• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Credits
 List of departmental and branch...
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00037
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1951
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00037
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
        Page 3
    List of departmental and branch station reports
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
    Index
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
Full Text











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


GAINESVILLE, FLORIIA



AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT STATIONS






t ANNUAL REPORT

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1951










BOARD OF CONTROL

Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Petersburg
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville
George J. White, Sr., Mount Dora
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee
EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President3
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.3
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir. Research
Geo. F. Baughman, M.S., Business Mgr.3
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.3
Claranelle Alderman, Accountant3


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist s
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate4
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Little, M.S., Assistant4
Tallmadge Bergen, B.S., Assistant
D. C. Kimmel, Ph.D., Assistant
A. L. Larson, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr.
Statistician 2
, J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer 3
J. M. Johnson, B.S.A.E., Agr. Eng.3
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer
R. E. Choate, B.S.A.E., Asso. Agr. Eng.3
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A.E., Aspt. Agr. Eng."2
AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist 3
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Darrel D. Morey, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant
Myron C. Grennell, B.S.A.E., Assistant
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Husb.13
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husb.3
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist3
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist3
J. E. Pace, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.3
S. John Folks, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.4
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.3
John D. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.3
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 3

DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech. 1 3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy IHusb.3
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.3
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. in Dairy Mfs.3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Hush.2
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.
H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.
James M. Wing, M.S., Asst. Dairy Husb.


EDITORIAL

J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor 3
L. Odell Griffith, B.A.J., Asst. Editor3
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor 3

ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist 1
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist

HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist3
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Austin Griffiths, Jr., M.S., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.

LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist 3
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.' 3
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.

SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist 13
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist3
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
R. A. Carrigan, Ph.D., Biochemist
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor 3
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Microbiologist 3
Charles F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Micro-
biologist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist 34
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
James H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil
Surveyor
S. N. Edson, M.S., Asst. Microbiologist 3
William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
O. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist

VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian 3
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist
G. E. Ba te, D V.M., Asso. Parasitologist










BRANCH STATIONS


NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agronomist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb.


Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist


Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomh, M.S., Associate Agronomist


Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist


Mobile Unit. Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist


CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
P. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso.. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns. Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterlin-, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Francine Fisher. M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr.. Ph.D., Chemist
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. W. Faville. Ph.D'. Asst. Bacteriologist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist 4
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D.. Entomologist
E. JT. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
I. Stewart, M.S., Asst. Biochemist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Wm. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist


EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugar Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr.
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Hush.
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
C. C. Seale. Asso. Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. N. Stoner, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
W. A. Hills, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
W. G. Genung, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist
Frank V. Stevenson, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
R. H. Webster, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
H. L. Chapman, M.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
Thos. G. Bowery, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist


SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist


WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
William Jackson, B.S.A., Animal Husband-
man in Charge 2


RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist


CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Ben. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.


WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist


SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
LIVE OAK
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge


GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. G. Cowperthwaite, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.


FIELD LABORATORIES

Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist


Strawberry-Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist


Vegetables-Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist

Pecans-Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.


Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist2


SHead of Department
3In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave.


'._ e








4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


DEPARTMENTAL AND BRANCH STATION REPORTS
Page
Director's Report ...........................-...-- -----------.. --- 5
Business Manager ...........--.......----------------------- 17
Editorial ............ ...-- .....--- ........ ---........ -. .....------- 21
Library ............................--............-------------..---- 37
Agricultural Economics .------.................... ------------- 38
Agricultural Engineering ................................---...----- ------ 45
Agronomy ....-........................--....------- -------------- 47
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition ........................ .....------------.. 56
Dairy Science ......-..................---..-------------------- 63
Entomology ......-----............. -------------- -------- 67
Home Economics .....................-----------------.... ------- 74
Horticulture ..........-................... ------------ ----------- 78
U. S. Laboratory for Tung Investigations ..................... ............... ------91
Plant Pathology ....................----....-------------------- 94
Poultry Husbandry ........--.....................----- -----------... 101
Soils ...................--------- -----------------....................-- 105
Veterinary Science ........-.....-------- ---------.-------- 113
Field Laboratories ................--...... --... ......... -----.. ----- 120
Potato Investigations Laboratory .............-.. -------.........-..... 120
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory ....................... ................ 123
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory .............................. 126
Federal-State Frost Warning Service ........... ................... 129
Central Florida Station .............. ......... .............. ....... ......... 131
Citrus Station ................-- ...... ....-.......---..- ---.. .--...---.-- 140
Everglades Station .-...--..............-----------------------...... ..... 173
Gulf Coast Station .......--........................... -----......--... 207
North Florida Station ....--........... -- --- ------------........ ....--.... 229
Mobile Units ................. ...----.....--....--...... ..---------. 236
Range Cattle Station ..................---------------------.--------..-... 242
Sub-Tropical Station ......................- ...................................... 246
Suwannee Valley Station ....................---------------------- 261
West Central Florida Station ........-- ......--..----...----- ..- .....--- 262
West Florida Station ......................---.-----------------.. 264








Annual Report, 1951


REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

INTRODUCTION
Florida is to many a magic word. To some it means sunshine, flowers,
a salubrious climate, miles of citrus groves and large processing plants,
large vegetable growing fields and packing sheds, cattle ranges and pastures,
corn, tobacco, oats, soybean and peanut fields, tung and pecan trees,
ornamentals, tremendous agricultural enterprises. To others it may
mean phosphate and lime rock mining or other industries; to still others,
cities and towns, good roads, sandy beaches, hotels and motels, business
opportunities or a brief respite from the more rigorous weather of the
North. Then to some it means homes, quiet and restful, gardens, backyard
citrus trees, a place to retire and live.
Florida's tourism, both summer and winter, her extensive and varied
agriculture, her educational facilities, her businesses and industries are all
interrelated and together are advancing the State rapidly. Among these,
agriculture has become a main prop on which the State's economy rests.
This resulted through the acquiring and intelligent application of knowledge
on how to make the soils productive and through the introduction from
elsewhere of plants of economic importance. In this development the
trained staff of the Agricultural Experiment Station has had a leading
role. The Everglades, though drained, were not productive until, through
research, there was recognized the need for certain nutrient materials
which were lacking. Citrus groves, as the industry expanded to sandier
areas, were becoming less thrifty for the same reason and again the answer
was provided by these scientists. Station workers also showed where
cattle, pastures, nut crops and vegetables required mineral supplements in
the nutritional programs. It is interesting to speculate what Florida's
cities, towns and countryside, her entire economy, might be now if the
Everglades had remained unproductive, if the citrus groves had yielded less
and less, and if beef cattle production, now twelfth in the U.S.A., had
remained static.
Research in all of these areas of investigation foods, feeds, fibers,
ornamentals, livestock, plant and animal pest control, cost and management,
packaging, transportation and marketing, and in many others by the
225-member staff of the Station continues from year to year. During this
fiscal year 10 projects were closed, 13 were revised and brought up to
date, 24 new ones were initiated, and 182, requiring further investigation,
were continued. The research covered by many of these is conducted
cooperatively through team work by staff members in different depart-
ments or located in different areas of the State.
Agricultural research, a continuous process, deals with specific investiga-
tions which usually extend over a period of years. Fixing the exact date
when such tests are completed or their results generally accepted is often
impossible, and particularly so in a report such as this which is issued
annually. Annual reports, necessarily brief, often cover a segment of
research for the particular fiscal year only, but this, if understood, makes
them no less valuable.
Attention could be directed to many items of research of long standing
and which must be continued for further information. Some of the newer
approaches may be of even greater interest. For example, this year marks
the first decade of antibiotic research in America which began in 1941.
During this time penicillin, streptomycin, aureomycin and other such ma-
terials were developed. In testing these for various uses, and especially








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


during the last several years, the Florida Station has participated, and has
found aureomycin in particular of importance and benefit in swine nutrition.
Penicillin, however, when used as a therapeutic for mastitis control, was
found a detriment in the ordinary processing of milk if improperly ad-
ministered. Other facts of value in this particular field have been and are
being established and reported.
In 1944 the Florida Station began using radioactive elements to
determine the location and function of trace elements in the animal body.
The use of these isotopes provides a very effective tool for rapid determina-
tions where chemical analyses, because of the minute quantities involved,
were wholly inadequate. Since then much information has been obtained
on elements such as copper, cobalt, phosphorus, molybdenum and others,
and on the role they play in animal nutrition. More recently the use of
these isotopes has been extended to plant and soils research.
During the past few years large numbers of organic pesticides have
been offered by commercial companies for use for many purposes. The
Station's entomologists, plant pathologists and others have tested and
evaluated these materials. They, in cooperation with representatives of
the State's industries, the Florida Agricultural Extension Service, and the
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, have compiled and issued a Handbook on
Pesticides and Their Uses in Florida Agriculture. The first edition was
issued in February 1949 and the second (a revision) in February 1951.
This handbook includes descriptions of 114 materials, recommendations for
their use to control insect, fungus and other pests, a list of registered
brands of these pesticides and the names of many manufacturers and
distributors. The handbook, intended for those in industry research, ex-
tension and other agricultural endeavors who deal directly with the manu-
facture, distribution, sale or recommendations for the use of these materials,
has proved of considerable value and has had rather wide distribution.
The toxicology of parathion and other phosphatic insecticides was in-
vestigated and pertinent information released concerning their use. Off
flavors in citrus juices caused by the use of the organic pesticides have been
investigated, as have also the storage and keeping quality of concentrated
citrus juices.
During the past several years, and again this year, information has
been gathered and disseminated on the feeding value of by-products such
as ramie, bean vine and citrus meal and citrus molasses. Information was
published on labor and material requirements and costs involved in the
production of crops such as potatoes and tomatoes. Many more items,
some probably of more interest than others because of their relative
newness, could be discussed. An examination of the titles of Station
bulletins and of the 255 articles listed on the following pages, and published
elsewhere, as well as the brief summaries of the work conducted under the
many different projects, should give a fairly complete picture of the nature
and scope of the Station's research program which is concerned with all of
the many phases of Florida's agricultural industry.

IMPROVEMENTS AND ADDITIONS
Within the current year the Suwannee Station at Live Oak was activated
and research germane to the crops grown in that area was begun. At
the Main Station much of the land on the new Beef Research Unit area
was cleared, fences were built, a storage barn was constructed; a home
was started for the use of the foreman; also, a tobacco barn was built and
two Orlyt greenhouses and a headhouse were completed. Plans are under
way for the construction of a new Poultry Unit.








Annual Report, 1951


An implement shed was constructed at the Citrus Station and a tract
of about 700 acres, named the Indian River Field Laboratory, was donated
to the Station at Fort Pierce for citrus, vegetable and pasture research in
that area. A field laboratory began operating in July in the Boynton area
and existing buildings were adapted for storage and housing of equipment
and for a field office and laboratory. A contract was awarded for the
construction of an office and laboratory at the North Florida Station and
a dairy unit is being established for research at Chipley. At the West
Florida Station a tool shed was constructed, buildings were repainted, wells
were drilled for additional water, and 20 acres of land were cleared for
research in crop production.

STAFF CHANGES
APPOINTMENTS
Robert J. Allen, Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Station, November 1, 1950.
Malcolm R. Bedsole, Assistant in Chemistry, Everglades Station, November
1, 1950.
William G. Blue, Assistant Biochemist, Soils Department, Main Station,
July 15, 1950.
James R. Christie, Interim Assistant in Entomology, Citrus Station, March
15, 1951.
Richard 0. Coffeen, Field Assistant-Marketing, Main Station, August 1,
1950.
William G. Cowperthwaite, Asst. Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station, July 1,
1950.
John F. Darby, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, June 1,
1951.
Seton N. Edson, Interim Asst. Soil Microbiologist, Main Station, February
1, 1951.
Charles F. Eno, Asst. Soil Microbiologist, Main Station, October 1, 1950.
John P. Feaster, Asst. Animal Nutritionist, Main Station, April 26, 1951.
Carroll M. Geraldson, Asst. Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station, February 1,
1951.
Victor E. Green, Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Station, June 25, 1951.
Leon 0. Griffith, Asst. Editor, Main Station, October 16, 1950.
Austin Griffiths, Jr., Interim Asst. in Horticulture, August 1, 1950.
Marvin Koger, Animal Husbandman, Main Station, June 1, 1951.
Darell E. McCloud, Asst. Agronomist, Main Station, January 1, 1951.
Samuel E. McFadden, Asst. Horticulturist, Main Station, December 1, 1950.
Albert M. Pearson, Asst. Animal Husbandman, Main Station, July 1, 1950.
Seth B. Plank, Asst. Animal Husbandman, Everglades Station, September
15, 1950.
William K. Robertson, Asst. Chemist, Main Station, September 26, 1950.
William F. Spencer, Asst. Chemist, Citrus Station, June 1, 1951.
Frank V. Stevenson, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, Septem-
ber 15, 1950.
Ivan Stewart, Asst. Biochemist, Citrus Station, June 21, 1951.
George Swank, Jr., Asst. Plant Pathologist, Central Florida Station, July
1, 1950.
Harold D. Wallace, Asst. Animal Husbandman, Main Station, March 1, 1951.
Thomas E. Webb, Assistant in Agronomy, North Florida Station, July 1,
1950.
Raymond H. Webster, Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Station, December 1,
1950.
James M. Wing, Asst. Dairy Husbandman, Main Station, April 1, 1951.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ADVANCEMENTS
Tony J. Cunha, from Professor and Animal Husbandman to Head Professor
of Animal Husbandry and Head, Department of Animal Husbandry,
Main Station, October 1, 1950.
Austin Griffiths, Jr., from Interim Assistant in Horticulture to Assistant
Horticulturist, May 1, 1951.
George E. Ritchey, from Agronomist, Main Station, to Agronomist in
Charge, Suwannee Valley Experiment Station, November 1, 1950.
RESIGNATIONS
Roy A. Bair, Agronomist, Everglades Station, September 30, 1950.
Daniel W. Beardsley, Asst. Animal Husbandman, Everglades Station, Sep-
tember 15, 1950.
Milton Cobin, Asso. Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Station, June 30, 1951.
Claude D'Angio, Asst. Chemist, Everglades Station, August 31, 1950.
David B. Gibb, Fiber Technologist, Everglades Station, March 1, 1951.
M. N. Gist, Collaborator, BPISAE, USDA, Main Station, November 30, 1950.
Kenneth A. Harris, Asst. Agricultural Engineer, Everglades Station, Sep-
tember 30, 1950.
William D. Hogan, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, September
30, 1950.
Henry D. Merwin, Asso. Chemist, Citrus Station, March 31, 1951.
George K. Parris, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Watermelon and Grape
Investigations Laboratory, June 30, 1951.
Seth B. Plank, Asst. Animal Husbandman, Everglades Station, May 15, 1951.
Doyle W. Smith, Asst. Chemist, Everglades Station, June 30, 1951.
Richard K. Voorhees, Asso. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, June 30, 1951.
Allan E. Willson, Asso. Biochemist, Citrus Station, December 15, 1950.
DECEASED
Harold M. Reed, Chemist, Horticulture Dept., Main Station, May 21, 1951.
SUMMARY OF WORK IN PROGRESS
The Station's research, conducted under planned and approved project
statements, is listed by the titles given below. Work of an exploratory
nature and of short duration is given in the various divisions under "Mis-
cellaneous."
MAIN STATION
Agricultural Economics
Project No. Title Page
154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida ................................ 38
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
Citrus ..................................-----------..... ......---- ....... 38
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency, Its Possible Inheritance
and Depreciation in Florida Dairy Herds (revised during year) 39
395 Input and Output Data for Florida Crop and Livestock Production 39
429 Analysis of Farms and Markets in the Plant City Area with
Respect to Post-War Economic Problems ........---........--.................. 39
451 Crop and Livestock Estimating on Florida Farms with Emphasis
on Vegetable Crops --......-...... -------------- ----------- -- .... ......... 39
480 Cost of Production and Returns on Vegetable Crops in Florida .... 40
483 Consumer Pacjaging of Vegetables (Except Tomatoes) ................ 40
484 Packaging of Tomatoes .................-...---- .....----------. 41
485 Spoilage in Marketing Early Irish Potatoes .--................................... 41
486 Cost and Factors Affecting the Cost of Marketing Citrus Fruits
in Fresh and Processed Form ...................... ................... 41








Annual Report, 1951


Project No. Title Page
519 The Consumer Pattern for Citrus Fruit .................................... 42
520 Coordinated Selling of Citrus Fruit ............................................... 42
530 Methods of Leasing Farm Land in Florida (closed during year).... 43
556 Farm Rental Arrangements in Florida .......................................- 43
562 Consumer Demand for Citrus Products and Factors Affecting
That Demand (revised during year) ........................................ 43
578 Consumer Acceptance of Waxed and Colored Potatoes (initiated) 44
579 Part-Time Farming in Florida (initiated during year) ................ 44
...... Miscellaneous: Costs of Milk Production; Florida Truck Crop
Competition; Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries to
Groves in Florida ... .... ....................-......-... 44
Agricultural Engineering
536 Curing H ay in Florida .................................... .............- 45
555 Fertilization and Culture of Flue-Cured Tobacco ........................... 45
573 Design and Operation of Heat Exchangers for Farm Drying
Equipment (initiated during year) ....................................... 46
577 Determination of the Optimum Air Delivery, Air Temperature
and Depth of Seed for Mechanical Drying (initiated) .........- 46
..... Miscellaneous: Corn Storage; Gladiolus Corm Drying ................ 46
Agronomy
20 Peanut Improvement ............ --............-............. 47
56 Variety Test Work with Field Crops ............... .......-. .........- 47
163 Corn Fertilizer Experiments ................... ........ ..-....- ................ 48
295 Effect of Fertilizers and Management on Yield, Grazing Value,
Chemical Composition and Botanical Makeup of Pastures ........ 48
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies .............................. 49
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement -.........--..... ..... ....-.. 49
301 Pasture Legum es .................... ...... ..... ............................. 49
304 Methods of Establishing Permanent Pastures Under Various
C conditions ...................... ... ........................- ....... .. ... .... ....... 50
369 Effect of Environment on the Composition of Forage Plants ........ 50
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement ....................-.... ....-....... 51
374 Corn Improvement .................................................. .. .... ...... ..... 51
417 Methods of Producing, Harvesting and Maintaining Pasture
Plants and Seed Stocks ........................................ ............. 51
440 Effect of Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S and Mg on the Growth of Grain
Crops, Forage Crops, Pastures and Tobacco ......................... 52
444 Permanent Seedbeds for Tobacco Plants .......................................... 52
487 Improvement of Oats, Rye, Wheat and Barley Through Breeding
for Desirable Agronomic Characteristics and Resistance to
Disease ....................- .. ... ......- ...........- ...- ..... ..... 53
488 Nutrition and Physiology of the Peanut ............ ... ............... 53
536 Curing Hay in Florida ...................................... ... .. .... 54
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco .............................. 54
555 Fertilization and Culture of Flue-Cured Tobacco ............................ 55
...... Miscellaneous: Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cotton .......... 55
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle (revised during year) ................ 56
346 Investigation with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition
Problems of Livestock ............... ......................... 57
356 Biological Analysis of Pasture Herbage .........-- ... ..................... 57
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixtures, and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized
Pastures .................................................... 57







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Project No. Title Page
426 Toxicity of Crotalaria spectabilis (Roth) (closed during year)... 58
461 Supplemental Feeds for Nursing Beef Calves ................................... 58
481 Losses in Marketing Livestock (closed during year) ........................ 58
512 Sweet Lupine Seed as a Protein Supplement for Growing and
Fattening Beef Cattle .........................-..-.. --- .... .....---- 58
518 Thyroid Function in Chickens .--.................------.................---58
540 Citrus Molasses for Feeding Swine ...................... ........... ......... 59
541 Feeding Value of Florida Hays for Swine ........................................ 59
542 Supplemental Feeds for Sows During Reproduction and
Lactation on Florida Pastures ....................... -.......----- .... ....-.. 59
543 Roughages for Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle in Florida 59
546 Loss of Nutrients in Drip from Defrosted Frozen Meat ................ 59
566 Transfer of Mineral Elements Through the Placenta and Their
Distribution in the Fetus ......................--.--.... ...... ............--- . 60
Miscellaneous: Value of Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal for
Swine; Supplementation of Overheated Soybean Oil Meal;
APF, B1;, B1., and Antibiotic Supplementation of Swine
Rations; Use of Stilbestrol Implants for Growing-Fattening
Pigs; Effect of Supplementation of Swine Rations with APF
and Aureomycin on Deposition of B-Complex Vitamins in
Tissue; Effect of Adding Urea to Citrus Molasses; Interrela-
tionships of Copper, Molybdenum and Phosphorus; Effect of
Minor Elements on Phosphorus Metabolism in Cattle; In-
fluence of Various Phosphate Sources on Cattle ........................ 60
Dairy Science
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to
Her Milk and Butterfat Production ........................ ............. 63
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops ........................-.......-.. .-...-- 63
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Flor-
ida Dairy Herds (revised during year) ....................................... 63
497 Influence of Water Constituents (Minerals) on the Physical
Properties and Whipping Quality of Ice Cream Mixes ........... 63
534 Cooling and Aging of Ice Cream Mixes ....--................................. --- 64
564 Post-Partum Development of Bovine Stomach Compartments
and Observations on Some Characteristics of Their Contents.... 64
571 Effects of Antibiotics and Chemotherapeutic Agents on Micro-
organisms in Milk and Dairy Products (initiated during year) 65
575 Study of Production, Reproduction and Conformation of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Dairy Herd (initiated) 65
-. Miscellaneous: Freezing-Point Studies on Cream; New Stabil-
izers for Ice Cream; Effects of Phytates as Antioxidants in
Milk; The Creaming of Milk; Concentrated Whole Milk;
Feed Flavors in Milk; Low Fat Milk Due to Feeding ............. 65

Entomology
379 Control of Nut and Leaf Casebearers of Pecans (revised) ............ 67
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida...... 67
385 Effects of Mulches on the Root-Knot Nematode (closed) ............. 68
531 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Woody Ornamentals ...... 68
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco ................................... 69
583 Introduction and Testing of Nectar and Pollen Producing Plants
in Florida (initiated during year) ..........................................-- -- ... 70
Miscellaneous: Biology and Control of the American Grass-
hopper; Toxaphene Phytotoxicity Studies; Miscellaneous








Annual Report, 1951 11

Project No. Title Page
Pecan Insects; Effects of Annually Repeated Soil Treatments
of D-D for Controlling Nematodes on Gladiolus ........................ 71
Home Economics
442 Assessment of the Nutritive Value of Certain Supplements
When Added to Basal Diets of Enriched and Unenriched
B read .......................... ......... ............. .... ......... 74
443 Vitamin B Content of Foods ......................-................................... 75
516 Effect of Processing and Storage Upon Nutritive Value of Milk.... 75
568 Effect of Dietary Practices and Previous Illnesses on Carpal
Development of Children (initiated during year) .................... 76
569 Effect of Carotene or Vitamin A Deficiency in Young Rats on
Subsequent Life Pattern (initiated during year) ....................... 76
570 Nutritional Deficiency in the Young Rat in Relation to Subse-
quent Malformation of Bones (initiated during year) .......... 77
Horticulture
50 Tung Production (revised during year) .............- ........................ 78
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and
Methods for Their Propagation (revised during year) .......... 78
80 Cooperative Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards (closed) ............ 79
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ............................ 79
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vege-
tables Adaptable to Commercial Production in Florida ............ 79
365 Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree ..................................... 80
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ..................................... -. ..................... 81
432 Effects of Boron on Certain Deciduous Fruits and Nuts (closed) ... 82
435 Irrigation of Vegetable Crops .......................................... 82
452 Culture and Classification of Camellia and Related Genera ....... 82
467 Maintaining Freshness in Vegetables with Ice -........-................ 83
468 Quality of Vegetables as Related to Fertilizihg Materials, with
Emphasis on Potash Salts (closed during year) ........................ 83
473 Freezing Preservation of Certain Florida-Grown Vegetables ........ 84
475 Effect of Soil Fumigants on Yield and Quality of Vegetables ....... 84
483 Consumer Packaging of Vegetables (Except Tomatoes) ........... 85
484 .Packaging of Tomatoes ...................................-.... .......- ... 85
484A Tomato Marketing ................-...... ............. .............. 86
501 Vegetable Breeding ................. .... ................ -.. .. ............ 86
521 Tomato Ripening .................................... .. .. ............. 87
526 Canning Florida-grown Vegetables .............. . - -..... .......... 88
553 Testing Miscellaneous Fruits and Nuts .........--......-.............. 88
565 Fertilization of Pecans ...................... ............ ............ ........ -...... 88
592 Prevention of Skinning of Potatoes (initiated during year) ........... 89
--. Miscellaneous: Onion Curing; Nitrogen Fertilization of the
Tomato with Foliar Sprays of Urea; Control of Nut Grass
with Chemicals; Tomato Quality as Influenced by Environ-
mental Conditions; Retail Display Methods for Fresh Vege-
tables; Fertilizer Requirements for Watermelons; Influence
of Fertilizer Level and Time of Application on Crop Yield;
Ornamental Plant Breeding; Determination of Insecticide
Residues on Vegetables ............................................ ........ .. .. 89
U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations ........................ 91
Plant Pathology
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants ........ 94
281 Damping-Off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops (revised) ........... 94
344 Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Eggplant .............................. 95







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Project No. Title Page
455 Camellia Diseases .- -............ .......----............. .. .. ............ 96
463 Lupine Investigations ......... ...................................... ....... ............... 96
487 Improvement of Oats, Rye, Wheat and Barley Through Breed-
ing for Desirable Agronomic Characteristics and Resistance
to Disese (revised during year) .--.................. ......... ...... .... 97
524 Nectar and Pollen Plants of Florida ....... ........ -.............. ..... ....... 98
538 Virus Diseases of Cucurbits and Other Vegetables in Central
F lorida ......................................... ...... ............................... 98
539 Control of Scab and Other Foliage Diseases of Pecans .................. 99
563 Causes and Control of Diseases of Potted Plants ............................ 99
574 Resistance of Peppers to Virus Diseases (initiated during year)..-. 100
588 Control of Soil Organisms Causing Damping-Off and Root Rots
of Nursery Plants (initiated during year) .................................... 100
Poultry Husbandry
489 Feeding Value of Citrus Meal and Citrus Seed Meal for Poultry.... 101
503 Broiler Feeding Trials ................................ --------............... ....--- ..... 101
517 Factors Influencing the Development of Pullet Disease ................ 102
551 Utilization of Calcium and Phosphorus by Poultry as Determined
with Radioactive Isotopes .........-----....... ---........................ 102
572 Comparative Value of Simplified Poultry Diets for Eggs and
Meat Production (initiated during year) ..................................... 103
...Miscellaneous: Sunflower Seed Meal for Growing Chicks; Deep
Litter in Laying Houses; Citrus Molasses for Growing Chicks.. 103
Soils
328 Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and Crop-
ping System s in Florida .......................... ...- ......--................ 105
347 Chemical, Physical and Mineralogical Properties of Representa-
tive Florida Soils (revised during year) .......-................................ 105
368 Factors Affecting Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule
Development ...-......................-------- --......--.-------.... ---. ...-. 105
389 Classification and Mapping of Florida Soils -..............-..............-........ 106
404 Correlation of Soil Characteristics with Pasture Crop and Ani-
mal Response ...................---........ ---- --- ------.. ................... 106
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied
to Different Soil Types ................... .................. ..... ........... 107
433 Retention and Utilization of Boron in Florida Soils ........................ 108
446 Testing Soils and Limestone ......................-...... ..........----..--......-.. 109
447 Availability and Leaching of Minor Elements in Florida Soils .... 109
493, 535, 544 Soil Management Investigations .................... ..............-. 111
513 Maintenance of Available Nitrogen in Florida Soils ........................ 109
576 Relationship Between Several Soil-Water Constants and the
Moisture Content of Soils under Supplemental Irrigation
(initiated during year) .......................... .......................................... 110
... Miscellaneous: Greenhouse Studies of the Effects of Soil
Amendments Applied to North Central Florida Soils; An-
alysis of Soils from Land Resting Experiment; The Effect
of Lime and pH of Soil on the Uptake and Utilization of
Various Elements on Different Crops ....................................... 111
Veterinary Science
353 Infectious Bovine Mastitis .................................. ---.............. 113
424 The Transmission Agent of Fowl Leucosis (revised during year).. 113
459 Control of the Fluke (Trematoda) Disease of Cattle (revised) ... 113
462 Anaplasmosis in Cattle (revised during year) ......-........................ 114
517 Factors Influencing the Development of Pullet Disease ................ 115







Annual Report, 1951


Project No. Title Page
554 Control of Internal Parasites of Cattle (revised during year) .... 116
557 Control of External Parasites of Cattle .............................................. 117
.-- Miscellaneous: Plants Poisonous to Livestock; Luxation of the
Patella in Bovines ....------- ....--..........-.................. 118

FIELD LABORATORIES
Pecan Investigations Laboratory
For Reports see Project 379, ENTOMOLOGY, and Project 539, PLANT
PATHOLOGY.
Potato Investigations Laboratory
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ....... .................. ............................... 120
419 Downy Mildew of Cabbage ...................... ............ ............... 120
465 Fertility Studies in Cabbage Production ....................................... 121
469 Improvement of Potato Cultural Practices .................................... 121
500 Alternaria Lef Spot of Cabbage and Other Crucifers ...................... 121
527 Cabbage Diseases Other Than Downy Mildew and Alternaria
L eaf Spot ..... ... ..................... .. ........... ............ ..... ......... 122
529 Potato Diseases ................ ... ..... ..... ............ ................. 122
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .... -...................... ..... ........... .......... 123
499 Strawberry Variety Trials .............. ---..- .............. ......................... 123
..... Miscellaneous: Fertilizer Trials; Spray Application of Nutrients
to Foliage; Sting Nematode ................ ... ..................... 124
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
150 Investigation of and Control of Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon .... 126
151 Investigation of and Control of Fungus Diseases of Watermelons.. 126
254 Investigation of Fruit Rots of Grapes (closed during year) .......... 127
586 Grasses and Legumes for Pastures in Central Florida (initiated).. 127
S Miscellaneous: Herbicides; Cotton; Sesame ................................. 128
Federal-State Frost Warning Service
...... Report of the 1950-51 Season .............. .................. ................. 129

BRANCH STATIONS
Central Florida Station
281 Damping-Off and Root Rots of Vegetable Crops ................................ 131
336 Cercospora Blight of Celery ...... .............................. .............. 133
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida ...... 133
391 Vegetable Variety Trials -......................................... 133
401 Control of Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn ............... 134
494 Improvement of Cultural Practices for Cabbage, Lettuce, Celery
and Other Vegetable Crops ..... --..----.-- .......... ..................... 134
495 Liquid Fertilizers for Vegetable Crops ................................... ...... 135
496 Soil Management Problems in Vegetable Crop Fields ...................... 135
500 Alternaria Leaf Spot of Cabbage and Other Crucifers .................... 136
501 Vegetable Breeding ... ................. .. ............ .. ..... .................. 136
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops ........................ 136
581 Synthetic Insecticides and Fungicides for Vegetable Crops in
Central Florida (initiated during year) ...............--- ..................... 137
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
Corn (initiated during year) ............. .............. .......................... 138
...... Miscellaneous: Downy and Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits;
Escarole; Peppers; Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) DeBy.;
Ascochyta abelmoschi Harter; Alternaria sp.; Virus Disease;
Cotton Insects ....-- ..-----.- ------------.................-..... 138








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Project No. Title Page
Citrus Station
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection ..............---....-- ..---- ...------- 140
102 Variety Testing and Breeding .......-------...........................----.---- 140
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rot of Citrus Fruit .... 140
340 Citrus Nutrition Studies ................................. -....... --- -- ---. ----- 140
341 Combined Control of Scale Insects and Mites on Citrus .................... 149
508 Water Relations with Citrus in the Coastal Citrus Areas ............ 151
509 Nature, Causes and Control of Citrus Decline -........................--... 152
510 Insect Parasitism and Related Biological Factors as Concerned
with Citrus Insect and Mite Control ......-----...........-.... ---------. 154
511 Diseases of Citrus Insects ...................--------.... .... ---............ 154
547 Bulk Handling of Fresh Fruit for Packinghouses ........................--- 155
550 Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices ...................... 156
552 Mechanical Grove Duster (closed during year) ........................----- 156
561 Coliform Organisms in Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices ............ 156
Miscellaneous: Chemistry of Insecticides; Horticultural Machin-
ery; Ecological Research on Factors Affecting Citrus Fruit
Production; Improvement of Packinghouse Processes; Studies
of Treated Fibreboard Shipping Cartons; Occurrence of
Parathion in Citrus Peel Oils; Citrus Molasses ....................... 157
Citrus Investigations in the Coastal Areas ......................-------------- 162
Cooperative Research with Florida Citrus Commission: Citrus
Fruit Decay Studies; Processing and By-Products Research.... 164
Everglades Station
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings.... 174
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse
Conditions ........................----....... --- -.- ---- 174
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ----............... --------------... 177
88 Soils Investigations .....................------- ---- ---------------- 183
89 W ater Control Investigations --......................---- -----..... --------- 184
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle (revised during year) .................... 187
168 Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the Peat
and Muck Soils of the Everglades ...................................-------- 188
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugarcane Moth
Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fab.), in South Florida ..--..-... 190
171 Cane Breeding Experiments .......----..........---.......----- 191
172 Physiology of Sugarcane .....---.....---..-.--------------- -- 191
195 Pasture Investigations on Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades.. 191
206 Fiber Crop Investigations .................. ......... ..... ---- --..... 192
336 Cercospora Blight of Celery --.---..... ---..... .-----.... ------. 192
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida .... 192
391 Vegetable Variety Trials -.......... ...-..-..- ------- ... .-- -..- 193
458 Sclerotiniose Disease of Vegetables --..--....... ------------... 196
533 Grasses for Lawns, Recreational Areas, Parks, Airports and
Roadsides ----..........-----.......----.---------------- ------------ --------. 196
545 Breeding of Beef Cattle for Adaptation to South Florida Con-
ditions -- .-........ ... .. ...... .- 196
549 Utilization of Feeds and Forages for Beef Production in the
Everglades and Lower East Coast of Florida ..............................- 197
558 Viruses Affecting Vegetable Crops in the Everglades Area ............ 197
559 Control of Nematodes and Subterranean Insects Injurious to
Cultivated Crops --................-....------... ----- ------------------- 198
560 Improvement and Development of Spraying and Dusting
Equipment for Agricultural Use .--- .......------------- .. ---200
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
Corn (initiated during year) ............. .............. .-- --.......... 200







Annual Report, 1951


Project No. Title Page
..... Miscellaneous: General Plant Disease Survey; Breeding Vege-
tables for Desirable Horticultural Characteristics, Disease,
and Insect Resistance; Weed Control Investigations; Effect
of Infusion of Brahman Breeding on the Adaptability of
Dairy Cattle to the South Florida Environment; Photosensi-
tization in Cattle on Bermuda Pastures ....................................... 201
Gulf Coast Station
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ...... ....-.... ........ .......... ......................-- .... 208
398 Breeding for Combined Resistances to Diseases and Insects in
the T om ato ................................ .... ....- .......-------- -- ------ ---...... 210
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn .......... 211
402 Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Vegetable Crop Plants ...... 212
405 Summer Cover Crops, Liming and Related Factors in Vegetable
Crop Production -- --..............-....................... ...-----............--....... 214
445 Insecticidal Value of DDT and Related Synthetic Compounds on
Vegetable Crop Insects in Florida ............... .......................... 214
448 Rapid Soil Tests for Determining Soil Fertility in Vegetable
Crop P reduction .......................... .. .............. .. ... ........- .......-..- ..... 214
449 Organic Fungicides for the Control of Foliage Diseases of
V vegetables ..................-........ -........... .......-.. ...... 214
464 Gladiolus Variety Trials ........................... ..... .....-........ 216
502 Controlling Gladiolus Corm Diseases ....................................... 216
504 Controlling Insect Pests of Gladiolus ........................................ .. 217
506 Etiology and Control of Certain Epiphytotic Diseases of Gladiolus.. 217
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops ........................ 221
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
Corn (initiated during year) .....-........-..... -- .........----- .--- ............. 221
589 Mulching Vegetable Crops with Aluminum Foil (initiated) .......... 222
590 Gladiolus Fertility Studies (initiated during year) ......--..................... 223
591 Chemical Weed Control for Commercial Vegetable and Gladiolus
Production (initiated during year) ............................................. 224
..... Miscellaneous: Seedbed Studies; Nutritional Sprays for Foliar
Feeding; Tomato Fertility; Nitrogen Source Study; Phos-
phatic Compounds; Summer Sweet Potatoes .............................. 225
North Florida Station
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco ......................... ................ 229
80 Cooperative Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards (closed) ........... 229
260 Grain Crop Investigations ................................................. 229
261 Forage Crop Investigations .................. .. .. -- --................-.... 231
301 Pasture Legumes (closed during year) ...................-................ 231
463 Lupine Investigations ................... .... .. .... ......................... 231
491 Production of Feeder Pigs -............ ....-------.-.-.-- ...-....---........ 231
493 Soil Management Investigations .................. ........ --- ............... 231
498 Utilization of Pastures in the Production of Beef Cattle -:.........-.. 233
525 Control of Green Peach Aphid on Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ........... 233
532 Management of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco Plant Beds ...................... 233
543 Roughages for Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle in Florida 234
580 Use of Citrus Molasses and Urea in Steer Fattening Rations
(initiated during year) ..................................---... .... ....-.............. 234
585 Control of Insects Affecting Peanuts (initiated during year) ........ 235
Miscellaneous: Virus Diseases of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco;
Bacterial (Granville) Wilt of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco; In-
secticide-Fertilizer Mixture Tests; New Insecticides; Date of
Priming Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco; Soil Fumigation for Cigar-
W rapper Tobacco Fields; Rye Grass .............................................. 235







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Project No. Title Page
...... M obile Units .... ......... ......... ...... .. .......................... 236
Range Cattle Station
390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida Environment ........ 242
410 Wintering Beef Cattle on the Range .........----.... ............................ 242
423 Effect of Fertilization and Seeding on Grazing Value of Flat-
w oods Pastures .........................-.....-- ..--- ..- .......--- .....- .........-........ 243
466 Fluctuations in Water-Table Levels in Immokalee Fine Sand and
Associated Soil Types ................................ .....----- -..... ......--- ... 243
476 Utilization of Citrus Products for Fattening Cattle ........................ 243
...... Miscellaneous: Mineral Consumption by Range Cattle; Seed
Harvest; Soil Fertility Studies; Plant and Animal Response
to Phosphatic Fertilizers; Forage Variety and Fertilizer
Studies; Pasture Irrigation ------........ --.....----...- --......--- .. 244
Sub-Tropical Station
275 Citrus Culture Studies .........---- ----.......--..----- ...-- 246
276 Avocado Culture Studies ........... ........ ....... -.. ..... ....... 246
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ............--..................... 247
280 Sub-Tropical Crops of Minor Economic Importance .......................-------... 247
285 Potato Culture Investigations ....................-- --~. ........ ....... 248
286 Tomato Culture Investigations ...................------------....---.. .....-----. 250
287 Cover Crop Studies ...... ......... ......... ......... ......--..... ... 251
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County -.................................. 251
290 A Study of Diseases of Avocado and Mango and Development
of Control M measures ....................................... ... .. ................... 251
291 Control of Tomato Diseases ...................................... 252
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .............-...............---. .... 252
422 Diseases of the Tahiti (Persian) Lime .....-.....--....................... 253
458 Sclerotiniose of Vegetables --....... .... .... ..-- .............-- .................- ....... 253
470 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Sub-Tropical Fruits .... 255
471 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Winter Vegetable Crops-. 256
472 Control of the Pineapple Mealybug, Pseudococcus brevipes
(Ckll.) (closed during year) ................-.................-- ....-.... -- 257
505 Importance, Etiology, and Control of Papaya Diseases .................. 257
514 Sub-Tropical and Tropical Plant Introductions ............................... 257
515 Mango Selection, Propagation and Culture ...............-...--................. 257
522 Guava Propagation, Culture, Breeding and Selection .---.................... 259
587 Fungicidal Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of Sweet
Corn (initiated during year) ....................------------.. ......................... 259
Miscellaneous: Soils Investigations; Weed Control Investigations_. 260
Suwannee Valley Station
... Miscellaneous: Farm Crop Investigations, Including Corn, Cot-
ton, Soybeans, Tobacco, Legumes and Pastures ........................ 261
West Central Florida Station
... Miscellaneous: Pastures; Cattle Breeding (cooperative USDA).... 262
West Florida Station
404 Correlation of Soil Characteristics with Pasture Crop and
A nim al Response ....................... .......... ............... ... ......... 264
428 Availability of Phosphates from Various Phosphates Applied
to Different Soil Types ...... .. .............. .. ..... ........ 265
544 Soil Management Studies ............. ... ...... ....... .... .......... ........ 265
553 Testing Miscellaneous Fruits and Nuts .......-....-........-.......--............ 266
582 Pasture Investigations in West Florida (initiated during year).... 266
SMiscellaneous: Variety Testing ......--.........-- ..................--. 267











REPORT OF BUSINESS MANAGER

SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1950-1951


Name of Fund



Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations ......
Emergency and Contingent
Special Everglades ...........
Special Mobile Unit ........
Special Dairy Unit .........
Special Beef Unit ............
Special Suwannee Valley ..
Replacement Fund ...........
Special Gulf Coast ............


TOTA L .......................


Salaries Labor




$1,415,315.22 $150,506.56 $

4,500.00 --1
21,098.00 13,005.25
............ ............
| --- - 80.00
5,075.87 411.50

........... 1,570.45


$1,445,989.09 $165,573.76 $


Prof. Travel
services



2,309.801$ 72,417.901$
. . . . . I - - - - - - I

78.251 458.411
-..---------- ------------

"..;.'-.. . 459.65

... 546.781


2,388.05 $ 73,882.741$


Transp.
of
Things



4,450.82 $


227.83


4.47

97.88


4,781.00 $
1


Communi-
cations



19,207.85


222.40


192.40

22.15


19,644.80


Heat,
Light,
Water,
Power,
Gas, Etc.


$ 25,976.18


71.37
.25
15.00


............


Rent


$ 10,880.86


3,091.57


28.00

5.00


26,062.80 $ 14,005.43


Incidental Fund ..................


$ 4,780.00 $ 26,915.05 $ 349.85 $


3,491.50$ 967.09 $
3,491.501$ 967.091$
II


336.06 $ 2,633.94 $ 3,336.42


I


S












SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1950-1951-(Continued)

1949-50 Bal.
Miscel- Supplies Equip- Total Forward
Name of Fund Printing Services laneous and ment Disburse- Balance and 50-51
Services Materials ments __ Approp.
Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations .... $ 13,716.40 $ 32,185.18 $ 2,591.31 $ 297,233.40 $108,894.83 $2,155,686.31 $489,238.13 $2,644,924.44
Emergency and Contingent ....... .. ........... .......... .. ... ............ 80,000.00 80,000.00
Special Everglades ..-.... ............ .............. 4,500.00 875.00 5,375.00
Special Mobile Unit..... ........ 1,097.31 11.25 7,249.76 1,128.95 47,740.35 9,836.18 57,576.53
Special Dairy Unit ........ 34.60 ......... 7,645.64 972.25 8,652.74 1,518.50 10,171.24
Special Beef Unit ............... 14.00 4,247.40 27.43 4,383.83 10,616.17 15,000.00
Special Suwannee Valley .. ............ 47.10 3.25 1,220.44 5,700.87 13,143.55 16,856.45 30,000.00
Replacement Fund ..... .. ................................... ... 288.05 288.05
Special Gulf Coast .......... .... 409.56 ........... 1,467.621 1,453.90 5,573.34 2,629.16 8,202.50

TOTAL ......... ...... $ 13,716.40$ 33,773.75 $ 2,619.81 $ 319,064.26 $118,178.23 $2,239,680.12 $611,857.64* $2,851,537.76

Incidental Fund ........... ............ $ 12,804.77 $ 989.77 $ 98,259.75 $ 49,319.36 $ 204,183.56 $206,678.25 $ 410,861.81

*$352,902.18 of this amount certified and brought forward to 1951-52; $230,546.68 of this amount held in reserve by Budget Commission.














Name of Fund


Grants and Donations ....

TOTAL -...................




Name of Fund

Grants and Donations ...

TOTAL ....................


SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1950-1951-(Continued)
SHeat,
Transp. Light,
Salaries Labor Prof. Travel of Communi- Water,
Services Things cations Power,
I I Gas, Etc.


$ 23,093.58 $ 3,669.24 $

S$ 23,093.58$ 3,669.24 $


Printing Services

.......... $ 1,837.35

.......... $ 1,837.351
_. 1,37.3 1


Rent


17.00$ 2,117.26 $ 23.91 $ .82 $ 16.85
-- -- -- .82 - ------

17.00 $ 2,117.26 $ 23.91 $ .82 ... $ 16.85


SI 1949-50 Bal.
Miscel- Supplies Equip- Total I Forward
laneous and ment Disburse- Balance and 50-51
Services Materials I ments Approp.

.......-..$. 7,267.88 $ 2,385.16 $ 40,429.05 $ 87,448.30 $ 127,877.35

............ $ 7,267.88 $ 2,385.16 $ 40,429.05 $ 87,448.30 $ 127,877.35


----~---


..









FEDERAL FUNDS-SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1950-1951
Heat,
Transp. Light,
Name of Fund Salaries Labor Prof. Travel of Communi- Water, Rent
SServices Things cations Power,
__Gas, Etc.

Hatch ................................... $ 15,000.00 ---- .... -- .- ........ ...........
A dam s ................. .......... 15,000.00 .... .. ............. .... .--. ........................
P urnell .................................. 60,000.00 .... ... ......................................
Bankhead-Jones ................. 27,000.00$ 7,447.93 ..... $ 275.60 $ 124.01 ........... $ 27.00 ............
Research Marketing Act.. 53,525.32 3,191.23 .......... 5,779.39 117.65 ......... ....... $ 13.08


TOTAL .......................... $ 170,525.32 $ 10,639.16 ............$ 6,054.99 $ 241.66 ... ... $ 27.00 $ 13.08







Annual Report, 1951


EDITORIAL WORK

Research results immediately applicable to Florida farms and groves
were made available in slightly increased quantities through publications,
popular and scientific journals, news stories and the radio. In its third
year, the circular series accounted for a large number of publications.
A new journal series of articles was inaugurated during the year and
copies of seven technical articles were edited and forwarded to scientific
journals. Heretofore Station workers have sent articles to journals direct.
It is expected that under the new system reprints will be ordered and kept
for distribution.
The Florida Station printed Bulletin 13 of the Southern Cooperative
Series, in which various experiment stations and the U. S. Department of
Agriculture cooperate.
The Handbook on Pesticides, originally issued two years ago by the
industry committee, the Experiment Station and Agricultural Extension
Service, was revised and re-issued this year. The industry committee
financed the printing and the Station handled distribution.
All editorial workers devote approximately one-half of their time to
work for the Agricultural Extension Service, and thus have only about
half-time to give to the Station.

BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS

Ten new bulletins totaling 356 pages and 96,000 copies were printed
and five old ones totaling 180 pages and 53,500 copies were reprinted to
give the largest quantities in several years. The new ones ranged in size
from 24 to 60 pages, in edition from 5,000 to 25,000 copies.
Fifteen new circulars, ranging from 4 to 16 and totaling 92 pages were
printed in quantities ranging from 5,000 to 20,000 and totaling 148,000
copies. Also, the 6-page bulletin list was printed three times, 5,500 copies
total, and 13,000 copies of three press bulletins were reprinted. The press
bulletin series has been largely replaced by circulars.
Publications are distributed from the Mailing Room. Copies of all new
ones go to libraries and scientific workers throughout the country and to
Florida county agents. Notices that they are available are sent to a list
of about 15,000, and subsequent distribution is only on request.
The following bulletins were printed during the year.


Title


Page


471 The Lychee in Florida ..........-...... --..... ............---- ..- 24
472 Labor and Material Requirements, Costs of Pro-
duction and Returns on Florida Irish Potatoes.. 29
473 Ground Covers for Florida Gardens .......................... 60
474 Labor and Material Requirements, Costs of Pro-
duction and Returns on Florida Tomatoes ........ 34
475 Sulfur Requirements of Soils for Clover-Grass
Pastures in Relation to Fertilizer Phosphates .... 32
476 Toxic Factor in Citrus Seed Meal --.......................... 36
477 Hay and Seed Drying with a Slatted Floor System 46
478 Species of Florida Basidiomycetes --........................- 36
479 Toxicology of Parathion and Other Phosphatic In-
secticides and Precautions for Their Use on
C itru s ....................... ............. .... .. ................... .... 24
SR 13 Current Farm Leasing Practices in Florida ........... 28


s Edition
7,500

7,500
25,000

7,500

5,000
5,000
15,000
4,000


12,000
7,500







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Brief Description of Bulletins.-Titles, authors and very brief des-
criptions of the subject matter of the bulletins follow:
471. The Lychee in Florida. (Milton Cobin, 24 pp., 4 figs.) Lists
varieties, climatic, soil and fertilizer requirements for this tropical fruit
and gives suggestions on propagating, planting, culture and harvesting.
472. Labor and Material Requirements, Costs of Production and Returns
on Florida Irish Potatoes. (Donald L. Brooke and A. H. Spurlock, 32 pp.,
5 figs.) Acre yields of Florida's fourth ranking vegetable crop have in-
creased. Total production costs were lowest in the LaCrosse area, highest
in Lee County for three years.
473. Ground Covers for Florida Gardens. (J. M. Crevasse, Jr., 60 pp.,
36 figs.) A revision of a previous bulletin, it describes most of the known
ground covers in Florida.
474. Labor and Material Requirements, Costs of Production and Returns
on Florida Tomatoes. (Donald L. Brooke and A. H. Spurlock, 36 pp., 5
figs.) Gives statistics on tomato production, prices, labor and materials
requirements, costs and returns.
475. Sulfur Requirement of Soils for Clover-Grass Pastures in Relation
to Fertilizer Phosphates. (J. R. Neller, G. B. Killinger, D. W. Jones, R.
W. Bledsoe and H. W. Lundy, 32 pp., 3 figs.) Sulfur is essential for clover
on some Florida soils, and it must be added if the fertilizers used do not
contain sufficient sulfur. Technical.
476. Toxic Factor in Citrus Seed Meal. (J. Clyde Driggers, George K.
Davis and N. R. Mehrhof, 36 pp., 12 figs.) Limonin in citrus seed meal
caused this feed to be toxic to chickens. Detoxified meal was satisfactory.
Technical.
477. Hay and Seed Drying with a Slatted Floor System. (J. M. Myers,
G. B. Killinger and R. W. Bledsoe, 48 pp., 29 figs.) Describes a slatted
floor drying system for hay and seed which can be installed on any farm.
478. Species of Florida Basidiomycetes. (W. A. Murrill, 36 pp., 1 fig.)
Lists species of basidiomycetes-non-agarics and agarics. Technical.
479. Toxicology of Parathion and Other Phosphatic Insecticides and
Precautions for Their Use on Citrus. (James T. Griffiths, John W. Wil-
liams, W. L. Thompson and C. R. Stearns, Jr., 24 pp., 9 figs.) Phosphatic
insecticides destroy cholinesterase in the body, the enzyme which breaks
down acetylcholine. Lists precautions for handling.
SR 13. Current Farm Leasing Practices in Florida. (Daniel E. Al-
leger and Max M. Tharp, 28 pp., 6 figs.) Describes factors influencing
leasing arrangements and leasing arrangements on various types of farms.
The Circulars.-The 15 circulars printed during the year, with their
authors, number of pages and quantities, are listed here.
S-17. Control of Mice in Watermelon Fields, by G. K. Parris, 4 pp.,
7,500 copies.
S-18. Southland Oats-a New Variety, by W. H. Chapman, 8 pp., 7,500
copies.
S-19. First-Year Yields from Louisiana White Clover-Dallis Grass
Pasture Plots on Carnegie and Tifton Fine Sandy Loams, by Nathan
Gammon, Jr., H. W. Lundy, J. R. Neller and R. A. Carrigan, 5 pp., 6,000
copies.
S-20. Ramie Meal in Chick Rations, by N. R. Mehrhof, G. K. Davis and
J. C. Driggers, 5 pp., 5,000 copies.
S-21. The Ironsides Watermelon, by G. K. Parris and C. F. Andrus, 4
pp., 7,500 copies.







Annual Report, 1951


S-22. Citrus Molasses in a Steer-Fattening Ration, by F. S. Baker, Jr.,
7 pp., 7,500 copies.
S-23. "Swollen Joints" in Range Calves, by M. W. Emmel, 4 pp., 12,500
copies.
S-24. Intestinal Roundworms and Tapeworms of Poultry, by M. W.
Emmel, 4 pp., 20,000 copies.
S-25. Adaptability of New Potato Varieties and Seedling Selections to
the Hastings Area, by A. H. Eddins, E. N. McCubbin, R. W. Ruprecht and
F. J. Stevenson, 15 pp., 5,000 copies.
S-26. Safeguard Honeybee Polinators by Careful Use of Insecticides,
by Frank A. Robinson, 4 pp., 20,000 copies.
S-27. Fumigation and Equipment for Nematode Control in Soils for
Flue-Cured Tobacco, by Fred Clark and J. M. Myers, 11 pp., 10,000 copies.
S-28. Soil Associations of Hillsborough County, Florida, by Ralph G.
Leighty, J. R. Henderson and R. E. Caldwell, 5 pp., 12,000 copies.
S-29. A Protective Canopy for Tractor Drivers, by David S. Prosser,
Jr., C. R. Stearns, Jr., J. T. Griffiths and W. L. Thompson, 6 pp., 7,500
copies.
S-30. Bean Vine Meal in Chick Rations, by J. C. Driggers, R. A. Denni-
son, G. K. Davis and N. R. Mehrhof, 4 pp., 5,000 copies.
S-31. Argentine Bahia Grass, by G. D. Killinger, G. E. Ritchey, C. B.
Blickensderfer and William Jackson, 4 pp., 15,000 copies.

RADIO BROADCASTING

Station workers continued to speak regularly on the daily Florida Farm
Hour over WRUF, the University of Florida radio station, a continuous
program since 1928. Copies of their talks were sent to other stations and
occasionally a staff member appeared on some other station.
Station workers made 110 talks over the Farm Hour during the year,
and 98 of these were revised and sent out as Farm Flashes for use on 35
other stations throughout the state.
Each Monday morning the Associated Press distributed to 25 member
stations a weekly Florida Farm Review prepared by Experiment Station-
Extension Service editors. Station workers were quoted practically every
week in this review. Also, Station workers were quoted at least 24 times
in a fortnightly review of Florida agriculture distributed direct to 26
radio stations not receiving Farm Flashes.
Occasionally talks by Station workers were recorded on tape for distribu-
tion to other radio stations.

IN THE NEWS AND IN THE JOURNALS
An average of at least one story a day dealing with Experiment Station
work or workers was distributed to daily and weekly newspapers in various
ways. The weekly clipsheet distributed by the Agricultural Extension
Service carried from one to several Station stories each time. Others were
released through news service wires or direct to one or more newspapers.
Each Monday morning the AP carried a special agricultural feature from
the College of Agriculture, and about two-thirds of these concerned the
Experiment Station. A gardening column was begun in the Tampa Tribune
during the year, running each Sunday, and this nearly always is wholly
or partially devoted to Experiment Station information. Numerous straight
news stories were filed with the wire services and farm editors of some of







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the dailies frequently prepared news and features of their own based on
Station work or information.
Farm journals continued to make generous use of information supplied
by the Station Editors and other staff members. Of material furnished by
Station Editors, three Florida journals carried 11 articles for 398 column
inches, three Southern journals printed four stories which occupied 54
column inches of space, and five national farm journals ran 11 articles
which filled 98 column inches.
Station staff members have been submitting articles to scientific journals
direct, but beginning in February 1951 a journal series was established.
Each article is submitted to the Director and turned over to the Editor,
who edits the copy, assigns the article a number in the series, and forwards
it to the proper journal. It is expected that reprints will be distributed
from the Mailing Room. Seven articles were submitted to journals before
the end of June, but none had yet appeared in print.
Following is a list of articles by staff members which appeared in both
popular and scientific journals during the fiscal year:
Alleger, Daniel E. Acreage in Grazing Is Compiled. Fla. Cattleman and
Livestock Jour. 15: 2: 48-51. 1950.
Anderson, C. W. Some Preliminary Observations on Cucurbit Viruses in
Florida. P1. Dis. Rpt. 35: 233-234. 1951.
Arnold, P. T. Dix. Keep Florida Pastures Green, Arnold Urges. Fla. Dairy
News 1: 4: 14. 1951.
Atkins, C. D., F. W. Wenzel and E. L. Moore. Report New Technical Strides
in Design of FCC Evaporator. Food Ind. 22: 1353, 1466, 1467. 1950.
Atkins, C. D., F. W. Wenzel, Ellis Fehlberg and Lloyd E. Slater. New
Evaporator Robotized for High Output, Efficiency. Food Ind. 22: 1521-
1523. 1950.
Bair, Roy A. Don't Cuss It, Says Bair; St. Augustine Is Still One of Best
Grasses. Fla. Cattleman and Livetock Jour. 14: 12: 50-51. 1950.
Batte, E. G., L. E. Swanson and J. B. Murphy. Control of Fresh Water
Snails (Intermediate Hosts of Liver Flukes) in Florida. Jour. Am. Vet.
Med. Assn. 118: 888: 139-141. 1951.
Batte, Edward G., Leonard E. Swanson and J. B. Murphy. New Mollusci-
cides for the Control of Fresh Water Snails. Am. Jour. Vet. Res. 12:
148-160. 1951.
Becker, R. B., P. T. Dix Arnold and Sidney P. Marshall. Development of
the Bovine Stomach During Fetal Life. Jour. Dairy Sci. 34: 329-332.
1951.
Blackmon, G. H. Rose Culture. Fla. Florist and Nurserymen 2: 9: 2-5.
1950.
Blackmon, G. H. Horticultural Research with Camellias. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 63: 198-200. 1950; also, Sub-Tropical Gardening 4: 10:
3, 9. 1951.
Brooker, Marvin A. Pointers on Law Help Farmers. Fla. Grower 58: 8:
(1233): 11. 1950.
Brooks, A. N., and J. R. Christie. A Nematode Attacking Strawberry
Roots. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 123-125. 1950.
Burgis, Donald S. Mulching Vegetable Crops with Aluminum Foil. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 141-144. 1950.
Burgis, D. S. Nut Grass Control with 2,4-D. Proc. So. Weed Conf. 4:
24-25. 1951.








Annual Report, 1951


Carrigan, Richard A. Controlling the Accuracy of Routine pH Tests.
Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Workers (Abst.) 48: 55. 1951.
Carrigan, Richard A. What Do You Know About pH? ACL Agr. and
Livestock Topics 2: 12: 1, 2, 3. 1950; also, Fla. Grower 59: 2 (1239):
25. 1951.
Clark, Fred, H. C. Harris, R. W. Bledsoe and J. M. Myers. Irrigation,
Fertilization and Fumigation of Flue-Cured Tobacco. Proc. Assn. So.
Agr. Wkrs. (Abst.) 48: 52. 1951.
Cobin, Milton. The Present Outlook for the Mango in Florida. Tex.
Avocado Soc. Yearbook. 1950. 66-70.
Comar, C. L., Leon Singer and George K. Davis. Molybdenum Metabolism
and Interrelationships with Copper and Phosphorus. Jour. Biol. Chem.
180: 913-922. 1949.
Conover, Robert A. Control of Late Blight and Gray Leaf Spot of
Tomatoes with New Fungicides. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 89-93.
1950.
Conover, Robert A. Studies of Stylar End Rot of Tahiti Limes. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 63: 236-240. 1950.
Conover, Robert A. Data on the Control of Gray Leaf Spot of Tomato.
P1. Dis. Rpt. 34: 182. 1950.
Cooper, J. Francis. New Oat Fights Blight. So. Seedsman 13: 9: 26. 1950.
Cooper, J. Francis. New Dairy Research Unit Asset to Industry. Fla.
Grower 58: 8 (1233): 5, 19. 1950.
Cooper, J. Francis. Southland Checks Loss by Disease in Oat Fields. Fla.
Grower 58: 9 (1234): 9, 13-14. 1950.
Cooper, J. Francis. Mexican-U. S. Team Subdues Foot-and-Mouth. Fla.
Grower 58: 11 (1236): 10, 16. 1950.
Cooper, J. Francis. Live Oak Station Will Aid 8614 Farms. Fla. Grower
59: 1 (1238): 5, 26. 1951.
Cooper, J. Francis. Citrus Blackfly in Mexico Worries Florida. Fla.
Grower 59: 2 (1239): 11, 36, 41. 1951.
Cooper, J. Francis. Promising New Runner Peanut. Progressive Farmer
66: 2: 121. 1951.
Cooper, J. Francis. Citrus Blackfly Threat. So. Agriculturist 81: 2: 25.
1951.
Cunha, T. J. Developments on APF. Chester White Jour. 40: 12: 12-14,
26. 1950.
Cunha, T. J. Fattening Hogs in Summer. Fla. Dept. of Agri., Sta. Mkt.
Bur., For Sale, Want and Exchange Bul. 2: 8: 1. 1950.
Cunha, T. J. Aureomycin and the Pig. Better Farming Methods 22: 7:
16, 36-37. 1950.
Cunha, T. J. Late Look at Wonder Drugs. Progressive Farmer 65: 10:
60-61. 1950.
Cunha, T. J. Latest Developments on Vitamin Bi, APF, Aureomycin, and
Related Factors for the Pig. Proc. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 87: 65-68. 1950.
Cunha, T. J. Swine Business Means More to Florida than Most Realize,
Says Cunha. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 12: 55-56. 1950.
Cunha, T. J. Efficient Production Necessary. Fla. Cattleman and Live-
stock Jour. 15: 1: 28, 42. 1950.
Cunha, T. J. Antibiotics Different in Effect. Fla. Cattelman and Livestock
Jour. 15: 2: 38-39; also Feedstuffs, 22: 40; 12; also, ACL Agr. and
Lviestock Topics 2: 11: 3. 1950.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Cunha, T. J. Urea Good Protein Source but Care Must Be Used in Mixing
It, Cunha Warns. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 5: 38-39. 1951.
Cunha, T. J. Breeding Program Needed by Swine Producers to Meet
Demands of Market. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 5: 58-59.
1951; also, Tips on Hog Types and Breeds. Fla. Grower 58: 11 (1236): 7;
also, Fla. Dept. of Agr., Sta. Mkt. Bur., For Sale, Want and Exchange
Bul. 2: 11: 1. 1950.
Cunha, T. J. Increase in Feed Supplies Most Important Need in Growth
of Cattle Industry. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 8: 40-41.
1951.
Cunha, T. J. Vitamin Requirements of Swine. Hampshire Herdsman 26:
3: 10, 33, 35, 38. 1951.
Cunha, T. J. B12 and Antibiotic Developments. Fla. College Farmer 3:
4: 8-9. 1951.
Cunha, T. J., and R. S. Glasscock. Protein Easily Given to Cattle. Fla.
Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 1: 58-60. 1950.
Cunha, T. J., and R. S. Glasscock. Pig Creeps Aid Growth of Young. Fla.
Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 9: 45. 1951.
Cunha, T. J., A. M. Pearson and R. S. Glasscock. Citrus Molasses Is Satis-
factory for Part of Swine-Fattening Ration. Fla. Cattleman and Live-
stock Jour. 14: 10: 26-27. 1950.
Cunha, T. J., H. M. Edwards, G. B. Meadows, R. H. Benson, R. F. Sewell,
A. M. Pearson and R. S. Glasscock. Effect of Vitamin B13 Supplementa-
tion on the Pig. Archives of Biochem. 28: 140-142. 1950.
Cunha, T. J., J. E. Burnside, G. B. Meadows, H. M. Edwards, R. H. Benson,
A. M. Pearson and R. S. Glasscock. Effect of APF Supplement on
Efficiency of Feed Utilization for the Pig. Jour. An. Sci. 9: 615-618.
1950.
Cunha, T. J., G. B. Meadows, H. M. Edwards, R. F. Sewell, C. B. Shawver,
A. M. Pearson and R. S. Glasscock. Effect of Aureomycin and Other
Antibiotics on the Pig. Jour. An. Sci. (Abst.) 9: 653. 1950.
Cunha, T. J., H. M. Edwards, G. B. Meadows, R. H. Benson, A. M. Pearson
and R. S. Glasscock. APF, Bu, B13 and Related Factors for the Pig.
Jour. An. Sci. (Abst.) 9: 653. 1950.
Cunha, T. J., C. B. Shawver, R. F. Sewell, A. M. Pearson, H. D. Wallace and
R. S. Glasscock. Observations on Supplementing Corn-Cottonseed Meal
Rations for Growing and Fattening Pigs. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Workers
(Abst.) 48: 73-74. 1951.
Cunha, T. J., G. B. Meadows, H. M. Edwards, R. F. Sewell, A. M. Pearson
and R. S. Glasscock. A Comparison of Aureomycin, Streptomycin,
Penicillin and an Aureomycin-B12 Feed Supplement for the Pig. Archives
of Biochem. 30: 269-271. 1951.
Davis, George K. Trace Minerals Aid Cattle in Digestion of Roughage,
Nutrition Work Discloses. Fla. Catteman and Livestock Jour. 15: 1:
48-52. 1950.
Davis, George K. The Use of Radioisotopes in Cattle Nutrition Research.
ACL Agr. and Livestock Topics 2: 6: 1-2. 1950.
Davis, George K. The Influence of Copper on the Metabolism of Phos-
phorus and Molybdenum. Proc. McCollum-Pratt Inst. Symp. on Copper
1950: 216-229.
Davis, George K. The Relation of Soil Nutrients to the Health of Domestic
and Wild Animals. Natl. Farm Chem. Council, Chemurgic Papers
1951: 1.








Annual Report, 1951


Davis, George K. Cattle Need "Extras" in Winter. Fla. Grower 59: 1
(1238): 16, 20. 1951.
Davis, George K. Protein in Wintering Cattle in Florida. Fla. Dept. of
Agr., Sta. Mkt. Bur., For Sale, Want and Exchange Bul. 3: 11: 1. 1951.
Davis, George K., and Jess N. Henson. The Relation of Copper Intake to
Blood and Liver Copper in Cattle. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 47: 64.
1950.
Dempsey, J. M., C. C. Seale and E. O. Gangstad. Ramie-Promising New
Fiber Crop. Crops and Soils 3: 2: 14-15, 31. 1950.
Dennison, R. A. Chemical Aid in Weed Control. Fla. Grower 58: 11 (1236):
6, 17. 1950; also, as La Quimico en Multiple Funcion Herbicida. La
Hacienda 46: 48-49. 1951.
Dennison, R. A., and H. M. Reed. Preparation of Celery Pickles from
Fresh and Brined Celery. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. 47: 108. 1950.
Dennison, R. A., and B. E. Janes. A Machine for Indexing the Shipping
and Handling Qualities of Tomatoes. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 57:
295-296. 1951.
Dickey, R. D. Flower Bud Drop of Chinese Hibiscus. Fla. Florist and
Nurseryman 2: 8: 8. 1950.
Dickey, R. D. Factors Affecting the Keeping Quality of Cut Flowers.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 203-206; also, SubTropical Gardening 4:
4: 4. 1950; also, Fla. Grower 59: 2 (1239): 17, 19. 1951.
Driggers, J. Clyde, and N. R. Mehrhof. Simplified Rations for Layers.
Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. (Abst.) 48: 151. 1951.
Driggers, J. Clyde, R. L. Shirley, G. K. Davis and N. R. Mehrhof. The
Transference of Radioactive Calcium and Phosphorus from Hen to
Chick. Poultry Sci. 30: 199-204; also, Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs.
(Abst.) 48: 146-147. 1951.
DuCharme, E. P., L. C. Knorr and H. A. Speroni. Observations on the
Spread of Tristeza in Argentina. Citrus Mag. 13: 9: 10-12, 14. 1951.
DuCharme, E. P. Cancrosis B of Lemons. Citrus Mag. 13: 9: 18-20. 1951.
Eddins, A. H., and E. N. McCubbin. Growers at Hastings Like Corn.
Fla. Grower 58: 9 (1234) : 12. 1950.
Edson, S. N., and F. B. Smith. A Preliminary Investigation of the Growth
Response of Aspergillus niger to Various Levels of Copper as a Biologi-
cal Method of Determining Available Copper in Soils. Jour. of Fla.
Academy of Sci. 12: 235-250. 1950.
Edwards, H. M., T. J. Cunha, G. B. Meadows, R. F. Sewell and C. B.
Shawver. Observations on Aureomycin and APF for the Pig. Proc.
Soc. for Exp. Biology and Medicine 75: 445-446. 1950.
Edwards, H. M., T. J. Cunha, G. B. Meadows, C. B. Shawver and A. M.
Pearson. Effect of APF in Supplying Multiple Factors for the Pig.
Proc. Soc. for Exp. Biology and Medicine 76: 173-175. 1951.
Emmel, M. W. Poultry Diseases, Symptoms and Successful Treatments
Discussed. Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour. 16: 7: 2, 6, 7, 11. 1950.
Emmel, M. W. Timely Vaccination. Fla. Grower 59: 3 (1240): 33. 1951.
Emmel, M. W., and Glenn Van Ness. Newcastle Disease. Fla. Poultry
and Dairy Jour. 16: 8: 15. 1950.
Emmel, M. W., and Glenn Van Ness. Bronchitis. Fla. Poultry and Dairy
Jour. 16: 9: 2. 1950.
Emmel, M. W., and Glenn Van Ness. Coccidiosis. Fla. Poultry and Dairy
Jour. 17: 1: 4. 1951.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Faville, L. W., and E. C. Hill. Relative Efficiencies of Several Liquid Pre-
sumptive Media Used in the Microbiological Examination of Citrus
Juices. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 150-154. 1950.
Faville, L. W., E. C. Hill and E. C. Parish. Survival of Microorganisms
in Concentrated Orange Juice. Food Tech. 5: 1: 33-36. 1951.
Fifield, Willard M. Improved Practice on Florida Farms. Fla. Future
Farmer 12: 2: 2. 1951.
Fisher, Fran E. Entomogenous Fungi on Purple Scale Insects in Cali-
fornia. Citrus Leaves 30: 6: 26; also, Calif. Citrograph. 35: 387. 1950.
Fisher, F. E. Entomogenous Fungi Attacking Scale Insects and Rust
Mites on Citrus in Florida. Jour. Econ. Ento. 43: 305-309. 1950.
Fisher, Fran E., and J. T. Griffiths, Jr. The Fungicidal Effect of Sulfur
on Entomogenous Fungi Attacking Purple Scale. Jour. Econ. Ent. 43: 5:
712-718. 1951.
Forsee, W. T., Jr., and J. C. Hoffman. The Phosphate and Potash Require-
ments of Snap Beans on the Organic Soils of the Florida Everglades.
Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 56: 261-265. 1950.
French, R. B. Education in Eating. Fla. Grower 59: 2 (1239): 45. 1951.
Gammon, Nathan, Jr. Determination of Total Potassium and Sodium in
the Sandy Soils of the Coastal Plains. Soil Sci. 71: 211-214. 1951.
Gammon, Nathan, Jr., and R. J. Wilmot. Soil Acidity and Camellia Growth.
Am. Camellia Yearbook. 1950: 216-220.
Glasscock, R. S. You Can Cut Range Stock Losses. Fla. Grower 58: 9
(1234): 15. 1950.
Glasscock, R. S. It Pays to Cull Beef Herds. Fla. Grower 58: 9 (1234):
23, 28. 1950.
Glasscock, R. S. Avoiding Losses of Home Meat. Fla. Grower 58: 12
(1237): 32, 35. 1950.
Glasscock, R. S. Spring Decides Fate of Stock. Fla. Grower 59: 2 (1239):
42, 43. 1951.
Glasscock, R. S., H. E. Guilford and A. M. Pearson. Urea Shows Good
Results at Gainesville. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 4: 49, 51.
1951.
Glasscock, R. S., T. J. Cunha, A. M. Pearson and F. S. Baker. Alfalfa Is
Top in Test on Roughage. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 5:
37, 38. 1950.
Glasscock, R. S., H. E. Guilford, T. J. Cunha and A. M. Pearson. Urea as a
Protein Substitute for Steers Fed Citrus Molasses. Jour. An. Sci. (Abst.)
9: 657. 1950.
Greene, R. E. L. Quality of Florida Potatoes and Some of the Factors
Affecting Quality. Proc. State Hort. Soc. 63: 136-141. 1950.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., and Fran. E. Fisher. Residues on Citrus Trees in
Florida: II. Changes in Purple Scale and Rust Mite Populations Fol-
lowing the Use of Various Spray Materials at Two Different Amounts
of Spray Material per 100 Gallons. Jour. Econ. Ento. 43: 3: 298-305.
1950.
Griffiths, James T., and W. L. Thompson. Sprays for Citrus for July, 1950.
Citrus Ind. 31: 7: 3. 1950.
Griffiths, J. T., and W. L. Thompson. Progress Report on Some of the
Aspects of Purple Mite Control in Florida. Citrus Ind. 31: 11: 5-7. 1950.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., W. L. Thompson and R. M. Pratt. Citrus Insect Control
for July, 1950-June, 1951. Citrus Ind. 31: 8: 3; 9: 3; 10: 3; 11: 3; 12:
3. 1950; 32: 1: 3; 2: 18; 3: 3, 4; 4: 4-5, 18; 5: 3, 22; 6: 3-4, 1951.








Annual Report, 1951


Griffiths, J. T., W. L. Thompson and R. M. Pratt. 1950 Citrus Insects in
Review. Citrus Mag. 13: 6: 32-33, 38. 1951.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., H. J. Reitz and R. W. Olsen. Off-Flavor Produced in
Florida Orange Juice After Application of New Organic Insecticides.
Agr. Chem. 5: 9: 41-43, 99. 1950.
Griffiths, James T., Jr., C. R. Stearns and W. L. Thompson. Possibilities
for the Use of Concentrated Sprays on Citrus in Florida. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 63: 53-59. 1950.
Griffiths, James T., Charles R. Stearns, Jr., and W. L. Thompson. Para-
thion Hazards Encountered Spraying Citrus in Florida. Jour. Econ.
Ento. 44: 160-163. 1951.
Griffiths, James T., Jr., and John W. Williams. Parathion Poisoning in
Florida Citrus Spray Operations. Jour. Fla. Med. Assn. 37: 707-709.
1951.
Halsey, L. H., and F. S. Jamison. Yields of Tomato Varieties Harvested
at Two Stages of Maturity from Staked and Unstaked Plants. Am.
Soc. for Hort. Sci. 56: 332-336. 1950.
Hamilton, H. G. Marketing Agreements Discussion. Jour. Farm Econ.
32: 1016-1018. 1950.
Hamilton, H. G. The Value of Exchange Scholarships at the University
of Florida. Citrus Mag. 13: 5: 38. 1951.
Harkness, Roy W. Weed Control Studies Around Young Avocado Trees.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 251-261. 1950.
Harkness, Roy W., and Milton Cobin. Haden Mango Maturity Observation
During 1950. Proc. Fla. Mango Forum 10: 27-32. 1950.
Harris, Henry C., W. H. MacIntire, C. L. Comar, W. M. Shaw, S. H. Winter-
berg and S. L. Hood. Radioactive Calcium in the Study of Additive and
Native Supplies in the Soil. Science 113: (2934): 328-329. 1951.
Helms, Clyde C., Jr., and G. K. Parris. Transitory Effects of 2,4-D on the
Watermelon Plant When Absorbed Through the Roots. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 63: 144-146. 1950.
Hendrickson, R., and J. W. Kesterson. Storage Changes in Citrus Molasses.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 154-162. 1950; also, Citrus Ind. 32: 1:
5-8. 1951.
Hill, E. C., and L. W. Faville. Comparison of Plating Media Used for the
Estimation of Microorganisms in Citrus Juices. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 63: 146-149. 1950.
Hodges, E. M., D. W. Jones and W. G. Kirk. Irrigation not Proven, but
Does Produce Added Beef. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 4:
20, 21. 1951.
Hodges, E. M., W. G. Kirk and D. W. Jones. Freeze Reduces Protein in
Grass, Makes Careful Use of Feed Almost Essential. Fla. Cattleman
and Livestock Jour. 15: 5: 23. 1951.
Hodges, E. M., W. G. Kirk and D. W. Jones. Range Station Uses Both
Improved and Native Grass. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15:
6: 36-37. 1951.
Hopkins, E. F., and K. W. Loucks. Prevention of the Phytotoxic Action
of Sodium Orthophenylphenate on Citrus Fruits by Hexamine. Science
112: 720-721; also, Citrus Mag. 12: 11: 24-28. 1950.
Hull, Fred H. Genetics of Vigor. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Workers (Abst.)
48: 66. 1951.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Jeter, Max A., and George K. Davis. The Effects of Varying Levels of
Molybdenum Upon Fertility, Gestation and Lactation of Rats. Proc.
Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. (Abst.) 48: 79. 1951.
Jones, D. W., W. G. Kirk and E. M. Hodges. The Effect of Fertilizer
Phosphates on Soil Phosphorus and Pasture Production. Proc. Assn. So.
Agr. Wkrs. (Abst.) 48: 60. 1951.
Jones, D. W., E. M. Hodges and W. G. Kirk. Feed When Needed Is Goal
in Fertilization Program. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 9:
24-25. 1951.
Joyner, J. Frank, Edward 0. Gangstad and Charles C. Seale. The Vege-
tative Propagation of Sansevieria. Agron. Jour. 43: 3: 128-190. 1951.
Kelbert, David G. A. New Vegetable Varieties for Florida. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 63: 108-112; also, Subtropical Gardening 4: 4: 6, 17.
1950; also, Fla. Grower 59: 2 (1239): 21, 32; 3 (1240): 8, 15. 1951.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Mixing Vegetable Sprays. Fla. Grower 59: 2 (1239):
26. 1951.
Kelsheimer, E. G. You Can Spot Lawn Insects. Fla. Grower 59: 2 (1239):
2, 31. 1951.
Kesterson, J. W. Florida Persian Seedless Lime Oil. Am. Perfumer and
Essential Oil Rev. 56: 125-128, 161. 1950.
Kesterson, J. W. Florida Coldpressed Orange Oil. Am. Perfumer and
Essential Oil Rev. 56: 373-376. 1950.
Kesterson, J. W., and R. Hendrickson. Oxidative Stability of Orange Oil
as Related to the Method of Extraction. Am. Perfumer and Essential
Oil Rev. 57: 441-444. 1951.
Kesterson, J. W., and R. Hendrickson. An Improved Manometric Tech-
nique for Evaluating the Oxidative Stability of Coldpressed Orange
Oil. Food Technology 5: 220-222. 1951.
Kesterson, J. W., C. R. Stearns, Jr., and R. Hendrickson. Studies on
Citrus By-Products Prepared from Fruit Sprayed with Parathion. Citrus
Mag. 13: 6: 36, 37. 1951.
Kidder, R. W., D. W. Beardsley and T. C. Erwin. Photosensitization in
Cattle Grazing Bermuda Grass. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. (Abst.)
48: 80. 1951.
Killinger, G. B. La Hierba Pangola en la Florida. La Hacienda 45: 12:
84, 86. 1950.
Killinger, G. B. Keep Your Winter Lawns Green. Fla. Grower 58: 11
(1236): 8, 31. 1950.
Killinger, G. B. Spring Fertilizer on Pastures. Fla. Grower 59: 2 (1239):
23. 1951.
Killinger, G. B. Spring Care of Your Lawn. Fla. Grower 59: 3 (1240):
14. 1951.
Killinger, G. B. Controlled Burning of Native and Improved Grasses
Assists in Establishment and Maintenance of Winter and Summer Leg-
umes. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. (Abst.) 48: 57. 1951.
Kirk, W. G. Standard of Excellence of ABBA is Explained. Fla. Cattleman
and Livestock Jour. 15: 4: 48, 50. 1951.
Kirk, W. G., and E. M. Hodges. Initial Results with Urea for Protein
Encouraging, Range Cattle Station States. Fla. Cattleman and Live-
stock Jour. 15: 3: 54-55. 1950.
Kirk, W. G., E. M. Hodges and D. W. Jones. More Feed in Summer Aids
Gains. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 15: 8: 48-49, 56. 1951.








Annual Report, 1951


Kirk, W. G., E. M. Hodges and D. W. Jones. Feeding Cattle on Pasture.
Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. (Abst.) 48: 74-75. 1951.
Knorr, L. C. Citrus Tumors, Knots and Galls. Citrus Mag. 12: 11:. 16-18.
1950.
Knorr, L. C. Infectious and Malignant Galls of Citrus. Citrus Mag. 12:
12: 17-19. 1950.
Knorr, L. C., and I. W. Wander. Yellow Spot Persistent Enigma of
Citrus Foliage. Citrus Mag. 13: 1: 24-26. 1950.
Knorr, L. C., and E. P. DuCharme. This Is Tristeza Ravager of Argen-
tina's Citrus Industry. Citrus Mag. 13: 6: 17-19. 1951.
Knorr, L. C., and E. P. DuCharme. The Relationship Between Argentina's
Lepra Explosiva and Florida's Scaly Bark, with Implications for the
Florida Citrus Grower. P1. Dis. Rpt. 35: 70-75. 1951.
Krienke, W. A. Effects of Various "Drugs" in Milk From Mastitis Treated
Cows. The Butter, Cheese and Milk Prod. Jour. 41: 7: 32. 1950.
Krienke, W. A. The Effects of Cultured Milk Products of Certain Thera-
peutic Compounds Used in the Treatment of Dairy Cows for Mastitis.
Proc. Milk Ind. Foundation 5: 43: 60-66. 1950.
Krienke, W. A. Penicillin in Milk from Treated Cows. Fla. Dairy News.
1: 2: 13. 1951.
Krienke, W. A., and E. L. Fouts. The Cryoscope as an Aid in the Detection
of Neutralized Cream. Jour. Dairy Sci. 34: 478. 1951.
Kuitert, L. C. Insect Control on Ornamental Plants of the Home Garden.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 206-209. 1950.
Kuitert, L. C. Precautions Against Termites. Fla. Grower 59: 2 (1239):
16, 40. 1951.
Kuitert, L. C. Insect-Free Work and Play. Fla. Grower 59: 2 (1239): 22,
27. 1951.
Kuitert, L. C. Insecticide Application Practices. Fla. Florist and Nursery-
man 2: 12: 7-8. 1951.
Kuitert, L. C. Control of the Insect Pests of Camellias. Am. Camellia
Yearbook 1950: 261-269.
Large, John R. Progress Report on Pecan Scab Control in Florida in 1950.
Proc. SE Pecan Growers Assn. 44: 49-59. 1951.
Large, John R. The Use of the "Salesco" Carbide Gun to Protect Pecan
Orchards from Crow Damage. Proc. SE Pecan Growers Assn. 44: 61-62.
1951.
Magie, Robert O. New Approach to Control of Gladiolus Fusarium.
Florists Rev. 107 (2759): 92-94. 1950.
Magie, Robert O. Spray Program for Disease and Insect Control. Glad-
iolus Mag. 14: 6: 2, 34, 36, 38. 1950.
Magie, Robert O. Nematodes and Their Control. Gladiolus Mag. 26: 108-
112. 1951.
Mehrhof, N. R. Best Chickens from Good Start. Fla. Grower 59: 2 (1239):
37. 1951.
Miller, H. N. Soil Sterilization. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 190-192.
1950.
Moore, Edwin L., Richard L. Huggart and Elmer C. Hill. Storage Changes
in Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices Preliminary Report. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 165-174. 1950; also, Citrus Ind. 32: 2: 9-13, 18.
1951.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Mull, Leon E. Removal of Extraneous Matter Makes Necessary Filtering
and Clarifying of Milk. Fla. Dairy News 1: 4: 12-13. 1951.
Myers, J. Mostella. Artificial Drying of Hay and Seed with a Slatted Floor
System. ACL Agr. and Livestock Topics 2: 11: 3-4. 1950.
Neller, J. R., and W. H. Kelly. Wood Waste Lignins to Produce Soil
Organic Matter of a Stable Nature. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 14:
212-215. 1949.
Neller, J. R., D. W. Jones, Nathan Gammon, Jr., and R. B. Forbes. Leach-
ing of Phosphorus in Sandy Soils and Relation to Lime and pH. Proc.
Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. (Abst.) 48: 57. 1951.
Nettles, Victor F. The Relationship of Specific Gravity to Tomato Fruits
to Their Stage of Maturity. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 55: 343-345.
1950.
Parris, G. K. Preservation of the Spores of the Cucurbit Downy Mildew
Fungus by Freezing Detached Leaves. P1. Dis. Rpt. 35: 52. 1951.
Parris, G. K. Hints to 1951 Melon Growers. Fla. Grower 59: 2 (1239):
4, 18. 1951.
Parris, G. K., and L. H. Stover. Control of Diseases and Insect Pests of
Grapes. Part I. Sub-Tropical Gardening 4: 9: 4, 14; Part II. 4: 10:
12. 1951.
Pearson, A. M., and R. S. Glasscock. Bruises Are Cause of Carcass Loss.
Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 11: 22-23. 1950.
Pearson, A. M., H. M. Edwards, J. E. Burnside, A. F. Novak, R. S. Glasscock
and T. J. Cunha. Vitamin Losses in Drip from Frozen Defrosted Beef.
Jour. An. Sci. 9: 644. 1950; also, Food Res. 16: 1: 85-87. 1951.
Pratt, Robert M. New Field Work in Citrus Research. Citrus Industry
31: 11: 8. 1950.
Prosser, David S. A Portable Device for Obtaining a Typical Sample of
Citrus Fruit from Field Boxes. Citrus Mag. 13: 1: 28-29. 1950.
Prosser, D. S. Extensible Rig for Pulling Cultivating Implements under
Citrus Trees. Citrus Mag. 13: 5: 18-19. 1951.
Randolph, John W., and E. M. Dull. Detachable Pivot Hitch for Tricycle
Tractor. Agr. Engineering 32: 7: 383-384. 1951.
Reitz, Herman J. A Study of Certain Factors Affecting the Acidity of
Florida Grapefruit Following Arsenic Sprays. Abst. of Doctoral Dis.,
Ohio State Univ. Press 60: 249-254. 1950.
Reitz, J. Wayne. Partial Mobilization and the Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Industry. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 3-7. 1950.
Reitz, J. Wayne. What Is a Land-Grant Institution. The Fla. College
Farmer 3: 2: 5, 16-17. 1951.
Robinson, Frank A. Parathion vs. Bees in the Citrus Grove. Am. Bee
Jour. 90: 450-451. 1950.
Robinson, Frank A., and E. Oertel. Chlordane for Control of Argentine
Ants. Am. Bee Jour. 90: 406-407. 1950.
Ruehle, George D. Some Ornamental Trees and Shrubs Native to South
Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 180-183. 1950.
Saarinen, P., C.-L. Comar, S. P. Marshall and George K. Davis. Partition
of Orally Administered Radioactive Phosphorus in the Blood and Milk
of the Dairy Cow. Jour. Dairy Sci. 33: 878-884. 1950.
Sanders, D. A. Livestock Improvement and Expansion Over South. Fla.
Dairy News 1: 1: 15. 1950.







Annual Report, 1951


Sanders, D. A. Enlarged Veterinary Research Program Is Essential to
Growing Livestock Industry. Fla. Dairy News 1: 3: 11. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Production and Consumption of Citrus in the United States.
Citrus Mag. 12: 11: 14. 1950; also, The Calif. Citrograph 35: 11:
486-487. 1950.
Savage, Zach. Per Capita Consumption of Citrus by Type of Product.
Citrus Mag. 12: 12: 25-26. 1950.
Savage, Zach. Citrus Acreage Required to Net $3,000 Annually 1939-49.
Citrus Mag. 13: 2: 22-23. 1950.
Savage, Zach. Operating Costs Increasing. Citrus Mag. 13: 3: 26-27.
1950.
Savage, Zach. Outlook for Citrus Production. Citrus Mag. 13: 4: 10.
1950.
Savage, Zach. U. S. Produces Large Share of World Citrus. Citrus Mag.
13: 5: 28-29. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Citrus Production Costs Decreased, 1946-1950. Citrus Mag.
13: 6: 34-35. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Eleven Percent Increase in World Production of Citrus in
1950. Citrus Mag. 13: 7: 24. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries. Citrus Mag. 13:
8: 30-32. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Cost and Return Relationships. Citrus Mag. 13: 9: 28-29.
1951.
Savage, Zach. Adequate Citrus Production Records. Citrus Mag. 13: 10:
22-23. 1951.
Savage, Zach. Should I Buy a Citrus Grove? Citrus Ind. 32: 3: 10-11;
also, 32: 4: 10-11. 1951.
Sharpe, R. H., and G. H. Blackmon. A Study of Plot Size and Experi-
mental Design With Pecan Yield Data. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 56: 236-
241. 1950.
Sharpe, R. H., and H. W. Winsor. Cross-Feeding and Boron Placement
Studies with Pecans. Proc. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 57: 203-206. 1951.
Shirley, Ray L., Riley D. Owens and George K. Davis. Excretion of
Radioactive Phosphorus into the Alimentary Tract of Rats on High
Molybdenum and Copper Diets. Federation Proc. 9: 371. 1950.
Shirley, Ray L., Riley Deal Owens and George K. Davis. Comparison of
Calcium 45 Oxalate and Carbonate Precipitates for Radioactive Assays.
Analytical Chem. 22: 1003, 1004. 1950.
Shirley, Ray L., Riley D. Owens and George K. Davis. Deposition and
Alimentary Excretion of Phosphorus-32 in Steers on High Molybdenum
and Copper Diets. Jour. An. Sci. 9: 552-559. 1950.
Shirley, Ray L., George K. Davis and J. R. Neller. Distribution of P2 in
the Tissues of a Steer Fed Grass from Land that Received Labeled
Fertilizer. Jour. An. Sci. 10: 335-336. 1951.
Simpson, Charles F. Anaplasmosis in Dairy Cattle. Fla. Dairy News 1:
2: 12. 1951.
Singer, Leon, and George K. Davis. Pantothenic Acid in Copper Deficiency
in Rats. Science 111: 472-473. 1950.
Sites, John W. The Effect of Variable Potash Fertilization on the Quality
and Production of Duncan Grapefruit. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63:
60-68. 1950; also, Citrus Ind. 32: 6: 5-9; also, Citrus Mag. 13: 10: 26-
30. 1951.







34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Sites, J. W., and H. J. Reitz. The Variation in Individual Valencia
Oranges from Different Location of the Tree as a Guide to Sampling
Methods and Spot-Picking for Quality. II. Titratable Acid and the
Soluble Solids/Titratable Acid Ratio of the Juice. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort.
Sci. 55: 73-80. 1950.
Sites, J. W., and H. J. Reitz. The Variation in Individual Valencia Oranges
from Different Location of the Tree as a Guide to Sampling Methods
and Spot-Picking for Quality. III. Vitamin C and Juice Content of the
Fruit. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 56: 103-110. 1950.
Smith, F. B., and J. R. Henderson. Florida Soil Associations, Use and
Management. Bur. Ec. and Bus. Res., Col. of Bus. Adm., U. of F.
Economic Leaflets 9: 11: 1-4. 1950.
Spencer, E. L. Florida's Growers Are Aided by the Vegetable Crops
Laboratory. SubTropical Gardening 4: 3: 3, 12. 1950.
Spencer, Ernest L., and Amedga Jack. Nitrogen Transformation in Seed
beds as Affected by Nematocidal Treatment. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 63: 125-128; also, Fla. Grower 58: 12 (1237): 21, 27. 1950.
Spencer, E. L., and D. G. A. Kelbert. West Coast Grower Problems Solved
at Bradenton. Fla. Grower 59: 4 (1241): 10. 1951.
Stearns, C. R., Jr., and W. L. Thompson. The Effect of Incompatible
Parathion-Wettable Sulfur Spray Combinations. Citrus Industry 32:
2: 3, 4, 16, 17. 1951.
Stoner, Warren N. A Preliminary Report of Results from Some Fungi-
cide Spray Trials for Control of Helminthosporium Leaf Blight of
Sweet Corn. P1. Dis. Rpt. 34: 312-313. 1950.
Stoner, Warren N. Graywall of Tomatoes. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63:
129-136. 1950; also, Fla. Grower 59: 3 (1240): 25, 27. 1951.
Stoner, Warren N., and William D. Hogan. Gray Mold on Tomato Causes
Crop Loss at Fort Pierce, Florida. P1. Dis. Rpt. 34: 210. 1950.
Stoner, Warren N., and William D. Hogan. Verticillium Wilt of Eggplant
Observed in Palm Beach and Martin Counties, Florida. P1. Dis. Rpt.
34: 213. 1950.
Stover, Loren H., and G. K. Parris. New Grapes for Florida. Fla. Grower
59: 3 (1240): 7, 24. 1951.
Suit, R. F., and H. W. Ford. Present Status of Spreading Decline. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 36-42; also, Citrus Ind. 31: 12: 5-7, 14-15. 1950.
Swanson, Leonard E. Liver Fluke Disease. Ft. Dodge Bio-Chemic Rev.
21: 4: 8-9. 1951.
Swanson, Leonard E., and Edward G. Batte. Flukes Cost $60,000 in 1948;
Are Controllable. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 11: 16, 18, 37.
1950.
Swanson, Leonard E., and Edward G. Batte. Control of External Para-
sites Means Regular Handling, Proper Use of New Insecticides, Para-
sitologists Report. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 12: 14, 62.
1950.
Swanson, Leonard E., and Howard H. Hopper. Diagnosis of Liver Fluke
Infection in Cattle. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 117: 881: 127-129. 1950.
Thompson, W. L. Parathion in Citrus Sprays. Fla. Grower 58: 10 (1235):
6-7. 1950.
Thompson, W. L. Scales, Whiteflies and Mealybugs-Why Do We Control
Them and How. Citrus Mag. 13: 3: 31-33; 4: 25-27. 1950.







Annual Report, 1951 35

Thompson, W. L., and J. T. Griffiths, Jr. The Purple Mite and Its Con-
trol. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 42-47. 1950; also, Citrus Mag.
13: 5: 35-38. 1951.
Thompson, W. L., and J. T. Griffiths, Jr. Suggestions for the Conservation
of Sulfur in Rust Mite Control. Citrus Mag. 13: 9: 23-27. 1951.
Thornton, George D., Jose de Alencar and F. B. Smith. Some Effects of
Streptomyces Albus and Penicillium Spp. on Rhizobium meliloti. Proc.
Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. 14: 188-190. 1949.
Tisdale, W. B. Pointers on Seed Bed Success. Fla. Grower 58: 8: (1233):
9, 20. 1950.
Tisdale, W. B. How to Control Shrub Diseases. Fla. Grower 58: 8 (1233):
18-19. 1950.
Tissot, A. N. Crop Management Foils Bugs. Fla. Grower 58: 8 (1233):
13, 17. 1950.
Tissot, A. N. Fall Crops Need Insect Control. Fla. Grower 58: 9 (1234):
17-19. 1950.
Tissot, A. N. Armyworm Control Means Spraying of Pastures and Keep-
ing Sharp Watch for Worms Before They Grow to Danger Size. Fla.
Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 12: 46, 48. 1950.
Van Ness, Glenn. Stunted Disease. Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour. 16:
11: 15. 1950.
Volk, Gaylord M., and Nathan Gammon, Jr. Effect of Low Nitrate Nitro-
gen on Growth of Potatoes. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 112-115.
1950; also, Fla. Grower 59: 2 (1239): 18. 1951.
Wallace, Harold D., Ray L. Shirley and George K. Davis. Excretion of
Ca' into the Gastro-Intestinal Tract of Young and Mature Rats. Proc.
Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. (Abst.) 48: 79. 1951.
Wander, I. W. An Interpretation of the Cause of Resistance to Wetting
in Florida Soils. Citrus Ind. 31: 8: 10-11. 1950.
Wander, I. W., and H. J. Reitz. The Chemical Composition of Irrigation
Water Used in Florida Citrus Groves. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63:
11-17. 1950.
Warner, J. D. New Yellow Lupine. So. Seedsman 14: 6: 50, 54. 1951.
West, Erdman. Notes on Camellia Diseases. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
63: 200-203; also, Fla. Grower 58: 12 (1237): 16, 28. 1950; 59: 1
(1238) : 29. 1951.
West, Erdman. Some Plants Love the Shade. Floriland 5: 2: 6, 22. 1951.
Westgate, Philip J. Effects o0 Soluble Soil Salts on Vegetable Production
at Sanford. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 116-123. 1950.
Wilkowske, H. H., W. A. Krienke and E. L. Fouts. Effect of Penicillin on
Certain Microorganisms in Milk. Jour. Dairy Sci. 34: 479. 1951.
Wilkowske, H. H., W. A. Krienke and E. L. Fouts. What Effect Does
Treatment for Mastitis Have on the Milk to Be Made into Dairy
Products? Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Wkrs. (Abst.) 48: 86-87. 1951.
Willson, A. E. Volumetric Determination of Calcium and Magnesium in
Leaf Tissue. Analytical Chem. 22: 1571. 1950.
Willson, A. E. Rapid 8-Quinolinol Procedures for Determination of Mag-
nesium. Analytical Chem. 23: 754-757. 1951.
Wilson, J. W. Toxic Insecticide Residues of Vegetables. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 63: 95-98. 1950.







36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Winchester, C. F., C. L. Comar and George K. Davis. Thyroid Destruction
by I131, and Replacement Therapy. Science 110: 302-304. 1949.
Winsor, Herbert W. Boron Retention in Rex Fine Sand as Related to
Particle Size of Colemanite Supplements. Soil Sci. 71: 99-103. 1951.
Wolfenbarger, D. O. Red Mite Control of Avocados and Mangos. Jour.
Econ. Ento. 43: 377-380. 1950.
Wolfenbarger, D. O. On the Distribution of Heilipus Squamosus (Lec.),
a Pest of the Avocado. Fla. Into. 33: 139-141. 1950.
Wolfenbarger, D. O. Dictyospermum Scale Control on Avocados. Fla.
Ento. 34: 54-58. 1951.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0., and E. G. Kelsheimer. Fertilizer-Insecticide Com-
bination for Armyworm, Mole-Cricket and Wireworm Control. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63: 93-95; also, Fla. Grower 58: 12 (1237): 16,
28. 1950.







Annual Report, 1951


LIBRARY
The library has added 2,005 bound volumes to its shelves, making a
total of 26,007. One hundred and twenty-four periodical titles were bound
into 769 volumes. It was necessary to reprocess 157 books. A total of
13,273 documents and serials were received.
In the cataloging department 23,080 catalog cards were prepared, typed
and filed. From other sources 3,925 cards were received:
Botanical cards (from N. Y. Botanical Garden) ............ 1,688
U. S. D. A. document cards ........--.................. --- ...-- ... 622
L. C. book cards ..................... ---.............................. 627
Book cards from University Library ................................... 988
Altogether a total of 27,005 cards were added to the catalogs. One hun-
dred and twenty catalog cards were prepared and added to the University
Central Catalog.
The library borrowed 84 books and lent to other libraries 25 books.
Branch Stations were lent 997 pieces of literature, while 20,835 pieces
were lent on the campus.
Subscriptions to 162 periodicals are carried by the library, while the
departments subscribe to 70 others. Out of the College of Agriculture
allocation, 17 subscriptions are received. This gives a total of 249 sub-
scriptions. By exchange the library received 240 periodicals, making 489
titles available.
No record is kept of faculty use of material within the library. How-
ever, 9,375 students used 17,288 books.







38 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Work was started on two new projects. Consumer Acceptance of
Waxed and Colored Potatoes is a sub-project of Regional Project SM-5.
Part-time Farming in Florida is being studied on state funds under in-
formal cooperation with Regional Project S-11. Brief summaries of the
research conducted are given below.

FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 154 H. G. Hamilton
This project has, as its principal objective, the determination of the
factors which make for success or failure of farmers' cooperatives. Be-
cause of the nature of the objective many years are required to obtain
results.
Detailed data on tlfe operations of approximately 25 cooperatives were
obtained. A complete record of individual sale lots (more than 3,000) for
two seasons' operations of a successful cooperative were obtained for the
purpose of determining the pattern of distribution, type of buyer, type
of sale, nature of sale lot and type of carrier used. These data have been
transferred from the field forms to approximately 6,000 I.B.M. cards to
facilitate analysis.

COST OF PRODUCTION AND GROVE ORGANIZATION STUDIES
OF FLORIDA CITRUS
Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage
Field work of closing out approximately 128 accounts was completed
for the 1949-50 season and 167 accounts were opened for the 1950-51
season. Cost data for the 1949-50 season have been synchronized with
data for previous years to give complete facts on cost of producing citrus
fruit.
In general, cost per acre for late oranges increases with age of groves
up to 25 years, but per box cost decreases.

TABLE 1.-CosTS OF ORANGE PRODUCTION BY TREES OF VARIOUS AGES
FOR 1942-49.


Years from Setting Cost per Acre-1942-49 Cost per Box
1942-49

0 -2 ................. $ 66.40
3 5 ....... .....-.. 93.02 $2.16
6-8 ................ 130.29 1.71
9 -11 ... .......- 145.27 1.12
12 -14 -....- ....... 150.49 .70
15 17 ..- ....... 201.38 1.00
19 -20 ....-....... 260.65 .99
21 -23 .............. 251.88 .82
24-26 ...-- ......... 272.87 .91
27-29 ...... ...... 223.74 .63
30 32 ............. .. 205.11 .54

Approximately the same trend in cost by age group held for other
oranges.







Annual Report, 1951


FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY, ITS POSSIBLE
INHERITANCE, AND DEPRECIATION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
S. P. Marshall and A. H. Spurlock
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Department of Dairy
Science. This report covers only the economic phase.
Continuing records on breeding, inventory replacements and causes
of losses were obtained from 10 dairies. Causes for disposal from the
milking herd were: Mastitis and other udder trouble 24.9 percent; low
production record 18.8 percent; reproduction troubles 12.5 percent; and
deaths 14.9 percent.
The remaining years of usefulness for cows in the milking herd at
different ages were:
Attained Age Remaining Years
Milking Herd of Usefulness
2.0- 2.9 4.2
4.0- 4.9 3.0
6.0- 6.9 2.4
10.0 10.9 1.5
(See also Proj. 345: DAIRY SCIENCE)

INPUT AND OUTPUT DATA FOR FLORIDA CROP AND
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
Purnell Project 395 A. H. Spurlock, D. L. Brooke
and R. E. L. Greene
A manuscript has been prepared showing the labor requirements by
operations for important vegetable crops in the principal producing areas
of the state. Seed, fertilizer, pesticides and other materials used in
production are also given. The project will be closed upon publication
of the manuscript.

ANALYSIS OF FARMS AND MARKETS IN THE PLANT CITY AREA
WITH RESPECT TO POST-WAR ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

Purnell Project 429 R. E. L. Greene
An analysis of the 312 farm business schedules and labor and material
requirements for individual crops on 128 farms have been analyzed and a
manuscript is being prepared. Upon publication of the manuscript the
project will be closed.

CROP AND LIVESTOCK ESTIMATING ON FLORIDA FARMS
WITH EMPHASIS ON VEGETABLE CROPS

State Project 451 G. Norman Rose
This project supplements, on a collaborative basis, the work performed
by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service of the U. S. Bureau
of Agricultural Economics, Orlando, Florida.
Estimates of average production and value were made for 7 fall, 16
winter, and 12 spring vegetable crops. These estimates are released
monthly, being sent to more than 14,000 interested growers, packers and
shippers. A truck crop news report, giving planting progress, growing







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


conditions and harvesting periods was released on the 15th of each month
for the season. Approximately 27,000 copies of this report were released
to interested parties. Average estimates and production forecasts, on the
34 crops, were based on 603 regular and 507 special schedules obtained by
personal contacts, telephone and field observations.
Florida Vegetable Crops, Volume VI, the annual statistical summary
of vegetable crops for the State, was released during the year. This pub-
lication carries data on production and value of most Florida vegetables
and cost of producing and harvesting of the more important vegetables.
The Florida Agricultural Outlook Committee released in June suggested
production of commercial vegetables for the 1951-52 season. Research
developed under this project is used largely as a basis for this important
report.

COST OF PRODUCTION AND RETURNS ON VEGETABLE
CROPS IN FLORIDA

State Project 480 Donald L. Brooke
Field schedules of costs and returns on vegetable crops for the 1949-50
season were obtained from more than 300 growers covering over 70,000
acres of vegetables. Crop summary tables by major producing areas for
the 1949-50 season were prepared and returned to cooperating growers.
Two bulletins, 472, Labor and Material Requirements, Cost of Produc-
tion Returns on Florida Irish Potatoes, and 474, Labor and Material
Requirements, Costs of Production and Returns on Florida Tomatoes,
were published in cooperation with leaders of Purnell Project 395. Data
on costs and returns for lime and avocado growers were obtained, sum-
marized and released in mimeographed form, in cooperation with the
Florida Agricultural Extension Service, Dade County Office.

CONSUMER PACKAGING OF VEGETABLES (EXCEPT TOMATOES)

Purnell Project 483 R. K. Showalter, D. B. Thompson
and A. H. Spurlock
This project is conducted in cooperation with the Department of Horti-
culture and the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Only the economic
phase is reported here.
For the third season data have been summarized for a large firm on
harvesting and packaging costs, selling and delivery costs, spoilage and
allowances to customers, selling prices and gross field returns to growers.
For the 1949-50 season this plant sold 218,000 cartons of prepackaged
produce. Sweet corn made up 51 percent of the output, broccoli 16 per-
cent, greens 13 percent, cauliflower 9 percent, and the remaining 5 percent
consisted of brussels sprouts, cole slaw and salad. Prepackaged sweet
corn went to 64 markets, broccoli to 40 markets and cauliflower to 34
markets. Out-of-state markets received 80 percent of the sweet corn
sales, 57 percent of the broccoli and 79 percent of the cauliflower. For
the 1949-50 season gross field returns to growers were higher for pre-
packaged sweet corn and cauliflower, but lower for broccoli, than for the
same original quantity sold in bulk.
Total prepackaging costs were 39 percent higher for sweet corn, 45
percent for cauliflower and 120 percent for broccoli than when packed in
bulk containers. But selling and transportation costs were less for all
three products when prepackaged. (See also Proj. 483, HORTICULTURE.)








Annual Report, 1951


PACKAGING OF TOMATOES

RMA Project 484 R. K. Showalter, L. H. Halsey
(Regional SM-3) and A. H. Spurlock
This project is conducted in cooperation with the Department of Horti-
culture and the USDA. Only the economic phase is reported here.
Sales of tomatoes, by type of container and grade, were analyzed for
the fall and spring crops .of the 1949-50 season for one large packing and
shipping firm.
F. o. b. prices per pound of tomatoes were generally higher when sold
in lugs than when sold in wire-bound bushel crates or in open-top bushel
boxes. However, because of the higher container and packing cost for
lugs, prices returned to growers were higher for the Grade 1 tomatoes
marketed in open-top bushel boxes than those marketed in lugs or wire-
bound crates. Grower returns for Grade 1 tomatoes in equivalent lug
quantities were: Lugs $2.10, wire-bound crates $2.45 and open-top boxes
$2.74. For Grade 2 tomatoes there was but little difference in returns
for the various containers. (See also Proj. 484, HORTICULTURE.)

SPOILAGE IN MARKETING EARLY IRISH POTATOES

RMA Project 485 R. E. L. Greene
(Regional SM-5)
This project is conducted cooperatively with Alabama, North Carolina,
South Carolina and Virginia agricultural experiment stations and with
the Bureaus of Agricultural Economics and Plant Industry, Soils and
Agricultural Engineering, USDA.
More data are needed on spoilage and quality of potatoes at the retail
level just before the product moves to the consumer. From March to
July 1950 more than 3,300 samples, about 500 from Florida, were collected
from 30 stores in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, market and analyzed for
grade quality. The average of grade defects for Florida potatoes was
13 percent, 4 percent of which was serious damage. In addition, 6 percent
of the potatoes showed injury. Grade defects by varieties were: Pontiac
11 percent, Sebago 13 percent and Red Bliss 14 percent. Cuts and bruises
accounted for 75 percent of the defects in Red Bliss, 50 percent in Pontiac
and 32 percent in Sebago.
In an effort to determine how the injuries could be reduced, tests using
rubber-coated and wire baskets for picking-up potatoes were made during
the harvest of Hastings potatoes in 1951. The use of rubber-coated
baskets eliminated practically all basket damage in picking-up potatoes.
Field harvesters which bagged potatoes at the time of harvest reduced
damage due to exposure and showed no more injury in harvesting than
the conventional method of harvesting.

COST AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE COST OF MARKETING
CITRUS FRUITS IN FRESH AND PROCESSED FORM

RMA Project 486 H. G. Hamilton, D. L. Brooke
(SM-4) and H. W. Little
Data were obtained for the 1949-50 season's operations for 73 packing-
houses, 16 canneries, 8 frozen concentrate processors and 6 molasses and
pulp feed processors. These data were summarized and distributed in
mimeograph form.
Cost of handling citrus fruit increased 6 percent for fresh fruit and








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


14 percent for canned juice from the 1946-47 season to the 1949-50 season
(Table 2).

TABLE 2.-CosT OF PACKING AND SELLING FRESH ORANGES AND OF
PROCESSING AND SELLING ORANGE JUICE.

Season Oranges Orange Juice
Packed in Bruce Boxes per Case 46 oz. Cans

1946-47 ...... $0.83 $1.06
1947-48 ...... .84 1.09
1948-49 ...... .83 1.17
1949-50 ...... .88 1.21


The per box equivalent costs for the 1949-50 season for handling oranges
at the shipping point were 88 cents for fresh oranges (packed in Bruce
boxes), $1.21 for canned juice (case of 46-ounce cans) and $1.00 for frozen
concentrate (case of 24 6-ounce cans).
Indexes reveal that the most efficient firm had a cost index of 73, when
the average is 100, while the least efficient had a cost index of 165. Such
wide variations in efficiency indicate good opportunities for lowering cost.
The following agencies are cooperating in this project: Texas Agri-
cultural Experiment Station; Bureau of Agricultural Economics; Fruit
and Vegetable Branch, PMA; and Research and Service Division FCA,
USDA.

THE CONSUMER PATTERN FOR CITRUS FRUIT

RMA Project 519 H. G. Hamilton, Levi Powell,
(Regional SM-4) Tallmadge Bergen and M. R. Godwin
Data obtained from November 1949 to June 1950 on prices received and
quantities sold of citrus and citrus products, by income areas, for 23
stores in Jacksonville, Florida, were transferred to approximately 45,000
I.B.M. cards and are being machine processed. To obtain price-quantity
relationships two index numbers, one on price and the other on quantity,
were prepared for each product for each income area. Results show that
the low-income area sales are more sensitive to price changes than either
the medium- or high-income areas and that the medium-income area sales
are more sensitive to price changes than the high-income area. Oranges
are more sensitive to price change than orange concentrate and frozen
orange concentrate more sensitive than single strength juice.
In cooperation with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, data
similar to the Jacksonville data were compiled in 10 large stores in the
Memphis, Tennessee, market for the period January to June 1951. These
data are being prepared for machine processing.

COORDINATED SELLING OF CITRUS FRUIT

State Project 520 H. G. Hamilton
This project is in cooperation with the Farm Credit Administration,
USDA.
Analysis of the schedule mailed last year to the members of Florida
Citrus Mutual has been completed. These data reveal great variation in
the experience and interest of grower members of Florida Citrus Mutual.








Annual Report, 1951


Fourteen percent of the members returning the schedules lived out of
the state; 30 percent had owned groves less than 10 years; 39 percent
received 25 percent or less of their total income from citrus; and 25 percent
owned less than 10 acres, while 3.2 percent owned groves of 100 acres
or over. Such variation in experience and interest may account for the
different views held by members with respect to the functions of Florida
Citrus Mutual. Farm Credit Administration Miscellaneous Report No.
143, "Coordinating the Marketing of Florida Citrus Fruit," was released
during the year.

METHODS OF LEASING FARM LAND IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 530 D. E. Alleger
A manuscript, "Current Farm Leasing Practices in Florida," which
was in draft form at the beginning of the year was put in final form and
published as Bulletin 13, Southern Cooperative Series.
The exceedingly high rate of mobility of tenants is costing both land-
lords and tenants thousands of dollars annually. Every effort to lower
this high rate of mobility should be made.
The project was closed with the release of Bulletin 13.

FARM RENTAL ARRANGEMENTS IN FLORIDA
State Project 556 D. E. Alleger
The study is based on 141 field schedules in five Florida counties, of
which 122 were obtained during this fiscal year. These data were analyzed
and the first draft of a manuscript prepared.
Low incomes of tenants appeared to induce high rates of mobility.
Small farms, as compared to large farms, had relatively as equitable leas-
ing arrangements. Year-to-year leases generally had no provision for
soil conservation. Croppers and tenants accumulated but little farm capi-
tal, consequently they use old methods of farming based on one or two
cash crops with a maximum amount of man and mule labor. This practice
puts the row-crop farms to a disadvantage in competing with modern
technical farms.

CONSUMER DEMAND FOR CITRUS PRODUCTS AND FACTORS
AFFECTING THAT DEMAND
RMA Project 562-Title II D. C. Kimmel and H. G. Hamilton
(RM: C-33, L.P. 3, ES-41)
Work on this project during the year was confined to a study of the
Meridian, Mississippi, market. Data were compiled on prices received and
quantities sold of citrus and other specified products for 20 retail stores
covering a four-week period for each of the four seasons of the year.
Information on the consumer phase of the project was obtained for 661
families. The consumer schedules are being processessed with I.B.M.
equipment.
There was a rather pronounced seasonal pattern in the sales of certain
products. Sales of orangeade were approximately 30 percent lower in
October than in August, while total orange product sales were about 27
percent higher in October than in August. Oranges were used by 99
percent of the households in the consumer survey, grapefruit by 80 per-
cent, canned orange juice by 79 percent, orangeade by 24 percent and
frozen concentrate orange juice by 30 percent.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF WAXED AND COLORED POTATOES
RMA Project 578 R. E. L. Greene
(Regional SM-5)
The recent practice of coloring and waxing new red potatoes gave
rise to the investigation of the effect of this treatment on consumer ac-
ceptance. To determine consumer acceptance of waxed and colored po-
tatoes, control tests were set up in 12 stores in the Baltimore market
covering the period March 9 to April 5, 1951. The experiment was de-
signed to see if consumers discriminated between waxed and colored
potatoes and those unwaxed and uncolored and to test whether more
potatoes were sold when waxed and colored.
Results on consumer preference when the potatoes were displayed in
adjoining lots showed that in the Red Bliss variety 4.3 pounds of waxed
and colored potatoes were sold for each 1 pound of unwaxed and uncolored;
and for the Pontiac variety 3.4 pounds of waxed and colored potatoes were
sold for each 1 pound of untreated potatoes.
Under controlled conditions waxing and coloring potatoes resulted in
a significant increase in total sales of Florida potatoes.
While this is a sub-project of Regional Project SM-5, the work was
done by two agencies, the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and
the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, USDA.

PART-TIME FARMING IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 579 D. E. Alleger
This project, opened the latter part of the fiscal year, will require
several years to complete. The first phase is being conducted in the
Jacksonville area, where 130 schedules have been obtained. It is anticipated
that 400 schedules will be required in this area alone. No analyses or
findings have been made to date.

MISCELLANEOUS
Cost of Milk Production.-The cost of producing milk was obtained
for 20 Duval County and 24 Dade County dairies. These costs and re-
turns, together with cost obtained last fiscal year for Palm Beach, Pinellas,
Hillsborough and Orange counties, were summarized and published.
Florida Truck Crop Competition.-The regular supplement to Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 224 covering the weekly carlot
shipments of vegetables from Florida and competing areas was prepared
for the 1949-50 season and distributed in mimeographed form.
Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries to Groves in Florida.-The
movement of citrus from nurseries to groves in the 1949-50 season was
compiled by varieties. Summaries are now available for 23 years. This
work is in cooperation with the State Plant Board.








Annual Report, 1951


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Considerable attention was given to the further evaluation of the
slatted floor batch drier as an all-purpose farm crop drier. Cooperative
work with the Agronomy Department on irrigation, fertilization, soil
fumigation and cultivation of tobacco was expanded. Work was started
on two new projects, the determination of the optimum air delivery, air
temperature and depth of seed for mechanical drying, and design and
operation of heat exchangers for farm drying equipment. Some work
also was done on miscellaneous projects.

CURING HAY IN FLORIDA

Bankhead-Jones Project 536 J. M. Myers, G. B. Killinger
and R. W. Bledsoe
Hay drying research, begun in 1948, has been summarized in Station
Bulletin 477 where data are given on the types of driers which have given
good results under Florida farm conditions. Results indicate that Florida
hay crops can be grown and processed into high quality hay.
As indicated in this bulletin and in last year's annual report, the
slatted floor hay drier seemed to be well adapted for seed. To test this
further, much of the work during the current year consisted of drying
seed in bags. This method of loading the drier yielded very good results.
Tests showed that gates placed between the slatted floor joists at the main
duct outlet to cut off the air from a portion of slatted floor makes the
drying of small lots of seed feasible. The cost of drying is increased
where the lots are small but the increase does not make this practice pro-
hibitive. In one trial where one-third of the drying floor was not used
the operating cost of drying lupine seed was increased from $1.46 to $1.69
per ton of dried seed.
In these trials about 200,000 pounds of peanuts, rye, lupine, oats and
hairy indigo seed were dried during the year. Various depths, rates of air
and temperatures were used. A marked increase in the quality of arti-
ficially dried over stack dried peanuts was observed. The operating dry-
ing cost per ton of the seed varied as follows: lupine, $0.79 to $1.69; oats,
$0.38 to $2.84; peanuts, $2.65 to $4.85; hairy indigo, $2.43 to $5.98 and
rye, $0.94 to $1.63. (See also Proj. 536, AGRONOMY, and Proj. 577,
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING.)

FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark, Henry C. Harris,
R. W. Bledsoe and J. M. Myers
Irrigation studies started in 1949 were continued and more plots were
added to obtain more information on fertilizer materials and fertilizer
rates as they are affected by the use of supplemental irrigation in the
production of flue-cured tobacco.
There were only 2.29 inches of rainfall during the month of May and
the first half of June, which made frequent applications of irrigation water
necessary during that period. During the growing season nine applica-
tions of irrigation water were made. Yields and quality of irrigated to-
bacco, to date, have been very outstanding. (See also Project 555,
AGRONOMY.)








46 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

DESIGN AND OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR FARM
DRYING EQUIPMENT

State Project 573 J. M. Myers and Frazier Rogers
A heat exchanger, designed for simplicity, constructed of 26-gage
stainless steel and fabricated with angle iron and stove bolts, was tested.
This heat exchanger contained 64 sq. ft. of radiating surface, and the
cost of labor and material for fabricating it was approximately $80. A
jet type burner in which No. 2 fuel oil was burned was used to furnish
the heat. The thermal efficiency of this heater varied from 81 to 89%
when fuel was burned at the rates of 2 to 5 gph. By using this heater
in conjunction with a centrifugal fan with backwardly-inclined blades for
a crop drying unit, it was determined that it is slightly more efficient
to locate the heat exchanger on the inlet side of the fan when the tem-
perature of the air is not being raised more than 30 F. above the ambient
air temperature.
It was determined also that the optimum air velocity for the move-
ment of air over the heat exchanger surface should be approximately
2,000 cu. ft. per minute.

DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM AIR DELIVERY, AIR
TEMPERATURE AND DEPTH OF SEED FOR MECHANICAL DRYING
State Project 577 J. M. Myers and Frazier Rogers
Static pressure tests were made to determine the optimum depth, so
far as adaptable equipment is concerned, for loading the following seed
on a drier:
Optimum Depth
Seed Bagged Loose
Southland oats ...........................----......... 24" to 30" 24" to 36"
Florida black rye .---..-............................ 12" to 14" 12" to 15"
Peanuts ............................---- .--- ... 48" 48"
Lupine ............-.........-..... ---------- 36" to 40" 36" to 48"
Bahia grass -..................................... 4" to 8" 4" to 8"
Hegari grain sorghum ..... 8" to 12" 8" to 12"
Twenty-two tests were conducted on the drying of lupine, peanuts,
Hegari grain sorghum and hairy indigo to determine the optimum rate
of air and temperature. Results are not conclusive at this time but indi-
cations are that an air delivery of 35 to 45 cfm/sq. ft. of drying floor
area, and an air temperature of 105 to 110 F., are most suitable for
drying these seed.
MISCELLANEOUS
Corn Storage.-Studies have been started to determine the effect of
moisture content on keeping qualities and insect damage of shelled corn
stored in steel bins. These are being made at Monticello, Florida, in co-
operation with a corn drying and storage plant. Due to a delay in con-
struction of the plant, results obtained during the past year were inadequate
to draw any definite conclusions. (J. M. Myers.)
Gladiolus Corm Drying.-Twelve lots of gladiolus corms were dried in
an experimental drier for periods of from 5 to 12 days at temperatures
ranging from 85" to 105' F. to obtain preliminary results on the effect
of drying in the control of Fusarium. These lots of corms were sent to
the Gulf Coast Station, Bradenton, for storage, planting and evaluation.
(J. M. Myers and R. O. Magie.)








Annual Report, 1951


AGRONOMY
Research with field crops has included fundamental plant nutrition,
responses to fertilizers, introduction of new varieties and new crops, and
breeding of peanuts, corn, small grains, tobacco and forage crops. Hay
production and curing tests have been continued. Control measures for
weeds, insects and nematodes-particularly in tobacco production-are
being investigated in cooperation with other departments and with en-
couraging results.
PEANUT IMPROVEMENT
State Project 20 W. A. Carver, Fred H. Hull
and Fred A. Clark
Breeding for the improvement of peanuts in yielding ability, seed
qualities including soundness, and seed size is being pursued by methods
described in previous reports.
A sister line of Dixie Runner, formerly known as Fla. 230-118, was
named Early Runner and released to several growers for seed increase
in 1951. It was selected from the cross Dixie Giant x Small White Spanish.
Early Runner is about two weeks earlier in maturity than Dixie Runner
and three weeks earlier than common runner peanuts.
Selection is being made for medium large seeded peanuts which are
relatively free of concealed damage and produce good yields in Florida.
Crosses and pedigreed selections have been made to breed new lines which
combine the pod and seed characters of Spanish peanuts with the plant
habits of runner peanuts. Some progress has been made in combining
these characters. To secure the desired character complex, Small White
Spanish has been crossed to Dixie Runner, Early Runner and to hybrid
lines of Spanish-runner characters. The latter lines have also been crossed
to Dixie Runner.
The seed stock of one medium large seeded strain is being increased
for processing tests by manufacturers of confections. This strain is Fla.
281, selected from the cross Spanish-Valencia x Virginia Bunch.
The peanut variety-strain tests in Florida during the season of 1950
were largely inconclusive because of poor stands of plants and adverse
weather conditions. The ratings of the leading lines in yield, expressed
in percent of common runner peanuts over a period of years, are as fol-
lows: Dixie Runner 129%, Early Runner 133%, and Fla. 281 116%.

VARIETY TEST WORK WITH FIELD CROPS
Hatch Project 56 Fred H. Hull, D. D. Morey,
W. A. Carver and F. A. Clark
Twenty-five varieties and strains of sesame were grown in variety
trials at Gainesville, Leesburg and Jay, Florida. Average yield of clean
seed at Gainesville was 470 pounds per acre. Oil content, measured on a
few varieties, showed an average yield of 50 percent oil.
Variety and date of planting tests with grain sorghums, planted at
Gainesville in 1950, were badly injured by fall armyworms. Symptoms
of copper deficiency were noted in the field. The varieties Sagrain and
Early Hegari continued to produce well. Redlan and Norghum, short
growing combine types, show considerable promise as grain producers.
They may be planted in late July as a short season catch crop.
A large number of cowpea varieties, strains and foreign introductions
were grown in observation plots at Gainesville in the spring season of








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


1951. Seed from most of the lines were also planted at two branch stations.
The objective of growing the cowpea lines is to find types which will
combine well, resist prevalent disease troubles and produce a good yield
of forage. The several lines which appear to have these characters will
be grown again in 1952 in variety trials and increase plots.
Eight strains of sweet clover were grown during the season 1950-1951.
Planting was made too late for maximum growth. The test indicated that
the clovers could be grown under proper management.

CORN FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS

State Project 163 Fred H. Hull and Myron G. Grennell
The purpose of this experiment is to study the interaction of fertilizer
and culture on yield and weed control. Dixie 18 corn was planted follow-
ing lupines and treated with two rates of N, P and K. Each fertilizer
treatment was divided into four plots for different kinds of cultivation
with tractor implements. The surface-planted plots have been eliminated
because of damage by crows and drought.
The experiment will be continued in 1952 with a change in the nitrogen
treatment. The results of the 1950 test were analyzed and significant
differences observed in the yield of corn planted in the furrow over the
yield of surface-planted plots.

EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS AND MANAGEMENT ON YIELD, GRAZING
VALUE, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BOTANICAL
MAKEUP OF PASTURES

Bankhead-Jones Project 295 G. B. Killinger and R. W. Bledsoe
Grazing experiments were continued with Pensacola Bahia, Coastal
Bermuda and Pangola pastures top-seeded to white clover and Hubam
clover in the fall of 1947. The soil being somewhat drought and a dry
fall and winter caused much of the clover to die out. Beef yields for the
1950 season ending in November were slightly over 300 pounds per acre
for each of the grass-legume pasture systems.
Southland oats fertilized with 500 pounds per acre of a 6-6-6 fertilizer
and planted in mid-October were grazed during February and early March
and then combined for grain, yielding 35 bushels per acre. An additional
200 pounds per acre of nitrate of soda was applied in early January. The
cattle maintained their weight, with a slight gain for the entire period,
without supplemental feed.
Heat-treated phosphate and rock phosphate were satisfactory sources
of phosphorus for white clover when sulfur was added to the treatments.
Pangola, Pensacola Bahia and Coastal Bermuda grasses responded to
high rates of nitrogen from nitrate of soda with yields of over seven tons
per acre and protein content on a dry basis of 12 to 14 percent.
Cattle and horses readily grazed Argentine Bahia grass on one new
pasture and maintained good condition on it. Laboratory analyses have
shown protein and mineral composition of Argentine Bahia equal or
superior to Pensacola Bahia. Information on Argentine Bahia is given
in Florida Experiment Station Circular S-31.
Indications are that anhydrous ammonia will be a good source of nitro-
gen for Pangola, Coastal Bermuda and Pensacola Bahia, as evidenced by
tests started in early April this year.
This project is conducted in cooperation with the Animal Husbandry
Department.








Annual Report, 1951


FORAGE NURSERY AND PLANT ADAPTATION STUDIES
Bankhead-Jones Project 297 D. E. McCloud, Fred H. Hull'
and G. E. Ritchey
More than 500 forage crop introductions were received and are being
increased for further testing. About 150 species representing the more
promising of those obtained during the last few years are being screened
for value.
The use of a repeated clipping technique was inaugurated this year
to determine seasonal production patterns.
The unusually severe winter aided in evaluation of low temperature effects
with respect to foliar damage, winter killing and spring recovery. Paspalum
quadifarium P. I. 161,886, Eragrostis curvula P. I. 156,818, and Eragrostis
lehmaniniana var. ample were the most resistant to foliar cold damage.
These species had tough, woody foliage. All other species were killed to
the ground by the 20, F. minimum in November. Most of the plants in
the nursery survived the winter cold but exhibited a delayed spring re-
covery.
Pangola grass suffered no winter killing in the nursery but recovered
very slowly in the spring. Pensacola led the Bahia grasses in cold re-
sistance and recovered much more rapidly in the spring. On the May 3
harvest Pensacola produced 1,057 pounds of dry forage per acre, compared
to 267 for Argentine. On the June 5 harvest Pensacola again produced
1,020 and Argentine 317 pounds per acre.
Other species exhibiting a rapid spring growth were: Eragrostis sp.
P. I. 156,053, Panicum maximum P. I. 156,078, Echinochloa pyriamidalis
P. I. 156,045. A new legume, Vigna sp. P. I. 158,831, likewise shows
promise.
Seed and plant materials were furnished various branch stations for
testing under their conditions and results will be found in reports of these
stations.
FORAGE AND PASTURE GRASS IMPROVEMENT -/
Bankhead-Jones Project 298 D. D. Morey, W. A. Carver
and Fred H. Hull2
Several strains of Bahia grass were evaluated and one promising strain
has been increased for further testing. Several other selections from
Paspalum, Pennisetum, Panicum and Digitaria were tested for forage
yields and general desirability. Turf samples from the different Bahia
grasses were collected from different sections of the State and planted
in the nursery at Gainesville.
Field experiments have been started to evaluate strains of Bermuda,
Pangola and Bahia grasses for disease resistance, variability between and
within strains, and for general desirability as forage types on sandy land.
Special attention is being given to the selection of grasses that have a
better than average resistance to cold.
PASTURE LEGUMES
Bankhead-Jones Project 301 A. T. Wallace, G. B. Killinger,
E. S. Homer, M. G. Grennell
and Fred H. Hull'
At Gainesville the 1950-51 results from the legume nurseries are as
follows:
I In cooperation with Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.
2 In cooperation with Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.
3 In cooperation with Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.








50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Certified Ladino and Louisiana White clovers were superior to other
white clovers. New Zealand white was inferior.
Tallarook and Nangella subterranean clovers were superior and free
of disease. Mt. Barker and Bacchus Marsh were infested with mildew.
Kenland red clover proved superior to other red clovers.
The new Florida strain of annual sweet clover was superior to all other
strains of annual and biennial sweet clover. Enough seed of this new
strain of sweet clover were produced to release quantities to seed growers
for commercial production.
Hairy vetch and wooly pod strains of vetch were superior to all others.
Both Columbia and Beaver strains of big-trefoil grew well. However,
preliminary results indicate that Columbia is superior.
A yield trial consisting of miscellaneous lots of clovers was planted.
Results indicate that Australian, New Zealand, and Danish seed lots are
not as well adapted as lots of seed developed in the United States.
The superior lupine strains for production of organic matter and cover
crop planting were Commercial bitter blue, Georgia bitter blue and Alta
bitter blue in that order.
The Florida selections of annual white sweet clover and Kenland red
clover appear best adapted for growing with Pangola grass.
Without bees present, seed production on sweet clover and red clover
is low, whereas with honey bees present in sufficient quantities seed pro-
duction on these two crops was satisfactory.
The breeding program on lupines, vetch, peas, sweet clover, red clover,
alfalfa, hairy indigo, and big trefoil is being intensified.

METHODS OF ESTABLISHING PERMANENT PASTURES UNDER
VARIOUS CONDITIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 304 G. B. Killinger
Argentine Bahia grass was successfully established on a virgin Leon
fine sand soil near Gainesville after double-disking three times, applying
2 tons per acre of high calcic limestone, 500 pounds per acre of a 6-6-6
fertilizer and seeding 2 pounds of seed using a cultipacker seeder. Similar
establishment of Argentine Bahia was made on a Norfolk sand, which
was formerly crop land, using 5 pounds of seed per acre and a grain drill
with small seeder attachment. No limestone or fertilizer was used during
the first year of establishment.
Winter legumes, white clover, Hubam, Kenland red and big trefoil were
established satisfactorily on prepared seedbeds, grass sods and grass sods
burned ahead of seeding.
Pangola grass is now most commonly propagated by disking in newly
mown hay on prepared seedbeds. This, method was first demonstrated
as practical at this station in 1944. In 1949 a 12-acre nursery was estab-
lished by this method and as a result of this planting many farmers in
North Central Florida adopted the same procedure in 1950 and 1951.
Several hundred acres of flatwoods soil at this station are being pre-
pared for Pangola and Bahia grass establishment to be used as experi-
mental pastures at different fertility levels. A web plow is to be used
for killing the palmetto and runner oak. Results of establishment under
these and other conditions should be available by 1953.

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE COMPOSITION OF
FORAGE PLANTS
Adams Project 369 R. W. Bledsoe and R. L. Gilman
Yearly applications of sulfur, where the supply of other elements was








Annual Report, 1951 51

adequate, increased yield, nitrogen and mineral contents of White Dutch
clover, and the succeeding growth of Carpet and Pensacola Bahia grasses
(Bulletin 475). (See also Proj. 428, SOILS.)
Southland oats were irrigated and fertilized with 500 pounds of an
0-10-10 fertilizer and with nitrogen at rates of 20 to 320 pounds per acre.
The maximum green weight of clippings was 16.7 tons per acre at the
highest rate of nitrogen fertilization. At that rate 54.8 percent of the
nitrogen applied was recovered in the forage. Results indicate yields
might have been higher had increased rates of nitrogen been applied.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IMPROVEMENT
Adams Project 372 A. T. Wallace and F. A. Clark4
In breeding tobacco for nematode resistance, the major problem has
been to combine good leaf type with high resistance. Two main breeding
plans were initiated in an attempt to overcome this obstacle. For the
first plan, a recurrent selection plan, 225 Fa, F4 and F5 lines that have
fair resistance and medium leaf type were available. About 500 crosses
were made between these lines. Approximately 18,000 F2 plants were
evaluated for future use in this breeding plan.
The second plan is an attempt to find lines which combine to give good
leaf type and high resistance. Such lines, when found, will be maintained
and crossed each year for production of F1 seed which will be sold to
farmers. The male sterility factor will be introduced into one of the lines
to make the production of F1 seed more practical. This year 100 Fi
crosses were evaluated. A yield test was conducted with seven varieties
and all possible crosses of these varieties to determine if any hybrid vigor
existed between them which could be used in an F1 seed breeding plan.

CORN IMPROVEMENT
Purnell Project 374 Earl S. Horner and Fred H. Hull
Two separate programs of recurrent selection for specific combin-
ability are in progress. In program "B", which utilizes the single cross
F44 x F6 as the tester, 610 test crosses were grown in five replicates
during the past season. Lines from the 25 selected crosses were inter-
crossed in the greenhouse to complete the first cycle of selection. In pro-
gram "C", with F51 x F52 as the tester, 20 lines were intercrossed to com-
plete the second cycle.
The possibility of using cytoplasmic male sterility to facilitate commer-
cial hybrid seed production is being investigated. The factor for sterility
is being incorporated in Florida lines by back-crossing and a search is
being made for lines which will satisfactorily restore fertility after the
hybrid seed has been produced.
Twenty-nine hybrids and varieties were entered in the corn variety
test in 1950. On the basis of yield, standability and weevil resistance,
the yellow hybrid Dixie 18 and the white hybrid Georgia 281 were the
leaders. During the past three years of testing Dixie 18 and Georgia 281
have produced 20 and 23 percent more grain, respectively, than Florida W-1.

METHODS OF PRODUCING, HARVESTING AND
MAINTAINING PASTURE PLANTS AND SEED STOCKS
Bankhead-Jones Project 417 G. B. Killinger
Hubam (annual white sweet clover) has been satisfactorily grown and
4 In cooperation with Division of Tobacco. Medicinal and Special Crops, BPISAE, USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the seed harvested by combine on experimental plots at several of the
Agricultural Experiment Station farms near Gainesville. Seed yields of
this crop were from 100 to 450 pounds per acre. To produce a heavy
poundage of seed and tonnage of Hubam forage it has been found neces-
sary to adjust the soil pH to 6.0 or higher with applications of ground
agricultural limestone, either calcic or dolomitic. In addition, 500 pounds
per acre of an 0-14-10 fertilizer or similar grade must be applied at planting
time for best results. Hubam clover is established during late October
and November with a 10-pound per acre rate of inoculated seed. Areas
to be seeded to Hubam must be moist or enough precipitation must fall to
germinate the seed. This clover will grow over a wider range of soil
moisture conditions than white clover.
Kenland red clover has been grown on experimental plots, under similar
conditions to Hubam, with seed yields of 11 to 90 pounds per acre. Seed
production of Kenland red clover, Hubam and Crimson clover were markedly
increased when honey bees were caged on experimental plots.
It was noted that hairy indigo on experimental areas did not volunteer
well unless the soil is thoroughly disked. The disking of plots that have
been in hairy indigo should be done between late March and early June if
a good stand is expected and to insure a fall seed crop.
Argentine Bahia grass has produced from 100 to 500 pounds of seed
per acre on experimental plots but the seed cannot be harvested satis-
factorily with the seed stripper often used on Pensacola Bahia. Combining
of Argentine Bahia seed is successful.

EFFECT OF Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S, AND Mg ON THE GROWTH OF GRAIN
CROPS, FORAGE CROPS, PASTURES AND TOBACCO
Bankhead-Jones Project 440 Henry C. Harris, R. W. Bledsoe
and R. L. Gilman
Results were inconclusive of tests with Pangola grass relative to uptake
of Mo" as influenced by aeration, pH and copper levels in the nutrient
supply.
Additional studies on the utilization of soil and fertilizer phosphorus
from different soil types by corn, when P32 was used as a tracer, showed
there was a high utilization of fertilizer phosphorus by young plants,
while older plants obtained the most of their phosphorus from the soil.
Within three days after treatment there was a much greater uptake of
Ca" by sunflower plants supplied a complete nutrient solution than that
of boron-deficient plants or boron-deficient plants which were transferred
to a complete nutrient supply at the time the tracer was added to the
nutrient solutions.

PERMANENT SEEDBEDS FOR TOBACCO PLANTS
State Project 444 Fred Clark
Satisfactory weed control and plant growth were obtained at Live Oak
with 1 pound of Uramon or 1 pound of Calcium Cyanamid, or by combina-
tion of 1 pound of Uramon and pound of Calcium Cyanamid per square
yard. Methyl bromide used at 9 pounds per 100 square yards also gave
excellent weed control and plant growth.
Results from Uramon and Calcium Cyanamid treatments were unsatis-
factory at Gainesville. The poor results were attributed to leaching of
the materials following a two-inch rainfall which occurred shortly after
the materials were applied. This verified previous results from a con-
trolled watering test. Should there be an inch or more of rain within 48 to








Annual Report, 1951


72 hours after treating the beds, retreatment is necessary if Uramon is
used. Methyl bromide was used for the third successive year on the same
area and excellent weed control and satisfactory plant growth were
obtained.
Plant growth and root-knot control were satisfactory following applica-
tions of 21/2 to 3 cc. of ethylene dibromide or D-D per square foot.
Fifteen percent ferbam dust and 10 percent zineb dust (6.5% active
ingredient) provided excellent control of blue mold.
Plastic covers were tested for the second year with good results.

IMPROVEMENT OF OATS, RYE, WHEAT AND BARLEY THROUGH
BREEDING FOR DESIRABLE AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
AND RESISTANCE TO DISEASE
RMA Project 487 Darrell D. Morey and Robert W. Earhart
This project is conducted cooperatively between the Agronomy and
Plant Pathology Departments. The major work during the past season
(1950-1951) has been breeding, selection and testing of disease-resistant
lines of oats. Considerable work also was done in testing and isolating
(by self-pollination) strains of rye resistant to leaf rust, stem rust and
mildew. Some time was spent in cooperative testing of oat and wheat
selections from the USDA and other stations.
The leading oat varieties in grain production were Southland and
Victorgrain 48-93. Coastal wheat was superior to Atlas 66 in grain yield
and test weight. Florida Black rye produced excellent yields in all tests.
In a preliminary yield test of 90 Florida oat selections none yielded higher
than Southland, but several appeared superior in disease resistance and
other characters.
Results from date of planting and forage tests indicate that Southland
oats were superior to Fulgrain, Camellia and R. R. P. No. 14 in the produc-
tion of grain and forage. Late planting did not reduce the yield of forage
taken at the last clipping, but did reduce the yield of grain.
About 13,000 rows of oats were planted for observation on diseases,
insects and agronomic characters. Panicle selections were saved from 450
rows and 265 rows were harvested for further testing. Four hundred
bushels of foundation seed of Southland oats were produced on the Station
farm. More than 100 new oat hybrids were made to incorporate the best
known disease resistance into Florida oat selections.
About 65 promising wheat varieties were tested for disease resistance.
Seed from 19 of these was saved for further testing. Several barley
crosses having Manchuria as a common parent were tested for disease
resistance and a few plants were saved for further testing.
NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PEANUT
RMA Project 488 R. W. Bledsoe, H. C. Harris,
F. A. Clark and R. L. Gilman
Field tests with peanuts at Marianna involving the use of various cover
crops, plant residues, time, rate and method of fertilizer application were
continued. Yields of plots to which cover crops or plant residues were
added were consistently higher than those of plots which received mineral
fertilizers. Yields of field plots near Live Oak were not increased signifi-
cantly where major or minor elements were applied in various combinations.
However, yields were increased significantly where plants were dusted
with either sulfur, copper-sulfur or gypsum.
SIn cooperation with Division of Cereal Crops and Diseases, BPISAE. USDA.








54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Additional studies on the utilization of soil and fertilizer phosphorus
from different soil types by the peanut, when radioactive phosphorus was
used as a tracer, indicate that the peanut plant during the early stages of
growth utilizes a small percent of the fertilizer phosphorus. Further
studies with radioactive calcium indicate it to be strongly held and difficult
to leach or replace from the surface of the young peanut fruit.
Nutrient deficiency symptoms of iron, manganese, zinc and copper
developed by Dixie Runner and the Holland Station Runner Jumbo varieties
when grown in sand cultures. This information will be used for diagnostic
purposes in the correction of nutritional disturbances of field-grown
plants.

CURING HAY IN FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones Project 536 J. M. Myers, G. B. Killinger
and R. W. Bledsoe
Pangola, Coastal Bermuda, Pensacola Bahia, alfalfa and Kenland red
clover were all cured on a forced air heated hay drier. Hay was dried
both loose and in the bale. In general, freshly cut hay, if allowed to cure
some in the field or until the moisture content is less than 50%, can be
baled and the curing completed in the barn. Hay having more than 50%
moisture can best be dried loose in the drier and baled after drying.
Pangola hay from plots receiving over 240 pounds of nitrogen per acre
had a higher protein content than hay from plots receiving a less amount
of nitrogen.
Hairy Peruvian alfalfa produced well for the third year on an Arredonda
loamy fine sand which had received 2 tons of limestone per acre and annual
applications of 1,500 pounds of an 0-10-10 fertilizer and 25 pounds of
borax per acre. Yields for the three-year period have been from three
to five tons of cured hay per acre. Alfalfa cures well in the heated
hay barn.
Kenland red clover has produced an average of 3% tons of cured hay
per acre each year for four years on a Leon fine sand. This soil received
an initial application of 2 tons of calcic limestone and annual applications
of 500 pounds of an 0-10-10 fertilizer per acre. Two cuttings were made
each year when the clover was in full bloom. Excellent quality hay was
produced and it dried easily in the hay barn.
Under most conditions it appears desirable to start mowing in the
morning after the dew is off and place the hay in the barn the same day
about three or four hours after cutting. Both the baled green hay and
loose hay have been cured without loss. The longer hay can be dried in the
field the less expensive it is to cure.
Experiment Station Bulletin 477, "Hay and Seed Drying with a Slatted
Floor System" was published in May, 1951.
(See also Proj. 577, AGR. ENGINEERING.)

CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Bankhead-Jones Project 537 L. C. Kuitert, Fred Clark
and A. N. Tissot
Tobacco yields were 542 pounds per acre with no insect control and
1,415 pounds with Rhothane dusting. Yield of plots which were treated
with lead arsenate was just significant over that of untreated plots. How-
ever, toxaphene dust or spray, Dieldrin, DDT and DDT plus parathion
increased yields significantly over lead arsenate. Five or six other insect-








Annual Report, 1951 55

icides tested had a lesser value. Acre values of the tobacco ranged from
$267 to $761. Analyses are being made for insecticide residues on the
cured leaf. (See also Project 537, ENTOMOLOGY.)

FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark, H. C. Harris
R. W. Bledsoe and J. M. Myers
The second year of a combination test of time and rate of fertilizer,
irrigation, and corn versus peanuts as a previous crop was completed
satisfactorily on the same land. Soil fumigation with D-D has been used
uniformly both years to control root-knot. Significantly higher yields of
tobacco were obtained with 1,600 pounds of fertilizer over 800 pounds.
Tobacco yields were significantly higher after corn than after peanuts.
Irrigation was of no benefit in 1950. Quality of tobacco was improved with
the higher fertilizer rate and with corn as the previous crop.
Acre yields of tobacco with 60 pounds N from different sources were:
nitrate of soda, 1,709 pounds; urea, 1,750 pounds; sulfate of ammonia,
1,847 pounds; ammonium nitrate, 2,024; and 1/ N respectively from nitrate
of soda, sulfate of ammonia and urea, 2,176 pounds.
Tobacco yields after soil fumigation were: 71 gals. per acre of ethylene
dibromide-40, 1,178 pounds; 10 gals. D-D, 1,107 pounds; and no fumigation
749 pounds. (See Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ. S-27.)

MISCELLANEOUS
Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cotton.-The cotton work in Florida
is conducted cooperatively between the Florida Stations and the USDA.
The cotton variety tests in Central Florida in 1950 were generally in-
conclusive because of adverse weather conditions. Strain E. H. 808 and
Sealand 542 appeared to be the most productive. The staple of the E. H.
cotton was a little shorter than that of Sealand.
Long staple cotton variety tests, including B17 (Sea Island type), E.
H. 806, E. H. 808, Coker Wilds and Sealand 542, are being conducted in
1951 on the station farms at Gainesville, Sanford, Leesburg, Live Oak and
Milton. Pedigreed selection is being carried out with Sealand 542 at
Gainesville. Selection is being made for greater strength of lint and for
freedom from neps in the ginned cotton.
Sealand 542 has been the only long staple cotton grown in Florida in
recent years. Approximately 350 acres in 1950 produced 202 bales, averag-
ing 475 pounds net lint and selling at roughly 530 per pound. (W. A.
Carver, J. W. Wilson, Clyde Helms, G. E. Ritchey and Fred H. Hull.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION

Research was expanded in meats, swine and mineral nutrition. An
animal breeding and genetics specialist has been appointed to develop and
expand beef cattle breeding investigations. A beef cattle research unit
is being developed 14 miles from the campus, where problems in beef cattle
breeding, grazing, pasture fertilization and production of pastures will be
studied.
Grants-in-aid have been received from Lederle Laboratories, Merck and
Company, Swift and Company, The National Vitamin Foundation, The
Nutrition Foundation, and the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. These
grants have enabled this department to extend many of its investigations.
Work at the Nutrition Laboratory has continued to expand in the field
of radioactive isotopes, using these valuable tools to trace the functions
and requirements of trace elements in the nutrition of farm and laboratory
animals. In recognition of the work with trace elements visitors have
come to the Nutrition Laboratory from 18 foreign countries and from all
parts of this country.
Cooperative studies were conducted with Agronomy, Soils, Horticulture,
Dairy Science, Veterinary Science, Poultry Husbandry and the branch
stations at Ona and Belle Glade. Analyses of feed and blood samples have
been made for projects at Gainesville and in other parts of the state.

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE
Purnell Project 133 George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley,
W. G. Kirk, R. W. Kidder, R. B. Becker,
P. T. Dix Arnold and S. P. Marshall
Molybdenum and high levels of copper in feed combine with phosphorus
and render it unavailable to the animal. Not only phosphorus in the feed
but phosphorus from the body is rendered unavailable.
Through the use of molybdenum isotopes it was demonstrated that
molybdenum is readily absorbed from the intestine. When copper is
present in the diet in adequate amounts the molybdenum is rapidly
eliminated from the body through the urine.
Results of experiments this year indicate that the male is more suscep-
tible to molybdenum toxicity than the female in terms of reproductive
performance. The testes of bulls receiving high molybdenum forage under-
went degeneration and this appeared to be an irreversible change. In
these areas it is especially important that breeding males be adequately
supplied with copper to prevent these changes. Females which suffered
from molybdenum excess recovered reproductive function with the addition
of copper to their diets.
Molybdenum at levels such as occur on peat soils and copper at levels
used to counteract molybdenum toxicity result in increased phosphorus
excretion. It is necessary to maintain high levels of phosphorus in the
diets of animals in these areas.
Forms of copper which have thus far been used as supplements in
copper-deficient areas and in laboratory experiments include copper oxide,
copper carbonate, copper chloride, copper sulfate and metallic copper dust.
All except metallic copper proved of value.
An additional area where the forage contained molybdenum was located
in the swampy areas of the ridge section of Polk County. This was
corrected by the use of copper fertilization and the inclusion of copper in
the mineral mixtures offered to the cattle.







Annual Report, 1951 57

Dairy heifers showed no significant difference in palatability of the
iron-copper-cobalt supplement in seven trials, when red oxide of iron was
included as 25, 20, 15 or 10 parts, respectively, in the recommended station
formula.
The low value of copper in milk has resulted in the recommendation
that calves in areas of high molybdenum concentration be given special
drenches of copper to protect them from molybdenum toxicity until such
time as they start to consume mineral mixtures which contain copper. (See
also Proj. 133, EVERGLADES.)

INVESTIGATION WITH LABORATORY ANIMALS OF MINERAL
NUTRITION PROBLEMS OF LIVESTOCK
Purnell Project 346 George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley,
Max A. Jeter, L. R. Arrington
and H. D. Wallace
The first part of the small intestine has been shown to be the principal
excretory organ for calcium and phosphorus. Tracer studies have demon-
strated that there is considerable conservation by the animal through
reabsorption in the lower portions of the intestine. The presence in the
diet of elements which combine with calcium and phosphorus and render
them unavailable results not only in a prevention of absorption from the
feed but in an actual drain upon the body resources.
It was observed that the laying hen is able to reabsorb calcium from
the cloaca, indicating an ability to conserve calcium not observed in other
species.
Levels as high as 1,200 parts per million of molybdenum did not produce
toxic symptoms in swine over a period of six months. With the high
levels of molybdenum it was observed that copper was concentrated in the
liver but apparently was not available to the animal.
In experiments comparing calcium nutrition in young and old animals
it was observed that mature animals excrete much more body calcium
than young animals, emphasizing the need for increased calcium intake in
the diet of older animals.

BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PASTURE HERBAGE
Bankhead-Jones Project 356 George K. Davis, Katherine M. Boney
and Elver M. Hodges
Attention was given to the amino acid content, particularly of trypto-
phane and lysine and their relationship to fertilization practices. The
application of phosphorus in the form of rock phosphate or superphosphate
at levels approximating 50 pounds of available PaO5 per acre resulted in a
10 percent increase in tryptophane in Pangola grass, if adequate nitrogen
was provided. Application of phosphorus has resulted in increased copper
values in Pangola grass pastures where copper was supplied as a secondary
element, indicating an interrelationship between these two elements in the
nutrition of pasture grass.

BEEF YIELD AND QUALITY FROM VARIOUS GRASSES, FROM
CLOVER AND GRASS MIXTURES, AND RESPONSE TO
FERTILIZED AND UNFERTILIZED PASTURES
State Project 412 R. S. Glasscock and G. B. Killinger
Two pastures each of mixed clovers and Coastal Bermuda, mixed
clovers and Pensacola Bahia, and mixed clovers and Pangola grass were







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


grazed with steers from March 31 until October 2, 1950. The Bermuda-
clover pastures yielded a total of 227 grazing days per acre. The total
weight gain per acre was 325 pounds. The average daily gain per steer
was 1.38 pounds. The Bahia-clover pastures furnished a total of 224
grazing days per acre. The total weight gain per acre was 325 pounds.
The average daily gain per steer was 1.39 pounds. The Pangola-clover
pastures furnished 240 grazing days per acre. The total weight gain per
acre was 302 pounds. The average daily gain per steer was 1.25 pounds.

TOXICITY OF CROTALARIA SPECTABILIS (Roth)
State Project 426 George K. Davis
Toxicity of crotalaria was found to vary from location to location, but
a basis for the variation has not been determined. Samples secured from
a limestone fill this past year were extremely toxic; whereas, samples
from the same area the previous year were low in monocrotaline (the toxic
ingredient). Ensiling of crotalaria did not change the toxicity of the
original material after either eight months or two years of storage. Re-
sults of work under this project demonstrate that Crotalaria spectabilis is
toxic in all of its parts to poultry and other species of livestock and, while
certain conditions exist which result in lowered toxicity, these conditions
are uncertain and cannot be relied upon to protect livestock consuming
this plant.
This project is terminated with this report.

SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDS FOR NURSING BEEF CALVES
State Project 461 R. S. Glasscock and A. M. Pearson
After grazing all summer without supplemental feed the Angus cows
weaned calves that averaged 493 pounds at an average age of 252 days and
the Hereford calves weaned at the same age averaged 501 pounds. At
189 days of age the Angus calves weighed 414 pounds and the Hereford
calves weighed 405 pounds. At calving time the Angus cows weighed
1,053 pounds and the Hereford cows 1,151 pounds. At birth the Angus
calves weighed 64 pounds and the Hereford calves 74 pounds. When the
calves were weaned at 252 days the Angus cows weighed 1,140 pounds and
the Hereford cows 1,240 pounds.

LOSSES IN MARKETING LIVESTOCK

State Project 481 R. S. Glasscock and A. M. Pearson
This project was inactive during the year and is being discontinued.

SWEET LUPINE SEED AS A PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT FOR
GROWING AND FATTENING BEEF CATTLE
State Project 512 R. S. Glasscock and A. M. Pearson
This project was inactive this year.

THYROID FUNCTION IN CHICKENS

State Project 518 George K. Davis
This project was inactive during the year.







Annual Report, 1951


CITRUS MOLASSES FOR FEEDING SWINE
State Project 540 T. J. Cunha, H. D. Wallace
and A. M. Pearson
Studies are under way using citrus molasses at high levels in the ration.
APF (aureomycin--B1 supplement) is beneficial when added to citrus
molasses rations, according to preliminary studies.

FEEDING VALUE OF FLORIDA HAYS FOR SWINE
State Project 541 T. J. Cunha, H. D. Wallace
and A. M. Pearson
This project was inactive during the year.

SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDS FOR SOWS DURING REPRODUCTION AND
LACTATION ON FLORIDA PASTURES
State Project 542 T. J. Cunha, S. J. Folks,
H. D. Wallace and A. M. Pearson
Very poor results were obtained with sows fed on pasture and minerals
only. The value of protein supplementation was shown. Feeding sows too
much corn gets them too fat and they in turn mash and lose more pigs
after farrowing. Alfalfa meal supplementation was of no noticeable value
when fed to sows on pasture (oats and rye in the winter and cat-tail millet
in the summer). The above data are based on two gestation and lactation
periods of sows on the same rations.

ROUGHAGES FOR MAINTENANCE AND GROWTH OF
BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA
State Project 543 R. S. Glasscock, A. M. Pearson
and F. S. Baker
Three lots of five steers each were fed hays as follows: Lot 1, Bermuda
hay grown at a high nitrogen level of fertility; Lot 2, Pangola hay grown
at a medium nitrogen level of fertility; and Lot 3, Pangola hay grown at
a low nitrogen level of fertility. The three lots of steers were fed the hays
free-choice for a period of 56 days. The steers in Lot 1 lost 54 pounds, in
Lot 2 gained 91 pounds, and in Lot 3 lost 118 pounds. Hay consumption
was 4,228 pounds in Lot 1, 3,548 pounds in Lot 2, and 3,413 pounds in Lot
3. (See also Proj. 543, N. FLA. STATION.)

LOSS OF NUTRIENTS IN DRIP FROM DEFROSTED FROZEN MEAT
State Project 546 A. M. Pearson, T. J. Cunha
and R. S. Glasscock
During the past year various microbiological methods of assaying meat
products for vitamin B12 have been tested. Preliminary results indicate
that the curves obtained using Lactobacillus leichmanii, American Type
Culture Collection No. 4797, have been unsatisfactory. Substitution of
Lactobacillus leichmanii, American Type Culture Collection No. 7830, has
proven to be more satisfactory. Difficulty has been experienced in obtaining
good values for various methods of hydrolyzing the vitamin B1E from tissue
and this is currently being studied.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TRANSFER OF MINERAL ELEMENTS THROUGH THE PLACENTA
.AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN THE FETUS
Adams Project 566 George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley,
Max A. Jeter, L. R. Arrington
and John P. Feaster
Molybdenum is poorly transferred across the placenta in swine and in
rats and the effect of molybdenum is restricted to the animal consuming
feed containing this element. Molybdenum administered to the pregnant
sow was eliminated rapidly by way of the kidney, indicating that this
species handles molybdenum as though it were a waste product. Calcium
was rapidly laid down in the fetus from calcium in the diet, emphasizing
the importance of a daily intake of calcium by the pregnant female, par-
ticularly in the last part of pregnancy.

MISCELLANEOUS
Value of Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal for Swine.-A new process
(screw-press) cottonseed meal made by the USDA Southern Regional
Laboratory at New Orleans was fed at a level of 33.5% in the ration as
the sole protein supplement for growing-fattening pigs in dry lot. Very
good results were obtained with this meal low in free-gossypol in rate of
growth and efficiency of feed utilization. APF (aureomycin-B1,) was of
considerable benefit when added to the cottonseed meal ration. Two gilts
fed cottonseed meal as the protein supplement in dry lot during growth
and also gestation farrowed fairly good looking litters. This work was
supported in part by a grant from Swift & Company. (T. J. Cunha, C. B.
Shawver, H. D. Wallace and A. M. Pearson.)
Supplementation of Overheated Soybean Oil Meal.-Dried whey and
fish solubles contain a factor or factors of benefit to pigs fed overheated
soybean oil meal. This factors) sometimes benefits properly heated soy-
bean oil meal. There is considerable variation in the amount of benefit
obtained. This work was supported in part by a grant from Swift &
Company. (T. J. Cunha, R. F. Sewell, H. D. Wallace and A. M. Pearson.)
APF, B,2, B, and Antibiotic Supplementation of Swine Rations.-Baci-
tracin, subtilin, neomycin, streptomycin and penicillin were of little or no
benefit as compared to aureomycin in supplementing corn-peanut meal
rations to pigs fed in dry lot. Ba is stored by the pig and will benefit
growth after stores of it are depleted. Bu response will also depend on
storage of it. This work was supported in part by grants from Lederle
Laboratories, Swift & Company, Merck & Company, National Vitamin
Foundation and the Lasdon Foundation, Inc. (T. J. Cunha, G. B. Meadows,
H. D. Wallace and A. M. Pearson.)
Use of Stilbestrol Implants for Growing-Fattening Pigs.-Preliminary
results indicate that the hormone was of little use for growing and fatten-
ing pigs, as measured by efficiency of feed utilization, palatability of meat
and carcass grades. Average daily gains show that there was little differ-
ence between treated and untreated barrows and gilts; whereas, with boars
the untreated animals gained at a more rapid rate. The boars receiving
stilbestrol were sexually active and are now being mated to normal gilts
to determine if they are fertile. (A. M. Pearson, H. D. Wallace and T. J.
Cunha.)
Effect of Supplementation of Swine Rations With APF and Aureomycin
on Deposition of B-Complex Vitamins in Tissue.-A preliminary trial
using a basal corn-peanut meal vitamin supplemented ration (Lot 1), in







Annual Report, 1951


comparison with the basal ration plus aureomycin (Lot 2), and with the
basal ration plus APF (Lot 3), was run in which riboflavin and niacin were
determined microbiologically on samples from the Longissimus dorsi muscle.
Average values on three pigs per lot were 1.55 micrograms of riboflavin and
77.73 micrograms of niacin per gram of tissue for Lot 1, 1.80 micrograms
of riboflavin and 60.58 micrograms of niacin per gram of tissue for Lot 2,
and 1.59 micrograms of riboflavin and 76.91 micrograms of niacin for Lot
3. This work was supported in part by grants from Lederle Laboratories
and National Vitamin Foundation. (A. M. Pearson and T. J. Cunha.)
Effect of Adding Urea to Citrus Molasses.-Eight pairs of steers con-
suming a low-protein roughage were fed for 112 days. When urea was
added to molasses at the rate of 0.14 and 0.28 pound daily their weight
was maintained, as compared with a daily loss of 0.77 pound per day per
steer when consuming the same amount of molasses without urea. The
addition of urea to the molasses resulted in larger hay consumption and
weight gains. (R. S. Glasscock.)
Interrelationships of Copper, Molybdenum and Phosphorus.-Levels of
molybdenum of 80 and 140 parts per million and of 20 parts per million
of copper alone and in combination resulted in increased retention of
phosphorus in rats. Availability to the animals was uncertain. The high
level of molybdenum and 5 parts per million of copper caused a destruction
of germinal tissue in 75 percent of the males on experiment, as shown by
histological section of the testes. At 80 and 140 parts per million and 5
parts per million of copper there was 20 to 25 percent weight reduction
in mature males before their weights became stabilized. In females these
levels of molybdenum and the low level of copper resulted in cessation of
estrus and loss of condition, but estrus was resumed with a copper level of 20
parts per million. In all groups of rats receiving 80 and 140 parts per
million of molybdenum, achromotrichia developed and occasionally alopecia.
The alopecia was corrected by increased levels of inositol with some re-
sponse to added biotin, indicating a change in intestinal flora with lowered
synthesis of these two vitamins. These investigations were supported in
part by a grant from the Nutrition Foundation, Inc., of New York City,
and supplemented work reported under Purnell Projects 133 and 346.
(George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley, L. R. Arrington and Max A. Jeter.)
Effect of Minor Elements on Phosphorus Metabolism in Cattle.-Zinc,
molybdenum, and copper and their relationship to phosphorus metabolism
were studied under this project. It was demonstrated that levels of zinc
up to 1,000 parts per million do not cause anemia in cattle, as was indicated
in some other areas. The combination of molybdenum at 200 parts per
million and zinc at 1,000 parts per million did not cause an anemia as has
been reported for laboratory animals. It is concluded from these results
that when copper is included in the ration at levels of approximately 50 parts
per million, which is common when a grain ration is fed, molybdenum and
zinc are not toxic to dairy type cattle. This work is being incorporated
in Projects 133 and 566 with the completion of this year's research. It
was supported' in part by a grant-in-aid from the U. S. Phosphoric Com-
pany, Division of Tennessee Corporation. (George K. Davis, Francis H.
Skipper and R. L. Shirley.)
The Role of Phosphate as Fertilizer for Grass Pastures.-Nitrogen was
the first limiting factor in the development of the improved pastures and
only when adequate nitrogen was supplied did phosphorus become a limit-
ing factor and a test of different phosphate sources become possible.
During the winter, when protein levels became very low, differences in
phosphate sources disappeared. With the application of nitrate of soda to







62 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

pasture in January, responses to the different sources of phosphorus again
became a prominent factor in the experiment. Addition of phosphate
fertilizer has increased the copper content of the Pangola grass pasture and
values of up to 1 percent of phosphorus on a dry-matter basis have been
secured on Pangola grass with fertilization of 50 pounds or more of avail-
able P2Os. Average values with phosphorus fertilization have been 0.4
percent phosphorus, as compared to values of 0.08 to 0.13 percent phos-
phorus when no phosphorus fertilization was done. Initially supported in
part by a grant from the Florida Agricultural Research Institute, Pasture
Committee, this work supplements in part work reported under Project
133. (George K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, Elver M. Hodges and D. W. Jones.)







Annual Report, 1951


DAIRY SCIENCE
Research continued during the year on projects previously reported.
Some exploratory work was begun to determine the effect of aureomycin
on the growth and general condition of dairy calves, as well as on some
other phases of dairy production, as indicated in the brief reports given
below.

RELATION OF CONFORMATION AND ANATOMY OF THE DAIRY
COW TO HER MILK AND BUTTERFAT PRODUCTION
State Project 140 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold
and G. K. Davis
This project was inactive this year. The data gathered earlier, together
with those from other agricultural experiment stations, are being correlated
and analyzed in the Bureau of Dairy Industry, USDA, and will be in-
cluded in a publication now in preparation.

ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project 213 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
G. K. Davis and S. P. Marshall
No further data were obtained this year but two bulletin manuscripts
are in preparation dealing with ensilability, density and palatability of
several ensiled crops and with urea-sorghum silage.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY AND
DEPRECIATION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
State Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
A. H. Spurlock and S. P. Marshall
Records of breeding, inventory, replacements and causes of losses were
continued with 10 cooperating Florida dairy herds, including the Station
herd, maintained largely with home-grown replacements. These records
are being analyzed for breeding efficiency and for its possible inheritance.
Ninety-seVen dairy bulls born before 1936 average 2.83 years in arti-
ficial service. They were 5 to 15 years old when initiated into this use.
About 24 percent of them were usable less than 12 months; 65 percent less
than three years; and 11 percent were used 6.0 to 8.4 years. Of 469
records completed to date, 46 percent were disposed of because of low
breeding efficiency; 11.7 percent for sterility or defective semen; and 10
percent because of accidents, injuries or lameness. Foreign bodies and
related conditions eliminated 5.8 percent; lumpy jaw 3 percent; and other
infectious conditions about 6 percent. Exact causes of death or removal
of 30 animals were not known. The average usefulness of bulls in the
several age classes when initiated into artificial service decreased with
advancing age, the oldest of record'as yet being 16.3 years. (See also
Proj. 345, AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS.)

INFLUENCE OF WATER CONSTITUENTS (MINERALS) ON THE
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND WHIPPING QUALITY
OF ICE CREAM MIXES
Bankhead-Jones Project 497 E. L. Fouts, W. A. Krienke
and L. E. Mull
When a synthetic emulsifier was used in concentrations of 0.02 to 0.05







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


percent of the mix the rate of whipping of such mixes was greatly in-
creased over those to which it had not been added when all mixes were
prepared from non-fat dry milk solids and plastic cream as dairy ingred-
ients. The improved whipping quality thus achieved in the hard water
mixes surpassed that of the control (distilled water) mixes containing no
emulsifier. Some hard water mixes whipped faster than their distilled
water mates when both contained added emulsifier. There is some indica-
tion that the sulfate ion of the hard water functioned favorably in this
respect.

COOLING AND AGING OF ICE CREAM MIXES

Bankhead-Jones Project 534 W. A. Krienke, E. L. Fouts'
and Mary Frances Mays
A reversal of the order of cooling the various fractions of mixes was
investigated. This was done to determine effects of prolonged exposure
to heat of some fractions during the course of homogenizing and cooling
entire series from individual large mixes, a procedure found necessary to
control other variables.
Rapid cooling to 40 F. or lower reduced the whipping time of gelatin
mixes. When sodium alginate mixes were cooled rapidly to only 70 to
90 F. and then slowly to 40 F., whipping time was increased. Results
with C.M.C. were somewhat inconsistent but there is some indication that
the effects are opposite to those of sodium alginate. The heat exposure
variable appears to influence this effect slightly. All mixes were prepared
of fresh fluid dairy ingredients of the highest quality.

POST-PARTUM DEVELOPMENT OF BOVINE STOMACH COMPART-
MENTS AND OBSERVATIONS ON SOME CHARACTERISTICS
OF THEIR CONTENTS
State Project 564 S. P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold
and R. B. Becker
Studies of stomach compartment development and some characteristics
of their contents were made this year with 28 male Jerseys between the
ages of 10 and 200 days. The volume of each compartment and of the
tissue of each compartment were measured. Specific gravity determinations
were made on contents of the abomasum, reticulum and rumen, except when
ingesta were too dry, and pH analyses were made on the contents of all
compartments. Samples from the four compartments were separated for
mechanical fineness. Ingesta samples were prepared and stored for dry
matter determinations. Structure of the omasum was observed.
The rumen and omasum were the most rapidly developing compart-
ments, followed by the reticulum and abomasum. The pH of stomach com-
partment contents of 46 animals ranged as follows: rumen, 5.17 to 6.89;
reticulum, 5.19 to 7.19; omasum, 4.78 to 6.18; and abomasum, 1.84 to 4.87.
Specific gravity values for stomach compartment contents have ranged
as follows: rumen, 0.8702 to 1.0377; reticulum, 0.8840 to 1.0222; and abo-
masum, 1.0152 to 1.1130.
Gastric ulcers or scar tissue presumably caused by gastric ulcers located
immediately anterior to the pyloric opening of the abomasum were noted
in several calves.








Annual Report, 1951 65

EFFECTS OF ANTIBIOTICS AND CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS
ON MICROORGANISMS IN MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS
Bankhead-Jones Project 571 W. A. Krienke, E. L. Fouts,
H. H. Wilkowske and Mary Frances Mays
A test has been developed to determine suitability of milk to be used
in dairy products that require lactic acid development.
Penicillin has retained its bacterial growth-inhibiting properties in
non-fat dry milk solids for more than 18 months. This antibiotic was
found to affect the standard plate count of milk by reducing the count
when its concentration was 1.0 and 10.0 units per milliliter. It had no
significant effect on the coliform plate count at similar levels. A sig-
nificant reduction of penicillin activity in milk that had been inoculated
with a pure culture of Escherichia coli suggests the production of a peni-
cillinase by this organism.

STUDY OF PRODUCTION, REPRODUCTION AND CONFORMATION
OF THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
DAIRY HERD
State Project 575 P. T. Dix Arnold, S. P. Marshall
and R. B. Becker
Official 305-day production records were completed for 25 cows, 22 of
which were first lactations. Sixty percent of the young cows were heavier
producers than their dams.
Breeding efficiency averaged 46 percent, with one conception for 2.19
services.
Bets Volunteer Observer 384533 became sterile and was sold at 13 years
4 months of age. Thirty-six daughters completed lactation records; 23
were an improvement in production over their dams; 16 others are in their
first lactation and 3 are not yet of milking age.
The improved junior sires have a large number of daughters under
milking age and it was deemed advisable to defer further heavy services
until an indication of their transmitting ability is available. Artificial
breeding using semen from proven sires was begun in November 1950
with selected cows.
Official classification of 44 animals averaged 81.9%. An analysis of
the judges' ratings showed rather consistent high scores on body capacity
but low scores on mammary systems and udder attachments.

MISCELLANEOUS
Freezing-Point Studies on Cream.-Previous data had indicated the
freezing-point of heavy cream to be practically identical to that of the
milk from which it was separated. Further studies indicated a certain
degree of unreliability in the freezing-point values obtained on cream
because of the sluggish action of the mercury column in reaching a rest-
ing point from the point of supercooling.
Data obtained on the freezing-point of buttermilk (churned from a
portion of the cream) were easily reproduced and were in excellent agree-
ment with those of the original milk. It is proposed that the freezing
point of cream be based on that of its buttermilk when using this method
in screening samples suspected of having been treated with alkalies.
(W. A. Krienke and E. L. Fouts.)
New Stabilizers for Ice Cream.-This investigation involved compara-
tive studies of basic ice cream stabilizers; two new ones and three well








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


known to ice cream manufacturers. Both of the new products, (1) an
Irish moss colloid used in a concentration of about 0.05 percent and (2)
sodium cellulose sulfate used in a concentration of about 0.15 percent,
imparted qualities to ice cream mixes and to the ice cream that compared
favorably with the other stabilizers in the study. (W. A. Krienke.)
Effects of Phytates as Antioxidants in Milk.-Sodium phytate, at a
level of approximately 0.01 percent in pasteurized whole milk, delayed and
slightly lessened the intensity of the copper-induced oxidized flavor defect.
It had no apparent effect on the solar-activated flavor defect. Phytic acid
apparently is ineffective in the control of these defects, as it did not pre-
vent or reduce their intensities. (W. A. Krienke.)
The Creaming of Milk.-Occasionally objectionable "cream-plug" forma-
tions occur in the upper cream layer of milk during normal gravitational
separation. Factors found to cause this defect include excessive agitation
of milk during farm production and transportation, freezing, overheating
of milk during pasteurization, vigorous pumping of milk, temperature
fluctuations during storage and prolonged storage before consumption.
(H. H. Wilkowske and E. L. Fouts.)
Concentrated Whole Milk.-Whole milk testing 4 percent butterfat was
condensed to % its original volume after being pasteurized, homogenized
and cooled to 120 F. The milk was concentrated at a temperature of
110* F. in an ordinary stainless steel vacuum pan with no special attach-
ments. Two days later the concentrated milk was reconstituted and bottled.
A large group of people tasted this product and none criticized its flavor
or other characteristics. (L. E. Mull and E. L. Fouts.)
Feed Flavors in Milk.-Cows grazing on Pearl millet produced milk
with less objectionable feed flavor than when they grazed on a 50-50 mix-
ture of Dallis grass and White Dutch clover pasture. (S. P. Marshall and
E. L. Fouts.)
Low Fat Milk Due to Feeding.-When grass was killed by frosts on
five successive mornings, and soluble nutrients were leached out by rain,
the butterfat test in wholesale milk from a herd of 45 cows dropped in
30 days from 4.6 to 3.7 percent fat. One or two bales of mixed alfalfa-
Alsike clover hay then was fed to 50 animals daily. The test increased to
4.4 percent fat in 14 days. Pasture herbage was practically nil during
the hay feeding period. (R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold.)








Annual Report, 1951


ENTOMOLOGY
The grasshopper outbreak in Alachua County and neighboring areas
created more widespread interest during the past year than any other
insect problem. Observations were made on the biology of the grass-
hopper and control experiments were conducted in cooperation with the
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, USDA. Investigations of
insect pests of flue-cured tobacco, ornamental plants, pecans, vegetables,
corn and other forage crops were continued. Additional work was done
on mulching and soil fumigation for nematode control. Numerous poten-
tial honey plants were introduced and studies were initiated on the sugar
content of several flower nectars.

CONTROL OF THE NUT AND LEAF CASE-BEARER OF PECANS
State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
This project was continued at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory in
cooperation with the USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
DDT, parathion, DDT and parathion, Dilan, and toxaphene applied
June 16, July 6 and 27, August 17 and September 11, 1950, for control of
the hickory shuckworm, each gave 100 percent control of the pecan case-
bearer. (For concentrations of materials used in this test, see "Miscel-
laneous Insects" below.)
Sprays of DDT, parathion, Metacide, and lindane gave varying degrees
of control of a light infestation of first generation nut case-bearer on the
Mahan variety when applied May 4, 9 and 14, 1951. One quart summer
oil emulsion per 100 gallons was used as a sticker for the DDT, parathion
and lindane wettable powders. Each insecticide was used in combination
with 2 pounds Zerlate (ziram) per 100 gallons, applied for control of
scab. DDT, 75% wettable powder, 1% pounds per 100 gallons, reduced
the infestation of nut case-bearer to 1.37, 0.96 and 0.48 percent for the
respective dates, and this was used as a control or check for the evaluation
of other insecticides. Parathion, 15% wettable powder, 1% pounds per 100
gallons, gave reductions of 42.3, 20.4 and 0.0 percent, respectively, over
DDT. Metacide parathionn (0.0-diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate)
6.2%, O-O-dimethyl O-p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate 24.5% and related or-
ganic phosphates 2.7%) % pint per 100 gallons gave reductions of 52.6,
0.0 and 0.0 percent, respectively, over DDT. Lindane, 25% wettable
powder, 2 pounds per 100 gallons, gave reductions of 44.5, 7.9 and 0.0
percent, respectively, over DDT.

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF CUTWORMS AND ARMYWORMS
IN FLORIDA
State Project 380 A. N. Tissot and L. C. Kuitert
On July 14 and 15, 1950, parathion and toxaphene were applied to
one- and two-acre plots in a field of millet heavily infested with the fall
armyworm, Laphygma frugiperda (A. & S.). The parathion was applied
as a 1% dust at rates of 14 and 20 pounds per acre and 10% toxaphene
dust was used at the single rate of 24 pounds per acre. For several days
after application numerous dead larvae were found in the toxaphene plots
and after a week the millet in these plots showed great improvement over
that in the parathion plots, which were only slightly better than the un-
treated checks.
In July 1950 a small-plot test was made in a field of Bermuda grass








68 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

heavily infested with the fall armyworm. The insecticides, which were
applied with a rotary type hand duster, included parathion 1%, methoxy-
chlor 5%, DDT 3%, Rhothane 3% and toxaphene 5%. Larvae migrated
into the test plots from neighboring areas and the percentage of control
could not be determined. For a few days after treatment numerous dead
larvae were found in the toxaphene plots and smaller numbers in the para-
thion plots. It was noted that the dead and moribund larvae were being
eaten by the unaffected larvae. A week after treatment the grass in the
toxaphene plots was putting out new growth and showed marked improve-
ment over the untreated checks. The DDT and Rhothane plots were inter-
mediate between toxaphene and the other two treatments, which were only
slightly better than the checks.
Five insecticides were used in a replicated plot test for the control of
the budworm in field corn in the spring of 1951. The infestation was light
and a single insecticide application was made June 2, when the corn was
about waist high. With the possible exception of 2% parathion dust, the
insecticides had no effect on the budworm infestation. The other dusts
used were: 10% toxaphene, 2.5% aldrin, 3% Dilan and 5% DDT. This
project is closed with this report. (See also Proj. 380, CENTRAL
FLORIDA STATION.)

EFFECTS OF MULCHES ON THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE
State Project 385 H. E. Bratley
The fourth year of testing two mulching materials demonstrated the
difference between mulched and unmulched plots to be wider than any
other year. Two applications of forest leaves amounting to 27 tons per
acre were required to maintain a mulch six inches deep on the four plots
receiving the material. One application of miscellaneous materials of 19.5
tons per acre was needed to maintain the six-inch covering over these
plots. From the beginning of these tests to date 110 tons of dried forest
leaves and 96 tons of dried miscellaneous plant materials per acre have
been applied. All test plots received an application of 500 pounds of
commercial fertilizer about the middle of February 1951. The application
was made in circles around New Zealand spinach plants growing on the
plots at that time.
Seven cuttings of the tips of the spinach were made during the spring
and early summer. Yields at the rate of 3,416 pounds, 5,208 pounds and
1,051 pounds per acre were obtained from the forest leaves, miscellaneous
mulches and the non-mulched plots, respectively.
An examination of the New Zealand spinach roots demonstrated that at
least some plants were very susceptible to nematode infestations. There
was considerable variation of nematode infestation among the plants grow-
ing in each of the treatments. Some of the plants in the miscellaneous
mulches were entirely free, while about 20% were very heavily infested.
Plants in the check plots varied from free to lightly infested. The plants
in the forest leaves plots were about midway between, with some free and
about 20% moderately infested. Mulches appear to be ineffectual for
nematode control, but frequently they greatly increase the yields of plants.
This project is being closed with this report.

CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID PESTS OF
WOODY ORNAMENTALS

State Project 531 L. C. Kuitert
Investigations involving the control of pests of woody ornamentals were








Annual Report, 1951


much more limited than in previous years. It is felt that the extended
cold weather during the past year had a considerable effect in reducing
the number and severity of insect infestations. Tests continue to show
that two applications of parathion sprays, if timed properly, will effectively.
control heavy infestations of scale insects. Tests also indicate that para-
thio'n sprays are more effective at high temperatures than at low in con-
trolling some scale insects.
Continuing tests on camellias indicate that two applications per year
of 0.3 pounds actual parathion, or a combination spray of 0.15 pounds of
actual parathion plus 0.5 gallons of mayonnaise type oil emulsion (Volck),
in 100 gallons of water are very effective for controlling scales infesting
camellias.
Two other phosphatic insecticides, metacide and experimental insect-
icide No. 4049, have been used to control insects on ornamentals. Both
materials are effective against aphids, whiteflies, thrips, mealybugs, and
cottony cushion scales at rates slightly higher than required for parathion.
These materials also were effective against the immature stages of armored
scales. However, they were not effective against the adult scales at the
dosages used. No plant injury has been noticed from their use.
Miticides tested were Aramite, EPN miticide, C-854, C-1006 and C-
1010. With the exception of C-1010, all materials were effective in
eliminating mite infestations for periods of 28 to 37 days. No plant injury
which could be attributed to the miticide applications has been observed.
Camellia plants treated with a combination spray consisting of para-
thion and copper A, or C-O-C-S fungicides appear to have fewer disease
problems without any apparent loss of effectiveness of the insecticide.

CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Bankhead-Jones Project 537 L. C. Kuitert, Fred A. Clark
and A. N. Tissot
In the 1950 field insect control trial the first priming was made June
14 and the fifth and last July 18. Yields per acre varied from 534 pounds
for the untreated check to 1,415 pounds for Rhothane 3 percent dust. Other
high yielding treatments were: toxaphene 5% plus parathion 1%, Rhothane
3% plus parathion 1%, toxaphene spray, toxaphene 5% dust, and DDT 3%
plus parathion 1%, with yields of 1,256, 1,247, 1,240, 1,224 and 1,201 pounds
per acre, respectively. The gross return per acre varied from $267 for the
check to $761 for Rhothane 3 percent dust. Other high returns were:
Rhothane 3% plus parathion 1%, $713; toxaphene 5% plus parathion 1%,
$696; DDT 3% plus parathion 1%, $691; toxaphene spray, $684; and
dieldrin 1% dust, $673.
There have been reports that chlordane dusts and baits cause stunting
and other injuries to young tobacco plants. It was thought that impreg-
nated baits might be safer than dust-base baits and a seedbed trial was
made to compare the two types of baits and two dusts. The materials
used included an impregnated chlordane bait and a chlordane dust-base
bait each containing 1.5% actual chlordane; an impregnated toxaphene
bait and a dust-base toxaphene bait, each containing 2% actual toxaphene;
5% chlordane dust; and 1% parathion dust. The baits were used at the
rates of 25 and 50 pounds per acre per application and the dusts at 50
pounds. The initial application was made when the tobacco first began
to germinate and six more applications were made at weekly intervals.
On the basis of active ingredients, the seven bait applications were
equivalent to 5.25 and 2.63 pounds of chlordane and 7.0 and 3.5 pounds of
toxaphene per acre and the seven dust applications to 17.5 pounds of








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


chlordane and 3.5 pounds of parathion per acre. No evidence of any plant
injury was observed and at no time was there any indication that the
insecticides had affected the tobacco adversely.
A planting of approximately one acre was used for the field insecticide
trials. The field was divided into 48 four-row plots each 73 feet long.
This provided for three replications of 15 insecticide treatments. The first
application was made May 5 and the fifth and last June 29, 1951. Dust
materials used and the total amounts applied per acre were: DDT 5%
121.6 pounds; toxaphene 10% 133.4; an experimental insecticide containing
2.5% Dilan plus 1% parathion 109.8; Potosan 2% 106.7; Metacide 2%
128.7; dieldrin 1% 133.5; aldrin 2.5% 114.6; cryolite (undiluted) 116.2;
parathion 2% 119.2; and TDE 5% 111.5. Sprays used and total number
of gallons applied per acre included: TDE wettable and TDE emulsion,
each used at 1 pound active per 100 gallons, 552 and 568 gallons, respec-
tively; toxaphene emulsion at 1 pound active per 100 gallons, 551 gallons;
toxaphene wettable at 1.5 pounds active per 100 gallons, 556 gallons; and
aldrin emulsion at 0.5 pounds aldrin equivalent per 100 gallons, 559 gallons
per acre.
Hornworms and budworms were the principal insect pests in the field.
Hornworm moths began to lay eggs as soon as the tobacco was transplanted
and egg-laying was heavy throughout the season but hornworm damage
was not very severe, even in the untreated check plots. Budworms appeared
considerably later than hornworms and they caused the most damage dur-
ing the latter half of the crop season. On the basis of larval control and
protection from larval injury, the three TDE formulations and the three
formulations of toxaphene were outstandingly effective. Other effective
materials included DDT, dieldrin and aldrin dusts and aldrin spray.
Aphids could be found on a few plants throughout the crop season and
in some cases three or four adjoining plants were infested but the in-
festation did not become general at any time. A few aphid-infested plants
were found in the Potosan plots but, with this one exception, aphid
colonies were never found in any plots treated with phosphatic insecticides.
There was no indication of any injury to the tobacco from any cf the
insecticides used. (See also Proj. 537, AGRONOMY.)

INTRODUCTION AND TESTING OF NECTAR AND POLLEN
PRODUCING PLANTS IN FLORIDA
State Project 583 F. A. Robinson
Approximately 90 different plants have been introduced in the Honey
Plant Introduction Garden at Gainesville. A very limited quantity of seed
was available and in most instances the plots were restricted in size to
one 40-foot row. Several plantings were lost due to cold weather during
the winter of 1950-51. Other seed failed to germinate or died soon after
germination. Seed were harvested from all plants which have produced
seed, and larger plantings will be made next year. Only a few of the
plants attracted honey bees, but this was to be expected, since the size
of the plots was so small. Borage made excellent growth and honey bees
worked it heavily throughout its blooming period. The ever-flowering
locust, a horticultural variety of Robinia pseudoacacia L., sometimes known
as Robinia semperflorens, also was visited freely by honey bees. Six of
these trees, planted the first week of March, had made over four feet of new
growth by June 1. They bloomed heavily about the middle of April and
a second time about June 1. The first bloom lasted about 10 days and the
honey bees worked the blossoms continuously. The second bloom was very
light, with only two or three blossoms open at a time.








Annual Report, 1951


On January 1, 1951, 20 seed each of ogeechee tupelo, Nyssa ogeche
Marsh, and water tupelo, N. aquatica L., were planted in pots along the
shore of Bivan's Arm. Eight seedlings of N. ogeche were obtained but
none of the N. aquatica sprouted. Three of these seedlings are still alive
and have grown to a height of 12 to 14 inches.
Fifty seed of the water locust, Gleditsia aquatica, were planted in Jan-
uary. These seed were heavily infested with Amblycerus robiniae (F.) and
only eight seedlings were obtained. These grew slowly and were from
five to seven inches high by June 1.
Twenty-four varieties of sesame, planted on March 1, were blooming
June 1. No honey bees have been observed working these blossoms.
One-tenth of an acre was seeded to Japanese buckwheat on April 11.
An excellent stand was obtained and it began to bloom about May 1 and
continued until June, when it was mowed and the seed harvested. The
bees visited the flowers in large numbers throughout the blooming season.
Cage tests were conducted, for the second year, to determine the value
of the honey bee in pollinating clover. Results have been quite variable
and no definite conclusions can be drawn. Results of one test made on
White Dutch clover in Gulf County are as follows: 29.14 seed per head
where bees were caged on the clover, 4.2 seed per head for the check plot
and 1.16 seed per head where insects were excluded.
Tests were made in July 1950 and March 1951, in cooperation with Dr.
J. T. Griffiths of the Citrus Experiment Station, to determine the effects
on honey bees of spraying citrus groves with parathion. In the first test
six nuclei of bees were placed in a grove which was then sprayed with a
Speed Sprayer using 2 pounds of 15% wettable parathion per 100 gallons
of water. The second test was made while the citrus trees were in bloom
and bees were working the blooms freely. Two colonies of bees were placed
approximately 100 yards from a grove, which was sprayed twice with
parathion applied as in the previous test. Results of these tests are in-
conclusive but in neither case was the performance of the bees visibly
affected by the exposure to the parathion.
The sugar concentration of a few nectars was measured with a re-
fractometer. The average percentages are as follows: Dixie Crimson
clover, Gainesville, 30.96%; Dixie Crimson clover, Quincy, 52.39%; Hubam
sweet clover, Gainesville, 30.08%; augusta vetch, Gainesville, 24.37%;
watermelons, Leesburg, 31.69%.

MISCELLANEOUS
Biology and Control of the American Grasshcpper.-Investigations of
numerous reports of destruction of corn, peanuts and other crops in west-
ern Alachua County by the American grasshopper, Schistocerca americana
(Drury), in June 1950 indicated a need for the study of the insect.
The grasshopper population on July 11 consisted mainly of numerous
adults and the last two nymphal instars. Egg development was rapid and
oviposition began about the middle of July. Second generation, newly
hatched nymphs were first found July 31 and the peak of hatch occurred
about the middle of August. The last observed first instar nymphs were
found September 11. Cage rearing indicated the developmental period
from egg to adult required seven to eight weeks. The first adults of the
over-wintering generation were found September 19 and by mid-October
adults outnumbered the nymphs in most fields. Nymphs were scarce by
November 1; however, a few last instar nymphs were found November 27.
Observations indicated that over-wintering adults have a strong tendency
to roost on weeds, bushes and trees, except on the coldest night when they
are found near the ground under grass and weeds.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Mating of the over-wintering grasshoppers was first observed January
24, 1951, and on February 23 females with well developed eggs were found.
Oviposition began about the middle of March and the peak apparently was
reached about the first of April. The largest number of eggs found in a
pod was 101, while the average was 83.7 per pod. Hatching in the spring
generation began April 20 and the first adults were found June 7. On
June 26 it was estimated 50 percent had reached the adult stage.
Tests were made in November 1950 to determine the effectiveness of
insecticides against adult grasshoppers. All materials tested were used
as emulsions. The rates of application given below are on the basis of
active ingredients applied per acre. Aldrin was used at 2, 4 and 8 ounces;
chlordane at 1 pound; and toxaphene at 1.5 pounds. It was impossible
to evaluate results accurately, as the grasshoppers moved about so freely.
All of the materials killed some grasshoppers; however, the tests showed
it was impractical to attempt to control adults. Tests were begun in the
spring of 1951 in cooperation with R. V. Connin of the Bureau of Ento-
mology and Plant Quarantine to determine the effectiveness of insecticides
for controlling immature stages. Several series of replicated tests were
performed. Plots used were 0.1, 0.4, 0.8 and 8 acres in size. Insecticides
were applied to the small plots with hand equipment and to the large plots
with a Yellow Devil, high concentration-low gallonage, row crop sprayer
mounted on a USDA power wagon. Rates of application given are on the
basis of active ingredients per acre. Dusts applied to small plots were 2.5%
aldrin at 0.625 and 0.225 pounds, 10% toxaphene at 3.5 and 2.5 pounds, 5%
chlordane at 1.3 pounds, 2% parathion at 0.4 and 0.6 pounds, 1% parathion
at 0.25 pounds and 3% lindane at 0.78 pounds. Emulsion concentrates ap-
plied as sprays to small plots were dieldrin at 1.5 ounces, aldrin at 5
ounces, and heptachlor at 4 ounces. With the exception of lindane and
1% parathion, all treatments gave satisfactory control with mortalities
of 90% or higher in three days and 88% or higher in five days.
The emulsions applied to large plots were dieldrin at 1.5 ounces, hepta-
chlor at 2 ounces, aldrin at 2 and 4 ounces, chlordane at 1 pound, toxaphene
at 1.5 pounds, and lindane at 0.5 pounds. With the exception of lindane,
all materials gave mortalities of 94 percent or higher in three days and
93 percent or higher in five days. (L. C. Kuitert and A. N. Tissot.)
Toxaphene Phytotoxicity Studies.-In the fall of 1950 a test was planned,
in cooperation with the Hercules Powder Company, to determine possible
phytotoxic reactions of toxaphene when applied to vegetables. The
formulations used included 10% dust, 40% wettable powder and emulsion
concentrate containing 6 pounds of technical toxaphene per gallon. Each
formulation was applied to one-row plots of beans, cabbage, celery, escarole
and tomatoes at rates of 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 pounds of active ingredient per
acre. A pre-emergence application was made 5 to 10 days after the seed
was planted to control mole-crickets, cutworms and other soil-inhabiting
insects. A post-emergence application was made about the time the young
plants were developing their first leaves. This was followed by routine
applications every 10 to 14 days. The treated plots received a minimum
of six and a maximum of eight applications.
Plants were examined two to three days after each application for
signs of stunting, chlorosis or any other type of injury directly attributable
to the insecticide. With the exception of the highest rate of the treatment
on tomatoes, no plant injury was observed. The young tomato plants
treated with emulsion at 3 pounds per acre were noticeably smaller than
the others but as the plants matured this condition became less noticeable
and there were no significant differences in yield. Samples of the har-








Annual Report, 1951 73

vested produce were taken for residue analyses, which have not been com-
pleted. (L. C. Kuitert.)
Miscellaneous Pecan Insects.-A preliminary test was made to check
the effectiveness of DDT, parathion, DDT plus parathion, Dilan and toxa-
phene against the hickory shuckworm. Spray applications were made
June 16, July 6 and 27, August 17 and September 11. One pint of summer
oil emulsion per 100 gallons was used in combination with each of the
insecticides. DDT 50% wettable powder, 4 pounds per 100 gallons; para-
thion, 25% wettable powder, 2 pounds per 100 gallons; DDT, 50% wettable
powder, 2 pounds plus 1 pound parathion 25% wettable powder per 100
gallons; Dilan 25% emulsifiable concentrate, 11/ pints per 100 gallons; and,
toxaphene 40% wettable powder, 4 pounds per 100 gallons, gave reductions
of 80.2, 52.3, 63.3, 22.1 and 31.2 percent, respectively, over that of unsprayed
check in infested nut shucks at harvest time. (A. M. Phillips.)
Effects of Annually Repeated Soil Treatments of D-D for Controlling
Nematodes on Gladiolus.-Both the original plot area and the one set up
in 1949 were retreated with 5 cc. of D-D at one-foot intervals in each
direction. The untreated check plots of previous years were untreated
again this year. To save time in cultivation, a wheel hoe was used and
this may have resulted in a rapid reinfestation of the treated plots. This may
have accounted for the smaller differences between treated and untreated
plots than in previous years. Washing of the soil by heavy rains in 1949
also may have been a contributing factor.
Two varieties of gladiolus were planted in the older original test area.
With the Rewi Fallu variety treated plots produced 26.9 percent more nema-
tode-free corms than untreated checks. They produced 36.8 percent more
corms with 28.4 percent larger total diameter than the checks. They pro-
duced 1.2, 12.8 and 1.6 times as many stems, side stems and flowerets, re-
spectively, as the checks. There was more soil washing in 1949 in the
Debonair variety plots and treated ones of this variety produced only
4.1 percent more nematode-free corms than the checks. The treated plots
produced 1.2, 2.3 and 1.5 times as many stems, side stems and flowerets,
respectively, as the checks. Total yields were 51.6 percent more corms
with 15.6 percent larger diameters in favor of the treated plots.
In 1949 corms produced in treated soil were planted in four treated and
four untreated plots of the newer area. In 1950 corms from the treated
and untreated plots were returned to treated and untreated plots, respec-
tively, and the planting stock was standardized as to number and size of
corms. Plants of the treated plots showed 5.4 percent less nematode in-
festation than the untreated plots and produced 20.4 percent more corms
with 25.4 percent larger diameter and 1.05, 1.5 and 1.2 times as many stems,
side stems and flowerets as the untreated. In 1949 the remaining two
treated and two untreated plots were planted with corms grown in un-
treated soil the year before. In 1950 corms from treated plots were re-
turned to treated plots and from untreated to untreated, after being stand-
ardized as to number and sizes. Plants in the treated plots had 13.6 percent
less nematode infestation and produced 20 percent more corms with 20.1
percent larger diameter and 1.2, 2.0 and 1.4 times as many stems, side
stems and flowerets, respectively, as the untreated ones. (H. E. Bratley.)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


HOME ECONOMICS

The principal work of the Department of Home Economics continues
in the field of nutrition. It is evident from data collected here and else-
where that as the complexity of the problems in this field increases, the
need for more intensive research becomes necessary. Studies now in
progress on skeletal development and utilization of vitamin A both by
humans and by animals show that not one but many factors are involved.
A summary by projects follows.

ASSESSMENT OF THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CERTAIN SUPPLE-
MENTS WHEN ADDED TO BASAL DIETS OF ENRICHED
AND UNENRICHED BREAD

Purnell Project 442 0. D. Abbot, R. B. French
and Ruth O. Townsend
From the results of studies conducted under this project, two manu-
scripts have been prepared for publication; one, "The nutritive value of
various breads and supplements in experiments with white rats," and the
other, "Diet in relation to skeletal development of rats." The major results
are summarized as follows:
A series of experiments was planned to test the nutritive value of
various supplements when added to an all-bread diet fed to white rats.
Under the adopted plan and judged by the standards and criteria used,
no advantages due to enrichment of bread with thiamine, riboflavin, niacin
and iron were demonstrated. With an increase in protein, which permitted
normal or near normal growth, still no beneficial results were secured at
any protein level from the standard enrichment.
Supplementation of water bread with non-fat milk solids provided the
best and most practicable means of improving the nutritive value of bread.
At the 24 percent protein level non-fat milk solids furnished an adequate
intake of other food essentials, so that further supplementation was with-
out effect. The limiting factor in bread appeared to be protein but with a
purified protein, such as acid-washed casein, the factor or factors which
make possible the more effective utilization of protein and perhaps other
dietary essentials were necessary. Aureomycin-B. feed supplement pro-
vided these constituents. Although all this work was done with rats, the
lack of response to the standard enrichment of bread diets makes this
program of questionable value.
Data also have been presented on skeletal defects that appeared in rats
fed diets of water bread and water bread supplemented with casein to
raise the protein levels to 18 and 24 percent. After 13 weeks on these
deficient diets the rats were subsequently realimented on a complete diet
through maturity. Roentgenograms showed that the femurs of rats pre-
viously fed the water bread diets were both short or of unequal lengths,
while the shafts were thickened. On the bread-casein diets skeletal ab-
normalities increased and involved not only the thickening of the femurs
but also the enlargement of the epiphyses of both femur and tibia, distor-
tions of the pelvis and irregularities in the scapulae. The deformities
were more pronounced in rats fed at the 24 percent protein level than
in those fed at the lower level. Skeletal abnormalities were not present
when rats were fed whole wheat bread, bread supplemented with non-fat
milk solids or when 4 percent aureomycin-B12 supplement was added to
the bread diets.








Annual Report, 1951


VITAMIN B CONTENT OF FOODS
Purnell Project 443 R. B. French, O. D. Abbott
and Ruth O. Townsend
A bulletin titled "Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin in Florida-
Produced Foods" has been prepared on the basis of the work of this project.
It may be summarized as follows:
Dry matter, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin analyses are reported on most
of the common foods produced in Florida. These include analyses on 25
different fruits, 5 nuts, 45 vegetables and 10 wild greens. Analytical values
are given for all items in a general table and also are classified in kind,
with each item valued according to its contribution toward the satisfaction
of the daily requirement of the vitamins. The data show that no single
fruit or vegetable can be classed as an excellent source of all three vita-
mins. The greens and seeds are the best all-around sources. Comparison
of foods discussed in this paper with foods grown in other sections shows
them to average about the same for thiamine and riboflavin and slightly
higher for niacin.
Analyses are given for 10 varieties of mangos and for two or more
varieties of cabbage, celery, guava, limes, lettuce, squash, beans, field peas
and potatoes.
The level of the vitamins in pork from hogs fed either corn, cane or
citrus molasses is given. Corn produced an alimentary flora favoring
thiamine synthesis, which resulted in pork with the highest thiamine con-
tent, with cane and citrus molasses producing pork following in order.
Analyses of 10 commonly eaten fish and shellfish are given.
Processing milk by short-time pasteurization or homogenization caused
no loss in vitamin content. Vitamin analyses on eggs produced by two breeds
of hens on the same diet showed little difference. Analyses of peanuts
showed roasting caused major loss of thiamine but had little effect on
riboflavin or niacin.

EFFECT OF PROCESSING AND STORAGE UPON THE NUTRITIVE
VALUE OF MILK
Purnell Project 516 0. D. Abbott, R. B. French
and Ruth 0. Townsend
This project is closed with the following report: A manuscript has been
prepared which deals with the effects of processing and storage upon the
nutritive value of milk fed in a diet composed of two-thirds ground whole
wheat and one-third milk. Results of this study show that when measured
by weight, reproduction, skeletal development and mineralization of rats
there were no significant differences in the nutritive value of raw or pas-
teurized milk served fresh or aged for four days, evaporated milk, or non-
fat milk solids supplemented with fat and vitamin A. However, a great
difference was found in the nutritive value of two samples of fluid milk
fed raw or pasteurized, fresh or aged. When one sample was fed the rats
grew and weight gains were approximately the same as those of the control
rats fed the laboratory stock feed. When the other sample was fed weight
gains were normal for four weeks, thereafter they decreased, and the curve
plateaued about the seventh week. All animals showed signs of malnutrition.
What factor or factors were affecting the nutritive value of this milk
were not determined. However, the data show that the causative agent
was not inhibited or destroyed by pasteurization. It was found also that
the aging of non-fat milk solids lowered their nutritive value. When the
supplemental fat was slightly rancid a partial destruction of vitamin A








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


took place and lowered the nutritive value of the wheat-fresh non-fat milk
solids diet. No differences were found in weight gains of rats fed butter or
vegetable oil as sources of fat in the wheat-non-fat milk solids diet.

EFFECT OF DIETARY PRACTICES AND PREVIOUS ILLNESSES ON
CARPAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN
Purnell Project 568 0. D. Abbott, R. B. French
and Ruth O. Townsend
Since initiation of this project studies of carpal development have
been limited to children in two counties. In one school where carpal develop-
ment of children has been followed over a period of years it was found
that two factors were influencing the sequence and time of carpal appear-
ance; one, the participation in the school lunch, the other, improvement
in family food and dietary practices. On the other hand, because of the
inflow of migratory labor into the community, the percentage of children
six and seven years of age with normal carpal development remained low.
Roentgenograms of carpals of children in certain representative schools
of both counties indicate that because of free lunches to children in the
low-income brackets and the poor food habits of many children in the
higher brackets, the relationship between carpal development and economic
status will not be demonstrated.
At present a study is being made of the interrelationship of carpal
retardation to nutritional and mental status, in cooperation with the
physician, psychologist and nursing staff of the Florida Farm Colony.

EFFECT OF CAROTENE OR VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN YOUNG
RATS ON SUBSEQUENT LIFE PATTERN
Purnell Project 569 R. B. French, O. D. Abbott
and Ruth O. Townsend
This project is one of a series planned to investigate what and how
nutritional inadequacies in the young carry effects into later life. Results
from past work suggest that vitamin deficiencies in diet at an early age
might be critical, causing damage to tissue or functional organs that never
can be completely repaired under subsequent good dietary conditions.
Weanling rats were depleted of vitamin A by standard procedures and
showed the characteristic deficiency symptoms. These depleted animals
were arranged in groups of six or more, according to sex, litter and degree
of deficiency symptoms and then either realimented on the complete diet
fed the stock colony or upon standard vitamin A test diet with addition
of varying quantities of vitamin A. Control animals were fed not only
the stock colony diet but also the standard vitamin A test diet with ade-
quate levels of vitamin A. After six months on these regimes the follow-
ing observations were recorded:
Two groups of rats depleted and then realimented on the complete diet
fed the stock colony:-These rats gained at such a rate that after six
weeks of realimentation they had caught up in weight with control animals
fed the standard vitamin A test diet but lagged about 10 percent behind
the weight attained by the control rats fed the stock colony diet. Preg-
nancies were obtained in all the females and the number of young in the
litter was normal but the young at weaning were under weight. Half of
the males showed pulmonary congestion and several showed unusual nervous
tension, as indicated by squealing when handled. The females of these
groups appeared to be normal.
Groups of rats depleted and then realimented on several levels of vita-








Annual Report, 1951


min A administered orally:-Subminimal level, 2 I. U./day.-This group
steadily lost weight and all died within two months with characteristic
vitamin A deficiency symptoms. Minimal level, 10 I. U./day and average
level 50 I. U./day.-All the males, but one, in these two groups died with
critical lung congestion apparent. The females attained a maximum
weight about 20 percent below that of the standard test diet controls.
No pregnancies resulted in these groups. Animals receiving the average
level of vitamin A showed a submaxillary cellulitis that opened, drained
and healed without treatment. Possibly this condition was due to a block-
ing of ducts of the salivary glands caused by proliferation of epithelial
cells. Optimal level, 200 I. U./day.-The weight gains in this group
parallel those in the two groups above and are about 20% below those of
the test diet controls. Pregnancies have resulted in all the females of this
group but the number of young in a litter and the weight of young on
weaning are much below the normals for the colony. The animals in all
three groups appear to be much older than their litter mate controls.

NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY IN THE YOUNG RAT IN RELATION
TO SUBSEQUENT MALFORMATION OF BONES
Purnell Project 570 R. B. French, O. D. Abbott
and Ruth O. Townsend
This preliminary report covers investigations of the characteristics of
deficiencies which cause unusual skeletal development. In a previous re-
port (Bul. 483) it was noted that young rats fed a water bread diet in early
life sustained skeletal damage which resulted later in proportionately short
femurs when allowed to grow to maturity on a complete diet.
Groups of weanling rats, six or more to the group, were fed either low
calcium, low phosphorus or low calcium-phosphorus diets until obvious
symptoms of deficiency appeared.
Neither the low calcium-phosphorus nor the low phosphorus diet allowed
the weanlings to increase in weight more than a few grams and in from
two to five weeks all males on the low calcium-phosphorus diet and all
females on the low phosphorus diet were dead. Those remaining were
successfully realimented. The deficiency of both phosphorus and calcium-
phosphorus produced typical responses in the rats. Hemorrhages appeared
first in the eye and nose and later throughout the alimentary tract and in
the kidneys. Capillaries became distended and the animals assumed a
bluish tinge. Paralysis of the hind legs appeared so that it was difficult
for the animals to feed themselves. Fractures in the long bones of the
legs were easily palpable and were confirmed by roentgenograms.
The weanlings on the low calcium diet attained a weight of about 90
grams in five weeks and made no further gains during the next month.
To a lesser degree they were showing symptoms of deficiency similar to
those shown by the other low mineral groups. Symtoms suggestive of
tetany were beginning to appear. At this time they were realimented on
the stock colony diet.
The protein used in the diet for this experiment was lactalbumin. Since
the commercial product contained 8% ash, of which one-half was calcium
and phosphorus, it was purified by acid treatment and prolonged washing.
The final product contained 0.07% ash, no calcium and only a trace of
phosphorus. Many of the animals fed lactalbumin died without apparent
pathology within two weeks. At that time they were gaining weight
rapidly and apparently were in full vigor. Investigation revealed that the
methionine-choline content of lactalbumin is low, so additional choline was
added. With this addition the diet has proven satisfactory.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


HORTICULTURE

Investigations were conducted on the production of vegetables, deciduous
fruits and nuts, and ornamentals. Other research pertained to storing,
handling, packaging, shipping and processing of vegetables. Research on
spray residues and on the improvement of ornamentals through breeding
was initiated during the year.

TUNG PRODUCTION
Hatch Project 50 R. D. Dickey and G. H. Blackmon
Investigations have shown that boron is toxic to tung trees in relatively
small amounts. There is, so far, no evidence that tree growth or yields
in Florida are increased by its use.
Zinc sulfate applied at the rate of 2 pounds per tree in a circle or
band about the trunk (band about 8 inches wide and 2 feet from trunk)
was as effective in reducing zinc deficiency symptoms on mature trees as
that applied by the conventional broadcast method.
Cold damage was severe in parts of the experimental orchard in Jef-
ferson County. Therefore, it was not possible to make comparisons of
1950 yields with different N, P and K fertilizer ratios.

TESTING OF NATIVE AND INTRODUCED SHRUBS AND
ORNAMENTALS AND METHODS FOR THEIR PROPAGATION
Hatch Project 52 R. D. Dickey, Austin Griffiths, Jr.
and S. E. McFadden, Jr.
A survey of the plants growing in the Station's horticultural test
grounds was made to determine the cold damage caused by the severe
freeze (23 F. Nov. 25 and 21.7* F. Nov. 26) of late November 1950. The
combination of severe early winter freeze and high winds produced con-
siderable injury to many ornamental plants, not only at the Station but in
northern Florida generally.
The pigmy date palm (Phoenix roebeleni O'Brien) is grown in large
numbers as a "potted plant" and is an important landscape subject in
Florida. Seed germination may be as low as 10 percent. Two lots of seed,
one from hand-pollinated plants, the other from open-pollinated plants,
were tested for germination. Each of the two lots was divided into equal
numbers and half of the seed in each lot were treated with sulfuric acid.
Neither hand pollination nor treatment with the acid increased germination.
An experiment to measure the effects of storage time, storage tem-
perature and different storage times and temperatures on growth and
flowering of tulip varieties Scarlet Leader and The Bishop, at two planting
dates, was conducted in 1950-51. Under conditions of this experiment,
The Bishop produced significantly more flowers than Scarlet Leader and
many more flowers were produced by those planted on the first planting
date. As time of cold storage was increased from 30 to 60 and 90 days
there was a significant increase in the number of flowers produced, the
number of days from planting to emergence decreased and height of plants
was greater. The number of days from planting to emergence was sig-
nificantly decreased and the height was increased as storage temperature
was lowered from 60 F. to 50 F. and 400 F. The 40" F. and 50 F.
storage temperatures produced significantly more flowers than the 60 F.
treatment.







Annual Report, 1951


COOPERATIVE COVER CROP TESTS IN PECAN ORCHARDS
State Project 80 G. H. Blackmon, R. H. Sharpe
and J. D. Warner
Yields from the North Florida Station orchard in 1950 were significantly
larger from trees receiving 5 or 10 pounds of KC1 annually than from
trees receiving no potash. There were no differences in yield between
trees receiving 0, 20 and 40 pounds of superphosphate. Winter injury to
Moore trees was greater in no-potash plots than on plots receiving 5 or
10 pounds KC1 annually. There was no apparent relationship between
winter injury and superphosphate treatment.
Leaf analysis data indicate low potash but adequate phosphorus levels
in unfertilized trees in this orchard in which phosphates have been applied
broadcast for the growth of the cover crop. This project is closed with
this report.
(See also, Proj. 80, NORTH FLORIDA STATION.)

VARIETY TESTS OF MINOR FRUITS AND ORNAMENTALS
State Project 187 R. H. Sharpe, R. D. Dickey
and G. H. Blackmon
Peaches.-Test plantings of several new low-chilling requirement peaches
were made during the year. Most of the selections were from the USDA
Peach Investigations Laboratory at Ft. Valley, Georgia, or from California.
The Suwannee Valley and North Florida Stations and private growers
are cooperating. Jewel variety again bloomed in late January and early
February and lost the crop from spring frosts. It is evident that its
chilling needs are too low for good fruiting at Gainesville.
Three-year-old Jewel trees under mulch treatment have made nearly
three times as much growth as non-mulched trees. The effect of pre-plant-
ing fumigation on growth has now become of minor importance, compared
to differences caused by mulch treatments.
Blackberries.-Four of the Ness group berries were outstanding for
crop, fruit size and quality. They equaled Advance in yield and far sur-
passed it in quality and size of fruit. Their ripening season was similar
to Advance. Freezing tests indicated that some of the varieties made a
very desirable pack, with fruit remaining firm and well colored.
Blueberry.-Several of the newer varieties far surpass previously avail-
able material for fruit size and quality. Indications are that the new,
larger-fruited types may make it possible to harvest the crop economically.

SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF VARIETIES AND STRAINS OF
VEGETABLES ADAPTABLE TO COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
IN FLORIDA
State Project 282 F. S. Jamison, V. F. Nettles,
L. H. Halsey and F. E. Myers
Sweet Potatoes.-Twelve varieties and strains have been planted in
replicated plots. An additional five varieties have been planted for ob-
servational purposes.
Tomatoes.-Seventeen varieties were planted in four randomized, repli-
cated plots of 16 plants each. All plots were fertilized and cultivated uni-
formly and diseases and insects were controlled with sprays of zineb and
DDT. Due to a heavy infestation of bacterial wilt, the yield data could
not be statistically evaluated. However, it would seem that the difference







80 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

between 285 and 118 bushels per acre for the best and poorest varieties
should be mentioned. The varieties tested are listed in the order of rank
of marketable mature-green fruit in bushels per acre as follows: Rutgers
2,6 STEP' 89, STEP 158, Rutgers 3," Jefferson, Urbana, Fortune, STEP
139, Lakeland, Stokesdale, STEP 181, STEP 148, STEP 14D, Grothen's
Globe, STEP 160, Manahill J-12-bk and Manahill J-l-bk.
Tomatoes-Seed Source.-Six lots of Grothen's Globe and nine lots of
Rutgers seed were obtained through the office of the State Seed Inspector
from commercial companies offering these seed lots for sale. Twelve plants
of each lot were grown in two randomized, replicated plots. Analysis of
yield records from four harvests indicate that variations between lots were
not significant. Growth habits and fruit characteristics were similar for
all lots of either variety.
Tomatoes-Observational.-Thirty-nine varieties were included in this
test, among them seven F1 and F2 hybrids. STEP 171 and STEP 176 were
the best two varieties, while Stokes Cross 4, STEP 169 and 174 and All
America No. 51V04 merit further testing.
Tomatoes-Resistance to Bruising.-Fruit of Grothen's Globe, Rutgers,
Jefferson and VCL 7 (a new line introduced by the Gulf Coast Experiment
Station) were each uniformly bruised at inception of ripening and then
examined after becoming fully ripe for evidence of tissue breakdown.
Results indicate that some resistance to bruising was evident in the wall
tissue of certain varieties, but that no apparent resistance to bruising
could be noted in the internal tissues.

CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE MU-OIL TREE8

State Project 365 R. D. Dickey, G. H. Blackmon
and F. S. Lagasse
Two second-generation hybrid seedlings, from open-pollinated seed from
first-generation hybrids from reciprocal crosses between Aleurites montana
x A. fordi, flowered again this spring but set no fruit. Whether this was
due to lack of pollen or lack of compatible pollen is not yet known.
The severe freeze of November 25 and 26, 1950, produced injury to
wood and buds of mature Aleurites montana (Lour.) Wils. trees in the
Gainesville area. There was considerable difference between individual
seedlings in the amount and severity of cold injury experienced. Tung
trees, A. fordi, of the same age in the same and adjoining rows were un-
injured.
A group of mature first-generation hybrid trees, from reciprocal crosses
between A. montana x A. fordi, are in the same area of the orchard as
the tung and mu-oil trees. These hybrids as a group are intermediate in
cold hardiness between the two parents, with some individuals of the
hybrid population comparable in cold hardiness to some tung trees. Most
of the hybrids are closer to the tung tree than to the mu-oil tree in their
cold hardiness.
Trees of Aleurites cordata (Thunb.) Muell. Arg. evidenced about the
same degree of cold injury as mu-oil trees. There was considerable differ-
ence in amount and severity of cold injury experienced by individual
seedlings.

SRutgers 2 from ASGROW; Rutgers 3 from F. Stokes.
7STEP refers to Southern Tomato Exchange Program.
8 In cooperation with BPISAE, USDA.







Annual Report, 1951


VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS
State Project 391 F. S. Jamison, V. F. Nettles
and F. E. Myers
Peppers.-Fifteen varieties and strains were planted in replicated
blocks and 20 additional varieties and strains were grown in single rows
for observational purposes. Analyzed yield data placed the replicated
varieties in two groups with regard to weight of marketable fruit. Leading
varieties were Illinois F5, Burlington, Ruby Giant, Oakview Wonder and
a strain of California Wonder and Florida Giant. None of the varieties
in the observational trials appeared superior to those in the replicated
planting.
Lettuce.-Sixteen varieties and strains of lettuce were grown in repli-
cated plantings to determine the yielding ability and resistance to seeding.
Eleven of the 16 varieties were strains of Great Lakes. Other named
varieties tested were Progress, Lake Superior and Pennlake. The leading
group of varieties with regard to weight of iharketable lettuce harvested
included only strains of Great Lakes. Strains of Premier Great Lakes
tested were uniform as to performance and cut better than 82 percent of
the heads planted.
Cucumbers.-Nine varieties, including six downy mildew-resistant va-
rieties, were grown in replicated trials. The occurrence of downy mildew
was delayed until late in the harvest season with the help of a regular
spray program. In this test without heavy mildew infestation none of the
eight varieties compared with Marketer gave an increase in number
or weight of marketable fruit. Palmetto and South Carolina 10-3 appeared
to be more resistant to downy mildew when this disease actually did occur
late in the season. South Carolina 10-3 had fruit of good color and shape.
Spinach.-Six varieties of spinach were included in a replicated test.
No variety was found to perform better than Long Standing Bloomsdale.
Watermelons.-Eleven varieties and strains were grown in replicated
tests. Poor growing conditions for this crop resulted in uneven growth
and low yield. Of the varieties harvested none were superior to Florida
Giant in number or weight of marketable and total melons.
Beans and Sweet Corn.-The yield response of Black Valentine, Con-
tender, Tendergreen, Logan and B-1515 (Wade's Bush) beans and Ioana
(two sources), Calumet, Golden Cross Bantam and Huron sweet corn was

TABLE 3.-YIELD COMPARISON OF FIVE SNAP BEAN VARIETIES BY HARVEST,
SPRING 1951, GAINESVILLE. (pounds-plots)

Variety First Harvest Second Harvest Third Harvest


Black Valentine ........ 55.7 62.2 35.0
Contender ...----.....--... 77.7 111.0 50.2
Tendergreen .............. 33.4 64.5 19.7
B-1515 (Wade's Bush) 23.5 111.9 63.8
Logan ........................... 15.9 75.1 38.7

(Varieties-MD 5% is 11.8, 1% is 15.6. Harvests-MD 5% is 31.6, 1% is 52.4)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


studied under several fertilization programs. These included 1,200, 1,000
and 800 pounds per acre of 4-7-5 mixture applied prior to planting and
1,200 pounds per acre of 4-7-5 applied in two and three applications.
Nitrogen side-dressings were variable.
Under the conditions of this preliminary test there were no significant
differences between programs with either crop.
Analyses to measure the response in bean yields by individual harvests
showed significant differences (Table 3) in varieties and time of harvest.
An uneven stand of sweet corn did not warrant analysis of individual
harvest.
Observational sweet corn plots included 28 varieties, none of which
were superior to present varieties.
(See also Proj. 391, SUBTROPICAL, EVERGLADES, CENTRAL FLOR-
IDA and GULF COAST STATIONS; and STRAWBERRY AND POTATO
INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORIES.)

EFFECTS OF BORON ON CERTAIN DECIDUOUS FRUITS AND NUTS
Adams Project 432 G. H. Blackmon and R. H. Sharpe
No yield or foliage differences have been found from borax treatment
plots established in 1948 in pecan groves at several points in the state.
Boron uptake was rapid but apparently of no marked benefit to the trees.
Further analysis of samples confirmed the lack of cross-feeding, and
placement data reported the previous year, except that maximum uptake
was finally obtained from applications of boron fertilizers in the middle
branch spread area. (This work was in cooperation with H. W. Winsor,
Soils Department. See Proj. 433, SOILS.)
This project is closed with this report.

IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Bankhead-Jones Project 435 V. F. Nettles
The effect of several moisture treatments on the growth and yield af
tomatoes and cucumbers was tested. The two crops were grown under
three irrigation treatments; frequent, -inch of water every 3 days;
medium, %-inch of water every 6 days; occasional, %-inch of water every
12 days. A fourth treatment in which no irrigation was added served
as a check. The plots planted to each crop were sub-divided to permit a
test of soil fumigation. (See Proj. 475, HORTICULTURE.)
Tomatoes.-No significant increase in the yield of marketable grades
of Rutgers tomatoes was obtained from the use of irrigation. The plots
irrigated frequently, 1/2-inch every three days, produced a larger number
and weight of puffy fruit than other treatments. The average weight
per fruit of No. 1 tomatoes was higher on plots receiving the frequent
and medium irrigation treatments.
Cucumbers.-Yield in pounds of No. 1 cucumbers was significantly
larger from plots receiving the medium and frequent irrigation treatments.
There were no differences in yield between treatments for the total weight
of cucumbers harvested. The average weight per marketable cucumber
was significantly larger for fruit harvested from plots receiving the medium
and frequent irrigation treatment.

CULTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF CAMELLIA AND
RELATED GENERA
State Project 452 Austin Griffiths, Jr., and Nathan Gammon, Jr.
The camellia varietal collection was maintained and increased by the







Annual Report, 1951


acquisition of 42 varieties and one species, Camellia rusticana Honda.
Damage to the test plantings from cold injury was observed and recorded
following the November freeze. Foliage damage was slight and restricted;
however, the normal flower crop suffered a 75 percent loss, with over 50
percent of the varieties producing no flowers.
No outstanding differences were noted in the peat-vermiculite soil
amendment camellia plots in their third year. Leaf analyses of camellias
from pH-ion exchange pot cultures showed some rather large differences
in the varietal accumulation of minerals.
A two-year study of the effects of nine organic mulches on soil nitrates,
soil reaction and growth of camellias has been completed. Mulching,
particularly with pine bark and pine sawdust, was effective in maintaining
an acid soil condition. Different rates of mulch decomposition were ob-
served, with peat being the slowest and oak leaves the most rapid. Nitrates
did not accumulate under any treatment. Growth increases for the first
year were significantly affected by the mulching materials; best results
were produced with pine bark. The larger, but insignificant, increase in
stem length for the two-year period resulted from the use of pine bark
and pine sawdust mulches.

MAINTAINING FRESHNESS IN VEGETABLES WITH ICE
State Project 467 R. K. Showalter and B. D. Thompson
Three tests were made to determine the value of cracked ice in main-
taining spinach freshness during retail display. Daily quality ratings
and vitamin C analyses were made on spinach displayed for four-day
periods in an ice refrigerated case, a mechanically refrigerated case and
a non-refrigerated display rack. One-half of the spinach in each type of
display was prepackaged in cellophane bags and one-half was in bulk.
The spinach in the ice and mechanically refrigerated cases remained
in excellent condition during the four-day tests. The non-refrigerated
spinach began to decay and discolor and was unsalable after one day.
Maintenance of color was slightly better in the pre-packaged than in the
bulk, but decay was slightly worse. The non-refrigerated spinach lost
over 90 percent of its original ascorbic acid during the four days. The
loss in the mechanically refrigerated case varied from 35 to 50 percent
and the smallest loss, 30 to 40 percent, occurred in the iced display case.

QUALITY OF VEGETABLES AS RELATED TO FERTILIZER
MATERIALS, WITH EMPHASIS ON POTASH SALTS
State Project 468 R. A. Dennison
Field plot experiments with cabbage and tomatoes were conducted,
comparing muriate and sulfate of potash at two levels. Treatments with
two levels of nitrogen were included in the cabbage experiment.
A highly significant increase in yield of cabbage was obtained with
400 pounds per acre of nitrogen compared with 200 pounds. Potash sources
and levels (100 vs. 200 pounds/acre) did not significantly influence yield.
Cabbage was held in refrigerated storage and scored for the solidness
maintained by the heads; that harvested from the muriate of potash plots
was rated significantly higher than cabbage from the sulfate of potash salts.
The potash source and level (125 vs. 250 pounds/acre) did not influence
tomato yields.
This project is closed with this report.







84 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

FREEZING PRESERVATION OF CERTAIN FLORIDA-GROWN
VEGETABLES

State Project 473 R. A. Dennison and H. M. Reed
The quality of 10 green bean varieties after freezing was evaluated by
the taste panel. The best five in order of rating were B 1515 (Wade's
Bush), B 2254, B 2095-1-2, Tendergreen and Topcrop. Thirteen commercial
sweet corn varieties were likewise evaluated with the following five rating
highest: loana, lochief, Golden Security, Aristogold Bantam Evergreen
and Improved Sencross.
A strain of purple-headed cauliflower was tested for freezing quality
and rated as excellent. The pigment producing the purple color is soluble
in water and, upon blanching, is leached, leaving the head a dark-green.
Flavor and texture of the cauliflower are somewhat similar to broccoli.
Korean cowpeas were rated good for freezing. The peas of this variety
can be left to mature longer on the vines than those produced by many
other varieties without greatly lowering their eating quality. The more
mature peas are easier to shell.

EFFECT OF SOIL FUMIGANTS ON YIELD AND QUALITY
OF VEGETABLES

Bankhead-Jones Project 475 V. F. Nettles
Two fumigants, D-D and Dowfume W-40, were applied broadcast to
plots subsequently planted to Rutgers tomatoes; a no-fumigant plot was
included for comparison. The plots were subdivided to test the effect of
the addition of 2% soluble magnesium to the fertilizer, to test nitrate
and ammonical sources of nitrogen and to test amounts of potash. Amounts
of potash tested were 20 and 100 pounds per acre.
Use of D-D resulted in a significantly larger total yield and yield of
No. 1 and No. 2 grade tomatoes than yield from plots treated with Dow-
fume W-40 or from untreated plots. No differences in yield were obtained
from the use of magnesium or from the two amounts of potash tested.
Ammonical nitrogen increased No. 2 grade and total yield.
Using row application of Dowfume W-40 in another test, no increases
in yield of No. 1 tomatoes were found but increases in total yield, No. 2
and cull grades were obtained when this treatment was compared with an
unfumigated check treatment. A similar experiment with cucumbers re-
sulted in significant increases in yield of all grades from the use of Dow-
fume W-40.
Plots to test the continued use of soil fumigants were established,
using D-D, Dowfume W-40 and no fumigants. The comparative methods
of application consisted of broadcasting the materials and applying them
"in-the-row." The 'plots were subdivided to test three fertilizers with
different forms of nitrogen. Nitrate nitrogen, ammonical nitrogen and a
mixture of one-half of each were included.
Contender beans were used as the crop for this experiment. The yield
of beans was significantly increased by fumigation. No differences in
yield resulted from the different methods of application. Plots fertilized
with ammonical nitrogen produced more beans than the mixture of am-
monical and nitrate nitrogen. Plots fertilized with the latter mixture
produced more beans than did those fertilized with nitrate nitrogen sources.







Annual Report, 1951


CONSUMER PACKAGING OF VEGETABLES (EXCEPT TOMATOES)8
Purnell Project 483 R. K. Showalter, L. H. Halsey,
B. D. Thompson and A. H. Spurlock
Analyses were made of 448 samples of sweet corn to determine sugar
content as affected by temperature, methods of precooling, handling, storage
periods, types of packaging films, package ventilation and retail display.
Commercial prepackaging plant equipment at Ruskin was used. Measure-
ments of package atmospheres, temperatures and organoleptic ratings of
quality were correlated with the sugar analyses.
The importance of rapid precooling was demonstrated. Sweet corn
that was not hydrocooled before cold storage lost 20 percent more sugar
during the first day than did the precooled corn.
Higher concentrations of sugars were found in sealed packages of
cellophane, pliofilm and cellulose.acetate than in those ventilated with a
%1-inch hole. However, the high CO0 and low O which rapidly developed
in the sealed packages resulted in off flavors and odors, particularly at
high temperatures. Less sugars were found in the corn stored in the
husk at 750 to 850, but there was little difference in sugars between pack-
aged and non-packaged at 32o. Although flavor ratings declined slightly
during the four days at 32, the analyses showed a slight increase in sugars.
Unhusked ears of sweet corn were dipped in a hot paraffin bath to seal
out the air according to a proprietary process, and others were left un-
treated. Analyses were made after storage for 3 to 10 days without
refrigeration. These showed that the sugar content was no higher in the
waxed than in the unwaxed corn, but that the treatment did reduce the
moisture loss.
Further studies were made on prepackaging celery in stretch-wrapped
pliofilm in comparison with cellophane. The stretched 80 gauge FF plio-
film was sufficiently permeable to CO2 to prevent accumulation of this gas.
The best flavor was retained with a CO2 content between 3 and 7 percent,
but above 10 percent off flavors and odors resulted. The celery in stretched
pliofilm or ventilated cellophane maintained better color, flavor and fresh-
ness during 11 days' storage at 360 than did the unwrapped stalks.
(See also Proj. 483, AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS.)

PACKAGING OF TOMATOES10

RMA Project 484 (Regional SM-3) R. K. Showalter, L. H. Halsey
and A. H. Spurlock
Six types of shipping containers were evaluated for their effect on
mechanical injuries of tomatoes and subsequent quality after ripening.
Eight replicated tests were made on a specially constructed apparatus
which simulated the vibrations and shocks normally occurring in railway
freight cars. All tests extended over a four-day period in a room main-
tained at a constant temperature of 600 F. and relative humidity of 80
to 88 percent. The transit simulator consisted of a 68- x 24-inch platform
mounted on four steel wheels with end supports to permit loading the
various types of boxes three, four or five high according to commercial
practice. The shocks occurring in actual railway car loads of tomatoes
were measured with an impact recorder and the data were used to calibrate

SIn cooperation with the Department of Agricultural Economics, the USDA, and the
Florida Vegetable Prepackaging Council.
10 This is a part of the Southern Regional Project on Tomato Marketing, in cooperation
with the Florida Department of Agricultural Economics, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas
and the USDA.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the transit simulator to a speed of 30 trips per minute back and forth
over cleats 3/16 of an inch high which were welded to the steel track.
From January through June 146 test containers of tomatoes from
various producing areas in the State were evaluated for transit injuries.
All tomatoes were subsequently ripened and data were obtained on the
amount of decay, speed of ripening and general quality. The 28 percent
average bruising and rubbing injuries occurring in the open, unlined field
boxes was significantly higher than the averages of 10 percent in the
standard lug, 12 percent in the bushel nailed box and 14 percent in the
bushel wirebound. These results closely match previous data obtained in
actual rail shipments.
One test shipment to Washington, D. C., by truck had the least amount
of injury in the lidded and lined nailed and wirebound boxes (2 and 3
percent). Tomatoes from the same lot tested on the rail simulator had
the least amount of injury in the lugs and nailed boxes (13 percent). This
also agrees with last year's tests in which transit injuries were higher
by rail than by truck.
Injuries during transit were least on mature-green tomatoes and in-
creased with increased ripeness. Bruising that resulted in internal tissue
injury produced off-flavors and watery texture. Amount of decay was
not affected by type of container. There were significant differences in
injuries among the eight loads from different production areas, but the
grade of tomatoes obtained for the tests were not identical. Although
all tomatoes were mature-green at the start of the tests and the same
temperature was maintained during transit and ripening, there were
several days' difference in the speed of ripening among the tomatoes from
different areas.
Temperature records in the truck shipment showed that the practice
of traveling at night with vents open and fan operating resulted in no
cooling of the load during the 200 miles before icing.
A test on the effect of gas concentrations on tomato ripening was made
on tomatoes of equal maturity placed in ventilated and non-ventilated
commercial ripening rooms in Jacksonville. Each room contained 32,000
pounds of tomatoes and the temperature of each was maintained at 63
to 66 F. After two days there was 2.2 percent CO and 17.3 percent 02
in the non-ventilated room, compared to 0.3 and 19.5 percent in the venti-
lated room. Pigment analyses of the tomatoes from the two rooms
showed a slight decrease in rate of ripening (12 percent less total pig-
ment) in the non-ventilated room.
(See also Proj. 484, AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS.)

TOMATO MARKETING
RMA Project 484-A (Regional SM-3) R. K. Showalter,
A. H. Spurlock and others
Data from the State and Federal agencies participating in Regional
Project SM-3 are being collected and analyzed for the publication of a
regional bulletin.

VEGETABLE BREEDING
Purnell Project 501 A. P. Lorz
Highlights of the bean breeding program include: (1) the development
of an outstanding erect, straight-podded, prolific, white-seeded wax type
now in the sixth generation of purification; (2) increase (50 pounds)
of the seed stock of purple-podded Blue Lake type (designated Florida







Annual Report, 1951


No. 501); (3) production of large second generation stocks out of crosses
designed to produce a high-yielding white-seeded round-podded green snap
bean; (4) carrying through the fifth generation promising lines of rust-
resistant No. 191 type pole beans (cooperative with Dr. J. M. Walter, Gulf
Coast Station); (5) expansion of experimental frost-resistant material
for further testing after unsuccessful field trial; (6) the development of
three first generation hybrid plants of Phaseolus vulgaris x P. glabellus;
(7) selection of interesting plant habit types out of P. vulgaris x P.
coccineus crosses and backcrosses; (8) selection of very prolific white-
seeded bush lima types out of Fordhook and Henderson type selections
crossed with wild, viny, colored-flowered, mottled-seeded Mexican type;
(9) establishment of sixth generation material from promising bush and
pole, large and small-seeded lima types; (10) observations on the inherit-
ance of seed coat color and day length reaction in lima crosses.
Seed stocks of the Korean Crowder Southern pea were increased to
about 500 pounds. So far its chief enemies are Fusarium wilt and nema-
todes. Pods are highly attractive to cowpea curculio, which can be con-
trolled by dusting with chlorodane or with DDT and sulphur during pod
development. Present evidence indicates that this type is best adapted as
a fall crop (planting date first week in August in Gainesville area), next
as early spring crop and least as summer crop, since pods fail to develop
well during the rainy season.
Twenty-six crosses were made, most of them involving the Korean
Crowder as one of the parents because of the vigor, large seeds and su-
perior pod type of this variety. Some objectives are: (1) wilt and nema-
tode resistance in a Korean Crowder type; (2) further increase in seed
size over that of the Korean Crowder type if possible; (3) Korean Crowder
type of pod on a more determinate bunch type plant; (4) Korean Crowder
type pod with quality attributes of the Conch type.
A highly successful winter growing season for English peas made pos-
sible the restoration of stocks almost exhausted by a near complete crop
failure the previous year. Most of the work has been concentrated on
lines in the fourth to sixth generations out of crosses designed to develop
types adapted to Florida's winter season, and which have long, straight
and well-filled pods, high-yielding capacity and dark green seed coats.
Most promising were large-podded selections out of Pride x Icer. About
15 pounds of seed of a long-podded off-type out of Wando were sent to
Idaho for an extra generation of increase. (See also Proj. 501, CENTRAL
FLORIDA STATION.)

TOMATO RIPENING

Adams Project 521 F. S. Jamison, V. F. Nettles,
L. H. Halsey and C. B. Hall
Samples of marketable mature-green fruit from four separate harvests
of the varieties grown under Project 282 were ripened in storage at 70
F. and 80 to 85 percent relative humidity. Percentages of ripe fruit at
9- and 15-day intervals, losses due to decay, and unripe fruit at the end
of the 15-day ripening period were determined.
Rutgers from two sources, used as base for comparison, was both
poorest and best variety in the test, with 84 percent ripe in 15 days for
ASGROW Rutgers and 97 percent for Stokes Rutgers. Other varieties
with 95 to 96 percent ripe fruit at end of period were Urbana, Fortune,
Lakeland and STEP 181. Fruit of Urbana and Grothen's Globe ripened
rapidly, with 70 and 67 percent, respectively, ripe at the end of nine days.
Nine and 7 percent of the fruit of ASGROW Rutgers and STEP 160,







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


respectively, were unripe at the end of 15 days. Less than 1 percent un-
ripe fruit remained of Stokes Rutgers, Urbana, STEP 140, Grothen and
Manahill selection No. J-12-Bk.
A method of pigment analysis has been set up with the cooperation
of Dr. J. P. McCollum of the University of Illinois. A tentative sampling
procedure also has been established.
Replicated samples of marketable fruit from plants which had received
different soil moisture treatments were placed in storage for ripening.
At the end of three and five days of storage more ripened fruit were re-
moved from lots which had received no irrigation than from lots given
%-inch of water every three or six days.
Preliminary chemical analyses of fruit ripened in storage from lots
grown under several levels of irrigation were made.

CANNING FLORIDA-GROWN VEGETABLES
State Project 526 H. M. Reed and R. A. Dennison
Ten green bean varieties were canned and quality was evaluated by
the taste panel. The best five varieties in order of rating were: Black
Valentine, B-2254, B-1643-1, B-1515 (Wade's Bush) and Tendergreen.
Nine commercial sweet corn varieties were evaluated for canning quality.
Varieties receiving highest ratings were: Golden Cross Bantam, Golden
Security, loana, Tristate and Golden Tristate. Huron received lowest
rating. However, the addition of 0.1% sequestrene to Huron when canning
improved all of the quality factors evaluated and gave a product which
scored higher than any of the other samples.
Lowering the processing temperature and increasing the acidity of
canned celery gave a product with very good texture.

TESTING MISCELLANEOUS FRUITS AND NUTS
State Project 553 H. W. Lundy, R. H. Sharpe
and R. D. Dickey
See Project 553, West Florida Station, for report of work conducted
under this project.
FERTILIZATION OF PECANS
Hatch Project 565 R. H. Sharpe and Nathan Gammon, Ji.
Several experiments have been started in various parts of the State in
cooperation with private growers and with the Suwannee Valley Station
to study different factors involved in pecan nutrition. These are too recent
to have caused differences in yield or foliage composition. The need for
long-range studies is well illustrated by an experiment in West Florida,
where the check plots have yielded as well as those receiving potash for
the four years under study. This past season was the first time that the
potash level in the foliage of check plots has dropped significantly below
that of treated plots.
From extensive foliage survey data taken in 1950 and summarized by
crop rating for the 1950 crop and 1951 pistillate bloom it was noted that
both nitrogen and calcium content were low in consistently low-yielding
trees. In alternate producing trees the potassium-calcium balance tends
to reverse itself in the on-off years and nitrogen is at a moderate level.
Trees producing well both seasons have a good level of potassium and
calcium and a high level of nitrogen. There appear to be no consistent
differences in phosphorus or magnesium levels in relations to crop pro-
duction.








Annual Report, 1951 89

PREVENTION OF SKINNING OF POTATOES
State Project 592 C. B. Hall
Three methods, delayed digging, vine removal and delayed grading,
were tested for their effect upon the skinning of potato tubers.
In the delayed digging phase, plots were harvested at 90, 95, 101, 105
and 109 days from planting date. There was no reduction in skinning at
95 days but there was a highly significant reduction at 101 days and a
further highly significant reduction at 105 days. No further reduction
took place at 109 days.
In the vine removal experiment, plots from which the vines were cut
were compared with uncut plots. The plots were harvested three times,
at the time the vines were cut (92 days from planting date) and one and
two weeks later. A highly significant reduction in skinning occurred due
to vine removal and also due to date of digging. The combination of vine
removal and delayed harvest reduced skinning more than either alone.
Two experiments were run on delayed grading. The first consisted of
samples of 92-day tubers being stored 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours at 60' F.
and 80% relative humidity before being put through the skinning treat-
ment. A significant reduction occurred at 24 hours, with a highly sig-
nificant reduction at 48 hours. There was no difference between the 24,
48, 72 and 96 hour periods.
In the second experiment, 106-day tubers were stored for 0, 24, 30 and
36 hours. A significant reduction in skinning occurred at 24 hours but
there was no further reduction at the 30 and 36 hour periods.

MISCELLANEOUS
Onion Curing.-Fifty-pound lots of Early Texas Grano and Excel onions
were cured as follows: air-cured in sheltered storage (68-780 F.) and cured
under forced draft at 110 2.0 F. for 16, 24, 37 and 45 hours. No differ-
ences in storage losses were found at the end of 42 days as a result of
the treatments tested. Excel had more storage losses than Early Texas
Grano. (V. F. Nettles.)
Nitrogen Fertilization of the Tomato with Foliar Sprays of Urea.-In
the fall of 1950 three levels of nitrogen applied to the soil were compared
factorially with three levels of nitrogen (urea) applied to the foliage of
Jefferson tomatoes. Results, which have only limited application because
of conditions under which the experiment was conducted, indicate that
no benefit was derived from foliar applications of urea nitrogen, whether
alone or in combination with soil nitrogen, when compared with equal
amounts of nitrogen applied to the soil.
In the spring of 1951 a field test was made to compare urea :oliar
sprays with side-dressing of NaNO3 as sources of supplemental nitrogen.
No significant differences were found between the two sources in total
yield or number of fruit harvested. (F. S. Jamison, C. B. Hall and James
Montelaro.)
Control of Nut Grass with Chemicals.-Three chemicals, each at three
concentrations, were studied for effect on nut grass control. The sodium
and amine salts of 2,4-D were tested at 2%, 5 and 7 pounds per acre.
Maleic hydrazide was tested at 5, 10 and 15 pounds per acre.
Both the sodium and amine salts of 2,4-D at 5 and 7 pounds per acre
gave good control. The maleic hydrazide did not give any reduction in the
stand of nut grass. (R. A. Dennison.)
Tomato Quality as Influenced by Environmental Conditions.-Fruit was
obtained from the Vero Beach, Oxford and Gainesville areas for evaluating







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the influence of environmental factors on fruit quality. All tomatoes were
harvested mature-green and held for ripening at approximately 68 F.
and 85% relative humidity.
Fruit exposed on the plant to the sunlight ripened more rapidly than
fruit shaded from the sunlight by the foliage of the plant. The exposed
fruits were higher in total solids and sugar content and lower in total
pigments than the shaded fruits. Fruit obtained from fields without
irrigation had a higher total acid content than fruit from irrigated fields.
(R. A. Dennison, C. B. Hall and V. F. Nettles.)
Retail Display Methods for Fresh Vegetables.-Preliminary studies
were made on five types of retail display methods and their effects on
spoilage losses of green beans, lima beans, okra, squash and pole beans.
Amount of decay, discoloration and weight and other losses were obtained
in a dry and a sprinkled mechanically refrigerated case, a dry and a
sprinkled non-refrigerated display rack and an ice refrigerated case. No
one type of display was best suited for all vegetables but the highest per-
centage of salable produce was found in the sprinkled mechanically re-
frigerated and the ice display cases. (B. D. Thompson.)
Fertilizer Requirements of Watermelons.-A factorially-designed ex-
periment involving three levels of nitrogen (20, 60 and 100 pounds N per
acre), four levels of potassium (20, 60, 100 and 140 pounds KO2 per acre)
and two locations (Gainesville and Leesburg) was conducted.
The largest yield of melons was obtained at Gainesville in these in-
vestigations. At both locations yield was significantly higher from plots
fertilized with 20 pounds of nitrogen per acre than from plots fertilized
with the medium and high levels of nitrogen. For potash a trend was
found indicating that the middle levels tested gave highest yields.
One level each of muriate of potash and sulfate of potash, as sources
of potash, were tested in a replicated test at Gainesville and Leesburg
which resulted in no differences in yield.
At Gainesville a factorially-designed experiment involving the addition
of three levels of calcium (0, 80 and 160 pounds per acre of CaO applied
in the form of gypsum) and three levels of magnesium (0, 20 and 40
pounds per acre of MgO in the form of magnesium sulfate) was conducted.
No differences in yield resulted.
Observations were made on melons from each fertilizer treatment to
obtain preliminary data on the frequency of the occurrence of white-heart,
hollow-heart and flesh breakdown. Refractive-index readings also were
made on these fruits. (C. B. Hall, V. F. Nettles and R. A. Dennison.)
(The test at Leesburg was in cooperation with the Watermelon and
Grape Investigations Laboratory.)
Influence of Fertilizer Level and Time of Application on Crop Yield.-
Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of fertilizer levels,
materials and time of application of the fertilizer on yields of cabbage,
peppers and tomatoes.
Two levels and two sources of nitrogen were applied as side-dressing
treatments for cabbage. Peppers were grown in plots treated, prior to
setting plants, with 2,000, 1,000, 500 and 200 pounds per acre of a 4-7-5
fertilizer. Later applications of this fertilizer brought these levels up to
2,000, 2,000, 1,500 and 1,100 pounds per acre, respectively. Tomatoes were
grown in plots treated, prior to setting plants, with 1,200 and 600 pounds
per acre of the 4-7-5 fertilizer. The plots with 600 pounds of fertilizer
received an additional 600 pounds when the plants were approximately
8 inches tall. Also two levels (30 and 60 pounds/acre) and three sources








Annual Report, 1951


(NaNO,, KNO and NH4NO3) of nitrogen for side-dressing were tested with
each method of applying the 4-7-5 fertilizer.
The treatments produced no significant difference in yield with any
of the crops. The tomatoes harvested from the plots treated with NH4NO.
did not maintain firmness as well as did the fruit from the other plots.
(R. A. Dennison.)
Ornamental Plant Breeding.-A breeding program with ornamental
plants was initiated during the year. A number of Tea rose varieties have
been assembled to be used as foundation material for crossing with other
varieties and species in an attempt to develop a rose adapted to Florida.
Breeding of hibiscus has been started also in an effort to produce strains
of this plant hardy in northern Florida. Some preliminary trial crosses
and colchicine treatments were made among the plants already established
in the collection, but there are no results on these to be reported this year.
(S. E. McFadden, Jr.)
Determination of Insecticide Residues on Vegetables.-In view of the
general use of insecticides on vegetable and field crops, and the probability
of the establishment of tolerances by the Food and Drug Administration,
methods and procedures are being established to determine the amount of
residue occurring on certain Florida crops. Thus far this work has been
conducted on a small scale and samples included celery, cabbage, escarole,
beans and tobacco. The insecticide residue was extracted with benzene
on a roller-type extraction apparatus and determined by standard analytical
procedures. No conclusions have been drawn from the limited data ob-
tained thus far. (Ann R. Stasch.)


U. S. FIELD LABORATORY FOR TUNG INVESTIGATIONS"

If, in determining the oil content of tung fruit by the Hamilton-Gilbert
method, the whole air-dried fruit is ground, a factor must be used to correct
for substances other than tung oil extracted from the hull and for true
tung oil adsorbed by it. The use of a constant factor over the whole range
of oil contents is not valid; the oil is most accurately estimated by means of
a regression equation based on the blendor readings. In this laboratory
the blendor method is used with ground nuts (seeds) rather than with
either whole fruit or kernels; no correction factor is necessary therefore
and the cost of shelling out the kernels, which would amount to about $800
for the approximately 1,200 samples analyzed annually, is saved.
Although yields of tung fruit were seriously reduced by low temperatures
in February and April 1950, some hybrid trees showed considerable toler-
ance. For instance, yields of the 24 highest yielding crosses ranged from
13 to 24 pounds and the average was 15.2 pounds, compared with an average
yield of 3.7 pounds per tree for the remaining 361 crosses. This is a 310
percent increase. If it can be demonstrated that this cold resistance,
together with productivity and other desirable characteristics, is transmitted
to the progeny, either budded or seedling, considerable progress will have
been made in developing cold-resistant commercial varieties.
In close cooperation with the Florida Station Horticultural Department,
a study was conducted on the characteristics of the oils of five species of
Aleurites. From chemical and spectrographic data it was shown that the
species A. fordii, A. montana, A. cordata, A. trisperma and A. moluccana
differed widely in alpha-eleostearic acid content and that A. moluccana oil

11 The research work of the U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations. Gainesville,
Florida, financed by Federal funds, is conducted cooperatively by the United States Depart-
ment of Agr culture and the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


is more nearly like linseed oil in composition than tung (A. fordii), differing
from tung in not containing alpha-eleostearic acid and in a considerably
larger number of non-conjugated double bonds.
In a variety trial comparing eight varieties, one-half of which are
budded and one-half seedling trees of each variety, L-14, Isabel (L-2) and
Lampton (F-578) produced more fruit after being subjected to the low
temperatures occurring in February and April 1950 than the five other
varieties did. The yield per tree of the first three was 22 pounds and of
others 6.7; a 228 percent increase. Seedling trees consistently yielded more
fruit than budded trees of the same variety. Average weights of fruit
produced per tree by the seedlings was 13.2 pounds, by budded trees of the
same varieties in the same area only 8.5 pounds. Mortality among the
budded trees to date also has been considerably more than among the seed-
ling trees, 43 and 6, respectively. It would seem from these results that
the seedling trees are doing better than the budded trees, but all trees in
this study have received poor care.
The source of nitrogen, level of potassium, level of zinc experiment in
sand and soil cultures at Robertson's Pond was set up and the first season's
growth, symptom and leaf analyses data have yielded some very interesting,
valuable, fundamental and practical information.
The soil in which the soil cultures are planted is classified as Lakeland
sand. It has a high fixing power for zinc, and only where 20 p.p.m. of
zinc were supplied in the solutions was zinc deficiency absent; even at this
level of supply, scme of the trees receiving 78 p.p.m. of potassium showed
slight symptoms of zinc deficiency. In the sand, however, even those plants
receiving only 0.5 p.p.m. of zinc and 78 p.p.m. of potassium were free from
zinc-deficiency symptoms, and the leaves contained 100 p.p.m. or more of
zinc on a dry-matter basis.
Magnesium deficiency symptoms developed in both soil and sand cultures.
The occurrence of these symptoms and results of analyses of leaves from
the plants on which they occurred constitute one of the most outstanding
contributions of this experiment. The effect of zinc on magnesium deficiency
was very pronounced; symptoms of magnesium deficiency developed at the
higher levels of zinc and the severity of these symptoms increased with
increasing levels of potassium supply and with increasing proportions of
ammonium to nitrate nitrogen in the nutrient solution. Leaf analyses
showed that under these conditions magnesium accumulation in the leaves
is markedly reduced.
On the nights of November 25 and 26, 1950, the trees in this experiment
were exposed to temperatures of 18 to 23 F. No previous freezing tem-
peratures having occurred, the trees were in full leaf. Considerable killing
of the vood resulted and pruning back was therefore necessary this spring.
A record of the amount of terminal growth killed by the low temperatures
produced interesting results on the relation of nutrition to cold hardiness.
In the sand cultures, where no zinc deficiency occurred, cold injury was
much less severe than in the soil cultures. In the soil cultures the outstand-
ing relation was that between level of zinc and extent of cold damage,
increasing level of zinc being associated with increased cold hardiness. An
important potassium effect and a potassium-zinc interaction also were ap-
parent. The data showed that increasing potassium reduces cold hardiness
when zinc is deficient, but when zinc is adequate increasing potassium
increases cold hardiness, the greatest hardiness resulting when both zinc
and potassium are high.
A study of the differential absorption of potassium from some of its
salts by tung seedlings revealed that the potassium of monovalent salts
(nitrate and chloride) is accumulated in the leaves of the tung plants at a







Annual Report, 1951


significantly higher rate than is that of polyvalent salts (sulfate, pectate
and tartrate). These findings are in accord with theories which relate the
absorption of the cation to that of the associated anion. The data suggests
that the beneficial effects of mulch in correcting potassium deficiency re-
sult from causes other than those related to the form of potassium in the
mulch.
Considerable new information on tung leaf enzymes and enzymatic
techniques was obtained as follows:
1. No evidence of a specific ascorbic acid oxidase in tung was obtained.
Copper has been postulated as activating such a system. Ascorbic acid
oxidation in tung is non-enzymatic. The formation of quinones by enzy-
matic oxidation of phenols leads to a direct chemical action on added
ascorbic acid.
2. Phenol oxidase of tung is an iron-containing enzyme rather than a
copper-containing one. The usual inhibitors of copper enzymes do not in-
hibit catechol oxidation in tung. In fact, tung-leaf powder oxidizes the
sulfur-containing inhibitors.
3. Tung phenol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of a number of mono
and dihydrophenols. The active group is ferrous iron. This is shown by
the inhibition of catechol oxidation by reagents which form complexes with
ferrous irons. Those which complex only with iron in the ferric state do
not inhibit the oxidation.
4. Substances which react with peroxides and carboxyl oxygen tempo-
rarily inhibit tung phenolase, indicating that an important rate-controlling
step is the formation of such compounds from the phenols.
5. Tung catalase is active in the ferric state, being inhibited by sub-
stances capable of forming stable ferric complexes but not by those form-
ing ferrous complexes.
6. It is suggested that the chlorotic conditions encountered in mineral
deficiencies may, in certain cases, be associated with the valence state of
the iron in these important respiratory enzymes. Oxalic acid complexes
react with ferric iron, and formation of these complexes has been shown to
be related to base supply and nitrogen sources.
The effects of base supply (Ca, K, Mg) and nitrogen source (nitrate or
ammonium N) on total organic acid and oxalic acid production were in-
vestigated with leaf material from seedling tung trees grown in a nutri-
tional experiment (1947 Beltsville study).
From this and related experiments it is concluded that the calcium re-
quirement of tung plants that receive N largely or exclusively as ammonia
is lower than that of similar plants that receive N largely or wholly as
nitrate. The increasing use of anhydrous ammonia as a source of nitrogen
in fertilizer formulation in preference to nitrate, therefore, will require
reexamination of the calcium availability and requirement of plants, such
as tung, that accumulate calcium oxalate under nitrate metabolism. It is
considered of importance to continue fundamental studies of plant metabo-
lism which can provide clues to the differences to be expected under new
conditions of agricultural practice, rather than to wait until adverse effects
on quality and yield develop. (F. S. Lagasse, senior horticulturist; M.
Drosdoff, senior soil scientist; S. G. Gilbert, associate plant physiologist;
Cornelius B. Shear, associate plant physiologist; Harold L. Barrows, agent
(junior chemist); Clare M. Gropp, agent (junior chemist.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


PLANT PATHOLOGY

This report contains additional information on projects previously re-
ported upon, and preliminary information on new projects that were
initiated during the year.

COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF SPECIMENS
OF FLORIDA PLANTS
State Project 259 Erdman West and Lillian E. Arnold
The addition of 3,112 specimens, mostly Spermatophytes, to the perma-
nent collections in the herbarium brought the total number in all groups
to 118,556. In addition, 72 sheets of replications were replaced with more
desirable specimens. Eight new wooden cases were provided to house these
accessions.
Gifts and exchange specimens received included 163 sheets of ferns of
historical interest because they were collected by the early Florida botanist,
A. W. Chapman. Also added were 35 packets of algae, 18 lichens, 28
hepatics, 168 ferns and 688 specimens of higher plants from New Zealand.
Distribution by the herbarium to other institutions and individuals consisted
of 861 specimens of higher plants and 2,440 of fungi.
The first Florida representation of Leptochloa uninervia (Presl) Hitchc.
& Chase was added to our collection, and a rare grass, Paspalum langei
Nash, was found for the first time in many years.
Demonstration on the use and value of the herbarium in connection with
poisonous plants was made to 206 students in animal husbandry. Identifica-
tions of specimens during the year numbered 3,007.
Illustrations completed for a prospective book, "The Native Shrubs and
Woody Vines of Florida," now number 198.

DAMPING-OFF AND ROOT ROTS OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Adams Project 281 W. B. Tisdale, W. D. Moore
and George Swank, Jr.
Investigations on this project were primarily of an exploratory nature
to determine what organisms were associated with root rots and damping-off
in different localities and at different seasons of the year and which ones
are pathogenic. Growth characters of the rhizoctonia isolates were com-
pared on culture media to detect any possible differences, and any antagon-
ism of one toward another and toward other fungi associated with dis-
eased plants.
At Fort Lauderdale isolates of fungi were obtained from diseased bean
plants beginning in October and continuing with successive plantings until
May 8. This procedure was repeated with successive plantings on the same
farm or other farms throughout the season. Isolates obtained early in the
season were predominantly rhizoctonia. Later in the season there seemed
to be a progressive increase in other fungi. Trichoderma was very preva-
lent at the end of the season.
All isolates of rhizoctonia were tested for pathogenicity to beans. A
few of them completely killed the plants in a few days, while others varied
between this and no signs of pathogenicity. A few isolates of trichoderma
and fusarium showed slight pathogenicity to beans.
Similar studies were made at Sanford with celery in plant beds. Organ-
isms obtained most consistently from diseased root tips and damping-off
stems were fusarium, pythium and rhizoctonia. Isolates of all of these








Annual Report, 1951


organisms were pathogenic to celery seedlings under controlled conditions
(Fig. 1) and to lettuce and endive.
In a preliminary test in outdoor seedbeds MC-2 (methyl dibromide) was
the only soil fumigant used that gave significant control of damping-off.
None of the chemicals used in seed treatment tests produced any beneficial
results. Arasan and Spergon applied in water suspension to plant beds
after damping-off had become established checked further spread of the
disease. Another new material, OS-1199, gave better control of damping-
off than Arasan and Spergon when applied in water suspension.
























.



Fig. 1.-Parasitism of fusarium (B); pythium (C), and combination of
these organisms (D) on celery seedlings, in steam-sterilized artificially
inoculated soil. (A) Healthy plant from steam-sterilized non-inoculated
soil.
After the isolates were tested for pathogenicity to crops from which
they were obtained they were compared on culture media for growth
characters and on this basis were grouped into broad categories. These
studies included their response to different pH reactions of the culture
media and antagonism toward each other. Isolates of rhizoctonia showed
different reactions to pH of culture media as well as differences in antagon-
ism toward each other and to molds.

PHOMOPSIS BLIGHT AND FRUIT ROT OF EGGPLANT
Adams Project 344 Phares Decker
In the breeding for Phomopsis-resistant eggplant, two varieties have
been developed. Florida Market was tested by the growers and the founda-
tion seed were released to commercial seed companies in the winter of








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


1949-50. Florida Beauty foundation seed was increased in the Spring of
1950. The harvesting, drying and curing of the seed crop was completed
September 1, 1950.
Foundation seed of both varieties will be held in storage to assure
future supply.

CAMELLIA DISEASES
Adams Project 455 Erdman West
Dieback continues to be prominent among camellia diseases. Isolations
from typical dieback lesions on shoots and stems consistently yield Gloeo-
sporium sp. and Phomopsis sp., often both organisms from the* same lesion.
The same organisms were obtained from dead vegetative and floral buds.
Numerous inoculations were made with these organisms singly and in
combination, with and without wounding, but insufficient infection occurred
to prove that they were pathogenic. Plants injured by frost showed no
dieback symptoms after they were inoculated. Results of these tests indi-
cate that the Gloeosporium and Phomopsis are not the cause of dieback.
Three- and four-year-old bushes inoculated periodically by spraying with
mixed cultures of Gloeosporium sp. and Phomopsis sp. and sprayed with
fungicides between inoculations at intervals of two months developed no
typical dieback symptoms and only a small number of dead buds.
Tests with various dilutions of copper quinolinulate applied as drenches
on an area in which heavy losses occurred in 1950 from infection with
Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. gave no beneficial control.


LUPINE INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 463 Phares Decker
Selections of Lupinus angustifolius L. and L. luteus L. made in 1950 for
disease resistance and desirable agronomic characteristics were planted in
1950-51 at the West, North Florida and Main Stations. The plantings at
the West and North Florida Stations were killed by cold weather. The
plantings at the Main Station were severely injured; the extent of injury
was correlated with the stage of plant growth at time of the first freeze.
Plants surviving the cold subsequently encountered cool, favorable condi-
tions for growth and produced a good cover crop and above-average seed
yield.
The cool weather proved favorable for the development of the lupine
plant and the common diseases of lupine were of minor importance. Many
selections were made in the nurseries and field for cold tolerance, as plant-
ing stands were reduced from 10 to 90 percent.
Selections of yellow lupine (speckled seed and white seed) for desirable
agronomic characteristics and freedom from virus symptoms in 1950 de-
veloped approximately 50 percent virus-affected plants in 1951. The per-
centage of plants showing virus symptoms ip 1951 was about the same,
regardless of whether the seed were taken from virus-affected plants or
from healthy-appearing plants in 1950. This does not eliminate the possi-
bility of the virus being seed-borne but does suggest that the virus can be
carried by other means.
Alta Blue, an anthracnose-resistant strain of bitter blue, continues to
do well in the production of green weight and seed yield. (See also Proj.
463, NORTH FLORIDA STATION.)








Annual Report, 1951


IMPROVEMENT OF OATS, RYE, WHEAT AND BARLEY THROUGH
BREEDING FOR DESIRABLE AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
AND RESISTANCE TO DISEASE
RMA Project 487 R. W. Earhart
Diseases were not an important factor in small grain production during
the 1950-51 growing season. Those that did develop appeared late, when
the crop was sufficiently matured that little damage occurred.
Rusts, normally the most serious small grain diseases in Florida, were
of minor importance. Only leaf rust of wheat, Puccinia rubigo-vera tritici
Carleton (Ericks), appeared early enough to damage the crop.
It was possible in the laboratory to maintain the oat crown rust organ-
ism, Puccinia coronata avenue (Pers.) Cda., on the living host from one
cropping season to the next.
Preliminary tests indicate that there are wide differences in symptoma-
tology of oat crown rust on seedlings and more mature plants; and
further, that the change from one stage of development to another does
not occur as a smooth progression, but as several abrupt changes during the
development of the host.
All leaf-spotting diseases, except oat leaf spot, were light and did not
reach epidemic proportions until about April 15. This is to be contrasted
with the 1949-50 season when susceptible barley and wheat varieties were
killed by spot blotch (Helminthosporium sativum PK&B) by January 15.
Oat leaf spot (H. avenue Eid.) was present in all fields and nurseries
observed from emergence until harvest. Damage was severe in some areas
and initial data on varietal responses to this disease were obtained in the
Gainesville nursery.
Culm rot, apparently a new disease, has been under study during the
past year. This disease is caused by a Helminthosporium sp. similar in
morphology to H. victoria MM and H. sativum. Indications are that the
fungus is closely allied to H. sativum, even though symptoms of the dis-
ease are similar to Victoria blight (H. victoriae. These similarities are:
darkening of the internodal tissues, darkening and fuzzy appearance of the
lower nodes due to conidiophore development, culm breaking, light and
blasted panicles, and heavy lodging in severe infections. However, distinct
differences that can be noted include: varieties are susceptible regardless
of parentage; little, if any, half-striping or reddening of the leaves; lodging
does not occur until the panicles start to fill; and culm infections will
progress up the culms, even into the rachis.
Tests with 72 different isolates of the culm rot organism from Ala-
bama, South Carolina and Florida showed that isolates from different
locations varied widely in pathogenicity, while isolates within a location
varied only slightly.
It was found that while the symptoms of culm rot and Victoria blight
overlap, it is possible to separate one disease from the other by using
differential varieties. In our tests Southland and Victorgrain were used.
Artificial inoculations with the culm rot fungus on different grain crops
showed that oats, wheat, barley and rye can be attacked. Tests with
2,100 oat varieties and selections showed that there are sources of resist-
ance and that it should be possible to incorporate these into agronomically
adapted varieties.
Because of the cool season two bacterial diseases of oats, common in
Northern oat areas, were present until about the middle of March. These
were halo blight (Pseudomonas coronafaciens Elliott (Strapp) and bac-
terial stripe (Pseudomonas striafaciens (Elliott (Starr)). Grasshoppers







98 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

in the nymphal stage were present and seemed to be associated with the
occurrence of halo blight. However, this needs investigation.
In the time-of-planting and cultural-practice "tests it was determined
that oats can be grown successfully at Gainesville at any time of the year
for laboratory purposes if irrigation and partial shading are provided
during the summer.
It was found that the oat variety Southland is much more easily dam-
aged by extended exposure to some organic mercurial seed disinfectants
than is Victorgrain.
The established breeding nurseries were utilized to assess diseases.
Supplemental nurseries were used to evaluate specialized material where
artificial epiphytotics were created. The assessment of oat crown rust
damage was aided by uniformly sowing a susceptible spreader variety
throughout the nursery to insure a uniform spread of the fungus. Data
on the commonly occurring races of oat smuts, Ustilago kolleri Willie and
U. avenae (Pers.) Rost, were obtained in a special oat smut nursery. Also
a collection of wheat loose smut, Ustilago tritici (Pers.) Rost, was obtained
and inoculated into susceptible host plants for maintenance for future work.
In addition to work done at Gainesville, cooperation is maintained with
the oat breeding and testing programs at the JTorth and West Florida
Stations, adjacent States, and the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Di-
vision of Cereal Crops and Diseases. (See also Proj. 487, AGRONOMY.)

NECTAR AND POLLEN PLANTS OF FLORIDA
State Project 524 Lillian E. Arnold and John D. Haynie
The collection of data in preliminary studies was completed during the
year and the material is being prepared for publication. The material
consists of explicit descriptions of 26 Florida plants which will be illus-
trated with a photograph for each, and a few discussions of other plants,
treated by groups.

VIRUS DISEASES OF CUCURBITS AND OTHER VEGETABLES
IN CENTRAL FLORIDA
RMA Project 538 C. W. Anderson
Virus diseases have been observed again on numerous crop plants,
including cucurbits, peppers, tomato, bean, celery, lettuce, tobacco and
yellow lupine, and on various weeds and ornamentals in central Florida.
Present indications are that perhaps two mechanically transmissible viruses
infect yellow lupine. Failure to transmit either to cucumber indicates that
cucumber mosaic is not the important virus of yellow lupine in this area,
especially since two strains of cucumber mosaic from central Florida have
been transmitted experimentally from cucumber to yellow and blue lupine,
and both were readily transmitted back to cucumber. Symptoms of both
cucumber mosaic strains in blue lupine somewhat resembled those reported
by Weimer for the blue lupine virus from Tifton, Georgia; symptoms of
one strain were noticeably milder than those of the other.
Lettuce mosaic was again present in the Sanford area in the winter
of 1950-51, on both romaine and head lettuce. Southern celery mosaic
also was present in the Sanford area on celery, cucurbits and other plants.
A disease resembling the curly top reported from Bradenton has been
noted in north central Florida on tomato and tobacco. The occurrence of
such a disease on tobacco is especially interesting, since the Bradenton
virus is reported to have produced no symptoms in tobacco. Whether or




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs