Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: Pig feeding
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027409/00001
 Material Information
Title: Pig feeding
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 59-69 : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1916
Copyright Date: 1916
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027409
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEN3256
oclc - 18161602
alephbibnum - 000922747

Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE



The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Bulletin 131 June, 1916


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agricultural Experiment Station




PIG FEEDING

by
JOHN M. SCOTT

















Fig. 20. Ready for Market.







The Station Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the Experiment
Station, Gainesville, Fla.













BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Fla.
W. D. FINLAYSON, Old Town, Fla.
F. E. JENNINGS, Jacksonville, Fla.

STATION STAFF
P. H. ROLFS, M.S., Director.
J. M. SCOTT, B.S., Vice Director and Animal Industrialist.
B. F. FLOYD, A.M., Plant Physiologist.
J. R. WATSON, A.M., Entomologist.
H. E. STEVENS, M.S., Plant Pathologist.
S. E. COLLISON, M.S., Chemist.
JOHN BELLING, B.Sc., Assistant Botanist, and Editor.
C. D. SHERBAKOFF, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist.
S. S. WALKER, M.S., Associate Chemist.
F. F. HALMA, B.S., Assistant Horticulturist.
H. L. DOZIER, B.S., Laboratory Assistant in Entomology.
JULIUS MATZ, B.S., Laboratory Assistant in Plant Pathology.
H. G. CLAYTON, B.S.A., Laboratory Assistant in Dairying.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor and Bookkeeper.
T. VAN HYNING, Librarian.
E. G. SHAW, Secretary.
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Foreman.

COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATIONS
John M. Scott, H. E. Stevens and B. F. Floyd.




























CONTENTS
Page
Introduction------_ --------______ .. .......----------- .-------------.------63
Experiment I: Corn, Green Cowpeas, Green Sorghum .-----..------------64
Experiment II: Corn, Peanuts, Rape ------.. ----- ------------------...65
Experiment III: Corn, Rape, Velvet Beans__ :---- -----------.--------66
Experiment IV: Corn, Velvet Beans, Iron Sulphate ---------- ---.------67
Experiment V: Corn, Dasheens, Velvet Beans- .....---------------------68


























SUMMARY

1. This bulletin gives the results of feeding experiments in which seventy-six pigs
were used.
2. Green cowpeas when fed with shelled corn produced better results than green
sorghum and shelled corn.
3. As the amount of peanuts In the rations was Increased, there was a noticeable
increase in the daily gain per head.
4. Shelled corn and dwarf essex rape produced best results in Experiment III.
5. The best gain was produced by feeding shelled corn three parts and cracked
velvet beans one part by weight.
6. Raw dasheens were not satisfactory as a feed for pigs.










Pig Feeding

BY JOHN M. SCOTT


INTRODUCTION
The Florida farmer has several advantages over the cornbelt
farmer in pork production. He has a milder climate, a longer
pasturing season, and a greater variety of feeds. He can produce
pork cheaper than the cornbelt farmer because no expensive
shelters are necessary in winter; pasture can be had the year
round; and protein concentrates, as well as carbohydrates can be
raised on his own farm.
The greatest trouble the Florida farmer has is to select the best
hog feeds from the many that may be raised in the state. Feeding
tests have not been made with many of these because they are not
grown in other states. The Experiment Station started a series
of feeding tests in 1910 to determine the practical value of some
of these feeds. From the resulting data it is hoped that farmers
may select without delay and expense the crops which will sup-
ply the best and cheapest feeds.
The results in this bulletin are a continuation of the pig feed-
ing experiments reported in Bulletin 113. The following results
are from five tests in which seventy-six pigs were used. It will be
seen from the weights of the different lots of pigs at the be-
ginning of the experiments that all the pigs were small. The
average weights at the beginning of the experiments varied from
60 to 100 pounds. It is probable that the results in some of the
tests might have been different if older hogs had been used.
The pigs in all of the experiments discussed in this bulletin
were divided into lots as nearly equal in size and quality as possi-
ble. The weights at the beginning and close of all of the feed-
ing experiments are the average of three weighing taken on
consecutive days.
The pigs used in experiments I, II, III, and IV were all Berk-
shires. Those in experiment V were a mixed lot of 19 pigs.
Five were Berkshires and the other fourteen were by a Duroc
Jersey boar and out of Tamworth sows. Each lot contained both
Berkshire and Duroc-Jersey-Tamworth crosses.
The average daily gain per 1000 pounds live weight varied
from 9.7 pounds to 2.32 pounds. The best gain was made by the






64 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

pigs in lot II in experiment IV. These pigs were fed corn, three
parts, and cracked velvet beans, one part, by weight. The
smallest gain per 1000 pounds live weight was made by the pigs
in lot III in experiment III. These pigs. were fed corn and
ground velvet beans equal parts by weight plus dwarf essex rape.

EXPERIMENT I

The first test was conducted with eight pigs divided into two
equal lots. The pigs in each lot at the beginning of the experi-
ment averaged nearly 75 pounds a head. Lot I was fed shelled
corn and green cowpeas. Lot II received shelled corn and green
sorghum. Each lot of hogs received the same number of pounds
of feed. The shelled corn and green feed were fed in equal
amounts.
The feeding test began September 3, 1912, and continued
forty-six days. During that time the four pigs in lot I consumed
466 pounds of shelled corn and 466 pounds of green cowpeas.
The four pigs in lot II consumed 466 pounds of shelled corn and
466 pounds of green sorghum. At the close of the test the pigs
of lot I showed an average gain of 19.9 pounds a head, those in
lot II, 16.6 pounds a head. Thus shelled corn and green cowpeas
produced more gain than an equal amount of shelled corn and
green sorghum. The detailed results of this test are given in ta-
bles XI, XII, and XIII.
TABLE XI
WEIGHTS AND GAINS IN POUNDS

Lot I Lot II
Weights at beginning of test, Sept. 3, 1912 (four pigs) ------- 293.3 296.6
Weights at close of test..----------------------------------373.0 363.0
Gain in forty-six days --------------.....----..--- ------ 79.7 66.4
Average gain per head ..--------.....------------.. ---- -.. 19.9 16.6
Average daily gain per head ----------..-------... --------- .43 .36
Average daily gain per 1000 pounds live weight -----------. 5.9 4.9
Pounds of feed to make one pound of gain ----------------- 11.7 14.0

TABLE XII
POUNDS OF FEED CONSUMED

Lot I Lot II
Shelled Corn-------------------------------------- -. 466.0 466.0
Green Cowpeas .--------------...... --.. -------------_ 466.0 ----
Green Sorghum ---..-...--------------------...------ -.. -- ---- 466.0






Bulletin 131 65

TABLE XIII
DAILY RATIONS, POUNDS PER PIG

Lot I Lot II
Shelled Corn .-------------.------------------.. -...- 2.53 2.53
Green Cowpeas ---..--------------------------------..2.53 ----
Green Sorghum ---.----..-------------------------------- ----- 2.53


EXPERIMENT II
The second experiment was begun January 31, 1913, and
lasted forty-three days. This experiment was conducted with
three lots of pigs: four pigs in lot I and five pigs in lot II, and lot
III. The pigs in lot I were fed shelled corn. Those in lot II
were fed three parts of shelled corn, one part by weight of pea-
nuts. Those in lot III were fed equal parts by weight of shelled
corn and peanuts. All lots were fed dwarf essex rape in addition
to the other feeds.
The results of this test, which are given in tables XIV, XV,
and XVI, bring out one point clearly.
As the amount of peanuts in the rations was increased, there
was a noticeable increase in the daily gain per head. The aver-
age daily gain of the pigs in lot I, which were fed corn and dwarf
essex rape, was 0.68 of a pound. The average daily gain of the
pigs in lot II, fed corn three parts, peanuts one part, and dwarf
essex rape, was 0.72 of a pound. The average daily gain of the
pigs in lot III, fed corn and peanuts equal parts by weight, and
dwarf essex rape, was 0.77 of a pound.
Peanuts are good fat producers, but it is doubtful if their
feeding value is more than 50 or 60 cents a bushel. They usually
sell at $ .75 to $1.00 a bushel.
The hogs that were fed peanuts presented a better appear-
ance than those fed corn and rape only. Their coats were much
smoother, and they were more thrifty generally.
TABLE XIV
WEIGHTS AND GAINS IN POUNDS

Lot 1* Lot II Lot III
Weights at beginning of test, Jan. 31,1913 (five pigs) 335.0 469.0 469.0
Weight at close of test .----------------...----. 453.0 624.0 635.0
Gain in forty-three days ......--.---------------. 118.0 155.0 166.0
Average gain per head ....-----------__......-- .. 29.5 31.0 33.3
Average daily gain per head ---..-----...------ .. 0.686 0.72 0.774
Average daily gain per 1000 pounds live weight.... 8.2 7.7 8.25
Pounds of feed to make one pound of gain ---..... 4.67 4.44 4.14
*Four pigs in Lot I.







66 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE XV
POUNDS OF FEED CONSUMED

Lot I Lot II Lot III
Shelled Corn ------------.-----------....... ---- 551.0 516.0 344.0
Dwarf Essex Rape ------------------------------ 103.0 129.0 129.0
Peanuts ----------------------------------- ---- ----- 172.0 344.0


TABLE XVI
DAILY RATIONS, POUNDS PER PIG

Lot I Lot II Lot III
Shelled Corn ........-- ---------.. ---.-.-----. 3.2 2.4 1.6
Dwarf Essex Rape ------------------------------- .6 .6 .6
Peanuts--------- ------------------------------ -------- .8 1.6


EXPERIMENT III

The third experiment was conducted with fifteen head of
pigs. The pigs in lot I were fed shelled corn and dwarf essex
rape. Lot II was fed shelled corn, three parts; ground velvet
beans, one part by weight, and dwarf essex rape. Lot III was
fed shelled corn and ground velvet beans equal parts by weight
and dwarf essex rape. All of the lots received the same amount
of dwarf essex rape.

TABLE XVII
WEIGHTS AND GAINS IN POUNDS

Lot I Lot II Lot III
Weights at beginning of test, Jan. 9,1914 (five pigs). 439.0 446.3 430.6
Weights at close of test-----------------------....... 486.3 481.6 461.6
Gain in thirty-one days... ----------- -------... 47.3 35.3 31.0
Average gain per head -------------------------. 9.46 7.0 6.1
Average daily gain per head --------------------- 0.31 0.23 0.20
Average daily gain per 1000 pounds live weight.--- 3.47 2.55 2.32
Pounds of feed to make one pound of gain -------- 18.3 24.5 28.00


TABLE XVIII
POUNDS OF FEED CONSUMED

Lot I Lot II Lot III
Shelled Corn -------- ..----------------.... 248.0 186.0 124.0
Velvet Beans, ground---.......------------------------ 62.0 124.0
Dwarf Essex Rape -------------..--------------620.0 620.0 620.0





Bulletin 131 67

TABLE XIX
DAILY RATIONS, POUNDS PER PIG

Lot I Lot II Lot III
Shelled Corn -----...-------------------.--- -. 1.6 1.2 .8
Velvet beans, ground ----------------------------------- ..4 .8
Dwarf Essex Rape------------------------------- 4.0 4.0 4.0

The experiment began January 9, 1914, and continued thirty-
one days. During this time the pigs in lot I, fed shelled corn and
dwarf essex rape, gained 47.3 pounds. During the same time,
pigs in lot II, fed shelled corn three parts and velvet bean meal
one part by weight with dwarf essex rape, gained 35.3 pounds.
The pigs in lot III, fed shelled corn and ground velvet beans
equal parts by weight with dwarf essex rape, gained 31 pounds.
These results (see tables XVII, XVIII and XIX) indicate that
corn and dwarf essex rape produced the best results in this test.
However, the gains were not satisfactory in any of the lots in
this experiment. In nearly all cases the gains were about one-
third those in any of the other experiments.

EXPERIMENT IV
The fourth experiment was begun June 2,1914, and contin-
ued thirty days. In this test twenty pigs, divided into five lots of
four pigs each were used. From table XX it will be seen that the
pigs were small, since they averaged only 60 to 65 pounds each.
The pigs in lot I were fed corn only; those in lot II corn
three parts and cracked velvet beans one part by weight; lot III
corn and cracked velvet beans equal parts by weight; lot IV corn
and cracked velvet beans equal parts by weight, plus iron sul-
phate; lot V corn three parts, cracked velvet beans one part by
weight plus iron sulphate.
The iron sulphate was used in an attempt to improve the
velvet bean ration, since previous results had been unsatisfactory.
This salt has been used successfully with cottonseed meal, but re-
sults of this test did not indicate that iron sulphate was beneficial
in producing gains.






68 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE XX
WEIGHTS AND GAINS IN POUNDS

Lot I Lot II Lot III Lot IV Lot V
Weight at beginning of test,
June 2, 1914 (four pigs) ---. 250.6 253.3 255.6 254.6 250.0
Weight at close of test -----.. 307.3 328.3 322.6 317.3 314.0
Gain in thirty days-------... 56.7 75.0 67.0 62.7 64.0
Average gain per head-------- 14.1 18.7 16.7 15.6 16.0
Average daily gain per head-.. 0.47 0.63 0.56 0.52 0.53
Average daily gain per 1000
pounds live weight------. 7.54 9.87 8.73 8.20 8.53
Pounds of feed to make one
pound of gain _--------- 6.35 4.80 5.37 5.74 5.62

TABLE XXI
POUNDS OF FEED CONSUMED

Lot I Lot II Lot III Lot IV* Lot V*
Shelled Corn--------- --. 360.0 270.0 180.0 180.0 270.0
Velvet beans, cracked --- --------... 90.0 180.0 180.0 90.0

*Lots IV and V were given iron sulphate at each feed.
TABLE XXII
DAILY RATION, POUNDS PER PIG

Lot I Lot II Lot III Lot IV Lot V
Shelled Corn ------.... 3.00 2.25 1.50 1.50 2.25
Velvet beans, cracked- --- --- .75 1.50 1.50 .75

The results given in tables XX, XXI, and XXII:show that the
pigs in all lots made more satisfactory gains than those in the
previous experiment. The largest daily gain was made by the
pigs in lot II which received corn three parts and cracked velvet
beans one part by weight. The least daily gain was made by the
pigs in lot I, fed corn alone. The cheapest pork was produced
by the pigs in lot III, fed corn and cracked velvet beans equal
parts by weight. The most expensive pork was produced by the
pigs in lot I, fed corn alone.

EXPERIMENT V

In this experiment nineteen pigs, which were divided into
four lots of five pigs each, except lot III, which contained four,
were used.
Lot I was fed shelled corn only, lot II was fed shelled corn
one part and raw dasheens four parts by weight. Lot III was fed
shelled corn and raw dasheens equal parts by weight. Lot IV was







Bulletin 131 69

fed shelled corn one part, dasheens four parts by weight, and a
small amount of velvet bean meal.
This experiment began March 4, 1915, and continued fifty-
nine days. It will be seen by looking over the table of weights
and gains that the pigs in lot I and lot III are the only ones that
approached satisfactory gains. Lot II did little more than main-
tain their initial weight, and lot IV made an average daily gain of
only 0.187 of a pound, which is a very unsatisfactory gain for hogs
on feed.
This, however, is probably the first feeding experiment to be
conducted with dasheens. It is possible that as we learn more
about this crop we will learn methods of feeding that will give
good results. It is evident that in this experiment raw dasheens
were not satisfactory for fattening pigs. The results of this test
are given in detail in tables XXIII, XXIV, and XXV.

TABLE XXIII
WEIGHTS AND GAINS IN POUNDS

Lot I Lot II Lot III* Lot IV
Weights at the beginning of test,
March 4, 1915 (five pigs).------------ 344.0 338.4 268.0 340.3
Weight at close of test ..----------------- 478.6 370.0 359.0 359.6
Gain in fifty-nine days ------------ 134.6 31.6 91.0 55.3
Average gain per head----------------- 28.5 6.3 22.7 11.0
Average daily gain per head .------------ 0.45 0.107 0.38 0.187
Average daily gain per 1000 pounds live
weight ---------- ------------- 6.63 1.58 5.75 2.75
Pounds of feed to make one pound of
gain -----.--..------..-----. 6.35 32.63 8.20 20.04

"*Four pigs in lot III.

TABLE XXIV
POUNDS OF FEED CONSUMED

Lot I Lot II Lot III Lot IV
Shelled Corn---------------------.---- 855.0 207.4 373.3 207.4
Dasheens ------------ ------------ ------- 824.0 373.3 824.0
Velvet beans, ground ------------------------------ 77.0

TABLE XXV
DAILY RATION, POUNDS PER PIG

Lot I Lot II Lot III Lot IV
Shelled Corn.... ------------------------ 2.8 0.7 1.4 0.7
Dasheens ------------------------------------- 2.8 1.4 2.8
Velvet beans, ground -------- -----_----------- -- ----- ... .35





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