• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Credits
 List of departmental and branch...
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00038
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1952
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00038
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
        Page 3
    List of departmental and branch station reports
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
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Full Text












UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT STATIONS






ANNUAL REPORT

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1952





BOARD OF CONTROL
SFrank M. Harris, Chm., St. Petersburg
Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Peters-
burg
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville
George J. White, Sr., Mount Dora
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee
EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President a
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.3
Willard M. Field, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir.
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr. 3
Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Supt.
MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
/ H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist s
RE. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 3
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 3
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., .Associate
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate 4
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate a
H. W. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate 3
H. W. Little, M.S., Assistant 4
Tallmadge Bergen, B.S., Assistant
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Economist
Eric Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
J. L. Tennant, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
H. W. Little. M.S., Asst. Agr. Economist
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S.. Asso. Agr. Econ.
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr.
-Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr.
Ttatlstlcian 2
SJ. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician 2
J. K. Lankford, B.S., Agr. Statistician
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazler Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer '
J. M. Johnson. B.S.A.E., Agr. Engineer 3
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Eng.
AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist 2
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Darrel D. Morey, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, M.S., Assistant
Myron C. Grennell, B.S.A.E., Assistant 4
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace. Ph.D., Assistant
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant
H. E. Buckley, M.S.A., Assistant
E. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND
NUTRITION
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Husb. O
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
S. John Folks, Jr., M.S., Asst. An. Hush.
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb. 3
John P. Feaster, Ph.D.,Asst. An. Nutri.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb. 3
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 3
G. E. Combs, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Animal
Husbandman
E. F. Johnston, M.S., Asst. Animal
Husbandman
DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech. ''
R. B. Becker. Ph.D., Dairy Husb. 2
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb. 3
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech. :
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy
Husb.
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.
" H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy
-H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy
Tech.
James M. Wing, M.S., Asst. Dairy Husb.
EDITORIAL
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor 3


L. Odell Griffith, B.A.J., Asst. Editor a
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor 3
ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist 2
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
HOME ECONOMICS
Oulda D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist a
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
-* F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst.
Biochemist
Buford Thompson, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Path.''
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and
Botanist
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D. Plant Path.
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant
Pathologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb. '
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poult. Husb.
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry
Husb.
SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist'
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
-J. R. Henderson, M.S.A. Soil Technolog. a
'-J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technolo-
gist a
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chem.
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils
Chemist
SRalph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surv.
'Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Sur-
veyor
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Microbiol. '
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Microbiolo-
gist I
Charles F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Micro-
biolodist 4
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist 3 4
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
James H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil
Surveyor.
S. N. Edson, M.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor a
William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Ch.
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
-H. F. RossB.S., Asst. Soils Microbiolog.
H. F. Ross, B.S., Asst. Soils Microbiolo-
gist
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D.. Asst. Soil Phys. a
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil
Physicist a
VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian 3
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Vet.
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinar-
\ ian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
N\ Pathologist
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitolog.
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitolo-
gist
W. M. Stone, M.S., Asst. Parasitologist









BRANCH STATIONS J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
H. L. Chapman, Jr., M.S.A., Asst. An.
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY HuGb.
/Thos. G. Bowery, Ph.D., Asst. Entomol.
W. C. Rhoades, Jr., M.S., Entomologist, \,Thos. G. Bowery, Ph.D.. Asst. Entomolo-
Actg. In Charge gist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
SL. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chem. M. R. Bedsole, M.S.A., Asst. Chem.
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils
Chemist SUB-TROPICAL STATION,
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agronomist HOMESTEAD
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb. Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir, in Chrg.
T. E. Webb. B.S.A., Asst. Agronomist D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Mobile Unit, Monticello Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Asso. Agronomist J. L Malcolm, Ph. D., Asso. Soils Chem.
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
Mobile Unit, Marianna R. Bruce Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Asso. Agronomist C. aan, .S., SoConservationist
Mobile Unit, Pensacola WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist BROOKSVILLE
Mobile Unit, Chipley William Jackson, B.S.A., Animal Hus-
Sbandman in Charge 2
J. B. White, B.S.A., Asso. Agronomist RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
SW. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Chr
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director In Chrg.
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologis
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist -.D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technol.


R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stears, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. 0. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reltz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander. Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
SD.S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticult.
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticul-
turist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Path.
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Asst. in Ent.-Path.
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. D. Leonard. Ph. D., Asso. Horticult.
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
E. J. Elvin, B.S., Asst. Hort.
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
I. H. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Asst. Entomolo-
gist-Pathologist


CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir in Chrg.
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate. Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Ben. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Asso. Agronomist
W. R. Langford, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
LIVE OAK
G. E. Ritchey, M.S.. Agronomist in Chrg.
GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in
Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert O. Magie. Ph.D., Plant Path.
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D.. Asst. Hort.
W. G. Cowperthwalte, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
Amegda Jack, M.S., Asst. Soils Chemist


K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Asst. Entomolo- FIELD LABORATORIES
gist-Pathologist
J. B. Weeks, B.S., Asst. Entomologist Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg
E. C. Lundberg, B.S.A., Asst. Biochemist C. C. Helms, Jr.. B.S.. Asst. Agronomist
N. F. Shimp, M.S., Asst. Chem. L. H. Stover, Asst. in Hort.
R. B. Johnson, M.S., Asst. Entomologist Strawberry-Plant City
EVERGLADES STATION, A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
BELLE GLADE Vegetables-Hastings
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. inChrg.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist MN. "rCubbin, Ph.D., AHorticulturist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entomolo-
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist M. Dobroky. Ph.D., Asst. Entomolo-
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Husb. gist Pecans-Monticello
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist A M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
W. H. Thames, Jr., M.S., Asst. Ento- Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
mologist Warren 0. Johnson, B.S., Meterologis,
W. N. Stoner. Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path. Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meterologist
W. A. Hills, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
W. G. Genung, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist Head of Department
Frank V. Stevenson,M.S., Asso. Plant Pa-' In cooperation with U. S.
F. V. Stevenson, M.S., Asso. Plant Path. 3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D.. Asst. Agronomist 4 On leave.
V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist








4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations



DEPARTMENTAL AND BRANCH STATION REPORTS

Page
D director's R report --- -------......... ..........-.......... ......... ........... 5
Business M manager ...................................... .................. 19
Editorial ......... ... ............. 24
Ldiboriary--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------240
L library ....................................................................~... ...... 40
Agricultural Economics ...........................--....... -......---.--.--.... 41
Agricultural Engineering ................. ----------------------.......... ........ 49
Agronomy ......-...--..- ...---- ------.....-- ..-- ..---- ............- .......-.......-----. 53
Animal Husbandry ..................---------------..... ------..... -.............. 66
D airy Science ...................................... ....................................... 75
Entom ology ............. ........--~......- ...- .. .... ........ ..................... 81
Home Economics ..----........---------- ...................---.... 88
H horticulture .............................. ............... .......... ....... ... ..... 91
U. S. Laboratory for Tung Investigations ........................................... 109
Plant Pathology ...........-..--....... --------------................. .---.... 112
Poultry Husbandry ---......... .........................----------.....-----....... 120
Soils ....................................... ............................ .......................... .......... 124
Veterinary Science ......-------..... --....--.....---.............. .- .......134
Field Laboratories ---......... ...................... ................-- .......-- ... 141
Potato Investigations Laboratory ..-......-........----..........-- ......-- 141
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory .......................-- ................ ...... 144
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory ......-................... 145
Federal-State Frost Warning Service ....................................... 146
Central Florida Station ........... .......... ....-..... ...-.-... .. ...... ---149
Citrus Station .................. .... ------............ .....-------.. -............ 155
Everglades Station .......--- .........-----------......-- --- -.......-- ....... 195
Gulf Coast Station .......-- ..................... .. ----.--. .. ----.....--.... 236
N north Florida Station ............................................. .................. 258
M obile Units ..... ----.....................-- -.................-................. 265
Range Cattle Station .-............... .................. .......-- ------.... 269
Sub-Tropical Station .......---- ............----------- .......-....------- ............ 274
Suw annee Valley Station .................................................................. 290
W est Central Florida Station ............................-................ ...... 292
W est Florida Station ........... .... ......................... ................. 294








Annual Report, 1952


REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

INTRODUCTION

Agriculture in Florida, as a whole, is "big business". It includes many
items of major importance; many others, though of lesser magnitude,
likewise contribute to the State's rapidly expanding economy and growth.
There are in Florida, organic, marl, and sandy soils of many types and
descriptions. There is a wide range of latitude and climatological condi-
tions, which makes possible the growing of both temperate zone and sub-
tropical crops. Some of these are grown more or less continuously,
some during the warmer periods of the year, and others during the "off
season" or winter months.
Florida's agricultural production includes among other crops, fruits
and nuts, different vegetables, forages and grains, cover crops, tobacco
(both open field and shade grown), sugar cane and fiber crops, bees and
honey plants, nurseries, ornamentals and cut flowers, pasture and turf,
poultry and livestock. There are within the boundaries of the State about
135 different agricultural enterprises which contribute wholly or in part
to the livelihood of those who engage in agricultural production. The
annual cash income to Florida's farmers is fast approaching a half billion
dollars. This does not include millions of dollars realized by others from
such enterprises as fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and sale, harvest-
ing, grading, packaging, processing, storage, shipping, advertising and
financing necessary and incidental to such agricultural production. Many
people, though not directly concerned with the State's agricultural produc-
tion, are nevertheless depending on it for their livelihood.
Such food, feed and fiber production programs present many problems.
Farmers cannot solve them alone. The answers can be gotten only
through organized, well-planned, properly conducted and adequately fi-
nanced research. There are two basic reasons for such research, viz.: 1)
to produce more and of better quality; 2) to uncover and provide new
things and opportunities for bettering the conditions of the farmer and his
families.
"To produce more and better" has a deeper meaning now than a few
years ago. Now, costs, or economic production are important considera-
tions in the programs. "More and better" includes not only improved
pastures and management programs through which to produce more and
better beef, but also livestock and livestock product conservation programs
consisting of less rough handling of live animals from farm to packing
house, and better and more intelligent and adequate storage and handling
after slaughter; it means not only higher yields of fruits and vegetables
through adequate fertilization with both major and minor nutrients, but
a knowledge of vitamin and mineral contents and their improvement and
conservation for human consumption; it means not merely higher yields
through insect and disease control, but also an understanding of vitamin
content increases, and other physiological changes through pesticide
applications and pest control; it means a knowledge of pesticide applica-
tion and management with reference to residues left on or in edible
portions of fruits and vegetables and the potential danger, if any, to those
who consume them.
Research is responsible for these enlarging concepts. It is endless in its
ramifications and calls for team work by those especially trained in the
different disciplines. This general trend is gaining momentum. In the
organized agricultural research programs of Florida Stations there are








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


more and more projects developing which cut across departmental lines
and on which the co-leaders trained in the various special fields are work-
ing together to advantage as a team. The plant physiologist is needed to
make the analyses of the crop produced and to assist in the planning and
conducting of the research in accordance with the findings; the agricul-
tural engineer must work with the dairy scientist and the animal husband-
man in irrigation and other research; the entomologist and the pasture
researcher have problems which require their combined efforts; the bio-
chemist, the horticulturist, the plant pathologist, the entomologist and
soils technologist work together to produce better fruit, forage, grain and
cover crops. There are cooperative efforts among those working with
similar problems in different areas but under different edaphic and clima-
tological conditions. Investigations are conducted cooperatively with both
private and governmental agencies. Through the combined efforts of all,
new and better things for agriculture are constantly being brought for-
ward.
Research affecting the many facets of Florida's agriculture can never
be static; it is ever changing. During the fiscal year in the Station system
8 projects were closed, 204, still not complete, were continued, 4 were
revised and brought up to date, and 32 new ones were begun to investi-
gate problems which had reached major importance. The titles and brief
summaries of the work conducted under these projects are given on the
following pages.

IMPROVEMENTS AND ADDITIONS

During the fiscal year certain items mentioned in the report a year
ago, such as the Poultry Unit, have been completed. This unit, at the
Main Station, rather complete except for an office and classroom building,
includes laying, skid and breeding houses, a laboratory building and a
superintendent's cottage. A meats laboratory, a livestock pavilion and
several cattle sheds were also built at the Main Station. Additional
tracts were fenced to provide much needed research areas, and some
equipment such as tractors and other farm machinery, platform scales,
watering troughs and other items were purchased or constructed to
facilitate needed research.
Of particular importance is the development and opening of the Beef
Research Unit of over 640 acres (mentioned last year). On this tract
has been placed a herd of approximately 100 head of Grade Braham
females and several herd sires of different breeds. Establishing this unit
required the clearing of many acres of land, the construction of many
miles of line and cross fences, lanes and roadways, wells and water sys-
tems, and various buildings. Additional plot areas were fenced and
provided together with six experimental silos for dairy research.
Feeding room space and concrete watering through and other facilities
were added for investigations with swine.
Improved facilities at branch stations and field laboratories were also
provided. The office and laboratory at the North Florida Station was
completed. A 28 ft. x 84 ft. all metal storage, workshop and field labora-
tory building, two pump houses, % miles of roadway and important
drainage and irrigation ditches and dykes were built at the Indian River
Field Laboratory. An electric power line % mile long was extended to
this laboratory without charge to the Station and the road from the main
road to the farm buildings and residences at the Range Cattle Station
was hard-surfaced by the State Road Department.
At the Everglades Station three orlyt greenhouses and a headhouse
were completed for virus research on vegetable plants, and several miles








Annual Report, 1952


of fence were constructed to enclose certain field plot areas. Irrigation
systems for pasture research were provided at the Range Cattle Station.
In addition, other items such as tractors, harrows, mowers, and a sprayer
were purchased for use at several of these units. An artesian well was
drilled and a shelter for farm machinery was provided at the Potato
Investigations Laboratory. Gas heating equipment was installed to re-
place charcoal in the shade tobacco curing barns at the North Florida
Station.

STAFF CHANGES

APPOINTMENTS

Bowery, Thomas G., Asst. Etomologist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1951.
Buckley, Hubert E., Interim Asst. in Agronomy, Main Station, September
1, 1951.
Chapman, Herbert L. Jr., Asst. Animal Husbandman, Everglades Station,
July 1, 1951.
Combs, George Ernest Jr., Interim Asst. in Animal Husbandry, Main Sta.
tion, July 1, 1951.
Dennis, Walter R., Interim Asst. Parasitologist, Main Station, January
1, 1952.
Dobrovsky, T. M., Asst. Entomologist, Potato Investigation Laboratory,
(Hastings), Feb. 1, 1952.
Earhart, Robt. W., Plant Pathologist, Main Station (Coop. USDA), July
1, 1951.
Fiskel, John G. A., Asst. Biochemist, Soils, Main Station, October 1, 1951.
Georg, James G., Asst. Meteriologist, Weather Forecasting Service, Feb.
1, 1952.
Godwin, Marshall R., Assoc. Marketing Economist, Main Station, July 1,
1951.
Grierson-Jackson, William, R. F., Asst. Chemist, Citrus Station, June
1, 1952.
Guzman, Victor L., Interim Asst. Horticulturist, Everglades Station, Janu-
ary 1, 1952.
Johnson, Roger Burr, Interim Asst. Entomologist, Citrus Station, April
1, 1952.
Johnston, Elbert F., Interim Asst. Animal Husbandman, Main Station,
February 1, 1952.
Langford, William R., Asst. Agronomist, West Fla. Station, October 1,
1951.
Lankford, J. F., Agricultural Statistician (Coop. USDA) Agricultural
Economics, Main Station. October 1, 1951.
Ledin, R. Bruce, Asst. Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Station, July 15, 1951.
Muma, Martin H., Assoc. Entomologist, Citrus Station, October 1, 1951.
Newhall, William F., Asst. Biochemist, Citrus Station, May 1, 1952.
Noonan, John C., Asst. Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Station, Dec. 1, 1951.
Norton, John Stanley, Asst. Aricultural Engineer, Main Station, Novem-
ber 15, 1951.
Nutter, Gene C., Asst. Agronomist, Main Station, November 4, 1951.
Reynolds, Frank J., Assoc. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, February 1, 1952.
Ross, Harold F., Interim Asst. Soil Microbiologist, Main Station, Decem-
ber 1, 1951.
Sherbakoff, Constantine D., Consultant, Citrus Station, March 1, 1952.
Stone, William M., Jr., Interim Asst. Parasitologist, Main Station, No-
vember 1, 1951.









8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Tennant, John L., Visiting Agricultural Economist, Main Station, July 1,
1951.
Thor, Eric, Assoc. Agricultural Economist, Main Station, November 1,
1951.
Van Middelem, Charles H., Asst. Biochemist, Main Station, December
1, 1951.
Waties, Robert E., Asst. Entomologist, Main Station, December 1, 1951.
Batte, Edward G., Asst. Parasitologist, Main Station, November 30, 1951.
/fBowers, John C., Asst. Chemist, Citrus Station, July 15, 1951.
Carrigan, Richard A., Biochemist, Soils, Main Station, September 15, 1951.
Christie, James R., Interim Asst. in Entomology, Citrus Station, Febru-
ary 15, 1952.
Combs, George E., Jr., Interim Asst. in Animal Husbandry, Main Station,
June 30, 1952.
Enzor, J. J., Asst. in Entomology-Pathology, Citrus Station, July 15, 1951.
Erwin, Thomas C., Asst. Chemist Everglades Station, October 31, 1951.
Faville, L. W., Asst. Bacteriologist, Citrus Station, October 31, 1951.
Glasscock, R. S., Animal Husbandman, Main Station, September 30, 1951.
Griffiths, J. T., Assoc. Entomologist, Citrus Station, July 15, 1951.
Hansard, Sam L., Interim Asst. in Nutritional Animal Husbandry, Main
Station, May 31, 1952.
Kimmel, Donald C., Asst. Marketing Economist, Main Station, March 31,
1952.
Little, Herschel W., Asst. Agricultural Economist, Main Station, June 30,
1952.
Lippmann, Harold S., Asst. Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Service,
December 31, 1951.
Pace, James E., Asst. Animal Husbandman, Main Station, January 31,
1952.
Shimp, Neil Frederick, Interim Asst. in Chemistry, Citrus Station, June
30, 1952.
Shirley, Ray L., Biochemical Animal Husbandman and Nutrition, Main
Station, September 30, 1951.
Steffens, John F., Jr., Agricultural Statistician, Main Station, August 1,
1951.
Webster, Raymond H., Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Station, February
29, 1952.
Bergen, Tallmadge, Interim Asst. Agricultural Economist, Main Station,
Appointment expired July 1, 1952.

DECEASED

Warner, Jacob D., Vice Director in Charge, North Florida Station, No-
vember 17, 1951.
ADVANCEMENTS

Arrington, Lewis R., (from Laboratory Asst. to Interim Asst. Biochemist,
Animal Husbandman and Nutrition) Main Station, June 1, 1952.
Davis, John W., (from Laboratory Asst. to Osst. in Entomology-Pathology)
Citrus Station, August 1, 1951.
Dickey, Ralph D., (from Asst. Horticulturist to Assoc. Horticulturist) Main
Station, July 1, 1951.
Jack, Amegda N., (from Laboratory Asst. to Asst. in Soil Chemistry) Gulf
Coast Station, July 1, 1951.
McCall, John T., (from Laboratory Asst. to Asst. in Chemical Animal
Husbandry and Nutrition) Main Station, July 1, 1951.


L








Annual Report, 1952


McPherson, William K., (from Interim Economist to Agricultural Econo-
mist) Main Station, July 1, 1952.
Mull, Leon E., (from Asst. Dairy Technician to Assoc. Dairy Technician)
Main Station, July 1, 1951.
Nettles, Victor F., (from Asst. Horticulturist to Assoc. Horticulturist)
Main Station, July 1, 1951.
Pearson, Albert M., (from Asst. Animal Husbandman to Assoc. Animal
Husbandman) Main Station, July 1, 1951.
Rhoades, Winfred C., (from Entomologist to Entomologist in Charge)
North Florida Station, January 15, 1952.
Stover, Loren H., (from Farm Foreman to Asst. in Horticulture) Water-
melon and Grape Laboratory, July 1, 1951.

SUMMARY OF WORK IN PROGRESS
The Station's research, conducted under planned and approved project
statements, is listed by the titles given below. Work of an exploratory
nature and of short duration is given in the various divisions under
"Miscellaneous."
MAIN STATION

Agricultural Economics
Project No. Title Page
154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida ................................ 41
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
C itrus ..............................--................. ... ............................. .....---- 41
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency, Its Possible Inheritance
and Depreciation in Florida Dairy Herds .................................... 42
395 Input and Output Data for Florida Crop and Livestock Production 42
429 Analysis of Farms and Markets in the Plant City Area with
Respect to Post-War Economic Problems .................................. 42
451 Crop and Livestock Estimating on Florida Farms with Emphasis
on Vegetable Crops ..................................... ................. ......... 42
480 Cost of Production and Returns on Vegetable Crops in Florida.... 43
483 Consumer Packaging of Vegetables (Except Tomatoes) --........... 43
484 Packaging of Tomatoes ...........-..- .....-----..... ...................... 43
485 Spoilage in Marketing Early Irish Potatoes ---------.........-.....---........... 44
486 Cost and Factors Affecting the Cost of Marketing Citrus Fruits
in Fresh and Processed Form .......................--.--. .............. 44
519 The Consumer Pattern for Citrus Fruit ..........--- ...-...----............. 45
520 Coordinated Selling of Citrus Fruit ...........------..... .. ... ............... 45
556 Farm Rental Arrangements in Florida .......................................... 46
562 Consumer Demand for Citrus Products and Factors Affecting
That Demand -.......... -------------------------- -................ 46
578 Consumer Acceptance of Waxed and Colored Potatoes .................. 46
579 Part-Time Farming in Florida ....................------------- ---------............... 47
593 Methods of Shipping Florida Citrus Fruits and Citrus Products.... 47
602 Marketing Meat Animals in Florida -.......---.---------------.... ....... ....... 47
619 An Analysis of Present and Potential Utilization of Land for
Grazing and Alternative Uses in Central Florida ...-----............... 48

Agricultural Engineering
536 Curing Hay in Florida ..... .......------------ ..... .-------------- .. ............... 49
555 Fertilization and Culture of Flue-Cured Tobacco ..........----------- ......... 50
573 Design and Operation of Heat Exchangers for Farm Drying
Equipm ent .. ................ --- ---..- ---....................... 50









10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
577 Determination of the Optimum Air Delivery, Air Temperature
and Depth of Seed for Mechanical Drying ............................. 50
...... Miscellaneous: Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for
Beef Production on Flatwood Soils; Design of a Seed
Scarifier; Mechanical Injuries to Early Irish Potatoes;
Irrigated vs. Non-Irrigated Pangola-Clover Pastures for
Lactating Dairy Cows ....... ..... .... ..... ........................ ..-- 52

Agronomy
20 Peanut Im provem ent ................................ ...... .. ................... 53
56 Variety Test W ork with Field Crops ............................................... 53
295 Effect of Fertilizers and Management on Yield, Grazing Value,
Chemical Composition and Botanical Makeup of Pastures...... 54
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies .............................. 54
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement ..................................... 55
301 Pasture Legumes .. -----................ ---.............. .. ..... ---- ---................... 55
304 Methods of Establishing Permanent Pastures Under Various
Conditions .............. ... .......------ ........... ..............---..---- 56
369 Effect of Environment on Composition of Forage Plants ...-.....-.. 56
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement .............................................. 57
374 Corn Im provem ent ................................................................. ........ 57
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixture, and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized
Pastures .................--- .....-.. ---.. --------........... ..- ......- .....-................. 57
417 Methods of Producing, Harvesting and Maintaining Pasture
Plants and Seed Stocks ................................. ............ ......... --- 58
440 Effect of Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S and Mg on the Growth of Grain
Crops, Forage Crops, Pastures and Tobacco ...................--........ 58
444 Permanent Seedbeds for Tobacco Plants .....---................-................. 59
487 Improvement of Oats, Rye, Wheat and Barley Through Breed-
ing for Desirable Agronomic Characteristics and Resistance
to Disease ...........------.... .... ---- ---..................--......... 59
488 Nutrition and Physiology of the Peanut .....--............ ----................--.. 61
536 Curing Hay in Florida ..................------.... -------- . ................ 62
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco ................................ 63
543 Roughages for Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle in
Florida ..-........... ----- ---..... -----............... ...... .............. 63
555 Fertilization and Culture of Flue-Cured Tobacco ............................ 63
600 Breeding Improved Varieties of White, Red and Sweet Clover .... 63
612 Varietal Improvement of Lupines (Initiated During Year) ............ 64
... Miscellaneous: Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cotton;
Turf; Crop Management ....................-....... ....-- ............ 64

Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle .....------...................................... 66
346 Investigation with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition
Problems of Livestock .....--------.----..------.. ---........ 67
356 Biological Analysis of Pasture Herbage .----....................................... 68
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixtures, and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized
Pastures ............-------- ---------------------- --..... ...---...... 68
461 Supplemental Feeds for Nursing Beef Calves .-............-----------...-----.. 69
512 Sweet Lupine Seed as a Protein Supplement for Growing and
Fattening Beef Cattle -----.....................-------------......-- 69
518 Thyroid Function in Chickens ..................------.........-----. -----......... 69









Annual Report, 1952 11

Project No. Title Page
540 Citrus Molasses for Feeding Swine ...................................-.-- 69
541 Feeding Value of Florida Hays for Swine .............................--...- 70
542 Supplemental Feeds for Sows During Reproduction and Lacta-
tion on Florida Pastures .......................-.....------ ...... ... --..... 70
543 Roughages for Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle in Florida 70
546 Loss of Nutrients in Drip from Defrosted Frozen Meat ................ 71
551 Utilization of Calcium and Phosphorus by Poultry as Determined
with Radioactive Isotopes ...... ---........-.......................---------.. 71
566 Transfer of Mineral Elements Through the Placenta and Their
Distribution in the Fetus .......... .............. ....... ........ ...........--- 71
Miscellaneous: Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal for Swine;
Various Antibiotics and 3-Nitro-4-Hydroxy-Phenyl Arsonic
Acid in Corn-Peanut Meal Rations for Swine; Reducing and
Discontinuing Aureomycin Supplementation; A Vitamin
B,-Aureomycin Supplement (Aurofac) in the Protein Mix-
ture of Swine Hogging off Corn; Effect of Aureomycin on
Protein Needs of Pigs; L-lyxoflavin in Swine Rations;
Feeding Dry Hay to Beef Cattle Grazing Oats; Sunflower
Seed Meal as a Protein Supplement for Fattening Steers;
Effects of Synthetic Sex Hormones on Swine; The Rela-
tionship of Trace Minerals in the Ration of Cattle to the
Deposition of B-Complex Vitamins; Ammoniated Citrus
Pulp as a feed for Cattle; Inter-relationships of Copper,
Molybdenum and Phosphorus; Luxation of the Patella in
B ovines ............................................................. 72

Dairy Science
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to
Her Milk and Butterfat Production ...................................... ... 75
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops ............................................ .. 75
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency, Its Possible Inheritance
and Depreciation in Florida Dairy Herds .......- ---................... ... 775
497 Influence of Water Constituents (Minerals) on the Physical
Properties and Whipping Quality of Ice Cream Mixes ........-... 76
534 Cooling and Aging of Ice Cream Mixes ......-............................. 76
564 Post-Partum Development of Bovine Stomach Compartments
and Observations on Some Characteristics of Their Contents-. 76
571 Effects of Antibiotics and Chemotherapeutic Agents on Micro-
organisms in Milk and Dairy Products ................................-... ---- 77
575 Study of Production, Reproduction and Conformation of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Dairy Herd ......--... 77
594 Effect of Aureomycin Feeding upon the Performance of Dairy
C alves ...................................... ............................. .......................... 77
.... Miscellaneous: Grazing Pearl Millet with Lactating Cows and
with Dairy Heifers; Grazing Oats with Lactating Cows and
with Dairy Heifers; Alyce Clover Pasture for Lactating
Cows; Pangola-Clover and Coastal Bermuda-Clover Pasture
for Dairy Heifers; Irrigated vs. Non-irrigated Pangola-
Clover Pastures for Lactating Dairy Cows; Usefulness of
the Lactometer at Temperatures Below 500 F.; Cottage
Cheese Manufacture using Concentrated Dairy Products;
Relationship of Milk Solids not Fat to Acidity of Dairy
Products; Studies on Reconstituting Nonfat Dry Milk
Solids; Freezing Point Studies on Cream; New Flavors for
Ice Cream ................................ ........................... .... 78









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Project No. Title Page
Entomology
379 Control of the Pecan Nut Casebearer ............................................... 81
531 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Woody Ornamentals .... 82
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco ........... ----................ 83
583 Introduction and Testing of Nectar and Pollen Producing
Plants in Florida .......---.....................-----------... ..... ... --- ---------- 84
597 Control of the Hickory Shuckworm on Pecans ..----....................... 84
616 Control of Insect and Related Pests of Pastures ........................... 85
...... Miscellaneous: Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on
Vegetable Crops; Use of Systemic Insecticides on Veg-
etables; Earworm Control in Sweet Corn; Effects of An-
nually Repeated Soil Treatments of D-D for Controlling
S Nematodes on Gladiolus ...........------- -----.............--.... 85
Home Economics
568 Effect of Dietary Practices and Previous Illnesses on Carpal
Developm ent of Children .............................................................. 88
569 Effect of Carotene or Vitamin A Deficiency in Young Rats on
Subsequent Life Pattern .....................-....---- ............. .....- -...... 89
570 Nutritional Deficiency in the Young Rat in Relation to Subse-
quent Malformation of Bones ........---....- ......----............. 90
Horticulture
50 Tung Production ..................................--- .. ---. ----....-.....-- 91
52 Native and Introduced Ornamental Plants ........--.........-----............. 92
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ........................ 93
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vege-
tables Adaptable to Commercial Production in Florida ........... 94
365 Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree ...--.................-....... ...... 94
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ...................................-.................... 94
435 Irrigation of Vegetable Crops ..........................-.............. ......... 96
452 Culture and Classification of Camellia and Related Genera ........ 96
467 Maintaining Freshness in Vegetables with Ice ................................ 97
473 Freezing Preservation of Certain Florida-Grown Vegetables ...... 97
475 Effect of Soil Fumigants on Yield and Quality of Vegetables........ 98
483 Consumer Packaging of Vegetables (Except Tomatoes) ................ 99
484 Packaging of Tom atoes ...................................................... .... 99
501 Vegetable Breeding .................................................................... 100
521 Tomato Ripening ..........-----.................... ...... ...-- .. .----.......... 101
526 Canning Florida-grown Vegetables ....---..........-.... -................... 102
553 Testing Miscellaneous Fruits and Nuts .. ----.............. ................. 102
565 Fertilization of Pecans ........----............... --............... ................... 102
584 Quality Improvement of Honey and the Development of Honey
P products .................................. ....... .................... ................ 103
592 Prevention of Skinning of Potatoes .-----.................. ........................ 103
599 Effect of Growth Regulators on Production and Quality of
Certain Nut and Fruit Plants .................---...... .. ................ 104
616 Control of Insect and Related Pests of Pastures .........................-.. 104
624 Fertilizer Requirements of Watermelons ......................................... 104
...... Miscellaneous: Insecticide Residues on Vegetables; Removal of
Insecticide Residues from Harvested Fresh Vegetables;
Nitrate Fertilization of the Tomato with Foliar Sprays of
Urea; Influence of Nutrition on Tomato Plant and Fruit
Characteristics; Tomato Quality as Influenced by Environ-
mental Conditions; Influence of the Time of Application
of Fertilizers on Crop Yields; Wet Strength Paper Bag for









Annual Report, 1952 13

Project No. Title Page
Shipping Sweet Corn; Rose Culture; Recording System for
Accessioned Horticultural Plants; U. S. Field Laboratory
for Tung Investigations ..............-...... .. ......- ..- -....... ---.. 104

Plant Pathology
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants ...... 112
281 Damping-Off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops .......................... 112
455 Cam ellia Diseases ........... .......--....- .......- ------ ------- 113
463 Lupine Investigations ............................ .... ----.....--- --- ---------...--- 113
487 Improvement of Oats, Rye, Wheat and Barley Through Breed-
ing for Desirable Agronomic Characteristics and Resistance
to Disease ....-..................-- ......--- ..-- ---------- ---......--- 114
524 Nectar and Pollen Plants of Florida ............---........................... 115
538 Virus Diseases of Cucurbits and other Vegetables in Central
F lorida ............................... ..... ... ... .......... ................................... 115
539 Control of Scab and Other Foliage Diseases of Pecans .........-... 116
563 Causes and Control of Diseases of Potted Plants ..... .........-....... 116
574 The Resistance of Peppers to Virus Diseases ....................-............... 117
588 Control of Soil Organisms Causing Damping-Off and Root
Rots of Nursery Plants ................---- ...............- ...--....... 117
612 Varietal Improvement of Lupins .................. .-...-..--- ..-----......-.-- .. 117
...... Miscellaneous: A Ring Spot Virus of China Aster; Virus-like
Diseases of Hibiscus; Plants Poisonous to Livestock .............. 119

Poultry Husbandry
489 Feeding Value of Citrus Meal and Citrus Seed Meal for Poultry.. 121
503 Broiler Feeding Trials ....................... ------.. ..------......... ..-...... 121
517 Factors Influencing the Development of Pullet Disease ................ 121
551 Utilization of Calcium and Phosphorus by Poultry as De-
termined with Radioactive Isotopes ..--....................--.........-- ..... 121
572 Comparative Value of Simplified Poultry Diets for Eggs and
M eat Production .....-............ .. ..--..............-- -.............-. ......- ...... 122
...... Miscellaneous: Citrus Molasses for Growing Chicks; Deep
Litter in Laying Houses .--------.........--------- -.....-----........ 122

Soils
328 Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and Crop-
ping System s in Florida .............................. ........... ........... 124
347 Chemical, Physical and Mineralogical Properties of Represen-
tative Florida Soils ........................-...-....... ..............-........ 124
368 Factors Affecting Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule
Developm ent ....................................-...... --- ....-- .....----- .......... 125
389 Classification and Mapping of Florida Soils .........----...................- ... 125
404 Correlation of Soil Characteristics with Pasture Crop and
Anim al Response ......---. ...--...... .-----......-................................... 125
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied
to Different Soil Types .....................- .............-- -.... ........... 126
433 Retention and Utilization of Boron in Florida Soils -....................... 127
446 Testing Soils and Limestone ......................----------........................ 128
447 Availability and Leaching of Minor Elements in Florida Soils .... 128
493, 535,544 Soil Management Investigations --.....--.......-..................... 131
513 Maintenance of Available Nitrogen in Florida Soils .----...............--.. 128
576 Relationship Between Several Soil-Water Constants and the
Moisture Content of Soils under Supplemental Irrigation ...... 129
598 Role of the Major Bases in Florida Soils .......................................... 130
608 Sulfur Requirements of Representative Florida Soils .................... 130









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Project No. Title Page
614 Effect of Certain Insecticides on Micro-biological Action in
Soils ................................................... ..... .......................................... 131
... Miscellaneous: Greenhouse Studies on Effects of Soil
Amendments Applied to North Central Florida Soils; Plow
Sole Compaction and Soil Fertility ..............-- .....--..- ........- ..... 133
Veterinary Science
353 Infectious Bovine M astitis ........................ .............. ................. 134
424 Fowl Leucosis Role of Nucleoproteins ....................................... 134
459 Control of the Fluke (Trematoda) Disease of Cattle .-.................--135
462 Anaplasmosis in Cattle ..............................---.........-- .......------ ......----- 135
517 Factors Influencing the Development of Pullet Disease ---............. 136
554 Control of Internal Parasites of Cattle ......................................... 136
557 Control of External Parasites of Cattle ......................................... 138
601 Built-Up Litter as Related to Certain Diseases of Poultry .-.......... 140
... Miscellaneous: Plants Poisonous to Livestock; Luxation of
the Patella in Bovines ........ ... ................. ... .................. ...... 140

FIELD LABORATORIES
Pecan Investigations Laboratory
For Reports see Projects 379 and 597, ENTOMOLOGY; also PLANT
PATHOLOGY, Project 539.
Potato Investigations Laboratory
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ----.............-------........-....-....-- ...... -- 141
419 Downy Mildew of Cabbage ................... ....... ....................... 141
465 Fertility Studies in Cabbage Production ........................................ 141
469 Improvement of Potato Cultural Practices ...................................... 141
500 Alternaria Leaf Spot of Cabbage and Other Crucifers .................... 142
527 Cabbage Diseases Other Than Downy Mildew and Alternaria
L eaf Spot ........................................................... ............................. 142
529 Potato D diseases ...................................................................................... 142
620 Nature, Effects and Control of Boron and Molybdenum Defi-
ciencies in Cauliflower ......-...... --....... --------......................-- .......... 143
...... Miscellaneous: Life History, Habits and Control of Wire-
w orm s ................................ ... ............. ...................................... 143
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory
499 Strawberry Variety Trials .................................---......... ........... 144
... Miscellaneous: Plant Nematodes ........................ .............. ............. 145
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
150 Investigation and Control of Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon ...... 145
151 Investigation and Control of Fungus Diseases of Watermelon .... 145
586 Grasses and Legumes for Pastures in Central Florida .................... 146
.... Miscellaneous: Grape Degeneration; Herbicides; Cotton; Lupine.. 146
Federal-State Frost Warning Service
...... Report for 1951-52 Season ............... ................... ................. 146

BRANCH STATIONS
Central Florida Station
281 Damping-Off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops ............................ 149
336 Cercospora Blight of Celery ---........--- .....................-- ----............ 149








Annual Report, 1952


Project No. Title Page
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida .... 150
391 Vegetable Variety Trials.... ------------..... .. ................-----------------150
401 Control of Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn ..----.............. 151
494 Improvement of Cultural Practices for Cabbage, Lettuce, Celery
and other Vegetable Crops ..--..--....--...--........----..----...... --151
495 Liquid Fertilizers for Vegetable Crops .............................-..........--- 152
496 Soil Management Problems in Vegetable Crop Fields .................... 152
500 Alternaria Leaf Spot of Cabbage and Other Crucifers ........ -... 152
501 Vegetable Breeding ........................------ ................... ...................... 152
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops ........................ 153
581 Synthetic Insecticides and Fungicides for Vegetable Crops in
Central Florida ........................................................................ ... .... 153
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
Corn ............-.................- .......------ .................-- ....------...... ....... 154
.. Miscellaneous: Cotton Insects and Varieties; Fungicidal Con-
trol of Downy Mildew of Cucurbits ............................... ........ 154

Citrus Station
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection ....................---.......--- .....--... 155
102 Variety Testing and Breeding ....----------.............------ ...................... 155
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rot of Citrus Fruit.... 155
340 Citrus N nutrition Studies .................................................................. ---156
341 Combined Control of Scale Insects and Mites on Citrus ................ 167
508 Water Relations with Citrus in the Coastal Citrus Areas ............ 169
509 Nature, Causes and Control of Citrus Decline ............................. 169
510 Insect Parasitism and Related Biological Factors as Concerned
with Citrus Insect and Mite Control ........---.................-- ...... 173
511 Diseases of Citrus Insects ..................... ............---- .- ..--....-- 174
547 Bulk Handling of Fresh Fruit for Packinghouses ........................... 175
550 Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices ........................ 176
561 Coliform Organisms in Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices ........ 177
605 Improved Machinery for Citrus Production ...................................... 177
606 Ecological Factors Affecting Citrus Production .............................. 177
607 Florida Citrus Oils .-..-----......--- ...............------........... ..... 178
610 Chemical Studies on New Fungicides and Insecticides for Citrus.. 178
611 Storage Studies on Concentrated Citrus Juices ....................---.......... 179
617 Citrus Rootstock Investigations in Coastal Areas ........................ 179
622 Recovery and Utilization of Naringin ......................................... 180
623 Refinement of Citrus Molasses ......................... ........-......... 180
...... Miscellaneous:
Processing and By-Products: Hesperidin; Clarification and
Gelation of Juices; Heat Treatment versus Quality of Pro-
cessed Juices; Standardization of Juices; Flavors; Juice
Dispensers; Methane Fermentation ..................------ ................... 181
Decay Control:
Chemical Treatments; Dowicide-Hexamine Treatment; Fruit
Pitting; Treated Fiberboard Shipping Cartons .......................... 186
Other Research:
Soil Fertility and Citrus Nutrition; Urea Sprays; Rates of
Fertilization; Cover Crops; Copper Oxide; Phosphatic Com-
plexes; Sodium: Control of Insects and Mites; Scale
Sprays; Sulphenone .-...-.... ..-................ ................... 190









16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project No. Title Page
Everglades Station
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings.. 197
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse
Conditions ....................---.. --.....--- ---------............. 197
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ...............----...... ----------------201
88 Soils Investigations .......................-- .....--- ...----- ------- 204
89 Water Control Investigations ..............---.........-- .....-.....--.-- 204
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ............................................ ..---- 206
168 Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the Peat
and Muck Soils of the Everglades ..--.............-..--....-------------... 206
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugarcane
Moth Borer in South Florida ...................... .............. ......... 207
171 Cane Breeding Experiments .............................. ......-..... ---208
172 Physiology of Sugarcane ........................-----.........- ------. ---- -------- 209
195 Pasture Investigations on Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
glades ............................ .. .... ......... ....... ..... -------- 209
206 Fiber Crop Investigations ...................---- .... ............ -................... .. 210
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida.... 213
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .......................................... ........ 213
458 Sclerotiniose Disease of Vegetables ................................................... 215
533 Grasses for Lawns, Recreational Areas, Parks, Airports and
R oadsides .................................... ................. ............................. 215
545 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to South Florida
Conditions .....................................-............ ................................... 216
549 Utilization of Feeds and Forages for Beef Production in the
Everglades and Lower East Coast of Florida ..--........................ 216
558 Viruses Affecting Vegetable Crops in the Everglades Area ............ 217
559 Control of Nematodes and Subterranean Insects Injurious to
Cultivated Crops ................--- ..--------.... ......- ......- .. .......... ..... 218
560 Improvement and Development of Spraying and Dusting
Equipment for Agricultural Use .....................-......-...................... 219
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
C orn .....................................................---.........--.......-......... ................. 219
603 Breeding Snapbeans, Celery and Sweet Corn for Southern
Florida ........---- ...........-................ ------- --.................. ..................... 221
604 Plant Virus as a Possible Cause of Grape Degeneration ............ 222
609 A Survey of Insecticide Residues on Major Vegetable Crops in
the Belle Glade-Fort Pierce Area for the 1952 Season ........ 222
616 Control of Insect and Related Pests of Pastures ......................---. 223
Miscellaneous: Plant Disease Survey; Soil Fumigation-
CBP55; Potato Varieties; Pelleted Vegetable Seeds; Weed
Control; Rice Culture; Cattle Feeds; Feed and Starch -
Sweet Potatoes; Dehydration-Chlorophyll Extraction; Sindi
x Jersey Cattle; Lake Worth Field Laboratory Investiga-
tions; Indian River Field Laboratory Investigations ................ 223

Gulf Coast Station
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ...................--------............. --...... ...................... 236
398 Breeding for Combined Resistances to Diseases and Insects
in the Tom ato .........---- -...-.........-- --........ -................................ --238
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn ........ 240
402 Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Vegetable Crop Plants .... 241
405 Summer Cover Crops, Liming and Related Factors in Vegetable
Crop Production .----- -----....................-................... 241








Annual Report, 1952 17

Project No. Title Page
445 Insecticidal Value of DDT and Related Synthetic Compounds
on Vegetable Crop Insects in Florida .....-..............--------------.. 243
448 Rapid Soil Tests for Determining Soil Fertility in Vegetable
Crop Production .............. ................. ....... -- ---------------------. 243
449 Organic Fungicides for the Control of Foliage Diseases of
Vegetables ............... ........... ......-...... .... ...... .... .... 244
464 Gladiolus Variety Trials .............................. ---- ----------.. 244
502 Controlling Gladiolus Corm Diseases .............. ..-........-..-..-.. 245
504 Controlling Insect Pests of Gladiolus ...--.....................----.---...----- 246
506 Etiology and Control of Certain Epiphytotic Diseases of
Gladiolus ...................... --.. ....-- ..---------------------. --- ..--. -- ---.----- 246
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops .................... 247
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
C orn ........................................ .... ....... .. ......... ... .. ..... ........---- .. 248
589 Mulching Vegetable Crops With Aluminum Foil .......................... 249
590 Gladiolus Fertility Studies ........................................... ................... 250
591 Chemical Weed Control for Commercial Vegetable and
Gladiolus Production .........-............ ..... ... ...................- 251
595 Gladiolus Corm Storage ................................- .............. .... .--------- -252
613 Factors Affecting Germination of Seed and Growth of Vege-
table Plants in Seedbeds on Sandy Soil ...................................... 253
616 Control of Insect and Related Pests of Pastures ............................ 254
S621 The Effect of Accumulations of DDT and Other Organic Insec-
ticides in Sandy Soils on Tomato and Certain Microbio-
logical Processes in the Soil .................................................... ... 255
...... Miscellaneous: Tomato Variety and Fertility; N and K vs.
Yield and Quality of Vegetables; Soluble Salt vs. Yield and
Quality of Tomatoes and Celery; Phosphatic Insecticides...... 255

North Florida Station
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco .................... ....... ......- ...... 258
260 Grain Crop Investigations --...................--....----..--......-- ....... 258
261 Forage Crop Investigations ................................ ........................... 259
491 Production of Feeder Pigs .................................. ................... 260
493 Soil M management Investigations ...............................-....................... 260
498 Utilization of Pastures in the Production of Beef Cattle ........... 261
525 Control of Green Peach Aphid on Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ........ 261
532 Management of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco Plant Beds ................---- 262
543 Roughages for Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle in Florida 263
580 Use of Citrus Molasses and Urea in Steer Fattening Rations........ 263
585 Control of Insects Affecting Peanuts ........................ .................... 263
612 Varietal Improvement of Lupines .............. --..................--- ........ 264
616 Control of Insect and Related Pests of Pastures .....---.................... 264
...... Miscellaneous: Granville Wilt; Rye Grass; Mobile Units ............ 264

Range Cattle Station
390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida Environment.... 269
410 W entering Beef Cattle on the Range .................................................... 269
423 Effect of Fertilization and Seeding on Grazing Value of Flat-
w oods Pastures ........- ........................ ............................................ 270
466 Fluctuations in Water-Table Levels in Immokalee Fine Sand
and Associated Soil Types ......... ---------................... .........--.... 270
476 Utilization of Citrus Products for Fattening Cattle .................... 270








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Project No. Title Page
615 Influence of Breed Composition and Level of Nutrition on
Adaptability of Cattle to Central Florida Conditions ........... 271
618 Effect of Different Phosphatic Fertilizer Materials on Nutritive
Quality, Herbage Yields and Beef Production of Pangola
Pastures ................................. ...........-..... ------------- ... 272
...... Miscellaneous: Mineral Consumption; Protein; Seed Harvest;
Soil Fertility; Forage Varieties; Pasture Irrigation; Pasture
Insects .......................................... .......... ..................................... 272

Sub-Tropical Station
275 Citrus Culture Studies ............................................... ....... 274
276 Avocado Culture Studies .................... ...... .................- 274
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ................................. 274
280 Sub-Tropical Crops of Minor Economic Importance ................... 275
285 Potato Culture Investigations .............. ................... ......... 277
286 Tomato Culture Investigations .......................... ... ..... ........ 278
287 Cover Crop Studies ......... ........................................ 279
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County ................................. 279
290 A Study of Diseases of Avocado and Mango and Development
of Control Measures ........................................ 279
291 Control of Tomato Diseases ........... ............... .... .............. 280
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................................... 281
422 Diseases of the Tahiti (Persian) Lime .................... ............. 282
458 Sclerotiniose of Vegetables ..............---........-..... ...... .......---... ........ 282
470 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Sub-Tropical Fruits...... 283
471 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Winter Vegetable
Crops ...... ........... ..... .................. ....... ................................ 283
505 Importance, Etiology, and Control of Papaya Diseases ............... 285
514 Sub-Tropical and Tropical Plant Introductions ................................ 285
515 Mango Selection, Propagation and Culture ................................. 285
522 Guava Propagation, Culture, Breeding and Selection .................... 287
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
Corn .................................. ......................................... ................. 287
... Miscellaneous: Avocado Maturity Investigations; Grasses;
Ornamentals; Soil Conservation Service Investigations
(Cooperative with Sub-Tropical Station) .................................... 287

Suwannee Valley Station
... Miscellaneous: Tobacco; Pastures; Field Crops .............................. 290

West Central Florida Station
Miscellaneous: Pastures and Grazing; Cattle Breeding (Co-
operative USDA ) .................................. ........ ...... ............ 292

West Florida Station
404 Correlation of Soil Characteristics with Pasture Crop and
Animal Response ... ............................................. 294
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied
to Different Soil Types ...........----------. .......................... 294
544 Soil Management Studies ........-............ -. ........................ 295
553 Testing Miscellaneous Fruits and Nuts ....................-...-.. ........ 296
582 Pasture Investigations in West Florida ........-----........-.................. 297
596 Variety Investigations of Field and Pasture Crops ................... 299






REPORT OF BUSINESS MANAGER

SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1951-52


Name of Fund


Agricul ural Experi-
ment Station ..........
Special Gladioli
Culture ....................
Replacement Fund ....


TOTAL ...............


Salaries
and
Labor


$1,727,812.701$



-------------

.1$1,727,812.701$


Heat,
Transp. Light,
Prof. Travel of Communi- Water, Rent Printing
Services Things cations Power,
Gas, Etc.


1,783.20 $ 72,182.61 $ 3,330.53 $ 17,647.16 $ 30,496.59 $ 3,627.821$ 14,915.52
. . . I I
................. ..... ...... ... . .390.331 1,154.88 26.001 ..........
........... ................ ... ................ ..... .... ---... ------ .........


1,783.201$ 72,182.611 $ 3,330.53 $ 18,037.49 $ 31,651.47 $ 3,653.821$ 14,915.52
1,8.2 7226I$


Miscel- Supplies Total Balance
Name of Fund Contract laneous and Equip- Buildings Disburse- June 30, Total
Services Services Material ment ments 1952

Agricultural Experi-
ment Station ........ $ 30,856.44 $ 2,958.07$ 231,292.56 $ 39,373.72 ............$2,176,276.92 148,144.08$2,324,421.00
Special Gladioli
Culture ................... 52.90 2,084.37 $ 1,176.16 .... .... 4,884.64 115.36 5,000.00
Replacement Fund .... ............... ............. 239.74 ............... 239.74 48.31 288.05

TOTAL 30,909.34$ 2,958.07 233,616.67 $ 40,549.8 ............ 2,181,401.30$ 148,307.75$2,329,709.05
TOTAL ..................L$ 30,909.34$ 2,958.071$ 233,61. 81 .........2,18,0130 $ 148,307.75 $2,329,709.05
II/ I I I












FEDERAL FUNDS-SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1951-52

Heat,
Salaries Transp. Light,
Name of Fund and Prof. Travel of Communi- Water, Rent Printing
Labor Services Things cations Power,
Gas, Etc.
Grants and Donations $ 46,485.15 $ 10.00 $ 1,224.88 $ 394.03 $ 3.42 ...............$ 26.50
------------------------------------------------------------ .. --------- ----------- ------- ---- ------------- --
TOTAL ................ $ 46,485.15 $ 10.00$ 1,224.88$ 394.03$ 3.42 $ 26.50 ................
------------------------------------------------------------- P,



Miscel- Supplies Total Balance
Name of Fund Contract laneous and Equip- Disburse- June 30, Total
Services Services Material ment ments 1952
Grants and Donations ........ $ 2,083.90$ 128.23 $ 13,000.13$ 6,103.41 $ 69,459.65 125,962.65 $ 195,422.30


TOTAL ........................ $ 2,083.90 $ 128.23 $ 13,000.13 $ 6,103.41 $ 69,459.65 $ 125,962.65 $ 195,422.30








SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1951-1952

Heat,
Salaries Transp. Light,
Name of Fund and Prof. Travel of Communi- Water, Rent Printing
Labor Services Things cations Power,
Gas, Etc.

Old Appropriation I
F o rw a rd .................... ... .. .. .. .. ..... ... .............. ................. $ 2 69 .50 1 ................ Z
-Forward- --- ---------- -----------------$

TO TA L ..... ........ ..... ............. .....-- ............. ................ ................ $ 269.50 ...............
------------- --------------_

h,

Miscel- Supplies Total Balance c
Name of Fund Contract laneous and Equip- Buildings Disburse- June 30, Total
Services Services Material ment ments 1952

Old Appropriation
Forward n......... $ 15,763.63 $ 12,349.761$ 22,838.84 $ 281127.87 $ 332,349.60 $ 20,552.581$ 352,902.18


TOTAL ................ $ 15,763.63 ................ $ 12,349.76,$ 22,838.841$ 281,127.871$ 332,349.60]$ 20.552.581$ 352,902.18













SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1951-52


Salaries
and Prof.
Labor Services


Name of Fund


Incidental Fund .......... $


TOTAL ................ $ 55,909.85 $ 687.90 $


Name of Fund


Incidental Fund ....


TOTAL ..........


Miscel- Supplies
Contract laneous and
Services Services Material

|$ 7,109.16 $ 3,691.45 $117,447.25


$ 7,109.16$ 3,691.45 $117,447.25


Travel


2,381.05


Equip-
ment


Heat,
Transp. Light,
of Communi- Water,
Things cations Power,
Gas, Etc.


Rent


$ 842.81 $ 222.13 $ 758.52 $ 7,943.971$


$ 842.81 $ 222.13 $ 758.52 $ 7,943.97 $


Buildings


46,664.24 $ 52,553.84 $


$ 46,664.24


$ 52,553.84 $


Total Balance
Land Disburse- June 30,
ments 1952


I
740.50 $ 296,971.42 $ 257,250.21 $


740.50 $ 296,971.42$ 257,250.21 $


55,909.85 $ 687.90 $


0
Printing



18.75


18.75






Total


554,221.63 "


554,221.63


I


I


. .


2,381.051






FEDERAL FUNDS-SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1951-52


Salaries Transp.
Name of Fund and Prof. Travel of Communi-
Labor Services Things cations
C

H watch .......................... $ 15,000.00 .... ........ ----
Adam s .......................... 15,000.001 ... ..........
P urnell .......................... $ 60,000.001 ......... ...-| --..-- ......... ....
Purnell ....................... 60,000.00-..........
Bankhead Jones .......... 36,648.83 ............... $ 374.57 $ 124.41 ........
Research Marketing I 10 64
Act ......... .. ..... 66,827.01 ... ..... 10,969.64 ............. 1.25 $


TOTAL .............. $ 193,475.84 ............... 11,344.21 $ 124.41 $ 1.25 $
11 1


Heat,
Light,
Water, Rent Printing
Power,
las, Etc.

....... .. ....I

.I


165.50 $ 213.89 $ 557.(


165.50 $ 213.891$ 557.(
1 1


Name of Fund


H atch ...................- .........
A dam s .................... ---....
Purnell ...-....................
Bankhead Jones .................
Reseach Marketing Act ...


Contract
Services


Miscel-
laneous
Services


---- - ----- -
--------------
128.08
3,388.47


Supplies


Supplies
and
Material


.......--......
- 1- .... -.... ..

6,846.16$
9,639.39


Total Balance


Total Balance
Equip- Disburse- June 30,
ment ments 1952


2,136.35
4,886.16


7,022.51


15,000.0011
60,000.001 .................
46,258.40 $ 1,788.361
96,648.31 14,330.701
1 1


oa5 1 51 2


Total


15,000.00
15,000.00
60,000.00
48,046.76
110,979.01


$ 3,516.55


1
$ 232,906.711$ 6190 $ 29057


Services I


.. .............1


T otal ---------------


00 ~


- C5


1
16,485.551$








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

Research information from this Station, in both popular and technical
form was made available during this fiscal year in larger quantities than
ever before in the history of the institution. Bulletins, circulars, journal
articles and popular news stories were released in increasing numbers, and
radio services also probably were more complete than previously.
Every effort is made, by research workers, administrators and the
editors, to publish results and information of value to Florida's various
farming enterprises with little delay after the information becomes avail-
able. In addition to the work reported in the following pages, special
writers for a number of Florida newspapers consulted the editors and
other staff members and wrote numerous stories for their papers.
All members of the editorial staff devote approximately half time to
work for the Agricultural Extension Service, by whom they are cooper-
atively employed.

PUBLICATIONS
The Station published 19 new bulletins in its own series and two in the
Southern Cooperative Series, reprinted one bulletin, printed 17 circulars
and one new press bulletin, printed the bulletin list (press bulletin) twice,
and reprinted three press bulletins. The 21 new bulletins ranged in pages
from 12 to 80, totaling 713 pages, and in edition from 5,000 to 20,000,
totaling 180,500 copies. The reprinted bulletin was 32 pages in size and
50,000 in quantity.
Here is a list of the bulletins printed.
Bul. Title Pages Edition
480 The Chemical Composition of Irrigation Water Used


in Florida Citrus Groves ................................... ............ 22
481 The Florida Citrus Grove Duster .................................... 15
482 Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin in Florida
Produced Foods ....................................... .... .... ............ 19
483 The Nutritive Value of Various Breads and Supple-
ments in Experiments with White Rats ....................... 22
484 Grass Pastures in Central Florida .................................. 32
485 Effect of Processing upon the Nutritive Value of Milk
as Evaluated by Rats .......................... .................... 12
486 Insects Attacking Celery in Florida ............................ 37
487 Citrus By-Products of Florida-Commercial Produc-
tion Methods and Properties ....--.................-........-- ....... 56
488 Composition of Florida-Grown Vegetables, III. Effects
of Location, Season, Fertilizer Level and Soil Mois-
ture on the Mineral Composition of Cabbage, Beans,
Collards, Broccoli and Carrots ...........................-............ 32
489 Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Live-
stock, II. Truck Crops ..-----.......---.......................... ..... 80
490 Effects of Soil Fumigation on Cigar-Wrapper To-
bacco and on Soil Nitrogen ........................................ 24
491 Diseases of W atermelons ............................................... 48
492 Diseases, Deficiencies and Injuries of Cabbage and
Other Crucifers in Florida .-----......................... .............. 63
493 Protein and Carbohydrate Supplements for Fatten-
ing Steers on Everglades Pasture .................................. 16


7,500
8,000

8,000

7,500
20,000

6,000
8,500

10,000



7,500

6,000

5,000
16,000

10,000

7.000








Annual Report, 1952 25

494 Effect of Minor Elements, Particularly Copper, on
Peanuts ............. ...............................-....-.... . ----- .- -- 20 7,500
495 Irrigation and Other Cultural Studies with Cabbage,
Sweet Corn, Snap Beans, Onions, Tomatoes and Cu-
cum bers ............................................ ...... ------ --- 26 7,500
496 Grasshoppers in Citrus Groves .....................................--. 26 8,000
497 Honeybees and Other Factors in Florida's Legume
Program ...................................................................... .... 14 7,500
498 Rental Arrangements on Crop-Share Farms-An An-
alysis of Contributions and Returns ................................ 43 5,000
SR 22 Consumer Acceptance of Waxed and Colored Potatoes 27 6,000
SR 24 Grade Qualities of Potatoes in Selected Retail Stores
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1950 .................................. 79 12,000
467 Hibiscus in Florida (revised) ......................................... 32 50,000
Circulars and Press Bulletins.-The circular series, begun in 1951, is
building up rapidly. The 17 circulars, mostly 6 pages in length, ranged
from 5 to 18 pages and totaled 136 pages. The numbers printed varied
from 5,000 to 20,000 and totaled 203,500 copies. Following is a list of
circulars and press bulletins printed during the year:
Circular Title Pages Edition
S-32 Leaching of Fertilizer Phosphorous in Acid Sandy Soils
as Affected by Lime .....................--- .....---.--....... ..... .. 7 15,000
S-33 Costs and Methods of Pasture Establishment and
M maintenance .................... ......... ..------- -. .----- 8 15,000
S-34 The Sapodilla in Florida .................................................... 14 10,000
S-35 Fertilizer Should Contain a Source of Sulfur for Clover
Pastures in Many Areas of Florida -........-.....-............... 8 12,000
S-36 Insect Control on Pineapple ........................ .......- ........... 6 7,500
S-37 Dehydrated Celery Tops in Chick Rations .................... 6 5,000
S-38 Nut Grass Control with 2,4-D in Florida --.................... 5 15,000
S-39 Soil Reaction (pH) .......--..--- -----..........-------..... 6 10,000
S-40 Citrus Pulp in Dairy Rations ....................... ................. 6 12,000
S-41 Corn-Silk Fly Control of Sweet Corn .............................. 6 7,500
S-42 Insects and Other Pests of Lawns and Turf ................. 11 20,000
S-43 Ergot Poisoning in Cattle ........--.........- .......-- ..........- 6 12,000
S-44 Plant Beds for Flue-Cured Tobacco ........................--------- 18 10,000
S-45 Soil Fumigation for Florida Shade Tobacco Fields .... 6 5,000
S-46 Floranna Sweet Clover and Its Culture ............................ 6 15,000
S-47 Compatibility of Insecticides, Fungicides and Nutrients
for Vegetable Crops .............................................................. 6 20,000
S-48 The Value of Soil Testing Kits in Vegetable Production 11 12,500
Press Bul.
658 Azalea Culture ....................... .. .... ...-.....-........ 4 7,500
Bulletin List (printed twice) ....................................------. 5 4,500
580 Cause and Control of Avocado Scab (reprinted) .......... 4 3,000
584 Papaya Leaf Spot (reprinted) .......................................... 4 3,000
602 Composting and Mulching (reprinted) ............................ 4 5,000

ON THE AIR
The Station's radio broadcasting activities were considerably expanded
during the year also. Near the end of 1951 the Station staged its first
television show, having 30 minutes over a Jacksonville station. It also
presented two other programs in this University of Florida series during
early months of 1952.
A library of taped talks was begun during the year and more taped
features were sent out than in any previous fiscal year. The Editors sent








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


19 tapes carrying 49 separate talks by Experiment Station staff members
to 13 different radio stations. The library talks were dubbed several times
and sent to different stations.
The Florida Farm Hour, daily over the University of Florida radio
station, WRUF, continued to make regular use of Station staff members
on its programs. The Station staff presented 116 talks over the Farm
Hour. Practically all of them were duplicated and sent to 40 other radio
stations as Farm Flashes by the Extension Service.
The farm question box, presented every Tuesday on the Farm Hour,
carried questions and answers, most of which came from Experiment
Station workers.
The Everglades Station conducted 15 minutes of a 30 minute program
weekly from September through May. Workers at other stations partici-
pated in radio programs at various times.

NEWSPAPER AND FARM JOURNAL SERVICE
The weekly clipsheet issued by the Agricultural Extension Service
continued to be a primary means of releasing Station news to weekly
newspapers, farm papers and farm correspondents. It was not sent to
dailies unless specifically requested. It carried from 8 to 15 separate stories
each week, and perhaps more than half of them were based on Experi-
ment Station materials.
Stories were sent to dailies through the wire services and by direct
mailings. Farm page editors of three dailies spent considerable time at
the Main Station and branch stations gathering material on their own,
with the aid of Station Editors and other staff members.
Farm magazines used copious quantities of copy from Station Editors,
also. A check shows that six Florida farm magazines printed 21 articles
totaling 528 column inches, one Southern magazine carried five articles
totaling 37 column inches, and five national journals printed six articles
totaling 157 column inches.

THE JOURNAL SERIES
The journal series of articles, set up late in the last fiscal year, is
growing rapidly. It provides an outlet for results of research over and
above the outlets afforded by circulars and bulletins. Following is a list
of the artilces that have been assigned journal series number and sub-
mitted to publications from the outset to the end of this fiscal year. Re-
prints are available on request.
1. Incidence and Significance of Microorganisms in Citrus Juices, by
L. W. Faville and E. C. Hill. Food Technology V: 10. 423-25, 1951.
2. Liver Fluke Control and Its Relations to Snail Ecology, by Edward
G. Batte and Leonard E. Swanson. 1951 Proceedings, Am. Vet. Med. Assn.
3. Influence of Penicillin in Milk on Total and Coliform Bacteria Plate
Counts, by H. H. Wilkowske and W. A. Krienke. Jour. Milk & Food Tech-
nology 14:3. 1951.
4. Influence of Penicillin on the Lactic Acid Production of Certain
Lactobacilli, by H. H. Wilkowske and W. A. Krienke. Jour. Dairy Sciences
XXXIV:10. 1951.
5. Cross-Feeding and Boron Placement Studies with Pecans, by R. H.
SSharpe and H. W. Winsor. Proceedings, Amer. Society of Horticultural
Science 57. 1951.
6. Sources of Error in Foliar Analysis of Pecans, by R. H. Sharpe and
Nathan Gammon, Jr. Proceedings, Amer. Society for Horticultural Science
58. 1951.








Annual Report, 1952 27

7. Experimental Treatment of Citrus Waste Water, by R. R. McNary,
R. W. Wolford and V. D. Patton. Food Technology V:8. 1951.
8. Gelatin and Clarification in Concentrated Citrus Juices, I. Intro-
duction and Present Status, by F. W. Wenzel, E. L. Moore, A. H. Rouse
and C. D. Adkins. Food Technology V:ll. 1951.
9. Gelation and Clarification in Concentrated Citrus Juices, II. Effect
of Quantity of Pulp in Concentrate Made from Seedy Varieties of Fruit,
by R. W. Olsen, R. L. Huggart and Dorothy Asbell. Food Technology V:12.
1951.
10. Excretion of P32 and Ca45 into the Various Alimentary Segments of
the Hen, by R. L. Shirley, J. C. Driggers, John T. McCall and George K.
Davis. Poultry Science 31:2. 1952.
11. A Technique for the Collection and Transfusion of Blood in Cattle,
by C. F. Simpson, D. A. Sanders and R. B. French. Jour. Amer. Veterin-
ary Medical Assoc. CXX:898. 1952.
13. (Mistakenly printed as No. 18) Further Observation on Some
Cucurbit Viruses from Central Florida, by C. W. Anderson. Plant Disease
Reporter 35:9. 1951.
14. Laboratory Evaluation of Organic Compounds as Molluscocides and
Ovicides II, by E. G. Batte and L. E. Swanson. Jour. of Parasitology 38:1.
1951.
15. Acid-Tolerant Bacteria in Cirtus Juices, by L. W. Faville and E. C.
Hill. Food Research (or Technology) 17:3. 1952.
16. A Preliminary Report of a New Compound, Trans 1,4 Dibromobu-
tene, for Control of Damp-off, by George Swank, Jr. Plant Disease Re-
porter 35:11. 1951.
17. New Ice Cream Stabilizers, by W. A. Krienke. Ice Cream Field
58:4:98-99,110. 1951.
18. Hereditary Resistance to Late Blight of Tomato, by James M.
Walter and Robert A. Conover. Phytopathology 42:4. 1952.
20. Corn Earworm Control: Spraying Methods, by John W. Wilson.
Florida Entomologist 35:1. 1952.
21. Breeding Has Produced Better Grape Varieties for Florida, by
Loren H. Stover. Proceedings, Fla. State Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
22. Injuries in Shipping and Handling Tomatoes, by R. K. Showalter,
L. H. Halsey and L. P. McCullough. Proceedings, Fla. State Horticul-
tural Society LXIV. 1951.
24. A Low Temperature Sponge for Determining Potassium in Soils,
by S. N. Edson and F. B. Smith. Fla. Academy of Sciences 14:4. 1951.
26. The Control of Damping-off Organisms in Celery Seedbeds, by
George Swank, Jr. Proceedings, Fla. State Horticultural Society LXIV.
1951.
27. Viruses of Cucurbits in Central Florida, by C. W. Anderson. Pro-
ceedings, Fla. State Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
28. Preliminary Investigations of Systemic Insecticides, by John W.
Wilson. Proceedings, Fla. State Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
29. Packing Labor and Returns for Tomatoes by Type of Container,
by A. H. Spurlock. Proceedings, Fla. State Horticultural Society LXIV.
1951.
30. What One Should Know About Soil Moisture, by L. C. Hammond
and S. N. Edson. Proceedings, Fla. State Hortcultural Society LXIV. 1951.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


31. The Effects of Various Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizer Ap-
plications on the Incidence and Severity of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight
of Sweet Corn, by Warren N. Stoner. Proceedings, Fla. State Horticul-
tural Society LXIV. 1951.
32. Various Antibiotics and 3-Nitro-4-Hydroxyphenyl Arsonic Acid in
Corn-Peanut Meal Rations for Swine, by H. D. Wallace, W. A. Ney and
T. J. Cunha. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 78:807-808.
1951.
34. Some Preliminary Studies on the Nitrogen of Tomatoes with Foliar
Sprays, by James Montelaro, C. B. Hall and F. S. Jamison. Amer. Society
for Horticultural Science. 59. 1952.
35. Preliminary Results and Observations on Blackheart of Celery, by
Philip J. Westgate. Proceedings, Fla. State Horticultural Society LXIV.
1951.
36. Breeding Gladiolus for Disease Resistance, by Robert O. Magie.
Proceedings, Fla. State Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
37. Effect of Insoluble Solids and Particle Size of Pulp on the Pec-
tinesterase Activity in Orange Juice, by A. H. Rouse. Proceedings, Fla.
State Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
39. Molybdenum Deficiency in Citrus, by Ivan Stewart and C. D. Leon-
ard. Proceedings, Fla. State Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
40. Studies on the Artifcial Infection of Oranges with Acid-Tolerant
Bacteria, by E. C. Hill and L. W. Faville. Proceedings, Fla. State Horticul-
tural Society LXIV, 1951.
41. Xyloporosis of Citrus, by Ernest P. DuCharme. Proceedings, Fla.
State Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
42. Determination of the Pulp Content of Concentrated Citrus Juices,
by R. W. Olsen and Dorothy Asbell. Proceedings, Fla. State Horticultural
Society LXIV. 1951.
43. Boron Nutrition in Citrus, by A. E. Willson. Proceedings, Fla. State
Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
44. An Evaporator of Improved Design for the Concentration of Citrus
Juices, by C. D. Atkins, F. W. Wenzel and E. L. Moore. Proceedings, Fla.
State Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
45. The Measurement of Clarification in Concentrated Citrus Juices,
by R. L. Huggart, E. L. Moore and F. W. Wenzel. Proceedings, Fla. State
Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
46. Water-Soluble Phosphorus and Potassium in the Soil of Lime and
Avocado Groves in Dade County, by J. L. Malcolm. Proceedings, Fla. State
Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
47. Health Status of Parathion When Used on Citrus in 1951, by J. T.
Griffiths, J. W. Williams, C. R. Stearns and W. L. Thompson. Proceed-
ings, Fla. State Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
48. The Effects of Stilbestrol Implants on Swine of Different Sexes,
by A. M. Pearson, G. E. Combs, Jr., H. D. Wallace, R. B. Sleath, J. W.
Stroud, J. M. Shepherd and Marvin Koger. Jour. of Animal Science 11:2.
1952.
49. Progress Report on Concentrated Sprays on Citrus in Florida, by
C. R. Stearns, Jr., J. T. Griffiths, W. L. Thompson and E. J. Deszyck. Pro-
ceedings, Fla. State Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
51. A Comparison of Oil Emulsion and Parathion for the Control of
Scale Insects on Citrus, by W. L. Thompson, J. T. Griffiths and J. W.
Sites. Proceedings, Fla. State Hortcultural Society LXIV. 1951.








Annual Report, 1952


52. Some Results of Irrigation Research with Florida Citrus, by J. W.
Sites, H. J. Reitz and E. J. Deszyck. Proceedings, Fla. State Horticultural
Society LXIV. 1951.
53. Factors Affecting the Consumer Cost of Frozen Orange Concen-
trate, by F. W. Wenzel, E. L. Moore and C. D. Atkins. Proceedings, Fla.
State Horticultural Society LXIV. 1951.
55. An Interspecific Cross Involving the Lima Bean, Phaseolus lunatus
L., by Albert P. Lorz. Science 115:3000. 1952.
56. Biology of the American Grasshopper in Southeastern United States,
by L. C. Kuitert and R. V. Connin. Florida Entomologist 35:1. 1952.
57. Corn Earworm Control: Timing and Number of Applications, by
W. H. Thames, Jr. Fla. Entomologist 35:2. 1952.
58. Corn Earworm Control: Formulations, by N. C. Hayslip. Fla. En-
tomologist 35:2. 1952.
59. Corn Earworm Control: Summary and Recommendations, by J. W.
Wilson, W. H. Thames, Jr., and N. C. Hayslip. Fla. Entomologist 35:2.
1952.
61. Preliminary Reports of Some of the Diseases and Pest Problems of
Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L., in South Florida, by Warren N. Stoner,
Frank V. Stevenson, William G. Genung, Walter H. Thames, Jr., Edward
O. Gangstad and James B. Pate. Plant Disease Reporter 36:4. 1952.

ARTICLES
Allison, R. V. Kenaf Harvest. National Farm Chemurgic Council Chem-
urgic Digest 10: 11: 10-11. 1951.
Allison, R. V. Ramie Comes to Stay in Florida. Chemurgic Digest 11: 3:
14-16. 1952.
Allison, R. V. Long Florida Days Spur Growth of Fiber Plant, Kenaf.
Fla. Grower 59: 8(1245): 9-10. 1951.
Allison, R. V. Ramie, Long, Strong-Fibered Marvel, Comes to Stay. Fla.
Grower 59: 10(1247): 13, 22-24. 1951.
Arnold, P. T. Dix. Importance of Individual Feeding and Individual
Records for Efficient Milk Production. Fla. Dairy News 2: 5: 14-15.
1952.
Baker, Sloan, Jr., Herefords Broaden Florida Farm Scenes. Texas Here-
ford 1: 6: 60, 61. 1952.
Becker, R. B. More Interest in Silos and Silage Follows Production of
Surplus Forage. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 16: 4: 28-30. 1952.
Becker, R. B. Dairy Owners, Herdsmen and Helpers Attend 1951 Dairy
Herdsmen's Short Course at University. Fla. Dairy News 1: 7: 14. 1951.
Becker, R. B., P. T. Dix Arnold and Sidney P. Marshall. Development of
the Bovine Stomach During Fetal Life. Jour. Dairy Sci. 34: 329-332
1951.
Becker, R. B., and P. T. Dix Arnold. Early Development and Function
of the Bovine Stomach. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 78. 1952; also,
Jour. Dairy Sci. (Abst.) 35: 6: 504-505. 1952.
Becker, R. B., and John M. Scott. The Dairy Industry in Florida. Econ.
Leaflets, Bur. of Econ. and Bus. Res., Col. of Bus. Adm., U. of F. 11:
1: 1-4. 1951; also, Fla. St. Mrktg. Bu. for Sale, Want and Exchange
Bul. 5: 12: 1. 1952; also, Fla. Opport. Bul. 3: 2: 10-12. 1952.
Blackmon, G. H., and S. E. McFadden. Rose Culture in Florida. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 64: 215-218. 1951.








30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Blackmon, G. H., and S. E. McFadden. Roses Do Grow in Florida. Flori-
land. Second Year: 2: 4. Nov. 1951.
Brooke, Donald L. General Farming and Truck Crops. The Fla. Hand-
book, The Peninsular Publishing Co., Tallahassee, Fla. 1952: 61.
Burke, Jack D., R. L. Shirley and George K. Davis. Blood Volume in
Swine as Determined by Radiophosphorus. Anatomical Record 111:
3: 3. 1951.
Camp, A. F. The Role of Chemical Fertilizer in Florida Citrus Produc-
tion. Plant Food Jour. 5: 3: 6-9. 1951.
Carrigan, Richard A. What Do You Know About pH? Citrus Ind. 33: 1:
11-12. 1952; also, La Hacienda 47: 5: 47. 1952.
Carrigan, Richard A., and T. C. Erwin. Cobalt Determination in Soils
by Spectrographic Analysis Following Chemical Preconcentration. Soil
Sci. Soc. of Am. Proc. 15: 145-149. 1951.
Chapman, W. H. Blight-Fighting New Oat Boosts Yields by 25%. So.
Seedsman 14: 9: 26, 30, 47. 1951.
Christie, J. R., A. N. Brooks and V. G. Perry. The Sting Nematode,
Belonolaimus gracilis, a Parasite of Major Importance on Strawber-
ries, Celery and Sweet Corn in Florida. Phytopath. 42: 173-176. 1952.
Conover, Robert A. Modern Discoveries in Fungicides. Parks and Recre-
ation 35: 1: 15-16. 1952.
Cooper, J. Francis. New Grasses for the South. Better Crops with Plant
Food 36: 2: 25, 26, 41, 42. 1952.
Cunha, T. J. Developments in Swine Nutrition. Flour and Feed 52: 4:
8-9. 1951.
Cunha, T. J. Are Your Cattle Getting Enough to Eat? Feeding Can Be
Inadequate. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 5: 38-39. 1952.
Cunha, T. J. Weight Losses Make Feed in Winter One of Most Serious
Cattle Problems. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 5: 48-50. 1952.
Cunha, T. J. Protein Necessary When Grass is Dry and Lacking in
Nutritional Value. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 5: 61. 1952.
Cunha, T. J. U. of F. Animal Husbandry Program Outlined. Fla. Cattle-
man and Livestock Jour. 15: 11: 32-35. 1951.
Cunha, T. J. Animal Nutrition Work has Contributed Heavily to Human
Food Knowledge. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 16: 1: 26. 1951.
Cunha, T. J. Treat Herd Replacement Gilts Better than Fat Hog Market
Animals. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 16: 1: 60. 1951.
Cunha, T. J. Water Is Important as Feed and Stockmen Should Be Care-
ful About Supply. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 16: 1: 74-75. 1951.
Cunha, T. J. What Antibiotics Do to Feed. The Prog. Farmer 67: 3: 85.
1952.
Cunha, T. J. Does Feeding Protein Supplement Pay? Farm and Ranch-
So. Agri. 82: 2: 38. 1952.
Cunha, T. J. Vitamin Requirements of Swine. The Spotted Poland China
Bulletin 26: 10: 126-127. 1951.
Cunha, T. J. The Animal Protein Factor. Fla. Grower 60: 2(1251): 12,
45. 1952.
Cunha, T. J. Make 1952 Big Livestock Year. Fla. Grower 60: 4(1253):
27-28. 1952.
Davis, George K. Trace Elements in Cattle Feeding. Flour and Feed 52:
6. 1951.








Annual Report, 1952


Davis, George K. Good Pastures Cheap Source of Feed and Protein.
Victory Farm Forum 43: 22. 1951.
Davis, George K. Trace Mineral Elements in Feeds for Poultry and Live-
stock. Feedstuffs 23: 36: 32-38. 1951.
Davis, George K. Trace Minerals Vital to Livestock. Feedstuffs 24: 3: 11,
34-43. 1952.
Davis, George K. Trace Minerals. Jour. of the American Vet. Assoc.
119: 550-551. 1951.
Davis, George K. The Mineral Requirements of Dairy Cattle. Proc. Semi-
Annual Meeting of the Nutritional Council of the Am. Feed Mfg. Assoc.
(53 W. Jackson Blvd. Chicago). Nov. 1951.
Davis, George K. Some Quantitative Aspects of Naturally Occurring Ra-
dioactivity. Radiological Health and Civil Def. Bul. Ser. 48: U: 11. 1951.
Davis, George K. Trace Elements in Cattle Nutrition and Some Practical
Applications. The Southwestern Vet. 5: 2: 133-138. 1952.
Davis, George K., and H. D. Wallace. Sweet Potato By-Product Feed
for Cattle. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 62. 1952.
Decker, Phares, A. T. Wallace and T. E. Webb. Recent Studies on Lupines
in Florida. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 136. 1952.
Dennison, R. A. The Influence of Processing Method on the Texture of
Canned Celery Stalks. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 113-114. 1952.
Dennison, R. A., C. B. Hall, and V. F. Nettles. Effect of Environment on
Tomato Quality. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 118-119. 1952.
Driggers, J. Clyde, John P. Feaster, John T. McCall, George K. Davis and
N. R. Mehrhof. The Absorption of Ca4, and P,. from the Various Ali-
mentary Segments of a Chicken. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 157-
158. 1952.
Driggers, J. Clyde, and N. R. Mehrhof. Citrus Molasses for Growing
Chicks. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 158. 1952.
Driggers, J. Clyde. Driggers Suggests Methods to Reduce Poultryman's
Feed Bill; Increase Profits. Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour. 17: 5: 13-14.
1951.
Driggers, J. Clyde. U. of F. Professor Declares Experiments Prove Flor-
ida Soil Will Produce Feed. Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour. 17: 6: 4, 8.
1951.
Driggers, J. Clyde. You Can Reduce That Chicken Feed Bill by Purchas-
ing Grain Mixtures Judiciously. Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour. 17: 7: 10,
13. 1951.
Driggers, J. Clyde. You Can Reduce that Chicken Feed Bill by Mixing
Your Own Ingredients. Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour. 17: 8: 2-3, 6, 10,
1951.
Driggers, J. Clyde. Keep Birds Cool, Driggers Advises Florida Poultry-
men. Fla. Poultry and Farm Jour. 18: 5: 6, 10. 1952.
DuCharme, Ernest P., and R. F. Suit. Xyloporosis of Citrus in Florida.
P1. Dis. Rpt. 35: 556-557. 1951.
DuCharme, E. P., and L. C. Knorr. The Economic Aspects of Tristeza.
Cit. Mag. 14: 8: 29-31. 1952.
DuCharme, E. P., L. C. Knorr, and A. Banfi. La Presencia del "Stem
Pitting" en la Argentina. Idia 37-38-39: 15-20. 1951.
DuCharme, E. P., L. C. Knorr, and A. Banfi. Danos Causados a Los Citrus
por el 2, 4-D. Idia 44: 12-14. 1951.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Earhart, Robert W. Small Grain Diseases were Light in the Southeastern
Coastal Plain 1950-51. P1. Dis. Rpt. 35: 443-444. 1951.
Eddins, A. H. Susceptibility of Potato Varieties and Seedling Selections
to Corky Ringspot. USDA, Natl. Potato Breeding Program. Ann. Rpt.
22: 71-72. 1951.
Eddins, A. H., E. N. McCubbin and R. W. Ruprecht. Potato Variety Test
at Hastings and Sanford, Florida. USDA, Nat'l. Potato Breeding Pro-
gram. Ann. Rpt. 22: 70. 1951.
Feaster, John P., George K. Davis and John T. McCall. Effect of Vitamin
D Deprivation and Low-Phosphorus Ration on the Distribution of P,:
in Weanling Rats. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 60-61. 1952.
Fisher, Fran. E. An Entomophthora Attacking Citrus Red Mite. Fla.
Entomologist 34: 3: 83-88. 1951.
Forsee, W. T., Jr., and W. A. Hills. Fertilizer Experiments with Some
Vegetable Crops on Sandy Soils of Eastern Palm Beach County. Proc.
Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 64: 92-95. 1951.
Forsee, W. T., Jr., and R. H. Webster. Fertilizer Experiments with Field
Corn on Everglades Peaty Muck Soil. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49:
50-51. 1952.
Fouts, E. L. University Has Much to Offer Student Seeking to Specialize
in Dairying. Fla. Dairy News 1: 6: 30, 31. 1951.
Fouts, E. L. The Dairy Industry's Prospects for the Coming Year. Dairy
News 2: 1: 20. 1952.
Fouts, E. L. University of Florida Dairy Department Provides Modern
Dairy Training and Research. Fla. Dairy News 2: 4: 6. 1952.
Fouts, E. L. Facts by Fouts-Concentrated Milk for Bottling. Southern
Dairy Products Jour. 50: 2: 46-47, 54-55. 1951.
Fouts, E. L. Taste and Eye Appeal Depend on Proper Flavoring and
Coloring of Ice Cream. Southern Dairy Prod. Jour. 51: 1: 117. 1952.
Green, Victor E., Jr., and Warren N. Stoner. Some Problems of Rice
Culture on Muck Soils of the Everglades. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs.
49: 52-53. 1952.
Griffiths, J. T. Insects of Occasional Importance on Florida Citrus and
Their Control. Cit. Mag. 13: 22-23. 1951.
Hamilton, H. G. Benefits of a Coordinated Research Program as Illus-
trated by Citrus. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 124. 1952.
Hamilton, H. G. Trends in the Supply and Demand of Citrus. Cit. Ind.
32: 11: 5, 6, 18, 22. 1951.
Hammond, L. C., and S. N. Edson. A Simple Water Picnometer for Soil
Moisture Measurement in the Field. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 170.
1952.
Harris, Henry C. Greater Efficiency Will Stretch Fertilizer Supplies. Vic-
tory Farm Forum 44: 21-22. 1952.
Harris, Henry C., and Roger W. Bledsoe. Physiology and Mineral Nu-
trition. Chap. IV. pp. 89-121. The Peanut. (Nat'l. Fert. Assoc.) The
William Byrd Press Inc., Richmond, Va. 1951.
Harris, Henry C., W. H. MacIntire, C. L. Comar, W. M. Shaw, S. H. Winter-
berg, and S. L. Hood. Use of Ca" Labeled Calcium Carbonate in
Determining Proportions of Native and Additive Calcium in Lysimeter
Leachings and in Plant Uptake. Soil Sci. 73: 289-298. 1952.
Henderson, J. R. Soil Types Important to Agricultural Developments of
Florida. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 12: 26-27, 48-50. 1951.








Annual Report, 1952 33

Hendrickson, R., and J. W. Kesterson. Orange Concentrate Evaporator
Scale Identified as Hesperidin. Cit. Mag. 14: 10: 26-27. 1952.
Hills, W. A., and E. A. Wolf. Adaptability of Vegetable Varieties to
Southeast Florida. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 64: 100-104. 1951.
Hodges, E. M., and D. W. Jones. Use Enough Fertilizer Is Advised. Fla.
Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 11:31. 1951.
Hodges, E. M., W. G. Kirk, and D. W. Jones. Range Station Uses Both
Improved and Native Grass. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15:
6: 36-37. 1951.
Hoover, M. W., and R. A. Dennison. The Correlation of Certain Physical
and Chemical Measurements with Six Stages of Maturity of the
Southern Pea (Vigna sinensis). Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 114-115.
1952.
Hopkins, E. F., and K. W. Loucks. The Dowicide A-Hexamine Treatment
of Citrus Fruits for the Control of Mold and Stem-end Rot Decay.
Cit. Mag. 13: 12: 22-26. 1951.
Hull, Fred H. Recurrent Selection and Overdominance. Chap. 28, pp. 451-
473. Heterosis. Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa. 1952.
Jamison, F. S., and R. K. Showalter. The Prepackaging of Vegetables and
Fruits at Port of Origin. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 105. 1952.
Jeter, Max A., and George K. Davis. Molybdenum Toxicity in the Nutri-
tion of the Rat. II. The Effects of Varying Levels of Molybdenum Upon
Fertility, Gestation and Lactation. Jour. of Animal Sci. 10: 4: 1051.
1951.
Joiner, Jasper N. Measuring Soil Moisture for Irrigation Control. ACL
Agricultural and Livestock Topics. 4: 4: 1-2. 1952.
Jones, D. W. Proteins Are Needed for Steers to Utilize Roughage in
Late Summer and Fall. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 11: 61.
1951.
Jones, D. W., E. M. Hodges, and W. G. Kirk. Irrigated Clover Brought
Extra Weight at Ona. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 3: 20, 43.
1951.
Jones, D. W., E. M. Hodges, and W. G. Kirk. Feed When Needed Is Goal
in Fertilization Program. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 9:
24-25. 1951.
Jones, D. W., E. M. Hodges, and W. G. Kirk. Insects Do Well at This
Time of Year. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 12: 34-35, 62, 63.
1951.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Stock Your Insecticides No. Fla. Grower. 59: 8(1245)
16. 1951.
Kidder, Ralph W., and Herbert L. Chapman, Jr. A Preliminary Report of
Weight Performances of Crossbred and Purebred Cattle at the Ever-
glades Experiment Station from 1943 to 1951. Proc. Assn. So. Agr.
Wkrs. 49: 56-57. 1952.
Killinger, G. B. Argentine Bahia Prospect Discussed by Killinger. Fla.
Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 11: 36. 1951.
Killinger, G. B. Florida's Pangola Grass. ACL Agr. and Livestock Topics
3: 7: 1, 4. 1951.
Killinger, G. B. New Grasses and Legumes Spur Florida's Program. Vic-
tory Farm Forum 42: 14-15. 1951.
Kirk, W. G. Brahman Cattle for Beef Production. The American Brah-
man. 2: 6: 7, 20-24. 1951.








34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Kirk, W. G. Urea in the Steer Fattening Rations. Proc. Assn. So. Agr.
Wkrs. 49: 62. 1952.
Kirk, W. G. Feeding Your Range Herd When Grass Is Short Makes
Bigger Calves, Calf Crop. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 16: 4:
22, 23, 37. 1952.
Kirk, W. G. Scoring Brahman Cattle. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour.
16: 4: 31, 32. 1952.
Kirk, W. G., and H. C. Sowze. Range Station Announces Gains from
Feeding of Oranges in Special Tests. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock
Jour. 14: 5: 18, 19, 78. 1952.
Koger, Marvin. Numerous Crossbreds in Florida. Fla. Cattleman and
Livestock Jour. 16: 3: 62-63. 1952.
Koger, Marvin. Unusual Inheritances Discussed. Fla. Cattleman and
Livestock Jour. 16: 7: 20, 22. 1952.
Koger, Marvin. A Good Bull Is Half of Breeder's Herd; Sire Affects
Many Generations. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 16: 8: 62-63.
1952.
Koger, Marvin. Selection Is the Tool for Improvement of Herd. Fla.
Cattleman 16: 9: 68. 1952.
Knorr, L. C., and E. P. DuCharme. Anotaciones Sobre Lepra Explosiva.
Idia 42-43: 32-38. 1951.
Knorr, L. C., E. P. DuCharme, and A. Banfi. The Occurrence and Effects
of "Stem Pitting" in Argentina Grapefruit Groves. Cit. Mag. 14: 2:
32-36. 1951.
Knorr, L. C., E. P. DuCharme, and A. Banfi. La Exocortis en los Montes
Citricos de la Argentina. Idia 45: 8-12. 1951.
Krienke, W. A. A.D.S.A. Antibiotic Control Program. Milk Dealer. 41:
1: 104, 106. 1951; also, Southern Dairy Prod. Jour. 50: 5: 129, 134, 136,
137. 1951; also Milk Plant Monthly. 40: 10: 52-54. 1951; also, Butter,
Cheese and Milk Prod. Jour. 42: 12: 31, 32, 48. 1951. Also Canadian
Dairy and Ice Cream Jour. 30: 10: 52-54. 1951.
Kulwich, Roman, Sam L. Hansard, C. L. Comar, and George K. Davis.
The Effect of Molybdenum on the Metabolism of Copper in Swine and
Rats. Jour. An. Sci. 10: 4: (1052). 1951.
Large, J. R. The Pecan Spray Schedule for Florida. Proc. Southeastern
Pecan Growers Assoc. 45: 95-105. 1952.
Large, J. R., and A. M. Phillips. Suggested Florida Pecan Spray Schedule.
Fla. Grower. 60: 5, (1255): 16. 1952.
Lincoln, Francis B. Report of the Sub-Tropical Fruit Committee. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 64: 273-276. 1951.
McPherson, W. K. A Critical Appraisal of Family Farms as an Objective
of Public Policy. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 17-18. 1952.
McPherson, William K. Some Aspects of Economic Development in the
Tennessee Valley. Bur. Ec. and Bus. Res., Col. of Bus. Adm. U. of F.
Economic Leaflets. 11: 6: 1-4. 1952.
Magie, Robert O. Breeding Disease Resistant Gladiolus. NAGC Bul. 30:
78-83. 1952.
Magie, Robert O. Enjoy Gladiolus in Your Flower Garden. Floriland 1:
4-5, 20-21. 1951.
Magie, Robert O. Botrytis and Curvularia Diseases of Gladiolus. No. Am.
Glad. Council Bul. 27: 85-90. 1951.








Annual Report, 1952


Magie, Robert O. Soil-Minor Element Deficiencies. The Glad. Mag. 15:
4: 18-21. 1951.
Magie, Robert O. Limitations of Resistance to Gladiolus Fusarium Di-
sease. The Glad. Mag. 15: 4: 2, 36-38. 1951; also, as What Resistance
to Fusarium Disease Means. No. Am. Glad. Council Bul. 27: 81-84. 1951.
Magie, Robert O. Superstition Out in Crop Care. Fla. Grower 59: 12
(1249): 22-23. 1951.
Marshall, Sidney P., P. T. Dix Arnold and James M. Wing. Effects of
Aureomycin Feeding Upon the Performance of Dairy Calves. Proc.
Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 79. 1952.
Mehrhof, N. R. The Florida Poultry and Egg Council-Industry Wide.
Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 154-155. 1952.
Mull, Leon E. Improving Chocolate Ice Cream. Fla. Dy. News 2: 5: 10,
25. 1952.
Mull, Leon E. Factors Influencing Organism-Bacteriophage Populations.
Iowa State Coll. Jour. Sci. 26: 2: 254-255. 1952.
Mull, Leon E., and J. F. Koger. Miami's Continuous Flow Milking Sys-
tems. So. Dairy Prod. Jour. 53: 3: 136-138. 1952.
Mull, Leon E., and W. A. Krienke. The Use of Foreign Produced Dried
Milk Products in Ice Cream. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 67. 1952.
Neller, J. R. Review of Phosphate Fertilizer Experiments Underway in
Florida. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 47-48. 1952.
Nettles, V. F. Irrigation of Vegetables in the Southeast. Mkt. Growers
Jour. 81: 5: 26-27. 1952.
Nettles, V. F., and Said Hamdi. The Effect of Soil Fumigation, Source
of Nitrogen, and Levels of Potash and Magnesium on Tomato Yield.
Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 117, 1952.
Nettles, V. F., R. A. Dennison, and C. B. Hall. The Effect of Post Harvest
Environment on the Subsequent Quality of Tomato Fruits. Proc. Assn.
So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 117-118. 1952.
Parris, G. K. Downy Mildew Resistant Strains of Watrmelon from the
Dominican Republic, West Indies. P1. Dis. Rpt. 35: 399-401. 9151.
Pearson, A. M., and R. B. Sleeth. Sunflower Seed Meal as a Protein Sup-
plement for Fattening Beef Steers. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49:
63. 1952.
Pearson, A. M., J. A. Luizzo, R. Buchele, R. S. Glasscock, and T. J. Cunha.
The Tissue Deposition of Certain B-Complex Vitamins as Influenced
by Aureomycin and APF in Swine Rations. Jour. An. Sci. (Abst.) 10:
1032. 1951.
Pearson, A. M., H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs, Jr., J. W. Stroud, and Marvin
Koger. The Influences of Stilbestrol on Growth, Efficiency of Feed
Utilization and Carcass Quality of Swine of Different Sexes. Jour. An.
Sci. (Abst.) 10: 1080. 1951.
Phillips, A. M. Some Observations on Control of the Hickory Shuckworm
on Pecans with Insecticides. Proc. Southeastern Pecan Growers Assoc.
45: 113-115. 1952.
Pratt, R. M., W. L. Thompson and J. T. Griffiths. Citrus Insect Control
for 1951-1952. Citrus Ind. 32: 7: 3; 8: 3, 9: 3, 10: 3, 11: 3, 12: 3. 1951;
33: 1: 3, 2: 33: 3-4; 4: 3, 8; 5: 4, 9; 6: 3. 1952.
Prosser, D. S., Jr. Pneumatic Pruners for Hedging and Pruning. Citrus
Mag. 14: 7: 19-21. 1952.








36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Randolph, John W. How They Farm on Muck in Florida. New Jersey
Farm and Garden 22: 12: 14-16, 69. 1951.
Robertson, W. K. Effect of Lime on Uptake of Phosphorus Using Labeled
Calcium and Phosphorus. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 54-55. 1952.
Robinson, Frank A. Effect of Electric Shock on Oviposition in Queen
Bees. Amer. Bee Jour. 91: 12: 508-509. 1951.
Sanders, D. A. Crotalaria Poisoning of Livestock. Georgia Ve:. 4: 2: 6-8.
1952.
Sanders, D. A. Facts About Blackleg in Cattle. Fla. Grower 59: 10 (1247);
10, 25. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Results Shown by Production Records on Irrigated and
Non-Irrigated Groves. Citrus Ind. 32: 9: 5, 12, 17-18. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Can Florida Growers Afford to Use Uncertified Nursery
Stock? Citrus Ind. 32: 11: 10-11. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Florida Citrus Grove Records. Citrus Ind. 33: 4: 5-6. 1952.
Savage, Zach. Twenty Years of Costs and Nineteen Years of Returns.
Citrus Ind. 33: 5: 5-7, 12-13. 1952.
Savage, Zach. Investment in Irrigation Equipment. Citrus Mag. 13: 11:
12-13. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Orange, Grapefruit and Tangerine Production. Citrus Mag.
13: 12: 14-15. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Citrus Production Costs for 1950-51. Citrus Mag. 13: 13:
14-15. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Groves. Citrus Mag. 14: 2: 23,
27. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Florida's Standing in Cooperative Marketing and Purchas-
ing. Citi as Mag. 14: 3: 25. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Outlook for Citrus and Related Fruit. Citrus Mag. 14: 4:
18-19. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Disposition of Florida Oranges. Citrus Mag. 14: 5: 16-17.
1952.
Savage, Zach. Florida Grapefruit Production and Disposition. Citrus Mag.
14: 6: 8-9. 1952.
Savage, Zach. The Importance of Citrus in Florida Cash Farm Market-
ings. Citrus Mag. 14: 7: 32. 1952.
Savage, Zach. Movement of Citrus Trees from Florida Nurseries. Citrus
Mag. 14: 8: 22-24. 1952.
Savage, Zach. Some Grove Management Considerations. Citrus Mag. 14:
9: 16-18. 1952.
Savage, Zach. Irrigation. Citrus Mag. 14: 10: 17-18. 1952.
Savage, Zach. Citrus Prices. Citrus Mag. 14: 10: 29. 1952.
Sewell, R. F., T. J. Cunha, C. B. Shawver, W. A. Ney, and H. D. Wallace.
Effect of Aureomycin on the Vitamin B,. and Methionine Needs of the
Pig. Amer. Jour. Vet. Med. Assoc. 13: 186. 1952.
Sharpe, R. H., G. H. Blackmon, and Nathan Gammon, Jr. Magnesium De-
ficiency of Pecans. Southeastern Pecan Growers' Assn. Proc. 44: 23-28.
1951.
Sharpe, R. H., G. H. Blackmon, and Nathan Gammon, Jr. Rela'ion of
Potash and Phosphate Fertilization to Cold Injury of Moore Pecans.
Proc. Southeastern Pecan Growers Assn. 45: 81-86. 1952.








Annual Report, 1952


Sharpe, R. H., and Nathan Gammon, Jr. Sources of Error in Foliar
Analysis of Pecans. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 58: 120-124. 1951.
Shirley, Ray L., J. C. Driggers, J. McCall, G. K. Davis, and N. R. Mehrhof.
Excretion and Retention of P32 and Ca41 by Laying Hens. Poultry Sci.
30: 5: 730-734. 1951.
Shirley, Ray L., R. D. Owens, and G. K. Davis. Alimentary Excretion of
Phosphorus3" in Rats on High Molybdenum and Copper Diets. Jour.
Nutr. 44: 595-602. 1951.
Showalter, R. K. Improved Packaging and Handling Methods for Market-
ing Florida Tomatoes. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 128. 1952.
Showalter, R. K., L. P. McColloch, and L. H. Halsey. Tomato Shipping
Tests from Florida to Terminal Markets. Pre-Package. 4: 12: 14-16.
1951.
Spencer, Ernest L. Vegetable Nutritional Sprays. Fla. Grower 59: 8
(1245): 4-5. 1951.
Spurlock, A. H. Marketing Florida Tomatoes. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs.
49: 128-129. 1952.
Spurlock, A. H. Livestock: A Progressive Industry. The Fla. Handbook
(3rd Edition) 1952, 59. The Peninsular Publishing Co., Tallahassee, Fla.
Stearns, C. R. Jr. Performance of the "Volute" attachment for the Speed
Sprayer. Citrus Ind. 33: 6: 8. 1952.
Stearns, C. R., Jr., J. T. Griffiths, W. R. Bradley and W. L. Thompson.
Concentration of Parathion Vapor in Groves after Spraying and Effects
of the Vapor on Small Animals. Citrus Mag. 13: 13: 25-26. 1951.
Stewart, Ivan, and C. D. Leonard. Iron Chlorosis-Its Possible Causes and
Control. Citrus Mag. 14: 10: 22-25. 1952.
Stevenson, Frank V. Internal Damage to Celery in Florida Caused Ap-
parently by Winds of Hurricane Force. P1. Dis. Rpt. 35: 402. 1951.
Stevenson, Frank V., E. A. Wolf, and Thomas Bregger. A Preliminary
Report on the Testing of Sweet Corn for Resistance to Helmintho-
sporium turcicum Pass. at the Everglades Experiment Station in 1950-
51. P1. Dis. Rpt. 35: 488. 1951.
Stoner, Warren N. A 2,4-D Chemical Causes Unusual Injury to Cabbage.
P1. Dis. Ppt. 35: 327-328. 1951.
Stoner, Warren N. A report on the Influence of Spray Additives on Con-
trol of Helminthosporium turcicum Pass. in the Everglades. P1. Dis.
Rpt. 35: 487-488. 1951.
Stoner, Warren N. A Comparison Between Grape Degeneration in Flor-
ida and Pierce's Diesease in California. Fla. Entomologist 35: 2: 62-68.
1952.
Stoner, Warren N., and John W. Randolph. A Spray Machine for Ex-
perimental Trials of Pesticides under Actual Field Conditions. Proc.
Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 84. 1952.
Stoner, Warren N., Loren H. Stover, and G. K. Parris. Field and Lab-
oratory Investigations Indicate Grape Degeneration in Florida is due
to Pierce's Disease Virus Infection. P1. Dis. Rpt. 35: 341-344. 1951.
Suit, R. F. Symposium of Certification of Disease-Free Nursery Stock:
Importance of Bud-Transmitted Diseases of Citrus. Part II. Citrus Ind.
32: 9: 9, 16. 1951.
Suit, R. F. Comparison of Copper Fungicides for Melanose Control. Citrus
Mag. 14: 7: 24-26, 35. 1952.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Swank, George Jr. Tomato Rot Due to a Strain of Glomerella cingulata.
P1. Dis. Rpt. 35: 329. 1951.
Swank, George Jr. Alternaria Leaf Spot and Dieback of Snap Bean: A
New Disease in Central Florida. P1. Dis. Rpt. 35: 330-332. 1951.
Swanson, Leonard E., and Edward G. Batte. Livestock Parasite Control.
Fla. Grower 60: 1 (1250); 20, 40, 41. 1952.
Swanson, Leonard E., and Edward G. Batte. Internal Parasites of Cattle
and Their Control. Vet. Medicine. 47: 5: 172-174. 1952.
Thames, Walter H., Jr. The Use of Insecticides for Control of Soil Borne
Insects. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 64: 115-117. 1951.
Thompson, W. L. Important Mites Attacking Citrus and Their Control.
Citrus Mag. 13: 11: 20-22. 1951.
Thornton, Geo. D., W. W. McCall, R. E. Caldwell, and F. B. Smith. Soils
and Fertilizers. 80 pp. Fla. Dept. of Agr. Tallahassee. 1952.
Tisdale, W. B. Clubroot of Crucifers in Florida. P1. Dis. Rpt. 35: 509. 1951.
Tisdale, W. B. What's New in Plant Pathology. P1. Dis. Rpt.. 36: 208-210.
1952.
Volk, Gaylord M. Don't Lose Your Fertilizer Through Leaching. Victory
Farm Forum 43: 12: 1951.
Wallace, H. D., George E. Combs, and T. J. Cunha. Amino Acid, Ferrous
Sulfate, Fish Solubles, and Antibiotic B1. Additions to Cottonseed Meal
Rations for Weanling Pigs. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 60. 1952.
Wallace, H. D., W. A. Ney, L. T. Albert, and T. J. Cunha. Effect of Re-
ducing and Discontinuing Aureomcin Supplementation During the
Growing-Fattening Period of the Pig. Jour. An. Sci. (Abst.) 10: 1066,
1951.
Wallace, H. D., William A. Ney, and T. J. Cunha. Various Antibiotics and
3-Nitro-4-Hydroxyphenyl Arsonic Acid in Corn-Peanut Meal Rations
for Swine. Proc. Soc. for Experimental Biology and Med. 78: 807-808.
1951.
Walter, James M. Nabam in Tank-Mixed Fungicide. Fla. Grower 59: 9:
(1246) 22. 1951.
Walter, James M. Fungicides for Fall Tomatoes. Fla. Grower 59: 10
(1247): 30-31. 1951.
Wander, I. W. Soil Reaction or pH. Citrus Mag. 13: 12: 17. 1951.
Wander, I. W. The Use of Agricultural Limestone and Dolomite in Flor-
ida Citrus Production. Citrus Mag. 14: 3: 35-36. 1951.
Warner, J. D. Argentine--New Bahia Grass is More Vigorous, Produces
More Seed and Pasture. So. Seedsman. 14: 9: 22, 62, 67. 1951.
Westgate, Philip J. Azalea Leaf Tip Burn. Fla. Grower 60: 1 (1250): 26.
1952.
Westgate, Philip J. Response of Plants to Saline Soil Conditions. Proc.
Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 49: 170-171. 1952.
Wilkowske, H. H. Florida Association of Milk Sanitarians Eighth Annual
Conference Report. Jour. Milk and Food Tech. 15: 3: 138. 1952; also
Fla. Dairy News 2: 5: 23, 1952.
Wilkowske, H. H. Milk Is Your Best Food Buy. Fla. Dairy News 2: 5: 18.
1952.
Wilkowske, H. H., and L. E. Mull. Reconstituting Non-Fat Dry Milk
Solids. South. Dairy Prod. Jour. 51: 6: 152-154. 1952.








Annual Report, 1952 39

Winchester, C. F., and George K. Davis. The Influence of Thyroxin on
Growth of Chickens. Poultry Sci. 31: 1: 31-32. 1952.
Wolf, Emil A. South Florida Sweet Potatoes. Fla. Grower 59: 12 (1249):
12, 42-43. 1951.
Wolf, Emil A., and Frank T. Stevenson. Sweet Corn Production in the
Everglades. Fla. Grower 60: 3 (1253); 19, 45. 1952.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0., and Milton Cobin. Notes on the Pollination of Some
Subtropical Fruit Plants. State Fla. Dept. Agric. Spec. Series No. 66:
107-111. 1951.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


LIBRARY


The Library has a total of 27,799 bound volumes. During the year,
462 volumes were bound, covering 39 periodical titles. A total of 14,805
documents and periodicals were received. The Library received 346 peri-
odicals through paid subscriptions and 245 by exchange.
The card catalog was enriched by the addition of 29,479 cards. Of
these, 23,448 were prepared and typed by this Library's catalogers; 2,672
were purchased, but had to have corrections and notations made on them;
and 3,976 were prepared by the University Library for the books pur-
chased out of the College of Agriculture allocation of book funds. One
hundred thirty-one cards were prepared for the University Central
Catalog.
Work on Latin American holdings continues. A catalog covering
holdings of West Indian agricultural documents has been completed and
is being kept current. As time permits, the catalog will be expanded
to include all Latin American agricultural documents. The catalog cover-
ing United States Department of Agriculture publications was completed
and is also to be kept current.
The work in circulation has been heavy. For staff and faculty using
the Library, no record is kept. A record is kept for students; it shows
that 9,662 persons used the Library during this fiscal year. Eight hun-
dred and twenty-four pieces of material were lent workers in the branch
stations, while 17,085 pieces were lent here.
About 1,500 volumes of valuable duplicate or little used material were
transferred to temporary space provided elsewhere. This relieved the
crowded condition of the shelves somewhat. Reference work is requiring
a large percentage of time of members of the staff.
The Library was requested to prepare a display of books during the
Caribbean Conference in December. It was visited by many of the Latin
American delegates and received much praise both as to content and ar-
rangement.








Annual Report, 1952


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Investigations were continued on costs of producing citrus fruits,
important vegetables and dairy products. Marketing research was ex-
tended to include livestock. Funds made available by contract with the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, USDA, enabled research to be under-
taken in transportation. In cooperation with the Land Economics Section
of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, research was initiated in land
economics.

FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA


State Project 154


H. G. Hamilton


The primary objective of this project is to determine the factors which
make for success or failure of farmer cooperatives.
During the year detailed data were obtained on the operations of
approximately 20 citrus cooperatives, and an analysis was made of the
selling operations of a successful cooperative. The most important factors
contributing to a successful selling operation were: Market outlet for
fruit, in both fresh and processed form; time and place distribution to
meet the least competition from other areas; pool shipments, by either
rail or truck, in order to serve small customers and markets; the practice
of using brokers in selling to customers of unknown financial and moral
standing; and control over adequate supplies of fruit that enable the
association to meet customers' demands.

COSTS OF PRODUCTION AND GROVE ORGANIZATION STUDIES
OF FLORIDA CITRUS
Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage
The usual field work of closing the 1950-51 accounts was performed
and new accounts were opened for 1951-52. Reports were completed for
the 1949-50 season. Copies were supplied cooperators and contained data
for individual grove accounts, along with averages for similar varieties
and age for current and prior seasons. The work of completing the
1950-51 accounts is well under way.
Costs and returns for three kinds of oranges, tangerines, and two kinds
of grapefruit at 27 to 29 years of age are shown for the six seasons of
1944-50 in Table 1.
TABLE 1.-COSTS AND RETURNS OF CITRUS 27 TO 29 YEARS OF AGE,
1944-50.
Orange Tan- Grapefruit


I Early Midseasonl


I
Number of groves...... 12
Acres per grove .......... 3.21
Yield per acre (boxes) 495
Yield per tree (boxes) 6.98

Total costs per acre.... $185.57
Returns per acre........ 432.32
Net returns per acre.. 246.75

Total costs per box.... .37
Returns per box ........ .87
Net returns per box....| .50


46
4.97
374
5.88

$274.43
450.59
176.16

.73
1.20
.47


Late

49
18.84
367
6.01

$265.72
703.22
437.50

.72
1.92
1.20


gerine Seedy ISeedless

32 41 34
3.44 3.52 2.03
348 583 436
5.32 9.15 6.92

$300.83 $244.26 $232.10
496.60) 430.60 403.97
195.77 186.40 171.87

.86 .42 .53
1.43 .74 .93
.57 .32 .40
1








42 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

In general at any bearing age of trees, net returns per acre were highest
for late oranges and ranged downward for early oranges, tangerines, mid-
season oranges, seedless grapefruit and seedy grapefruit.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY, ITS POSSIBLE
INHERITANCE, AND DEPRECIATION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
State Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
S. P. Marshall and A. H. Spurlock
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Department of Dairy
Science.
Records were continued with nine Florida dairy herds on breeding, in-
ventory, replacements and causes of losses. Data are being accumulated
to obtain larger numbers of observations for final analysis.
The leading cause for disposal of milk cows to date has been mastitis
and other udder trouble, with low milk production ranking next. The life
span of all cows has averaged 6.7 years, of which 4.2 years were spent
in the milking herd. (See also Proj. 345, DAIRY SCIENCE.)

INPUT AND OUTPUT DATA FOR FLORIDA CROP
AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
Purnell Project 395 A. H. Spurlock, D. L. Brooke
and R. E. L. Greene
The work on this project during the year consisted of completing and
revising a manuscript which was published as Bulletin 489, January, 1952.
All data obtained on average requirements for labor, seed, fertilizer and
pesticides for vegetable crops were summarized and included in this pub-
lication. The project has been closed.

ANALYSIS OF FARMS AND MARKETS IN THE PLANT CITY AREA
WITH RESPECT TO POST-WAR ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
Purnell Project 429 R. E. L. Greene
Farm business records were obtained from selected representative farms
in the area for the crop year 1950-51. Two farms were selected for re-
organization. Sample farm plans were developed and sample budgets pre-
pared showing the expected improvements in farm income if the reorgani-
zation was made and improved practices used. These will be used to
supplement data already available in showing the trends in the agricul-
ture of the area and some of the changes that will need to be made if
the farmers are to adjust their farm business to a more profitable basis.

CROP AND LIVESTOCK ESTIMATING ON FLORIDA FARMS
WITH EMPHASIS ON VEGETABLE CROPS
State Project 451 G. Norman Rose
This project supplements, on a collaborative basis, the work performed
by the Florida Livestock Reporting Service of the USDA Bureau of Agri-
cultural Economics, Orlando, Florida.
Monthly estimates of acreage, production and value were made on 7
fall, 15 winter and 12 spring commercial vegetable crops. During the
season approximately 15,000 copies of these estimates were distributed
to interested growers, packers, shippers and others in work closely allied
to the agricultural industry. A truck crop news report-giving planting
progress, growing conditions and harvesting periods-was released as of
the 1st and 15th of each month throughout the growing and harvesting
season. Approximately 30,000 of these releases were distributed to the
groups listed above.








Annual Report, 1952


At the close of the season, a survey was made to determine actual aver-
age yields and prices obtained in the various producing areas and counties
of the State. From these surveys and other check data, final revisions
and area and county estimates were made. Florida Vegetable Crops,
Volume VII, the annual statistical summary of vegetable crops for the
State, was released during the year. (See State Project 480.)
Data developed under this project during the year will be used largely
as a basis for the report of the Florida Agricultural Outlook Committee
for 1952-53.

COST OF PRODUCTION AND RETURNS ON VEGETABLE
CROPS IN FLROIDA
S'ate Project 480 D. L. Brooke, A. H. Spurlock
and Talmadge Bergen
Field schedules of costs and returns on vegetable crops for the 1950-51
season were obtained from more than 375 growers covering over 80,000
acres of vegetables. Crop summary tables by major producing areas for
the 1950-51 season were prepared and returned to cooperating growers
in a mimeographed report, AE Series 52-2, Costs and Returns from Vege-
table Crops in Florida, Volume VI.
During the six seasons which this study has covered, per-acre costs of
producing vegetable crops have increased. Higher costs for labor and
equipment and the increased use of fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides
have been major factors contributing to this rise. In general, per-unit
(package) costs have not increased as much as per-acre costs because of
higher yields resulting from the use of more fertilizer, better yielding varie-
ties, and the increasing mechanization of farms. Since the 1945-46 season
prices farmers received for vegetables have shown some increase but not
to the extent of the increase in production costs.

CONSUMER PACKAGING OF VEGETABLES (EXCEPT TOMATOES)
Purnell Project 483 R. K. Showalter, D. B. Thompson
and A. H. Spurlock
Results of economic studies for three seasons have been summarized
and manuscripts prepared for publication. No new material was col-
lected under this project during the year. (See also Proj. 483, HORTI-
CULTURE.)

PACKAGING OF TOMATOES
RMA Project 484 R. K. Showalter, L. H. Halsey
(Regional SM-3) and H. A. Spurlock
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Department of Horti-
cul ure and the USDA. Only the economic phase is reported here.
Records have been obtained during the year from eight firms on tomato-
packing operations for the 1950-51 season. Data obtained from each firm
include number of packages of each type packed, packing revenue, packing
expense and capital invested. Packing expenses have been obtained in as
much detail as possible to permit analysis of costs by type of container.
Previous 'iming studies of tomato packing operations in 1949-50 are also
being used in making allocations of costs.
Data have been obtained in two of the important tomato areas of the
State, and data from two more will be obtained. (See also Proj. 484,
HORTICULTURE.)









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


SPOILAGE IN MARKETING EARLY IRISH POTATOES
RMA Project 485 R. E. L. Greene
(Regional SM-5)
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Alabama, North Caro-
lina, South Carolina and Virginia Agricultural Experiment Stations and
the USDA Bureaus of Agricultural Economics and Plant Industry, Soils
and Agricultural Engineering. A publication, Grade Qualities of Potatoes
in Selected Retail Stores in Pittsburgh, 1950, was completed and published
as Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 24, June 1952.
Potato diggers often do considerable damage to potatoes during dig-
ging. Controlled digging tests were conducted in the Hastings area 'o
determine the effects of speed and protection on the digger on mechanical
damage. The South Carolina Station had the responsibility for this work.
The Departments of Agricultural Economics and Agricultural Engineering
of the Florida Station cooperated.
One side of a conventional two-row Champion digger was modified by
(1) covering the link ends of the digger chain with rubber belting to pro-
tect the potatoes from damage and (2) putting rubber tubes on the high
rods of the chain to protect the potatoes from damage by the chain. The
other side was left as the digger was commonly operated.
The two modifications were tested individually and together at different
speeds on both Sebago and Pontiac potatoes. Of the various combinations,
the one in which both modifications were used at the same time produced
best results. The speed of travel of the digger was a major factor in
amount of damage done by the unmodified digger.
Any combination of the modifications resulted in a marked reduction in
damage, especially at or above normal speed of travel. In Sebago po-
tatoes when 'he digger was operated at 1.5 mph the amount of physical
damage per 100 pounds of field-run potatoes was 4.1 on the unprotected
side and 0.8 on the protected side; at 3.5 mph damage amounted to 13.9
and 1.2 pounds, respectively. In Pontiac potatoes a similar comparison
at 1.5 mph showed damage of 16.4 pounds on the unprotected side and 2.2
pounds on the protected side; at 3.5 mph the damage was 31.8 and 7.5
pounds, respectively.
Tests at Hastings compared the handling and shipping qualities of
Sebago, Kennebec and Cherokee potatoes. These indicate that Kennebec
is not suitable as a commercial variety in the Hastings area because of
its inability to withstand normal handling and its poor appearance when
it reached the market. Cherokee is more subject to handling damage
than Sebago.
Observations were continued on the use of mechanical harvesters.
Several machines that dug the potatoes and placed them in bags were
observed to be operating successfully on sandy soils. Rapid progress
has been made in their development but in many cases adjustments are
needed in present equipment before it will operate successfully on early
potatoes. Some adjustments will have to be made also in packinghouse
equipment and operation for the practice to be most successful. (See also
Proj. 592, HORTICULTURE, and Proj. 469, POTATO INVESTIGA-
TIONS LABORATORY.)

COSTS AND FACTORS AFFECTING COST OF MARKETING CITRUS
FRUITS IN FRESH AND PROCESSED FORM
RMA Project 486 J. L. Tennant, H. G. Hamilton,
(Regional SM-4) A. H. Spurlock and Eric Thor
Costs of packing and selling fresh citrus fruit and of processing and








Annual Report, 1952


selling citrus products in Florida have advanced in recent years due to:
Higher prices of containers; some rise in wages; an increase in number
of workers retained full-time during the season; and rising prices for
repairs, replacements, power and supplies.
Data on 1950-51 costs were obtained from 77 packinghouses, 18 can-
neries and 9 concentrate plants. The 1950-51 average cost of packing
and selling Florida oranges was $0.92 per 1 3/5 bruce box; grapefruit $0.82
per 1 3/5 bruce box; and tangerines $1.42 per 1 3/5 box equivalent. The
net rise in costs from 1946-47 to 1950-51 was 11 percent for oranges, 9
percent for grapefruit and 23 percent for tangerines.
Cost of processing and selling orange juice in 12/404 cases rose 17
percent during the five years 1946-47 to 1950-51, that for grapefruit juice
16 percent and that for blended juice 17 percent. The average 1950-51
cost for unsweetened orange juice was $1.24 per 12/404 case; for un-
sweetened grapefruit juice $1.23; for unsweetened blended juice $1.23;
and for unsweetened tangerine juice $1.24.
The 1950-51 cost of processing and warehousing frozen orange con-
centrate was $1.76 per 48/6 case and $1.82 per 12/32 case. These costs
are $0.17 less per 48/6 case and $0.15 less per 12/32 case than the 1949-50
costs.
Based on records of nine operators, average 1950-51 costs of picking
and hauling citrus fruit were $0.43 for oranges, $0.33 for grapefruit and
$0.71 for tangerines per 1 3/5 bushel box. Labor was 58 percent of the
cost for oranges, 51 percent for grapefruit and 68 percent for tangerines.
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Texas Agricultural
Experiment Station; the Bureau of Agricultural Economics; the Fruit and
Vegetable Branch, PMA; and the Research and Service Division, FCA,
USDA.
THE CONSUMER PATTERN FOR CITRUS FRUIT
RMA Project 519 M. R. Godwin and H. G. Hamilton
(Regional SM-4)
In continuing the investigation of the nature of the demand for citrus
products, a series of pricing experiments was conducted in seven retail
stores in central Kentucky over a seven-week period, April 28 through
June 14, 1952. Customers in these stores were offered fresh oranges under
carefully controlled conditions at seven levels of price. Daily records were
kept on the sales of fresh oranges, other citrus products and all non-
citrus products considered competitive with fresh oranges. Information
was also obtained daily on the number of customers passing through each
store and on total store sales and produce sales.
In addition to the above information, observational studies were made
of approximately 3,000 customers over the seven-week period. These
studies provide information on customer buying practices and on the
extent to which customers were aware of the prices of competing items
when purchasing fresh oranges. Data on this Kentucky work, just com-
pleted, are being analyzed.
Analysis of the data obtained from 10 retail stores in Memphis, Ten-
nessee, on prices received and volume of sales of citrus and competing
products for a 20-week period-January to June 1951-has been continued.
Results thus far indicate several difficulties involved in establishing price-
quantity relationships from data obtained under controlled conditions.

COORDINATED SELLING OF CITRUS FRUIT
State Project 520 H. G. Hamilton
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Farm Credit Adminis-









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


tration, USDA. In it, the leader's function is primarily that of con-
sultant.
Analyses have been made of the sales programs used by leading firms
handling two commodities-California walnuts and California lemons-
and are available for further research to determine whether these pro-
grams in part or whole might be applicable to the Florida citrus industry.
Results are in manuscript form and will be published by the Farm Credit
Administration.
FARM RENTAL ARRANGEMENTS IN FLORIDA
State Project 556 D. E. Alleger
The field work on this study was completed and a bulletin, Rental Ar-
rangements on Crop-Share Farms, was published during June 1952.
The usual crop-share agreement was a 50-50 oral contract on an
annual basis. Both croppers and tenants changed farms frequently, whites
moving more often than negroes. Both races usually shifted about in the
same county. For both races, and for both croppers and tenants, farm
incomes were generally low. Inadequacy of income, however, was not
caused by leasing arrangements employed, but by small farm size, limited
acreage in cash crops, kinds of work power used, underemployment and
other reasons.
A contribution-returns ratio was developed to measure the extent to
which the landlord shared in returns in direct proportion to his contri-
butions. Tests made with the ratio indicated education was directly as-
sociated with favorable returns from existing leasing arrangements. It
thus appears that when landlords and tenants (or croppers) can appraise
their operating arrangements intelligently, and when the tenant is able
to execute his part of the agreement successfully, leasing arrangements
can be satisfactory to all parties concerned.
CONSUMER DEMAND FOR CITRUS PRODUCTS AND FACTORS
AFFECTING THAT DEMAND
RMA Project 562-Title II D. C. Kimmel and H. G. Hamilton
(RM:C-33 L.P.3, ES-41)
Work during the year consisted of analyzing the more than 600 house-
hold records on the consumption of citrus fruit.
Among these households, sweeter oranges and graefruit than those
found on the market were preferred. Three-fourths of the white and two-
thirds of the colored household substitute apples, bananas or other fresh
fruit for fresh citrus. Quality, appearance and relative prices are im-
portant factors which influence homemakers to buy substitutes for citrus
and citrus products.
Orange juice in more than one form is used by most households.
Desire for a change, convenience of certain forms, and relative prices are
the most prominent reasons for use of orange juice in several forms.
Homemakers hold a variety of beliefs as to the health-giving qualities of
citrus.
CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF WAXED AND COLORED POTATOES
RMA Project 578 R. E. L. Greene
(Regional SM-5)
The work on this project during the year consisted of completing the
preparation of a manuscript which was published as Southern Coopera-
tive Series Bulletin 22, February 1952. All data on the comparative sales
of waxed and colored and non-waxed potatoes were summarized and in-
cluded in this publication.








Annual Report, 1952


While this is a sub-project of Regional Project SM-5, the work was
done by two agencies, the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and
the USDA Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
This project is closed with this report.

PART-TIME FARMING IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 579 D. E. Alleger
The initial survey conducted in Duval County was completed during
1951. Intra-county square-mile units were selected for study by the
technique of systematic random sampling. From 80 such units, 307 field
schedules and 50 farm business records for the year 1951 were taken.
Approximately 25 percent of the respondents had retired because of
age, disability, length of service or other reason. Of the remainder, 66
percent were gainfully employed for salary or wages and 9 percent were
self-employed. About 88 percent of the respondents were home owners
and the majority of them were living in rural areas by preference.
Most part-time farmers merely produced food for home needs; a small
percentage sold farm produce; and a number farmed for personal adjust-
ment, e.g. biological and otherwise. Less than 50 percent of the farm
holdings exceeded four acres; only 24 percent of the part-time farmers
tilled more than one acre of land. Many of them possessed neither poultry
nor livestock; while less than 50 percent owned no meat animals other
than poultry.

METHOD OF SHIPPING FLORIDA CITRUS FRUITS
AND CITRUS PRODUCTS
RMA Project 593 Marvin A. Brooker and H. G. Hamilton
(BAE Contract)
This project was begun on July 1, 1951, with this objective: To deter-
mine insofar as possible the characteristics of movement by type of
carrier, and the apparent reasons why shippers choose one type of trans-
port than another for shipments of citrus fruits and products.
Information was obtained during the summer of 1951 from the files
of shippers of fresh citrus fruits by means of a schedule of questions, on
a specially designed form, asked by trained investigators. They obtained
their data from shipping documents; including manifests, inspection re-
ports, order confirmation reports, bills of lading and the like.
The 45 firms visited in the course of this investigation were selected
on the basis of an equal probability sample, stratified by area and size
group. The sampling rate of shipment ranged from 10 percent to 100
percent, depending on the size of the firm. About 19,000 schedules of
information were obtained during the summer of 1951. This information,
covering the two seasons 1949-50 and 1950-51, was then coded, tabulated
and analyzed. The major tabulations have been completed and prepara-
tions are being made to issue a report of the statistical findings.

MARKETING MEAT ANIMALS IN FLORIDA
RMA Project 602 W. K. McPherson and M. A. Brooker
Tabulations of data on cattle numbers, live weight production, market-
ings and auction prices by class and grade are almost completed. Pre-
liminary analysis of these data indicate:
The density of the cattle population in 15 south-central Florida counties
increased 15 or more head per square mile between 1940 and 1950. On
the other hand, cattle populations declined in 23 north Florida counties.
Live weight production of beef animals increased 161 percent during








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the 10-year period 1940 to 1950, while the number of other cattle and
calves increased 44 percent.
While live weight production per beef animal on farms has increased
from 60 to 138 pounds during the past 10 years, this figure is still far
below the national average of 257 pounds. One factor contributing to
the low live weight production per animal is the fact that only approxim-
ately 60 percent of all cows two years old and over bear calves. The
national average is about 90 percent, the Georgia average about 80
percent.
In some auctions and for some classes and grades of animals, Florida
prices are equal to or higher than those paid in Chicago. In seve-al in-
stances variations between prices paid for the same class and grade of
animals on the same day in different Florida auctions are wider than
variations between prices paid at Chicago and those Florida auctions
paying the highest prices.

AN ANALYSIS OF PRESENT AND POTENTIAL UTILIZATION OF
LAND FOR GRAZING AND ALTERNATIVE USES
IN CENTRAL FLORIDA
Purnell Project 619 L. A. Reuss, R. E. L. Greene
and W. K. McPherson
This project was started the latter part of the fiscal year. The first
phase, an inventory of land use by counties, is being based on the 1950
Census of Agriculture, the Forest Resources Survey of 1949 and related
data. The geographic distribution of acreages devoted to various uses
is being shown and related, in general terms, to soil adaptabilities, climate
and related factors. In the course of the study, estimates of per acre
costs and returns from alternative land uses and costs of clearing, drain-
age and pasture improvement will be developed in sample areas in central
Florida.
This study is being conducted in cooperation with the Land Economics
Division of the USDA Bureau of Agricultural Economics.








Annual Report, 1952


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Research continued during the year on projects reported,upon prev-
iously. Some work was started on evaluating supplemental irrigation of
pastures for lactating dairy cattle, developing a sacrification process for
certain seeds, and improving harvesting equipment for potatoes. John
S. Norton joined the staff to assist in agricultural engineering research.
Results for the year are summarized briefly under the various projects.

CURING HAY IN FLORIDA

Bankhead-Jones Project 536 J. M. Myers, G. B. Killinger
and R. W. Bledsoe
A labo-atory drier was designed and built in order to study more
effectively the rates of drying of various Florida hays. Incorporated into
the design of this drier were facilities for controlling to a very close
tolerance the air temperature and rate of delivery. The drier is mounted
on scales so that an accurate check on moisture losses may be made dur-
ing any time interval. To date, nine drying tests have been made with
Pangola, sweet yellow lupine, oat and alfalfa hays, at air temperatures
of 1000, 105 and 1200 F., and air delivery rates of 20 and 30 cfm per
square foot of drying floor area.
On a basis of the results of these closely controlled tests, hay could be
dried more efficiently by gradually reducing the amount of air delivered
and increasing the air temperature during the drying period. A manual
or automatic control could be placed on a drier to reduce the air delivery
of the fan gradually as the relative humidity of the air moving through
the hay drops. This, in turn, would increase the temperature of the drying
air without increasing the rate of fuel consumption. At the same time,
it would increase the rate of water removal from the hay. (See also
Proj. 536, AGRONOMY.)

Fig. 1.-The tobacco in the foreground was irrigated, that in the back-
ground was not.









41 H iBf







ANA
C4~ 'kgrrT-f~








50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark, Henry C. Harris,
R. W. Bledsoe and J. M. Myers
The initial phase (1949, 1950 and 1951 seasons) of flue-cured tobacco
irrigation research has been completed. The data are being analyzed and
a manuscript is in preparation.
During the 1952 season studies were initiated to determine the water
requirement for tobacco grown under field conditions and to evaluate
several soil moisture indicators for their practical use in a tobacco irriga-
tion program.
The daily moisture requirement (evaporation and transpiration) of
the irrigated tobacco gradually increased from 0.06 inch during the first
week after transplanting to a maximum of 0.25 inch during the eighth
week. Then there was a gradual decline to 0.13 inch daily moisture re-
quirement during the thirteenth week after transplanting. The net amount
of moisture required by the irrigated tobacco was 12.34 inches for the
13-week growing season.
Fiberglas blocks did not prove practical as a soil moisture indicator for
the Arredondo fine soil type in which they were tested, as they were
not sensitive in the moisture range of optimum plant growth. The ten-
siometer proved to be a fairly good soil moisture indicator for the first
six weeks, or until the tobacco plants developed an extensive root system.
Then, roots were attracted to the moist area around the base of the ten-
siometer and readings were affected to the extent that they were unreli-
able. It does not appear that either of these instruments will be of benefit
in controlling a tobacco irrigation program on Arredendo fine sand or
similar soil types. (See also Proj. 555, AGRONOMY.)

DESIGN AND OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR
FARM DRYING EQUIPMENT
State Project 573 J. M. Myers and Frazier Rogers
During the year, two heat exchangers were designed, built and tested.
On a basis of data gathered, if air is not to be heated more than 400
above an intake air temperature of 700 F., the heat exchanger should be
arranged with respect to the fan 'so that the fan draws the heated air
from the heat exchanger surfaces; that is, the heat exchanger should
be located on the intake side of the fan (See Figure 2). The combustion
end (hot end) of the heat exchanger should be located nearest the fan
intake. Air should move by the heat exchanger surfaces at approximately
2,000 feet per minute.
The most satisfactory heat exchanger tested was designed so that
it could be built in an average farm shop with semi-skilled labor. For
a heat exchanger made of 24 gauge stainless steel, approximately 20
square feet of radiating surface should be used for each gallon of fuel
burned per hour. Baffles to aid in the circulation of hot gases within the
heat exchanger will increase the thermal efficiency.

DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM AIR DELIVERY, AIR
TEMPERATURE AND DEPTH OF SEED FOR
MECHANICAL DRYING
State Project 577 J. M. Myers and Frazier Rogers
This project was continued, with major emphasis on establishing arti-
ficial drying procedures for peanuts and hairy indigo seed.








Annual Report, 1952


DUCT


HEATED


Fig. 2.-The most efficient arrangement for a heat exchanger with respect
to the fan is a crop drying installation.

Peanuts.-It has been concluded that peanuts can be dried from a
partially cured state (40 percent moisture on a wet basis or under) by
mechanical means with no apparent injury to the quality of the kernels.
Air temperatures in excess of 1150 F. appear to injure peanuts by increas-
ing the amount of skin slippage; air temperatures up to 1400 F. did not
significantly reduce the germination percent of peanuts, provided the splits
were screened out.
The percent moisture to which peanuts are dried definitely affects the
quality of mechanically dried peanuts. Peanuts dried below 7 percent
moisture content (wet basis) had from 4 to 10 percent more damage in








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the form of skin slippage than peanuts dried to the optimum moisture
content range of from 7 to 9 percent.
The most satisfactory mechanical drying results were obtained with an
air delivery of 40 cfm per square foot of drying floor area; a drying air
temperature of from 1050 to 1150 F.; a loading depth of 4 feet and a
final moisture content (wet basis) of 7 to 9 percent. The data obtained
relative to mechanical peanut drying will be included in a publication
which is being prepared.
Hairy Indigo.-The moisture content to which hairy indigo seed are
dried appears to affect their viability. Seed dried to a moisture content
range (wet basis) of 8 to 10 percent gave the highest percent germination.
Air temperatures in excess of 1150 F. caused a reduction in the percent
germination of mechanically dried seed. Seed containing 38 percent moist-
ure (wet basis) and harvested by combining showed approximately 15
percent more mechanical injury than seed that were combined when they
contained 23.5 percent moisture (wet basis).

MISCELLANEOUS
Pasture Programs and Breeding Systems for Beef Production on Flat-
wood Soils in Central and North Central Florida.-The Department of
Agricultural Engineering is designing the systems for an irrigation pro-
gram for pastures, and is designing the water system which is to supply
drinking water for the cattle in the beef research unit now being devel-
oped. This includes the drilling of eight wells for irrigation and drinking
water. (J. S. Norton.)
Design of a Seed Sacrificer.-Preliminary investigations have been
started to determine whether the percentage of hard seed in sweet blue
lupine can be reduced by exposure to either flame or vacuum. If either
method produces a marked reduction in hard seed without materially
damaging germination, an attempt will be made to design an economical
seed scarifier on the principal involved. (J. S. Norton.)
Study of Mechanical Injuries to Early Irish Potatoes.-The Department
of Agricultural Engineering is cooperating with the South Carolina Agri-
cultural Experiment Station and the Department of Agricultural Econom-
ics of the Florida Station on this project. (See Proj. 485, AGRICULTURAL
ECONOMICS.)
Irrigated vs. Non-Irrigated Pangola-Clover Pastures for Lactating Dairy
Cows.-This is a cooperative project between the Agricultural Engineering
and Dairy Science departments. This project began on March 18, 1952.
For a 69-day period ending on June 30, 1952, there were 7.37 inches of
rainfall recorded and 13.602 inches of irrigation water applied to the irri-
gated pastures. There are no conclusive results to report at this time.
(See also Miscellaneous, DAIRY SCIENCE.) (J. M. Myers and S. P.
Marshall.)








Annual Report, 1952


AGRONOMY

Research was conducted in production, curing and utilization of pas-
ture, forage and feed crops, as well as on tobacco, peanuts, cotton and soy-
beans. Breeding to obtain improved varieties of peanuts, corn, tobacco,
small grains and forage grasses and legumes has been in progress as noted
below in reports of specific projects.
PEANUT IMPROVEMENT
State Project 20 W. A. Carver, Fred H. Hull
and Fred Clark
Peanut breeding by hybridization and pedigree selection is being con-
tinued for yielding ability, soundness and size of seed. The crosses made
in the spring of 1952 are all possible combinations between Florida 334A
(Spanish-Dixie Giant x Georgie 207-3), Dixie Runner, and Virginia Sta.
tion Jumbo Runner. Strain 334A is being increased in 1952 on approxi-
mately 80 acres. A processing test by manufacturers of edible peanut
products will be made when the seed supply becomes sufficiently large.
Florida 334A has a medium large seed of Spanish type and a runner
plant habit.
The average seed damage of leading varieties in the tests at the main
and branch stations in 1950 and 1951 was from four to six times that
recorded for the previous four-year perior 1946-1949. Average total
damage in 1950-1951 was: Dixie Runner 4.89 percent; Early Runner, 4.89
percent; Florida Runner, 8.25; and Florida 334A, 4.94 percent.
Ratings of the leading varieties in yield, expressed in percent of
common runner peanuts over a period of years, are as follows: Dixie
Runner, 122 percent, Early Runner, 126 percent, and Florida 334A, 152
percent. The latter strain has been planted in the tests for only three
years.
VARIETY TEST WORK WITH FIELD CROPS
Hatch Project 56 Fred H. Hull, D. D. Morey,
W. A. Carver and Fred Clark
The cowpea variety plots in 1951 included for observation a large num-
ber of varieties and introductions from state and federal experiment sta-
tions and foreign countries. Thirty-odd varieties and strains were selected
for further testing of growth habit, apparent adaptation to machine
harvesting, resistance to prevalent diseases and forage yield. Varieties
in a 1952 replicated yield trial which appear most promising include Cal-
houn Crowder, Beltsville 53 and 67 (Chinese Red x Iron), Paraguay 1,
Chinese Red and Blue Goose.
A soybean variety test was planted on June 12, 1951. Pumpkin bugs
were controlled with toxaphene. Yields in pounds of seed per acre were
Ogden 647, Dortchsoy 842 and Clemson 1,507. The rows were 38 inches
wide. A closer spacing would have favored the two first-named low-
growing varieties. In 1952 the USDA uniform soybean variety test, in-
cluding groups 6, 7 and 8 and totaling 34 varieties and strains, is planted
at Gainesville.
No variety tests of grain sorghums were planted in 1951. A small
field was planted in Redlan sorghum. This variety maintained a good
stand of plants, was relatively free of disease, and was well-adapted to
combine harvesting.
Four narrow and eight broad-leaf varieties of tobacco were tested at
the Suwannee Valley Station. The narrow-leaf varieties yielded from 1,491








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


to 1,680 pounds, while the broad-leaf varieties yielded from 1,604 to 1,864
pounds of tobacco. Percent of top-grade tobacco ranged from 69 to 82.
Fifty percent of the narrow-leaf varieties flowered early, while only 20
percent of the broad-leaf had to be topped at first topping. The broad-
leaf varieties did not flower completely until two weeks later. This later
flowering is probably reflected in the increased yield.

EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS AND MANAGEMENT ON YIELD,
GRAZING VALUE, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND
BOTANICAL MAKE-UP OF PASTURES
Bankhead-Jones Project 295 G. B. Killinger and R. W. Bledsoe
Coastal Bermuda, Pangola and Pensacola Bahia pastures, previously
top-seeded to White clover and Hubam, were top-seeded to Kenland red
clover in November. All of the grasses and the Kenland red clover furnished
excellent grazing during the 1951-52 winter and spring. However, due
to dry weather and close grazing, it is doubtful whether the red clover
reseeded sufficiently to insure a stand in the fall of 1952.
Various sources of phosphate with and without sulfur or gypsum were
used in tests with Pensacola Bahia and White Dutch Clover. The data
obtained were published in Bulletin 475 and Circular S-35.
Pangola grass grown on Leon fine sand treated with various rates of
limestone, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and minor elements showed
no significant response to any of the elements except nitrogen. Rates of
nitrogen up to 160 pounds per acre gave correspondingly increased yields
of grass.
Southland oats were seeded at two bushels per acre in early October on
a prepared seedbed treated with 500 pounds per acre of a 6-6-6 fertilizer.
In early December a uniform application of 32 pounds of N from nitrate
of soda was applied, the field was divided into two 3-acre paddocks and
grazing started by mid-December. Data from this grazing trial are re-
ported by Animal Husbandry. (See also MISCELLANEOUS, this report,
Project 412, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION, and Project 428,
SOILS.)

FORAGE NURSERY AND PLANT ADAPTATION STUDIES
Bankhead-Jones Project 297 D. E. McCloud and Fred H. Hull'
Over 500 introductions from 30 foreign countries and five continents
were tested in the forage crop nursery at Gainesville. These were started
in the greenhouse and transplanted to the field in the propagation nursery.
Those which showed general adaptation were transferred to screening
nurseries located on representative areas for determining specific adapta-
tions.
An evaluation test was conducted to compare a recent Bahia grass
introduction with the varieties now in commercial use. Seeds were col-
lected and stored under refrigeration for future use in breeding programs
and are available to workers at other stations.
Clipping data to determine the seasonal production of the various
species indicated that Panicum maximum P.I. 156,078; Setaria sphacelota
P.I. 156,088; Eragrostis Lehmanniana var. ample; and Eragrostis sp. P.I.
156,053 all were very high yielding grasses. They produced over 10,000
pounds of dry forage per acre during the summer season.

In cooperation with Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.








Annual Report, 1952


An evaluation test showed no significant difference in forage yield
between Pensacola and Argentine Bahia grasses. Pensacola, however,
did produce significantly higher yields in April and May, while Argentine
gave higher production in June, July and August. The uniformity of
production of Pensacola throughout the season was contrasted against the
peak production of Argentine in mid-summer.
Testing is also conducted cooperatively with several of the branch
stations.

FORAGE AND PASTURE GRASS IMPROVEMENT
Bankhead-Jones Project 298 D. D. Morey, W. A. Carver
and Fred H. Hull
Many selections were made in 1951 and 1952 from Pensacola and
Argentine Bahia fields, and additional ones were taken from broad-leaf
and narrow-leaf Bahia types of unknown origin. These selections have
been planted in rows, with one or the other of the standard Bahias on
one side. None of the selections of Paspalum, Pennisetum and Digitaria
appear different in any way from the parent stocks at present. The
selected Bahias differ widely in leaf, branch and fruiting habits. Some
have been discarded; others look promising, though their relative values
are yet to be determined.
Five Bahia grass lines that are either self-sterile or male-sterile have
been secured from the Georgia Coastal Plain Station at Tifton. Among
them are broad- and narrow-leaf types. Efforts are being made to cross
these with Argentine or Pensacola Bahia grass. In each case, a broad-
leaf strain is crossed to a narrow-leaf one and vice-versa.
The objectives of the crosses are to combine in a self-sterile line the
wide-leaf type of Argentine with the cold resistance and earliness of
Pensacola Bahia. Such a Bahia strain that does not set seed should
produce a higher yield and a more succulent forage over a longer period.
Non-seeding Bahia which must be planted by means of rooted sprigs, and
must spread rapidly to be economically feasible.

PASTURE LEGUMES
Bankhead-Jones Project 301 A. T. Wallace, H. E. Buckley,
G. B. Killinger, E. S. Horner and Fred H. HulF
Louisiana red clover yielded nearly as much green forage as Kenland
red, and in addition yielded more seed six weeks earlier. Certified Ladino
and Louisiana white clover were superior to all other white clovers on
trial. At Gainesville there were no differences between yields of Austrian
Winter, Romack and Dixie Wonder peas. Rough pea was not adapted.
At the Suwannee Valley Station, near Live Oak, Austrian Winter peas
out-yielded all other varieties tested.
At Gainesville a Texas selection of common vetch, Auburn, and Oregon
Woolypod vetch were superior in yield trials. At the Suwannee Valley
Station, Monantha vetch out-yielded all other varieties tested.
Hairy Peruvian alfalfa topped the list for forage production in varietal
trials of alfalfa. However, it did not yield significantly more than Chilean
21-5, Arizona Chilean and California Common.
From 3,200 hairy indigo selections tested, 149 were selected for further
testing. One hundred seventy-five strains of big trefoil were selected from
1,500 tested; these have been propagated in replicated plots for further
testing. One selection of serradella and one of Crotalaria striata DC offer
promise and will be tested on a larger scale next year.
In cooperation with Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


METHODS OF ESTABLISHING PERMANENT PASTURES
UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 304 G. B. Killinger
An area of Leon fine sand (flatwoods area) was stumped, web-plowed
and disked well during the winter of 1951-52. This area (99 acres) was
limed at one- and two-ton-per-acre rates; fertilized at two rates with
300 and 600 pounds of 5-7-5 per acre; and seeded to Pensacola Bahia with
a cultipacker seeder at a rate of 10 pounds per acre. This Bahia was
seeded in late March and April, was up to a stand in two weeks, and had
a full ground cover in four weeks.
Eight weeks after planting a few seed heads were showing, a few
palmetto, runner oak, and native weeds started growth and the area was
mowed. Twelve weeks after planting this grass was seeding profusely.
Palmetto, runner oak and wiregrass were almost 100 percent eliminated
by the web plow and disking operation.
Cattail (pearl) millet and Hairy indigo were established and grown
successfully together. The seedbed was thoroughly prepared by plowing
and disking; the millet was seeded with a grain drill and the indigo with
a cultipacker seeder in late May. This method of handling resulted in a
satisfactory stand of both crops.

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON COMPOSITION
OF FORAGE PLANTS
Adams Project 369 R. W. Bledsoe and R. L. Gilman
Studies of the movement of radioactive calcium in plants indicate
that the amount of downward movement of calcium into plant roots is
insufficient to support healthy root growth. When Ca45 was applied to
roots of Pangola grass only an insignificant amount could be detected in
other roots produced at various nodes along the stem. Results were the
same whether roots were grown in vermiculite, sand or water.
When roots were placed in a medium which contained no calcium they
began to decompose within a period of 10 days. When Ca45 was applied
to one portion of a split root system of a plant only minute amounts could
be detected in the untreated portion of the root system. Likewise, when
Ca45 was applied to the lateral roots near the surface of deep-rooted plants
in most instances there was not enough downward movement of Ca" into
roots at the lower depths to be detected. Available calcium in amounts
necessary to support healthy root growth must be present throughout the
entire soil volume within which root growth is desired to realize maximum
benefits in nutritional and water relationship of crops.
Irrigation and nitrogen rate tests of Southland oats indicate that the
largest amount of forage production occurs during October, early Novem-
ber, late February and March. Irrigation and rates of nitrogen had little
influence on yields from mid-November to late February. Yield of wheat
was superior to that of oats during periods of colder weather. Results
indicate that, for maximum yields and percentage recovery of nitrogen,
a liberal application of nitrogen should be made to oats when planted on
light sandy soils.
Dixie 18 corn at Gainsville yielded 116.5 bushels per acre when irri-
gated. Increasing the number of plants per acre from 12,000 to 20,000
had no influence on yields.
Analyses of Pensacola, Argentina and No. 162,902 Bahia grasses harv-
ested during August, September and October indicate little difference in
feed value of these grasses during that period.








Annual Report, 1952


FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IMPROVEMENT
Adams Project 372 A. T. Wallace and Fred Clark'
Breaking the linkage between nematode resistance and poor leaf type
is the main problem in this tobacco breeding program. In the recurrent
selection program 222 lines were evaluated in 1951. Five hundred crosses
were made using the best of these lines. The progenies from these crosses
are being evaluated in 1952. Indications are that the close linkage between
poor leaf type and high nematode resistance has not been broken. Nema-
tode-resistant lines when crossed with N. sylvestris Speg. and Comes pro-
duce vigorous hybrids, but always with small leaves. No suitable parents
have been found that produce a hybrid progeny for commercial produc-
tion.
Seven varieties-400, Hicks, Bottom Special, Yellow Special, 402, Gold
Dollar, Dixie Bright 101, and all combinations of crosses between them-
were grown in 1951 to determine if any heterosis existed in such progeny.
No hybrid progeny were superior to Bottom Special, which gave the
highest yield and value per acre. Bottom Special always increased the
yield of any progeny when it was one of the parents. Low-yielding parents
always reduced the yield of their progeny. Calculations indicate that
there is no overdominance for yield and quality genes in these seven
varieties. The conclusion is that heterosis is unimportant in progeny
resulting from crosses using these varieties.

CORN IMPROVEMENT
Purnell Project 374 E. S. Horner and Fred H. Hull
Thirty-three commercial hybrids and varieties were entered in the main
variety test in 1951. In yield, standability and weevil resistance, Dixie
18 and Georgia 281 were the leaders, as in the past four years. Dixie
17 and N. C. 27 also were high yielders, but are recommended only for
hogging off because of susceptibility to weevil damage.
The early variety test was planted at two rates, 6,000 and 11,500
plants per acre. Keystone 38 was the highest yielding early hybrid at
both rates. Four early hybrids produced, on the average, 29 percent more
grain at the close spacing than at the recommended spacing of 6,000
plants per acre. A full-season hybrid was not benefited by closer spacing.
The program of recurrent selection for combining ability with F44 x
F6 is now in the second cycle. The performance test, made up of 570 test
hybrids, was planted at four locations in 1952.
The third cycle of selection for combining ability with F51 x F52 was
initiated by making about 400 test hybrids.
Inbreeding to develop new inbred lines was continued, along with a
back-cross program to incorporate the cytoplasmic male-sterility factor
and factors for restoring fertility in the more important inbred lines. It
is hoped that the need for detasseling the male parent in seed production
fields can be eliminated by the use of male-sterility. (See also Proj. 260,
and MOBILE UNITS, NORTH FLORIDA STATION, and MISCELLAN-
EOUS, WEST FLORIDA STATION).

BEEF YIELD AND QUALITY FROM VARIOUS GRASSES, FROM
CLOVER AND GRASS MIXTURES, AND RESPONSE TO
FERTILIZED AND UNFERTILIZED PASTURES
State Project 412 T. J. Cunha and G. B. Killinger
(See Proj. 412, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION.)
3 In cooperation with Division of Tobacco, Medicinal, and Special Crops, BPISAE,
USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


METHODS OF PRODUCING, HARVESTING AND MAINTAINING
PASTURE PLANTS AND SEED STOCKS

Bankhead-Jones Project 417 G. B. Killinger
Detailed management procedure of Kenland red clover grown in pasture
sods has not been entirely satisfactory from the standpoint of natural
reseeding. Under a mowing and clipping plan, one crop of Kenland red
clover hay can be removed in the spring when the clover is in full bloom
and the second growth will mature sufficient seed for natural reseeding
or seed harvest. At present it appears, however, that cattle will have
to be removed from Kenland red clover fields about mid-April for a period
of six weeks, during which time the clover will reseed.
Argentine Bahia produced a seed crop suitable for combining, with seed
yields of 200 to 400 pounds per acre.
Honeybees effectively pollinate crimson clover, Kenland red clover,
and Hubam clover. Seed production of these clovers is greatly increased
in the presence of a plentiful supply of honeybees. Results of legume
pollination studies are summarized in Bulletin 497.

EFFECT OF Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S, and Mg, ON THE GROWTH OF GRAIN
CROPS, FORAGE CROPS, PASTURES AND TOBACCO

Bankhead-Jones Project 440 H. C. Harris, R. W. Bledsoe,
R. L. Gilman and F. A. Clark
Tests with minor and secondary elements were conducted this year at
the greenhouse on soils from three widely separated locations. The sul-


Fig. 3.-Light color of growing tobacco plants due to lack of the sulfate
ion. Left, with sulfates right, without sulfates.








Annual Report, 1952


fate ion increased yield of tobacco about 60% on Blanton fine sand from
near Jasper, Florida. Plants without sulfates were quite yellow, as shown
in Figure 3. Calcium sulfate at 600 pounds per acre was slightly better
than 300 pounds per acre. Similar results for tobacco were obtained on
this soil last year.
Foliage yield of corn on Hernando fine sand from near Alachua, Florida,
and Arredondo fine sand from the Station Farm at Gainesville, was in-
creased 142% and 33%, respectively when the sulfate ion was applied. Corn
plants without sulfates were light yellow, with a tendency for the veins
and edges of the blades to have a purplish color. These deficiency symp-
toms in part may be mistaken for those of zinc.
Corn planted in February and March 1952 on the latter two soils de-
veloped white bud in some of the plots where zinc was not applied. A
lack of zinc also appreciably decreased foliage yields. Some of the
affected plants recovered while others remained permanently stunted. The
lower blades of plants which recovered resembled blades from plants with
potash deficiency. Plants without any treatment were small and light in
color, but did not develop typical white bud. A second crop of corn
planted May 13, 1952, immediately after the first was harvested, failed
to develop white bud in the pots that had it earlier, even though zinc was
not applied. Apparently there are complicating factors in the develop-
ment of this abnormality.
Dixie 18 corn was planted April 16, 1952, in an experiment on the
Station Farm at Gainesville, Florida. White bud became prevalent in
the corn about the middle of May. This is considerably later than the
abnormality was expected to develop in this area.

PERMANENT SEEDBEDS FOR TOBACCO PLANTS
State Project 444 Fred Clark
Results of tests with chlorobromopropene (CPB-55) at Gainesville and
at the Suwannee Valley Station indicate that the material has promise
as a weedicide. Eighty to 90 percent weed control was obtained with the
material. A 11/ gallon rate of application was better than the 1 gallon
rate when applied to 50 square yards three weeks ahead of seeding.
Vancide-51 (sodium salt of dimethyl dithiocarbamic acid-sodium salt of
2-mercaptobenzothiazale) was compared with ferbam and zineb for control
of blue mold. All materials controlled blue mold satisfactorily. The
check plot was completely destroyed by blue mold this year.
Soil fumigants ethylene dibromide-40, methyl bromide, miscible EDB-75
and D-D, used at the rate of 3 to 4 quarts per 100 square yards, controlled
root-knot in the seedbed. Good weed control was obtained with methyl
bromide for the fourth successive year on the same area. Uramon- and
calcium cyanamid-treated beds showed good weed control at Gainesville
and poor control at Live Oak. Leaching rains occurred two days after
application in the Live Oak tests. Methyl bromide gave excellent control
of weeds at Live Oak.

IMPROVEMENT OF OATS, RYE, WHEAT AND BARLEY THROUGH
BREEDING FOR DESIRABLE AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
AND RESISTANCE TO DISEASE
RMA Project 487 D. D. Morey4 and R. W. Earhart'
Major emphasis during the 1951-52 season has been on selecting and
testing lines of oats for superior disease resistance and higher yields of
grain and forage. Although Southland has proven quite satisfactory since
'In cooperation with Division of Cereal Crops and Diseases, BPISAE. USDA.








60 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

its release, breeding work is being continued to produce varieties superior
to Southland.
Several oat selections which have Landhafer in the parentage have
been found to be highly resistant to the races of crown rust now prevalent
in Florida. C.I. 6588, a selection from Florida 167 x Landhafer, has shown
excellent crown rust resistance, as well as high yields of forage and grain,
in trials throughout the State. C. I. 6600, a selection from Fulghum 708
x Landhafer, appears promising in resistance to crown rust and in grain
yields. C. I. 5924, a selection from the cross Appler x [(Clinton x Santa
Fe) x Clinton], is a short, early, disease-resistant oat which has yielded
well in the Gainesville area for the past three seasons. Several of the
most promising selections are being increased for possible release to
Florida farmers.
Considerable fundamental work has been done on the culm rot organ-
ism (Helminthosporium sp.) which attacks Southland oats. It now appears
possible to reduce the damage from culm rot by breeding varieties of oats
resistant to the disease. Crosses have been made to incorporate culm rot
resistance and stem and crown rust resistance into oats which are adapted
to Florida. About 120 F2 lines were selected which have combined resist-
ance to at least three major oat diseases.
From a yield test of 28 wheat varieties, two selections from Australia
appear most promising. (Gullen x Gaza) x Gullen has given good grain
yields for three years at Gainesville, but apparently is not well adapted
at other locations. A selection from (Bobin x Gaza) x Bobin-P. I. 134,316
gave the highest yield this season and will be increased and tested again
for disease resistance and other agronomic qualities.


Fig. 4.-Fumigation delayed early growth of peanuts.
gated; right, fumigated.


Left, not fumi-








Annual Report, 1952


Selection has continued among 25 rye lines for resistance to rusts and
mildew. Two promising selections have been increased under isolation, and
will be compared with Florida Black rye for forage and grain yields. A
few barley selections with superior resistance to Helminthosporium sati-
vum have been saved for further testing. (See also Proj. 487, PLANT
PATHOLOGY, Proj. 260 and MOBILE UNITS, North Florida Station, and
MISCELLANEOUS, West Florida Station.)

NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PEANUT
RMA Project 488 R. W. Bledsoe, H. C. Harris,
Fred Clark and R. L. Gilman
A field experiment involving different cover crops, fumigation, and
different proportions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a factorial
arrangement was conducted on the Station farm at Gainesville. None of
the treatments or cover crops had very much effect on yield of peanuts.
Methyl bromide soil fumigation seemed to be injurious during early growth
(Figure 4) and only a few nodules were on the roots of the plants (Figure
5) at that time, even though the seed were inoculated with the legume
organism. The plants in fumigated areas appeared to recover during the
latter part of the growing season and no difference in size then was ob-
servable. Methyl bromide, ethylene dibromide and D-D fumigation of
soil from the same area in pots in the greenhouse decreased germination
of peanuts when seeded two weeks after application.

Fig. 5.-Effect of fumigation on early growth and nodulation of peanuts.
Left, not fumigated; right, fumigated.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The absorption and movement of radioactive sulfur by peanuts is being
studied. The sulfate ion seems to be absorbed by the fruiting organs, but
conclusions await complete evaluation of results.
Field tests of peanuts grown for the third year on the same plots at
Marianna were concluded. Treatments included the use of various cover
crops, plant residues and time, rate and method of application of various
types of fertilizers. Yields of plots to which cover crops or plant residues
were added were consistently higher than those of plots which had received
only mineral fertilizers. Lowest yields occurred where no cover crops or
fertilizers were used. Molybdenum deficiency symptoms were evident for
the past two years during the early growth stages but later disappeared
on plants grown on plots to which no molybdenum had been added. How-
ever, yields were not much affected. Nematode injury was serious to
plant roots and fruits on some plots.
Radioactive phosphorus was used as an indicator of the utilization of
soil and fertilizer phosphorus by Dixie Runner and the Virginia Station
Jumbo Runner peanuts. Identical experiments were performed on a Red
Bay soil at Marianna and an Arredonda fine sand at Gainesville. Yields
were very good with each variety at each location. Mean yields in pounds
per acre of all treatments were 2,709 and 3,378 for Dixie Runner and
Virginia Station Runner, respectively. The percentage of phosphorus
utilized was very low. At the 60-pound rate of P.O, per acre, the values
ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 pounds of P205 in the plants from the fertilizer in
the two varieties at the two locations.
The acre yields of Dixie Runner and Virginia Station Jumbo Runner
were increased by irrigation from 2,695 to 3,129 and from 3,627 to 4,205
pounds, respectively. Fertilizer rate had little influence on yields.

CURING HAY IN FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones Project 536 J. M. Myers, G. B. Killinger
and R. W. Bledsoe
Coastal Bermuda, Pangola and alfalfa hays were dried in quantity on
a slatted floor, foi.,'d air, heated hay barn drier at a drying cost of less
than $5.00 per ton.
These three types of hay were dried both loose and baled after the
moisture content was less than 20 percent. They were also loosely baled
in a green stage some three to four hours after cutting and dried in the
bale. Well distributed and evenly packed loose hay dries more quickly
than baled hay, but costs more to handle in the field and to bale out
of the barn.
Oat hay was dried in the heated barn and in the field during April.
During most seasons it would be possible to dry oat hay in the field without
damage from rain.
Feed and mineral analyses are being made of hay dried by different
methods.
The Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition cooperated in
feeding trials using Pangola, Coastal Bermuda and alfalfa produced and
cured as reported in this project. (See also Proj. 536, AGRICULTURAL
ENGINEERING, and Proj. 543, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRI-
TION and NORTH FLORIDA STATION.)








Annual Report, 1952


CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Bankhead-Jones Project 537 L. C. Kuitert, Fred Clark
and A. N. Tissot
Fifteen insecticides were used on flue-cured tobacco. Root-knot was
controlled by soil fumigation with D-D at the rate of 10 gallons per acre.
The harvested tobacco from all plots was cured in the same barn and
checked for possible effects on leaf quality of the several treatments. No
differences in quality were observed. Acre yields from plots with the
various insecticides ranged from 891 to 1,126 pounds, compared with 1,002
pounds for the no-treatment plots. No significant gains in yield were
obtained from the treatments. (See also Project 537, ENTOMOLOGY.)

ROUGHAGES FOR MAINTENANCE AND GROWTH OF
BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA
State Project 543 T. J. Cunha, G. B. Killinger
and F. S. Baker
(See Proj. 543, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION, and
NORTH FLORIDA STATION.)
FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark, H. C. Harris,
R. W. Bledsoe and J. M. Myers
The test of rate and time of fertilizer application with three rates of
irrigation was continued on the same area for the third successive year.
D-D was used at the rate of 10 gallons per acre to control nematodes, with
satisfactory results.
Irrigation significantly increased yields in 1951. One-half inch of
water per application, when needed, was better than no irrigation or
three-fourths inch per application.
Tobacco yields were significantly better on the previous corn plots than
on the previous peanut plots, particularly with higher rates of fertilizer.
Tobacco yields were significantly increased by heavier rates and split
applications of fertilizer in conjunction with irrigation.
Leaf quality was improved by irrigation. Heavy applications as well
as split applications of fertilizer improved the quali'v of tobacco with
irrigation. Tobacco quality was better on the corn plots than on the
peanut plots.
Tobacco yields ranged from 657 to 1,864 pounds per acre.
Five mineral sources of nitrogen were tested, along with five combina-
tion sources. In the combination treatments two-thirds of the nitrogen
was derived from mineral and one-third from the following organic
sources: dried blood, cottonseed meal, tankage and castor pomace. These
treatments were tested with and without fumigation, under irrigation.
The all-mineral treatments gave slightly higher yields than those carrying
organic materials. Tobacco yields were higher with soil fumigation.
Yields ranged from 1,400 to over 2,500 pounds per acre. (See also Proj.
555, AGR. ENGINEERING.)
BREEDING IMPROVED VARIETIES OF WHITE,
RED, AND SWEET CLOVER
Bankhead-Jones Project 600 E. S. Horner and Fred H. Hull5
This project was begun July 1, 1951, the object being to develop long-
lived, high-yielding, disease-resistant strains of clover for permanent pas-
tures on the various soil types in Florida.
In cooperation with Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


During the past year work was devoted to collecting basic breeding
stocks of white and red clover. White clover seed was gathered from
several small patches which had lived through the summer of 1951, and
second generation red clover seed was harvested from about 150 hybrid
plants which had as parents the Wisconsin mildew-resistant strain and
several Southern varieties.
A plant progeny test of 46 selected annual white sweet clover plants
was grown at two locations.

VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT OF LUPINES
Bankhead-Jones Project 612 Phares Decker, A. T. Wallace, T. E. Webb,
Fred H. Hull" and W. C. Rhoades
From 1,463 lupine selections and 111 introduction, 267 selections and
five introductions were selected for further testing. Seed were harvested
from a number of F. plants and from the 10 species which produced seed
out of the 38 grown. When blue lupine seed were exposed to X-rays at
the rate of 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000 Roentgen units, the
critical level for irradiating lupine seed was found to be near 20,000 Roent-
gen units.
Testing showed that what appeared to be 30 different seed-color groups
could be reduced to seven basic groups. It was also found that after scarifi-
cation nearly all hard-seeded lupines produce strong seedlings, whereas
soft-seeded lupines, which require no scarification, will produce a large
percent of weak seedlings. No natural crossing was detected in a test
with bitter blue, but in a similar test of sweet yellow 4.1 percent natural
crossing occurred.
Clipping young Alta Blue lupine plants from 18 inches back to 6
inches in height reduced the seed yield 41 percent. Drilling at the rate
of 50 pounds of seed per acre in 7-inch rows produced more seed than
other rates of seeding in different row widths. Planting lupines im-
mediately after plant material had been incorporated in pots reduced
stand counts significantly below that of a delayed planting three weeks
after seedbed preparation.
In yield trials at Gainesville the white-seeded and speckled-seeded
yellow varieties were found to be equal in forage production; both pro-
duced higher yields than the blue varieties. Similarly, Alta Blue and
common bitter blue were found to be equal, but produced more forage than
sweet blue. At the Suwannee Valley Station, speckled-seeded yellow lu-
pines produced the highest yield of forage, followed by white-seeded
yellow, Alta Blue, common bitter blue, sweet blue and Hastings white,
in the order named.
All blue varieties and Hastings white were damaged severely by the
lupine fly at Live Oak. All varieties contained about 20 percent pro-
tein in the forage at first bloom, except Alta Blue, which had 15 percent.
The latter probably was due to excessive leaf shedding of this variety
at the time of testing. (See also Proj. 612, PLANT PATHOLOGY and
NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION.)

MISCELLANEOUS
Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cotton.-The long staple cotton
work in Florida is conducted cooperatively with the USDA. Objectives
of the pedigree selection work with Sealand are; greater strength of
lint, freedom from neps in the ginned cotton, qualities of seed associated
with ease of lint and seed separation in ginning, resistance to diseases
In cooperation with the Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.


L








Annual Report, 1952


of boll and seed, and ability to produce a good field stand of healthy
plants.
Replicated plot variety tests were conducted at the Leesburg and San-
ford stations in 1951. The five tested varieties arranged in order of
average yield of seed cotton are E.H. 806, Coker Wilds, E.H. 808, Sea-
land and Sea Island. Sealand and Sea Island are the only varieties
tested that produce line measuring 11/2 inch and over. The Florida
production of Sealand cotton in 1951 was approximately 600 bales on
1,355 acres. The selling price of the lint was from 52 to 56'/2 cents
per pound. (W. A. Carver, J. W. Wilson, Clyde Helms, G. E. Ritchey
and Fred H. Hull.7)
Turf.-The turf research program was established to study the man-
agement of grasses for lawns, recreational areas, parks, airfields and
roadsides. Objectives of the program include variety and strain testing,
fertility studies, weed control, disease and insect control and irrigation
studies.
To date some 60 selections of turf Bermuda grasses have been col-
lected for nursery testing. These include outstanding strains from the
Southeastern Turf Research Center, Tifton, Georgia, the Texas Agri-
cultural Experiment Station and numerous Florida selections. These
grasses are being evaluated for growth habit, rate of establishment, disease
and insect resistance, resistance to low temperatures, resistance to weed
invasion, density of growth and response to close clipping.
Also being collected for nursery evaluation are selections of zoysia,
St. Augustine, centipede, carpet, Bahia and various miscellaneous grasses.
(Gene C. Nutter.)
Crop Management.-In an attempt to grow Southland oats and early
hairy indigo in continuous rotation, a fair seed crop of indigo was turned
under in the fall of 1949 in preparation for the oats. Indigo has failed in
1950, 1951, and 1952 because of drouth in June succeeding oat harvest.
Oats crops combined for grain in 1950, 1951 and 1952 were good, excellent
and fair respectively. The 1952 crop of oats was badly damaged by culm
rot.
Continuous rotation of Dixie 18 corn with bitter blue lupines was begun
in the fall of 1948, with lupine seeded after peanuts which had been
fertilized with 400 pounds of 0-14-10 and 10 pounds of copper sulfate
per acre. Yields of 10 tons or more green weight per acre of lupines
have been turned in early March 1949, 1950, 1951 and 1952, with no
fertilizer. No significant gain in grain yield of corn has been obtained
from 40 pounds each of PO, and KO, nor to 32 pounds N alone or
with P and K. Some of the difficulty is believed to be deficiencies of
minor elements.
A small field was planted to common bitter blue lupine in late
January 1952, at the time when native vegetation was beginning spring
growth, with the thought that lupines started then with less check of
growth by low temperature might escape diseases to produce seed.
Growth of this planting was never vigorous. Seed production was pre-
vented by disease equally as much as in fall plantings. (Fred Clark and
Fred H. Hull.)

7 In cooperation with Division of Cotton and Other Fiber Crops and Diseases,
BPISAE. USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION

Research was expanded in beef cattle, swine, meats and mineral nu-
trition. The new Beef Research Unit was developed to the point where
it is about ready for operation. Cooperative studies in beef cattle pro-
duction and breeding, pasture fertilization, production and irrigation and
costs of beef production have been initiated with the Departments of
Agronomy, Soils, Agricultural Engineering and Agricultural Economics
at the new Beef Research Unit.
Grants-in-aid have again been received from Lederle Laboratories,
Merck and Company, Swift and Company, The National Vitamin Founda-
tion, the Lasdon Foundation, Inc., The Nutrition Foundation and the
U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. These grants have enabled the De-
partment to extend many of its investigations. The Atomic Energy
grant has permitted increased emphasis to be placed on studies of the
placental transfer of trace elements.
In recognition of the outstanding work with copper done at the Nu-
trition Laboratory, the National Mineral Feeds Association requested that
a review of the literature on copper in the nutrition of farm animals
be prepared and the association underwrote the cost of this review.
The demand for a knowledge of the copper and molybdenum content
of various pasture forages from different parts of Florida has neces-
sitated a large number of analyses to aid farmers whose cattle showed
symptoms of copper deficiency or molybdenum toxicity. Expansion of
beef cattle interests in the muck areas of the state, with attending diffi-
culties due to copper deficiency and molybdenum toxicity, has given
rise to cooperative work in these areas in an effort to place these
cattle-raising enterprises on a stable nutritional basis.
The Animal Breeding and Genetics specialist has started cooperative
studies in beef cattle breeding with the branch stations at Ona, Belle
Glade and Brooksville. This phase of Animal Husbandry work has
been expanded considerably this past year.

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE

Purnell Project 133 George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley, J. P. Feaster,
W. G. Kirk, R. W. Kidder, R. B. Becker,
P. T. Dix Arnold, J. T. McCall and S. P. Marshall
It was demonstrated that levels of zinc considerably in excess of
those found occurring naturally in Florida products and pastures treated
with zinc-containing fungicides will not cause zinc toxicity in cattle.
Using radioactive zinc"o in studies of zinc in the nutrition of cattle, it
was shown that only a very small portion of the zinc in the feed was
absorbed from the intestinal tract, and that which was absorbed was
rapidly removed from the blood stream. In small animals such levels
of zinc have caused an anemia corrected by the administration of copper.
In cattle zinc does not cause an anemia nor accentuate molybdenum
toxicity. Cattle have been continued on a diet containing 2,000 parts per
million of zinc for 15 months without showing any signs of toxicity.
Special studies have been conducted this year in the muck areas of
the state where abnormally high levels of potassium and molybdenum
have been found in the forage. Levels of from 25 to 160 parts per
million of molybdenum in the forage, dry-matter basis, have been found.
High levels of copper in the mineral mixtures have been necessary to
protect animals on pastures in these areas. Thus far, it has been possible








Annual Report, 1952 67

to prevent molybdenum toxicity in every instance by incorporation of
high levels of copper in the mineral mixture, fertilizing the peat areas
with copper salts and, in extreme instances, by drenching individual
animals with a copper supplement.
Through use of the radioisotopes-calcium45 and phosphorus32-it has
been shown that high levels of calcium in the rations and low intakes
of phosphorus, such as occur on some winter pastures, cause the calcium
to form insoluble compounds with the phosphorus, accentuating a phos-
phorus deficiency. These results emphasize the necessity of using high-
phosphorus mineral supplements and keeping them before cattle con-
stantly.
The development of a "normal" hemoglobin value for Florida dairy
animals has been continued, in cooperation with the dairy research center
at Hague. In these studies cattle are being followed through their life
cycle of growth and production to obtain a base value. Comparisons
then can be made with this base value in evaluating the anti-anemia
properties of various mineral mixtures.
Eight years of a copper, cobalt and iron supplement study of cattle
on native range at the Range Cattle Station have been completed. The
experimental procedure has been changed in an effort to discover the
value of certain fertilizer practices and mineral supplements. In this
area of central Florida, cobalt has been the principal limiting factor
among the trace elements; but phosphorus and nitrogen have been the
principal limiting factors in terms of beef production.
Cobalt has been shown to have a definite beneficial effect on the
utilization of copper in the peat areas and in laboratory studies. These
results suggest that a somewhat increased level of cobalt is desirable,
particularly in copper deficiency areas.
It has been demonstrated in experimental work that maximum beef
production on flatwoods pasture depends upon the availability of nitrogen
in the form of protein, phosphorus, cobalt, copper and iron, in that order.
A manuscript for a bulletin on the mineral requirements of cattle has
been prepared for publication. (See also Proj. 133, EVERGLADES
STATION.)

INVESTIGATIONS WITH LABORATORY ANIMALS OF MINERAL
NUTRITION PROBLEMS OF LIVESTOCK
Purnell Project 346 George K. Davis, L. R. Arrington,
J. P. Feaster, Katherine M. Boney
and J. T. McCall
The rat differs considerably from the cow in the effect of copper and
molybdenum on the utilization of phosphorus. Copper and molybdenum
increase the absorption of phosphorus from the intestine in the rat, but
also increase the phosphorus excretion rate. The net result is a loss
of phosphorus when high levels of copper or molybdenum are fed.
Similar results are not found with calcium.
A study of the absorption and excretion of calcium and phosphorus,
using radioactive isotopes, demonstrated that the first part of the small
intestine is the principal location of excretion for these two elements.
It also showed that calcium is reabsorbed in the lower part of the small
intestine. This has particular significance in considering the effects of
abnormal ratios of calcium and phosphorus in the diet of farm animals.
Experiments with rats have shown that they are protected from molyb-
denum toxicity when a grain diet is fed in place of a milk diet. This
suggests some protective mechanism in the grain diet, possibly one of
the B-vitamins.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Continued studies of age on the utilization of trace elements and of
calcium and phosphorus demonstrated that old rats require essentially
the same rate of calcium intake as young rats if they are to maintain
normal calcium balance. Older rats are much less susceptible to the
toxic effects of a trace element such as molybdenum than are young,
rapidly growing rats.
A study of the effect of trace elements on the absorption of calcium
and phosphorus in older animals showed that the trace elements copper
and cobalt increased the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in older
animals much more, proportionately, than in young animals. This find-
ing indicates the importance of trace elements in the diet of older animals
as a means of maintaining calcium and phosphorus balance.
In young rabbits leg bone changes occur which resemble those ap-
pearing in cattle. Studies of the radiation effects of high levels of radio-
active calcium and radioactive phosphorus have shown that chickens
are much less susceptible to radiation effects than are other species.
This was particularly true in the case of radioactive calcium. Chickens
are much less susceptible to the development of polycythemia (in-
creased red blood cell numbers) due to high levels of cobalt than are
other species.

BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PASTURE HERBAGE
Bankhead-Jones Project 356 George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley,
J. P. Feaster, Katherine M. Boney,
and J. T. McCall
The amino acid content of pasture herbage may be directly affected
by the level of phosphorus fertilization. Increasing the level of phos-
phorus in the fertilizer applied to pastures has resulted in an increase
of up to 10 percent of tryptophane in Pangola grass when adequate
nitrogen was available.
Of special importance has been the discovery that application of phos-
phorus fertilizers has resulted in an increased copper value in pasture
grasses. A continuing investigation of the effect of various soil amend-
ments to the trace element content of pastures was conducted. It
showed that the application of trace elements in fertilizers is particularly
important when lime is being added to pastures, as is the case in the
development of legume pastures.
A study of the value of grasses from different areas showed that
grasses from the peat areas are particularly rich in carotene (pro-
vitamin A) and in chlorophyll when compared with the same grasses
grown on mineral soil pastures. In addition, the maximum protein found
in pastures on peat areas is much higher than that found on other
pastures. Work has been initiated with fescue in an effort to evaluate
this grass as a feed for cattle on muck areas. A condition known as
"fescue-foot" has been observed in one area, similar to a condition re-
ported from New Zealand and Colorado.

BEEF YIELD AND QUALITY FROM VARIOUS GRASSES, FROM
CLOVER AND GRASS MIXTURES, AND RESPONSE TO
FERTILIZED AND UNFERTILIZED PASTURES
State Project 412 T. J. Cunha and G. B. Killinger
Two pastures each of Coastal Bermuda, Pensacola Bahia and Pangola
grass planted to mixed clovers (White Dutch and Hubam) were grazed
with steers. Due to a cold winter and dry spring the clovers were
almost a complete failure. All pastures were treated in the fall of 1950
with 500 pounds per acre of an 0-12-12 fertilizer.








Annual Report, 1952


Grazing on the Bermuda and Pensacola Bahia pastures was started
on March 7, 1951. The Pangola grass suffered severely during the
winter of 1950-51 and showed very little signs of recovery by April 29,
1951, when an application of 100 pounds of nitrogen per acre from anhy-
drous ammonia was applied to this grass. Thirty days later, when the
Pangola grass had made full recovery and was growing vigorously, the
cattle were started grazing on it.
The Bermuda-clover pastures yielded a total of 193 grazing days and
130 pounds of beef per acre, for an average daily gain per animal of 0.67
pounds. The Bahia-clover pastures furnished a total of 262 grazing
days and 37 pounds of beef per acre, for an average daily gain per animal
of 0.14 pounds. The Pangola-clover pastures furnished a total of 219
grazing days and 294 pounds of beef per acre, for an average daily gain
per animal of 1.34 pounds. These data show that a lack of nitrogen can
seriously handicap the productive capacity of newer grasses. In previous
seasons with more normal growth of clover in these three grass pastures,
the results obtained in terms of beef production yearly have been about
equal. (See also Proj. 29, AGRONOMY.)

SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDS FOR NURSING BEEF CALVES
State Project 461 T. J. Cunha, Marvin Koger
and A. M. Pearson
Angus cows used in the tests weighed an average of 1,050 pounds at
calving and produced calves averaging 65 pounds at birth; while Hereford
cows averaged 1,174 pounds and produced 77-pound calves. After grazing
all summer without supplemental feeding, the Angus calves weighed 440
pounds, as compared to 432 pounds for Herefords corrected to 205 days
of age at weaning.
When the calves were weaned the Hereford cows weighed 1,237 pounds
and the Angus cows 1,132 pounds. All calves from the purebred herds
were graded for type, conformation and condition at weaning. This
information is being used to evaluate the breeding performance of the
various animals in the herds. Additional data, when accumulated, will
be used for more basic studies on such items as heretability and re-
peatability of production.

SWEET LUPINE SEED AS A PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT FOR
GROWING AND FATTENING BEEF CATTLE
State Project 512 T. J. Cunha
This project was inactive this year.

THYOID FUNCTION IN CHICKENS
State Project 518 G. K. Davis
Chickens, with thyroids destroyed at six days of age by administering
Iodine 131, were maintained on DL-thyroxine injected daily at levels of
from 1 to 12 micrograms per 100 grams of body weight. Birds reached
near normal mature weight for the New Hampshire breed on all levels,
but most nearly equaled controls at the 2 and 4 microgram levels of
thyroxin.

CITRUS MOLASSES FOR FEEDING SWINE
State Project 540 H. D. Wallace, A. M. Pearson,
G. E. Combs and T. J. Cunha
Levels of 30 and 40 percent citrus molasses were incorporated into
swine rations. A control ration consisting of corn, cottonseed meal, soy-









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


bean oilmeal and alfalfa meal produced gains of 0.80 pounds per day.
When 30 percent of citrus molasses replaced part of the corn, with the
protein level remaining constant, gains were 1.30 pounds per day. The
addition of aureomycin and B,, to this ration increased the gains from
1.30 pounds to 1.50 pounds per day.
A fourth ration that included 40 percent of citrus molasses but no
supplementary aureomycin and B,, produced gains of 1.00 pounds per day.
Citrus molasses was consumed readily by the pigs once they became
accustomed to it, but it was not eaten well during the first week of the
experiment.

FEEDING VALUE OF FLORIDA HAYS FOR SWINE
State Project 541 H. D. Wallace
This project was inactive this year and is being discontinued.

SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDS FOR SOWS DURING REPRODUCTION AND
LACTATION ON FLORIDA PASTURES
State Project 542 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs,
A. M. Pearson and T. J. Cunha
Thirty-eight sows and gilts are being used in this study. During the
gestation phase these animals were divided into two similar groups.
Group 1 received 2 pounds of protein supplement (1 part meat scraps and
3 parts soybean oilmeal) per head daily while on good oats and legume
pasture (Alfalfa and Kenland Red clover). Group II received in addition
4 pounds of corn per head daily. The experiment is not complete, but
up-to-date results indicate that Group II has been farrowing slightly
heavier and more pigs per litter, and has thus far weaned more pigs
per litter.

ROUGHAGES FOR MAINTENANCE AND GROWTH OF
BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA
State Project 543 T. J. Cunha, G. B. Killinger,
and F. S. Baker

Three lots of Hereford steers, having an average initial weight of 847
pounds, were fed hay as follows: Lot 1, Bermuda; Lot 2, Pangola; and
Lot 3, alfalfa. The three lots of steers were fed the hays free-choice,
plus 1 pound of cottonseed meal per day per steer for 63 days. The
average daily gains and hay consumed per animal per day, respectively,
in each lot were: Lot 1, 1.03 and 14.8; Lot 2, -0.22 and 9.1; and Lot 3,
1.91 and 22.6.
During the next 51 days the cottonseed meal was increased to 3 pounds
per steer per day. The hay was fed free-choice. The average daily gains
and hay consumption, respectively, per animal daily were: Lot 1, 0.88
and 15.3; Lot 2, 1.23 and 12.1; Lot 3, 1.20 and 23.2. A summary of the
results obtained throughout the whole trial (114 days) is as follows:
Lot 1, 0.97 and 15.0; Lot 2, 0.43 and 10.5; and Lot 3, 1.59 and 22.9.
In last year's trials Pangola was superior to Bermuda in feeding
value. Variation in feeding value is to be expected since fertilization and
stage of maturity when harvested will affect the feeding value of hays.
This trial shows the excellent feeding value and palatability of alfalfa
grown under Florida conditions. The results obtained with Bermuda and
Pangola during the last two years indicate that they are good hays and
compare favorably with western prairie hay. (See also Proj. 543, N.
FLA. STATION, and Proj. 536, AGRONOMY.)









Annual Report, 1952


LOSS OF NUTRIENTS IN DRIP FROM DEFROSTED FROZEN MEAT
State Project 546 A. M. Pearson and T. J. Cunha
A method of assaying for vitamin B,. has been developed for meat
products. This method uses trypsin to release the bound form of the
vitamin from the tissues. The Longissimus dorsi muscle from a pork
carcas was removed, wrapped, frozen and stored at o0F. and used for
subsequent vitamin analyses while still in the frozen condition. A similar
sample was removed from freezer storage, thawed at room temperature
and the drip was collected and analyzed.
The riboflavin content was 1.03 pg/gm. and 0.517 ug/ml. for the meat
and drip, respectively; or a loss of 5.81 percent of the riboflavin in the
drip. The vitamin B,, content was 1.51 pg/100 gm. for the meat and 4.30
pg/100 ml. for the drip, or a loss of 32.97 percent in the drip. The niacin
content for the drip was 83 ug/ml. and 62 pg/gm. for the meat, amount-
ing to a total loss of 9.78 percent in the drip.

UTILIZATION OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS BY POULTRY
AS DETERMINED WITH RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES
State Project 551 J. C. Driggers, G. K. Davis,
J. P. Fleaster, J. T. McCall and N. R. Mehrhof
For the report see Proj. 551 POULTRY HUSBANDRY.

TRANSFER OF MINERAL ELEMENTS THROUGH THE PLACENTA
AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN THE FETUS
Adams Project 566 George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley,
J. P. Feaster, L. R. Arrington,
J. T. McCall and Katherine M. Boney
Radioactive calcium, given to pregnant female rats, was found in the
fetuses in less than 15 minutes after the oral dosage. The calcium trans-
fer to the developing young continued from the female's digestive tract,
building up to a maximum at about six hours. In the case of rats, tests
showed that the young will contain very little calcium originating from
the body stores of the female. They obtain practically all their calcium
from the daily feed intake of this element. This was demonstrated by
building up a store of radioactive calcium in the female before breeding,
and then determining the radioactive calcium present in the young when
born.
In cattle the calcium requirement of a fetal calf causes a large drain
upon the calcium reserve of the cow. In addition, large quantities of
calcium come from the daily ration. Species differences probably caused
the more completely calcified skeleton of the calf at birth.
Work with radioactive zinc demonstrated that this element-contrary
to the findings with calcium-is apparently first laid down within the body
of the female and later carried to the fetus. Certain peculiarities in the
utilization of zinc have been demonstrated. This element is poorly ab-
sorbed from the intestine by the female, except in the last third of
pregnancy when comparatively large amounts are absorbed. In contrast
to the low levels of zinc absorbed from the intestine, more than half of
that which is absorbed is eventually laid down in the developing fetus.
This great difference in the manner in which two elements-calcium and
zinc-are handled by the body presents an unusual opportunity to dis-
cover the mechanism whereby mineral elements are transferred across
the placenta to the developing young, and to determine factors which
favor or hinder this transfer.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Support by the Atomic Energy Commission has enabled the expansion
of this project to include studies with rabbits, guinea pigs and swine in
addition to the work with cattle and rats.

MISCELLANEOUS
Value of Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal for Swine.-The first experi-
ment involved a solvent meal produced by a commercial concern. This
meal is chemically treated to reduce its gossypol content. The following
treatments were studied, with average daily gains made on each given
in parentheses: Lot 1-soybean oilmeal + APF (control) (1.36); Lot 2-
cottonseed oilmeal + APF (0.23); Lot 3-cottonseed oilmeal + APF +
0.25% ferrous sulfate (0.97); Lot 4-cottonseed oilmeal + 3% fish
solubles (0.35); and Lot 5-cottonseed oilmeal + 3% fish meal + APF
(0.57).
The second experiment involved a screw press meal of low gossypol
content produced by the Southern Regional Laboratory, New Orleans,
Louisiana. Lysine and methionine supplementation of this meal was of
no benefit. When part of the cottonseed meal was replaced with soybean
oilmeal, gains were significantly increased. This study was supported
in part by a grant from Swift & Company. (H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs'
and T. J. Cunha.)
Various Antibiotics and 3-Nitro-4-Hydroxy-Phenyl Arsonic Acid in
Corn-Peanut Meal Rations for Swine.-Aureomycin and terramycin sig-
nificantly improved growth and controlled an intermittent-type diarrhea
in the pig. Chloromycetin, bacitracin and the arsonic acid derivative
were ineliective in growth and in preventing the diarrhea. This study
was supported in part by a grant from the National Vitamin Founda-
tion and the Lasdon Foundation, Inc. (H. D. Wallace, W. A. Neys and
T. J. Cunha.)
Effect of Reducing and Discontinuing Aureomycin Supplementation.-
Three experiments clearly demonstrated that the level of antibiotic could
be reduced successfully during the later stages of growth, but when taken
from the ration entirely a marked setback in growth resulted. This
study was supported in part by a grant from Lederle Laboratories. (H.
D. Wallace, W. A. Ney', L. T. Albert' and T. J. Cunha.)
A Vitamin B.-Aureomycin Supplement (Aurofac) in the Protein Mix-
ture of Swine Hogging off Corn.-Gains of pigs (100-110 pounds at be-
ginning of trial) were significantly increased when 5 pounds of a B,.-
aureomycin feed supplement were added to each 100 pounds of protein
supplement. This study was supported in part by a grant from Lederle
Laboratories. (H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs9 and T. J. Cunha.)
Effect of Aureomycin on Protein Needs of Pigs.-This study has indi-
cated that aureomycin has a sparing effect on the dietary protein re-
quirements of the pig. Carcass analyses are being made to determine
the influence of aureomycin and protein on certain carcass characteristics.
This study was supported in part by a grant from Lederle Laboratories,
Swift & Company and the National Vitamin Foundation and the Lasdon
Foundation, Inc. (H. D. Wallace, M. Milicevic', A. M. Pearson and
T. J. Cunha.)
L-lyxoflavin in Swine Rations.-The supplementation of a practical
farm-type ration with L-lyxoflavin did not result in a significant improve-
ment in growth. This study was supported in part by a grant from
Merck & Company. (H. D. Wallace, J. W. Stroud' and T. J. Cunha.)
Graduate student.
"Graduate student.









Annual Report, 1952


Effect of Feeding Dry Hay to Beef Cattle Grazing Oats.-Two three-
acre pastures were seeded to Southland oats on October 12, 1951, at a
rate of 2 bushels and fertilized with 500 pounds of 6-6-6 fertilizer per
acre. In early December an application was made of 32 pounds of
nitrogen per acre from nitrate of soda. Grazing started on December
13 with five head of cattle in each three-acre pasture. In one pasture
dry Pangola and Pensacola Bahia hays were fed in a rack free-choice
to the cattle.
During the first three weeks the five cattle grazing oats alone gained
a total of 20 pounds, while those obtaining the dry hay in addition to the
oats gained a total of 200 pounds. The dry hay also caused the cattle
to scour less and to get over scouring in two weeks. Control cattle
receiving no hay took over three weeks before the scouring stopped.
During this initial three-week period the cattle ate 180 pounds of hay.
This preliminary trial is being repeated. (T. J. Cunha and G. B. Killinger.)
Sunflower Seed Meal as a Protein Supplement for Fattening Steers.-
A trial was completed in which sunflower seed meal was substituted for
cottonseed meal in a ration of corn, oats and prairie hay for fattening
steers. The feeding trial lasted 100 days, with equalized consumption of
hay and concentrates between each lot. The steers receiving sunflower
seed meal made an average daily gain of 2.10 pounds, compared to 2.09
for those getting cottonseed meal. There was no significant difference
in dressing percentage or carcass grade, but the steers fed cottonseed
meal showed greater bloom and sold for more per cwt. than those getting
sunflower seed meal. (A. M. Pearson and R. B. Sleethl.)
Effects of Synthetic Sex Hormones on Swine.-Two trials have been
completed using diethylstilbestrol implants and another using testosterone
injections. Neither stilbestrol nor testosterone materially influenced aver-
age daily gains, dressing percentage, thickness of backfat or carcass
grade. The injection of testosterone did not measurably influence the
palatability scores of roasts from either barrows or gilts, whereas the
roasts from boars were less desirable.
The injections of both stilbestrol and testosterone caused large cysts
and hypertrophy of the ovaries as well as characteristic nymphomaniac
symptoms in the gilts. (A. M. Pearson, H. D. Wallace, R. B. Sleeth10,
Marvin Koger and G. E. Combs, Jr.10)
Relationship of Level of Trace Minerals in Ration of Cattle to Deposition
of B-Complex Vitamins in Tissues.-Three lots of steers were fed the same
basal ration except for the mineral supplements, which were added to the
basal diet at the following levels per 100 pounds of feed: Lot 1-17.656 g.
of CuSO, 5 HO, 11.408 g. of NaMoO4 2 HO and 173.024 g. of ZnCO,;
Lot 2-11.408 g. of NaMoO, 2 HO and 8.648 g. of ZnCO,; and Lot 3-
17.656 g. of CuSO, 5 H.1 and 8.648 g. of ZnCO,. Radioactive
Zn was administered either orally or intravenously prior to slaughter.
Representative samples of meat were removed and analyzed for B
vitamins. The average riboflavin content, expressed in mg. per 100 g.
of fresh liver, was 3.04 for Lot 1, 6.50 for Lot 2 and 4.38 for Lot 3; while
for fresh round tissue, the corresponding values were 0.338 for Lot 1,
0.153 for Lot 2 and 0.175 for Lot 3; and for the eye muscle were 0.286
for Lot 1, 0.155 for Lot 2 and 0.138 for Lot 3. The values for niacin
expressed in mg. per 100 g. of tissue for Lot 1 were 13.40, 6.33 and 8.03
for liver, round and eye muscle, respectively; while the corresponding
values for Lot 2 were 15.80, 7.90 and 8.20 and for Lot 3 were 16.90,
6.95 and 8.20, respectively.

"0 Graduate student.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Values for pantothenic acid expressed as mg. per 100 g. of fresh tissue
were 4.28, 0.37 and 0.383 for Lot 1 for liver, round and eye muscle, re-
spectively, while values for Lot 2 were 8.06, 0.40 and 2.41, and for Lot
3 were 8.60, 1.48 and 3.43. Vitamin Bi: values in gg/100 g. were 33.20,
2.80 and 1.52 for Lot 1, 48.50, 1.16 and 1.19 for Lot 2, and 77.80, 2.43
and 4.68 for Lot 3 for liver, round and eye muscle, respectively. This
study was supported in part by an Atomic Energy Commission grant-
in-aid. (A. M. Pearson, G. K. Davis, J. P. Feaster and F. H. Jack".)
Ammoniated Citrus Pulp as a Feed for Cattle.-With the renewed
availability of ammoniated citrus pulp, work reported in the annual reports
for 1945 and 1946 has been continued. Steer calves were placed on a
level of amoniated citrus pulp to supply 30% of the total digestible nutri-
ents and yearling steers were given the equivalent of 50% of the total
digestible nutrients from this source. At both levels the steers have
made good utilization of the amonia nitrogen as part of the protein re-
quirement and have made good gains in comparison with comparable
steers on corn, hay, cottonseed meal rations. (G. K. Davis and H. M.
Crowder".)
Interrelationships of Copper, Molybdenum and Phosphorus.-Copper
utilization has been improved in the rations of cattle through the addition
of additional cobalt to the diet. In rats a vitamin B complex supple-
ment has rendered molybdenum less toxic, indicating that the toxicity
of molybdenum may be due to the inactivation of a vitamin-enzyme
system in the animal body. Addition of copper appears to reverse the
inactivation.
Rabbits are much less susceptible to molybdenum toxicity than cattle
or rats, but at toxic levels they develop bone changes similar in many
ways to those observed in cattle. Molybdenum apparently influences
manganese metabolism. Suppression of manganese utilization may ex-
plain some of the reproductive disfunction observed in rats and cattle
on high levels of molybdenum. These investigations were supported in
part by a grant from the Nutrition Foundation, Inc., of New York and
supplement work reported under Purnell Projects 133 and 346. (G. K.
Davis, T. L. Meade, L. R. Arrington and J. P. Feaster.)
Luxation of the Patella in Bovines.-Commonly called "stringhalt"
in cattle, this condition has been the object of experimental work by
both the veterinary group and by workers in nutrition. In an effort
to overcome the clinical lameness, a surgical technique of shortening the
patella ligaments is under investigation.
Nutritional factors, including vitamins A and D and minerals, have
been tried with animals at the Range Cattle Station showing moderate
to severe luxation. With improved nutrition, including increased nutrients,
proteins, minerals and vitamins, the animals have shown improvement
in condition. Lactating cattle have shown marked improvement when
lactation has stopped. Thus far no one factor has been outstanding as a
treatment. If nutrition is a factor it must be during the period of
development prior to the occurrence of luxation.
Genetic studies indicate a concentration of the condition in certain
families of Brahman cattle and grades with similar backgrounds of
breeding in Florida. In an effort to obtain more information, a "string-
halt" bull is being used on "stringhalt" cattle and the progeny will be
followed under various nutritional regimes in future studies of this
condition. (See also Miscellaneous, VETERINARY SCIENCE.) (George
K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, D. A. Sanders, Charles F. Simpson, R. B. Becker,
L. E. Swanson and Marvin Koger.)
1 Graduate student.








Annual Report, 1952


DAIRY SCIENCE

Additional land has been developed and converted into pasture research
plots. Installation of a commercial-size metal hay drier with portable
fan and heating unit makes it possible to preserve pasture clippings
and other crops as hay. The use of non-fat dry milk solids in the
preparation of lactic type dairy products has received attention. New ice
cream flavors prepared of fresh citrus juices were developed and con-
sumer tests indicate excellent acceptance. Initial studies on these and
other aspects of dairy science indicate possible expansion of some of
these exploratory investigations.
RELATION OF CONFORMATION AND ANATOMY OF THE DAIRY
COW TO HER MILK AND BUTTERFAT PRODUCTION
State Project 140 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold
and G. K. Davis
This project was inactive this year. As reported last year, data col-
lected from all cooperating agricultural experiment stations are being
correlated and analyzed in the Bureau of Dairy Industry, USDA, and
will be included in a publication later.

ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project 213 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
G. K. Davis, J. M. Wing and S. P. Marshall
The four laboratory silos abandoned due to campus expansion were
replaced in 1952 by six slightly larger laboratory silos at the Dairy
Research Unit. Work has been resumed and these silos are in use testing
ensilability of pasture crops.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY, ITS POSSIBLE
INHERITANCE, AND DEPRECIATION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
State Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
A. H. Spurlock and S. P. Marshall
Records of breeding, inventory, replacements and causes of losses
were continued. The nine cooperating Florida dairy herds, including the
Station herd, are maintained largely with home-grown replacements.
The study of dairy bulls of five dairy breeds and Milking Shorthorns in
artificial breeding was expanded by cooperation of more breeding organi-
zations.
Of 647 completed records of bulls formerly in artificial service, 160
animals born before January 1, 1937, furnish a record free from age
distortion. Their average usefulness was 2.77 years in artificial service,
over 75% of them being from 5 to 10 years, and nearly 20% older when
inducted into artificial service. Nearly 27% of these bulls were service-
able less than 12 months; 20% for one to two years; 18% for two to
three years; 17.5% for three to five years in artificial service. One
proved bull past 15 years old was useful until 16.3 years of age.
Some bulls were leased and returned and others were sold back to
natural service. No analysis has been made of these. Of the remaining
records, 84% of the bulls were salvaged for beef after usefulness expired,
while 16% died or were of little salvage value. Of 642 usable records
assembled to June 30, 1952, regardless of the year of birth, 46% were
discarded ultimately for low breeding efficiency; 16.5% for sterility, in-
ability or refusal and like causes; 5.9% for accidents and injuries; 3.61%








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


for foreign bodies in the stomach; 3.1% crippled, bad feet and legs; and
2.8% for lumpy jaw. Some causes can be guarded against, or delayed,
in the future through management, extending usefulness of bulls. (See
also Proj. 345, AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS.)

INFLUENCE OF WATER CONSTITUENTS (MINERALS) ON THE
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND WHIPPING QUALITY
OF ICE CREAM MIXES
Bankhead-Jones 497 E. L. Fouts, W. A. Krienke
and L. E. Mull
Ice cream mixes prepared of plastic cream and non-fat dry milk
solids as the only dairy ingredients consisted of four groups with respect
to stabilizer (sodium carboxymethylcellulose; gelatin; sodium alginate;
nonstabilizer control) and of three types with respect to the water used
as the diluent (hard water of approximately 300 ppm total hardness and
155 ppm sulfate ion content; softened water which was some of the
hard water reduced to about 5 ppm total hardness with a sodium ion
exchanger; distilled water).
Irrespective of stabilizer, the softened water resulted in mixes of
lower titratable acidity than did the distilled water or the hard water.
However, there were no appreciable differences in viscosity of the mixes
that could be attributed to the different waters.
The softened-water mixes compared favorably in whipping ability to
the distilled water mixes, both whipping considerably faster than the
hard water mixes. The widest differences resulted when gelatin was the
stabilizer and the least when sodium alginate was the stabilizer.
COOLING AND AGING OF ICE CREAM MIXES
Bankhead-Jones 534 W. A. Krienke, E. L. Fouts
and Mary Frances Mays
Lack of agreement of some of the data as obtained when the mix
cooler could not be adequately refrigerated or the temperature of the
brine properly controlled necessitated installation of a flooded ammonia
cooler. These investigations are being continued.
POST-PARTUM DEVELOPMENT OF BOVINE STOMACH COMPART-
MENTS AND OBSERVATIONS ON SOME CHARACTERISTICS
OF THEIR CONTENTS
State Project 564 S. P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold,
R. B. Becker and J. M. Wing
Studies of stomach compartment development and of characteristics
of their contents were continued with 27 Jersey male calves between the
ages of 10 and 300 days. The animals were fed a ration of alfalfa hay
and concentrate mixture supplemented with milk through 60 days of
age. Twenty-five were of normal weight for their ages and two more
were subnormal.
The rumen and omasum developed most rapidly, followed by reticulum
and abomasum. Fermentation in the rumen and reticulum had begun
prior to 20 days of age in one of two calves of normal weight that were
examined. This process was in progress in three calves of normal weight
that were examined at 30 days of age. A gastric ulcer located im-
mediately anterior to the pyloric opening was observed in one calf and
scar tissue presumably caused by a gastric ulcer was found in the
abomasum of another.
The pH of stomach compartment contents of 73 calves has ranged
as follows: rumen, 5.17 to 7.10; reticulum, 5.19 to 7.19; omasum, 4.78









Annual Report, 1952


to 7.00; and abomasum 1.84 to 4.87. Specific gravity for stomach com-
partment contents ranged as follows: rumen, 0.8702 to 1.0377; reticulum,
0.8840 to 1.0222; omasum 0.9110 to 1.0405.

EFFECTS OF ANTIBIOTICS AND CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS
ON MICROORGANISMS IN MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS
Bankhead-Jones 571 W. A. Krienke, E. L. Fouts,
H. H. Wilkowske and Mary Frances Mays
Less than 0.3 unit of penicillin per milliliter of milk did not signifi-
cantly retard acid development by Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus
and L. case. At concentrations of 2.0 units per milliliter, no acid produc-
tion resulted in 48 hours of incubation at 350 C. Acid production was
about one-half that of normal at concentrations of 0.3 to 0.6 unit per
milliliter, indicating a slightly higher tolerance for penicillin by these
organisms than by Streptococcus lactis.
When portions of the same low count raw milk containing 0.0, 0.1 and
1.0 unit of penicillin per milliliter were stored at 100 C. for 72 hours the
result was a 20-fold increase, a 2-fold increase and a slight decrease,
respectively, in the standard plate count.

STUDY OF PRODUCTION, REPRODUCTION AND CONFORMATION
OF THE FLORIDA AGRICULTUrRAL EXPERIMENT
STATION DAIRY HERD
State Project 575 P. T. Dix Arnold, S. P. Marshall
and R. B. Becker
Official production records were completed by 39 cows during the
year, of which 36 were first lactations. Observer Design Fawn 1649264
produced 12,127 pounds of milk and 656 pounds of butterfat as a three-
year-old milked twice daily for 365 days. During part of the lactation
she was on an experimental grazing trial.
During the year one bull was slaughtered because of undesirable
characters in his daughters and 29 females were slaughtered because of
low production, breeding troubles, udder infections and other reasons.
One cow died following calving and one from a wire puncturing the
heart.
Official classification of 35 young Jerseys showed low scores on type
of mammary system and udder attachment. Special emphasis was placed
on these points in selection of the two junior herd sires, Observer Design
Treva Earl 541543 and Sybil Pompey Beaugay 542235.
The first 10 daughters of Magnolia Standard Signal 463218 completed
lactations averaging 8,625 pounds of milk and 450 pounds of butterfat
on the mature equivalent basis for 305 days milked twice daily.
Through the interest of the Florida Guernsey Cattle Club, 14 very
promising Guernsey heifers were obtained from 10 cooperating Florida
Guernsey breeders. They provide a nucleus for a larger Guernsey herd.
On dispersal of the Jersey herd of the Florida School for Deaf and
Blind, nine cows and six heifers were secured as additions to the
Station herd.

EFFECT OF AUREOMYCIN FEEDING UPON THE PERFORMANCE
OF DAIRY CALVES
State Project 594 S. P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold
and J. M. Wing
Sixteen new-born Jersey females and two males were randomized
into two comparable groups. Both groups were fed colostrum the first









78 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

3 days, whole milk the next 18 days and skimmilk through 60 days of
age. Milks were fed twice daily from nipple pails at the rate of 4.5
percent of body weight per feeding. A concentrate mixture was fed free
choice up to a maximum consumption of 4 pounds daily per animal and
good quality chopped alfalfa hay was fed free choice.
Animals in the experimental group were fed 5 mg. of crystalline
aureomycin hydrochloride dispersed in each pound of milk. Fifty p.p.m.
of aureomycin were incorporated in the concentrate offered between
the ages of 61 and 120 days. Both groups were fed the control ration
of hay and concentrate from 121 through 150 days of age.
The average gain for the period of 61 through 120 days of six animals
receiving the experimental ration was 74.9 pounds and for six on the
control ration it was 62.7 pounds. The aureomycin-fed calves consumed 11
percent more hay and 11 percent more concentrate than the controls
during this period.
Following discontinuation of aureomycin feeding with the experimental
group at 121 days of age, two animals voluntarily reduced their feed
intake while two continued to increase feed consumption through 150
days of age. Following termination of aureomycin feeding, daily oral
administration for 10 days of about 125 g. of fresh cud taken from herd
cows failed to prevent this loss of appetite in one calf. Feeding of cud
to two calves for 20 and 23 days, respectively, after discontinuation of
aureomycin feeding prevented a decline in concentrate consumption, but
the hay intake decreased slightly. Gains for the control animals for
this period averaged 33.3 pounds, while those for the experimental calves
averaged 25.5 pounds.
MISCELLANEOUS

Grazing Pearl Millet with Lactating Cows and with Dairy Heifers.-
Three two-acre fields of Pearl millet were seeded in 24-inch rows and
fertilized with simultaneous application of 400 pounds of 4-8-8 fertilizer
per acre. The millet was cultivated once for weed control. The plots
were grazed rotationally with lactating cows, the stubbles were mowed
after each grazing, and four applications of nitrogen-16 pounds each-
were made during the summer. When grazed with an average of two
cows per acre for 108 days, each acre produced 2,010 pounds of total
digestible nutrients. This constituted 58 percent of the cows' requirements.
Three plots of Pearl millet similarly grown and managed, except that
three applications of nitrogen, 16 pounds each, were made during the
summer, were grazed with growing dairy heifers. An average of 2.5
animals with an average initial weight 'of 377 pounds were grazed per
acre for a period of 80 days. The heifers received no supplemental feed;
they gained an average of 1.8 pounds per day and derived 1,596 pounds
of total digestible nutrients per acre from the millet. (S. P. Marshall
and P. T. Dix Arnold.)
Grazing Oats with Lactating Cows and with Dairy Heifers.-Two
bushels of Southland oats and 500 pounds of 4-7-5 fertilizer per acre were
drilled in three two-acre fields. Four applications of nitrogen, 16 pounds
each, were made during the winter and spring. The fields were grazed ro-
tationally with lactating cows for 139 days. The oats produced 1,238
pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre, which supplied 63% of the
cows' requirements. Each cow grazed an average of 1.2 acres.
Three fields of Southland oats and three of Camellia oats grown and
managed similarly were grazed with dairy heifers. Each oat variety
grazed 1.2 heifers per acre for 155 days. The average initial weight of
the animals was 512 pounds. The Southland oats produced 1,567 pounds








Annual Report, 1952


of total digestible nutrients per acre and the animals gained 1.10 pounds
per day, while the Camellia oats produced 1,683 pounds of total digestible
nutrients per acre and supported an average daily gain of 1.24 pounds
per animal. (S. P. Marshall.)
Alyce Clover Pasture for Lactating Cows.-Three two-acre fields ferti-
lized with 300 pounds of superphosphate (20%) and 100 pounds of
muriate of potash (60%) per acre were seeded with Alyce clover. An
average of 2.4 cows per acre was grazed from August 29 through
October 12, 1951. The clover produced an average of 1,238 pounds of
total digestible nutrients per acre, which supplied 64% of the animals'
requirements. (S. P. Marshall.)
Pangola-Clover and Coastal Bermuda-Clover Pastures for Dairy Heifers.
-Grazing was initiated on fertilized Pangola-white clover and Coastal
Bermuda-white clover pastures with dairy heifers on March 11, 1952. Two
fields of each type of pasture were grazed rotationally and no supplemental
feed was offered. During the ensuing 113 days the average carrying
capacity per acre for each pasture was 2.6 heifers, with average initial
weights of 456 and 490 pounds for the Pangola and the Bermuda pastures,
respectively. The animals averaged 1.1 pounds gain per day. (S. P.
Marshall.)
Irrigated vs. Non-Irrigated Pangola-Clover Pastures for Lactating Dairy
Cows.-Grazing was started on fertilized Pangola-white clover pastures
on March 18, 1952. Rotational grazing was practiced on two irrigated
plots and on two non-irrigated plots with separate groups of cows.
During 104 days the irrigated fields grazed an average of 1.91 cows per
acre, while the non-irrigated ones carried 1.53 cows per acre. These anim-
als derived about 63% of their total digestible nutrient requirement from
the pastures. Precipitation during the 104-day period was 11.12 inches.
The irrigated plots were supplemented with additional water equivalent
to 13.6 inches of rainfall. (Department of Agricultural Engineering co-
operating.) (S. P. Marshall and J. M. Myers.)
Usefulness of the Lactometer at Temperatures Below 500 F.-Text-
books and other sources of information on the use of the lactometer
contain instructions which limit corrections to the temperature range
50o-70o F. A study yielded results which show that only slight errors
are involved when readings are taken at temperature as low as 38 F. and
corrected to 60 F. by the accepted formula. In some instances these
errors were no larger than the error involved in estimating the tenths of
a lactometer degree between graduations at which the lactometer floated.
(W. A. Krienke.)
Cottage Cheese Manufacture Using Concentrated Dairy Products.-
Attempts were made to determine causes of occasional failures when
cottage cheese is made of concentrated dairy products by the prevailing
commercial methods of manufacture. The use of reconstituted skimmilk
of 13% solids not fat resulted in satisfactory cottage cheese, but when
it was below 11% the cheese was not satisfactory. An active starter
capable of producing at least 0.80% titratable acidity in 15 hours at
700 F. was necessary for a desirable rate of lactic acid production during
the setting period. Difficulty in establishing the proper acidity at which
to cut the curd apparently was the cause of several failures. Cutting
at 0.53% titratable acidity (which has been recommended for fresh skim-
milk cottage cheese) was not satisfactory for the reconstituted product
containing 13% solids not fat. (H. H. Wilkowske and L. E. Mull.)
Relationship of Milk Solids Not Fat to Acidity of Dairy Products.-
Studies indicate that in reconstituted products the titratable acidity and









80 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

pH values vary in proportion to the solids not fat content. It was found
that for each 1.0% increase in solids not fat the titratable acidity
increased 0.02%. Initial studies indicate that in cheese whey and in
buttermilk different relationships apparently exist. (H. H. Wilkowske.)
Studies on Reconstituting Nonfat Dry Milk Solids.-By use of a
propeller-type mechanical agitator the "low heat" type of nonfat dry
milk solids was readily reconstituted in water at temperatures of 60
to 1000 F. Prolonged vigorous agitation by this method resulted in
excessive foaming. When permitted to absorb sufficient moisture to result
in lumping, the nonfat dry milk solids did not reconstitute properly.
The use of properly cleaned and sanitized equipment resulted in bac-
teriologically satisfactory products. Water containing up to 100 ppm
available chlorine was found satisfactory for reconstituting nonfat dry
milk solids for all purposes, including the products in which growth of
dairy starter microorganisms is essential.
In an effort to improve upon available methods of reconstituting
nonfat dry milk solids, a recirculating system was assembled, using fit-
tings available from other plant operations and by providing a hopper
for feeding the nonfat dry milk solids into the supply line between the
vat and the pump. A three-way valve instead of a tee at the juncture
of the hopper and the liquid supply line facilitated operation of the system.
Reconstitution was successfully accomplished with temperatures of the
water at 60 to 1200 F. Foaming was no problem when the return line
extended below the surface of the product in the vat. (L. E. Mull and H.
H. Wilkowske.)
Freezing-Point Studies on Cream.-A special device has been designed
and attached to the freezing-point thermometer which prevents contact
of the thermometer's mercury bulb by the agitator, thus eliminating the
friction that sometimes resulted in sufficient heat to affect the values
obtained.
Samples of cream that had been allowed to sour were neutralized with
four different alkaline compounds. Freezing-point values coupled with
pH and titratable acidity values, all obtained on buttermilk (a Waring
blender was used to churn the samples), were found to be useful in
segregating nonneutralized samples from suspected samples. The latter
were analyzed by other more involved methods already available for
detection of neutralizers in dairy products. (W. A. Krienke and E. L.
Fouts.)
New Flavors for Ice Cream.-Injection and topping sauces for ice
cream have been prepared of fresh citrus juices. Consumer acceptance
of the orange, lemon and lime ice creams indicates a unique interest in
these products. Other fresh fruits (not cooked) and various nuts (nut
meal) also have been prepared into such sauces. A blue-colored sauce
has been prepared of cocoanut. When it and a fresh cherry sauce were
injected into the same ice cream, the resulting red, white and blue ice
cream had a pleasant cherry-cocanut flavor and an eye appeal associated
with holidays and functions having a patriotic significance. These sauces
will provide ice cream manufacturers with several new flavors with the
added merhcandising advantage of eye appeal. (W. A. Krienke and
L. E. Mull.)








Annual Report, 1952


ENTOMOLOGY

Problems relating to insect pests of pecans, woody ornamental plants,
flue-cured tobacco and corn received further attention. Additional po-
tential honey plants were introduced and observations continued on
previous introductions. Work was started on a new project on pasture
pests and investigations were begun on insecticide residues on vegetable
crops and the use of systemic insecticides in the control of certain
plant pests.
CONTROL OF THE PECAN NUT CASEBEARER
State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
This project was continued at the Pecan Investigation Laboratory in
cooperation with the USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine.
DDT, parathion, EPN and Metacide applied June 6 and 28, July 19
and August 8, 1951, for control of the hickory shuckworm each gave
100 percent control of the pecan nut casebearer, except one parathion plot,
which gave 75 percent control. (For concentration of materials see
report, State Project 597 below.)
DDT, parathion, EPN and Metacide 50 gave varying degrees of control
of a very light infestation of first generation nut casebearer on Moore
variety when applied on different dates in combination with ziram
(Zarlate 76%) at 2 pounds per 100 gallons water. Sprays containing
2 pounds of DDT 50% wettable plus 1 quart summer oil emulsion per
100 gallons, applied May 7 and 13, reduced the infestation of nut case-
bearer to 0.49 and 0.29 percent for the respective dates.
Parathion 15% wettable, 2 pounds plus 1 quart summer oil emulsion
per 100 gallons, applied on the above dates, gave a reduction to 0.12
and 0.0 percent, respectively. Two pounds EPN 25% wettable, plus 1
quart summer oil emulsion per 100 gallons, applied on the above dates,
gave a reduction to 0.42 and 0.08 respectively. Metacide 50 at 1 pint
per 100 gallons, applied May 7 reduced the nut casebearer infestation to
0.22 percent. The infestation of nut clusters on unsprayed trees in orchard
near test plots was only 2.76 percent.
DDT and parathion alone and in combination with Ovotran gave the
following control of a very light infestation of first generation nut case-
bearer on the Mahan variety, when applied May 9 in combination with 2
pounds ziram (Zerlate) and 1 quart summer oil emulsion per 100 gal-
lons: Sprays containing 2 pounds DDT 50% wettable, and 2 pounds DDT
50% wettable plus 1 pound Ovotron 50% wettable reduced the infesta-
tion of nut casebearer to 0.0 and 0.08, respectively. Parathion 2 pounds
15% wettable, and parathion 2 pounds 15% wettable plus 1 pound
Ovotron 50% wettable reduced the infestation to 0.0 in both cases.
Infestation in the check was only 1.4 percent.
A parathion concentrate spray applied by aeroplane for control of
first generation nut casebearer was somewhat inferior to parathion
spray applied by hydraulic sprayer. Spray containing 11 pounds of
parathion 25% wettable, plus 36 pounds Parzate and 18 quarts summer
oil emulsion in 130 gallons water, applied by aeroplane on May 15, reduced
the infestation of nut casebearer to 0.33 percent. Parathion 15% wettable
2 pounds, plus 2 pounds Zerlate and 1 quart summer oil emulsion per
100 gallons applied on same date by hydraulic sprayer, reduced the in-
festations of nut casebearer to 0.04 percent. Infestation in check plot
was only 1.6 percent.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID PESTS
OF WOODY ORNAMENTALS

State Project 531 L. C. Kuitert

During the past year tea scale, Fiorinia thae Green, infestations have
been more general than previously on camellias. Insecticides were applied
to the old block of camellias as reported in 1949-51. Both Florida red,
Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linn.) and tea scale were controlled with fall
and spring applications of parathion and parathion plus oil emulsion.
The combination treatments of parathion plus copper "A" and parathion
plus COCS fungicides were discontinued. These latter treatments gave
initial kills comparable to the others, but there was a rapid increase of
scales about three months after application.
As spider mites, Paratetranychus yothersi McG., have been a problem
in these blocks, it was decided that the fall application should be corre-
lated closely with the appearance of the mite infestations. In addition
to changing the time of application, 1 pound of 50 percent wettable
Ovotran was added to 100 gallons of the parathion sprays containing the
detergent and oil emulsions. As Systox had proven effective against
mites Ovotran was not added to it. The plot receiving parathion alone
was used as the check. No mite infestations were observed in the
treated blocks; however, only incipient infestations were found in the
check.
In the tests being conducted in the lath house, parathion was more
effective in controlling tea scales than either malathon or Metacide.
Systox 32.1 percent emulsion was effective in killing tea scale on
camellias when applied at the rate of two quarts per 100 gallons. Pre-
treatment counts indicated 71.7 percent living female scales. Post
treatment counts made at 1, 3, 4, 7 and 9-week intervals after treatment
showed 34.6, 9.1, 9.9, 39.8, 23.3 and 27.5 percent of living scales, respec-
tively. A second application was made immediately after the nine-week
post-treatment counts. Counts made 2, 5 and 15 weeks later gave 12.9,
15.0 and 33 percent of living scales, respectively.
In another test Systox 50 percent emulsion used at two quarts per
100 gallons was applied to 12 camellias having light to moderate tea
scale infestations. Examination of several leaves before treatment in-
dicated populations of 70 percent living scales. Examinations made 17
days and 10 weeks after treatment showed 16.4 and 0.93 percent of living
scales, respectively.
Camellias having considerable new growth were treated with Systox
50 percent emulsion at concentrations of 1 pint, 1 quart and 2 quarts per
100 gallons. New growth was not damaged at concentrations of 2 quarts
per 100 gallons and it has not become reinfested with scales. Applica-
tions used at 1 pint and 1 quart concentrations did kill many of the
crawlers; however, the new growth has become reinfested.
Whiteflies infesting gardenias, satsumas and grapefruit were controlled
effectively with Systox 50 percent emulsion used at 1 quart per 100
gallons. Treated plants have remained free of whiteflies for periods of
three months. Heavy infestations of spider mites, p. yothersi, on
pyracanthas were controlled with Systox 32.1 percent used at 1 quart
per 100 gallons.
Systox 50 percent emulsion was applied at rates up to 2 quarts per
100 gallons to azaleas, camellias, camphor, crotons, gardenias, hibiscus,
hollies, ligustrum and roses with no evidence of any phytotoxic reaction.









Annual Report, 1952 83

CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Bankhead-Jones Project 537 L. C. Kuitert, Fred Clark
and A. N. Tissot
The first priming in the 1951 insecticide test field was made June 6 and
the fifth and last July 10. A severe drouth during the growing season
injured the tobacco badly and greatly reduced the yield, though the cured
tobacco was of fair quality. Yields varied from 891 pounds per acre for
toxaphene 10 percent dust to 1126 pounds for dieldrin 1 percent dust.
The yield from the check plot was 1002 pounds per acre. Yields from
10 of the insecticide treatments were somewhat higher than from the
check plot, while five were lower than the check. The drouth obviously
had such marked influence on the tobacco that any benefits from in-
sect control were overshadowed. None of the treatments gave yields
or quality significantly better than the untreated check.
The 1952 insecticide trials were made in a field of approximately one
acre, which was divided into 48 four-row plots each 67 feet long. This
permitted three replications of 15 insecticide treatments, including eight
spray formulations and seven dusts. The first application was made May
31, the second June 13 and the third and last June 26.
Materials and concentrations of sprays used and the total number
of gallons applied per acre included: TDE emulsion and TDE wettable,
each used at 1 pound active per 100 gallons, and 334 gallons per acre;
aldrin emulsion at 0.5 pounds aldrin equivalent per 100 gallons, 368
gallons; Compound 269 emulsion at 0.25 pounds active per 100 gallons,
338 gallons; Compound 711 emulsion at 0.25 pounds active per 100 gallons,
342 gallons; dilan emulsion at 0.5 pounds active per 100 gallons, 346 gal-
lons; malathon emulsion at 1.25 pounds active per 100 gallons, 347 gallons;
and CS-728 emulsion at 0.5 pounds active per 100 gallons, 372 gallons.
Dust materials used and the total amounts applied per acre in the
three applications were TDE 5% 131.3 pounds; DDT 5% 130.1; aldrin
2.5% 108.9; Compound 711 1% 109.9; dilan 5% 91.3; malathon 5% 126.7;
and parathion 2% 121.7.
Hornworm eggs were noted in the field soon after the tobacco was
transplanted and egg laying was heavy during most of the growing season.
However, hornworms did not do much damage, even in the untreated check
plots and buffer rows. Budworms appeared later and became numerous
by the end of May. Eggs of this species were laid in larger numbers and
the larvae were more numerous than in any of the three previous years of
insecticide tests. Aphids were present in the test field th-oughout the
season, but only a few infested plants could be found at any time.
The habits and behavior of hornworms and budworms make it ex-
tremely difficult to evaluate accurately the effectiveness of insecticides
used against them. The larvae move about on the plants and others are
continuously hatching from eggs, making it impossible to determine
exact larval mortalities. On the basis of larval counts, prevention of
reinfestation and protection from larval damage, the insecticides can be
rated in a general way. All of the materials tested gave satisfactory con-
trol of hornworms under the conditions of light infestation.
There was much more variation among the materials from the stand-
point of budworm control. The three formulations of TDE, Compound
711 emulsion and dust, DDT dust, and Compound 269 emulsion were out-
standingly effective. Of a somewhat lower order of effectiveness were:
aldrin emulsion, malathon emulsion and dust, dilan emulsion and dust,
CS-728 emulsion, and aldrin dust in approximately the order named.
Parathion dust was greatly inferior to all other materials tested. (See
also Proj. 537, AGRONOMY.)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


INTRODUCTION AND TESTING OF NECTAR AND POLLEN
PRODUCING PLANTS IN FLORIDA
State Project 583 F. A. Robinson
Approximately 60 different plants were introduced in the Honey
Plant Introduction Garden at Gainesville during the past year. Except
when seeds were too limited, plantings were made in 30 by 50 foot plots.
Very few of the introduced plants have proved attractive to honeybees.
Borage, Borago officinalis L., continues to be one of the most promising
plants so far tested. It has grown exceptionally well and its flowers are
visited by large numbers of bees.
The ever-flowering locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., also continues to
be promising. Trees planted in March 1951 were over 20 feet tall in
June 1952. In the early spring bloom the trees were literally covered
with clusters of flowers and the trees bloomed sporadically until the
first of June. At all times the blossoms were visited by hordes of honey-
bees.
Seeds of 42 samples of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. were
planted in 1951. Good stands were obtained and the plants attained a
height of five to six feet. At no time were honeybees observed at its
blossoms.
One-hundred-twenty-five seeds of water tupelo, Nyssa aquatica L., and
500 of white tupelo, N. ogeche Marsh, were planted early in 1952. Thirty
of the former and about 350 of the latter germinated. The seedlings were
6 to 10 inches tall June 1, 1952.
Approximately an acre of Crotalaria lanceolata E. May was planted
in the summer of 1951. An excellent stand was obtained and the plants
made a good growth. From the first blooms until the crop was turned
under in the fall honeybees visited the flowers in large numbers. The
sugar content of the nectar was exceptionally high.
A refractometer was used to determine the sugar content of several
plant nectars. All observations were made on plants grown at Gaines-
ville, except for white dutch clover which was tested at Orlando also.
The average percentages of sugar were as follows: Dixie Crimson clover,
31.675; Hubam sweet clover, 31.075; White Dutch clover, Gainesville
32.180, Orlando, 31.300; borage 33.757; watermelon, 28.121; canataloupe,
26.728; and crotalaria lanceolata, 50.170.

CONTROL OF THE HICKORY SHUCKWORM ON PECANS
State Project 597 A. M. Phillips
This project was conducted at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory in
cooperation with USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
Under conditions of severe infestation, three and four applications of
insecticides at three-week intervals failed to control the shuckworm.
Three applications of spray on June 28, July 19 and August 8, and four
applications on June 7 and the above dates-each containing 2 2/3 pounds
of 75% DDT wettable plus 1 quart summer oil emulsion per 100 gallons-
gave reductions of only 1.6 and 3.4 percent, respectively in infested nuts
at harvest.
Spray containing 3 1/3 pounds of parathion 15% wettable plus 1 quart
summer oil emulsion, applied on the same dates, gave reductions in infested
shucks of 2.0 and 4.4 percent for three and four applications respectively.
Four applications each of EPN 27% wettable plus 1 quart summer oil
emulsion per 100 gallons and Metacide 34.4%, 11/2 pints per 100 gallons,
applied on above dates, gave reductions in infested shucks of 2.7 and
5.7 percent respectively.








Annual Report, 1952


CONTROL OF INSECTS AND RELATED PESTS OF PASTURES
State Project 616 A. N. Tissot, L. C. Kuitert and R. E. Waites
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate some of the new
acaricides for effectiveness in controlling clover spider mites. In the
first trial Systox 50% emulsion was used at 1 quart per 100 gallons;
white parathion 15% wettable and Ovotran 50% wettable were used
together at 1 pound each per 100 gallons. The sprays were applied with
a 3-gallon pneumatic sprayer at the rate of 100 gallons per acre. There
were three replications and plots were 1/35 acre.
Twenty-five leaves were picked at random from each treatment to
determine effectiveness. Two days after treatment the Systox sample
showed no living and 151 dead mites; the parathion-Ovotran sample, 2
living and 62 dead; and the check, 41 living and 21 dead. Eleven days
after treatment the counts showed one living and 161 dead from Systox,
four living and 41 dead from parathion-Ovotran, and 101 living and 25
dead from the check.
Five materials were replicated three times on 1/100-acre plots in the
second trial. Sprays were applied at the same rate and in the same way
as in the first trial. In addition to the materials mentioned above, the
second trial included EPN 31.5% wettable powder and Aramite 15% wet-
table powder, each at 1 pound per 100 gallons and BP miticide 95%
emulsion at 1 quart per 100 gallons.
Eight days after treatment, 25-30 leaves were picked at random from
each plot and taken to the laboratory. Ten of the more heavily infested
leaves from each sample were examined and the mites counted. The
number of living mites per 10 leaves from the various treatments were
as follows: Systox, 2; B.P. miticide, 16; parathion-Ovotran, 35; Aramite
218; EPN, 284; and check, 142. (See also Project 616, HORTICULTURE,
NORTH FLORIDA, GULF COAST and EVERGLADES STATIONS.)

MISCELLANEOUS

Factors Influencing Insecticidal Residues on Vegetables.-Investigations
of insecticide residues on vegetable crops were begun in January 1952.
Studies of DDT and parathion on celery and cabbage were made in
cooperation with Dr. John W. Wilson of the Central Florida Station.
The formulations used were 50% DDT wettable powder, 25% DDT
emulsion, 15% parathion wettable powder and 25% parathion emulsion.
The two crops were divided into three series of plots which received two,
three and four insecticide applications. Residue analyses showed so much
variation that no conclusions can be drawn at this time.
Toxaphene 40% wettable powder, 60% emulsion and 10% dust, at two
dosage levels, were applied to tomatoes at seven-day intervals for a
total of nine applications. Each treatment was replicated three times.
Residue analyses from three harvests showed the following amounts of
residue: Wettable powder and emulsion at 2 pounds active material per
acre and dust at 3.5 pounds active, 3.53, 3.84 and 3.32 ppm, respectively;
wettable powder and emulsion at 1 pound active material per acre and
dust at 1.75 pounds active, 2.35, 2.23 and 2.42 ppm respectively. The
check showed 1.29 ppm present. The positive results of the check may
have been due to contamination of the check plot by the drifting of dusts
from adjacent plots. During the two months application period the
tomatoes received 9.09 inches of rain and 5.00 inches of overhead irriga-
tion water.
In the spring of 1952 chlordane was applied to snap beans, toxaphene
to blackeye peas and parathion to okra using wettable powder, emulsion








86 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

and dust at two dosage levels. Each treatment was replicated three times.
Residue analyses have not yet been made and data are not reported.
(See also Miscellaneous, HORTICULTURE.) (R. E. Waites.)
Use of Systemic Insecticides on Vegetable Crops.-In a preliminary
test Pestox III and Systox were used on okra and summer squash. Each
material was used at two rates and each was applied as a pre-planting
soil drench and as foliage sprays. All treatments were replicated three
times. The test is not finished and definite conclusions have not been
reached, but it has shown that the soil drenches of both materials caused
marked reductions in aphid infestation in both crops. (H. E. Bratley.)
Earworm Control in Sweet Corn.-A test was made to determine if
earworms could be controlled when insecticides were applied with hand
equipment. A planting of approximately 1 acre, consisting of 15
plots, was used. Each plot contained four rows 68 feet in length. This
provided for five treatments replicated three times. An overall application
of 10 percent toxaphene dust was made with a crank-type rotary hand
duster to eliminate budworms before the earworm tests were begun.
Earworm treatments were begun two days after the first silks appeared.
The materials used were: Kornol (DDT plus mineral oil), 14 pints in
three gallons; DDT 25% emulsion concentrate, 4 ounces in 3 gallons;
DDT 5 percent dust; and malathon 25% emulsion concentrate, 1 ounce in
3 gallons. The sprays were applied with a 3-gallon pneumatic sprayer at
30-45 pounds pressure and the dust with a crank-type rotary hand duster.
The insecticides were directed toward the ear zone and the rows were
treated from both sides. Insecticides were applied every other day and
seven applications were made.
The average rates per acre for the seven applications of each treat-
ment were: Kornol 59.5 gallons; DDT emulsion 60.4 gallons; malathon 63.1
gallons; and DDT dust 63.7 pounds. The corn was harvested three times.
The percentages of infested ears for each treatment were: Kornol, 1.5;
DDT dust, 3.2; DDT emulsion, 4.8; malathon, 34.9; and check, 65.2. The
test indicates that corn earworm infestations can be controlled under
conditions of light to moderate infestations and that hand equipment
is a satisfactory means of applying the insecticide. (L. C. Kuitert.)
Effects of Annually Repeated Soil Treatments of D-D for Controlling
Nematodes on Gladiolus.-All previously treated plots in both the original
area and the newer one set up in 1949 were re-treated with D-D in
1951. Five cc of liquid was applied in holes 6 inches deep and spaced
1 foot apart in each direction. The untreated checks again remained
untreated. Hand tools were used for cultivation and higher ridges were
made around the plots to prevent soil washing from plot to plot.
Two varieties of gladiolus were planted in the older area as in
previous years. Rewi Fallu in the treated plots produced 28% more
nematode-free corms than in the untreated check. Treated plots pro-
duced 8.4% more corms with 8.1% larger average diameter. They yielded
1.98, 2.82 and 2.0 times as many stems, side stems and flowerets, re-
spectively, as the checks. Debonair in treated plots produced 18.1%
more nematode-free corms than in the check. In this variety, treated
plots produced 17.1% more corms with 13.4% larger average diameter.
They yielded 1.47, 3.68 and 1.95 times as many stems, side stems and
flowerets, respectively, as the check.
The area established in 1949 contained 12 plots. Six were treated
with D-D and six were untreated. In that year eight of the plots were
planted with corms grown on treated soil and four with corms from
untreated soil. In each succeeding year corms from treated plots were








Annual Report, 1952 87

returned to treated plots and untreated to untreated. All planting stock
was standardized for size and number of corms. In 1951 the four
treated plots originally planted with treated corms gave 14.5% more
nematode-free corms than the four untreated plots. They produced
22.9% more corms with 39.5% larger average diameter and yielded 1.9,
3.77 and 1.29 times as many stems, side stems and flowerets, respectively.
The remaining two treated plots, which were planted with untreated corms
in 1949, gave 18.5% more nematode-free corms in 1951 than the two un-
treated plots receiving the same planting stock. The treated plots produced
11.3% more corms with 20.3% larger average diameter than the un-
treated ones. They yielded 1.0, 1.8 and 1.13 times as many stems, side
stems and flowerets, respectively.
The yield of corms and blooms was smaller in 1951 than in previous
years. This was attributed principally to inroads of gladiolus diseases.
These tests show that gladiolus are benefited by soil fumigation but that
diseases are likely to become serious if they are grown on the same soil
year after year. This experiment is being closed with this report. (H.
E. Bratley.)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


HOME ECONOMICS

This report gives a resume of data collected during the year on what
and how nutritional deficiencies in early life produce adverse effects
in later years. Dietary studies with school children, and with rats,
comprised the program.

EFFECT OF DIETARY PRACTICES AND PREVIOUS ILLNESSES ON
CARPAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN
Purnell Project 568 0. D. Abbott, R. B. French
and Ruth O. Townsend
In the study of the relationship of hemoglobin values and carpal
and epiphysial development of children to their dietary habits and past
illnesses, approximately 500 white and negro school children were ex-
amined. All of these children were in the first, second and third grades
in two schools in Alachua County. The 350 white children attended
the Sidney Lanier School in Gainesville and the 170 negro children
the Alachua Training School in Alachua.
The mean hemoglobin values of the white children in these three
grades were 12.48, 12.54 and 12.70 grams per 100 cc. of blood, re-
spectively. Approximately 20 percent of these children had normal
hemoglobin values (13.5 to 15.4 gms.); 67 percent had subnormal values
(11.3 to 13.5 gms.); while 13 percent had a mild degree of anemia
(8.9 to 11.3 gms.) Four percent of the negro children had normal
values; 64 percent subnormal; and 32 percent a mild degree of anemia.
In both schools the highest percentage of the children had subnormal
values-67 and 64 percent, respectively. The percentage of white chil-
dren with normal values was five times as high as those of the negro
children, while the percentage of negro children with mild anemia was
more than twice that of the white children.
Roentgenograms of the carpals and epiphyses of the ulna and radius
of white children show that there is little difference between chrono-
logical and carpal ages of 80 percent of the children. In the remain-
ing 20 percent considerable variation was noted, not only in the
time of appearance of the carpals, but also in the degree of mineraliza-
tion and sequence. Radial scoring and light mineralization were present
in 16 percent of the group; retardation, which varied from two to five
years, in 13 percent, and out of sequence of carpals in 2 percent.
Similar roentgenogram studies of negro children show that although
only 11 percent of them were retarded as much as two years, 27 percent
had scoring on the radius; 40 percent, light mineralization; and 7
percent lacked carpal sequence. However, while there were only slight
differences between the percentage of children 6, 7, and 8 years of age and
those of 9 and 10 years in respect to retardation, there were large
differences between these age groups for scoring, mineralization and
sequence. These values for the older and younger groups were for
scoring, 13:32 percent; light mineralization, 27:45 percent; and lack of
sequence, 1:8 percent, respectively.
Although it is generally agreed that these abnormalities are due to a
lack of available bone building material, especially calcium and phos-
phorus, data collected in this study add support to previous conclu-
sions that age of the child and length and severity of the deficiency
are factors which determine the type of abnormality. Data collected
during the past decade indicate that retardation is the result of a









Annual Report, 1952 89

gross deficiency of bone building material which begins very early-
perhaps even in the prenatal period-and extends over a period of years.
In this series, roentgenograms show that retardation of four children
aged 612 to 71/2 years evidently began during the first year of life,
since only two carpal centers which appear soon after birth were present.
Six children whose ages varied from 61/2 to 814 years had three carpal
centers, indicating a carpal age of 23/ years.
Scorings on the radius and light mineralization appear most often
in children during a period of rapid growth. Apparently growth takes
precedence over the laying down of ossific centers, for often it has
been observed that children whose growth has been rapid will show
light mineralization and even scoring on a diet considered adequate.
Apparently this is a demonstration of adjusting available minerals to
the needs of the rapidly growing child.
In this connection it should be mentioned that scoring on the shaft
of the radius imply a more severe deficiency than does light minerali-
zation. According to Todd, cupping of the ulna in the early months of
life is so common that it is accepted by the medical profession without
comment. However, in this study, when cupping was present in a
child 6 or 7 years of age it was interpreted as indicative of a gross
deficiency which had persisted over a long period.
In this and previous studies it was found that of all the carpal
centers, the lunate due to appear about the age of 2% to 3 years was
the one most often missing; and once missing it was delayed until all
other centers were present. It seems logical to conclude that a critical
shortage of bone building material existed at the time the lunate was
due to appear. Other centers, due later, appeared in sequence which
indicated that the deficit was one of short duration.
Interviews with a number of parents gave information as to the
probable causes of these skeletal abnormalities. Poor dietary adjust-
ment in infancy, dietary deficiencies of mother during pregnancy, poor
dietary habits after weaning, allergy, traumas, infections, etc., were
suggested by the parents as possible causes. However, except in
a few cases, the primary reason was the low consumption of foods
high in calcium and phosphorus, of which milk was the chief one.
No lunchroom facilities were provided in the negro school in Alachua
and few children had milk at home. In the Lanier school milk was
a part of every school lunch but by personal observation of the returned
milk bottles it was evident that many children did not drink the milk.

EFFECT OF CAROTENE OR VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN YOUNG
RATS ON SUBSEQUENT LIFE PATTERN
Purnell Project 569 R. B. French, O. D. Abbott
and Ruth O. Townsend
Young rats depleted of vitamin A and divided into two groups, one
showing maximum and the other average deficiency symptoms, were
realimented on the complete laboratory stock diet. Manifestations such
as smaller attained weights, litters with fewer individuals and smaller
weaning weights were associated with the group that had shown signs
of the greater deficiency.
Other rats depleted of vitamin A were realimented on levels of
vitamin A that were designated as subminimal, minimal, average and
optimum. Rats on the lowest level soon died with all the symptoms of
vitamin A deficiency. Those on the minimal level looked better, lived
longer and females attained a higher weight than those on the two higher
levels. Males have larger and longer lasting growth requirements than









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


females; for this reason males show more pronounced effects of de-
ficiency than females when both are on the same level of intake.
Monthly differential blood counts were made on all groups for a
period of seven months. The vitamin A-depleted animals showed a low
young granulocyte count and a high young lymphocyte count. As time
went on the young forms tended to approach the control animal levels
more rapidly as the levels of vitamin A were raised in the diet. There
was a suggestion in the data that the granulocyte forms tended to
overcompensate at the higher levels of vitamin A intake.
Renal calculi, which were apparent in X-ray pictures and also
found on autopsy, developed in the older animals that had been reali-
mented on stock food, but not in those that were realimented at the
varying levels of vitamin A on the casein yeast diet. Heavily infected
lungs with large necrotic areas developed in most of the older animals,
which when young had been depleted of vitamin A. These groups of
animals, when older, also showed joint and pelvic abnormalities and
considerable vertebral curvature in both the lumbar and thoracic regions.
Such results suggest that a history of vitamin A deficiency in early
life may have profound effects in later life.

NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES IN THE YOUNG RAT IN RELATION
TO SUBSEQUENT MALFORMATION OF BONES
Purnell Project 570 R. B. French, O. D. Abbott
and Ruth O. Townsend
Groups of weanling rats were fed a diet complete in all essential
nutrients except calcium or phosphorus, or both, until signs of a major
deficiency appeared. They were then realimented on the colony stock ration.
After four weeks on the low calcium-phosphorus diet the rats at-
tained 66 percent of the weight of the controls. Only the females sur-
vived the deficiency and were realimented.
The rats fed the low phosphorus diet for four weeks attained 45
percent of the weight of the controls. In this group only the males
survived the deficiency and were realimented.
Rats fed the low calcium diet grew slowly for eight weeks and at-
tained 18 percent of the weight of the controls. At this time all animals
were realimented.
At 33 weeks of age the average weights of the above groups were
80, 109 and 93 percent, respectively, of the controls fed only the stock
diet throughout the experiment; and at 63 weeks the average weights
were 73, 97 and 82 percent.
Roentgenograms made at the close of the period of deficient feeding
showed that skeleton mineralization was so light that the bones appeared
as shadows. Other abnormalities were deformed joints, malformation of
pelvis and curvature of the spine. In the low-calcium-phosphorus group
spontaneous fractures occurred in the spine, clavicle, femur and tibia.
Roentgenograms made at the close of the realimentation period
showed that with the exception of an increase in mineralization which
never reached that of the controls, the stock ration produced no or only
slight improvement in the skeleton. The deformed joints produced by
dietary deficiencies in early life were not repaired; while the malformation
of the pelvis and the curvature of the spine may have been ameliorated
to a slight degree. During realimentation the group previously fed diets
low in calcium-phosphorus showed abnormally short femurs.
Since it was necessary to compare femur lengths of experimental
animals, a curve has been constructed showing the relationship of body
length to femur length of normal animals.









Annual Report, 1952 91


HORTICULTURE

Problems in production, packaging, handling, transporting and pro-
cessing of vegetables were investigated during the year. Work with
deciduous fruits, nuts and ornamentals included nutrition, propagation,
mulches and effects of cold storage temperatures on certain bulbs and
seeds. Investigations on insecticide residues on vegetables were expanded
during the year with the addition to the staff of Dr. Charles H. Van
Middelem, Assistant Biochemist. A laboratory was equipped for use
in connection with this important research.

TUNG PRODUCTION
Hatch Project 50 R. D. Dickey and G. H. Blackmon
In propagation studies it was found that one-year-old seedlings of
the varieties Isabel, Florida and L-99 varied in the extent of cold injury
in November 1950 and subsequent recovery during 1951. Almost all
Isabel seedlings were killed to the ground, while L-99 had top parts of
trunks killed, areas along trunks frozen but only a few trees killed
to the ground. Injury to Florida seedlings was intermediate in severity
to that of Isabel and L-99. By banking soil about the lower 3 or 4
inches of the trunks for protection it was possible to bud some of the
injured seedlings with Isabel and Florida varieties in 1951. Isabel,

Fig. 6.-Propagating bed for rooting cuttings under a continuous water
mist in open sunlight.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Florida and L-99 rootstocks produced 40, 52 and 77 percent usable budded
trees, respectively. These percentages reflect the cold injury to these
rootstocks.
While most plantings are made with seedlings grown from seed of
superior trees, certain desirable varieties are propagated by budding in
late summer or early spring. Cold injury during the winter to one-year-
old seedlings, before or after they are budded, will injure or kill the dormant
buds or make the seedlings unfit for budding. Since it cannot be pre-
dicted in advance whether injurious temperatures will occur, it is ad-
visable to use the most cold-resistant seedling strains for rootstocks and
to protect them by banking with at least 12 inches of soil.
During the 1951-52 winter the Gainesville area had about 438 hours
of below 450 F. temperatures by the end of February. With about 100
hours less chilling than was experienced this past winter, tung in some
previous years had begun growth in this area by February 15. Though
the total number of chilling hours recorded was more than tung re-
quires, and February temperatures were satisfactory for growth, trees
started growth two to three weeks later than usual in this area. Ap-
parently the same number of chilling hours does not produce as much
chilling effect some years as others. Here warm periods alternate with
the cold; these may partially nullify the effects of previous chilling.
The N-P-K experiment in Jefferson County produced only a moderate
crop in 1951 due to cold injury to the trees the previous year. This
prevented positive comparison in the different treatments, but highest
yields were again obtained in the 8 percent potash plots, with 1 to 1 and
1 to 2 nitrogen-potash ratios.
A fair crop was harvested from budded Florida and F9 and seedlings
of these varieties in the tests on the Station farm which compare budded
and seedling trees. As before, the seedlings outyielded the budded
trees.

NATIVE AND INTRODUCED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS
Hatch Project 52 R. D. Dickey, Austin Griffiths, Jr.,
and S. E. McFadden, Jr.
Preliminary tests were made, in cooperation with R. H. Sharpe of
this Department, to evaluate the continuous-mist technique of propa-
gating woody cuttings. All plant materials used in the rooting trials
under mist rooted as well as or better than under standard propagation
procedures. Several rooting media were tested; those containing peat
moss and sawdust, in combination with each other or with vermiculite,
were most effective. The major benefits associated with continuous-mist
cuttage propagation are (1) almost complete control of disease and
insect pests and (2) sharp reduction in labor and time involved in care
and maintenance of cuttings and propagation facilities.
A baffle-spray nozzle is more satisfactory than the direct atomiza-
tion types for continuous-mist propagation.
Special handling was necessary with soft-leaved materials after re-
moval from the mist rooting facilities. The continuous-mist system also
proved valuable for use in hardening off newly potted materials and
those received for transplanting (Fig 6).
A selection program for developing improved forms of pyracantha
and lagerstroemia has been initiated. It is hoped that these selections
will provide superior forms of these materials for Florida gardens.
To determine the effect of sulfuric acid on the germination of pigmy









Annual Report, 1952


date palm (Phoenix roebeleni O'Brien) seed, lots of seed were soaked
in concentrated sulfuric acid for 4, 8, 12 and 16 minutes. One lot was
left untreated. All sulfuric acid treatments significantly depressed ger-
mination, as compared with the untreated check. The 16-minute treat-
ment was more injurious than the others.
An experiment planned to cover the range of conditions encountered
in the commercial handling and sale of tulip bulbs in Florida was con-
ducted in 1951-1952, using the varieties The Bishop, Scarlet Leader and In-
glescombe Yellow. Storage at 60 F. for 90 and 120 days did not meet
the cold requirements of these varieties. Storage at 360 F. for 90 days,
as in a previous experiment, significantly depressed flowering, as com-
pared with 90 days at 400 F. and 90 days at 500 F. Bulbs stored
at room temperature for 30 days, then for 60 days at 400 F., flowered well.
When storage conditions were reversed, and the 30 days at room
temperature followed the cold storage period, the effects of cold storage
were greatly reduced. Under these conditions, The Bishop produced
only 14 flowers, while Scarlet Leader and Inglescombe Yellow did not
flower. No flowers were produced by any variety in the 60 days at
400 F. and 60 days at room temperature treatment, the plants were
slow to emerge and growth was poor.

VARIETY TESTS OF MINOR FRUITS AND ORNAMENTALS
State Project 187 R. H. Sharpe, R. D. Dickey
and G. H. Blackmon
The winter of 1951-52 was too warm for successful breaking of
dormancy of many fruits under test. Records taken near the test blocks
at Gainesville showed 438 hours below 450 F. from November to Febru-
ary, inclusive, but plant response was slower .tian expected with this
amount of chilling. Considerable warm weather in December and Janu-
ary, with average mean temperatures of 62.2 and 61.4, respectively-or
an average of 4.4o above normal for the period-may have partially
nullified the effect of chilling hours below 45.
Peaches.-Except for Jewel, all of the 21 varieties under test showed
moderate to severe delay of bloom and failed to set any fruit. Jewel
variety bloomed in January and early February and the crop was mostly
lost in subsequent frosts. The mulching and fumigation test with this
variety has been abandoned, because the frost hazards appear too great
for fruit production and many trees were badly injured by cold the
previous winter.
Blueberries.-All varieties set fruit well, but Calloway and Myers
showed weak vegetative growth, apparently because of insufficient chill-
ing for the vegetative buds. Selection 11-180, Clara and 3-57 showed
moderate delay of vegetative growth. Of the newer large-fruited se-
lections, Coastal was the most vigorous and appeared to show no delayed
foliation.
Dewberries.-Regal, Big and Earli Ness fruited normally, producing
an average of five pints per plant. Advance yielded about the same,
but fruit size and quality were inferior. Test material of the Ness varie-
ties has been sent to a few other locations. At Bradenton, where De-
cember-January temperatures averaged 64.50 F., flowering and growth
were delayed and fruit set poorly. Near Sanford, with December-Jan-
uary temperature averaging 63.60, fruit set was quite satisfactory on
plants in partial shade. These preliminary data indicate that these
varieties may be better adapted to Central and North Florida areas
than to South Florida.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF VARIETIES AND STRAINS OF
VEGETABLES ADAPTABLE TO COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
IN FLORIDA
State Project 282 F. S. Jamison, V. F. Nettles,
L. H. Halsey and F. E. Myers
Sweet Potatoes.-Twelve varieties were grown in replicated trials.
These included seven released varieties and five numbered varieties.
Three numbered varieties, B5999, B5941 and 47X46-10, were outstanding
in their yield when compared to Unit No. 1 Porto Rico. These varieties
were also characterized by their high carotene content. The variety
Heartogold, although not of a commercially preferred type, has a high
carotene content and is of good quality. Its yield is similar to Unit No.
1 Porto Rico and may have a place as a home variety.
Tomatoes.-The replicated trial included Rutgers and Stokesdale as
standard commercial varieties, Bigboy, Urbana and eight numbered varie-
ties (including STEP 89). No variety was superior to Rutgers in yield of
marketable mature-green tomatoes. The best variety, STEP 171, yielded
34 bushels per acre more than Rutgers (176 bu./acre). The newly re-
leased variety "Homestead" (STEP 89) yielded 15 bushels per acre less
than Rutgers. The quality of the fruit of both these new varieties was
equal to Rutgers and the fruit size was slightly larger.
The project is closed with this report.

CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE MU-OIL TREE"
State Project 365 R. D. Dickey, G. H. Blackmon
and F. S. Lagasse
Twelve second-generation hybrid seedling trees (five years old) from
open pollinated seed of first-generation hybrids of reciprocal crosses
between Aleurites montana x A. fordi were in about the same stage
of growth by the last of February 1952 as were tung trees in the
Gainesville area. Since mu-oil trees were in active growth by the third
week of January and tung did not show the same growth activity until
the end of February, it is apparent that the F, hybrids more nearly
approach the chilling requirements of the tung tree than those of the
mu-oil tree. This spring, at the start of their fifth year in the field,
four of the F, hybrid trees flowered; but, though a considerable number
of female flowers were produced, no fruit was set.

VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS
State Project 391 F. S. Jamison, V. F. Nettles
and F. E. Myers
Cucumbers.-The replicated test consisted of 10 varieties and an addi-
tional five Japanese F-1 hybrids grown for observation. Marketer and
Vaughn Hybrid (not resistant to downy mildew) yields were greatly
reduced by downy mildew; while resistant Palmetto and South Carolina
10-3 gave the best performance. The Japanese F-1 hybrids have little
commercial merit, due to poor fruit color.
Broccoli.-Sixteen varieties and/or strains from the Southern Co-
operative Broccoli Trials were grown in a simple randomized design,
replicated three times. Several replantings were necessary, due to early
cold injury, and yields were lower than in previous tests. DeCicco,
Texas 107, Early One and Waltham 29 were in the group producing
the highest marketable yields. In side sprout production, the largest
12 In cooperation with BPISAE, USDA.









Annual Report, 1952


weight was harvested from Texas 107, followed closely by DeCicco, Early
Green Sprouting and Early One. Texas 107 gave the highest total yield,
but the individual weight of sprouts was light.
Peppers.-Twelve varieties-including California Wonder and Ruby
Giant-and/or strains were grown in a replicated test for yielding
ability. Ten were grown for observation. There were no significant
differences between varieties in yield expressed in weight of fruit for
the season. From the first week of harvest three of the leading varieties
in producing number and weight of marketable fruit were Florida Giant,
California Wonder and Burlington.
Onions.-Four varieties-Early Texas Grano, Excel, Crystal Wax
(L690) and Red Creole-were grown and produced satisfactory bulbs.
Onions were dug May 6 and stored in a barn loft for six weeks. No
significant differences in storage losses between Early Texas Grano and
Excel were found. Crystal Wax (L690) was discarded due to excessive
decay.
Eggplant.-The varieties Fort Myers Market and Florida Market, two
All-American selections and 10 F-1 Japanese hybrids were planted in two
replications for observation. The hybrids were, in general, early and
bore dark-colored, medium-sized fruit on low bushes. Florida Market was
later, but plants were resistant to tip-over which reduced the stand of
Fort Myers Market.
Cantaloupe.-Twenty-eight varieties and/or strains were planted in
non-replicated plots to which no fungicides were applied. Louisiana No.
7, Sanford No. 9, Smith's Perfect and Georgia 47 were the only varieties
showing considerable amount of resistance to downy mildew. The fruit
of these strains had acceptable quality, which was poor for the other
varieties. Sanford No. 9 and Smith's Perfect were late in maturing.
Georgia 47 and Louisiana No. 7 have sufficient merit to warrant trial
plantings by commercial growers on a limited scale. From plants of
six open-pollinated selections grown in 1951, 123 fruit were selected for
further testing and selfing.
Watermelons.-Florida Giant, Congo, Ironsides, Blacklee, Wilt-Resist-
ant Dixie Queen and Purdue Hawkesbury varieties and numbered strains
W-290, 48-12F and AA 52V08 were planted in an observational test.
Strain AA 52V08 closely resembles Purdue Hawkesbury in its grey color,
elongated shape and excellent quality, and it produced good yields, as
did W-290, 48-12F and Purdue Hawkesbury.

VARIETY-FERTILIZER RELATIONS
Beans.-Yields of Contender, Black Valentine and Tenderlong 15 were
tested with the following 4-7-5 fertilizer treatments applied in pounds
per acre: 1,200 banded in prior to planting; compared with 600 prior to
planting and 600 pounds 20 days after; and 400 prior to planting, 400
pounds each at 20 and 40 days.
Contender out-yielded Black Valentine and Tenderlong 15 in total
harvest, but there were no differences between the latter two varieties.
This same relationship existed in favor of Contender in the first harvest,
but no differences showed in the second harvest. In comparing the two
harvests within any one variety, the first harvest was significantly larger
than the second in Contender, while the second harvests were significantly
larger than the first in Black Valentine and Tenderlong 15. There were
no significant differences in the fertilizer treatments for all varieties.
Sweet Corn.-The effects of split applications of fertilizer on yields
of Calumet, N. J. 101, Improved Sencross, Golden Cross Bantam and









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


loana were studied under the same programs of 1,200 pounds per acre
of a 4-7-5 as outlined for beans above. There were significant differences
in number of marketable ears between varieties, but none due to ferti-
lizer treatments.
While N. J. 101 and Improved Sencross yielded significantly fewer ears
than the other varieties tested, there were no differences between varieties
in total marketable weight. Average weight of the Calumet ear was
less than that of the other varieties except Golden Cross Banam and
the average weight of the N. J. 101 ear was more than that of other
varieties tested except loana. Fertilizer applied in three increments
produced a significantly lighter ear but there were no differences between
the one and two increment applications.
(See also Proj. 391, SUBTROPICAL, EVERGLADES, CENTRAL
FLORIDA and GULF COAST STATIONS and POTATO INVESTIGA-
TIONS LABORATORY.)
IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Bankhead-Jones Project 435 V. F. Nettles
Tomatoes and watermelons were grown under two levels of moisture
by irrigation of inch of water every six days and no irrigation. A
rainfall of 1/2 inch or more was considered as an irrigation and the time
schedule was started from date of rain. The plots planted to each crop
were sub-divided to permit a test of side-dressing with nitrate nitrogen.
Tomatoes.-The yield in bushels of marketable grades of fruit was
significantly increased by the use of irrigation. More bushels of cracked
fruit were havested from irrigated plots but irrigation did not affect the
yield of puffy fruit. A higher yield of fruit of the size 6x6 or larger
was obtained from irrigated plots but no difference in 6x7 or smaller
sizes. Addition of two side-dressings of 200 pounds each of nitrate of
soda per acre as a supplement to the basic fertilizer application of 2,000
pounds of 4-7-5 per acre did not influence yield of marketable fruit.
No differences were noted in quality of fruit on ripening as a result of
treatments. (See Proj. 521 below.)
Watermelons.-Yield of watermelons was not increased by the use
of irrigation in this test. During the growing season 14.47 inches of rain
were recorded and 7.00 inches of irrigation water applied. Yield was not
influenced by the addition of 100 pounds per acre of nitrate of soda
at time of fruit set. No differences in number of melons exhibiting the
condition of white heart were found as a result of irrigation or fertilizer
treatment.

CULTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF CAMELLIA AND
RELATED GENERA
State Project 452 Austin Griffiths, Jr., and Nathan Gammon, Jr.
The camellia collection was maintained and increased by the acqui-
sition of 89 varieties of Camellia japonica L. and C. sasanqua Thunb.,
and one new species addition from England, C. taliensis Melchior.
Peat and vermiculite soil amendments, after four years, continue to
be effective on moisture equivalent values, showing 9.0 and 8.0, respec-
tively, compared with 6.3 for the check. The exchangeable potassium
in the vermiculite amendment plots has been considerably reduced over
the four-year period of this experiment, but the data show that the
exchange complex of vermiculite is capable of retaining appreciable
quantities of potassium against leaching. The organic exchange complex
of peat does not seem to have this property to any extent.
Because of losses in camellia propagation, comparative tests were








Annual Report, 1952 97

made between the standard and continuous-mist systems of rooting cut-
tings. Through reduced maintenance requirements and almost complete
disease and insect control, over-all losses in cuttings, under the system of
continuous mist and high light intensity, were reduced by half. (See also
Project 588, PLANT PATHOLOGY.)
In addition, four types of rooting media were tested under mist and
no mist. A sand medium was extremely poor under both; an equal-
volume peat moss and pine sawdust mixture was a poor medium under
the no-mist condition; an equal-volume mixture of sand and peat moss
and an equal-volume mixture of peat moss and vermiculite were relatively;
superior as media, providing more total rooting and better root systems
and an equal-volume peat moss and pine sawdust mixture was only
slightly less effective under mist.
There were no rooting differences observed between cuttings treated
with a growth-promoting substance and those untreated under either
mist or no-mist. Of the 13 varieties of C. japonica tested, Horkan
gave the highest total number rooted and also best root system and
C. oleifera Abel and C. sasanqua did not respond so well.
The continuous-mist system was used also with excellent results in
storing scion material for periods of six to eight weeks before grafting.
Plants imported from abroad and hardened off under mist proved su-
perior to the usual Wardian-case treatment. Attempts at carrying newly
grafted plants under mist, in an effort to improve on standard tech-
niques, were not successful.

MAINTAINING FRESHNESS IN VEGETABLES WITH ICE
State Project 467 R. K. Showalter
Two tests were made on the retention of freshness in sweet corn
and green beans in an iced display case, a mechanically refrigerated
case, and a non-refrigerated display rack. Daily quality ratings were
made and the temperatures of the sweet corn were measured with
thermocouples. In the first test the sweet corn temperature averaged
350 F. in the iced case and 420 F. in the mechanically refrigerated case,
at an average air temperature of 38' F. at the rack level. In addition
to the lower temperature in the iced display, the melting ice prevented
wilting of the beans and corn husks; such wilting developed in one day
in the mechanically refrigerated display.
In the second test high humidity was maintained in the mechanically
refrigerated display by a fine spray of water applied with a mist nozzle.
With this treatment, 10 pounds of beans lost 1 percent in weight in four
days, compared to a 4 percent gain in the iced display and a 28 percent
loss in the non-refrigerated dry rack. Severe wilting, discoloration and
decay developed in the non-refrigerated display, but good quality was
maintained with both types of refrigeration.
No low temperature injury developed on the iced beans in either test.
The reduction in temperature of warm sweet corn was more rapid and
lower temperatures were maintained in the ice display than with mechan-
ical refrigeration, but the cost of the ice and labor required for maintaining
this type of display may make the mechanical refrigeration more prac-
tical, especially if a water spray is used to prevent weight loss.

FREEZING PRESERVATION OF CERTAIN FLORIDA-GROWN
VEGETABLES
State Project 473 R. A. Dennison
Fruits and vegetables frozen in the spring of 1951 were scored sev-
eral times by the taste panel. The green bean varieties Contender,








98 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Logan and Tendergreen were rated good, while Black Valentine was
rated poor for freezing. On the basis of color, texture and flavor the
sweet corn varieties Ioana, Carmelcross, Calumet and Golden Cross
Bantam received high scores; only Huron was rated as not acceptable.
Of the blackberry varieties under test Ocoee, Texas 40-78 and Earliness
were rated best for freezing on the basis of color and texture.
A study was started this year to determine the speed at which fruits
and vegetables will thaw in a home freezer when there is an electric
power failure. Green beans were selected as a representative vegetable
and grapefruit packed in 40% sugar syrup as representative of a frozen
fruit. Two 8-cubic-foot home freezers were used. Tests were made
on each product with the freezers filled to approximately 1/6, 1/3, '/, %
and full capacity.
Frozen packages on the top layer in the freezer thawed more rapidly
than the lower packages; also, the closer the freezer was filled to
capacity the slower the rate of thawing. The vegetable thawed more
rapidly than the fruit, indicating the advisability of keeping vegetables
toward the bottom of the freezer and leaving the fruits on the top
layers.

EFFECT OF SOIL FUMIGANTS ON YIELD AND QUALITY
OF VEGETABLES
Bankhead-Jones Project 475 V. F. Nettles
Experiments begun in 1951 to test the continued use of soil fumigants
were continued using D-D, Dowfume W-40 and no fumigant. Each

Fig. 7.-Pressure bruising and box rubbing injuries to tomatoes may be re-
duced by using lined containers and more careful handling practices.




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