• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Credits
 Harold Mowry
 List of departmental and branch...
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00036
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1950
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00036
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Harold Mowry
        Page 4
        Page 5
    List of departmental and branch station reports
        Page 6
    Main
        Page 7
        Page 8
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    Index
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Full Text

OCT 14 1955


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA





AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT STATIONS











ANNUAL REPORT
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1950










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT STATIONS





ANNUAL REPORT
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1950









BOARD OF CONTROL

Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Petersburg
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville
George J. White, Sr., Mount Dora
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee

EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., Presidents
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
Geo. F. Baughman, M.S., Business Manager'
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Administrative
Manager
Claranelle Alderman, Accountants


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist'
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Mktg. Economist
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Little, M.S., Assistant
Tallmadge Bergen, B.S., Assistant
D. C. Kimmel, Ph.D., Assistant
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr.
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statistician2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician2

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
S Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer '
J. M. Johnson, B.S.A.E., Asso. Agr. Engineers
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer
R. E. Choate, B.S.A.E., Asst. Agr. Engineer'
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A.E., Asst. Agr. Engineer2 s

AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist'
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomists
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist'
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomists '
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Darrel D. Morey, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant
Myron C. Grennell, B.S.A.E., Assistant
E. S. Homer, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
M. N. Gist, Collaborator2

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND
NUTRITION
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husbandman-
J. E. Pace, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
S. John Folks, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husbandman
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist'
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.

DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist1 '
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman'
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.'
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. in Dairy Mfs"


P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.2
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.
Howard Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.

EDITORIAL
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor'
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editors

ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist'
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant

HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist'
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
H. M. Reed, B.S., Chem., Veg. Processing
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Victor F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2

LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist'
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.1 '
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asst. Poultry Husb.'

SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist' "
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist'
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. A. Carrigan, Ph.D., Biochemist'
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asso. Soil Surveyor'
Geo. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Microbiologist'
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist'
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. L. Pritchett, M.S., Asst. Chemist'
James H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
Walter J. Friedmann, M.S.A., Asst. Biochemist
O. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor

VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian'
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarians
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
Glenn Van Ness, DV.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist
E. G. Batte, D.V.M., Asso. Parasitologist










BRANCH STATIONS


NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agron.
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Hush.
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Mariannn
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
J. T. Griffiths, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.4
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
A. E. Willson, B.S.A., Asso. Biochemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. N. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Wallace T. Long, M.S.A., Asst. Hort,
J. C. Bowers, M.S., Asst. Chemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Supervisory Chem.
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. D. Merwin, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
L. W. Faville, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist
R. M. Pratt, B.S., Asso. Ent. Path.
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist

EVERGLADES STATION,
BELLE GLADE
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
F. D. Stevens, B.S Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engineer
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Husb.
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Agronomist
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist
E. H. Wolf, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. N. Stoner, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
W. A. Hills, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
W. G. Genung, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist
C. J. D'Angio, A.B., Asst. Chemist
D. W. Smith, B.S., Asst. Chemist
W. D. Hogan, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
Daniel W. Beardsley, B.S., Asst. An. Husb.
K. A. Harris, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Engineer
David B. Gibbs, M. E., Fiber Technologist


SUB-TROPICAL STATION,
HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Milton Cobin, B.S., Asso. Horticulturist
Robt. A. Conover, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist

W. CENT. FLA. STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
William Jackson, B.S.A., Animal Husbandman
in Charge2

RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, B.S., Asst. Soil Technologist*

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Ben. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.

WEST FLORIDA STATION, MILTON
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Agronomist'
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist



FIELD LABORATORIES

Leesburg
G. K. Parris, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
C. C. Helms, Jr., B. S., Asst. Agronomist

Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist

Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.

Bradenton
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.

Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist2

1 Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave.



















HAROLD MOWRY


Doctor Harold Mowry retired January 31, 1950,
after 33 years of outstanding service to the people of
Florida. He came to Florida in 1916 and for six years
was affiliated with the State Plant Board. In 1922 he
joined the staff of the Agricultural Experiment Station
as Assistant Horticulturist. His successive promotions
included: Associate Horticulturist July 1, 1930; Hor-
ticulturist July 1, 1932; Assistant Director March 1,
1933; Associate Director July 1, 1942; and Director
November 1, 1943.

His accomplishments as a scientist and as an
administrator have contributed significantly to the
progress of Florida. All of the research described in this
report was initiated under his direction. The prin-
ciples of hard work, intellectual integrity, sound judg-
ment, loyalty to the public trust, and competent
administration which he personified will serve indelibly
for many years to influence the future policies and
contributions of the organization.

































































Harold Mowry


....
5: '' ~"



r;









DEPARTMENTAL AND BRANCH STATION REPORTS

Page
Director's Report _-..... ..-..... ..------ .--------- -. --------------------- 7
Business Manager .-...---..---------------- ------------------------.. 19
Editorial .-....--~. ...-------------..---.---------------- --------------- 23
Library ---......------.....-...-------.----.....---.--------------- 35
Agricultural Economics --..-...----.....----------......---- -----... -- 36
Agricultural Engineering .. ...---..- .. ........----------. .----..-------.---- 44
Agronomy ..------... ------------------ -------- 45
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition ...--..------------------ 55
Dairy Science ............ .......--------------------....------------------- 61
Entomology -----_--- -.......... ..........------------------------------ 65
Home Economics -.---------------------- --------.. 71
Horticulture --...-.----------------------------------------- 74
U. S. Laboratory for Tung Investigations ----.----------. .----..- 85
Plant Pathology ....--..--------- --.----....----.---. --- --...----------- 87
Pcultry Husbandry .-...........-.....----------.........-.-----------...------.....---- 93
Soils .--.-...... ..... ........... .......-- ---------- ............--- ..----------- ..--- ------..-------.. ------------ 97
Veterinary Science ----...................-.....................-..............--........-........------- 104
Federal-State Frost Warning Service---...............-.......-..-------------...... 109
Potato Investigations Laboratory --.......-..-.. ... ---------------. 112
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory ..... ....------------------ 118
Vegetable Crops Laboratory......-------------------. ------ 120
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory ...----------....- 138
Central Florida Station .... ..- ........------- --------------------------- 140
Citrus Station __.--------------------------..---- 146
Everglades Station --..... ......---------------------------- 176
North Florida Station ..... .... -- --- 214
Mobile Units -- -------_-... ------ ---------------- ----- 223
Range Cattle Station .----- .----------...... --......----------------- 226
Sub-Tropical Station -....-.. .....--. ..............----------......-------- --.. 230
West Florida Station .--..........---- ..--------------..---- ------------------ 250
West Central Florida Station --.....-..........--------..---...----------..... 254









Annual Report 1950 7

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

INTRODUCTION
Florida at the century's mid-point is making very rapid progress in all phases
of her development. Census data reveal that in 1900 her population was 528,542;
in 1950 this had reached 2,771,305, an increase of nearly 425 percent. The
population now is 46 percent higher than it was in 1940.
Next to the tourist trade, agriculture today is the largest single contributor to
the state's income. It is estimated that in 1900 the cash income to farmers from
agriculture was about $35,000,000. By 1950 this had increased over 12-fold.
Farmers' cash receipts for the year which closed December 31, 1949, are reported
by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. Department of Agriculture
(FIS-119, June 1950), to have been as follows:
Total Fruits and Vegetables --------_ ............. ........... $273,290,000
Citrus fruits ----..---...................... _$160,339,000
Misc. fruits ---- .. .......4,811,000
Vegetables ---- --- .........108,140,000

Total Livestock and Products -----. ---.- -............. ..... 96,461,000
Poultry, eggs and dairy ------------- -_.... ..__.. ..... $ 54,858,000
Livestock ....--------.-.....--- ............... 39,499,000
Other (including honey) ---....---.---.--------.-.. 2,104,000

Total Field Crops ...... .................------------------.......-------- 45,709,000
Tobacco ------ --------.............-....... ... --$ 17,805,000
Potatoes -----.....-------------.----- .....-.. 12,155,000
Peanuts .. -----------..----~... .............4,589,000
Sugarcane (sugar) ------------._ .................__ 5,517,000
Sugarcane sirupp) ---- .........1,099,000
Corn ----- ......... .......... 790,000
Cotton -------------2,653,000
Sweet potatoes ........ ..... .....--------...... 835,000
Miscellaneous ------------..____...._............... 266,000

Total Nut Crops and Specialties ------..----- ...-- 19,674,000
Tung ..........------------------- $ 953,000
Pecan -------..----............... .... ......... 549,000
Greenhouse, nursery, etc. .--...... ----- .- 18,172,000

Total Cash Income .-----.. --..-----------$435,134,000

In addition, the preparation, packaging and processing of many of these com-
modities, particularly fruits and vegetables, are the basis of vast business enter-
prises. This is reflected strongly in the f.o.b. or gross value, $547,782,000, of the
agricultural group mentioned above, as given by the Florida State Marketing
Bureau for the 1949-50 season. These items have widened greatly Florida's field
of important agricultural research, including marketing.
Research is the foundation on which this substantial development in agriculture
rests. Without it,. much of Florida's progress would have been impossible.
Through experimentation the staff of the University of Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station has made major contributions since its organization in 1888.
Many developments have been listed in earlier publications, and growers have









8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

readily accepted and quickly applied the findings of these organized research
programs.
The difficulties incidental to rapid agricultural development are better under-
stood when it is remembered that none of the economic plants of major value now
grown in the state was indigenous thereto; they, when imported from elsewhere to
be grown in "off seasons" or in widely divergent conditions of soil and climate,
brought with them innumerable problems of culture and improvement, pest con-
trol, harvesting, curing, storing, processing and marketing. Parallel with these
have occurred somewhat similar and serious problems in connection with the
development of a great livestock enterprise.
At the half-way mark of the century, Florida's organized agricultural research
programs are conducted by over 200 trained and capable staff members in 14 de-
partments at the Main Station and a network of 14 branches located at strategic
points throughout the state. Some of the work is conducted cooperatively with
the U. S. Department of Agriculture and other governmental agencies, and several
grants-in-aid facilitate certain investigations. The objectives of those who serve
on the staff are to develop ways and means to produce more and better foods,
feeds and fibers more economically, and thereby to contribute to the improvement
of the living conditions and health of Florida and the nation. The income,
$435,184,000 in 1949, accruing from agriculture alone is indicative that their
efforts through the years have met with noteworthy success. Incidentally, the
total amount spent for organized agricultural research by the State of Florida in
1949-1950 was but a little over 7/10 of 1 percent of the income given above.
The past year was one of specific progress. There have been new develop-
ments, many of which are reported in the publications listed on following pages.
New varieties and cultural and management methods have been developed and
tested. New pesticides and improved methods of application are constantly under
trial. Nutritional and breeding programs for both plants and animals are progress-
ing; the harvesting, processing, marketing and nutritional values of foods and feeds
are being investigated. Marketing research is an important phase of the Station's
program. Brief summaries covering the many phases of this research for 1950 are
given in the pages of this report.

IMPROVEMENTS AND ADDITIONS

During the year the Dairy Unit mentioned in the 1949 Report was completed
and placed in operation. Newell Hall annex, constructed to house the specto-
graphic and minor element chemical laboratories, was completed and occupied.
For more efficiency, the Animal Industry Department was subdivided into the de-
partments of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, Dairy Science, Poultry Husbandry
and Veterinary Science.
A spectographic laboratory was installed at the Citrus Station and an organic
chemical laboratory at the Everglades Station. Small and much-needed buildings
were constructed at the Vegetable Crops Laboratory, the North Florida Station,
and for the Departments of Entomology and Agricultural Engineering. Through
the efforts and cooperation of the Florida State Improvement Commission, many
useful supplies and considerable valuable equipment were obtained by various
departments and stations from war surplus sources.
Although the 1949 Legislature provided appropriations for initiation of work
at the Live Oak Branch Station, budgetary reserves prevented its actual activation
during the first year of the biennium.








Annual Report 1950


STAFF CHANGES

New Appointments

Chris W. Anderson, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Main Station, April 11, 1950.
Rogers L. Bartley, Administrative Manager, Main Station, May 1, 1950.
Edward G. Batte, Associate Parasitologist, Main Station, July 1, 1949.
Daniel W. Beardsley, Temporary Assistant Animal Husbandman, Everglades
Station, August 1, 1949.
O. E. Cruz, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Main Station, October 1, 1949.
Edward J. Deszyck, Associate Horticulturist, Citrus Station, June 1, 1950.
Evert J. Elvin, Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, March 1, 1950.
Harry W. Ford, Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, March 10, 1950.
George R. Freeman, Superintendent (Farm and Maintenance), Main Station,
May 8, 1950.
Walter J. Friedman, Jr., Interim Assistant Biochemist, Main Station, October 1,
1949.
David B. Gibb, Fiber Technologist, Everglades Station, April 1, 1950.
Myron G. Grennell, Assistant Agronomist, Main Station, July 1, 1949.
Chesley B. Hall, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, February 15, 1950.
Kenneth A. Harris, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Everglades Station, March 1,
1950.
Clyde C. Helms, Jr., Assistant Agronomist, Watermelon and Grape Investigations
Laboratory, February 1, 1950.
Wm. D. Hogan, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, October 20, 1949.
Earl S. Horner, Assistant Agronomist, Main Station, June 1, 1950.
Earl M. Kelly, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Range Cattle Station, October 1,
1949.
Donald C. Kimmel, Assistant Marketing Economist, Main Station, February 15,
1950.
Chester D. Leonard, Associate Horticulturist, Citrus Station, June 15, 1950.
Wallace T. Long, Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, November 10, 1949.
Henry D. Merwin, Associate Chemist, Citrus Station, March 1, 1950.
Darrell D. Morey, Associate Agronomist, Main Station, September 1, 1949.
Robert M. Pratt, Associate Entomologist-Pathologist, Citrus Station, April 11, 1950
J. Wayne Reitz, Provost for Agriculture, October 1, 1949.
Frank A. Robinson, Assistant Apiculturist, Main Station, January 5, 1950.
Wm. A. Simanton, Entomologist, Citrus Station, June 1, 1950.
Buford D. Thompson, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, September 1, 1949.
J. M. Tillman, Jr., Assistant Chemist, Citrus Station, November 1, 1949.
James H. Walker, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Main Station, November 15, 1949.
Phillip J. Westgate, Associate Horticulturist, Central Florida Station, October 16,
1949.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Advancements
Joseph R. Beckenbach, appointed from Horticulturist in Charge, Vegetable Crops
Laboratory, to Associate Director, Experiment Stations, May 1, 1950.
William M. Fifield, appointed from Assistant Director, Administrator, to Director,
Experiment Stations, March 1, 1950.
.Everett L. Fouts, appointed from Dairy Technologist to Head, Department of
Dairy Science, Main Station, October 15, 1949.
Louis C. Kuitert, appointed from Assistant to Associate Entomologist, Main
Station, July 1, 1949.
Norman R. Mehrhof, appointed from Poultry Husbandman to Head, Department
of Poultry Husbandry, Main Station, October 15, 1949.
D. A. Sanders, appointed from Veterinarian to Head, Department of Veterinary
Science, Main Station, October 15, 1949.


Retirements
Harold Mowry, Director, January 31, 1950.
Arthur L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist and Head of Department, Main Station,
August 81, 1949.
F. D. Stevens, Agronomist, Everglades Station, June 30, 1950.


Resignations
J. B. Cromartie, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Main Station, September 30, 1949.
John A. Granger, Horticulturist, Citrus Station, December 31, 1949.
Harold E. Henderson, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Range Cattle Station,
September 15, 1949.
Byron E. Janes, Associate Horticulturist, Main Station, July 11, 1949.
Earl M. Kelly, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Range Cattle Station, April 30,
1950.
Samuel C. Litzenberger, Associate Agronomist, Main Station, August 15, 1949.
Arthur F. Mathias, Assistant Chemist, Citrus Station, September 30, 1949.
Wm. W. Mosher, Assistant Editor, Main Station, September 30, 1949.
Wm. L. Pritchett, Assistant Chemist, Main Station, June 15, 1950.
James M. Tillman, Jr., Assistant Chemist, Citrus Station, February 28, 1950.
C. F. Winchester, Associate Biochemist, Main Station, September 15, 1949.


Deceased
Charles E. Bell, Associate Chemist, Main Station, October 15, 1949.
Ruby Newhall,'Administrative Manager, Experiment Stations, October 18, 1949.
Royal J. Wilmot, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, May 7, 1950.


i








Annual Report 1950


SUMMARY OF WORK IN PROGRESS
The Station's research, conducted under planned and approved project
statements, is listed by the titles given below. Work of an exploratory
nature and of short duration is given in the various divisions under
"Miscellaneous."
MAIN STATION
Agricultural Economics
Project No. Title Page
154 Farmer's Cooperative Associations in Florida _. ......-------- 36
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
Citrus ---------------------- 36
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation of Flor-
ida Dairy Herds---- -------------------------------- 36
395 Input and Output Data for Florida Crop and Livestock Pro-
duction .... --- ----------- _- 36
429 Analysis of Farms and Markets in the Plant City Area with
Respect to Post-War Economic Problems ------------- 37
451 Crop and Livestock Estimating on Florida Farms with Emphasis
on Vegetable Crops 37
480 Cost of Production and Returns on Vegetable Crops in Florida 37
483 Consumer Packaging of Vegetables (Except Tomatoes)---- 37
484 Packaging of Tomatoes -.......------------------- 38
485 Spoilage in Marketing Early Irish Potatoes.--- -------. 39
486 Cost and Factors Affecting Cost of Marketing Citrus Fruits in
Fresh and Processed Form -- ---------------................ 40
519 The Consumer Pattern for Citrus Fruit ----...................---------.................. 41
520 Coordinated Selling of Citrus Fruit ..... ------...................-..-.........- -- 41
530 Methods of Leasing Farm Land in Florida .--.........-...-...-....-----------...... 41
556 Farm Rental Arrangements in Florida .....-..-....-......--------------..... 42
562 Factors Affecting the Demand for Citrus Fruits - 42
--- Miscellaneous: Costs of Milk Production; Florida Truck Crop
Competition; Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries to
Groves in Florida ---- -----.-- -- --- --- ------....-... .... 43
Agricultural Engineering
536 Curing Hay in Florida ------ --------------- 44
555 Fertilization and Culture of Flue-Cured Tobacco 44
Agronomy
20 Peanut Improvement ------.-- -- -----..... ---a -- 45
56 Variety Test Work with Field Crops .. -------- 45
163 Corn Fertilizer Experiment ----------46
295 Effect of Fertilizers and Management on Yield, Grazing Value,
Chemical Composition and Botanical Makeup of Pastures .. 46
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies -----...........--- 46
298 -orage and Pasture Plant Improvement ....-... ---------- 47
301 Pasture Legumes ------------ 48
304 Methods of Establishing Permanent Pastures Under Various
Conditions -................_-------.....___-------- ___------------- ___---_.---------___. 48
369 Effect of Environment on the Composition of Forage Plants .. 48
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement...........------------ 49
374 Corn Improvement ...-...------------------------ 49
417 Methods of Producing, Harvesting and Maintaining Pasture
Plants and Seed Stocks ------ ---- -49
440 Effect of Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S and Mg on the Growth of Grain Crops,
Forage Crops, Pastures and Tobacco ---.---- 49
444 Permanent Seedbeds for Tobacco Plants ------------ ---- 50
487 Improvement of Small Grains Through Breeding, Physiological
and Disease Studies ..---- .. .. 50.. 50








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Project No. Title Page
488 Nutrition and Physiology of the Peanut ..-__--------------... 52
536 Curing Hay in Florida ._._---- -.......---------------------------- -- 52
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco. ----- 53
555 Fertilization and Culture of Flue-Cured Tobacco..---------------.- 53
SMiscellaneous: Cotton _..... ---------.......-- --.----- 54
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ......------------.--- ------ ----------- 55
346 Investigations with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition
Problems of Livestock ___... ------------------- 56
356 Biological Analysis of Pasture Herbage._.-..-----------------..... 56
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixtures and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized
Pastures --.....-----------------...---------------------- 57
426 Toxicity of Crotalaria spectabilis Roth _-..... . ...-----------------. 57
461 Supplemental Feeds for Nursing Beef Calves ... ---- 57
481 Losses in Marketing Livestock--------------------- 57
512 Sweet Lupine Seed as a Protein Supplement for Growing and
Fattening Beef Cattle __-...... ------- ----- --- ------ 57
518 Thyroid Function in Chickens ...---.--. ----------...-------------- 57
540 Citrus Molasses for Feeding Swine .---_.--------------- 5. 58
541 Feeding Value of Florida Hays for Swine ----------- 58
542 Supplemental Feeds Needed by Sows During Reproduction and
Lactation on Florida Pastures__ ....------------------ 58
543 Roughages for Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle in Florida 58
546 Loss of Nutrients in Drip from Defrosted Frozen Meat ..------.. 59
SMiscellaneous: Cull Tangerines for Swine; Citrus Seed Meal
for Swine; Animal Protein Factor, B,2, B13, Aureomycin and
Related Factors for the Pig; Animal Protein Factor and
Aureomycin for Beef Cattle; Citrus Seed Meal for Beef
Cattle; The Effect of Minor Elements on Phosphorus Meta-
bolism in Cattle; Interrelationships of Copper, Molybdenum
and Phosphorus; Sweet Potato By-Product Feeding Trial;
Vitamin A for Beef Cattle; Influence of Various Phosphate
Sources on Cattle _.....................---------- 59
Dairy Science
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to Her
Milk and Butterfat Production ._-- -___.......... -------------.--.----- 61
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops -. ------ ------ 61
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Flor-
ida Dairy Herds _---_ ----..-... ------.---------- 61
394 Effects of Certain Feeds on Milk Flavor --. ____-----__ ------ 61
478 Dehydration and Utilization of Vegetable By-Products as Dairy
and Poultry Feeds .--- 62
497 Influence of Water Constituents (Minerals) on the Physical
Properties and Whipping Quality of Ice Cream Mixes.-------- 62
534 Cooling and Aging of Ice Cream Mixes..___.-----------------. 62
564 Post Partum Development of Bovine Stomach Compartments
and Observations on Some Characteristics of Their Contents 62
--- Miscellaneous: Relation of Gestation to Body Weights of Cows
on Long-term Feeding Trials; Dried Pineapple Pulp; Effects
of Penicillin, Aureomycin and Sulfamethazine on Acid Pro-
duction by Cheese and Buttermilk Cultures; Freezing Point
Studies on Cream; Methods of Detecting Antibiotics in
Biological Materials --.. ---.. --......... ---------------- 63
Entomology
379 Control of Nut and Leaf Casebearers of Pecans __--___--- ---------- 65
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida .-- 66
382 Root-Knot in Tobacco Fields ----.. ---------------------. 66








Annual Report 1950


Project No. Title Page
385 Effects of Mulches on the Root-Knot Nematode ----- 66
462 Anaplasmosis in Cattle -------.----------------.---- 67
499 Strawberry Variety Trials ...... ...... ------------- ------- 67
531 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Woody Ornamentals--. 67
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco ------ 68
SMiscellaneous: Honey Plant Research; Control of Insect Pests
on Succulent Plants; Effects of Annually Repeated Soil
Treatments of D-D for Controlling Nematodes on Gladioli;
Mixing Insecticides with Fertilizer-------------- 69
Home Economics
442 Assessment of the Nutritive Value of Certain Supplements When
Added to Basal Diets of Enriched and Unenriched Breads--- 71
443 Vitamin B Content of Foods...-- ---------------------- 72
516 Effect of Processing and Storage Upon the Nutritive Value of
Milk -- --... ---... ... .. ..----------------------------------------- 772
SMiscellaneous: Bread; Honey; Peanuts ....----------- 73
Horticulture
50 Propagation, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with the Tung Oil
Tree ...- ..............--------- -- 74
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and
Methods for Their Propagation----------- 74
80 Cooperative Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards.- -------- 75
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals --------- 75
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vegetables
Adaptable to Commercial Production in Florida ----------- 75
365 Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree ---------- 76
375 Relation of Zinc and Magnesium to Growth and Reproduction
in Pecans .----- .. .. ------------------ 77
391 Vegetable Variety Trials- 77
432 Effects of Boron on Certain Deciduous Fruits and Nuts-- 78
435 Irrigation of Vegetable Crops ......... .... ..........------------------- 78
452 Culture and Classification of Camellia and Related Genera ---- 79
467 Maintaining Freshness in Vegetables with Ice.-- 79
468 Quality of Vegetables as Related to Fertilizing Materials with
Emphasis on Potash Salts -------------- --.... ..------ 79
473 Freezing Preservation of Certain Florida-Grown Vegetables ---- 79
475 Effect of Soil Fumigants on Yield and Quality of Vegetables-- .. 80
478 Dehydration and Utilization of Vegetable By-Products as Dairy
and Poultry Feeds ----------------- 80
483 Consumer Packaging of Vegetables (Except Tomatoes) ---- 80
484 Packaging of Tomatoes-------....----------- 81
499 Strawberry Variety Trials ------------------....... 82
501 Vegetable Breeding -...... ----------------------.- 82
521 Tomato Ripening ...--------------- 83
526 Canning Florida-Grown Vegetables --------------.------ 83
553 Testing Miscellaneous Fruits and Nuts --------..------ -- 84
---- Miscellaneous: Brined Celery; Potato Waxing; Potato Starch
Content; Potato Skinning; Response of Potato Tubers to
Ethylene Chlorohydrin Treatment; Tomato Fruit Setting
Hormones; Mayhaw Jelly; Chemical Weed Control in Vege-
tables; U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations ...-- 84

Plant Pathology
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants 87
281 Damping-Off of Vegetable Seedlings-- -- --- ---- ......87
344 Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Eggplants ---- 88
455 Camellia Diseases ......... -------------------.----- 88
463 Lupine Investigations -............. ---------------- 89








14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
487 Improvement of Small Grains Through Breeding, Physiological
and Disease Studies___________----------------- 90
524 Nectar and Pollen Plants of Florida ..-------------- 90
538 Cucurbit Mosaics on Vegetables and Other Plants --- 90
539 Control of Scab and Other Foliage Diseases of Pecan -.-....-...-- 91
563 Causes and Control of Diseases of Potted Plants--- 91
-- Miscellaneous: Plants Poisonous to Animals; Effect of 2,4, 5-T
on Florida Betony; Narcissus Bulb Treatment for the Control
of Fusarium Rot; Control of Rhizoctonia Rot of Camellia
Cuttings in Propagating Beds .... -----......__ ----- 92
Poultry Husbandry
450 Grazing Experiments with Poultry .... .---- ----------------- .. ..... 93
478 Dehydration and Utilization of Vegetable By-Products as Dairy
and Poultry Feeds-- ---------------- 94
489 Feeding Value of Citrus Meal and Citrus Seed Meal for Poultry.. 94
503 Broiler Feeding Trials ----------. 94
551 Utilization of Calcium and Phosphorus by Poultry as Determined
with Radioactive Isotopes ---------- 94
. Miscellaneous: Aureomycin and APF Supplements for Chick
Growth; Deep Litter in Laying Houses; Simplified Rations for
Laying Hens; Relationship of Egg Shell Color to Hatchability 95
Soils
328 Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and Cropping
Systems in Florida --___.- ----- -- ...-. ----------. 97
347 Composition of Florida Soils and of Associated Native
Vegetation ...----------------------------- 97
368 Factors Affecting the Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule
Development .- -------------- 97
389 Classification and Mapping of Florida Soils ------ 98
404 Correlation of Soil Characteristics with Pasture Crop and Animal
Response - ----------- 98
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphatss Applied to
Different Soil Types _.-_----------.-_--- ----------.......- -... ... 99
433 Retention and Utilization of Boron in Florida Soils -- 100
446 Testing Soils and Limestone ---------- 101
447 Availability and Leaching of Minor Elements in Florida Soils 101
493 Soil Management Investigations ---------- 102
513 Maintenance of Available Nitrogen in Florida Soils--- 101
535 Soil Management Investigations ------- 102
544 Soil Management Investigations- ------ 102
Miscellaneous: Greenhouse Studies of the Effects of Amend-
ments Applied to Some Alachua County Soils- ---- 103
Veterinary Science
353 Infectious Bovine Mastitis -------............ .---------------- 104
387 Longevity of Eggs and Larvae of Internal Parasites of Cattle .- -- 104
424 The "Transmission Agent" of Fowl Leucosis --- 104
456 "Leeches" in Horses ------ -----------------.----- --.- 105
459 Control of the Common Liver Fluke in Cattle---- .- 105
460 Control of the Common Cattle Grub ----------- .-- 106
462 Anaplasmosis in Cattle-- ------------ -----.------------- 106
517 Factors Influencing the Development of Pullet Disease -- 106
554 Control of Internal Parasites of Cattle .------------- ------.------ 107
557 Control of External Parasites of Cattle --- --- -- 108
Miscellaneous: Effect of Feeding Cobalt to Young Chicks -.----- 108
BRANCH STATIONS AND LABORATORIES
Federal-State Frost Warning Service
...- Report of the 1949-50 Season .. ........------- 109








Annual Report 1950


Pecan Investigations Laboratory
Project No. Title Page
For Reports see Project 379, ENTOMOLOGY, and Project 539,
PLANT PATHOLOGY.
Potato Investigations Laboratory
391 Vegetable Variety Trials -------------112
419 Downy Mildew of Cabbage ---- 113
465 Fertility Studies in Cabbage Production-------- 114
469 Improvement of Potato Cultural Practices-- ----- 114
500 Alternaria Leaf Spot of Cabbage and Other Crucifers --- 115
527 Cabbage Diseases Other than Downy Mildew and Alternaria
Leaf Spot ......--------------.----------.--. 116
529 Potato Diseases ----------------- 117
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ---. -------.-------- 118
499 Strawberry Variety Trials------------- 118
SMiscellaneous: Fertilizer Trials; Root Decline Caused by
Belonolaimus gracilis Steiner----------------- 119
Vegetable Crops Laboratory
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida 121
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ......------------------ 121
398 Breeding for Combined Resistance to Diseases and Insects in
the Tomato --------- ------------- 124
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn --- 124
402 Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Vegetable Crop Plants -. 125
405 Summer Cover Crops, Liming and Related Factors in Vegetable
Crop Production .---- .----..._-------------------------- 1._ 125
445 The Insecticidal Value of DDT and Related Synthetic Compounds
on Vegetable Crop Insects in Florida ---- 125
448 Rapid Soil Tests for Determining Soil Fertility in Vegetable
Crop Production-------------- 126
449 Organic Fungicides for Control of Foliage Diseases of Vegetables 127
464 Gladiolus Variety Trials --128
502 Controlling Gladiolus Corm Disease---------- 129
504 Controlling Insect Pests of Gladiolus ..---- -- 130
506 Etiology and Control of Certain Epiphytotic Diseases of
Gladiolus -___. ------ -------- ----------- 130
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops- 131
- Miscellaneous: Microbiological Studies Following Soil Fumiga-
tion of Seedbeds; Sweet Corn Fertility; Insecticidal Spray
Residue; Seedbed Studies; Plant Response; The Use of
Aluminum Foil as a Mulch; Control of Nut Grass with 2,4-D;
Tomato Staking, Pruning Methods and Fertilizer Level
Studies; Pole Bean Breeding for Rust Resistance; Nematode
Control on Gladiolus; Effect of Harvest Date and Storage
Conditions of Gladiolus Corms on Flower Production; Weed
Control with Gladiolus; Mulching Gladiolus with Aluminum
Foil ......... ..........---------------- 132
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
150 Investigation of and Control of Fusarium Wilt, a Fungous
Disease of Watermelon Caused by Fusarium oxqsporum
(E.F.S.) var. Niveum Snyder and Hansen --... 138
151 Investigation of and Control of Fungous Diseases of Watermelon 138
254 Investigation of Fruit Rots of Grapes--. --......---..--------.--___ 139
Central Florida Station
281 Damping-Off of Vegetable Seedlings ........-.-..._...... 140
336 Cercospora Blight of Celery .......------------------- 140


I








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Project No. Title Page
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida. 140
391 Vegetable Variety Trials --...-- ---------------.---- 140
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn-.-- 142
494 Improvement of Cultural Practices for Cabbage, Lettuce, Celery
and Other Vegetable Crops -- _--------- 142
495 Liquid Fertilizers for Vegetable Crops --....----- ---.--.---.. 143
496 Soil Management Problems in Vegetable Crop Fields-- 144
500 Alternaria Leaf Spot of Cabbage and Other Crucifers --------.- 144
501 Vegetable Breeding.--------------.. .----. ..---------_ ----- 144
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops -- 144
. Miscellaneous: Control of Diamond Back Moth and Cabbage
Looper; Insects Attacking Cotton; Insecticide Residues on
Vegetable Crops; Control of Pickleworm and Melonworm on
Cantaloupes ----- .........---------... 145
Citrus Station
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection -.---- --------------- 146
102 Variety Testing and Breeding- -..------- 146
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rot of Citrus Fruit .-- 146
340 Citrus Nutrition Studies -------- 147
341 Combined Control of Scale Insects and Mites on Citrus -._.--.-- -155
508 Water Relations with Citrus in the Coastal Citrus Areas .-------- 156
509 Nature, Causes and Control of Citrus Decline ------ .------------. 156
510 Insect Parasitism and Related Biological Factors as Concerned
with Citrus Insects and Mite Control.----- 159
511 Diseases of Citrus Insects .. --......---- -------_--- --------- 160
547 Bulk Handling of Fresh Fruit for Packinghouses -------------... 161
548 Portable Citrus Sampling Device.- ------- 161
550 Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices --. 161
552 Mechanical Grove Duster ._..... --...-.-_..-------------- 162
561 Coliform Organisms in Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices ----.-- 163
. Miscellaneous: Absorption of Parathion into Fruit .----_--- ..----- 164
SCitrus Investigations in the Coastal Regions-- -------- 165
SCooperative Research with the Florida Citrus Commission:
Packinghouse Research; Processing and By-Products Research 166

Everglades Station
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings 180
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse
Conditions -.. ..---------.-- .........- .... .....--------------.-- 180
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ....-..-.. -------------- 183
88 Soils Investigations ------------ -- 188
89 Water Control Investigations ----------- 188
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle----------- 190
168 Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the Peat
and Muck Soils of the Everglades ---- -------- 191
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugarcane Moth
Borer in South Florida.----------- 195
171 Cane Breeding Experiments ..... ... .---- -..-.- 195
172 Physiology of Sugarcane --.---- -- -. 196
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the
Everglades ----------------- 196
202 Agronomic Studies with Sugarcane-------- 196
203 Forage Crop Investigations .-----..------------- 197
204 Grain Crop Investigations ----------- 198
206 Fiber Crops Investigations ....----------- 198
208 Agronomic Studies Upon the Growth of Syrup and Forage Canes
in Florida _....__........ -. --...----- 200
210 Leaf Blights of Vegetable Crops -_------ 200
336 Cercospora Blight of Celery --------..--------- ------ 200
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ..----... ---------- -----.... 200








Annual Report 1950


Project No. Title Page
458 Sclerotiniose Disease of Vegetables -..-------------------.--- .- 203
533 Grasses for Lawns, Recreational Areas, Parks, Airports and
Roadsides .-------- --..- ------.---------... 203
545 Breeding of Beef Cattle for Adaptation to South Florida
Conditions ____......_. ___--------------------_.__ ___.. --------_ 204
549 Utilization of Feeds and Forages for Beef Production in the
Everglades and Lower East Coast of Florida __.......--...- -...-.. 205
558 Viruses Affecting Vegetable Crops in the Everglades Area ------ 206
559 Control of Nematoces and Subterranean Insects Injurious to
Cultivated Crops --.--------------.. ... 206
560 Improvement and Development of Spraying and Dusting Equip-
ment for Agricultural Use --..------ -- ..- 208
..- Miscellaneous: Weed Control Investigations; Sheep and Swine
Investigations; General Plant Disease Survey; DDT,
Parathion and Toxaphene Residues on Celery------ 211

North Florida Station
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco ..-----------__._ .------.... 214
80 Cooperative Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards ---..........---- 214
260 Grain Crop Investigations------ --------- --.----- ----- 214
261 Forage Crop Investigations -------------------------- -- 216
301 Pasture Legumes ..--.........--..-- --------- .------_..--- .. 216
411 Two-Year Rotations for Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ...- ------------ 216
463 Lupine Investigations------------------.....------- 216
491 Production of Feeder Pigs ---------------...........- 217
493 Soil Management Investigations- .........--.------- ----.. .. 217
498 Utilization of Pastures in the Production of Beef Cattle---------- 219
525 Control of Green Pe ch Aphid on Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco 220
528 Soil Fumigation for Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco _____------_............. 220
532 Management of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco Plant Beds ........ ..... 220
543 Roughages for Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle in Florida 221
.- Miscellaneous: Virus Diseases of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco;
Bacterial (Granville) Wilt of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco; Citrus
Molasses in Steer Fattening Rations; Sweet Lupine Seed as a
Protein Supplement for Pigs; Hornfly Control; Insecticide-
Fertilizer Mixture Test; Barn Fumigation; New Insecticides 221
---- Mobile Units---- -- ---------.. .. -- 223

Range Cattle Station
390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida Environment .... 226
410 Wintering Beef Cattle on the Range ....-------........-...-_............ 226
423 Effect of Fertilization and Seeding on the Grazing Value of
Flatwoods Pastures -------------- 227
466 Fluctuations in Water-Table Levels in Immokalee Fine Sand and
Associated Soil T rpes _----------- _.... ---------__-_ _______...__..... 227
476 Utilization of Citrus Products for Fattening Cattle .----------..... 227
---- Miscellaneous: Mineral Consumption by Range Cattle; Plant
and Animal Response to Phosphatic Fertilizers; Forage
Variety and Fertilizer Trials; Soil Fertility Studies; Seed
Harvest --......---------------------................... 228
Sub-Tropical Station
275 Citrus Culture Studies ---....-...-...-. --------.--...-----.---- 3 230
276 Avocado Culture Studies .....-...... ------.... - - -- 230
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ----..... 230
280 Sub-Tropical Crops of Minor Economic Importance ------------- 231
285 Potato Culture Investigations --- .--------.. 233
286 Tomato Culture Investigations --....-- .. ...- 234
287 Cover Crop Studies ----- .... 234








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Project No. Title Page
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County-----_-----_ -------_ 235
290 A Study of Diseases of Avocado and Mango and Development of
Control Measures ....-...... ...... ------..-..-.-- 235
291 Control of Tomato Diseases ........---------------.----------237
391 Vegetable Variety Trials __....-----.. ----.-------. 238
422 Diseases of the Tahiti (Persian) Lime .....-------..------------- 240
458 Sclerotiniose of Vegetables --......... .....------------.... ...... 241
470 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Sub-Tropical Fruits --_-- 241
471 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Winter Vegetable Crops 242
472 Control of the Pineapple Mealybug --._.- ...-------.-...-.. ............ 242
505 Importance, Etiology and Control of Papaya Diseases .......----..-- 243
514 Sub-Tropical and Tropical Plant Introductions -----.....-.--------- 243
515 Mango Selection, Propagation and Culture .- ...--- -----.......-. 243
522 Guava Propagation, Culture, Breeding and Selection--- 247
. Miscellaneous: Mosaic-Resistant Bean Variety Trials; Studies
on the Control of the Root-Knot Nematode on Marl Soils;
Miscellaneous Soils Studies; Weed Control Investigation ..-- 247
West Florida Station
404 Correlation of Soil Characteristics with Pasture Crop and
Animal Response..-------------------------- -..... 250
544 Soil Management Studies .....---.-- ---.-....----- 250
553 Testing Miscellaneous Fruits and Nuts ----- 252
- Miscellaneous: Preliminary Pasture Investigations; Field Crop
Varieties .................--- --------....-......._...-------- ... ......--- ----. 252
West Central Florida Station
--- Grazing Studies... ... .................-------------------------. 254
Cattle Breeding ----------~..- -... .... --------...... 254









REPORT OF BUSINESS MANAGER

SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1949-1950


bo ;



0 cc E 5s
~ ,., ,, aE'. atu c .


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations --.... $1,220,520.97 $108,670.89 $1,551.31 $57,766.32 $3,398.63 $15,473.23 $15,715.99 $5,923.55 $11,136.11 $24,763.86
Special Everglades ........... .-.... 4,625.00 ---------- -... -.- _____- _____ __ ..._ ..
Special Mobile Units -- 19,722.00 11,961.03 672.07 47.00 190.50 11.00 1,473.39 1,238.14
Special Beef Unit _---.... _... .._......... .- ................--- ................ ........_ __ ....._ ___ __ ___.... .................
Special Dairy Unit -__ --. ..___.......... 0 -_...... 610.00 --...- .... 109.26 --..... -90.00 1,686.59
Emergency and Contingent _...-... -.--
North Florida Live Oak __.- .._- ........._-- ...... ....-..- -
Vegetables and Gladioli _..._1,672.50 ....---- ....

TOTAL -..-..-----------...$1,244,867.97 $122,914.42 $1,551.31 $58,438.39 $3,554.89 $15,663.73 $15,726.99 $7,486.94 $11,136.11 $27,688.59
Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations-
Incidental Fund .._.. 6,923.33 25,516.81 297.85 2,085.12 727.92 67.46 2,347.13 342.38 94.76 9,659.35

TOTAL --...-..--...-----------. 6,923.33 $ 25,516.81 $ 297.85 $ 2,085.12 $ 727.92 $ 67.46 $ 2,347.13 $ 342.38 $ 94.76 $ 9,659.35












SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1949-1950 (Continued)


0






Special Mobile Units 11.25 7,068.09 29.00
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations -. ..____$666.67 $203,186.90 $70,143.13 -

Special Everglades --

Special M obile Units --.-. -- __ ------_...--. .. -- _-.- 11.25 7,068.09 29.00

Special Beef Unit ------ ....--.-- ... -- ----- ------ ----

Special Dairy Unit -.................. -- .......... ... ..---.-- 6,025.08 11,307.83

Emergency and Contingent -....--.. ......-..... ---.. -----

North Florida Live Oak -----. -

Vegetables and Gladioli -- _---............. .- -... .......... -- ----.-- 125.00


TOTAL -................ -- -. ..--- ....-----

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations-
Incidental Fund ----- -- --- ------


TOTAL


$677.92


$216.280.07 $81,604.96 --...


S176.00 81,932.02 13,199.46 3,219.00 146,588.59 107,750.07 254,338 66


$176.00 $ 81,932.02 $13,199.46 $3,219.00 $ 146,588.69 $107,750.07 $ 254,338.66


o o
a c






$1,738,917.56 $465,288.16 $2,,204,205.72

4,625.00 375.00 5,000.00

42,423.47 7,576.53 50,000.00

- ---......-..- -... 15,000.00 15,000.00

19,828.76 10,171.24 30,000.00
--- 40,000.00 40,000.00

---- 15,000.00 15,000.00

1,797.50 3,202.50 5,000.00


$1,807,592.29 $556,613.43 $2,364,205.72


.


















SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1949-1950 (Continued)


C
r r
r .0X

cd C). 0
r 0 .- -


>) r ~ E- QC) R-1 m
U a W Z ) i w a 0
U] ,. 0 U| o ] ^ 9. I C

8 n c 5
I I l p 0 U2 I0 N 1| EI EI 11
01 ,- fcM Eir E^ UM "P K 0-D i n _m EQ l E


Grants and
Donations $17,940.91 $1,206.48

TOTAL --..._ $17,940.91 $1,296.48


$1,552.82 $12.93

$1,552.82 $12.93


$20.50 ... $332.26 $8,094.68 $4,377.33

$20.50 ... $332.26 ... $8,094.68 $4,377.33


$33,627.91 $79,277.35 $112,905.26

$33,627.91 $79,277.35 $112,905.26











BUILDING FUNDS, 1949-1950


Total Disbursements Balance June 30, 1950 Total
Building Funds $77,868.07 $1,556.51 $79,424.58


FEDERAL FUNDS-SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1949-1950


S C -S^
r3~~~ d B I^T r
0. ,

1*1e ff u l Ba S*
0 V1 00 :5
-.a *s W 3 j

w C6
2 0 S. me Bd B *-.
.a 5 I~ CC- egidrfs U3
a W 0 0 a ca 0
w El El o U041 V. a d %


Hatch Fund ..---. $ 15,000.00
Adams Fund .... 15,000.00
Purnell Fund ... 60,000.00
Bankhead-
Jones Fund ......-. 27,000.00
Research
Marketing Act 46,797.01
Ramie Contract ------ -

TOTAL -...----.. -$163,797.01


3,981.62 582.48 81.39 0.27 108.84 34.00 33:89 6,508.78 2,247.95


S..- 9,322.94 18.22 0.52 ........ 29.65 38.47 2,181.95
$91. 275.18
---..-..- ...------- ---- -....- ...-. -.---- - 275.18

$3,981.62 $9,905.42 $99.61 $0.79 $106.84 $63.65 $72.36 $8,965.91


3,044.99
150.00

$5,442.94


15,000.00
15,000.00
60,000.00

40,579.22

61,433.75
425.18

$192,438.15


- - -- -
--- -- --
- - - -

- - - -

34.23


-t









...... 15,000.00
15,000.00 n

60,000.00

.... 40,579.22 "

7.61 95,671.36


$34,237.61


425.18

$226,675.76








Annual Report 1950


EDITORIAL AND MAILING DEPARTMENT
Supplying information to the people of Florida through bulletins and circulars,
press releases and farm journal articles, radio and other means continued without
diminution during the year.
BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS
The new circular series, inaugurated near the end of the preceding fiscal year,
expanded materially with the publication of 14 new members. These ranged
from 4 to 16 pages in length, totaling 124 pages, and from 5,000 to 20,000 in
edition, totaling 110,500 copies. They largely replaced the press bulletin series,
and only one new press bulletin-the bulletin list-was printed. Two were re-
printed, each four pages in length, for a total edition of 17,500 copies.
Nine new bulletins were printed for a total of 388 pages and 97,000 copies.
They ranged in size from 16 to 112 pages and in edition from 5,000 to 25,000
copies. Following is a list of bulletins printed during the year:
Bul. Title Pages Edition
462 Purple Scale and Florida Red Scale as Insect Pests
of Citrus in Florida ------- --------- ... 40 10,000
463 Parasitic Diseases of Citrus in Florida ---- ... 112 15,000
464 Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida --- 56 12,000
465 Control of Insect Pests of Cucumber and Squash ... 15 7,500
466 Control of Budworms, Earworms and Other Insects
Attacking Sweet Corn and Green Corn in Florida --- 38 7,500
467 Hibiscus in Florida --------. ---........ ..... 32 25,000
468 Some Poisonous Plants in Florida -- ... ... 47 10,000
469 Florida Citrus Molasses-Clarification of Citrus
Press Liquor --...-----. ----.. ---..----..--..---. .... 24 5,000
470 The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied
Conditions in Animals-XIII. A Study of the Tumor-
Producing Ability of "Transmission Agent RPL 16" -. 24 5,000
Copies of new bulletins are sent to libraries, technical workers and county
agents. They are announced to about 15,000 people on a "Bulletin Notify" list.
Subsequently, they are distributed only on request.
What the Bulletins Are About.-Titles, authors and subject matter of the
bulletins included the following:
462. Purple Scale and Florida Red Scale as Insect Pests of Citrus in Florida.
(W. L. Thompson and J. T. Griffiths, Jr., 40 pages, 14 figs.) Describes and illu-
strates the life cycle of purple and Florida red scales, discusses their effects on
the trees and outlines control measures.
463. Parasitic Diseases of Citrus in Florida. (R. F. Suit, 112 pages, 55 figs.)
Discusses importance of disease control, fungicides, spray program, and diseases
caused by parasitic fungi, bacteria, viruses, algae and lichens, and decline.
464. Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida. (P. T. Dix Arnold, R. B.
Becker and A. H. Spurlock, 56 pages, 11 figs.) Contains pointers on selecting a
herd sire, raising replacements, mineral supplements, factors affecting milk yields
and butterfat content, and economic phases of dairying.
465. Control of Insect Pests of Cucumber and Squash. (E. G. Kelsheimer,
15 pages, 1 fig.) Reports in detail on tests of new organic insecticides for con-
trolling pests of cucurbits. Recommends a regular schedule of parathion or lindane.
466. Control of Budworms, Earworms and Other Insects Attacking
Corn and Green Corn in Florida. (E. G. Kelsheimer, N. C. Hayslip and J. W.
Wilson, 38 pages, 7 figs.) Offers a basic insect control program as a guide to
both home and commercial growers of sweet and green corn from land prepara-
tion to harvest.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


467. Hibiscus in Florida. (R. D. Dickey, 32 pages, 17 figs.) Discusses
landscape uses, varieties, propagation, planting, soils and their preparation, culti-
vation and fertilization, and flower bud drop.
468. Some Poisonous Plants in Florida. (Erdman West and M. W. Emmel,
47 pages, 19 figs.) Describes and pictures tung tree, jimsonweed, crotalaria,
daubentonia, yellow-jessamine, coffee weed, lantana, chinaberry, oleander, cherry-
laurel, wild cherry, bracken, castor bean, nightshade, johnson grass, sorghum,
cocklebur, and atamasco lily.
469. Florida Citrus Molasses-Clarification of Citrus Press Liquor. (R.
Hendrickson, 24 pages, 5 figs.) Sedimentation appeared to be best of five methods
of clarification tried. Clarified liquor produced better molasses. Technical.
470. The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions in
Animals-XIII. -A Study of the Tumor Producing Aibility of "Transmission Agent
RPL 16." (M. W. Emmel, 24 pages, 6 figs.) The transmission agent produced
tumors in 63 serial passages.
The Circulars.-A list of circulars printed during the year, with authors, follows:
S-3 Causes of and Remedies for Certain Abnormalities of Milk, by E. L. Fouts.
S-4 Cabbage Black Rot and Yellows and Their Control, by A. H. Eddins and
W. B. Tisdale.
S-5 Identification of Florida Red and Purple Scales on Citrus Trees in Florida,
by J. T. Griffiths, Jr., and W. L. Thompson.
S-6 Blossom-end Rot of Tomatoes, by Ernest L. Spencer and J. R. Beckenbach.
S-7 Adaptability of Vegetable Varieties to the Everglades and Adjacent Areas,
by James C. Hoffman.
S-8 Observations on the Value of Sweet Blue Lupine Seed Meal as a Feed
for Beef Cattle, by R. S. Glasscock, T. J. Cunha and A. M. Pearson.
S-9 Preliminary Observations on the Comparative Value of Roughages for
Maintenance and Growth of Beef Cattle, by R. S. Glasscock, T. J. Cunha and A.
M. Pearson.
S-10 Preliminary Observations on the Feeding Value of Citrus and Cane
Molasses for Swine, by T. J. Cunha, A. M. Pearson, R. S. Glasscock, D. M. Busch-
man and S. J. Folks.
S-11 Observations on Cull Tangerines for Swine Feeding, by T. J. Cunha, G.
A. LaMar, C. B. Shawver, A. M. Pearson, S. J. Folks and R. S. Glasscock.
S-12 Preliminary Observations on Citrus Seed Meal as a Protein Supplement
for Fattening Steers and Swine, R. S. Glasscock, T. J. Cunha, A. M. Pearson, J. E.
Pace and D. M. Buschman.
S-13 Observations on the Animal Protein Factor and Vitamin B. for Swine
Feeding, by T. J. Cunha, J. E. Burnside, H. M. Edwards, G. B. Meadows, R. H.
Benson, A. M. Pearson and R. S. Glasscock.
S-14 Torpedo Grass, by Elver M. Hodges and David W. Jones.
S-15 Control of Mole-Crickets, by E. G. Kelsheimer.
S-16 Dixie Runner Peanuts, by W. A. Carver and Fred H. Hull.
RADIO BROADCASTING
Experiment Station staff members continued to make a major portion of the
talks presented on the Florida Farm Hour over WRUF at noon daily. Staff mem-
bers presented 130 talks on this program, covering every phase of farming and
farm research. Of these, 128 were reworked slightly into Farm Flashes and sent
on to 81 other radio stations and county agents throughout Florida, thus giving
coverage to the entire state. A number of the talks also were converted into
articles for farm journals.
Experiment Station information was included also in a bi-weekly roundup of


~







Annual Report 1950


farm news released to 24 stations not receiving Farm Flashes and in a weekly
summary of farm news released through the Associated Press to its member stations.
Experiment Station staff members also supplied parts of the materials cut
onto 14 magnetic tapes for three radio stations.

NEWS AND FARM JOURNAL SERVICES
Experiment Station hints and news, as in the past, constituted a good part of
the weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, released by the University of
Florida Agricultural Extension Service. During the year this clipsheet carried
107 different stories from or about the Experiment Station.
In addition to the clipsheet releases, the Editors sent an average of almost
two stories a week to daily newspapers direct or through the Associated Press. The
papers were more generous in their use of agricultural information than in recent
previous years.
Staff members submitted scores of articles direct to technical and popular
journals. Following is a list of technical and popular journal articles by staff
members published during the year.
Abbott, Ouida Davis. New Horizons in Nutrition. Certified Milk 24: 11: 4, 5,
10-12. 1949.
Abbott, Ouida Davis, R. O. Townsend, R. B. French and C. F. Ahmann. Carpal
and Epiphysial Development. Amer. Jour. Dis. Child. 79: 69-81. 1950.
Alleger, Daniel E. A Study in Methods of Farm Land Rental. Rural Sociology
15: 1: 66-67. 1950.
Alleger, Daniel E. Impact of Recent Population Changes on the Rural Economy
of the South. Proc. Asso. So. Agr. Workers 47: 17. 1950.
Arnold, P. T. Dix. Proportion of Heifer Calves Raised and Causes of Losses
Before Freshening. Proc. Asso. So. Agr. Workers 47: 88. 1950.
Arrington, L. R. Production Essentials for Quality Milk. Fla. Poultry and Dairy
Jour. 16: 1: 3, 22. 1950; also, So. Dairy Prod. Jour. 47: 4: 112-114. 1950.
Bair, R. A. Carib Excels Para as Pasture Grass, Says Bair. Fla. Cattleman and
Livestock Jour. 14: 8: 34. 1950.
Baker, F. S., and J. D. Warner. Steers Fattened Largely on Pasture Reach Heavy
Weight at Quincy Station. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 7: 28-29.
1950.
Beckenbach, J. R., E. G. Kelsheimer and J. M. Walter. Compatibility of Spray
Materials. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 138-141. 1949.
Becker, R. B., and P. T. Dix Arnold, "Bulldog Head" Cattle. Jour. of Heredity
40: 282-286. 1949.
Becker, R. B., and P. T. Dix Arnold. Turnover of Dairy Bulls in Artificial Breed-
ing Associations. Proc. Asso. So. Agr. Workers 47: 81. 1950.
Becker, R. B., P. T. Dix Arnold and Sidney P. Marshall. Relation of Gestation to
Body Weights of Cows on Long-Time Feeding Trials. Jour. Dairy Sci.
33: 393. 1950.
Blackmon, G. H. Clean Grove Cuts Pecan Costs. Fla. Grower 57: 11 (1224):
14, 31. 1949.
Blackmon, G. H. Pick Peaches to Pick Peaches. Fla. Grower 57: 11 (1224):
17, 21. 1949.
Blackmon, G. H. The Ornamental Horticultural Industry in Florida. U. of F.
Economic Leaflet 9: 6: 1950.
Blackmon, G. H. Rose Culture in Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62:
183-185. 1949.
Blaser, R. E., and G. W. Killinger. Life History Studies of Louisiana White
Clover (Trifolium repens L.) I. Seed Germination as Related to Temperature,
Pasture Management, and Adaptation. Agronomy Jour. 42: 215-220. 1950.







26 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Bledsoe, R. W. Atom Helps Check Fertilizer. Fla. Grower 58: 2 (1227): 37, 39.
1950.
Bledsoe, R. W., and H. C. Harris. The Influence of Mineral Deficiency on Vege-
tative Growth, Flower and Fruit Production, and Mineral Composition of the
Peanut Plant. Plant Physiology 25: 63-77. 1950.
Bratley, H. E. Weed Host Plants of the Nematode Found in the Three-year
Tobacco Rotation. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 4-B: 6: 118-120. 1950.
Brooke, Donald L. Egg Dealers Need Orderly Supply. Fla. Poultry and Dairy
Jour. 16: 2: 2, 8. 1950.
Burgis, D. S. Control of Nutgrass with 2,4-D. Market Growers' Jour. 78: 8: 9,
22. 1949.
Burnside, J. E., T. J. Cunha, A. M. Pearson, R. S. Glasscock and A. L. Shealy.
Effect of APF Supplement on Pigs Fed Different Protein Supplements. Archives
of Biochemistry 23: 328-330. 1949.
Camp, A. F. Care of Storm-Injured Groves. Citrus Magazine. 12: 2: 19-21. 1949.
Camp, A. F. Modern Quarantine Problems in Florida Citrus. Citrus Magazine
12: 10: 31-33. 1950; also, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 105-109. 1949.
Carrigan, R. A. Some Problems in the Use of Minor Elements on Florida Soils.
Proc. Asso. So. Agr. Workers. 47: 57-58. 1950.
Chapman, W. H. Breeding Oats for Disease Resistance. Proc. Asso. So. Agr.
Workers. 47: 176. 1950.
Clark, Fred, and G. M. Volk. Preliminary Tests with Mythel Bromide in Tobacco
Plant Beds. Down to Earth 5: 2: 14. 1949.
Cobin, Milton. A Practical Approach to Prevent the Marketing of Immature
Mangos. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 204-206. 1949.
Conover, R. A. Vascular Browning in Dade County, Florida, Green-Wrap Toma-
toes. Plant Dis. Reptr. 33: 283-284. 1949.
Conover, Robert A. Data on the Control of Gray Leaf Spot of Tomato. Plant
Dis. Reptr. 34: 182. 1950.
Conover, Robert A. Rhizoctonia Canker of Tomato. Phytopath. 39: 950-951. 1949.
Cooper, J. Francis. Green Grazing Cuts Hog Costs. Prog. Farmer 64: 11: 111.
1949.
Cunha, T. J. Preliminary Findings on the Animal Protein Factor. Fla. Poultry
and Dairy Jour. 15: 8: 14, 15. 1949; also, Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour.
14: 7: 52B. 1950.
Cunha, T. J. Swine Nutrition Developments. Chester White Jour. 39: 8: 4-5, 20.
1949.
Cunha, T. J. Vitamin Requirements of Swine. Chester White Jour. 39: 12: 12-
15. 1949; also, Flour and Feed 50: 7: 10, 11. 1949.
Cunha, T. J. Effect of Aureomycin on the Pig. Chester White Jour. 40: 5: 20.
1950; also, Feedstuffs 22: 17: 2c. 1950; also, Progressive Farmer 65: 6: 110.
1950.
Cunha, T. J. Save Feed with Salt. Prog. Farmer 65: 5: 54D. 1950.
Cunha, T. J. Recent Developments in Swine Nutrition. Feedstuffs 21: 49: 28-34.
1949; also, Hampshire Herdsman 24: 11: 10, 34-35, 40. 1949; also, Fla. Grower
57: 12 (1225); 9, 17, 21. 1949.
Cunha, T. J. Citrus Molasses Good Hog Feed. Fla. Grower 58: 4: (1229): 4.
1950.
Cunha, T. J. Preliminary Findings on Citrus Molasses for Swine. A. C. L. Agr.
and Livestock Topics. 2: 2: 1, 3. 1950.
Cunha, T. J. The Animal Protein Factor in Livestock Feeding. A. C. L. Agr.
and Livestock Topics 2: 5: 1. 1950.
Cunha, T. J. How to Prevent the "Starvation Period" for Pigs. Fla. Marketing
Bureau's for Sale, Want and Exchange Bul. 2: 5: 1, 15. 1950.








Annual Report 1950


Cunha, T. J., and S. J. Folks. Weak Swine, Inefficient Use of Feed Is Caused by
Lack of Minerals. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 1: 14, 36-37. 1949;
also, A. C. L. Agr. and Livestock Topics 1: 10: 1, 3. 1949.
Cunha, T. J., and S. J. Folks. Florida Opportunities for Swine Production. Duroc
News 23: 7: 289-290. 1949.
Cunha, T. J., and R. S. Glasscock. Silage Offers Possibility for Solving Winter
Feed Shortage Inexpensively. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 13: 10: 8.
1949.
Cunha, T. J., and R. S. Glasscock. Linseed Meal Needed to Finish Beef. Fla.
Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 13: 10: 30. 1949.
Cunha, T. J., and R. S. Glasscock. Green Color Indicates Hay High in Nutrition.
Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 13: 12: 37, 38. 1949.
Cunha, T. J., and R. S. Glasscock. Citrus Seed Meal Is Not Suitable for Pigs, but
Is Satisfactory for Cattle. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 2: 62. 1949.
Cunha, T. J., J. E. Burnside, H. H. Hopper, A. M. Pearson and R. S. Glasscock.
Effect of Animal Protein Factor Supplement, B11, Methionine, and Soil on Corn
Rations Supplemented with Peanut, Soybean, and Fish Meals. Jour. Animal
Sci. (Abs.) 8: 616-617. 1949.
Cunha, T. J., J. E. Burnside, D. M. Buschman, R. S. Glasscock, A. M. Pearson
and A. L. Shealy. Effect of Vitamin Bls, Animal Protein Factor and Soil for
Pig Growth. Archives of Biochemistry 23: 324-326. 1949.
Cunha, T. J., H. H. Hopper, J. E. Burnside, A. M. Pearson, R. S. Glasscock and
A. L. Shealy. Effect of Vitamin Bra and APF Supplement on Methionine
Needs of the Pig. Archives of Biochemistry 23: 510-512. 1949.
Cunha, T. J., J. E. Burnside, H. M. Edwards, G. B. Meadows, R. H. Benson, A.
M. Pearson and R. S. Glasscock. Effect of Animal Protein Factor on Lowering
Protein Needs of the Pig. Archives of Biochemistry 25: 455-457. 1950.
Davis, G. K. Copper Deficiency in Relation to Calf Development. Victory Farm
Forum 33: 4-5. 1948.
Davis, G. K. Borderline Copper Deficiency in Young and Old Cattle. Victory
Farm Forum 37: 8-9. 1949.
Davis, G. K. Cattle Health and Copper. Rural New-Yorker 99: 5700: 562, 577.
1949.
Decker, Phares. Disease-Resistant Eggplant Varieties Released by Florida.
A. C. L. Agr. and Livestock Topics 1: 10: 1, 2. 1949.
Decker, Phares. Harvesting and Curing Lupine. Fla. Grower 58: 4 (1229): 21,
25. 1950.
Decker, Phares. Some Notes on Diseases of Blue Lunine. Proc. Asso. So. Agr.
Workers. 47: 132. 1950.
Decker, Phares. Chemical Seed Treatments for Blue Lupine. Proc. Asso. So.
Agr. Workers. 47: 132-133. 1950.
Dickey, R. D. The Genus Jasminum in Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62:
201-204. 1949.
Driggers, J. C. Managing Layers for High Summer Production. Fla. Poultry
and Dairy Jour. 15: 7: 10. 1949.
Driggers, J. Clyde. Chick Toxicity Factor Can Be Removed From Citrus Seed
Meal. Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour. 15: 8: 10, 12. 1949.
Driggers, J. Clyde. Suggestions for Poultry Houses and Equipment. Fla. Poultry
and Dairy Jour. 15: 12: 2, 9. 1949.
Driggers, J. Clyde. Training for Leadership in the Poultry Industry. Poultry
Tribune 55: 10: 47. 1949.
Driggers, J. C. Citrus Seed Meal for Chicks. Proc. Asso. So. Agr. Workers 47:
143-144. 1950.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


DuCharme, E. P., and L. C. Knorr. Relation Between Argentina's Lepra Explosiva
and Florida's Scaly Bark of Citrus. Phytopath. 40: 7: 1950.
Edson, S. N., G. D. Thornton and F. B. Smith. Antibiotic Action of Streptomyces
albus Against Mold Decay Organisms of Citrus Fruits. Proc. Fla. Academy of
Science 12: 2: 105-107. 1949.
Emmel, M. W. Poultry Disinfectant Practice. Fla. Grower 58: 1: (1226): 23. 1950.
Emmel, M. W. Guard Poultry Against Poison. Fla. Grower 58: 6: (1231): 23.
1950.
Erwin, T. C. Some Water Quality Relationships Observed Under Everglades
Conditions, etc. For publication in Proc. Soil Sci. of Fla. 9: 1948.
Fisher, Fran E. An Advantage of Using Wettable Sulfur. Citrus Magazine 12:
5: 17-20. 1950.
Fisher, Fran E. Two New Species of Hirsutella patouillard. Mycologia 42: 290-
297. 1950.
Forbes, R. B. Lime Saves Pasture Phosphate. Fla. Grower 57: 9 (1222): 20. 1949.
Forsee, W. T., Jr. The Effect of Soil pH upon the Growth of Celery Seedlings on
the Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62:
148-146. 1949.
Forsee, W. T., Jr., and T. W. Young. Report on Fertilizer Experiments. Citrus
Industry 30: 7: 15, 18; 8: 11-12. 1949.
Fouts, E. L. Pumping Milk and Cream. Amer. Milk Review 12: 3: 24, 26, 28;
4: 24, 26, 74, 75. 1950.
French, R. B., A. M. Pearson, T. J. Cunha, V. Schmidt, O. D. Abbott, C. L.
Anderson and R. S. Glasscock. Effect of Feeding Citrus or Cane Molasses on
Carcass Quality and the Content of Certain Vitamins in Pork. Jour. Animal
Sci. (Abs.) 8: 612. 1949.
Friedmann, Walter J., Jr. Vermiculite as a Soil Amendment for Growth of
Camellias. Camellia Yearbook 1949: 64-68.
Gammon, Nathan, Jr., and R. B. Forbes. Determination of Calcium on Soil Ex-
tracts and Plant Ash by Chloranilic Acid. Analytical Chemistry 21: 1391. 1949.
Genung, William G. Dithane Dust Indicates Effective Control of Melon Worm
and Pickle Worm. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 130-132. 1949.
Glasscock, R. S., T. J. Cunha and A. M. Pearson. Lupine Seed Tested as Feed.
Fla. Grower 58: 6 (1231): 14. 1950; also, Proc. Asso. So. Agr. Workers (Abs.)
47: 73-74. 1950.
Griffiths, J. T. The Role of the Citrus Experiment Station Entomologist in the
Development of New Insecticides. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 87-89. 1949.
Griffiths, J. T., and F. E. Fisher. Residues on Citrus Trees in Florida. Jour.
Econ. Ento. 42: 829-833. 1949.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., and W. L. Thompson. The Behavior of Purple Scale Popula-
tions on Citrus Trees in Florida. Fla. Entomologist 33: 61-70. 1950.
Griffiths, J. T., and W. L. Thompson. 1949 Citrus Insects in Review. Citrus
Magazine 12: 5: 31-33. 1950.
Griffiths, J. T., and W. L. Thompson. Citrus Insect Outlook for July 1949-June
1950. Citrus Industry 30: 7: 3, 9; 8: 9; 9: 4; 10: 3; 11:3, 17; 12: 3, 1949;
31: 1: 18; 2: 8, 12; 3: 3, 16-17; 4: 3, 13, 17; 5: 3; 6: 5, 6, 16. 1950.
Hamilton, H. G. Florida Citrus Agreement. Jour. Farm Economics. 31: 4: Part
2: 1237-1243. 1949.
Harkness, Roy W. Laboratory Tests of Mango Maturity. Proc. Fla. Mango Forum
1949: 21-25.
Hayslip, Norman C. Field Research With Pesticides for Vegetables. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 62: 89-90. 1949.








Annual Report 1950


Hayslip, Norman C. The Present Status of Sprays and Dusts for the Control of
Insects Attacking the Ears of Sweet Corn. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62:
127-130. 1949.
Henderson, Harold E., George K. Davis and W. G. Kirk. Response of Cattle on
Pasture to Various Phosphate Fertilizers. Jour. Animal Sci. (Abs.) 8: 635. 1949.
Hodges, E. M. History of Pangola Reviewed. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock
Jour. 14: 4: 30-31. 1950.
Hodges, E. M. Arizona-Grown Is Same as Common Bermuda Grass. Fla. Cat-
tleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 8: 35. 1950.
Hodges, E. M., D. W. Jones, G. K. Davis and W. G. Kirk. Plant and Animal
Responses to Several Phosphatic Fertilizers. Proc. Asso. So. Agr. Workers
47: 64. 1950.
Hull, F. H. Method of Crossbreeding for Effective Results Is Outlined from
Experience in Producing Hybrid Corn at Gainesville. Fla. Cattleman and Live-
stock Jour. 14: 6: 54-55. 1950.
Jamison, F. S. More and Better Vegetables. Fla. Seedmen's Asso. 17: 98-110.
1949.
Jamison, F. S. How You Can Know Good Seed. Fla. Grower 58: 1 (1226): 20,
26. 1950.
Janes, Bryon E. Beans of the Future. Proc. Fla. Seedsmen's Asso. 17: 92-110.
1950.
Jukes, T. H., E. L. R. Stokstad, R. R. Taylor, T. J. Cunha, H. M. Edwards and
C. B. Meadows. Growth-Promoting Effect of Aureomycin on Pigs. Arch. of
Biochemistry 26: 324-325. 1950.
Kelbert, David G. A. New Tomato Varieties of Interest to Florida. Market
Growers' Jour. 78: 9: 12, 22-23. 1949.
Kelsheimer, E. G. A New Page in Insecticidal Production for the Protection of
Vegetable Crops. Fla. Entomologist. 32: 53, 55-60. 1949.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Report on the Latest Insecticides and Their Effect Upon
Honey Bees. Fla. Dept. of Agr. Bul. 135: 54-57. 1950.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Chlordane in Fertilizer. Market Growers' Jour. 79: 1: 32, 33.
1950.
Kelsheimer, E. G. The Present Status of Insecticides on the Florida West Coast.
Proc. Fla. Seedmen's Asso. 17: 112-122. 1950.
Kelsheimer, E. G., and J. M. Walter. Soil Fumigation Can Be Inexpensive.
Down to Earth. 5: 3: 12-13. 1949; also, Market Growers' Jour. 79: 3: 8, 10,
22. 1950.
Kesterson, J. W. A Two Year Survey of Florida Coldpressed Oil of Orange.
Citrus Industry 31: 4: 10-11. 1950; also, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62:
160-162. 1949.
Kesterson, J. W. Florida Coldpressed Grapefruit Oil. Amer. Perfumer and
Essential Oil Review 55: 29-32. 1950.
Kesterson, J. W., and O. R. McDuff. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of
Floridian Coldpressed Oil of Orange (1947-48 Season). Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 61: 212-222. 1948; also, Citrus Industry 30: 9: 7-9. 1949.
Kesterson, J. W., and O. R. McDuff. Anti-Oxidant Studies. Amer. Perfumer
and Essential Oil Review 54: 285-287. 1949.
Kidder, R .W., D. W. Beardsley and T. C. Erwin. Photosensitis Control Is Now
Possible, Everglades Experiment Station Says. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock
Jour. 14: 8: 68-70. 1950.
Killinger, G. B. Lawn Grasses for Florida. Prog. Farmer 65: 4: 135. 1950.
Killinger, G. B. Lawn Makes Home Attractive. Fla. Grower 58: 5 (1230): 25.
1950.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Killinger, G. B., and John D. Haynie. Put the Bee on Southern Agriculture.
Better Crops with Plant Food 34: 2: 11-13, 44. 1950; also, Fla. Dept. of
Agr. Bul. 135: 49-54. 1950.
Kirk, W. G. Citrus in the Feedlot. Cattle Digest 1: 3: 64-66. 1950.
Kirk, W. G. Invest in Winter Range Feeds. Fla. Grower 57: 11 (1224): 18, 21.
1949.
Kirk, W. G. Citrus Feed Good for Cattle. Fla. Grower 58: 2 (1227): 33: 1950.
Kirk, W. G., and Horace J. Fulford. Wintering Beef Cattle on the Range. Proc.
Asso. So. Agr. Workers 47: 70. 1950.
Kirk, W. G., and E. M. Kelly. Fattening on Pasture Is Reported. Fla. Cattleman
and Livestock Jour. 14: 8: 50-51. 1950.
Kirk, W. G., and E. M. Hodges. Addition of Cottonseed Meal to Citrus Diet
Means More Weight at Station. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 9:
54B. 1950.
Kirk, W. G., H. J. Fulford and George K. Davis. Citrus Products for Fattening
Cattle. Jour. Animal Sci. (abs.) 8: 624. 1949.
Kirk, W. G., H. J. Fulford and E. M. Hodges. Citrus, Cottonseed Meal, Make
Good Combination for Gains, Station Finds. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock
Jour. 13: 11: 46. 1949.
Kirk, W. G., E. M. Hodges and H. J. Fulford. Citrus Feeding Tests Are Con-
tinued at Ona Station. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 2: 30, 60D, 61.
1949.
Kirk, W. G., Elver M. Hodges and Harold E. Henderson. Feeding a Citrus
Ration to Cattle on Pasture. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 14: 5: 39.
1950.
Knorr, L. Carl. First Estimates of Losses to Citrus Caused by the Florida
Hurricane of August 27, 1949. Plant Dis. Reptr. 33: 391-394. 1949.
Knorr, L. Carl. A Gall of Tahiti Lime and Other Citrus Species Caused by
Dodder. Phytopath. 39: 616-620. 1949.
Knorr, L. Carl. Etiological Association of a Brevipalpus Mite with Florida Scaly
Bark of Citrus. Abs. Phytopath. 40: 15. 1950.
Knorr, L. C. Algal Spot of Citrus Fruits. Citrus Magazine 12: 8: 16-17. 1950.
Knorr, L. C. Parasitism of Citrus by Love-Vine. Citrus Magazine 12: 9: 27-29.
1950.
Knorr, L. C. Cold Spot-A Chlorosis of Citrus Leaves Resembling Virus Ring-
spot. Citrus Magazine 12: 10: 29-30. 1950.
Knorr, L. C., and E. P. DuCharme. A Comparison of Agentina's Lepra explosive
and Florida's Scaly Bark with Implications for the Florida Citrus Grower.
Citrus Magazine 12: 7: 28-32. 1950.
Krienke, W. A. Acidity in Ice Cream Mixes. Ice Cream Field 54: 4: 96, 128-
129. 1949.
Krienke, W. A. Electrometric Titration of Milk and Dairy Products in the
Determination of Titratable Acidity. Jour. Dairy Sci. 32: 669. 1949.
Krienke, W. A. Penicillin in Milk a Hazard to Starters, Buttermilk and Cottage
Cheese Manufacture. The Milk Dealer 39: 2: 126, 128-129. 1949; also,
Dairy World 28: 7: 42-45. 1949; also, Milk Plant Monthly 38: 12: 44-45.
1949; also, Amer. Milk Review 11: 12: 24, 25. 1949.
Krienke, W. A. Effects of Various "Drugs" in Milk from Mastitis-Treated Cows.
Milk Dealer 39: 7: 50, 72-75. 1950; also, Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour. 16: 5:
13-15. 1950; also, Southern Dairy Prod. Jour. 47: 5: 37, 132-134. 1950;
also, Milk Plant Monthly, 39: 4: 32, 36-37. 1950.
Krienke, W. A. The Use of Penicillin to Combat Mastitis in Milk. So. Dairy
Prod. Jour. 46: 6: 32, 38. 1949; also, Amer. Milk Review 11: 12: 24-25. 1949.
Krienke, W. A. Penicillin vs. Cheese. Hoard's Dairyman 95: 5: 180-181. 1950.








Annual Report 1950


Krienke, W. A. Freezing Point Studies on Cream. Proc. Asso. So. Agr. Workers
47: 87. 1950.
Krienke, W. A., and L. R. Arrington. A Re-evaluation of the Hortvet Formula
and Freezing Point Value of Milk in Estimating the Percentage of Added
Water. Jour. Dairy Sci. 32: 669. 1949.
Krienke, W. A., and E. L. Fouts. Effects of Storage on Penicillin in Dairy
Products. Jour. Dairy Sci. 33: 6: 403. 1950.
Krienke, W. A., and Leon E. Mull. Penicillin in Milk. Proc. Asso. So. Agr.
Workers 47: 75. 1950.
Kuitert, L. C. Control of Insect Pests of Camellias. Camellia Yearbook 1949:
147-155.
Kuitert, L. C. Research Notes. Fla. Entomologist 32: 177-178. 1949.
Kuitert, L. C. Parathion Controls Some of the Insect Pests on Woody Ornamen-
tals. Proc. Fla. Hort. Soc. 62: 197-198. 1949.
Kuitert, L. C. Gardenia and Camellia Sprays. Fla. Grower 58: 6 (1231): 15, 20.
1950.
Kuitert, L. C., and A. N. Tissot. Control of Budworms and Hornworms in Flue-
Cured Tobacco. Fla. Entomologist 32: 171-177. 1949.
Large, J. R., and A. M. Phillips. Spray Experiments for Control of Pecan Scab in
Florida in 1949. Proc. SE Pecan Growers Asso. 43: 14-26. 1950.
Lincoln, Francis B. Investigation of the Proper Maturity of Tahiti Limes for
Marketing. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 232-238. 1949.
Lorz, A. P. The Chromosomes and Plant Breeding. Camellia Yearbook 1949:
69-77.
Magie, R. O. Gladiolus in the Florida Garden. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62:
198-201. 1949.
Magie, R. O. Controlling the Gladiolus Fusarium Disease. Florist Exchange
114: 20: 14, 15, 18. 1950.
Magie, R. O. Our Approach to the Gladiolus Disease Problems in Florida.
North Amer. Glad. Council Bul. 21: 12-17. 1950.
Magie, R. 0. A Mulch for Gladiolus. North Amer. Glad. Council Bul. 22: 90-92.
1950.
Magie, R. O., and H. N. Miller. Dust or Dip Treatment Before Storage Controls
Gladiolus Rot. The Florists' Review 105 (2707): 27-28. 1949.
Marshall, Sidney P., P. T. Dix Arnold and R. B. Becker. Postpartum Develop-
ment of the Bovine Stomach Compartment and Observations on Some Char-
acteristics of Their Contents. Jour. Dairy Sci. 33: 379. 1950.
Mehrhoff, N. R. Chickenlore. Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour. 15: 7: 7. 1949.
Mehrhoff, N. R. Broiler Feeding Trials. Proc. Asso. So. Agr. Workers. 47:
145-146. 1950.
Mehrhoff, H. R. Industry Cooperation. Proc. Asso. So. Agr. Workers. 47: 149-
150. 1950.
Miller, H. N., and R. O. Magie. Control of Fusarium Storage Rot of Gladiolus
Corms. Phytopath. 40: 209-212. 1950.
Parris, G. K. Recent Advances in Watermelon Disease Control. A. C. L. Agr.
and Livestock Topics. 2: 1: 1, 3-4. 1950; also, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
62: 146-148. 1949.
Parris, G. K. Watermelon Breeding. Economic Botany 3: 193-212. 1949.
Parris, G. K. The Helminthosporia That Attack Sugar Cane. Phytopath. 40:
90-103. 1950.
Parris, G. K., and John D. Haynie. The Effect of Honey Bees in Watermelon
Fields on Set of Melons: A Preliminary Report. Fla. Dept. Agri. Bul. 135:
44-49. 1950.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Pearson, A. M., and T. J. Cunha. Quick Freezing Methods Make Lots of Differ-
ence. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 13: 11: 12B, 13, 27. 1949; also,
as La Rapida Congelacion de Carnes. La Hacienda 44: 12: 35. 1949.
Pearson, A. M., and R. S. Glasscock. How Much Meat for My Locker? Fla.
Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 13: 12: 26-27. 1949.
Phillips, Arthur M. Effectiveness of DDT and Parathion Against the Twig
Girdler on Pecans. Proc. SE Pecan Growers Asso. 43: 32-34. 1950.
Randolph, John W. What's New in Truck Crop Machinery and What More Do
We Need? Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 149-151. 1949.
Randolph, J. W., and E. M. Dull. Everglades Mule Is Promising. Fla. Grower
58: 1 (1226): 4, 29, 31. 1950.
Reitz, Herman J. Arsenic Sprays on Grapefruit in Relation to the New Citrus
Code. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 49-55. 1949.
Ritchey, G. E. Lupines-an Old Crop That Is New to the South. Victory Farm
Forum 33: 13, 14. 1948.
Rouse, A. H. Gel Formation in Frozen Citrus Concentrates Thawed and Stored
at 400F. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 170-173. 1949; also, Citrus Indus-
try 31: 6: 7-9. 1950.
Ruehle, George D. Fertilizer Practices for the Mango. Proc. Fla. Mango Forum.
1949: 9-15.
Ruprecht, R. W. Minor Elements in Fertilizers. Agricultural Chemicals 5: 4:
36-37. 1950.
Savage, Zach. Boxes Harvested, Costs and Returns on Orange and Grapefruit
Groves for 17 Seasons, 1931-48. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 7-15. 1949.
Savage, Zach. 1947-48 Citrus Costs and Returns with Comparisons with Other
Seasons. Citrus Industry 30: 11: 12-14. 1949.
Savage, Zach. Citrus Costs and Returns. Citrus Magazine 12: 4: 24. 1949.
Savage, Zach. Citrus Grove Returns Above Operating Costs by Seasons 1931-48.
Citrus Industry 31: 3: 10, 14, 22. 1950.
Savage, Zach. Groves of High and Low Ranking in Returns Above Operating
Cost for Three Seasons, 1945-48. Citrus Industry 31: 4: 5-6, 12-13. 1950.
Savage, Zach. Is This the Time to Buy Additional Grove Acreage? Citrus
Magazine 12: 6: 14. 1950.
Savage, Zach. Orange Versus Grapefruit Groves, 1931-48. Citrus Magazine 12:
8: 21. 1950.
Savage, Zach. Citrus Growers and Another Depression. Citrus Magazine 12:
9: 9. 1950.
Savage, Zach. What Variety of Oranges Should I Produce? Citrus Magazine 12:
10: 17. 1950.
Seale, Charles C. The Control of Aquatic Weeds by Chemical Methods in the
Fla. Everglades. For publication in Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 9: 1948.
Sharpe, R. H., G. H. Blackmon and Nathan Gammon, Jr. Progress Report of
Potash and Magnesium Fertilization of Pecans in Florida. Proc. SE Pecan
Growers Asso. 43: 86-89. 1950.
Showalter, R. K. Consumer Packaging of Some Florida Vegetables Shown to Be
Practicable. Fla. Fruit and Veg. Asso. Ann. Digest 1949: 29-33.
Showalter, R. K. Temperature Studies of Commercial Broccoli and Sweet Corn
Prepackaging at the Shipping Point. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 54: 325-329.
1949.
Showalter, R. K. Important Tomato Container Research in Florida. Prepackage
3: 8: 15. 1950.
Sites, J. W. The Present Status of Organic Versus Inorganic Nitrogen as Related
to Yield and Fruit Quality. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 65-71. 1949.








Annual Report 1950


Sites, J. W., W. L. Thompson and H. J. Reitz. A Comparison of Parathion and
Oil Sprays in Regard to Their Effect on the Internal Quality of Citrus Fruits.
Citrus Magazine 12: 8: 30-33. 1950.
Spencer, Ernest L., and D. S. Burgis. Fertilizing Celery on the Sarasota Muck-
land. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 141-143. 1949.
Spencer, Ernest L., and D. S. Burgis. Celery Production on the Sarasota Muck-
land. Market Growers' Jour. 78: 7: 18, 28. 1949.
Stearns, Charles R., Jr. A Preliminary Report on Parathion Residues on Citrus.
Fla. Entomologist 32: 145-150. 1949.
Stearns, Charles R., Jr. Parathion Residues on Citrus Foliage and in the Peel of
Oranges. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 110-111. 1949.
Suit, R. F., and L. C. Knorr. Progress Report on Citrus Decline. Citrus Industry
31: 2: 8-9, 10. 1950; also, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 45-49. 1949.
Thompson, W. L. Sulfur Dusts and Sprays. Citrus Magazine 11: 12: 19, 20.
1949.
Thompson, W. L., J. T. Griffiths, Jr. Purple Mites. Citrus Magazine 12: 1: 23-
24. 1949.
Thompson, W. L., J. T. Griffiths, Jr., and J. W. Sites. A Progress Report on
Parathion as an Insecticide for Citrus Trees in Florida. Citrus Magazine 12:
9: 30-33. 1950; also, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 100-105. 1949.
Tisdale, W. B. How to Control Plant Diseases. Fla. Grower 57: 9 (1222): 3-4,
13. 1949.
Tissot, A. N. Insect Control Vital to Crop. Fla. Grower 57: 9 (1222): 15, 17, 19.
1949.
Tissot, A. N. Cutworms Ignored, Crops Lost. Fla. Grower 57: 11 (1224): 16,
23. 1949.
Tissot, A. N. Make Insect Control Effective. Fla. Grower 58: 1 (1226): 15, 31.
1950.
Tissot, A. M. Tobacco Needs Aphid Control. Fla. Grower 58: 1 (1226): 22, 24.
1950.
Tissot, A. N. Help Trees Beat Their Enemies. Fla. Grower 58: 2 (1227): 20, 23,
25. 1950.
Tissot, A. N. Some Soil-Borne Insects of Interest to Florida Growers, with Brief
Notes on Their Control. Proc. Fla. Soil Sci. Soc. 4-B: 6: 148-150. 1950.
Uzzell, Earle M., R. B. Becker and E. Ruffin Jones, Jr. Occurrence of Protozoa in
the Bovine Stomach. Jour. Dairy Sci. 32: 806-811. 1949.
Uzzell, Earl M., E. Ruffin Jones, Jr., and R. B. Becker. Rumen Protozoa in
Florida Dairy Cattle. Amer. Midland Naturalist 43: 480-483. 1950.
Van Ness, Glenn. Pullet Disease. Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour. 16: 1: 8. 1950.
Van Ness, Glenn. A Suggested Relationship Between Diet, Color of Plummage
and Reproductivity in New Hampshire. Proc. Poultry Sci. Asso. (Abs.) 28:
5: 783. 1949.
Van Ness, Glenn. Some Progress in Controlling Pullet Disease. Proc. Poultry
Sci. Asso. (Abs.) 28: 5: 784. 1949.
Van Ness, Glenn. Newcastle Disease Is Tricky. Fla. Grower 58: 2 (1227): 18,
19. 1950.
Volk, G. M. Control Weeds in Tobacco Beds. Fla. Grower 57: 9 (1222): 18,
23. 1949.
Volk, Gaylord M. Factors Determining Efficiency of Cyanamid and Uramon for
Weed Control in Tobacco Plantbeds. Soil Science 69: 377-390. 1950.
Walter, J. M. Virus Diseases of Vegetable Crops in Florida. Market Growers'
Jour. 78: 12: 16, 18, 20. 1949.
Walter, James M. The Influence of Mosaic on Yield of Staked Tomatoes. Proc.
Asso. So. Agr. Workers 47: 136-137. 1950.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Walter, J. M., and E. G. Kelsheimer. In-the-row Application of Soil Fumigants
for Vegetables on Sandy Soils. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 122-126.
1949.
Wander, I. W. An Interpretation of the Cause of Resistance to Wetting in
Florida Soils. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 92-94. 1949.
Wander, I. W. An Interpretation of the Causes of Water-Repellent Sandy Soils
Found in Citrus Groves of Central Florida. Science 110: 2856: 299-300.
1949.
Wander, I. W. Importance of pH Control of Soil in Citrus Groves. Citrus
Magazine 12: 6: 30-33. 1950.
Wenzel, F. W., C. D. Atkins and E. L. Moore. Frozen Concentrated Orange
Juice-Past, Present and Future. Citrus Industry 31: 4: 7-9. 1950; also, Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 179-182. 1949.
West, Erdman. The Beekeeper and the Botanist. Fla. Dept. of Agr. Bul. 135:
65-69. 1950.
West. Erdman. Mushroom Root Rot in Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62:
185-187. 1949.
Willson, A. E., and I. W. Wander. Elimination of Interference by Copper in the
Titan Yellow Method for Magnesium. Analytical Chemistry 22: 1: 195-196.
1950.
Wilmot, R. J. Research on Ornamentals at the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 187-189. 1949.
Wilmot, R. J. Camellias Growing in Appeal. Fla. Grower 57: 10 (1223): 17, 18.
1949.
Wilson, J. W. Observations on the Increase of Aphids on Celery Following the
Application of Copper A Compound as a Fungicide. Fla. Entomologist 32:
60-64. 1949.
Wilson, J. W. Precautions to Be Exercised in Using Organic Insecticides on
Vegetable Crops. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 135-138. 1949.
Winsor, H. W. Boron Sources of Moderate Solubility as Supplements for Sandy
Soils. Soil Science 69: 321-332. 1950.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0. Newer Pesticide Materials in Insect and Mite Control of
Mangos. Proc. Fla. Mango Forum. 1949: 26-30.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0. Dipping Pineapple Planting Stock for Mealybug Control.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 217-220. 1949.


I








Annual Report 1950


LIBRARY
A survey of the Library's documents and periodicals has been completed dur-
ing this fiscal year. There are 18,762 federal documents bound into 1,067
volumes, and 27,950 are unbound; in state documents, 51,752 are bound into 4,100
volumes, while 26,650 remain to be bound; 5,559 foreign documents are bound
into 772 volumes, with 14,967 documents unbound. This gives holdings of 76,073
documents bound into 5,939 volumes, with 69,567 documents unbound, exclusive
of all periodicals, making a total of 145,640 documents. In periodicals, 123,121
parts are bound into 8,881 volumes, with 87,987 unbound parts.
Cataloging in a library that is predominantly documental is excessive. Each
document requires very nearly the same amount of work as does one book. For
this fiscal year 17,246 documents and parts of periodicals were received, cataloged
and shelved. The catalog department prepared and typed 18,275 cards and
4,048 cards were bought from the Library of Congress, 411 from New York
Botanical Garden for the botanical catalog and 1,040 received from the University
Library, making a total of 23,774 cards added to the catalog this year. Of this
number, 1,528 cards were made for West Indies agricultural documents. Also,
472 books were reprocessed and 541 catalog cards were corrected.
Only 337 books were bought or received as gifts or exchanges, and 320
volumes were added from the College of Agriculture allocation of University
Library funds. Binding of periodicals added 300 more volumes to the shelves,
representing 53 titles. The Library subscribes to 248 major periodicals from this
and other countries and 681 purchase orders were issued for 564 subscriptions,
522 books and 41 equipment and supply items; 395 of the subscriptions and 332
books were for branch stations. It was necessary to make 385 separate requests
to the Library of Congress for 2,725 catalog cards.
These statistics indicate in part the actual amount of work involved in the
operation of the library.
As to the service rendered the faculty and student body, 14,748 persons used
the library during the year, exclusive of an unknown number who had access to
the stacks and for whom no record was kept. Circulation for the period was
26,590 volumes, and this number does not include the large quantity of material
used within the stacks, nor does it include 4,640 volumes lent to the research
staff both here and in the branch stations.
With little room available, and a small staff, the year has established a record
for the Library in efficient service and accomplishments.








36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Work was started on three new projects under the Research and Marketing
Act. Coordinated Selling of Citrus Fruit is a sub-project under Regional Project
SM-4 and is being conducted in cooperation with the Research and Service
Division of the Farm Credit Administration. Farm Rental Arrangements in
Florida is a sub-project of Regional Project S-11, conducted cooperatively with
seven Southeastern states and the Land Economic Division of the Bureau of
Agricultural Economics. Factors Affecting the Demand for Citrus Fruits has
been set up under Title II funds to study consumer demand for Florida citrus
beyond the state border. Dr. D. C. Kimmel joined the staff on February 15,
1950, and is taking the lead in this work.
A brief summary for the year is given by projects.

FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 154 H. G. Hamilton, A. H. Spurlock
and C. V. Noble
Data were obtained on the detailed operations of approximately 25 coopera-
tives for the 1948-49 season. An important objective of this project is to deter-
mine the factors of success or failure for cooperatives and the cumulation of data
over a period of years is essential for this purpose.

COST OF PRODUCTION AND GROVE ORGANIZATION STUDIES
OF FLORIDA CITRUS
Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage and C. V. Noble
Grower accounts were closed and summarized for the 1948-49 season and
others were opened for 1949-50. The summary for the season included data of
the same kind and age grouping of citrus for all prior seasons. This was the
seventeenth completed season of this project. Reports were made giving 3 5-year
averages and 2 single season averages for each 3-year age grouping for early,
midseason and late oranges, early and late grapefruit, tangerines, Temples and
Kings. Individual reports were prepared and returned to each cooperator, giving
comparative costs for his grove with all other groves having similar kinds and ages
of citrus fruits.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY AND DEPRECIATION
OF FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
S. P. Marshall and A. H. Spurlock
Breeding, inventory and replacement records were obtained from nine dairies.
These data are being accumulated to obtain more complete observations on
replaced cows, at various ages. Some of these data on average life span of cows
and causes of losses were used in Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin
464, Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida.
The dairy husbandry phase of this cooperative project will be reported by
that Department. (See also Project 345, Dairy Science.)

INPUT AND OUTPUT DATA FOR FLORIDA CROP AND LIVESTOCK
PRODUCTION
Purnell Project 395 A. H. Spurlock, R. E. L. Greene,
D. L. Brooke and C. V. Noble
Summaries have been prepared of labor and materials required for production
of various truck crops in several sections of the state. An outline has been








Annual Report 1950


prepared and it is planned to release the data on all crops completed. Data
were drawn from this project in the preparation of two manuscripts submitted for
publication under State Project 480.

ANALYSIS OF FARMS AND MARKETS IN THE PLANT CITY AREA WITH
RESPECT TO POST-WAR ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
Purnell Project 429 R. E. L. Greene, H. G. Hamilton,
and D. E. Alleger
Work is in progress in tabulating and summarizing the data collected in 1948
and in analyzing the data for the final manuscript which will close this project.

CROP AND LIVESTOCK ESTIMATING ON FLORIDA FARMS
WITH EMPHASIS ON VEGETABLE CROPS
State Project 451 G. Norman Rose
This project supplements the work performed by the Florida Crop and Live-
stock Reporting Service of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Orlando, Florida.
The fiscal year 1949-50 opened with a survey in progress on the vegetable crop
performance for the 1948-49 season. The data obtained were used in making the
necessary revisions on the 34 crops estimated during the season. Before this work
was completed, estimates were being made on the 1949 fall crops, followed by
estimates on the 1950 winter and spring crops. The year closed with the annual
survey in progress to obtain performance data for the 1949-50 season.
The mimeographed releases from this work consisted of the semi-monthly
Truck Crop News, the monthly Truck Crop Acreage and Production-with Com-
parisons, and Florida Vegetable Crops, Volume V.
The annual report of the Agricultural Production Adjustments Committee was
released in July 1949, by the leader of this project who served as chairman of the
committee. This report made suggestions for land use and production for all
agriculture in the state for 1949-50. The committee released a preliminary report
in June 1950 pertaining to the demand and requirements for vegetable crops for
the 1950-51 season. These reports were entitled "Looking Ahead for Florida
Agriculture."
COST OF PRODUCTION AND RETURNS ON VEGETABLE CROPS
IN FLORIDA
State Project 480 Donald L. Brooke
Field schedules of costs and returns on vegetable crops for the 1948-49 season
were obtained from more than 400 growers representing over 61,000 acres. Sum-
maries by crops and areas were prepared and mimeographed for release entitled
"Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in Florida, Volume IV." Individual
crop summary tables were prepared and returned to cooperating growers.
Field schedules on costs and returns for the 1949-50 season have been obtained
on Irish potatoes, cucumbers, green peppers, tomatoes and eggplant from areas
where these records were complete before June 30, 1950.
Two manuscripts covering production, competition, costs and returns for Irish
potatoes and tomatoes, prepared in cooperation with leaders of Purnell Project
395, have been submitted for publication.

CONSUMER PACKAGING OF VEGETABLES (EXCEPT TOMATOES)
Purnell Project 483 R. K. Showalter, Dale Thompson
and A. H. Spurlock
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Department of Horticulture
and the U. S. Department of Agriculture. A report on the economic phase
follows:








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Studies of consumer packaging of vegetables at the shipping point include
sweet corn, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, cole slaw, salad and various
greens. Approximately 193,000 cartons of 12 packages each were prepackaged
by the cooperator at Ruskin, Florida, in 1948-49, and 211,000 cartons in 1949-50.
Data were obtained to compare the net return to the grower from prepackaged
vegetables with that from bulk produce whenever comparative prices were avail-
able. In 1949 the grower averaged about $2.15 per crate of bulk sweet corn,
net in the field; and for prepackaged corn about $2 per equivalent crate. How-
ever, there was a recovery of short ears which could be prepackaged but were
not suitable for bulk packaging. These were worth about $0.18 per equivalent
crate and the estimated value of the trimming for cattle feed added about $0.03
per crate. These additions made the prepackaging operation return about the
same as bulk sales. The net return to the grower for cauliflower was more for
the prepackaged produce than for bulk, being $2.71 and $2.24, respectively, per
Catskill crate. Comparative sales prices of bulk broccoli were not available.
Prepackaging costs were in each case higher than for packing in bulk or
conventional containers. Materials or container costs were higher, and labor
costs for the additional preparation required were higher.
For sweet corn and cauliflower, harvesting costs for prepackaging and bulk
packaging were about the same, but for broccoli, harvesting costs for prepack-
aging were significantly higher. However, sprouts or smaller heads were used
and this resulted in considerable additional produce for prepackaging which could
not have been used in the bulk package.
Distribution of the 1949 spring crop of prepackaged corn was made to 11
markets in Florida and to 53 markets outside Florida, many of which were in the
North and East. Markets outside the state received 89.9% of the prepackaged
output.
Prepackaged broccoli, 1948-49, was sold in 44 markets, of which 27 outside of
Florida received 61% of the sales. Prepackaged cauliflower was shipped to 9
markets in Florida and 26 outside the state in 1948-49. Out-of-state markets
received 80.9% of the total sales.
Data obtained on costs of prepackaging, sales prices, distribution costs, and
net return to the grower from prepackaged and bulk produce for 1949-50 are
now being analyzed. (See also, Project 483, HORTICULTURE.)

PACKAGING OF TOMATOES
RMA Project 484 R. K. Showalter, L. H. Halsey
(Regional SM-3) and A. H. Spurlock
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Department of Horticulture
and the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The economic phase of the project
was conducted in cooperation with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics and the
Production and Marketing Administration. A report on this phase follows:
The amount and cost of labor required for packing tomatoes in various con-
tainers was studied in detail in several different packinghouses in Hillsborough
and Manatee counties. Containers used by the packinghouses include the stand-
ard wrapped lug, bushel wire-bound crate, bushel field box and bushel nailed
crate. This work is a replication of work done the preceding year in Dade, St.
Lucie and Hillsborough counties.
Analyses completed this year from the preceding year's data showed that
tomatoes not wrapped, jumble packed in bushel field boxes, required only 49.6% as
much labor for the same quantity as when wrapped and place-packed in lugs.
Similarly, tomatoes packed in bushel wire-bound crates required 81.4% as much
labor as when packed in lugs. Most packinghouses were not well equipped to








Annual Report 1950


pack the relatively new wire-bound crate and might be expected to gain in
efficiency with its continued use.
All tomato sales of one large shipping organization were analyzed by grade,
and net return to the grower was compared by type of container used. For the
fall crop of 1948 tomatoes sold in bushel field boxes netted the grower more
for both Grade 1 and Grade 2 than in other containers. For f.o.b. sales, where
comparisons are more adequate, Grade 1 tomatoes sold in bushel boxes returned
to the grower approximately $0.28 more per equivalent lug than Grade 1 sold in
lugs. Grade 2 tomatoes averaged $0.875 more per equivalent lug when sold in
bushel boxes than when sold in lugs. These differences are mostly due to
differences in packing costs, which are less per pound of tomatoes when packed
in bushels than in lugs.
During the spring of 1949 f.o.b. sales of Grade 1 showed an advantage of
$0.214 per bushel boxes over lugs, and bushel wire-bound crates returned $0.335
more per equivalent lug than tomatoes packed in lugs. On the basis of an
equivalent lug, Grade 2 tomatoes sold f.o.b. returned $0.268 more to the grower
in bushel boxes; bushel wire-bound crates netted $0.245 more, and apple boxes
$0.124 more than tomatoes in lugs.
Data were collected for the 1949-50 season on sales of tomatoes in various
containers. These are being analyzed to compare selling prices, packing and
marketing costs, and net return by type of container. (See also, Project 484,
HORTICULTURE.)

SPOILAGE IN MARKETING EARLY IRISH POTATOES
RMA Project 485 R. E. L. Greene and C. V. Noble
(Regional SM-5)
This is a regional marketing project conducted cooperatively with the states
of Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia, and with the USDA
Bureaus of Agricultural Economics and Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural
Engineering.
During the 1947-48 and 1948-49 seasons special test lots of potatoes were
followed from digging through the grading and packing shed to the terminal
market and in many cases to the retail stores to determine the nature and
extent of deterioration. Records were obtained on weather conditions at time of
digging and on the method of handling each test lot both in the field and in the
grading and packing operations. Work was carried on with four cooperating
shippers each year in both Dade County and the Hastings area. At the end of
the shipping season information was obtained from each cooperating shipper on
the total pack by grades for the season, amount shipped by rail and by truck,
cost or charges for grading, packing, containers and selling, prices received for
potatoes in the test lots, and a record of all shipments on which adjustments were
made, giving the amount of the adjustment and the cause of trouble when it
was stated. For lots that were marketed in Philadelphia and New York in 1949
information was obtained on transportation cost from the shipping point to the
terminal market, wholesale margins and retail margins.
The two seasons during which this research was conducted were very favor-
able and the amount of spoilage in marketing potatoes was small. Some of the
results and conclusions are:
1. In lots where trouble developed, there was a high correlation between
soft rot and temperature in transit and it developed most in cut and bruised
material. Make every effort to load potatoes as cool as possible and eliminate
those that are likely to cause trouble.
2. Eliminate or reduce mechanical damage where possible, for such injuries
may lead to decay. Avoid rough handling of potatoes at all times. About half








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of the mechanical damage occurs before the potatoes leave the field. To reduce
mechanical damage, dig the potatoes carefully and handle with equipment that
protects them from bruises.
3. Paper bag containers lose heat much slower than cotton mesh or burlap
bags. This increases the chance for trouble if the potatoes are loaded warm or
infected material is placed in the bag. Potatoes packed in paper bags should
be thoroughly dried, loaded as cool as possible and with a minimum of defects
which contribute to decay.
4. One-half or more of the potatoes in lots followed to the retail stores con-
tained some type of defect, the most important being cuts and bruises.
5. The total cost of services for marketing potatoes from the time they were
dug in the field until they were bought by consumers in retail stores in Philadel-
phia and New York in March and April, 1949, was about 5 cents per pound on
special test lots followed from Dade County and the Hastings Area.
In addition to the above study analysis, special control shipments were sent
out from Dade County comparing the change in temperature of potatoes packed
in perforated and nonperforated paper bags and also the effect of waxing on the
carrying quality of the potatoes and loss in weight in transit. Preliminary results
from these shipments indicate that:
1. There was no significant difference in the loss in temperature of potatoes
packed in perforated and non-perforated paper bags.
2. Waxing potatoes did not have any effect on their carrying quality, either
beneficial or detrimental. The color added with the wax gave the potatoes a
brighter appearance.
3. Waxing potatoes did not decrease the loss in weight of potatoes in transit
to market. (For an additional report on waxing, see Horticulture-Miscellaneous.)
Beginning March 1 samples were collected from all potatoes displayed for
sale in 30 retail stores in Pittsburgh. These stores were visited twice a week
and they were especially selected to give a representative picture of the Pittsburgh
area. The samples were collected to obtain a measure of the quality of potatoes
displayed at the retail level for consumer purchases of both Florida and com-
peting potatoes. These data are now being analyzed.

COST AND FACTORS AFFECTING COST OF MARKETING CITRUS
FRUIT IN FRESH AND PROCESSED FORM
RMA Project 486 H. G. Hamilton, H. W. Little
(Regional SM-4) and C. V. Noble
Data were obtained on the cost of packing, processing and selling citrus fruit
and on the general operating practices of approximately 75 packinghouses, 25
canning plants and 5 frozen concentrate plants for the 1948-49 season. Analysis
of these data are now in process. A cost index which shows the efficiency of
each firm has been prepared from the 1947-48 season data.
Wide variation in costs of packing and processing citrus between firms for the
1948-49 season existed. The cost of packing oranges in 1 3/5 bushel Bruce boxes
varied from $0.64 per box to $1.40 per box and averaged $0.87 per box. Similar
variation occurred for grapefruit and tangerines. The cost of canning single strength
orange juice unsweetened averaged for 23 firms $1.13 per case of 24/2, ranging
from less than $1.00 to over $1.40. The cost of processing frozen orange con-
centrate for five firms averaged $1.93 per case of 48/6.
The cost index for the 1947-48 season shows that packing firms varied in
efficiency from 57.24 to 171.61 when 100 equals the average. When data have
been obtained for a period of years a complete analysis, it is believed, will reveal
the reasons for such wide variation in efficiency.








Annual Report 1950


The following other agencies are cooperating in this project: Texas Agricul-
tural Experiment Station; Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Fruit and Vegetable
Branch, PMA, and Research and Service Division FCA, U. S. Department of
Agriculture.

CONSUMER PATTERN FOR CITRUS FRUIT
RMA Project 519 H. G. Hamilton, Tallmadge Bergen
(Regional SM-4) and C. V. Noble
Data were obtained from 23 Jacksonville, Florida, stores from February 28
to June 18, 1949; from 19 stores between November 1, 1949, and June 24, 1950.
From these data it is believed the price-quantity relationship for each kind of
citrus fruit and citrus fruit products can be determined by income areas. Fur-
thermore, the interrelationship of price and quantity between these products may
be determined.
Preliminary analyses indicate that during the period February 28 to June
18, 1949, stores in low-income areas consumed relatively large amounts of canned
juices and oranges, as compared to grapefruit and concentrated orange juice;
stores in high-income areas consumed relatively large amounts of frozen con-
centrate and fresh grapefruit. It appears that the demand for oranges is more
inelastic than for grapefruit and that the demand for oranges is quite inelastic
for stores in the high-income areas but quite elastic for stores in the low-income
areas.
This is a contributing project to Regional RMA Project SM-4 with the Texas
Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Marketing and Facilities Research
Branch, P&MA, USDA, cooperating.

COORDINATED SELLING OF CITRUS FRUIT
State Project 520 H. G. Hamilton
A questionnaire has been mailed to the grower membership of Florida Citrus
Mutual, a large organization whose shipper members control about 90 per cent
of the Florida Citrus crop. The questionnaire is designed to determine:
(1) The location of grower members' groves; (2) whether the member is an
absentee owner; (3) whether the member's grove is his chief source of income;
(4) whether he performs his own production services and if not, type of firms
performing his production services; and (5) how his fruit is marketed, as to use
and kind of marketing firm.
Returns from this questionnaire are in the process of analysis.
To determine to a degree the efficiency of present marketing methods in
Florida, an analysis was made of the time and place distribution of Florida citrus
fruit as compared to that of California and Texas. This analysis covers two pre-
war years and two post-war years. The time and place movement of citrus for
these four years was slightly more uniform for Florida than for California or
Texas.
This project is a contributing project of RMA Regional Project SM-4 and is
being conducted in cooperation with the Research and Service Division of the
Farm Credit Administration, USDA.

METHODS OF LEASING FARM LAND IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 530 D. E. Alleger and C. V. Noble
All field work was completed in January 1950. Several hundred farmers,
county agents and others were interviewed regarding ways in which farm land
was rented for agricultural purposes.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Comparisons of practices in renting farm land in Florida were limited because
of institutional factors and the diversity of agriculture. General likenesses were
noted for given crops but differences were observed between geographical areas
and types of farming. Cash renting was the most common method of renting
land for vegetables, but many cash renters as well as owners did some share-
cropping on the land they used. Allotment controls and the federal program of
institutional-on-farm training in agriculture influenced cash rental rates in some
areas.
The typical farm lease on general farms was oral and on an annual basis, but
many other leases were written. Written leases for vegetable land were for a
12-month period and dairy leases for three-year terms. The traditional 50-50
share-cropping arrangement prevailed in many parts of the general farming area
and was called the "old way," in contrast to crop-share agreements referred to as
the "new way," under which the tenant assumed investment costs for work power
and farm equipment.
Rentals for land for beef cattle production were usually for cash. Rates were
determined by the carrying capacity of the land and by such factors as land
quality and accessibility. However, rates were charged on an acreage and not on
a per-head basis.
The analysis of the leasing data emphasized that most factors affecting rental
of farm land were local in nature. Typical leasing arrangements stemmed from
common community procedures, with climate, soil, human and institutional
factors influencing the development of community processes.
The Division of Land Economics, BAE, USDA, and Southeast Regional Land
Tenure Committee are cooperating in this project.

FARM RENTAL ARRANGEMENTS IN FLORIDA
State Project 556 D. E. Alleger
L. Richard Baldwin was approved as a Regional Field Assistant for summer
work on this project effective June 1, 1950. During the week of June 12, Dr.
R. L. Anderson and Dr. A. L. Finkner of the North Carolina Experimental
Statistical Laboratory visited Florida and set up a sampling procedure. A number
of four-square-mile areas were selected in Holmes and Walton counties for cotton
farm leases, in Jackson County for peanut farm leases, in Hamilton and Madison
counties for flue-cured tobacco farm leases, and a 50-name sample in Gadsden
County for shade tobacco farm leases. Field work was started in Walton County
on June 21. Nineteen field schedules had been completed by June 30, 1950.
This is a contributing project to RMA Regional Project S-11, Farm Land
Tenure.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEMAND FOR CITRUS FRUITS
RMA Project 562-Title II D. E. Kimmel and H. G. Hamilton
(RM: c-33, L.P. 3, ES-41)
After studying data pertaining to a number of southeastern United States
cities and discussing the problem with members of the agricultural economics
departments of the Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi experiment stations, the
city of Meridian, Mississippi, has been selected as the site for study. The project
leader visited Meridian, collecting information needed in selecting the retail
grocery stores and consumers from whom further information is to be solicited.
A sample of retail stores has been selected and the problem of selecting the
consumer sample is now under study, in cooperation with Earl Houseman,
statistical consultant with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics.


L








Annual Report 1950 43

MISCELLANEOUS
Costs of Milk Production.-Field schedules of costs and returns for wholesale
dairies in Hillsborough, Pinellas, Palm Beach and Orange counties for the year
1949 were obtained. Summaries by counties were prepared and mimeographed
for distribution. Individual cost records were returned to each cooperating
dairy.
Florida Truck Crop Competition.-The regular supplement to Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station Bulletin 224 covering the 1948-49 season was prepared
and mimeographed. This reports the weekly carlot competition between Florida
and other states and importing countries for each commercial truck crop.
Movement of Citrus Trees From Nurseries to Groves in Florida.-Through the
cooperation of the State Plant Board, annual summaries have been made since
1928 of the movement of citrus nursery stock, by varieties, to Florida destina-
tions. This summary was made for the 1948-49 season and mimeographed for
distribution.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Work was continued on the mechanical curing of hay and the irrigation of
flue-cured tobacco. A hay curing barn which provides facilities for curing larger
amounts of hay was completed. Hay curing is so closely related to other types of
crop drying, such as seed, grain and vegetables, that emphasis is being placed on
the design of a farm drier to take care of most drying needs on the farm with the
exception of tobacco.
CURING HAY IN FLORIDA
State Project 536 J. M. Myers, G. B. Killinger
and R. W. Bledsoe
All hay drying experiments were conducted in the new hay drier mentioned
above. Experiments were conducted with Pangola grass hay, mixed hay
lespedezaa and Bahia grass) and Hairy indigo, all dried in the bale.
The hay produced was of high quality with no mold damage. These experiments
indicated that it is not necessary to use heated air during the entire drying period.
It appears that an air delivery rate of approximately 20 cfm/sq. ft. of drying
floor area and a temperature rise of approximately 200F. for heated air is
adequate and most economical, considering installation and operating cost. The
loading of a hay drier over a 2- or 3-day period did not add any significant
amount to the cost of drying. Hay was successfully dried when a 4-bale depth
of hay was placed on the drier.
Seven experiments testing the adaptability of the slatted floor drier for seed
drying purposes, and using rye, lupine and Bahia grass seed were conducted
during the past year. One-half of the slatted floor area was blocked with air
gates which enabled the fan to deliver all of its air capacity to the remaining
half of the slatted floor area. This made the rate of air for seed drying approxi-
mately 40 cfm/sq. ft. of floor area. Maximum air temperature used was 1150F.
All seed were dried in bags at depths of 14 to 18 inches. Length of drying
periods varied from 8 to 24 hours, depending on type of seed, initial moisture
content of seed and weather conditions. The cost of fuel and electricity averaged
approximately $2.00 per ton. The slatted floor drier appeared to be well
adapted for seed.
Twenty experiments were conducted on a laboratory seed drier to determine
the most efficient rate of heat, air delivery and depth for drying rye, lupine,
Bahia grass, peanuts, and Hairy indigo seed. Air deliveries of 30, 40, and 50 cfm
per sq. ft., air temperatures of 950, 1050 and 1150F., and depths of 1, 2, 3, and
4 ft. are being applied to each type of seed. Results to date are not sufficient for
definite recommendations. (See also Project 536, AGRONOMY.)

FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark, Henry C. Harris,
R. W. Bledsoe and J. M. Myers
Irrigation studies with flue-cured tobacco were started in 1948. Applications
of irrigation water were made on approximately every sixth day when no rainfall
occurred. The three moisture treatments tested were (1) no irrigation water, (2)
%" irrigation water, and (3) 3/" irrigation water. Irrigation water was applied
by an overhead rotary sprinkler irrigation system. Studies were made during the
1950 season to determine the practicability of the tensiometer as an indicator of
when and at what rate to apply irrigation water. Preliminary tests indicate that
the tensiometer may be useful on certain types of soils. During 1949 eight
irrigations were required during the growing season and during 1950 12 irriga-
tions were required. (See also Proj. 555, AGRONOMY.)








Annual Report 1950 45


AGRONOMY
Newer lines of work during the year pertain to hay production with artificial
curing, irrigation and soil fumigation for tobacco, mineral nutrition of crops plants,
particularly with radiotracer methods, and factors affecting seed production.
Fertilizer tests were continued with pastures and the principal field crops.
Breeding of grasses and legumes for forage has been expanded. Breeding of
tobacco, small grains, peanuts and corn and the testing of miscellaneous crops
were continued as in former years.
PEANUT IMPROVEMENT
State Project 20 W. A. Carver, Fred H. Hull
and Fred Clark
Peanut improvement by hybridization and pedigreed selection is being con-
tinued by methods previously described.
The yield of sound seed of Dixie Runner in the 1949 Florida tests was 119
percent when Florida Runner was 100 percent; on the same basis the average
yield of Dixie Runner since 1944 was 127 percent. A sister line of Dixie Runner,
Florida Station number 230-118, is being increased for release on a small scale
in 1951.
An enlarged acreage of pure Dixie Runner seed was planted on the Experi-
ment Station farms in 1949. From the seed-increase fields 21 tons of foundation
stock seed were released through the Florida Extension Service, mostly to
growers in Florida. The Dixie Runner variety is being certified by the Inspection
Division, State Department of Agriculture. An acreage equal to that of 1949
is being grown again in 1950 for release to growers in 1951. A portion of the
1950 increase will be released to growers in South Georgia and South Alabama
for the production of certified seed.

VARIETY TEST WORK WITH FIELD CROPS
Hatch Project 56 Fred H. Hull, G. E. Ritchey1,
Fred Clark and W. A. Carver
The five varieties of Bahia grass were continued in the variety test. Argentine
Bahia (Paspalum notatum Fluggc) continues to outyield the other four strains.
Argentine seed heads are more susceptible to ergot than the others strains.
Sweet Clover (Melilotus spp.) is rapidly becoming popular as a grazing crop
in Florida. Eighteen strains were planted on deep sandy soils on two areas. One
area was put under grazing from Jan. 27 to April 15. The cattle grazed the
clover well. The Gainesville selection made rapid growth and was grazed to a
height of about 10 inches when the cattle were removed in April but it grew back
and produced a good crop of seed by June 1. The Nebraska No. N-1 fine stem
F.C. No. 23636 and Emerald sweet clover F.C. No. 23385 both produced good
growth and grazing. The Nebraska strain grew back (after heavy grazing) to
make a good seed crop. No other strains made satisfactory growth. The
varieties made a similar record on the ungrazed areas.
Sugarcane.-None of the new varieties of sugarcane tested was satisfactory.
F31-762, C.P. 29-116, and C. 0. 290 continue to exhibit excellent ratoon charac-
teristics after 6 years. The brix readings of these canes continue high.
Oil Seeds.-Among eight flax varieties planted in 1949-1950, Victoria and
C. I. 980 x Redson appeared to be most resistant to prevalent disease. Of the
sesame varieties tested in 1949, Carolina No. 4524 was most vigorous. In 1950, a
non-shattering line from the South Carolina Station is being crossed to earlier
and less vegetative types.
I In cooperation with Div. of Forage Corps and Diseases, BPI, S&AE, USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Grain Sorghum.-Several varieties of grain sorghums having good combining
qualities are being tested in 1950. Norghum, a new one, appears well adapted
because of its earliness, good head extension and open type of head.

CORN FERTILIZER EXPERIMENT
State Project 163 Fred H. Hull and Myron G. Grennell
Corn following lupines was planted in two ways, on the surface and in the
furrow, and treated with two rates of N, P and K. Each treatment was then
divided into four plots for different kinds of cultivation with tractor implements.
The purpose is to study the interaction of fertilizer and culture on weed control
and yield. The surface-planted plots had to be replanted due to drought and
crow damage. The experiment will be continued in 1951 with only minor
changes.
Results of the 1949 test were analyzed and no significant differences observed.
Slight changes were made in the design of the experiment this year.
The cultivation phase of this experiment was conducted cooperatively with the
Department of Agricultural Engineering.

EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS AND MANAGEMENT ON YIELD, GRAZING
VALUE, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BOTANICAL
MAKEUP OF PASTURES
Bankhead-Jones Project 295 G. B. Killinger and R. W. Bledsoe
Grazing experiments with Pangola, Coastal Bermuda and Pensacola Bahia
were continued, with plans for the 1950 season to end this project. Both the
Bahia and Bermuda pastures support a better stand of Hubam and White Dutch
clover than the Pangola pastures. Prolonged droughts in the winter and spring
of 1949 caused much of the clover to die; this resulted in poor growth of the
grasses during the summer of 1949 because of nitrogen deficiency. The 1950
winter and spring were exceptionally dry as in 1949, and this again resulted in
poor growth of clover. Hubam is much more capable of surviving droughts than
White Dutch-in all grass sods.
Rock phosphate and heat-treated phosphate applied to clover-grass sods
uniformly treated with lime, potash and minor elements were effective sources of
phosphorus for both clover and grasses only when sulfur or gypsum was added.
Superphosphate was an adequate source of phosphorus and sulfur for all plants
grown without additions of sulfur and gypsum.
Steers having free access to Weeping Love grass, Argentine Bahia, Paraguay
Bahia and Common Bahia, preferred Argentine Bahia and then Common Bahia,
but consumed very little of the other two.
Chemical analysis of Pangola grass and Pensacola Bahia which received from
30 to 480 pounds of nitrogen per acre indicate, to date, that a high acre-tonnage
of these two grasses containing a high protein content can be had.

FORAGE NURSERY AND PLANT ADAPTATION STUDIES
Bankhead-Jones Project 297 G. E. Ritchey2 and Fred H. Hull
More than 700 plant introductions have been planted in the forage crop
nursery during the last two years. Each strain has been studied for crop value.
During the last year a catalog of all plantings made in the nursery during the
period of 1920 to date was compiled, giving the information of each accession.
The list contains more than 250 genera and 1,040 species.
During this season the most outstanding numbers under test have been three
strains of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. No. 164,030), an unidentified
Paspalum and two recently introduced Bahia grasses.
2 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPI, S&AE, USDA.


I








Annual Report 1950


Early Creeping indigo (Indigofera endycaphylla Jacq.) continues to make
satisfactory growth when grown as a companior to grasses, but it should be
grown with caution due to its toxic indications.
Big Trefoil (Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr) has failed on areas which were grazed
closely and not fertilized. An extremely dry winter and spring was responsible
for very poor stands in some areas.

FORAGE AND PASTURE PLANT IMPROVEMENT
Bankhead-Jones Project 298 G. E. Ritchey3, Fred H. Hull
and M. G. Grennell
Improvement work with Augusta vetch (Vicia angustifolia L.) has been con-
tinued. Four strains were selected from 1948-49 plots. Two of these which
were outstanding in growth and vigor have been saved for 1950-51 study.
Five promising varieties of Rhodes grass were selected from introductions and
planted in isolated plots. Four dwarf Guinea grass plants which show superiority
have been set out in plots where they may be studied. Thirty-five Bahia grass
strains were planted in increase plots for individual study.
From one nursery planting of 3,510 selections of sweet yellow and sweet blue
lupines most were so badly attacked by various diseases that only 48 selections
were saved. A nursery of 420 third-generation selections from the North Florida
Station were grown with good results. Several of these lines will be planted in
the fall of 1950 in a yield test. Approximately 1,000 new selections were made
in fields of sweet yellow and of bitter blue lupines in the spring of 1950.
8 In cooperation with Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPI, S&AE, USDA.

Fig. 1.-Over 100 acres of a Florida strain of Hubam clover were grown on a
farm near Gainesville for grazing and seed during the 1949-50 season.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


PASTURE LEGUMES
Bankhead-Jones Project 301 G. E. Ritchey4, G. B. Killingers
and R. W. Bledsoe
Big Trefoil was seeded November 1, 1949, on burned wire-grass plots after
liming and fertilizing without soil preparation. An excellent stand from one
pound of seed per acre was had and growth was excellent. Various strains of
clover, peas, vetch and lupines were planted also for adaptability, disease and cold
resistance studies.
Florida strains of Hubam and Black Medic clovers appear better adapted
than commercial seed. One farmer near Gainesville harvested about 10,000
pounds of seed from 100 acres of this new Florida strain of Hubam. (Fig. 1)
Hubam and Kenland Red clovers appear to be better suited for growing with
Pangola grass than other legumes. Hairy indigo continues to grow well on
flatwoods soils, hammock soils and high dry sands, in both sods and prepared
seedbeds.
In January of 1950 cattle grazed a number of legume plots and their prefer-
ence was in the following order: (1) Hairy vetch, (2) Hubam clover, (3) Biennial
sweet clover, (4) yellow lupines and (5) blue lupines. Austrian winter and Dixie
Wonder peas were grazed last.

METHODS OF ESTABLISHING PERMANENT PASTURES UNDER
VARIOUS CONDITIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 304 G. B. Killinger
Pangola grass planted in June 1949 produced two tons per acre of dry hay
in September 1949. This grass was established on Leon fine sand at a cost of
$24.00 per acre for fertilizer, lime and labor in preparation. In early July 1950,
more than 10 tons per acre of green weight hay were cut and distributed to
cattlemen throughout North and North Central Florida for pasture establishment.
Data to date indicate that on a well prepared seedbed properly limed and
fertilized Pangola grass can be established and grazed within 8 to 10 weeks.
Two pounds per acre of Argentine Bahia is sufficient seed for a stand of this
grass on a well-prepared seedbed.
Red, White Dutch and Hubam clovers grow well on burned sods without
seedbed preparation or mechanical covering of the seed.

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE COMPOSITION OF
FORAGE PLANTS
Adams Project 369 R. W. Bledsoe and G. B. Killinger
Mineral analyses of sweet yellow lupine and Hairy indigo harvested at differ-
ent stages of growth from fertilized and unfertilized plots show that the nitrogen
content of the former was increased slightly, while results with other elements
were inconsistent. The shoots of Hairy indigo usually add 80 to 120 pounds of
nitrogen to the soil when turned under during the seed ripening stage.
Mineral analyses and yields indicate that the natural supply of sulfur in some
areas of Florida is inadequate for maximum growth of clover. Rock phosphate
and heat-treated phosphate are adequate sources of phosphorus for clover when
sulfur or gypsum is applied. Yearly applications of sulfur and more soluble forms
of phosphorus increased yields and mineral content of clover and the succeeding
growth of grass, while results with sources of sulfur were not significant.
Analytical results of Bahia grasses sampled at different periods from plots used

In cooperation with Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPI, S&AE, USDA.








Annual Report 1950


for fall grazing show that those grasses have a favorable mineral content during
September and October when fertilized and managed properly.


FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IMPROVEMENT
Adams Project 372 Fred Clark, W. A. Carver and Fred H. Hull
The 1949 root-knot test produced rather limited results. Several new crosses
were made using the highest resistant lines on the broad-leaf, flue-cured tobacco
varieties, because the narrow-leaf varieties do not combine well for desired leaf
type. The resistant lines exhibited good curing qualities and many of the crosses
cured very satisfactorily, although the leaf size is too small.
Nineteen domestic flue-cured tobacco varieties were tested and there were no
significant differences in yield, although the quality was inferior in some varieties.


CORN IMPROVEMENT
Purnell Project 374 Fred H. Hull, W. A. Carver
and E. S. Horner
The estimated acreage of hybrid corn in Florida is about 50 percent higher
in 1950 than in 1949. Dixie 18 is the best hybrid in the Station's tests for yield
and standability and is generally satisfactory in weevil resistance. Dixie 18 is
very popular with farmers.
Fla. W-1 is still the best hybrid where weevil infestation is severe.
Extensive search has been made for corn that is resistant to damage by fall
armyworms with very little success.
Breeding for higher yield and improved agronomic type has shown satisfactory
progress.


METHODS OF PRODUCING, HARVESTING AND MAINTAINING
PASTURE PLANTS AND SEED STOCKS
Banklicad-Jones Project 417 G. B. Killingcr
Burning of Carpet, Pangola, Common Bahia and Coastal Bermuda grass sods
in early fall continues to increase clover stands and yield of herbage for the
following season.
Presence of honey bees increased the set of red clover seed, yields of clover
seed being 11.2 pounds without and 57.9 pounds per acre with bees. Further
studies of pollination and clover seed set are under way with Hubam, White
Dutch, Crimson and Red Clover.
Hairy indigo has volunteered in native wiregrass pasture land for two
seasons.
Bahia, Red clover, White clover, indigo and Hubam seed were all successfully
harvested with a combine.

EFFECT OF Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S AND Mg ON THE GROWTH OF GRAIN
CROPS, FORAGE CROPS, PASTURES AND TOBACCO
Bankhead-Jones Project 440 Henry C. Harris and R. W. Bledsoe
This year an attempt was made to evaluate the residual effect of micro-element
treatments applied the previous year to corn, rye, and wheat. White and Sweet
clover were grown for this purpose. In all cases growth was unsatisfactory,
possibly because of poor nodulation.








50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

STARTER SOLUTIONS AND METHODS OF APPLYING FERTILIZER ON
TOBACCO AND OTHER FIELD CROPS
Hatch Project 441 Fred Clark, H. C. Harris
and R. W. Bledsoe
This project has been closed.

PERMANENT SEEDBEDS FOR TOBACCO PLANTS
State Project 444 Fred Clark and G. M. Volk
Excellent control of weeds was obtained with uramon, calcium cyanamid and
a combination of the two chemicals. Methyl bromide used at the rate of 1
pound per 100 square feet gave good control of weeds and root-knot. A gas-proof
cover is necessary when this treatment is used.
A fall application of an 0-9-3 plant bed fertilizer was made at the time of
applying the chemicals and proved very satisfactory. An application of 2 to 3
cc of DD and ethylene dibromide per square foot was made one month ahead
of seeding and excellent results were obtained from all combinations of treatment
tested, except when a fall application of fertilizer plus calcium cyanamid and DD
were combined.
Plastic covers were tested and found to be very satisfactory.
Both 15% ferbam and a 10% zineb dusts used at the rate of 1 to 3 pounds per
100 square yards controlled blue mold.

IMPROVEMENT OF SMALL GRAINS THROUGH BREEDING,
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND DISEASE STUDIES
RMA Project 487 Darrell D. Morey and W. A. Carver
About 9 acres were planted to small grain nurseries at Gainesville during the
1949-50 crop season. Emphasis was placed on breeding and selecting disease-
resistant oat varieties which produce a high yield of forage and grain. Figure 2
shows an airplane view of the main breeding nursery which contained 16,800
selections of oats, wheat, rye and barley.
An additional 20 acres were planted to increase the new disease-resistant oat
variety, Southland, selected by W. H. Chapman, associate agronomist of the
North Florida Station. It is a progeny from the cross D69-Bond x Fultex made
by Dr. H. C. Murphy, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, in 1942. Southland
oats were increased and released to Florida farmers and seedmen in 1950. These
oats continued to be resistant to crown rust and showed excellent seedling vigor
and quick recovery after grazing. Southland oats produced high yields of both
grain and forage throughout Florida. It was found susceptible to race 7 of stem
rust which usually develops late in the season. For this reason and because of its
earliness this variety may escape serious injury.
C.I. 5208 oats (Hancock-Morota-Bond x Fultex), also selected at Quincy, have
shown excellent forage yields and moderately good yields of grain. These oats
have poor straw and a small, thin grain which makes their release to farmers
doubtful. Camellia oats have given good yields of forage and fair yields of grain
at Gainesville. Camellia is susceptible to some of the prevailing races of crown
rust and will be damaged by rust in most seasons.
Florida Black rye continues to outyield all other rye varieties in the amount of
forage and grain produced. Breeding work is now progressing to improve the
leaf and stem rust resistance of Florida Black rye.
Coastal and Atlas 66 were the highest yielding named wheat varieties in
1949-50. Chancellor was rather low in yield and does not appear well adapted








Annual Report 1950


Fig. 2.-Airplane view of main small grain nursery at Gainesville, 1949-50.
Each long block contained 200 different strains of grain. (Photograph by
Delhar Pendley.)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


this far south. Wheats do not yield the forage or the grain usually produced by
oats or rye on the sandy soils of central and northern Florida.
Barley varieties have been destroyed by diseases for the past two seasons.
Spot blotch, Helminthosporium sativum Pam., King and Bakke, was a serious
seedling blight, followed in 1949 by leaf rust and powdery mildew. Present
Barley varieties cannot be recommended for forage or grain production in Florida.
Flax varieties were attacked in the seedling stage by rhizoctonia to the extent
that one-half of the stand was destroyed. A top yield of 8 bushels per acre was
obtained from C.I. 980 x Redson. Other varieties which showed promise were
Victory and Crystal.
Hegari, Earl Hegari and Sagrain sorghum continued to give good yields of
grain at Gainesville. Because of storm and serious bird damage it was not
possible to test adequately the combine types of grain sorghum varieties. Con-
siderable difficulty was encountered in obtaining good stands of sorghums because
of the lesser corn stalk borer. This difficulty has been overcome to some extent
by incorporating 30 pounds of chlordane per acre into the soil at planting time,
Sin a band near the seed. (See also Project 487, PLANT PATHOLOGY.)

NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PEANUT
SRMA Project 488 Henry C. Harris and R. W. Bledsoe
Yields of three varieties of peanuts were not significantly increased when soil
fumigants were used on a nematode-infested soil.
Yields of Spanish peanuts were significantly increased on a copper-deficient
soil by the residual of copper applied as a fertilizer to the previous crops of wheat
and rye. In other experiments, yields were significantly increased by copper and
sulfur fertilization and copper sprays.
A greenhouse study on the utilization of soil and fertilizer phosphorus from
three different soil types by corn, peanut and tobacco during a 70-day period,
when radioactive phosphorus was used as a tracer, showed that with corn the per-
centage of phosphorus from the fertilizer decreased from the first to the last
sampling, that of the peanut was just the opposite, while that of tobacco was
similar to corn except that the initial utilization of fertilizer phosphorus was not
nearly so high. Radioautographs of peanut seedlings, grown from seed which
were radioactive, showed that the cotyledons still had a relatively high concentra-
tion of radioactive phosphorus when plants were two weeks old. The seed
reserve of phosphorus probably accounts for the low requirement for that element
by the young seedling.
Results of sand culture studies with the peanut plant indicate that the bulk of
nutrients were absorbed by the roots of the plant (Plant Physiology 25: 63-77.
1950). However, there was a large uptake of radioactive calcium by the
developing fruit (Science 109: 329-330. 1949), while the uptake of radioactive
phosphorus was much less than that which moved into the fruit as the result of
root absorption.
CURING HAY IN FLORIDA
.,Bankhead-Jones Project 536 J. M. Myers, G. B. Killinger
and R. W. Bledsoe
Pangola grass, Coastal Bermuda grass, Pensacola Bahia, Bahia-lespedeza,
Hairy indigo, sweet yellow lupines and Cattail millet were all grown and dried on
a mechanically heated forced air slat floor type dryer. Data to date indicate that
it is practical to dry most forages. Large-stemmed plants such as lupines and millet
are difficult to dry and the cost appears excessive.
Sweet yellow lupines fertilized with 500 pounds of 0-10-10 per acre yielded
two tons per acre of dry hay, identical with yields of lupines receiving no fer-








Annual Report 1950


tilizer. Hairy indigo produced five tons per acre of dry hay when fertilized with
400 pounds of 0-10-10 per acre. Yields are not available on indigo which
received no fertilizer, but on some soils it appears to grow very well without
fertilizer additions.
First-year Pangola grass, treated with 500 pounds per acre of a 6-6-6 fertilizer,
averaged 3.82 tons of dry hay per acre from a July 25 cutting. This cutting was
a least four weeks past maturity and analyzed as follows:
Ash 3.93% Phosphorus .-- -. 0.16% Potassium ---- 0.69%
Calcium -------- 0.24 Crude fiber ---.. 35.6 Ether extract--- 1.18
N-free ext ...---- 55.91 Crude protein 3.38
The same area treated with 200 pounds per acre of nitrate of soda, immedi-
ately after mowing on July 25, produced 2.31 tons of dry hay per acre on Septem-
ber 19. Analysis of the second cutting, made while the grass was in full bloom,
showed the following composition percentages:
Ash -... ----- -7.20% Phosphorus ..------ 0.43% Potassium --- 1.53%
Calcium -.... 0.62 Crude fiber .---. 33.07 Ether' extract --- 2.42
N-free ext. .--- 50.00 Crude protein 7.31
The Bahia-lespedeza mixed hay, indigo and lupine hay were higher in protein
and minerals than the Pangola.
Acre plots of Pangola and Coastal Bermuda grass treated uniformly with 120
pounds per acre each of phosphoric acid from superphosphate and potash from
muriate of potash were top-dressed with 750, 1,500 and 3,000 pounds per acre of
nitrate of soda. Yields and analysis to date indicate quantity and quality increase
with increased rates of nitrogen. (See also Project 536, AGR. ENGINEERING.)

CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Bankhead-Jones Project 537 L. C. Kuitert, Fred Clark
and A. N. Tissot
One acre of field test plots treated with various insecticides was used in 1949
to determine yield and quality of leaf. Nematodes reduced both so that it was
impossible to make a critical comparison of materials, although the insect control
results were very outstanding. This test is being continued in 1950 and soil
fumigation is being used so that effects of insect control on yield and quality of
leaf can be evaluated more accurately. (See also Project 537, ENTOMOLOGY.)

FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark, Henry C. Harris
and R. W. Bledsoe
An area was uniformly treated with 10 gallons of fumigant and the following
treatments were used; (1) two rates and two methods of application of fertilizer
and (2) three levels of irrigation.
Yields per acre were highly significant for irrigation, fertilizers and the inter-
action of fertilizer x irrigation. Yield increases were highly significant with the
time and level of application. Yields were increased significantly by the inter-
action of fertilizer x irrigation. The interaction of time x irrigation increased
yields significantly. The second order interaction of time x level x irrigation
increased yields significantly.
Quality and yields were exceedingly poor for the control plots.
Comparative tests of D-D (dichloropropene and dichloropropane) and ethylene
dibromide (40%) produced no significant differences in yield between the fumi-
gants; yields were increased four times over those of the check plot. The quality
of the tobacco was reduced by the D-D treatment this year.









54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

MISCELLANEOUS
Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cotton.-Nine fertility tests were planted in
1949 with Sealand cotton following lupine versus no lupine, using 12 rates of
fertilizer. No striking differences were noted on sandy soils, but on heavy clay
soils the lupine plots shed much of the fruit and produced a low yield of cotton.
Strain tests of Sea Island cotton were grown in Lake, Alachua and Leon
counties. Strain E. H. 808 and Sealand 542 were the highest yielders.
Sealand plantings made on July 13 in Lake County produced satisfactory
yields, and the lint and seed were of higher quality than from the early plantings.
Sealand cotton planted at Sanford after celery produced 828 pounds of lint per
acre. In addition to the residual fertilizer, the cotton received 500 pounds per
acre of a complete fertilizer at the last tractor cultivation. The cotton was
defoliated by cyanamid dust applied by plane.
All of the Sealand cotton produced in Florida in 1949 was roller ginned and
sold on the government grade of 50c for middling, 40c for strict low middling,
and 25c for low middling.
Two one-variety cotton communities functioned in the Sealand area. (M. N.
Gist, W. A. Carver, G. K. Parris and J. W. Wilson.)


I







Annual Report 1950


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
Research in animal husbandry, particularly swine nutrition, has expanded
considerably in the past year. Grants-in-aid have been received from Lederle
Laboratories, Merck and Company, Swift and Company and the National Vitamin
Foundation. The animal protein factor was shown to contain more growth
entities than vitamin Bi, and aureomycin was found to have a marked effect on
growth rate of swine when added to rations. When added to locally produced
plant protein supplements, such as peanut meal, it increased their feeding value
comparable to protein supplements from animal sources such as tankage and fish
meals.
New uses for citrus products and by-products have been demonstrated and
recommended. Investigations were initiated and expanded on the use of citrus
by-products for beef cattle, the comparative feeding value of various Florida-
produced roughages,. and the use of urea as a protein source in citrus molasses.
Experimental work in meats has been expanded to include quality and palatability
studies of beef and pork as affected by various methods of production and
experimental procedures. Considerable progress has been made in chemical
studies related to the vitamin content of the drip from meat that results following
storage by freezing.
Approximately 7,000 individual chemical analyses of feed, ingredients, blood
and tissue, many in duplicate, were made in the Nutrition Laboratory during the
year. Analytical work will continue to be the foundation for nutrition investiga-
tions. The continued availability of radioactive isotopes from Oak Ridge has
permitted more intense and more accurate studies of phosphorus, copper,
molybdenum and calcium metabolism in cattle, swine, rats and chickens. In
collaborative work with branch stations and the Agronomy and Soils departments,
phosphorus has been followed from fertilizer through forage to cattle.

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE
Purnell Project 133 George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley, Max A. Jeter,
R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, D. A. Sanders,
R. S. Glasscock, W. G. Kirk and R. W. Kidder
Toxicity investigations have demonstrated that a daily intake of approximately
1 gram of copper sulfate per 100 pounds of live weight will prove fatal for cattle.
Equivalent amounts of copper as copper oxide appear to be less toxic.
Use of radioactive phosphorus showed that copper in the ration influences
phosphorus metabolism by changing the routine of phosphorus excretion, but
phosphorus loss from the body was not increased. Moderate copper intake
stimulates microflora in the rumen associated with digestion of roughage. (See
also, Effect of Phosphorus Metabolism in Cattle, p. 59.)
Molybdenum in the ration changes the normal route of phosphorus excretion to
about 90 percent excretion in the feces and increases the rate of phosphorus
excretion. Small amounts of copper included in the ration control the effects of
molybdenum. (See also, Interrelationships of Copper, Molybdenum and Phos-
phorus, p. 60.)
Phosphorus continues to be the principal mineral deficiency of cattle in Florida
and studies continue to be directed toward the more efficient use of different
sources of this element. In cooperation with the Soils Department, radioactive
phosphorus in superphosphate has been followed through oats and fescue into
cattle. (See also, Influence on Various Phosphate Sources of Cattle, p. 60.)
Work with cobalt has been continued, particularly with Guernsey cattle at
the Range Cattle Station. Cobalt appears to be essential for the production and







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


functioning of microorganisms in the rumen that are associated with cellulose,
hemicellulose and pentosan digestion.
Interest in iron nutrition has been renewed by the observation that iron appears
to accumulate in cattle that are deficient in copper or are suffering from
molybdenum toxicity, but is not available to the animal.
To check their value as efficient sources of minerals, analyses have been made
of samples of St. Augustine, Pangola, Bermuda, Bahia, Dallis, Vasey and Torpedo
grasses, White clover and mixed clover forages. The mineral requirements of
White clover appear to be such as meet adequately the requirements of cattle
grazing this type of pasture. Studies have been continued with native pastures and
different systems of management to determine the best practices to be followed
with these sources of feed.
Low-copper mineral soil samples were sent to New Zealand for cooperative
study. Cattle receiving cobalt sulfate on the Azores cobalt-deficient volcanic
soil area retain good appetites and have now remained healthy for 18 months.
(See also, Project 133, EVERGLADES.)

INVESTIGATIONS WITH LABORATORY ANIMALS OF MINERAL
NUTRITION PROBLEMS OF LIVESTOCK
Purnell Project 346 George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley, R. D. Owens,
Max A. Jeter and L. R. Arrington
Copper and molybdenum have had a different effect upon phosphorus meta-
bolism in rats than that observed in cattle. On a weight basis rats are more
tolerant of molybdenum than cattle. Copper has been shown to be related to
vitamin metabolism, particularly pantothenic acid. There is evidence that the
requirement for inositol is increased when higher levels of molybdenum are
included in the ration. Molybdenum, fed with a moderate level of copper, has
interfered with reproduction in both females and males, but less so than in
cattle. This is particularly true when copper is kept at a low intake of five parts
per million in the feed. Molybdenum appears to cause an increase in the hemo-
siderin or unavailable iron content of the liver.
Calcium 45 has been used as a tracer in studies of normal calcium and
phosphorus excretion in the alimentary, tracts of rats and chickens. The calcium
45 has been traced through the hen's egg into the hatching chick.
Swine given relatively high levels of molybdenum (1,000 ppm), proved re-
sistant to the toxic effects of molybdenum observed in other species. Molybdenum
balance studies with pigs using molybdenum 99 indicate rapid absorption and rapid
excretion. Particular attention has been devoted to the transfer of mineral elements
across the placenta to the developing young and this work is being expanded.

BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PASTURE HERBAGE
Bankhead-Jones Project 356 George K. Davis, Katherine M. Boney
and Elver M. Hodges
Microbiological analysis has been continued on pasture herbage secured in
various parts of the state in an effort to ascertain the amino acid and vitamin
composition of these forages. Vitamin A and tryptophane and lysine analyses
have been made of the forage samples given varying levels of trace element
applications. Most attention has been given to Pangola, St. Augustine and
Bermuda grasses. Within limits, the application of copper fertilizer appeared to
cause an increase in pro-vitamin A content of Pangola grass. Increasing phos-
phorus content of Pangola grass, due to the addition of phosphate fertilizer, has
not been associated with marked increases in protein content, nor has the portion
of amino acids been significantly changed. Pangola grass grown on muck soils
has had a higher vitamin A content than that grown on sandy soils.








Annual Report 1950


BEEF YIELD AND QUALITY FROM VARIOUS GRASSES, FROM CLOVER
AND GRASS MIXTURES AND RESPONSE TO FERTILIZED
AND UNFERTILIZED PASTURES
State Project 412 R. S. Glasscock and G. B. Killinger
Two pastures each of mixed clovers and Coastal Bermuda, mixed clovers and
Pensacola Bahia, and mixed clovers and Pangola grass were grazed by steers from
February 24 until October 19, 1949. The Bermuda-clover pastures yielded
245 grazing days per acre, with a total weight gain per acre of 234 pounds. The
average daily gain per steer was 0.96 pounds. The Bahia-clover pastures fur-
nished 320 grazing days per acre, with a total gain of 314 pounds. The average
daily gain per steer was 0.97 pounds. The Pangola-clover pasture furnished 233
grazing days per acre, with a total gain of 260 pounds. The average daily gain
was 1.12 pounds.
TOXICITY OF Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH
State Project 426 George K. Davis and Leon Singer
Samples obtained in earlier work were tested after storage for three years and
found to have retained toxicity, whether ensiled or held as dry hay. A marked
variability in toxicity of C. spectabilis from different areas has been observed.
The basis for the difference has not been ascertained.
SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDS FOR NURSING BEEF CALVES
State Project 461 R. S. Glasscock, T. J. Cunha
and A. M. Pearson
Comparative weights of Hereford and Angus calves were obtained again this
year. After grazing all summer without supplemental feed, the Hereford cows
weaned calves that averaged 472 pounds at an average age of 229 days. The
average weaning age of Angus calves was 240 days, and the average weaning
weight was 464 pounds. Hereford cows averaged 1,208 pounds and the Angus
cows 1,109 pounds in weight.
LOSSES IN MARKETING LIVESTOCK
State Project 481 A. M. Pearson and R. S. Glasscock
This project was inactive during the year.
SWEET LUPINE SEED AS A PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT FOR GROWING
AND FATTENING BEEF CATTLE
State Project 512 R. S. Glasscock, T. J. Cunha
and A. M. Pearson
Seed of the sweet lupine apparently is a satisfactory feed, inasmuch as statistical
analysis of data failed to show significant differences in results produced by the
two rations containing either cottonseed meal or sweet blue lupine seed meal
(when both were compared as protein supplements) with respect to weight gains,
dressing percentages, carcass grades or feed required per unit of gain.

THYROID FUNCTION IN CHICKENS
State Project 518 C. F. Winchester and George K. Davis
Earlier work on the destruction of thyroids by the use of iodine 131 has been
repeated, using a level of 6 microcuries of iodine 131 per 100 grams of body
weight. Using chicks with destroyed thyroids, thyroxine was injected at levels of
2, 3, 4 and 6 micrograms of thyroxine per 100 grams of body weight in further
study of the thyroxine requirement of chicks. Levels of 3 to 4 micrograms of
thyroxine appeared to give normal body development and there was no indication
of a second factor other than thyroxine which might be secreted by the thyroid.
Chicks given levels of 3 and 4 micrograms of thyroxine grew at a normal rate and
began laying at 19 and 20 weeks of age.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


CITRUS MOLASSES FOR FEEDING SWINE
State Project 540 T. J. Cunha, A. M. Pearson.
R. S. Glasscock and S. J. Folks
Very little difference has been found between citrus and cane molasses in
feeding value for growing-fattening pigs. Carcass studies from pigs fed corn, 40
percent citrus molasses and 40 percent cane molasses were conducted. The
carcasses from all the animals were satisfactory from the standpoint of dressing
percentage, thickness of back fat and firmness. No differences in the palatability
of roasts from animals on the various rations could be detected. Thus, cane or
citrus molasses can be used in place of corn, at recommended levels, and still
produce a satisfactory carcass. The levels of thiamine, ribonflavin and niacin (of
a composite sample of ham, loin and shoulder) of the pigs on the three different
rations were approximately the same.
FEEDING VALUE OF FLORIDA HAYS FOR SWINE
State Project 541 T. J. Cunha, S. J. Folks,
R. S. Glasscock and A. M. Pearson
Dehydrated alfalfa meal, field-cured alfalfa meal, field-cured Alyce clover
meal and field-cured kudzu meal were compared at a 6 percent level in the ration
for 33-pound growing-fattening pigs. The remainder of the ration consisted of
corn, peanut meal and minerals. For the first 6 weeks, from the time the pigs
weighed 33 pounds until they weighed approximately 80 pounds, the following
average daily gains were obtained: field-cured alfalfa meal 1.22, dehydrated
alfalfa meal 1.11, Alyce clover meal 1.10, and kudzu meal 1.10 pounds per day.
For the next 42 days, from the time the pigs weighed 80 pounds until they
weighed approximately 140 pounds, the average daily gains were as follows: field-
cured alfalfa 1.45, dehydrated alfalfa meal 1.45, Alyce clover meal 1.58 and kudzu
meal 1.60 pounds daily. These trials need to be repeated before any definite
recommendations can be made.

SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDS NEEDED BY SOWS DURING REPRODUCTION
AND LACTATION ON FLORIDA PASTURES
State Project 542 T. J. Cunha, S. J. Folks,
R. S. Glasscock and A. M. Pearson
Twenty-four purebred Duroc gilts were fed the following rations during
reproduction and lactation: Lot 1, pasture + minerals; lot 2, same as 1 + pro-
tein supplement; lot 3, same as 2 corn; and lot 4, same as 3 + alfalfa meal.
The gilts in the above trials are now finishing a second reproduction and lactation
period on the same rations. Until those results are obtained, the only recom-
mendation that can be made from this study is to emphasize the need for feeding
a protein supplement and minerals to gilts on pasture. In addition, the gilts
should not be allowed to get too fat, since it will be detrimental to them. It was
also found that alfalfa supplementation was of no benefit to the gilts on pasture.

ROUGHAGES FOR MAINTENANCE AND GROWTH OF BEEF CATTLE
IN FLORIDA
State Project 543 R. S. Glasscock, T. J. Cunha,
A. M. Pearson and F. S. Baker
Four lots of steers were fed hays free-choice as follows: Lot 1, dehydrated
Hairy indigo; Lot 2, alfalfa hay; Lot 3, Western prairie hay; and Lot 4, Alyce
clover hay.
For the first 84 days the steers in Lot 1 consumed an average of 20.5 pounds
of dehydrated Hairy indigo daily per steer, with an average daily gain of 0.77
pounds. The steers in Lot 2 consumed an average of 26.4 pounds of alfalfa hay







Annual Report 1950


each, daily, with an average daily gain of 2.2 pounds each. The steers in
Lot 3 consumed an average of 12.2 pounds of Western prairie hay daily and the
average loss per steer was 1.3 pounds daily. The steers in Lot 4 consumed an
average of 22.5 pounds of Alyce clover hay per steer daily and gained an average
of 1.1 pounds for 84 days. (See also, report, NORTH FLORIDA STATION.)

LOSS OF NUTRIENTS IN DRIP FROM DEFROSTED FROZEN MEAT
State Project 546 A. M. Pearson, R. S. Glasscock
and T. J. Cunha
Drip which was collected from thawing frozen rib steaks of beef, and frozen
steaks, were analyzed for five B vitamins. The frozen meat contained 1.00, 1.59,
34.81, 3.48 and 9.11 gammas of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine and
pantothenic acid per gram, respectively. The drip contained 1.13, 0.74, 62.57,
2.16, and 29.63 gammas per milliliter, respectively, of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin,
pyridoxine and pantothenic acid. The amount of the vitamins in the drip
amounted to 12.23, 10.31, 14.51, 9.41 and 33.26 percent of the total thiamine,
riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine and pantothenic acid, respectively, in the meat.

MISCELLANEOUS
Cull Tangerines for Swine.-Swine were given free access to cull tangerines.
Without proper supplementation, these were practically worthless. With proper
supplementation with a trio mixture (50 percent peanut meal, 25 percent meat
scraps and 25 percent dehydrated alfalfa meal) and minerals, the cull tangerines
served as a fattening feed. (T. J. Cunha, A. M. Pearson, S. J. Folks and R. S.
Glasscock.)
Citrus Seed Meal for Swine.-The data obtained showed that citrus seed meal
is harmful to the pig at both the 10 and 25 percent levels in the ration and thus
should not be included in swine rations. (T. J. Cunha, A. M. Pearson, and R. S.
Glasscock.)
Animal Protein Factor, B12, BI,, Aureomycin and Related Factors for the Pig.-
APF (Lederle) increased the rate of gain; decreased the feed required per pound
of gain and need for the essential amino acid, methionine; prevented scours; de-
creased the amount of protein needed in the ration; increased appetite and bloom,
and produced a smoother hair coat. It was found that APF (Lederle) contained
Bs, aureomycin and possibly other new factors; that aureomycin, an antibiotic
drug, was responsible for much of the beneficial effect of the Lederle APF; that
supplementation with the Lederle APF made peanut meal and soybean oil meal
as good as fish meal for swine feeding. This will result in better balanced and
more economical swine rations. It was found that vitamin Bi,, a new vitamin, is
also of benefit in increasing rate of gain with the pig. This work has been sup-
ported with grants-in-aid from Lederle Laboratories and Merck and Company. (T.
J. Cunha, J. E. Burnside, H. M. Edwards, G. B. Meadows, R. H. Benson, A. M.
Pearson and R. S. Glasscock.)
Animal Protein Factor and Aureomycin for Beef Cattle.-Preliminary data tend
to indicate that APF supplementation is of no benefit for beef cattle. Two pairs
of steers are now being fed aureomycin to determine its effect on growth and effi-
ciency of feed utilization. (T. J. Cunha, R. S. Glasscock and H. H. Hopper.)
Citrus Seed Meal for Beef Cattle.-In this trial, citrus seed meal was just as
valuable as cottonseed meal in meeting the protein requirements of growing and
fattening steers, and the excess above protein requirements was apparently utilized
as efficiently as a source of energy. Citrus seed meal was consumed readily by
the steers with no indications of toxicity. (R. S. Glasscock, J. E. Pace, T. J. Cunha
and A. M. Pearson.)
Effect of Minor Elements on Phosphorus Metabolism in Cattle.-Through the







60 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

use of molybdenum 99 and phosphorus 32, the effect of copper and molybdenum
on phosphorus metabolism in cattle has been studied. Cattle receiving high levels
of molybdenum, 200 parts per million, have shown a marked reversal of excretion
pathway in balance studies in that phosphorus normally excreted in a 60-40 parti-
tion between feces and urine is practically all excreted through the feces when
molybdenum is present in the diet at high levels. Three times as much phosphorus
was excreted when the molybdenum was added to the ration, and this may account
for the development of rarefied bones in animals subjected to high molybdenum
rations under practical conditions. Copper indirectly neutralizes the action of
molybdenum, probably through an enzyme system. Copper changed the pathway
of phosphorus excretion in cattle but not the rate of excretion. (The project has
been supported in part by a grant-in-aid from the U. S. Phosphoric Company,
Division of Tennessee Corporation, and supplements the work reported under
Project 133 above.) (George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley, Jess N. Henson and Francis
H. Skipper.)
Interrelationships of Copper, Molybdenum and Phosphorus.-Molybdenum at
high levels has been shown to have a definite effect upon the reproduction tissues
of cattle, and in males there is a testicular degeneration when copper is kept at
a minimum level of 5 parts per million. Reproductive failure occurs in rats if the
copper is maintained at 5 parts per million, with molybdenum levels of 140 parts
per million in the ration, but degeneration of the ovaries has not been observed.
Molybdenum appears to be transmitted through the milk to the young and to
cause a growth retardation when females are receiving high molybdenum rations.
High levels of molybdenum cause a rapid loss in weight in individuals that are
mature in size when placed on the high molybdenum ration. (This project has
been supported in part by a grant from the Nutrition Foundation, Inc., of New
York City and supplements the work reported under Project 133 above.) (George
K. Davis, Leon Singer, Max A. Jeter, and L. R. Arrington.)
Sweet Potato By-Product Feeding Trial.-A second feeding trial with sweet
potato by-product feed and sweet potato by-product feed enriched with sweet
potato protein, produced at the U. S. Regional Research Laboratory, New Orleans,
was made with heifers provided by the Range Cattle Station. Both products were
taken readily when included in the ration at levels of approximately 25 percent of
the total digestible nutrients. After adjusting to the ration, the heifers gained at
the rate of approximately 2 pounds per day. The protein appears to have been
digestible to the extent of about 50 percent. (George K. Davis and H. D. Wallace.)
Vitamin A for Beef Cattle.-A group of wintering beef cattle received shark
liver oil for the third winter as a source of vitamin A, in comparison with a control
group. Calf size, weight maintenance and breeding performance have been re-
corded. The trial has been completed and results are being compiled for publica-
tion. Wintering range cattle did not appear to benefit from additional vitamin A
so long as any green grass was available to them. (Supported in part by a grant
from Shark Industries, Division of the Borden Company.) (George K. Davis and
W. G. Kirk.)
Influence of Various Phosphate Sources on Cattle.-On the acid sandy soil,
rock phosphate has produced the largest yield of Pangola grass with the highest
percentage of phosphorus. Blood studies have shown that superphosphate, super-
phosphate plus lime, colloidal phosphate, concentrated superphosphate and basic
slag all provide forage adequate in phosphorus content to meet the needs of the
animals. All these sources are being followed to ascertain their value over a
period of years in terms of forage production and animal performance. (Initially
supported in part by a grant from the Florida Agricultural Research Institute pas-
ture Committee. Supplements in part work reported under Project 133 above.)
(George K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, Elver M. Hodges, D. W. Jones and H. E. Hender-
son.)








Annual Report 1950


DAIRY SCIENCE
On October 15, 1949, the Department of Dairy Science was created, the dairy
work being separated from the Department of Animal Industry.
The dairy herd was moved on September 16, 1949, to the Dairy Research Unit
at Hague, about 10 miles from the main campus. Two Guernsey and 32 Jersey
cows completed official production records during the year, 26 of them being above
6,000 pounds of milk, mostly in 305-day periods. Eleven exceeded 9,000 pounds
of milk. One junior sire failed to meet the standard of transmitting ability and
was discarded. A promising junior sire-Observer Design Monarch 500448-was
purchased. The herd is being used in demonstrations, instruction and research in
dairy production.
The calf barn, toward which the Florida Milk Commission donated funds, was
completed in January 1950. The service highway across the Dairy Research Unit
was partly hard surfaced by the State Road Department.
The Dairy Products Laboratory added some new dairy products processing
machinery, especially for the manufacture of ice cream and the processing of milk.
Completely modern facilities now exist in these two important fields. Pilot plant
facilities also exist for the manufacture of butter, cheese and concentrated milks.

RELATION OF CONFORMATION AND ANATOMY OF THE DAIRY COW
TO HER MILK AND BUTTERFAT PRODUCTION
State Project 140 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
R. S. Glasscock and George K. Davis
The purpose of this long-time project is to correlate milk production with the
conformation and anatomical structure of the cow. It is conducted cooperatively
with the Bureau of Dairy Industry, USDA. Data gathered by Florida and many
other agricultural experiment stations are submitted to the Bureau, where they
are correlated and analyzed for inclusion in future publications.

ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project 213 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
G. K. Davis and Sidney P. Marshall
A manuscript is in preparation dealing with three levels of urea added to cut
sorghum at time of ensiling. Based on this investigation, it is recommended that
not over 0.5 percent of urea may be incorporated into low-protein silages. This
level increased the crude protein value by 0.7 percent in the finished sorghum
silage.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY AND DEPRECIATION
IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
A. H. Spurlock and Sidney P. Marshall
Cattle inventory, turnover and breeding records were secured on 10 cooperating
herds in such manner that study of inheritance of breeding efficiency can be de-
termined, in addition to previous uses. Study of bulls has been expanded to
obtain information on useful lifespan and turnover of those in artificial and natural
service. (See also Project 345, AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS.)

EFFECTS OF CERTAIN FEEDS ON MILK FLAVOR
State Project 394 E. L. Fouts and P. T. Dix Arnold
This project has been closed.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


DEHYDRATION AND UTILIZATION OF VEGETABLE BY-PRODUCTS AS
DAIRY AND POULTRY FEEDS
State Project 478 R. A. Dennison, N. R. Mehrhof, R. B. Becker,
G. K. Davis, E. L. Fouts and P. T. Dix Arnold
The dairy phase of this project was inactive and the project is closed herewith.
(See also, Project 478, HORTICULTURE.)

INFLUENCE OF WATER CONSTITUENTS (MINERALS) ON THE
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND WHIPPING QUALITY OF
ICE CREAM MIXES
Bankhead-Jones Project 497 E. L. Fouts, W. A. Krienke
and L. E. Mull
Since the previous report the mixes contained increasingly higher percentages
of added hard water, due to higher concentrations of the dairy ingredients, for
blending to the desired mix composition. In the first of these series of mixes
the dairy ingredients consisted of non-fat dry milk solids (low heat type) and 40%
cream and in the second series they consisted of non-fat dry milk solids (low heat
type) with /4 of the butterfat from sweet butter and 3 from 40% cream. In the
third series of mixes non-fat dry milk solids and 80% plastic cream constituted the
dairy ingredients. Each series consisted of gelatin, C.M.C. and sodium alginate
stabilized mixes and of a non-stabilizer control mix.
The hard water (approximately 200 ppm) produced mixes that whipped con-
siderably more slowly than corresponding mixes containing distilled water when
no stabilizer was used and when the stabilizer was gelatin, whereas a slight
opposite effect resulted in the first series when the stabilizer was C.M.C. or sodium
alginate. All distilled water mixes of the second series whipped faster and those
of the third series very much faster than their corresponding hard water mixes.

COOLING AND AGING OF ICE CREAM MIXES
Bankhead-Jones Project 534 W. A. Krienke, E. L. Fouts
and Mary Frances Mays
Dairy ingredients of the mixes were whole milk plus condensed skimmilk and
cream obtained from some of the same high quality whole milk. In addition to a
non-stabilizer control mix, the other individual mixes contained gelatin, sodium
alginate or C.M.C. Portions of each mix were cooled rapidly to 28, 40, 70 and,
100 F. The portions cooled only to 70* and 100" F. were then cooled slowly
at 40 F.
Viscosity of the gelatin mixes increased appreciably with each increase in
initial cooling temperature, that of the sodium alginate mixes increased only
slightly with higher initial cooling temperatures except at the highest temperature,
whereas there were no differences in similar C.M.C. and control mixes. There
were no important differences in rate of whipping during freezing of the mixes
that could be attributed to the cooling treatment.

POST-PARTUM DEVELOPMENT OF BOVINE STOMACH COMPARTMENTS
AND OBSERVATIONS ON SOME CHARACTERISTICS
OF THEIR CONTENTS
State Project 564 Sidney P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold
and R. B. Becker
Sixteen male Jerseys ranging in age from 4 to 326 days were sacrificed,
volume displacement of each stomach compartment and of the tissues of each








Annual Report 1950


compartment were measured, and tissue and contents of each compartment were
weighed. The pH and specific gravity of contents were determined where ade-
quate quantities of material were available.
The rumen and omasum were the most rapidly developing compartments after
birth, followed by the reticulum and abomasum. An average specific gravity of
1.04 was found for the abomasum contents. The pH values of compartment
contents in vitro ranged as follows: abomasum 3.04 to 4.61; omasum 4.78 to
6.81; reticulum 5.51 to 7.19; and rumen 5.29 to 6.89.

MISCELLANEOUS
Relation of Gestation to Body Weights of Cows on Long-Term Feeding
Trials.-Results of feeding trials are measured in milk production and changes in
body weight of experimental dairy cows. Body weight changes may be due to
alimentary fill, growth, fattening or gestation. Since these are unequal in
nutritive value, pound for pound, methods of measurement are essential to more
accurate conduct of long-time feeding trials representing practical dairy farming
conditions. For some years, records have been obtained on weight changes
attributable to gestation.
Based on net weights of eight non-pregnant uteruses and of 37 pregnant
uteruses and contents, it was determined that up to 27 percent cumulative error,
above the total digestible nutrient requirements for maintenance, would be
incurred by inverse calculations of long-time feeding trials which involve Jersey
cows during their gestation periods from the 60th day to full term. Changes in
weights of uteruses and contents were negligible up to past 60 days in gestation.
From 90 days onward they mounted to 5, 12, 22, 43, 75 and 110 pounds at pro-
gressive 30-day intervals, including the 270th day. At full term, weight increase
attributable to pregnancy amounted to 122.2 pounds, assuming a 55-pound Jersey
calf, 15.8-pound placenta, 38.2 pounds of fluids and allowing 14.6 pounds for
involution of the uterus after calving. This part of the gross weight changes
should not be calculated in the gains or losses, computed at 3.53 or 2.73 pounds
of total digestible nutrients per pound of gain or loss, respectively, since the
requirements of fetal development are met in the liberal feeding standard for
maintenance. (R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and Sidney P. Marshall.)
Dried Pineapple Pulp.-Dried pineapple pulp, processed in a citrus
pulp drier and slightly contaminated, was tested for bulk and palatability with
dairy cows. Thirty-one cows were offered limited amounts of dried pineapple
pulp in the manger after having consumed their regular concentrate feed. Twenty-
four cows ate their entire allowances; one ate part; four tasted; and only two
refused the new product. A feed is regarded as quite palatable when it is
accepted by such a large proportion of the animals at first feeding.
The dried pineapple pulp available weighed 0.41 pounds per quart (dry
measure), based on 10 determinations. Average analysis of pure pineapple pulp
was: moisture 8.16 percent; crude protein 4.37 percent; crude fiber 17.35 percent;
nitrogen-free extract 66.30 percent; ash 2.50 percent; and ether extract 1.32 per-
cent. Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus were 0.54, 0.07 and 0.06 percent,
respectively. (R. B. Becker, G. K. Davis, P. T. Dix Arnold and Sidney P.
Marshall.)
Effects of Penicillin, Aureomycin and Sulfamethazine on Acid Production by
Cheese and Buttermilk Cultures.-Concentrations per milliliter of milk of 0.25
units of penicillin, 0.0005 mg. of aureomycin hydrochloride and 0.0025 gr. of
sulfamethazine almost completely prevented lactic acid production by lactic cul-
tures. Pasteurization of the milk did not inactivate or destroy their growth-
inhibiting properties nor did refrigerated storage for 10 to 15 days of fluid and








64 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

condensed milk. Penicillin remained active in non-fat dry milk solids for six
months; storage continues.
Therapeutic treatment of cows for mastitis resulted in high concentrations of
penicillin and aureomycin in milk of the first milking after treatment, which
became decreasingly less with additional milkings but remained of sufficient
concentrations to affect seriously growth of lactic acid bacteria in milk of the
fourth milking after penicillin infusion and in milk of the twelfth milking after
aureomycin infusion. (W. A. Krienke, H. H. Wilkowske and Mary Frances
Mays.)
Freezing Point Studies on Cream.-Freezing point values on cream of high fat
content were practically identical to those of the whole milk from which the cream
was separated. Developed acidity depressed the freezing point and a carbonate
alkali standardization of the developed acid depressed it further. (W. A.
Krienke.)
Methods of Detecting Antibiotics in Biological Materials.-An assay method for
penicillin in milk, employing penicillinase, has been developed, as well as a method
for determining suitability of milk of questionable antibiotic content for lactic dairy
products. The method has been modified (jointly with the Poultry Department)
for use on other biological products. (W. A. Krienke and Mary Frances Mays.)







Annual Report 1950


ENTOMOLOGY
Considerable attention was given to the further evaluation of new insecticides
and preliminary tests were made with a number of experimental insecticides and
miticides. Arrangements were made with other departments for cooperative
work on the control of insect pests of tobacco, corn and vegetable crops. Work
was continued on nematode control and additional information was obtained on the
value of soil fumigants. More effective methods were found of using the new
insecticides in the control of pecan pests. The work designed to test the prac-
ticability of mixing insecticides with fertilizer was intensified and expanded.
Honey plant research work was initiated and provision was made for installing
an irrigation system for the plant introduction and propagation area to be used in
this work.

CONTROL OF NUT AND LEAF CASEBEARERS OF PECANS
State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
This project was continued at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory in coopera-
tion with the USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
DDT and parathion applied June 16, July 1 and July 15, 1949, for control of
the hickory shuckworm on pecans gave excellent control of pecan casebearer.
Both insecticides also reduced shuckworm infestation. DDT 50 percent wettable
powder, 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water, gave a reduction of 100 percent.
Parathion 25 percent wettable powder, 2 pounds per 100 gallons of water, gave
a reduction of 83.4 percent.
Two insecticide materials were used as late dormant sprays in the spring of
1950 when the casebearer larvae were emerging from their overwintering hiber-
nacula. Both 2 pounds DDT 50 percent wettable powder plus 1 quart summer
oil emulsion in 100 gallons water, and 1 pound of parathion 25 percent wettable
powder plus 1 quart summer oil emulsion per 100 gallons, gave a reduction of 94.1
percent on the Moore variety. A similar DDT spray on the Stuart variety gave
only a 79.0 percent reduction.
DDT, parathion, lindane and EPN-300 insecticide gave varying degrees of con-
trol of first-generation nut casebearer on the Moore variety when applied on
different dates. Sprays containing 2 pounds of DDT 50 percent wettable powder
plus 1 quart summer oil emulsion in 100 gallons of 6-2-100 bordeaux mixture
applied on May 5, 8, 11 and 15 gave reductions of 00.0, 25.8, 27.3 and 39.2
percent, respectively, more than 40 percent nicotine sulfate 13 ounces plus 2
quarts summer oil emulsion in 100 gallons bordeaux mixture applied May 15.
Parathion 25 percent wettable powder, 1 pound, plus 1 quart summer oil emulsion
in 100 gallons bordeaux mixture applied on the above dates gave reductions of
00.0, 00.0, 24.4 and 63.6, respectively, more than the nicotine sulfate. Lindane
25 percent wettable, 2 pounds, plus 1 quart summer oil emulsion in 100 gallons
bordeaux mixture applied on only the last three dates above gave reductions of
00.0, 00.0 and 49.8 percent, respectively, more than nicotine sulfate. EPN-300
insecticide, 1 pound, plus 1 quart summer oil emulsion in 100 gallons bordeaux
mixture, applied on same dates as lindane, gave reductions of 12.0, 00.0 and 22.1
percent, respectively, more than nicotine sulfate.
A preliminary test was made to check the effectiveness of parathion against
first generation nut casebearer when applied with a John Bean No. 17 mist
sprayer and a hydraulic sprayer. (This is in cooperation with J. R. Cole, Pathologist,
USDA Pecan Laboratory, Albany, Georgia.) Parathion, 25 percent wettable
powder, 5 pounds, plus 1 quart summer oil emulsion and 10 pounds zerlate, in 100
gallons water applied with mist sprayer gave a reduction of 85.7 percent.
Parathion, 25 percent wettable powder, 1 pound, plus 1 quart summer oil








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


emulsion and 2 pounds zerlate, in 100 gallons water applied with hydraulic sprayer
gave a reduction of 73.7 percent, respectively, over the unsprayed check. Each
tree in the test received a comparable amount of parathion.

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF CUTWORMS AND ARMYWORMS
IN FLORIDA
State Project 380 A. N. Tissot and L. C. Kuitert
In the spring of 1949 the Agronomy Department made a planting of corn
available for insecticide tests. Early in May budworms began to appear in some
numbers and an insecticide application was made on May 12. The dust treat-
ments included 5 percent DDT, 10 percent chlordane, 1 percent parathion, 1.5
percent lindane, 5 percent methoxychlor, 5 percent chlordane, 1 percent experi-
mental insecticide 118 (now known as aldrin), and 3 percent impregnated DDT.
Sprays used were DDT 25 percent emulsion concentrate at 1 quart per 100
gallons, toxaphene 40 percent wettable powder at 2.5 pounds per 100 gallons,
and parathion 15 percent wettable at 1 pound per 100 gallons. A commercially
prepared bait containing 1.5 percent chlordane also was used. Instead of the
expected build-up of budworms there was actually a decline and the infestation in
the experimental planting was so light that no more insecticide applications were
made.
Another planting was made available for insecticide tests in 1950. A few
budworms were present in the young corn but the infestation never became heavy
enough to warrant applying the insecticides. Apparently there is a close relation-
ship between stage of growth of the corn and flights of the female moths, as older
and younger corn nearby became heavily infested. (See also, Project 380,
VEGETABLE CROPS LABORATORY and CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION.)

ROOT-KNOT IN TOBACCO FIELDS
State Project 382 H. E. Bratley
This project was inactive during the year and was terminated June 30, 1950.

EFFECTS OF MULCHES ON THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE
State Project 385 H. E. Bratley
Differences between the mulched and unmulched plots were wider this year
than in the previous two years. Both cultivated and wild plants appeared more
healthy and vigorous in the mulched plots than in the checks and the forest leaf
mulch gave better growth than the miscellaneous plant material. During the first
two years of this test the plots mulched with forest leaves received applications
of dry leaves equivalent to 53 tons per acre. Two additional applications in
1949-50 were equivalent to 30 tons per acre. The plots receiving the miscellane-
ous plant material were mulched at the same rate the first two years but the
1949-50 applications were equivalent to 24 tons of dry material per acre. Prior
to planting the tomatoes in 1950 all plots received an application of commercial
fertilizer at the rate of 500 pounds per acre.
English peas were planted on the plots in the fall of 1949. Average yield of
peas in the pod was 1,090 pounds per acre from the forest leaf plots, 477 pounds
per acre from the miscellaneous material plots and 852 pounds per acre from the
check plots. Tomatoes were planted on the plots in the spring of 1950. The
plots mulched with forest leaves produced 10,075 pounds of tomatoes per acre,
the miscellaneous material plots produced 6,150 pounds per acre, and the check
plots produced 3,975 pounds per acre. These yields are generally somewhat
low.
Examination of the tomato roots indicated that root-knot infestation was








Annual Report 1950


heaviest in the plots mulched with forest leaves and lowest in the plot mulched
with miscellaneous plant material. This would indicate that the mulching was
ineffective in root-knot control.

ANAPLASMOSIS IN CATTLE
Purnell Project 462 D. A. Sanders, A. N. Tissot
and C. F. Simpson
This project was inactive and the entomological phase was discontinued June
30, 1950. (See also Project 462, VETERINARY SCIENCE.)

STRAWBERRY VARIETY TRIALS
State Project 499 A. N. Tissot
The entomological phase of this project was inactive during this year, and is
closed herewith. (See also Project 499, HORTICULTURE and STRAWBERRY
INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY.)

CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID PESTS OF WOODY
ORNAMENTALS
State Project 531 L. C. Kuitert
Investigations of the control of pests of woody ornamentals have continued as
infested plants became available for experimental purposes. Tests indicate that
two applications of parathion sprays per year are sufficient for controlling heavy
infestations of Florida red, tea and camellia scales if the applications are timed
properly. Evidence to date indicates that the most suitable time for the first
application is roughly about two weeks after the plants throw out a flush of new
growth. This is based on the fact that parathion is highly effective in controlling
the immature stages and that many of the scale eggs are hatching about this time,
permitting the crawlers to move out on the new growth.
Repeated tests have shown that 0.3 pounds of actual parathion in 100 gallons
of water gives very effective control of Florida red, tea and camellia scale insects
on camellias; of Florida red and tessellated scales on hollies, ligustrum and
oleanders; of Florida red scale on ardisias and elaeagnus; and of liriodendron scale
on magnolias. Parathion at the rate of 0.15 pounds of actual parathion per 100
gallons of water is effective against Florida wax, pustule and oyster shell scales on
hollies; citrus whitefly, citrus mealybug, Florida wax and green shield scales on
gardenias; flower thrips, aphids and cottony cushion scale on roses; and leaf
miners, lace bugs, mealybugs and scales on azaleas.
Toxaphene 40 percent wettable powder, 2.5 pounds per 100 gallons of water,
gave very effective control of polka-dot wasp-mouth larvae on oleanders. This
same formulation has been effective in controlling a leaf-feeding beetle,
Rhabdopterus praetextus Say, on camellias.
Three fungicides were tested for compatibility with parathion. Copper A,
flordo and C-O-C-S fungicides added to parathion sprays caused no phytotoxic
reaction when applied to camellias and no loss of effectiveness of parathion was
observed.
Metacide, a new phosphatic insecticide which is reported to be considerably
less toxic to warm-blooded animals than parathion, was used in several small
tests. To date it has given excellent results in controlling aphids on camellias and
gardenias. Metacide has been effective also in controlling mealybugs and Florida
red and tea scales on camellias.
Two miticides, aramite (88-R) and EPN miticide, were tested for mite control
on azaleas, camellias, camphor and true myrtle and show considerable promise.
Both aramite and EPN miticide have been consistently effective in eliminating mite








68 Florida Agrciultural Experiment Station

infestations for periods of about one month. These phosphatic compounds have
not caused any phytotoxic reactions and appear to have the advantage over
parathion of a residual sufficient to clean up mite infestations with a single
application, while parathion requires two applications
Several insecticidal dusts were tested against the azalea defoliator. Datana
major G & R. Five percent chlordane and 2.5 percent dieldrin dusts were
effective in controlling the early instar larvae. Late in the season several sprays
were tested. Parathion 15 percent wettable powder, 1 ounce in 3 gallons of
water, appeared to be effective against all larval stages.

CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Bankhead-Jones 537 L. C. Kuitert, Fred A. Clark and A. N. Tissot
The experimental 10-plot tobacco plant bed became infested naturally with
the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and numerous well established
colonies were found in all plots. A single application of 1 percent parathion dust
gave a complete cleanup of the infestation, even though the plants were large
and crowded close together. Prior to the insecticide application, 30 plants heavily
infested with aphids were removed from the bed and planted some 50 yards
away. Two weeks after transplanting no aphids could be found on any of these
plants. Mole-crickets, which became rather serious in several of the plots, were
effectively controlled by means of a 1.5 percent chlordane bait.
Field tests were made on a planting slightly more than an acre in size. The
field was divided into 42 four-row plots each 87 feet in length. This provided
for three replications of insecticides. Three of the treatments consisted of mixtures
of two insecticides, one being used to control budworm and hornworm larvae
while the second was added to control aphids. Plants were examined and counts
were made to determine the larval population before and after application.
Insecticides were applied on May 4, May 19, June 2 and June 16. Harvesting
and curing of the experimental field is only partly finished. Yield records will be
obtained and the tobacco will be graded. These data will aid in the final evalua-
tion of the various treatments tested.
On the basis of larval counts, 3 percent DDD (Rhothane), 5 percent toxaphene,
3 per cent DDT, 1 percent aldrin and 1 percent dieldrin dusts and toxaphene
spray (1 pound of active ingredient in 100 gallons of water) gave effective control
of budworms and hornworms. The three dust mixtures, consisting of 3 percent
DDT and 1 percent parathion, 5 percent toxaphene and 1 percent parathion, and
3 percent DDD and 1 percent parathion, also gave excellent control. The 3
percent DDD generally was somewhat better than the other treatments; however,
the difference was not significant. The 5 percent methoxychlor dust was effective
against early instars of the hornworm but not against budworms or late instars of
hornworms. Lead arsenate-corn meal bait was effective against budworms but
gave practically no control of hornworms. Cryolite dust (1 part cryolite and 1
part pyrophyllite), although appreciably better than the check plots, was far
inferior to the better treatments. Lindane 1.5 percent dust also appears to be far
superior to the check plots and definitely better than cryolite, but is inferior to the
better materials.
There is some evidence to indicate that DDT is somewhat more effective in
controlling budworms and somewhat less effective in controlling hornworms than
toxaphene. The evidence is based on larval counts, extent of larval injury to
plants, and observations comparing average size of larvae found in the two treat-
ments. DDD appeared equally effective against budworms and hornworms and
in this experiment was considered the best insecticide of the materials tested.
Scattered aphid infestations were present in the field during the entire course
of the experiment but at no time did the infestation become general.








Annual Report 1950 69

Some plant injury due to insecticides was observed following the fourth
insecticide application. This application was made when the plants were wet
with dew and really too large to be treated by means of a crank-type hand
duster. Examination of the injured plants disclosed a heavy deposit of insecticide
on the lower surface of the injured leaves. (See also Project 537, AGRONOMY.)

MISCELLANEOUS
Honey Plant Research.-A survey of the state has been started in an attempt
to learn the most important honey plants now found in Florida. Cage tests were
conducted on several different types of clover to determine the value of honey
bees in pollinating these crops but the tests are not completed. Four colonies
were placed on scales to obtain information about the time and intensity of the
different nectar flows. A plot of ground has been secured and prepared for
establishing a honey plant introduction garden. Many different seeds have been
collected and will be planted upon completion of the installation of irrigation
equipment in the garden. Kodachrome slides have been made of several of the
more important honey plants. (F. A. Robinson.)
Control of Insect Pests on Succulent Plants.-Frequent tests were made in-
volving insect and mite control on several succulent plants. Parathion was the
only insecticide found effective in controlling mealybugs and scale insects. Four
miticides were tested. EPN miticide appears to have the longest residual effect,
although it kills rather slowly. Aramite gives a quick cleanup of the mites but
does not have the residual qualities of EPN miticide. Metacide was effective in
controlling aphids. Aldrin and dieldrin were effective in controlling some
lepidopterous larvae. No phytotoxic injury was observed. (L. C. Kuitert.)
Effects of Annually Repeated Soil Treatments of D-D for Controlling
Nematodes on Gladiolus.-Plots used in previous years were retreated in 1949
with 5 cc. of D-D applied at intervals of one foot in each direction. A very
heavy rain early in April washed considerable soil from plot to plot and induced
early reinfestation of the treated plots by nematodes. As a result, treated plots
produced only 5 percent more nematode-free corms than untreated ones. Differ-
ences between treated and untreated plots were less noticeable than in former
years, but the plants were somewhat larger in the treated plots and they produced
one and one-fourth times as many spikes, two and one-third times as many side
spikes, and one and one-half times as many flowerets.
Twelve additional plots were prepared in 1949. These were the same size as
the older plots and half of them were treated with D-D as in the older test. Four
treated and four untreated plots were planted with comparable size corms har-
vested the previous year from treated plots in the old area. Treated plots pro-
duced 12 percent more nematode-free corms than untreated ones. The four
remaining plots were planted with comparable corms harvested from untreated
plots of the old area. Here, treated plots produced 16 percent more nematode-
free corms than untreated ones. There were no observable differences in plants
of treated and untreated plots and there were no significant differences in yields of
corms or flowers. (H. E. Bratley.)
Mixing Insecticides with Fertilizer.-Two replicated tests were made to deter-
mine what effect heavy concentrations of insecticides in the soil have on the
germination of vegetable seeds and seedling plants. DDT, chlordane, benzene
hexachloride, lindane, toxaphene, 497 (dieldrin) and parathion were tested at three
levels of concentration, 1, 5 and 10 pounds of active ingredient per acre. Each
treatment was replicated four times. Fertilizer was added at a uniform rate.
Seeds of six vegetables were tested. Seed germination apparently was not
affected by the addition of these concentrations of insecticides to soil. All of the
concentrations of benzene hexachloride showed evidence of delaying or retarding








70 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

the growth of seedling tomato and pepper plants. This stunting was in direct
proportion to the concentration and the highest concentration very markedly
halted the development of the plants over a long period. Examination of the
root systems indicated that the development of primary and secondary roots was
inhibited. The roots terminated abruptly and had thickened, blunt ends.
In the spring of 1950 a small plot replicated experiment was set up to study
the effects of mixing insecticides with fertilizer. Wettable powders of the
insecticides were mixed with a 4-7-5 fertilizer at two levels. All plots received
uniform application of 1,000 pounds of fertilizer per acre. Chlordane, DDT,
toxaphene and aldrin were applied at 10 and 5 pounds of active ingredient per
acre, lindane and benzene hexachloride at 1 and 0.5 pounds of gamma isomer per
acre, and parathion at 5 and 2.5 pounds per acre. None of the mixtures caused
any observable effects on plants grown on the plots, but taste tests of beans grown
on the plots indicated a definite off flavor from benzene hexachloride and a slight
off flavor from lindane. The flavor of tomatoes was not affected. (L. C. Kuitert
and A. N. Tissot.)








Annual Report 1950


HOME ECONOMICS
Three Purnell projects have been completed and results are being prepared
for publication. Four new projects submitted for approval are in the field of
fundamental nutritional research, an area that lately has been receiving more
popular recognition. These projects represent an expansion of interest in certain
results arising from past and current work, such as irregularities in femur develop-
ment in rats previously fed water bread and then realimented on stock food;
appearance of skeletal defects in offspring of these animals; interruption in both
time and sequence of carpal development of children and effects of these dis-
turbances on later skeletal behavior; the factor or factors that may interfere with
the utilization of vitamin A.

ASSESSMENT OF THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CERTAIN SUPPLEMENTS
WHEN ADDED TO BASAL DIETS OF ENRICHED AND
UNENRICHED BREAD
Purnell Project 442 0. D. Abbott and R. B. French
This project closes with the following report. In 1945 a comparative study
was made of the nutritive value of wheat bread and of enriched and unenriched
white bread both made with water and with the addition of 6 percent dry milk
solids. These breads, supplemented with vitamin A and with fat, were fed as the
sole diet of five groups of young rats. It was found that under the conditions of the
experiment and when judged by appearance, weight and hemoglobin, no advantages
due to enrichment could be demonstrated. While the weights of rats fed wheat
bread or breads containing milk were significantly higher than those fed either
type of water bread, all weights were much below those of rats fed stock diets.
Since a highly nutritious bread could go far in raising the nutritional standards
of a large segment of the population, a study of the value of certain supplements
in improving the nutritive value of bread was undertaken. There was also the
possibility that on a diet permitting better growth the value of enrichment could
be demonstrated.
Basal diets of water bread were supplemented as follows: B complex, essential
amino acids singly and in combination, yeast, crude and vitamin-free casein,
casein hydrolysate, CaHPOi, vitamin D and dry milk solids. The B complex
and essential amino acids were ineffective in increasing weights of rats fed a basal
diet of either enriched or unenriched water bread. Dry milk solids (total protein
24%) gave the largest weight gains, vitamin-free casein the least, and all other
supplements intermediate gains. When to the bread-purified casein diet (total
protein 18%) 4% of the animal protein factor was added, weight gains were
slightly higher than those of rats fed dry milk bread at the same protein level.
Rats fed bread-vitamin-free casein diets (total protein 18 and 24%) developed
lesions about the mouth and a high nervous tension characterized by irritability,
restlessness, squealing, and protruding eyes with color change from pink to scarlet.
Additions of riboflavin, niacin and pyridoxine at 10 times the daily requirement
cured the mouth lesions but had no effect on nervous symptoms. Likewise, the
nervous symptoms were not alleviated by large amounts of B complex containing
liver and stomach fractions.
Roentgenograms of rats fed bread diets showed that skeletal mineralization of
rats fed supplements of dry milk, CaHPO, and vitamin D was superior to that
of rats fed other supplements. Roentgenograms showed also that rats fed basal
diets of water bread and then realimented on stock food showed a peculiar
development of the femurs. These bones were either both unusually short or of
unequal length. This abnormality did not occur in rats fed milk or wheat breads.
Throughout these experiments no advantages due to enrichment have been








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


demonstrated. When enriched and unenriched bread diets were supplemented so
that approximately normal weight gains were made, again no advantages due to
enrichment were noted. The chief deficiencies in bread were primarily those of
protein, calcium and unless milk furnished the protein supplement, the animal
protein factor.
The observation that deficient diets in early life can damage skeletal develop-
ment of rats when realimented on an adequate diet is of importance. There is
also the possibility that dietary deficiencies in early life may account for certain
skeletal deformities found in humans. Likewise the nervous disorders which
developed in rats as a result of certain as yet unidentified dietary factors may
have a counterpart in humans.

VITAMIN B CONTENT OF FOODS
Purnell Project 443 R. B. French and 0. D. Abbott
Approximately 150 samples have been analyzed for thiamine, riboflavin and
niacin by microbiological procedures. The samples included (1) usual fruits
and vegetables grown in this area, (2) some of the more important sub-tropical
fruits and vegetables, (3) 10 varieties of mangos to show effect of variety on
level of the vitamins, (4) pork loin to show effect of feeding either citrus or cane
molasses against a control group fed corn, and (5) 10 of the commonly eaten fish
and shellfish.
Comparison of values obtained in this study with the variable values reported
in the literature for usual fruits and vegetables suggest a slightly lower thiamine
and about medium values for riboflavin and niacin. No strikingly unusual
comparative values have been obtained. The 15 sub-tropical species analyzed
ran low or lacked thiamine, and only one (passion fruit) was a good source of
riboflavin, while several proved to be good sources of niacin. The 10 varieties
of mangos showed little spread in level of the vitamins and were all poor sources
of thiamine and riboflavin and medium sources of niacin. In pork loin the basal
corn diet had produced a higher level of thiamine than either cane or citrus
molasses, but there was little difference in any of the three diets on the riboflavin
or niacin levels. (In cooperation with Department of Animal Husbandry. See
Project 540). The fish and shellfish ranged from poor to medium sources for
thiamine and riboflavin, and proved good sources for niacin.
This project closes with this report. A manuscript in preparation for publica-
tion will present data which will be useful in computing Southern intake of the
B vitamins and will show that fruits and vegetables grown in Florida have an
average level of these vitamins.

EFFECT OF PROCESSING AND STORAGE UPON THE NUTRITIVE
VALUE OF MILK
Purnell Project 516 0. D. Abbott and R. B. French
Modern methods of processing and storage make possible the serving of milk
that varies in age from a few hours to many days and even months. Since milk is
still considered the most important and necessary single food, any factors that
impair or modify its nutritive value should be known. The milks tested were
raw, pasteurized, evaporated and non-fat milk solids. These milks were fed
fresh and aged. The basal diets were made up of two-thirds ground whole
wheat and one-third milk. Diets containing non-fat milk solids were supple-
mented with 200 I.U. vitamin A daily and 4 percent peanut oil, so that the fat
and vitamin A content were equivalent to that of whole milk.
At the end of 13 weeks the weights of male rats fed evaporated milk, fresh
and aged non-fat milk solids were as follows: 260, 207 and 145 grams. Weights








Annual Report 1950


of the females, though somewhat lower, were in the same order. The cause of
variation in weight of these three groups could not be explained on the basis of
food intake or palatability. It is suggested that aging, differences in processing
and in kinds of fat, animal versus vegetable, might account for the observed
variation in weight.
No significant differences in weight were found between rats fed raw and
those fed pasteurized milk, nor between those fed fresh and aged raw or fresh
and aged pasteurized milks. However, weight gains in all groups fed either type
of pasteurized milk were slightly above those fed either fresh or aged raw milk.
The leveling of the weight curve of rats fed either raw or pasteurized, fresh or
aged milk from cows concurrently treated with antibiotics is of interest.
These results suggest that aging and the usual processing methods have little
effect on the nutritive value of milk but that other factors can have profound
effects.

MISCELLANEOUS
In cooperation with other departments of the Experiment Station, several
miscellaneous studies have been made.
Bread.-Previous studies by this Department show that diets of families in low-
income groups are made up largely of bread and cereals. A highly nutritious
bread would go far in improving the nutrition of these families. Recently a bread
made of unbleached flour, 8 percent non-fat milk solids and 4 percent soy flour
was developed by cooperation of the American Dry Milk Institute, Public Health
Department of New York and Dr. Clive McCay of Cornell University. Bread of
this composition is now used in the mental institutions and in the school lunch-
rooms in New York with great success. During the year trial runs of this bread
have been made according to the standard formula, with modifications as to
temperature and time of proofing as suggested by the baker at the University
Cafeteria. It was found that this bread could be made easily under conditions
found in homes. Taste tests showed that it was of good flavor and texture and
was highly acceptable. It was found also that retention of moisture and keeping
qualities were good. Cost estimates showed that a 11-pound loaf could be sold
for 25c.
Honey.-Samples of honey submitted by Extension apiculturists have been
examined as to source. The procedure used is to identify the pollen contained in
the honey by both its shape and relative numbers. The assumption then is made
that the honey is produced from the flowers whose pollen can be identified in the
honey. A desirable thing for this type of work would be to have available for
purposes of comparison microscopic slides or photographs of pollen from the
common honey plants of the state.
Peanuts.-Several lots of peanuts grown in improvement tests under State
Project 20 (See AGRONOMY) have been subjected after roasting to panel testing
for quality and flavor. The panel has invariably rated highest for both flavor and
quality the Dixie Runner or crosses in which the Dixie Runner was prominent.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HORTICULTURE
Various problems of growers, handlers, shippers and processors of vegetables
have been investigated during the year. Research has been conducted also with
the production of deciduous fruits, nuts and ornamentals.

PROPAGATION, PLANTING AND FERTILIZING TESTS WITH
THE TUNG-OIL TREE
Hatch Project 50 R. D. Dickey and G. H. Blackmon
The winter of 1949-50 yielded additional information on the chilling require-
ments of resting tung buds. Approximately 245 hours of temperatures 45* or
lower were recorded in the Gainesville area by February 1. This, with the warm
weather of most of December and all of January, started tung buds into growth
by early February. During the winter of 1948-49 this area had about 160 hours
of temperatures of 45" F. or lower by February 1, yet the warm weather of
December through February of that winter did not start tung buds into growth
until an additional 110 "cold hours" occurred in March. This indicates that the
minimum chilling requirements for tung buds lies somewhere between approxi-
mately 160 and 245 hours.
Freezing temperatures in February, after growth had started, produced almost
complete crop loss in all orchards in the Gainesville area and severe tree injury in
several orchards.
Borax was applied in 1949, on April 22, May 27, July 1 and August 5, to
determine whether time of application had any effect on time of appearance and
severity of boron' toxicity symptoms. The time borax was applied did not sig-
nificantly affect the number of days from time of application until the trees
evidenced injury or the severity of boron toxicity symptoms.
Trees receiving high nitrogen (8 percent) produced larger yields than those
which received low nitrogen (4 percent) for 1948 and 1949 in Jefferson County.

TESTING OF NATIVE AND INTRODUCED SHRUBS AND ORNAMENTALS
AND METHODS FOR THEIR PROPAGATION
Hatch Project 52 R. D. Dickey and R. J. Wilmot
Several species of Jasminum have been grown in Florida for many years and
are popular landscape plants. Nomenclature of this genus is badly confused and,
as a result, the correct name is not always applied to a species. Twelve species
growing in Florida have been correctly identified and a simple key, together with
a detailed description of each, published in the 1949 Proceedings of the Florida
State Horticultural Society.
Information on propagation, varieties, planting, cultivation, fertilization and
flower bud drop of hibiscus has increased greatly in recent years. This informa-
tion was disseminated through Bulletin 467, Hibiscus in Florida.
Plant materials received from BPIS&AE and other sources for testing as
possible ornamentals included rooted cuttings of 40 Belgian azalea varieties, 8
species of Australian and Asiatic plants and seeds of 271 different species.
Tests to measure the effect of storage times, storage temperatures and different
storage temperatures at different times, on growth and flowering of the tulip
variety Scarlet Leader, were conducted during 1949-50. The time of cold storage
had a decided effect on growth and flowering of the bulbs; 30-day storage was
unsatisfactory; a 60 to 90-day period was much better than 30 days, but 90 days'
storage was no better than 60 days. The temperatures at which bulbs were
stored affected their growth and flowering. Bulbs stored at 350 and 42* emerged


L








Annual Report 1950


sooner and grew better but produced significantly less flowers than those stored at
56* F. From the standpoint of flower production the best treatment was storage
at 56' for 90 days.
COOPERATIVE COVER CROP TESTS IN PECAN ORCHARDS
State Project 80 G. H. Blackmon, R. H. Sharpe and J. D. Warner
See Project 80, NORTH FLORIDA STATION, for report of work conducted
under this project.

VARIETY TESTS OF MINOR FRUITS AND ORNAMENTALS
State Project 187 R. H. Sharpe, R. D. Dickey,
G. H. Blackmon and R. J. Wilmot
Blackberries.-During the year plantings were made of nine additional varieties.
Three varieties, Alfred, Brainerd and Early Harvest, were removed because of
high winter chilling requirements. The varieties added are Texas 40-78, 40-181,
Advance 1 and 2, and North Carolina 103, 104, 105, 111 and 118.
Blueberries.-Variety plantings made in 1949 grew well after iron deficiency
was corrected and produced a light crop. The varieties coming from the breeding
work of the USDA and the Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station appear to be
the most promising, though it is too early to make any specific recommendations.
Peaches.-Peach trees in soil treated with ethylene dibromide (Dowfume W-40)
or DD at time of planting and with an organic mulch added annually continue to
make outstanding growth at the end of two years. Most of the non-mulched trees
made sparse growth in 1950, while mulched ones made excellent growth. At the
end of the 1948 season mulched trees had a trunk area of 1.8 times that of non-
mulched trees, while at the end of 1949 the corresponding figure was 2.3, indi-
cating an increasing superiority of mulching as trees attain age.

SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF VARIETIES AND STRAINS OF
VEGETABLES ADAPTABLE TO COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
State Project 282 F. S. Jamison, V. F. Nettles, L. H. Halsey,
and F. E. Myers
Tomatoes.-Ten commercial varieties, including three Rutgers strains and 11
unnamed trial varieties, were grown in replicated plots. The strain of Rutgers
secured from the USDA Regional Vegetable Breeding Laboratory, Charleston,
S. C., was used as standard. Five pickings of mature green fruit were made from
unstaked plants. In yield of marketable fruit (U. S. No. I's and 2's combined) the
best were STEP 89 and 135, Jefferson and Rutgers from commercial sources.
Lakeland was high in yield and quality of fruit but size was small and production
was late. Other new varieties showing promise were Fortune (formerly STEP 57)
and STEP 68 (see Table 1.) The varieties which were early, as judged by yield of
the first two pickings, were STEP 80, 132, 135 and 89 and Fortune.
The incidence of growth cracking was less on fruit of Jefferson, Lakeland,
commercial Rutgers and STEP 80, 111, 112 and 117. Crooks and cat-faces were
noticeably few on fruit of Lakeland and commercial Rutgers.
Beans.-Several new snap bean varieties were planted in observational plots in
Marion and Union counties to determine growth preference. Contender, Top
Crop, B1515-1-7-1-2, B1643-1 and B2254 were among those found most suitable.
Yields and quality were considered equal to or better than standard varieties.
B1643-1, previously outstanding for excellent yields, showed no apparent resistance
to mosaic in these plantings. Unsatisfactory stands warranted no analysis of
results from replicated bean trials.
Sweet Potatoes.-Eighteen varieties have been planted for observational pur-
poses and selection.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 1.-VARIATIONS IN PERFORMANCE OF 21 TOMATO VARIETIES.
FRUIT HARVESTED MATURE GREEN FROM UNSTAKED PLANTS. SPRING 1950.


Variety


STEP 89(1) ----
Lakeland(2) ...-....
STEP 135(1) ----
Rutgers(2) -....---
Jefferson(2) -..--.-
Stokesdale(2) ----.-
Rutgers(3) ----3
Fortune(1) --...---
Rutgers(1)' ---
STEP 68(1) ----
STEP 125(1) -_-
STEP 132(1) --
STEP 117(1) ....-
Grothen Globe(2)
STEP 111(1) -
STEP 80 (1) .--
STEP 112(1) -
Manasota(4) --_
STEP 134(1) .-
STEP 119(1) ---
Manahill(4) ....---__
L. S. D. .05 level:
L. S. D. .01 level:


Mktbl.
Yield
Bu./
Acre

------ 181
172
163
.. 160
153
-- 144
143
-..-- 138
134
114
110
106
- 104
100
99
92
91
89
79
72
-..--- 61
40
54


Early Yield
1st & 2nd. Percent
Pickings
Bu / Percent Cracked
Acre Mktbl.


t of Tctal Fruit
Crooks & Other
Cat-faces Culls


*Seed sources: (1) USDA; (2) commercial;
periment Station; (4) Vegetable Crops
Experiment Station.


(3) New Jersey Agricultural Ex-
Laboratory, Florida Agricultural


"This variety considered standard. Seed source, USDA Regional Vegetable
Breeding Laboratory.

CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE MU-OIL TREEs
State Project 365 R. D. Dickey, G. H. Blackmon and F. S. Lagasse
Sixteen eight-year-old Aleurites montana (Lour.) Wils., seedling trees in a
commercial tung orchard near La Crosse were much more severely injured by
freezing temperatures in February 1950 than were tung trees growing in the
same and adjoining rows.
Resting buds of the mu-oil tree apparently have a low chilling requirement.
During the winter of 1948-49 less than 160 hours of temperatures 45" F. or lower
were recorded in the Gainesville area by February 1; yet mu-oil trees had started
growth by the middle of February. During the winter of 1949-50 mu-oil trees in
the Gainesville area received approximately 245 hours of 45" F. or lower by
February 1. These were sufficient "cold hours" to meet the chilling requirement
of this species for when the trees were subjected to warm weather in December
and January they started vigorous and uniform growth by the last week of January
or early February.
In cooperation with BPISAE, USDA.







Annual Report 1950


Two second-generation hybrid seedlings from open-pollinated seed from first-
generation hybrids from reciprocal crosses between Aleurites montana x A. fordi
flowered for the first time in March 1950. The inflorescences were similar in
structure to the typical female raceme type of inflorescence borne on Aleurites
montana trees. Several flowers were pollinated with pollen from male flowers on
the same inflorescence but no fruit set.

RELATION OF ZINC AND MAGNESIUM TO GROWTH AND
REPRODUCTION IN PECANS
Hatch Project 375 G. H. Blackmon and R. H. Sharpe
Foliage samples of Stuart trees which had received annual applications of 0, 6
and 12 pounds of a material containing 85 to 95 percent MgO from 1942 through
1945 averaged, respectively 0.34, 0.47 and 0.49 percent Mg, dry weight basis, in
September 1949. This experiment was on Norfolk Fine Sandy Loam soil and the
data indicate satisfactory uptake of the magnesium in this soil type. However,
during the period of the experiment (1942-50) there were no significant yield
increases due to Mg fertilization.
Survey data from this and other orchards in the state indicate a leaf chlorosis
and breakdown usually associated with Mg levels below 0.20 to 0.25 percent dry
weight in September samples from trees bearing none to a light crop of nuts.
The project is closed with this report.

VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS
State Project 391 F. S. Jamison, V. F. Nettles and F. E. Myers
Sweet Corn.-Eighteen sweet corn varieties from the 1950 Southern Coopera-
tive Trials were tested in replicated plantings for comparison with standard
varieties. Yields of Oto, Huron, Erie, loana and Golden Cross Bantam were
1,573, 1,425, 1,399, 1,215 and 1,087 dozen ears per acre, respectively.
Improved Sencross again matured at least a week ahead of all other varieties
in the trial. Most varieties were harvested within 83 to 89 days from planting.
Acceptably shaped ears were general and most varieties had 12 to 14 rows of
kernels. Average ear length and diameter measurements varied from 6 to 9 inches
and from 1/4 to 2 inches, respectively.
Most varieties were approximately 6 feet high, ranging from 60.5 inches for
Improved Sencross to 86.5 inches for Illinois No. 20 on the average.
All varieties showed a tendency to sucker, but vigor of suckers varied between
varieties. Growth of many original suckers was inhibited and they apparently
became non-functional, even under optimum growing conditions.
Seventy-one additional varieties were grown in observational trials to deter-
mine possible adaptations to environmental conditions and resistance to Helmin-
thosporium disease, which, however, did not occur in epidemic proportions in this
area. None were considered superior to standard varieties in yield and quality.
Cucumbers.-Six varieties were planted in replicated blocks to test yielding
ability and six other varieties were planted in single rows for observation only.
Many plants were killed by cold, which left an uneven stand, and no yield records
were taken. The surviving plants and those from replanted seed grew rapidly
and produced good quality fruit. Palmetto and Santee, two selections from the
South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, were of satisfactory color, size
and shape. These two varieties, as well as S. C. 8, 10 and 11, showed considerable
resistance to mildew as compared to A & C, Cubit or Marketer. Cornell Mosaic-
Resistant was very susceptible to downy mildew.
Cantaloupes.-Several varieties of cantaloupes were grown and all except
Smith's Perfect were severely damaged by downy mildew. The seed planted to
this variety were from selfed-fruits from plants producing fruit of uniform size
and shape.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Cauliflower.-Fourteen varieties were tested in replicated plantings. Snow-
ball Y, Snowball A, Snowball 16 and two strains of Super Snowball were superior
to others.
Peppers.-Highest yield of marketable peppers in number and weight from
17 varieties was harvested from Illinois F5, fruit of the World Beater type. Aver-
age weight per fruit of this variety was not significantly different from any in the
test. Variations in yield of peppers of the same variety but from different seed
sources were observed.
Broccoli.-Eighteen varieties from the Southern Cooperative Broccoli Trials
were planted in replicated trials. A new strain, Texas Agricultural Experiment
Station 107, produced the largest weight of side shoots and total broccoli.
(See also Project 391, SUB-TROPICAL, EVERGLADES and CENTRAL
FLORIDA STATIONS; VEGETABLE CROPS, STRAWBERRY and POTATO
INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORIES.)

EFFECTS OF BORON ON CERTAIN DECIDUOUS FRUITS AND NUTS
Adams Project 432 G. H. Blackmon and R. H. Sharpe
Colemanite, in amounts containing boron equivalent to 3 pounds borax, was
applied in 1949 in zones 0 to 7, 7 to 14 and 14 to 21 feet from the trunks of
mature pecan trees planted 50 feet apart. Leaf samples taken in August from
treated trees contained three to eight times more boron than those from the
checks. With the treated trees, leaves from 7 and 14-foot zones had significantly
higher boron content than from the 21-foot zone. Trees adjacent to those treated
did not show an increase in boron content of the leaves over that found in the
checks, indicating no cross-feeding.
Application of borax and Colemanite to pineapple pears produced no effects
on tree growth, fruit structure, or quality. (This work was in cooperation with
H. W. Winsor, Soils Department. See Report, Project 433, SOILS.)

IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Bankhead-Jones Project 435 V. F. Nettles
Onions and peas were grown on the permanent irrigation plots during the past
year under three irrigation treatments: frequent, % inch of water every 3 days;
medium, % inch of water every 6 days; occasional, % inch of water every 12 days.
A plot to which no irrigation was added served as a check. Rainfall was light
throughout the growing season of both crops, so that numerous applications of
water were required.
Peas.-Six varieties were planted but freezing weather injured the four earlier
varieties at time of first harvest. Average yield of these damaged peas was
significantly higher from frequently irrigated plots than from plots receiving no
irrigation, but differences among other irrigation treatments were not significant.
No significant differences in yield were obtained with irrigation for later maturing
varieties.
Half of each plot planted to peas was treated with gypsum (70 percent calcium
sulfate) at a rate of 400 pounds per acre prior to planting. Yields of peas were
not significantly affected by gypsum application.
Onions.-Total average yields of Texas Grano and Excel transplanted plants
from all plots which received irrigation were significantly higher than yields from
plots not irrigated, but there were no differences among irrigation treatments.
Total average yield of Texas Grano was 10.7 tons per acre, which was significantly
higher than the yield of 7.2 tons per acre for Excel. Yield of onions less than two
inches in diameter was significantly larger from plots not irrigated.
In cooperation with J. M. Myers, onions from each variety and treatment
were artificially cured in 50-pound mesh bags spread out in a single layer on the








Annual Report 1950 79

floor of a hay drier. An average temperature of 104 F. was maintained with
forced draft for 21 hours. A similar lot of onions was placed in a closed shed
with no temperature control. After curing, all onions were stored in the closed
shed where temperatures fluctuated from 73 to 96 with approximately an
82 F. average.
At the end of two weeks and one month, the onions were weighed and sorted
and those decayed were discarded. At the end of one month no significant
differences in storage losses were obtained with varieties between the methods of
curing. Significantly larger storage losses occurred with Texas Grano grown under
irrigation, but no differences were found in Excel grown under the several levels of
moisture. However, total losses were significantly larger with Excel than with
Texas Grano.

CULTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF CAMELLIA AND
RELATED GENERA
State Project 452 R. J. Wilmot, Nathan Gammon and Austin Griffiths
In cooperation with H. N. Miller, five fungicidal dips were tested and none
had a significant effect in reducing the loss by damping-off of cuttings from three
camellia varieties. However, cuttings of the variety Derbyana showed a sig-
nificant natural resistance to damping-off in this and repeated tests.
In a pot culture experiment, camellias were shown to be tolerant of variation in
soil pH. Good plants were obtained over a pH range of 3.0 to 7.0. There was an
indication that the pH range 5.0 to 6.0 was most favorable for flowering.
It was found that cuttings made with either right angle and sloping basal cuts
rooted equally well. There were no differences in the rooting of cuttings made
with shears or a sharp knife.
There were 109 additional varieties and species acquired for testing.

MAINTAINING FRESHNESS IN VEGETABLES WITH ICE
State Project 467 R. K. Showalter
This project was inactive during the year.

QUALITY OF VEGETABLES AS RELATED TO FERTILIZING MATERIALS,
WITH EMPHASIS ON POTASH SALTS
State Project 468 R. A. Dennison
For the second consecutive year results were obtained showing that the storage
quality of cabbage and the carrying quality of tomatoes were influenced by the
source of potash used in the culture of the crops. Cabbage harvested and stored
from muriate of potash plots maintained more firmness than cabbage from sulfate
of potash plots. Tomatoes were tested on a machine that simulated shipping and
handling conditions. When these fruit ripened a higher percentage were in
marketable condition from the sulfate of potash plots than from the muriate of
potash plots. When no potash was included in the fertilizers quality ratings of
both cabbage and tomatoes was low.
Total yields of both cabbage and tomatoes were not influenced significantly
by rates and sources of potash used but yield of U. S. No. 1 tomatoes was
significantly lower when no potash was included in the fertilizer.

FREEZING PRESERVATION OF CERTAIN FLORIDA-GROWN
VEGETABLES
State Project 473 R. A. Dennison and H. M. Reed
Examination of the green bean varieties which were frozen in 1949 and
examined by the taste panel indicated that B1419-1-15-41, Top Crop, Contender,








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Black Valentine, B1800-4 and Rival had the highest average ratings. A com-
parison was made of the quality of the B1733 variety which was packed in 2
percent brine and dry-packed. The dry-pack was better in color, general appear-
ance, flavor and average quality rating, but poorer in texture and odor.
Iochief, Aristogold Bantam, Tendermost, Pawnee and Calumet were judged
highest in average quality in the frozen corn variety tests. Golden Security
harvested from plots which received no irrigation or light irrigation was better in
texture and flavor but not as good as medium and heavy irrigation in color and
general appearance. When all factors used to calculate average quality were
given equal weight, medium and heavy irrigation plots had highest ratings.
Frozen celery cuts treated with various hardening chemicals or untreated and
packed dry and in brine or dextrose solutions were good in appearance but did
not retain fresh celery textural characteristics.
Thawing and draining frozen pack strawberries did not offer any particular
advantage to the judging panel over allowing the berries to thaw and remain in
their syrup.

EFFECT OF SOIL FUMIGANTS ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF
VEGETABLES
Bankhead-Jones Project 475 V. F. Nettles
A severe rolling of tomato plant leaves and relatively high ammonia in the
soil has occurred on fumigated plots for the past two years. An attempt was
made this season to obtain again these conditions for study.
Two fumigants, D-D and Dowfume W-40, were applied to plots in a split-plot
Latin square arrangement; a third treatment of no fumigant was included. Plots
were sub-divided to test the application of fumigants at 10 and 28 days prior to
planting and to test three fertilizers with different nitrogen sources. The sources
of nitrogen tested were nitrate nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen and a commercial
mixture.
No severe condition of leaf-rolling of the tomato plants occurred and no
significant differences in yield of marketable tomatoes were obtained with fumiga-
tion or time of application treatments. Plots fertilized with the commercial
mixture out-yielded those receiving the fertilizers containing large percentages of
ammoniacal or nitrate nitrogen.
A study of the effects of D-D and Dowfume W-40 on the germination of pea,
snap bean, cucumber and okra seeds was made in small replicated plots under
field conditions. Fumigants were applied at time of planting and 2, 8 and 14
days prior to planting. No significant differences were found in percent germina-
tion of the seeds tested between fumigation treatments or time of application.

DEHYDRATION AND UTILIZATION OF VEGETABLE BY-PRODUCTS AS
DAIRY AND POULTRY FEEDS
State Project 478 R. A. Dennison, N. R. Mehrhof, R. B. Becker,
G. K. Davis, E. L. Fouts and P. T. D. Arnold
This project was inactive during the year and is closed herewith. (See also
Project 478, DAIRY SCIENCE.)

CONSUMER PACKAGING OF VEGETABLES (EXCEPT TOMATOES)6
Purnell Project 483 R. K. Showalter, L. H. Halsey and A. H. Spurlock
Studies were continued on the prepackaging of broccoli, cauliflower and sweet
corn at Ruskin. Preliminary investigations were made on the prepackaging of
celery at Sanford and Ruskin. In addition to the studies of these commercial
OIn cooperation with the Department of Agricultural Economics, the USDA and the
Florida Vegetable Prepackaging Council.








Annual Report 1950


operations, some laboratory research was conducted in Gainesville and at the
USDA Laboratory in Orlando.
The amount of ventilation for broccoli packages was found to be critical and
more air exchange was necessary as the storage temperature increased. Tightly
sealed cellophane packages developed bad odors and flavors, while loose seals or
/4-inch perforations allowed rapid yellowing. The discoloration of cut surfaces
was objectionable in pliofilm and the film was tacky after sealing. The moisture
loss through cellulose acetate resulted in rapid wilting.
Sodium bisulfite and ascorbic acid did not control the discoloration of pack-
aged Ruskin cauliflower. Discoloration was retarded by low temperatures (35 to
40*) but developed rapidly at 70 to 80 F. Cauliflower grown on the Station
farm at Gainesville developed very little discoloration at any storage temperature.
Tests were made to determine the effects of different films, ventilation and
storage temperature on the eating qualities and sugar content of sweet corn. Data
were obtained on the precooling of corn for prepackaging in comparison with
corn for bulk shipment. In an 18-foot commercial hydrocooler which circulated
3,000 gallons of 43 F. water over unhusked corn packed in wirebound crates,
average cob temperatures were reduced 19, from 870 to 68 F., in 13 minutes.
When the water temperature was reduced to 37 F. and the time extended to 21
minutes, the corn temperature dropped 290, to 580. In a 80-foot hydrocooler
circulating 2,000 gallons of 34.5 F. water over husked corn on a wire mesh
belt, the corn temperature dropped 47*, from 91 to 44 F., in 12 minutes.
Several types of celery packages were investigated. Preference among cus-
tomers was nearly equal in Tampa retail stores for a whole celery stalk in a short
cellophane bag, which extended from the base only to the leaves, as compared to
a stalk with all the petioles broken from the stem, washed and completely pack-
aged in a longer bag. Much faster wilting occurred in the celery with exposed
tops. Pascal celery from Sarasota and Sanford remained green longer in sealed
than in ventilated cellophane bags. A 3 percent solution of sodium bisulfite was
the most effective antioxidant tested to control the black ring which develops
around the base of the stalk. This discoloration was much darker at 350 than at
500 or 700 after more than two days of storage.
In March a new machine was put into commercial operation at Sanford to
stretch-wrap celery in pliofilm. Temperature records were made during various
precooling, packaging and storage conditions. One test shipment by rail included
pliofilm stretch-wrapped packages and celery placed in cellophane bags by a newly
developed bagging machine. Both types of packages were shipped in wirebound
celery crates and the celery in both films had retained their freshness after 17 days
at 36 F. A second test shipment by truck included celery stalks packaged in
cardboard trays overwrapped in cellophane and shipped in cardboard master
cartons. (See also Project 483, AGRICULTURE ECONOMICS.)

PACKAGING OF TOMATOES7
RMA Project 484 (Regional SM-3) R. K. Showalter, L. H. Halsey and
A. H. Spurlock
From January 9 through May 5 10 shipping tests were made by truck and
rail from Florida's East and West Coast growing areas. Data were obtained on
164 test lots of tomatoes in various types of containers from the field through the
ripening rooms of the BPI, S&AE in Beltsville and New York. To determine the
extent and factors affecting tomato losses, records were made on the history of the
crop, methods of handling and packing, type of load, temperatures in transit, arrival
conditions and quality after ripening.
'This is a part of the Southern Regional Project on tomato marketing, in coopera-
tion with the Florida Department of Agricultural Economics, Kentucky, Tennessee
Texas, South Carolina and the USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Containers studied included the open-top field and fiberboard boxes, two sizes
of wirebound boxes, a nailed box and the standard lug. Tomatoes in each test
container were graded for mechanical injury after shipment in a commercial load.
In nearly all tests there was less than 1 percent crushed fruit, which occurred
chiefly in the field boxes, fiberboard boxes and the high bulged lug. Pressure
bruising varied from less than 1 percent in the 18 feet containers in one truck load
to 11.5 percent in the field boxes of one rail car in which some shifting occurred.
The amount of bruising in lugs was increased in truck shipments by loading flat
rather than on their sides. Box-rub injury was much higher in unlined containers,
with the highest percentage in field boxes, followed by lugs. When slack developed
in one truck load, 28 percent box rub was found in the field boxes, compared to 1.5
percent in the lined nailed boxes of the same capacity.
The total of all mechanical injuries averaged less than 3 percent in the wire-
bound and nailed boxes hauled by truck. Mechanical injuries were generally
more serious in rail shipments than trucks and the temperatures in both were
often too high. Although there was considerable variation in different tests, the
lidded and lined containers were found to be somewhat better than the lug with
paper-wrapped tomatoes or the open-top field and fiberboard boxes. (See also
Project 484, AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS.)

STRAWBERRY VARIETY TRIALS
State Project 499 V. F. Nettles, A. N. Brooks and A. N. Tissot
This project was inactive and further work by the Horticulture Department is
discontinued. (See Project 499, ENTOMOLOGY and STRAWBERRY INVESTI-
GATIONS LABORATORY.)

VEGETABLE BREEDING
Purnell Project 501 A. P. Lorz
Apparently selected snap bean types are emerging from breeding which
indicate superiority over standard varieties and are now sufficiently uniform for
quantity comparisons with standards.
Prolific white-seeded, round-podded snap selections now in the fourth genera-
tion and requiring further purification indicate progress toward the production of
a dual-purpose (fresh market or processing) type.
Fordhook and Henderson type lima selections are uniform enough for increase
and for further study.
Snap and lima types from the surviving 5 percent of a large volunteer popula-
tion subjected to a 22* F. minimum and sub-freezing temperature for 7% hours
may be a source for bean varieties having some frost resistance in seedling stages.
Contributions to the technique of hybridization consist of the development of
a method for dispensing volumetrically minute quantities of growth regulators
from a specially designed micrometer pipette, of the establishment of a slow-drying
fluid vehicle for the growth regulators and of a study of their ability to inhibit
flower and pod abscission.
Breeding of new horticultural types of the Southern pea was initiated. A
large tan Crowder introduction from Korea by way of the New Hampshire Station
has been increased and material is available for extended testing.
Breeding lines of English peas were maintained through bulking to avoid their
extinction in the face of an adverse season. (See also Project 501, CENTRAL
FLORIDA STATION.)







Annual Report 1950


TOMATO RIPENING

Adams Project 521 F. S. Jamison, V. F. Nettles and L. H. Halsey
Mature-green tomato fruits from 21 varieties, classified as marketable, were
stored for ripening at a temperature of 69' to 70' F., and relative humidity of
85 to 90 percent. The percentage of ripe fruits was determined at the end of 10
to 15 days of storage. Some tomatoes failed to attain a commercially satisfactory
color after 15 days and were considered as storage losses. In addition to these
losses, the loss due to decay was determined.
The highest losses due to unripe fruit and decay occurred with Grothen Red
Globe and Manasota. Relatively low losses were noted with STEP varieties 68,
112, 117, 125 and 135.
Color ratings made of the ripened fruit indicate that the varieties which de-
veloped the best color were Lakeland, Rutgers, STEP 135, Jefferson and STEP 117.
This excellence of color was due to the high degree of redness and uniform color-
ing. STEP varieties 112, 119 and 134 had relatively poor color.
Judged by the amount of fruit ripening in the 10-day period, Stokesdale and
STEP 119 were slow, while Lakeland and STEP 80, 117 and 125 ripened rapidly.
STEP 132 was particularly soft when ripe, making it commercially undesirable.
Samples of field-ripened fruit and that ripened from both pink and mature-
green stages of maturity of Manahill, STEP 68 and Grothen Red Globe were pre-
served for future analysis for carotene and lycopene. Two lots of fruit were
ripened, one at a temperature of 69 to 70' F. and the other at a temperature of
approximately 85' F.
Fruit ripened in complete darkness, and that exposed to constant illumination,
and ripe and pink fruit from artificially shaded plants in the field were included
in the samples.


CANNING FLORIDA-GROWN VEGETABLES

State Project 526 H. M. Reed and R. A. Dennison
Among the 19 green bean varieties tested in the canning trials the following
commercial varieties received an average quality rating of good in decreasing order
from the judging panel: Rival, Black Valentine, Logan, Tendergreen, Top Crop
and Contender. Rival was equaled in quality rating by B1482-5-3-2 and sur-
passed by B1586. The wax beans, Pure Gold and Kingham, were also rated as good.
The best varieties of canned sweet corn were Aristogold Bantam Evergreen,
Pawnee, Victory Golden, Ioana and Huron, with average quality scores decreasing
in the order named. Golden Security corn which had received heavy irrigation
was slightly higher in average quality rating than the same variety which had re-
ceived medium, occasional and no irrigation. The difference was in all quality
factors except texture, which was best in the corn from the non-irrigated plots.
Continued work with canned celery indicated that the reduction of time and
temperature which was accomplished by the addition of citric acid to lower the
pH and make the sterilization safe was the most effective and practical means of
maintaining a good texture in the canned product. It was found that several
months were required after canning for the pH of the celery and canning liquid to
reach equilibrium. A satisfactory method for using canned and brined celery
stock in canned soup was developed.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TESTING MISCELLANEOUS FRUITS AND NUTS
State Project 553 H. W. Lundy, R. H. Sharpe and R. D. Dickey
For the report on these investigations, see West Florida Station, Project 553.

MISCELLANEOUS
Brined Celery.-In a study of methods for removing the salt from brined
celery for subsequent use, it was found that increasing the volume of fresh water
increased the rate of salt removal and that the rate of removal can be greatly
increased by reducing the size of celery pieces. The most economical and prac-
tical method of removing the salt was by the continuous discharge of a small
stream of fresh water at the bottom and overflow at the top of the container.
(H. M. Reed and R. A. Dennison.)

Potato Waxing.-Ten commercial wax emulsions, including colored and non-
colored types, were tested for effect upon weight loss, appearance and flavor of
Pontiac potatoes. Unwaxed samples were used as a control.
No significant differences were found in weight loss at the end of a month of
storage at 700 F. in closed kraft paper bags between any of the emulsions or
between the emulsions and the control. Colored waxes gave the tubers a more
uniform appearance than non-colored waxes. Heavier applications of colored
waxes presented an artificial appearance that was objectionable. The red dye in
the colored emulsions colored the cooking water and with the heavier applications
penetrated the flesh of the tubers. No off flavors were detected.
Another test was conducted in which comparisons were made between two
red emulsions with three dilutions of each, a red food dye with no wax, and an
unwaxed, uncolored control. These treatments were held at room temperature
in open trays for two weeks. There was no significant difference in weight loss
between the control and the lot comparable to commercially waxed potatoes. The
food color treatment lost significantly more weight than the control. Similar
treatments were held at 700 F. and 70-90 percent relative humidity in open trays.
No significant differences between any of the treatments were found at the end
of a month. (C. B. Hall.) (See also statement on waxing, Project 484, AGRICUL-
TURAL ECONOMICS.)

Potato Starch Content.-Potato variety samples were obtained from the Experi-
ment Stations at Homestead, Belle Glade, Hastings and Gainesville for the
determination of specific gravity, which increases with the starch content. First
year results indicate fairly low starch content for all varieties in all locations.
(C. B. Hall.)
Potato Skinning.-The effect of delay in harvesting after killing potato vines
upon the incidence of skinning of the tubers was studied. Vine treatments in-
cluded rotobeater, calcium cyanamid spray, dinitro compound spray, root pruning
and control. Plots in each treatment were harvested 1, 4, 7 and 10 days after
treatment and subjected to skinning in a mechanical shaker.
First year results showed a highly significant decrease in skinning between
successive harvest dates, except the fourth date had significantly more skinning
than the third. The fourth date had significantly less skinning than the second
harvest date, however.
No differences were found between treatments with the exception of the root
pruning, which showed significantly less skinning than any of the other treatments.
However, the tubers from the root pruning experiment were wilted and not in
salable condition. (C. B. Hall.)








Annual Report 1950


Response of Potato Tubers to Ethylene Chlorohydrin Treatment.-Ethylene
chlorohydrin was studied for its effect in shortening the rest period of potato
tubers and the influence on growth and yield of 12 varieties. The potatoes were
cut into seed pieces 1% to 2 ounces in size, dipped 1 minute in a 1:50 ethylene
chlorohydrin solution and stored at a temperature of 68 F. for 16 hours before
planting. The potatoes used for checks were handled the same except the
ethylene chlorohydrin treatment was omitted.
With all varieties sprout emergence was earlier from the treated than the
untreated tubers. Treated tubers produced more sprouts per seed piece and the
plants were taller during the first eight weeks of growth. Time of emergence
and rate of growth varied greatly for the different varieties.
When tubers were treated with ethylene chlorohydrin, higher total yields
were obtained from the following varieties: B61-3, B447-98, Kennebec, Marygold,
Dakota Chief, Katahdin, Bliss Triumph and Essex. The treatment did not in-
crease total yields of B76-43, X96-56, Pontiac and Sebago. (R. A. Dennison and
Arthur Goldstein.)

Tomato Fruit Setting Hormones.-Three commercial preparations were used
on a small scale but there was no beneficial effect on fruit setting under the con-
ditions prevailing this spring. (C. B. Hall.)

Mayhaw Jelly.-Jelly made from the fruit of several mayhaw seedling selec-
tions by a uniform process was of good quality. Variations in the flavor, color,
jellying characteristics and pH of the jelly samples indicated that the quality could
be further improved by using processes which would be best suited for each
variety. (H. M. Reed and R. J. Wilmot.)

Chemical Weed Control in Vegetables.-Several chemicals were studied for
their effect on crop growth and weed control. Nut grass (Cyperus rotundus L.)
and crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.) were the weeds most prevalent
in the plots. Materials containing pentachlorophenol gave the best control over
these two weeds. Granular cyanamid also reduced weed growth.
Corn growth was retarded and yields were reduced when the sodium salt of
2,4-D was used as a pre-emergence treatment. No injury resulted when 2,4-D
was applied after the corn reached a height of four inches. Granular cyanamid
applied at the rate of 400 pounds per acre when the soil moisture level was low
caused corn plants to be injured. Cyanamid applied at the rate of 200 pounds
per acre did not cause injury and gave highest yields.
Spring frosts caused most injury to green beans on the plots that had been
treated with pentachlorophenol compounds. (R. A. Dennison.)


U. S. FIELD LABORATORY FOR TUNG INVESTIGATIONS8
A hurricane in the Gainesville area on August 27, 1949, blew large quantities
of tung fruit to the ground. Analysis of this fruit for oil content revealed it to be
well worth saving and as a result an estimated $120,000 fruit was harvested that
otherwise would have been disked under or destroyed.
Studies conducted in several tung orchards to determine the amount of limb
and tree breakage caused by the hurricane showed that clonal trees trained to the
natural and high head suffered only 1.6 percent injury, whereas low-headed, vase-
shaped seedling trees suffered 9.0 percent loss. In another orchard where all trees
*The research work of the staff of the U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investi-
gations, Gainesville, Florida, financed by Federal funds, is carried on cooperatively
between the United States Department of Agriculture and the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


had been trained to a single trunk it was found that those having branches well
spaced suffered least damage, 4.5 percent, those with poorly spaced branches,
17.9 percent, and those of the cartwheel type, where all branches originated at
about the same level, suffered the severest damage, 67.6 percent. It is thus
evident that if tung trees are to withstand best the rather severe winds that occur
from time to time in this area, most varieties should be trained to a single trunk on
which the branches should be well spaced.
The average 1949 yield per tree of the best Aleurites fordi crosses was 22.4
pounds and that of the remainder of the crosses, 7.0 pounds. This 220 percent
increase largely represents increased resistance to low temperatures, for this
appeared to be the most important cause of low yields in the area during the
past season.
Three pre-planting seed treatments (stratification, cold storage and dry storage)
gave stands of 61, 56 and 50 percent, respectively. Main advantage of cold
storage and stratification treatments is the shortening of the period between
planting and emergence.
Cold storage treatment of seed previous to planting appears to offer a distinct
advantage in an herbicide program in the nursery because of closer control of
date of emergence of the seed. In addition, 17 different pre-emergence herbicide
treatments were tested in the nursery and it was found that dinitrobutylphenol
and diesel oil gave best weed control. From these results it appears possible
to control effectively weeds in the nursery without hand hoeing.
A study of the effect of source and amounts of magnesium and calcium fer-
tilizer on growth and production of tung trees in a magnesium-deficient soil has
been completed after five years of treatment. Perhaps the most interesting result
of this experiment is the evidence of beneficial effects of calcium applications
along with magnesium in increasing yields. The importance of calcium is clearly
indicated by the fact that the treatments that provided a good supply of available
magnesium and calcium, 14 pounds of dolomite plus 4 pounds of sulfur, or 4
pounds of Epsom salt plus 4 pounds of gypsum, were the most effective in increas-
ing yields. Leaf content both of magnesium and of calcium was substantially
increased with these treatments. This beneficial calcium effect was obtained by
the dolomite plus sulfur treatment despite the fact that the soil acidity was
increased by about 0.75 of a pH unit. The soils before treatment ranged from
pH 5.0 to 5.7. Epsom salt plus gypsum had little or no effect on the soil pH.
The treatment with dolomite alone was relatively ineffective in increasing yields,
although the acidity was decreased by about 0.75 of a pH unit.
Studies have been continued on the effect of mineral nutrition on the protein
composition and enzyme activity of the tung tree. No marked difference was
found in the composition of the proteins isolated from the leaves of normal and
copper-deficient tung trees, although there is a higher protein content per unit
leaf dry weight in the copper-deficient material.
(F. S. Lagasse, senior horticulturist; M. Drosdoff, soil technologist; S. G. Gil-
bert, associate plant physiologist; C. B. Shear, associate plant physiologist; Clare
M. Gropp, agent (junior chemist); H. L. Barrows, junior chemist; Lucille H. Fay,
clerk-stenographer; Ruth J. Phelps, agent (scientific aide); Mary Ann S. Crawford,
agent (scientific aide).)








Annual Report 1950


PLANT PATHOLOGY
Research work was continued during the year on the projects previously
reported upon and one of them has been practically completed. Three new
projects have been initiated, and some work has been done on minor miscellaneous
problems.

COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF SPECIMENS OF
FLORIDA PLANTS
State Project 259 Erdman West and Lillian E. Arnold
The addition of 7,996 specimens, mostly Spermatophytes, to the permanent
collections in the herbarium brought the total number in all groups to 115,344.
In addition, 270 sheets of replications were replaced with more desirable speci-
mens. Gift and exchange specimens received included 1,818 specimens of higher
plants from S. C. Hood, 56 packets of Florida lichens, 86 packets of fresh water
algae and 25 mosses. W. A. Murrill distributed 827 specimens of fungi.
Collections of the following groups have been sent away for study and
annotation: Bromus, Umbelliferae, Polygonum, Rumex and Convolulaceae. The
first four have been returned. Last year's loans of Stillingia and Desmodium have
been returned; Lathyrus and Lupinus are still outstanding. This herbarium has
been requested to keep indefinitely A. W. Chapman's Florida material from
Syracuse University.
First Florida representations of the following species have been added to our
collections: Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrad.) Underw., Brachiaria piligera (F.
Muell.) Hughes, Hypericum setosum L., Stachydeoma graveolens (Chapm.) Small,
Phaethusa occidentalis (L.) Small, Helianthus heterophyllus Nutt, Doellingeria
humilis (Willd.) Britton, Mimulus alatus Ait. and Scrophularia marilandica L.
Demonstrations on the usual value of the herbarium were made to 54 members
of three college classes. The herbarium has had many visits from scientists, in-
cluding eight from the Missouri Botanical Garden staff. Identifications made
during the year numbered 807 fungi and plant diseases and 1,867 higher plants.
The fourth printing (500 copies) of the book, "The Native Trees of Florida,"
has been made. Illustrations completed for "The Native Shrubs and Woody
Vines of Florida" now number 191.

DAMPING-OFF OF VEGETABLE SEEDLINGS
Adams Project 281 W. B. Tisdale
Highest percentage emergence of cabbage seedlings in pots of soil was
obtained when no green vegetation or soil organisms were incorporated. Vegeta-
tion alone caused some reduction in emergence, but results could not always be
duplicated. Rhizoctonia alone greatly reduced emergence, and the reduction was
significantly greater when vegetation also was added. Emergence was lower
when the seed was planted two weeks after the vegetation was added than after
four weeks, regardless of the organism added to the soil. None of the organisms
tested showed any action antagonistic to Rhizoctonia. All of the organisms tested
caused significant reductions in emergence when used with vegetation, but none
except Rhizoctonia reduced emergence without vegetation.
Addition of green vegetation to the soil two weeks before planting the seed
caused significant reductions in emergence and final stand and increased the
percentage of "ballheads" of Fordhook lima beans, but the differences were not
significant when the seed was planted four weeks after turning under the vegeta-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tion. No significant differences were obtained with Black Valentine snap beans
under similar conditions. (See also Project 281, CENTRAL FLORIDA
STATION.)

PHOMOPSIS BLIGHT AND FRUIT ROT OF EGGPLANTS
Adams Project 344 Phares Decker
In 1942 two varieties of eggplants from India (Muktak and Bengan) were
observed to have field resistance to Phomopsis vexans (S & S) Harter, the
organism causing Phomopsis blight and fruit rot of eggplants. These varieties
produced low, spreading type plants, with enormous stiff, sharp spines on the
stems, leaves, peduncles and calyx of the fruit. The fruit were predominantly
green in color, short and round in shape, as compared to the purple color, egg
shape fruit of Fort Myers Market.
A breeding program was launched to fix Phomopsis resistance in a new hybrid
variety which also contains desirable plant and fruit characteristics of the com-
mercial varieties adapted to Florida conditions. As a result, two hybrid varieties,
Florida Market and Florida Beauty, which promise to meet these requirements,
have been released.
Florida Market is a selection from a cross of Fort Myers Market and Muktak,
five times backcrossed and six times selfed. It is classed in the trade as a Fort
Myers Market type, produces strong, upright plants averaging 6 inches taller than
Fort Myers Market. The foliage is dense, with large leaves. The fruit usually
sets singly, is longer and has a less distinct neck than Fort Myers Market. The
fruit color is a deep purple and on the average a week later than Fort Myers
Market. Florida Market is producing from 0 to 10 percent off-colored fruit, a
characteristic that shows promise of being eliminated by carefully roguing in the
foundation seed stocks. It produces on an average larger yields than Fort Myers
Market, even when Phomopsis is not a limiting factor.
Florida Beauty is a selection from a cross of Black Beauty by Bengan and six
times backcrossed to various standard varieties. The plant type is similar to Fort
Myers Market. The fruit are deep purple in color, medium in length to round in
shape, or more egg-shaped. The main crop will average one week earlier than
Fort Myers Market.

CAMELLIA DISEASES
Adams Project 455 Erdman West
The unusually mild winter weather of 1948-49 and 1949-50 was followed by
the premature abscission of many partly opened camellia flowers. Failure to find
any organism associated consistently with this condition during either season
suggests the abnormal weather as the probable cause.
Dieback, the most serious disease of camellias in Florida, is most conspicuous
from May to July on stems formed the previous season. The suspected causal
organisms, Gloeosporium sp. and Phomopsis sp., were isolated from new flower
and vegetative buds as early as August 4, indicating that infection occurred during
the preceding rainy season. Six blocks of 200 large plants each, sprayed after the
rainy season with various combinations of insecticides and fungicides, showed no
significant differences in dieback infections. Experiments to determine the effec-
tiveness of earlier applications are in progress.
The root disease (Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands) of camellias is widely dis-
tributed in Florida. It caused more than 50 percent loss in 24 months in one
planting of well-rooted cuttings set in newly-cleared pine-land. The disease has







Annual Report 1950


been controlled in potted seedlings by drenching the soil with 8-copper quinolinu-
late solution. Plot tests to evaluate this treatment under nursery conditions are in
progress.
One application of flordo spray on camellias affected by corky scab did not
protect the new growth.

LUPINE INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 463 Phares Decker
Lupine selections held over from the 1949 trials and single-plant selections
made in 1949 were tested at the three locations. Three hundred sixty selections
of bitter blue lupine from the 1949 nursery at Quincy were grown in replicated
plots at Quincy and Jay and in a single block at Gainesville. Notes of plant type,
time of flowering, average height of plants and disease reaction taken at all
locations with green weights and seed yields at Quincy and Jay were used for
making selections for future tests. Alta blue lupine, a bitter-blue selection made
in 1946, tested and increased in 1947, 1948 and 1949, and which produces a heavy
green weight and above-average seed yields, was increased for release this season.
About 4,000 single plant selections made in 1949, including sweet and bitter
strains of both blue and yellow lupine, were grown at the three locations. Selec-
tions based upon plant type, disease reaction and seed yields were made for further
trials.
Seedling diseases, Rhizoctonia spp. and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., were favored
by the unusually warm, dry weather. Many lupine plants weakened by these
organisms and unfavorable weather were killed by the frost and cold weather in
February and March. Brown spot, Ceratophorum cetosum (Kirchm.), was wide-
spread, causing some premature leaf drop. Powdery mildew, Erysiphe spp., de-
veloped late in the season and caused a small amount of defoliation. Anthracnose,
Glomerlla cingulata (Ston. Spauld. & Schrenk.), was not observed until harvest time
and then only in a few spots, confirming as suggested in earlier reports that
weather conditions greatly influence the occurrence and development of anthrac-
nose. Botrytis spp. caused an estimated seed loss of 10 percent in dense stands
but no appreciable reduction in green weights. Fusarium spp., along with
Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., was found to cause a wilting in plants about flowering time
which reduced the seed crop.
Virous diseases of lupines have been reported from Europe but only occasional
symptoms have been reported in this country. However, an abnormal plant
condition which resembled symptoms produced by certain plant viruses was
observed in yellow lupine in early fall and later on sweet and bitter blue. This
was observed in plantings at Gainesville, Quincy and Jay. The symptoms were
associated with aphid infestations and the disease was transmitted by juice inocula-
tions from diseased plants growing in the field to young plants of yellow lupine
grown in the greenhouse. The disease is potentially serious, as it greatly reduces
plant growth and may completely eliminate seed set. The virus has not been
definitely identified.
The dipterous insect, Hylemyia lupini coq., was more numerous this season,
presumably because of the extended warm weather which favors its development.
Strains of a bitter blue lupine with distinct seed-coat markings have been
isolated from the commercial seed. They have been grown in rod-rows spaced 30
inches between rows in an attempt to detect any natural crossing in the field.
Crosses between strains were attempted in the field and a few seed were obtained.
These seed will be grown to determine their genetic behavior as a guide to a
future breeding program. (See also Project 463, NORTH FLORIDA STATION.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


IMPROVEMENT OF SMALL GRAINS THROUGH BREEDING,
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND DISEASE STUDIES
RMA Project 487 Robert W. Earhart
Diseases of small grains were relatively light during the past growing season,
due in part to dry weather. Although in many cases crown rust of oats, spot
blotch of barley and the powdery mildews of barley and wheat caused complete
failure of susceptible materials, it appears that drought was more damaging than
diseases.
During the growing season the small grain nurseries at Gainesville and Quincy,
Florida, and Tifton, Georgia, were observed regularly to collect disease data and
to advise workers on the status of diseases present. In addition to regular trips, a
special trip was made to those stations conducting small grain researches in eight
of the Southeastern States.
Laboratory diagnoses were performed on disease specimens and pure cultures
were made of fungal organisms for accurate identifications. A collection of dis-
ease organisms is being maintained. The obligate parasites are being main-
tained in their infectious stages, either as dry spores or on living hosts.
Specimens of diseases were collected and preserved for use in future diagnoses
and identifications. Records were made of date of first observation of each dis-
ease at Gainesville.
A disease garden was maintained in which the principal diseases of oats were
introduced for the purpose of testing varietal reactions. In addition, separate
tests are either in progress or planned for the disease reactions of new selections
developed by the small grain breeders.
In maintaining diseases in their infectious stages it was necessary to know
when field plantings can be made to culture fungal organisms. Therefore, a
date-of-planting test is in progress.
Preliminary researches are in progress on:
1. The possibility of new hosts (and/or a modification of the causal fungus)
for the Victoria blight of oats (Helminthosporium victoria M. & M.).
2. The relationships of the stages of host development to manifested sympto-
matology in oat crown rust (Puccinia coronata da. var. avenue Erikes).
In the nation-wide survey of the races of disease-inciting fungi, collections of
the diseases were made and forwarded to those laboratories conducting race
identification studies. (See also Project 487, AGRONOMY.)

NECTAR AND POLLEN PLANTS OF FLORIDA
State Project 524 Lillian E. Arnold and John D. Haynie
Seasonal conditions which prevailed last year were approximated again during
this winter and spring. They changed blooming periods of plants and adversely
affected nectar flow. Mild temperatures prevailed everywhere during the winter
months and the southern section suffered from drought in the spring. This mild-
ness caused blooming periods of several nectar-producing plants to overlap, a
condition disastrous to beekeepers whose reputations are founded upon a uniform
product derived from one specific plant.
Descriptions of several more plants have been completed and many photo-
graphs for illustrating them have been prepared for inclusion in the proposed
bulletin.

CUCURBIT MOSIACS ON VEGETABLES AND OTHER PLANTS
RMA Project 538 C. W. Anderson
Commencing in April 1950, field observations were made of apparent virus
infections on cucurbits, pepper, beans, lupine and various additional crops and







Annual Report 1950


weeds in the central part of the state. Samples of some of the more important
of these were obtained for study from various localities. Greenhouse work was
begun in an effort to identify the viruses important on the above crops, but final
information has not been obtained. Preliminary plans were made for future work.

CONTROL OF SCAB AND OTHER FOLIAGE DISEASES OF PECAN
State Project 539 John R. Large
The standard schedule of four applications of bordeaux mixture failed to con-
trol scab in North Florida in 1948. In 1949 several new fungicides were compared
with the standard bordeaux. In these tests bordeaux was much more effective in
controlling pecan scab than four applications of parzate (zineb) 2-100; copper A
3-100; fermate (ferbam) 3-100; karbam black (ferbam) 3-100, or phygon XL 1-100.
Two applications of bordeaux mixture, followed by two applications of 2-100
zerlate (ziram) or 2-100 karbam white (ziram), were more effective than the stand-
ard bordeaux mixture schedule. In 1950 the addition of 2 ounces of a spreader-
sticker (Triton 1956) to 100 gallons of zerlate (ziram) gave scab control on the
foliage equal to that obtained with bordeaux mixture. Foliage infection in the
Monticello area indicated that the first two spray applications were not needed in
1949, but because of wet weather in July one or two late applications would have
been beneficial.
In 1950 severe scab infection appeared about May 15, with no differences in
leaf infections on unsprayed and sprayed trees.
Applications of fungicides with the mist sprayer gave less scab control than
when applied with the hydraulic sprayer. When properly applied bordeaux spray
has controlled nursery blight (Elsinoe randii Jenkins and Bitancourt) of pecans.
In experimental tests the organic fungicides crag 658, (2-100) and zerlate (2-100)
compared favorably with bordeaux mixture. Fermate, copper A and phygon XL
were not as effective as the standard bordeaux mixture.

CAUSES AND CONTROL OF DISEASES OF POTTED PLANTS
State Project 563 H. N. Miller
A general disease survey was made over the past year of the major nurseries
of the state which specialize in the growing of potted plants. Diseased material
was collected and isolations were made to determine the causal organisms.
Intensive studies were made of an apparently new leaf spot of Chinese ever-
green caused by a species of the fungus Cladosporium. A few lesions are suffi-
cient to cause yellowing and eventual death of the leaf. The fungus grows slowly
but sporulates abundantly in culture. Maximum growth occurs between 24 and
28' C. Infection occurred readily when healthy plants were sprayed with a
spore suspension of the fungus and held in a moist chamber.
In the summer of 1948 a severe leaf spot and stem rot disease was found in
several plantings of Dieffenbachia. The disease has spread rapidly, becoming a
limiting factor in the production of these plants. It first appears as a leaf spot but
under favorable conditions soon develops into a water-soaked rot of leaves, petioles
and canes. A species of Collectotrichum has been isolated that is prominently
associated with the disease. The disease has been controlled by spraying the
plants regularly during the rainy season with parzate, dipping the propagating
stock in a thick solution of fermate, and practicing strict sanitation.
An important leaf disease of Singonium and Nephthytis caused by the fungus
Cephalosporium has been studied. This disease is characterized by small leaf
spots. If the spots are numerous the leaf turns yellow and dies. The disease is
most active during the fall and winter months but is usually present the year around







92 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

on older plants. Preliminary spray tests indicate that fairly satisfactory control of
the disease may be obtained by spraying the plants with parzate.
In preliminary tests for the control of soil-borne diseases of potted plants, very
satisfactory results have been obtained from soil fumigation with dowfume MC-2.

MISCELLANEOUS
Plants Poisonous to Animals.-Cases of suspected plant poisoning in cattle in
various sections of the state were investigated and a feeding test was outlined for
one suspect.
A buttercup, Ranunculus muricatus L., ground and whole hairy indigo (Indigo-
fera hirsuta L.) seed, and cow-bane, Oxypolis filiformis (Walt.) Britton, were
fed to calves without producing serious results. Redroot, Lacnanthes tinctoria
(Walt.) Ellis, is being fed to calves and hogs. (Erdman West and C. F.
Simpson.)
Effect of 2,4,5-T on Florida Betony.-Florida betony (Stachys floridana
Shuttlw.), a serious weed pest in camellia and azalea plantings, produces numer-
ous underground tubers, making it difficult to control through cultivation. Two
forms, clear and milky, of a commercial weed killer containing 2,4,5-T recom-
mended for the control of the weed, were applied in the suggested dilution to
colonies adjacent to azalea plants. Six weeks later all of the weeds were dead;
most of the tubers were disintegrating and the remaining were discolored without
signs of recovery. Leaves and stems of azaleas were distorted severely by the
chemical. (Erdman West.)
Narcissus Bulb Treatment for the Control of Fusarium Rot.-In a series of
preliminary tests designed to compare effectiveness of different materials for
control of Fusarium basal rot of narcissus bulbs and phytotoxic effects of the
chemicals, none of the materials gave a significant reduction in amount of dis-
ease. Evaluation of the materials was based on disease control and flower and
bulb production.
Heavy bulb losses occurred in all plots. The bulbs were apparently infected
at the time of treating and the infections were too deep-seated to be arrested by
the fungicides. The bulb lots treated with new improved ceresan, mersolite or
fermate and Dow 9B gave significantly fewer flowers and lower bulb yields than
the untreated ones. This reduction in yields was attributed to injury, since it was
not correlated with disease severity. (H. N. Miller.)
Control of Rhizoctonia Rot of Camellia Cuttings in Propagating Beds.-
Rhizoctonia rot of camellia cuttings in propagating beds has been high. Soil
treatment tests with several chemicals were made in an effort to reduce the
damage. Camellia cuttings were dipped in various fungicidal solutions and set
in replicated randomized plots.
In each set of tests the soil in half the plots was drenched with spergon
applied in three applications at 10-day intervals. The soil was heavily infested
with the organism and disease development was rapid in all plots.
None of the fungicidal treatments or combination of treatments was consist-
ently better than the checks, although some treatments were significantly better
than others. These differences appeared to be a matter of injury, rather than
disease control. (H. N. Miller and R. J. Wilmot.)








Annual Report 1950


POULTRY HUSBANDRY
The Department of Poultry Husbandry was established October 15, 1949.
Prior to this, the Poultry Division had functioned as an integral part of the
Animal Industry Department.
The present poultry flock includes approximately 450 Single Comb White
Leghorns, 400 Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, 200 Light Sussex and 150 New
Hampshires. These birds are used for experimental purposes in breeding, feed-
ing and management of mature stock; and in research work with young stock
reared on the range or in confinement in battery brooders. During the spring of
1950 approximately 4,000 chicks were hatched. Some were brooded and reared
on the range to produce stock for the 1950-51 feeding and management trials,
and the remainder were used in experimental feeding trials. All adult birds were
tested for pullorum disease and no reactors were found.
This Department is cooperating with the Florida State Live Stock Sanitary
Board in promoting the National Poultry Improvement Plan in Florida and with
the State Poultry and Egg Inspection Division in improving the quality of market
poultry and poultry products. Cooperation has been maintained with the
Departments of Veterinary Science, and Animal Husbandry and Nutrition in
disease control and radioactive isotope studies.
The rapid growth of the University and the increased need for additional
poultry research necessitates moving the Poultry Laboratory from its present
location. Approximately 50 acres of land on the Agricultural Experiment Station
farm have been allotted to the Department of Poultry Husbandry on which to
establish a new laboratory for which preliminary working plans have been drawn.
This expansion should adequately meet the needs of the poultry industry of
Florida.

GRAZING EXPERIMENTS WITH POULTRY
State Project 450 N. R. Mehrhof and G. B. Killinger
Four groups of S. C. White Leghorn and four groups of S. C. Rhode Island
Red pullets were housed, fed and managed alike, except for length of grazing
period. Pullets in Group 1 were allowed to graze all day; Group 2 from 5:00
P.M. until dark; Group 3 had access to a bare yard all day; and those in Group 4
were permitted to graze one-half day in the afternoon. This experiment was
conducted for a period of 308 days starting October 15.
As in previous trials, Coastal Bermuda was the permanent pasture grass used
for grazing from spring until fall. Oats were used for winter grazing. In this
trial, 68 S. C. White Leghorns and 87 S. C. Rhode Island Reds were housed in
each group. The Coastal Bermuda withstood the system of grazing quite well
and furnished adequate pasturage.
Total egg production was highest in the S. C. White Leghorn group that had
access to a bare yard all day and lowest in the group which was allowed to
graze one-half day in the afternoon. Mash and grain consumption was highest
in Group 3 and lowest in Group 4.
In the case of S. C. Rhode Island Reds, total egg production was highest in the
group which had access to the range one-half day in the afternoon and lowest in
Group 2, which had access to the range from 5 o'clock until dark. Mash and grain
consumption was lowest with the birds in Group 2.
Mortality was fairly uniform in the different groups.
The project is terminated with this report.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


DEHYDRATION AND UTILIZATION OF VEGETABLE BY-PRODUCTS
AS DAIRY AND POULTRY FEEDS
State Project 478 R. A. Dennison, N. R. Mehrhof, R. B. Becker,
G. K. Davis, E. L. Fouts and P. T. D. Arnold
This project was inactive during the year and is closed.

FEEDING VALUE OF CITRUS MEAL AND CITRUS SEED MEAL
FOR POULTRY
State Project 489 J. C. Driggers, G. K. Davis and N. R. Mehrhof
This project was inactive during the year.

BROILER FEEDING TRIALS
State Project 503 N. R. Mehrhof, J. C. Driggers,
A. W. O'Steen and F. S. Perry
Six lots of 50 New Hampshire chicks each were kept in batteries and fed differ-
ent all-mash diets to 10 weeks of age. Lot 1, the control, received the University of
Florida starting mash which included 30 percent soybean meal and 36 percent
yellow corn meal; Lot 2 received mash containing 20 percent soybean meal, and
Lot 3, mash containing only 10 percent soybean meal. Fish meal and meat
scraps were used to bring the protein level up to that of Lot 1. The mash fed to
Lot 4 contained 40 percent, Lot 5 50 percent and Lot 6 60 percent of yellow corn
meal. As the yellow corn meal was increased the wheat middlings and ground
oats were decreased and sufficient fish meal, distillers solubles and wheat bran
were added to supply the necessary vitamins. The fiber content of the diets was
5.2, 4.6, 4.2, 4.2, 4.0 and 3.2 percent, respectively, for Lots 1 through 6. The
high corn, low fiber content of the mash fed Lot 6 classified it as a so-called
"high-energy" feed.
Mortality in all lots was very low and the condition of the birds was satis-
factory. The feed efficiency (pounds of feed per pound of broiler meat produced)
of Lots 1 through 6 was 3.00, 3.10, 3.09, 2.93, 2.87 and 2.82. Using this as a
measure, soybean meal compared favorably with meat scraps and fish meal as a
source of protein. Diets high in yellow corn meal when properly balanced with
easy-to-obtain ingredients produced quite satisfactory results.

UTILIZATION OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS BY POULTRY
AS DETERMINED WITH RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES
State Project 551 J. Clyde Driggers, Ray L. Shirley,
George K. Davis and N. R. Mehrhof
Eight previously mated S. C. White Leghorn hens were used to study (1) the
transference of radioactive calcium and phosphorus to chicks hatched from eggs
laid subsequent to the administration of the isotopes and (2) the distribution of the
isotopes in the various tissues of the chick. Four of these hens received an oral
dose of Ca45 as a solution of chloride with an activity of approximately 70 micro-
curies. Two of the hens received 70 microcuries of the Ca45 plus 300 microcuries
of carrier-free P32 as the HaPO4. One hen received 300 microcuries of P32 and
the last hen received 200 microcuries of P32 alone.
Each egg laid after administration was incubated and on the day of hatching
the chicks were sacrificed and the following samples were taken for analysis: left
femur, breast bone, left leg muscle, breast muscle, liver, heart, brain, proventricu-








Annual Report 1950 95

lus, small intestine and yolk sac. The tissues were wet ashed and aliquots were
taken for analyses. The phosphorus radioactivity determinations were made from
the solutions, using immersion type Geiger Mueller tubes while the calcium
radioactivity was measured with thin mica window tubes after calcium was
precipitated as the oxalate.
In the case of the chicks from the eggs laid on the first and second days after
administration, approximately 0.27 and 0.44 percent, respectively, of the Ca45
dose was found in the tissues analyzed. Thereafter, there was a sharp decline
until by the fourth day less than 0.05 percent of the dose could be found in any
of the chicks.
Very little of the P32 was found in the chicks hatched from eggs laid during
the first two days after administration of the isotope. The P32 values increased
rapidly from the second to the sixth day, at which time a total of approximately
1 percent of the dose was found in all tissues analyzed. These values gradually
decreased until by the end of the fourteenth day when less than 0.15 percent
could be found in the newly hatched chicks.

MISCELLANEOUS
Aureomycin and APF Supplements for Chick Growth.-Five lots of New
Hampshire chicks were used in this experiment. Fifty chicks, 25 in duplicate
pens, were placed in each lot except Lot 5, which was a single pen of 25 chicks.
Lot 1 was the control and received the University of Florida starting mash;
Lot 2 received the control mash plus an APF concentrate9 at the rate of 2 gallons
per ton; Lot 3 received a "high-efficiency" feed prepared from easy-to-obtain
ingredients; Lot 4 received the "high-efficiency" feed plus the APF concentrate;
and Lot 5 received the control mash plus aureomycin9 at the rate of 0.5 grams
per pound.
The average weight per bird at 10 weeks of age was 1,245.1, 1,230.0, 1,322.2,
1,371.4 and 1,413.7 grams, respectively, for Lots 1 through 5.
Feed efficiency (grams of feed per gram of gain in weight) for these lots was
3.32, 3.14, 2.82, 2.87 and 2.93, respectively.
No mortality occurred in Lot 2, 3 or 4, while two birds died in Lot 1 and one
in Lot 5.
Results suggest that the growth-promoting effect of aureomycin is probably
due to factors other than nutritional. (J. Clyde Driggers and N. R. Mehrhof.)
Deep Litter in Laying Houses.-Recently, deep or built-up litter has been ad-
vocated for poultry. No satisfactory explanation has been given, however, as to
how birds can continue to utilize the same litter for long periods without undue
incidence of disease. To study this problem, four pens of 72 S. C. White Leghorn
layers each were utilized beginning January 11, 1950. Approximately two inches
of fresh plane mill shavings were added to Pens 1, 2 and 3 each 28 days, and
all old litter was removed from Pen 4 and replaced with two inches of fresh
litter. The litter in Pen 1 was stirred once each week, that in Pens 2, 3 and 4
was not stirred; the grain was fed in hoppers in Pens 1, 2 and 4 and in the litter
in Pen 3.
At the end of each 28-day period samples of the litter were taken for moisture
and pH analysis and microbiological examination. The moisture content of Pens 1, 2
and 3 ranged from 9.33 to 20.90 percent. That of Pen 4 ranged from 10.24 to
27.94 percent and was generally higher than the moisture of the other pens, which
was probably due to the large quantity of droppings per volume of litter. The
new litter contained from 6.74 to 17.81 percent moisture when it was added to

'Both the APF Supplement 2-G and aureomycin were supplied by Dr. T. H. Jukes.
Lederle Laboratories, Pearl River, New York.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the pens. The pH readings of Pens 1, 2 and 3 ranged from 6.4 to 8.2 and were
generally higher than those of Pen 4, which ranged from 5.8 to 7.66. In all
cases the new litter was distinctly acid, with pH readings ranging from 3.2 to 5.8.
A count in millions of bacteria, yeasts and molds per gram showed a con-
siderable fluctuation in bacteria, a gradual decrease in yeasts and a slight increase
in molds as the age and depth of the litter increased. (N. R. Mehrhof and J.
Clyde Driggers.)
Simplified Rations for Laying Hens.-An effort has been made to formulate
satisfactory laying rations from inexpensive ingredients. Four pens of 77 S. C.
Rhode Island Red laying pullets received different all-mash feed formulas and
results were computed on the basis of the number of pounds of feed required to
produce a dozen eggs.
The control pen (Pen 1) received the regular University laying mash diluted
with yellow corn meal, ground wheat and ground oats to make an all-mash
ration. Pen 2 received an all-mash formula recommended by the USDA, except
that peanut meal replaced one-half the soybean meal as a source of vegetable
protein and an APF supplement'1 was added. Pen 3 received a mash composed
of corn meal, peanut meal, dried distillers' solubles, 10 percent dried cow manure
which had been heated to destroy androgen activity, and minerals to balance.
The same formula was used in Pen 4, except that the cow manure was only
sun dried.
The feed required per dozen eggs for Pens 1 through 4 was: 5.20, 4.89, 6.44
and 6.50 pounds, respectively. The percentage hatchability for fertile eggs set
was 65.8, 89.8, 75.3 and 50.0 for Pens 1 through 4.
An outbreak of pullet disease was experienced in each of the pens during
April and May and may have influenced the results. (J. Clyde Driggers and N. R.
Mehrhof.)
Relationship of Egg Shell Color to Hatchability.-Three trials involving 3,067
eggs were run to determine the relationship between egg shell color and hatch-
ability in brown shell eggs.
In most cases there was a slightly higher percentage hatch from the dark
brown and medium brown eggs than from light brown. Other factors possibly
had an overshadowing effect on the results, as was evidenced by a rather low
hatchability in general.
In all trials a larger percentage of light brown eggs was removed on the 18th
day than either dark brown or medium brown eggs. This could have been due
to lower fertility or higher early embryonic mortality in the light brown eggs.
(Marvin H. Hernden and N. R. Mehrhof.)

1'APF Supplement 2-G supplied by T. H. Jukes, Lederle Laboratories, Pearl
River, New York.








Annual Report 1950 97


SOILS
Research on all projects was continued with satisfactory progress. The
lysimeters which have yielded important results in the study of interaction of
fertilizers with soils were moved to a new location and completely redesigned.
The spectrographic laboratory was moved into the recently completed Newell
Hall Annex. The soil testing laboratory was moved into Newell Hall and needed
facilities were added to improve this service. The cooperative field experiments
established in the last three years at the outlying branch stations yielded significant
results which are reported under individual projects below. Research with
radioactive phosphorus, which has been under way in the laboratory for several
years, was carried to the field with important new findings on the management
of phosphorus-deficient soils. Field fertilizer experiments on potatoes in the
Hastings area in cooperation with the Potato Investigations Laboratory emphasized
the importance of maintaining proper conditions in soils for desirable micro-
biological action.

INTERRELATIONSHIP OF MICROBIOLOGICAL ACTION IN SOILS
AND CROPPING SYSTEMS IN FLORIDA
State Project 328 F. B. Smith and G. D. Thornton
D-D as a soil fumigant, was slower to volatilize and persisted longer in soils
treated at temperatures below 35 F. than above 35 F., as determined by
nitrification studies.
Parathion applied in the field at rates of 1 and 2 grams per linear foot of row
space and bis (2-chloroethyl) acetal of formaldehyde at the rate of 4 cc. for an
equal area did not influence subsequent nitrification of ammonium sulfate when
incubated with portions of the treated soil for four weeks at 280 C.
The nitrifying power of soil samples from plots treated for the second con-
secutive year with D-D and 80-20 EDB at rates of 23 and 46 gallons per acre
was studied, with no significant differences being noted between treated and
untreated areas. (See Project 523, CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION and
VEGETABLE CROPS LABORATORY.)

COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA SOILS AND OF ASSOCIATED
NATIVE VEGETATION
Purnell Project 347 F. B. Smith, J. R. Henderson, C. E. Bell,
R. A. Carrigan and Nathan Gammon, Jr.
The chemical analysis of important virgin soils in Alachua County was
completed with the determination of total sodium and potassium in 280 samples
from 46 soil profiles. The mechanical and chemical analysis of Manatee County
soils was continued. Results of the analysis of important Florida soils will be
compiled for publication shortly.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE GROWTH OF LEGUME BACTERIA
AND NODULE DEVELOPMENT
Bankhead-Jones Project 368 F. B. Smith, G. I). Thornton
and G. B. Killinger
Four cultures of individual strains of rhizobia and one commercial culture
proved more efficient in producing nodulation of White clover than 13 other
cultures tested at the same time. The four superior individual-strain cultures
were supplied by BPIS&AE.









98 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

One individual-strain culture was superior to three commercial cultures and
two other single-strain cultures in affecting nodulation of Crimson clover. Again,
the superior culture was furnished by BPIS&AE.
Three commercial cultures and one prepared by the BPIS&AE failed to give
satisfactory nodulation of lupine.
Fordhook lima beans treated with 0.2 percent spergon prior to inoculation
failed to yield as well as when inoculated without previous seed treatment.
Peanuts inoculated with a culture of mixed strains of rhizobia failed to yield
as satisfactorily as when inoculated with several of the individual-strain cultures
which were included in the mixture.
Nitrogen fertilization failed to increase yield of lima beans on Arredondo
loamy fine sand at Gainesville and peanuts on Red Bay fine sandy loam (level
phase) at Marianna.
Seventy-one strains of rhizobia have been isolated from native and acclimated
legumes in Florida.

CLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING OF FLORIDA SOILS
State Project 389 F. B. Smith, J. R. Henderson, Ralph Leighty,
J. H. Walker, R. E. Caldwell, O. E. Cruz
and V. W. Carlisle
The mapping of Hillsborough County soils was completed April 15, 1950. A
final inspection of the survey was made by the Federal correlators and members
of the Experiment Station and Soil Conservation Service staffs March 14 to 20,
1950. Preparation of the manuscript of the Hillsborough County soil survey
report is in progress. The survey of Sarasota County was initiated April 17, 1950,
and that of Escambia County, June 1, 1950.

CORRELATION OF SOIL CHARACTERISTICS WITH PASTURE CROP
AND ANIMAL RESPONSE
Bankhead-Jones Project 404 F. B. Smith, Nathan Gammon, Jr.,
H. W. Lundy, D. W. Jones, J. R. Neller,
R. A. Carrigan and G. M. Volk
West Florida Station.-The importance of a heavy application of fertilizer in
establishing a Dallis grass-Louisiana White clover pasture on virgin Carnegie and
Tifton soils is demonstrated by the yields reported in Table 2.

TABLE 2.-DALLIS GRASS-WHITE CLOVER RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT
FERTILIZER LEVELS.

Fertilizer First-Year Yields, Air-Dry Herbage
0-15-10 Lime Lbs./Acre
Lbs./Acre Lbs.re 4-1-49 5-16-49 8-11-49 10-11-49 Total
0 2,000 0 0 1,028 548 1,576
300 2,000 210 239 1,353 381 2,183
600 2,000 423 750 2.232 598 4,003
1,200 2,000 860 1,825 3,001 830 6,516
600 0 93" 272 1,523 428 2,316

Similar results could be expected from use of an 0-14-10 or an 0-16-8 fer-
tilizer, although the higher phosphate formula is to be preferred. The maximum
benefit is obtained from the first ton of lime per acre applied but some additional




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