Front Cover
 Title Page
 List of departmental and branch...

Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00035
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1949
Frequency: annual
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00035
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
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Full Text

j Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station Library
.int.illL. Flr.ai M

Fi,2 ,




JUNE 30, 1949

J. Thos. Gurney, Chairman, Orlando
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
J. Henson Markham, Jacksonville
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee


J. Hollis Miller, Ph.D., President of the
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Provost for Agr.3
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor3
W. W. Mosher, Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager3
Geo. F. Baughman, M.A., Business Manager:
Claranelle Alderman, Accountant3


Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer3
J. M. Johnson, B.S.A.E., Asso. Agr. Engineer3
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer
R. E. Choate, B.S.A.E., Asst. Agr. Engineer3
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A.E., Asst. Agr. Engineer2 3

Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist'
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist2
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist3
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist3
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
S. C. Litzenberger, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant
M. N. Gist, Collaborator2

A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist' 3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman'
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist3
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veteranian-
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist3
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husbandman3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb3
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asst. Poultry Husb.3
Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
S. John Folks, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.3
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. in Dairy Mfs.3
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.3
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
C. F. Winchester, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist3

C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' "
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooks, M.S.A., Associate
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Little, M.S., Assistant
Tallmadge Bergen, B.S., Asst.
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
I. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statistician2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician2
J. F. Steffens, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statistician2

Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist'
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Assistant
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant

G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
F. S. Jamison, Fh.D., Horticulturist3
H. M. Reed, B.S., Chem., Veg. Processing
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A. Asst. Hort.4
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
L. H. Halsey, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Forrest E. Myers, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.

W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist' 3
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lill:an E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist

F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist' 3
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Chemist
J .R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist3
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
R. A. Carrigan, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist3
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
3eo. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Microbiologist'
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist3
J. B. Cromartie, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asso. Soil Surveyor
V. W. Cyzycki, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
R. B. Forbes, M.S., Asst. Soils Chemist
W. L. Pritchett, M.S., Asst. Chemist
Jean Beem, B.S.A., Asst. SJil Surveyor

Head of Department
2 In cooperation with W. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
SOn leave.


J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agron.
L. G. Thompson, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
vxFrank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb.
W. C. Rhoads, M.S., Entomologist

Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate A'ionomist

Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, DeFuniak Springs
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director of Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
J. T. Griffiths, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, M.S., Plant Pathologist4
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
J. A. Granger, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soil Chemist
A. E. Willson, B.S.A., Asso. Biochemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. N. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Joe P. Barnett, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
J. C. Bowers, B.S., Asst. Chemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Supervisory Chem.
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
L. W. Faville, Ph.D., Asst. Chem:st

R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in charge
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Surgarcane
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engineer
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
LB. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Husb.
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Agronomist
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist
E. H. Wolf, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
C. B. Savage, M.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
D. L. Stoddard, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
W. N. Stoner, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
W. H. Hills, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
W. G. Genung, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist

Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robt. A. Conover, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
Milton Cobin, B.S., Asso. Horticulturist

William Jackson, B.S.A., Animal Husband-
man in Charge2

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
D. W. Jones, B.S., Asst. Soil Technologist
H. E. Henderson, M.S., Asst. An. Hush.

R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Agronomist'
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist


G. K. Parris, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge

Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.O., Horticulturist

A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.

J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Hort. in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., Gladioli Hort.
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.

Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist2

SHead of Department
SIn cooperation with U. S.
:1 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4On leave.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station





ector's Report ------- ---.....- -- -- -- ---. --- 5
siness Manager .. .. .. ..--. .---- ---- ---- ---- 15
trial -... ...... .... .. -.... ....-.... .. .. ... .. ........ ... 20
rary .. _-. ..... .....-. ... .. .. . ..... ..- -. ... . ---....--- .-- 32
ricultural Economics --------------- -----. ----.-------- 33
ricultural Engineering ------ ------- ----- 41
room y ---_-- ---- - -..-.... . ... ... . .. ..... ........ .. 42
im al Industry --...--.. ....... ...... ..... ... ....... .. .... 55
tom ology -......_ ..... .. .. ..---- --. ... ...... .. 75
me Economics ------......- ------.- ... .. ... .- ...... 83
rticulture ------ ....-- ........ .. .... 87
U. S. Laboratory for Tung Investigations -. --------- 109
nt Pathology .. ....... ... .... ... ..------------2...... 112
Is -- ----- .... ... .. ... 118
leral-State Frost Warning Service .... . .------.. ... .... 128
ato Investigations Laboratory .--.. ...._- -... .- ...- ..-........... 132
awberry Investigations Laboratory ----------------------.. . ....- 141
getable Crops Laboratory ..... ..------- -.. ----. 143
termelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory ----- --- 169
itral Florida Station -----.. --------- --- 172
erglades Station ------ ---... -----... 179
rth Florida Station 215
Mobile Units 229
nge Cattle Station --------- --------234
b-Tropical Station -- --------- ---_--244
st Central Florida Station (Federal) ----------- 266
st Florida Station 268
rus Station ...------ ---- --- ......--- .--.... .--------- 2269
Cooperative Research with the Florida Citrus Commission ...---- 306
Cooperative Work with the Soil Conservation Service ---- 317

Annual Report 1949


Agricultural research is the foundation underlying Florida's rapid and
substantial agricultural progress to date. Increased application of results
of an expanding research program has resulted in rapid agricultural de-
velopment. This in turn has brought forth also in all phases of agricultural
production many complex and intricate problems in all farming areas of
the State. At present there are well over 200 active projects in the nine
different research departments at the Main Station, seven branch stations,
and five field laboratories.
The Station's research is conducted in the fields in both animal and plant
industry and agricultural and home economics. It includes the production,
processing, utilization, storing, shipping, and marketing of Florida's many
temperate zone and sub-tropical crops. Obviously this covers many prob-
lems of soil management, plant and animal parasites and nutrition, cultural
practices and their effect on different crops, qualities of and the handling,
curing and processing of foods and feeds, suitable storage conditions of
fruits, vegetables and seeds and the accumulation of cost data and other
statistical information on production and marketing of many of these items.
In addition to food and feed production, these investigations include fiber
crops and their handling and the growing of ornamentals and grasses, both
of which are of major importance in the beautification program of the State.
Some of the research is conducted cooperatively with the U. S. Department
of Agriculture and other governmental agencies.
Among major urgent problems needing additional attention are weed,
insect vector, and mosaic control, particularly in vegetable crops; investi-
gations of the amounts of toxic residue on plants at harvest-time from
pesticides used and the relationship of these to the sale and consumption
of the product, either raw or processed. More and better pastures are
needed for an expanding animal industry. Problems of adequate, simpler
and less expensive distribution of agricultural products are constantly de-
manding attention.
Research has proceeded satisfactorily during the year and brief reports
on the work in progress, both under regularly approved projects and pre-
liminary exploratory investigations, are given in this report, which covers
all phases of the Station's activities.

The rapid expansion of the University necessitated establishing a dairy
husbandry unit elsewhere. Nearly 1,100 acres of land were acquired at
Hague and needed facilities consisting of laboratories, barns, silos and
many other items are rapidly being provided for the early completion of
this modern production unit described further in the report under Animal
A well was drilled, the construction of a cottage for the foreman on
tobacco work was begun and extensive repairs were made to buildings at
the North Florida Station; the office and laboratory building was com-
pleted and occupied at the Sub-Tropical Station. At the Main Station a
fence was constructed which encloses the entire beef cattle unit, a machine
and storage shed was constructed there and some land was cleared. An
addition was built to the machine shed at the farm unit, the farm shop was
doubled in capacity and new bulletin storage space was provided.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station




Richard B. Forbes, Assistant Soils Chemist, July 1, 1948.
Jean Beem, Assistant Soil Surveyor, August 1, 1948.
William L. Pritchett, Assistant Chemist, September 1, 1948.
Buford D. Thompson, Temporary Assistant Horticulturist, September 20,
Kenneth I. Fawcett, Temporary Horticulturist, November 1, 1948.
Fred H. Hull, Promoted to Head of Department of Agronomy, November 1,
Mordecai N. Gist, Collaborator, December 1, 1948.
Tallmadge Bergen, Temporary Assistant Agricultural Economist, January 1,
William W. Mosher, Assistant Editor, April 16, 1949.
Ray L. Shirley, Biochemist, June 1, 1949.


H. Harold Hume, Provost for Agriculture, June 30, 1949.


Cyril Lewis Comar, Associate Biochemist, September 30, 1948.
Morris E. Paddick, Associate Agronomist, January 31, 1949.
Richard B. Forbes, Temporary Soils Chemist, June 30, 1949.
Kenneth I. Fawcett, Temporary Horticulturist, June 30, 1949.
Buford D. Thompson, Temporary Assistant Horticulturist, June 30, 1949.


William E. Stokes, Agronomist and Head of Department, July 19, 1948.
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor, July 25, 1948.



Arthur F. Mathias, Assistant Chemist, December 15, 1948.
Louis W. Faville, Assistant Chemist, January 1, 1949.
Alvin A. Rouse, Associate Chemist, February 1, 1949.


James K. Colehour, Research Chemist, November 30, 1948.
Ezra H. Bitcover, Associate Soil Physicist, December 31, 1948.
T. W. Young, Associate Horticulturist, April 30, 1949.
Joe P. Barnett, Assistant Horticulturist, June 30, 1949.

Annual Report 1949


Emil A. Wolf, Assistant Horticulturist, July 15, 1948.
William G. Genung, Assistant Entomologist, March 15, 1949.
Claude J. D'Angio, Assistant Chemist, April 1, 1949.
Walter A. Hills, Associate Horticulturist, June 15, 1949.
Warren N. Stoner, Assistant Plant Pathologist, June 15, 1949.

B. S. Clayton, Drainage Engineer, September 18, 1948.
James C. Hoffman, Associate Horticulturist, March 31, 1949.
David L. Stoddard, Associate Plant Pathologist, June 30, 1949.
Clifford B. Savage, Temporary Assistant Horticulturist, June 30, 1949.

William A. Desnoyers, Assistant Hydrologist; October 13, 1948.


Winfred C. Rhoades, Entomologist, April 15, 1949.

Kelvin Dorward, Entomologist, November 31, 1948.
Raymond C. Bond, Temporary Assistant Agronomist, December 31, 1948.


Harold E. Henderson, Assistant Animal Husbandman, June 16, 1949.

Horace Fulford, Assistant Animal Husbandman, May 31, 1949.


John L. Malcolm, Associate Soils Chemist, July 5, 1948.


Curtis E. Hutton, Agronomist and Head of Station, June 1, 1949.


John R. Large, Associate Plant Pathologist, January 10, 1949.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Research of the station, conducted under carefully planned and approved
project statements, is listed by the titles given below. Work of an explora-
tory nature and of short duration is given under the heading "Miscellaneous."

Agricultural Economics
Project No. Title Page
154 Farmer's Cooperative Associations in Florida -- -33
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
Citrus ------------- 33
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation of Florida
Dairy Herds --------- --33
395 Input and Output Data for Florida Crop and Livestock Production 34
429 Analysis of Farms and Markets in the Plant City Area with
Respect to Post-War Economic Problems ----- -- 34
451 Crop and Livestock Estimating on Florida Farms with Emphasis
on Vegetable Crops ---.------- 34
480 Cost of Production and Returns on Vegetable Crops in Florida 35
482 Rural Land Ownership in Florida -------- 36
483 Consumer Packaging of Vegetables at the Shipping Point .- 36
484 Packaging of Tomatoes -----..------------ 37
485 Spoilage in Marketing Early Irish Potatoes ----- 38
486 Cost and Factors Affecting Cost of Handling Citrus Fruits in
Fresh and Processed Forms --------- 39
519 The Consumer Pattern for Citrus Fruit ---- -- 39
530 Methods of Leasing Farm Land in Florida --- ---- 39
SMiscellaneous: Florida Truck Crop Competition; Movement of
Citrus Trees from Nurseries to Groves in Florida -- -- 40

Agricultural Engineering
536 Methods of Curing Florida Hay ------ 41
20 Peanut Improvement ------------ 42
55 Crop Rotation Studies .-- --------- -- 42
56 Variety Test Work With Field Crops ------- 43
163 Corn Fertilizer Experiments 44
295 Effect of Fertilizers on Yield, Grazing Value, Chemical Composi-
tion and Botanical Makeup of Pastures .........------------- 44 Y
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation 44
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement- 45
299 Effect of Burning at Different Periods on Survival and Growth of
Various Native Range Plants and Its Effect on Establishment
of Improved Grasses and Legumes ------- 46 V
301 Pasture Legumes ......----------- ---- 46
304 Methods of Establishing Permanent Pastures Under Various
Conditions 46 v
368 Factors Affecting the Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule
Development ------ -- 47
369 Effect of Environment on the Composition of Forage Plants -- 47
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement --- ---- 47
374 Corn Improvement _---------- ----- 48
378 Flue-Cured Tobacco Fertilization and Variety Studies 48
417 Methods of Producing, Harvesting and Maintaining Pasture
Plants and Seed Stocks .------------------- -------- 48
440 Effect of Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S and Mg on the Growth of Oats, Hubam
and White Dutch Clovers, Pangola and Carpet Grasses Under
Field Conditions ................-------------- --. 49

Annual Report 1949 9

Project No. Title Page
441 Starter Solutions and Methods of Applying Fertilizer to Tobacco 49
444 Permanent Seedbeds for Tobacco Plants ----- ---- ~.49
450 Grazing Experiments with Poultry (Chickens) .- -49
487 Improvement of Small Grain Through Breeding, Disease and
Physiological Studies ..-.. -... ....-- ----.... 50
488 Nutrition and Physiology of the Peanut ....... -......--- 51
507 Curing Hay in Florida -.-.. --------- --- --... -...... 52
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco ---52
SMiscellaneous: Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cottons -. -- 53

Animal Industry
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle -... .. -56
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to Her
Milk and Butterfat Production ..--- -------- 57
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops -- -57
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Florida
Dairy Herds .-- .58
346 Investigation with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition
Problems of Livestock --------- 58
353 Infectious Bovine Mastitis .-- --- 58
356 Biological Analysis of Pasture Herbage -------- 59
387 Longevity of Eggs and Larvae of Internal Parasites of Cattle --- 59
394 Effect of Certain Feeds on Milk Flavor _.~.----- 59
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixtures and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized
Pastures - 59
424 The "Transmission Agent" of Fowl Leucosis ---- 60
426 Toxicity of Crotalaria spectabilis Roth --.......-... .. 60
436 Composition of Milk Produced in Florida ---- 60
450 Grazing Experiments with Poultry --- 61
456 "Leeches" in Horses .. .--- -- 61
459 Control of the Common Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica Linn 62
460 Control of the Common Cattle Grubs --- 63
461 Supplemental Feeds for Nursing Beef Calves 63
462 Anaplasmosis in Cattle -- ------- - 64
477 Feeding and Management of Pigs for Economical Pork Production 64
478 Dehydration and Utilization of Vegetable By-Products as Dairy
and Poultry Feeds -. ---------- -65
481 Losses in Marketing Livestock -- --..- --.. 65
489 The Feeding Value of Citrus Meal and Citrus Seed Meal for
Poultry -- 65
490 Treating Eggs with Oil for Storage --- 66
497 Influence of Water Constituents (Minerals) on the Physical
Properties and Whipping Quality of Ice Cream Mixes -..-. 66
503 Broiler Feeding Trials .. -- 67
512 Sweet Lupine Seed as a Protein Supplement for Growing and
Fattening Beef Cattle .......- - ----- 67
517 Factors Influencing the Development of Pullet Disease 68
518 Thyroid Function in Chickens .....- --------.. 68
540 Citrus Molasses for Feeding Swine .. ... 69
541 Feeding Value of Florida Hays for Swine --...--- 69
542 Supplemental Feeds Needed by Sows During Reproduction and
Lactation on Florida Pastures ---.----------.. ..-- 70
Miscellaneous: Inheritance of "Bulldog" Head in Cattle; Palata-
bility of New Feeds; Microorganisms in Ruminant Digestion;
Dermatophytosis in Dairy Cows; The Effect of Minor Elements
on Phosphorus Metabolism in Cattle; Interrelationship of
Copper, Molybdenum, and Phosphorus; Cooperative Vitamin
D Studies; Vitamin A for Beef Cattle; Influence of Various


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
- Miscellaneous-(Continued):
Phosphate Sources on Cattle; Electrometric Titration of Milk
and Dairy Products in Determination of Titratable Acidity;
Pumping Cold Milk; The Freezing Point of Milk; The Limita-
tions of the Refractometer Readings of Milk Serums in De-
tecting Watered Milk; Radio-Active Calcium in Poultry Ex-
periments; Broiler Feeding Trials ___-------70-74
379 Control of Nut and Leaf Casebearers of Pecans ---- 75
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida -- 76
382 Root-Knot in Tobacco Fields -- ------- 76
385 Effects of Mulches on Root-Knot Nematodes --- 76
462 Anaplasmosis in Cattle -------------- 77
499 Strawberry Variety Trials -- 78
531 Control of the Insect and Arachnid Pests of Woody Ornamentals 78
537 Control of Insect Pests of Flue-Cured Tobacco ------ --- 79
Miscellaneous: Miscellaneous Pecan Insects; Mixing Insecticides
with Fertilizer; Control of Insect Pests on Succulent Plants;
Effects of Annually Repeated Soil Treatments of D-D for
Controlling Nematodes on Gladiolus ... --------------81-82
Home Economics
442 Assessment of the Nutritive Value of Certain Supplements When
Added to Basal Diets of Enriched and Unenriched Breads -- 83
443 Vitamin B Content of Foods ---------------. 84
516 Effect of Processing and Storage upon the Nutritive Value of Milk 85
SMiscellaneous: The Effect of Type of Fat on Quality of Cake as
Judged by Appearance, Texture, Odor and Flavor when Fresh
and After Storage; Factors Involved in Preparing Cottage
Cheese in the Home; Factors Involved in Making Ice Cream in
a Mechanical Refrigerator ------------------- 86
50 Propagation, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with the Tung Oil
Tree --.----- --------.----- .---- ..87
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and
Methods for Their Propagation --------- 88
80 Cooperative Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards ----- 88
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ---- 89
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vegetables
Adaptable to Commercial Production in Florida 90
365 Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree ---- -- 91
375 The Relation of Zinc and Magnesium to Growth and Reproduction
in Pecans .-- ----------- 93
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ..---------------- 93
420 The Composition of Florida-Grown Vegetables as Affected by
Environment ------- 95
432 Effects of Boron on Certain Deciduous Fruits and Nuts 95
435 Irrigation of Vegetable Crops 95
452 Culture and Classification of Camellia and Related Genera ---. 97
467 Maintaining Freshness in Vegetables with Ice --- 97
468 Quality of Vegetables as Related to Fertilizer Materials with
Emphasis on Potash Salts --- -- 97
473 Freezing Preservation of Certain Florida-Grown Vegetables .-- 99
475 Effect of Soil Fumigants on Yield and Quality of Vegetables .-- 99
478 Dehydration and Utilization of Vegetable By-Products as Dairy
and Poultry Feeds ------.-- ------------- 100
483 Consumer Packaging of Vegetables (Except Tomatoes) .----- 100
484 Packaging of Tomatoes --------------- 102

Annual Report 1949

Project No. Title Page
499 Strawberry Variety Trials .- -.-- - 103
501 Vegetable Breeding -- -103
521 Tomato Ripening .- -104
526 Canning Florida Grown Vegetables 106
SMiscellaneous: Brined Celery; Celery Pickles; Fiber in Green
Beans; Effect of Alphatron and Alphatrol on Germination of
Seeds and Growth of Seedlings; Chemical Weed Control in
Vegetables; Effect of Sewage Sludge on the Growth and
Yield of Broccoli; Quality Testing of New Watermelon
Strains --------------------------- ------ 107-109
SU. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations 109
Plant Pathology
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants 112
281 Damping-Off of Vegetable Seedlings ...--- 113
344 Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Eggplant --- 113
455 Camellia Diseases -- - -. 114
463 Lupine Investigations 115
524 Nectar and Pollen Plants of Florida --- --- 116
539 Control of Pecan Scab and Other Foliage Diseases 116
--- Miscellaneous: Poisonous Plants; Pathogenicity Studies of Two
Fusarium Isolates --117
328 Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and Cropping
Systems in Florida -- -- 118
347 The Composition of Florida Soils and of Associated Native
Vegetation --118
368 Factors Affecting the Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule
Development .119
389 Classification and Mapping of Florida Soils 119
404 Correlation of Soil Characteristics with Pasture Crop and Animal
Response ---- ------- ----- 120
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied to
Different Soil Types ---.... ----- --...- .- 121
433 Retention and Utilization of Boron in Florida Soils - 122
446 Testing Soils and Limestone -- -.- 124
447 Availability and Leaching of Minor Elements in Florida Soils -- 125
493 Soil Management Investigations --.----- ---- 126
535 Soil Management Investigations ---- ------- 126
544 Soil Management Investigations ... ....-------------.- ---- 126
Federal-State Frost Warning Service
Report of the 1948-49 Season .--.---- _-- ..- -128-131
Potato Investigations Laboratory
130 Studies Relative to Disease Control of White (Irish) Potatoes -- 132
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ------------- .-- 132
419 Downy Mildew of Cabbage ------------- 134
465 Fertility Studies in Cabbage Production ----..-. 135
469 Improvement of Potato Cultural Practices .--- 136
500 Alternaria Leaf Spot of Cabbage and Other Crucifers -137
527 Cabbage Diseases other Than Downy Mildew and Alternaria
Leaf Spot -.-.- -.. -- ....-.-.-.- .. .. ... .. . 138
529 Potato Diseases -.. --..... ...------- .. .----.--. 139
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ..----------- 141
499 Strawberry Variety Trials -141
Miscellaneous: Fertilizer Trials; Meadow Nematodes and Soil
Fumigation; Weed Killers; Indian Strawberry --_---- 142

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Vegetable Crops Laboratory
Project No. Title Page
391 Vegetable Variety Trials --- ---- ------- 144
398 Breeding for Combined Resistance to Diseases and Insects in the
Tomato --- ------- ---- 146
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn ----.- 149
402 Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Vegetable Crop Plants -- 149
405 Summer Cover Crops, Liming and Related Factors in Vegetable
Crop Production 150
427 Economic Control of Mole-Crickets 151
445 The Insecticidal Value of DDT and Related Synthetic Compounds
on Vegetable Crop Insects in Florida ......... .. ..... 151
448 Rapid Soil Tests for Determining Soil Fertility in Vegetable
Crop Production .... -. .. .. 152
449 Organic Fungicides for Control of Foliage Diseases of Vegetables 154
464 Gladiolus Variety Trials 158
499 Strawberry Variety Trials 159
502 Controlling Gladiolus Corm Disease --- ----- 159
504 Controlling Insect Pests of Gladiolus - ----_-- 160
506 Etiology and Control of Certain Epiphytotic Diseases of Gladiolus 160
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops _----.-- 160
Miscellaneous: Weed Control in Sweet Corn; Compatibility of
Fungicides, Insecticides and Nutrients; New Insecticides on
Tomatoes; Oil Emulsion DDT Studies; Derris elliptica; New
Fertilizer Materials; Greenhouse Pot Test with 2,4-D Soil
Concentrations; Plant Setting; Disease Notes; Sweet Corn;
Time of Application of Fertilizer; Fertilizer Trials on
Gladiolus --------------- .161-168
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
150 Investigation of, and Control of Fusarium Wilt, a Fungous Dis-
ease of Watermelons Caused by Fusarium oxysporum (E.F.S.)
Var. Niveum Snyder and Hansen ------ ----------- 169
151 Investigation of, and Control of, Fungous Diseases of Watermelons 170
254 Investigations of Fruit Rot of Grapes _-- ___-..- 171
Central Florida Station
281 Damping-Off of Vegetable Seedlings .--- --- 172
336 Cercospora Blight of Celery---- --- 172
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Army Worms in Florida -- 173
391 Variety Trials 173
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn ..- 174
494 Improvement of Cultural Practices for Cabbage, Lettuce, Celery
and Other Vegetable Crops .174
495 Liquid Fertilizers for Vegetable Crops - ---- 175
496 Soil Management Problems in Vegetable Crop Fields ---- 175
501 Vegetable Breeding 175
523 Control of Nematodes Injurious to Vegetable Crops ----- 176
S- Miscellaneous: Control of Pickleworm and Melonworm on Canta-
loupes; Control of the Cowpea Curculio --..--- ... 177-178
Everglades Station
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings 182
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Con-
ditions .- ------ - - -- .--- ---.....-......-.- 182
87 Insect Pests and Their Control .-- ---- --- 184
88 Soils Investigations 186
89 Water Control Investigations .--- "------ 187
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle 189
168 Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the Peat and
Muck Soils of the Everglades -191

Annual Report 1949

Project No. Title Page
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugarcane Moth
B orer .. .--..- .- ... .. .. .. .. ... ..---... 193
171 Cane Breeding Experiments ...... .........------- 193
172 General Physiological Phases of Sugarcane Investigations ..... 194
195 Pasture Investigations of the Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
glades .......-------.....------------ 194
202 Agronomic Studies with Sugarcane ..... .....------- -----. 197
203 Forage Crop Investigations ---......- ---------..--.... 198
204 Grain Crop Investigations --. -- ----- 199
205 Seed Storage Investigations ............... ----- -- 199
206 Fiber Crops Investigations ... ----- 199
208 Agronomic Studies Upon the Growth of Sirup and Forage Canes
in Florida -...- ..--- -....-....... 203
209 Seed and Soil-Borne Diseases of Vegetable Crops --- 204
210 Leaf Blights of Vegetable Crops ---------------... 204
336 Early Blight of Celery --------- 204
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ---- -- 204
458 Schlerotiniose Disease of Vegetables .----.....-.. .... --- 209
533 Grasses for Lawns, Recreational Areas, Parks, Airports and
Roadsides ....---- -- .......... ---------- 209
545 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to South Florida Conditions 211
SMiscellaneous: Agricultural Engineering; Nematodes and Subter-
ranean Insects; General Insect Survey; Improvement of
Vegetable Crops; Vegetable Crop Investigation on Mineral
Soils; Weed Control; Virus Diseases of Vegetables; Turf
Grass Diseases; Sheep and Swine .. -------212-214

North Florida Station
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco .-----.... ---- ... 215
80 Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchard -------- 216
260 Grain Crop Investigations ----------------------------- 216
261 Forage Crop Investigations ------- --- 219
301 Pasture Legumes ----------- 219
321 Control of Downy Mildew of Tobacco -------. 220
411 Two-Year Rotations for Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco --- 220
463 Blue Lupine Investigations ----------- 220
491 Production of Feeder Pigs --------- 220
492 Crimson Clover and Oats Pastures and Supplements to Corn for
Fattening Hogs .-- ----- 221
493 Soil Management Investigations --------------- 221
498 Utilization of Pastures in the Production of Beef Cattle ..----- 223 v
525 Control of Green Peach Aphid on Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ...... 224
528 Soil Fumigation for Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ..------ 225
532 Management of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco Plant Beds ..-- 226
535 Soil Management Investigations --- ------ --231
Miscellaneous: Kentucky 31 Fescue; Peanuts; Virus Diseases of
Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco; Palatability of Sweet Blue Lupine
Meal ----------..... ----------...-.. 226-228
Mobile Units .. -............- ... .. ..--- .. .. 229-233

Range Cattle Station
390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida Environment .--- 234
410 Wintering Beef Cattle on the Range ----- ------ ------- 234
423 Effects of Fertilization and Seeding on the Grazing Value of Flat-
woods Pastures ... -- .-~.. .-- ---... 236
466 Fluctuations in Water-Table Levels in Immokalee Fine Sand and
Associated Soil Types ---. .-... ----- ---- 238
476 Utilization of Citrus Products for Fattening Cattle .. 238

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
SMiscellaneous: Mineral Consumption by Range Cattle; Feeding
Citrus Products to Beef Cattle on the Range; Phosphate
Amendments and Animal Response; Forage Variety and
Fertilizer Trials; Phosphorus Sources on Carpet Grass-Clover;
Major and Minor Element Requirements of Pasture Plants 239-243
Sub-Tropical Station
275 Citrus Culture Studies _----------- 244
276 Avocado Culture Studies ...------ -------------------- 245
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals -- ---- 245
280 Sub-Tropical Crops of Minor Economic Importance --- 245
285 Potato Culture Investigations _.------- 247
286 Tomato Culture Investigations ------------ ---------------- 248
287 Cover Crop Studies ---- -- 249
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County --- ---- 249
290 A Study of Diseases of Avocado and Mango and Development of
Control\ Measures --------- 253
291 Control of Tomato Diseases ---.------------------------- 254
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ._.._ .. .. ..- 257
422 Diseases of the Tahiti (Persian) Lime ---------------------- 258
458 Sclerotiniose of Vegetables _------------------ 259
470 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Sub-Tropical Fruits ...- 259
471 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Winter Vegetable Crops 260
472 Control of the Pineapple Mealybug, Pseudococcus brevipes (Ckll.) 261
505 Importance, Etiology, and Control of Papaya Diseases _- 262
514 Sub-Tropical and Tropical Plant Introductions ------ 262
515 Mango Selection, Propagation and Culture ------262
522 Guava Propagation, Culture, Breeding and Selection --- 264
SMiscellaneous: Soil Studies; Helminthosporium Blight of Sweet
Corn; Mango Maturity Studies; Effect of 2,4-D on Intensi-
fying Red Color of Bliss Triumph Potatoes; Weed Control In-
vestigations ------------264-265
West Central Florida Station
SIncrease in Pastures -----_..-------...-------------- 266
S Cattle Breeding ----------- .- ..--. .. ..- 266
-- Grazing Studies -------------------------- 266
Poultry Breeding ------......_ ..-------------------- 267
West Florida Station
SSoil Management Investigations ------- 268
SVariety Tests of Farm Crops --------- 268
SHorticultural Variety Tests _----------------------- ------ 268
Citrus Station
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection --------- 269
102 Variety Testing and Breeding --- -- --- 269
185 Investigation of Melanose and Stem-End Rot of Citrus Fruit ----- 269
340 Citrus Nutrition Studies -----_- ----- ------ 270
341 Combined Control of Scale-Insects and Mites ---- ---- 285
508 Soil Moisture Relations .-----__ _-------- 287
509 The Nature, Causes and Control of Citrus Decline -- 293
510 Biological Control of Citrus Insects ------- --- 294
511 Diseases of Citrus Insects -- .-.. .-. ------- 295
Miscellaneous: Chemistry of Insecticides; Citrus Investigations in
the Coastal Regions; Horticultural Machinery; Bulk Handling
of Fresh Fruit for Packinghouses --- 296-305
SCooperative Research with the Florida Citrus Commission; Citrus
Fruit Decay Studies; Processing Research ----- 306-310
SCooperative Work with Soil Conservation Service --- 311-322




Main Experiment
Station .

Soil Survey ... ......

Central Florida
Station ..- ..... --- ..

Station ... ... ..

Station ..-- -

North Florida
Station ....... . ..

Range Cattle
Station .- ....--.- -

Station ... --. ....

West Florida
Station ....... .. .....


$ 444,314.601$16,894.371$243.751$19,247.72

14.938.55 --... .......- 728.73

25,946.911 2,312.671 25.001 604.79
213,635.271 5,292.751 103.501 7,880.37
153,281.351 41,779.701 93.251 1,124.79
i i
41,006.221 4,654.611 78.801 517.06
19,660.301 8,075.25! 157.601 679.33
46,912.291 5,980.441 6.001 2,269.86
12,319.411 I I 442.61
12,319.411 I....... I 442.61




Cg C'l -
5.9 ij
CC ) s
0 / m2

.1,103.461$4,213.83 $9,134.571$

.I......... ...........

93.73 292.221 454.94

1,157.551 2,373.781 3,269.601

985.121 1,316.381 2,321.53

188.61 326.20 298.29

69.721 -........... 159.10

138.321 340.93 1.004.351

47.701 93.00 55.561

C ^
C, '7.
.r. 2 ~ e
C, *3.
PC a

$12,044.21 $7,286.39 $

. .. 130.231
--....... 1,519.88

---........ 1,038.361

-- 1,630.931

-............... 1,218.23

-----.............. 908.041
1 1
---.....--.........-- 3,692.211

-.- ..... 622.441


986.67 $66,111.03

... 1.935.35

24.43 6,354.80

185.071 69,070.12

399.751 32,466.13

111.001 12,769.61

68.77 9,409.32

195.76 11,040.04

52.78! 6,033.90







m a

$82,907.505$ 682,170.39

6,484.221 26,406.25
S24,850.95! 64,986.64

S16.455.721 363,468.70
1 i
7,528.121 247,585.89
1 I
- 6,384.73 68,129.56

S2,898.24 43,270.35
S 77.961 74,694.30
. 8
I 7,887.641 28,802.33



14,054.511 1,405.501

4,860.00 527.401
42,062.251 12,840.21!

12,469.541 337.001

4,500.001 ... ........

18,288.001 11.237.651




. 0
5, 0





pg -


S 270.41

I 181.15

0 2,396.93


S 1,233.70


Z 0 0
M 1 0

60.01| 116.381 ............. 2.25
11 I

6.791 64.341 60.311 4.00

83.481 474.981 787.431 102.13

11.791 164.141 105.121 249.00

--- -- ---- ------ 1 .- -

85.521 184.721 18.5011,943.10

-.-- I --. .

Laboratory ...

Laboratory ....

Vegetable Crops


Station .........

North Florida
Mobile Units

Fund, Main
Station ......

Fund, Main
Station ....









451.501 20.051 2,002.72
.. 28.771 ........ 613.92

S.... 1,693.981 30.441 8,474.97
... 625.811 26.501 2,506.85

... 2,713.871 466.561 10,486.51

350.54l ...--...- 2,485.881
340.021 ........ 672.851
735.381 ....... 82.291
1,127.75 .--.. 5,613.791

..--- i 500.00i
I 1 1
1,752.08 ......... 1,589.791

.-.-... ... 135,140.001 4,860.001

........... 120,000.00| .. ...


. ... ....... .. i ......... i ................


'0 C 0
S r I 4 5
"0 o a E, I. .

I J o II W z a ja __LJ j LJ
H E o Q rn

Development and
New Beef Unit ........ .... 3,806.181 59.001 61.87
Land Replacement
Thru Loss ............------... ... ......... -. --
Matching Marketing I
Research Act ..... 4,081.641 ............. .... I 5,080.13
North Florida I I
Contingent I
Tobacco Insect 10,275.431 4,878.34 99.77
Citrus I
Experimentation I
On East Coast ......- -- 7,538.501 3,203.851 -...... 1 1,222.07
S1 1
TOTAL ......... ..-- . 1,090,144.77 123,225.921 804.901 44,789.06
Weather I I
Forecasting I I
Service ........... .. 4,000.20[ ......... ... I 10,928.54

TOTAL ........ .. 1.094,144.971123,225.921 804.901 55,717.60

I -------- ---------- 3,144.921 ... 4,671.11
.... I .... ..... I .....- --------

21.181 68.081 31.20' 553.15 1,424.03 832.051 ..... 2,137.94

16.111 107.161 9.601 ....... . .. ..I..... 317.42 ........ 3,734.52

.--. ..-- .. | ......... 2,474.00 I 139.451 ......... 5,817.51

4,069.09110,136.14 17,710.1015,544.83 13,468.24 27,994.4812,567.781255,636.35
S| I

3,894.181 ... ....... I. . ........... I 318.941 ...... 653.34

4,069.09114,030.32'17,710.1015,544.83 18,4: 8.24 28.313.42 2,567.781256.289.69

I iI
1,097.851 .. 1,888.331 14,729.26

- 25,000.00 ...-..... 25,000.00

6,801.571 ..-....... 21,870.871 42,901.84
215.081 .......... 1,455.831 21,109.26

1,892.121 2,504.501 24.792.00

I 1 1
90,182.73 80,140.001198,999.2111,965,413.60

205.001 | .201 20,000.40

90.387.73180,140.001198,999.41 1.985,414.00


Sg I, ....
00 o 0 4 e

r. I c I^

TH 44

Incidental Funds-

Main Station......

Central Florida ..

Citrus Station ....

Everglades Station
North Florida .

Range Cattle
Station ..--------

Station --.-
West Central
Florida Station

Laboratory ..-

Vegetable Crops
Laboratory .......
Laboratory ....

TOTALS .............

_- $10,077.67 $9,767.76 $1,362.62i$3,254.661$455.731$239.58 $1,940.08
.... I 3-.......0
----------- -------- ---- -- ------ ------- --- ------
--------- -- 30.001 839.86 111.54 139.83 380.051

-I 1,104.60 1,563.151 334.001 739.75 134.17 70.031 451.38

I. 1,697.901 3,712.67i 25.801 200.031 -....... 2.521 .....

........... 383.95 15.001 871.99 168.63 3.69 --

-....... 1,887.63 ---- -- ..... 25.24 15.821 102.08

780.00 5,633.44 .. 13.90 10.241 4.491 ........

_ 269.801 624.501 20.00i 196.351 7.901 5.10 ........

I i....... 1.710.25 ..... I

I i ..... I ......... I ..... I
I--------- 1,710.2 ------ ----- I


C) 9
9 C
C) U)4,
0 ~ C)

$11.62 $ 460.25 $3,656.29 $1,121.58 $49,520.77 $8,212.90 .

..- 2,559.001 17.251 .......... 218.701 --..

4.92| ----.... 8.00 -..-.....1 5,415.161 969.05 --
I I I 1
34.38 ...I...... 94.891 3.251 9,162.731 9,263.91

...... 1..... 11,886.861 17.151 8,062.691 2,995.611.

-I ..-........ 1,322.301 ..... 4,152.55 7,230.00

-I ....--- 1 936.111 -...-. .1 809.781 955.93

S.25 13.00, 7,690.361 116.66

.751 ........I 26.261 .251 1,106.851 1,018.94 .

------ -.......... 14.00 ---....-... 12.00 .

1 75.00! I---- -







I 5,059.85



9$ +4 5

C) r~ .

241.27 14,389.38

1,444.41 6,177.00

2,861.41 17,123.75

104.75 3,381.45

.. 265.50 1,991.75

S 800.381 875.38

I6 058 404 250 612 01

-------- 13,929.97 25,283.35: 1,787.42| 6,116.541 913.451 481.061 za(.591126.bt n,uon.aisl,948. ll om,.i9,3.16,3 I6056820121
I I I I I.

"! ~C"n~i or~onrnisnor~nni



Io o . I i i I I I I I
Hatch Fund ------------ ------- --- -------- | $15,000.00| I | i is is..| Is-..| .-| $ i. |-- --- --i -.| $ .-. ...i $ |-- .$15,000.00

Purnell Fund .....---. ---. ---------...... I 60,000.00| .....1 -..... ..- ... .. .. .. |-..-...| .. .....| a......- 60,000.00
Bankhead Jones Fund -- ------.._............ ............ 27,180.00i2,622.021 __ 299.71|209.29| 2.90| ....| .751| ---.- 3,127.991 7,136.56| 1 |--.- 40,579.22
Research Marketing Act --------.. ...-.-......-- ...............................I 37.131.791 763,751 ... 6,533.761108.93|43.941 62.76 534.771 ....1 6,787,10| 6,897.51| ...... 8,780.14| 67,644.45
TOTAL ------------------.- -..... --- ........... .. ---- ........ ............. ---- 154,311.7913,385.77| 1| 6,833.47 318.22 46.841 62.76. 1 ...1 535.52| ----..- 9,915.09|14,034.07| .... 8,780.14!198,223.67
Ramie Contract -- --- -------------------- 10,672.36 1,862.001 | 61.59 351.76 3.27 28.07| -.-.-- 2,186.88 927.75 410.18 16,503.86
Grants and Donations ----- ............. ... -........ ...--- ......... 14.276.391 865.181 .--- | 3,075.14| .... ... | ... _. 1 455.3911,500.001 2,798.601 6,076.671 ...... 141,505.86! 70,553.23
TOTALS6,112.1 8.41
TOTALS Fund ...................................... 179,260.540,112.95 ..... 19,970.201.318.22 46.84414.523.27 --- 1,018.98 1,500.00 14,900.5721,0389 .... 50,696.1828$15,00280.0076

I I I I I I r I I I

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


During this fiscal year the Station published its second largest volume
of material in history, in an endeavor to present results obtained in the
expanded program of research for Florida farm families. Dissemination of
information by radio and through newspapers and farm journals continued
at about the same rate as during recent years. The staff continued to submit
large numbers of articles to scientific journals for publication also.
Near the end of the fiscal year the Station inaugurated a new circular
series of publications which probably will largely replace the press bulletin
series later. It permits of more elasticity in size of manuscript, and the
press bulletin is no longer used for press releases. Two of the new circulars
were printed.
Also printed during the year were 17 new bulletins and six new subject
matter press bulletins. The bulletin list was printed twice and five press
bulletins were reprinted. The new bulletins ranged in size from 8 to 184
pages, totaling 760, and in edition from 4,000 to 12,500, totaling 118,000
copies. The two circulars were eight and 16 pages, with 17,500 copies
printed. Four of the new press bulletins were four pages each and two
were eight pages. Editions ranged from 3,000 to 7,500, totaling 29.500.
The bulletin list was six pages in size, with 1,500 copies printed each time.
It is revised about twice a year. The five press bulletins reprinted were all
four pages in length, and 21,000 copies were printed.
The following bulletins were printed during the year:
Bul. Title Pages Edition

445 An Economic Study of Celery Marketing --.---.
446 Tests of New Insecticides for the Control of
Aphids on Celery in the Everglades -..---
447 Copper Deficiency of Tung in Florida-- --
448 Chemical Studies on Soils from Florida Citrus Groves
449 A Laboratory Program for the Dairy Plant .
450 A Curing Procedure for the Reduction of Mold
Decay in Citrus Fruits -
451 Floor Space Requirements for Broiler Production .....
452 Florida Citrus Oils -------
453 Carpet Grass and Legume Pastures in Florida --- -
454 Citrus Products for Fattening Cattle --
455 Composition of Florida-Grown Vegetables II-- -
456 Fattening Steers on Everglades Winter Pasture ---
457 Sclerotiniose Disease of Vegetable Crops in Florida _
458 Winter Oats and Crimson Clover Pastures as
Supplements to Fattening Rations for Feeder Pigs
459 Diseases of Watermelons in Florida -- ..--
460 Rural Land Ownership in Florida ---
461 Fertilizer Experiments with Citrus on Davie
Mucky Fine Sand -

184 7,500

28 5,000
32 5,000
88 10,000
32 7,000

28 6,000
16 5,000
44 5,000
36 7,500
16 7,500
44 6,000
20 6,000
20 12,500

8 7,000
48 7,000
76 10,000

40 4,000

Distribution of bulletins is handled in the Mailing Room. Each new
bulletin is sent to libraries, workers in the subject matter field, and county
agents. An announcement that it is available is sent also to a "Bulletin
Notify" list. After that copies are distributed only on request.
Brief Review of Bulletins.-A very brief summary of the principal points
contained in the bulletins follows:

Annual Report 1949

445. An Economic Study of Celery Marketing. (Max E. Brunk, 184
pages, 49 figs.) Its three parts deal with harvesting methods, packaging
methods and distribution and selling. The studies show that some firms
consistently handle the celery crop with less cost than others.
446. Tests of New Insecticides for the Control of Aphids on Celery in
the Everglades. (W. D. Wylie, 28 pages, 0 figs.) DDT emulsion reduced
aphid numbers, while wettable DDT increased them. Benzene hexachloride
was effective in some tests, ineffective in others. Vapotone and nicotine
sulfate gave good results.
447. Copper Deficiency of Tung in Florida. (R. D. Dickey, Matthew
Drosdoff and Joseph Hamilton, 32 pages, 10 figs.) This disorder, so far
observed only in northern Florida, is controlled by applications of copper
sulfate to the soil or the foliage.
448. Chemical Studies of Soils from Florida Citrus Groves. (Michael
Peech and T. W. Young, 88 pages, 3 figs.) Reports a study of 204 soils
from groves in the citrus area. Well drained soils are low in base-exchange
capacity, which is influenced by organic matter and clay content. Exchange
capacity affords the best single-value index to potential fertility.
449. A Laboratory Program for the Dairy Plant. (Leon E. Mull and
E. L. Fouts, 32 pages, 1 fig.) Suggests location for laboratory, floor plan,
equipment and the numerous tests.
450. A Curing Procedure for the Reduction of Mold Decay in Citrus
Fruits. (E. F. Hopkins and K. W. Loucks, 28 pages, 6 figs.) Running
fruit through the coloring rooms, even without ethylene gas, helps to pre-
vent stem-end rot.
451. Floor Space Requirements for Broiler Production. (N. R. Mehrhof
and A. W. O'Steen, 16 pages, 0 figs.) Birds having 1 square foot floor space
with access to the yard gave slightly more satisfactory results than those
with smaller space or without access to yard.
452. Florida Citrus Oils-Commercial Production Methods and Proper-
ties of Essential Oils. (J. W. Kesterson and 0. R. McDuff, 44 pages, 19 figs.)
Commercial methods of producing by-product essential oils are studied and
453. Carpet Grass and Legume Pastures in Florida. (R. E. Blaser,
R. S. Glasscock, G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes, 36 pages, 10 figs.)
Combinations of legumes and grasses give high yields and higher contents
of minerals in pasture grasses.
454. Citrus Products for Fattening Cattle. (W. G. Kirk, E. R. Felton,
H. J. Fulford and E. M. Hodges, 16 pages, 4 figs.) Either fresh citrus,
including whole grapefruit, or dried citrus pulp, is a good roughage sup-
plement for fattening cattle.
455. Composition of Florida-Grown Vegetables. II-Effect of Variety,
Location, Season, Fertilizer Level and Soil Moisture on the Organic Com-
position of Cabbage, Beans, Tomatoes Collards, Broccoli and Carrots.
(Byron E. Janes, 44 pages, 0 figs.) Widest variations in composition were
associated with season and location. Soil type had little effect on organic
composition. Fertilizer level and variety exerted small influence.
456. Fattening Steers on Everglades Winter Pasture. (R. W. Kidder,
20 pages, 0 figs.) Sun-dried shredded sweet potatoes and blackstrap
molasses proved satisfactory supplements to ground snapped corn and
cottonseed meal for steers on winter pasture in the Everglades.
457. The Sclerotinoise Disease of Vegetable Crops in Florida. (W. D.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Moore, Robert A. Conover and David L. Stoddard, 20 pages, 7 figs.)
Sclerotiniose has been giving serious trouble to some crops in recent years.
It can be controlled by soil treatments, flooding, removal of wild hosts,
removal of infected plants, wider spacing of plants, crop rotation and pre-
cooling some commodities before shipping.
458. Winter Oats and Crimson Clover Pastures as Supplements to
Fattening Rations for Feeder Pigs. (F. S. Baker, Jr., 8 pages, 1 fig.)
Crimson clover may fairly well replace protein supplement for feeder pigs;
oats only partially so.
459. Diseases of Watermelons in Florida. (M. N. Walker, George F.
Weber and G. K. Parris, 48 pages, 31 figs.) Describes principal fungus and
bacterial diseases and their control. Also describes minor diseases and
other injuries.
460. Rural Land Ownership in Florida. (Daniel E. Alleger and Max M.
Tharp, 76 pages, 12 figs.) Reports on rural lands owned privately and
by public agencies, including federal, state, county, municipal. Comments
on practices in public land ownership.
461. Fertilizer Experiments with Citrus on Davie Mucky Fine Sand.
(T. W. Young and W. T. Forsee, Jr., 40 pages, 5 figs.) On most Davie soils,
nitrogen is not necessary, moderate phosphate fertilization is, and potash
results are inconclusive.
Press Bulletins.-Following is a list of circulars and press bulletins issued
during the year and their authors:
Circ. S-1. Cucurbit Mildews in Florida, by G. K. Parris.
Circ. S-2. Sheep Production in North Florida, by F. S. Baker, Jr.
Press Bul. 652. Control of Late Blight of Tomatoes in Florida, by
Robert A. Conover, J. M. Walter and D. L. Stoddard.
653. Oat and Rye Recommendations for Northern Florida
for 1948-49, by S. C. Litzenberger, W. H. Chapman
and W. A. Carver.
654. Winter Clovers for South Florida Flatwoods, by E. M.
Hodges, D. W. Jones and W. G. Kirk.
655. Soil Fumigation for Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco Fields, by
Randall R. Kincaid and Gaylord M. Volk.
656. Growing Cabbage Plants in Seedbeds, by E. N. Mc-
Cubbin, A. H. Eddins and E. G. Kelsheimer.
657. Blackberry Culture in Florida, by R. D. Dickey.
Bulletin List (printed twice).
513. Relation of Soil Reaction to Strawberry Production in
Central Florida (reprint).
527. Peach Varieties for Florida (reprint).
575. Florida Calcareous Supplements for Egg Production
621. Azalea Culture for Florida (reprint).
625. The Place of Minerals in Swine Feeding (reprint).

Station workers continued to speak regularly on the Florida Farm Hour
over WRUF at noon each week day, delivering 114 radio talks during the
year. Most of these were sent to 26 other radio stations as farm flashes.
These talks and other editorial material constituted 115 flashes. Copies
were sent also to three county agents for reference. The talks covered
practically all phases of Florida agriculture and gardening.

Annual Report 1949

Considerable Experiment Station material was used in the bi-weekly
roundup of farm news released to a number of stations not receiving flashes.
A weekly summary released to stations receiving Associated Press service
also included Experiment Station information.


Experiment Station materials continued to figure heavily in releases
used by both newspapers and farm journals. Agricultural News Service,
the weekly clipsheet released by the Agricultural Extension Service,
carried from one to several articles from the Station each week. It is sent
primarily to newspapers and farm workers. In addition, the Editors sent
an average of one special news release a week, direct to the Associated
Press or other wire service, or one or more daily newspapers.
Seven farm journals printed 13 articles from the Station Editors during
the year for a total of 261 column inches of space. These included one
article, 61 inches, in a Florida journal, eight articles, 131 inches, in two
Southern magazines, and four, 69 inches, in four national periodicals.

Staff members submitted dozens of articles direct to popular and tech-
nical journals, and the Editors transmitted numerous articles by other staff
members to popular journals. Following is a list of technical and popular
journal articles published during the year:
Abbott, Ouida D. Your Community, Your Job and You. Proc. Asso. So. Agr.
Workers, 46: 108. 1949.
Arnold, Lillian E. What We Ought to Know About Our Honey Plants.
Proc. Annual Meeting Fla. State Beekeepers Asso. 28: 29-32. 1948.
Arnold, P. T. Dix. Dairy Records Aid Management. Fla. Grower 56:
(1209): 8: 21, 23. 1948.
Arrington, L. R., and W. A. Krienke. Some Observations on the Range of
Freezing Points of Normal Milk. Abs. 22nd Annual Meeting, So.
Division, Am. Dairy Sci. Asso. Report, p. 3. 1949; see also Proc. Asso.
So. Agr. Workers 46: 77. 1949.
Bair, Roy A. Big Joe. Fla. Poultryman and Dairyman 14: 9; 10, 11. 1948.
Beckenbach, J. R. Growers Face a Period of Trial and Error. Market
Growers' Jour. 78: 4: 17, 40. 1949.
Beckenbach, J. R. Florida Soil Analysis. Com. Fertilizer 78: 4: 49. 1949.
Becker, R. B. Factors in Dairy Improvement. Fla. Grower 56: (1211): 10:
24. 1948.
Becker, R. B. Dairy Science Marches On. Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour.
14: 9: 4, 7, 9. 1948.
Becker, R. B. Potatoes for Dairy Cows. Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour. 15: 4:
11. 1949.
Becker, R. B., and P. T. Dix Arnold. Abnormally Low Butterfat Test-A
Survey. Proc. Asso. So. Agr. Workers 46: 77. 1949.
Blackmon, G. H. Flower Culture Advanced by Extensive Research in
Florida. So. Florist and Nurseryman 61: 38: 9-10. 1948.
Blackmon, G. H. Florida Research in Gladiolus Diseases and Ornamental
Plants. Florists Exchange 111: 12: 14, 54, 55. 1948.
Blackmon, G. H. Summer Jobs in Pecan Orchard. Fla. Grower 56: (1208):
7: 15, 17. 1948.

24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Blackmon, G. H. Cover Crop for Pecans Pays. Fla. Grower 56: (1211):
10; 29. 1948.
Blackmon, G. H. Pecans for the Southeast. Am. Fruit Grower 69: 1: 24,
51. 1949.
Blackmon, G. H., and R. H. Sharpe. Pecan Variety Problems and Their
Effects on Nut Production. Proc. SE Pecan Grow. Assn. 42: 51-57. 1949.
Blackmon, G. H., R. D. Dickey and R. H. Sharpe. Recent Developments in
Florida Peach Production. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 127-130. 1948;
see also Citrus Ind. 30: 3: 18-19. 1949.
Bledsoe, R. W., C. L. Comar and H. C. Harris. Absorption of Radioactive
Calcium by the Peanut Plant. Science 109: 2831: 329-330. 1949; see
also Proc. Asso. So. Agr. Workers 46: 139. 1949.
Brooks, A. N. Strawberry Production in Central Florida. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 61: 190-193. 1948.
Burgis, D. S. Wilting of Transplanted Seedlings Reduced by Seedbed
Treatment. Market Growers' Jour. 77: 8:21, 36. 1948.
Burgis, D. S. Control of Weeds in Sweet Corn with 2,4-D Sprays. Market
Growers' Jour. 78: 3: 26, 38. 1949.
Burgis, D. S., and J. R. Beckenbach. Herbicides for Control of Weeds in
Vegetable Seedbeds Also Control Root-Knot. Proc. Am. Soc. for Hort.
Sci. 52: 461-463. 1948.
Camp, A. F. The Tristeza Disease of Citrus in Argentina. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 61: 15-19. 1948.
Camp, A. F. Tree Decline in California. Citrus 11: 8: 16-19. 1949.
Camp. A. F. California Freeze Loss Mounts. Citrus 11: 8: 16-19, 23, 25.
Camp, A. F. Texas' Recovery to Be Slow. Citrus 11: 8: 16-21. 1949.
Camp, A. F. How to Understand California. Citrus 11: 10: 24, 25, 27. 1949.
Cobin, Milton. Notes on the Grafting of Litchi chinesis Sonn. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 61: 265-266. 1948.
Comar, C. L., and J. C. Driggers. Secretion of Radioactive Calcium in the
Hen's Egg. Science 109: 2829: 282. 1949.
Comar, C. L., George K. Davis and Leon Singer. The Fate of Radioactive
Copper Administered to the Bovine. Jour. Biological Chem. 174: 3:
905-914. 1948.
Conover, R. A. Phytophthora Seedling Blight, a New Disease of Avocados.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 291-293. 1948; see also Calif. Avoc. Soc.
Yearbook 1948: 88-90.
Conover, R. A. Studies of Two Viruses Causing Mosaic Diseases of Soy-
bean. Phytopath. 38: 724-235. 1948.
Conover, R. A. A Seedling Blight of Avocado Caused by Phytophthora
palmivora. Phytopath. 38: 1032-1034. 1948.
Cooper, J. Francis. Experiment Station Heads See Farm Research. Fla.
Grower 56: (1208): 7: 6: 21. 1948.
Cooper, J. Francis. New Death for Farm Pests. Progressive Farmer 63:
9: 54-55. 1948.
Cooper, J. Francis. Grapefruit for Quality Steaks. Progressive Farmer
63: 10: 130. 1948.
Cooper, J. Francis. Indigo "Blues." Pregressive Farmer 63: 10: 127. 1948.
Cooper, J. F. New Tomatoes for Florida. Prog. Farmer 63: 11: 108. 1948.
Cooper, J. Francis. Research Shows Fertilizing Pastures Is Profitable.
Victory Farm Forum No. 35: 16. 1949.

Annual Report 1949

Cunha, T. J. "What Schooling Do You Think Will Best Fit Today's Boys
for Tomorrow's Successful Ranch Operator?" Western Livestock Jour.
27: 12: 58, 60-61. 1948.
Cunha, T. J. Cattle Rations. Western Livestock Jour. 27: 12. 82-84. 1949;
see also Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 13: 3: 24-26. 1948.
Cunha, T. J. Anemic Swine-Pigs Can Be Saved by Some Extra Work.
Western Livestock Jour. 27: 12: 161. 1949; see also the Chester White
Jour. 39: 2:8. 1949.
Cunha, T. J. Present Status of the Knowledge of Vitamin Needs of the Pig
for Growth, Reproduction, and Lactation. Proc. Asso. So. Agr. Workers
46: 68-69. 1949; see also Hampshire Herdsman 24: 2: 75. 1949.
Cunha, T. J., and R. S. Glasscock. A. Lack of Salt Costs Money. Fla. Grower
57: (1215): 2: 25. 1949; see also Fla. Cattleman & Livestock Jour. 13:
5: 20. 1949.
Cunha, T. J., and R. S. Glasscock. Feeding of Irish Potatoes Entails Use of
Supplements to Provide Balanced Diet. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock
Jour. 13: 8: 8. 1949.
Davis, George K. Winter Grazing Is Valuable. Fla. Grower 56: (1212): 11:
27-28. 1948.
Davis, George K. The Influence of Copper on Bone Metabolism in Cattle.
Am. Chem. Soc. Abstracts, 114th Meeting, Washington, D. C. Aug. 30-
Sept. 3, 1948; p. 5c.
Davis, George K. Influence of Copper on Development of Cattle. Victory
Farm Forum No. 34: 3, 13-14. 1949.
Davis, George K. Copper Deficiency Symptoms in Mature Cattle. Victory
Farm Forum No. 35: 13-14. 1949.
Decker, Phares. Field Performance of Phomopsis Resistant Hybrid Egg-
plant. Proc Asso. So. Agr. Workers 46: 127. 1948.
Dickey, R. D. Cold Injury to Dormant Buds of Two Tung Varieties and Its
Effect on Yield. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 52: 115-116. 1948.
Dickey, R. D. Correct Tung Tree Bronzing. Fla. Grower 56: (1211): 10:
21. 1948.
Dorward, Kelvin. Parathion Toxicity to Livestock, Preliminary Test. Fla.
Entomologist 31: 4: 116-122. 1948.
Driggers, J. C. Strive for Top Production. Poultry Trib. 54: 9:43. 1948.
Driggers, J. C. Radioactive Calcium in Poultry Experiments. Proc. Asso.
So. Agr. Workers 46: 142. 1949.
Driggers, J. Clyde, and C. L. Comar. The Secretion of Radioactive
Calcium (CA45) in the Hen's Egg. Poultry Sci. 28: 3: 420-424. 1949.
DuCharme, E. P. Resistance of Poncirus trifoliata Rootstock to Nematode
Infestation in Argentina. Citrus Ind. 29: 7: 9, 15. 1948; see also Citrus
Ind. 30: 5: 16. 1949.
Eddins, A. H. Downy Mildew Can be Controlled. Prog. Farmer 63: 27. 1948.
Eddins, A. H. Preserving Culture Media. Phytopath. 38: 578. 1948.
Eddins, A. H. Incidence of Potato Diseases at Hastings, Florida, in 1948.
U.S.D.A. Plant Disease Reporter 32: 302-303. 1948.
Eddins, A. H. Black Rot of Cabbage; Outbreak in Florida. U.S.D.A. Plant
Disease Reporter. 32: 319. 1948.
Eddins, A. H., and Stanley M. Burrell. Occurrence of Cabbage Yellows in
the Hastings Section, Florida. U.S.D.A. Plant Disease Reporter 33:
249-251. 1949.
Emmel, M. W. Crotalaria Poisoning in Cattle. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn.
113: 857: 164. 1948.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Emmel, M. W. Necrophorus Infection in Chickens. Jour. Am. Vet. Med.
Assn. 113: 857: 169. 1948.
Emmel, M. W. Dead Chicken Disposal. Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour. 14:
8: 21. 1948.
Fifield, Willard M. Proposed Research in Honey Plants. Proc. State Bee-
keepers Assn. 28: 34-36. 1948.
Fisher, F. E., and J. T. Griffiths, Jr. Progress Report on the Fungus Dis-
eases of Scale Insects Attacking Citrus in Florida. Fla. Entomologist 32:
1: 1-11. 1949.
Fisher, F. E., J. T. Griffiths, Jr., and W. L. Thompson. An Epizootic of
Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.) on Citrus in Florida. Phytopath.
39: 510-512. 1949.
Folks, John. Sow Culling. Fla. Cattleman 13: 1: 24. 1948.
Folks, John. Cockleburs, When Green, Poison Hogs. Fla. Cattleman 13:
1: 33. 1948.
Forbes, R. B., and Nathan Gammon, Jr. The Effects of Five Years of Lime
and Fertilizer Treatments on an Immokalee Fine Sand Under Pasture
Conditions. Proc. Asso. of So. Agr. Workers 46: 60. 1949.
Forsee, W. T., Jr., and T. W. Young. Report on Fertilizer Experiments in
an Orange Grove in the Eastern Everglades. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
61: 39-44. 1948.
Fouts, E. L. Quality Is Not Enough. Ice Cream Field 52: 6: 22, 29-30,
32. 1948.
Fouts, E. L. Vat Pasteurization of Milk as It Applies to the Industry in the
South. So. Dairy Prod. Jour. 45: 5, 42. 1949.
Fouts, E. L. Vat Pasteurization of Milk. Fla. Poultry and Dairy Jour. 15:
4: 2, 3, 7. 1949.
Fouts, E. L., and W. A. Krienke. Preliminary Report on the Composition
of Milk Produced in Florida. Absts. 22nd Annual Meeting. So. Division,
Am. Dairy Sci. Assn. Report. 1949: p. 2.
Gammon, Nathan, Jr. Don't Lose Soil Effectiveness. Fla. Grower 57:
(1214): 17, 18. 1949.
Glasscock, R. S. Stock as Good as Its Feeding. Fla. Grower 57: (1219): 6:
11, 19. 1949.
Gratz, L. O. Sixty Years of Grass Research in Florida. Proc. Fla. Seeds-
man's Assn. 16: 102, 104, 106, 108, 110. 1948.
Greene, R. E. L. Some Causes of Losses in Handling Potatoes. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 61: 186-190. 1948.
Griffiths, James T., Jr., A preliminary Report on the Snail Drymaeus
dormani in Citrus Groves in Florida. Fla. Entomologist 32: 65-73. 1949.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., and C. R. Stearns, Jr. The Effects of Airplane DDT
Applications on Citrus Groves in Florida. Jour. Agr. Res. 78:471-76. 1949.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., and W. L. Thompson. A Preliminary Report on the
Possibilities for Forecasting Periods of Oviposition Activity for Purple
and Florida Red Scales. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 101-109. 1948;
see also Citrus Industry 30: 3: 5-7, 20. 1949.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., and W. L. Thompson. Grasshopper Prospects for the
Fall of 1948. Cit. Ind. 29: 9: 7, 18. 1948.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., and W. L. Thompson. Forecast on Scale and Grass-
hopper Infestation for 1949. Cit. Ind. 30: 3: 3. 1949.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., and W. L. Thompson. Citrus Insect Control Problems
for the Spring of 1949. Cit. Ind. 30: 4: 9, 17. 1949.

Annual Report 1949

Griffiths, J. T., Jr., and W. L. Thompson. Citrus Insect Problems as of
May 1, 1949. Cit. Ind. 30: 5: 14, 17. 1949.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., and W. L. Thompson. Citrus Insect Outlook for June,
1949] Cit. Ind. 30: 6: 4, 11. 1949.
Harris, H. C. Copper Deficiency in Relation to the Nutrition of Oats. Proc.
Soil Sci. Soc. Am. 12: 278-281. 1947.
Hairis, H. C. Copper Deficiency in Peanuts. Proc. Asso. So. Agri. Workers
46: 139. 1949.
Harris, H. C. The Effect on the Growth of Peanuts of Nutrient Deficiencies
in the Root and the Pegging Zone. Plant Physiology 24: 150-161. 1949.
Hayslip, N. C. Insecticide Studies on Chinese Cabbage for the Control of
the Turnip Aphid, Rhopalosiphum psuedobrassicae (Davis), and Certain
Foliage Feeding Larvae. Fla. Entomologist 31: 80-87. 1948.
Hayslip, N. C. Investigations on the Control of the Fall Armyworm and
the Corn Earworm Attacking Sweet and Field Corn in the Everglades
Area. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 168-173. 1948.
Henderson, J. R. Florida's Multi-Type Soils Give Varied Crops. Fla. Grower
56: (1212): 11: 6, 35. 1948.
Hibbs, R. A., and W. A. Krienke. Influence of the Mineral Content of Water
on the Properties of Ice Cream Mixes. (Abst.) Jour. of Dairy Science
31: 8: 703. 1948.
Hodges, E. M., and D. W. Jones. Preparation of Soil, Choice of Land, Are
Explained by Writers. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 13: 5: 11,
15. 1949.
Hodges, E. M., and D. W. Jones. Evaluation of Grasses Given by Research-
ers. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 13: 6: 18, 20, 21. 1949.
Hodges, E. M., and D. W. Jones. If You Know How to Set Out Improved
Grass, Don't Read This Article. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour.
13: 7: 22, 32-35. 1949.
Hodges, E. M., and D. W. Jones. Fertilizer and Lime Are Necessary to
Pastures; Minor Elements Needed. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour.
13: 8: 22, 24, 25. 1949.
Hodges, E. M., W. G. Kirk and D. W. Jones. Grass Pastures on the Sandy
Lands of South Florida. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 13: 9: 44,
45, 52. 54. 1949.
Hodges, E. M., and D. W. Jones. Clover Pasture in South Florida. Proc.
Assn. So. Agr. Workers 46: 63. 1949.
Hull, Fred H. Tests for Overdominance. Proc. 8th International Congress
of Genetics. 1948: 600-601. (Abstract.)
Hull, Fred H. Hybrid Corn Adding Yields. Fla. Grower 57: 3: 21. 1949.
Jamison, F. S. Still Time for Winter Garden. Fla. Grower 56: (1212): 11:
28-29. 1948.
Jamison, F. S. Improved Tomato Varieties. Proc. Fla. Seedsmen's Assn.
16: 44, 46, 48, 50. 1948.
Kelbert, D. G. A. The performance of New Cucumber Varieties. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 162-168. 1948.
Kelbert, D. G. A. The Performance of New Cucumber Varieties. Market
Growers' Jour. 78: 1: 16, 29, 30, 35. 1949.
Kelsheimer, E. G. The Control of Insect Pests of Cucumber and Squash.
Market Growers' Jour. 77: 12: 16, 27. 1948.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Chlordane. Down to Earth 4: 2: 2-3. 1948.
Kidder, Ralph W. Effects of Concentrate Supplements on Steers Fattened
in Green Lot. Am. Soc. of An. Prod. 7: 537. 1948. (Abs.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Killinger, G. B. Tips on Lawn Care in Summer. Fla. Grower 56: (1210):
9: 12-13. 1948.
Killinger, G. B. Winter Lupine Enriches Field. Fla. Grower 56: (1212):
11: 22. 1948.
Killinger, G. B. Future Outlook in Growing Clover in Florida. Proc.
State Beekeepers Assn. 28: 9-10. 1949.
Kincaid, R. R. Three Interspecific Hybrids of Tobacco. Phytopath. 39:
284-287. 1949.
Kincaid, R. R., and Gaylord M. Volk. Soil Fumigation for Cigar-Wrapper
Tobacco in Florida. Phytopath. 39: 13. 1949.
Kirk, W. G. Citrus Products for Fattening Cattle. Cit. Ind. 29:8:3, 7. 1948.
Kirk, W. G. Pastures and Cattle. Proc. Fla. Seedsmen's Assn. 16: 110,
112, 114, 116, 118. 1948.
Kirk, W. G., E. M. Hodges and H. J. Fulford. Citrus Pellets Produced
$28.93 Profit in Range Cattle Station Testing. Fla. Cattleman 13: 3: 20.
Kirk, W. G., E. R. Felton, H. J. Fulford and D. W. Jones. Citrus Products
for Fattening Cattle. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 13: 1: 11, 14,
15, 16. 1948.
Kirk, W. G., E. R. Felton, H. J. Fulford and E. M. Hodges. Citrus Products
for Fattening Cattle. Proc. Assn. So. Agr. Workers 46: 74. 1948. (Ab-
Knorr, L. Carl. Gold Thread Strangler Threat to Citrus Trees. Fla.
Grower 57: (1215: 2: 5, 13. 1949.
Knorr, L. Carl. Parasitism of Citrus in Florida by Various Species of
Dodder, Including Cuscuta boldinghii Urb., a Species Newly Reported for
the U. S. Phytopath. 39: 411-412. 1949.
Knox, Charles W., C. D. Gordon and N. R. Mehrhof. Performance of Rhode
Island Reds and Light Sussex as Compared with That of Their F, and
Three-Way Crossbreds. Poultry Science 28: 3: 415-419. 1949.
Krienke, W. A., and Nathan Gammon, Jr. The application of Flame Pho-
tometry to Determinations of Calcium, Potassium and Sodium in Milk.
(Abstract). Jour. Dairy Science 31: 8: 717. 1948.
Krienke, W. A., and Robert A. Hibbs. Ice Cream Mixes as Influenced by
Homogenization of Only a Part of the Mix. Ice Cream Trade Jour. 44:
11: 48-49, 78-79. 1948.
Kuitert, L. C. Control of Several Scale Insects by Means of a New In-
secticide. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 297-299. 1948; see also "Hort-
culturally SpeakinE." The Stuart News, March 17, 1949, Stuart, Florida.
Lagasse, Felix S. The American Tung Industry Today. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 61: 1-4. 1948.
Lagasse, Felix S., and Matthew Drosdoff. The Nutrition of Tung Trees.
Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 52: 11-17. 1948.
Lagasse, F. S., G. F. Potter and G. H. Blackmon. Relative Variability of
Fruits of Seedling and Budded Tung Trees. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci.
52: 107-111. 1948.
Lincoln, F. B. Report of the Sub-Tropical Fruit Committee. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 61: 268: 268-275. 1948.
Litzenberger, S. C. Prevalence of Crown Rust and Helminthosporium
Blight in Florida, January, 1949. Plant Dis. Reporter 33: 3: 146. 1949.
Magie, R. O. Stemphylium Leaf Spot of Gladiolus in Florida. Plant Dis-
Reporter 32: 8: 344-345. 1948.

Annual Report 1949 29

Magie, R. 0., and D. S. Burgis. Gladioli Injured by 2,4-D. Florists' Review
103: (2663): 35. 1948.
Magie, R. 0., and H. N. Miller. A New Method of Controlling Storage Rot
of Gladiolus. Florists' Review 103: (2655): 35. 1948.
Mehrhof, N. R. Wise Poultrymen Feed Greens. Fla. Grower 56: (1210):
9:30. 1948.
Mehrof, N. R. Snug Poultry Housing Advised. Fla. Grower 56: (1213):
12:25, 26. 1948.
Mehrhof, N. R. Florida's Poultry Industry, 1932-1948. Fla. Poultry and
Dairy Jour. 14: 8: 13. 1948.
Mehrhof, N. R. Chickenlore. Fla. Poultry & Dairy Jour. 15: 6: 11. 1949.
Mehrhof, N. R. Celery, Bean and Ramie in Chick Feeding. Proc. Assn.
So. Agr. Workers 46: 140. 1949.
Mowry, Harold. Florida. Commercial Fertilizer 77: 3-A: 34, 36-38. 1948.
Mowry, Harold. Agricultural Research in Florida. Orlando Evening Star
56: 3303. Nov. 16, 1948.
Paddick, Morris E. A Simple Colorimetric Test for Available Iron in
Alkaline Soils. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. 13: 197-199. 1948.
Parris, G. K. Powdery Mildew on Cucumber in Florida. Plant Dis. Re-
porter 32: 7: 301. 1948.
Parris, G. K. Further Observations on the Inheritance of Resistance to
Fusarium Wilt in Watermelon. Plant Dis. Reporter 32: 9: 378-379. 1948.
Phillips, A. M. Results of Preliminary Field Tests for the Control of a
Mite (Tetranychus sp.) on Pecan. Proc. Southeastern Pecan Growers'
Assn. 41: 74-78. 1948.
Reitz, H. J., and J. W. Sites. Relations Between Position on Tree and
Analysis of Citrus Fruit with Special Reference to Sampling and Meeting
Internal Grades. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 80-90. 1948.
Ruehle, George D. A Neglected Fruit with a Promising Future. Economic
Botany 2: 3: 306-325. 1948.
Ruehle, George D. Recent Developments in Sub-Tropical Fruits in Florida.
Proc. Fla. Seedsmen's Assn. 16: 82-90. 1948.
Ruehle, George D. Avocado Varieties for Dade County, Florida. Tex.
Avoc. Soc. Yearbook 1948: pp. 26-28.
Ruehle, George D. A Rapid Method of Propagating the Guava. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 61: 256-260. 1948; see also Calif. Avoc. Soc. Yearbook
1948: pp. 108-112.
Ruprecht, R. W. Sweet Corn Growing. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61:
193-195. 1948.
Sanders, D. A. Lessening Livestock Injuries. Fla. Grower 56: (1212): 11:
26. 1948.
Sande-s, D. A. Right Start in Life for Calf. Fla. Grower 57: 3: 27. 1949.
Savage, Zach. Sixteen Years of Costs and Returns. Cit. Ind. 29: 11: 7-8,
18. 1948.
Shealy, A. L. Cattlemen Give Research Clues. Fla. Grower 56: (1208): 7:
11, 14. 1948.
Shealy, A. L. Hogs Need Shade and Water. Fla. Grower 56: (1208): 7: 20.
Shealy, A. L. Science Aids Animal Problems. Fla. Grower 56: (1211): 10:
14, 19. 1948.
Shealy, A. L. Plan Stock Management Now. Fla. Grower 56: (1211): 10:
22-23. 1948.
Shealy, A. L. Getting Maximum from Cattle. Fla. Grower 56: (1211): 10:
25. 1948.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Showalter, R. K. Study Prepackaging at Ruskin, Florida. The Packer 48:
25; 14. 1948.
Showalter, R. K., and L. H. Halsey. Some Results of Prepacking Veg-
etables in 1948. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 154-160. 1948.
Simpson, Charles F. Hyperkeratoses or X Disease in Florida. Vet. Med.
44:2: 51-52. 1949.
Sites, John W., and Herman J. Reitz. The Variation in Individual Valencia
Oranges from Different Locations on the Tree as a Guide to sampling
Methods and Spot-Picking for Quality. Citrus 11: 3: 12-14. 1948; see
also Proc. Amer. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 53. 1949.
Spencer, E. L. Blossom-End Rot of Tomatoes as Affected by Soil Manage-
ment Practices. Mkt. Growers' Jour. 77: 7: 11, 25. 1948.
Spencer, E. L. Factors Influencing Fertilizer Uptake by Vegetable Crops.
Mkt. Growers' Jour. 78: 2: 12, 32. 1949.
Stearns, C. R., Jr. The Use of Deflocculators When Combining Neutral
Proprietary Copper Compounds with Oil Sprays. Cit. Ind. 30: 4: 14.
Stearns, C. R., Jr., W. L. Thompson and J. T. Griffiths, Jr. Effect of Methods
of Application on Copper, Sulfur, and Oil Deposits Obtained by Spraying
and Dusting. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 110-116. 1948; see also,
Cit. Ind. 30: 3: 9, 11-12. 1949.
Stevens, F. D. Experience with Flooded Cane Under Everglades Conditions.
Sugar Jour. 11: 3: 3, 4. 1948.
Stevens, F. D. A Further Statement as to Flooded Cane in the Florida
Everglades. Sugar Jour. 12: 1: 7, 15. 1949.
Stoddard, David L., and R. A. Conover. Tomato Fungicides and Methods of
Application. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 179-181. 1948.
Suit, R. F. Recent Experiments on Melanose Control with Reference to
Organic Fungicides and Dormant Sprays. Cit. Ind. 30: 2: 8, 18. 1949.
Suit, R. F. Successful Melanose Control. Citrus 11: 5: 18, 21. 1949.
Thompson, W. L. Spray Programs for the Control of Mites and Scale
Insects in Florida. Proc. Rio Grande Valley Citrus & Vegetable Inst. 1948:
Thompson, W. L. The Relationship of Timing Post-Bloom Spray to Certain
Fruit Blemishes on Oranges. Cit. Ind. 30: 4: 5-8, 18. 1949.
Thompson, W. L., and J. T. Griffiths, Jr. Scale Control. Citrus 11: 9: 31,
33. 1949.
Thompson, W. L., C. R. Stearns and J. T. Griffiths, Jr. Status of Parathion
as Insecticide for Florida Citrus. Cit. Ind. 30: 3: 5-8, 12, 14. 1949.
Thornton, George D. Soil Nitrogen Via Plant Roots. Fla. Grower 56:
(1210): 9: 20, 21. 1948.
Thornton, George D. Manage Soil for Added Profit. Fla. Grower 57:
(1217): 4: 24. 1949.
Tisdale, W. B., and George D. Ruehle. Pythium Root Rot of Aroids and
Easter Lilies. Phytopath. 39: 167-170. 1949.
Tissot, A. N. Insect Control for Bean Growers. Fla. Grower 56: (1210):
9: 22-23. 1948.
Tissot, A. N. Methods in Pea Aphid Control. Fla. Grower 57: (1216): 3:
18, 32. 1948.
Tissot, A. N. Control Melon Aphids Early. Fla. Grower 57: (1218): 5: 9,
14. 1949.
Tissot, A. N., and H. Harold Hume. Leaf Beetles Attacking Camellias.
Am. Camellia Yrbook 1948: 100-106.

Annual Report 1949

Tissot, A. N., and L. C. Kuitert. Insecticide Tests for the Control of Fall
Armyworm on Corn. Fla. Entomologist 31: 41; 105-112. 1948.
Van Ness, Glenn. Off-color Eggs. Jour. Poultry Sci. 28: 1: 149-150. 1949.
Volk, G. M., and C. E. Bell. Effect of Anion Balance on the Leaching of Ions
from Sandy Soils. Proc. Soil Sci. Am. 12: 188-190. 1947.
Walter, J. M. Recent Progress in Breeding Tomatoes for Disease Resistance.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 174-178. 1948.
Walter, J. M. Control of Gray Leafspot of Tomato. Market Growers' Jour.
77: 11: 19, 29, 31. 1948.
Walter, J. M., and E. G. Kelsheimer. In-the-row Application of Soil Fumi-
gants for Vegetable Crops. Mkt. Grow. Jour. 78: 5: 12, 33, 35-37. 1949.
Wenzel, F. W. Canning and By-Products Research at the Citrus Experiment
Station. Proc. Fla. Hort. Soc. 61: 227-232. 1948; see also Cit. Ind.
29: 12: 8-9, 11, 22. 1948.
West, Erdman. Witches Broom of Oleander. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61:
308-310. 1948.
West, Erdman. Florida Wild Flowers Abound. Fla. Grower 56: (1209): 8:
9, 20. 1948.
West, Erdman. Mold and Mildew in the Home. Fla. Grower 56: (1209): 8:
16. 1948.
West, Erdman. Why Plants are Tame or Wild. Fla. Grower 56: (1212):
11: 20-21. 1948.
West, Erdman. Ornamental Disease Control. Fla. Grower 56: (1212): 11:
30-31. 1948.
West, Erdman. The Oaks of Florida. Jour. New York Bot. Garden 49: 558:
273-283. 1948.
West, Erdman. More About Camellia Dieback. Am. Camellia Yrbook 1948:
p. 124-126.
White, J. B. Changing Wiregrass to Clover. Fla. Grower 57: (1216): 3: 8.
Wilson, J. W. A Note on the Predacious Habit of the Mirid. Fla. Ento-
mologist 31: 1: 20. 1948.
Wilmot, R. J. Camellias. Garden Gateways 18: 2: 12. 1948
Wilmot, R. J. New Camellias in the Southeast. Arboretum Bull. 11: 4:
19-20. 1948.
Wilmot, R. J. Cold Resistant Varieties. Am. Camellia Yrbook 1948: 143.
Wilmot, R. J. Camellia Flower Classification. No. Calif. Camellia Soc.
Off. Bul. 2: 3: 7, 12. 1949.
Winsor, H. W. Boron vs. Borax. Fla. Col. Farmer (new series) 1: 4: 11,
27. 1949.
Wolfenbarger, D. O. Control Studies on the Serpentine Leaf Miner on
Potato and Tomato. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 181-186. 1948.
Wolfenbarger, D. O. Heilipus squandsus Lee., a New Enemy of the Avo-
cado. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 61: 260-264. 1948.
Wolfenbarger, D. O. Nutritional Value of Phosphatic Insecticides. Jour.
Ec. Entomology 41: 5: 818-819. 1948.
Wolfenbarger, D. O., and Phares Decker. Off-Flavor of Potato Tubers Pro-
duced by Benzene Hexachloride Used for Wireworm Control. Am.
Potato Jour. 25: 11: 413-417. 1948.
Young, Frank H., and Walter H. Thames. A Preliminary List of the
Phyllophaga of Florida. Entomologist 31: 125-130. 1948.
Young, T. W. Soil Moisture and the Citrus Tree Root System. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 61: 74. 1948.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The library added 1,019 volumes to its shelves during the fiscal year. Of
these, 561 were periodicals bound, 458 represented volumes transferred from
the University Library, and 140 were obtained by purchase and exchange.
A total of 14,316 documents and periodicals were received, including 1,225
documents published by other agricultural experiment stations, all of which
have been cataloged and shelved.
The catalog has had 15,706 cards added, 2,328 being supplied by the
University Library to cover the books on agriculture transferred to this
library. Also included in the above number are 1,706 cards purchased
from the New York Botanical Garden and added to the special botanical
catalog. This catalog is invaluable to persons interested in the field of
botany, as it covers the major botanical literature. The library con-
tributed 267 main entry cards to the University central catalog.
Use of the library steadily increases. The known circulation has in-
creased slightly more than 30 percent over the past year. While no record
is kept of material used within the library, it is estimated that approxi-
mately 1,725 pieces per month have been returned to the shelves from the
stacks reserved for staff and graduate students. Branch stations and staff
on the campus have borrowed 5,663 volumes. Students, numbering 12,336,
have used 19,108 pieces of material.


Annual Report 1949

Regional cooperative work under the Research and Marketing Act was
continued and one new sub-project under Regional Project SM-4, dealing
with the consumer pattern for citrus fruit, was activated.
In the field of land economics, the inventory and classification of rural
land ownership in Florida was completed and published in Station Bulletin
460. This was a cooperative project with the Land Economics Division of
the Bureau of Agricultural Economics USDA. A second project in this
field, and with the same cooperative arrangements, is now in progress to
study the methods of leasing farm land in Florida. Important as-
sistance in this work is gained through conferences of the Southeast
Regional Land Tenure Committee, and the Farm Foundation.

Purnell Project 154 H. G. Hamilton, A. H. Spurlock
and C. V. Noble
Data have been obtained on the financial status as of the end of the
fiscal year 1947-48, for approximately 25 cooperatives. Number of mem-
bers, volume of business done, prices received for products marketed, and
profit and loss statements by important departments have been obtained
for these associations. As these data accumulate over a period of years
they will afford a basis for determining the important factors that make
for success or failure of Florida cooperatives.

Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage and C. V. Noble
Accounts for the 1947-48 season were closed and new accounts were
opened for 1948-49.
Yields were good for the 1946-47 season, but fruit prices were low.
Most groves in this project returned enough from the sale of fruit to pay
all costs except interest on the investment in the grove itself. Very few
groves returned enough to pay all costs including interest on the grove
investment. Wage scales remained high, necessitating the omission of
some grove operations where it was felt that labor, power and equipment
costs must be lowered.
The index of fertilizer material prices increased 21 percent for the
calendar year 1947 over that of 1946. There was a slight reduction in
fertilizer poundage applied during the 1946-47 season. The combination
of these two resulted in fertilizer costs per acre remaining high. During
recent seasons of high fruit prices, many growers purchased irrigation
equipment for groves that formerly had not been so equipped. This equip-
ment, used in the 1947-48 season to a considerable extent, materially in-
creased operating costs, since irrigating is a costly grove operation.

Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
A. H. Spurlock and S. P. Marshall
Breeding, inventory and replacement records were obtained from seven
cooperating dairy herds during the year. Preliminary tabulations on use-
ful life-span of dairy cows in Florida dairies, and of dairy bulls of five


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

breeds, were incorporated in a bulletin manuscript: "Management of Dairy
Cattle in Florida." The phase dealing with dairy bulls has been pursued
largely by correspondence, based on a continuing file of living bulls, as a
basis of obtaining a representative population of individuals. The five
major dairy cattle breed associations are cooperating with that part of the
project dealing with dairy bulls. A new table on the useful life-span of
dairy cows in Florida was prepared. (See also report, Proj. 345, Animal

Purnell Project 395 A. H. Spurlock, R. E. L. Greene,
D. L. Brooke and C. V. Noble
Estimates of labor and materials required for production of cabbage
and green corn in Seminole County and for green corn in Columbia
County have been obtained.
Results from this study have been used in conjunction with State
Project 480 in the preparation of manuscripts, which will be submitted
for publication as Station bulletins on acreage, yield, production, costs,
returns and competition of Florida tomatoes and Irish potatoes.

Purnell Project 429 J. R. Greenman, H. G. Hamilton,
D. E. Alleger and R. E. L. Greene
Farm Management and General.-Tabulation and analysis of the data
collected were continued. In the course of the year, representative areas
were surveyed to get additional information on crop yields, farm practices,
capital resources, and extent and amount of income earned from off-farm
work by people in the area. In collecting the information, every household
in the area selected for study was visited, regardless of whether or not
the family received the major part of its income from the farm. Schedules
were obtained from 112 farm operators and 82 non-farm operators. The
latter group can be classified as rural residents, since they live in the area
but do not engage in any farming other than in growing a few products
for home use. They receive their entire cash income from non-farm
sources. Analysis of the data and preparation of a manuscript for publica-
tion are in process.
Marketing.-During the year, summarization of the 15,000 "lot-sales"
of strawberries has been in process. Tables have been prepared showing
the relation of quality of strawberries to prices received by farmers for
the 1943-44 season.

State Project 451 G. Norman Rose
The purpose of Project 451 is to supplement on a collaborative basis
the Crop Estimating Service of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Estimates of acreage, production and value were made on six fall, 16
winter and 12 spring crops, with supplementary information on minor

Annual Report 1949

vegetable crops. This includes estimates made on sweet corn and squash
not carried in the past.
Information was obtained by use of regular schedules sent to field
reporters in producing areas asking for conditions, expected yield, and
average prices on all crops currently in production. These were supple-
mented by special schedules sent to a larger group of farmers asking "for
pertinent information concerning one specific crop. Each month field trips
were made to obtain personal opinions as to acreages, crop conditions,
harvesting dates and probable production, as well as to observe the
growing crop. From the information so obtained, acreage and production
estimates were made and a report was released as of the first of each
month showing such estimates with comparisons on Florida vegetable
crops as well as those of competing states. Semi-monthly, a truck crop
news report was released giving detailed information on current crop
conditions, probable production, harvesting periods and available supplies.
The fiscal year 1948-49 began with a survey consisting principally of
personal contacts with growers and grower organizations to obtain data
relative to the past season's performance from which was determined the
average yield for the season and the average price for the period in which
it was harvested. These price data were supplemented by price data from
State and privately owned markets and sales organizations. A tabulation
of truck shipments by origin was made in cooperation with the Federal-
State Marketing Bureau and a tabulation of mixed car loadings was made
through an agreement with the railroads. Shipments in straight cars are
tabulated by stations. Processors or their representatives were contacted
for data on vegetables processed intrastate and interstate. Local con-
sumption was estimated.
From these compiled data, revisions were made for the annual summary
which was released in Washington as of December 1. On the State level,
a bulletin entitled "Vegetable Crops in Florida, Volume IV," was released.
A pamphlet entitled "The Cost of Producing and Marketing Florida
Celery, Cost Series 2" was released (in cooperation with Donald L.
Brooke) as the result of an intensive survey into the cost of producing
and marketing this important Florida crop.
The annual report of the Agricultural Production Adjustments Com-
mittee was released by the leader as chairman of that committee in July
1948. This report was entitled "Looking Ahead for Florida Agriculture"
and dealt primarily with the demand and requirements of 1949-50 and
suggested land use and production for 1948-49.

State Project 480 Donald L. Brooke
Field schedules of cost and returns on vegetable crops for the 1947-48
season were obtained from 357 farms representing 45,498 acres. Crops
covered in one or more of the major producing areas were: lima and snap
beans, cabbage, celery, cucumbers, eggplant, lettuce, escarole, peppers,
sweet corn, tomatoes, Irish potatoes, strawberries, sweet potatoes and
squash. Areas involved were: Fort Myers, Wauchula, Sarasota, Manatee-
Ruskin, Webster, McIntosh, LaCrosse, Hawthorne, Hastings, Sanford,
Oviedo, Zellwood, Weirsdale, Everglades, Fort Pierce, Pompano and Dade
County. Summaries by crops and areas were prepared and mimeographed

36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

for release as a report entitled "Per Acre Cost and Returns from Vegetable
Crops in Florida, Volume III." Individual crop summary tables were
mailed to cooperating growers.
Crop summary tables by major producing areas for the 1947-48 season
were incorporated in the mimeographed release, "Vegetable Crops in
Florida, Volume IV," in cooperation with the leader of State Project 451.
Field schedules of costs and returns from limes and avocados for the
past eight seasons were released to county agents and growers in January,
1949. A continuing study of avocado and lime grove costs and returns is
being conducted by the Dade County Agricultural Agent.


Purnell Project 482 D. E. Alleger and C. V. Noble
This project was closed with the publication of Florida Experiment
Station Bulletin 460, "Rural Land Ownership in Florida."
Results of the study indicate that 15 percent, or over 5 million acres, of
rural land in Florida is publicly owned. The Federal Government owns
2,838,297 acres, the State of Florida 1,855,960 acres, county governments
355,940 acres, municipal governments about 32,000 acres, and over 34,000
acres are in unclassified tax exempt lands.


Purnell Project 483 R. K. Showalter, L. H. Halsey
and A. H. Spurlock
This project is being conducted cooperatively with the Department of
Horticulture and the USDA. A complete report will be made by the
Department of Horticulture.
The economic phase of the work was conducted cooperatively with the
Production and Marketing Administration, USDA. A report on this phase
Studies have been made in 1948-49 on three principal commodities-
broccoli, cauliflower and sweet corn. Some data have been obtained also
on snap beans, slaw, Brussels sprouts and greens of various kinds. For
sweet corn and cauliflower, comparisons have been made between the pre-
packaged method and the bulk or conventional method of marketing, as to
selling prices, packing and handling costs and net returns to the grower.
For broccoli, only the prepackaged method was studied, since there was
no broccoli sold in bulk near the point where prepackaging was studied.
Packing costs, delivery costs and selling expenses were higher for
prepackaging each vegetable than for packing the same original quantity
in conventional containers. Selling prices also were higher.
An attempt will be made to compare yields for each kind of packaging
for sweet corn, and to evaluate the waste in the form of cattle feed left
on the farm when the product is prepackaged.
Questionnaire cards inserted in the bottom of the trays were used to
determine the consumer's opinion of prepackaged produce. Some of the
cards were used in produce going to Florida markets, but most of them
were sent to markets in the North and East. One lot of 9,650 cards in
sweet corn packages went by airplane; all others went by refrigerated
truck. The cards were coded to show date of packing and date of shipping,

Annual Report 1949

and the consumer was asked to indicate date of purchase and consumption,
thus giving the length of time in marketing channels.
The number of cards inserted during the season 1948-49 was as follows:
Broccoli .9,700 cards inserted in 2 shipments
Cauliflower 9,650 cards inserted in 2 shipments
Sweet corn (spring) 65,300 cards inserted in 7 shipments

Total 84,650
Results are being tabulated by the Production and Marketing Administra-
tion at Washington.
Special store studies were made in three stores in Tampa to determine
the relative salability of bulk and prepackaged sweet corn of identical
quality. At the same price per unit (i.e., 25 cents for three ears),
prepackaged sweet corn accounted for 42 percent of the total sales of both;
at a 6-cent premium above bulk (31 cents vs. 25 cents per unit), prepack-
aged corn made up 25 percent of the total sales; and at 8-cent price
differential (33 cents vs. 25 cents per unit), prepackaged sales were 23
percent of the total sales of both types of corn. The stores in the low-
income area showed a very decided drop in prepackaged coin sales by the
addition of 6- and 8-cent price differentials, but in the high-income area
there was less change. (See also report, Proj. 483, Horticulture.)

RMA and State Project 484 R. K. Showalter, L. H. Halsey
(Regional SM-3) and A. H. Spurlock
This project is being conducted cooperatively with the Department of
Horticulture and the USDA. A complete report will be made by the
Department of Horticulture.
The economic phase of the project was conducted in cooperation with
the Bureau of Agricultural Economics and the Production and Marketing
Administration, USDA. A report on this phase follows.
The principal work done this year has been in shipping tests to de-
termine the feasibility and economy of various bulk containers. There was
no opportunity to study prepackaging at the shipping point this season, as
no grower has been located who was prepacking. Shipments were made from
the Homestead, Fort Pierce and Ruskin areas and included two types of
open-top field boxes, two sizes of Bruce-type wirebound boxes, the Spartan
wirebound box and the standard lug. Various wrappings and linings were
Most packinghouses have packed only small quantities of the un-
standardized containers, and thus far have paid their piece labor at the
same rate per unit as for the standard lug. Thus, cost data obtained on
labor required for various containers have been meager. Some data were
collected by stop watch and will be analyzed.
Data were obtained, by type of container, on the total sales of one
large tomato shipping organization. These data are now being analyzed
to compare the net return to the grower by type of container used. (See
also, Report, Proj. 484, Horticulture.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


RMA Project 485 (Regional SM-5) R. E. L. Greene and C. V. Noble

This is a Regional Marketing Project in which this Department is co-
operating with the states of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and
Alabama, and with the Federal Bureaus of Agricultural Economics and
Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering. The complete report
on the regional project for the year will be made by J. M. Johnson, Vir-
ginia Polytechnic Institute. The report below covers the work in Florida.
This is the second year that work has been carried on under this project.
During the 1948 fiscal year test lots of potatoes were followed from the
farm to the terminal market to determine the nature and extent of de-
terioration that occurred in marketing Irish potatoes. Records were ob-
tained for each test lot on production practices prior to digging, time
of digging and method of handling potatoes both in the field and in the
grading and packaging process. Complete records were obtained on
weather conditions during time of shipments. A series of samples was
collected from each test lot at various points in the marketing process to
measure the extent and place of damage occurring.

Work during the cur ent fiscal year was similar to that carried on last
year. The 1949 operations were expanded to include a more complete
coverage of the terminal markets. More emphasis was placed on getting
data to indicate economic loss resulting from spoilage.

Cooperating shippers of the 1948 season were revisited and records ob-
tained on total pack by grades; volume shipped by rail and by trucks;
cost or charge for grading and packing, containers, etc.; p! ices received for
potatoes in test lots; and a record of all shipments on which an adjustment
was made, giving the amount of the adjustment and the cause and extent
of trouble, if the information was available.
Test shipments were made in Dade County from February 21 to March
24 and in the Hastings Area from March 28 to April 28. Ninety-eight test
lots were sent out from producers in Dade County and 78 test lots from
producers in the Hastings Area, or a total of 174 test lots from the two
areas. Forty-eight test lots went to receivers in the New York City Area, 22
to Philadelphia, and five to Chicago. Forty of the test lots in New York
City and Philadelphia were followed through to the retail store to get a
record of the condition of the potatoes and the amount of loss that oc-
curred in the retail store.
Thirty special samples were exposed as soon as the potatoes were dug
for varying lengths of time on various days to determine damage due to
exposure and the condition that produced various types of damage.
A preliminary report was prepared on test shipment made in 1948
showing the results of shipment from each house and for each area. Co-
operating shippers were given a copy of this report, as well as an indi-
vidual summary of each test lot. Several shippers who cooperated in
both 1948 and 1949 had made improvements in their facilities based on the
work done last year. Others inquired about ways to reduce damage to their
potatoes. The data for 1949 are being analyzed and a manuscript based on
the work for the two years will be prepared for publication.

Annual Report 1949

RMA and State Project 486 H. G. Hamilton, H. W. Little
(Regional SM-4) and C. V. Noble

A special report was issued to cooperating firms showing the cost, by
important cost items, of handling citrus fruit in fresh and processed forms
in Florida and Texas for the season 1946-47. Data have been obtained
covering the cost of handling citrus fruit for about 75 packinghouses and
25 canning plants for the 1947-48 season, and are being obtained showing
prices received for various types of products and methods of marketing
used by the industry. The data for 1947-48 season have been partially
summarized. Some work was done on the efficiency index for 1947-48
season. Each cooperating firm can determine how it stands with relation
to other firms in efficiency.
Agencies cooperating in this project include Texas Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, USDA Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Fruit and Vege-
table Branch, P&MA and Research and Service Division, F.C.A. See
annual report of the Regional Citrus Technical Committee.

RMA and State Project 519 H. G. Hamilton, Talmadge Bergen
(Regional SM-4) and C. V. Noble

Work was started late in the year with about 25 retail stores in Jack-
sonville. From each the quantity of each kind of citrus fruit and processed
product, by method of sale, that was sold at specified prices, was obtained.
Each time there was a change in price, inventories were taken to show
exactly the quantities sold at different prices. In addition, the quantity of
each product that was sold during a week was obtained, whether or not
there was a change in price. These data were obtained for a period of
approximately three months. Summarization of these records is in progress.

Similar data have been secured in markets outside the State of Florida
by the cooperating agencies, which include Texas Agricultural Experiment
Station and Marketing Research Branch, P&MA, USDA.
See Annual Report of the Regional Citrus Technical Committee.

Purnell Project 530 D. E. Alleger and C. V. Noble

This study is being conducted cooperatively with the Division of Land
Economics, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, and the Southeast Regional
Land Tenure Committee.

Approximately 200 farm schedules were taken. The sample was limited
to the general farming area in north Florida. Two major ways in farm
rental predominated. They were (1) cash rent and (2) crop-share. The
crop-share tenants fall into two groups, (a) share-croppers who own neither
workstock nor farm equipment, and (b) share-renters who own all the
workstock and farm equipment they use.

40 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Initial publication of results will be limited to the general farming area
at present. Leasing contracts will be analyzed by six types of farming,
(1) corn and hog, (2) cotton, (3) dairy, (4) peanut, (5) flue-cured tobacco
and (6) watermelon. This study may be supplemented later by analyses
of leases by types of farming in other parts of the State. Results should
provide constructive suggestions to facilitate the preparation of equitable
farm rental agreements.


Florida Truck Crop Competition.-The regular supplement to Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 224 covering the 1947-48 season
was prepared and mimeographed. This reports weekly car-lot competition
between Florida and other states and importing countries for each com-
mercial truck crop.
Movement of Citrus Trees From Nurseries to Groves in Florida.-
Through the cooperation of the Florida State Plant Board, annual sum-
maries have been made since 1928 of the movement of citrus nursery
stock, by varieties, to Florida destinations. The summary was made for
the 1947-48 season and mimeographed for distribution.

Annual Report 1949


Investigations conducted cooperatively with the Department of
Agronomy on the curing of Florida hays were continued during the year.
Attention was given also to certain engineering problems facing research-
ers in other departments.

State Project 536 J. M. Myers, G. B. Killinger and
R. W. Bledsoe
This project is a continuation of the hay curing experiments started last
year and reported under Project 507, now closed.
Results from experiments this year indicate that hairy indigo, Pensa-
cola Bahia grass, lespedeza and Pangola grass hay can be dried at rea-
sonable cost in both baled and loose forms. It was determined also that
cattail millet and sweet yellow lupine can be cured on a barn hay drier,
but the drying cost is high.
It has been found that most Florida hay crops require four hours of
field drying, under ideal conditions, before the moisture content is low
enough for the hay to be placed on a barn drier. Best results from the
standpoints of hay quality and drying cost were obtained when the mons-
ture content of the hay was reduced to 45% to 50% (wet basis) by field
drying before it was placed on the barn drier.
Tests indicate that 20 cubic feet of air per square foot of drying floor
area must be forced through the hay to dry it successfully. A higher rate
of air flow will shorten the drying period, but the higher cost of operation
and equipment more than offset the advantage gained by shortening the
drying period.
The use of heated air is necessary to dry hay successfully in Florida
during the rainy season. Results of tests indicate that a 20F. to 250F.
increase of air temperature is the most economical amount of heat to use.
A standard size hay curing barn has been constructed, and all future
tests will be conducted in this barn. (See also Project 507, AGRONOMY.)


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Satisfactory progress has been made in developing and introducing im-
proved varieties of forage crops, grain crops, tobacco and cotton. Sig-
nificant advances in nutrition of various crops were made by radioactive
tracer methods, as well as with field plots.
Cooperative work with other departments included insect and disease
control, irrigation, grazing, artificial curing of hay and seeds, plant
nutrition, microbiology and fertility of soils, mechanization of field opera-
tions, and effect of honeybees on seed-set of clover.


State Project 20 W. A. Carver and Fred H. Hull
Peanut improvement by hybridization and pedigreed selection was
continued. Plant selection of desirable seed and plant type was initiated
among second generation populations. Hybrid populations were carried in
bulk for plant selection in later generations. Most of the parents used in
recent crosses have been hybrid lines derived from crosses between Small
Spanish and Virginia type peanuts.
The Dixie Runner variety, released by this station in 1943, continues to
excel Southeastern runners in yield of sound seed and in seed quality.
In variety tests at Gainesville during the last three seasons, Dixie Runner
has produced 30 percent more sound seed per acre than common runners,
and has had only 40 percent as much seed damage. At Gainesville in 1948
Dixie Runner yielded 32 percent more sound and mature seed per acre
than common runners. The highest yielding Spanish variety, Spanish
18-38, produced 19 percent under common runner in sound and mature seed
per acre.
An increased acreage of pure Dixie Runner seed was grown on the
Experiment Station farms for expanding the volume of foundation seed
stock released to growers of registered seed in 1950. The Inspection Bu-
reau of the State Department of Agriculture continued the certification of
Dixie Runner peanuts.


Hatch Project 55 Fred H. Hull, Geo. E. Ritchey'
and M. E. Paddick
The experiment recorded under this project in 1947-48 was terminated
wth that report.
Late Indigo, Early Indigo and Crotalaria lanceolata as Cover Crops.-
In 1945 replicated plots were planted to Crotalaria lanceolata E. May, early
indigo and late indigo and a fourth set was left unplanted to any legume.
The plots were located on a deep Norfolk sand which became very dry
during droughts. Six hundred pounds of a 4-8-4 fertilizer was added in
1945. No fertilizer has been added since. Yields of cover crop, silage and
ear corn for 1946 and 1947 are given in Table 1.
In the spring of 1948 corn was planted without the use of fertilizer. The
volunteer hairy indigo made a good growth in the corn after the last culti-
vation the last week in May.
Due to the extreme drought in April and May, 1948, corn made a poor
'In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPI,S&AE, USDA

Annual Report 1949

crop and yields were not recorded. All plots in the experiment were over-
run with both strains of indigo, which made comparisons of yields im-


Cover Crop Yield Corn per Acre 1947
Cover Crop Lbs. in Gr. Wt.
Silage Bushels
1946 1947 Tons Ear Corn

Late indigo 18,037 11,199 2.4 23.1
Early indigo .. 6,389 7,151 2.1 19.8
C. lanceolata - 3,868 7,645 1.9 21.9
Natural cover 944 2.0 16.5

Hatch Project 56 Fred H. Hull, Geo. E. Ritchey*,
Fred Clark and W. A. Carver
Napier Grass.-Six strains of improved Napier grass were grown in a
variety test plot during the season of 1947 and 1948. The highest yielding
strain, No. 160, is a large, medium coarse type which produces a goodly
amount of refuse when fed to cattle. No. 160 yielded 97,311 pounds green
weight per acre. Strain No. 31 is a fine-leafed and fine-stemmed type. This
strain yielded 78,040 pounds per acre. A much higher proportion of No. 31
is eaten by the cattle. Both strains are being planted for increase of plant-
ing stock.
Lespedeza.-In the 1947-48 report it was stated that one strain (F. C.
No. 31,858) of lespedeza was outstanding in its behavior. This strain is
being increased for further study.
Lotus uliginosus.-In 1947 six selections of Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr
were planted along a lake shore. One strain, F.C. No. 23,213, has made
outstanding growth as compared to the other five. It will be increased for
Bahia Grass.-Five varieties of Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum Flugge)
were planted in a variety test plot. Argentina Bahia produced nearly double
that of any other variety (8,366 pounds green weight per acre) in the test.
Hull's Selection, a strain selected for Helminthosporium resistance, stood
second in growth yields. It yielded approximately 2/3 as much as Argentina.
Sugarcane.-Five new varieties of sugarcane were obtained from the
Everglades Station and planted in small plots for observation. A few
rows of each of the three older varieties, Florida 31-762, Co. 290 and US
29-16, are maintained as a source of planting material.
Oil Seeds.-Eleven improved varieties of oil seed type Cruciferae and two
of poppy were obtained and grown at several locations in the State.
Most of them were badly damaged by disease, and only two were retained
for further testing.
Thirteen varieties of sesame were obtained from the South Carolina
Experiment Station, and planted in June in small plots for observation.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


State Project 163 Fred H. Hull and T. C. Skinner
Corn following lupines was planted in two ways, surface and furrow, and
treated with two rates of N, P and K. Each treatment was then divided into
four plots for different kinds of cultivation with tractor implements. The
purpose was to study the interaction of fertilizer and culture on weed control
and yield. Stands on the surface-planted plots were very poor because of
drought. The experiment is being continued for 1949 with only the furrow-
planted plots.
The cultivation phase of this experiment was conducted in cooperation
with the Department of Agricultural Engineering.


Bankhead-Jones Project 295 G. B. Killinger and Roger W. Bledsoe
For the second consecutive year carpet grass-white clover pastures ro-
tationally grazed yielded materially more forage and beef than like pas-
tures continuously grazed.
White clover and Hubam clover in combination with Pangola, Pensacola
Bahia and Coastal Bermuda grasses produced nearly twice as much forage
and beef as the same grasses without the legume. The grass-legume mix-
ture was treated in the fall with 500 pounds per acre of an 0-10-10
fertilizer surface-applied, while the grass pastures received 500 pounds per
acre of a 6-6-6 fertilizer in the early spring.
Hairy indigo was seeded on several grass pastures with and without
fertilization. Yields of indigo on the several treatments were similar and
in all cases furnished considerable late summer and fall feed containing
a high quantity of protein.
Rock phosphate, heat-treated phosphate and superphosphate adequately
supplied phosphorus needs for white clover growth. In the case of rock
phosphate and heat-treated phosphate, it was necessary to supply sulfur
either as flower of sulfur or as gypsum in a quantity equivalent to that
found in the superphosphate-treated plots to obtain satisfactory growth
of clover and other legumes.


Bankhead-Jones Project 297 Geo. E. Ritchey' and Fred H. Hull
Recent introductions of grasses and legumes continued to arrive for
adaptation testing and approximately 200 samples were added to the
Molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora Beauv.) has made good growth in
nursery rows. Two strains have survived the last four winters. These
are the first strains which have shown signs of winter hardiness. No seed
is produced, however, on any strains until late December and then only
when no frost occurs before that time. A cold-resistant strain may
have a place in the pasture program of the extreme South.
Guar (Cyanopsis tetragonaloba (L.) Taub.) continues to make satisfac-
tory growth, but seed fail to mature satisfactorily. The plants are sus-
ceptible to rhizoctonia and root-knot. The majority of the seed remain
"In operation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPI, S&AE, USDA.

Annual Report 1949

soft and mold or decay. Until a more satisfactory strain is obtained the
plant cannot be recommended in this section of the country.
Creeping indigo (Indigofcra endecaphylla Jacq.) continued to show
promise. An early strain which will mature seed in Florida is under test.
A late variety of this species competes well with grasses and has been
used for pasture. The early strain makes excellent growth in grass sod
and may make a valuable summer pasture legume. It volunteers well.
Blanket indigo (Indigofera pilosa Poir.) is another low-growing sum-
mer legume which competes well with grass turf. It makes good growth in
Florida and is under test to determine its value for forage.
The Dixie Wonder pea continues to make good early winter growth. It
appears to have a place in mid-winter pastures of central Florida.
Approximately 50 strains of lupines, including several species recently
introduced mostly from Europe, were under trial in the nursery. A few
interesting and promising strains were included in the test.
Big trefoil (Lotus dliginosus Schkuhr.) continued under observation.
It was not possible to get it under grazing, but it persisted under heavy
vegetative competition. Although it dries up and dies back during ex-
tended droughts when on high land, it recovers when rains recur.
Crotalaria juncea L. (seeding strain) makes rapid and satisfactory
growth. It is a satisfactory seed producer and should have a place in
some cover crop program.
Argentina Bahia (Paspalum notatum Fliigge F. C. No. 148,996) con-
tinued to make satisfactory growth. It yielded nearly twice as much
forage as three other strains in a variety test in 1948, with 50% more
than the second highest yielding strain. Seed is being increased for dis-
A pasture cafeteria containing several recently introduced species of
grass was planted.

Bankhead-Jones Project 298 Geo. E. Ritchey' and Fred H. Hull
Lupines.-Strains of sweet yellow lupines reported in 1947-1948 were
increased and a small amount of seed of the Florida Speckled variety is
on the market. The Crescent strain is being withheld for purification
studies. The white-seeded strain will be planted for increased seed pro-
duction. Several lines of improvement were started, including develop-
ment of early-maturing strains, cold-resistant strains, disease resistance,
Vetches (Vicia sp).-In the autumn of 1947 a large number of plants
of Augusta vetch (Vicia angustifolia L.) were selected from the fields and
waste places. Twelve of these were selected to grow in test plots in 1948-
1949. Two strains were outstanding in early rapid growth and one in
disease resistance. The three will be studied during the coming season.
Nursery Selections.-Considerable variations occur in the forage crop
nursery. A large number of nursery plants were isolated to study possible
value as compared to other plants in the same introduction.

'In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPI, S&AE, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Bankhead-Jones Project 299 Roger W. Bledsoe and G. B. Killinger
A flatwoods soil supporting native grass growth, mostly wire-grass
(Aristida strict Michx.), burned and the soil treated with limestone,
phosphate and potash, produced excellent clover growth when top-seeded
with 5 pounds per acre of Louisiana White clover or 7 pounds of Hubam
clover seed. No seedbed preparation is necessary with the preceding
practice; however, if palmetto and gallberry are present in quantity,
they should be destroyed by chopping and disking.
Clover volunteered and gave good growth the second season on burned
areas when phosphate and potash were reapplied, and wire-grass was sup-
pressed by the heavy clover growth until May and June, when the clover
either died or entered a dormant period. During the rainy season of June,
July and August wiregrass grew vigorously and its protein and mineral
composition was high, compared to that grown without the clover associa-
This project is terminated with this report. Future burning experi-
mental results will be reported under Bankhead-Jones Project 304.


Bankhead-Jones Project 301 Geo. E. Ritchey4 and G. B. Killinger
The Augusta vetch and white sweet clover, F. C. No. 19690, have con-
tinued to volunteer and make good growth on pasture sod. Dixie Wonder
peas did not volunteer but continue to make satisfactory early growth
for winter grazing. Good stands were obtained on established carpet
grass sod.
Grazing data from duplicate pastures of Pangola, Pensacola Bahia
and Coastal Bermuda grasses top-seeded to winter clovers continued to
show marked improvement for the second season due to the legume effect.
On moderately to well-drained soils winter clovers did not thrive as well
in association with Pangola grass as with Bahia or Bermuda grass.
Early hairy indigo has successfully volunteered for three years on a
flatwoods soil and two years on a high hammock soil. Indigo volunteered
for a second season on a dense pasture sod of Bermuda, Bahia and centi-
pede grasses.
Natural reseeding of Hubam clover was greatly benefited by early
fall burning of grass and clover stubble.
Midland and Kenland strains of red clover made excellent growth at
several locations in peninsular Florida under regular clover fertilization
practices .


Bankhead-Jones Project 304 G. B. Killinger
A 16-acre nursery and 21/2 acre pasture were planted to Pangola grass
in less than two days at a labor cost of approximately $60.00 for the 19
In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops & Diseases, BPI, S&AE, USDA.

Annual Report 1949

acres. Seedbed preparation and covering of the grass by disking was
completed at a cost of $76.00. Liming and fertilizing the planted area
cost $320.00. The total cost of establishing these 19 acres of Pangola
grass averaged $24.00 per acre, exclusive of bulldozing stumps from the
area. A two-acre nursery area was mowed and this mowed hay was broad-
cast over the prepared seedbed and then cut in with a tandem disk. Within
two weeks the Pangola had started new growth.
Successful plantings of hairy indigo were made on centipede and carpet
grass sod with and without seedbed preparation.
Burning of native grasses on a flatwoods soil, combined with liming,
fertilizing and seeding, gave good stands of improved pasture grasses and
legumes. The ash residue following burning makes an excellent seedbed
for fine-seeded grasses and legumes and appears to give protection to the
bacteria on inoculated legume seed.

Bankhead-Jones Project 368 F. B. Smith, Geo. Thornton
and G. B. Killinger
This project is cooperative and is reported under SOILS.

Adams Project 369 Roger W. Bledsoe and G. B. Killinger
Mineral composition was determined of White Dutch clover and carpet
and Pensacola Bahi grasses at periods throughout the year, from plots
involving sources of phosphorus and frequency of application with and
without supplements of gypsum. Mineral and feed analyses were de-
termined of shells and seed of peanut varieties, and of Kentucky and Alta
fescue grasses treated with rates and grades of fertilizers.
Yearly applications of superphosphate, rock and heat-treated phos-
phates (when gypsum was included with the latter two treatments) in-
creased yields and the N, Ca, Mg, and P content of clover and the suc-
ceeding crop of grasses. Chemical composition was little affected by
yearly application of P when gypsum was not applied.
The N content of fescue grasses was doubled when fertilized with N.
Results of other mineral elements were not consistent.

Adams Project 372 Fred Clark, W. A Carver and Fred H. Hull
Preliminary curing tests were made on a series of hybrids between
domestic varieties and an introduced tobacco which has strong resistance
to root-knot but poor leaf type and quality. It was apparent that recovery
of flue-cured type and quality with an appreciable improvement of root-
knot resistance can be affected.
Approximately three acres of root-knot test area is being maintained
by growing susceptible crops in rotation with tobacco.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Purnell Project 374 Fred H. Hull and W. A. Carver
The new yellow hybrid Dixie 18 has been tested two years in the
northern part of Florida and has produced 40 percent increase of grain
over common varieties. The increase over Florida W-1 in the same tests
was 20 percent.
Commercial acreage producing Dixie 18 seed in Florida was 25 acres in
1948 and 280 acres in 1949. It is estimated that up to 3,000 acres might
well be used to produce Dixie 18 seed for the state.
Until larger supplies of Dixie 18 seed can be produced, other hybrids
which may be recommended in about the order named are: Fla. W-l, Fla.
W-2, Funk G-737, La. 2909, Wood S-360, Watson 213, and Wood S-240.
N. C. 27 is recommended for a limited acreage to produce early feed.
A new experimental hybrid including two parent lines from Dixie 18
and two from Fla. W-1 is being tested generally the first time.
Three hundred test crosses for the second cycle of recurrent selection
for specific combinability were made in 1948. These were in performance
tests at Gainesville and Quincy in 1949. Six hundred test crosses were
made in 1949 with the seed parent of Dixie 18 as the tester for the first
cycle of a second operation of breeding by recurrent selection.

Hatch Project 378 Fred Clark and Henry C. Harris
Tobacco following lupines was much inferior to tobacco following weeds.
Apparently lupines are a poor cover crop to use in connection with the
production of tobacco.
For the second year soil fumigation greatly increased the yield of to-
bacco and the quality was good. However, the nematodes were not com-
pletely killed. Apparently there was a reduction in tle number of organ-
isms early in the growing period, and a tendency for them to build up later
in the year. This enables the tobacco to produce good growth before the
late infestation becomes injurious to the crop.
The possibility of controlling suckers on tobacco by means of neptha-
lene acetic acid seems promising, but the details of the method remain to
be worked out.


Bankhead-Jones Project 417 G. B. Killinger
Nurseries of pasture plants propagated vegetatively, such as Coastal
and 99 (Suwannee) Bermuda and Pangola grass, should be planted some
distance apart. Due to the vigorous rhizome growth of some, and the
rapidity of stoloniferous growth of all, these grasses run together, re-
sulting in mixed planting material in a few months if planted in adjoining
Indigo seed are satisfactorily harvested by combine and sufficient seed
shatter to allow a natural reseeding. Bahia grass seed are easily com-
bined or harvested with mechanical strippers. The mechanical stripper
tends to harvest only mature seed, resulting in seeds of higher vitality
and plumpness.

Annual Report 1949

Several hundred pounds each of Early Hairy Indigo and a Florida strain
of sweet clover were combined for increased planting. Several hundred
pounds of southern white clover seed were harvested by combine from a
plot which was seeded in 1940. It appears that through natural selection
this white clover seed may produce clover superior to that of plants from
the original seed.


Bankhead-Jones Project 440 Henry C. Harris and R. W. Bledsoe
Applications of 10 pounds of copper chloride per acre markedly increased
the yield of oats. This treatment in the same area increased the yield of
shelled corn 23'% in 1947 and 20% in 1948, even when the coin showed no
visual deficiency symptoms without it. Copper had little effect on yield
of either Abruzzi or Florida Black rye. Apparently rye is not very sensi-
tive to a deficiency of copper. The foliage yields of bitter blue lupines
were considerably increased by soil applications of this element.


Hatch Project 441 Henry C. Harris, Fred Clark,
R. W. Bledsoe and J. M. Myers
It is obvious that irrigation had a pronounced effect on growth and
quality of tobacco and fertilizer does not function normally without a sup-
ply of moisture. It appears that the tobacco from the irrigated plots will
be superior in quality.
The irrigation phase of this experiment is conducted in cooperation
with the Department of Agricultural Engineering.


State Project 444 Fred Clark and G. M. Volk
Uramon, calcium cyanamid, and a combination of the two provide
satisfactory control of weeds in tobacco beds in most cases. Failure to
work the chemicals into the soil or excessive rainfall very soon after
application may cause partial failure. Results of this work are being
prepared for publication.
Methyl bromide at the rate of 1 pound to 100 square feet gave excellent
weed control on three soil types. A gas-proof cover is necessary for best
results with methyl bromide. Effects of methyl bromide on root-knot and
meadow nematodes are being checked.
Blue mold was satisfactorily controlled with fermate 15% dust, parzate
10% dust, and with a fermate-salicylic acid spray.
A summer cover crop of velvet beans or hairy indigo in the tobacco bed
provided some control of nematodes and weeds, as well as maintaining
good tilth and fertility of the soil. (See also Report, Proj. 513, SOILS.)


State Project 450 N. R. Mehrhof and G. B. Killinger
This project is cooperative and reported under ANIMAL INDUSTRY.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

RMA Project 487 S. C. Litzenberger and W. A. Carver
About 12 acres were devoted to small grain improvement at Gaines-
ville during the crop season 1948-1949. Approximately 7,600 entries of
oats, wheat, rye, barley, flax, grain sorghums, millets and upland rice were
observed. Cooperative plantings at branch stations were primarily con-
fined to yield trials, except at Quincy where they were comparable to
Gainesville. The world collection of barley (nearly 5,000 entries) was
planted at Quincy only. Nearly 20,000 different entries were tested under
Florida conditions this past season. The major objective in growing these
large numbers is to isolate new sources of disease resistance.
Varieties susceptible to Helminthosporium or Victoria blight such as
Fulgrain, Victorgrain, etc., continued to yield poorly for grain or grazing
purposes and are not being recommended for growing in Florida. Camellia,
which exhibited high resistance to the prevalent crown rust and Victoria
blight, and was recommended for Florida growers for the first time this
year, has performed as well as any variety available commercially. Hel-
minthosporium leaf and glume blotch and possibly a Fusarium sp. caused
severe losses to this variety in many locations. Red Rustproof strains were
equally reduced in production by this normally minor disease.
A new unnamed disease-resistant hybrid developed by the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station in cooperation with the USDA at Quincy,
D69-Bond x Fultex, C.I. 5207, appeared very promising. At Gainesville, it
yielded 19 percent more forage and nearly four times as much grain per
acre as Camellia. This new selection yields 24.6 bushels per acre, the
highest of any oat variety at Gainesville this year. At six Florida loca-
tions (Quincy, Milton, Live Oak, Marianna, Gainesville and Monticello)
average forage yields were 6 percent more than Camellia. Grain yield re-
ports were not available at the time of this report. Sixteen bushels of this
variety are being increased at Aberdeen, Idaho, and Bozeman, Montana, for
subsequent return to Florida for further increase during 1949-1950.
Several reselections in panicle rows of C.I. 5207 and another develop-
ment from Quincy, Hancock-Colo x Fultex, C.I. 5208, appeared so promis-
ing agronomically and for resistance to disease, including resistance to
Helminthospolium leaf and glume blotch of the latter, that small quan-
tities of these, too, have been sent to these Northwestern stations for
Florida Black rye continued to be the best strain under test, which
included the numerous selections introduced from Austria, India, Argentina,
Uruguay, Brazil and Turkey by the USDA.
Winter wheats proved generally inferior to the highly disease-resistant
fall-sown spring wheats at Gainesville. The highest-yielding three spring
wheat selections yielded as follows: 1764 x Timstein, 25.6 bushels per acre;
Hope x Timstein, 21.5 bushels per acre; and 1750 x Timstein, 19.4 bushels
per acre. The highest-yielding two winter wheats were Coker's 47-27 and
47-23, which produced 15.0 to 13.9 bushels per acre, respectively. Sanett
No. 2 or Chancellor, in the same tests, yielded less than 5 bushels per acre.
Apparently the winter was too mild for proper heading and uniform ma-
turity of these varieties.
Upland rice did not produce seed on land normally planted to the cereal

Annual Report 1949

crops. Water appeared to be the limiting factor for seed production of the
13 varieties tested at two locations.
Of the 22 strains of flax seeded at Gainesville, Victory produced highest
seed yield, 7.1 bushels per acre. Considerably higher yields would have
been obtained had not an unseasonable heavy rain of 7 inches fallen at the
time of maturity. More than 50 percent of the bolls were broken off and
lost by this heavy storm. Punjab 47 and Imperial, two California develop-
ments, yielding only 0.8 and 1.0 bushels per acre, respectively; this was
because of their high susceptibility to anthracnose. All other varieties
tested were resistant to this disease.
Winter barleys at Gainesville were completely destroyed by spot blotch.
None were resistant to this disease, although some appeared less sus-
ceptible. However, a large number of spring barleys in the world barley
collection planting at Quincy were free of this disease.
Among the more than 50 varieties of grain sorghums and millet tested,
the following were found superior: Hegari, Early Hegari, Sagrain
(Schrock) and Pearl millet. In a comparable trial Hegari yielded 7,150
pounds of unthreshed heads of grain while Early Hegari produced 6,330
pounds. In another test Pearl millet produced 3,410 pounds of unthreshed
grain heads. June seeding at 10 pounds per acre of Hegari gave the
highest yield of grain and forage per acre.
Seven new insecticides used in cooperative test with the Ento-
mology Department to control fall army worm, toxaphene (5% dust) at
the rate of 35 to 40 pounds per acre and to a lesser extent parathion (1/1%/
dust) at 40 to 50 pounds were most effective. When added with fertilizer
using 2 pounds of active ingredients per acre, DDT and chlordane resulted
in no apparent injury to plants. One pound of active benzene hexachloride
(5% gamma), when applied in like manner, was toxic to plants, even if
seeding was made one month after application.
In a USDA cooperative seed treatment experiment at Gainesville with
wheat, oats and barley for the control of certain covered smuts and stripe
in barley, comparative disease control data were obtained only with oats.
In this test only new improved ceresan, ceresan M (slurry and dry treat-
ment) and panogen gave perfect control of covered smut in Victorgrain
oats. Other chemicals ranged in control from 14 to 90 percent.

R.M.A. Project 488 Henry C. Harris and R. W. Bledsoe
Nutrient solution studies indicated that the bulk of the nutrients were
absorbed through the root system, but that calcium, and possibly other
elements, were necessary in the pegging zone. In an effort to secure more
evidence on the calcium relation, Dixie Runner peanuts were grown in
such a way that the roots were completely separated from the fruiting
area. In one set of experiments radioactive calcium was applied to the
roots while, in another to fruiting area. The foliage and fruit were
sampled periodically, and the radioactive calcium was determined by means
of a Geiger counter. The calcium, when applied to the roots, moved up
into the plants, but not more than a trace into the fruits. On the other
hand, calcium, applied to the fruiting zone, was readily absorbed by the
fruits, and some of it moved back into other parts of the plant. This seems
to explain why a supply of available calcium in the pegging zone is necessary
for good nut development.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Different soils, but the same weight in a pot, have been treated with
equal amounts of radioactive phosphorus, and peanuts and other crops
have been grown. There was a set of pots for each type of plant. The
same kind of plant secured different amounts of the radioactive phosphor-
us from the different soils, and different kinds of plants secured different
amounts of the radioactive phosphorus from the same soil.
Yields of Dixie Runner, G-FA Spanish, and Alabama Runners were
greatly increased by an application of 10 pounds per acre of copper
chloride to Arredonda loamy fine sand on the Experiment Station farm,
Gainesville. The copper treatment improved the grades of the peanuts
by increasing the sound and plump nuts, and decreasing shrivels. Analysis
of the sound and plump nuts for oil and nitrogen indicated that the copper
treatment has no effect on these. Copper sulfate applied in 1942 had a
pronounced beneficial residual effect on Dixie Runner peanuts which were
grown in 1945.


State Project 507 J. Mostella Myers, R. W. Bledsoe
and G. B. Killinger
From 20 to 50 tons per acre of green cattail millet can be produced
annually on many Florida soils. To produce such a tonnage, millet re-
quires 600 to 800 pounds per acre of a 6-6-6 fertilizer and one or more
top-dressings of 100 to 200 pounds per acre of nitrate of soda. A high
tonnage also can be produced following the plowing of 25,000 to 40,000
pounds per acre of lupines without additional commercial fertilizer. In
terms of hay, these yields would be from 6 to 15 tons per acre. Millet
hay, when properly cured, has good feeding qualities. Present equipment,
including artificial drying, makes millet hay curing very expensive. How-
ever, if a hay stem crusher could be used on this crop, drying costs
would be materially reduced.
Lespedeza-Pensacola Bahia hay yielded four and one-half tons per
acre on a Leon fine sand which had been limed and fertilized with 500
pounds per acre of an 0-10-10 fertilizer.
Hairy indigo and Pangola are promising hay crops, yielding approxi-
mately six tons each per acre of cured hay. This project is closed with
this report. Future work will be reported under Project 536. (See also


Bankhead-Jones Project 537 L. C. Kuitert, Fred Clark
and A. N. Tissot
Agronomy Phase.-One acre of field test plots with various insecticides
is being harvested to determine yield and quality of leaf. Special attention
is being given to detect any undesirable residues of insecticides.
Preliminary tests in the past two years have shown that crude benzene
hexachloride used in the field leaves an undesirable odor in the cured leaf.
Purified gamma isomer of benzene hexachloride did not leave any apparent
residue on the cured leaf. (See also Project 537, ENTOMOLOGY.)

Annual Report 1949


Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cotton.-Sea Island fertilizer and
strain tests were conducted at Evinston and Leesburg,' and long staple
upland strain tests were conducted in Madison and Leon Counties.
Results in the fertilizer comparisons at Evinston were not significant.
In side-dressing comparisons in the strain-side-dressing tests, however,
added nitrogen gave appreciable increases in yield. Several urea-form
compounds were tried, but results were irregular.
An alphatron test was conducted, in one of the late Sealand plantings,
in duplicate plots. There was no discernable difference in plant growth or
fruiting characteristics between the treated and non-treated plots.
Average yields of Sealand and Sea Island in the principal tests are given
in Table 2.


Yield, Pounds Seed Cotton Per Acre
Sealand Sea Island

Evinston fertilizer 792 780
Evinston strain 810 596*
Leesburg Fertilizer 610
Leesburg strain 582 345
Leon County strain 1224
Madison County strain ---..--- 382
*Four best strains only-others had very bad stand.

Several new barbadense crosses made by J. G. Jenkins at Tifton,
'Georgia, were tried for the first time. They appeared very prolific, but
the bolls were smaller in size than those of Sealand 542.
One planting of 16 acres of Sealand was made in irrigated celery land
near Sanford. The grower planted it in 30-inch rows, the standard width
for celery and other vegetables in that section. It was a beautiful field
*of cotton-possibly the best ever grown in Florida, and in spite of 12 days
of rain during a tropical disturbance during harvest time which caused
considerable loss from shedding, 423 pounds of lint per acre were har-
vested. As a result of this, some half dozen plantings have been made in
that area this season.
Over 72% of the 1948 crop of roller-ginned Florida Sealand graded 11
inches or above, as shown in table 3.
The average selling price for the Florida crop was 56.2c per pound,
f.o.b. shipping point.
A number of late plantings were made following harvested vegetables
in the Marion-Lake County area, as during the past several seasons.
Several have been made this year between July 5 and 8 following harvested
vegetables. By this method, much of the weed seed and grass have been
-eliminated by earlier cultivation so the cotton gets off to a fast start. The
record between planting date and first bloom so far is 41 days. In spite of
such rapid growth these late plantings have fruited normally, making
.above-average yields for the state. Harvesting is done during October
"Tests at Leesburg were in cooperation with the Watermelon Investigations Laboratory.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

and November, a period of little rainfall. Consequently a better grade
of lint is secured than where earlier harvesting is necessary. Seed germi-
nation in these late plantings have averaged 20 to 39% higher than in
cases where the cotton was planted in March or April and harvested during
July and August.
Location of Gin

Inches Staple Worthington Leesburg Total
Springs No. of No. of
No. of Bales Bales Bales

1 3/8 ------ 8 1 9
1 7/16 --. -- 4 2 6
1 1/2 ---- -------- -- 15 12 27
1 9/16 5 7 12
Totals ... ------ 32 22 54

The experimental gin at Fruitland Park was operated as in other
years. Approximately 700 bushels of pure Sealand 542 seed were saved
from fields that had been checked for isolation. (M. N. Gist,6 P. W.
Calhoun,' and G. K. Parris.)
'In cooperation with the Division of Cotton and Other Crops and Diseases, BPI, S&AE,

Annual Report 1949

Research in the Animal Industry Department was conducted in the
following divisions: (1) dairy husbandry, (2) dairy manufactures, (3)
animal husbandry, (4) animal nutrition, (5) poultry husbandry, and (6)
veterinary science, including parasitology.
Expansion of the University necessitated removal of the dairy herd
from the main campus and land was acquired for use as a dairy husbandry
research unit. This consists, at present, of 1,089.4 acres near Hague. Soils
of the area are predominantly Leon and Scranton, typical of the lands on
which a large proportion of Florida dairy herds are located.
By legislative appropriation, a T-shaped building is under construction
which includes rooms for the research laboratory, feed room, milking barn
and milk house, with facilities for steam sterilization and for cold storage.
Two cottages (for herdsman and a dairy helper), two 100-ton monolithic
concrete silos, a deep well and pressure water system, and an electrical
power access were obtained under terms of the appropriation. Through
courtesy of the State Road Department, a three-fourths mile access high-
way was built across the unit to service the building site. The University
is replacing part of the facilities for growing heifers which was taken on
the main campus for dormitory areas. The Florida Milk Commission, with
approval of the Board of Education, contributed substantially toward con-
struction of yards, bull pens, some accessory facilities, and the foundation
for a calf barn. The Florida Ford Tractor Company donated a tractor-
now in use producing the feed crops on the unit.
The new facility will permit gradual expansion of the herd and research
in breeding, pasture-feeding, and other herd management problems con-
fronting the industry.
The dairy herd numbers 130 Jerseys and 11 Guernseys of all ages. A
young Guernsey herd sire, Dinsmore Fayroyal 438320, was purchased during
the year. Twenty-two Jerseys completed Register of Merit records, which
averaged 7,396 pounds of milk and 373 pounds of butterfat on two milkings
daily. Only seven of the cows were of mature age and 14 were 305-day
records. Three cows exceeded 10,000 pounds of milk. The change from 365-
day to 305-day records is in the interest of more frequent calvings.
The herd was used for instruction and demonstration, as well as to pro-
vide animals for experimental purposes.
Several items of new and modern dairy processing equipment were ac-
quired for the Dairy Products Laboratory. Among these items were a
stainless steel high-temperature short-time milk pasteurizing unit to
process 3,000 pounds of milk per hour, a milk receiving unit, a 200-gallon
per hour homogenizer, and an 85-gallon per hour continuous ice cream
A small herd of purbred Aberdeen-Angus and Hereford cattle was main-
tained by the Animal Husbandry Division for an experimental beef produc-
tion program and for instructional purposes. The best heifer calves were
kept for herd replacements and a few bull calves were sold to livestock
breeders in the state. All steer calves were kept for experimental purposes.
The steers were used also for class work and in training the judging team.
Two bulls were shown at the Webster Livestock Show. The Aberdeen-
Angus bull won grand champion, while the Hereford bull was made reserve
champion of the entire show.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The swine herd, consisting of purebred Duroc-Jerseys and Spotted Poland
Chinas, has been increased from seven sows and one boar to 10 sows, four
boars, and 35 open gilts. Four sows have qualified for the Duroc Registry
of Production. The herd won many prizes at the Southeastern All-Breed
Fat Hog Show and Sale at Ocala and at the Florida State Fair at Tampa.
These included the grand champion pen of eight fat barrows, reserve cham-
pion pen of three fat barrows (at both shows), first junior boar pig and
first senior sow pig at Ocala and the grand champion boar and the reserve
champion sow at Tampa. The swine herd furnishes experimental animals
for expanded research in breeding and feeding experiments, for class work
and for salable breeding stock to improve swine herds of veterans, 4-H
Club boys, Future Farmers of America, and farmers throughout the state.
Nutrition Laboratory investigations have been increasingly directed
toward the relationships of minor elements to phosphorus and calcium
metabolism and the effects these elements have upon the nutrition of cattle.
Laboratory animals serve for pilot studies. Radioactive isotopes secured
from Oak Ridge have aided in studying mineral nutrition, and the radio-
active tracer work has been continued and strengthened. Equipment of the
radioactive element center in the laboratory has been valuable in these
studies and has served for cooperative studies with the Departments of
Soils and Agronomy. Using radioactive iodine, chick thyroids have been
destroyed without surgery, providing a new technique for studying thyroid
During the year, support for Nutrition Laboratory projects has been
received in the form of grants-in-aid from the Pasture Committee of the
Florida Agricultural Research Institute, the Nutrition Foundation of New
York, the U. S. Phosphoric Products Division of Tennessee Corporation,
and from the Shark Industries Division of the Borden Company.
The poultry flock included approximately 450 Single Comb White
Leghorns, 400 S. C. Rhode Island Reds, 200 Light Sussex, and 150 New
Hampshires. These birds were used for experimental purposes in breed-
ing, feeding, and management of mature stock and in research work with
young stock reared on the range or in confinement in battery brooders.
During the spring of 1949, approximately 4,500 chicks were hatched. Some
were used in experimental feeding trials, while the remainder were brooded
and reared on the range to produce stock for the 1949-50 feeding and
management trials. All adult birds were tested for pullorum disease and
no reactors were found.
The Poutry Husbandry Division is cooperating with the State Live
Stock Sanitary Board in the National Poultry Improvement Plan in Florida
and with the State Poultry and Egg Division in improving the quality of
market poultry and poultry products.

Purnell Project 133 G. K. Davis, C. L. Comar, Leon Singer, R. B. Becker,
P. T. Dix Arnold, D. A. Sanders, R. S. Glasscock,
W. G. Kirk and R. W. Kidder
Tests with radioactive isotopes have shown that molybdenum follows, in
general, the path of phosphorus in animal metabolism. Molybdenum in
the ration appears in the bones and tissues in much the same way as does
phosphorus. The action of copper in counteracting molybdenum toxicity
was found to be more indirect than as a chemical reaction in the rumen
and intestines. Experiments have shown the action of copper on moly-

Annual Report 1949

bdenum to be within the animal tissues and as a result of enzyme activity.
Liver biopsies have been secured from cattle at Gainesville and at the
Everglades Station in an effort to correlate the effects of diet with blood
and liver changes. Grade Devon cattle at the Everglades Station have
been given graded levels of copper sulfate and copper oxide considerably
higher than in previous experiments. Samples also have been secured
from a similar experiment at the Everglades Station using Angus cattle.
A program of copper and molybdenum analysis in forage and feed
from many areas of Florida and other states has revealed that molybdenum
occurs in many feeds not previously suspected as sources of this element.
Consideration of the level of molybdenum intake must be made in de-
termining the copper requirement of animals. At levels of intake up to 20
parts per million of molybdenum, copper at levels of from 10 to 16 parts
per million in the feed has rendered the molybdenum nontoxic. Studies are
now in progress to determine if this is true at higher levels of intake. See
also Report, Proj. 133, EVERGLADES STATION.)

State Project 140 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
R. S. Glasscock and G. K. Davis
Data on nine Jersey fetuses contributed to this cooperative project by
the Florida Station were included in the publication: "Development of the
Fetus in the Dairy Cow," by W. W. Swett, C. A. Matthews and M. H.
Fohrman, U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 964: 1-34. 1948. Of 113 fetuses
studied in this report, 55 were from Department of Agriculture herds and
58 from 13 cooperating states. The body weights of Jersey cows in-
creased rapidly at about the fourth to fifth month in gestation, based on
increased weights of the gravid uteruses, which amounted to nearly 70
pounds at the eighth month.

Production records on 51 cows slaughtered previously as part of this
cooperative project were verified during the year in preparation for further
publications by the Bureau of Dairy Industry.


State Project 213 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, G. K. Davis,
C. L. Comar and Sidney P. Marshall
Tabulations and a manuscript are in preparation on the investigation
of increasing potential protein value of sorghum silage by addition of
urea. This work was conducted during the war years, 1943-1945. Ad-
ditions of urea reduced palatability slightly. The urea-sorghum silage
with 0.5 percent of urea added was more palatable to dairy cattle than
that with higher concentrations. Free ammonia was evidenced by odor
when as much as 2.5 percent of urea had been added. Cows refused that
silage until the ammonia disappeared.
Adding urea did not affect the temperature of the silage significantly,
nor did it appear to act as a carotene preservative. Of 2.5 percent urea
added to sorghum at time of ensiling, approximately one half had been

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

lost by the time the silage was removed. Some of the loss was apparently
due to formation of ammonia and some due to leaching. Similar losses
occurred with levels of 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5 percent urea. An equivalent of
from 0.24 to 0.3 percent urea remained in the silage to which 0.5 percent
had been added. Crude protein values were increased to the extent that
urea was retained in the silage. This increase amounted to from 0.75 to
3.0 percent of a fresh weight basis.


Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
A. H. Spurlock and S. P. Marshall
Breeding, inventory and replacement records were obtained from
seven cooperating dairy herds during the year. Preliminary tabulations
on useful life-span of dairy cows in Florida dairies and of dairy bulls of
five breeds were incorporated in a bulletin manuscript, "Management of
Dairy Cattle in Florida." The phase dealing with dairy bulls has been
pursued largely by correspondence, based on a continuing file of living
bulls as a basis of obtaining a representative population of individuals.
The five major dairy cattle breed associations are in cooperation with that
part of the project dealing with dairy bulls. See also Report Proj. 345,


Purnell Project 346 G. K. Davis, C. L. Comar,
Leon Singer and Martha Michael
Rats have been used for much of the work with radioactive isotopes,
while some work was conducted with chickens and rabbits. Phosphorus
absorption has been followed by means of radioactive phosphorus. By
varying the levels of molybdenum and copper in the diet, the effect of these
elements on phosphorus absorption has been investigated. Using radio-
active molybdenum, the effect of phosphorus and copper on molybdenum
in the diet has been studied in a similar manner. Investigation also was
carried out with radioactive calcium to determine its distribution and
transfer through the body of an animal.
Results of some of the mineral studies have pointed to a possible
vitamin-mineral interrelationship in which the so-called minor elements
play a role.


Purnell Project 353 D. A. Sanders and C. F. Simpson
A practical mastitis control program, based upon cumulative results ob-
tained in experimental herds located in different sections of the state,
was formulated and made available to Florida dairymen. Following
recommendations outlined as a result of these studies, dairymen can take
prompt action in preventing or effectively controlling the spread of in-
fectious mastitis among their cattle. The voluntary state-wide mastitis
control program is being conducted in cooperation with the State Live

Annual Report 1949

Stock Sanitary Board. The program consists essentially of (1) detection
and segregation of infected animals, (2) disposal of badly infected
spreaders of the disease which cannot be cured by treatments, (3) raising
or purchasing heifers as disease-free replacements, (4) instigating clean
milking practices and (5) good herd management methods to prevent
spread or reintroduction of udder infections.
Penicillin in various forms and combinations was used as an intra-
mammary treatment in naturally occurring cases of mastitis caused by
streptococci and staphylococci microorganisms. A practical method of
treating streptococci infections of the udder consists of the injection of
penicillin ointment into the infected quarter. The penicillin ointment is
conveniently administered in a collapsible tube having a small nozzle which
is inserted, under aseptic conditions, into the teat opening. Since peni-
cillin ointment has not proved to be entirely satisfactory as a curative
treatment for staphylococci infections of the udder, further studies are
being conducted in an effort to improve the treatment for this form of in-

Bankhead-Jones 356 G. K. Davis, Katherine Boney and E. M. Hodges
Tryptophane and lysine analyses of forage samples and of various
hybrid corn samples have been made, using microbiological methods.
Various fertilizer practices have caused some change in the proportions of
amino acids in these feeds, but genetically uniform material must be used
in order to discover if differences observed are actually due to fertilizer
Vegetative cuttings of Pangola grass, as uniform as possible, have
provided evidence that mineral element fertilization influences the portion
of amino acids only to a slight degree. Phosphorus supply appears to be
one of the more important factors determining the proportion of amino
acids in a given species of herbage.

State Project 387 Leonard E. Swanson
This project was inactive during the year.

State Project 394 E. L. Fouts and P. T. Dix Arnold
This project was inactive during the year.

State Project 421 R. S. Glasscock, W. G. Kirk and G. B. Killinger
Two pastures of mixed carpet grass and clover were grazed continu-
ously with steers and two were grazed rotationally. The pastures grazed
continuously furnished 518 grazing days per acre. The total gain per

60 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

acre was 412.5 pounds. The pastures grazed rotationally furnished 847
grazing days per acre with 482.5 pounds total gain. The steers on
continuous grazing showed an average daily gain of 1.58 pounds, as
compared with 1.13 pounds for the steers grazed rotationally.
Two 1.5-acre plots were used to show the comparative feeding value of
common and Paraguay Bahia grasses under high levels of fertilization.
The Paraguay Bahia furnished 415 grazing days per acre with a total gain
of 126.6 pounds of beef. The average daily gain per steer was 0.35
pounds. The common Bahia furnished 295 grazing days per acre with 200
pounds total gain. The daily gain per steer was 0.68 pounds.
Two pastures each of mixed clovers and Coastal Bermuda, mixed
clovers and Pensacola Bahia, and mixed clovers and Pangola grass were
grazed with steers from March 18 until October 25, 1948. The Bermuda-
clover pastures yielded 336.3 grazing days per acre with a total weight
gain of 436 pounds. The average daily gain per steer was 1.30 pounds.
The Bahia-clover pastures furnished 288 grazing days per acre with a
total gain of 399 pounds. The average daily gain was 1.38 pounds. The
Pangola-clover pastures furnished 252.6 grazing days per acre with a total
gain of 313 pounds. The average daily gain per steer was 1.23 pounds.
Very little clover grew in the Pangola grass pastures. Apparently, the
type of grass was not a factor in clover growth during the experiment.
Work on this project was conducted cooperatively with the Agronomy


Adams Project 424 M. W. Emmel
"Transmission agent" RPL 16 has been carried through 63 serial
passages in four- to six-weeks old chicks. The type of tumor produced
in these investigations was found to be similar to that reported previously
by Burmeister and colleagues, the workers who first discovered this agent.
Investigations during the past year on the chemico-physical properties
of the transmission agent indicate that the tumor-transmitting factor is
intimately associated with the nucleoprotein in the tumor cells. In eight
trials, nucleoprotein preparations from muscle tumors and blood cells of
tumor-positive birds produced typical tumors in 32 out of a total of 52
birds when these preparations wele injected into the pectoral muscles.
Investigations are being, continued in an attempt to isolate further the
tumor-producing factor.

TOXICITY OF Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH

State Project 426 G. K. Davis and C. L. Comar
This project was inactive during the year.


Bankhead-Jones Project 436 W. A. Krienke and E. L. Fouts
Additional attention was given to methods of analyses of the milk ash
that had been stored while completing other phases of this project.
The chloranilic acid method for calcium was investigated and found

Annual Report 1949

applicable for the determination of calcium in milk ash. Control of pH
of the calcium standards and of a blank to that of the milk ash solutions
(ash taken up in very dilute HC1) was found essential and practical for
this determination. As suggested by Gammon and Forbes, the inclusion
of magnesium in the calcium standards to the extent of the magnesium in
the sample aliquots eliminated the magnesium error attributed to the
chloranilic acid method.
The molybdenum blue colorimetric method was used for the determi-
nation of phosphorus and the thiazol yellow method for the determination
of magnesium.
On the whole-milk basis, approximately three-fourths of the magnesium
values were within 0.011 and 0.014 percent, with very few below 0.010 per-
cent Mg. Approximately four-fifths of the values of phosphorus were
between 0.087 and 0.101 percent P. Two-thirds of the calcium values
were between 0.100 and 0.136 percent, with less than five percent of them
below 0.093 percent Ca.
The project is terminated with this report.

State Project 450 N. R. Mehrhof and G. B. Killinger
Four groups of S. C. White Leghorn and four groups of S. C. Rhode
Island Red pullets were housed, fed and managed alike, except for length
of grazing period. Pullets in Group 1 were allowed to graze all day;
Group 2 from 5 P. M. until dark; Group 3 had access to a bare yard all day;
and those in Group 4 were permitted to graze one-half day in the
As in previous trials, Coastal Bermuda was the permanent pasture
grass used for grazing from spring until fall. Oats were used for winter
grazing. In this trial, 68 S. C. White Leghorns and 87 S. C. Rhode Island
Reds were housed in each group. The Coastal Bermuda withstood the sys-
tem of grazing quite well and furnished adequate pasturage. During the
first seven periods of 28 days each, total egg production was highest in the
S. C. White Leghorn group that was kept outside all day on a bare yard,
and lowest in the group having access to grass from 5 o'clock until dark.
In the case of S. C. Rhode Island Reds, total egg production for the
seven 28-day periods was highest in the group having access to grass all
day and lowest in the group allowed to graze from 5 o'clock until dark.
Total feed (mash and grain) consumption in the case of both S. C.
White Leghorns and S. C. Rhode Island Reds was highest with the groups
which did not have any green feed in the yards and lowest in the groups
allowed to graze from 5 o'clock until dark.

State Project 456 M. W. Emmel
A "leech" has been found to be a mass of mycelia, tissue debris, and
dead cells more or less contaminated with bacteria and fungi, depending
upon the age of the lesion. The conclusion has been reached that "leeches"
is caused by a fungus infection. Repeated efforts to reproduce the
disease by fungi isolated from "leech" lesions have failed, probably be-
cause the organism was concerned with secondary infection rather than
being the primary infective agent.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


State Project 459 Leonard E. Swanson
Reports of slaughter houses in Florida under federal, state and mu-
nicipal inspection show a decided increase in liver fluke infections over previ-
ous years. Death losses, together with reduced weight of beef cattle and
lower milk production of dairy cattle, add to the economic loss sustained.
According to the size and structure of liver flukes and the pathology
found in infected cattle livers, it was evident that flukes other than F.
hepatica L. were prevalent in Florida. Specimens collected from Florida
cattle livers were determined as Fasciola aegyptiaca Looss, 1996, by Dr.
Frank A. Taylor of the U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. Dr. B.
Schwartz, Zoological Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington,
D. C., determined similar specimens from Florida as F. aegyptiaca but felt
that they may be identical with Fasciola gigantica Cobbold. Dr. Benn
Dawes, zoologist at King's College, University of London, gives Distomum.
hepatica Var. aegyptiaca Looss, 1896, as a synonym for F. gigantica.
Where the two species of flukes, F. hepatica and F. aegyptiaca, occur,
infected livers are enlarged, have thickened calcified bile ducts, contain
tough, fibrous connective tissues and are grayish in appearance. Numer-
ous slit-like openings were found in the liver capsule and tissue, and by
applying slight pressure, small flukes were expelled. The parietal and
visceral surfaces of the liver extending from the dependent portion back
presented numerous nodulations varying in size from a large pea to that
of a hen egg. Upon incision of the nodules, a dark exudate containing
live immature flukes was observed.
Longevity of F. hepatica infection in cattle in one experimentally in-
fected steer and one naturally infected heifer showed that this species
leaves the host in from 13 to 15 months after the fluke reaches maturity
and begins to lay ova. Further studies are in progress.
Hexachlorethane administered as a drench at a dose of 10 grams per
100 pounds live weight was effective in removing mature F. hepatica from
the bile ducts of cattle, but was ineffective in removing the immature flukes
in the liver tissue. The hatchability of fluke ova recovered from the bile
ducts, gallbladder or fecal material of animals treated with hexachlore-
thane was not affected.
Benzene hexachloride, 6 percent gamma isomer, administered in a
capsule in repeated doses of 28.25, 50, and 100 grams one week apart
showed no detrimental effects to the health of the animal, but at these
levels, it was ineffective as a flukecide.
The fresh water snail, Physa pomilia Conrad, found consistently in
fluke-infected areas does not serve as an intermediate host of liver flukes.
Snails Pseudosuccinea columella Say. and Fossaria cubensis Pfr., the in-
termediate hosts of liver flukes in Florida, produced egg masses through-
out the year under laboratory conditions. One pair of snails, F. cubensis,
in an aquarium resulted in a population of 1,492 snails in eight months.
Vegetation, old bridges, logs and boards protected snails in sufficient
numbers to reinfect the entire pasture when flooded by heavy rains or by
irrigation. Leaky water troughs or artesian wells were found to be ideal
breeding places. Broad V-shape drainage or irrigation ditches having shal-
low bottoms were effective in snail eradication. The drainage must be
complete for effective control.

Annual Report 1949

A spray consisting of 33 pounds of copper sulfate dissolved in 400
gallons of water applied with a machine having an agitator and maintain-
ing 400 pounds nozzle pressure was found to be effective in small eradica-
Tests on the toxicity of various chemicals to snails were carried out.
Benzene hexachloride, 25 percent gamma isomer and pure gamma isomer;
chlordane 50 percent; DDT-50W; and phenothiazine failed to kill any
snails under conditions of the tests. Benzene hexachloride, six percent
gamma isomer; parathion; copper sulfate; slacked lime (commercial
grade); and two parts copper sulfate to one part citric acid were effective
in killing all snails within 48 hours. Copper sulfate alone or with citric
acid was found to be most effective as all snails died within two to 24 hours
when treated with these compounds. The solutions used varied from one
part to 100,000 to one part in 2,000,000 parts of water. Control snails were
maintained for each test and all controls remained alive.

State Project 460 Leonard E. Swanson
Grubs (ox warbles), Hypodenmia lineata DeVill, were effectively con-
trolled by spraying cattle with a mixture of rotenone and DDT or benzene
hexachloride and rotenone. The materials were applied with a power
machine capable of maintaining 400 pounds nozzle pressure. When using
hand sprays or in dipping, it is necessary to scrub the backs of cattle to
loosen the grub scabs. The following mixture was found to be effective in
destroying the grubs in the backs of cattle:
DDT-50W or benzene hexachloride (6 percent gamma isomer) 2 pounds
Derris or cube powder (4.7 to 5 percent rotenone) 1 pound
Water 10 gallons
Complete control cannot be accomplished by individual herd treatment,
but can be attained when applied on an area basis.
Benzene hexachloride, DDT or other synthetic insecticides should not
be mixed with arsenical or oily solutions. Such mixtures have produced
symptoms of poisoning and deaths have occurred following spraying or
dipping cattle in these mixtures. Old arsenic dip vats should be thoroughly
cleaned by washing and scrubbing to remove any arsenical residue before
such vats are charged with synthetic insecticides.
Experiments have shown that BHC or DDT alone has no effect on cattle
grubs. These insecticides are added to sprays and dips to kill flies, lice
and ticks. They also give much longer residual control for these pests
than does rotenone.

State Project 461 R. S. Glasscock,
T. J. Cunha and A. M. Pearson
Alfalfa, Alyce clover and western prairie hays were used as roughage
for wintering cows. Supplemental feed was given from November 1 to
April 1. Cows nursing calves were fed 8 pounds of a grain mixture of
corn and oats and 2 pounds of cottonseed meal daily, in addition to
roughage. Cows calving after April 1 were not fed concentrates.
The average cow consumed 800 pounds of hay and 354 pounds of con-
centrates. The cost was $20 and $16 for hay and concentrates, respec-
tively, with an average total cost of $36 for wintering each cow.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

At calving, the average weight for each purebred Hereford cow and
calf was 983 pounds and 71 pounds, respectively. The Aberdeen-Angus
cows and calves averaged 992 pounds and 63 pounds, respectively. After
grazing all summer without supplemental feed, the Hereford cows weaned
calves that averaged 469 pounds at 208 days of age. The average wean-
ing age of Angus calves was 203 days, and the average weaning weight
was 417 pounds. When the calves were weaned, the Hereford cows
averaged 1,094 pounds and the Angus cows 1,038 pounds in weight. The
weaning weights of calves were below those of previous years.


Purnell Project 462 D. A. Sanders, A. N. Tissot and C. F. Simpson
Spray experiments were conducted in cooperation with cattlemen and
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine against some of the blood-
sucking arthropod and other potential vectors of anaplasmosis. The cattle
used in the field tests to determine the control of various species of taba-
nids (horseflies), chrysops (deerflies), mosquitoes and the Gulf Coast tick,
Amblyomma maculatum Koch, were located on isolated ranges in the
middle East Coast section of Florida. A full coverage of 1.5 percent water
suspension of methoxychlor, using about 1.2 pints or 8.39 grams of in-
secticide per adult animal, was effective for two to three days against
small tabanids, chrysops and mosquitoes. It was fully effective for one day
only for large tabanids; in some cases it was partially effective on the
second day. The third day following application the insecticide proved to
be partially effective for the small tabanids. Marked reduction in the
fly population could be seen for the first two to three days following the
treatments, but there was a rapid increase after that time. The high fly
and mosquito population in the area adjacent to the cattle resulted in a
continual infiltration of these insects into the pasture.
Spray tests using a L.5 percent wettable chlorinated camphene powder
and also a 1.5 percent wettable DDT powder in water indicated that both
treatments were effective in controlling the Gulf Coast tick.
Studies were continued on the treatment of clinical cases of anaplas-
mosis and on the sterilization of the blood of recovered animals to prevent
existence of the carrier state of the infection. Thus far, no drug has
proved to be completely satisfactory as a treatment. The drugs that ap-
pear to have some value in aiding the affected animal to withstand and
recover from an attack of the disease do not destroy the causative organ-
isms. Such animals remain carriers of the infection similar to animals
that have recovered from an attack without drug treatment. Since many
of the compounds used in the treatment of anaplasmosis proved to be
irritant or toxic for cattle, a technique of injecting these materials directly
into the vein to avoid such toxic reaction will be studied. (See also Re-
port, Proj. 462, ENTOMOLOGY.)


State Project 477 S. J. Folks and R. S. Glasscock
Over a three-year period, slaughter hogs were produced under two
different systems as follows: (1) Pigs and feeder shotes were given limited

Annual Report 1949

feed plus green grazing on millet pasture until put on fattening crops in
the fall, and (2) pigs were fed a full ration on millet pasture and put on
early-maturing fattening crops.
The pigs that received a full ration of feed while growing and were
put on early maturing fattening crops were marketed approximately one
month earlier than those given a limited ration during the growing period
and put on grazing crops during a later period in the fall.
It was profitable to feed pigs a good growing ration and provide early
fattening crops so that the finished slaughter hogs were sold on a higher
This project is closed with this report.

State Project 478 R. A. Dennison, N. R. Mehrhof, R. B. Becker,
G. K. Davis and E. L. Fouts
This project was inactive during the year.

State Project 481 A. L. Shealy, R. S. Glasscock,
L. E. Swanson and W. G. Kirk
Rough handling of livestock on farms and ranches, careless driving on
the part of truck drivers, and improper handling through central markets
were causes of losses that received attention during the past year. By
reason of preliminary reports on this project, the Florida Live Stock Loss
Prevention Committee adopted a plan of awarding a certificate and plaque
to truckers of livestock who were careful in every regard in handling live-
stock. One award was made during the year. The committee sponsored
the hanging of pictures in central markets, showing how it is necessary
to cut out badly bruised areas on carcasses of the cattle and hogs. In an
effort to show farmers, ranchers, 4-H Club boys, and Future Farmers how
losses might be prevented in handling livestock on farms and ranches, two
bulletins were published during the year-one dealing with hogs and the
other with cattle.

State Project 489 J. C. Driggers, G. K. Davis and N. R. Mehrhof
Experiments including 20 percent commercially prepared citrus seed
meal in the diet of S. C. White Leghorns demonstrated that, as now pre-
pared, this by-product of the citrus canning and citrus seed oil industries
is satisfactory for chick growth. A high mortality resulted during the first
three weeks in each of these studies. An enlarged gallbladder and some-
times mottled liver, ascites, and congestion of the intestinal tract were the
post-mortem lesions observed.
The primary deleterious factor was found to be a white crystalline
compound which was soluble in acetone and 95 percent ethyl alcohol, but
insoluble in water and diethyl ether. Chemical analysis suggests that this
compound is limonin, the bitter principle of the seed. There were indica-


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

tions that a second factor soluble in alcohol after separate extraction with
ether and acetone was a contributing cause of the unsatisfactory results.
Dehydrated citrus seed meal, when extracted successively with diethyl
ether, acetone and 95 percent ethyl alcohol, and added to a good chick mash
at a level of nearly 20 percent, gave satisfactory results. When used to
replace slightly above 20 percent of soybean meal in the University of
Florida chick ration, the completely detoxified citrus seed meal also proved
satisfactory as a source of vegetable protein for chicks up to five and six
weeks of age.


State Project 490 J. C. Driggers and N. R. Mehrhof
This project was inaugurated to determine the effect of treating eggs
with a commercial, light weight, specially processed mineral oil on the
preservation of their edible qualities.
Six groups of 92 eggs each, in which three groups were treated with
oil and three untreated, were used in this experiment. One group each
of the treated and untreated eggs were stored at the following tempera-
ture levels: (1) at room temperature (50'-90F.); (2) electric refrigerator
temperature (48-55F.); and (3 cold storage temperature (30-36"F.). The
experiment was started June 6, 1947, and terminated October 10, 1948.
The eggs held at room temperature and not treated with oil became in-
edible at an average of 57 days, while those which were dipped in oil were
inedible at 108 days. The refrigerated eggs which were not treated re-
mained edible for an average of 107 days, and the treated eggs remained
edible for 271 days. At the end of the experiment, 33.3 percent of the
eggs in cold storage which had not been oil-treated were edible; 51.6
percent of the treated eggs were still edible.
In all lots, the time required for changes to occur in grade of the eggs
from "AA" to "Inedible" was fairly uniform and in general paralleled the
length of time required for the eggs to become inedible.
This project is completed with this report.


Bankhead-Jones Project 497 E. L. Fouts, W. A. Krienke and
L. R. Arrington
Dairy ingredients for most experimental ice cream mixes consisted of
sweet cream (40 percent butteifat) and condensed skimmilk (36 percent
solids-not-fat). Sweet butter was used to replace one-third of the butter-
fat supplied by the sweet cream in the remainder of the mixes. The
diluents were distilled water and natural hard water (240 p.p.m. hard-
ness). Included in the investigation were effects of the water minerals
as influenced by different stabilizers; gelatin, sodium alginate and sodium
carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC). All mixes were pasteurized and homogen-
ized in their entirety.
There were no significant differences in viscosity, alcohol number, rate
of whipping of the mixes, body and texture scores, or melting appearances
of the ice creams that could be attributed to the mineral content of the
hard water, irrespective of the stabilizer used.

Annual Report 1949

One series of non-butter containing mixes in which acid was permitted
to develop before pasteurization (pH 6 18) resulted in increased viscosity
and lowered alcohol numbers accountable to the minerals present in the
hard wate-. A second portion of the high acid mix was treated with
sodium bicarbonate to adjust the acidity to pH 6.55 prior to pasteurization.
When compared with the unneutralized mix, no appreciable difference was
noted in the alcohol number, but a decrease was noted in the viscosity of
the mix containing hard water minerals.

State Project 503 N. R. Mehihof, A. W. O'Steen and F. S. Perry
Three feeding trials with New Hampshires, using different levels
of pi otein in the diet for feeding broilers up to 10 weeks of age, have been
completed. In each trial, the chicks were divided into four uniform lots
and were fed in the following manner: Lot 1 received an all-mash basal
ration which contained approximately 21 percent protein throughout the
10-week period; Lot 2 was fed the all-mash basal ration for the first six
weeks, the basal ration plus sufficient yellow corn meal to reduce the
protein to 18 percent for the seventh and eighth weeks, and the basal
ration plus yellow corn meal making a 16 percent protein all-mash diet for
the ninth and tenth weeks; Lot 3 received the 21 percent protein mash for
the first six weeks, the basal ration plus cracked yellow corn which re-
duced the protein content to 18 percent for the seventh and eighth weeks,
and the basal ration plus sufficient cracked yellow corn to reduce the pro-
tein content to 16 percent for the ninth and tenth weeks; and Lot 4 re-
ceived the basal ration for four weeks, the basal ration plus cracked yellow
corn making an 18 percent protein diet for the fifth and sixth weeks, and
a 16 percent protein diet of the basal ration plus cracked yellow corn for
the seventh through the tenth weeks.
These four different rations gave no significant difference in final
eight of birds, feed consumption per bird, feed efficiency and mortality.

State Project 512 R. S. Glasscock, T. J. Cunha and A. M. Pearson
This report includes data for 97 days of a 120-day feeding period.
Three pairs of steers were selected and allotted uniformly according to
age, breed, grade, weight and quality. All steers received western prairie
hay as the roughage. The grain fed was equal parts (by weight) of oats
and cracked yellow corn. One member of each pair of steers received
cottonseed meal as the protein supplement, and its pair mate received an
equal amount (by weight) of ground sweet blue lupine seed. The amount
of concentrate fed was controlled so that members of each pair of steers
consumed an equal amount. Hay was allotted on an equal basis, but
exact records were not kept of roughage consumption. One pair of steers
was fed protein supplement (cottonseed meal for one pair mate and
ground sweet lupine seed for the other) at a 20-percent level in the con-
centrate ration. Another pair was fed at a 40-percent level, and the third
pair was fed at the 60-percent level.
At the 20-percent level, average daily gain for the steer fed cottonseed
meal was 1.65 pounds, as compared with 1.60 pounds for the steer fed

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

ground sweet lupine seed. At the 40-percent level, the steer fed cotton-
seed meal made an average daily gain of 2.01 pounds and its pair mate fed
the sweet lupine seed gained 1.60 pounds daily. The steer consuming 60
percent of cottonseed meal in the concentrate mixture gained 1.70 pounds
daily, as compared with a daily gain of 1.65 pounds for the lupine-fed
steer. The average daily ration of all steers was well below a full feed
because the steers fed lupine seed did not consume their offering of feed as
readily as those fed cottonseed meal and, as a result, limited the feed
intake of the cottonseed meal pair mates.

State Project 517 Glenn Van Ness
Pullet disease was investigated by studying the function of the adrenal
cortex and the role of the potassium ion in the nutrition of the fowl. Cell
hydration was recognized as a cause of pullet disease. It appears that the
disease may be due to improper postassium ion metabolism, to certain toxins
or to disturbed cellular functions. It is possible that with maintenance of
a positive calcium balance, pullet disease will be reduced within the flock.
Sodium citrate was found of value in the study of the factors influenc-
ing the production of pullet disease-like effects. Potassium citrate does
not produce a pullet disease-like condition in birds. It appeared that cli-
matic factors had an influence on the disease. From an economic stand-
point, the loss in egg production may be greater than the actual loss in
It was found that certain birds not demonstrating actual pullet disease
developed another condition which was characterized by delayed egg pro-
duction. It appears that adrenal cortical activity, progesterone-like in
nature, may be responsible for this condition. In one stage of pullet
disease the bird continues to lose weight to a point of emaciation. It is
suspected that this condition is due to a loss of potassium through the
kidneys, while there is a retention of sodium. Kidney disturbances were
found to be prominent in this condition.
From the research work conducted to date it is apparent that pullet
disease involves nutritional disturbances and environmental factors.


State Project 518 C. F. Winchester, C. L. Comar and G. K. Davis
The value of thyroactive protein in laying rations was treated with two
groups of 15 laying hens maintained on a commercial ration in individual
pens from April 1948 to March 1949. One group had added to the ration
10 grams of iodocasein (protomone) per 100 pounds of feed. Results of
this trial were inconclusive, although the lot receiving the thyropro-
tein produced a few more eggs, and further investigations are necessary.
Levels of 6 millicuries or more of I131 per 100 grams body weight have
effectively destroyed chick thyroids. Using these chicks, it has been
possible to show that none survive without administered thyroxin. The
female birds that were injected with thyroxin at levels of approximately
4 and 6 micrograms daily per 100 grams body weight grew to mature size
and started egg production.
Chicks with thyroids similarly destroyed with I11 are receiving levels
of 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 micrograms of thyroxin per 100 grams body weight in
further studies of thyroxin requirement.

Annual Report 1949

State Project 540 T. J. Cunha, S. J. Folks, R. S. Glasscock
and A. M. Pearson
Preliminary trials will be repeated to obtain more conclusive informa-
tion on the feeding value of citrus molasses. In the preliminary trials,
the following information has been obtained:
Citrus and cane molasses when fed to 40-pound pigs at a 10 percent
level, on a fresh basis, had 91 and 97 percent, respectively, the value of
Citrus and cane molasses when fed at a 20 percent level to 100-pound
pigs had 81 percent and 70 percent, respectively, the value of corn.
Citrus and cane molasses when fed at a 30 percent level to 90-pound
pigs had 65 percent and 70 percent, respectively, the value of corn.
Citrus and cane molasses when fed at a 40 percent level to 164-pound
pigs had 78 and 76 percent, respectively, the value of corn. In one trial,
when no control ration was used, citrus and cane molasses were fed at a
40 percent level to 161-pound pigs. Citrus molasses had 94 percent the
value of cane molasses.
In comparing relative feeding values, it must be kept in mind that corn
is much lower in moisture and thus higher in dry matter than molasses.
Thus, comparing citrus and cane molasses with corn on a dry matter basis,
the citrus molasses proved superior to cane molasses. Citrus molasses
fed at the 10, 20 and 40 percent levels to 40, 100 and 161-pound pigs, re-
spectively, compared very favorably with corn when the dry matter intake
of the feeds is considered. On a dry matter basis, the 10 percent level of
cane molasses fed to 40-pound pigs was the only one which compared
favorably with corn.
No satisfactory method was found in preliminary trials which would
enable the self-feeding of citrus or cane molasses to pigs on oats pasture
with a protein supplement for a long period of time. This problem is being
studied further.
When the prices of corn, citrus and cane molasses are compared, either
of the molasses feeds in swine rations will produce more economical gains
than corn alone.
The trials indicate that cane molasses is more palatable than citrus
molasses for swine. Future work is needed in an effort to develop a
method whereby the bitter principle of citrus molasses is eliminated in
order to make it a more palatable feed.

State Project 541 T. J. Cunha, S. J. Folks, R. S. Glasscock
and A. M. Pearson
A trial is underway to compare kudzu hay, Alyce clover hay, and sweet
yellow lupine hay with alfalfa hay for growing-fattening pigs. Each of
the hays is being substituted for alfalfa in a control ration of corn, peanut
meal, alfalfa hay and minerals. Other hays grown in Florida eventually
will be studied.
Vitamin work conducted in connection with the hay studies showed that
the addition of an animal protein factor supplement was of considerable

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

benefit when fed to pigs on a control ration of corn, peanut meal, minerals
and all known vitamins which the pig has been shown to need. These
studies showed that the animal protein factor supplement of Lederle
Laboratories and a vitamin B,, concentrate were different in response and
that the animal protein factor supplement supplies a much-needed unknown
factor or factors for the young growing pig.
Further studies are now under way to determine whether the addition
of the animal protein factor to soybean oil meal and peanut meal will make
these plant protein concentrates as good, or about as good, as fish meal for
swine feeding.
It has been found that soil supplies an unknown factor or factors for
the pig. This stresses the value of allowing pigs to get on soil as soon
as possible after birth.


State Project No. 542 T. J. Cunha, S. J. Folks, R. S. Glasscock
and A. M. Pearson

Twenty purebred Duroc Jersey sows have been allotted into four
similar pasture plots with five gilts in each. These animals are now
being bred and will be studied through reproduction and lactation on
pasture. Following are the rations being fed:
Lot 1, Pasture + minerals.
Lot 2, Pasture + minerals + protein supplement.
Lot 3, Pasture + minerals + protein supplement + grain.
Lot 4, Pasture + minerals + protein supplement + grain + alfalfa.
This experiment is designed to study the value of supplemental feeds
for sows on Florida pastures.


Inheritance of "Bulldog" Head in Cattle.-The hereditary character in
cattle known as "bulldog" head (prognathism) was encountered in a family
of grade Jersey cows in a Columbia County dairy in 1941. The owners
supplied the history of this cow-family back to the foundation purchases.
The herd sires were home-raised for several years, and close breeding was
practiced. This family was observed until the last known remaining mem-
ber was slaughtered as an old cow in 1948. Her skull was preserved for
study and measurements.
The nasal bones are short and broad, the head broad in proportion, and the
orbits tend to be more rectangular than round. Because of the shortened
upper jaw, the lower jaw curved upward. The muzzle had an upturned
appearance. The name "bulldog" head has been applied to this character.
The character was not a lethal, and occurred in both males and females,
hence was neither self-limiting nor sex-linked. Impaired vision in partial
light (electric light), and even in full sunlight in one individual, was as-
sociated in the bulldog head animals. However, these characters are
thought to be independent of each other.
Bulldog head has been reported in Guernseys, Holsteins and grade
Jersey cattle in the United States, as well as near the Plata River in Argen-

Annual Report 1949

tina, and in Brazil. The terms niata or nata, and "Chimbeo-cows" or
"Mahre" have been applied respectively to affected cattle in the latter
Bulldog head is a recessive character in cattle. On the basis of known
matings, it appears to be controlled by a single pair of genes.
A journal manuscript has been prepared on these observations. (R. B.
Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold.)
Palatability of New Feeds.-Dried citrus yeast has been produced from
citrus molasses, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, by the U. S. Citrus
Products Laboratory working in cooperation with the Dr. Phillips Com-
pany. This yeast was used in two types of palatability tests with dairy
cows. After the cows had eaten their regular feed from the mangers in
the afternoon, a small quantity of dried citrus yeast was placed before each
of 27 different cows on one to three successive days. The majority of
animals paid no attention, while several noticed it briefly. One cow tasted
a small amount, some others sniffed but did not taste it. A single animal
ate the full offering, but refused a second offering. From reactions of the
cows, it appeared that the product was neither palatable nor repulsive.
The second test was with dried citrus yeast incorporated at two levels
into the regular home-mixed concentrates to which the cows were accus-
tomed. When added at a 10 percent level, 12 out of 20 cows ate all of the
first offering immediately. Four animals ate some of the offering, while
four others did not touch it. At a 15 percent level, 17 cows ate all at the
first offering, and six paid no attention to the mixture. Thus, cattle do not
object to the product at reasonable levels, if incorporated into a palatable
feed. (R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, Sidney P. Marshall and Herman
Microorganisms in Ruminant Digestion.-Microorganisms function ac-
tively in the digestive processes in the ruminant stomach.
In the past two years, attention was given to the aerobic bacteria in
stomachs of 14 dairy cattle, and of protozoa found in stomachs of 13 cattle
in the Station dairy herd. Eleven species of protozoa were identified.
Green inclusions chlorophyll) were seen in the protozoan Entodinium bursa
Stein. This work, in cooperation with the Biology Department, was pre-
sented in a Master of Science thesis by Earle M. Uzzell. Two manuscripts
have been prepared for journal publication. (R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix
Arnold, Sidney P. Marshall and E. Ruffin Jones, Jr.)
Dermatophytosis in Dairy Cows.-A disease situation has occurred
among dairy cows in certain parts of Florida in which there is decreased
milk flow and a progressive dermatitis. This condition usually begins on
the ears or top of the neck and extends backward, often finally involving
the entire sides and escutcheon, and there seemed to be no apparent re-
covery. The dermatitis is associated invariably with a fungus infection.
About 4 to 8 percent of the cows in individual herds are affected. Prelimi-
naly investigations on two affected animals tended to involve nutrition as
the basic factor at fault. (M. W. Emmel.)
Effect of Minor Elements on Phosphorus Metabolism in Cattle.-Eight
have been kept on rations which have varied in copper and molybdenum
content, but which were adequate in phosphorus. At regular intervals liver
and blood samples were obtained to determine the influence of these two
elements upon prosphorus metabolism. Alkaline blood phosphatase of the
blood has been determined as an indicator of bone metabolism. This
project is being supported by a grant-in-aid from the U. S. Phosphoric

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Products Division of Tennessee Corporation. (G. K. Davis and Jesse N.
Interrelationships of Copper, Molybdenum and Phosphorus.-Earlier
studies which demonstrated that excess molybdenum caused an interfer-
ence with copper and phosphorus metabolism have been confirmed. Rats
receiving levels of 80 parts per million of molybdenum on a lower copper
diet had poor bone formation and lower hemoglobin levels. Significantly
higher levels of copper did not prevent molybdenum deposition in the
bones, although other signs of molybdenosis were not so apparent. Inter-
ference with vitamin metabolism has been noted with rats on a ration low
in copper. Either excess pantothenic acid or additional copper has relieved
this deficiency syndrome. The Nutrition Foundation, Inc., has supported
this work with a grant-in-aid. (Leon Singer, G. K. Davis and C. L.
Cooperative Vitamin D Studies.-Samples of winter forage were se-
cured and submitted for vitamin D assay to supplement data previously
obtained on the vitamin D content of blood and milk. A technical bulletin
manuscript is being prepared on the vitamin D content of the blood and
milk of Florida cattle. The vitamin D assays were supported by Standard
Brands, Inc., New York. (G. K. Davis, R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix
Vitamin A for Beef Cattle.-Shark liver oil was again given weekly
for a period of six months to one group of wintering cattle and the
results were compared with those obtained with a similar group of cattle
as controls. Blood samples secured at 28-day intervals were analyzed for
vitamin A, carotene, phosphorus, calcium and hemoglobin. The first calf
crop from these cattle, since they have been on shark liver oil, will be
observed this year and the possible effects of the additional vitamin A
feeding noted. This work has been supported by the Shark Industries
Division of the Borden Company. (G. K. Davis and W. G. Kirk.)
Influence of Various Phosphate Sources on Cattle.-Preliminary results
were obtained on the value of superphosphate, rock phosphate and super-
phosphate plus lime on Pangola grass pasture. Pastures were prepared
for additional studies using concentrated superphosphate, colloidal phos-
phate and basic slag. The fertilizer treatments increased forage yield and
carrying capacity, although some differences were noted. The phos-
phorus content of the grass was increased greatly by the fertilizer treat-
ments, but the blood phosphorus values did not show significant changes,
except in the controls. The pastures have served as the sole source of feed
for the cattle being used and the animals have remained in top condition.
These preliminary results are being prepared for publication. This work has
been supported by a grant-in-aid from the Florida Agricultural Research
Institute. Soils work in connection with this project is being reported by
the Soils Department. (G. K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, E. M. Hodges, D. W.
Jones and Harold E. Henderson.)
Electrometric Titration of Milk and Dairy Products in the Determina-
tion of Titratable Acidity.-Inability of several individuals to recognize
the "pink end-point" at the same level of N/10 alkali, by the conventional
phenolphthalein method of determining titratable acidity of milk and other
fluid dairy products, resulted in a study of an electrometric titration pro-
A pH meter using a glass electrode and equipped with a motor driven
glass stirrer were the essentials, in addition to the standard alkali, a

Annual Report 1949

burette and a titration container (100 ml. beaker). By observing the move-
ment of the needle along the scale, the N/10 alkali can be added very
rapidly, with small additions as pH 8.3 is approached, so that no more
than 30 seconds are required to complete the titration. This will eliminate
overtitrations due to the "fading pink end-point" or to cautious approaches
to the end-point, necessitating varying lengths of time to complete the ti-
When using 6 drops of a 1 percent phenolphthalein solution per 18-gram
sample, the following ranges of pH values were obtained at the "pink end-
point": whole milk, 8.53 to 8.65; skimmilk, 8.53 to 8.63; cream, 8.68 to 9.02;
condensed skimmilk, 9.00 to 9.08; ice cream mix, 8.70 to 9.02; chocolate milk,
9.10 to 9.30; and evaporated milk, 8.96 to 9.04. Pink-colored ice creams, so
obscured the end-point that it was difficult to establish with certainty even
at pH 9.50. (W. A. Krienke.)
Pumping Cold Milk.-In milk processing plants it is sometimes necessary
to pump milk to the bottler after cooling at temperatures below the melting
point of butterfat. A study is being made of the effects of pumping cold
milk at this point on some of the physical properties and market qualities of
unhomogenized milk. (E. L. Fouts and L. E. Mull.)
Freezing Point of Milk.-The detection of added water to milk is based
on a constant freezing point value which has been established at -0.550' C.
and accepted as official by the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists.
The Cryoscopic method yielded a range of values on the samples of milk
collected for Bankhead-Jones Project 436. Additional samples were col-
lected and their freezing points determined. It appeared that the value
-0.550' C. should be changed in order to avoid condemnation of some normal,
unadulterated milk.
On samples of known history (no water added to the milk and no lactic
acid developed) mean freezing point values were obtained as follows:
individual Jersey cows (29 samples) -0.549' C., individual Holstein cows
(13 samples) -0.539' C., herds of Jersey cows (14 samples) -0.542' C., and
herds of Holstein cows (6 samples) -0.535' C. (W. A. Krienke and L. R.
Limitations of the Refractometer Readings of Milk Serums in Detecting
Watered Milk.-Official methods for refractometer readings of milk serums
did not always yield reliable results regarding possible dilution of the milk
samples with water. Since the acetic serum, the sour serum (natural sour-
ing), and the copper serum methods have been granted the status of
"official" by the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, it was con-
sidered essential to investigate the inconsistencies of these methods.
The data obtained on 36 samples of milk, some from individual cows
but mostly from herds of dairy cows, revealed that as much as 9 percent
water could be added to some samples without being detected by two of the
three methods. (L. R. Arrington and W. A. Krienke.)
Radio-active Calcium in Poultry Experiments. Four S. C. White
Leghorn laying hens were used to determine the absorption and utilization
of calcium by the hen. Birds Nos. 1 and 2, after having been fasted over-
night, received approximately 1 mgm. of Ca" as a solution of the chloride,
with an activity of 15 microcuries, administered into the lower esophagus
by means of a pipette. Birds Nos. 3 and 4, after having been fasted for a
like period, received approximately 0.1 mgm. of Ca" with an activity of 1.5


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

microcuries, and each day thereafter for 18 days received the same dosage,
while on the 20th day 3.75 microcuries were administered. For a period of
20 days after the initial dosage each egg laid was analyzed for total
calcium and for Ca" uptake in the yolk, white and shell. At the end of
the 21st day blood and bone samples from each bird were taken for analysis.
The entire yolk was wet-ashed with concentrated HNO::, the solution
evaporated to near dryness, the fat removed with ether, and the dried
residue ashed at 750C. for eight hours; the ash was dissolved in dilute
HC1 and the "calcium precipitated as the oxalate. The white was treated
similarly, except that the ether extraction was omitted. The shell was
wet-ashed in concentrated HNO:, and the solution evaporated to near
dryness and prepared directly for the oxalate precipitation step. The
calcium oxalate was collected on filter paper over a uniform area for
measurement of total calcium by weight and radio-activity with a thin
mica window Geiger counter. Self-adsorption and decay corrections were
made in the usual manner.
Radioactive calcium was found in the shell of an egg which was laid 15
minutes after administration. From 30 to 35 percent of ingested labeled
calcium was found in the egg laid 24 hours after dosage. It was estimated
that from 60 to 75 percent of the calcium in an egg is secured directly
from the diet. Appreciable quantities of ingested radioactive calcium were
found in the blood and bones after 21 days of heavy production. (J. C.
Driggers and C. L. Comar.)
Broiler Feeding Trials.-Three hundred New Hampshire chicks were
divided uniformly into six lots of two pens each. All chicks were kept in
batteries and managed alike. Each lot received a different broiler ration.
The reference ration is the regular University of Florida chick ration
containing 30 percent soybean oil meal and 36 percent yellow corn meal as
the two main sources of protein and carbohydrates. Rations Nos. 2 and
3 have the vegetable protein reduced to 20 and 10 percent. Rations
Nos. 4, 5 and 6 have 40, 50 and 60 percent yellow corn meal and 10, 15
and 10 percent soybean oil meal. All rations have about the same protein
level, but the fiber content is progressively less in rations 1 to 6.
At five weeks of age there was little difference in weight per chick or
feed efficiency among the six lots. (N. R. Mehrhof and J. C. Driggers.)

Ammal Report 1949

Farmers, insecticide dealers, agricultural workers and others have in-
creasingly continued to request information on insecticides and their appli-
cation in Florida agriculture. In an attempt to satisfy this important
need, various formulations of the new insecticide materials were tested
against many of our common pests. New research projects were started
on the control of the pests of woody ornamentals and of flue-cured tobacco.

State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
This project was continued at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory in
cooperation with the USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
In the control experiments against nut and leaf casebearers, insecticides
were applied at different periods of the year in an effort to determine the
most effective time to control these pests.
On June 24, 1948, three sprays were applied against pecan casebearer
larvae feeding on foliage and nuts. Arsenate of lead, 3 pounds per 100
gallons of bordeaux mixture, gave a reduction of 62 percent on Money-
maker variety and 74.1 percent on Moore. DDT 50 percent wettable
powder, 2 pounds per 100 gallons of bordeaux, gave a reduction of 52.4
percent on Moneymaker and 74.1 percent on Moore. Parathion 25 percent
wettable powder, 1 pound per 100 gallons of bordeaux, gave a reduction of
90.5 percent on Moneymaker and 39 percent on Moore.
Six insecticides applied June 30, July 19 and August 12, 1948, for
control of the hickory shuckworm on pecans gave excellent control of
pecan casebearer. DDT 50 percent wettable powder, 4 pounds per 100
gallons of water, gave a reduction of 100 percent. Benzene hexachloride,
50 percent wettable powder (6 percent gamma isomer), 6 pounds per 100
gallons of water, gave a reduction of 80 percent. Toxaphene 25 percent
wettable powder, 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water, gave a reduction of
100 percent. Chlordane 50 percent wettable powder, 4 pounds per 100
gallons of water, gave a reduction of 90 percent. Methoxychlor 50 percent
wettable powder, 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water, gave a reduction of
95 percent. Parathion 25 percent wettable powder, 2 pounds per 100
gallons of water, gave a reduction of 100 percent.
Three insecticide materials were used as late dormant sprays in the
spring of 1949 when the nut casebearer larvae were in their overwintering
hibernacula. Two quarts of 25 percent (by weight) DDT emulsifiable solu-
tion in 100 gallons of water gave a reduction of 92.1 percent. Two pounds
of DDT, 50 percent wettable powder plus 2 ounces of sticker, in 100 gallons
of water gave a reduction of 81.2 percent. Dinitro-o-cresol (elgetol), 2
quarts per 100 gallons, gave a reduction of 53.3 percent. Dn-289, dormant
miscible oil (dendral), 2 quarts per 100 gallons water, gave a reduction of
59 percent on Moore and 80 percent on Moneymaker.
DDT and parathion both were effective against first generation nut
casebearer on the Moore variety.. Sprays containing 2 pounds of DDT, 50
percent wettable powder, plus 3 ounces sticker in 100 gallons of 6-2-100
bordeaux mixture applied on May 2, 6 and 9 gave reductions of 32.7, 31.6
and 51 percent, respectively, over that of 40 percent nicotine sulfate, 13
ounces, plus 2 quarts summer oil emulsion per 100 gallons bordeaux mix-
ture applied May 6. Parathion, 25 percent wettable powder, plus 3 ounces

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

sticker in 100 gallons bordeaux mixture, applied on the above dates gave
reduction of 00.0, 33.7 and 48 percent, respectively, over that of the
nicotine sulfate.
On the Mahan variety, the same DDT sprays above applied May 3, 6
and 11 gave reductions of 1.0, 17.5, and 42.3 percent, respectively, over
that of nicotine sulfate applied May 11. Parathion sprays as above, ap-
plied on these dates, gave a reduction of only 00.0, 00.0 and 43.3 percent,
respectively, over that of the nicotine sulfate applied May 11.


State Project 380 A. N. Tissot and L. C. Kuitert
Insecticide tests reported in 1948 were completed with the harvest of
the corn. Due to late planting, all yields were low, but the best treatment
produced 56 times as much corn as the check. Larval counts and obser-
vations during the growing season showed that 10 percent toxaphene and
1 percent parathion were outstandingly better than the other materials for
control of the fall armyworm. Yield records substantiated this, for the
toxaphene plots produced 22.5 pounds of corn and the parathion plots 17.7
pounds. Third and fourth in rank were isotox with 11.1 pounds and DDT
with 7.5 pounds. The check plots produced only 0.4 pound.
An experiment was set up in the summer of 1948 to test a number of
insecticides against the fall armyworm on grain sorghums. The experi-
mental planting, 330 feet long by 54 feet wide, was divided into 24 plots
which provided for three replications of seven insecticides. Applications
were made August 27 and September 14. Observations and larval counts
made between September 16 and October 1 showed that toxaphene 5 per-
cent, parathion 0.5 percent, and methoxychlor 5 percent were the more
effective materials in the order named. These were followed in order by
DDT 5 percent, isotox 1.5 percent gamma isomer, chlordane 5 percent, and
ditolyl trichloroethane 5 percent. It was noticed that many of the leaves
in the chlordane plots were heavily streaked with red and brown. The
toxaphene plots showed similar but much less severe symptoms of phyto-


State Project 382 H. E. Bratley
This project was inactive during the year.


State Project 385 H. E. Bratley
The second year's operations on the mulch plot tests produced differ-
ences in plant growth, both cultivated and natural, in yields of broccoli and
squash, and in nematode infestations. Plots mulched with forest leaves
gave better yields of broccoli and squash than those mulched with miscel-
laneous plant materials or the check plots. Vegetative plant growth,
cultivated and natural, was equally abundant with the two mulching
materials, while the growth on the unmulched check plots was decidedly
inferior. Nematode infestation was heaviest in squash on the plots
mulched with forest leaves. Squash in the plots mulched with miscel-

Annual Report 1949

laneous materials had the lowest nematode infestation, and infestation in
the check plots was about midway between the other two.


Purnell Project 462 D. A. Sanders, A. N. Tissot and C. F. Simpson
A herd of approximately 300 cattle located on Merritt's Island was used
in a horsefly control test. Horseflies and deerflies were extremely numer-
ous and they drove the cattle from the better feeding areas of the pasture
to the open marsh, where they remained tightly bunched. Applications of
a 1.5 percent methoxychlor spray, 1 pound 50 percent wettable powder in 4
gallons of water, were made July 29 and August 5 and 17, 1948. The
spray was applied with a small power sprayer equipped with an adjustable
orchard spray gun. At each application the cattle received an average of
1.2 pints of spray containing 8.39 grams of insecticide per animal.
Observations following the applications showed that this spray was
fully effective against the smaller horseflies, deerflies and mosquitoes for
two or three days. It was fully effective against the large horseflies for
only one day, and partially effective the second day.
A marked reduction in the fly population was noticeable for two or
three days following treatment, but after that there was a rapid buildup.
The animals in the experimental herd were the only cattle on the island
and the rapid reinfestation was doubtless due to flies moving into the
grazing area from surrounding territory where the cattle did not range.
Tests to determine the effectiveness of several insecticides against the
Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatium Koch, were made on a herd of
cattle of mixed breeds on a ranch southwest of Indian River City in Brevard
County. Five lots of cattle containing from 40 to 44 animals each were
sprayed with the following materials: (1), 1.5 percent methoxychlor; (2),
1.5 percent methoxychlor plus 0.025 percent gamma isomer of benzene
hexachloride; (3), 1.5 percent chlordane; (4), 1.5 percent DDT; and (5),
1.5 percent chlorinated camphene (toxaphene). The remaining animals in
the herd were left untreated. All of the sprays were water suspensions
made from wettable powders. An attempt was made to spray only the
heads and necks of the cattle but no satisfactory way of doing this was
On August 24, 1948, at the time of treatment, 91 percent of the animals
were infested with ticks and the infested animals had an average of five
'ticks each. When the first post-treatment counts were made on September
2, 44 percent of the check animals were infested with ticks, and on Sep-
tember 14, 28 percent were infested. The infested animals had an average
of 2.2 ticks each on September 2, and of 2.7 ticks on September 14. All of
the treated lots showed lower percentages of infested animals than the
check lot, but there was no consistent difference in the number of ticks per
infested animal. No definite conclusions can be drawn from this test. The
spray coverage was known to be inadequate and a herd of mixed breeds of
cattle with variable susceptibility factors was used.
Both of the above tests were made in cooperation with the Division of
Insects Affecting Man and Animals, Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine. (See also Project 462, ANIMAL INDUSTRY.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


State Project 499 A. N. Brooks, B. E. Janes and A. N. Tissot
The entomological phase of this project was relatively inactive, due to
the absence of insect pests in the strawberry plantings. A scattered in-
festation of pameras was noted early in the spring of 1949 but the insects
were so unevenly distributed that it did not seem feasible to make an
insecticide comparison test. The pameras were effectively controlled by
dusting the plants with 5 percent chlordane dust. (See also Project 499,


State 531 L. C. Kuitert
A number of experiments were performed to test the value of some of
the new insecticides in controlling the insect pests of woody ornamentals.
Limited numbers of infested ornamentals were available for experimental
purposes and the insect infestations were not uniform. No replicated tests
were made. Sufficient tests were made on azaleas, camellias, gardenias,
hollies and roses to warrant the general recommendation of parathion to
control most of the insect pests of these plants. Tests were made also on
arbor vitae, croton, feijoa, hibiscus, ligustrum, oleander, purple plum,
satsuma and slash pine. However, the experiments were so limited that it
is felt that results do not warrant making recommendations for control.
The information accumulated indicates that parathion has the following
advantages over the presently recommended oil emulsions for controlling
pests on ornamentals: (1) it can be used during the summer season with-
out danger of burning foliage, (2) it can be applied to tender foliage with-
out danger of plant injury, and (3) it is more effective in many instances.
Repeated tests have shown that parathion, 25 percent wettable powder,
used at the rate of 1 ounce in 6 gallons of water, is very effective in con-
trolling lace bugs, mealybugs, leaf miners and scale insects attacking
azaleas. The same concentration is usually effective in controlling camellia
scale, Florida red scale and tea scale on camellias, but under certain con-
ditions a somewhat higher concentration is required. Florida wax scale,
pustule scale, oyster shell scale and tessellated scale on holly are controlled
effectively with parathion, 25 percent wettable powder, used at the rate of 1
ounce in 6 gallons of water. Florida red scale on holly requires 1 ounce of
parathion, 25 percent, in 4 gallons of water for effective control. Citrus
whitefly, citrus mealybug, Florida wax scale and green shield scale on
gardenias are effectively controlled with parathion, 15 percent wettable
powder, used at the rate of 1 ounce in 6 gallons of water. This same
concentration controls flower thrips, aphid and cottony cushion scales on
roses. One ounce of 15 percent parathion in 6 gallons of water is very
effective against mites, but not mite eggs. To control mites with para-
thion, allow time after the first application for most of the eggs to hatch,
but do not let sufficient time elapse for the newly hatched mites to become
adults and lay eggs before making second application.
Since many of the mentioned insect pests also infest many other woody
ornamentals, it is anticipated that parathion will be effective in controlling
them on any host plant.

Annual Report 1949

Bankhead-Jones 537 L. C. Kuitert, Fred A. Clark and A. N. Tissot
A 100-yard plant bed was constructed for aphid control tests. It failed
to become infested naturally, so potato leaves infested with Myzus persicae
(Sulzer) were scattered among the tobacco plants in an attempt to infest
the bed artificially. A few small colonies developed on the tobacco but
these never contained more than a few individuals. Aphids did not become
numerous enough for practical insecticide tests.
For the field tests, a planting of approximately one acre was divided
into 48 four-row plots with 30 plants per row. This provided for three
replications of insecticides consisting of 11 dusts, three sprays and one
poison bait. Applications were made May 18, June 4 and June 16, 1949.
Insect damage was light at the time of the first application but consider-
able damage was noted when the second and third applications were made.
Results of the last two applications are summarized in Table 4. These
data show that eight of the treatments gave excellent control of both bud-
worms and hornworms and held plant damage to a low level. The table
also indicates that the number of injured plants increased considerably in
the check plots and plots treated with inferior insecticides. By the end
of June many plants in these plots already had been completely defoliated.
Winged adults of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), en-
tered the tobacco field through most of the growing season and at times
they were present on the plants in appreciable numbers. Although they
were commonly found producing young, only three or four established
colonies were found and these never contained more than a dozen indi-
viduals. (See also Project 537, AGRONOMY.)

Application Made June 4 Application Made June 16
SNumber of Larvae Number of Larvae

Materials Budworms Hornworms 1 Budworms Hornworms

Rhothane 3% 319 28 19 1 2 0 13 8 4 0 4
ParathionEPP Spray I I

1 pounds 20 :100 gallons 318 66 47 27 5 3 156 107 190 62 66
DDT 2.5oxa plus 1 10 61 1 1 6 4 11

Insecticide 497 277-| 7-| 6 2 1 3 01 3 2 2 10 4_
DDT 5% :100 ga335l 11 | 5 2 2 1 17 1 2 7| 190 6
Check 1287 72 45p 42 4 6 143 102 136 49 83
Chlordane Bait 286 31 18 9 0 4 | 83 40 29 45 1 91
Lead Arsenate 20% ... 283 40 24 27 6 I 2 | 111 103 65 20 | 10
Parathion 1% 333 47 31 | 26 9 | 0 7 127 97 95 33 26
Toxaphene Spray17 13 6 0 3
2. I pound 40%:100 gallons 302 39 30 I 7 3 2 36 31 24 I 0 14

DDT3% ---------- 329 71 3 0 0 1 23 17 7 5 13
15DT3/, ------ 329 7 j 3-f 0 0 1 23 17 7 5 13

Annual Report 1949

Miscellaneous Pecan Insects.-In tests for control of the hickory shuck-
worm, Laspeyresia caryana (Fitch), on pecans, DDT 50 percent wettable
powder, 4 pounds per 100 gallons, benzene hexachloride 50 percent wettable
powder (6 percent gamma isomer), 6 pounds per 100 gallons, toxaphene
25 percent wettable powder, 4 pounds per 100 gallons, chlordane 50 percent
wettable powder, 4 pounds per 100 gallons, methoxychlor 40 percent
wettable powder, 4 pounds per 100 gallons, and parathion 25 percent
wettable powder, 2 pounds per 100 gallons, were applied June 30, July 19
and August 12. Although these sprays gave a very small reduction in
the number of infested nuts at harvest, reduction in total number of drops,
as compared to the unsprayed check plot, reflected a substantial increase
in average yield of nuts per tree with all the insecticides except chlordane.
Four new infestations of the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn),
were found in Jefferson County during the fall of 1948. There are 14
known infestations of the pecan weevil in Jefferson, Leon and Gadsden
counties. (A. M. Phillips.)
Mixing Insecticides With Fertilizer.-The lesser cornstalk borer, Elas-
mopalpus lignosellus (Zell.), caused considerable damage to sorghum seed-
lings in the summer of 1948. In a control experiment against this pest
three insecticides were added to 4-8-4 fertilizer which was applied at the
rate of 400 pounds per acre. Applications of 2 pounds of active in-
gredient per acre of DDT and chlordane, and 1 pound per acre of gamma
isomer, were made by adding 5 percent DDT and 5 percent chlordane
dust and 5 percent gamma isomer benzene hexachloride wettable to dif-
ferent lots of the fertilizer. The fertilizer was applied in the morning of
August 17, and the seed was planted that afternoon. Observations 10
days later showed a very poor stand of sorghum seedlings where the
benzene hexachloride was used, indicating that this material had a marked
toxicity to the germinating seeds. No definite conclusion was reached
regarding the effectiveness of this method of applying insecticides for
control of the lesser cornstalk borer. (A. N. Tissot and L. C. Kuitert.)
Control of Insect Pests on Succulent Plants.-A number of tests were
made on Saintpaulias in an attempt to find a more effective insecticide for
controlling cyclamen and broad mites infesting these plants. Tests indi-
cated that complete coverage of the foliage, including the lower surfaces
of the leaves, is essential for effective control. Applications of TEPP 20
percent tetraethyll pyrophosphate), used at the rate of 1 teaspoonful in
a gallon of water, were effective in controlling mites infesting African
violets, and did not show any signs of injuring the plants. This material
was not effective in controlling mealybugs on these plants.
Parathion 15 percent wettable powder, used at the rate of 1 ounce in
6 gallons of water, was very efficient in controlling mealybugs on African
violets, but tests indicated that further experiments should be undertaken
in controlling cyclamen and broad mites. Parathion showed no phytotoxic
reactions to African violets at any time. Tests also indicated parathion
15 percent wettable used at this concentration to be effective in con-
trolling mealybugs on Pothos, Neantha bella palms and peanuts. This
material was also effective in controlling aphids on clover and oats. (L. C.
Effects of Annually Repeated Soil Treatments of D-D for Controlling
Nematodes on Gladiolus.-Plots treated with D-D in 1947 were retreated

82 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

with the same material in 1948. Application points were spaced 1 foot
apart each way and a dosage of 5 cc. per hole was used. The 125 largest
corms harvested from each of the plots in 1947 were planted in their re-
spective plots for the 1948 test. Observable differences in favor of the
gladiolus grown on the treated plots over that in the check plots included:
(1) less disease, (2) more vigorous and taller growth (2-to-6 inches differ-
ence), (3) two and one-half times as many spikes, (4) one and one-half times
as many side spikes, and (5) nearly three times as many flowerets.
Treated plots produced 68 percent more corms and had a 94 percent
larger cumulative corm diameter than untreated plots. Treated plots pro-
duced five and one-half times as many small corms and cormlets as un-
treated plots. Cormlets from the treated plots developed normally when
planted, but few of those from the untreated plots grew at all. The
average nematode infestation was 13 percent less in the treated plots than
in the untreated ones. (H. E. Bratley.)

Annual Report 1949


Research dealing with factors affecting the nutritive value of two basic
foods, bread and milk, has continued. The nutritive value of these foods
was assessed first on the immediate effects as shown by the rat-growth
method, and then on the after-effects as determined by the gestation-
lactation response following realimentation.
The new animal nutrition building, an aluminum house of the Butler
type, contains animal quarters, a biological and dissecting laboratory and
food storage and preparation rooms.
During the construction and equipping of this house it was impossible
to maintain an animal colony of sufficient size to carry out the nutritional
projects as outlined. For this reason, three short-time food projects
dealing with quality of cake as related to type of fat used, preparation of
cottage cheese from non-fat milk solids, and ice cream mixes for me-
chanical refrigerators were initiated.
Part II of the lunch room study, concerning carpal and epiphyseal de-
velopment as another index of nutritional status of rural school children,
was approved for publication.

Purnell Project 442 0. D. Abbott and R. B. French
The composition of enriched and unenriched white experimental breads
calculated to 38 percent moisture content, and the composition of the dry
bread crumbs calculated to 8.2 percent moisture content, were determined.
Data collected during the current year substantiate results of previous
years and show that under the conditions of the experiment, and when
judged by appearance, weight, hemoglobin and mineralization of rats, en-
riched bread offered no advantages over unenriched bread. On basal diets
of bread plus 200 I. U. vitamin A and 4 percent fat, weights of all animals
were much below those of the controls. With supplementation of the
bread diets which permitted normal or nearly normal growth, still no ad-
vantages due to enrichment could be demonstrated. In fact, as judged by
the above standards, rats fed unenriched bread were still superior to those
fed enriched biead.
The best results were obtained when dry milk solids were added to a
diet of water bread so that the total protein was 24 percent. The average
weight of animals fed this diet was slightly higher than that of the con-
trols of comparable ages.
In evaluating the nutritive value of diets, the literature offers some
support to the theory that animals fed deficient diets in early life may
have suffered tissue damage that is not apparent during the relatively
short period of experimental feeding. Therefore, after the five types of
supplemented and unsupplemented breads had been evaluated by the rat-
growth method, the after-effects were evaluated by realimenting the rats
from four to six months on stock food and noting not only weight gains
but also the gestation-lactation performance. The effect of the number of
days on experimental diets on weight and reproduction was determined by

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

realimenting groups of rats fed water bread at the end of 30, 60 and 90
After a realimentation period of 20 weeks it was found that the weight
gains of all groups fed either supplemented or unsupplemented bread diets
approximated those of the controls of the same ages. Interesting results
were obtained when rats were realimented at 30, 60, and 90 days. The
average weights of male rats realimented after 30 and 90 days on water
bread for 16 weeks were 294 and 286 grams, respectively, but when re-
alimented after 60 days for the same length of time the average weight
was 368 grams, which was slightly higher than that of the controls of the
same age.
Satisfactory litters were born to females in all groups. These results
differed from those of 1946-47. In the earlier work, only rats previously
fed milk bread or water bread supplemented with dry milk solids pro-
duced satisfactory litters, while rats fed only the water bread diet pro-
duced no litters. The most satisfactory reproduction occurred in rats fed
water bread supplemented with 2 percent CaHP04 (protein 14 percent),
105 I. U. vitamin D weekly (protein 14 percent), and with dry milk solids
(protein 24 percent). From these results calcium and vitamin D, and not
protein, were the factors limiting reproduction.
Roentgenograms made of rats previously fed a basal diet of water
bread and then realimented on stock diets showed a peculiar development of
the femurs. These bones were either both unusually short or of unequal
length. Usually the left femur was the short one.
Effects of Drying and Toasting Upon the Nutritive Value of Whole-
Wheat Bread.-Whole-wheat bread (6 percent non-fat milk solids) bought
on the market was fed to groups of rats as fresh, air-dried and crumbled,
air-dried and ground, and as toast. At the end of 11 weeks the average
weights were as follows: 130, 112, 90, and 80 grams, respectively. Small
weight gains made by animals fed toast when compared with those of
animals fed fresh bread suggest some destruction of essential nutrients
during toasting. The difference in weight of the two groups fed air-dried
bread is worthy of note. The bread fed these two groups was prepared
from the same sample of dry bread; for one group it was crumbled, for the
other ground. At the end of 11 weeks the diets of these two groups were
reversed. Up to this time the weight curves tended to spread, but after
reversal of diets the curves tended to come together and at the end of
16% weeks the weights were approximately the same, 130 and 134 grams.
There is the possibility that the ground bread was not as palatable as the
crumbled bread. On the other hand, grinding may have destroyed some
essential nutrient. More data are necessary to clarify this point. How-
ever, at the end of the period of experimental feeding it was evident that
toast was not as nutritious as fresh bread. Animals fed fresh bread
weighed 170 grams, and those fed toast 117 grams. No difference in food
intake was noticeable.


Purnell Project 443 R. B. French and O. D. Abbott
The yeast fermentation method for thiamine has encountered two dif-
ficulties, namely, maintenance of sensitivity of yeast to thiamine during
shipment and high blanks with a variety of samples. Complete sealing of
the yeast with several wrappers of paraffined paper or with pliofilm

Annual Report 1949

during shipment has solved the first problem, but the second is still under
Eighty samples of foods were analyzed by microbiological methods for
thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. The organisms used were fresh bakers'
yeast for thiamine, Lactobacillus casei for riboflavin and L. arabinosus for
niacin. Thiamine values in general averaged somewhat lower, riboflavin
about the same, and niacin somewhat higher than those given in standard
Some of the data follow: The first and second values are for micro-
grams of thiamine and riboflavin respectively, the third for milligrams of
nicotinic acid, all per 100 grams of edible portion: African squash 27, 18,
0.63; pecans (Elliott) 159, 2,285, 8.3; summer squash 0, 44, 5.1; acorns
(water oak) 0, 173, 4.2; chayotes 145, 29, 0.36; mushrooms 100, 400, 3.15;
White Dutch clover 212, 1,360, 0.95; collard greens 139, 564, 2.8; lima beans
292, 268, 2.3; Bell peppers 36, 92, 1.2; green beans 68, 271, 0.82; black-eyed
peas 404, 268, 0.96; black-eyed pea pods 102, 174, 2.45; eggplant 64, 68. 0.85;
Sugar Crowder peas 163, 156, 1.62; Sugar Crowder pods 70, 102, 1.11;
milk raw 23, 244, 0.15; milk pasteurized 26, 248, 0.17; milk pasteurized and
homogenized 26, 248, 0.13.
While vegetables exhibit large variablity in the vitamin B content, some
of them, particularly the green leaves, may show well balanced levels of
these components. In the plant world, seeds and nuts are among the best
sources of these factors.
Accessory factors such as the vitamins in foods are primary in both
cost and nutritional significance. It is important to realize that not only
meat and meat products but also edible plants can be considered im-
portant sources of the B vitamin factors.

Purnell Project 516 0. D. Abbott and Ruth O. Townsend
Since milk is considered the most important and necessary single food
item, any factor or factors that impair or decrease its nutritive value
should be known. A study is therefore being made of the effects of
processing and storage upon the nutritive value of milk as shown by ap-
pearance, weight, mineralization, reproduction and lactation of rats. The
milks tested were evaporated and non-fat milk solids. Two types of milk
solids were fed, Type I prepared for bakers; and Type II for general
cooking and for ice cream and candy manufacturers. Type one was fed
both fresh and aged. The basal diet was made up of two-thirds ground
whole wheat and, one-third milk. The diets containing non-fat milk
solids were supplemented with 4% peanut oil and 200 I.U. vitamin A daily.
At the end of 13 weeks the weights of males fed fresh evaporated, fresh
Type II milk solids, and fresh and aged Type I milk solids were 245, 207,
194 and 145 grams, respectively. The weights of the females, though
somewhat lower, were in the same order.
The cause of the variations in weight of rats fed the different milks
could not be explained on the basis of food intake or palatability. The
major differences in the diets were in the fat which in evaporated milk was
furnished by butter and in other diets by peanut oil, and in vitamin A,
which occurred naturally in butter but was added as a concentrate of fish
liver oils to the other diets.

86 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The slight difference between weights of rats fed fresh Type I and those
fed fresh Type II milks indicated that there was little or no difference in
the nutritive value of these two milks. There was a major difference be-
tween the average weights of rats fed fresh and those fed aged baker type
dry milk. Aging may affect the protein or the factor necessary for pro-
tein utilization.
Current investigations include: (1) nutritive value of fresh milk as
affected by processing and storage, (2) nutritive value of animal fats as
compared to those of vegetable origin, (3) a comparison of the nutritive
value of untreated and hydrogenated vegetable fats and oils, and (4)
effectiveness of the protein utilization factor when added to the basal diet
of ground whole wheat and milk.


Effect of Type of Fat on Quality of Cake as Judged by Appearance,
Texture, Odor and Flavor When Fresh and After Storage.-This project
was designed to study the characteristics of cakes made with butter sub-
stitutes and other cooking fats, as compared with those of the cakes made
with butter. Five types of fat were used: butter, lard, chicken fat, marga-
rine, and two commercial brands of hydrogenated vegetable fats.
It was concluded that butter, margarine, high grade lard and hydrogen-
ated fats all make excellent cake when eaten fresh, but after storage for
24 hours, or after freezing and storage for six weeks, the butter cake was
preferred. The four-minute one-bowl method of mixing produced cakes
comparable in all respects to those made according to standard procedures
for butter cakes, and saved time. (0. D. Abbott and Ruth O. Townsend.)
Factors Involved in Preparing Cottage Cheese in the Home.-Reports
from various sources indicate that the preparation of a satisfactory
cottage cheese in the home is difficult. This is often true when the curd is
precipitated by heat. The high cost of milk and the unsatisfactory cheese
prohibits the preparation of this product unless a cheaper source of milk
and better home methods of preparation can be found. The ratio of non-
fat milk solids to fluid milk that will make cheese that is both economical
and of good quality, and the practicability of preparing and maintaining a
starter for cheese making was investigated. Temperature controls in
cheese making are important. Therefore, simple ways and means of con-
trolling temperatures in homes were considered. (0. D. Abbott and Ruth
O. Townsend.)
Some Factors Involved in Making Ice Cream in a Mechanical Refrigera-
tor.-Since mechanical refrigerators have come into general use, ice cream
making in the home has increased materially. However, much of this ice
cream is too high in fat and sugar, and therefore in calories, and often does
not compare favorably with commercial or freezer ice cream. Thus far,
the study has been limited to that of stabilizers whose functions are to
increase viscosity or body of the ice cream, thereby inhibiting the formation
of large ice crystals. The stabilizers being investigated were eggs, gelatin,
arrow root, Irish moss and several commercial brands. (0. D. Abbott and
Ruth O. Townsend.)

Annual Report 1949

Research on production problems, such as varieties, fertilizers, irriga-
tion, soil fumigation, plant propagation and breeding, has been continued
on a number of horticultural crops. Also, considerable emphasis is being
given to the handling and marketability of the crop by the establishment
of a tasting panel to measure the quality of processed vegetables, by the
development of a machine to simulate vibrations occurring in transit, by
measuring the pressure that new varieties of watermelons will withstand
without bruising or cracking, by determining the economy and practica-
bility of various new containers for shipping tomatoes, and by attempting
to find improved methods of ripening tomatoes and handling corn and
other crops.


Hatch Project 50 R. D. Dickey and G. H. Blackmon
Experiments were initiated in 1946 to obtain information as to the
amounts of borax required to produce boron toxicity symptoms on tung
trees of various ages. Borax applied at rates of 1, 2, 4 and 8 ounces per
tree to four-year-old trees burned the foliage, the 4 and 8 ounces severely.
No additional borax was applied to the trees in this experiment, yet all
rates produced toxicity symptoms in 1947 and 1948. However, burning
was much less severe in all but the 8-ounce treatment. As little as 1/4 and
1/% ounce per tree of borax, applied to other trees in this block in 1947,
produced slight burning of the foliage. No borax was applied to these
trees in 1948 and symptoms did not recur. Borax applied to 18-year-old
trees in 1947, at rates of 1, 1, 1 and 2 pounds per tree, produced toxicity
symptoms on all treatments; however, burning was very slight from the
1/4 and 1-pound treatments. No additional borax was applied to these
trees in 1948, but very slight toxicity symptoms recurred on those trees
which had received 1 and 2 pounds of borax in 1947.
The winter of 1948-49, the second warmest on record, emphasized that
tung has a low but definite chilling requirement. Temperatures from
November through February were considerably above normal, yet tung in
the Gainesville area had not started growth, and only a few buds on a
limited number of trees were open by March 15. This slow irregular
opening of tung buds indicated clearly that the chilling requirement of
tung had been improperly met by the approximately 160 hours of tempera-
tures of 45 F. or lower experienced by the end of February. March
brought temperatures below normal, mostly during the first half, which
increased the total hours of temperatures of 45 F. and below to 272 hours.
This additional cold aided materially in supplying the needed chilling
and, as a result, tung came into growth irregularly during the last half of
March and the first half of April. The period of bud break and subsequent
bloom was much slower and much more irregular than that following
normal winters.
In cooperation with H. W. Lundy, West Florida Station, and Dr.
George F. Potter, U. S. Tung Laboratories, a tung experiment was initiated
on the West Florida Station Farm near Milton during the winter of

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

1948-49. Six clones and their seedling progenies were planted, namely;
Florida (F-2), Isabel (L-2), Lacrosse (F-99), F-9, L-47 and L-51. Florida
and F-9 trees for the experiment were grown at Gainesville, while the
trees for the other four varieties were from the USDA tung nurseries at
Bogalusa, Louisiana. The trees were planted in February, 1949, on land
which had recently been cleared and put into cultivation. The soil series
is a Red Bay fine sandy loam.

Hatch Project 52 R. D. Dickey and R. J. Wilmot
The percent of cuttings that rooted of some varieties of azaleas was
increased by the use of a combination of a fungicidal dip of spergon plus
a root-inducing chemical. The spergon had no residual fungicidal effect.
Three levels of vermiculite were compared with peat and an untreated
check as a soil amendment. It was found that both vermiculite and peat
increased the moisture equivalent, total exchange capacity and mag-
nesium, and lowered the volume weight, while vermiculite reduced acid-
soluble phosphorus as compared to the untreated check. Vermiculite sig-
nificantly increased potassium. Peat lowered the pH one unit. After one
year there was no significant effect on the growth of two varieties of azaleas
produced by any of the treatments. (See also Project 452.)
Four varieties of azaleas, Formosa, President Clay, Duc de Rohan and
Iveryana, made good growth in an artificial medium of ion exchange ma-
terials at pH 5.53, 6.14 and 7.20.
Tulip bulbs of the variety Scarlet Leader were treated as follows:
Ethylene chlorhydrin as a gas for four days, stored for 25, 50 and 75 days
at 450 F., and an untreated check. The bulbs were removed from storage
and planted December 13, 1949. The average number of days from plant-
ing to emergence and flowering was less, and the percent that flowered and
average height of plants larger, as cold storage period was increased. A
seasonal difference in response to the same cold storage treatment is indi-
cated, because bulbs stored for 52 days at 42 to 450 F. produced significantly
more flowers during the 1947-48 season than did bulbs of the same variety
stored for 50 and 75 days at 450 F. during the 1948-49 season. Ethylene
chlorhydrin, applied as recommended for several other bulbous plants,
inhibited growth so that none of the bulbs emerged, though some bulbs
of all other treatments produced plants.

State Project 80 G. H. Blackmon, R. H. Sharpe and J. D. Warner
Hairy indigo was planted in the experimental block of Stuart pecans at
Paxton to test its possible use in bearing orchards. The early seeding
strain was used in connection with winter cover crops of either legumes
or non-legumes.
Superphosphate applications will be uniform over the entire experiment
in sufficient quantities to supply the phosphoric acid requirements of the
cover crops and the pecans. To test the effects of different amounts of
potash on tr,:e growth and nut production with this cover-crop set-up,
muriate of potash was applied in several replications at the rate of 0, 3,
6 and 12 pounds per tree. (See also Project 80, North Florida Station.)

Annual Report 1949

State Project 187 G. H. Blackmon, R. D. Dickey,
R. J. Wilmot and R. H. Sharpe
Fourteen varieties of blackberries and dewberries were planted during
the year for observation and future use in breeding work.
A small planting of rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade)
was made, using five selections obtained from the Georgia Coastal Plain
Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia, and' six selections from Florida
plantings. Unusually warm winter stressed the desirability of making
selections on the basis of low chilling requirements.
An experiment was initiated in the winter of 1946-47 at Whitney to
determine if by the use of the nematocides, DD and chloropicrin, peaches
could be established on nematode-infested soils. The fumigants were ap-
plied at the rate of 2 cc. per square foot before planting in an area eight
feet in diameter where the tree was to be set. Trees of the Jewel variety
were planted in January, 1947. At the end of the second year the trees in
both fumigation treatments, as measured by height, spread and cross-
sectional area of the trunk, were significantly larger than those in the
untreated check. Five trees in one row given a heavy organic mulch but
no soil fumigation made as good growth and held their leaves later in the
fall in 1948 than did the other treatments.
A second experiment was started in 1948 at Gainesville with the Jewel
peach on soils heavily infested with nematodes. Four treatments included
were DD, chloropicrin, ethylene dibromide (dowfume W-40), and an un-
treated check. Each plot was divided so that half of the trees received an
organic mulch and half were left unmulched. The fumigants were applied
with a hand applicator at the rate of 2 cc. per square foot in a square
9 x 9 feet with the tree location in its center. Average growth of the
trees for the 1948 season, measured by cross-sectional area of the trunk
in square inches, is given in Table 5.


Cross-sectional Area of Tree Trunk in Square Inches
Treatment Mulched No Mulch Average of
Average of Average of Mulched & Non-
8 Trees 8 Trees Mulched Trees
Check --- -. ...- .. . 0.97 0.47 0.72
DD -----.. ...-..... 1.50 0.63 1.06

Chloropicrin ..----...... 1.12 1.02 1.07
Dowfume W-40 .- .-. 1.65 0.73 1.19

Least significant difference at 5 per- Least significant difference at 5 per-
cent level for comparing fumigation cent level for comparing mulch vs.
treatments under each mulch treat- no mulch for each fumigation treat-
ment-0.45. ment-0.39.

90 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Average growth of mulched trees was better than that of unmulched
trees. Average effect of soil fumigation was to produce better trees.
However, the significant interaction of soil treatment with mulch indicates
that there is a differential response under the two conditions of mulch.
Chloropicrin is the superior treatment where no mulch is used but it is
not benefitted by mulching as were the other treatments. When a mulch
was employed ethylene dibromide and DD were the superior treatments.


State Project 282 F. S. Jamison, B. E. Janes, L. H. Halsey
and F. E. Myers

Beans.-Thirty-one strains and varieties were planted in the fall of
1948, while 30 green and five wax strains or varieties were grown during
the spring on the Station farm. In addition, cooperative plantings were
made with a number of growers in the Gainesville area.
Yield records indicate that a number of strains developed in coopera-
tion with the USDA Regional Vegetable Breeding Laboratory or by other
USDA workers appear definitely superior to the standard varieties now
being grown. Among the outstanding strains or varieties are B1625-17
(Buff Valentine), Z-1, now known as Top Crop, Z-6 or Rival, and Chero-
kee Wax. These strains have been released to seedmen and seed are or
will be available to growers relatively soon. Other strains that appeared
particularly outstanding were B1643-1, B1800, B1733, B1229-1-1-1-6, B1627
and B1586.
Seed of a number of strains was saved from the fall crop and planted
during the spring in comparison with seed produced in Western states.
There was much more disease prevalent in the planting made with home-
grown seed.
Potatoes.-Trials this year included 13 varieties planted according to
the usual methods followed or treated with a chemical reputed to break
dormancy. It had been noted for several seasons that some of the varieties
tested were extremely slow in emerging from the ground.
Seed potatoes receiving no treatment were cut into 2-ounce pieces and
after 24 hours for healing, were planted. Treated seed were cut to the
same size, allowed to stand 24 hours, then dipped for one minute in
ethylene chlorhydrin (1:60), drained and allowed to stand 16 hours before
The stand of plants was recorded 20 days after planting. The treatment
apparently was effective in increasing the speed of "come-up," but it ap-
peared more effective on some varieties than on others. After 30 days an
attempt was made to secure additional information on the stand of plants.
At this time the size of the plant as well as the number was used as a
measure as to the effectiveness of the treatment. This method of measur-
ing response showed that six of the varieties responded favorably to the
Total yield and yield of No. 1 potatoes were recorded on harvesting, 100
days after planting. No overall response to treatment was shown in
total yield, but yield of No. 1 potatoes was increased by the treatment.

Annual Report 1949

The yield of certain varieties apparently was increased by breaking the
rest period with ethylene chlorhydrin.
Irrespective of treatment, there was a decided difference in the per-
formance of varieties. Among the high-yielders were B76-43, Sebago,
Marygold, Dakota Chief and B61-3.
Tomatoes.-Fourteen tomato varieties, nine commercial and five un-
released varieties, were grown under two cultural treatments and harvested
under two picking treatments, as reported in 1948. Weight and number of
fruits produced in the following classes were recorded: Total yield,
marketable yield (U. S. No. 1 and U. S. No. 2), cracked, blossom-end rot,
and other cull fruits.
Variations between varieties were considerable among the various
treatments. Rutgers, the standard variety (seed secured from USDA),
produced the largest amounts of marketable fruits when staked, for both
mature-green and turning-to-pink pickings, and was surpassed only by

SPRING, 1949.



Grothen Globe

Southland -





Step 42

Step 57

Step 68

Step 89 -.

Step 93


Wisconsin 55


green Pink



























green Pink















155.9 86.9















263.6 165.6

92 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

variety Step 42 when harvested mature-green from unstaked plants.
Varieties Step 57, Step 68, Step 89, Step 93, and Wisconsin 55 were better
than Rutgers when the fruits were harvested turning-to-pink from un-
staked plants. Marketable yields of the 14 varieties, on a bushels-per-acre
basis for each treatment, are shown in Table 6.
Cracking was the most important cause of tomatoes being classed as
non-marketable. Severity of cracking varied with variety, being least severe
with Jefferson and most severe with Stokesdale. Two varieties, Jefferson
and Wisconsin 55, had smaller percentages of cracked fruit than did
Extent of blossom-end rot varied with variety, but was considerably
less severe than in 1948.
Earliness, as measured by the marketable fruit from the first two
mature-green and first three pink pickings, varied considerably between
varieties for all treatments except mature green fruits from unstaked
plants. Lakeland was notably late in this respect. Grothen's Red Globe,
Manasota, Step 57 and Manahill were outstandingly early when harvested
turning-to-pink from unstaked plants, while Step 57, Step 89, Grothen's
Red Globe, and Manasota were notably early when harvested turning-to-
pink from staked plants. When the fruits were harvested mature-green
from staked plants Manasota, Wisconsin 55, Step 89, Rutgers, Step 42 and
Stokesdale- were outstanding.
In general, yield per acre was higher from staked than from unstaked
plants. When tomatoes were picked as "mature-green" fruits, 43 percent
of the total weight harvested could be classed as marketable, but when the
fruits were harvested "turning-to-pink" only 26 percent were marketable.
A major portion of the loss incurred through harvesting the fruit in the
turning-to-pink condition was due to a greatly increased incidence of
cracking as the fruits changed color on the vines. Also, more cracking
occurred on fruits from staked plants than from unstaked plants.


State Project 365 R. D. Dickey, G. H. Blackmon and F. S. Lagasse
The candlenut tree (Aleurites moluccana Willd.) is well adapted to
southern Florida, as is evidenced by the strong, vigorous growth made by
many specimens in that area. Because of this adaptability, propagation
trials were made during 1948 and 1949 to determine whether or not this
species is a satisfactory rootstock for Aleurites montana (Lour.) Wils., the
mu-oil tree.
Eighty-six one-year-old candlenut seedlings were budded, by the patch
bud method, with buds taken from six mature mu-oil trees. None of these
buds forced. These trials indicate that A. moluccana is not compatible
with A. montana and, therefore, cannot be used as a stock upon which to
propagate this species.
Fourteen second-generation hybrid seedlings, from open pollinated seed
coming from four trees which are first-generation hybrids from reciprocal
crosses between Aleurites montana and A. fordi, planted at Gainesville in
1948 and 1949, have made satisfactory growth.

'In cooperation with BPISAE, Agricultural Research Administration, U. S. Department
of Agriculture.

Annual Report 1949

Hatch Project 375 G. H. Blackmon and R. H. Sharpe
The experiments in Bradford and Walton counties were the only ones
from which yield data were obtained in 1948, as pecan scab destroyed the
crop of Moneymaker and Moore in Jefferson County. Yields from Curtis
and Stuart were rather good, from Kennedy only fair. However, with
these varieties there were no significant differences in yield and quality of
the nuts produced in 1948 under the various treatments of zinc and mag-

State Project 391 F. S. Jamison and F. E. Myers
Sweet Corn.-Twenty-four promising varieties were again included in
replicated trials. The attempts at selection for new and improved sweet
corn have shown so far that there are many good varieties, yet none seem
particularly superior to present-day standard varieties. However, certain
selections may be made which are more adaptable to grower or consumer
On a comparative basis with loana and Golden Cross Bantam, yields
of none of the 24 varieties were shown to be statistically superior. Yields
of 1,200 dozen ears per acre were realized from the standards. Varieties
such as Oto, Huron, Tri-State Golden, Golden Security, Erie, Golden Hybrid
1734, and Silvermost were equal to or slightly above this.
All varieties were irrigated and were harvested twice. A notable
difference existed between varieties on the size of the two pickings. Five
of the varieties were significantly lower than the standards on the first
harvest, while the final results showed only one variety associated with
poor yields.
Definite differences in suckering habits were under observation. Both
heavy and light suckering varieties were represented in the low and high
yields. Further, in comparing two sources of the same variety showing
approximately the same yield, one source tended to produce suckers on
11 percent of the plants while the other source averaged two suckers on 51
percent of the plants.
Selections can be made producing ears either longer or shorter in
length than loana. Diameters vary from 11/ to 1% inches, while rows of
kernels may number 10 to 18. Specific varieties may be preferred on the
basis of color of kernel, with choices equaling that of loana, or being
either lighter or darker. Silvermost was the only white corn included in
the trials.
For earliness, such a variety as Improved Sencross is worthy of men-
tion. In maturing in 72 to 78 days this variety has been seven to 10 days
earlier than any of the varieties tested in the past two years.
Mechanized cultural operations have warranted records on low plant
growth. Where certain varieties may average 82 to 84 inches in height,
Tendermost and Improved Sencross are normal at 66 inches and 59 inches,
respectively. Both are only slightly lower in total marketable ears than
the standards, but not significantly so.
In addition to the 24 varieties grown in a replicated yield trial, an ad-
ditional 38 varieties were planted in single-row plots to determine their

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

merits. Of the 38 varieties included in this test, 12 were considered as
having sufficient merit to warrant inclusion in yield trials, while 17 gave
sufficient promise to warrant an additional trial in nonreplicated tests.
Cabbage.-Sixteen varieties of cabbage received from the Potato In-
vestigations Laboratory, Hastings, were included in replicated trials. All
varieties were transplanted to the field on November 18. Fifty plants in
each of four replicates were planted one foot apart in 3-foot rows.
Records included selections for earliness, total marketable tonnage, and
total number of heads produced.
The first harvests were made 82 and 97 days after the plants were set
in the field and consisted of the data taken on earliness. High in num-
ber of heads and total weight harvested were Ferry's Round Dutch, Re-
sistant Detroit, Early Copenhagen Market, Resistant Premier, and B
Cabbage. Green Acre was high in tonnage but not number of heads.
These yields ranged from five to seven tons per acre.
Additional harvests were made 115 and 138 days after planting. The
four harvests were summarized, to give total yield. No outstanding
differences existed between varieties in total number of heads produced.
Glory of Enkhuizen, Midseason Market, Premium Late Flat Dutch, Succes-
sion, Ferry's Round Dutch, Green Acre and Early Glory were among the
highest in total yields. This range included 7.8 tons to 9.5 tons of market-
able cabbage per acre.
Eighteen additional varieties were grown for observation. None were
considered particularly outstanding in comparison with the best of the
replicated trials.
Cucumbers.-Eight varieties of cucumbers, including Palmetto and three
other strains resistant to downy mildew, were planted. Each variety was
replicated four times in a randomized block arrangement. The plants
received 4-7-5 fertilizer applied at the rate of 1,200 pounds an acre before
planting and a 10-0-12 top-dressing at the rate of 200 pounds an acre after
the plants were "running." No control treatment for disease was made
until the disease was apparent in the field. The cucumbers were then
dusted with dithane every 10 days until six pickings were made. Mildew
was present on all varieties except Palmetto, and the other mildew-
resistant strains had much less injury from the disease than did the
standard commercial varieties.
Harvesting was begun May 10 and continued until May 27. All cucum-
bers were harvested, graded, counted and weighed. Although there was a
decided difference in the amount of mildew present on the different varie-
ties, there was no significant variation in the total yield by weight or
number, or in the variation of number of marketable cucumbers.
Watermelons.-Three strains of watermelons, 46-40, W290 and W407,
developed by the USDA Regional Vegetable Breeding Laboratory were
grown in comparison with standard varieties such as Cannon Ball and
Garrison. The plantings were made on the Station Farm and in growers'
fields. Many of the plantings made in the Gainesville area failed because
of drought. However, 46-40 and W290 appeared particularly promising in
the plantings that produced satisfactory crops. In the trial on the Station
Farm both 46-40 and W290 produced melons of as good quality, as large
and as early as those produced by the Cannon Ball variety. In the spring

Annual Report 1949

of 1950, 46-40 will probably be known as Congo and seed will probably be
available in limited quantities.

State Project 420 Byron E. Janes
Florida Station Bulletin 455, January, 1949, gives the organic com-
position of cabbage, beans, collards, broccoli, carrots and tomatoes as
affected by location, fertilizer levels, etc. A manuscript reporting on the
mineral composition of these crops is being prepared.
The project is closed with this report.


Adams Project 432 G. H. Blackmon and R. H. Sharpe
From one to six pounds of borax per tree were applied in replicated
blocks in seven pecan orchards located in Bradford, Jefferson, Gadsden
and Walton counties. Varieties included Curtis, Kennedy, Moore, Money-
maker, Stuart and Schley. No severe injury showed up with any treat-
ment but there were just a few trees which developed very slight boron
toxicity with the heaviest applications. In 1948 there were no significant
differences in the quality of nuts produced by trees receiving the different
amounts of borax.
In the Pineapple pear experiment the fruit generally contained some-
what less internal pitting in 1948 than in 1947. This may have been due
to seasonal conditions, since there were no significant differences in fruit
from trees receiving the various amounts of boron.

Bankhead-Jones Project 435 B. E. Janes and V. F. Nettles
Cabbage.-Samples of cabbage collected from two different crops grown
during the 1947-48 season were analyzed for reducing sugars, acid
hydrolyzable carbohydrates, acid-insoluble residue, ash, calcium, mag-
nesium, potassium, sodium, phosphate, nitrogen, sulfate, iron and
manganese. There were no differences in growth response or in com-
position of cabbage harvested from several irrigation treatments in Janu-
ary. There were several differences in composition associated with
difference in growth of the cabbage harvested in April. On a fresh-weight
basis there was a higher concentration of all constituents in the cabbage
grown without supplemental irrigation. On a dry-weight basis there were
only a few small differences in composition.
There was a small effect of side-dressing with nitrate of soda on the
growth of cabbage harvested in January and none on the cabbage har-
vested in April. The greatest difference in composition was that of
sodium. The cabbage from the plots receiving additional nitrogen had
about twice the sodium content of cabbage not side-dressed. Phosphate
expressed as percent dry weight was higher in cabbage receiving the side-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

dressing of nitrogen than in cabbage grown without extra nitrogen. This
was true for both harvests.
Broccoli.-A test was made to determine the effect of two rates of
irrigation on yield of broccoli when the amount of nitrogen, method of
applying nitrogen, and spacing were varied. Broccoli was planted at two
spacings, 16 and 8 inches, in rows three feet apart. Four fertilizer mix-
tures-4-7-5, 6-7-5, 8-7-5 and 12-7-5-were applied at the rate of a ton
per acre. On half of the plots all of the nitrogen was applied in the
fertilizer and in the other half, 4 percent (80 pounds per acre) was applied
in the irrigation water. Two rates of irrigation were used-frequent (
inch water every four days), and occasional-(% inch of water every eight
days). The irrigation and method of applying nitrogen were the four
main treatments in a latin square. The spacing was the first split of the
plots and the fertilizer mixture the second.
During most of the season the rainfall was sufficient to maintain the
proper soil moisture, so that there was no benefit from the more fre-
quent irrigation over the occasional, except at the higher nitrogen levels.
The high salt content at higher nitrogen levels caused some stunting.
Stunting was most severe where all the nitrogen was applied in the
fertilizer and the crop only given an occasional irrigation.
The 8-7-5 mixture gave the highest yield, irrespective of method of ap-
plying the nitrogen. The 12-7-5 mixture caused some injury, except where
part of the nitrogen was applied in the water and received frequent irri-
The 8-inch spacing produced the most broccoli. The heads were some-
what smaller, but there were more of them, in the closer spacing.
Corn.-The variety Golden Security was planted at four different
spacings with four different rates of irrigation. The irrigation treatments
were the same as used last year; frequent, inch of water every three
days; medium, inch of water every six days; occasional, inch every
twelve days; and no irrigation. The four spacings were 6, 12, 18 and 24
inches between plants in the row with rows three feet apart. Each irri-
gation plot had three rows of each spacing. There was a total of 10
inches of rainfall during the growing season; however, most of this rain
fell in the first 30 days, so that there was a very marked response to the
irrigation. There was a total of 6 inches of water applied to frequently
irrigated plots, 3 inches to the medium and 1 inch to the occasional plots.
The largest number of ears (both total and marketable) was produced
on the 6-inch spacing with frequent irrigation. When the amount of irri-
gation was reduced, the wider spacing produced more ears. When no
irrigation was applied, the 18-inch spacings produced the largest number
of marketable ears. Considering all four irrigation treatments, the 6-inch
spacing produced the largest number of ears, but the 12-inch spacing pro-
duced the largest number of marketable ears. Frequent irrigation pro-
duced 2.6 times more marketable ears than no irrigation.
The weight of ears was proportional to spacing, and to frequency of
irrigation. The average weight of ears produced at 24-inch spacing with
frequent irrigation was 0.64 pounds and average weight of ears produced
at 6-inch spacing and no irrigation was 0.43 pounds.


Annual Report 1949

State Project 452 R. J. Wilmot and Nathan Gammon, Jr.
Cuttings of seven camellia varieties were treated with various fungi-
cidal dips with and without root-inducing substances. In one case there
were significant increases in rooting over the checks by a fungicide alone,
and by combinations of fungicide and the root-inducing material. There
was no residual fungicidal effect.
There was no significant increase in growth of camellia plants grown
in plots to which three levels of vermiculite were compared with peat as
soil amendments. Both materials increased the moisture equivalent, total
exchange capacity and magnesium, and lowered the volume weight and
acid-soluble phosphorus. The addition of vermiculite caused a significant
increase in the amount of potassium. The addition of peat lowered the
pH one unit. (See also Project 52.) Plants made fair growth in ion
exchange materials in the range pH 3.96 to 5.84.
Unless specially handled, seven to eight year old seedlings transplanted
very poorly, due to their poor root systems. This can be overcome by
transplanting several times during the years the plants are being grown.
The variety collection was increased by 188 varieties and species.

State Project 467 R. K. Showalter
This project was inactive during the year.

State Project 468 R. A. Dennison and B. E. Janes
Cabbage and tomato crops were grown on experimental plots with
varying amounts and sources of potash. Three potash sources-KC1, KNOs,
and K.SO--were studied at the 5 percent and 10 percent levels of K.O.
Cabbage gave no significant difference in yield. It was stored at 470 F.,
and was examined and scored twice during storage for firmness and
amount of physiological breakdown. Cabbage from the plots receiving
KC1 maintained the best quality in storage.
Tomatoes receiving no potash yielded an average of 341 bushels per
acre, compared to an average of 452 bushels per acre from the plots re-
ceiving potash. There was no significant difference in yield between the
various potash sources and the 5 percent and 10 percent levels. The plots
receiving K2SO at the 10 percent KzO level gave a smaller percentage of
cracked fruit than any of the other treatments.
Tomatoes were checked for percentage loss which might be expected
due to shipping and handling. The fruit were tested on a machine built
for laboratory use which simulated commercial shipping and handling con-
ditions. Average results are presented in Table 7. Greatest losses of fruit
were in those harvested from plots receiving no potash and KC1. The
highest percentages of marketable fruit were obtained from plots re-
ceiving KSSO,.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station



0% KO

5% KC1
5% KNO,
5% K-SO,
10% KC1
10% KNO.

10% K:SO

Percent of Fruit Percent of Fruit Numerical Score
in Marketable Not Suitable for General Con-
Condition for Market edition of Fruit*

*4.00, Excellent; 3.00, Good; 2.00, Fair; 1.00, Poor.
The laboratory machine used in obtaining the data on shipping and
handling qualities of tomatoes was constructed by W. B. Coleman, plant
mechanic with the Department of Horticulture (Fig. 1.) The frame of the

Fig. 1.-Machine used to simulate commercial shipping and handling
conditions with tomatoes.

machine is steel and a 4-inch wide rubber belt travels on four wooden rollers
which are fastened between two horizontal pieces of the frame. The belt
makes one revolution each 90 seconds and is driven by a 1/ horsepower

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