• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Experimental method
 Presentation of results
 Discussion
 Summary and conclusions
 Literature cited
 Appendix














Group Title: Bulletin / University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 359
Title: Distribution of "trace elements" in the newborn calf as influenced by the nutrition of the dam
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027386/00001
 Material Information
Title: Distribution of "trace elements" in the newborn calf as influenced by the nutrition of the dam
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 47 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rusoff, Louis L
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1941
 Subjects
Subject: Calves -- Diseases -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Nutritionally induced diseases in animals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 39-40.
Statement of Responsibility: by L.L. Rusoff.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027386
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924592
oclc - 18219704
notis - AEN5219

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Acknowledgement
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Experimental method
        Page 5
    Presentation of results
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Discussion
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 38
    Literature cited
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Appendix
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
Full Text

BULLETIN 359


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
WILMON NEWELL, Director
Gainesville, Florida




DISTRIBUTION OF
"TRACE ELEMENTS" IN THE NEWBORN
CALF AS INFLUENCED BY THE
NUTRITION OF THE DAM
By L. L. RUSOFF







TECHNICAL BULLETIN













Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


JUNE, 1941







EXECUTIVE STAFF
John J. Tigert, M. A., LL.D., President
of the University3
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director3
Harold Mowry, M. S. A., Asst. Dir.,
Research
W. M. Fifield, M. S., Asst. to Director
J. Francis Cooper, M. S. A., Editor3
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor3
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Nawhall, Administrative Manager3
K. H. Graham, Business Manager3
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant3
MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist3
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate2
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Assocoate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
Fred A. Clark, B.S.A., Assistant
ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Indus-
tralist 1 3
R. R. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman2
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologista
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Associate in Dairy
Manufactures
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M, Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy
Husbandman3
L. L. Rusoff, Ph. D., Asst. in An.
Nutrition'
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' 3
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ-
omist1
Ruth Overstreet, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, PhD., Truck Hort.'
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Fumigation
Specialist
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Lee B. Nash, Ph. D., Assistant
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturists
H M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturists
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist' '
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.3
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist 1
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologista
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Associate3
L. H. Rogers, M.S., Asso. Biochemist
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist


BOARD OF CONTROL
H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agron. Act. in Chg.
R. R. Kinkaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Elliott Whitehurst, B.S.A., Assistant An.
Husbandman
Jesse Reeves, Asst Agron., Tobacco
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Chg.
John H. Jeffries, Asst. in Cit. Breeding
Chas. K. Clark, Ph.D., Chemist
V. C. Jamison, Ph. D., Soils Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Associate
Entomoligist
F. F. Cowart, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. K Voorhees, MS., Asst. Plant Path.
EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Chg.
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
Frederick Boyd, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An Husb.
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage En-
gineer2
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.
SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Associate Plant
Pathologist Acting in Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
E. M. Andersen, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA.,
BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charge2
RANGE CATTLE STA., Wauchula
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman
in Charge

FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
in Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Asso. Truck
Horticulturist
Monticello
Samuel O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2
Bradenton
Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Truck Horti-
culturist in Charge
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. WI Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in
Charge, Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist2


"Head of Department
'In cooperation with U. S.
'Cooperative, gther divisions, U. of F.








DISTRIBUTION OF "TRACE ELEMENTS" IN THE NEWBORN
CALF AS INFLUENCED BY THE NUTRITION
OF THE DAM'.
By L. L. RUSOFF'

CONTENTS
Page Page
Introduction ..... ...... .... ......... .. 3 Summary and Conclusions -~...----.... 38
Experimental Method ....... 5 Literature Cited.......................... 39
Presentation of Results ............ 5 Appendix -........... ....... ~.-- 41
Discussion ........ ....................... 36

INTRODUCTION
The relation of mineral intake to a malnutrition of cattle
in Florida, locally called "salt sick", has attracted the attention
of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station workers for 10 years.
The literature concerning "salt sick" has been reviewed in a
previous bulletin (27)'. The following is a summary of the re-
view.
The condition "salt sick" affects many cattle grazing on cer-
tain light sandy soils of Florida. The symptoms are: emaciation,
listlessness, weakness, long rough hair coat, loss of appetite,
lack of growth and retarded sexual development. In 1931, it was
found that the use of ferric ammonium citrate and copper sul-
fate as a drench, or a mineral mixture of 100 pounds of salt, 25
pounds of red oxide of iron and 1 pound of copper sulfate cor-
rected the condition "salt sick" in field trials. The iron and cop-
per in this mixture are in the proportion of 50 to 1. In 1937 co-
balt was found to be another element that was required by cat-
tle on certain areas where the mineral supplement of iron and
copper was ineffective. It is possible that the mineral mixture
of iron and copper found to be effective was contaminated with

Acknowledgements.-Thanks are due to the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station for permission to use a part of the project "Mineral Re-
quirements for Cattle" as thesis material to the Graduate Faculty of the
University of Minnesota; Mr. L. H. Rogers and the staff of the Spectro-
graphic Laboratory of the Station for the spectrographic analyses nec-
essary for this study; and Dr. R. B. Becker and Dr. W. M. Neal of the
Animal Industry Department for assistance in securing experimental
material and helpful criticism during the progress of this work.
'From a thesis submitted by L. L. Rusoff in partial fulfillment of
*he requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Grad-
uate School of the University of Minnesota, June 1940. The experiments
were conducted at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
'Doctor L. S. Palmer, major adviser, Division of Agricultural Bio-
Chemistry, University of Minnesota, contributed many valuable sug-
gestions and criticisms during the conduct of the work and the pre-
paration of this manuscript.
"Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back
of this bulletin.








DISTRIBUTION OF "TRACE ELEMENTS" IN THE NEWBORN
CALF AS INFLUENCED BY THE NUTRITION
OF THE DAM'.
By L. L. RUSOFF'

CONTENTS
Page Page
Introduction ..... ...... .... ......... .. 3 Summary and Conclusions -~...----.... 38
Experimental Method ....... 5 Literature Cited.......................... 39
Presentation of Results ............ 5 Appendix -........... ....... ~.-- 41
Discussion ........ ....................... 36

INTRODUCTION
The relation of mineral intake to a malnutrition of cattle
in Florida, locally called "salt sick", has attracted the attention
of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station workers for 10 years.
The literature concerning "salt sick" has been reviewed in a
previous bulletin (27)'. The following is a summary of the re-
view.
The condition "salt sick" affects many cattle grazing on cer-
tain light sandy soils of Florida. The symptoms are: emaciation,
listlessness, weakness, long rough hair coat, loss of appetite,
lack of growth and retarded sexual development. In 1931, it was
found that the use of ferric ammonium citrate and copper sul-
fate as a drench, or a mineral mixture of 100 pounds of salt, 25
pounds of red oxide of iron and 1 pound of copper sulfate cor-
rected the condition "salt sick" in field trials. The iron and cop-
per in this mixture are in the proportion of 50 to 1. In 1937 co-
balt was found to be another element that was required by cat-
tle on certain areas where the mineral supplement of iron and
copper was ineffective. It is possible that the mineral mixture
of iron and copper found to be effective was contaminated with

Acknowledgements.-Thanks are due to the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station for permission to use a part of the project "Mineral Re-
quirements for Cattle" as thesis material to the Graduate Faculty of the
University of Minnesota; Mr. L. H. Rogers and the staff of the Spectro-
graphic Laboratory of the Station for the spectrographic analyses nec-
essary for this study; and Dr. R. B. Becker and Dr. W. M. Neal of the
Animal Industry Department for assistance in securing experimental
material and helpful criticism during the progress of this work.
'From a thesis submitted by L. L. Rusoff in partial fulfillment of
*he requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Grad-
uate School of the University of Minnesota, June 1940. The experiments
were conducted at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
'Doctor L. S. Palmer, major adviser, Division of Agricultural Bio-
Chemistry, University of Minnesota, contributed many valuable sug-
gestions and criticisms during the conduct of the work and the pre-
paration of this manuscript.
"Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back
of this bulletin.








DISTRIBUTION OF "TRACE ELEMENTS" IN THE NEWBORN
CALF AS INFLUENCED BY THE NUTRITION
OF THE DAM'.
By L. L. RUSOFF'

CONTENTS
Page Page
Introduction ..... ...... .... ......... .. 3 Summary and Conclusions -~...----.... 38
Experimental Method ....... 5 Literature Cited.......................... 39
Presentation of Results ............ 5 Appendix -........... ....... ~.-- 41
Discussion ........ ....................... 36

INTRODUCTION
The relation of mineral intake to a malnutrition of cattle
in Florida, locally called "salt sick", has attracted the attention
of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station workers for 10 years.
The literature concerning "salt sick" has been reviewed in a
previous bulletin (27)'. The following is a summary of the re-
view.
The condition "salt sick" affects many cattle grazing on cer-
tain light sandy soils of Florida. The symptoms are: emaciation,
listlessness, weakness, long rough hair coat, loss of appetite,
lack of growth and retarded sexual development. In 1931, it was
found that the use of ferric ammonium citrate and copper sul-
fate as a drench, or a mineral mixture of 100 pounds of salt, 25
pounds of red oxide of iron and 1 pound of copper sulfate cor-
rected the condition "salt sick" in field trials. The iron and cop-
per in this mixture are in the proportion of 50 to 1. In 1937 co-
balt was found to be another element that was required by cat-
tle on certain areas where the mineral supplement of iron and
copper was ineffective. It is possible that the mineral mixture
of iron and copper found to be effective was contaminated with

Acknowledgements.-Thanks are due to the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station for permission to use a part of the project "Mineral Re-
quirements for Cattle" as thesis material to the Graduate Faculty of the
University of Minnesota; Mr. L. H. Rogers and the staff of the Spectro-
graphic Laboratory of the Station for the spectrographic analyses nec-
essary for this study; and Dr. R. B. Becker and Dr. W. M. Neal of the
Animal Industry Department for assistance in securing experimental
material and helpful criticism during the progress of this work.
'From a thesis submitted by L. L. Rusoff in partial fulfillment of
*he requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Grad-
uate School of the University of Minnesota, June 1940. The experiments
were conducted at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
'Doctor L. S. Palmer, major adviser, Division of Agricultural Bio-
Chemistry, University of Minnesota, contributed many valuable sug-
gestions and criticisms during the conduct of the work and the pre-
paration of this manuscript.
"Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back
of this bulletin.







4 Agricultural Experiment Station
cobalt, or that a deficiency of iron, copper, or cobalt, or a com-
bination of these elements exists on certain pastures. It is now
recognized that there is an overlapping of these deficiencies on
some areas.
The mineral mixture now recommended by the Florida Ag-
ricultural Experiment Station consists of the addition of 1 pound
of cobalt chloride or cobalt sulfate to a ton of the old mineral
mixture of salt, red oxide of iron and copper sulfate (21).
It was found that there was less copper in the soils and less
iron in the forage from affected ("salt sick") areas as compared
with healthy areas (11, 23). The copper content of the forage
from both the healthy and "salt sick" areas showed no significant
differences (28). The only mineral analysis of the organs and
tissues of normal and affected cattle has been made recently
with newborn calves for their copper content (27). No studies
of "trace elements" in the organs and tissues of Florida cattle
have been reported prior to this time.
Since ash samples of the organs and tissues of the newborn
calves used in the copper study were available (27), it seemed
desirable to make a study of their "trace element" content by
means of a spectrographic estimation in order to obtain an in-
dication as to whether any element or elements might be playing
contributory or supplementary roles in "salt sick."
The dams were selected on the basis of their previous nu-
trition as indicated by their physical condition during preg-
nancy and by the history of the range over which they grazed
(27). Initially, a comparison was made with two newborn calves,
E 106 from a normal dam and E 108 from a "salt sick" dam. It
was found that the data for copper obtained from these two ani-
mals was not significant, and two more normal calves, E 123
and E 125, were secured. The organs and tissues usually sampled
were prepared for analysis. Spectrographic estimations of the
mineral content of the samples from the initial two calves were
made first, while samples from the last two calves were analyzed
almost a year later and several months apart. Changes in spectro-
graphic technique make comparisons of either of the latter
calves with the first two less significant than if the samples had
been analyzed concurrently.
The terms "salt sick" calf and "salt sick" organs and tissues
are used throughout this paper for descriptive purposes to desig-
nate the condition of the dam, rather than the actual condition
of the calf.







"Trace Elements" in the Newborn Calf


EXPERIMNETAL METHOD
Four newborn calves were used in this study, three from
normal dams and one from a "salt sick" dam. The slaughter of
the animals, obtaining of the tissues and organs, and the pre-
paration of the ash is presented in a previous bulletin (27). Ex-
treme precautions against contamination with elements were ex-
ercised at all times.
The spectrographic method employed is described else-
where (28, 26). The tissues were analyzed for 27 "trace elements".
The approximate lower limits of detectability of the method are:
0.0001 percent for chromium, cobalt, nickel and silver; 0.001
percent for aluminum, barium, beryllium, boron, lead, manganese,
molybdenum, strontium, tin, titanium, vanadium and zinc; 0.01
percent for antimony, bismuth, cadmium, lanthanum, thallium,
yttrium and zirconium; 0.1 percent for arsenic, cesium, lithium
and tungsten.
PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
Table 1 presents the spectrographic estimation for 27 "trace
elements" in the tissues and organs usually sampled for all of
the calves expressed as parts per million of dry matter'. Table 2
presents a record of the "trace elements" in the organs and
tissues of the initial two calves, E 106 from a normal dam and
E 108 from a "salt sick" dam. Tables 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 give the
spectrographic estimation of the "trace elements" in the organs
and tissues of these same calves. These calves were considered
separately from the others because of the completeness of samp-
ling of tissues and organs.
The data are reported in range form to avoid misunderstand-
ing as to precision and to retain a legitimate basis for compari-
son. For example, 2-5 p.p.m. in the table means that the propor-
tion of the element lies between 2 and 5 parts per million on the
dry matter basis.
The term "trace" indicates that the element was present at
the borderline of the sensitivity of the spectrographic method.
From some tissues an insufficient supply of ash was available for
analysis after copper was determined so that it is not known
whether these ashes might have contained an element in ques-
tion.

'Appendix Tables I, II, III and IV give the fresh weights, percent-
age of dry matter and percentage of ash on the dry basis of the organs
and tissues of the newborn calves if it is desired to compute any of the
analyses on another basis.







"Trace Elements" in the Newborn Calf


EXPERIMNETAL METHOD
Four newborn calves were used in this study, three from
normal dams and one from a "salt sick" dam. The slaughter of
the animals, obtaining of the tissues and organs, and the pre-
paration of the ash is presented in a previous bulletin (27). Ex-
treme precautions against contamination with elements were ex-
ercised at all times.
The spectrographic method employed is described else-
where (28, 26). The tissues were analyzed for 27 "trace elements".
The approximate lower limits of detectability of the method are:
0.0001 percent for chromium, cobalt, nickel and silver; 0.001
percent for aluminum, barium, beryllium, boron, lead, manganese,
molybdenum, strontium, tin, titanium, vanadium and zinc; 0.01
percent for antimony, bismuth, cadmium, lanthanum, thallium,
yttrium and zirconium; 0.1 percent for arsenic, cesium, lithium
and tungsten.
PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
Table 1 presents the spectrographic estimation for 27 "trace
elements" in the tissues and organs usually sampled for all of
the calves expressed as parts per million of dry matter'. Table 2
presents a record of the "trace elements" in the organs and
tissues of the initial two calves, E 106 from a normal dam and
E 108 from a "salt sick" dam. Tables 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 give the
spectrographic estimation of the "trace elements" in the organs
and tissues of these same calves. These calves were considered
separately from the others because of the completeness of samp-
ling of tissues and organs.
The data are reported in range form to avoid misunderstand-
ing as to precision and to retain a legitimate basis for compari-
son. For example, 2-5 p.p.m. in the table means that the propor-
tion of the element lies between 2 and 5 parts per million on the
dry matter basis.
The term "trace" indicates that the element was present at
the borderline of the sensitivity of the spectrographic method.
From some tissues an insufficient supply of ash was available for
analysis after copper was determined so that it is not known
whether these ashes might have contained an element in ques-
tion.

'Appendix Tables I, II, III and IV give the fresh weights, percent-
age of dry matter and percentage of ash on the dry basis of the organs
and tissues of the newborn calves if it is desired to compute any of the
analyses on another basis.










TABLE 1.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS FOR "TRACE ELEMENTS" (ALUMINUM AND BARIUM, BORON AND CHROMIUM) IN THE TISSUES
USUALLY SAMPLED OF NEWBORN CALVES EXPRESSED AS PARTS PER MILLION OF DRY MATTER.


Tissue or Organ


Calf Calf
E 106 E 123
p.p.m. p.p.m.
0.4 N.D.**
0.5-2 N.D.
Tr.*** 0.5
0.5 0.5
Tr. 0.6
0.5-2 0.6
3-7 N.D.
6-14
28-104 0.9
5 5
0.5-2 0.7
0.8 0.5
0.6 .


Aluminum


Calf
E 125
p.p.m.
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.1

5-19

0.4-1.7
0.7
N.D.

0.9
0.3-1.3


Calf
E 108*
p.p.m.
N.D.
0.6
N.D.
N.D.
0.6
N.D.
0.6-2
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
0.7
5-10
0.7


*Calf from "salt sick" dam, others from normal dams.
**N.D. denotes not detected.
***Tr. denotes trace.
Boron


N.D.** N.D.
2-5 5-18
2-5 N.D.
1.5 N.D.
N.D. 0.6-3
N.D. N.D.
0.7-2 N.D.
N.D.
N.D. N.D.
4-14 N.D.
I.S.* N.D.
I.S. I.S.
0.6-3


*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.
**N.D. denotes note detected.


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.

6.5-32.7

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.

N.D.
N.D.


Barium


Calf Calf
E 106 E 123
p.p.m. p.p.m.
N.D. 0.5
N.D. 0.6
N.D. 0.5
N.D. 0.5
N.D. 0.6
N.D. 0.6
N.D. 0.8
0.5
N.D. 0.9
4-14 0.5
0.7 0.7
N.D. 0.5
N.D.


Calf Calf
E 125 E 108


p.p.m.
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.1

0.6

0.6
0.7
4.6-17.3

0.9
0.4


Chromium


N.D.
0.5-2
0.4-1
0.4-1
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
0.5-2
N.D.
0.6-2


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
0.5
0.6
N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.

7.8-29.3
N.D.
2.1-5.6
2.6-5.3


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.

0.5-2

0.6
N.D.
N.D.

0.94
N.D.


Liver
Kidneys
Heart
Pancreas
Lungs
Spleen
Thymus
Flesh
Brain
Rib
Adrenals
Gallbladder
Blood


p.p.m.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
5-18
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.





N.D.
0.6
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
0.8
3-5
0.7
N.D.
0.5-2
N.D.
N.D.


Liver
Kidneys
Heart
Pancreas
Lungs
Spleen
Thymus
Flesh
Brain
Rib
Adrenals
Gallbladder
Blood





TABLE 1.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS FOR "TRACE ELEMENTS" (COBALT AND LEAD, MANGANESE AND MOLYBDENUM) IN THE TISSUES
USUALLY SAMPLED OF NEWBORN CALVES EXPRESSED AS PARTS PER MILLION OF DRY MATTER-(Continued).


Tissue or Organ



Liver
Kidneys
Heart
Pancreas
Lungs
Spleen
Thymus
Flesh
Brain
Rib
Adrenals
Gallbladder
Blood


Liver
Kidneys
Heart
Pancreas
Lungs
Spleen
Thymus
Flesh
Brain
Rib
Adrenals
Gallbladder
Blood


Calf
E 106
p.p.m.
N.D.**
N.D,
N,D.
N.D,
N.D,
N.D.
N.D,
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D,
N.D.
N.D.


3-11
1-4
0.4-1
0.5
0.4-1
0.5-2
N.D.**
0.5-2
0.4-2
4-14
0.5-2
N.D.
0.5-2


**N.D. denotes not detected.
***Tr. denotes trace.


Cobalt
Calf
E 123
p.p.m.
N.D,
N.D,
N.D,
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.,D

N,D.
N.D,
N.D,
N.D.


Manganese
2.4-4.7 5.
0.6-3 2.
0.5 1.
2.8-5.6 0.
0.5-1.8
0.6 0.
0.6-2.4
0.
7.8-29 0.
N.D. 5.
2-5
1.6-4 0.
0.


Calf Calf
E 125 E 108


p.p.m.
0.6
N.D,
N.D.
0.9-3,6

3-8

N.D.
N.D,
N.D,

ND.
N.D.


7-28.8
9-5.8
8-3.6
1

5-1.9

6
7
7

9
4


p.p.m,
N.D.
0.6
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D,
N.D.
N,D,
N.D.
0.7
N.D.
N.D.


4-17
0.5-2
0.5-2
3-5
0.6
0.6-3
N.D.
2.0-4
0.7
N.D.
2.0-5
N.D.
N.D.


Calf
E 106
p.p.m.
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.4-1
0.5
N.D.
0.7-3
'Tr.***
N.D,
Tr,
0,7-3
0.8
N.D.


1-3
0.4-1
Tr.***
0.4-1
0.4-1
0.5-2
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
0.6
N.D.
N.D.


Lead
Calf
E 123
p.p.m.
0.4-1.4
0.5-1.8
N.D.
1.7-4,5
0.6
1.8-4.9
0.6-2.4

N.D.
N.D.
2-5.6
0.4-1.5


Calf
E 125
p.p.m.
6-29
2.9-5.8
1.8-3.6
0.1

0.5-1,9

0.6
0.7
5.7

0.9
0.4


Molybdenum


Calf
E 108
p.p.m.
5-20
2-5
3-5
0.5
N.D.
5-18
N.D.
0.4-2
N.D.
N.D.
2.0-5
N.D.
N.D.


0.6
0.5-2
N.D.
0.5
0.6
0.5-2
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
0.7
N.D.
N.D.


1.4-3.8
5-18
0.5
0.5-2.8
0.5-1.8
0.6
N.D.

N.D.
N.D.
0.7
2.6-5.3


1.7-4.6
0.6-3
0.4
0.1

0.5-1.9

N.D.
0.7
N.D.

0.9
N.D.









TABLE 1.-SPECTROCRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS FOR "TRACE ELEMENTS" (NICKEL AND SILVER, STRONTIUM AND TIN) IN THE TISSUES USUALLY
USUALLY SAMPLED OF NEWBORN CALVES EXPRESSED AS PARTS PER MILLION or DRY MATTER-(Continued).
Tissue or Organ Nickel Silver
Calf Calf Calf Calf Calf Calf Calf Calf
E 106 E 123 E 125 E 108 E 106 E 123 E 125 E 108
p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m.
Liver N.D.** 1.4-3.8 0.6 N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.6 0.6
Kidneys N.D. 0:6-3.1 N.D. 0.5-2 N.D. 0.6 N.D. 0.6
Heart N.D. 0.4-1.6 0.4 N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.4 N.D.
Pancreas N.D. 2.8-5.6 0.1 N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.1 0.5
Lungs N.D. 0.6 N.D. N.D. N.D. --N.D.
Spleen N.D. 3-6 1.9-5.2 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.6
Thymus N.D. 0.8 N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.8
Flesh N.D. N.D. 1-4 N.D. N.D. N.D.
Brain N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Rib N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D N.D. N.D.
Adrenals 0.7 0.5-2 0.5-2 0.7 0.7 0.7
Gallbladder N.D. 4-16 N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.5 N.D. N.D.
Blood N.D. ___-- N.D. N.D. N.D. -N.D. N.D.
Strontium Tin
Liver N.D.** 0.5 0.6 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Kidneys N.D. 0.6 0.6 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Heart N.D. 0.5 0.4 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Pancreas N.D. 0.6 0.1 N.D. N.D. 0.6 0.1 N.D. -
Lungs N.D. 0.6 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. a
Spleen N.D. 0.6 0.6 N.D. N.D. 3.1-6.2 0.6 N.D.
Thymus N.D. 0.8 N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.6-2
Flesh 0.5 0.6 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Brain N.D. 0.9 0.7 0.7 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Rib 4-14 5.5 5.7 5-18 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Adrenals N.D. 0.7 -N.D. 0.7 N.D. 0.7
Gallbladder N.D. 0.5 0.9 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Blood 0.6 ..- 0.4 0.7 N.D. -- N.D. N.D.
**N.D. denotes not detected.







"Trace Elements" in the Newborn Calf


TABLE 1.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS FOR "TRACE ELEMENTS" (ZINc) IN THE
TISSUES USUALLY SAMPLED OF NEWBORN CALVES EXPRESSED AS PARTS PER MILLION
or DRY MATTER-(Continued).

Tissue or Organ Zinc
Calf Calf Calf Calf
E 106 E 123 E 125 E 108
p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m.
Liver 38 475 57 57
Kidneys 49 50-180 46-174 51-194
Heart 39-146 43-162 36 51
Pancreas I.S.* 2.8-5.6 9.7-36.6 53
Lungs 39-146 48-180 60
Spleen 50-189 49-185 65 48-182
Thymus 43-87 65-240 64-240
Flesh 48 57 54
Brain 28-104 78-293 73 56-210
Rib 14-37 164-438 46-173 47-178
Adrenals I.S. I.S. 54-202
Gallbladder I.S. I.S. 47-94 49-98
Blood 5-18 3-13 6-23
*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.

Of the 27 trace elements for which the various organs and
tissues in this study were analyzed, 15 were detected; namely:
aluminum, barium, boron, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese,
molybdenum, nickel, silver, strontium, tin, titanium, vanadium
and zinc. The following elements were not detected in any of
tissues or organs: antimony, arsenic, beryllium, bismuth, cesium,
cadmium, lanthanum, lithium, thallium, tungsten, yttrium, and
zirconium.
Aluminum.-This element was detected in the lungs, adre-
nals, gallbladder and bile, and blood of the four calves.
Aluminum was present in 38 of the 50 tissue samples of
the normal calf (E 106) and in 21 of the 45 tissues of the "salt
sick" calf (E 108). In this normal calf the range was from trace in
several tissues to 137-366 parts per million of dry matter in the
aqueous and vitreous humor. In the "salt sick" animal aluminum
ranged from 0.07 parts per million in the fat to 77 parts per mil-
lion of dry matter in the skin. It was present in normal thyroid,
adrenals, brain, testes, spinal cord and medulla, blood serum,
urine, tongue, pancreas, spleen, liver, rib, scapula and flesh, but
not in the similar tissues of the "salt sick" calf.
Gautier and Ricard (15) reported the presence of aluminum
in beef bile. This element was also found in the newborn calf
bile. Meunier (20) reported the presence of aluminum in adult







10 Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE 2.-THE TRACE ELEMENT OCCURRENCE IN THE VARIOUS ORGANS AND TISSUES
OF A NORMAL CALF, E 106, AND A "SALT SICK" CALF, E 108.
Tissue Animal Trace Element


Pituitary



Thyroid






Thymus




Adrenals






Testes




Brain


Spinal cord
and medulla




Lens


Cornea


Aqueous and
vitreous humor


Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf


"Salt sick" calf


Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf


"Salt sick" calf


Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf
"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf
"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf
"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf


"Salt sick" calf

*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.


I.S.*

Lead, manganese, silver; I.S. for boron
and zinc

Alumnium, chromium, lead, mangan-
ese, molybdenum, silver, tin; I.S. for
boron and zinc
Chromium, lead, manganese, molyb-
denum, nickel, silver; I.S. for boron
and zinc

Alumnium, boron, lead, manganese,
zinc
Aluminum, chromium, manganese, sil-
ver, tin, zinc

Aluminum, barium, chomium, lead,
manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sil-
ver, tin; I.S. for boron and zinc
Aluminum, boron, chromium, cobalt,
lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel,
silver, tin, zinc

Aluminum, manganese; I. S. for boron
and zinc
Boron, chromium, lead, manganese,
molybdenum, silver, zinc

Aluminum, boron, manganese, zinc
Chromium, manganese, strontium, zinc

Aluminum, barium, boron, lead, man-
ganese, zinc
Cobalt, lead, manganese, nickel, tin,
zinc

Aluminum; I.S. for boron and zinc
No sample

Silver; I.S. for boron and zinc
No sample

Aluminum, barium, chromium, lead,
manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sil-
ver, strontium, tin; I.S. for boron and
zinc
No sample







"Trace Elements" in the Newborn Calf


TABLE 2.-THE TRACE ELEMENT OCCURRENCE IN THE VARIOUS ORGANS AND TISSUES
OF A NORMAL CALF, E 106, AND A "SALT SICK" CALF, E 108-(Continued).
Tissue Animal Trace Element


Normal calf
"Salt sick" calf
Normal calf
"Salt sick" calf


Normal calf


Silver; I.S.* for boron and zinc
No sample
No sample
Aluminum, barium, chromium, cobalt,
manganese, molybdenum, nickel, stron-
tium, zinc
Aluminum, boron, lead, manganese,
molybdenum, zinc


Whole blood



Blood serum



Red blood cells




Aorta




Lung



Trachea




Kidney




Bladder


"Salt sick" calf Boron, lead, manganese, zinc
Normal calf Aluminum, boron, manganese, stron-
tium, zinc
"Salt sick" calf Aluminum, boron, strontium, zinc
Normal calf Aluminum, barium, boron, manganese,
strontium, zinc
"Salt sick" calf Boron, zinc
Normal calf Aluminum, barium, boron, chromium,
Smanganese, molybdenum, nickel, stron-
tium, zinc
"Salt sick" calf Aluminum, manganese, zinc
Normal calf Aluminum, barium, chromium, lead,
manganese, molybdenum, strontium,
zinc; I.S. for boron
"Salt sick" calf Aluminum, manganese, zinc
Normal calf Aluminum, lead, manganese, molyb-
denum, zinc
"Salt sick" calf Aluminum, manganese, molybdenum,
zinc
Normal calf Aluminum, barium, boron, chromium,
lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel,
silver, strontium, tin, titanium, zinc
"Salt sick" calf Aluminum, barium, cobalt, manganese,
nickel, silver, strontium, zinc
Normal calf Aluminum, boron, lead, manganese,
molybdenum, zinc
"Salt sick" calf Aluminum, boron, chromium, cobalt,
lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel,
silver, zinc
Normal calf Aluminum, barium, chromium, lead,
manganese, silver, zinc; I.S. for boron
"Salt sick" calf Aluminum, chromium, cobalt, lead,
manganese, nickel, silver, zinc


*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.


Sclera and
retina


Eye




Heart







Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 2.-THE TRACE ELEMENT OCCURRENCE IN THE VARIOUS ORGANS AND TISSUES
OF A NORMAL CALF, E 106, AND A "SALT SICK" CALF, E 108-(Continued).


Animal
Normal calf



"Salt sick" calf


Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf
"Salt sick" calf


Esophagus Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf


Normal calf


"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf
Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf


Normal calf


"Salt sick" calf



Normal calf


Tissue
Penis


"Salt sick" calf No sample


*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.


Trace Element
Aluminum, barium, chromium, lead,
manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sil-
ver, strontium, tin, titanium; I.S.* for
boron and zinc
Aluminum, barium, chromium, cobalt,
lead, manganese, nickel, silver, stron-
tium, tin, titanium, zinc
Aluminum, barium, boron, molybden-
um, strontium, zinc
Boron, chromium, molybdenum, nick-
el, zinc
Aluminum, lead, manganese, zinc
Chromium, lead, manganese, nickel,
silver, zinc
Aluminum, barium, manganese; I.S.
for boron and zinc
Aluminum, chromium, cobalt, lead,
manganese, nickel, silver, strontium,
tin, zinc
Aluminum, barium, chromium, lead,
manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sil-
ver, strontium, tin, vanadium, zinc
Aluminum, barium, chromium, cobalt,
lead, manganese, nickel, titanium, zinc
Aluminum, barium, lead, manganese,
strontium, titanium, zinc
No sample
Aluminum, barium, boron, lead, man-
ganese, molybdenum, silver, zinc
Aluminum, barium, boron, chromium,
cobalt, lead, manganese, molybdenum,
nickel, zinc

Aluminum, chromium, cobalt, lead,
manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sil-
ver, tin, zinc

Aluminum, chromium, cobalt, lead,
manganese, nickel, silver, strontium,
zinc

Aluminum, barium, boron, chromium,
manganese, molybdenum, strontium,
zinc


Urine




Tongue


Stomach


Stomach
contents


Small
intestine




Large
intestine





Intestinal
contents







"Trace Elements" in the Newborn Calf


TABLE 2.-THE TRACE ELEMENT OCCURRENCE IN THE VARIOUs ORGANS AND TISSUES
OF A NORMAL CALF, E 106, AND A "SALT SICK" CALF, E 108-(Continued).
Tissue Animal Trace Element


Pancreas


Spleen


Liver


Gallbladder
and bile


Skull and jaw


Teeth


Rib



Vertebra


Carpals


Fore shaft
bones


Tarsals


Hind shaft
bones


Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf


"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf


Aluminum, lead, manganese, molyb-
denum; I.S.* for boron and zinc
Boron, lead, manganese, molybdenum,
silver, zinc
Aluminum, manganese, molybdenum,
zinc
Lead, manganese, molybdenum, silver,
zinc

Aluminum, lead, manganese, molyb-
denum, zinc

Lead, manganese, molybdenum, silver,
zinc

Aluminum, lead; I.S. for boron and
zinc

Aluminum, zinc

Barium, boron, strontium, zinc

Barium, strontium, zinc

Barium, strontium, zinc

Barium, strontium, zinc

Aluminum, barium, boron, chromium,
lead, manganese, strontium, zinc

Barium, strontium, zinc

Barium, lead, strontium, titanium, zinc

Barium, strontium, zinc

Barium, strontium, zinc

Barium, strontium, zinc

Barium, lead, strontium, zinc


Barium,

Barium,

Barium,

Barium,


strontium, zinc

strontium, zinc

strontium, zinc

strontium, zinc


"Salt sick" calf Barium, strontium, zinc


*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.







14 Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE 2.-THE TRACE ELEMENT OCCURRENCE IN THE VARIOUS ORGANS AND TISSUES
OF A NORMAL CALF, E 106, AND A "SALT SICK" CALF, E 108-(Continued).
Tissue Animal Trace Element


Scapula


Pelvis


Cartilage


Bone marrow


Flesh


Skin


Hoof


Hair


Normal calf Barium, strontium, zinc
"Salt sick" calf Barium, strontium, zinc

Normal calf Barium, strontium, zinc
"Salt sick" calf Barium, strontium, zinc


Normal calf


"Salt sick" calf


Normal calf
"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf

"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf


"Salt sick" calf



Normal calf


"Salt sick" calf



Normal calf


"Salt sick" calf

Normal calf



"Salt sick" calf


Aluminum, barium, chromium, lead,
manganese, molybdenum, nickel, stron-
tium; I.S.* for boron and zinc
Aluminum, barium, boron, chromium,
cobalt, lead, manganese, nickel, silver,
strontium, tin, titanium, zinc

Barium, strontium, zinc
Barium, chromium, manganese, stron-
tium, zinc

Aluminum, barium, lead, manganese,
strontium, zinc
Chromium, lead, manganese, nickel,
zinc

Aluminum, barium, boron, chromium,
cobalt, lead, manganese, molybdenum,
nickel, strontium, titanium, zinc
Aluminum, barium, boron, chromium,
cobalt, lead, manganese, molybdenum,
nickel, silver, strontium, tin, titanium,
zinc

Aluminum, barium, boron, chromium,
lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel,
silver, strontium, tin, titanium, zinc
Aluminum, barium, boron, chromium,
cobalt, lead, manganese, molybdenum,
nickel, silver, strontium, tin, titanium,
zinc

Aluminum, barium, chromium, lead,
manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sil-
ver, strontium; I.S. for boron and zinc
Aluminum, chromium, cobalt, lead,
manganese, nickel, silver, zinc

Aluminum, barium, boron, chromium,
cobalt, lead, manganese, molybdenum,
nickel, silver, strontium, tin, titanium,
vanadium, zinc
Aluminum, barium, boron, chromium,
cobalt, lead, manganese, nickel, silver,
strontium, tin, titanium, zinc


*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.









TABLE 3.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS OF ALUMINUM, BARIUM AND BORON IN THE VARIOUS DRY ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL
(E 106) AND A "SALT SICK" (E 108) NEWBORN CALF-(Continued).


Tissue or Organ

Endocrine
Pituitary
Thyroid
Thymus
Adrenals
Testes


Aluminum_
Normal "Salt Sick"
p.p.m. p.p.m.


I.S.*
0.4-1
3.0-7
0.5-2
0.7


Nerve
Brain 28.0-104
Spinal cord and medulla 0.5-2
Lens 0.5
Cornea N.D.
Aqueous and vitreous humor 137-366
Sclera and retina N.D.
Whole eye ---


Circulatory
Heart
Whole blood
Blood serum
Red blood cells
Aorta


Tr.
0.6
1.0
0.3
3-11


N.D.**
N.D.
0.6-2
0.7
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.




8-29


N.D.
0.7
N.D.
0.3
0.3-1


Barium
Normal
p.p.m.


I.S.
N.D.
N.D.
0.7
N.D.


N.D.
Tr.***
N.D.
N.D.
137-366
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
Tr.
Tr.
0.4


"Salt Sick"
p.p.m.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.




29-78


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


Boron
Normal "Salt Sick"


p.p.m.

I.S.
I.S.
0.7-2
I.S.
I.S.


3-10
0.6-3
I.S.
I.S.
I.S.
I.S.



2-5
0.6-3
1-5
0.8-2
I.S.


pp.m.

I.S.
I.S.
N.D.
0.5-2
0.4-2


N.D.
N.D.




N.D.


0.4-1
0.6-2
1.0-4
N.D.
N.D.


*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.
**N.D. denotes not detected.
***Tr. denotes trace.











TABLE 3.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS OF ALUMINUM, BARIUM AND BORON IN THE VARIOUS DRY ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL
(E 106) AND A "SALT SICK" (E 108) NEWBORN CALF-(Continued).


Tissue or Organ

Respiratory
Lungs
Trachea
Excretory
Kidneys
Bladder
Penis
Urine
Digestive
Tongue
Esophagus
Stomach
Stomach contents
Small intestine
Large intestine
Intestinal contents
Pancreas
Spleen
Liver
Gallbladder and bile


Aluminum
Normal "Salt Sick"


p.p.m.

Tr.***
5-18


0.5-2
1-4
30-114
Tr.


Tr.
2-5
0.4
20-74
Tr.
1-3
0.8-2
0.5
0.5-2
0.4
0.8


p.p.m.

0.6
7.0-33


0.6
6.0-29
23.0-45
N.D.


N.D.
3-10
0.4-1

13-35
3-12

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
5-10


Barium
Normal
p.p.m.


0.6


N.D.
0.5
Tr.
Tr.


N.D.
Tr.
Tr.
2
Tr.
N.D.
Tr.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


"Salt Sick
p.p.m.

N.D.
0.5-2


N.D.
N.D.
0.4
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
0.3-1

0.4
N.D.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


Boron
" Normal "Salt Sick"
p.p.-m p.p.m.


N.D.
0.5-2


2-5
I.S.*
I.S.
88-177


N.D.
I.S.
N.D.
N.D.
1-4
N.D.
0.8-2
I.S.
N.D.
N.D.
I.S.


N.D.
N.D.


0.5-2
N.D.
N.D.
7-35


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.

0.4-2
N.D.

0.4-1
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.
**N.D. denotes not detected.
***Tr. denotes trace.









TABLE 3.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS 01 ALUMINUM, BARIUM AND BORON IN THE VARIOUS DRY ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL
(E 106) AND A "SALT SICK" (E 108) NEWBORN CALF-(Continued).
Aluminum Barium Boron
Tissue or Organ Normal "Salt Sick' Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick"
p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m.
Supporting
Skull and jaw N.D."* N.D. 6 5-19 5-18 N.D.
Teeth N.D. N.D. 8 8 N.D. N.D.
Rib 5 N.D. 4-14 5-18 4-14 N.D. "
Vertebra N.D. N.D. Tr.** 4-15 N.D. N.D.
Carpals N.D. N.D. Tr. 4-15 N.D. N.D.
Fore shaft bones N.D. N.D. Tr. 5-18 N.D. N.D.
Tarsals N.D. N.D. 4 44-167 N.D. N.D.
Hind shaft bones N.D. N.D. Tr. 5-18 N.D. N.D.
Scapula Tr. N.D. 5 7-26 N.D. N.D.
Pelvis N.D. N.D. 4 5 N.D. N.D.
Cartilage 1-6 10-27 0.2 0.3-1 I.S.* 0.3-1
Bone marrow N.D. N.D. 2 4-15 N.D. N.D.
Miscellaneous
Flesh 6-14 N.D. 0.5 N.D. N.D. N.D.
Skin 21 77 0.2 8-38 0.6-2 6-23
Hoof 14-54 10-39 0.1-0.5 0.1 2-9 0.4-1
Fat 0.6-3 0.07 0.06 N.D. I.S. N.D.
Hair 38 17 3-11 0.1-0.6 3-11 0.8-2

*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.
'*N.D. denotes not detected.
***Tr. denotes trace.












TABLE 4.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS OF CHROMIUM, COBALT
AND A "SALT SICK" (E 108) NEWBORN CALF.


AND LEAD IN THE VARIOUS DRY ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL (E 106)


Tissue or Organ

Endocrine
Pituitary
Thyroid
Thymus
Adrenals
Testes


Chromium
Normal "Salt Sick"
p.p.m. p.p.m.


I.S.*
0.5
N.D.
0.6
N.D.


Nerve
Brain N.D.
Spinal cord and medulla N.D.
Lens N.D.
Cornea N.D.
Aqueous and vitreous humor 4
Sclera and retina N.D.
Whole eye --
Circulatory
Heart N.D.
Whole blood N.D.
Blood serum N.D.
Red blood cells Tr.
Aorta 0.4-2
*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.
**N.D. denotes not detected.
***Tr. denotes trace.


N.D.**
0.3
0.8
0.5-2
0.5


0.7
N.D.




29-78


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


Normal
p.p.m.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.



N.D
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


Cobalt
"Salt Sick"
p.p.m.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
0.7
N.D.


N.D.
0.5-2




1


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


Lead
Normal
p.p.m.

N.D.
0.4-1
0.7-3
0.7-3
N.D.


N.D.
Tr.***
N.D.
N.D.
3-14
N.D.



0.5
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
3-11


"Salt Sick"
p.p.m.

2.5-5
0.3-1
N.D.
2-5
0.5-2


N.D.
0.6-3




N.D.


3-5
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.









TABLE 4.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS OF CHROMIUM, COBALT AND LEAD IN THE VARIOUS DRY ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL (E 106)
AND A "SALT SICK" (E 108) NEWBORN CALF-(Continued).


Tissues or Organs

Respiratory
Lungs
Trachea
Excretory
Kidneys
Bladder
Penis
Urine


Chromium
Normal "Salt Sick"
p.p.m. p.p.m.


N.D.**
0.5-2

N.D.
Tr.***
0.3-1
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.

0.6
28-58
36-136
5-21


Normal
p.p.m.

N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


Cobalt
"Salt Sick"
p.p.m.

N.D.
0.7-3

0.6
0.5-2
0.5
N.D.


Lead
Normal
p.p.m.

0.5
2-5


0.5
0.4-1
2-4
N.D.


Digestive
Tongue N.D.
Esophagus N.D.
Stomach 0.4
Stomach contents N.D.
Small intestine N.D.
Large intestine 0.3-1
Intestinal contents Tr.
Pancreas N.D.
Spleen N.D.
Liver N.D.
Gallbladder and bile N.D.
**N.D. denotes not detected.
***Tr. denotes trace.


0.4-1 N.D. N.D. Tr.
97-260 N.D. 3-10 N.D.
0.5 N.D. 0.5 2-5
SN.D. Tr.
4-22 N.D. 0.4 0.4-1
4-21 0.4 0.4 0.3-1
N.D. ---- N.D.
N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.4-1
N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.4
N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.8


"Salt Sick"
p.p.m.

N.D.
N.D.


2-5
0.5-2
13-36
N.D.


0.4-1
3-16
3-5

1-3.5
3-12

0.5
5-18
5-20
N.D.













TABLE 4.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTImATIONS OF CHROMIUM, COBALT AND LEAD IN THE VARIOUS DRY ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL (E 106)
AND A "SALT SICK" (E 108) NEWBORN CALF-(Continued).
Chromium Cobalt Lead
Tissues or Organ Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick"
p.p.m. p.pm. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m.
Supporting
Skull and jaw N.D.** N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. .
Teeth N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Rib 5 N.D. N.D. N.D. Tr.*** N.D.
Vertebra N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. Tr. N.D.
Carpals N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Fore shaft bones N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 5 N.D.
Tarsals N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Hind shaft bones N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Scapula N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. Tr. N.D.
Pelvis N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Cartilage 0.2-0.6 3-17 N.D. 0.3 0.2-0.6 0.3-1
Bone marrow N.D. 15-40 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Miscellaneous
Flesh N.D. 3-5 N.D. N.D. Tr. 0.4-2
Skin 0.2 6-23 11-21 4-8 2-6 77
Hoof 0.5-1 0.1-0.4 N.D. 0.1 2-9 0.1-0.4
Fat Tr. 0.07 N.D. 0.06-0.2 0.5-2 0.6-2
Hair 11-29 0.6-1 0.3-1 1-6 29-111 13-58
**N. D. denotes not detected.
"**Tr. denotes trace.









TABLE 5.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS OF MANGANESE, MOLYBDENUM AND NICKEL IN THE VARIOUS
NORMAL (E 106) AND A "SALT SICK" (E 108) NEWBORN CALF.


DRY ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A


Manganese
Normal "Salt Sick"


p.p.m.

I.S.*
0.4-1
3-7
0.5-2
0.7


Nerve
Brain 0.4-2
Spinal cord and medulla 2-5
Lens N.D.
Cornea N.D.
Aqueous and vitreous humor 4
Sclera and retina N.D.
Whole eye


Circulatory
Heart
Whole blood
Blood serum
Red blood cells
Aorta


0.4-1
0.5-2
Tr.
0.3
0.3-1


p.p.m.

0.4-1
0.3-1
0.6-2
2-5
0.4-2


0.7
0.5-2




10-49


0.5-2
N.D.
N.D.
0.2-1
0.4-2


Molybdenum
Normal "Salt Sick"


p.pm.

N.D.**
0.5
N.D.
0.6
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
3-13
N.D.



Tr.***
N.D.
N.D.
0.3
0.4


p.p.m.

N.D.
0.3
N.D.
0.7
0.6


N.D.
N.D.




1.0


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


Normal


p.p.m.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
0.7
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
4-14
N.D.



N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
Tr.
N.D.


Nickel
"Salt Sick"


p.p.m.

N.D.
0.3-1
N.D.
0.5-2
N.D.


N.D.
0.5-2


8-29


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.
**N.D. denotes not detected.
***Tr. denotes trace.


Tissue or Organ


Endocrine
Pituitary
Thyroid
Thymus
Adrenals
Testes












TABLE 5.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS OF MANGANESE, MOLYBDENUM AND NICKEL IN THE VARIOUS DRY ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A
NORMAL (E 106) AND A "SALT SICK" (E108) NEWBORN CALF--(Continued).
Manganese Molybdenum Nickel
Tissue or Organ Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick"
p.p.m. p.p.m p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m.


Respiratory
Lungs
Trachea
Excretory
Kidneys
Bladder
Penis
Urine
Digestive
Tongue
Esophagus
Stomach
Stomach contents
Small intestine
Large intestine
Intestinal contents
Pancreas
Spleen
Liver
Gallbladder and bile


0.4-1
0.5-2


1-4
0.5
1-3
N.D.

0.4-1
0.4-2
1-3
2-7
4-14
2-4
8-23
0.5
0.5-2
3-11
N.D.


0.6
0.5-2

0.5-2
6-29
23-45
N.D.

0.4-1
32-162
0.5-3

4-13
4-21

3-5
0.6-3
4-17
N.D.


0.4-1
0.5-2

0.4-1
N.D.
0.4
1-5

N.D.
N.D.
1-3
N.D.
Tr.
0.4
0.3
0.4-1
0.5-2
1-3
N.D.


0.6
N.D.

0.5-2
N.D.
N.D.
7.0

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
0.4
N.D.

0.5
0.5-2
0.6
N.D.


N.D.**
0.5-2

N.D.
N.D.
0.3-1
N.D.

N.D.
N.D.
Tr.***
N.D.
N.D.
1-3
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
0.5-2

0.5-2
6.0-29
13-36
7


0.4-1
26-97
0.4-2

4-13
1-3

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


**N.D. denotes not detected.
***Tr. denotes trace.












TABLE 5.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS OF MANGANESE, MOLYBDENUM AND NICKEL IN THE VARIOUS DRY ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A
NORMAL (E106) AND A "SALT SICK" (E108) NEWBORN CALF--(Continued).


Tissue or Organ

Supporting
Skull and jaw
Teeth
Rib
Vertebra
Carpals
Fore shaft bones
Tarsals
Hind shaft bones
Scapula
Pelvis
Cartilage
Bone marrow


Manganese
"Salt Sick"
P.p.m.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
3-10
5-25


Molybdenum
Normal "Salt Sick"


p.p.m.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
0.2-0.6
N.D.


p.p.m.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


Normal
p.p.m.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
0.2
N.D.


Nickel
"Salt Sick"
p.p.m.


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
3-10
N.D.


Miscellaneous
Flesh
Skin
Hoof
Fat
Hair 1
**N.D denotes not detected.
***Tr. denotes trace.


Normal
p.p.m.

N.D.**
N.D.
4-14
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
0.2
N.D.


0.5-2
1-2
1-5
0.3-0.6
1-29


2-4
6-23
0.1-0.6
0.07-0.4
0.2-0.8


N.D.
0.2
1-5
0.06
0.3-1


N.D.
0.8
0.1
N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
1-2
0.5-1
Tr.***
0.4-2


1-4
6-23
0.1-0.6
0.06-0.2
2-8


~











TABLE 6.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS OF SILVER, STRONTIUM AND TIN IN THE VARIOUS DRY ORGAlMS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL (E 106)
AND A "SALT SICK" (E 108) NEWBORN CALF.
Silver Strontium Tin
Tissue or Organ Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick"
p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m.
Endocrine;
Pituitary N.D.** 0.5 I.S.* N.D. N.D. N.D.
Thyroid Tr.*** 0.3 N.D. N.D. 0.4-1 N.D.
Thymus N.D. 0.8 N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.6-2
Adrenals 0.7 0.7 N.D. N.D. 0.7 0.7
Testes N.D. 0.6 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Nerve
Brain N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.7 N.D. N.D.
Spinal cord and medulla N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.5-2
Lens N.D. N.D. N.D. ---.
Cornea Tr. N.D. N.D. -
Aqueous & vitreous humor Tr. 4.0 Tr.
Sclera and retina Tr. N.D. N.D.
Total eye N.D. 1 N.D.
Circulatory
Heart N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Whole blood N.D. N.D. 0.6 0.7 N.D. N.D.
Blood serum N.D. N.D. 1.6 N.D. N.D. N.D.
Red blood cells N.D. N.D. Tr. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Aorta N.D. N.D. 0.4 N.D. N.D. N.D.
*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.
**N.D. denotes not detected.
***Tr. denotes trace.








TABLE 6.-SPECTROGRAPIIl( ESTIMATIONS OF SILVER, STRONTIUM AND TIN IN THE VARIOUS DRY ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL (E 106)
AND A "SALT SICK" (E 108) NEWBORN CALF-(Continued).
Silver Strontium Tin
Tissue or Organ Normal "-Salt-Sick" Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick"
p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m.
Respiratory
Lungs N.D.** N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Trachea Tr.*** 0.7 0.6 0.5-2 0.5-2 N.D.
Excretory
Kidneys N.D. 0.6 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Bladder Tr. 0.6 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Penis Tr. 0.5 Tr. 0.5 Tr. 0.4-1
Urine N.D. N.D. 2.0 N.D. N.D. N.D.
Digestive
Tongue N.D. 0.5 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Esophagus N.D. 3.0 N.D. 3.0 N.D. 3-10
Stomach Tr. N.D. Tr. N.D. 0.3-1 N.D. c
Stomach contents N.D. 2.0 N.D. -
Small intestine Tr. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Large intestine 0.4 0.4 N.D. 0.4 0.3-1 N.D. a
Intestinal contents N.D. .- 0.3 N.D .-
Pancreas N.D. 0.5 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Spleen N.D. 0.6 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Liver N.D. 0.6 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Gallbladder and bile N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
**N.D. denotes not detected.
***Tr. denotes trace.













TABLE 6.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS OF SILVER, STRONTIUM AND TIN IN THE VARIOUS DRY ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL (E 106)
AND A "SALT SICK" (E 108) NEWBORN CALF-(Continued).
Silver Strontium Tin
Tissue or Organ Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "'Salt Sick"
p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m.
Supporting
Skull and jaw N.D.** N.D. 6 5-19 N.D. N.D.
Teeth N.D. N.D. 8 8 N.D. N.D.
Rib N.D. N.D. 4-14 5-18 N.D. N.D.
Vertebra N.D. N.D. Tr.*** 4-15 N.D. N.D.
Carpals N.D. N.D. Tr. 4-15 N.D. N.D.
Fore shaft bones N.D. N.D. Tr. 5-18 N.D. N.D.
Tarsals N.D. N.D. 4 44-167 N.D. N.D.
Hind shaft bones N.D. N.D. Tr. 5-18 ND. N.D.
Scapula N.D. N.D. 5 8-26 N.D. N.D.
Pelvis N.D. N.D. 4 5 N.D. N.D.
Cartilage N.D. 0.4 0.2 0.3-1 N.D. 0.3
Bone marrow N.D. N.D. 1 4-15 N.D. N.D.
Miscellaneous
Flesh N.D. N.D. 0.5 N.D. N.D. N.D.
Skin N.D. 0.6-2 0.2 0.6-2 N.D. 8-38
Hoof Tr. 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1
Fat Tr. 0.07 Tr. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Hair Tr. 0.1-0.6 1-3 0.6 0.4-2 0.6-1
'"N.D. denotes not detected.
***Tr. denotes trace.









TABLE 7.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS OF TITANIUM, VANADIUM AND ZINC IN THE VARIOUS DRY
(E 106) AND A "SALT SICK" (E 108) NEWBORN CALF.


Tissue or Organ


Normal


p.p.m.

N.D.**
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


Nerve
Brain N.D.
Spinal cord and medulla N.D.
Lens N.D.
Cornea N.D.
Aqueous and vitreous humor N.D.
Sclera and retina N.D.
Whole eye -..
Circulatory
Heart N.D.
Whole blood N.D.
Blood serum N.D.
Red blood cells N.D.
Aorta N.D.
*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.
**N.D. denotes not detected.


Titanium
"Salt Sick"


p.p.m.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.




N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


Vanadium
Normal "Salt Sick"


p.p.m.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.



N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


p.p.m.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.




N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL


Normal

p.p.m.

I.S.*
I.S.
43-87
I.S.
I.S.


28-104
28-57
I.S.
I.S.
I.S.
I.S.



39-146
5-18
1-5
0.8-2
30-114


Zinc
"Salt Sick"

p.p.m.

I.S.
I.S.
64-240
54-202
45-169


56-210
30-61




5-10


51
6-23
14-41
3-9
29-110


Endocrine
Pituitary
Thyroid
Thymus
Adrenals
Testes













TABLE 7.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ESTIMATIONS OF TITANIUM, VANADIUM AND ZINC IN THE VARIOUS DRY
(E 106) AND A "SAI.T SICK" (E 108) NEWBORN CALF--(Continued).
Titanium Vanadium
Tissue or Organ Normal -- Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick"
p.pm. p.pm. p.pm. p.p.m.


Respiratory
Lungs
Trachea
Excretory
Kidneys
Bladder
Penis
Urine


N.D.**
0.6


N.D.
N.D.
11-30
N.D.


Digestive
Tongue N.D.
Esophagus N.D.
Stomach N.D.
Stomach contents 2.0
Small intestine N.D.
Large intestine N.D.
Intestinal contents N.D.
Pancreas N.D.
Spleen N.D.
Liver N.D.
Gallbladder and bile N.D.
*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.
**N.D. denotes not detected.


N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
0.4-1
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
4-15

N.D.
N.D.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
1-3
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


N.D.
N.D.
N.D.

N.D.
N.D.

N.D.
N.D.
N.D.
N.D.


ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL


Normal
p.p.m.

39-146
5-18


49
54
I.S.*
5-14


47-117
I.S.
33-125
24-123
46
33-125
28
I.S.
50-189
38
I.S.


"Salt Sick"
p.p.m.

60
53-201


51-194
46-174
14-36
7


50
260-972
41-154

44
33-125

53
48-182
57
49-98










TABLE 7.-SPECTROGRAPIIC ESTIMATIONS OF TITANIUM, VANADIUM AND ZINC IN THE VARIOus DRY ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL
(E 106) AND A "SA.T SICK" (E 108) NEWBORN CALF-(Continued).
Titanium Vanadium Zinc
Tissue or Organ Norma "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick"
p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m.
Supporting
Skull and jaw N.D.** N.D. N.D. N.D. 6-30 51-192
Teeth N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 66-259 8-40
Rib N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 14-37 47-178
Vertebra 4.0 N.D. N.D. N.D. 3-12 15-39
Carpals N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 31-115 48-180
Fore shaft bones N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 39-147 44-167
Tarsals N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 12-32 180-480
Hind shaft bones N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 4-14 76-265
Scapula N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 40-149 44-165
Pelvis N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 4-21 27-103
Cartilage N.D. 0.6-2 N.D. N.D. I.S.* 23-61
Bone marrow N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 10-28 50-250
Miscellaneous
Flesh N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 48 54
Skin 0.2-0.6 8-38 N.D. N.D. 10-21 77
Hoof 1-5 0.1-0.6 N.D. N.D. 18 10-39
Fat N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. I.S. 6-22
Hair 38 13-58 0.4 N.D. 38 13-58
*I.S. denotes insufficient sample.
"*N.D. denotes not detected.








30 Agricultural Experiment Station

and fetal bovine tissues. His values for the following tissues as
compared with those found in this study are as follows:

Aluminum Content of Dry Matter in
Age of Tongue Intestinal
Investigator Animal Lung Pancreas Liver Tongue Mucus Mucus
p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. r -m n m
adult 8.0 5.2 4.0 1.2 5.2 3.0
Meunier
fMeueetus 2.6 2.4
Newborn
(normal) Tr. 0.5 0.4 Tr. (trace)
Rusoff
S newborn
("salt sick") 0.6 N.D. N.D. (not detected)

The higher content of aluminum in the few tissues which
Meunier analyzed might be attributed either to the fact that a
chemical method was used and there was thus chance for con-
tamination through reagents added, or to differences in sources
of animals.
Barium.-Barium was found in the rib of the four calves.
This element was detected in 32 normal tissues (Calf E 106)
and in 20 "salt sick" tissues (Calf E 108). It ranged from "trace"
in several tissues to 137-366 parts per million of dry matter in
the aqueous and vitreous humor of the eye of this normal calf,
and from 0.1-0.6 parts per million in the hair to 44-167 parts per
million in the tarsals of the "salt sick" animal. Barium was
found in the normal adrenals, brain, spinal cord and medulla,
gallbladder and bile, lung, spleen, red blood cell, whole blood,
liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, lung, spleen, thymus, aorta, blad-
der, esophagus, flesh and fat, but not in the corresponding "salt
sick" tissues. The largest concentration was found in the aqueous
and vitreous humor.
Ramage and Fox (25), in a spectrographic study of the min-
eral content of eyes, reported barium to be present in the cho-
roids of cattle eyes, 3 years old and up, but not in the choroids
of calves, humans, pigs, sheep, horses, dogs or fishes. They found
that the quantity of barium increased with the age of the animal
and stated that, "barium to our knowledge has not been previous-
ly detected in animal tissues."
In this study barium was found to be present in a great
many of the tissues, particularly in the aqueous and vitreous
humor of the eye and in the skeletal tissues of the normal calf
and in the skeletal structures and total eye of the "salt sick"







"Trace Elements" in the Newborn Calf


calf. Although barium was found in the aqueous and vitreous
humor, it was not detected in the cornea, retina and sclera, or
lens of the eye. The presence of this large amount of barium in
the fluid portion of the eye suggests some physiological func-
tion. Barium appears to be associated particularly with the skel-
etal tissues.
Boron.-Boron occurred in 17 normal (Calf E 106) and 13
"salt sick" (Calf E 108) tissues. It ranged from 0.5-2 parts per
million in the trachea to 88-177 parts per million in the urine of
this normal animal, and from 0.3-1 parts per million in the carti-
lage to 7-35 parts per million in the urine of the "salt sick" calf.
Boron was concentrated in the kidneys, urine, skull and jaw,
and rib of the normal calf but it was not detected in the skeletal
tissues of the "salt sick" calf.
Bertrand and Agulhon (3) reported the presence of boron in
various tissues of the ox.
Chromium.-Chromium was present in 17 normal (Calf
E 106) and 22 "salt sick" (Calf E 108) tissues. The element ranged
from "trace" in several tissues to 11-29 parts per million in the
hair of this normal calf and from 0.07 in the fat to 97-260 parts
per million in the esophagus of the "salt sick" animal. Chromium
was concentrated in the "salt sick" esophagus, eye and penis.
Cobalt.-This element was detected in 3 normal (Calf E 106)
and 16 "salt sick" (Calf E 108) tissues. Cobalt ranged from 0.3-1
parts per million in the skin of this normal calf, and from 0.1
in the hoof to 3-10 parts per million in the esophagus of the
"salt sick" calf. The presence of a large quantity of cobalt in
the skin of the normal calf is noteworthy.
Cobalt was also found in the pancreas, liver and spleen of
normal calf E 125 but not in any of these tissues of the other 3
calves.
Bertrand and Micheboeuf (7) reported cobalt in calf tissues
(age unknown). Their values were: liver 4.0, thymus 2.19, kid-
ney 0.69 and muscle 0.09 parts per million of dry matter. In this
study only the normal liver and the "salt sick" kidney contained
cobalt, 0.6 parts per million.
Lead.-This element was present in the liver, kidneys, pan-
creas, flesh and adrenals of the four calves. Lead was detected
in 30 normal (Calf E 106) and 23 "salt sick" (Calf E 108) tis-
sues. It ranged from "trace" in several tissues to 29-110 parts per
million in the hair of the normal calf, and from 0.5 parts per







Agricultural Experiment Station


million in the pancreas to 77 parts per million in the skin of the
"salt sick" animal. The large amount of lead in the hair of the
normal calf and in the skin of the "salt sick" calf is noteworthy.
It was present in normal thymus, aorta, lung, trachea, brain,
whole blood, gallbladder and bile, rib, vertebra, fore shaft bones
and scapula, but not in similar tissues of the "salt sick" calf.
On the other hand the following "salt sick" tissues contained
lead which was not found in the corresponding tissues of the
normal calf: pituitary, testes and esophagus.
Danchwortt and H6ll (12) reported the lead content of liver,
spleen, kidney and brain of cattle to average 0.25 milligrams per
1,000 grams of tissue. In cattle bones they found a higher lead
content.
Bertrand and Ciurea (4) reported lead in the following or-
gans and tissues of cattle:

Organ or Tissues Lead Content in Fresh Tissue
mg./kg.
Tongue mucus 2.83
Tongue 0.82
Brain 0.74
Small intestine 0.43
Skin 0.34
Kidney 0.32
Liver 0.32
Pancreas 0.28
Large intestine 0.16
Stomach 0.14
Lung 0.09
Spleen 0.08
Heart 0.06
Blood 0.05
In this study lead was not detected in the "salt sick" brain,
lung, blood or bone. In the normal calf lead was detected in many
of the bones but not in all of them.
The presence of lead in animal and human tissues has been
studied quite extensively because of its pharmacological or toxic
studied quite extensively because of its pharmacalogical or toxic
effect. A controversy has been waged among those who advo-
cate its presence in tissues and those workers who believe it is a
contaminant. Sheldon and Ramage (30) reported that, "its irre-
gular distribution strongly suggests that the metal (lead) is
present accidentally" in human tissues. Lead was found in one-
half of the normal newborn calf tissues, and therefore, so far
as this species is concerned, it is doubtful whether the presence
of this element is accidental.






"Trace Elements" in the Newborn Calf 33

Manganese.-Manganese was found in the liver, kidney,
pancreas, lung and spleen of the four calves. This element oc-
curred in practically all of the normal and "salt sick" tissues
with the exception of the skeletal tissues. Manganese was found
in 34 normal (E 106) and 31 "salt sick" (E 108) tissues. It oc-
curred from "trace" in blood serum to 11-29 parts per million in
the hair of this normal calf, and from 0.07-0.4 parts per million in
the fat to 32-163 parts per million in the esophagus of the "salt
sick" calf. Large amounts of manganese were found in the hair,
intestinal contents, small intestine, brain, rib and liver of the
normal calf, and in the esophagus, penis, eye, bladder and skin
of the "salt sick" calf. It was present in normal whole blood,
blood serum, thymus, gallbladder and bile, and rib, but not in
these "salt sick" tissues. On the other hand it was found in "salt
sick" bone marrow but not in the normal.
Gautier and Ricard (15) reported the presence of manganese
in beef bile.
In recent years the interest in manganese has centered about
its relationship to the prevention of perosis. However, its ab-
sence in the bones of the normal and "salt sick" calves is sur-
prising, since the sensitivity of the spectrographic method for
manganese is between 0.001 and 0.01 percent.
Molybdenum.-Molybdenum was detected in the liver, kid-
neys, pancreas, spleen and adrenals of the four calves. Molyb-
denum occurred in 23 normal (E 106) and in 13 "salt sick"
(E 108) tissues. It ranged from "trace" in the heart and small
intestine to 3-13 parts per million in the aqueous and vitreous
humor of this normal calf, and from 0.1 in the hoof to 7 parts
per million in the urine of the "salt sick" calf. The greatest con-
centration was found in the aqueous and vitreous humor, hoof,
intestine, kidney, gallbladder and bile, stomach and liver of the
normal calf, and in the urine and eye of the "salt sick" calf. It
was found in normal heart, red blood cell, aorta, brain, gall-
bladder and bile, cartilage and hair but not in the same "salt
sick" tissues.
Ferguson, Lewis and Watson (13) have recently reported
that lowering of milk yields, scouring, loss of condition and death
had occurred among cattle which grazed on certain pastures. It
was found that a higher amount of molybdenum was present
in the herbage on these pastures as compared with that on pas-
tures where such symptoms were absent in the cattle.
Nickel.-This element was detected in the adrenals of the






Agricultural Experiment Station


four calves. Nickel was present in 12 of the normal tissues (E
106) and in 20 of the "salt sick" (E 108) tissues. It ranged from
"trace" in red blood cells, stomach and fat to 4-14 parts per mil-
lion in aqueous and vitreous humor of this normal calf, and from
0.06-0.2 parts per million in fat to 26-97 parts per million in the
esophagus of the "salt sick" animal. It was found in the "salt
sick" thyroid, spinal cord and medulla, bladder, urine, tongue,
esophagus, small intestine and flesh but not in the corresponding
normal tissues. Normal liver, heart, pancreas, lung, spleen, thy-
mus and gallbladder and bile contained nickel, but not these
"salt sick" tissues.
Bertrand and Macheboeuf (6) reported nickel in a few calf
tissues (age unknown). Their values are: liver 0.54, thymus
0.057, kidney 0.037 and muscle 0.037 parts per million of dry
matter. In this study normal liver, thymus, kidney and muscle
contained nickel, the figures being slightly higher than those of
Bertrand and Macheboeuf.
Silver.-Silver was found in the adrenals of the four calves.
Silver was detected in 14 normal (E 106) and 20 "salt sick" (E 108)
tissues. It ranged from "trace" in several tissues to 0.7 parts per
million in the adrenals of this normal calf and from 0.07 parts
per million in the fat to 3 parts per million in the esophagus of the
"salt sick" calf. Silver was present in larger amounts in the
esophagus, skin and thymus of the "salt sick" calf. The presence
of silver in many of the "salt sick" tissues might indicate some
significance in the animal body. It was present in "salt sick"
thymus, testes, tongue, esophagus, spleen, cartilage, and skin but
not in these normal tissues. Normal stomach, small intetsine,
gallbladder and bile contained silver but the corresponding "salt
sick" tissues did not.

Strontium.-Strontium occurred in the rib of the four calves.
This element was present in 28 normal (E 106) and 22 "salt sick"
(E 108) tissues. The range was from "trace" in several tissues
to 4-14 parts per million in the rib of this normal animal, and
from 0.1 in the hoof to 44-167 parts per million in the tarsals of
the "salt sick" calf. The skeletal tissues were exceptionally high
in this element. Strontium was found in normal liver, kidney,
heart, pancreas, lung, spleen, thymus, red blood cells, aorta, urine,
stomach, adrenals, gallbladder and bile, flesh and fat, but not in
these "salt sick" tissues. The "salt sick" brain, esophagus and






"Trace Elements" in the Newborn Calf


large intestine contained strontium, but not the corresponding
normal tissues.
Tin.-Tin was detected in 9 normal (E 106) and 9 "salt sick"
(E 108) tissues. The amounts of tin ranged from "trace" in several
tissues to 0.5-2 parts per million in the trachea of this normal
animal and from 0.1 parts per million in the hoof to 8-38 parts
per million in the skin of the "salt sick" calf. Tin was present
in very few normal and "salt sick" tissues. It was found in nor-
mal thyroid, trachea, stomach, pancreas, spleen and large in-
testine but not in these "salt sick" tissues. On the other hand,
the "salt sick" thymus, spinal cord and medulla, esophagus and
skin contained tin but the corresponding normal tissues did not.
The skin of the "salt sick" calf contained the highest amount of
tin.
Bertrand and Ciurea (5) reported the following tissues and
organs of cattle to contain tin:

Tissue Tin Content in Fresh Tissue
mg./kg.
Tongue mucus 18.65
Tongue 12.20
Skin 9.48
Liver 3.40
Pancreas 3.03
Small intestine 2.85
Brain 2.52
Spleen 2.44
Muscle 1.54
Heart 1.47
Blood 1.32
Kidney 1.12
Lung 0.98
Large intestine 0.92
Stomach 0.40

In this study only the "salt sick" skin, and normal large
intestine, pancreas, spleen and stomach showed the presence of
tin. It was not detected in any of the other newborn tissues re-
ported by Bertrand and Ciurea.
Titanium.-This element was found in very few of the nor-
mal and "salt sick" tissues. Titanium was detected in 7 normal
tissues (E 106) and in 6 "salt sick" (E 108) tissues. It ranged
from 0.2-0.6 parts per million in the normal skin to 73.6 parts
per million in normal hair and from 0.1-0.6 parts per million
in "salt sick" hoof to 12-58 parts per million in "salt sick" hair.
Titanium was not found in any of the tissues of the two addition-
al normal calves E 123 and E 125.






36 Agricultural Experiment Station

Bertrand and Voronca-Spirt (10) reported titanium in the
organs and tissues of a calf (age unknown). They found the
liver to contain 0.5 to 0.6 milligrams of titanium per kilogram of
fresh matter; heart, lung and kidney contained about 0.3 milli-
grams, and blood, muscle, brain and spinal cord contained too
little to give a positive test.
Vanadium.- Vanadium was detected in only two tissues
of the normal newborn calf (E 106), the stomach and hair. It is
possible that its presence may have been due to contamination
or the inadequacy of the method for this element.
Zinc.-For some of the tissues insufficient ash was avail-
able for analysis; however, zinc was found in every tissue ex-
amined. Zinc was present in 36 normal tissues and 43 "salt sick"
tissues. Zinc ranged from 0.08-2 parts per million in normal red
blood cell to 66-269 parts per million in the teeth of a normal
calf E 106, and from 7 parts per million in "salt sick" urine to
260-972 parts per million in the "salt sick" esophagus.
Fisher and Scott (14) reported bovine pancreas to contain
zinc. Their values are as follows:

Zinc Content
Pancreas Dry Basis Fresh Basis
mg./kg. mg./kg.
Cows, 9 years and over 57 15
80 21
60 16
Calves, 6 to 8 weeks 90 25
75 21
Fetal calves, 5 to 7 months 70 14
55 18
75 19
Fetal calves, under 5 months (hairless) 153 33

They state that there is no relationship between age and
zinc content of the gland.
In this study the normal newborn pancreas contained 2.8-5.6
and 9.7-36.6 parts per million of zinc on the dry basis, while the
"salt sick" pancreas contained more than 53 parts per million.

DISCUSSION
It should be pointed out that although an element was not
detected in an ash it might still be present. The sensitivity of
the spectrographic method differs for the various trace ele-
ments and the element in question may be present below this
sensitivity.






"Trace Elements" in the Newborn Calf


Some of the elements which have been reported as not de-
tected in this study have been found in bovine tissues. Scott
and Canaga (29) have reported the presence of cesium in the
retina of cattle eyes. They state, "it is present in distinctly great-
er quantities than in other tissues and fluids of the body, as
in no case was it identified by similar or other methods except
in the retina."
Husband (17) reported 0.3 to 3.3 parts per million of arse-
nic in the abomasum wall from healthy normal cattle. Hove,
Elvehjem and Hart (16) state that, "there is still a great deal
of indecision as to whether it (arsenic) is merely accidental and
potentially contaminated (Boos and Werby, 1935) or a naturally
occurring component of living tissues (Chapman 1930)."
In this study arsenic was not detected in the normal or "salt
sick" newborn calves. Again it should be pointed out that the
term "not detected" does not mean that the element may not be
present. The lack of sensitivity of this spectrograpic method
may be the reason for its non-detection.
The regularity of occurrence of some of the trace elements-
aluminum, zinc, manganese, barium, lead and strotium-in cer-
tain organs and tissues suggests a possible physiological signifi-
cance. On the other hand, some of these elements were found
to occur sporadically. Those occurrences may have been acci-
dental due to contamination or due to the inadequacy of the
method being used and therefore their detection may not be
physiologically significant.
The elements arranged in decreasing number of occurrences
in the organs and tissues of the normal calf, E 106, are: aluminum,
zinc, manganese, barium, lead, strontium, molybdenum, chrom-
ium, boron, silver, nickel, tin, titanium, cobalt and vanadium.
For the "salt sick" calf, E 108, the order is: zinc, manganese, lead,
strontium, chromium, silver, aluminum, barium, nickel, cobalt,
molybdenum, boron, tin and titanium.
The trace elements, for which analyses were made in the
tissues and organs of the normal newborn calf and in the "salt
sick" newborn calf, showed no outstanding differences.
Neither were significant differences found in a comparison
of the values for the "trace elements" in wire grasses from
healthy and "salt sick" areas.
Conditions similar to "salt sick" with sheep and cattle known
in West Australia as "enzootic marasmus," in New Zealand as






Agricultural Experiment Station


"bush sickness", and in Scotland as "pine" or "vinquish", have
been encountered. In these places the condition has been pre-
vented or cured by the use of cobalt. It was found that the tis-
sues and organs of affected animals were lower in cobalt than
those of healthy animals (1, 32) and that there was less cobalt in
the soils and herbage of affected areas than those of correspond-
ing healthy areas (18, 2, 19, 32).
It is now established that cobalt is an indispensable element
(22) for the welfare of cattle on certain soil types in Florida. It
is generally recognized that this element appears to be concen-
trated in the pancreas of healthy animals (8, 9, 31). In this study
only normal calf E 125 contained cobalt in the pancreas. The
dam of this calf grazed on an area known definitely to be free of
"salt sick" upon which no mineral supplements have ever been
used. It is believed that this calf is as true a normal as can be
found in Florida. The other two normal calves, E 106 and E 123,
were obtained from the dairy herd of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station which had access to the mineral mixture
of NaCI, Fe203 and CuSO4. Perhaps these animals were on the
borderline of "salt sick" if the presence of cobalt in the pancreas
is a criterion of normality. However, since these calves were an-
alyzed at different intervals, this fact may not be significant.
It appears that in the newborn calf the concentration and
distribution of "trace elements" has little or no supplementary
significance to copper, iron and cobalt with regard to "salt sick".
Older animals should be analyzed and a comparison made. More
biological work is needed before an interpretation of the physio-
logical significance of an element in "salt sick" is made.
It is possible that not only the concentration of an element
in a tissue but its proportion to other elements may be a signifi-
cant factor in "salt sick".

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1. The tissues and organs of the three newborn calves from
normal dams and one newborn calf from a "salt sick" dam were
analyzed for trace elements by a spectrographic estimation.
2. Of the 27 trace elements for which the various organs
and tissues in this study were analyzed, 15 were detected, name-
ly: aluminum, barium, boron, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese,
molybdenum, nickel, silver, strontium, tin, titanium, vanadium
and zinc. The following elements were not detected in any of







"Trace Elements" in the Newborn Calf


the tissues or organs: arsenic, antimony, beryllium, bismuth,
cadmium, cesium, lanthanum, lithium, thorium, tungsten, yttri-
um, and zirconium.
Zinc was found in all of the tissues and organs which were
examined; aluminum and manganese were detected in practical-
ly all of the tissues; barium, lead, molybdenum and strontium
in about one-half of the tissues; nickel and silver in about one-
third and boron, chromium, tin, titanium, cobalt and vanadium
were found sporadically.
A comparison of the distribution and concentration of trace
elements in the tissues and organs of newborn calves from normal
and from "salt sick" dams showed no significant differences.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Askew, H. 0., and J. K. Dixon. Cobalt status of animal organs
from South Island (N.Z.) drench experiments. New Zeal. Jour. Sci.
and Technol. 18: 707-716. 1937.
2. Askew, H. 0., and P. W. Maunsell. The cobalt content of some Nel-
son pastures. New Zeal. Jour. Sci. and Technol. 19: 337-342. 1937.
3. Bertrand, G., and H. Agulhon. Sur la presence du bore dans la
s6rie animal. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 156: 732-735. 1913.
4. Bertrand, G., and V. Ciurea. Le plomb dans l'organisms des ani-
maux. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 192: 990-992. 1931
5. Bertrand, G., and V. Ciurea. L'etain dans l'organisms des animaux
boeuf. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci 192: 780-782. 1931.
6. Bertrand, G., and M. Macheboeuf. Sur la presence du nickel et du
cobalt les animaux. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 180: 1380-1383. 1925.
7. Bertrand, G., and M. MBcheboeuf. Sur les proportions du cobalt
continues dans les organes des animaux. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci.
180: 1993-1997. 1925.
8. Bertrand, G., and M. Macheboeuf. Influence du nickel et du cobalt
sur I'action exerc6e par 1'insuline, chez le lapin. Compt. Rend. Acad.
Sci. 182: 1504-1507. 1926.
9. Bertrand, G., and M. Macheboeuf. Influence du nickel et du cobalt
sur 1'action exerc6e par l'insuline chez le chien. Compt. Rend.
Acad. Sci. 183: 5-8. 1926.
10. Bertrand, G., and M. Voronca-Spirt. Le titane dans les animaux.
Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 189: 221-223. 1929.
11. Bryan, O. C., and R. B. Becker. The mineral content of soil types as
related to "salt sick" of cattle. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 27: 120-127.
1935.
12. Danckwortt, P. W. and K. Holl. Chemische Untersuchungen iiber das
normal Vorkommen von Blei in Organen und Knocken gesunder
Haustiere. Deut. tierarztb. Wchnschr. 421: 586-589. 1934.







40 Agricultural Experiment Station

13. Ferguson, W. S., A. H. Lewis and S. J. Watson. Action of molyde-
num in the nutrition of milking cattle. Nature 141: 553. 1938.

14. Fisher, A. M., and D. A. Scott. Zinc content of bovine pancreas.
Biochem. Jour. 29: 1055-1058. 1935.

15. Gautier, C., and R. Ricard. ttude spectrographique de la bile de
boeuf. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 198: 2026-2028. 1934.

16. Hove, E., C. A. Elvehjem and E. B. Hart. Arsenic in the nutrition
of the rat. Amer. Jour. Physiol. 124: 205-212. 1938.
17. Husband, A. D. Report of branch of chemistry for the year ending
Dec. 31, 1936. Rhodesia Agr. Jour. 34: 473-495. 1937.

18. Kidson, E. B. Cobalt status of New Zealand soils. New Zeal. Jour.
Sci. and Technol. 18: 694-707. 1937.

19. McNaught, K. J. The cobalt content of North Island pastures. New
Zeal. Jour. Sci. and Technol. (A) 20: 14-30. 1936.
20. Meunier, P. Sur la presence et la repartition de aluminum dans les
tissus animaux. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 203: 891-894. 1936.
21. Neal. W. M. Cobalt in the treatment and prevention of salt sick.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Mimeo. 1937.
22. Neal, W. M., and C. F. Ahmann. The essentiality of cobalt in bovine
nutrition. Jour. Dairy Sci. 20: 741-753. 1937.
23. Neal, W. M., and R. B. Becker. The composition of feedstuffs in
relation to nutritional anemia in cattle. Jour. Agr. Res. 47: 249-255.
1933.
24. Neal, W. M., and R. B. Becker. The hemoglobin content of the
blood of healthy and anemic "salt sick" cattle. Jour. Agr. Res. 46:
557-563. 1933.
25. Ramage, H., and H. H. Fox. Mineral content of eyes. Nature 128:
376-377. 1931.
26. Rusoff, L. L., and L. W. Gaddum. The trace element content of
the newborn rat (as determined spectrographically). Jour. Nutr.
15: 169-176. 1937.
27. Rusoff, L. L. The distribution and concentration of copper in the
newborn calf as influenced by the nutrition of the dam. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 356. 1941.
28. Rusoff, L. L., L. H. Rogers and L. W. Gaddum. Quantitative de-
termination of copper and estimation of other trace elements by
spectrographic methods in wire grasses from "salt sick" and healthy
areas. Jour. Agr. Res. 55: 731-738. 1937.
29. Scott, G. H., and B. L. Canaga, Jr., Cesium in the mammalian retina.
Soc. Expt. Biol. and Med. Proc. 40: 275-276. 1939.
30. Sheldon, J. H., and H. Ramage. Spectrographic analysis of human
tissues. Biochem. Jour. 25: 1608-1627. 1931.

31. Underwood, E. J. The significance of "trace elements" in nutri-
tion. Nutr. Abs. and Rev. 9: 515-534. 1940.

32. Underwood, E. J., and R. J. Harvey. Enzootic marasmus: The co-
balt content of soils, pastures and animal organs. Austral. Vet. Jour.
14: 183-189. 1938.







APPENDIX


TABLE I.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL ASH, PERCENTArE MOISTURE, PERCENTAGE
CENTArE ASH (DRY BASIS) OF THE ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL NEWBORN CALF (E 106).


Tissue or Organ

Endocrine
Pituitary
Thyroid
Thymus
Adrenals
Testes
Nerve
Brain
Spinal cord and medulla
Lens
Cornea
Aqueous and vitreous humor
Sclera and retina
Whole eye (calculated)
Circulatory
Heart
Whole blood
Blood serum
Red blood cells
Aorta
Respiratory
Lung
Trachea


Total Fresh
Weight
grams

0.3544
4.0036
80.00
2.4031
3.8684

196.67
53.73
2.583
1.3796
6.212
9.9255
20.10


147.37
1,279.12
895.38
383.73
20.619


274.45
40.37


Total Dry
Matter
grams

0.0787
0.8727
22.9242
0.4715
0.6429

71.675
14.195
0.4804
0.1493
0.1496
1.5472
2.3265

31.457
214.636
54.528
117.001
4.1626


Total Ash

grams


0.0035
0.0410
1.9973
0.0310
0.0432

2.5068
0.8130
0.0220
0.0119
0.0672
0.0899
0.191

1.5376
12.556
8.972
3.3834
0.1592


62.895 3.07
8.697 0.537


Moisture Ash
(fresh basis)
percent percent

77.79 0.98
78.20 1.02
71.34 2.49
80.38 1.29
83.38 1.11

63.55 1.27
73.58 1.51
81.40 0.85
89.18 0.86
97.59 1.08
84.41 0.90
88.43 0.95


78.65
83.22
93.91
69.51
79.81

77.08
78.45


AsH (FRESH BASIS) AND PER-


Ash
(dry basis)
percent

4.44
4.69
8.71
6.57
6.71

3.49
5.72
4.57
7.97
44.92
5.81
8.21


4.88
6.03
16.47
2.89
3.82

4.88
6.14









TABLE I.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL ASH, PERCENTAGE MOISTURE, PERCENTAGE ASH (FRESH BASIS) AND PER-
CENTA-E ASH (DRY BASIS) OF THE ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL NEWBORN CALF (E 106)-(Continued).
Total Fresh Total Dry Total Ash Moisture Ash Ash
Tissue or Organ Weight Matter (fresh basis) (dry basis)
grams grams grams percent percent percent
Excretory
Kidney 73.08 18.050 0.8967 75.30 1.22 4.96
Bladder 14.1985 2.5859 0.1396 81.78 0.98 5.39
Penis 30.63 6.7369 0.2572 78.00 0.83 3.81
Urine 248.42 4.5023 0.7966 98.18 0.32 17.69
Digestive
Tongue 91.26 19.3510 0.9505 78.79 1.04 5.91
Esophagus 21.54 3.7863 0.2214 82.42 1.02 5.84
Stomach 236.04 40.675 1.695 82.76 0.71 4.16
Stomach contents 158.0 4.4872 1.1067 97.16 0.70 24.75
Small intestine 633.0 117.738 5.5030 81.40 0.86 4.67
Large intestine 143.0 30.530 1.2755 78.65 0.89 4.17
Intestinal contents 282.0 117.002 3.345 58.51 1.18 2.85
Pancreas 11.7022 2.8623 0.1429 75.54 1.22 4.99
Liver 395.71 132.855 5.017 66.42 1.26 3.77
Gallbladder and bile 2.5297 0.2738 0.0235 89.17 0.92 8.58
Spleen 42.64 10.620 0.6707 75.09 1.57 6.31
Supporting
Skull and jaw 468.0 264.560 162.765 43.47 34.77 61.52
Teeth 46.92 38.140 31.684 18.71 67.52 83.07
Rib 306.0 136.813 63.403 55.29 20.72 46.35
Vertebra 704.0 283.78 112.386 59.69 15.96 39.60
Carpals 292.0 132.064 51.038 55.08 17.36 38.64
Fore shaft bones 546.0 260.660 122.642 54.26 22.46 49.11
Tarsals 528.0 220.598 88.350 58.22 16.73 40.05
Hind shaft bones 750.0 368.100 175.605 50.92 23.41 47.70
Scapula 118.0 66.799 33.184 43.39 28.12 49.68
Pelvis 222.0 92.352 39.928 58.40 17.98 43.23
Cartilage 58.0 22.939 0.4649 60.45 0.80 2.82






TABLE I.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL ASH, PERCENTAGE MOISTURE, PERCENTAGE ASH (FRESH BASIS) AND PER-
CENTA-E ASH (DRY BASIS) OF THE ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL NEWBORN CALF (E 106)-(Continued).
Total Fresh Total Dry Total Ash Moisture Ash Ash
Tissue or Organ Weight Matter (fresh basis) (dry basis)
grams grams grams percent percent percent
Miscellaneous
Flesh 6,878.0 1,609.13 77.772 76.94 1.11 4.83
Skin 2,255.0 521.58 11.292 76.87 0.50 2.16
Hoof 94.0 53.740 0.9716 42.83 1.03 1.80
Fat 353.0 230.827 1.4756 34.61 0.41 0.63
Bone marrow (hind le))* 9.7835 3.1302 0.4826 68.00 4.93 15.41
Bone marrow (fore leg)* 6.1760 2.5643 0.3138 58.00 5.08 12.23
Hair* 16.965 11.514 0.4295 32.13 2.53 3.73
Total animal 18,346.41 5,266.37 1,030.94 71.30 5.61 19.57
*These tissues represent sample weights only.











TABLE II.-TOTAL FRESTI WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL Asa, PERCENTA-E MOISTURE, PERCENTAGE ASH (FRESH BASIS) AND PER-
CENTAGE ASH (DRY BASIS) OF THE ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A "SALT SICK" NEWBORN CALF (E108).
Tissue or Organ Total Fresh Total Dry Total Ash Moisture Ash Ash
Weight Matter (fresh basis) (dry basis)
grams grams grams percent percent percent
Endocrine
Pituitary 0.4388 0.0914 0.0046 79.17 1.04 5.03
Thyroid 4.0557 1.0524 0.0352 74.05 0.86 3.34
Thvmus 33.689 6.765 0.5420 79.92 1.60 8.01 4
Adrenals 2.3030 0.4707 0.0317 79.56 1.37 6.73 02
Testes 6.2300 1.197 0.0676 80.79 1.08 5.64
Nerve
Brain 197.98 36.698 2.575 81.47 1.30 7.01
Spinal cord and medulla 57.760 15.617 0.955 72.96 1.65 6.11
Eye 24.355 2.265 0.223 90.70 0.91 9.84
Circulatory
Heart 134.94 28.215 1.445 79.09 1.07 5.12
Whole blood 1,172.64 180.23 13.696 84.63 1.16 7.60
Blood serum 867.76 62.131 8.452 92.84 0.97 13.60
Red blood cell 304.88 81.40 2.6859 73.30 0.88 3.30
Aorta 30.278 7.069 0.261 76.65 0.86 3.69
Respiratory
Lung 200.07 53.81 3.225 73.10 1.61 5.99
Trachea 43.00 10.376 0.6949 75.87 1.61 6.70
Excretory
Kidney 78.610 15.885 1.027 79.79 1.30 6.46
Bladder 17.716 3.357 0.195 81.05 1.10 5.80
Penis 15.080 2.871 0.131 80.96 0.86 4.56
Urine 14.608 0.785 0.557 94.62 0.78 70.95






TABLE II.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL ASH, PERCENTAGE MOISTURE, PERCENTAGE ASH (FRESH BASIS) AND PER-
CENTAGE ASH (DRY BASIS) OF THE ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A "SALT SICK" NEWBORN CALF (E 108)-(Continued).
Tissue or Organ Total Fresh Total Dry Total Ash Moisture Ash Ash


Weight Matter


(Iresn oasis I


l(ry oasis)


Digestive
Tongue
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine
Pancreas
Liver
Gallbladder and bile
Spleen
Supporting
Skull and jaw
Teeth
Rib
Vertebra
Carpals
Fore shaft bones
Tarsals
Hind shaft bones
Scapula
Pelvis
Cartilage
Miscellaneous
Flesh
Skin
Hoof
Fat
Bone marrow*
Hair*
Total animal


grams

105.0
34.0
250.0
444.0
201.0
15.6622
295.73
7.6219
32.392

640.0
84.0
300.0
930.0
212.0
652.0
564.0
900.0
154.0
206.0
25.07

7,682.0
2,340.5
179.4
120.0
5.927
3.713
18,452.00


*These tissues represent sample weights only.


grams

22.061
6.800
40.30
103.40
38.793
3.727
74.90
0.9982
7.365

504.19
52.47
202.05
506.29
115.54
332.32
235.75
454.68
70.42
102.54
7.145

1,645.48
613.67
121.09
76.63
1.965
3.423
5,723.67


grams

1.124
2.205
2.072
4.577
1.622
0.200
4.285
0.098
0.447

323.32
41.81
120.15
251.47
59.37
199.64
131.63
273.33
62.18
56.42
0.550

89.26
47.37
1.586
0.584
0.992
0.058
1,708.71


percent percent percent


78.97
80.00
83.88
76.71
80.70
76.20
74.67
86.91
77.26

21.22
37.53
32.65
45.56
45.50
49.03
58.20
49.48
54.27
50.22
71.50

78.58
73.78
32.50
36.14
66.85
7.82
69.00


1.07
6.48
0.82
1.03
0.80
1.27
1.44
1.28
1.38

50.52
49.78
40.05
27.04
28.00
30.62
23.34
30.37
40.38
27.39
2.19


5.09
32.41
5.14
4.42
4.18
5.36
5.72
9.82
6.06

64.12
79.70
59.45
49.71
51.39
60.06
55.84
60.11
88.24
55.01
7.69


1.16 5.42
2.02 7.72
0.68 1.30
0.48 0.76
16.73 50.48
1.56 1.69
9.31 29.85







Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE III.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL ASH, PERCENTAGE
MOISTURE, PERCENTAGE ASH ON THF FRESH AND DRY BASES OF THE TISSUES OF
A NORMAL NEWBORN CALF (CALF E 123).


Tissue

Thymus
Adrenals
Brain
Heart
Lung
Kidney
Liver
Pancreas
Gallbladder
and bile
Spleen
Rib*


*Sample weight.


Total
Fresh
Weight
am.
67.885
1.2998
180.87
133.837
245.55
79.955
450.877
18.105


Total
Dry
Matter
gm.
13.135
0.3462
23.975
25.972
49.257
14.920
124.910
3.710


1.935 0.3815
45.407 10.145
61.515 34.17


Total Moisture Ash Ash
Ash Fresh Dry
Matter Matter
gm. percent percent percent
1.075 80.66 1.58 8.18
0.0245 73.37 1.88 7.07
2.345 86.75 1.29 9.78
1.405 80.60 1.05 5.41
2.946 79.94 1.20 6.02
0.930 81.34 1.16 6.23
5.930 72.30 1.31 4.75
0.210 76.16 1.16 5.66


0.0202
0.625
18.718


80.28 1.04 5.29
77.66 1.37 6.16
44.45 30.43 54.78


TABLE IV.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY M
MOISTURE, PERCENTAGE ASH ON THE FRESH AND
A NORMAL NEWBORN CALF (CALF E 125).


Total
Fresh


Tissue Weigh
gm.
Brain 176.95
Heart 115.181
Kidney 60.577
Liver 310.0
Pancreas 42.383
Gallbladder
and bile 7.148
Rib* 34.284
Spleen 37.058
Blood 1,043.0
Flesh* 123.804
*Sample weight.


It


Total
Dry
Matter
gm.
31.48
35.616
13.272
74.12
24.051

0.983
17.818
8.171
234.15
25.176


ATTER, TOTAL ASH, PERCENTAGE
DRY BASES OF THE TISSUES OF


Total Moisture Ash Ash
Ash Fresh Dry
Matter Matter
gm. percent percent percent
2.29 82.21 1.29 7.27
1.303 69.08 1.13 3.66
0.772 78.09 1.27 5.81
4.28 76.09 1.38 5.77
0.293 43.25 0.69 1.22


0.093
10.307
0.535
16.92
1.443


86.25
48.03
77.95
77.55
79.66


1.30
30.06
1.44
0.975
1.165


9.46
57.85
6.55
4.34
5.73









TABLE V.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, PERCENTAGE OF MOISTURE AND PERCENTAGE OF ASH ON THE DRY BASIS OF TISSUES OF NEWBORN
CALVES AS INFLUENCED BY THE NUTRITION OF THE DAM.
Fresh Weight in Grams
Newborn Gallbladder
Calves Liver Kidney Heart Pancreas Lung Spleen Thymus Flesh Brain Rib Adrenals and Bile Blood
E 106 395.71 73.08 147.37 11.7022 274.45 42.64 80.00 6978.0 196.67 306.0 2.4031 2.5287 1279.12 a
E 123 450.87 79.955 133.837 18.105 245.55 45.407 67.885 ....... 180.87 61.52* 1.2998 1.9350 ...........
E 125 310.0 60.577 115.181 42.383 .. .... 37.068 123.80* 176.95 34.28* .... 7.148 1043.0
E 108 295.73 78.61 134.94 15.6622 200.07 32.392 33.689 7682.0 197.98 300.0 2.3030 7.6219 1172.64
Percentage of Moisture
Newborn Gallbladder
Calves Liver Kidney Heart Pancreas Lung Spleen Thymus Flesh Brain Rib Adrenals and Bile Blood
E 106 66.42 75.30 78.65 75.54 77.08 75.09 71.34 76.94 63.55 55.29 80.38 89.17 83.22
E 123 72.30 81.34 80.60 76.16 79.94 77.66 80.66 86.75 44.55 73.37 80.28 .........
E.125 76.09 78.09 69.08 43.25 .......... 77.95 .... 79.66 82.21 48.03 ..... 86.25 77.55
E 108 74.67 79.79 79.09 76.20 73.10 77.26 79.92 78.58 81.47 32.65 79.56 86.91 84.63
Percentage of Ash (dry basis)
Newborn Gallbladder o
Calves Liver Kidney Heart Pancreas Lung Spleen Thymus Flesh Brain Rib Adrenals and Bile Blood
E 106 3.77 4.96 4.88 4.99 4.88 6.31 8.71 4.83 3.49 46.35 6.57 8.58 6.03 r
E 123 4.75 6.23 5.41 5.66 6.02 6.16 8.18 .. ..... 9.78 54.78 7.07 5.29 ...........
E 125 5.77 5.81 3.66 1.22 ......... 6.55 ........ 5.73 7.27 57.85 .. .. 9.46 4.34
E 108 5.72 6.46 5.12 5.36 5.99 6.06 8.01 5.42 7.01 59.45 6.73 0.82 7.60
* SamDle weight.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs