation for farming, and the clayey
moderately well drained. It is on foot slopes and low, texture of the soil further limits cultivation. Crops on this
rolling hills in humid volcanic areas. Slopes are 200 to soil respond well to applications of lime and fertilizer.
800 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 20 to 100 This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
acres. pangolagrass and merkergrass. Using proper stocking
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown, firm rates, and deferred grazing, liming and fertilizing,
clay about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored, controlling weeds, and controlling grazing during wet
mottled clay 24 inches thick. The substratum is periods are the main pasture management concerns.
multicolored, mottled clay to a depth of 60 inches or This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, kadam, and
more. mahoe. Slope limits the use of equipment, and the soil is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of sticky and slippery when wet. Controlling weeds and
Perchas and Vega Alta soils that make up 10 to 15 brush, hand planting, and fertilizing help to improve the
percent of the unit. survival rate of seedlings.
The permeability of this Moca soil is moderately slow, Slope and the high shrink-swell potential are the main
and the available water capacity is high. Runoff is limitations of the soil for nonfarm development.
medium. Natural fertility is medium. Reaction throughout The capability subclass is IVe.







30 Soil survey



MoE2-Moca clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes, eroded. Slope and an erosion hazard make this soil unsuitable
This soil is deep, steep, and moderately well drained. It for cultivated crops. Some small areas are in coffee,
is on the side slopes and hilltops of the humid volcanic bananas, and pigeon peas. Crops on this soil respond
areas. Slopes are 100 to 400 feet long. The areas of the well to applications of fertilizer.
soil range from 20 to 60 acres. The soil is well suited for pangolagrass and stargrass.
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown, firm Using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing,
clay about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored, controlling weeds, and fertilizing are the main pasture
mottled clay 24 inches thick. The substratum is management concerns.
multicolored mottled clay to a depth of 60 inches or This soil is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta
more. eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of the equipment,
Included with this soil in mapping are some small and the soil is slippery and subject to landslides when
areas of soils that have slopes of 12 to 20 percent and a wet. Controlling brush and weeds, hand planting, and
few areas of severely eroded soils. Included soils make
few areas of severely eroded soils. Included soils make fertilizing help to reduce the rate of seedling mortality.
up 5 to 15 percent of the unit. Slope and the depth to rock are the main limitations of
The permeability of this Moca soil is moderately slow, Slope and the depth torock are the main limitations of
and the available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid. this soil for nonfarm development.
Natural fertility is medium. Reaction throughout the soil is The capability subclass is Vile.
very strongly acid. The subsoil has a high shrink-swell
potential. MuE-Mucara clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes. This
Slope makes this soil poorly suited for cultivated crops, soil is moderately deep, steep, and well drained. It is on
but some areas are used for plantains, sugarcane, and the side slopes and ridgetops of humid volcanic uplands.
coffee. Slope hinders the use of equipment, and the soil Slopes are 100 to 400 feet long. The areas of the soil
is sticky and slippery when wet. Crops on this soil range from 20 to 60 acres.
respond well to applications of lime and fertilizer. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as clay about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is dark yellowish
pangolagrass and merkergrass. Using proper stocking brown and dark grayish brown clay 7 inches thick. The
rates and deferred grazing, liming and fertilizing, substratum is 14 inches thick. The upper part of the
controlling weeds, and controlling grazing during wet substratum is multicolored clay loam. The lower part is
periods are the main pasture management concerns, highly weathered volcanic rock. Semiconsolidated
This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, kadam, and volcanic rock is at a depth of 27 inches.
mahoe, but slope limits the use of equipment, and the Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Morado
soil is sticky and slippery when wet. Controlling weeds and Humatas soils that make up 10 to 15 percent of the
and brush, hand planting, and fertilizing help to improve unit.
the survival rate of seedlings. The permeability of this Mucara soil is moderate, and
Slope, low strength, and the high shrink-swell potential the available water capacity is low. Runoff is rapid. The
are the main limitations of the soil for nonfarm natural fertility is medium. Reaction is slightly acid in the
development, surface layer and neutral in the subsoil and substratum.
The capability subclass is Vie. The subsoil has a high shrink-swell potential.
Some areas of this soil are used for such crops as
MpF2-Morado clay loam, 40 to 60 percent slopes, coffee, tobacco, corn, plantains, and beans. However, an
eroded. This soil is moderately deep, very steep, -and
eroded. This soil is moderately deep, very steep, .and erosion hazard, the depth to rock, and slope are major
well drained. It is on the side slopes and ridgetops of limitations for farming. Cultivation is father limited
humid volcanic uplands. Slopes are 100 to 600 feet long. because the soil is slippery when wet. Crops on this soil
The areas of the soil range from 20 to 200 acres. because the soil is slippery when wet Crops on this soil
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown clay respond well to applications of fertilizer.
loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
clay loam 13 inches thick. The substratum is variegated pangolagrass and merkergrass. Using proper stocking
clay loam 14 inches thick. Semiconsolidated volcanic rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and
rock is at a depth of 36 inches. fertilizing are the main pasture management concerns.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras
Mucara soils, soils that have slopes of 20 to 40 percent, mahogany, and robusta eucalyptus. Slope limits the use
and severely eroded soils. Included soils make up 10 to of equipment, and the soil is slippery when wet
15 percent of the unit. Controlling weeds and brush, hand planting, and
The permeability and available water capacity of this fertilizing help to improve the survival rate of seedlings.
Morado soil are low. Runoff is very rapid. Natural fertility Slope and the depth to rock are the main limitations of
is medium. Reaction is medium acid in the surface layer this soil for nonfarm development.
and slightly acid in the subsoil and substratum. The capability subclass is Vie.







Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 31



MuF-Mucara clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes. This This soil is used mainly for plantains, sugarcane,
soil is moderately deep, very steep, and well drained. It taniers, pigeon peas, and corn. Some small areas are
is on the side slopes and ridgetops of humid volcanic used for avocados. Slope and an erosion hazard are the
uplands. Slopes are 100 to 600 feet long. The areas of main limitations for farming. The clayey texture of the
the soil range from 20 to 500 acres. soil hinders cultivation. Crops on this soil respond well to
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown applications of fertilizer.
clay about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is dark yellowish The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
brown and dark grayish brown clay 7 inches thick. The pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. The erosion
substratum is 14 inches thick. The upper part of the hazard is the main limitation. Use of proper stocking
subsoil is multicolored clay loam. The lower part is highly rates and deferred grazing, especially during the rainy
weathered volcanic rock. Semiconsolidated volcanic rock season, and controlling weeds and fertilizing are the
is at a depth of 27 inches. main pasture management concerns.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Morado This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras
soils, Humatas soils, and severely eroded soils. Included mahogany, mahoe, and robusta eucalyptus. Slope limits
soils make up 10 to 15 percent of the unit. the use of equipment, and the soil is sticky and slippery
The permeability of this Mucara soil is moderate, and when wet. Controlling weeds and brush, hand planting,
the available water capacity is low. Runoff is rapid. and fertilizing help to improve the survival rate of
Natural fertility is medium. Reaction is slightly acid in the seedlings.
surface layer and neutral in the subsoil and substratum. Slope, the shrink-swell potential, and the clayey
The subsoil has a high shrink-swell potential. texture are the main limitations of the soil for nonfarm
This soil is poorly suited for cultivated crops. Some development.
small areas are used for coffee, tobacco, and pigeon The capability subclass is Ille.
peas and other food crops. However, an erosion hazard, No t .
slope, and the depth to rock are major limitations for NaE-Naranjo clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes. This
farming soil is deep, steep, and well drained. It is on the side
slopes and ridgetops of limestone hills. Slopes are 100
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as to 600 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 20 to
pangolagrass and merkergrass. Using proper stocking 150 acres.
rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
fertilizing are the main pasture management concerns, clay about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is mainly yellowish
This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras brown and brownish yellow clay 14 inches thick. The
mahogany, and robusta eucalyptus, but slope limits the substratum is multicolored brownish yellow and yellowish
use of equipment, and the soil is slippery when wet. brown, mottled clay to a depth of 60 inches or more.
Controlling weeds and brush, hand planting, and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
fertilizing help to improve the survival rate of seedlings. Colinas soils and exposed limestone bedrock that make
Slope and the depth to rock are the main limitations of up 5 to 10 percent of the unit.
this soil for nonfarm development. The permeability of this Naranjo soil is moderate, and
The capability subclass is Vile. the available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid.
Organic matter content is high. The soil is moderately
NaD-Naranjo clay, 5 to 20 percent slopes. This soil alkaline throughout. The subsoil has a moderate shrink-
is deep, sloping to moderately steep, and well drained. It swell potential.
is on the foot slopes and side slopes of limestone hills. Some areas of this soil are used for such cultivated
Slopes are 100 to 800 feet long. The areas of the soil crops as plantains, sugarcane, taniers, pigeon peas, and
range from 20 to 100 acres. corn; some small areas are used for avocados. Slope
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown and an erosion hazard are the major limitations for
clay about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is mainly yellowish farming. Cultivation is further limited because the soil is
brown and brownish yellow clay 14 inches thick. The sticky when wet. Crops on this soil respond well to
substratum is brownish yellow and yellowish brown, applications of fertilizer.
mottled clay to a depth of 60 inches or more. This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of stargrass, pangolagrass, and merkergrass. Using proper
Colinas soils and exposed limestone bedrock that make stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds,
up 5 to 10 percent of the unit. and fertilizing are the main pasture management
The permeability of this Naranjo soil is moderate, and concerns.
the available water capacity is high. Runoff is medium. The soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras
Organic matter content is high. The soil is moderately mahogany, mahoe, and robusta eucalyptus. Slope limits
alkaline throughout. The subsoil has a moderate shrink- the use of equipment, and the soil is sticky and slippery
swell potential. when wet. Controlling weeds and brush, hand planting,






32 Soil survey



and fertilizing help to improve the survival rate of The permeability of this Palmar soil is slow, and the
seedlings, available water capacity is high.. Runoff is slow. Reaction
Slope, the clayey texture, and the shrink-swell is neutral throughout the soil.
potential are the main limitations of the soil for nonfarm A high water table makes this soil poorly suited for
development, cultivated crops. Most areas are in water-tolerant plants
The capability subclass is IVe. such as cattails, sedges, and papyrus. Some small areas
are in sugarcane and native pasture. The soil is well
NaF-Naranjo clay, 40 to 60 percent slopes. This suited for pangolagrass and paragrass. The main pasture
soil is deep, very steep, and well drained. It is on the management concerns are using proper stocking rates
side slopes and ridgetops of limestone hills. Slopes are and deferred grazing and using fertilizers that have a low
100 to 300 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 20 content of nitrogen and a high content of phosphorus
to 60 acres. and potash.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown A high water table is the main limitation of the soil for
clay about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is mainly yellowish most types of nonfarm development.
brown and brownish yellow clay 14 inches thick. The The capability subclass is Vllw.
substratum is brownish yellow and yellowish brown,
mottled clay to a depth of 60 inches or more. PeF-Pellejas clay loam, 40 to 60 percent slopes.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil is deep, very steep, and somewhat excessively
Colinas soils and exposed limestone bedrock that make drained. It is on the side slopes and ridgetops of
up 5 to 10 percent of the unit. uplands. Slopes are 200 to 1,000 feet long. The areas of
The permeability of this Naranjo soil is moderate, and the soil range from 50 to 500 acres.
the available water capacity is high. Runoff is very rapid. Typically, the surface layer is dark brown clay loam
Organic matter content is high. The soil is moderately about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored sandy
Organic matter content is high. The soil is moderately clay loam and sandy loam 10 inches thick. The
alkaline throughout. The subsoil has a moderate shrink- substratum is multicolored sandy loam to a depth of 60
swell potential. inches or more.
Slope and an erosion hazard make this soil generally Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
unsuitable for cultivated crops, but some small areas are severely eroded Lirios soils and areas of Pelejas soils
in pigeon peas, corn, and avocados. Cultivation is further that have slopes of 20 to 40 percent Also included are a
limited because the soil is sticky. Crops on this soil few areas of exposed bedrock. Included areas make up
respond well to applications of fertilizer. 10 to 15 percent of the unit.
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as The permeability of this Pellejas soil is moderate in the
stargrass and pangolagrass. Using proper stocking rates upper layers and rapid in the lower layers. The available
and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and fertilizing water capacity is moderate. Runoff is very rapid. Natural
are the main pasture management concerns, fertility is low to medium. Reaction is strongly acid
The soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras throughout the soil.
mahogany, mahoe, and robusta eucalyptus. However, Slope and an erosion hazard make this soil poorly
slope limits the use of equipment, and the soil is sticky suited for cultivated crops. The soil is mainly in coffee,
and slippery when wet. Controlling weeds and brush, tobacco, bananas, oranges, and pasture.
hand planting, and fertilizing help to improve the survival The soil is well suited for pangolagrass. Using proper
rate of seedlings, stocking rates and deferred grazing, liming and fertilizing,
Slope, the shrink-swell potential, and the clayey and controlling weeds are the main pasture management
texture limit this soil for most types of nonfarm concerns.
development. This soil is well suited for Honduras pine and robusta
The capability subclass is Vie. eucalyptus, but slope limits the use of equipment
Controlling brush and weeds, hand planting, and
Pa-Palmar muck. This soil is deep, nearly level, and fertilizing help to improve the survival rate of seedlings.
poorly drained. It is on bottom lands and in depressional Slope is the main limitation of this soil for nonfarm
areas in the humid coastal lowlands. Slopes are 100 to development.
800 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 20 to 100 The capability subclass is Vile.
acres.
Typically, the soil is black and brown organic material PhC2-Perchas clay, 2 to 12 percent slopes,
to a depth of 60 inches or more. eroded. This soil is deep, gently sloping to sloping, and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of poorly drained. It is on low rolling hills and terraces.
Tiburones and Garrochales soils that make up 5 to 15 Slopes are 100 to 500 feet in length. The areas of the
percent of the unit. soil range from 20 to 100 acres.







Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 33



Typically, the surface layer is 7 inches of dark brown, Ps-Pits, gravel. This unit consists of open
firm clay mottled with grayish brown. The subsoil and excavations and quarries from which gravel and
substratum have a combined thickness of 50 inches or limestone rock have been removed mainly for building
more. They are mainly light gray and light olive gray clay construction, highways, and roadfill. Some of the
mottled with yellowish brown. limestone rock is used for agricultural purposes. Use of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of this unit requires onsite investigation.
Moca soils that make up 5 to 15 percent of the unit. Not assigned to a capability subclass.
The permeability of this Perchas soil is slow, and the
available water capacity is high. Runoff is medium. Pt-Pits, sand. This unit consists of open excavations
Natural fertility is medium. Reaction throughout the soil is from which sand has been removed for industrial
strongly acid. The soil has a high shrink-swell potential. purposes and roadfill. The lower part of the excavated
This soil is suitable for cultivated crops. Some areas areas consists of clayey materials. During heavy rainfall
are in sugarcane, taniers, plantains, bananas, and these areas hold water for long periods. Use of these
pasture. Poor drainage and erosion are the major areas requires onsite investigation.
limitations for farming. The soil is difficult to cultivate Not assigned to a capability subclass.
because it is sticky and wet. Crops on this soil respond
well to applications of lime and fertilizer. Re-Reilly gravelly silt loam. This soil is deep, nearly
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as level, and excessively drained. It is on flood plains near
pangolagrass and stargrass. The application of lime and streams and rivers. The areas range from 10 to 80
fertilizer and the control of grazing when the soil is wet acres.
are the main pasture management concerns. Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, friable
The high shrink-swell potential, wetness, and slope are gravelly silt loam about 7 inches thick. The substratum
the main limitations of this soil for nonfarm development, extends to a depth of 60 inches or more. It is dark
The capability subclass is IIIw. yellowish brown, very friable gravelly loam to a depth of
13 inches and coarse sand and gravel at a depth of
PhD2--Perchas clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, more than 13 inches.
eroded. This soil is deep, moderately steep, and poorly Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
drained. It is on foot slopes and low terraces. Slopes are soils that have stones and boulders on the surface; soils
100 to 400 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 20 that have stones and boulder o r s andy loam; and
to 100 acres.a surface layer of loam or sandy loam; and
ypically,he surface layer is 7 inches of dark brown, frequently flooded, rocky soils. Included soils make up
firm clay mottled with grayish brown. The subsoil and 10 to 15 percent of the unit.
substratum have a combined thickness of 50 inches or The permeability of this Reilly soil is rapid, and the
more. They are mainly light gray and light olive gray clay available water capacity is very low. Runoff is slow.
mottled with yellowish brown. Fertility is medium. Reaction in the surface layer is
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Moca medium acid. This soil is subject to occasional flooding.
soils and severely eroded soils. Included soils make up 5 This soil is used for crops such as tobacco, peppers,
to 15 percent of the unit. corn, and beans. Some areas are in sugarcane. Flooding
The permeability of this Perchas soil is slow, and the is the main hazard for crops. The soil is easy to cultivate,
available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid. Natural but sprinkler irrigation is needed in some places to
fertility is medium. Reaction throughout the soil is overcome the very low available water capacity. Crops
strongly acid. The soil has a high shrink-swell potential. on this soil respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is suitable for cultivated crops. It is used This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
mainly for sugarcane, taniers, plantains, bananas, and pangolagrass and merkergrass. Some areas are in native
pasture. Poor drainage and erosion are the major pasture and brush. Using proper stocking rates and
limitations for farming. The soil is difficult to cultivate deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and fertilizing are
because it is sticky and wet. Crops on this soil respond the main pasture management concerns.
well to applications of lime and fertilizer. The hazard of occasional flooding is the main
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as limitation of the soil for nonfarm development.
pangolagrass and stargrass. The application of lime and The capability subclass is IVs.
fertilizer, the control of grazing when the soil is wet, and
the control of weeds are the main pasture management RIC-Rio Lajas sand, 2 to 12 percent slopes. This
concerns, soil is deep, gently sloping to sloping, and somewhat
Slope, the high shrink-swell potential, and wetness are excessively drained. It is in small valleys and on
the main limitations of the soil for community undulating hills on the coastal plains. Slopes are 100 to
development. 800 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 10 to 80
The capability subclass is IVe. acres.






34 Soil survey



Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown sand moderately steep to very steep San German soils, and
about 17 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark 10 percent other soils. The exposed rock and San
reddish brown loamy sand 9 inches thick. The subsoil German soils are so mixed that it was not practical to
extends to a depth of more than 60 inches. It is dark map them separately.
reddish brown and dark red sandy loam to a depth of 64 Typically, the surface layer of the San German soils is
inches and dark red sandy clay loam at a depth of more very dark grayish brown gravelly clay about 3 inches
than 64 inches, thick. The subsurface layer is very dark brown very
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of gravelly clay 7 inches thick. Hard limestone bedrock is at
Carrizales and Guerrero soils that make up 5 to 10 a depth of 10 inches.
percent of the unit. Included with this complex in mapping are small areas
The permeability of this Rio Lajas soil is rapid, and the of Colinas and Espinosa soils.
available water capacity is very low. Runoff is slow to The San German soils have rapid permeability and low
medium. Natural fertility is low. The reaction is slightly available water capacity. Runoff is rapid. Reaction is
acid in the surface layer and neutral in the lower layers. moderately alkaline. Natural fertility is medium.
Low fertility, low available water capacity, and rapid
permeability limit this soil for cultivated crops. The soil is Slope, the exposed rock, an d the depth to rock make
mainly used for sweet potatoes, cassavas, and pigeon this complex poorly suited for cultivated crops. The
peas. Some small areas are in coconuts and tobacco. complex is mainly used for pasture. Pangolagrass,
Crops on this soil respond to fertilizer applications, but guineagrass, and native pasture are the main species.
irrigation is needed in some areas. Some areas are in brush or are wooded. Using proper
This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as stocking rates and deferred grazing are the main pasture
stargrass, pangolagrass, and merkergrass. Using proper management concerns.
stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, The slope and depth to rock also limit the complex for
and liming and fertilizing are the main pasture nonfarm development.
management concerns. The capability subclass is Vlls.
This soil has few limitations for most types of nonfarm
development. RtF-Rock outcrop-Tanama complex, 12 to 60
The capability subclass is IVs. percent slopes. This complex consists of areas of
exposed limestone bedrock and shallow, well drained
Rm-Riverwash. This unit consists of nearly level soils on hills. The areas range from 100 to 1,500 acres.
flood plains adjacent to rivers and streams. The areas The complex is about 65 percent exposed rock, 30
are mainly a mixture of boulders, cobbles, gravel, and percent moderately steep to very steep Tanama soils,
sand and are frequently flooded. These areas are and 5 percent other soils. The exposed rock and
generally unsuitable for farming and support little or no Tanama soils are so mixed that it was not practical to
vegetation except some brushy trees and native grasses, map them separately.
The capability subclass is VIIIs. Typically, the surface layer of the Tanama soils is dark
reddish brown, firm clay about 5 inches thick. The
Ro-Rock outcrop, limestone. This unit consists of subsoil is mainly dark reddish brown and yellowish red
steep to very steep hills where exposed limestone clay 11 inches thick. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of
bedrock covers up to 95 percent of the surface. The 16 inches.
soils in the unit have various textures, colors, and Included with this complex in mapping are small areas
depths. The unit is generally unsuitable for farming and of Bayamon, Matanzas, Almirante, and Espinosa soils.
has very e caabilittle subclass is VsThe Tanama soils have moderate permeability and low
The capability subclass is Vllls. available water capacity. Runoff is rapid. Natural fertility

Rr-Rock outcrop, sandstone. This unit consists of is low. Reaction is slightly acid in the surface layer and
steep and very steep coastal hills and cliffs. Exposed neutral in the lower layer. Bedrock is generally at a depth
sandstone bedrock covers 90 to 95 percent of the of less than 20 inches.
surface. The soils in the unit are mainly very shallow and Slope, the areas of exposed rock, and the depth to
have various textures and colors. The unit is unsuitable rock make this complex unsuitable for cultivated crops.
for farming and supports little or no vegetation. Some areas are in pasture. Pangolagrass and native
The capability subclass is Vllls. grasses are the main species. Most of the complex is in
brush or is wooded. Using proper stocking rates and
RsF-Rock outcrop-San German complex, 20 to 60 deferment of grazing are the main pasture management
percent slopes. This complex consists of areas of concerns.
exposed limestone bedrock and shallow, well drained Slope and the depth to rock limit this complex for
soils on hills. The areas range from 50 to 200 acres. The most types of nonfarm development
complex is about 60 percent exposed rock, 30 percent The capability subclass is VIIs.







Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 35



SaB-Sabana Seca clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This SgF-San German gravelly clay loam, 20 to 60
soil is deep, gently sloping, and poorly drained. It is on percent slopes. This soil is very shallow, steep to very
coastal plains and in valleys. Slopes range from 100 to steep, and well drained. It is on ridgetops and side
1,200 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 50 to slopes. Slopes are 20 to 200 feet long. The areas of the
100 acres, soil range from 20 to 100 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
clay about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is firm, gravelly clay loam about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
multicolored and mottled clay to a depth of 60 inches or layer is very dark brown very gravelly clay loam 7 inches
more. thick. Hard limestone is at a depth of 10 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Vega Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Alta and Almirante soils that make up 10 to 15 percent Colinas and San Sebastian soils that make up 5 to 15
of the unit. percent of the unit.
The permeability of this Sabana Seca soil is very slow. The permeability of this San German soil is rapid, and
The available water capacity is high. Runoff is slow. the available water capacity is very low. Runoff is rapid.
Natural fertility is medium. Reaction throughout the soil is Reaction is moderately alkaline, and natural fertility is
very strongly acid. medium.
Wetness makes this soil generally unsuitable for Slope and the depth to rock make this soil poorly
cultivated crops, but some small areas are in sugarcane suited for cultivated crops. The soil is well suited for
and food crops. Tillage is restricted because the soil is pangolagrass and guineagrass, and some areas are in
sticky when wet. Crops on the soil respond well to brush and native pasture. Using proper stocking rates
applications of lime and fertilizer, and deferment of grazing are the main pasture
The soil is well suited for pangolagrass, common management concerns.
bermudagrass, paragrass, and merkergrass, but drainage Slope and the depth to rock are the main limitations of
anddadeferredsthe soil for nonfarm development.
is needed. Using proper stocking rates and deferred the soil for nonfarm development.
grazing, controlling weeds, liming and fertilizing, and The capability subclass is Vlls.
controlling grazing when the soil is too wet are the main SmF-an ebastian gravelly clay, 20 to 60
pasture management concerns.
pasre wtnes ant c er o t s a t percent slopes. This soil is deep, steep to very steep,
he wetness and clayey texture of the soil are the and well drained. It is on hilltops and side slopes. Slopes
main limitations for nonfarm development. are 100 to 500 feet long. The areas of the soil range
The capability subclass is IIIw. from 50 to 300 acres.
SgD-San German gravelly clay loam, 5 to 20 Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown
percent slopes. This soil is very shallow, sloping to very gravelly clay about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is
oernt spe, and well raine is on sie slopes strong brown, brownish yellow, and yellowish red very
moderately steep, and well drained. It is on side slopes ravelly clay 25 inches thick. The substratum is brownish
and ridgetops. Slopes range from 20 to 300 feet long. yellow and yellowish red gravelly clay to a depth of 60
The areas of the soil range from 20 to 100 acres, inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
gravelly clay loam about 3 inches thick. The subsurface Tanama, Colinas, and Soller soils that make up 10 to 15
layer is very dark brown very gravelly clay loam 7 inches percent of the unit.
thick. Hard limestone is at a depth of 10 inches. The permeability of this San Sebastian soil is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of moderate. The available water capacity is high. Runoff is
Colinas and Santa Clara soils that make up 5 to 10 rapid. Natural fertility is medium. Reaction in the surface
percent of the unit. layer and subsoil is moderately alkaline.
The permeability of this San German soil is rapid. The Slope, erosion, and cobblestones and gravel in the
available water capacity is very low. Runoff is moderate. surface layer make this soil poorly suited for cultivated
Reaction is moderately alkaline, and natural fertility is crops. The lower slopes in some areas are used for
medium. pigeon peas, plantains, corn, and sugarcane. A large
The depth to rock and low available water capacity area is in brush and native pasture.
make this soil poorly suited for cultivated crops. The soil The soil is well suited for pasture plants such as
is well suited for pangolagrass, guineagrass, and native pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. If cleared, the
pasture. Using proper stocking rates and deferment of areas in brush are suitable for pasture. Using proper
grazing are the main pasture management concerns, stocking rates and deferred grazing, fertilizing, and
Slope and the depth to rock are the main limitations of controlling weeds are the main pasture management
the soil for nonfarm development, concerns. Controlled grazing helps the grasses to
The capability subclass is VIs. reseed.






36 Soil survey



This soil is well suited for Honduras mahogany. Slope, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
which limits the use of equipment, and a high rate of Colinas soils. Also included are areas with gravel on the
seedling mortality are the main management concerns, surface and areas of exposed bedrock. Included areas
Controlling brush and weeds, hand planting, and make up 5 to 10 percent of the unit.
fertilizing help to improve the survival rate of seedlings. The permeability of this Soller soil is moderate, and
Slope is the main limitation of this soil for nonfarm the available water capacity is low. Runoff is medium.
development. Natural fertility is medium to high. Reaction in the
The capability subclass is Vile. surface layer and subsoil is neutral to mildly alkaline. The
subsoil has a high shrink-swell potential.
SnC-Santa Clara clay, 2 to 12 percent slopes. This This soil is well suited for cultivated crops. It is mainly
soil is moderately deep, gently sloping to sloping, and used for sugarcane, taniers, avocados, pigeon peas,
well drained. It is on foot slopes and small hills. Slopes corn, and other crops. The clayey texture of the soil,
are 20 to 300 feet long. The areas of the soil range from which hinders cultivation, is the main limitation. Crops on
20 to 80 acres. this soil respond well to applications of fertilizer.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown, The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
firm clay about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is dark grayish pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Some areas
brown and yellowish brown silty clay 16 inches thick. The are in brush and native pasture. Using proper stocking
substratum is yellowish brown silty clay 8 inches thick. rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, fertilizing,
Hard limestone is at a depth of 33 inches, and controlling grazing when the soil is wet are the main
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of pasture management concerns.
San German soils and soils that have slopes of 12 to 20 This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras
percent. Also included are small areas of exposed mahogany, teak, and mahoe. The use of equipment is
limestone bedrock. Included areas make up 5 to 10 limited because the soil is slippery when wet Controlling
percent of the unit. brush and weeds, fertilizing, and hand planting help to
The permeability of this Santa Clara soil is moderate. improve the survival rate of seedlings.
The available water capacity is moderate. Runoff is The depth to rock and the high shrink-swell potential
moderate. Natural fertility is medium to high. Reaction is are the main limitations ofthe soil for nonfarm
slightly acid in the surface layer and neutral to mildly development.
alkaline in the subsoil and substratum. The capability subclass is IVe.
This soil is well suited for pigeon peas, plantains, and SoD-Soller clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes. This soil
sugarcane. Some areas are used for citrus fruits and is moderately deep, moderately steep, and well drained.
avocados. The clayey texture of the surface layer and It is on small hills and side slopes. Slopes are 100 to
subsoil somewhat hinders cultivation. 400 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 20 to 100
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as acres.
pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Applying Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray clay about
fertilizer, using proper stocking rates and deferred 5 inches thick. The subsoil is very dark grayish brown
grazing, and controlling weeds are the chief pasture clay 5 inches thick. The substratum is dark brown and
management concerns. very pale brown clay 15 inches thick. Hard fragmental
The soil is well suited for Honduras mahogany, limestone is at a depth of 25 inches.
Honduras pine, teak, and mahoe. Controlling brush and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
weeds and applying fertilizer help to improve the survival Colinas soils. Also included are areas with gravel and
rate of seedlings, cobblestones on the surface and areas of exposed
The depth to rock is the main limitation of the soil for limestone bedrock. Included areas make up 5 to 15
nonfarm development, percent of the unit.
The capability subclass is Ille. The permeability of this Soller soil is moderate, and
the available water capacity is low. Runoff is rapid.
SoC-Soller clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This soil Natural fertility is moderate to high. Reaction in the
is moderately deep, sloping, and well drained. It is on surface layer and subsoil is neutral to mildly alkaline. The
low, undulating hills, on foot slopes, and on side slopes, subsoil has a high shrink-swell potential.
Slopes are 100 to 500 feet long. The areas of the soil Some areas of this soil are used for such cultivated
range from 20 to 50 acres. crops as pigeon peas, plantains, and taniers. A few
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray clay about areas are used for avocados. Slope and an erosion
5 inches thick. The subsoil is very dark grayish brown hazard are the main limitations for cultivation. Crops on
clay 5 inches thick. The substratum is dark brown and this soil respond well to applications of fertilizer.
very pale brown clay about 15 inches thick. Hard This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
fragmental limestone is at a depth of 25 inches. pangolagrass and stargrass. If cleared, some areas that






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 37



are in brush are suitable for pasture. Using proper dark brown and very pale brown clay 15 inches thick.
stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, Hard fragmental limestone is at a depth of 25 inches.
fertilizing, and controlling grazing when the soil is wet are Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
the main pasture management concerns. Soller soils where the subsoil is exposed at the surface
The soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras and small areas of Colinas soils. Also included are areas
mahogany, teak, and mahoe. Slope limits the use of of exposed limestone bedrock. Included areas make up
equipment, and the soil is slippery when wet. Controlling 5 to 10 percent of the unit.
brush and weeds, fertilizing, and hand planting help to The permeability of this Soller soil is moderate, and
improve the survival rate of seedlings, the available water capacity is low. Runoff is rapid.
Slope, the depth to rock, and the high shrink-swell Natural fertility is medium. Reaction in the surface layer
potential are the main limitations of the soil for nonfarm and subsoil is moderately alkaline. The subsoil has a
development, high shrink-swell potential.
The capability subclass is Vie. The cobblestones in the surface layer hinder tillage
and make this soil poorly suited for cultivated crops.
SoF-Soller clay, 20 to 60 percent slopes. This soil Some small areas are used for pigeon peas, corn, and
is moderately deep, steep to very steep, and well pumpkins.
drained. It is on ridgetops and side slopes. Slopes are This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
100 to 300 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 50 pangolagrass and stargrass. Using proper stocking rates
to 100 acres. and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and fertilizing
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray clay about are the main pasture management concerns.
5 inches thick. The subsoil is very dark grayish brown The soil is well suited for Honduras mahogany, but
clay 5 inches thick. The substratum is dark brown and slope limits the use of equipment. Controlling brush and
very pale brown clay 15 inches thick. Hard fragmental weeds, hand planting, and fertilizing help to improve the
limestone is at a depth of 25 inches, survival rate of seedlings.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Slope, the high shrink-swell potential, and the
Colinas soils. Also included are areas of severely eroded cobblestones in the surface layer are the main limitations
soils and areas of exposed bedrock. Included areas of the soil for nonfarm development.
make up 5 to 15 percent of the unit. The capability subclass is Vie.
The permeability of this Soller soil is moderate, and
the available water capacity is low. Runoff is rapid. SpF-Soller cobbly clay, 20 to 60 percent slopes.
Natural fertility is moderate to high. Reaction in the This soil is moderately deep, steep to very steep, and
surface layer and subsoil is neutral or mildly alkaline. The well drained. It is on side slopes and ridgetops. Slopes
subsoil has a high shrink-swell potential. are 100 to 400 feet long. The areas of the soil range
Slope and an erosion hazard make this soil generally from 20 to 50 acres.
unsuitable for cultivated crops, but some small areas are Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray cobbly
in pigeon peas, corn, and taniers. The soil is well suited clay about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is very dark
for such pasture plants as pangolagrass and stargrass. grayish brown clay 5 inches thick. The substratum is
Some areas are in brush and native pasture. Using dark brown and very pale brown clay 15 inches thick.
proper stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling Hard fragmental limestone is at a depth of 25 inches.
weeds, and fertilizing are the main pasture management Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Soller
concerns, soils where the subsoil is exposed at the surface and
This soil is well suited for Honduras mahogany, but small areas of Colinas soils. Also included are small
slope limits the use of equipment, and the soil is slippery areas of exposed bedrock. Included areas make up 5 to
when wet. Controlling brush, fertilizing, and hand planting 10 percent of the unit.
help to reduce a high rate of seedling mortality. The permeability of this Soller soil is moderate, and
Slope and the depth to rock are the main limitations of the available water capacity is low. Runoff is very rapid.
the soil for nonfarm development. Natural fertility is medium. Reaction in the surface layer
The capability subclass is Vile. and subsoil is moderately alkaline.
Slope, the depth to rock, and the cobblestones in the
SpD-Soller cobbly clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, surface layer make this soil poorly suited for cultivated
This soil is moderately deep, moderately steep, and well crops. Some small areas are used for pigeon peas, corn,
drained. It is on small, undulating hills and side slopes, and other cultivated crops. Crops grown in these areas
Slopes are 100 to 500 feet long. The areas of the soil respond well to applications of fertilizer.
range from 20 to 100 acres. This soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray cobbly pangolagrass and stargrass. Using proper stocking rates
clay about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is very dark and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and fertilizing
grayish brown clay 5 inches thick. The substratum is are the main pasture management concerns.






38 Soil survey



The soil is well suited for Honduras mahogany, but Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
slope limits the use of equipment. Planting on the Bayamon and Matanzas soils and areas of exposed
contour helps to reduce runoff and erosion. Controlling bedrock. Included areas make up 5 to 10 percent of the
brush and weeds, hand planting, and fertilizing help to unit.
improve the survival rate of seedlings. The permeability of this Tanama soil is moderate, and
Slope and the depth to rock limit this soil for most the available water capacity is low. Runoff is slow.
types of nonfarm development. Natural fertility is low. Reaction is slightly acid in the
The capability subclass is Vile. surface layer and neutral in the subsoil.
This soil is well suited for cultivated crops. Some areas
SrF-Soller-Rock outcrop complex, 5 to 60 percent are used for sugarcane, plantains, sweet potatoes, and
slopes. This complex consists of sloping to very steep, other crops. The depth to rock and the clayey texture
well drained soils and areas of exposed limestone are the main limitations for cultivation. Crops on this soil
bedrock. The complex is on ridgetops and side slopes, respond well to applications of fertilizer.
Slopes are 100 to 500 feet long. The areas of the The soil is well suited for pangolagrass, stargrass, and
complex range from 50 to 300 acres and consist of 60 merkergrass. Some areas are in native pasture. Using
percent moderately deep Soller soils, 30 percent proper stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling
exposed bedrock, and 10 percent other soils. The Soller weeds, and fertilizing are the main pasture management
soils and exposed bedrock are so intermingled that it concerns.
was not practical to map them separately. This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras
Typically, the Soller soils have a surface layer of very mahogany, teak, and mahoe. The depth to rock is the
dark gray clay about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is very main limitation. Controlling brush and weeds, hand
dark grayish brown clay 5 inches thick. The substratum planting, and fertilizing help improve the survival rate of
is dark brown and very pale brown clay 15 inches thick. seedlings.
Hard fragmental limestone is at a depth of 25 inches. The depth to rock and low strength are the main
Included with this complex in mapping are small areas limitations of the soil for nonfarm development
of Colinas, San German, Espinosa, and Almirante soils. The capability subclass is Ills.
Also included are areas of soils with a surface layer of
cobbly clay loam and spots of severely eroded soils. TaC2-Tanama clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes,
The Soller soils have moderate permeability and low eroded. This soil is shallow, sloping, and well drained. It
available water capacity. Runoff is moderate to very is on foot slopes and low, rolling hills. Slopes are 100 to
rapid. Natural fertility is medium to high. Reaction in the 500 feet long. The areas of the soil range from 10 to 80
surface layer and subsoil is neutral to mildly alkaline, acres.
Slope and the areas of exposed rock make this Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown, firm
complex poorly suited for cultivated crops. Some small clay about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is mainly dark
areas are used for pigeon peas, corn, avocados, reddish brown and yellowish red clay 11 inches thick.
pumpkins, and other crops, but cultivation must be done Limestone bedrock is at a depth of 16 inches.
by hand. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pangolagrass, stargrass, and native pasture are the Bayamon and Matanzas soils and areas of exposed
main pasture grasses on this complex. Using proper limestone bedrock. Included areas make up 5 to 10
stocking rates and deferred grazing and fertilizing are the percent of the unit.
main pasture management concerns. The permeability of this Tanama soil is moderate. The
This complex is suited for Honduras pine,. but slope available water capacity is low. Runoff is medium.
limits the use of equipment. Natural fertility is low. Reaction is slightly acid in the
Slope, the areas of exposed rock, and the depth to surface layer and neutral in the subsoil.
rock are the main limitations of the complex for nonfarm Some areas of this soil are used for cultivated crops
development, such as plantains, taniers, and pigeon peas. A few areas
The capability subclass is VIIs. are used for avocados, and a few for sugarcane. The
depth to rock and slope are the main limitations for
TaB-Tanama clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This soil cultivation. Crops on this soil respond well to
is shallow, gently sloping, and well drained. It is in small applications of fertilizer.
valleys between limestone hills. Slopes are 100 to 1,200 The soil is well suited for pangolagrass, stargrass, and
feet long. The areas of the soil range from 10 to 60 merkergrass. Some areas are in native pasture and
acres. brush. Using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing,
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown, firm controlling weeds, and fertilizing are the main pasture
clay about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is mainly dark management concerns.
reddish brown and yellowish red clay 11 inches thick. This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras
Limestone bedrock is at a depth of 16 inches. mahogany, teak, and mahoe. The depth to rock and







Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 39



slope limit the use of equipment. Controlling brush and A high water table makes this soil poorly suited for
weeds, hand planting, and fertilizing help to improve the cultivated crops. Most areas are in water-tolerant plants
survival rate of seedlings, and native pasture. Some small areas are in sugarcane.
Slope and the depth to rock are the main limitations of The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
the soil for nonfarm development. pangolagrass and paragrass. Using proper stocking rates
The capability subclass is IVs. and deferred grazing and applying fertilizers that are low
in nitrogen and high in phosphorus and potash are the
TaD2-Tanama clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, main pasture management concerns.
eroded. This soil is shallow, moderately steep, and well Wetness is the main limitation of the soil for nonfarm
drained. It is on low, rolling hills. Slopes are 100 to 300 development.
feet long. The areas of the soil range from 10 to 60 The capability subclass is VIIw.
acres. To-Toa silty clay loam. This soil is deep, nearly
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown, firm level, and well drained. It is on flood plains. The areas
clay about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is mainly dark range from 50 to 500 acres.
reddish brown and yellowish red clay 11 inches thick. Typically, the surface and subsurface layers are dark
Limestone bedrock is at a depth of 16 inches. brown silty clay loam with a combined thickness of 16
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas inches. The subsoil is mottled, brown silty clay loam 15
where the subsoil is exposed at the surface, areas with inches thick. The substratum is mottled, dark yellowish
slopes of 20 to 60 percent, and areas of exposed brown and dark brown silty clay loam to a depth of 60
limestone bedrock. Included soils make up 10 to 15 inches or more.
percent of the unit. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The permeability of this Tanama soil is moderate. The Coloso, Bajura, and Vivi soils that make up 5 to 10
available water capacity is low. Runoff is rapid. Natural percent of the unit.
fertility is low. Reaction is slightly acid in the surface The permeability of this Toa soil is moderate, and the
layer and neutral in the subsoil. available water capacity is high. Runoff is slow. Natural
Slope and the depth to rock make this soil poorly fertility and organic matter content are high. Reaction
suited for cultivated crops. Some small areas are in throughout the soil is neutral.
The soil is well suited for most cultivated crops and is
plantains, takers, pigeon peas, or avocados mainly used for sugarcane (fig. 3). Crops respond well to
This soil is mainly in native pasture and brush and is applications of fertilizer.
well suited for pangolagrass and stargrass. Using proper The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. A hazard of
and fertilizing are the main pasture management flooding is the main limitation. Using proper stocking
concerns. rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and
The soil is well suited for Honduras pine and Honduras fertilizing are the main pasture management concerns.
mahogany. Slope and the depth to rock limit the use of A flooding hazard and low strength are the main
equipment. Controlling brush and weeds, hand planting, limitations of the soil for nonfarm development.
and fertilizing help to improve the survival rate of The capability class is I
seedlings.
Slope and the depth to rock are the main limitations of TP-Tropopsamments, hummocky. This unit
the soil for nonfarm development, consists of deep, sloping, excessively drained soils on
The capability subclass is VIs. ridges and small hills along the coast. Slopes range from
5 to 12 percent, and the areas of the unit range from 20
Tb-Tiburones muck. This soil is deep, nearly level, to 80 acres. The soils are generally sandy throughout.

and poorly drained. It is on the bottom lands and in T
and poorly drained. It is on the bottom lands. and in Included with this unit in mapping are small areas of
depressional areas of the coastal lowlands. The areas Catano and Carrizales soils that make up 5 to 10
Catano and Carrizales soils that make up 5 to 10
range from 20 to 150 acres. percent of the unit.
Typically, this soil is black and very dark brown organic The permeability of these Tropopsamments is very
material. rapid. The available water capacity is very low. Runoff is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of very slow, and the level of natural fertility is very low.
Palmar and Garrochales soils that make up 5 to 15 Reaction is mildly alkaline to moderately alkaline
percent of the unit. throughout.
The permeability of this Tiburones soil is slow, and the The very low available water capacity and very rapid
available water capacity is high. Runoff is slow. The permeability make these soils generally unsuitable for
organic matter content-Is high. Reaction in the surface farming, and low strength and poor stability make them
layer is medium acid. generally unsuitable for nonfarm development. Some







40 Soil survey
































Figure 3.-Sugarcane on an area of Toa silty clay loam.
areas of the unit are suitable as a source of sand for The permeability of this Vega Alta soil is moderate,
construction (fig. 4). and the available water capacity is high. Runoff is
The capability subclass is VIlls. medium. Natural fertility is medium. Reaction is very
strongly acid in the surface layer and extremely acid in
Ur-Urban land. This unit consists mainly of housing the subsoil.
projects, shopping centers, and industrial areas. The This soil is well suited for sugarcane and has good
soils.in the unit are mostly in yards, parks, and open tilth. Some areas are used for pineapples and plantains.
areas around and between the buildings. The texture, Crops on the soil respond well to applications of lime
color, and depth of these soils is variable. The soils are and fertilizer.
used for lawns, shade trees, fruit trees, vegetable The soil is well suited for pangolagrass, stargrass,
gardens, ornamental trees and shrubs, and playgrounds. paragrass, and merkergrass. Using proper stocking rates
Not assigned to a capability subclass, and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and
fertilizing are the main pasture management concerns.
VaB-Vega Alta sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent Some areas need supplemental irrigation during
slopes. This soil is deep, gently sloping, and well prolonged periods of drought.
drained. It is in small valleys between limestone hills and This soil has few limitations for most types of nonfarm
on the coastal plains. Slopes range from 50 to 150 feet development.
in length. The areas of the soil range from 10 to 40 The capability subclass is Ile.
acres.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, firm sandy VaC2-Vega Alta sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent
clay loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is slopes, eroded. This soil is deep, sloping, and well
multicolored, firm clay to a depth of 60 inches or more. drained. It is in small valleys between limestone hills and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of on the coastal plains. Slopes range from 50 to 150 feet
Almirante and Espinosa soils that make up 10 to 15 in length. The areas of the soil range from 10 to 80
percent of the unit. acres.






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 41



Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, firm sandy fertilizing are the main pasture management concerns.
clay loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is Some areas need supplemental irrigation during
multicolored, firm clay to a depth of 60 inches or more. prolonged periods of drought.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Slope is the main limitation of this soil for nonfarm
Almirante and Espinosa soils that make up 10 to 15 development.
percent of the unit. The capability subclass is Ille.
The permeability of this Vega Alta soil is moderate,
and the available water capacity is high. Runoff is VcB-Vega Alta clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This
medium. Natural fertility is medium. Reaction is very soil is deep, gently sloping, and well drained. It is in
strongly acid in the surface layer and subsoil. small valleys between limestone hills and on the coastal
This soil is mainly used for sugarcane and has good plains. Slopes range from 50 to 200 feet long. The areas
tilth. Some areas are used for pineapples and plantains. of the soil range from 10 to 80 acres.
Slope and an erosion hazard are the major limitations. Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, firm clay
Crops on this soil respond well to applications of lime about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored clay to
and fertilizer, a depth of 60 inches or more.
The soil is well suited for pangolagrass, stargrass, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
paragrass, and merkergrass. Using proper stocking rates Almirante and Espinosa soils that make up 5 to 10
and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and percent of the unit.



































Figure 4.-This area of Tropopsamments, hummocky, provides sand for construction.






42 Soil survey



The permeability of this Vega Alta soil is moderate, subsoil is firm, multicolored clay 31 inches thick. The
and the available water capacity is high. Runoff is substratum is light olive gray and light greenish gray,
medium. Natural fertility is medium. Reaction is very mottled clay to a depth of 60 inches or more.
strongly acid in the surface layer and extremely acid in Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
the subsoil. Coloso and Bajura soils and a few wet spots. Included
This soil is used mainly for sugarcane. Some areas are areas make up 5 to 10 percent of the unit.
in pineapples, plantains, and crops. Crops on this soil The permeability of this Vega Baja soil is slow. The
respond well to applications of lime and fertilizer, available water capacity is high. Runoff is slow. Natural
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as fertility and organic matter content are high. Reaction is
pangolagrass, stargrass, paragrass, and merkergrass. strongly acid in the surface layer and neutral in the lower
Using proper stocking rates and deferred grazing, layers. The subsoil has a moderate shrink-swell
controlling weeds, and liming and fertilizing are the main potential.
pasture management concerns. Some areas need Drained areas of this soil are well suited for cultivated
supplemental irrigation during prolonged periods of crops and are used mainly for sugarcane. Undrained
drought. areas are suitable for rice. Crops on this soil respond
The clayey texture is the main limitation of the soil for well to applications of fertilizer.
nonfarm development. The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
The capability subclass is lie. stargrass, paragrass, and pangolagrass, but drainage is
necessary. Using proper stocking rates and deferred
VcC2-Vega Alta clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes, grazing, controlling weeds, and fertilizing are the main
eroded. This soil is deep, sloping, and well drained. It is pasture management concerns. Control of grazing is
in small valleys between limestone hills and on the especially important when the soil is too wet
coastal plains. Slopes range from 50 to 150 feet in Wetness, a hazard of flooding, and low strength are
length. The areas of the soil range from 10 to 100 acres. the main limitations of the soil for nonfarm development
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown, firm clay
about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is multicolored, firm The capability subclass is l1w.
clay to a depth of 60 inches or more. Vg-Vigia muck. This soil is deep, nearly level, and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of poorly drained. It is in the depressional areas and
Almirante and Espinosa soils that make up 5 to 10 poorly drained. It is in the depressional areas and
Almiercent of tne un up 5 to 10 lowlands of the coastal plains. The areas range from 10
percent of the unit. to 80 acres.
The permeability of this Vega Alta soil is moderate, to 80 acres.
and the available water capacity is high. Runoff is Typically, the upper 18 inches is black, friable organic
medium. Natural fertility is medium. Reaction is very material. The substratum is gray, yellowish brown, and
strongly acid in the surface layer and extremely acid in reddish brown, mottled clay to a depth of 60 inches or
the subsoil. more.
This soil is mainly used for sugarcane. Some small Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
areas are in pineapples, plantains, and other crops. Jareales, Tiburones, and Garrochales soils that make up
Slope and an erosion hazard are the major limitations. 5 to 10 percent of the unit.
Crops on this soil respond well to applications of lime The permeability of this Vigia soil is moderate in the
and fertilizer, organic material and slow in the mineral material. The
The soil is well suited for pangolagrass, stargrass, available water capacity is high. Runoff is slow. Reaction
paragrass, and merkergrass. Using proper stocking rates is acid throughout the soil.
and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and fertilizing Wetness makes this soil poorly suited for cultivated
are the main pasture management concerns. Some crops. Some areas are in sugarcane, but drainage is
areas need supplemental irrigation during prolonged needed. Most of the acreage is in pasture and in plants
periods of drought, that thrive in water. The soil is well suited for paragrass
Slope, the clayey texture, and low strength are the and caribgrass. Using proper stocking rates and deferred
main limitations of the soil for nonfarm development, grazing and using fertilizers that are low in nitrogen
The capability subclass is Ille. content and high in potash and phosphorus are the main
pasture management concerns.
VeB-Vega Baja clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This Wetness and a hazard of flooding limit this soil for
soil is deep, gently sloping, and somewhat poorly most types of nonfarm development
drained. It is on alluvial fans and on the coastal plains. The capability subclass is VIw.
The areas range from 50 to 80 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown, Vm-Vivi loam. This soil is deep, nearly level, and
firm clay about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is somewhat excessively drained. It is on alluvial flood
very dark grayish brown, mottled clay 9 inches thick. The plains. The areas range from 10 to 100 acres.






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 43



Typically, the surface layer is dark brown loam about 7 Controlling weeds, hand planting, and fertilizing help to
inches thick. The subsoil is dark yellowish brown loam 7 improve the survival rate of seedlings.
inches thick. The substratum extends to a depth of 60 The clayey texture and low strength are the main
inches or more. It is dark yellowish brown loam, sandy limitations of the soil for nonfarm development.
loam, and loamy sand to a depth of 30 inches and The capability sublcass is Ille.
yellowish brown sand at a depth of more than 30 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of VoD2-Voladora clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes,
Toa and Reilly soils that make up 5 to 10 percent of the eroded. This soil is deep, moderately steep, and well
unit. drained. It is on the side slopes and ridgetops of humid
The permeability of this Vivi soil is moderately rapid in volcanic uplands. Slopes range from 100 to 300 feet
the upper part and rapid in the lower part. Available long. The areas of the soil range from 10 to 25 acres.
water capacity is moderate. Natural fertility is high. Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown, firm
Reaction is very strongly acid in the surface layer and clay about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is red, firm clay 25
subsoil and neutral in the substratum. inches thick. The substratum is multicolored clay loam
The soil is well suited for most cultivated crops. It is saprolite to a depth of 50 inches or more.
mainly used for sugarcane. The available water capacity Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and a hazard of flooding are the management concerns. Daguey and Humatas soils that make up 5 to 10 percent
Supplemental irrigation is needed in some areas during of the unit.
long periods of drought. Crops on this soil respond well The permeability of this Voladora soil is moderate. The
to applications of fertilizer and lime. available water capacity is high. Runoff and natural
The soil is suitable for such pasture plants as fertility are medium. Reaction is strongly acid in the
pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Using proper surface layer and extremely acid in the lower layers.
stocking rates and deferred grazing, liming and fertilizing, This soil is used mainly for coffee, bananas, yams, and
and controlling weeds are the main pasture management taniers. Some small areas are in citrus fruits and
concerns, sugarcane. Slope and an erosion hazard are the main
The hazard of flooding is the main limitation of the soil limitations for crops. Crops respond well to applications
for nonfarm development, of lime and fertilizer.
The capability subclass is Ils. The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as
pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Using proper
VoC2-Voladora clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes, stocking rates and deferred grazing, controlling weeds,
eroded. This soil is deep, sloping, and well drained. It is and liming and fertilizing are the main pasture
on the terraces and ridgetops of humid volcanic uplands. management concerns.
Slopes range from 200 to 500 feet long. The areas of This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras
the soil range from 20 to 80 acres. mahogany, robusta eucalyptus, kadam, and mahoe.
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown, firm Slope limits the use of equipment, and the soil is slippery
clay about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is red, firm clay 25 when wet.
inches thick. The substratum-is multicolored clay loam Slope and low strength are the main limitations of the
saprolite to a depth of 50 inches or more. soil for nonfarm development.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The capability subclass is IVe.
Daguey soils that make up 5 to 8 percent of the unit.
The permeability of this Voladora soil is moderate. The VoE2-Voladora clay, 20 to 40 percent slopes,
available water capacity is high. Runoff and natural eroded. This soil is deep, steep, and well drained. It is
fertility are medium. Reaction is strongly acid in the on the ridgetops and side slopes of volcanic uplands.
surface layer and extremely acid in the lower layers. Slopes are 100 to 200 feet long. The areas of the soil
This soil is well suited for such crops as coffee, range from 10 to 50 acres.
bananas, yams, taniers, and plantains. Some small areas Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown, firm
are in sugarcane and citrus fruits. Erosion is a major clay about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is red, firm clay 25
management concern. Crops on this soil respond well to inches thick. The substratum is multicolored clay loam
applications of lime and fertilizer. saprolite to a depth of 50 inches or more.
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
pangolagrass, stargrass, and merkergrass. Using proper Humatas soils and areas of severely eroded soils where
stocking rates and deferred grazing, liming and fertilizing, the subsoil is exposed at the surface. Included soils
and controlling weeds are the main pasture management make up 5 to 10 percent of the unit.
concerns. The permeability of this Voladora soil is moderate. The
This soil is well suited for Honduras pine, Honduras available water capacity is high. Runoff is rapid. Natural
mahogany, eucalyptus, kadam, and mahoe. Slope limits fertility is medium. Reaction is strongly acid in the
the use of equipment, and the soil is slippery when wet. surface layer and extremely acid in the lower layers.






44 Soil survey



This soil is mainly used for shade-grown coffee. Some map units 3, 4, and 6 of the general soil map. Most the
areas are used for food crops such as plantains, taniers, acreage of this prime farmland is used for crops and
yams, bananas, and citrus fruits. Slope and an erosion pasture. Among the most common crops grown on this
hazard are the main limitations. Crops on this soil prime farmland are sugarcane, plantains, pineapples,
respond well to applications of lime and fertilizer, sweet potatoes, and taniers. Improved pastures of
The soil is well suited for such pasture plants as pangolagrass, merkergrass, and guineagrass are used
pangolagrass and stargrass. Using proper stocking rates for dairy and beef cattle.
and deferred grazing, controlling weeds, and liming and A recent trend in land use in some parts of the survey
fertilizing are the main pasture management concerns, area has been the loss of some prime farmlands to
Slope and a high rate of seedling mortality are the industrial and urban uses. The loss of prime farmland to
main limitations for woodland. Controlling brush, hand other uses puts pressure on marginal lands, which
planting, and fertilizing help to reduce the rate of generally are more erodible, drought, and difficult to
seedling mortality, cultivate and are usually less productive.
Slope and low strength are the main limitations of the Soil map units that make up prime farmland in the
soil for nonfarm development. Arecibo Area are listed in this section. This list does not
The capability subclass is Vie. constitute a recommendation for a particular land use.
The location is shown on the detailed soil maps at the
rim farmland back.of this publication. The soil qualities that affect use
prime farmland and management are described in the section "Detailed
Prime farmland is one of several kinds of important soil map units."
farmlands defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Soils that have limitations such as high water table
It is of major importance in providing short- and long- and flooding may qualify for prime farmland if these
range needs for food and fiber. The supply of high limitations are overcome by such measures as drainage
quality farmland is limited, and the U.S. Department of and flood control. In the following list, the measures
Agriculture recognizes that responsible levels of needed, if any, are shown in parentheses after the map
government, as well as individuals, must encourage and unit name. Onsite evaluation is necessary to see if these
facilitate the use of our prime farmland with wisdom and limitations have been overcome by corrective measures.
foresight. The map units that meet the soil requirements for
Prime farmland, as defined by the U.S. Department of prime farmland are:
Agriculture, is the land that is best suited to producing
food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops. It has the AaC-Aceitunas sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes
soil quality, growing season, and moisture supply needed AcC-Aceitunas clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes
to economically produce a sustained high yield of crops AIB-Almirante sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
when it is treated and managed using acceptable AmB-Almirante sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
farming methods. Prime farmland produces high yields AmC-Almirante sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes
with moderate inputs of energy and economic resources, AnB-Almirante clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes
and farming it results in the least damage to the AnC-Almirante clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes
environment. BcB-Bayamon sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
Prime farmland may now be in crops, pasture, or other BsB-Bayamon sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
land, but not urban and built-up land or water areas. It BsC-Bayamon sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes
must either be used for producing food or fiber or be ByB-Bayamon clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes
available for these uses. ByC-Bayamon clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes
Prime farmland usually has an adequate and Cn-Coloso silty clay (if drained)
dependable supply of moisture from precipitation or CrC-Corozal clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes
irrigation. It also has favorable temperature and growing CtB-Coto clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes
season and acceptable acidity or alkalinity. It has few or CtC-Coto clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes
no rocks and is permeable to water and air. Prime EaB-Espinosa sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
farmland is not excessively erodible or saturated with EbB-Espinosa sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
water for long periods and is not flooded during the EbC-Espinosa sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes
growing season. The slope ranges mainly from 0 to 12 EcB-Espinosa clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes
percent. For more detailed information on the criteria for EcC-Espinosa clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes
prime farmland, consult the local staff of the Soil IsC-lslote sandy clay loam, 2 to 12 percent slopes
Conservation Service. MnB-Matanzas clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes
About 64,500 acres, or nearly 16 percent, of the MoC2-Moca clay, 2 to 12 percent slopes, eroded
Arecibo Area meets the soil requirements for prime SnC-Santa Clara clay, 2 to 12 percent slopes
farmland. Most of the areas are throughout the northern To-Toa silty clay loam (if protected from flooding)
coastal plains and on the alluvial flood plains, mainly in VaB-Vega Alta sandy clay loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 45



VaC2-Vega Alta sandy clay loam, 5 to 12 percent VeB-Vega Baja clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes (if drained)
slopes, eroded Vm-Vivi loam (if protected from flooding)
VcB-Vega Alta clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes VoC2-Voladora clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes, eroded
VcC2-Vega Alta clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes, eroded









47








use and management of the soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the Planners of management systems for individual fields
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land or farms should consider the detailed information given
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural in the description of each soil under "Detailed soil map
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid units." Specific information can be obtained from the
soil-related failures in land uses. local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Cooperative Extension Service.
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive According to the Census of Agriculture of 1974,
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics 59,000 acres in the Arecibo Area was used for crops
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, and 113,000 acres for pasture. An increase in the use of
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses improved pasture on the northern coastal plains has
and management. Field experience and collected data resulted in a decrease of land used for sugarcane,
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis coffee, and tobacco; between 1969 and 1974, the
in predicting soil behavior, acreage used for sugarcane was reduced by 50 percent.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use The soils of the coastal plains are moderate in natural
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as fertility. They are deep, well drained, and very strongly
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, acid and range from loamy to clayey. They respond well
highways and other transportation systems, and parks to applications of fertilizer and lime. The Aceitunas,
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It Almirante, Bayamon, Carrizales, Espinosa, Guerrero,
can be used to identify the potentials and limitations of Islote, Rio Lajas, and Vega Alta soils are the major
each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent coastal-plain soils. Pineapples, an important fruit crop in
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil the Arecibo Area, are grown on the Bayamon, Almirante,
properties. Vega Alta, and Espinosa soils. Erosion is the major
Planners and others using soil survey information can limitation of the soils on the coastal plains used for crops
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity and pasture. Contour cropping and using terraces and
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. grassed waterways are practices that reduce runoff and
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a increase infiltration. Application of organic residues and
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. the use of supplemental irrigation during prolonged
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of periods of drought (January to March) are also suitable
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to management practices.
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil The soils of the flood plains, such as Toa, Vivi, Bajura,
layers can cause difficulty in excavation. Coloso, and Vega Baja soils, are the most fertile in the
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and survey area. They are normally used for sugarcane and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can pasture. Poor drainage and susceptibility to flooding are
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate the main limitations of these soils for farming, but
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, cultivation of rice is underway on the somewhat poorly
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. drained Coloso soils and poorly drained Bajura soils.
The organic soils of the Cano Tiburones area, such as
crops and pasture the Tiburones, Vigia, Palmar, and Garrochales soils, are
characterized by a high water table. Most are artificially
General management needed for crops and pasture is drained and used for agriculture, mainly pasture. Some
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants areas are in sugarcane.
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly Most of the soils of the limestone belt, including the
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of Colinas, Soller, San Sebastian, Naranjo, Juncal, San
land capability classification used by the Soil German, and Tanama soils, are used for pasture and
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated food crops. Minimum tillage, contour cropping, and using
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are crop residue help to reduce erosion and increase the
listed for each soil. fertility and infiltration of the soils.






47








use and management of the soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the Planners of management systems for individual fields
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land or farms should consider the detailed information given
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural in the description of each soil under "Detailed soil map
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid units." Specific information can be obtained from the
soil-related failures in land uses. local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Cooperative Extension Service.
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive According to the Census of Agriculture of 1974,
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics 59,000 acres in the Arecibo Area was used for crops
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, and 113,000 acres for pasture. An increase in the use of
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses improved pasture on the northern coastal plains has
and management. Field experience and collected data resulted in a decrease of land used for sugarcane,
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis coffee, and tobacco; between 1969 and 1974, the
in predicting soil behavior, acreage used for sugarcane was reduced by 50 percent.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use The soils of the coastal plains are moderate in natural
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as fertility. They are deep, well drained, and very strongly
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, acid and range from loamy to clayey. They respond well
highways and other transportation systems, and parks to applications of fertilizer and lime. The Aceitunas,
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It Almirante, Bayamon, Carrizales, Espinosa, Guerrero,
can be used to identify the potentials and limitations of Islote, Rio Lajas, and Vega Alta soils are the major
each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent coastal-plain soils. Pineapples, an important fruit crop in
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil the Arecibo Area, are grown on the Bayamon, Almirante,
properties. Vega Alta, and Espinosa soils. Erosion is the major
Planners and others using soil survey information can limitation of the soils on the coastal plains used for crops
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity and pasture. Contour cropping and using terraces and
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. grassed waterways are practices that reduce runoff and
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a increase infiltration. Application of organic residues and
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. the use of supplemental irrigation during prolonged
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of periods of drought (January to March) are also suitable
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to management practices.
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil The soils of the flood plains, such as Toa, Vivi, Bajura,
layers can cause difficulty in excavation. Coloso, and Vega Baja soils, are the most fertile in the
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and survey area. They are normally used for sugarcane and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can pasture. Poor drainage and susceptibility to flooding are
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate the main limitations of these soils for farming, but
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, cultivation of rice is underway on the somewhat poorly
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. drained Coloso soils and poorly drained Bajura soils.
The organic soils of the Cano Tiburones area, such as
crops and pasture the Tiburones, Vigia, Palmar, and Garrochales soils, are
characterized by a high water table. Most are artificially
General management needed for crops and pasture is drained and used for agriculture, mainly pasture. Some
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants areas are in sugarcane.
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly Most of the soils of the limestone belt, including the
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of Colinas, Soller, San Sebastian, Naranjo, Juncal, San
land capability classification used by the Soil German, and Tanama soils, are used for pasture and
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated food crops. Minimum tillage, contour cropping, and using
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are crop residue help to reduce erosion and increase the
listed for each soil. fertility and infiltration of the soils.






48 Soi survey



The humid uplands consist mainly of Daguey, Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
Consumo, Humatas, Consejo, Alonso, Ingenio, Lirios, about the management and productivity of the soils.
Adjuntas, and Voladora soils that are steep, well drained,
strongly acid, and susceptible to erosion. However, the land capability classification
Mucara, Caguabo, and Morado soils in this area are Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
slightly acid to neutral, shallower to rock, and higher in the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops
plant nutrients. Most of the soils in this area are used for that require special management are excluded. The soils
shade- and sun-grown coffee, bananas, oranges, food are grouped according to their limitations for field crops,
crops, pasture, and woodland. Diversions and hillside the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the
ditches and terraces, minimum tillage, and maintaining way they respond to management. The grouping does
permanent vegetation help to reduce runoff and erosion not take into account major and generally expensive
in this area. landforming that would change slope, depth, or other
In general, the main crops suitable for the soils of the characteristics of the soils, nor does it consider possible
Arecibo Area are sun- and shade-grown coffee, but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability
sugarcane, plantains, bananas, yams, taniers, sweet classification is not a substitute for interpretations
potatoes, tobacco, pineapples, oranges, and grapefruits. designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of
Such vegetables as tomatoes, peppers, cabbage, and soils for woodland and for engineering purposes.
lettuce are grown in some areas, and some areas are in In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
ornamental plants. three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
Such grasses as stargrass, guineagrass, pangolagrass, class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
and merkergrass are used for improved pasture for dairy are defined in the following paragraphs.
and beef cattle. Using proper grazing and stocking rates, Capability classes, the following paragroups, are
liming and fertilizing, and controlling weeds help to Capabigity classes, the broadest groups, are
maintain a good stand and reduce soil erosion. designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
Snumerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
yields per acre narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
The average yields per acre that can be expected of Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
the principal crops under a high level of management Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
are shown in tables 5 and 6. In any given year, yields may choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
be higher or lower than those indicated in the table cice moderate conservation
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic practices.
factors. Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
The yields are based mainly on the experience and choice of plants or that require special conservation
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension practices, or both.
agents. Available yield data from nearby areas and Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
results of field trials and demonstrations are also the choice of plants or that require very careful
considered. management, or both.
The management needed to obtain the indicated Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting generally unsuitable for cultivation.
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant them unsuitable for cultivation.
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop crop production.
residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss. They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s or
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
to increase as new production technology is developed, close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
other soils, however, is not likely to change. cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
Crops other than those shown in tables 5 and 6 are corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
grown in the survey area, but estimated yields are not limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
listed because the acreage of such crops is small. The and c, used in only some parts of Puerto Rico, shows
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the that the chief limitation is climate that is very dry.






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 49


In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of construction, and severe if intensive management or
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the special equipment and methods are needed to prevent
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in excessive loss of soil.
class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the
other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. of the equipment generally needed in woodland
Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short
management, and to have similar productivity. Capability seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in
units are generally designated by adding an Arabic management or in equipment; and severe indicates a
numeral to the subclass symbol, for example, lle-4 or seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or
llle-6. management, or a hazard in the use of equipment.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which
subclass is shown in table 7. The capability classification the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed soil competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings
map units." apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly
planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of
woodland management and productivity slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than
25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe,
According to the 1974 Census of Agriculture, more than 50 percent.
woodland covers about 24,710 acres in the Arecibo The potentialproductivity of merchantable or common
Area. Two natural forests, the Cambalache (921 acres) trees on a soil is expressed as average yearly growth
in the limestone hills and the Rio Abajo (5,607 acres) per acre in board feet. Commonly grown trees are those
between the Dos Bocas Lake and the Tanama River, that woodland managers generally favor in intermediate
produce timber and are used as recreational areas and or improvement cuttings. They are selected on the basis
as wildlife habitat. The tree species that are most of growth rate, quality, value, and marketability.
commonly planted are Honduras pine, Honduras Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils
mahogany, mahoe, teak, kadam, and robusta eucalyptus. and to commercial wood production.
Table 8 can be used by woodland owners or forest
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops. recreation
Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The
table lists the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol for The soils of the survey area are rated in table 9
each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol according to limitations that affect their suitability for
require the same general management and have about recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
the same potential productivity, features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
indicates the potential productivity of the soils for considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
important trees. The number 1 indicates very high site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
productivity; 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
and 5, low. The second part of the symbol, a letter, vegetation, access to water, potential water
indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter x impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
indicates stoniness or rockiness; w, excessive water in or capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
on the soil; t, toxic substances in the soil; d, restricted ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
root depth; c, clay in the upper part of the soil; s, sandy important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
texture; f, high content of coarse fragments in the soil recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
profile; and r, steep slopes. The letter o indicates that and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
limitations or restrictions are insignificant. If a soil has recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
more than one limitation, the priority is as follows: x, w, t, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
d, c, s, f, and r. In table 9, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
In table 8, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
management. minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
expected soil loss is small, moderate if measures are properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
needed to control erosion during logging and road offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 49


In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of construction, and severe if intensive management or
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the special equipment and methods are needed to prevent
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in excessive loss of soil.
class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the
other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. of the equipment generally needed in woodland
Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short
management, and to have similar productivity. Capability seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in
units are generally designated by adding an Arabic management or in equipment; and severe indicates a
numeral to the subclass symbol, for example, lle-4 or seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or
llle-6. management, or a hazard in the use of equipment.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which
subclass is shown in table 7. The capability classification the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed soil competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings
map units." apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly
planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of
woodland management and productivity slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than
25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe,
According to the 1974 Census of Agriculture, more than 50 percent.
woodland covers about 24,710 acres in the Arecibo The potentialproductivity of merchantable or common
Area. Two natural forests, the Cambalache (921 acres) trees on a soil is expressed as average yearly growth
in the limestone hills and the Rio Abajo (5,607 acres) per acre in board feet. Commonly grown trees are those
between the Dos Bocas Lake and the Tanama River, that woodland managers generally favor in intermediate
produce timber and are used as recreational areas and or improvement cuttings. They are selected on the basis
as wildlife habitat. The tree species that are most of growth rate, quality, value, and marketability.
commonly planted are Honduras pine, Honduras Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils
mahogany, mahoe, teak, kadam, and robusta eucalyptus. and to commercial wood production.
Table 8 can be used by woodland owners or forest
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops. recreation
Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The
table lists the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol for The soils of the survey area are rated in table 9
each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol according to limitations that affect their suitability for
require the same general management and have about recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
the same potential productivity, features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
indicates the potential productivity of the soils for considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
important trees. The number 1 indicates very high site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
productivity; 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
and 5, low. The second part of the symbol, a letter, vegetation, access to water, potential water
indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter x impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
indicates stoniness or rockiness; w, excessive water in or capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
on the soil; t, toxic substances in the soil; d, restricted ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
root depth; c, clay in the upper part of the soil; s, sandy important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
texture; f, high content of coarse fragments in the soil recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
profile; and r, steep slopes. The letter o indicates that and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
limitations or restrictions are insignificant. If a soil has recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
more than one limitation, the priority is as follows: x, w, t, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
d, c, s, f, and r. In table 9, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
In table 8, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
management. minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
expected soil loss is small, moderate if measures are properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
needed to control erosion during logging and road offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,






50 Soil survey



intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination Because of the map scale, small areas of different sols
of these measures, may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
The information in table 9 can be supplemented by soil.
other information in this survey, for example, The information is not site specific and does not
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the sois or
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements for testing and analysis by personnel experiencedin the
and for local roads and streets in table 10. design and construction of engineering works
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary not considered in preparing the information in this
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to section. Local ordinances and regulations need to be
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to Soil properties, site features, and observed
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or performance were considered in determining the ratings
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
constructing campsites. bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
sites or of building access roads and parking areas. swell potential, available water capacity, and other
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not This information can be used to (1) evaluate the
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains, and recreation uses; (2) make preliminary estimates of
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the construction conditions; (3) evaluate alterative routes
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be for roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
considered. cables; (4) evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
Paths and trails for hiking, horseback riding, and septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; (5)
bicycling should require little or no cutting and filling. The plan detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology,
best soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty (6) locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than topsoil; (7) plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
once a year during the period of use. They have ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on conservation; and (8) predict performance of proposed
the surface. small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same or
engineering similar soils.
g The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
This section provides information for planning land the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
uses related to urban development and to water survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
given in the following tables: Building site development, Glossary.
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water b g se
management. The ratings are based on observed building site development
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
test data in the "Soil properties" section, that affect shallow excavations, dwellings without
Information in this section is intended for land use basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for and streets. The limitations are considered slight if soil
planning site investigations prior to design and properties and site features are generally favorable for
construction. The information, however, has limitations, the indicated use and limitations are minor and easily
For example, estimates and other data generally apply overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. not favorable for the indicated use and special planning,






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 51



design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to special design, significant increases in construction
overcome that special design, significant increases in costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
are required. Special feasibility studies may be required as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
where the soil limitations are severe, soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a and good performance and low maintenance can be
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and more soil properties or site features make the soil less
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to that one or more soil properties or site features are
bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer; unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
year that excavations can be made is affected by the costly alteration.
depth to a seasonal high water table and the Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table. part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed features, and observed performance of the soils.
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the
for small commercial buildings and dwellings without effluent. Large stones and bedrock or a cemented pan
basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site interfere with installation.
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered, slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They the absorption field to effectively filter the effluent. Many
have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of local ordinances require that this material be of a certain
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a thickness.
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
properties, site features, and observed performance of and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil), impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high water table required to minimize seepage and contamination of
affect the traffic supporting capacity. ground water.
fac s Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
sanitary facilities up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields, excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
are considered slight if soil properties and site features observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
are generally favorable for the indicated use and ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones,
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the and content of organic matter.
indicated use and special planning, design, or Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level






52 Soil survey



of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive properties and site features that affect the removal of
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the compaction, minor processing, and other standard
lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope, construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
bedrock, and cemented pans can cause construction evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet
problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
the lagoon floor, and used in road embankments in another place. In this
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is exacting in design than higher embankments.
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted, Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source their profile. The table showing engineering index
away from the site. properties provides detailed information about each soil
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy layer. This information can help determine the suitability
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered
needs to be considered, in the ratings.
The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties, The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
site features, and observed performance of the soils. and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of excavation is affected by large stones, a high water
landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place
layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and sodium after it has been compacted and drained is determined
affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the by its strength (as inferred from the engineering
ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
is needed. material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fa1 are more
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
to the landfill, and spread over the waste. plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing, the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers
After soil material has been removed, the soil material of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over thick.
bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
generally has the best workability, more organic matter, Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12, only
and the best potential for plants. Material from the the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
cover. purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
construction materials excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
Table 12 gives information about the soils as a source sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated by the engineering classification of the soil), the
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil. thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock
They are rated as a probable or improbable source of fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 53



given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
sizes is given in the table on engineering index are required.
properties. This table also gives for each soil the restrictive
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean features that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to diversions, and grassed waterways.
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3 Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel, and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches of the reservoir area.
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
the reclamation potential of the borrow area. of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such constructed to impound water or to protect land against
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and oer hs ta te s e ate a urc
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading overlo. I ort tanble, the ils. Te ratieds apptoure of
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, feet t is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material. and compacted during construction.
Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less depth even greater than the height of the embankment
than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts, can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
not so wet that excavation is difficult. determine these properties.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content
soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium.
not so wet that excavation is difficult. A high water table affects the amount of usable material.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less It also affects trafficability.
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
near the surface, bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding;
moisture and nutrients for plant growth, subsidence of organic layers; and potential frost action.
Excavating and grading and the stability of ditchbanks
water management are affected by depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and large stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving.
site features that affect water management. The degree The productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in the
areas and embankments, dikes, and levees. The root zone, such as salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings.
features are generally favorable for the indicated use Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
and limitations are minor and are easily overcome; supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
moderate if soil properties or site features are not and management of an irrigation system are affected by
favorable for the indicated use and special planning, depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
overcome that special design, significant increase in cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected






54



by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
sodium, and soil reaction, channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
combination of channels and ridges constructed across stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion, affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
an excessively coarse texture, and restricted permeability construction.
adversely affect maintenance.






55








soil properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the adopted by the American Association of State Highway
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of and Transportation Officials (1).
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on The Unified system classifies soils according to
the following pages, properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to soils as Pt. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
compaction characteristics. SM.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the those properties that affect roadway construction and
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
accurately by field observation, and help characterize grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
key soils. Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
engineering index properties refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
classification and of the range of index properties for the numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils 20 or higher for the poorest.
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
or 6 feet. indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
properties of each layer are given for each soil series weight percentage.
under "Soil series and their morphology." Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined inches in diameter based on an oven-dry weight. The
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
percent sand. If a soil contains particles coarser than in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for example, Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
"gravelly." Textural terms are defined in the Glossary. indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
Classification of the soils is determined according to estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system from nearby areas and on field examination.






55








soil properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the adopted by the American Association of State Highway
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of and Transportation Officials (1).
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on The Unified system classifies soils according to
the following pages, properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to soils as Pt. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
compaction characteristics. SM.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the those properties that affect roadway construction and
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
accurately by field observation, and help characterize grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
key soils. Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
engineering index properties refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
classification and of the range of index properties for the numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils 20 or higher for the poorest.
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
or 6 feet. indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
properties of each layer are given for each soil series weight percentage.
under "Soil series and their morphology." Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined inches in diameter based on an oven-dry weight. The
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
percent sand. If a soil contains particles coarser than in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for example, Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
"gravelly." Textural terms are defined in the Glossary. indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
Classification of the soils is determined according to estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system from nearby areas and on field examination.






56 Soil survey



The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available
plasticity index are rounded to the nearest 5 percent. water capacity is an important factor in the choice of
Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits plants or crops to be grown and in the design and
extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points) management of irrigation systems. Available water
across classification boundaries, the classification in the capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
marginal zone is omitted in the table, actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
physical and chemical properties expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics and many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
The estimates are based on field observations and on fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
test data for these and similar soils. corrosion.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter, saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. laboratory measurements at representative sites of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential, soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
a soil also affect tillage and earth-moving operations. construction material, and the potential of the soil to
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per corrode metal and concrete.
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root measurements of similar soils.
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward often needed.
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
based on soil characteristics observed in the field, change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems, change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
rate of water movement under saturated conditions less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high.
affects behavior, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water is sometimes used.
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies, factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
depending on soil properties that affect the retention of to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
water and the depth of the root zone. The most and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
important properties are the content of organic matter, are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 57



organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.02 to 0.69. rainfall or snowmelt and water in swamps and marshes
The higher the value the more susceptible the soil is to are not considered flooding.
sheet and rill erosion by water. Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
can occur without affecting crop productivity over a are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare,
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year. common, occasional, and frequent. None means that
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but
soil at various stages of decomposition. possible under unusual weather conditions; common that
In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter of it is likely under normal conditions; occasional that it
the plow layer is expressed as a percentage, by weight, occurs on an average of once or less in 2 years; and
of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in frequent that it occurs on an average of more than once
diameter. in 2 years. Duration is expressed as very brief if less
The content of organic matter of a soil can be than 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, and long if more than 7
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the days. Probable dates are expressed in months;
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity, November-May, for example, means that flooding can
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and occur during the period November through May.
other nutrients for crops. The information is based on evidence in the soil
profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay
soil and water features deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic
Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water matter content with increasing depth; and absence of
features. The estimates are used in land use planning distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not subject
that involves engineering considerations. to flooding.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff Also considered are local information about the extent
from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
according to the intake of water when the soils are extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than
thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long- that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
duration storms. delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
The four hydrologic soil groups are: levels.
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of saturated zone in the soil in most years. Only saturated
deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or zones within a depth of about 6 feet are indicated. The
gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water depth to a seasonal high water table applies to
transmission. undrained soils. The estimates are based mainly on the
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when evidence of a saturated zone, namely grayish colors or
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep mottles in the soil. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to
or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils the seasonal high water table; the kind of water table-
that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse that is, perched, artesian, or apparent; and the months of
texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water the year that the water table commonly is high. A water
transmission, table that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when indicated in table 16.
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
soils have a slow rate of water transmission, allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A perched
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high water table is water standing above an unsaturated
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table is
chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential, separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth
have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and
soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material, on observations during soil mapping. The rock is
These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission. specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or
Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is fractured, excavations can be made with trenching
caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard







58



or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
needed for excavation. boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or of soil or within one soil layer.
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of electrical conductivity of the saturation extract
concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil. as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
Special site examination and design may be needed if acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract
the combination of factors creates a severe corrosion







59








classification of the soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (4). Beginning mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
with the broadest, these categories are the order, zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series, permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
field or inferred from those observations or from properties. An example is clayey, kaolinitic,
laboratory measurements. In table 17, the soils of the isohyperthermic Typic Tropohumults.
survey area are classified according to the system. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
Each order is identified by a word ending in so. An differ within a series.
example is Ultisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil formation of the soils
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties This section gives the five major factors of soil
that reflect the most important variables within the formation and describes how these factors have affected
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder the soils in the Arecibo Area.
indicates the order. An example is Humult (Hum,
meaning humus, plus ult, from Ultisol).
factors of soil formation
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, Soils are formed by the action of soil-forming
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic processes on material deposited or accumulated by
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and geologic forces. The characteristics of the soil at any
base status. Each great group is identified by the name given point are determined by (1) the physical and
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of mineralogical composition of the parent material; (2) the
the soil. An example is Tropohumults (Tropo, meaning climate under which the material has existed since
tropical, plus Humults, the suborder of the Ultisols that accumulation; (3) the plant and animal life on and in the
have high humus content). soil; (4) the relief, or lay of the land; and (5) the length of
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. time the forces of soil formation have acted on the soil
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The material.
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not Climate and plant and animal life are active factors of
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are soil genesis. They act on the parent material that has
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. accumulated through the weathering of rocks and slowly
Extragrades have some properties that are not change it to a natural body that has genetically related
representative of the great group but do not indicate horizons. The effects of the climate and plant and animal
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each life are conditioned by relief. The parent material also
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives affects the kind of soil profile that can be formed and, in
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective extreme cases, determines it almost entirely. Finally,
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great time is needed for the changing of the parent material
group. An example is Typic Tropohumults. into a mature soil. The amount of time can be short or
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on long, but some time is always required for the formation
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other of soil horizons. Usually, a long time is required for
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the distinct horizons to develop.
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where The factors of soil formation are so closely interrelated
there is much biological activity. Among the properties in their effects on the soil that few generalizations can







59








classification of the soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (4). Beginning mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
with the broadest, these categories are the order, zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series, permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
field or inferred from those observations or from properties. An example is clayey, kaolinitic,
laboratory measurements. In table 17, the soils of the isohyperthermic Typic Tropohumults.
survey area are classified according to the system. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
Each order is identified by a word ending in so. An differ within a series.
example is Ultisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil formation of the soils
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties This section gives the five major factors of soil
that reflect the most important variables within the formation and describes how these factors have affected
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder the soils in the Arecibo Area.
indicates the order. An example is Humult (Hum,
meaning humus, plus ult, from Ultisol).
factors of soil formation
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, Soils are formed by the action of soil-forming
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic processes on material deposited or accumulated by
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and geologic forces. The characteristics of the soil at any
base status. Each great group is identified by the name given point are determined by (1) the physical and
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of mineralogical composition of the parent material; (2) the
the soil. An example is Tropohumults (Tropo, meaning climate under which the material has existed since
tropical, plus Humults, the suborder of the Ultisols that accumulation; (3) the plant and animal life on and in the
have high humus content). soil; (4) the relief, or lay of the land; and (5) the length of
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. time the forces of soil formation have acted on the soil
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The material.
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not Climate and plant and animal life are active factors of
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are soil genesis. They act on the parent material that has
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. accumulated through the weathering of rocks and slowly
Extragrades have some properties that are not change it to a natural body that has genetically related
representative of the great group but do not indicate horizons. The effects of the climate and plant and animal
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each life are conditioned by relief. The parent material also
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives affects the kind of soil profile that can be formed and, in
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective extreme cases, determines it almost entirely. Finally,
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great time is needed for the changing of the parent material
group. An example is Typic Tropohumults. into a mature soil. The amount of time can be short or
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on long, but some time is always required for the formation
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other of soil horizons. Usually, a long time is required for
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the distinct horizons to develop.
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where The factors of soil formation are so closely interrelated
there is much biological activity. Among the properties in their effects on the soil that few generalizations can







59








classification of the soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (4). Beginning mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
with the broadest, these categories are the order, zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series, permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
field or inferred from those observations or from properties. An example is clayey, kaolinitic,
laboratory measurements. In table 17, the soils of the isohyperthermic Typic Tropohumults.
survey area are classified according to the system. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
Each order is identified by a word ending in so. An differ within a series.
example is Ultisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil formation of the soils
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties This section gives the five major factors of soil
that reflect the most important variables within the formation and describes how these factors have affected
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder the soils in the Arecibo Area.
indicates the order. An example is Humult (Hum,
meaning humus, plus ult, from Ultisol).
factors of soil formation
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, Soils are formed by the action of soil-forming
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic processes on material deposited or accumulated by
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and geologic forces. The characteristics of the soil at any
base status. Each great group is identified by the name given point are determined by (1) the physical and
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of mineralogical composition of the parent material; (2) the
the soil. An example is Tropohumults (Tropo, meaning climate under which the material has existed since
tropical, plus Humults, the suborder of the Ultisols that accumulation; (3) the plant and animal life on and in the
have high humus content). soil; (4) the relief, or lay of the land; and (5) the length of
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. time the forces of soil formation have acted on the soil
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The material.
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not Climate and plant and animal life are active factors of
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are soil genesis. They act on the parent material that has
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. accumulated through the weathering of rocks and slowly
Extragrades have some properties that are not change it to a natural body that has genetically related
representative of the great group but do not indicate horizons. The effects of the climate and plant and animal
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each life are conditioned by relief. The parent material also
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives affects the kind of soil profile that can be formed and, in
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective extreme cases, determines it almost entirely. Finally,
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great time is needed for the changing of the parent material
group. An example is Typic Tropohumults. into a mature soil. The amount of time can be short or
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on long, but some time is always required for the formation
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other of soil horizons. Usually, a long time is required for
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the distinct horizons to develop.
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where The factors of soil formation are so closely interrelated
there is much biological activity. Among the properties in their effects on the soil that few generalizations can







60 Soil survey



be made about the effect on any one unless conditions near the surface for a long period, the soils have greater
are specified for the other four. evidence of wetness; the Coloso and Jareales soils are
examples. The permeability of a soil and the length,
parent material steepness, and shape of slopes influence the kind of soil
Parent material is the unconsolidated mass in which a that is formed. Local differences in soils mainly are the
soil forms. It determines the mineralogical composition of result of differences in parent material and relief.
the soil and influences the rate at which a soil forms.
The parent material is altered as horizons develop. The
rate at which rock weathers and the fragments that are Time is required to change parent material into a soil.
produced through weathering are affected by the The length of time necessary is determined by the kind
composition and structure of the rocks and have a great of parent material and by the condition of this material.
influence on the kind of soil that forms. In the Arecibo For example, a very long time is needed for a soil to
Area, for example, most of the soils have formed in develop from freshly exposed hard limestone because
place from weathered volcanic rock or limestone. Other limestone dissolves slowly. Millions of years may be
soils in the survey area formed in sediment that was required for this kind of rock to weather and for a soil to
derived from weathered volcanic rock or limestone, form.
The soils that formed on low bottoms are subject to
climate varying degrees of flooding and can receive new
Climate, especially temperature and precipitation, deposits of sediment each time they are flooded. These
governs the rate of weathering of rocks and the soils have weak soil structure and weak differences in
color between their horizons; Toa soils are an example.
decomposition of minerals. Climate is probably the most color between their horizons; Toa soils are a
influential factor in soil formation. Temperature has a
great influence on the rate at which the chemical and Humatas soils, have been developing for a longer period
physical processes affect profile development. Climate than Toa soils.
directly affects the accumulation of soil parent material
and the differentiation of horizons. It also largely soil series and their morphology
determines the kinds of plants and animals that live in an
area. In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
plants and animals in alphabetic order.
All living organisms, including vegetation, animals, Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
bacteria, and fungi, are important in soil formation. formed are identified for each series. The soil is
Vegetation generally determines the amount of organic compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
matter and nutrients in the soil and the color of the other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
surface layer. Living organisms mainly affect horizon soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
differentiation. Animals such as earthworms and ants described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
help to keep the soil open and porous. Bacteria and follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (3). Many of
fungi decompose vegetation and thus release nutrients the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
for plants. Man has affected the surface and subsurface in Soil Taxonomy (4). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
layers of the soils by clearing and plowing the land, the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
fertilizing, mixing horizons, and accelerating the rate of description is the range of important characteristics of
erosion, the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in the
relief section "Detailed soil map units."
Relief, or topography, influences soil formation through Aceitunas series
its effect on runoff and drainage. Runoff generally is
rapid on mountainsides and slow on level plains. In The soils of the Aceitunas series are clayey, oxidic,
sloping areas where runoff is medium to very rapid, the isohyperthermic Typic Palehumults. They are deep and
soils generally are well drained, have a bright colored well drained and are on the coastal plains and uplands.
and unmottled subsoil, and are leached to a greater They formed in fine textured sediments transported from
depth than the wetter soils in the same area, for surrounding hills. The Aceitunas soils are mostly used for
example, the Humatas and Consumo soils. In the more sugarcane and pasture. Some areas are in food crops
gently sloping areas where runoff is slower, the soils and vegetables. Slopes range from 5 to 12 percent
generally are wet for a short period and have mottles in Aceitunas soils are associated with Coto, Espinosa,
the subsoil; the Corozal soils are an example. In level and Almirante soils and are near areas of Rock outcrop.
areas or slight depressions where the water table is at or The Aceitunas soils have an argillic horizon that is not






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 61



typical of the Coto soils and are more red. The uplands. They formed in the residuum of highly
Aceitunas soils are more red than the Espinosa soils and weathered volcanic rock with a high content of quartz.
have a higher organic matter content. The Aceitunas The Adjuntas soils are mainly in brush and pasture.
soils are not underlain by plinthite, as are the Almirante Slopes range from 40 to 60 percent.
soils. Adjuntas soils are associated with Humatas, Consumo,
Typical pedon of Aceitunas clay, 5 to 12 percent and Consejo soils. The Adjuntas soils are more brown
slopes, 1.26 kilometers southeast of kilometer marker and have a less developed B horizon than the Humatas
0.1 of Highway 484, in a pasture: or Consumo soils. The Adjuntas soils are deeper than
the Consumo soils, are shallower than the Consejos
Ap-0 to 6 inches, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) clay; soils, and do not have the argillic horizon typical of the
moderate fine granular structure; firm, slightly sticky, Consejos soils.
plastic; many fine roots; few fine black concretions; Typical pedon of Adjuntas clay, 40 to 60 percent
many fine quartz grains; very strongly acid; clear slopes, eroded, 320 meters east of a school at the end
smooth boundary. of Highway 602, in a field:
B21t-6 to 13 inches, yellowish red (5YR 4/6) clay;
moderate fine subangular blocky structure; firm, Ap-0 to 5 inches, dark brown (10YR 3/3) clay;
slightly sticky, plastic; common fine roots; many moderate fine and medium granular structure; firm,
black stains from root decay; thin patchy clay films; slightly sticky, plastic; many fine roots; many fine
few fine black concretions; many fine quartz grains; pores; 3 percent 1/4 to 1/2 inch volcanic fragments;
very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. few fine quartz grains; very strongly acid; clear
B22t-13 to 22 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; weak smooth boundary.
medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly B1-5 to 10 inches, dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) and strong
sticky, plastic; common fine roots; thin patchy clay brown (7.5YR 5/6) clay; weak fine subangular
films; few fine black concretions; common black blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic;
stains from root decay; very strongly acid; gradual common fine roots; many fine pores; few patchy
smooth boundary. clay films; 3 percent 1/2 to 1 inch volcanic
B23t-22 to 35 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; weak fine fragments; very strongly acid; clear smooth
and medium subangular olocky structure; friable, boundary.
slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; thin B2-10 to 17 inches, strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) clay;
discontinuous clay films; few fine black concretions; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure;
common fine quartz grains; strongly acid; gradual firm, slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; many fine
wavy boundary, pores; 3 percent 1/4 to 1 inch volcanic fragments;
B24t-35 to 52 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; weak fine few fine quartz grains; very strongly acid; clear wavy
subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky, boundary.
plastic; thin discontinuous clay films; shiny ped B3-17 to 24 inches, mixed yellow (10YR 7/6), white
surfaces; many fine black concretions; strongly acid; (10YR 8/2), and brownish yellow (10YR 6/8), clay;
gradual wavy boundary. common fine prominent red mottles; weak medium
B25t-52 to 65 inches, yellowish red (5YR 4/8) clay; subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky,
weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable, plastic; few fine roots; many fine pores; many quartz
slightly sticky, plastic; thin discontinuous clay films; grains; 25 percent saprolite; very strongly acid; clear
strongly acid. wavy boundary.
Cr-24 to 48 inches, partially weathered volcanic rock.
The thickness of the solum is more than 60 inches. R-48 inches, semiconsolidated volcanic rock.
Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid
throughout. The thickness of the solum and depth to partially
The Ap horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 and 3, and weathered rock range from 20 to 30 inches. Reaction is
chroma of 2 to 4. It is clay or sandy clay loam. very strongly acid or extremely acid.
The B2t horizon has hue of 5YR and 2.5YR, value of The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
4, and chroma of 6 to 8. Structure ranges from weak fine chroma of 2 to 4.
and medium to moderate fine and medium subangular The B2 horizon has hue of 10YR and 7.5YR, value of
blocky. Clay films range from thin patchy to thin 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. The B3 horizon has hue of
discontinuous. 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 2 to 8. Structure of
the B horizon is weak fine or medium subangular blocky.
Adjuntas series
Algarrobo series
The soils of the Adjuntas series are fine, kaolintic,
isohyperthermic Typic Humitropepts. They are The soils of the Algarrobo series are coarse-loamy,
moderately deep and well drained and are on the humid siliceous, isohyperthermic Entic Haplohumods. They are







62 Sod survey



deep and excessively drained and are on coastal plains, to clay. Structure is weak moderate or weak coarse
They formed in coarse textured sediments with a high subangular blocky.
content of quartz and are over coastal plain clays. The
Algarrobo soils are in pangolagrass, native pasture, Almirante series
coconuts, and brush. Slopes range from 2 to 12 percent.
Algarrobo soils are associated with Corozo, Jobos, The soils of the Almirante series are clayey, oxidic,
Guerrero, Arecibo, and Carrizales soils. The Corozo soils isohyperthermic Plinthic Paleudults. They are deep and
have less organic matter than the Algarrobo soils, and well drained and are on the coastal plains. They formed
the Jobos and Guerrero soils have no organic matter but in fine textured materials of mixed origin. The Almirante
have plinthite. The Arecibo soils do not have organic soils are mostly used for sugarcane, pangolagrass, food
matter within a depth of 50 inches, and the Carrizales crops, pineapples, and native pasture. Slope ranges from
soils are not as gray as the Algarrobo soils and have no 2 to 12 percent.
organic matter. Almirante soils are associated with Espinosa, Vega
Typical pedon of Algarrobo fine sand, 2 to 12 percent Alta, and Bayamon soils. The Almirante soils have
slopes, 3 meters northeast of Highway 668, 200 meters underlying plinthite layers that are not typical of the
from kilometer 42.9 of Highway 2, in a palm tree field: Espinosa or Bayamon soils, are deeper to plinthite than
the Vega Alta soils, and are more yellow than the
A1-0 to 11 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single Bayamon soils.
grain; loose, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; many Typical pedon of Almirante clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
fine and medium roots; 15 percent black (10YR 2/1) 320 meters north of kilometer marker 4.0 of Highway
rounded and elongated friable organic matter 160, in a pineapple field:
accumulations 1/4 inch thick; extremely acid; abrupt
smooth boundary. Apl--0 to 6 inches, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
A2--11 to 32 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; clay; weak fine subangular blocky structure parting
single grain; very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; to weak fine granular; firm, slightly sticky, plastic;
common medium roots; extremely acid; clear wavy many fine roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary. boundary.
Bhl-32 to 37 inches, black (10YR 2/1), dark brown B21t-6 to 19 inches, brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) and
(10YR 3/3), and very dark brown (10YR 2/2) dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay; moderate
stratified sandy loam; single grain; very friable, medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly
nonstick, nonplastic; few medium roots; extremely sticky, plastic; few fine roots; many fine pores; thin
acid; abrupt wavy boundary. patchy clay films; few fine black concretions;
11B2-37 to 50 inches, mixed light gray (10YR 7/1), common fine quartz grains; very strongly acid; clear
brown (7.5YR 5/2), and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) smooth boundary.
clay; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
clay; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; B22t--19 to 28 inches, brownish yellow (1OYR 6/8) clay;,
extremely firm, slightly sticky, plastic; very dark gray moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm,
(10YR 3/1) along root channels; very strongly acid; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm,
clear wavy boundary, slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; many fine
IIC1-50 to 68 inches, mixed gray (10YR 7/1) and brown pores; thin patchy clay films; few fine black
(7.5YR 5/2) clay; massive; extremely firm, slightly concretions; common fine quartz grains; very
sticky, plastic; very strongly acid; clear wavy strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
boundary. B23t-28 to 32 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) cay; weak fine
IIC2-68 to 80 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky,
loam; massive; very firm, slightly sticky, plastic; very plastic; few fine roots; many fine pores; thin patchy
strongly acid. clay films; few fine black concretions; common fine
quartz grains; very strongly acid; clear wavy
The depth to the accumulation of illuvial organic boundary.
matter ranges from 30 to 50 inches. Reaction ranges B24t-32 to 45 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) and
from strongly acid to extremely acid throughout. red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; weak fine subangular blocky
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; thin patchy clay
chroma of 1. films; few fine quartz grains; 15 to 18 percent
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and plinthite; very strongly acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
chroma of 1. B25t-45 to 60 inches, mixed red (2.5YR 5/6), yellowish
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and brown (10YR 5/8), yellow (10YR 7/6), and yellowish
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from sandy loam to loamy red (5YR 4/6) clay; weak fine subangular blocky
sand. structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; thin patchy clay
The B2 horizon has hue of 10YR and 7.5YR, value of films; few fine quartz grains; 20 to 25 percent
5 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 8. It ranges from sandy clay plinthite; very strongly acid.







Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 63


The argillic horizon is thicker than 60 inches. The B3-30 to 45 inches, mixed dark reddish brown (5YR
depth to plinthite ranges from 20 to 60 inches. Reaction 3/3), reddish brown (5YR 4/3), and yellowish red
of the profile is strongly acid or very strongly acid. (5YR 5/6) clay; weak fine subangular blocky
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR through 5YR and structure; friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few
value and chroma of 3 or 4. It ranges from sandy loam fine roots; few patchy clay films; 25 percent
to clay. saprolite; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The upper part of the B horizon has hue of 10YR and C1-45 to 60 inches, variegated dark reddish brown
7.5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. The (5YR 3/4), weak red (10YR 4/3), light gray (5YR
structure ranges from moderate fine to moderate 7/1), dark gray (5YR 4/1), and strong brown (7.5YR
medium subangular blocky. Clay films range from thin 5/6), saprolite that crushes to clay loam; massive;
patchy to none. The lower part of the B horizon consists very friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; very
of variegated red, yellowish brown, and yellow. Structure strongly acid.
ranges from weak fine to moderate medium subangular
blocky. The B horizon ranges from 7 to 25 percent The thickness of the solum ranges from 41 to 55
plinthite, by volume. inches.
The A horizon has hue of 5YR or 2.5YR, value of 3,
Alonso series and chroma of 2 or 3.
The soils of the Alonso series are clayey, oxidic, The B2t horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10R, value of 3
isohyperthermic Orthoxic Tropohumults. They are deep or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. Structure is weak or
and well drained and are on the humid uplands. They moderate and fine or medium subangular blocky. Clay
formed in fine textured residuum weathered from basic films range from thin patchy to thin discontinuous.
volcanic rocks. The Alonso soils mostly are used for
coffee, food crops, and pasture. Slopes range from 12 to Arecibo series
60 percent.
Alonso soils are associated with Humatas, Daguey, The soils of the Arecibo series are sandy, siliceous,
Consumo, and Morado soils. The Alonso soils have a isohyperthermic Grossarenic Entic Haplohumods. They
thinner solum than the Daguey soils and a thicker solum are deep and excessively drained and are on coastal
than the Consumo or Morado soils. The Alonso soils plains. They formed in quartzitic sands. Arecibo soils
have lower chroma than the Daguey or Humatas soils, mainly are used for pangolagrass, coconuts, and native
have a lower cation exchange capacity than the pasture. Slopes range from 2 to 12 percent.
Humatas soils, have a thicker argillic horizon than the Arecibo soils are associated with Jobos, Corozo,
Consumo soils, and are finer textured than the Morado Algarrobo, Guerrero, and Carrizales soils. The Arecibo
soils, soils do not have the plinthite layers typical of the Jobos
Typical pedon of Alonso clay, 12 to 20 percent slopes, and Guerrero soils and are deeper to illuvial organic
eroded, 20 meters west of kilometer marker 0.55 of matter than the Algarrobo soils. The Carrizales soils are
Highway 608, in a stargrass field: not as yellow as the Arecibo soils and do not have the
S; accumulation of illuvial organic matter. The Arecibo soils
Ap-0 to 7 inches, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) clay; have thicker sandy layers than the Corozo soils but do
weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable, not have the argillic horizon typical of the Corozo soils.
slightly sticky, plastic; many fine roots; common fine Typical pedon of Arecibo fine sand, 2 to 12 percent
volcanic fragments; very strongly acid; clear smooth slopes, 600 meters west of kilometer marker 15.2 of

B21t-7 to 13 inches, reddish brown (5YR 4/3) clay; Highway 686, in a pangolagrass field:
weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm, A11-0 to 6 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
slightly sticky, plastic; common fine roots; thin grain; loose, nonstick, nonplastic; many fine roots;
patchy clay films; very strongly acid; clear smooth 25 percent black (10YR 2/1) rounded friable organic

B22t-1o3 to 23 inches, reddish brown (10YR 4/4) clay; matter accumulations 1/4 inch thick; very strongly
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm, acid; clear smooth boundary.
slightly sticky, plastic; common fine roots; thin A12-6 to 12 inches, gray (10YR 5/1 and 6/1) fine
continuous clay films; very strongly acid; gradual sand; single grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic;
wavy boundary. common fine roots; 15 percent black (10YR 2/1)
B23t-23 to 30 inches, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) rounded friable organic matter accumulations 1/4
and reddish brown (5YR 4/3) clay; weak medium inch thick; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky, A21-12 to 20 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
slightly plastic; few fine roots; thin patchy clay films; single grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; few fine
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.







64 Soil survey



A22-20 to 40 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; Coloso soils; do not have the argillic horizon typical of
single grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; few fine the Vega Baja soils; and are finer textured than the Toa
roots; very strongly acid; diffuse wavy boundary. soils.
A23-40 to 59 inches, white (10YR 8/1) and brown Typical pedon of Bajura clay, 800 meters west of
(10YR 5/3) fine sand; single grain, loose, nonsticky, Highway 616, 5.7 kilometers south of kilometer marker
nonplastic; decayed roots; very strongly acid; clear 0.0 of Highway 685:
wavy boundary.
81-59 to 68 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single Ap-0 to 7 inches, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; very strongly clay; common fine distinct dark yellowish brown
acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (10YR 3/4) mottles; weak fine and medium
B21h-68 to 74 inches, black (10YR 2/1), very dark subangular blocky structure; very firm, slightly sticky,
grayish brown (10YR 3/2), and very dark brown plastic; many fine roots; few pressure faces; slightly
(10YR 2/2) stratified sand; single grain; loose, acid; gradual smooth boundary.
nonsticky, nonplastic; very strongly acid; clear wavy B2-7 to 15 inches, black (10YR 2/1) clay, common fine
boundary. distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and dark
B22h-74 to 82 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) mottles; weak medium
loamy sand; single grain; loose, nonsticky, and coarse subangular blocky structure; very firm,
nonplastic; 15 percent black (10YR 2/1) wavy slightly sticky, plastic; common fine roots; common
lamellae 1 to 3 centimeters thick and 8 centimers pressure faces; neutral; gradual smooth boundary.
apart; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. C1g-15 to 37 inches, mixed gray (10YR 5/1), yellowish
IIC1-82 to 88 inches, mixed very pale brown (10YR brown (10YR 5/6), and dark yellowish brown (10YR
8/4), white (10YR 8/1), brown (10YR 5/3), and 4/4) clay; massive; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; few
reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) sandy loam; massive; fine roots; common pressure faces; neutral; clear
firm, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few tongues from wavy boundary.
Bh horizon; very strongly acid; gradual wavy C2g-37 to 60 inches, mixed gray (2.5Y 6/0), dark
boundary. yellowish brown (10YR 4/4), and yellowish brown
IIC2-88 to 91 inches, very pale brown (10YR 8/4), (10YR 5/8) clay; massive, firm, slightly sticky,
white (10YR 8/1), brown (10YR 5/3), and reddish plastic; few fine roots; neutral.
yellow (7.5YR 6/8) sandy loam; massive; firm,
slightly sticky, slightly plastic; very strongly acid; The thickness of the solum ranges from 13 to 16
clear wavy boundary. inches. Reaction is slightly acid or neutral. Pressure
IIIC3-91 to 113 inches, white (5Y 8/1) and light gray faces are few or common.
(5Y 7/2) sandy loam; single grain; loose, nonsticky, The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 or
nonplastic; very strongly acid. 3, and chroma of 1 or 2.
The B horizon has hue of 2.5Y, value of 2 to 6, and
The thickness of the solum is more than 80 inches. chroma of 0 to 2. Mottles are common or many.
The depth to the horizons with illuvial organic matter The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to
ranges from 51 to 75 inches. Reaction is very strongly 6, and chroma of 0 or 1.
acid to extremely acid throughout.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and Bayamon series
chroma of 1 or 2.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and The soils of the Bayamon series are clayey, oxidic,
chroma of 1 to 8. It is mottled in some pedons. isohyperthermic Typic Haplorthox. They are deep and
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 8, and well drained and are on uplands and coastal plains. They
chroma of 1 to 8. It is sandy loam or loamy sand. formed in fine textured sediments of mixed origin. The
Bayamon soils are mostly used for sugarcane,
Bajura series pineapples, food crops, and pasture. Slopes range from
2 to 12 percent.
The soils of the Bajura series are fine, mixed, nonacid, Bayamon soils are associated with Vega Alta,
isohyperthermic Vertic Tropaquepts. They are deep and Almirante, Espinosa, and Tanama soils. The Bayamon
poorly drained and are on flood plains. They formed in soils do not have the plinthite layers typical of the Vega
fine textured alluvial sediments of mixed origin. Bajura Alta and Almirante soils, are redder than and do not
soils are mostly used for sugarcane and pasture. Slopes have the argillic horizon typical of the Espinosa soils,
range from 0 to 2 percent. and are deeper and have lower base saturation than the
The Bajura soils are associated with Coloso, Vega Tanama soils.
Baja, and Toa soils. The Bajura soils are more poorly Typical pedon of Bayamon clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
drained than any of the associated soils. The Bajura 50 meters north of kilometer marker 2.75 of Highway
soils have pressure faces, which are not typical in the 670, in a pineapple field:






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 65



Apl-0 to 5 inches, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) clay; from volcanic rocks. The Caguabo soils are mostly used
weak fine subangular blocky structure parting to for pasture. A few areas are wooded. Slopes range from
moderate fine granular; friable, slightly sticky, slightly 20 to 60 percent.
plastic; many fine roots; many fine quartz grains; Caguabo soils are associated with Mucara, Morado,
very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. and Maraguez soils. The Caguabo soils are shallower
Ap2-5 to 11 inches, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) and than any of the associated soils, are coarser textured
red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; moderate medium subangular than the Mucara soils, and are finer textured in the lower
blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; many part than the Maraguez soils.
fine roots; many fine quartz grains; very strongly Typical pedon of Caguabo clay loam, 20 to 60 percent
acid; abrupt smooth boundary. slopes, 15 meters north of a dirt road that is 1.6
B21-11 to 19 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; weak fine kilometers east of kilometer marker 17.7 of Highway 149:
and medium subangular blocky structure; friable,
slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; common fine Ap-0 to 6 inches, dark brown (10YR 4/3) clay loam;
pores; shiny ped faces; many fine quartz grains; few moderate fine granular; friable, slightly sticky, slightly
fine black concretions; black stains along root plastic; many fine roots; 10 percent fine and medium
channels; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. volcanic fragments; slightly acid; clear smooth
B22-19 to 33 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; weak fine boundary.
subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky, B2-6 to 13 inches, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
plastic; common fine pores; common fine quartz gravelly clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky
grains; few fine black concretions; black stains along structure parting to weak fine granular; friable,
root channels; very strongly acid; gradual wavy slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common fine roots; 40
boundary. percent fine and medium gravel; slightly acid; clear
B23-33 to 46 inches, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) clay; weak smooth boundary.
fine subangular blocky structure; very friable, slightly Cr-13 to 18 inches, highly weathered and partially
sticky, slightly plastic; common fine pores; many fine weathered volcanic rock.
quartz grains; few fine black concretions; black R-18 inches, hard and semiconsolidated volcanic rock.
coating along ped faces; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary. The thickness of the solum ranges from 10 to 14
B24-46 to 60 inches, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) clay; inches and the depth to the hard rock from 13 to 19
moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable, inches.
slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common fine pores; The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
common fine quartz grains; very strongly acid; clear chroma of 2 or 3. Structure is weak or moderate fine
wavy boundary. granular.
B25-60 to 65 inches, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) clay; few The B horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; chroma of 3 or 4. It ranges from gravelly clay loam to
weak medium subangular blocky structure parting to gravelly silty clay loam. It has weak fine or medium
moderate fine angular and subangular blocky; firm, subangular blocky structure parting to granular. The
slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few fine black content of volcanic rock fragments ranges from 35 to 50
concretions; common fine pores; common fineprcn
quartz grains; very strongly acid.
The thickness of the solum is more than 60 inches. Caracoles series
Reaction of the soil is strongly acid or very strongly acid. ,
Quartz grains range from common to many. The soils of the Caracoles series are loamy, mixed,
The A horizon has hue of 5YR through 10R and value isohyperthermic Lithic Ustorthents. They are very
and chroma of 3 or 4. It ranges from sandy loam to clay. shallow and well drained and are on limestone uplands.
The B2 horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 10R, value of 3 They formed in medium textured sediments weathered
or 4, and chroma of 4 to 8. The structure is weak fine to from semiconsolidated calcareous sandstone. The
coarse subangular blocky or weak and moderate fine Caracoles soils are mostly used for pasture. A few areas
and very fine angular blocky. The horizon is slightly are in brush. Slopes range from 5 to 40 percent.
plastic or plastic. The Caracoles soils are associated with San German
and Islote soils. The Caracoles soils have fewer coarse
Caguabo series fragments than the San German soils and are shallower
than and do not have the argillic horizon typical of the
The soils of the Caguabo series are loamy-skeletal, Islote soils.
mixed, isohyperthermic Lithic Eutropepts. They are Typical pedon of Caracoles loam, 20 to 40 percent
shallow and well drained and are on uplands. They slopes, 50 meters south of kilometer marker 6.25 of
formed in moderately fine textured residuum weathered Highway 681, in a native pasture field:







66 Soi survey



Ap-0 to 6 inches, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) Catano series
loam; weak fine granular; friable, nonsticky, slightly
plastic; many fine roots; neutral; abrupt wavy The soils of the Catano series are carbonatic,
boundary. isohyperthermic Typic Tropopsamments. They are deep
R-6 inches, semiconsolidated calcareous sandstone. and excessively drained and are on coastal plains They
formed in coarse, calcareous and volcanic, sand-sized
The depth to the semiconsolidated calcareous sediments. The Catano soils are mostly used for
sandstone is less than 10 inches. Reaction ranges from coconuts and pasture. Some small areas are used for
neutral to mildly alkaline. food crops. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent
The A horizon has hue of 1 0YR or 7.5YR, value of 3, The Catano soils are associated with coastal beaches
and chro ma s of 10YR or 73.5YR value of 3
and chroma of 2 or 3. and Tropopsamments. Coastal beaches are constantly
being reworked by wave action and do not support
vegetation; Tropopsamments are constantly being
Carrizales series reworked by the wind.
The soils of the Carrizales series are isohyperthermic, Typical pedon of Catano sand, 100 meters north of
kilometer marker 9.8 of Highway 681, in a field of
coated Typic Quartzipsamments. They are deep and
excessively drained and are on coastal plains. They pangolagrass:
formed in sandy sediments. The Carrizales soils are A1-0 to 5 inches, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
used for food crops and pasture. Slopes range from 2 to sand; single grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; light
12 percent. gray (10YR 7/2) sand-sized seashells; strong
Carrizales soils are associated with Jobos, Guerrero, effervescence, moderately alkaline; clear smooth
Rio Lajas, Arecibo, Algarrobo, and Corozo soils. The boundary.
Carrizales soils do not have the plinthite layers typical of AC-5 to 16 inches, dark brown (10YR 4/3) sand and
the Jobos and Guerrero soils; do not have the argillic light gray (10YR 7/2) sand-sized seashells; single
horizon typical of the Rio Lajas soils; and do not have grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; many fine roots;
the accumulations of illuvial organic matter typical of the many fine volcanic fragments; strong effervescence.
Algarrobo, Arecibo, and Corozo soils. The Carrizales moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
soils have more yellow than the Rio Lajas soils. C1-16 to 24 inches, pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand;
Typical pedon of Carrizales fine sand, 2 to 12 percent single grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; few fine
slopes, 650 meters southeast of kilometer marker 87.1 roots; few fine volcanic fragments; strong
of Highway 2, in a pasture: effervescence, moderately alkaline; clear smooth
boundary.
A1-0 to 8 inches, dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand; C2-24 to 36 inches, light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
single grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; few fine sand; single grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; few
roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary, fine volcanic fragments; strong effervescence,
C1-8 to 21 inches, brown (7.5YR 5/2) fine sand; single moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; few fine roots; C3-36 to 60 inches, light gray (2.5Y 7/2) sand; single
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; many seashell
C2-21 to 32 inches, brown (7.5YR 5/4) fine sand; fragments; strong effervescence, moderately
single grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; very alkaline.
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
strongly aci; clear smooth bound. The sandy layers extend to a depth of more than 60
C3-32 to 50 inches, light brown (10YR 6/4) fine sand; inches. Calcareous seashells, quartz, and volcanic
single grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; very fragments in various proportions make up the sand-size
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. fractions.
C4-50 to 60 inches, yellow (10YR 7/6) fine-sand; single The A horizon has hue of 10YR and value and chroma
grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; very strongly of 2 or 3.
acid. The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6 to
Sand throughout the profile consists mostly of coated 7, and chroma of 2 or 3.
quartz grains, and the profile is more than 95 percent Colinas series
quartz. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to extremely
acid throughout. The soils of the Colinas series are fine-loamy,
The A horizon has hue of 10YR and value and chroma carbonatic, isohyperthermic Eutropeptic Rendolls. They
of 3 or 4. are moderately deep and well drained and are on
The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 uplands. They formed in moderately fine residuum
to 7, and chroma of 2 to 6. weathered from soft limestone. The Colinas soils are






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 67



mostly used for pangolagrass, sugarcane, and native Ap-0 to 7 inches, brown (10YR 4/3) silty clay;
pasture. Some areas are in food crops. Slopes range moderate medium granular structure; firm, slightly
from 12 to 60 percent. sticky, plastic; many fine roots; slightly acid; clear
Colinas soils are associated with Naranjo, Juncal, and smooth boundary.
Soller soils. The Colinas soils are shallower and coarser B2-7 to 15 inches, brown (10YR 4/3) clay; few fine
textured than the Naranjo or Juncal soils. The Colinas faint dark gray (10YR 4/1) mottles and common fine
soils are coarser textured and are underlain by softer faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak
limestone than the Soller soils. medium subangular blocky structure parting to weak
Typical pedon of Colinas clay loam, 20 to 40 percent fine subangular blocky; firm, slightly sticky, plastic;
slopes, eroded, 320 meters north of kilometer marker many fine roots; few fine black concretions; neutral;
66.5 of Highway 2, in a field of native pasture: gradual smooth boundary.
C1g-15 to 26 inches, mixed dark gray (10YR 4/1) and
Ap-0 to 8 inches, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay; few fine faint
clay loam; weak fine granular structure; firm, slightly dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; massive;
sticky, plastic; many fine roots; many fine and firm, slightly sticky, plastic; common fine roots;
medium limestone fragments; violent effervescence; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
clear smooth boundary. C2g-26 to 42 inches, dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay; few
Sofine faint dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) mottles;
B- to 14 fines dark brow ( 4 y loa; massive; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; common fine
weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable, roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many fine roots; many C3-42 to 60 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) and dark
fine limestone fragments; violent effervescence; yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay; massive; firm,
clear smooth boundary. slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; common fine
C1-14 to 21 inches, light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) black concretions; neutral.
clay loam; massive; friable, nonsticky, slightly plastic;
common fine limestone fragments and soft The thickness of the solum ranges from 10 to 17
limestone; few dark colors due to root decay; violent inches. Reaction ranges from medium acid to neutral.
effervescence; gradual wavy boundary. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
C2-21 to 60 inches, soft limestone, chroma of 3 or 4.
The B horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 or
The thickness of the solum ranges from 13 to 19 5, and chroma of 2 to 4 and is mottled. Structure is weak
inches and the depth to the soft limestone from 20 to 29 fine or medium subangular blocky.
inches. The profile is calcareous and is 5 to 10 percent The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 or
by volume limestone fragments 1/4 to 1/.2 inch in 5, and chroma of 1 or 2 and is mottled. It is silty clay or
diameter. clay
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2 or 3. It is clay loam or cobbly clay loam. Consejo series
The B horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 3 or more. Structure is weak fine or medium The soils of the Consejo series are clayey, mixed,
subangular blocky. isohyperthermic Typic Tropudults. They are deep and
well drained and are on uplands.)They formed in fine
Coloso series textured and moderately fine textured residuum
The soils of the Coloso series are fine, mixed, weathered from volcanic rocks. The Consejo soils are in
nonacid, isohyperthermic Aeric Tropic Fluvaquents. They coffee, food crops, and pasture. Slopes range from 20 to
are deep and somewhat poorly drained and are on flood 60 percent.
Consejo soils are associated with Humatas, Consumo,
plains. They formed in fine textured and moderately fine
and Adjuntas soils. The Consejo soils do not have the
textured alluvial sediments. Slopes range from 0 to 2 and Adjuntas soils. The Consejo soils do not have the
textured alluvial sediments. Slopes range from 0 to 2 accumulation of illuvial organic matter typical of the
percent. Humatas soils, are more yellow and have a thicker solum
Coloso soils are associated with Toa, Bajura, and than the Consumo soils, and are deeper than and have
Vega Baja soils. The Coloso soils are finer textured and an argillic horizon not typical of the Adjuntas soils.
more poorly drained than the Toa soils and are better Typical pedon of Consejo clay, 20 to 40 percent
drained than the Bajura soils. The Coloso soils do not slopes, 1.1 kilometers south of kilometer marker 12.1 of
have the pressure faces typical of the Bajura soils or the Highway 605, in a field of merkergrass:
argillic horizon typical of the Vega Baja soils.
Typical pedon of Coloso silty clay, 100 meters east of Ap-0 to 5 inches, dark brown (10YR 4/3) and dark
Highway 616, 4.8 kilometers north of kilometer marker yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay; moderate fine and
2.5 of Highway 685: medium granular structure; firm, slightly sticky,







68 Soil survey



plastic; many fine roots; few quartz grains; few slightly sticky, plastic; common fine roots; thin
wormholes; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary. patchy clay films; very strongly acid; dear smooth
B21t-5 to 10 inches, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) boundary.
and yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) clay; weak fine and B3-12 to 18 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; weak fine
medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly and medium subangular blocky structure; firm,
sticky, plastic; many fine roots; many patchy clay slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; 30 percent
films; few quartz grains; few wormholes; extremely saprolite; thin patchy clay films; very strongly acid;
acid; clear smooth boundary. clear wavy boundary.
B22t-10 to 18 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) clay; C-18 to 50 inches, variegated red (7.5R 4/6, 4/8),
moderate fine and medium subangular blocky strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), black (10YR 2/1) silty
structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; common fine clay loam; massive; friable, slightly sticky, plastic;
roots; many patchy clay films; common quartz very strongly acid.
grains; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
B3-18 to 28 inches, yellow (10YR 7/6), brownish yellow The thickness of the solum ranges from 14 to 24
(10YR 6/8), and white (10YR 8/2) clay loam; weak inches.
fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable, The A horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 or
slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; many quartz 5, and chroma of 4 to 6.
grains; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary. The B horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 or
C-28 to 60 inches, brownish yellow (10YR 6/8), yellow 5, and chroma of 6 or 8. It has weak or moderate
(10YR 7/6), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), and white subangular blocky structure. Clay films range from thin
(10YR 8/2) clay loam; massive; friable, slightly patchy to thin discontinuous.
sticky, plastic; many quartz grains; extremely acid. The C horizon is silty clay loam to clay.
The thickness of the solum ranges from 24 to 42 Corozal series
inches. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to extremely
acid. The soils of the Corozal series are clayey, mixed,
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4, isohyperthermic Typic Tropohumults. They are deep and
and chroma of 2 to 4. somewhat poorly drained and are on uplands. They
The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4 formed in fine textured and moderately fine textured
to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Clay films range from patchy residuum from volcanic rocks. The Corozal soils are
to discontinuous. The B3 horizon is clay or clay loam. used mainly for pasture. Some areas are in food crops,
The B horizon has weak or moderate fine or medium coffee, and sugarcane. Slopes range from 2 to 12
subangular blocky structure, percent.
The C horizon ranges from clay loam to loam. The Corozal soils are associated with and are more
poorly drained than the Daguey and Humatas soils.
Consume series Typical pedon of Corozal clay, 5 to 12 percent slopes,
65 meters southwest of kilometer marker 13.7 of
The soils of the Consumo series are clayey, mixed, Highway 146, in a field of native pasture:
isohyperthermic Dystropeptic Tropudults. They are deep
and well'drained and are on uplands. They formed in fine Ap-0 to 6 inches, reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay; few
textured and moderately fine textured sediments fine distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) mottles;
weathered from basic volcanic rocks. The Consumo soils moderate fine granular structure; friable, slightly
are mostly used for coffee, pasture, and food crops. sticky, plastic; many fine roots; very strongly acid;
Slopes range from 20 to 60 percent. clear smooth boundary.
Consumo soils are associated with Humatas, Daguey, B21t-6 to 13 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) clay, common
and Morado soils. The Consumo soils have a thinner medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles
solum than the Daguey or Humatas soils and are finer and few fine distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
textured and deeper than the Morado soils. mottles; moderate fine and medium subangular
Typical pedon of Consumo clay, 40 to 60 percent blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic;
slopes, 400 meters northwest of kilometer marker 6.1 of common fine roots; thin patchy clay films; very
Highway 602, in a field of native pasture: strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
B22t--13 to 22 inches, red (10R 4/6) and yellowish
Ap-0 to 6 inches, reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay; weak brown (10YR 5/4) clay; moderate medium
fine subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky,
granular; friable, slightly sticky, plastic; many fine plastic; common fine roots; thick patchy clay films;
roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. extremely acid; gradual smooth boundary.
B2t-6 to 12 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; moderate fine B23t-22 to 32 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) and yellowish
and medium subangular blocky structure; firm, brown (10YR 5/6) clay; few fine distinct light






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 69



brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; weak fine and B21h-18 to 19 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sandy loam;
medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly single grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; very
sticky, plastic; few fine roots; thin patchy clay films; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
extremely acid; gradual smooth boundary. IIB22ht-19 to 20 inches, very dark grayish brown (10YR
B3-32 to 41 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; yellowish 3/2) sandy loam; single grain; loose, nonsticky,
brown (10YR 5/6), red (10R 4/8), and light gray (5Y nonplastic; few clay bridges between sand grains;
7/2) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
friable, slightly sticky, plastic; extremely acid; gradual IlB23ht-20 to 24 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
wavy boundary, sandy clay loam; single grain; loose, nonsticky,
C1-41 to 60 inches, variegated saprolite that crushes to nonplastic; thin clay coatings on sand grains,
clay loam; massive; friable, slightly sticky, plastic; common clay bridges between grains and small
extremely acid, pockets of clay; very strongly acid; abrupt irregular
boundary.
The thickness of the solum ranges from 32 to 47 B24t24 to 33 inches, pale brown (1YR 6/3) clay;
inches. Reaction is very strongly acid or extremely acid. moderate coarse prismatic structure; firm, slightly
The A horizon has hue of 5YR or 7.5YR and value and stic plas; brown (7.5YR 5/2) stains along old
chroma of 3 or 4. sticky, plastic; brown (7.5YR 5/2) stains along old
chroma of 3 or 4. root channels and cleavage planes; very strongly
The B horizon has hue of 10R through 5YR, value of 4 acid; clear wavy boundary.
or 5, and chroma of 6 to 8. Structure ranges fromac- er wy bon
moderate fine or medium to weak fine or medium IIIC1--33 to 40 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) loamy sand;
moderate fine or medium to weak fine or mediummassive; extremely firm, nonstick, nonplastic; dark
subangular blocky. Clay films in the Bt horizon range massive; extremely firm, nonstick, nonplastic; dark
from thick to thin. brown (7.5YR 4/4) stains along old root channels
and cleavage planes; very strongly acid; gradual
Ss wavy boundary.
Cor series IIIC2-40 to 60 inches, light gray (2.5Y 7/2) sandy clay
The soils of the Corozo series are sandy over clayey, loam; massive; very firm, nonsticky, slightly plastic;
siliceous, isohyperthermic Orthoxic Tropudults. They are very strongly acid.
deep and well drained and are on coastal plains. They
formed in coarse textured quartz sediments. The Corozo The thickness of the solum ranges from 30 to 60
soils are mainly used for pangolagrass and coconuts. inches. The depth to the horizon of accumulation of
Some small areas are in native pasture. Slopes range illuvial organic matter ranges from 13 to 26 inches.
from 2 to 12 percent. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to extremely
Corozo soils are associated with Algarrobo, Jobos, acid.
Carrizales, Arecibo, and Guerrero soils. The Corozo soils The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
have less illuvial organic matter than the Algarrobo soils; chroma of 1 or less.
and the Carrizales, Guerrero, and Jobos soils have no The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and
organic matter. The Corozo soils do not have the chroma of 1 or less.
plinthite layers typical of the Guerrero and Jobos soils The Bh and Bht horizons have hue of 10YR or 7.5YR,
but have an argillic horizon that is not typical of the value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. They range from
Arecibo soils. loamy sand to sandy clay loam.
Typical pedon of Corozo fine sand, 2 to 12 percent The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5
slopes, 600 meters west of the Officers' Club of Camp to 6, and chroma of 2 to 4. It ranges from clay to sandy
Tortuguero in a field of native pasture: clay.
The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR through 2.5Y, value
A11-0 to 4 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single of 4 to 8, and chroma of 2 to 6. It is sandy loam or
grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; many fine roots; loamy sand.
15 percent black (10YR 2/1) spherical and
elongated friable organic matter accumulations 1/4 Coto series
inch thick; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A12-4 to 12 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single The soils of the Coto series are clayey, kaolinitic,
grain; loose; nonsticky, nonplastic; common fine isohyperthermic Tropeptic Haplorthox. They are deep
roots; 15 percent black (10YR 2/1) rounded and and well drained and are on coastal plains. They formed
elongated friable organic matter accumulations 1/4 in fine textured sediments derived from limestone. The
inch thick; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. Coto soils are mostly used for sugarcane and pasture.
A2--12 to 18 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; Some areas are in food crops. Slopes range from 2 to
single grain, loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; few fine 12 percent.
roots; tongues of A12 horizon in root channels; very Coto soils are associated with Espinosa, Almirante,
strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary, and Aceitunas soils. The Coto soils do not have the







70 Soil survey



argillic horizon typical of each of the associated soils and Cuchillas series
have more yellow than the Aceitunas soils.
Typical pedon of Coto clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 870 The soils of the Cuchillas series are loamy, mixed,
meters southeast of kilometer marker 0.1 of Highway isothermic, shallow Typic Humitropepts. They are
484, in a pasture: moderately deep and well drained and are on uplands.
They formed in moderately fine textured residuum
Ap-0 to 8 inches, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) clay; weathered from basic volcanic rocks. The Cuchillas soils
weak fine subangular blocky structure parting to are mainly in pasture. Some areas are in coffee. Slopes
moderate fine granular; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; range from 40 to 60 percent.
many fine roots; many quartz grains; very strongly Cuchillas soils are associated with Maricao, Humatas,
acid; clear smooth boundary. and Los Guineos soils. The Cuchillas soils are shallower
acid; clear smooth boundary. than the Maricao or Los Guineos soils, are coarser
B21-8 to 15 inches, yellowish red (5YR 4/6) clay; than the Maricao or Los soils, have more yellow than
moderate fine and m m textured than the Humatas soils, have more yellow than
moderate fine and medium subangular blocky the Maricao soils, and do not have the argillic horizon
structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; common fine typical of the Los Guineos soils.
roots; thin patchy clay films; many fine quartz grains; Typical pedon of Cuchillas silty clay loam, 40 to 60
very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary, percent slopes, 1.25 kilometers west of kilometer marker
B22-15 to 27 inches, yellowish red (5YR 4/6) clay; 38.4 of Highway 149, in a field of molassesgrass:
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable,
slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few fine roots; thin Ap-0 to 6 inches, dark brown (10YR 3/3) silty clay
patchy clay films; many quartz grains; strongly acid; loam; moderate fine granular structure; firm, slightly
gradual smooth boundary. sticky, slightly plastic; many fine roots; 5 percent fine
B23-27 to 34 inches, strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) clay; gravel; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; B-6 to 16 inches, dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) silty
friable, slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; thin clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
patchy clay films; many quartz grains; strongly acid; firm, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common fine
gradual smooth boundary. roots; 5 percent gravel; strongly acid; clear smooth
B24-34 to 46 inches, strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) clay; boundary.
weak medium and coarse subangular blocky Cr-16 to 28 inches, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
structure; friable, slightly sticky, plastic; thin clay loam; massive; firm, slightly sticky, slightly
discontinuous clay films; many fine quartz grains; plastic; few fine roots; 5 percent gravel and highly
discontinuous clay films; many fine quartz grains; w e v n o d acd.
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. R-28 inches, semiconsolidated volcanic rock.
B25-46 to 57 inches, strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) clay; R-28 inches consolidated volcanic rock.
few fine distinct red (2.5YR 4/6) mottles and few The thickness of the solum ranges from 12 to 20
fine faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; weak inches. The depth to the semiconsolidated volcanic rock
medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; ranges from 20 to 34 inches.
friable, slightly sticky, plastic; thin discontinuous clay Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid in the A
films; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary, and B horizons and slightly acid or medium acid in the C
B26-57 to 75 inches, strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) clay; horizon. The content of volcanic gravel ranges from 0 to
common fine distinct red (2.5YR 4/6) and yellowish 5 percent in the profile.
brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium and The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and
coarse subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly chroma of 2 or 3. It has weak or moderate fine granular
sticky, plastic; strongly acid. structure.
The B horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
The thickness of the solum and the depth to hard chroma of 4 to 6. It is silty clay loam or silty clay.
limestone are more than 40 inches. Reaction is very Structure is weak fine or medium subangular blocky.
strongly acid or strongly acid.
The A horizon has hue of 5YR or 7.5YR and value and Daguey series
chroma of 3 or 4.
h of t B oro of The soils of the Daguey series are clayey, oxidic,
The upper part of the B horizon has hue of 5YR, value isohyperthermic Orthoxic Tropohumults. They are deep
of 4, and chroma of 4 to 6. Structure is weak or and well drained and are on uplands. They formed in fine
moderate subangular blocky. Clay films range from textured residuum weathered from basic volcanic rocks.
patchy to discontinuous. The lower part of the B horizon The Daguey soils are in coffee, food crops, and pasture.
has hue of 7.5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 6 to 8. Slopes range from 12 to 20 percent.
Structure is weak medium or coarse subangular blocky. Daguey soils are associated with and have a thicker
solum than Alonso and Humatas soils. The Daguey soils






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 71



also have higher chroma throughout than the Alonso soils and have an argillic horizon not typical of the
soils and are more weathered than the Humatas soils. Bayamon soils.
Typical pedon of Daguey clay, 12 to 20 percent Typical pedon of Espinosa sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent
slopes, eroded, 50 meters south of a paved road that is slopes, 30 meters east of kilometer marker 3.2 of
600 meters east of kilometer marker 0.5 of Highway 619: Highway 119, in a sugarcane field:

Ap-0 to 8 inches, dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay; weak Ap-0 to 10 inches, dark brown (10YR 4/3) sandy loam;
fine subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine weak fine granular structure; friable, nonsticky,
granular; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; many fine roots; nonplastic; many fine roots; very strongly acid;
few fine black concretions; few fine volcanic quartz abrupt smooth boundary.
fragments; very strongly acid; clear smooth B21t-10 to 16 inches, strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy
boundary. clay; weak fine subangular blocky structure; firm,
A3-8 to 15 inches, reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay; slightly sticky, plastic; many fine roots; very strongly
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm, acid; clear smooth boundary.
slightly sticky, plastic; common fine roots; thin B22-16 to 36 inches, strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) clay;
continuous clay films; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) on weak medium and fine subangular blocky structure;
ped surfaces; few fine black concretions; very firm, slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; thin
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. patchy clay films; many black stains on ped
B21t-15 to 29 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; moderate surfaces; many fine quartz grains; Very strongly acid;
fine and medium subangular blocky structure; firm, clear smooth boundary.
slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; thin patchy clay B23t-36 to 47 inches, strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and
films; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary, yellowish red (5YR 5/8) clay; weak medium and fine
B22t-29 to 42 inches, yellowish red (5YR 4/6) clay; subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky,
moderate fine and medium subangular blocky plastic; few fine roots; thin discontinuous clay films;
structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; many fine quartz grains; very strongly acid; clear
few thin patchy clay films; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
smooth boundary. B24t-47 to 66 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/8),
B3-42 to 56 inches, yellowish red (5YR 5/8), reddish yellowish red (5YR 5/8), and dark grayish brown
yellow (5YR 6/8), red (2.5YR 4/8), and light gray (10YR 4/2) clay; yellowish brown coating on ped
(2.5Y 7/2) clay; weak fine subangular blocky surfaces; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
structure; friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few firm, slightly sticky, plastic; thin discontinuous clay
fine roots; few thin patchy clay films; 30 percent films; very strongly acid.
saprolite; very strongly acid; gradual smooth
boundary. The argillic horizon is thicker than 60 inches. The
C-56 to 68 inches, variegated yellowish red, red, and depth to plinthite is more than 60 inches. Reaction of the
white saprolite; silty clay loam; massive; very friable, profile is strongly acid or very strongly acid.
slightly sticky, slightly plastic; very strongly acid. The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, and value
and chroma of 3 or 4. It is sandy loam, sandy clay loam,
The thickness of the solum ranges from 50 to 67 or clay. It ranges from nonsticky and nonplastic to
inches. slightly sticky and plastic.
The A horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 or The upper part of the B horizon has hue of 10YR or
5, and chroma of 4. 7.5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 6 or 8. The lower
The B horizon has hue of 5YR or 2.5YR, value of 4 or part of the B horizon has hue of 10YR through 5YR,
5, and chroma of 6 to 8. Structure ranges from weak to value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2 to 8. The B21t horizon
strong. Clay films range from continuous to patchy, is sandy clay or clay. Structure of the B horizon is weak
or moderate fine or medium subangular blocky. Clay
Espinosa series films range from patchy to discontinuous.
The soils of the Espinosa series are clayey, mixed, Garrochales series
isohyperthermic Typic Paleudults. They are deep and
well drained and are on uplands and coastal plains. They The soils of the Garrochales series are marly, euic,
formed in fine textured sediments of mixed origin. The isohyperthermic Limnic Troposaprists. They are deep
Espinosa soils are in sugarcane, pangolagrass, and and poorly drained and are on coastal plains and flood
pasture. Slopes range from 2 to 12 percent, plains. They formed in the residuum of decomposed
Espinosa soils are associated with Almirante, Vega plant residue over marl. The Garrochales soils are mainly
Alta, and Bayamon soils. The Espinosa soils do not have used for pasture. Some areas are in abandoned
the plinthite layer typical of the Almirante and Vega Alta sugarcane fields. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.






72 Soil survey



Garrochales soils are associated with Palmar, Guerrero soils are associated with Jobos, Corozo,
Jareales, Tiburones, and Vigia soils. None of the Algarrobo, Arecibo, and Carrizales soils. The Guerrero
associated soils are marly, soils are better drained than the Jobos soils, and none
Typical pedon of Garrochales muck, 0.5 kilometer east of the other associated soils have the plinthite layers
and 1.4 kilometers south of kilometer marker 10.7 of typical of the Guerrero soils. The Algarrobo, Arecibo, and
Highway 682, in a native pasture field: Corozo soils have accumulations of illuvial organic
matter that are not typical of the Guerrero soils.
Oap-0 to 8 inches, black (N 2/0) broken face and Typical pedon of Guerrero sand, 2 to 12 percent
rubbed muck; moderate fine granular structure; very slopes, 500 meters south of kilometer marker 85.0 of
friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many fine Highway 2, in a field of pangolagrass:
roots; low mineral content; medium acid (pH 6.0 in
water); clear smooth boundary. A11-0 to 10 inches, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
Oa2-8 to 16 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2), sand; single grain; very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic;
broken face and rubbed muck; 60 percent fiber and many fine roots, medium acid; clear smooth
10 percent rubbed; massive; friable, slightly sticky, boundary.
slightly plastic; few fine roots; low mineral content; A12-10 to 24 inches, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
extremely acid (pH 3.7 in water); clear smooth sand; light gray (10YR 7/2) when dry; single grain;
boundary, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common fine
Oa3-16 to 29 inches, black (10YR 2/1) broken face roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
and rubbed muck; about 40 percent fiber and 10 B21t-24 to 35 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), red
percent rubbed; massive; friable, slightly sticky, (2.5YR 4/6), and yellowish red (5YR 5/8) sandy
slightly plastic; low mineral content; strongly acid clay; weak fine and medium subangular blocky
(pH 5.2 in water); abrupt smooth boundary. structure; firm, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few fine
Oa4-29 to 46 inches, very dark grayish brown (10YR roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
3/2) broken face and rubbed muck; about 60 B22t-35 to 43 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6),
percent fiber and 15 percent rubbed; massive; white (10YR 8/1), and red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay,
friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; low mineral yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) rubbed; weak coarse
content; slightly acid; (pH 6.3 in water); abrupt subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky,
smooth boundary, slightly plastic; very strongly acid; clear smooth
IILcal-46 to 47 inches, bluish gray (5B 5/1) silt loam; boundary.
massive; slightly sticky, slightly plastic; calcareous; B23t-43 to 58 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), dark
moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary. red (2.5YR 3/6), brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), light
IILca2-47 to 56 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) silt loam; gray (10YR 7/1) and dusky red (10R 3/4) clay;
massive; slightly sticky, slightly plastic; calcareous; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm,
moderately alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary. slightly sticky, slightly plastic; very strongly acid.
Oe4-56 to 74 inches, dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
broken face and rubbed muck; about 60 percent The argillic horizon is more than 50 inches thick. The
fiber and 15 percent rubbed; massive; slightly sticky, thickness of the sandy layers and the depth to plinthite
slightly plastic; low mineral content; neutral (pH 6.8 range from 20 to 40 inches.
in water) The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4
or 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. Reaction ranges from slightly
The thickness of the organic layers and the depth to to medium acid.
the marly layers range from 35 to 53 inches. The B horizon has hue of 5YR, through 10YR, value of
The Oap horizon is less than 5 percent fiber. 4 or 5, and chroma of 6 to 8. Structure ranges from
The subsurface organic layers have hue of 10YR, weak fine to coarse subangular blocky. The horizon
value of 2 and 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The unrubbed ranges from sandy clay to clay in the upper part and is
fiber content ranges from 30 to 60 percent and the clay in the lower part. Reaction is strongly acid or very
rubbed fiber content from 10 to 15 percent. strongly acid. The content of plinthite ranges from 6 to
The marly layer is light gray or white silt loam or loam. 20 percent or more, by volume.

Guerrero series Humatas series
The soils of the Guerrero series are clayey, oxidic, The soils of the Humatas series are clayey, kaolinitic,
isohyperthermic Arenic Plinthic Paleudults. They are isohyperthermic Typic Tropohumults. They are deep and
deep and excessively drained and are on coastal plains, well drained and are on uplands. They formed in fine
They formed in sand underlain by clay that is at least 5 textured residuum weathered from basic volcanic rock.
percent plinthite. The Guerrero soils are used for food The Humatas soils are mostly used for coffee, food
crops and pasture. Slopes range from 2 to 12 percent. crops, and pasture. Slopes range from 20 to 60 percent.






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 73



Humatas soils are associated with Daguey, Consumo, The thickness of the alluvial material is more than 60
and Alonso soils. The Humatas soils have a thinner inches. Reaction of the soils is slightly acid to mildly
solum than the Daguey soils and a thicker solum than alkaline.
the Consumo soils. The Humatas soils have higher The A horizon has hue of 2.5Y and 5Y, value of 2 or
chroma throughout than the Alonso soils and have a 3, and chroma or 1 or 2. It ranges from sandy loam to
higher cation exchange capacity. clay.
Typical pedon of Humatas clay, 40 to 60 percent The C horizon has hue of 5Y and 5BG, value of 4 to 6,
slopes, 1.1 kilometers from kilometer marker 6.6 of and chroma of 1. It is dominantly clay but ranges to
Highway 602, in a field of native fern and brush: sandy clay.
Ap-0 to 5 inches, reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay; weak Ingenio series
fine and medium granular structure; friable, slightly
sticky, plastic; many fine roots; very strongly acid; The soils of the Ingenio series are clayey, mixed,
clear smooth boundary. isohyperthermic Typic Tropudults. They are deep and
B21t-5 to 12 inches, yellowish red (5YR 4/6) clay; well drained and are on uplands. They formed in the
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm, residuum of medium textured and fine textured
slightly sticky, plastic; common fine roots; thin sediments of intrusive volcanic rock. The Ingenio soils
patchy clay films; very strongly acid; clear smooth are in coffee, food crops, and pasture. Slopes range
boundary. from 12 to 40 percent.
B22t--12 to 20 inches, yellowish red (5YR 4/8) clay; Ingenio soils are associated with Lirios and Pellejas
moderate fine and medium subangular blocky soils. The Ingenio soils have a thicker solum than either
structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; of the associated soils, have more red than the Pellejas
thin patchy clay films; very strongly acid; clear wavy soils, and have an argillic horizon that is not
boundary, characteristic of the Pellejas soils.
B3-20 to 30 inches, yellowish red (5YR 4/6) clay; weak Typical pedon of Ingenio clay loam, 5 to 20 percent
fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable, slopes, 25 meters south of kilometer marker 0.5 of
slightly sticky, plastic; 25 percent variegated reddish Highway 6602, in a field of pangolagrass:
yellow, dark brown, red, and black saprolite; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. Ap-0 to 6 inches, dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay loam;
C-30 to 56 inches, variegated reddish yellow, dark moderate fine and medium granular structure; firm,
brown, red, and black saprolite that crushes to silty slightly sticky, plastic; many fine roots; many fine
clay loam; massive; very friable, slightly sticky, quartz grains; very strongly acid; clear smooth
plastic; very strongly acid. boundary.
B21t-6 to 11 inches, red (2.5YR 4/8) and dark brown
The thickness of the solum ranges from 24 to 41 (7.5YR 4/4) clay; moderate fine and medium
inches. The A horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 5YR, value of subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky,
4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 6. plastic; many fine roots; thin patchy clay films; many
The B horizon has hue of 5YR or 2.5YR, value of 4 to fine quartz grains; very strongly acid; clear smooth
6, and chroma of 6 to 8. Structure is moderate fine or boundary.
moderate medium subangular blocky. B22t-11 to 17 inches, red (2.5YR 4/8) clay; moderate
The C horizon is silty clay loam or clay loam. medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly
sticky, plastic; many fine roots; thin patchy clay
Hydraquents films; many fine quartz grains; very strongly acid;
clear smooth boundary.
Hydraquents are deep, poorly drained soils that B23t-17 to 26 inches, red (2.5YR 4/8) clay; weak fine
formed in stratified loamy and clayey sediments and medium subangular blocky structure; firm,
deposited by floodwater. Hydraquents are in lagoons and slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; thin patchy clay
depressional areas on the flood plains of the coastal films; many fine quartz grains; very strongly acid;
lowlands. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. clear wavy boundary.
Hydraquents are near Coloso, Bajura, Vega Alta, and B3-26 to 38 inches, red (2.5YR 4/8, 4/6) and brownish
Jobos soils. Hydraquents are at a lower position on the yellow (10YR 6/8) clay; weak fine subangular blocky
landscape and are more poorly drained than the Coloso structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots;
soils, are at a lower position on the landscape and have few thin patchy clay films; very strongly acid; 40
more organic matter than the Bajura or Jobos soils, and percent saprolite; clear wavy boundary.
are darker and more poorly drained than the Vega Alta C-38 to 60 inches, variegated red, yellow, brown, and
soils. dusky red saprolite that crushes to silty clay loam;
Because of the variability of Hydraquents, a typical massive; friable; slightly sticky, slightly plastic; very
pedon is not given, strongly acid.






74 Soil survey



The thickness of the solum ranges from 28 to 48 The Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 5YR, value of 3
inches. The A horizon has hue of 10YR through 5YR, or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is medium acid or slightly
value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. The B2t horizon acid.
has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of The B2t horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 10R, value of 3
4 to 8. It is clay or silty clay. Structure ranges from weak or 4, and chroma of 4 to 6. Structure is moderate
medium to moderate fine or medium subangular blocky. medium coarse subangluar blocky. Clay films are thin
The B3 horizon consists of 30 to 40 percent saprolite. patchy or thin discontinuous: Reaction is neutral or mildly
The C horizon ranges from strongly acid to very alkaline.
strongly acid.
Islote series Jareales series
The soils of the Jareales series are fine, mixed,
The soils of the Islote series are very fine, mixed, nonacid, isohyperthermic Thapto-Histic Tropic
isohyperthermic Typic Tropudalfs. They are moderately Fluvaquents. They are deep and poorly drained and are
deep and well drained and are on coastal plains. They on coastal plains. They formed in fine textured
formed in fine textured material derived from calcareous sediments of mixed origin over decomposed organic
sandstone. The Islote soils are used mostly for pasture, material. The Jareales soils are mostly used for
sugarcane, and food crops. Slopes range from 2 to 12 sugarcane and pasture.
percent. Jareales soils are associated with Bajura and Vigia
Islote soils are associated with San German and soils. The Bajura soils do not have the underlying
Caracoles soils but are deeper to calcareous sandstone organic layer typical of the Jareales soils, and the Vigia
and have an argillic horizon that is not typical of either of soils do not have the mineral layers.
Typical edon of Islote sandy clay loam, 2 to 12 Typical pedon of Jareales clay, 1,150 meters north of
percent slopes, 6 meters west of a dirt road, 33 meters kilometer marker 2.4 of Highway 682, in a sugarcane
south of kilometer marker 7.85 of Highway 681, in a field
of a native pasture: Ap-O to 6 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) day; few
Ap-0 to 8 inches, dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sandy clay fine faint dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) mottles; weak
loam; moderate fine granular; friable, nonsticky, medium subangular blocky structure parting to
slightly plastic; many fine roots; medium acid; clear moderate medium granular; firm, slightly sticky,
smooth boundary. plastic; many fine roots; neutral; clear smooth
B1-8 to 12 inches, dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) and dark boundary.
red (2.5YR 3/6) clay; weak medium subangular B1-6 to 13 inches, black (10YR 2/1) clay; yellowish red
blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; (5YR 4/8) along root channels and few fine faint
common fine roots; thin patchy clay films; common yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; moderate
fine white specks; slightly acid; clear smooth medium and coarse subangular blocky structure with
boundary. few pressure faces; firm, slightly sticky, plastic;
B21t-12 to 18 inches, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) clay; common fine roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
moderate medium and coarse subangluar blocky B21g-13 to 20 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) clay;
structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; yellowish red (5YR 4/8) in root channels and many
thin patchy clay films; many white specks; neutral; medium olive (5Y 5/3) mottles and few fine
gradual smooth boundary, prominent greenish gray (5GY 5/1) mottles; weak
B22t-18 to 24 inches, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) clay; fine and medium subangular blocky structure with
moderate coarse subangular blocky structure; firm, few pressure faces; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; few
slightly sticky, plastic; thin discontinuous clay films; fine roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
few black stains; many white specks; neutral; clear B22g-20 to 28 inches, olive gray (5Y 5/2) clay; few fine
smooth boundary. faint strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and greenish gray
B3-24 to 30 inches, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) clay; weak (5GY 5/1) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; decayed roots;
sticky, plastic; thin patchy clay films; many white neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
specks; common fine sand grains; neutral; clear Oal--28 to 60 inches, black (N 2/0) broken face and
smooth boundary, rubbed muck; less than 5 percent fiber; massive;
Cr-30 inches, partially cemented calcareous sandstone. friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; low mineral
content; slightly acid.
The thickness of the solum and the depth to partially
cemented calcareous sandstone range from 27 to 43 The depth to the organic horizon ranges from 21 to 35
inches. inches. Reaction is neutral or slightly acid.






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 75


The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and B25t-40 to 55 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6),
chroma of 1 or 2. strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), and yellowish red (5YR
The upper part of the B horizon has hue of 10YR, 5/8) clay; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) on ped
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. surface; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
The Bg horizon has hue of 10YR, 5Y, and 5GY; value firm, sticky, plastic; few thin patchy clay films;
of 2 to 5; and chroma of 1 or 2. Structure is weak fine to common black stains; many fine quartz grains; very
coarse subangular blocky. strongly acid.
obos The thickness of the solum is more than 60 inches.
J s series The depth to plinthite ranges from 10 to 20 inches.
The soils of the Jobos series are clayey, oxidic, Reaction of the soil ranges from strongly acid to
isohyperthermic Plinthaquic Paleudults. They are deep extremely acid.
and moderately well drained and are on uplands and The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
coastal plains. They formed in sand underlain by clay chroma of 2 or 3. It is granular or subangular blocky.
and plinthite. The Jobos soils are mostly used for The B2t horizon consists of a reticular pattern of
pangolagrass and native pasture. Slopes range from 2 to yellowish brown, strong brown, dark gray, gray, yellowish
12 percent. red, and red. B2t horizons range from weak to strong
Jobos soils are associated with Guerrero, Corozo, and from medium to coarse subangular blocky. Clay
Algarrobo, Arecibo, and Carrizales soils. The Jobos soils films are discontinuous or patchy. The content of
are more poorly drained than the Guerrero soils; do not plinthite ranges from 6 to 30 percent by volume.
have the accumulation of illuvial organic matter typical of
the Algarrobo, Arecibo, and Corozo soils; have plinthite Juncal series
layers that are not typical in the Carrizales, Algarrabo, The soils of the Juncal series are fine, mixed,
Arecibo, or Corozo soils; and have an argillic horizon that isohyperthermic Typic Tropudalfs. They are deep and
is not typical of the Carrizales soils. moderately well drained and are on uplands. They
Typical pedon of Jobos sandy loam, 2 to 12 percent formed in fine textured residuum from limestone. The
slopes, 4.75 kilometers west of the Police Headquarters Juncal soils are mainly used for pasture and sugarcane.
on Highway 485, in a field of pangolagrass: Some areas are in food crops. Slopes range from 12 to
Ap- to 8 inches, dark brown (1YR 4/3) sandy loam; 40 percent.
Ap-0 to 8 inches, dark brown (10YR 4/3) sandy loam; Juncal soils are associated with Colinas, Naranjo, and
weak granular structure; friable, nonsticky, Soller soils. The Juncal soils are deeper than the Colinas
nonplastic; many fine roots; very strongly acid; or Soller soils, are finer textured than the Colinas soils
abrupt smooth boundary. are lighter colored than the Naranjo soils, and have an
B21t-8 to 14 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and argillic horizon that is not typical in the Soller and
red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; dark gray (10YR 4/1) on ped Naranjo soils.
surface; strong medium and coarse subangular Typical pedon of the Juncal clay, 12 to 20 percent
blocky structure; firm, sticky, plastic; many thin slopes, eroded, 25 meters east of kilometer marker 11.5
discontinuous clay films; many fine roots; many fine of Highway 647, in a plantain field:
quartz grains; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
B22t-14 to 22 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and Ap-0 to 8 inches, dark brown (10YR 4/3) clay; weak
red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; dark gray (10YR 4/1) on ped fine and medium subangular blocky structure; firm,
surface; strong medium and coarse subangular slightly sticky, plastic; many fine roots; evidence of
blocky structure; firm, sticky, plastic; common fine earthworm activity; medium acid; clear smooth
roots; many thin discontinuous clay films; many boundary.
quartz grains; very strongly acid; clear wavy B21t-8 to 14 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and
boundary. dark brown (10YR 4/3) clay; moderate medium and
B23t-22 to 33 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), red coarse subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly
(2.5YR 4/6, 5/8), and gray (10YR 6/1) clay; weak sticky, plastic; common fine roots; thin patchy clay
medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; films; black stains from root decay; neutral; gradual
firm, sticky, plastic; few fine roots; thin patchy clay smooth boundary.
films; many fine quartz grains; very strongly acid; B22t-14 to 22 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay;
clear wavy boundary. few fine prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles;
B24t-33 to 40 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), gray weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm,
(10YR 6/1), and yellowish red (5YR 5/8) clay; weak slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; thin patchy clay
medium subangular blocky structure; firm, sticky, films; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
plastic; few thin patchy clay films; many quartz B23t-22 to 32 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay;
grains; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. common fine prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/6 and







76 Soil survey



5/8) mottles; weak fine and medium subangular C-24 to 60 inches, variegated yellowish brown (5YR
blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; 5/6), dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4), strong
common thin patchy clay films; neutral; gradual wavy brown (7.5YR), reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/6), pale
boundary, yellow (2.5Y 8/4), yellow (10YR 7/6), and white
B24t-32 to 40 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay; saprolite that is silty clay loam; massive; friable,
few fine distinct pinkish gray (7.5YR 7/2) mottles; slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many fine quartz
weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; grains; very strongly acid.
firm, slightly sticky, plastic; few thin patchy clay
films; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. The thickness of the solum ranges from 20 to 30
C-40 to 60 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty inches. Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid
clay loam; few fine distinct light gray (7.5YR 7/0) throughout.
mottles; massive; friable, slightly sticky, plastic; The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4,
strong effervescence; moderately alkaline, and chroma of 3 or 4.
The B2 horizon has hue of 5YR or 2.5YR, value of 4
The thickness of the solum ranges from 37 to 49 or 5, and chroma of 6 to 8. It is silty clay or clay.
inches. Structure is weak or moderate subangular blocky. Clay
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4 films range from patchy to discontinuous.
or 5, and chroma of 2 or 3. Reaction is medium acid to The C horizon ranges from silty clay loam to loam.
neutral.
The B2t horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4 Los Guineos series
or 5, and chroma of 4 to 6. Structure is weak or
moderate and fine to coarse subangular blocky. Reaction The soils of the Los Guineos series are clayey, mixed,
is neutral to mildly alkaline in the upper part and mildly isothermic Epiaquic Tropohumults. They are deep and
alkaline to moderately alkaline in the lower part. moderately well drained and are on uplands. They
formed in fine textured residuum from highly weathered
Lirios series volcanic rock. The Los Guineos soils are mainly in
coffee, food crops, and pasture. Slopes range from 12 to
The soils of the Lirios series are clayey over loamy, 60 percent.
mixed, isohyperthermic Typic Tropudults. They are deep The Los Guineos soils are associated with the
and well drained and are on uplands. They formed in fine Humatas, Consumo, and Maricao soils. The Los Guineos
textured and moderately fine residuum from plutonic soils have a thicker solumn and are less well drained than
rock. The Lirios soils are mainly used for coffee, pasture, any of the associated soils.
and food crops. Slopes range from 20 to 60 percent. Typical pedon of Los Guineos clay, 12 to 20 percent
Lirios soils are associated with Ingenio and Pellejas slopes, 475 meters north of kilometer 4.1 of Highway
soils. The Lirios soils have a thinner solum than the 608, in a coffee field:
Ingenio soils, have more red than the Pellejas soils, and
have an argillic horizon that is not typical of the Pellejas Ap-0 to 6 inches, dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) day; weak
soils, fine subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly
Typical pedon of Lirios clay loam, 40 to 60 percent sticky, slightly plastic; many fine roots; very strongly
slopes, eroded, 300 meters west of kilometer marker acid; clear smooth boundary.
2.55 of Highway 523, in a field of pangolagrass: B21t-6 to 12 inches, brown (7.5YR 5/4) day; moderate
medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly
Ap-0 to 6 inches, brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay loam; weak sticky, plastic; common fine roots; thin patchy clay
fine subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine films; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
granular; friable, slightly sticky, plastic; many fine B22t-12 to 19 inches, brown (7.5YR 5/4) clay; few fine
roots; many fine quartz grains; strongly acid; clear faint yellowish red (5YR 4/8) mottles; moderate
smooth boundary. medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly
B2t-6 to 15 inches, red (2.5YR 5/8) clay; moderate sticky, plastic; few fine roots; thin continuous day
medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly films; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
sticky, plastic; common fine roots; thin patchy clay B23t--19 to 35 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; common
films; many fine quartz grains; strongly acid; clear fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles;
smooth boundary. moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm,
B3-15 to 24 inches, reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) clay; slightly sticky, plastic; very strongly acid; gradual
weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm, smooth boundary.
slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; thin patchy clay B3-35 to 46 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; common fine
films; many quartz grains; 25 percent variegated distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles and few
very pale brown, red, and brownish yellow saprolite; fine prominent very pale brown (10YR 8/3) mottles;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure;






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 77


firm, slightly sticky, plastic; very strongly acid; clear massive; very friable, nonsticky, slightly plastic;
smooth boundary. slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
C1-46 to 62 inches, variegated saprolite; yellowish red C2-33 to 60 inches, brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) loam
(5YR 4/8), reddish gray (5YR 5/2), pale red (10R variegated with yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), very
6/2) and reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/6) clay; massive; dark gray (10YR 3/1), and brown (7.5YR 4/4);
friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; very strongly massive; very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; visible
acid. original rock structure can be crushed between
The thickness of the solum ranges from 36 to 58 fingers; slightly acid.
inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to The thickness of the solum ranges from 18 to 24
extremely acid throughout. inches. The depth to semiconsolidated volcanic rock is
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4 more than 60 inches. Reaction is medium acid or slightly
or 5, and chroma of 3 to 5. acid throughout.
The upper part of the B horizon has hue of 7.5YR, The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. The lower part of chroma of 2 or 3.
the B horizon has hue of 5YR or 2.5YR, value of 4 or 5, The B2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
and chroma of 4 to 8. Structure of the B2t horizon is chroma of 3 to 6. Structure is weak fine or medium
moderate or strong subangular blocky. subangular blocky.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
Maraguez series chroma of 6. It is silt loam or loam.
The soils of the Maraguez series are fine-loamy,
mixed, isohyperthermic Typic Eutropepts. They are deep Maricao series
and well drained and are on uplands. They formed in
moderately fine textured and medium textured residuum The soils of the Maricao series are clayey, mixed,
of highly weathered basic volcanic rock. The Maraguez isothermic Dystropeptic Tropudults. They are well
soils are mostly used for coffee, pasture, and food crops. drained and moderately deep to saprolite and are on
Slopes range from 40 to 60 percent. uplands. They formed in fine textured sediments from
Maraguez soils are associated with Mucara, Caguabo, the residuum of highly weathered basic volcanic rock.
and Morado soils. The Maraguez soils are deeper than The Maricao soils are mainly used for coffee, food crops,
any of the associated soils, are coarser textured than the and pasture. Slopes range from 40 to 60 percent.
Mucara soils, and have a thicker solum than the Maricao soils are associated with Los Guineos,
Caguabo or Morado soils. Cuchillas, and Humatas soils. The Maricao soils have a
Typical pedon of Maraguez silty clay loam, 40 to 60 thinner argillic horizon than the Los Guineos or Humatas
percent slopes, eroded, 1.25 kilometers north of soils and are better drained than the Los Guineos soils.
kilometer marker 46.2 of Highway 10, in a coffee The Maricao soils are deeper and have more red than
plantation: the Cuchillas soils.
Typical pedon of Maricao clay, 40 to 60 percent
Ap-0 to 7 inches, dark brown (10YR 3/3) silty clay slopes, 630 meters north of kilometer marker 16.5 of
loam; moderate fine and medium granular structure; Highway 143, in a field of ferns and molassesgrass:
friable, slightly sticky, plastic; many fine roots; 2 to 5
percent volcanic fragments 1/4 to 1/2 inch wide; Ap-0 to 6 inches, yellowish red (5YR 4/6) clay; weak
medium acid; clear smooth boundary, fine subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine
B2-7 to 15 inches, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) granular; friable, slightly sticky, plastic; many fine
silty clay loam; dark brown (10YR 3/3) on ped roots; few fine quartz grains; very strongly acid; clear
surfaces; weak fine and medium subangular blocky smooth boundary.
structure; friable, slightly sticky, plastic; many fine B2t-6 to 14 inches, yellowish red (5YR 5/8) clay; weak
roots; many fine volcanic fragments; slightly acid; medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly
gradual smooth boundary, sticky, plastic; common fine roots; thin patchy clay
B3-15 to 21 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay films; few fine quartz grains; very strongly acid; clear
loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable, smooth boundary.
slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; many fine B3-14 to 20 inches, red (2.5YR 5/8) clay; common fine
volcanic fragments; 20 percent saprolite variegated distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/3) mottles and
with brownish yellow, very dark gray, and light olive common medium prominent red (10YR 5/6) mottles;
brown; slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary. weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable,
C1-21 to 33 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loam slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; few fine quartz
variegated with brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), very grains; 30 percent saprolite; very strongly acid;
dark gray (10YR 3/1), and brown (7.5YR 4/4); gradual wavy boundary.







78 Sol survey



C-20 to 60 inches, red (2.5YR 5/8) silty clay loam; The thickness of the solum and the depth to hard
common fine distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/3) limestone range from 40 to 60 inches. Reaction is
mottles and common medium prominent red (10YR slightly acid or neutral.
5/6) mottles; massive, very friable, slightly sticky, The A horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 3,
slightly plastic; few fine quartz grains; very strongly and chroma of 2 to 4.
acid. The B horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 10R, value of 3 or
4, and chroma of 4 to 8. Structure ranges from weak
The thickness of the solum ranges from 15 to 23 coarse to medium subangular blocky.
inches. Reaction is extremely acid or very strongly acid.
The A horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 or Moca series
5, and chroma of 4 to 6. Structure is weak fine
subangular blocky or granular. The soils of the Moca series are clayey, mixed,
The B2t horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 isohyperthermic Vertic Tropudults. They are deep and
or 5, and chroma of 6 to 8. Structure is weak fine or moderately well drained and are on uplands and coastal
medium subangular blocky. Clay films are patchy or plains. They formed in fine textured material over plastic
discontinuous, clay, gravel, and cobblestones. The Moca soils are used
The C horizon is silty clay or silty clay loam. for coffee, pasture, and food crops. Slopes range from 2
to 40 percent.
Matanzas series Moca soils are associated with Perchas and Voladora
soils. The Moca soils are redder and better drained than
The soils of the Matanzas series are clayey, oxidic, the Perchas soils and are not as well drained as the
isohyperthermic Tropeptic Eutrorthox. They are deep Voladora soils,
and well drained and are on coastal plains and uplands. Typical pedon of Moca clay, 2 to 12 percent slopes,
They formed in fine textured sediments over hard eroded, 40 meters east of kilometer marker 55.3 of
limestone. The Tanama soils are mostly used for Highway 155, in a pangolagrass field:
pineapples, sugarcane, and pasture. Some areas are in
food crops. Slopes range from 2 to 5 percent. Ap-0 to 6 inches, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) clay;
Matanzas soils are associated with Bayamon, red (2.5YR 4/8) stringers from the B1 horizon; weak
Almirante, and Tanama soils. The Matanzas soils have a fine subangular blocky structure; firm; slightly sticky,
thinner solum and are shallower than the Bayamon soils; plastic; many fine roots; very strongly acid; clear
are shallower than and do not have the plinthite layers smooth boundary.
typical of the Almirante soils; and are deeper and have B1-6 to 10 inches, red (2.5YR 4/8) and dark reddish
more red than the Tanama soils. brown (5YR 3/4) clay; few fine distinct brown (10YR
Typical pedon of Matanzas clay, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 5/4) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
15 meters south of a dirt road that is 1 mile west of structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; many fine
Highway 695: roots; thin patchy clay films; very strongly acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
Ap-0 to 8 inches, dark reddish brown (2.5YR 3/4) clay; B2t-10 to 17 inches, red (2.5YR 4/8) and yellowish
moderate fine granular structure; friable, slightly brown (10YR 5/6) clay; few fine distinct light
sticky, plastic; many fine roots; neutral; gradual brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; moderate
smooth boundary. medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly
B21-8 to 18 inches, dusky red (10R 3/4) clay; weak sticky, slightly plastic; common fine roots; thin
medium subangular blocky structure parting to weak discontinuous clay films; very strongly acid; gradual
fine granular; friable, slightly sticky, plastic; many smooth boundary.
fine roots; many fine quartz grains; neutral; gradual B3-17 to 30 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3), red
smooth boundary. (2.5YR 4/8), and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) cay;
B22-18 to 32 inches, dark red (10R 3/6) clay; weak weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm,
medium subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common fine roots;
sticky, plastic; common fine roots; common fine thin patchy clay films; common pressure faces and
black stains; few quartz grains; neutral; gradual wavy slickensides; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary. boundary.
B23-32 to 42 inches, red (10R 4/6) clay; medium C1-30 to 36 inches, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and
subangular blocky structure; very friable; slightly dark red (7.5R 3/8) clay; few fine distinct yellowish
sticky, plastic; few fine roots; few fine black stains; brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; massive; slightly sticky,
neutral; abrupt wavy boundary. plastic; few fine roots; common pressure faces and
R-42 inches, white hard fragmental limestone with red slickensides; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
stains, boundary.






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 79


C2-36 to 50 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) and red C-22 to 36 inches, variegated reddish brown (5YR 4/4),
(2.5YR 4/8) clay; few distinct brownish yellow (10YR yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), light gray (10YR 7/1),
6/8) mottles; massive; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; and dark reddish brown (2.5YR 3/4) clay loam;
few fine roots; common pressure faces and massive; friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic;
slickensides; very strongly acid; gradual wavy slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
boundary. R-36 inches, variegated semiconsolidated volcanic
C3-50 to 60 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) clay; few red rock.
and strong brown mottles; massive; firm, slightly
sticky, plastic; many pressure faces and The thickness of the solum ranges from 16 to 28
slickensides; very strongly acid. inches. The depth to the semiconsolidated volcanic rock
ranges from 26 to 40 inches. Reaction ranges from
The thickness of the solum ranges from 28 to 38 slightly acid to neutral.
inches. Reaction throughout is very strongly acid or The A horizon has hue of 5YR or 2.5YR, value of 3 to
extremely acid. 5, and chroma of 1 to 3.
The Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 5YR, value of 3 The B horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 or
or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. It ranges from clay loam to silty
The B horizon is variegated red, brown, and grayish clay loam. Structure is weak fine or medium subangular
brown. Structure is weak or moderate medium blocky.
subangular blocky. Clay films range from patchy The C horizon ranges from clay loam to loam.
to discontinuous.
The C horizon is gray and yellowish brown, brownish Mucara series
yellow, and strong brown.
The soils of the Mucara series are fine,
Morado series montmorillonitic, isohyperthermic, paralithic Vertic
Eutropepts. They are moderately deep and well drained
The soils of the Morado series are fine-loamy, mixed, and are on uplands. They formed in fine residuum
isohyperthermic Typic Eutropepts. They are moderately weathered from basic volcanic rock. The Mucara soils
deep and well drained and are on uplands. They formed are mainly used for coffee, food crops, and pasture.
in moderately fine textured residuum weathered from Slopes range from 20 to 60 percent.
reddish brown volcanic rock. The Morado soils are
Mucara soils are associated with Caguabo, Maraguez,
commonly pastured. Some areas are in coffee and food and Morado soils. The Mucara soils have a thicker solum
and Morado soils. The Mucara soils have a thicker solum
crops. Slopes range from 40 to 60 percent and are finer textured than the Caguabo soils, are finer
Morado soils are associated with Mucara, Maraguez, textured and shallower than the Maraguez soils, and are
and Caguabo soils. The Morado soils are coarser finer textured and hallowve a thinner solum than the Morado are
textured and have a thicker solum than the Mucara soils,
are shallower than the Maraguez soils, and are deeper soils.
than the Caguabo soils. Typical pedon of Mucara clay, 20 to 40 percent
Typical pedon of Morado clay loam, 40 to 60 percent slopes, 15 meters south of paved road, 0.9 mile east of
slopes, eroded, 15 meters south of kilometer marker 0.5 kilometer marker 0.5 of Highway 619:
of Highway 615, in a pasture: Ap-0 to 6 inches, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
Ap-0 to 9 inches, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) clay clay; weak fine granular structure; friable, slightly
loam; moderate fine granular; friable, slightly sticky, sticky, slightly plastic; many fine roots; slightly acid;
slightly plastic; many fine roots; few fine black clear smooth boundary.
concretions; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. B2-6 to 13 inches, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
B2-9 to 15 inches, weak red (2.5YR 4/2) clay loam; and dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay; weak
weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable, medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly
slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common fine roots; sticky, plastic; common fine roots; neutral; clear
few fine volcanic fragments; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
smooth boundary. C1-13 to 19 inches, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4),
B3-15 to 22 inches, reddish brown (5YR 4/4), grayish very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), and light olive
brown (2.5Y 5/2), yellowish red (5YR 5/6), and dark brown (2.5Y 5/4) clay loam; massive; friable, slightly
reddish brown (2.5YR 3/2) clay loam; weak fine and sticky, slightly plastic; few fine roots; neutral;- clear
medium subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly smooth boundary.
sticky, slightly plastic; few fine roots; few fine C2-19 to 27 inches, highly weathered volcanic rock;
volcanic fragments; slightly acid; clear smooth massive; friable.
boundary. R-27 inches, semiconsolidated volcanic rock.







80 Soil survey



The thickness of the solum ranges from 10 to 17 firm, slightly sticky, plastic; many lime splotches;
inches. The depth to semiconsolidated volcanic rock violent effervescence; gradual wavy boundary.
ranges from 20 to 35 inches. Reaction is slightly acid to C2-41 to 60 inches, mixed very pale brown (10YR 8/3),
neutral throughout. pink (7.5YR 7/4), brownish yellow (10YR 6/8), and
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and light gray (10YR 7/1) clay; massive; friable, slightly
chroma of 2 or 3. sticky, plastic; many lime splotches; violent
The B horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 3 effervescence; moderately alkaline.
to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is silty clay or clay.
It has weak fine or medium subangular blocky structure. The thickness of the solum ranges from 18 to 25
inches. The content of limestone fragments and
limestone splotches ranges from 0 to 10 percent.
Naranjo series The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR and value and
chroma of 2 or 3.
The soils of the Naranjo series are fine, mixed, The B horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of F
isohyperthermic Eutropeptic Rendolls. They are deep to 7, and chroma of 6 to 8. Structure is weak fine or
and well drained and are on uplands. They formed in fine medium subangular blocky.
textured residuum from soft limestone. The Naranjo soils The C horizon is yellowish brown, brownish yellow,
are mainly used for pangolagrass and sugarcane. Some pale brown, pink, and light gray.
areas are used for food crops. Slopes range from 12 to
60 percent. Palmar series
Naranjo soils are associated with Colinas and Juncal
soils. The Naranjo soils are finer textured and deeper The soils of the Palmar series are euic,
than the Colinas soils, have a darker surface layer than isohyperthermic Typic Troposaprists. They are deep and
the Juncal soils, and do not have the argillic horizon poorly drained and are on coastal plains and flood
typical of the Juncal soils. plains. They formed in the residuum of partially and
Typical pedon of Naranjo clay, 20 to 40 percent completely decomposed plants. The Palmar soils are
slopes, 350 meters south of kilometer marker 3.2 of mostly used for pasture. Slopes range from 0 to 2
Highway 646, in a field of native pasture and percent.
pangolagrass: Palmar soils are associated with Garrochales,
Tiburones, and Vigia soils. The Palmar soils are more
Ap-0 to 8 inches, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) alkaline than the Tiburones soils and do not have the
clay; moderate fine granular structure; firm, slightly underlying marly layer typical of the Garrochales soils or
sticky, plastic; many fine roots; 5 percent limestone the mineral layers typical of the Vigia soils.
fragments; few shell fragments; strong Typical pedon of Palmar muck, 3.2 kilometers east of
effervescence, moderately alkaline; clear smooth a dirt road, 2.1 kilometers north of kilometer marker 10.7
boundary. of Highway 682, in a marshy area:
B1-8 to 12 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay;
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) strings from Ap Oap-0 to 8 inches, black (N 2/0) broken face and
horizon; weak fine and medium subangular blocky rubbed muck; 5 percent fiber, less than 5 percent
structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; many fine rubbed; moderate fine granular structure; friable,
roots; 5 percent limestone fragments; few shell slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many fine roots; low
fragments; strong effervescence, moderately mineral content; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
alkaline; clear smooth boundary. Oal-8 to 15 inches, black (N 2/0) broken face and
B2-12 to 17 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay; rubbed muck; 10 percent fiber, less than 5 percent
weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm, rubbed; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
slightly sticky, plastic; few fine roots; black stains firm, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common fine
from earthworm activity; 10 percent limestone roots; low mineral content; neutral clear smooth
fragments; strong effervescence, moderately boundary.
alkaline; clear wavy boundary. Oa2-15 to 23 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
B3-17 to 22 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and broken face and black (10YR 2/1) rubbed muck; 35
brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) clay; weak fine percent fiber, 5 percent rubbed; massive; slightly
subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky, sticky, slightly plastic; low mineral content; gradual
plastic; few fine roots; common medium lime smooth boundary.
splotches; violent effervescence; moderately Oa3-23 to 37 inches, dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4)
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. broken face and very dark brown (10YR 2/2) rubbed
C1-22 to 41 inches, brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) and and pressed muck; 60 percent fiber, 15 percent
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay; common rubbed; massive; slightly sticky, slightly plastic; low
prominent light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles; massive; mineral content; neutral; gradual smooth boundary.






Arecibo Area of Northern Puerto Rico 81



Oa4-37 to 75 inches, black (10YR 2/1) broken face The B horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
and rubbed muck; 35 percent fiber, 5 percent chroma of 3 or 4. The B2 horizon ranges from clay loam
rubbed; massive; slightly sticky, slightly plastic; low to sandy clay loam. The B3 horizon is sandy loam or
mineral content; neutral, loamy sand.
The C horizon is sandy loam or loamy sand.
The thickness of the organic material is more than 6
feet. The reaction of the profile is slightly acid or neutral. Perchas series
The surface tier is neutral or has hue of 10YR, value
of 2, and chroma of 0 or 1. The subsurface tier is neutral The soils of the Perchas series are fine, mixed, acid
or has hue of 10YR, value of 2 and 3, and chroma of 0 isohyperthermic Typic Tropaquepts. They are deep and
to 4. The unrubbed fiber content is 5 to 10 percent of poorly drained and are on the coastal plains. They
the surface tier and 5 to 60 percent of the subsurface formed in fine textured sediments over tertiary clays. The
and bottom tiers. Rubbed fiber content is 5 to 15 percent Perchas soils are mostly used for pasture and food
throughout. crops. Slopes range from 2 to 20 percent.
The Perchas soils are associated with the Moca and
Pellejas series Voladora soils. The Perchas soils are yellower and more
The soils of the Pellejas series are fine-loamy over poorly drained than either of the associated soils.
sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, isohyperthermic Typic Typical pedon of Perchas clay, 2 to 12 percent slopes,
Dystropepts. These are deep and somewhat excessively eroded, 30 meters south of dirt road, 315 meters east of
drained and are on uplands. They formed in moderately kilometer marker 0.5 of Highway 145, in a field of
coarse textured residuum from plutonic rock. The pangolagrass:
Pellejas soils are mostly used for coffee, pasture, and
food crops. Some areas are used for tobacco. Slopes Ap-0 to 7 inches, dark brown (10YR 4/3) clay; common
range from 40 to 60 percent. medium distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) mottles;
The Pellejas soils are associated with Lirios and weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure;
Ingenio soils. The Pellejas soils are yellower than and do firm, slightly sticky, plastic; many fine roots; rust
not have the argillic horizon typical of either of the mottles from root decay; strongly acid; clear smooth
associated soils, and have a thinner solum than the boundary.
Ingenio soils. B2g-7 to 15 inches, light gray (2.5Y 7/0) clay; many
Typical pedon of Pellejas clay loam, 40 to 60 percent medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles;
slopes, 15 meters west of kilometer marker 0.9 of weak medium and coarse subangular blocky
Highway 531, in a field of pangolagrass: structure; firm, sticky, plastic; common fine roots;
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Ap-0 to 6 inches, dark brown (10YR 4/3) clay loam; B3g-15 to 24 inches, light olive gray (5Y 6/2) clay;
weak fine granular structure; friable, slightly sticky, common medium distinct yellowish brown (1 YR
slightly plastic; many fine roots; many quartz grains; 5/8) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. structure; firm, sticky, plastic; common fine roots;
B2-6 to 11 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky C1g-24 to 38 inches, light gray (5Y 7/2) clay; common
structure; friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles;
fine roots; many quartz grains; strong brown (10 YR massive; firm, sticky, plastic; few fine roots; strongly
smooth boundary. acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B3-11 to 16 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy C2g-38 to 58 inches, light olive gray (5Y 6/2) and
loam; massive; friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay; massive; firm,
fine roots; many quaratz grains; strong brown (10YR slightly sticky, plastic; strongly acid.
5/8), dark gray (5Y 4/1), and white (2.5Y 8/2)
saprolite; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. The thickness of the solum ranges from 17 to 26
C-16 to 62 inches, pale brown (10YR 6/3) loamy sand; inches. Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8), dark gray (5Y 4/1), and throughout.
very dark gray (10YR 3/1) saprolite. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
The thickness of the solum ranges from 11 to 20 chroma of 2 or 3.
inches. Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid. The B horizon has hue of 5Y or 2.5Y, value of 6 or 7,
The amount of quartz grains is common or many. and chroma of 2 or less. Structure of the B horizon is
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and weak medium or coarse subangular blocky.
chroma of 2 or 3.






82 Soi survey



Reilly series Ap-O to 11 inches, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) sand;
single grain; loose; nonsticky, nonplastic; many fine
The soils of the Reilly series are sandy-skeletal, mixed, roots; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
isohyperthermic Mollic Fluvaquents. They are shallow to A12-11 to 17 inches, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4)
sand and gravel, are excessively drained, and are on sand; single grain; loose; nonsticky, nonplastic;
flood plains. They formed in medium textured and common fine roots; slightly acid; gradual smooth
moderately coarse textured sediments over sand and boundary.
gravel. The Reilly soils are mostly used for pasture. A13-17 to 26 inches, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4)
Some small areas are in sugarcane. Slopes range from 0 loamy sand; single grain; loose, nonstick,
to 2 percent. nonplastic; common fine roots; slightly acid; clear
Reilly soils are associated with Toa, Coloso, and wavy boundary.
Bajura soils. Reilly soils are better drained and coarser B21t-26 to 36 inches, dark reddish brown (2.5YR 3/4)
textured than the Coloso or Bajura soils and are coarser sandy loam; massive; friable, nonsticky, nonplastic;
textured than the Toa soils, few fine roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Typical pedon of Reilly gravelly silt loam, 550 meters B22t-36 to 49 inches, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) sandy
east of kilometer marker 77.0 of Highway 10, in a loam; massive; friable, slightly sticky, nonplastic; few
suaran ee e field fine roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
sugarcane fiel: B23t-49 to 64 inches, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) sandy
Ap-0 to 7 inches, dark brown (10YR 3/3) gravelly silt loam; massive; friable, slightly sticky, nonplastic; few
loam; weak fine granular; friable slightly sticky, fine roots; natural; gradual wavy boundary.
lB24t-64 to 77 inches, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) sandy clay
nonplastic; many fine roots; many fine quartz grains loam weak medim suanglar lock structure
and volcanic fragments; 25 percent gravel; medium
acd; clear smooth boundary; friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; calcareous.
acid; clear smooth boundary.
C1-7 to 13 inches, dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) The thickness of the solum is more than 60 inches.
gravelly sandy loam; massive; very friable, nonsticky, The A horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma
nonplastic; common fine roots; many fine quartz of 3 or 4.
grains, 35 percent gravel; medium acid; abrupt The B horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 3,
smooth boundary, and chroma of 4 to 6. It ranges from sandy loam to
C2-13 to 55 inches, coarse sand and gravel; single sandy clay loam. Structure is weak medium or coarse
grain; loose; 60 percent gravel. subangular blocky.
The thickness of the A horizon ranges from 7 to 10 Sabana Seca series
inches thick. Reaction is medium acid or slightly acid.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR and value and chroma The soils of the Sabana Seca series are clayey, mixed,
of 2 or 3. Structure is weak fine or medium granular. The isohyperthermic Plinthic Tropaquults. They are deep and
horizon is 25 to 35 percent gravel. poorly drained and are on the coastal plains. They
The C horizon consists of 60 to 70 percent gravel, formed in fine textured coastal plain sediments and
plinthite. The Sabana Seca soils are mainly used for
Rio Lajas series pasture. Some areas are in sugarcane and food crops.
Slopes range from 2 to 5 percent.
The soils of the Rio Lajas series are coarse-loamy, Sabana Seca soils are associated with Vega Alta and
mixed, isohyperthermic Typic Tropudalfs. They are deep Almirante soils. Sabana Seca soils are more poorly
and somewhat excessively drained and are on the drained and are at a lower elevation than either of the
coastal plains. They formed in coarse textured associated soils.
sediments. The Rio Lajas soils are mainly used for Typical pedon of Sabana Seca clay, 2 to 5 percent
pangolagrass, food crops, and pasture. Slopes range slopes, 30 meters north of Highway 690 and 65 meters
from 2 to 12 percent. east of the junction of Highways 689 and 690:
Rio Lajas soils are associated with Carrizales, Jobos, A-0 to 9 inches, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
and Guerrero soils. The Rio Lajas soils are redder than clay; moderate fine and medium granular structure;
the Carrizales soils and have an argillic horizon that is firm, slightly sticky, plastic; many fine roots; rust
not characteristic of the Carrizales soils. The Rio Lajas colors from root decay; very strongly acid; clear
soils are sandier than the Jobos or Guerrero soils but do smooth boundary.
not have the plinthite layers typical of those soils. B1-9 to 15 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) day;
Typical pedon of Rio Lajas sand, 2 to 12 percent many medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
slopes, 0.8 kilometer west of the Camuy municipal mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
cemetery, in a pasture: structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; many fine




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