Front Cover
 Title Page
 List of departmental and branch...

Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00034
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1948
Frequency: annual
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00034
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
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Full Text

T4, z *V,



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JUNE 30, 1948

J. Thos. Gurney, Chairman, Orlando
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
J. Henson Markham, Jacksonville
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee

J. Hills Miller, A.M., Ph.D., Litt. D.,
LL.D., President of the University
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Provost for
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Director
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor8
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Asso. Editors
Jefferson Thomas, Asst. Editors
Ida K. Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers
Geo. F. Baughman, M.A., Business
Claranelle Alderman, Accountant8

W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
Geo. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist2
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist3
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist3
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
S. C. Litzenberger, Ph.D., Associate
M. E. Paddick, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant
Frazier Rogers, M.S., Agricultural En-
gineer3 1
J. M. Myers, B.S., Associate

A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Indus-
trialist 1 3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husband.3
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologists
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
Geo. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutrition.
C. L. Comar, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husb.3
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy
C. F. Simpson, Ph.D., Asso. Veterinarian
Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poul.
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. Dairy Tech.4
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. in Dairy
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chemist

J. C. Driggers, B.S.A.. Asst. Poultry
S. J. Folks, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.3
C. F. Winchester, Ph.D., Asso. Bioch.3
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 1
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate
H. W. Little, M.S., Asst.-Mktg.
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Stat.2
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Econ.
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician
W. S. Rowan, M.S., Asst. Agr. Statis.
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist'
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Assistant
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturists
B. E. Janes, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Hort.
H. M. Reed, B.S., Chem. Veg. Proc.
L. H. Halsey, B.S.A., Asst. Hort
V F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort
F. E. Myers, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Path.1
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Associate
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Associate
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Chemist' 3
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chem.
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist
R. A. Carrigan, Ph.D., Asso. Biochem.3
Geo. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Micro-
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Tech.3
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Asst. Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Soil Surveyors
J. B. Cromartie, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surv.
V. W. Cyzycki, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surv.
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyors
SHead of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
* On leave



J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice Director-in-
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Kelvin Dorward, M.S., Entomologist
L. G. Thompson, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agronomist
R. C. Bond, M.S.A., Asso. Agronomist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An.
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Asso. Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M. S., Asso. Agron.
Mobile Unit, Wewahitchka
J. B. White, B.S.A., Asso. Agronomist

Mobile Unit, DeFuniak Springs
R. L. Smith. M.S., Asso. Agronomist

A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice Director-in-
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
J. T. Griffiths, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. DuCharme, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
J. E. Benedict, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. K. Colehour, M.S., Asst. Chemist
T. W. Young. Ph.D., Asso. Horticul.
J. W. Sites. Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. 0. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
J. A. Granger. B.S.A., Horticulturist
SH. J. Reitz, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
R. H. Cotton, Ph.D., Chemist
A. E. Willson, B.S.A., Asso. Biochemist
R. W. Jones, M.S.A., Asst. Plant Path.
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
C. W. Houston, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Horticul.
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Superv. Chem.
J. C. Bowers, M.S., Asst. Chemist
E. H. Bitcover, M.S., Asso. Soils Chem.
J. P. Barnett, B.S.A., Asst. Horticul.
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hortlcul.

R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice Director-in-
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane Phy.
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.2
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
T. C. Irwin, Asst. Chemist
R. A. Bair, Ph.D., Agronomist

C. C. Seale, B.S., Asso. Agronomist
L. 0. Payne, B.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
R. Desrosiers, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathol.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomol.
J. C. Hoffman, Ph.D., Horticulturist
C. B. Savage, M.S.A., Asst. Horticult.
D. L. Stoddard, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
W. A. Desnoyers, B.S., Asst. Hydrolo.
J. W. Randolph, M.S.A.E., Asso. Agr.
D. W. Smith, B.S., Asst. Chemist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice Director-
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomol.
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
F. B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
J. L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chem.
Milton Cobin, B.S., Asso. Horticulturist
M. H. Gallatin, B.S.A., Collaborator
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist

Wm. Jackson, M.S., Animal Husband-
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice Director-in-
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones. B.S.A., Asst. Soil Tech.
H. J. Fulford, BS.A., Asst. An. Husb.

R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice Director-
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
A. A. Foster, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticul.
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Asso. Agronomist

G. K. Parris, Ph.D., Plant. Path. in
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Horticulturist
in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
R. 0. Magle, Ph.D., Plant Path.-Glad.
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
D. G. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Horticul.

Warren O. Johnson, Meteorologist2

1 Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave

4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Director's Report -----------............................. ................. 5
Business Manager ---.............. ------ ................... .................... 16
Editorial .. ...........------------ ............---------------................. 21
Library ......... .... .. ......................................... ................. 32
Agricultural Economics .------.-......................-..................- 33
Agricultural Engineering .......... .................................. ............. .... 38
Agronomy ------ ---......................................... ...............-. 39
Animal Industry ................----- --------.........-..-................... 50
Entomology -----. ------------. --------------------.......................... 65
Home Economics ...... ...... ... ............................ ................. 71
Horticulture .... ..........------- .............................. ......................- 74
U. S. Laboratory for Tung Investigations .-...............-..-................... 90
Plant Pathology ---....... ...----------------.............- -.....................- 93
Soils ------ ----..................... -- ..............-..............--. 97
Federal-State Frost Warning Service --....--- ----................. ......-........... 105
Potato Investigations Laboratory ..............-------......... ..-.. .................... 108
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory .................. .............................. 114
Vegtable Crops Laboratory .....----.........---- -................................ 116
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory .................................... 138
Central Florida Station ....... ..... ................... ............................ 140
Citrus Station .-.....---...... --------.--........-..... ... ....... .............. 146
Everglades Station ....--------..-----....... ........... .......-.................... 186
North Florida Station ...........---- --............ ............... ........................ 222
M obile U nits ....................................... ........................... 235
Range Cattle Station .....-- ----..... ......... .............. ..................... 239
Sub-Tropical Station ..----.. .... ............ ..................... ................ 247
W est Central Florida Station (Federal) .................................................... 270
W est Florida Station ......... ........ ................................................. 271

Annual Report, 1948


ENDING JUNE 30, 1948


The research program of the Agricultural Experiment Stations has
been continued actively and with gratifying results in the fields of agron-
omy, agricultural engineering, agricultural economics, animal industry
(including beef, poultry and dairy husbandry, veterinary science, nutrition
and dairy manufactures), entomology, home economics, horticulture (in-
cluding citrus and vegetable processing), plant pathology, and soils within
the nine departments of the Main Station and at the seven branch sta-
tions and six field laboratories.
Expansions authorized by the 1947 Legislature have been effected for
the most part, the few exceptions being due mainly to the continuing un-
availability in some lines of personnel with requisite scientific training.
The new West Florida Station near Milton has been placed in operation,
and agricultural engineering has been added at the Main, Citrus and
Everglades Stations. Laboratory and other facilities authorized have been
completed and put to immediate use. These buildings, with their equip-
ment, have filled many long-standing needs and have made possible ex-
pansion in scope and increased efficiency in current work, as well as
provided for several phases of research which heretofore could not be
undertaken. Further requirements of essential building needs merit early
attention because of their importance to the conduct and progress of
many types of the Station's work.
With the availability of the new facilities provided, extensive research
has been initiated in citrus fruit handling and processing at the Citrus
Station; vegetable processing and utilization of vegetable and other agri-
cultural by-products as feeds at the Main Station; ramie culture, decorti-
cation and fiber processing (cooperatively with the U. S. Departments of
Commerce and Agriculture) at the Everglades Station; and a large scale
expansion of work with peanuts by Mobile Unit No. 3 of the North Flor-
ida Station. Some citrus marketing studies have been inaugurated, as
well as vegetable marketing and prepackaging, through assistance made
available through provisions of the Research and Marketing Act.
Necessity for continuous research in agriculture, not alone for im-
provement and advancement but also to protect and insure gains pre-
viously attained, has been strikingly demonstrated in major insect, disease
and other problems recently arising or becoming of serious importance.
These newer threats to large acreages of highly developed crops include
the new race of crown rust and helminthosporium diseases of oats which,
almost overnight, have drastically reduced, production of this grain of
which there were over 150,000 acres; the incursion of the green peach
aphis into both shade and flue-cured tobacco plantings; tobacco and
vegetable mosaics; continued spread of the sclerotiniose disease of vege-
tables in the lower East Coast region and, within the past year, into the
Everglades; the widespread appearance of the curvularia leafspot of gladi-
olus; losses from celery blackheart in one area; and increasing destructive-
ness of late blight on tomatoes. All are of immediate urgency and are
being met with every available means, which include comprehensive breed-
ing programs, large-scale trials of new varieties, thorough and complete

6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

testing of the newer organic insecticides and fungicides, soil treatments,
and variation of cultural practices. Definite progress can be reported in
the development of control measures for most. Special mention is due to
the entomologists of the Citrus and Central Florida Stations and the
Vegetable Crops Laboratory who were transferred temporarily to the
North Florida area to assist in the development of methods of control of
the green peach aphid on tobacco; their preliminary findings had no
small place in the successful control of the insect on this season's plantings.
The year's results on the 215 projects and numerous miscellaneous
studies in the several areas of investigation are summarized briefly under
the departmental and branch station headings.

Construction of all of the 39 buildings or additions at the Main Station
and nine field stations as listed in the 1947 annual report has been com-
pleted, and fencing and clearing of the 640-acre beef cattle tract at the
Main Station is well under way.
A 345-acre tract, formerly a part of the Marianna Army Airfield in
Jackson County, has been donated by the United States of America to the
Board of Education. This land will be used as an experimental field by
Mobile Unit No. 3.

Main Station

S. P. Marshall, Associate Dairy Husbandman, October 1, 1947.
J. M. Myers, Associate Agricultural Engineer, November 1, 1947.
M. E. Paddick, Associate Agronomist, October 15, 1947.
R. W. Bledsoe, Agronomist, November 1, 1947.
V. W. Cyzycki, Assistant Soil Surveyor, November 1, 1947.
R. G. Leighty, Associate Soil Surveyor (coop. USDA), November 1, 1947.
John F. Steffens, Jr., Agricultural Statistician (coop. USDA), December
1, 1947.
R. E. L. Greene, Agricultural Economist, January 1, 1948.
H. W. Little, Assistant Agricultural Economist, January 1, 1948.
R. H. Sharpe, Associate Horticulturist, January 15, 1948.
L. H. Halsey, Assistant Horticulturist, February 1, 1948.
A. P. Lorz, Associate Horticulturist, March 1, 1948.
C. F. Simpson, Associate Veterinarian, April 29, 1948.
H. M. Reed, Chemist, May 1, 1948.
S. C. Litzenberger, Associate Agronomist, April 1, 1948.
H. N. Miller, Associate Plant Pathologist, May 1, 1948.
F. E. Myers, Assistant Horticulturist (temporary), April 15, 1948.
L. C. Kuitert, Assistant Entomologist, June 7, 1948.

W. S. Rowan, Assistant Agricultural Statistician (coop. USDA), Decem-
ber 1, 1947.
L. H. Rogers, Biochemist, February 1, 1948.

Central Florida Station
J. W. Wilson, Entomologist, from Everglades Station, October 1, 1947.

Annual Report, 1948

A. A. Foster, Associate Plant Pathologist, April 1, 1948.
Citrus Station
R. H. Cotton, Supervisory Chemist, August 1, 1947.
C. W. Houston, Associate Chemist, October 9, 1947.
R. W. Jones, Assistant Plant Pathologist (temporary), July 1, 1947.
R. K. Voorhees, Associate Horticulturist, November 1, 1947.
Rudolph Hendrickson, Assistant Chemist, November 1, 1947.
R. W. Olsen, Biochemist, December 23, 1947.
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Supervisory Chemist, February 1, 1948.
J. C. Bowers, Assistant Chemist, February 1, 1948.
E. H. Bitcover, Associate Soils Chemist, February 16, 1948.
J. P. Barnett, Assistant Horticulturist, February 18, 1948.
L. Carl Knorr, Associate Histologist, March 23, 1948.
D. S. Prosser, Jr., Assistant Horticulturist, March 1, 1948.
B. R. Fudge, Associate Biochemist, September 30, 1947.
J. E. Benedict, Assistant Horticulturist, December 15, 1947.
R. H. Cotton, Supervisory Chemist, January 1, 1948.
R. W. Jones, Assistant Plant Pathologist, January 31, 1948.
C. W. Houston, Associate Chemist, June 30, 1948.
Everglades Station
D. L. Stoddard, Associate Plant Pathologist, July 5, 1947.
Geo. Van den Berghe, Assistant Fiber Technologist ramiee), July 1, 1947.
W. A. Desnoyers, Assistant Hydrologist, November 1, 1947.
John W. Randolph, Agricultural Engineer, November 1, 1947.
D. W. Smith, Assistant Chemist ramiee), February 1, 1948.
W. H. Thames, Assistant Entomologist, June 1, 1948.
E. A. Wolf, Assistant Horticulturist, July 15, 1948.
Russell Desrosiers, Assistant Plant Pathologist, July 31, 1947.
L. O. Payne, Assistant Agronomist, September 15, 1947.
Geo. Van den Berghe, Assistant Fiber Technologist ramiee), Sept. 30, 1947.
North Florida Station
Kelvin Dorward, Entomologist-Tobacco Insect Investigations, Septem-
ber 1, 1947.
Range Cattle Station
H. J. Fulford, Assistant Animal Husbandman, September 16, 1947.
E. R. Felton, Assistant Animal Husbandman, July 31, 1947.
Sub-Tropical Station
M. H. Gallatin, Collaborator (Soil Conservation Service, USDA), Sep-
tember 1, 1947.

8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

R. A. Conover, Plant Pathologist, October 1, 1947.
F. B. Lincoln, Horticulturist, December 10, 1947.
Milton Cobin, Associate Horticulturist, December 29, 1947.
J. L. Malcolm, Associate Soils Chemist, July 5, 1948.

Huey I. Borders, Associate Plant Pathologist, July 1, 1947.

West Central Florida Station
William Jackson, Animal Husbandman in Charge (coop. USDA), April
1, 1948.
C. D. Gordon, Geneticist in Charge (coop. USDA), Mar. 31, 1948.

Federal-State Frost Warning Service
O. A. Tankersley, Assistant Meteorologist, November 1, 1947.

All major and long-range research of the Station is conducted under
carefully designed and regularly approved projects. Titles of those projects
and of some of the miscellaneous investigations are listed below.

Agricultural Economics
Project No. Title Page
154 Farmer's Cooperative Associations in Florida ................................ 33
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
Citrus -- ----......................... .............----------- ................----- -........... 33
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation of Florida
Dairy Herds --.. -----.. --------.----- --...-...-..............................- ............. 33
395 Input and Output Data for Florida Crop and Livestock Production 34
429 Analysis of Farms and Markets in the Plant City Area with
Respect to Post-War Economic Problems ............--................... 34
451 Crop and Livestock Estimating on Florida Farms with Emphasis
on V vegetable Crops ................ ------- ----- ......... ....... ...............-- 34
480 Cost of Production and Returns on Vegetable Crops in Florida.... 35
482 Rural Land Ownership in Florida .-......- -----.........-.............--- ............ 36
483 Consumer Packaging of Vegetables at the Shipping Point ....... 36
484 Packaging of Tomatoes .....---........--.......------------.........- ............ 36
485 Spoilage in Marketing Early Irish Potatoes ........----.--.................... 36
486 Cost and Factors Affecting Cost of Handling Citrus Fruits in
Fresh and Processed Form ....... --................ .. ..................... 37
... Miscellaneous: Florida Truck Crop Competition; Movement of
Citrus from Nurseries to Groves in Florida; Summary of
1945 Census for Florida Agriculture ................................... ...... 37

20 Peanut Improvement .............. ............................ ...................... 39
55 Crop Rotation Studies ....------..........------ ................ .......... 39
56 Variety Test W ork with Field Crops -----------...... .. ..... .............. 40

Annual Report, 1948

Project No. Title Page
163 Corn Fertilizer Experiments ........................ -----...... -------..------- 40
295 Effect of Fertilizers on Yield, Grazing Value, Chemical Com-
position and Botanical Makeup of Pastures ............................... 40
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies ............................ 41
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement ................--................... 41
299 Effect of Burning at Different Periods on Survival and Growth
of Various Native Range Plants and Its Effect on Establish-
ment of Improved Grasses ......----..................----.......... -- ....---------- 42
301 Pasture Legum es ..----........................-- ..... -------.---. --.. -- --.------------.. ... 42
304 Methods of Establishing Pastures Under Various Conditions ...... 42
369 Effect of Environment on the Composition of Forage Plants...... 43
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement -......................-- ......... -... 43
374 Corn Improvement ........--...........---...... .--- .. .-------- 43
378 Flue-Cured Tobacco Fertilizers and Varieties ............................... 43
417 Methods of Producing, Harvesting and Maintaining Pasture Seed
Stock ......................... .. .................. ...... ..... ...... ........--.. --- ---- .... 44
440 The Effect of Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S and Mg on the Growth of Oats,
Hubam and White Dutch Clovers, Pangola and Carpet Grasses
Under Field Conditions ............---------...........-------------........--------- 44
441 Starter Solutions and Methods of Applying Fertilizer on Tobacco
and Other Field Crops ...----... --............. --- ............. 46
444 Permanent Seed Beds for Tobacco Plants --........-.....-..................... 46
487 Improvement of Small Grain Through Breeding, Physiological and
Disease Studies --..... -- -- ----............... -....-........- ----.... --- 48
488 Nutrition and Physiology of the Peanut ..................................... 48
...... Miscellaneous: Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cottons ........ 49

Agricultural Engineering
507 Methods of Curing Florida Hays ................ --...... .. .. ..-...-- 38

Animal Industry
133 M ineral Requirements of Cattle ..... ...... ........ .......-..................... 51
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to Her
Milk and Butterfat Production ......... -..... ... .... ............ 52
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops .--.................--....-..-... .....-- .. -52
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Florida
D airy H erds ............................... .... --------... ... ..................... 52
346 Investigation with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition Prob-
lems of Livestock ................. ... -- ... ... -............ 52
353 Infectious Bovine Mastitis .................-..--- --....... ..--- ...... -53
356 Biological Analysis of Pasture Herbage ...........................--- ...----.. -- 53
387 Longevity of Eggs and Larvae of Internal Parasites of Cattle..... 53
394 Effect of Certain Feeds on Milk Flavor ............--....-....-................. 54
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixtures, and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized
P asture ............. ...... ..... ......-................ ............................. 54
418 Sulfurization of Soils for the Control of Certain Intestinal Para-
sites of Chickens .....-...... --....- ....-------...---- .....-- .. ....... 54
424 The Transmission Agent of Fowl Leucosis --..............- .----.......-.... 54
426 Toxicity of Crotalaria spectabilis Roth ................-. ...... .. ... 54
436 Composition of Milk Produced in Florida ............ ......-- ............ 55
438 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Cattle ......... ......~........ 55
450 Grazing Experiments with Poultry ......................-- ..... ....... 55

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
453 Floor Space Requirements for Broiler Porduction ............--............. 56
456 "Leeches" in Horses ....--............-.....-- --....- ...... ..............----- ...- 56
459 Control of the Common Liver Fluke in Cattle ................................. 56
460 Control of Cattle Grubs .........---....................-......-.............. ......... 57
461 Supplemental Feeds for Nursing Beef Calves .................................. 57
462 Anaplasmosis in Cattle ....................-- .......- ......... .......-........----.--- 58
477 Feeding and Management of Pigs for Economical Pork Production 58
478 Dehydration and Utilization of Vegetable By-Products as Dairy
and Poultry Feeds ...................................... .....------- ..--.---- 58
479 In Vivo Studies of Intestinal Organisms of the Fowl .................... 59
481 Losses in Marketing Livestock ..............---- -..........................----. 59
489 Feeding Value of Citrus Meal and Citrus Seed Meal for Poultry.. 59
490 Treating Eggs with Oil for Storage .-........................-......-....------.. 59
497 Influence of Water Constituents (Minerals) on the Physical Prop-
erties and Whipping Quality of Ice Cream Mixes .................... 60
503 Broiler Feeding Trials ........--....................................--------...--- 60
512 Sweet Lupine Seed as a Protein Supplement for Growing and
Fattening Beef Cattle ............-- ...... ..------ ..------ ....-..--- ...........--- 61
517 Factors Influencing the Development of Pullet Disease .............. 61
518 Thyroid Function in Chickens --....................-- ..--.. ---- ............ 61
Miscellaneous: Dried Citrus Pulp Dust; The Bovine Stomach, Its
Development and Function; Palatability of New Feeds; In-
fluence of Copper on Phosphorus Metabolism in Cattle; Inter-
relationships of Copper, Molybdenum and Phosphorus; Sweet
Potato Meal; Vitamin D Studies; Vitamin A for Beef Cattle;
Phosphate Sources; Ramie Meal for Broilers; New Poultry
Feed Ingredients; Blue Lupine in Chick Rations; Citrus Feed
Yeast in Chick Rations ..................... .......... ......... ....... 62
379 Control of the Nut and Leaf Casebearers of Pecans ........................ 65
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida...... 66
381 Propagation of Larra Wasps for the Control of Mole-Crickets...... 66
382 Root-Knot in Tobacco Fields ................ ... ..........-- ----...--.............. 67
383 Breeding Vegetable Plants Resistant to Root-Knot Nematodes.... 67
385 Effect of Mulches on the Root-Knot Nematode ...............-..........--.... 67
438 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Cattle ............................ 67
462 Anaplasmosis in Cattle ..........------------............. -- ...--.--... 68
499 Strawberry Variety Trials ............. ........................... ................. 68
...... Micellaneous: Grasshopper Control; Effects of Soil Treatments
on Control of Nematode on Gladiolus; Pecan Insects; Tobacco
Control .................--- .. .............. ... ........................ 68
Home Economics
442 Conservation and Availability of the B Vitamins and Iron in En-
riched, White and Corn Breads and Grits ............................. 71
443 Vitamin B Content of Foods ................................ .................... 73
50 Propagation, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with Tung Oil Trees 74
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Onamentals and
Methods for Their Propagation .....................--- .............. ... 76
80 Cover-Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards .......................................... 76
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals .............................. 76
268 Relation of Soil Acidity to the Growth of Vegetables ................... 77


Annual Report, 1948

Project No. Title Page
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vegetables
Adaptable to Commercial Production in Florida ...--..................... 77
365 Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree ........................................ 79
375 Relation of Zinc and Magnesium to Growth and Reproduction in
Pecans ........- -------- --................ --- --------- .....- ..-- ...-- .. 79
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ............... ............................ ...........--- ... --80
420 Composition of Florida-Grown Vegetables as Affected by En-
vironm ent ........-- ........----- ....- .........-- ........---- ....-- --- ..... ---.. --........ 81
432 Effects of Boron on Certain Deciduous Fruits and Nuts .............. 81
435 Irrigation of Vegetable Crops -....................-.....-............-......... 81
452 Culture and Classification of Camellia and Related Genera .......... 83
467 Maintaining Freshness in Vegetables with Ice ................................ 83
468 Quality of Vegetables as Related to Fertilizing Materials with
Emphasis on Potash Salts -.......... --- --.....--.......... -...... ....-- -.... 83
473 Freezing Preservation of Certain Florida-Grown Vegetables ........ 85
475 Effect of Soil Fumigants on Yield and Quality of Vegetables ........ 85
478 Dehydration and Utilization of Vegetable By-Products as Dairy
and Poultry Feeds ................................ -----.......... ------.... .. 85
483 Consumer Packaging of Vegetables (except Tomatoes) ............ 86
484 Packaging of Tomatoes ......--............. ..... -....... ................ 88
499 Strawberry Variety Trials ..................... ........ ...- ----------- 89
501 Vegetable Breeding .............---- ............------ -- ........ ..... .---.. -...----.... 90
.. Miscellaneous: Preparation of Pickled Celery; Vegetable Canning 90

Plant Pathology

259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants ........ 93
281 Damping-off of Vegetable Seedlings ..--....--........--- ...--.--.--.-- .- 94
344 Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Eggplant ---.............-............. 94
455 Camellia Diseases ..................----.. ...- ------ ....- -- .- -..- -- 95
463 Lupine Investigations .................................................. ... 95
...... Miscellaneous: W eed Killers ................. .................................. ..... 96

328 Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and Cropping
Systems in Florida ..................................----------- ---- ......-- ..--- ... 97
347 Composition of Florida Soils and of Associated Native Vegetation 97
368 Factors Affecting Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule De-
velopm ent ...... ............................... ......... ............... 98
389 Classification and Mapping of Florida Soils .................................. 98
392 Maintenance of Soil Reaction and Organic Matter and Their Role
in Retention and Availability of Major Nutrient Elements...... 98
404 Correlation of Soil Characteristics with Pasture, Crop and Animal
Response .................... .........----------------..--...---........ 99
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied to
Different Soil Types .................... ..................... ------........... 100
433 Retention and Utilization of Boron in Florida Soils -.................... 100
446 Testing Soils and Limestone ........................................ .......-- .... 101
447 Availability of Minor Elements in Florida Soils ....-........................ 103
513 Maintenance of Available Nitrogen in Florida Soils .......-......-. 104

Federal-State Frost Warning Service
... Report 1947-48 Season ......................-- ... .....---- -................ 105

12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Potato. Investigations Laboratory
Project No. Title Page
130 Studies Relative to Disease Control of White (Irish) Potatoes.... 108
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................ ................................. 108
419 Downy Mildew of Cabbage ....... ...................... ............. 109
465 Fertility Studies in Cabbage Production ...................-................. 110
469 Improvement of Potato Cultural Practices ......-....................... 111
500 Alternaria Leaf Spot of Cabbage and Other Crucifers ................ 111
M miscellaneous: Cabbage Diseases ...................................... ............. 112

Strawberry Investigations Laboratory
499 Strawberry Variety Trials ..................................... 114
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ............................................................... 114
...... Miscellaneous: Soil Fumigants; Meadow Nematode; Weed Killers 115

Vegetable Crops Labortary
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida...... 116
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................... .... ................ .............. .... .. 117
398 Breeding for Combining Resistance to Diseases and Insects in
the Tomato ...................... ....................................................... 119
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn ........ 121
402 Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Vegetable Crop Plants .... 121
405 Summer Cover Crops, Liming and Related Factors in Vegetable
Crop Porduction ................ ... ............... ...................... 121
427 Economic Control of Mole-Crickets ......................................... 122
445 Insecticidal Value of DDT and Related Synthetic Compounds on
Vegetable Crop Insects in Florida .............................................. 123
448 Rapid Soil Tests for Determining Soil Fertility in Vegetable
Crop Production -........----- ....-------- ..-...........--...... ..................... 124
449 Organic Fungicides for the Control of Foliage Diseases of Vege-
tables .................----........---...................... 125
464 Gladiolus Variety Trials -.......... .................................. 128
502 Gladiolus Corm Disease Control .........---....-....................... 128
504 Controlling Insect Pests of Gladiolus ........................................... 129
506 Etiology and Control of Certain Epiphytotic Diseases of Gladiolus 129
..... Miscellaneous: Seedbed Management Studies; Plant Setting;
Blossom-end Rot of Tomatoes; Nitrogen Sources for Tomatoes;
Seedbed Covers; Geon 31X Latex; 2,4-D in Seed Flats; Hybrid
Vigor in Tomatoes; Root-Knot Control; Gladiolus Corm Rot;
Weed Control; Gladiolus Fertilizer Application ...................... 131

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
150 Investigation of and Control of Fusarium Wilt, a Fungous Dis-
ease of W atermelons .............------- ......... ................... ....... 138
151 Investigations and Control of Fungous Diseases of Watermelon .... 138
254 Investigation of Fruit Rots of Grapes .......................................... 139

Central Florida Station
281 Damping-off of Vegetable Seedlings ........................................... 140
336 Early Blight of Celery .........................- ............... .............. ...... 140
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms ........................ 142
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ...... ....... ............................. 142
494 Improvement of Cultural Practices for Cabbage, Lettuce, Celery
and Other Vegetable Crops ...................... .................. 143

Annual Report, 1948

Project No. Title Page
495 Liquid Fertilizers for Vegetable Crops ..................-------.....--------......... 143
496 Soil Management Problems in Vegetable Crop Fields .................... 144
501 Vegetable Breeding ---.......---------.............. ---------.------ ---. 144
-.. Miscellaneous: Corn Earworm; Cutworm; Weed Control; Root-
Knot Nematodes ...----------...............---- ------------- 144

Citrus Station

26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection -................-..... .......-- ........ 146
102 Variety Testing and Breeding --- ---...... .................. .................. 146
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rots of Citrus Fruits.... 146
340 Citrus Nutrition Studies ....--..................---.....-- ------ -------------- 148
341 Combined Control of Scale-Insects and Mites on Citrus ................ 161
508 Water Relations with Citrus in the Coastal Areas -........................ 164
509 The Nature, Causes and Control of Citrus Decline ....-................... 167
510 Insect Parasitism and Related Biological Factors as Concerned
with Citrus Insect and Mite Control ....................----........... .. 169
511 Diseases of Citrus Insects ......................-.. -------------- 170
Chemistry of Insecticides .-.....-.............-.-------------- --- 171
Horticultural Machinery ...................--..........------ -------... 173
Citrus Investigations in the Coastal Regions ................-............. 174
Cooperative Research with the Florida Citrus Commission
Fruit Decay Control ... ................... .... -----......... 177
Processing Research -.................................- -------------- 180
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings.. 188

Everglades Station

86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Condi-
tons ..........-............-- -----.---. -- ---- ------------ 188
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ---.......-.......... ---- -----------. 190
88 Soils Investigations .............................. --- --------- ........... 193
89 Water Control Investigations ........-.......-...-------------------- 194
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ...............---..............-------- ----. 196
168 The Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the
Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades ....-.............................. 197
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of Sugarcane Moth
Borer -------.................... ------..----------------.. 197
171 Cane Breeding Experiments ..-................ .........---------. 198
172 Physiology of Sugarcane .....------....................-- ..--------.--.------- 199
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
glades ........................---...... ----- ----------------- 199
202 Agronomic Studies with Sugarcane ................... ........-------...... 201
203 Forage Crop Investigations ...----.......--..... --....--------------- 203
204 Grain Crop Investigations ....-.........-- --.... ----..... ..... -----. 203
205 Seed Storage Investigations --........-..--..... .. ..........------------ 204
206 Fiber Crop Investigations ...................-..-..-------..-------------- 204
208 Agronomic Studies Upon Growth of Sirup and Forage Canes........ 208
209 Seed and Soil-Borne Diseases of Vegetable Crops ..............-----....... 208
210 Leaf Blights of Vegetable Crops ........................... ................. 208
336 Early Blight of Celery ....---.........--... --...... .............-....------- ........ 209
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida.... 212
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................ ...... ......... .........- 212
458 Sclerotiniose Disease of Vegetables ................ ...................-- ....----212

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
...... Miscellaneous:
Agricultural Engineering .................- -........................---- .. 213
Vegetable Crop Improvement ................................... ... .. 213
Strawberry Culture ..........-- .. ....................------- ............ 215
Improvement of Beef Cattle ..................... ....-. ....-.... ... 216
Steer Feeding Trials ..................-............. ..................... 216
W eed Control ............................................. ........ .................. .. 217
Vegetable Investigations on Mineral Soils ....--............--...---......-- 219
Grasses for Lawns, etc ........-............. ... .... .............. 221

North Florida Station
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco ................--............----- ... 223
80 Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards ...... --..........----.....-...-...... --223
191 Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Florida Shade Tobacco
Seed and Early Growth of Seedlings ...................... ................. 224
257 Columbia Sheep Performance Investigations ....--.............................. 225
260 Grain Crop Investigations .................. .. ................ ................... 225
261 Forage Crop Investigations ............................. .............. ..... 228
301 Pasture Legum es ............................................................................ 228
321 Control of Downy Mildew of Tobacco ...................---....... --....... 228
411 Two-Year Rotation for Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco .......--...........--- .... 228
463 Blue Lupine Investigations ................ ....-......... ...-- --.....-- .. 228
491 Production of Feeder Pigs ................................................ .............. 229
492 Crimson Clover and Oats Pastures as Supplements to Corn
for Fattening Hogs ....................................-...............-. 229
493 Soil Management Investigations ..................... ........................... 231
498 Utilization of Pastures in the Production of Beef Cattle .............. 231
525 Control of the Green Peach Aphid on Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco .... 232
-- Miscellaneous: Soil Fumigation for Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco;
Tobacco Virus Diseases; Alfalfa and Fescue Fertilizer Tests;
Peanut V varieties ............... ..... .. .................... ................... 234
S Mobile Units ...........--... --. .......- -------..... .. ................. 235
Range Cattle Station
390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida Environment.... 239
410 W entering Beef Cattle on the Range .................................................. 239
423 Effect of Fertilization and Seeding on the Grazing Value of Flat-
woods Pasture ..... -----------........................-.. .......----.................... 240
466 Fluctuation in Water Table Levels in Immokalee Fine Sand and
A associated Soil Types ................................. ................................. 242
476 Utilization of Citrus Products for Fattening Cattle ...................... 242
.--. Miscellaneous: Summer Legumes; Winter Clovers; Clover Inocu-
lation; Oats; Mineral Consumption by Range Cows; Phosphate
Amendments and Animal Response; Phosphorus Sources on
Carpet Grass-Clover; Major and Minor Element Require-
ments of Pasture Grasses .................... ... ...... .................. 243

Sub-Tropical Station
275 Citrus Culture Studies ..................----- -........- -......---...-- 247
276 Avocado Culture Studies ........-- ---..--..... .............. .. .............. 247
277 Forestation Studies ................ ................................................. 248
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ..................................... 248
280 Studies of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ........................................ 248


Annual Report, 1948 15

Project No. Title Page
285 Potato Culture Investigations .................. ........ .. ..----.......--- 250
286 Tomato Culture Investigations .................................. .. ..... 252
287 Cover Crop Studies .......-..............-- .............. .... ................ 252
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County .................................. 253
290 A Study of Diseases of the Avocado and Mango and Develop-
m ent of Control M measures ................................. .... .......... 255
291 Control of Tomato Diseases .......................~..-....-..... ......... 257
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................................. ................... 258
422 Diseases of the Tahiti (Persian) Lime .................................. ........ 260
458 Sclerotiniose Disease of Vegetables .................--............------ ...... 260
470 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Subtropical Fruits ........ 260
471 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Winter Vegetable Crops 261
472 Control of Pineapple Mealybug .....................-........-- ......... .. 266
505 Importance, Etiology and Control of Papaya Diseases .-................. 266
514 Subtropical and Tropical Plant Introductions --................-- ........-- .. ----267
515 Mango Selection, Propagation and Culture ...................................... 267
522 Guava Propagation, Culture, Breeding and Selection ...................... 268
--- Miscellaneous: Helminthosporium Disease on Corn; Nematodes
on Okra; Mango Maturity .. ........... ......... ............... ..... 269
West Central Florida Station
...... Cattle Breeding ........ -------------- -...... --..... -- ............ ...... 270
Grazing Tests ............. ... .. ......... ..... .... ........... ----- 270
...... Poultry Breeding ............. ................ -- -- --- ---.......-- ...-- 270
West Florida Station
...... Progress Report ........-----........ - ----------- -- ..... ........- .. 271



00 0
a co o a U .
a 0 0. 0 -R
I i I 1II I $11I
Main Station .. |$380,914.881$17,075.71 $439.85 $17,459.95 $1,393.71 $4.749.23|$8,385.51 i$ 61.431$13,702.77 $3,838.32 $1,020.70 $62,234.44 $l1
State-Wide Soil
Survey ...... 8,250.681 ........ I ..... 1,056.70 ............ ... .. ... 19.001 ........ 83.761 4.09 157.51
Central Florida I
Station ..... 19,151.50 7,022.79 . 588.08 48.23 157.80 173.81 3.001 ........ 844.14 23.381 3,958.411
Citrus Station.. 197,528.251 9,460.001 213.75 6,753.871 1,365.231 1,755.17| 2,225.501 76.081 28.431 4,199.83 726.51 63,886.86 3(
Everglades I I I
Station ...... | 144,718.53| 13,551.6 96.55 2,099.17 238.37 1,077.15| 2,354.30 205.00......... 3,010.47 438.67 38,063.59 1;

Station ...... 1 43,472.91 3,889.23 56.40 363.29 121.31 311.35 377.851 250.20 ........ 815.54 197.631 13,836.38
Range Cattle I 10.001..
Station ...... 21,681.50 4,350.05 134.50 1,142.39 382.17 69.92 134.40 10.001 ........ 950.85 41.56- 9,640.49
Sub-Tropical 2 I 1 1 1 6
Station ...... 41,02S.71 ,015.25 20.00 1,946.16 114.341 182.69 777.441 13.48 ........ 1,997.19 162.941 9,656.221
West Florida I I 1 1 I I
Station ...... 11.046.951 ........ 2.001 285.851 169.741 11.031 69.461 .... I ........ 1 168.571 49.931 7,156.421


Potato I I I I
Laboratory 1$ 15,212,251$ 1,599.251$ 9.0015 208.50 85.42$ 17.34 ..... 1 17.251 ........ 61.511 15.93 2.609.18| 576.62 .... 403.75 20,816.00
Strawberry I
Investigations I I I I
Laboratory -- 5,267.15 ..... 203.95 5.32| ...... 72.291 28.00 ........ 77.49 . . . 665.491 320.76 . 359.55 7.000.00
Vegetable Crops I I
Laboratory .. 41,943.91 14,192.871 9.00 1,844.06 235.27 281.25 680.271 8.00P ........ 538.93g 20.511 7.880.111 1,651.35 .... 258.471 69,544.00
Watermelon I
Grape, nd I I I
Sea Island 1 1 2 I I I I
Cotton I I I
InvestigationsI I I I I
Laboratory 10,794.201 2,523.00 25.00. 595.831 21.36 83.02 117.651 6.001 ........ 817.949 53.14 1,675.65 70.15 30,601.06 20,384.00

Weather Fore- 1
casting Service 3,99S.601 12580.08 ... . . 2.169.27 ....... ...... ........ 532.60 .. . . 204.641 513.41 . . .40 20,000.00
VContinuingCrops I I 538.93 20.51 7.880.11 1.61.35 .... 508.1 5,00.00
Appropriation. I 4,500.001 ........ I .... . ...... 2.......2.... .... ... .I... .. .... 500.001 5,000.00

North Florida I I 1

Contingent I I I I
athnd Mn IFo 200.00 20,000.00
StAppropriation. 4,500.00....... I ........ I ...... I ............................................................................... 20,000.001 20,000.00

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Station....... ......... ........ ..I
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Development I
and Epansion I
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Unit.......... ......... ..... .. . ....
Land Replace- I
ment Through
Loss ........... ..... .. ..... .
Matching I
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North Florida-
Research..... 9.556.10| 3,983.641 ......
Citrus Station I
Experimenta- I
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East Coast. .. 6,208.00 .... .....


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Fund, Central
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...... . . .. ... 3.20 5.05 18.01- ...... ........ 54.75| ... 30
( I ^ I !.
o a)

02.371. 1027. 181.24 614.5270322283.41 340.791 913.36 42

. . . .. .. . . . .. .2.. 53.32 1 ...... ..... 1 ....... 556.79 ... ... 34:
0 > > 2.3 C 2 C?

I 5,129.401 21.00 220.961 262.95 . . . I. . . . 61.50| ... 1.546.291 .. ... | 5,73:
S I I I 1I
...... .. .. . ..... 18.70 ....... ....... 7.201 ......1 ....... 215.91 ....... 4,14

. 996.50 ..... . . . . . 57.291 74.561 ... !....... 474.82 ....... 1,58
> |
..53.321 ...... ..... 57

. . . . . . . . 5 50 22.76 ....... . . 5.30 8.90 ....... 76

. 991. 83 . . . 199.121 12.93 28.361 55.03 3.31| . .... 151.32 . . . 1,19
I 1 80.25 10
.... .. ...... I ...... I 61.821 ....... 1 11.551 32.51 1 ...... ........ 80.251 ....... 10

4.551 3,483.20(II "" 26,236.34} 87,412.44

8.45i 20.73 .... 4,637.87 5,048.91

8.781 2,524.931 .... 3832. 8,801.85

S1 1 8,206.681 20,41.41

2.101 20.73 .... 30,355.45 49,049.91

1.01| 8.90i .... 5,266.97 9,658.69

9.681 348.001 .... 1,057.22 4,598.07
I |

9.08| . . .I . 5,241.01 11,960.68
0.565 749.50! .... | 2,258.254 3,810.77

6.101 103.461 .... 1 823.201 3,564.66
9.71 ..... .. ... 441.38[ 737.22


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0.! i i I li I l i i
a) $. 0 O) a) w. 4 ww a 1 0)

H atch .......... 15,000.00 ........ ...... ........ ....... .... ... ... . . ........ . . ... .. . ..... ... ......... 15,000.00

Adams ......... 15,000.00 ........... ... ....... ... .. ... ....... ........ ...I... . .. .. .............. ........ . 15,000.00

Purnell......... 60,000.00 ........ .... ..... .. ..... .. ..... ........ .. ... .... .... ...... ........ ........ .... ....... 60,000.00
Bankhead I I I
Jones ........ 21,000.00 5,773.401 ...... 669.141 14.65 9.171 48.67 .... . . .. .. 57.251 .... .. 5,869.811 4,238.611 .... ........ 37,680.70
Hope I I I
HopeFlannagan 6,682. 393.25 I 4,469.1
Flannagan ... 6,682.81 393.25. . ... 4,469.02 ....... ............ .... ....... 111.35 ...... 461.34 4,653.59 .... 15,601.751 32,373.11
Ramie I 1 1 1
Contract .. ... 13,061.07 1,446.801 ...... 388.04 303.37 ...... ....... .. ............. 2,237.451 .. .... 1,759.491 8,699.20 .... 6,770.781 34,666.20
Grant in Aid I 1 1 1 1 I I [
Funds....... 10,959.49! 2,093.251 ..... 1,055.021 1.05 . ... ....... 74.001 ........ 88.76 ....... 1 3,099.151 16.05 .... I 44,140.281 61,527.05

Annual Report, 1948

As the research departments accumulate more and more information
of value to Florida farmers and growers dissemination of the information
becomes increasingly important. More and more information is being
released through news and radio sources, but the printing and, distribution
of bulletins has not increased materially. Purchase of printing has been
more difficult this year than it was during World War II.
As usual, the Editors devoted a good share of their time to work for
the Agricultural Extension Service, under terms of their cooperative em-
ployment, leaving only about half time for three Editors to be given to
duties for the Experiment Station.
The Station printed 12 new bulletins, reprinted one, issued 19 new
press bulletins and reprinted nine for about an average year's printing.
The 12 new bulletins amounted to 556 pages and editions totaled 132,000
copies, varying from 16 to 168 pages in length and from 4,000 to 30,000
in edition. Five thousand copies of a 60-page bulletin were reprinted.
Two of the new bulletins were technical, 10 popular in nature.
Of press bulletins, the year's printing included 96,000 copies of 16 new
ones, each four pages in length; 8,500 copies of three six-page ones; 33,000
copies of eight four-page reprints and 3,000 copies of one two-page reprint.
Distribution of publications continued to be through county and home
demonstration agents, to libraries and scientific workers, and on special
request. Some 15,000 people who have requested to be notified of new pub-
lications available were sent announcement cards. Demand for most bul-
letins is much heavier than available funds will permit the supply to reach.
Following is a list of bulletins issued during the year:
Bul. Title Pages Edition
433 Organic Matter in Florida Soils................................ 16 15,000
434 DDT Treatments for Control of Mole-Crickets in
Seedbeds ............... ------.................. ....--- -.... 20 5,000
435 Plant Beds for Flue-Cured Tobacco............................. 16 9,000
436 Grape Growing in Florida........... .... .................... 48 10,000
437 Pecan Growing in Florida.......... ..............-- .............. 72 10,000
438 Composition of Florida-Grown Vegetables: I, As
Affected by Treatment, Soil Type and Locality.... 32 12,000
439 Diseases of Beans in Southern Florida.................... 56 7,000
440 Effect of Stilbestrol on Udder Development, Pelvic
Changes, Lactation and Reproduction................... 36 4,000
441 Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms.... 32 30,000
442 Soils, Geology and Water Control in the Everglades
Region ..................... ......... ....... ........ 168 15,000
443 Ornamental Hedges for Florida................................... 36 10,000
444 Levels of Carotene and Ascorbic Acid in Florida-
Grown Foods .................. -................... ------ .. 24 5,000
411 Insects and Diseases of the Pecan in Florida
(reprint) ....... .................................... 60 5,000
Following is a list of press bulletins issued during the year:
No. Title and Author
635 Fertilizing Avocados on Rockdale Limestone Soils, Geo. D. Ruehle.
636 Flordo Spray, William B. Shippy.
637 Management of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco Plant Beds in Florida, Ran-
dall R. Kincaid.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

638 Using Soil Fumigants to Control Root-Knot in Vegetable Produc-
tion, Victor F. Nettles.
639 The Serpentine Leaf Miner and Its Control, D. O. Wolfenbarger.
640 Chlordane Controls Mole-Crickets, E. G. Kelsheimer.
641 Parathion (3422), a New and Potent Insecticide, E. G. Kelsheimer.
642 Insect Pests of Lawns, E. G. Kelsheimer.
643 Control of Moles, A. N. Tissot.
644 Citrus By-Products as Feed for Cattle, R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix
Arnold and George K. Davis.
645 Infectious Laryngotracheitis in Poultry, M. W. Emmel and Glenn
Van Ness.
646 Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions (Leucosis), M. W.
647 Coccidiosis in Chickens, IM. W. Emmel and Glenn Van Ness.
648 Coryza and Roup in Chickens, M. W. Emmel and Glenn Van Ness.
649 Processing Market Cream, E. L. Fouts.
650 Curing and Storing Lupine Seed, Phares Decker, George C. Bond
and G. E. Ritchey.
651 Weeding Celery Seedbeds with Solvent Naphthas, James C. Hoffman.
Bulletin List (printed twice).
468 Durable Whitewashes (reprint).
583 Cause and Control of Cercospora Spot and of Anthracnose of the
Avocado (reprint).
584 Papaya Leaf Spot (reprint).
592 Control of Bacterial Soft Rot of Tomatoes (reprint).
621 Azalea Culture for Florida (reprint).
624 Hairy Indigo, a Legume for Florida (reprint).
617 Soil Testing (reprint).
628 Newcastle Disease of Chickens (reprint).
630 DDT on Cattle and in Dairies (reprint).
Brief Reviews of Bulletins.-Some of the principal points covered in
the new bulletins included the following:
433. Organic Matter in Florida Soils. (L. G. Thompson, Jr., and F.
B. Smith, 16 pages, 0 figs.) Organic matter disappears rapidly under
Florida conditions. Its maintenance is necessary in good soil management.
Green manures, crop residues and other sources of organic matter help
maintain the supply.
434. DDT Treatments for Control of Mole-Crickets in Seedbeds. (E.
G. Kelsheimer, 20 pages, 1 fig.) DDT applied to seedbed areas, in emulsi-
fiable oil or as dust mixed with the fertilizer for large areas, controls
mole-crickets for three weeks or more.
435. Plant Beds for Flue-Cured Tobacco. (Fred Clark, G. M. Volk
and W. E. Stokes, 16 pages, 5 figs.) Discusses location, preparation,
weed control by chemical and non-chemical methods, fertilization, man-
agement, mole-cricket control, and blue mold.
436. Grape Growing in Florida. (R. D. Dickey and Kenneth W. Loucks,
revised by Dickey, L. H. Stover and G. K. Parris, 48 pages, 17 figs.) Con-
tains suggestions for propagation and culture, harvesting and marketing
of bunch grapes and muscadine types.
437. Pecan Growing in Florida. (G. H. Blackmon, 72 pages, 54 figs.)
Suggests procedures in propagation and nursery methods, transplanting,
cultivation, fertilization, disease and insect control, harvesting, marketing
and by-products production.
438. Composition of Florida-Grown Vegetables: I. Mineral Composi-
tion of Commercially Grown Vegetables in Florida as Affected by Treat-

Annual Report, 1948

ment, Soil Type and Locality. (G. T. Sims and G. M. Volk, 32 pages,
0 figs.) Mineral content varied as much as 200 percent between areas;
also varied considerably within areas of similar soils. Crops analyzed were
beans, cabbage, celery, collards and tomatoes.
439. Diseases of Beans in Southern Florida. (By G. R. Townsend,
revised by Geo. D. Ruehle, 56 pages, 15 figs.) Describes and gives con-
trol measures for diseases caused by nutritional disorders, bacteria, fungi
and other causes.
440. Effect of Stilbestrol on Udder Development, Pelvic Changes,
Lactation and Reproduction. (Sidney P. Marshall, R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix
Arnold and D. A. Sanders, 36 pages, 8 figs.) Injections of stilbestrol into
open cows and heifers stimulated mammary development and sexual ex-
citation. It also caused raised tailheads and stiffness of gait with some
animals. Technical.
441. Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms. (G. J. Stout,
32 pages, 13 figs.) Discusses advantages of freezing, seasonal use of
freezers, freezing fruits, freezing vegetables, packages and thawing and
cooking frozen foods.
442. Soils, Geology and Water Control in the Everglades Region.
(Lewis A. Jones and others, 168 pages, 26 figs.) Discusses geology, cli-
mate and vegetation of the area. Contains specific suggestions for water
control and land use in the Everglades as recommended by state and fed-
eral agencies concerned.
443. Ornamental Hedges for Florida. (Harold Mowry and R. D.
Dickey, 36 pages, 17 figs.) Gives suggestions on selection of plants, plant-
ing and care and species and varieties.
444. Levels of Carotene and Ascorbic Acid in Florida-Grown Foods.
(R. B. French and 0. D. Abbott, 24 pages, 0 figs.) Makes suggestions for
methods of analysis and gives carotene and ascorbic acid values for 31
fruits, 35 vegetables and 17 wild plants. Technical.
With the tremendous increase in number of stations in Florida during
recent years, radio has become a more and more important means of
disseminating information. Farm Flashes were sent to 25 different sta-
tions during the year from Experiment Station workers on 121 occasions.
Each flash was about seven minutes in length. Most of the Station flashes
consisted of copies of talks which had been made previously over WRUF.
The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, Gainesville, at noon each day
continued to be an important outlet for Experiment Station information.
Station workers made 126 talks on the Farm Hour during the year. In
addition, the weekly feature, Farm Question Box, presented by the Editors,
consisted principally of questions answered by Station staff members.
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, continued to be an
important means of disseminating Experiment Station information to
weekly newspapers, farm journals and a few dailies. This clipsheet car-
ried from one to several Experiment Station stories each week, which were
widely reprinted.
The Editors also sent special stories direct to daily newspapers and to
press associations which put them on their wire services to dailies.
Thirty-three stories went to from one to 30 daily newspapers during the
year. An additional 18 went to dailies over the wires of the Associated
Press and other associations.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

One Southern farm journal published three stories about Experiment
Station research which occupied 45 column inches. Three national journals
carried three stories which were given 226 column inches.

Many of the staff members sent articles direct to scientific and other
journals, and the Editors forwarded a large number of articles by other
staff members to farm papers. Following is a list of articles published in
scientific and technical journals, farm papers and association yearbooks:
Alleger, Daniel E., and Charles M. Hampson. Indicators of Florida Farm
Prosperity. State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Bulletin 129
(new series): 1-12. 1948.
Allison, J. L., J. L. Weiner, Phares Decker and James A. Lyle. Lupine
Disease Survey in the Southeastern States. USDA Plant Dis. Reporter
32: 181-184. 1948.
Arrington, L. R., and E. L. Fouts. The Limitations of the Refractometer
Readings of Milk Serums in Detecting Watered Milk. Abs. Jour. Dairy
Sci. 31: 717. 1948.
Bair, Roy A. Iowa Challenged by New Corn Crop in Everglades. The Fla.
Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 11: 12: 32. 1947.
Becker, R. B. Citrus By-Products as Feeds for Dairy Cattle. Proc. Assoc.
So. Agr. Workers 44: 112. 1947.
Becker, R. B. Dairymen Enjoy Annual Field Day Meetings at Gaines-
ville. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 13: 8: 28-29. 1947.
Becker, R. B. Florida Dairyman Advised to Raise Own Herd Replace-
ments. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 13. 11: 25. 1947.
Becker, R. B. Sound Dairy Management Will Conserve Feed, Increase
Profits. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 14. 1: 28, 36. 1948.
Becker, R. B. Feeding Dairy Cows in Winter. Fla. Grower 55: (1200):
lla: 22. 1947.
Becker, R. B. Pointers on Deeper Cream Line. Fla. Grower 56: (1204):
3a: 21. 1948.
Blackmon, G. H. Pecan Harvesting Modernized. Fla. Grower 55: (1199):
10: 16, 22. 1947.
Blackmon, G. H. Pecan Growers Busy in Spring. Fla. Grower 56: (1203):
2a: 27, 28. 1948.
Blackmon, G. H. Why not Plan a Home Orchard? Fla. Grower 56: (1204):
3a. 15-15. 1948.
Blackmon, G. H. Seasonal Work for Orchards. Fla. Grower 56: (1205):
4a: 42. 1948.
Blackmon, G. H. A Cover Crop Program for Pecan Orchards. Proc. South-
eastern Pecan Growers' Assn. 41: 43-48. 1948.
Blakeslee, E. B., A. N. Tissot, W. G. Bruce and D. A. Sanders. DDT to
Control the Gulf Coast Tick. Jour. Econ. Ento. 40: 664-666. 1947.
Burgis, Donald S. Chemical Control of Weeds in Vegetable Seedbeds.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 60: 111-114. 1947.
Burgis, Donald S., and E. L. Spencer. Herbicides Give Control of Certain
Weeds in Vegetable Seedbeds. Market Growers' Jour. 76: 8: 13, 49. 1947.
Burgis, Donald S., and E. L. Spencer. Seedbed Problems May Be Solved
by the Use of Water Repellent Covers. Market Growers' Jour. 77:
3: 17, 47. 1947.

Annual Report, 1948 25

Camp, A. F. Freezing and Mineral Deficiency in Citrus Groves. Com-
mercial Fertilizer 75: 3: 37. 1947.
Clark, Fred. Free Tobacco Seed Bed of Weeds. Fla. Grower 55: (1199):
10a: 24. 1947.
Comar, C. L. The Internal Metabolism of Cobalt and Copper as Studied
with Their Radioactive Isotopes. Proc. Auburn Conference on the
Use of Radioactive Isotopes in Agricultural Research. Ala. Polytech.
Inst. Dec. 18-20, 1947. (1948). pp. 137-146.
Comar, C. L., and George K. Davis. Cobalt Metabolism Studies IV. Tissue
Distribution of Radioactive Cobalt Administered to Rabbits, Swine, and
Young Calves. Jour. Biol. Chem. 170: 379-389. 1947.
Comar, C. L., R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, W. A. Krienke, and George
K. Davis. Phosphorus Metabolism Studies. I. Secretion and Partition
of Dietary Radioactive Phosphorus in the Milk of the Dairy Cow. Abs.
Jour. Dairy Sci. 30: 557-558. 1948.
Cooper, J. Francis. Gulf Fertilizer Nears 50-Year Mark. Commercial Fer-
tilizer 75: 3: 16-17, 44. 1947.
Cooper, J. Francis. Tung Oil Finds Place in Gulf Coast Agriculture. Vic-
tory Farm Forum, Chilean Nitrate Educational Bureau, 28: 8, 9. 1947.
Cooper, J. Francis. Experiment Stations on Wheels. Progressive Farmer
63: 3: 33, 137. 1948.
Davis, George K. Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. Proc. Assoc. Agr.
Workers 44: 79-80. 1947.
Davis, George K., and Harry Hannan, Jr. Copper Metabolism With Rela-
tion to Alkaline Blood Phosphatase and Blood Ascorbic Acid. Jour, An.
Sci. 6: 484. 1947.
Davis, George K. Phosphorus Vital to Animals. Fla. Grower 56: (1202):
la: 25, 28. 1948.
Davis, George K. Feeding Stock for Best Gains. Fla. Grower 56: (1203):
2a: 4, 32. 1948.
Decker, Phares. Anthracnose of Blue Lupine is Seed Borne. USDA. Plant
Dis. Reporter 31: 486. 1947.
Dickey, R. D. Deficiencies in Ornamentals. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
60: 199-203. 1947.
Driggers, J. Clyde. Selling Eggs by Weight and Quality. Fla. Poultryman
and Stockman 14: 5: 12. 1948.
Driggers, J. Clyde. Green Feed Keeps Hens Laying. Fla. Grower 56:
(1203): 2a: 14. 1948.
Eddins, A. H. Notes on Potato Diseases at Hastings, Florida in 1947. USDA
Plant Dis. Reporter 31: 375-376. 1947.
Eddins, A. H. New Fungicides. Proc. Fla. Stale Hort. Soc. 60: 124-127.
Eddins, A. H., and A. A. Foster. Rhizoctonia and Common Scab on Chip-
pewa Potatoes in Muck. USDA Plant Dis. Reporter 31: 376-377. 1947.
Emmel, M. W. The Toxic Principle of the Species Aleurites. Jour. Am.
Vet. Med. Assn. 111: 386-387. 1947.
Forsee, W. T., Jr., and N. C. Hayslip. A Fertility Experiment with Toma-
toes on Immokalee Sand in St. Lucie County. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 60: 142-146. 1947.
Foster, A. A. Control of Celery Diseases. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 60:
131-134. 1947.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fouts, E. L. Florida Market Milk Industry. Fla. Poultryman and Stock-
man 14: 3: 22. 1948.
Gammon, Nathan, Jr. Florida Soils Low in Potash. Fla. Grower 55: (1196):
7:13. 1947.
Glasscock, R. S. Beef Production in Florida on Improved Pastures. Proc.
Assoc. So. Agr. Workers 44: 41-42. 1947.
Glasscock, R. S. Aberdeen-Angus Efficient Producers of Quality Meat as
a Result of Breeding During Past 400 Years. Fla. Cattleman and Live-
stock Jour. 11: 12: no. 2, sec. 2: 4, 19-20. 1947.
Gratz, L. O. Citrus Experiment Station Celebrates Completion of Expan-
sion Program. Citrus Industry 28: 12: 5-6, 22. 1947.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr. Effects of Length of Growing Season and Oil Spray
Timing on Scale Control. Citrus Industry 29: 3: 8-9, 22. 1948.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., and John R. King. Comparative Compatibility and
Residual Toxicity of Four New Organic Insecticides as Based on Grass-
hopper Control. Jour. Econ. Ento. 41: 389-392. 1948.
Griffiths, J. T., and C. R. Stearns. A Further Account of the Effects of
DDT When Used on Citrus Trees in Florida. Fla. Ento. 30: 1-8. 1947.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., and W. L. Thompson. The Use of DDT on Citrus Trees
in Florida. Jour. Econ. Ento. 40: 386-388. 1947.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., and W. L. Thompson. The Grasshopper Menace in
Florida for 1947. Citrus Industry 28: 8: 3-4, 18. 1947.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr., John R. King and W. L. Thompson. Grasshopper
Control in Citrus Groves in Florida. Proc. Fla. Hort. Soc. 60: 80-86.
1947; see also Citrus Industry 29: 4: 11-14, 26. 1948.
Hamilton, H. G. The Citrus Situation. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 60:
24-31. 1947; see also Citrus Industry 29: 1: 5-6, 11-15, 20. 1948.
Hamilton, H. G. Integration of Marketing and Production Services by
Florida Citrus Associations. Jour. Farm Eco. 29: 495-505. 1947.
Hamilton, H. G. History and Method of Selling Florida Fruit by Auction
is Outlined by Citrus Authority. Fla. Farm Bur. Bul. 7: 2: 4, 6, 14. 1948.
Hamilton, H. G. Trends in the Processing Industry. Citrus Industry 28:
10: 10-14, 18. 1947.
Harris, Henry C. Some Recent Findings Concerning the Nutrition of the
Peanut. Proc. Assoc. So. Agr. Workers 44: 192-193. 1947.
Harris, Henry C. A Nutritional Disease of Oats Apparently Due to the
Lack of Copper. Science 106: (2756): 398. 1947.
Harris, Henry C. Copper and Oats. Commercial Fertilizer 76: 3: 40. 1948.
Harris, Henry C., W. B. Tisdale, and A. N. Tissot. Importance of Experi-
mental Technique in Fertilizer, Dusting, and Calcium Experiment with
Florida Runner Peanuts. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 11: 413-416. 1946.
Harrison, A. L. The Relation of Weather to Epiphytotics of Late Blight
on Tomatoes. Phytopath. 37: 533-538. 1947.
Harrison, A. L. The Control of Late Blight in Tomato Seedbeds Under
Epiphytotic Conditions. Phytopath. 37: 625-634. 1947.
Hayslip, Norman C. Tests Compare Insecticides in Aphid Control. Fla.
Grower 56: (1204): 3a: 5, 8, 29. 1948.
Hayslip, Norman C., and W. T. Forsee, Jr. An Evaluation of Tomato Pro-
duction Problems in the St. Lucie-Martin County Area. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 60: 151-154. 1947.
Henderson, J. R. Judging Soil Characteristics. Fla. Grower 55: (1196):
7: 15. 1947.

Annual Report, 1948 27

Henderson, J. R. Know Soil to Make it Pay Off. Fla. Grower 56: (1205):
4a: 30. 1948.
Hibbs, Robert A., and W. A. Krienke. Influence of the Mineral Content of
Water on the Properties of Ice Cream Mixes. Abs. Jour. Dairy Sci. 31:
703. 1948.
Hodges, E. M. Grazing Trials on Flatwoods Pastures. Proc. Assoc. So.
Agr. Workers 44: 43. 1947.
Hodges, E. M., and D. W. Jones. Hodges Describes Planting Pangola. Fla.
Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 12: 7: 29. 1948.
Hodges, E. M., and W. G. Kirk. Clover Making Good, Say Range Cattle
Researchers. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 11: 9: 18-20. 1947.
Hoffman, James C. Why Black Valentine Beans Vary. Fla. Grower 56:
(1205): 4a: 6. 1948.
Hume, H. Harold, and Erdman West. Camellia Leaves. Am. Camellia
Yearbook 1947: 137-140. 1947 (1948).
Jamison, F. S. Home Gardeners Still Needed. Fla. Grower 56: (1203):
2a: 13. 1948.
Jamison, F. S. Blue-Print to Garden Success. Fla. Grower 56: (1206): 5:
17, 20. 1948.
Janes, B. E. The Effect of Varying Amounts of Irrigation on the Com-
position of Two Varieties of Snap Beans. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 51:
457-462. 1948.
Johnson, Warren O. Frost Warning Service on Duty. Fla. Grower 55:
(1200): lla: 17. 1947.
Kelbert, D. G. A. New Vegetable Varieties for Florida. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 60: 97-99. 1947.
Kelbert, D. G. A. Brighter Outlook for Cucumber Growers Through New
Disease-Resistant Varieties. Market Growers' Jour. 76: 7: 37, 40. 1947.
Kelsheimer, E. G. The Control of Tomato Insects. Market Growers' Jour.
76: 12: 16, 23. 1947.
Kelsheimer, E. G. The Use of Some Organic Insecticides in the Control of
Earworms Attacking Sweet Corn. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 60:
121-123. 1947.
Kelsheimer, E. G. The Control of Corn Earworms in Florida. Market
Growers' Jour. 77: 6: 13, 33. 1948.
Kidder, R. W. Kidder Gives Steer Feed Results. Fla. Cattleman and Live-
stock Jour. 11: 12: 21-22. 1947.
Killinger, G. B. It's Time to Plant Pastures. Fla. Grower 56: (1202): la:
17, 21. 1948.
Killinger, G. B. Florida Pastures. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 14: 4:
21, 22. 1948.
Killinger, G. B. Effect of Burning and Fertilization of Wire Grass on
Pasture Establisment. Jour. Am. Soc. Agron. 40: 381-384. 1948.
Kincaid, Randall R. Rapid Acceptance of Soil Fumigation for Cigar-
Wrapper (Shade) Tobacco in Florida. Down to Earth (Dow Chemical
Co.) 3: 3: 5. 1947.
King, John R., and James T. Griffiths, Jr. Results of the Use of Concen-
trated Sprays in Citrus Groves in Florida. Fla.. Ento. 31: 29-34. 1948.
Kirk, W. G., and E. R. Fulton. Citrus Feed Proving Out at Range Cattle
Station in Tests on Half Brahmans. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock
Jour. 12: 3: 28-29. 1947.

28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Kirk, W. G., and George K. Davis. Mineral Consumption of Cattle on
Florida Ranges. Proc. Assoc. So. Agr. Workers 44: 81-82. 1947.
Kirk, W. G., and E. M. Hodges. What to Feed Cattle in Flooded Areas.
Fla. Cattleman and Livestock Jour. 12: 3: 12, 29. 1947.
Krienke, W. A., and Nathan Gammon, Jr. The Application of Flame Pho-
tometry to Determinations of Calcium, Potassium and Sodium in Milk.
Abs. Jour. Dairy Sci. 31: 717-718. 1948.
Magie, Robert O. Problems in Gladiolus Production. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 60: 197-199. 1947.
Magie, Robert O. The Gladiolus Industry is Growing Up Rapidly. Market
Growers' Jour. 76: 10: 16, 31, 33. 1947.
Magie, Robert O. DDT Injures Gladiolus Florets. Gladiolus Magazine 11:
6: 11. 1947.
Magie, Robert O. Copper Injures Gladiolus. Gladiolus Mag. 11: 6: 17. 1947.
Magie, Robert O. Abnormal Florets Result from Fusarium Bulb Rot.
Gladiolus Magazine 12: (2): 28. 1948.
Magie, Robert O. Gladiolus Increases Affected by Cutting and Planting
Depth. Florists' Review, Jan. 8, 1948.
Magie, Robert O. New Gladiolus Disease Termed Threat to Florida In-
dustry. Florists' Review, Jan. 15, 1948.
Magie, Robert O. The Curvularia and Other Important Leaf and Flower
Diseases of Gladiolus in Florida. N.A.G.C. Bull. 13. March, 1948.
Magie, Robert O. Curvularia Spot, a New Disease of Gladiolus. USDA
Plant Dis. Reporter 32: 11-13. 1948.
Magie, Robert 0., and E. G. Kelsheimer. Gladiolus Thrips Controlled by
New Organic Insecticides. The Gladiolus 23rd Ann. Ed.: 51-54. 1948.
New England Glad. Soc. Inc., Boston, Mass.
Marshall, Sidney P., and George K. Davis. Composition of Shark Meal.
Jour. Agr. Res. 76: 213-218. 1948.
Mehrhof, N. R. Summer Turkey Care Important. Fla. Grower 55: (1197):
8a: 15. 1947.
Mehrhof, N. R. Sixth Poultry Institute Best Ever. Fla. Poultryman and
Stockman. 13: 8: 9-13. 1947.
Mehrhof, N. R. Establishing Pullets on the Range. Fla. Poultryman and
Dairy Jour. 14: 6: 25. 1948.
Mehrhof, N. R., F. S. Jamison, B. E. Janes and G. K. Davis. Dehydrated
Celery Tops in Chick Rations. Proc. So. Agr. Workers 44: 198-199. 1947.
Moore, W. D., D. L. Stoddard and C. B. Savage. Present Status of the
Mosaic Disease of Vegetable Crops in South Florida. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 60: 128-131. 1947.
Neller, J. R. Radioactive Phosphorus "Counts" Availability of Phosphorus
in Soils. Commercial Fertilizer 75: 4: 32-34. 1947.
Neller, J. R. Mobility of Phosphates in Sandy Soils. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc.
of Am. 11: 227-230. 1946.
Neller, J. R., and C. L. Comar. Factors Affecting Fixation of Phosphorus
in Soils as Determined with Radioactive Phosphorus. Soil Sci. 64:
379-387. 1947.
Nettles, V. F. Two Years Results of the Effect of Several Irrigation
Treatments on the Yield of Cabbage and Snap Beans. Proc. Am. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 51: 463-470. 1948.
Nettles, V. F., F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes. Irrigation Studies with
Sweet Corn, Cabbage, and Snap Beans at Gainesville. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 60: 155-160. 1947.

Annual Report, 1948 29

Noble, C. V. Steering a '48 Course for Florida Farming. Fla. Grower 56:
(1203): 2a: 6, 26. 1948.
Noble, C. V., and Marvin A. Brooker. Trends in Recent Grove Plantings
in Florida. Cit. Ind. 28: 12: 9, 15, 17, 20, 21. 1947; 29: 1: 21, 22. 1948.
Parris, G. K. Watermelon Disease Control. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
60: 147-150. 1947.
Parris, G. K. Melons Need Disease Control. Fla. Grower 55: (1197): 8a:
13. 1947.
Parris, G. K. Influence of Soil Moisture on the Growth of the Potato
Plant and Its Infection by the Root-Knot Nematode. Phytopath. 38:
480-488. 1948.
Parris, G. K. Watermelon Research at Leesburg. Market Growers' Jour.
77: 4: 29, 42-43, 53. 1948; also Fla. Grower 56: (1206): 5: 14-15. 1948.
Parris, G. K., and L. H. Stover. Spraying Grapes for Disease Control in
Florida-1945-1947. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 60: 93-94. 1947.
Rogers, Lewis H., and Chih-hwa Wu. Zinc Uptake by Oats as Influenced
by Application of Lime and Phosphate. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 40:
563-566. 1948.
Ruehle, Geo. D. Report of Sub-Tropical Fruit Committee. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 60: 188-194. 1947.
Ruehle, Geo. D. Recent Spray Tests for Control of Potato Late Blight in
Sub-Tropical Florida. Am. Potato Jour. 24: 299-307. 1947.
Ruprecht, R. W. Sweet Corn in the Sanford Area. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 60: 161-163. 1947.
Savage, Zach. Five Citrus Crops Analyzed. Fla. Grower 55: (1201): 12a:
13, 18. 1947.
Savage, Zach. Estimating the Value of Citrus Fruit as it Develops. Jour.
of Farm Economics 29: 959-966. 1947.
Savage, Zach. Where Do We Go From Here? Citrus Industry 29: 5:
12-15. 1948.
Shealy, A. L. Better Cow Hides Pay Well. Fla. Grower 55: (1197): 8a:
8. 1947.
Shealy, A. L. How About Chufas and 'Taters? Fla. Grower 55: (1200):
16: 30. 1947.
Shealy, A. L. Protect Your Pig Investments. Fla. Grower 56: (1203):
2a: 23, 25. 1948.
Showalter, R. K. Consumer Packaging of Vegetables. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 60: 100-104. 1947.
Showalter, R. K. Consumer Packaging of Sweet Corn at the Paul B.
Dickman Farm at Ruskin, Florida. Pre-Pack-Age 1: 2: 10. 1947.
Showalter, R. K. Vegetable Prepacking Activities in Florida. The Packer
46: 44: 20. 1947.
Sites, John W. Internal Fruit Quality as Related to Production Practices.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 60: 55-62. 1947. See also Citrus Industry 29:
5: 20-22; 6: 4, 7-8. 1948; and Citrus Magazine 10: 9: 12-18. 1948.
Sites, John W., and W. L. Thompson. Timing of Oil Sprays as Related to
Fruit Quality, Scale Control, Coloring and Tree Condition. Citrus In-
dustry 29: 4: 5-9, 26. 1948.
Smith, F. B. Col. Bayard Franklin Floyd. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 38:
1129-1130. 1946.
Smith, F. B. How to Make Legumes Valuable. Fla. Grower 56: (1205):
4a: 29. 1948.

30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Smith, F. B. What Living Soil Means to Us. Fla. Grower 56: (1206): 5:
29, 31. 1948.
Smith, F. B., and David E. Singer. The Effect of Lignin on Ammonifica-
tion in Lakeland Fine Sand. Qr. Jour. Fla. Acad. Sci. 10: 100-101.
Spencer, Ernest L. Value of Rapid Soil Tests in Determining Fertilizer
Needs. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 60: 134-137. 1947.
Spencer, Ernest L. Reducing Loss of Transplanted Seedlings. Market
Growers' Jour. 77: 1: 18, 23, 31. 1948.
Stokes, W. E. Making Your Lawn Grow Better. Fla. Grower 56: (1205):
4a: 14. 1948.
Stokes, W. E. Determining Value of Pasture. Fla. Grower 56: (1206):
5: 23. 1948.
Suit, R. F. Spreading Decline of Citrus in Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 60: 17-23. 1947; see also Citrus Industry 29: 2: 12, 14-17. 1948.
Suit, R. F. The Cause of Spreading Decline. Citrus Magazine 10: 10:
14-15. 1948.
Suit, R. F., and E. P. DuCharme. Citrus Decline. Citrus Industry 28: 7:
5-8, 13. 1947.
Thompson, W. L. Factors Related to the Timing of Oil Sprays for Scale
Control. Citrus Industry 28: 5-7. 1947.
Thompson, W. L. Greasy Spots on Citrus Leaves. Citrus Industry 29: 4:
20-22, 26. 1948.
Thompson, W. L., and J. T. Griffiths. New Insecticides and Their Appli-
cation on Citrus. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 60: 86-90. 1947; see also
Citrus Industry 29: 3: 4, 10; 4: 18-19, 26. 1948.
Thornton, Geo. D., and F. E. Broadbent. Preliminary Greenhouse Studies
of the Influence of Nitrogen Fertilization of Peanuts on Nodulation,
Yield, and Gynophore Absorption of this Element. Jour. Amer. Soc.
Agron. 40: 64-69. 1948.
Tisdale, W. B. How Diseases Attack Shade and Other Trees. Citrus In-
dustry 28: 8: 14, 18. 1947.
Tisdale, W. B. It Pays to Treat Peanut Seed. Fla. Grower 56: (1203):
2a: 21. 1948.
Tisdale, W. B. Flordo Controls Rose Disease. Fla. Grower 56: (1205): 4a:
22. 1948.
Tisdale, W. B. Pepper Downy Mildew in Florida. Plant Dis. Reporter 32:
130. 1948.
Tissot, A. N. Lessen Insects in Bean Fields. Fla. Grower 55: (1199):
10a: 26. 1947.
Tissot, A. N. To Control Peach Tree Insects. Fla. Grower 56: (1202):
la: 19, 23, 24. 1948.
Tissot, A. N. Tracking Down Insect Enemies. Fla. Grower 56: (1205):
4a: 38. 1948.
Volk, G. M. Adjust Soil pH for Productivity. Fla. Grower 55: (1199): 10a:
18, 19. 1947.
Volk, G. M. When Top-Dressing Is Needed. Fla. Grower 56: (1205): 4a:
23. 1948.
Volk, G. M., and G. T. Sims. Effect of Soil on the Mineral Composition of
Commercially Grown Vegetables. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 60: 138-
141. 1947.

Annual Report, 1948 31

Walter, J. M. Pole Beans and the Rust Problem in the Manatee-Ruskin
District. Market Growers' Jour. 76: 11: 16, 32. 1947.
Walter, J. M. Spraying vs. Dusting for Control of Foilage Diseases of
Vegetables in Florida. Market Growers' Jour. 77: 5: 10, 39-40. 1948.
Warner, J. D. Wintering Yearling Cattle on Oat Pasture. Victory Farm
Forum (Chilean Nitrate Ed. Bu. Inc.) 30: 15. 1948.
West, Erdman. Diseases of Ornamentals. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 60:
204-205. 1947.
West, Erdman. The Truth About Weed Killers. Fla. Grower 55: (1197):
8a: 16. 1947.
West, Erdman. Odd Plants Common in Florida. Fla. Grower 55: (1199):
10a: 25, 28. 1947.
West, Erdman. Disease Control on Ornamentals. Fla. Grower 56: (1204):
3a: 18. 1948.
West, Erdman. Camellia Diseases in Florida, 1946-1947. Am. Camellia
Yearbook 1947: 116-121.
Wilmot, R. J. Camellia Varieties. Proc. Assoc. So. Agr. Workers 44: 155.
Wilmot, R. J. Early American Camellias. Am. Camellia Yearbook 1947:
Wilmot, R. J. Chinese Camellia Literature. Am. Camellia Yearbook 1947:
Wilmot, R. J. Japanese Camellia Names. Am. Camellia Yearbook 1947:
Wilmot, R. J. Easy Method of Germinating Camellia Seed. Am. Camellia
Yearbook 1947: 43-44.
Wilmot, R. J. Budding. Am. Camellia Yearbook 1947: 61-62.
Wilmot, R. J. Care of Camellias and Azaleas. Fla. Grower 56: (1205):
4a: 20. 1948.
Wilmot, R. J. Camellia Growing in Florida. Off. Bull. So. Cal. Camellia
Soc. 9: 4: 1-3, 6, 21. 1948.
Wilson, J. W. A Preliminary Report on the Control of the Green Peach
Aphid on Shade Grown Tobacco in Florida. Fla. Entomologist 30:
45-67. 1948.
Wilson, J. W. The Effect of Insecticides Upon Honeybees. Fla. Beekeeper
2: 8: 7-8. 1948.
Winsor, Herbert W. Boron Micro Determination in Fresh Plant Tissue.
Analytical Chemistry 20: 176-181. 1948.
Wolfenbarger, D. O. Wireworm Control Studies on the Lower South-
eastern Florida Coast, 1946-47. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 60: 116-121.
Wolfenbarger, D. O. Notes on Some Guava Insects. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 60: 167-170. 1947.
Wolfenbarger, D. O. Tests of Some Newer Insecticides for Control of Sub-
Tropical Fruit and Truck Crop Pests. Fla. Entomologist 29: 37-44.
Wolfenbarger, D. O. Border Effects of Serpentine Leaf Miner Abundance
in Potato Fields. Fla. Entomologist 31: 15-20. 1948.
Wolfenbarger, D. O. Some Notes on Mango Insects. Proc. Fla. Mango
Forum 7: 17-19. 1947.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

One of the greatest problems of the year was attempting to meet the
increased cost of books and periodicals. In spite of a constantly increased
demand from the staff for both, and because technical and scientific peri-
odicals must be kept intact for purposes of research, it was necessary to
limit the purchase of books to 176 and to do no binding of the accumulated
unbound materials, which in itself creates another major problem.
Student organizations of the College of Agriculture have established
a book memorial to the late Professor Charles E. Abbott. Seventeen books
have been purchased and given to the Library for this purpose.
The policy affecting the purchase of books by the College of Agricul-
ture has been changed. In the past, such books have been kept in the
University Library. Now all books on agriculture are to be sent to this
Library. As of June 30, 715 books have been transferred on a permanent
basis, as will several thousand others when space permits. Approximately
1,000 bound periodicals will be transferred as soon as their processing is
completed. In addition to these, all books purchased from the fund allo-
cated to the College of Agriculture in the future will be placed here. While
the cataloging of these books is done in the University Library, there re-
mains a tremendous amount of work to be done before they can be shelved.
In order to catalog this material so that the classification will conform to
that used by this Library, the University Library was furnished a copy of
the scheme arranged by Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian, which has been
used in this Library for a number of years, and which will be used from
now on in classifying all literature relating to agriculture in both libraries.
The books referred to above are primarily for instructor-student use and
not for research. However, when they fit into the latter program they will
be available for it.
A total of 13,842 documents and periodicals were received. Of these,
2,041 were publications from other Agricultural Experiment Stations, all
of which have been cataloged, and the cards filed in the catalog. A total
of 12,707 cards have been added to the catalog, 1,004 being additions to
the Botanical Catalog. The Library has furnished the Central Catalog
with 245 cards.
Volumes totaling 2,628 have been lent to staff members, including 633
that were lent to the branch stations. No record is kept of materials used
within the Library. Neither is a record kept of the number of staff and
faculty using it, but 3,857 students used 15,279 pieces of material within
the Library.

Annual Report, 1948

The first allotment of funds under the Research and Marketing Act of
1946 was made available at the beginning of the fiscal year and these,
with State funds, made possible the initiation of regional potato, tomato
and citrus marketing projects.
The cooperative arrangement with the Division of Crop and Livestock
Estimates, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Orlando, has been function-
ing effectively during the year.

Purnell Project 154 H. G. Hamilton, A. H. Spurlock
and C. V. Noble
Data have been obtained on the financial status as of the end of the
fiscal year 1946-47, departmentalized operating statements for the 1946-
47 season, prices received for products by varieties and market use, num-
ber of members and other significant factors of the operations of cooper-
atives for approximately 20 cooperatives handling citrus fruits.

Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage and C. V. Noble
Tabulations were completed for the 1945-46 season. The field work for
closing the accounts for the 1946-47 season was completed and accounts
were opened for the 1947-48 season.
The office work of closing accounts for the 1946-47 season is now in
progress. After completing this closing of the accounts, mimeographed
summaries will be made for the seasons of 1945-46 and 1946-47.
Yields for the 1945-46 season were high. Labor costs accounted for
approximately one-third of the expense of growing citrus fruit on the
groves represented in this project. Wage rates were high and labor effi-
ciency very important. Fertilizer costs were the highest of any season of
this project and large quantities were used. Many growers did not realize
production costs from their fruit during the 1945-46 season and still more
accounts were in the red during the 1946-47 season. Greater efficiency
in labor, fertilizer and pest control should be realized in order to lower pro-
duction costs. The production cost per box is dependent to a considerable
extent on yield per acre, since many of the costs per acre are approxi-
mately the same for a high yield as for a low yield. Better management
practices are becoming increasingly important with the continuation of
extremely low prices realized by the grower for his fruit.

Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
Sidney Marshall and A. H. Spurlock
Breeding, inventory and replacement records were obtained from three
herds during the year.
Replacement and inventory records of selected dairy herds over the
past seven years have been accumulated for preliminary reports.
See Department of Animal Industry report of this cooperative project.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Purnell Project 395 A. H. Spurlock, R. E. L. Greene,
D. L. Brooke and C. V. Noble
Estimates of labor and materials required for eight additional crops
were obtained from about 100 farmers during the year, as follows: toma-
toes-Fort Pierce area; peppers-Manatee and Sumter counties; eggplant
-Manatee County; escarole and lettuce-Manatee and Seminole counties;
snap beans-McIntosh area; cabbage and green corn-Seminole County.
Summaries for each crop have been prepared, giving labor and ma-
terials requirements and season of operations.

Purnell Project 429 J. R. Greenman, H. G. Hamilton,
D. E. Alleger and R. E. L. Greene
Farm Management and General.-Tabulation and analysis of data col-
lected were continued. In the course of the year, data concerning labor
and materials requirements on 10 major crops produced in the area were
obtained from approximately 80 farms. These data have permitted the
verification and adjustment for changed techniques of insect and disease
control in labor and materials requirements data previously collected.
Analysis of the data and preparation of the manuscript for a bulletin
based upon the data are in process.
Marketing Work.-During the year a limited amount of summariza-
tion of the 15,000 "lot-sales" of strawberries has been done. The effect of
such factors as major and minor defects, size of berries, size of "lot-sales"
and total daily supply of berries on the Plant City market price are in the
process of summarization.

State Project 451 G. Norman Rose
(In collaboration with the Division of Crop and Livestock Estimates,
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, USDA, Orlando)
Chronologically speaking, the work performance, as outlined in this
project, is greatly overlapping. It has been necessary to begin the new
season's work before the old has been completed. During the fiscal year
1947-48, the major portion of the work was performed as follows:
1. Summer-(a) Survey work was continued in all commercial produc-
ing areas, being brought over from the close of the previous fiscal year.
This work consisted of personal contacts to obtain statistical data rela-
tive to the past season's performance in vegetable production and/or the
handling thereof. Contacts were made with growers, packers, processors,
shippers, sales organizations, state and private markets, railroads and
their affiliated organizations, and by tabulating contents and origin of
trucks passing roadguard stations.
(b) The leader was appointed chairman of the Agricultural Produc-
tion Adjustments Committee. A meeting was held in Gainesville in August,
1947, and with the able assistance of Charles P. Butler of the Bureau of
Agricultural Economics, Clemson, South Carolina, the annual report of the
committee was released in September, 1947. This was a compilation of the
reports of the various sub-committees and dealt principally with the out-
look for Florida agriculture for the coming year.

Annual Report, 1948 35

(c) The first release of a bulletin, "Costs of Producing and Marketing
Florida Celery, Season 1945-46", was made during this period. Research
for this release was conducted by Donald L. Brooke, Associate Agricultural
Economist and the leader of this project.
2. Fall-(a) The major portion of the work performance consisted in
editing, tabulating, analyzing and interpreting the statistical data ob-
tained during the survey period; applying this study in making annual
revisions of all the past seasons' crop estimates reported.
(b) During this period, field trips were made into all fall producing
areas to determine acreages planted and acreages for harvest and to make
a forecast of production. To supplement these trips, regular schedules as
well as special schedules for some particular crops were mailed to growers
for additional information to guide in the estimates. Editing, analyzing
and tabulating these reports, as well as shipping and price information,
was in addition to the work mentioned in 2 (a).
3. Winter-(a) The data indicated in 2 (a) were tabulated on a county
basis, as were the loadings in straight and mixed cars and, trucks. From
these data, county estimates were made along with all other data on the
past season's performance and assembled for the annual bulletin, "Vege-
table Crops in Florida". The third volume of this bulletin was released
during this period.
4. Spring-(a) The major portion of this season was given to the
regular duties as outlined in 2 (b), inasmuch as this is the heaviest pro-
ducing period for the State. Florida's large watermelon crop broadens the
field of commercial vegetable production to the extent that it becomes
(b) As the spring season closed in South Florida, survey work began.
Contacts were resumed with growers, shippers, etc. Tabulation of data
on mixed car loadings and truck load origins was going on all during this

State Project 480 Donald L. Brooke
Field schedules of costs and returns on vegetable crops for the 1946-47
season were obtained from 373 growers representing 35,600 acres. Crops
covered in one or more of the producing areas were: cabbage, celery, cucum-
bers, lima beans, snap beans, eggplant, peppers, lettuce, escarole, sweet
corn, tomatoes, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes and squash. Areas involved
were: Fort 'Myers, Wauchula, Sarasota, Manatee-Ruskin, Webster, McIn-
tosh, LaCrosse, Hawthorne, Hastings, Sanford, Oviedo, Zellwood, Ever-
glades, Fort Pierce, Pompano, Dania-Hallandale and Dade County. Sum-
maries by crops and areas were prepared and mimeographed for release
as a report entitled, "Per Acre Costs and Returns for Vegetable Crops by
Areas in Florida, Seasons 1945-46 and 1946-47." Individual crop summary
tables were mailed to cooperating growers.
Field schedules on labor and materials requirements and market dis-
tribution of gladioli in Lee County were taken and a manuscript on com-
mercial production was mimeographed and released to County Agents and
growers in April, 1948.
Field schedules of costs and returns for the 1947-48 season on Irish
potatoes, cucumbers, green peppers, tomatoes and eggplant have been
obtained from the Fort Myers, Wauchula and Webster areas.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Purnell Project 482 D. E. Alleger and C. V. Noble
The collecting and compilation of data, for the complete classification
of rural land ownership in Florida on a county basis, was continued. Data
for 54 counties are in hand and work is progressing in the 13 remaining

Purnell Project 483 R. K. Showalter, L. H. Halsey and A. H. Spurlock
The report on this cooperative project with the Department of Horti-
culture is given by that Department.

R. M. A. and State Project 484 R. K. Showalter, L. H. Halsey
and A. H. Spurlock
This is one of the Regional Marketing Projects in which this Depart-
ment and the Department of Horticulture are cooperating. The complete
State report is made by the Department of Horticulture.

R. M. A. Project 485 R. E. L. Greene and C. V. Noble
This is a Regional Marketing Project in which this Department is co-
operating with the states of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina
and Alabama, and with the Federal Bureaus of Agricultural Economics
and Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering. The complete
report on the regional project for the year will be made by the regional
project leader, J. M. Johnson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute. The report
of the work in Florida follows.
Potato shippers in Dade County and in the Hastings area were inter-
viewed to determine the volume handled in 1947, method of handling, type
and size of pack, principal outlets and method of shipment.
One hundred and thirty-seven test lots of potatoes, included in 94 test
shipments, of selected producers in the Dade County and the Hastings
area were followed from the farm to terminal markets to determine the
nature and extent of deterioration.
Samples of potatoes were exposed for one hour in the sun at a definite
time. The temperatures of the potatoes were recorded and the samples ex-
amined for the effects of the exposure. The number of samples obtained
from the two areas is given below.
Number of Samples
Time of exposure Dade County Hastings Area Total

9:30 10:30 A. M. 11 20 31

2:00 3:00 P. M. 8 8 16

Total 19 28 47

All packinghouses in each of the two areas were visited and a brief
summary prepared giving a description of the type of equipment used and
the method of operation.

Annual Report, 1948 37

R.M.A. and State Project 486 H. G. Hamilton, H. W. Little
and C. V. Noble
This is a State sub-project of Regional R.M.A. Project SM-4, with the
following agencies cooperating: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station;
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, USDA; Fruit and Vegetable Branch,
P. & M.A., USDA; and Research and Service Division, F.C.A., USDA.
The complete report of the regional project for the year will be made
by the regional project leader, H. G. Hamilton. The report on the Florida
phase follows.
This sub-project is a revision of Purnell Project 434 and continues the
work started under that project. During the year, analyses of schedules
for the seasons 1943-44 and 1944-45 were continued. Among other things,
a cost index for handling citrus fruits was prepared for each firm. This
index will enable a firm to compare its efficiency, with respect to cost,
with other firms irrespective of the type of container used.
Data were obtained for the 1946-47 season's operations for approxi-
mately 75 packinghouses and 25 canning plants. These data consist of
important cost items, such as materials, supplies, labor by important
operations, light, water, power, overhead, administration, selling and
miscellaneous. In addition, general data were compiled on volume handled,
investment in plants, type of inspection and grading used, time and temp-
erature of cooking, method of purchasing and selling. Approximately 75
percent of these schedules have been summarized. A few preliminary
tables have been made which show the cost and variation in the cost of
packing and canning citrus fruits.

Florida Truck Crop Competition.-The regular supplement to Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 224 was prepared covering the
1946-47 season. This covers the weekly car-lot competition between Flor-
ida and other states and importing countries for each commercial truck
Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries to Groves in Florida.-The
regular annual summary of the movement of citrus nursery stock, by
varieties, to Florida destinations for the 1946-47 season was made through
the cooperation of the Florida State Plant Board. These summaries are
made available in mimeographed form to supply the continued demand
for this information.
Graphic Summary of 1945 Census for Florida Agriculture.-The graphic
summary of pertinent data from the 1945 Federal Agricultural Census for
Florida was completed, mimeographed and released.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Research in the handling and processing of many of the agricultural
crops has been handicapped in the past by the lack of personnel with
training in agricultural engineering who would devote full-time service
on cooperative projects. To fill this need, an agricultural engineer was
added to the staff in November and a large part of his time has been
devoted to assisting with the many needs of several departments. Initially
the major attention will be given to the development of practical methods
of artificial drying of hays and seeds, cooperatively with the Agronomy and
Horticulture Departments.

State Project 507 J. M. Myers, G. B. Killinger
and R. W. Bledsoe
With the great amount of rainfall and the high relative humidity, dur-
ing the summer months when forage growth is lushest, it has been almost
impossible to field cure high quality hay in Florida. An economical method
of artificially, or barn, curing hay is the objective of this project.
A small hay drier with a capacity of several tons has been installed
on the Station Farm at Gainesville. This drier works on the principle
of forcing heated air under a slatted floor and then up through the hay.
Tests have been run to determine if the use of heat would be necessary,
and if so, how much heat could be economically used. Tests were also
run to determine the proper amount of air to be used. Design features
for uniform distribution of air will be improved, if need be.
Two dryings of hay have been completed, but due to ideal weather
conditions, no conclusive data can be reported at this time.
Tests run on this drier to determine its adaptability as a seed drier
were successful. Approximately 14,000 pounds of lupine seed were dried
in four dryings. The amounts of seed per drying ranged from 1,000 to
5,700 pounds.
Comparison tests on rates of drying in bags, and placed loose on the
drier, show that a considerable saving can be realized by drying the seed in
the bulk, provided an economical method of removing seed from the
drier can be devised. When seed were placed on the drier to a depth of 14",
in bags and in bulk, 30% more air passed through the loose seed than
through the bagged seed.

Annual Report, 1948 39

Development and introduction of improved varieties and species of
crops such as Pangola grass, lupines, hairy indigo, Dixie Runner peanuts,
and Sealand cotton have been continued. Problems of fertilization, cul-
tural practice and propagation of these new crops have been studied. In-
creasing attacks of insects and diseases have made it necessary to revise
breeding work with oats, tobacco, corn and other crops to search for
resistance to these new pests.

State Project 20 W. A. Carver and Fred H. Hull
Pedigreed selection of peanut hybrid material is being continued. Second
generation plants are being grown in 1948 that involve three or all of
the lines Fla. 231-51 (Dixie Runner), Fla. 230-118, Fla. 249-40 and Ga. 207-3.
Selection also is being made of hybrid materials which combine Valencia
peanuts with large seed hybrid strains, and Jumbo peanuts with large var-
iegated seed lines of Rasteiro extraction. Promising second or third gen-
eration plants are being selected for backcrossing to one of the parents,
or outcrossing to some other line or variety which appears to have needed
characters. Emphasis is being placed on seed quality and yield. A gener-
ation was gained by growing first generation peanuts in the greenhouse
during the winter of 1947-48.
Seven Dixie Runner lines in the variety test at Gainesville in 1947
produced from 27 to 55-average 41-percent more sound peanuts per
acre than Florida Runner. Florida Runner was planted in 40 randomized
plots and Dixie Runner in 56. The second highest producer of sound nuts
was Fla. 230-118, three strains of which yielded 32 percent higher than
Florida Runner. The total damage in the seed was 1.32 percent for Dixie
Runner and 5.50 for Florida Runner.
The Florida Department of Agriculture is certifying planting seed of
Dixie Runner peanuts. The progenies of pure seed lots released to growers
by this Station for increasing in 1947 and 1948 are subject to registration.

Hatch Project 55 W. E. Stokes, G. E. Ritchey1
and M. E. Paddick
The general purpose of this project has been to study certain crop
plants, especially lupines, with reference to their value as green manures.
Major consideration has been given to their effective use in rotation with
general field crops such as corn and peanuts.
For the year 1947-48 the yields of corn obtained following certain win-
ter cover crops were as follows:

Corn Yields Following Bu. per Acre
Sweet clover ................ ....... ...... .................... 31.5
Blue lupines ............. ..... ......... .................. 30.0
Oats .................................... -.....20.3
Natural vegetation ............... ..... ................... 21.6

No fertilizer of any kind has been applied, during 1946 or 1947, to the
plots from which the above yields were obtained. Fertilizer effects, if any,
were carried over from 1945 fall applications. Oats and blue lupines had

1 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B.P.I., S.&A.E., USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

been sown, sweet clover allowed to volunteer from seed in the soil, and
"natural vegetation" permitted to develop from weeds and native plants,
all in the fall of 1946.
Other references to the residual effects of winter lupines on corn yields
may be found under Project 165, Corn Fertilizer Experiments.
Hatch Project 56 W. E. Stokes, Geo. E. Ritchey2
W. A. Carver and Fred Clark
Ten strains of Lespedeza were planted in a strain test in 1947. All
strains were killed by root knot except one-F. C. No. 31858. This strain
is volunteering well in 1948 and is being planted for further studies.
Peanuts, corn, cotton, oats, sugarcane and tobacco varieties also were
under test.
State Project 163 J. D. Warner, R. W. Wallace, R. L.
Smith, R. W. Lipscomb, G. B. Killinger,
M. E. Paddick and W. E. Stokes
These studies with corn have involved tests with the rate and time of
applying nitrogen, the use of green manures in rotation, the efficiency
of different plant spacings, and observations on the effects of minor ele-
ments. Experiments have been conducted by the Main Station, the North
Florida Station, Mobile Unit No. 1 at Monticello, Mobile Unit No. 3 at
Marianna and Mobile Unit No. 5 at DeFuniak Springs.
Spacing of Corn Plants.-Results of several tests thus far have dem-
onstrated little increase in yield, if any, from spacing plants closer than
24 inches in rows 42 inches apart (approximately 6,000 plants per acre),
regardless of heavy applications of fertilizer.
Side-Dressing Corn With Nitrogen.-Various fertilizer trials have indi-
cated that the response of corn to side-dressing of more than 40 to 50
pounds of nitrogen per acre is not likely to be either marked or profitable
if (1) a fair amount of nitrogen (10 to 20 pounds per acre) is contained
in fertilizer applied at planting time or (2) a good stand of a leguminous
cover crop has been plowed under previous to planting.
Corn Yield and Date of Plowing Under Lupines.-No striking differ-
ences in corn yields have been obtained by varying the date of plowing
under a winter crop of blue lupines. Available data indicate the most
desirable time to plow under lupines is late February or early March.
Bankhead-Jones Project 295 W. E. Stokes, G. B. Killinger and
R. W. Bledsoe
Rotational grazed White Dutch clover-carpet grass pastures produced
more pounds of herbage and beef per acre during the 1947 grazing season
than similar pastures continuously grazed.
Pangola, Coastal Bermuda and Pensacola Bahia pastures rotationally
grazed produced more pounds of herbage and beef per acre for the 1947
season than Carpet grass similarly treated in previous seasons. Paraguay
and Common Bahia grazed for the first time produced a yield of herbage
and beef comparable to the three above improved grasses, all of which
were superior to Carpet grass. All of the grass pastures received a 500-
pound-per-acre application of a 6-6-6 fertilizer in late February and 200
pounds per acre of sodium nitrate in June.
2 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B.P.I.. S.&A.E., USDA.

Annual Report, 1948

A Carpet grass-Common Bahia pasture was double-disked and top-
seeded to hairy indigo in March of 1948. Growth of the hairy indigo on this
grass pasture was excellent and measured nearly three feet in height
by July 1, 1948. (All grazing tests were conducted cooperatively with the
Department of Animal Industry.)
White Dutch Clover uniformly treated with potash, lime and minor
elements and with various sources of phosphorus indicate the value of
sulfur in growing a legume crop. Rock phosphate and heat-treated
phosphorus produced very little clover growth, but upon the addition
of 175 pounds of gypsum per acre, clover growth was nearly equal to
that treated with the standard superphosphate. Source of phosphorus tests
were conducted cooperatively with the Department of Soils.

Bankhead-Jones Project 297 Geo. E. Ritchey3 and W. E. Stokes
Nearly 400 recently introduced strains of grasses and legumes, chiefly
grasses, have been under observation at the Station during the last season.
The strains under observation have largely originated from South America
and South Africa.
Birdsfoot trefoil( Lotus corniculatus) has continued to give less satis-
factory growth than Big trefoil (Lotus uliginosus). Big trefoil produces
a very satisfactory growth when an abundance of moisture exists. Stand-
ing water for periods of two or three weeks will kill most of the trefoil,
and excessively long periods of drought will inhibit its growth. The crop
is susceptible to root-knot on the dryer soils.
Early hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta) continues to show promise as
a legume adapted farther north than the late variety which is grown in
southern Florida. The stems are finer and the plant is more easily
harvested for hay and seed than the larger late variety. Seed is being
increased as rapidly as possible and will soon be available on the
Other indigo species under observation are I. fairchildii, I. pilosa,
I. subulata and I. endycaphylla. The latter three show promise of possible
companion crops with sod grasses. Indigofera pilosa, when fed to rabbits,
produced no toxic symptoms. Indipofera subulata, when fed to rabbits as
an exclusive feed, produced signs of toxicity. Further tests are being
Argentina Bahia grass, P. I. No. 148,996, continues to show vigor and
seedings which have been made indicate that it produces a sod more
rapidly than other broad-leaf strains.
The relative value of late indigo, early indigo, crotalaria and natural
vegetation as a cover crop in combination with corn is being studied. Late
indigo produced twice as much organic matter as the early strain, but
the yield of corn following was about the same for both strains.
Blue lupine studies have been continued and include studies of the
use of the sweet strains for grazing by cattle and seed as a source of
concentrated protein for feed. Another phase of the work involves the
relationship of sweet blue lupines to insect and disease injury.
Lupine disease and seed storage problems have been studied in co-
operation with the Department of Plant Pathology and the North Florida
Station. (See Plant Pathology report, Project 463.)

Bankhead-Jones Project 298 W. E. Stokes and Geo. E. Ritchey'
Seed of two varieties of sweet yellow lupine (Lupinus albus) which were
3 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B.P.I., S.&A.E., USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

developed at the Florida Station has been increased and should be ready
for distribution within one or two seasons.
A third sweet yellow variety which produces a white seed has been
imported and is under test. Pods of the white-seeded variety do not dehisce,
but hold the seed indefinitely, thus simplifying harvesting.


Bankhead-Jones Project 299 G. B. Killinger, W. E. Stokes
and R. W. Bledsoe
Burning of native wire grass and fertilizing and seeding with grasses
and legumes without soil preparation continues to give good results.
Burning Carpet, Pangola, Bahia and Bermuda grass in the fall does not
appear to damage the sods and is favorable for early winter clover growth.
Composition of new growth wire grass and other pasture plants fol-
lowing burning is greatly improved.

Bankhead-Jones Project 301 W. E. Stokes, Geo. E. Ritchey'
and G. B. Killinger
The studies of legumes, including Big Flower vetch, Augusta vetch,
Dixie Wonder pea, Austrian winter pea, and Biennial Sweet clover, were
continued during the last season. Augusta vetch volunteered satisfactorily
and made sufficient grazing. Biennial Sweet clover made late spring graz-
ing and continued to persist throughout the greater part of the summer
in combination with Carpet grass.
Hairy indigo is making a good growth on grass sods, but more trials
are necessary to determine its value. Early hairy indigo has volunteered
after combining on a Leon fine sand without any form of cultivation or
Common Bahia, Carpet grass, Pangola and Coastal Bermuda when
burned in November were followed by a greatly stimulated volunteer clover
seed germination. Tall sods of these grasses allowed only a limited num-
ber of clover seedlings to start. Grass from tall sods mowed and removed
from the plot allowed a fair stand of clover to thrive. When mowed and
burned a 100 percent clover stand was had on all four grass sods.

Bankhead-Jones Project 304 W. E. Stokes and G. B. Killinger
On a flatwoods soil, Leon fine sand, native wire grass was burned in
late November, limed and fertilized immediately after burning and top-
seeded without any soil preparation to White Dutch clover and Annual
White Sweet clover. An excellent stand and growth of both clovers resulted.
Kentucky 31 and Alta fescue produced most growth when planted in
mid-October to mid-November. September and December seedings were
not as vigorous as the in-between dates. One to two tons of limestone and
400 to 600 pounds per acre of a 6-6-6 fertilizer greatly stimulated fescue
growth. In the absence of limestone, the fescue grasses on an acid flat-
woods soil failed to make satisfactory growth.

4 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B.P.I., S.&A.E., USDA.

Annual Report, 1948 43

Adams Project 369 G. B. Killinger, W. E. Stokes and
R. W. Bledsoe
Florida W-1 corn harvested from plots receiving from 100 to 160 pounds
of nitrogen per acre analyzed higher in protein than corn from plots
receiving 40 pounds or less of nitrogen per acre.
White Dutch Clover treated with 100 pounds per acre P,,20 and K,O
analyzed higher in calcium, phosphorus, and potassium than clover treated
with 50 pounds or less of PO and K20.
Samples of Kentucky 31 fescue and Alta fescue grown under various
fertility and lime levels were analyzed for composition.
Numerous oil determinations were made of blue lupine seed, both sweet
and bitter, selected from plants with different agronomic characterist cs.
The percent oil content of the sweet lupines varied from 4.8 to 6.0 and
that of the bitter from 4.2 to 6.8 percent.

Adams Project 372 Fred H. Hull, Fred Clark and W. E. Stokes
Three acres of tobacco hybrids were grown on an area heavily :n-
fested with nematodes and the more resistant plants are being saved.
Lack of resistance under severe nematode conditions has been a major
problem. Resistant hybrids are being planted and selections for back-
crossing to domestic varieties are being made. Curing tests with some
of the more highly resistant hybrids show promise of good quality. Test-
ing is continuing on an accelerated basis.

Purnell Project 374 Fred H. Hull and W. A. Carver
A new white hybrid, Florida W-2, has been released and planted on a
considerable acreage in 1948. This hybrid is a few days later in maturing
than Florida W-l, but otherwise is quite similar. Florida W-2 is better
adapted to the lighter grades of soils than Florida W-1.
A new yellow hybrid, Dixie 18, has been released by the Georgia Coastal
Plain Experiment Station and tested one year in several locations in
Florida. This hybrid includes two inbred parent lines developed by the
Florida Station. Dixie 18 is probably slightly more productive than Florida
W-1 or Florida W-2 under most conditions in Florida. It is somewhat less
resistant to weevil damage.
Recurrent selection for specific combining ability is being tried as a
new breeding technic to develop higher yielding hybrids. The first cycle of
this plan has been completed with both field corn and sweet corn. Re-
combination of lines selected in the first cycle with field corn was done in
the greenhouse in the winter of 1947-48 and test crosses for the second
cycle have been made in the field in 1948. Recombination of selected lines
of sweet corn was completed in the field in 1948.

Hatch Project 378 W. E. Stokes and Fred Clark
This project has been inactive, except for preliminary studies with
lupines in the tobacco rotation. From results obtained it is not advisable
nor recommended to grow tobacco following lupines for two reasons:
(1) poor quality tobacco and (2) the possibility of severe loss from root-
knot, as lupines are very susceptible to nematodes.
Auxiliary growth control studies with hormones are being continued.

44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Bankhead-Jones Project 417 G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes
Pangola, Coastal and 99 Bermuda nurseries were maintained to study
production of vegetative planting materials. Three acres of Pangola grass
fertilized with 500 pounds per acre of a 6-6-6 fertilizer in late February
and top-dressed with 200 pounds per acre of nitrate of soda produced suf-
ficient vegetative planting material for 290 car and truck loads sufficient
to plant over 2,000 acres of pasture land. Cattlemen planted a limited
quantity of the two Bermuda grasses and a few poultrymen secured these
grasses for their poultry ranges.
Because of excessive rainfall, Florida strains of Black Medic and Annual
White clover failed to set sufficient seed for harvesting. Early hairy indigo
was harvested by combine and produced over 200 pounds of first quality
seed per acre. Mowing the indigo and allowing it to dry for three or four
days was more satisfactory than combining the seed direct from the stand-
ing plants. However, the late or ordinary strain of indigo combines best
when left standing.
Bankhead-Jones Project 440 Henry C. Harris and R. W. Bledsoe
Two articles have been published (Science 106:398. 1947, and Soil Sci.
Soc. Amer. Proc. 12:278-281. 1948) which deal with the effect on oats of
copper applications to Arrendonda loamy fine sand on the Station Farm.

Fig. 1.-Pangola grass being dug by Florida cattlemen at the Experiment
Station grass nurseries on June 28, 1948.

Annual Report, 1948 45

These experiments have been continued, and neither Florida 167 (Figures 2
and 3) nor Florilee oats grew normally without copper applications. Similar
experiments have been conducted on this soil with cowpeas, corn, barley,
wheat and rye. Copper treatments markedly increased yields of all except
rye, which did not seem to be affected. Barley and wheat, when grown
without copper, exhibited symptoms similar to those described for oats.

mu a ----WIMPOO
Fig. 2.-Florida 167 oats 90 days after seeding, showing abnormal
growth without copper. Note dying leaf tips and marginal chlorosis of
leaves. Buds are rolled tightly and dying.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Hatch Project 441 Henry C. Harris and Fred Clark
This project has been inactive during the year.
State Project 444 Fred Clark and G. M. Volk
The same chemical treatments were used as in 1945-46 and 1946-47
seasons. Results for 1947-1948 were counter to those of 1946-47 in that
the overabundance of rainfall reduced the effectiveness of the treatments
for weed control.
Serious mole-cricket burrowing was encountered and a 2-pound appli-
cation of 5% chlordane dust per 100 spuare yards was used which resulted
in serious loss of tobacco plants. This loss of plants reduced the value of
all chemical tests for experimental purposes for 1948.
Methods developed and reported under State Project 513 were used
for the determination of hydrogen cyanamide and dicyandiamide, and for
the determination of ammonia in the soil in the presence of urea and
Urea applied at a rate of one pound per square yard was found to
be easily leached during the first two to four days after treatment. Cyana-
mid was much less so. A 1.16-inch rainfall occurring immediately after
treatment removed 91 percent of a pound-per square-yard application of
uramon and 40 percent of a pound-per-square-yard application of cyana-

Fig. 3.-Florida 167 oats which received fertilizer without copper (left)
and fertilizer with copper (right).

Annual Report, 1948

Fig. 4.-This part of the plant bed received no chlordane and
was not treated chemically for weed control.

Fig. 5.-This plant bed plot, not treated chemically for weed control,
received 2 pounds of chlordane per 100 square yards of bed.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The remaining cyanamide was still effective in weed control after leaching
loss took place. There was considerable evidence of high leaching loss of
uramon in commercial seedbeds due to the high amount of rainfall during
the 1947-48 season, as compared to the relatively small amount of leaching
under the low rainfall of the 1946-47 season.
Analysis of soils for dicyandiamide indicated that this compound was
formed in significant quantities following the use of cyanamide under
certain conditions. Proof of its significance as a toxic agent to tobacco
seedlings is still not entirely conclusive. Abnormal rainfall and injury
of tobacco seedlings by chlordane treatments interfered with tests in-
tended to contribute further data during the past season.
Tobacco seedling injury quite definitely attributable to a high concentra-
tion of nitrite nitrogen (73.5 ppm.) was noted in a seedbed in which
soil moisture apparently was above optimum for extended periods, sug-
gesting that this toxic agent could be a factor in otherwise unexplainable
plant injury.
High volatile loss of ammonia from soils receiving a pound-per-square-
yard treatment with uramon was verified by tests conducted at differ-
ent soil temperatures. From 43 to 65 percent of the ammonia equivalent
of uramon was lost from Lakeland loamy fine sand at average fall soil
temperature during the first week after application of the uramon. Loss
was more rapid at higher temperatures. Loss also increased with a de-
crease in soil moisture.

RMA Project 487 S. C. Litzenberger and W. A. Carver
More than 1,000 panicle selections, hybrid populations and varieties
of oats, wheat, rye and barley were observed in nursery trials during the
crop season 1947-1948. No single advanced agronomically-acceptable strain
or variety was found to have combined resistance to the prevailing diseases
except possibly Camellia oats, a late-maturing variety selected from
the cross of Bond x Alber. In trials throughout Florida, Camellia appeared
to possess some mature-plant resistance to the new race of crown rust
(Puccinia coronata avenae, race 45) which was so destructive to the higher
yielding strains such as Florida 167, Florida Blackhull and other Victoria
blight (Helminthosporium victoria) resistant oats of the year before. Very
early strains as Florida Blackhull escaped severe damage from crown rust
this year by virtue of earliness.
Florida 'Black was distinctly superior to Abruzzi rye in grain and forage
yields this y-,ar. It produced nearly three tons of air-dry forage per acre
and 20.8 bu.-"els of grain weighing 54 pounds per bushel.
Hybrid combinations of the best adapted commercially-grown oat va-
rieties have been made by the U. S. Department of Agriculture with crown
rust-resistant strains as Santa Fe, Landhafer and selections from Santa Fe
x Clinton and Mindo x Landhafer and substantial quantities of seed from
some of these will be available for growing in nursery tests in Florida
in 1948-1949. Extensive introductions are being made in an effort to
locate sources of disease-resistant stocks of other small grains for growing
in Florida. Upland rice, grain sorghum and flax are included.

R.M.A. Project 488 Henry C. Harris and R. W. Bledsoe
Nutrient solution studies (in cooperation with Animal Industry) are
being conducted in which the movement of radioactive calcium is being
traced when applied to either the roots or to the gynophores of the peanut.

Annual Report, 1948 49

Some curing experiments indicate that there is a possibility of satis-
factorily curing peanuts with slight heat in tobacco barns.

W. E. Stokes, M. N. Gistb
and P. W. Calhoun5
Sea Island cotton strain and fertilizer tests were conducted at Leesburg
and Evinston. Sealand 542, a cross between Sea Island and long staple
upland recently released by the U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry, which
grows in the field like upland but with lint characteristics resembling Sea
Island, was included in the Sea Island strain tests. Table 1 compares yield,
boll size and lint percent of the Sea Island strains with Sealand:

Character Compared Sea Island Average Sealand 542 Difference
of all strains Percent
Pounds Seed Cotton
per Acre 720 1089 51
Bolls per Pound 118 72 64
Percent Lint 30.1 32.2 7

Some of the newer Sea Island crosses yielded somewhat higher than
the old strains, but the difference was not as great as Sealand.
In the fertilizer test, additional nitrogen over what is generally used
in this area increased yields somewhat more than did additional potash.
The appearance of the plants at Leesburg suggested that excessive leach-
ing of nitrogen had taken place, and a second and third nitrogen appli-
cation in some of the replicates appeared to substantiate this deduction,
since in these areas the plants grew normally. A considerably modified
experiment was put out at Leesburg in 1948 to study nitrogen utilization
in more detail.
Approximately 400 bushels of Sealand 542 seed were grown in 1947 in
the LaCrosse-Worthington Springs area, and about 30 bushels were pro-
duced from plantings from Gainesville southward. On the better soils, yields
averaged about 1/ bale per acre under commercial conditions. In years
past, Sea Island production has averaged about 1/4 bale per acre under
similar conditions.
Approximately 400 acres of Sealand have been planted in 1948 for
seed increase purposes, from which it is anticipated that 4,000 or more
bushels of pure Sealand seed will be secured. Most of these plantings are
in Columbia, Union, Alachua and Lake counties.
Two very late plantings of Sealand were made in 1947, tp ascertain
if this cotton could be produced during the slack labor period in the
Alachua-Marion-Lake County vegetable area. In one case production was
light, presumably because of unsatisfactory soil conditions, but in the
other, a June 13 planting, the yield was approximately 815 pounds of
seed cotton per acre. Several late plantings are being tried this year.
Limited experimentation with two new organic insecticides (a) 20%
toxaphene with 40% sulfur and (b) a mixture containing 3% gamma
isomer of benzene hexachloride, 5% DDT and 40% sulfur indicated that
in some respects they are superior to calcium arsenate with 1% nicotine
added. Kills were quicker and more species of insects were affected.
Residual effect was low however, and rather heavy applications had to
be made to secure satisfactory kills after the cotton reached approxi-
mate maturity.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Research in the Animal Industry Department was conducted in the
following divisions: (1) Dairy husbandry, (2) dairy manufactures, (3) ani-
mal husbandry, (4) animal nutrition, (5) poultry husbandry, and (6) vet-
erinary science, including parasitology.
Register of Merit records were completed on 23 Jersey cows in a study
of milk production and transmitting ability of both cows and bulls in
the herd. Complete daily milk weights and monthly butterfat tests were
obtained from cows in lactation, as well as breeding and calving data for
all dairy animals in the Station herd.
In addition to work on dairy production research, the dairy herd
has been a source of experimental animals in investigations dealing with
animal nutrition, embryology, parasitology, pathology, physiology and
protozoology. The herd and facilities have been used for judging, selection
and management and breeding operations for the instruction of students
in the College of Agriculture. Visiting groups of 4-H club boys and
Future Farmers have used facilities of the herd for demonstrations in
dairy practices and judging and for other educational purposes.
A new addition to the Dairy Products Laboratory has increased facili-
ties for research. A detailed study has been made of the composition of
milk produced, in Florida to determine the effect of feed, climate and soil
conditions on the various milk constituents. The effect of degree of hard-
ness of incorporated water on the physical properties of ice cream mix
and quality of the finished ice cream is also being studied.
Small herds of Aberdeen-Angus and Hereford cows were maintained
for experimental and educational purposes. A few top bull calves were
sold to breeders in the State and a few Angus females were consigned
to sales. Seven animals were entered in classes at the State Fair and
made creditable showings. Extensive use was made of the beef cattle
herds in carrying out experimental projects, for instruction of University
students and for various educational demonstrations held throughout
the year.
The swine herd composed of purebred Duroc-Jerseys, was maintained
to furnish experimental animals for projects on swine production and for
instructional purposes. The physical plant at the swine farm has been
improved by the building of permanent farrowing pens, concrete water-
ing troughs, automatic waterers, concrete feeding troughs, self-feeders for
pigs and new type shades. Outstanding gilts and boars were sold to farm-
ers for use as foundation breeding animals.
Experimental work with radioactive isotopes in the Nutrition Labora-
tory was expanded. Studies were begun with radioactive molybdenum,
iodine and calcium and continued with copper, cobalt and phosphorus.
Recognition was given the work in the Nutrition Laboratory in a grant
from the Nutrition Foundation, Incorporated, for the study of mineral
element interrelationships.
Research on interrelationships of copper and phosphorus was con-
ducted under a grant from the U. S. Phosphoric Company, Division of
Tennessee Corporation, while initiation of investigations of pasture ferti-
lization with different phosphorus sources has been made possible by a
grant from the Florida Agricultural Research Institute. In cooperation
with Shark Industries, Division of the Borden Company, an experiment on
the influence of extra vitamin A on beef cattle under winter range condi-
tions was begun and will continue for several years.
The poultry flock is composed of approximately 400 Single Comb
White Leghorns, 350 Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, 125 Light Sussex


Annual Report, 1948

and 75 New Hampshires. It is used for experimental purposes in
breeding, feeding and management of mature stock; and for conducting
research studies with baby chicks and growing stock on range or in con-
finement in battery brooders. During the spring of 1948 approximately
3,500 chicks were hatched. Some were used in experimental feeding trials
and the remainder were brooded and reared on the range to produce stock
for the 1948-1949 feeding and management trials.
Cooperative poultry experimental work was continued at the West
Central Florida Experiment Station.
Research in veterinary science included cooperative projects with
dairymen and cattlemen on some of their major disease problems, in-
cluding mastitis, anaplasmosis, grubs and liver flukes. Many phases of
these diseases can be studied best under actual farm and ranch conditions.
Poultry disease investigations were conducted under controlled con-
ditions at the new Poultry Disease Laboratory at the Main Station; how-
ever, important observations were made on poultry farms throughout
the State.
Purnell Project 133 G. K. Davis, C. L. Comar, Leon Singer, R. B.
Becker, P. T. D. Arnold, D. A. Sanders, R. S.
Glasscock, W. G. Kirk and R. W. Kidder
This work has shown that a marginal copper deficiency in which the
cattle do not show gross clinical symptoms may result in poor breeding
efficiency and weak calves, and has emphasized the need for keeping
copper and cobalt constantly before cattle on pasture. The demonstra-
tion that copper is effective in preventing ill effects from. excess
molybdenum in forage grown on muck soils has made it possible to correct
this condition on such areas. Guernsey cattle at the Range Cattle Station
have been on an experiment for four years without definite evidence of
iron deficiency. Copper deficiency has been marginal in this area and
none of the extreme cases of this deficiency seen in the Everglades area
have appeared at the Range Cattle Station. Forage samples from the
Range Cattle Station have been collected regularly and analyzed chemi-
cally. Samples of forage collected during the early work under this
project have been analyzed for cobalt during the year and results will
be included in a publication now being prepared.
Through the use of radioisotopes, specific information has been obtained
regarding the role of cobalt, copper, molybdenum and phosphorus in
animal nutrition when administered to cattle. Information is now available
on these elements as follows: (1) Degree of absorption from the digestive
tract; (2) pathways of excretion when ingested or received intravenously;
(3) retention and loss by various tissues and organs; and (4) the extent
to which the ingested element appears in milk.
It was determined that ingested cobalt and copper were poorly
absorbed, and the greater part of the amount absorbed was stored in the
liver. Injected cobalt was rapidly eliminated but injected copper was
apparently well retained. Molybdenum resembled phosphorus in its be-
havior in the animal body, as both elements were readily absorbed and
tended to accumulate in bone. About 0.005 percent of a labeled copper
dosage was recovered in the milk of a dairy cow, while for molybdenum
and phosphorus the values were about 2 and 10 percent, respectively.
Techniques for the use of radioactive iodine and calcium have been
developed. Liver biopsies were found satisfactory for chemical copper
determinations, as well as radioactive assays.
Reliable analytical methods for copper, molybdenum and phosphorus at
the levels encountered in the tissues under investigation have been of great

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

assistance in the development of the experimental program. (See Ever-
glades Station.)

State Project 140 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
R. S. Glasscock and G. K. Davis
This project was inactive during the year.

State Project 213 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
G. K. Davis and C. L. Comar
This project was inactive during the year.

Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
A. H. Spurlock and S. P. Marshall
The breeding, replacement and inventory records of selected dairy
herds in Florida over the past seven years have been accumulated for
preliminary reports. The causes of losses of 1,066 dairy cows between
2 and 20 years of age have been: Mastitis 23.6%; low production 15.7%;
reproductive troubles 12.7%; other infectious diseases 1.6%; sold for
reasons unstated 26.3%; deaths from all causes 13.8%; and miscellaneous
reasons 6.3%.
Of 766 cows entering the milking herd at two years old, the average
age attained was 6.6 years, or about 41/2 years of productive usefulness.
At 61% years old, 47.9% of these cows had been eliminated from the herd.
At 9 years, 20.5% of the cows had been retained and only 5.2% were in
production at 121/ years of age.
A similar study of dairy bulls of five breeds has been made on a
nation-wide basis. Since a bull must be at least five years old before his
transmitting ability may be evaluated, only animals of that age or older
have been considered for a study of average useful life-span. Of 2,636 bulls
at five years of age, the average age at the last effective service was
10.63 years. Of 1,595 bulls still living at 10 years of age, their average
useful life was 12.34 years. Of the 113 bulls that remained in service at
15 years, their useful life-span was extended to 16.18 years.
Records of 4,063 bulls are at hand showing the causes of termination
of natural usefulness. Among the major causes of termination of useful-
ness, sterility accounted for 28.5%; lost through accidents or injuries,
9.7%; inactive because of senility, 8.5%; low fertility or inability to breed,
7.9%; ingestion of foreign objects,,5.4%; lameness, 4.8%; and infectious
diseases, including lumpy jaw, brucellosis, Johne's disease, tuberculosis,
trichomoniasis and pneumonia, 16.9%. Records received for 12% of the
bulls did not state reason for death or disposal.

Purnell 346 G. K. Davis and C. L. Comar
Laboratory animals such as rats and rabbits continue to be of partic-
ular value in serving as pilot animals for work with farm animals. These
animals were used for studies of radioactive cobalt, copper, phosphorus
and molybdenum, alone and in combination, in a study of the interrela-
tionships of these elements in body metabolism. The tissue distribution


Annual Report, 1948

of cobalt, copper and phosphorus in the rat, rabbit and bovine were
found to be similar, with the exception that in the rat the concentration
of labeled copper in the kidney usually equaled or exceeded that in the
liver, whereas in the bovine the liver value averaged five times the kid-
ney concentration. Rats on a high molybdenum and low copper diet did
not develop disease symptoms as did cattle on a similar ration, which
would indicate that the rat is relatively insensitive to an inbalance of
these elements.
With rats, the work has progressed from a study of the normal dis-
tribution to an investigation of the interactions of copper, molybdenum
and phosphorus, employing the radioisotopes of each element individually.
This is a complex problem and evaluation of data obtained is not yet
Purnell Project 353 D. A. Sanders
Work on infectious bovine mastitis during the past year centered chiefly
around the preventive control of udder infections and in the effective-
ness of penicillin and other promising materials as a treatment for the
disease. A marked decrease in the incidence of udder infections and gen-
eral improvement in milk production was observed over a period of
months in experimental herds. These results were due to improved herd
management methods and milking practices. It was determined that
important features in controlling the disease included detection and isola-
tion of infected animals, disposal of incurables and replacement with
non-infected first-calf heifers or bred heifers, avoidance of trauma to the
udder, careful sanitary milking practices, and treatment of selected
cases, preferably during the "dry" period prior to calving. Aqueous
solutions of penicillin and urea, sulfamethazine and pencillin, and emuls-
ions of penicillin in mineral oil were used. Intramammary injections of
penicillin emulsions in mineral oil seemed to offer the most promising
means of the methods tried. In preparing the emulsion, 100,000 units
of penicillin were dissolved in approximately 2.5 ml. of sterile distilled
water and thoroughly emulsified in 25 ml. of heavy mineral oil. Four
injections via the teat canal at 24-hour intervals were used. Mild infections
of streptococcus and staphylococcus mastitis involving a minimum amount
of tissue damage responded more favorably to treatment than chronic
infections with marked indurative tissue changes.
Bankhead-Jones Project 356 G. K. Davis and Katherine Boney
Certain pasture grasses and hybrid corn were analyzed chemically
and microbiologically before these feeds were used in feeding trials
with small animals. Samples of grass and legumes analyzed chemically
have included 22 samples of forage secured from the Range Cattle Sta-
tion. Also, included in this work has been a series of samples of new
hybrid corn, which will be analyzed for amino acids, particularly trypto-
phane and lysine. Work to date has indicated that some of the grasses
were deficient in some of the amino acids, particularly tryptophane. Some
preliminary results indicated that the fertility level of the soil may
influence the proportion of amino acids as well as total protein in
State Project 387 L. E. Swanson
This project has been inactive during the year.

54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

State Project 394 E. L. Fouts and P. T. Dix Arnold
This project has been inactive during the year.

State Project 412 R. S. Glasscock, W. G. Kirk and S. J. Folks
Two 2%1-acre pastures of mixed Carpet grass and clover were grazed
continuously with steers, while two similar pastures were grazed rota-
tionally. The grazing season extended from January 9 to October 2,
1947. The pastures grazed continuously furnished 1,203 grazing days
with a total gain of 1,605 pounds. The average daily gain per steer was
1.33 pounds; 321 pounds of beef were produced per acre. The rotationally
grazed pastures gave 1,897 grazing days with a total gain of 2,935
pounds. The average daily gain per steer was 1.55 pounds; 587 pounds
of beef were produced per acre.
Two pastures each of Coastal Bermuda, Pensacola Bahia and Pan-
gola grass were grazed from March 24 to October 2, 1947. Coastal
Bermuda gave 1,522 grazing days for 2.4 acres, as compared with 1,400
grazing days for Pensacola Bahia and 1,553 grazing days for Pangola
grass. The average daily gains per steer were 0.81 pounds for Coastal
Bermuda, 0.79 for Pensacola Bahia and 0.66 pounds for Pangola pasture.
Total pounds of beef produced per acre were 268, 239 and 222 pounds,

State Project 418 M. W. Emmel
In field tests on poultry farms on which birds were confined to. yards,
sulfurization of the soil at the rate of 10 pounds per 100 square feet was
found to reduce roundworm and tapeworm infestations approximately 65
percent as compared with control birds on unsulfurized soil. The tests
involved 1,862 birds on six widely separated farms. The same procedure
reduced louse and flea infestations 75 percent on four of these farms.
This project is discontinued with this report.

Adams Project 424 M. W. Emmel
Transmission agent RPL 16 (Regional Poultry Laboratory) was found
to produce tumors characterized by a lymphoid-like cell when this agent
was injected into the breast muscles of young chickens and a varied
lymphomatosis response occurred in the visceral organs of the same birds.
The transmission agent, was found to be intimately associated with the
nucleoprotein of the tumor cells. Nucleoprotein from the tumor area and
from blood cells of affected birds dissolved and precipitated three times
by means of its solubility in 1 M sodium chloride and insolubility in 0.85
percent sodium chloride was capable of transmitting the breast tumor
through at least six serial transmissions.

State Project 426 G. K. Davis and C. L. Comar
This project was inactive during the year.

Annual Report, 1948

Bankhead-Jones Project 436 W. A. Krienke and E. L. Fouts
Milk samples for analysis were obtained from dairy herds varying
in size from 5 to 500 producing cows (total about 12,000 cows) located
in 14 areas in Florida, extending from Miami to Tallahassee.
Analyses of each of the 120 milk samples yielded values for butterfat,
milk solids-not-fat, water, lactose, casein, ash, pH, titratable acidity, freez-
ing point, and for vitamins C and B. that are within the ranges reported
for other sections of the United States. Distribution of the samples ac-
cording to percentage composition shows; for butterfat, 20% below 4, 60%
between 4 and 5, and 20% above 5; for milk solids-not-fat, 18% below
8.5, 52% between 8.5 and 9.0, and 30% above 9.0; for casein, 18% below
2.5, 59% between 2.5 and 3.0, and 23% above 3.0; for lactose, 10% below
4.2, 85% between 4.2 and 4.7, and 5% above 4.7; for titratable acidity,
12% below 0.15, 77% between 0.15 and 0.17, and 11% above 0.17; for
ash, 8% below 0.72, 72% between 0.72 and 0.78, and 20% above 0.78.
A method has been developed in cooperation with the Soils Depart-
ment for the determination of calcium, potassium and sodium in solutions
of milk ash by a flame photometric procedure based on the removal of
interfering phosphates and sulfates by precipitation with lead chloride.
The Thiazol Yellow photometric method for magnesium, modified for
this study, was used for the determination of this element in prepared
milk ash solutions. Values were obtained within the range reported by
other investigators.

State Project 438 D. A. Sanders and A. N. Tissot
Use of DDT sprays continued to prove the most practical and efficient
method for controlling blood-sucking insect pests of cattle such as stable
flies, horn flies, mosquitoes and lice, and was effective in reducing the
incidence of the Gulf Coast tick. It has been concluded that full coverage
with 2.3 percent water-dispersible DDT as a spray, applied at the rate
of 2 pints or approximately 21 grams of DDT per adult animal, may be
used as a basis for controlling these pests of cattle. Use of this spray was
not effective in reducing the incidence of Tabanid species (horseflies)
attacking cattle.
This work, which is conducted cooperatively with the Entomology De-
partment of the Station and the Bureau of Enotmology, USDA., is closed
with this report. Further work in connection with control of these insect
and arachnid pests of cattle will be included under Purnell project 462.

State Project 450 N. R. Mehrhof and G. B. Killinger
Four groups of S. C. White Leghorn and four groups of S. C. Rhode
Island Red pullets were housed, fed and managed alike except for the
grazing period. The pullets in Group 1 were allowed to graze all day;
Group 2, grazed from 5 o'clock until dark; Group 3, access to a bare yard
all day; and Group 4, grazed one-half day.
Coastal Bermuda was the permanent pasture grass used in the yards
for grazing from spring until fall. Oats were used for winter grazing.
A larger number of birds was included in this trial than in previous
trials. Even with a larger number of birds, there was sufficient pasturage.
The Coastal Bermuda appeared to stand up well under grazing employed.
During the first seven 28-day periods total egg production was highest
with S. C. White Leghorns in the group grazing from 5 o'clock until dark;

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

the group that grazed all day rated second place; the group that had
access to bare yards ranked third; while the group that grazed one-half
day was fourth.
In the case of Rhode Island Reds, total egg production was highest
in the group that had access to bare yards all day; the group that grazed
one-half day ranked second; the group that grazed all day ranked third;
while the group that grazed from 5 o'clock to dark ranked fourth.
Feed consumption per dozen eggs produced for the first seven periods
varied from 4.93 pounds for group 2 to 5.28 pounds for group 4 in the
case of S. C. White Leghorns and from 5.69 pounds for group 3 to 6.41
pounds for group 2 in the instance of S. C. Rhode Island Reds.

State Project 453 N. R. Mehrhof and A. W. O'Steen
Four groups of New Hampshire chicks were brooded, fed and managed
alike except for floor space allowed in four different trials. Birds in Pen
1 had 1 square foot per chick plus yard; Pen 2, 1/2 square foot plus yard;
Pen 3, % square foot plus yard; and Pen 4, 1 square foot in confinement.
The results of the four trials may be summarized as follows:
Birds allowed one square foot of floor space and yard were heaviest,
while those allowed one-half square foot were lightest; the difference
between these two pens of birds was 22.87 pounds per 100 birds.
Pounds of feed required to produce a pound of meat varied according
to floor space allowed. Birds allowed one square foot of floor space with
a yard made the most efficient gains.
Considerable difficulty was experienced in all lots with coccidiosis
and wet litter; however, in general more difficulty was experienced in
the pen allowed only 0.5 square foot of floor space than the other pens.
Average mortality for all trials by pens was less than 6 percent, vary-
ing from 2.23 percent for Pen 1 to 5.37 percent for Pen 2.
Birds in all pens were fairly well feathered and on a basis of live
grading there was less than 1 percent rejects. The grades for dressed
birds, U. S. Grade AA and U. S. Grade A combined, were fairly uniform.
Work on this project is completed with this report.

State Project 456 M. W. Emmel
Two different species of fungi have been isolated from eight naturally
occurring cases of "leeches" in horses. Numerous attempts to reproduce
the disease with these fungi under widely varying conditions have failed.

State Project 459 L. E. Swanson
Packinghouses of Florida under State, federal, and municipal inspection
report a total kill for 1947 of 168,067 cattle with 10,514 livers condemned
for liver fluke infection. These figures do not represent the true loss
from liver fluke infection, as a great percentage of slaughter cattle are
not inspected. Furthermore, losses by death, emaciation and reduced milk
flow are not included.
The lymnaeid snail, Fossaria cubensis pfr., has been found to serve
as an intermediate host for liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, in Florida.
Drainage and applications of copper sulfate in strengths of 1 to
500,000 have controlled liver fluke infection in one herd of cattle. Artesian
wells were controlled by feeder pipes to watering troughs regulated by
automatic float valves. These wells were used also for irrigation of pas-

Annual Report, 1948 57

ture by the flooding method. All surface waters were drained from the
ranch by properly placed ditches when irrigation was completed.
Two experimental herds of cattle where death losses occurred were
treated with a water suspension of hexachlorethane at the rate of 10
grams per 100 pounds weight of animal. Not a single death loss in this
group of 651 treated animals has occurred following treatment. No evi-
dence of toxic effects from the treatment could be detected in the entire
group, and all animals showed marked improvement within 30 days after
the administration of the drug. The livers of fluke-infected animals were
condemned on slaughter following treatment, although no live flukes were
found. However, the scars were present and proved extensive enough for
condemnation. The treatment did not remove the immature forms but
did destroy all adult flukes in one treatment. In the light of these find-
ings it was determined that infected herds should be treated twice a year.
On post mortem examination, 1,025 liver flukes were found in a 10-
months old calf showing symptoms of parasitism.
Rabbits were found to be definite hosts for liver fluke and may dis-
seminate great numbers of ova of these parasites. One rabbit with one
fluke in the gall duct had 19,030 fluke ova in the gallbladder. Treatment
with drugs or chemicals alone cannot control liver flukes; however, medi-
cation coupled with destruction of the intermediate hosts (snails) through
drainage and use of chemicals will control flukes from any given area.

State Project 460 L. E. Swanson
Cattle grubs, Hypoderma lineata, generally appear in the backs of cat-
tle late in November in Florida. They begin to work their way out of
the infected parts by early December. Larvae were obtained from infected
cattle and studied under laboratory conditions. It was found that most
grub larvae hatched into flies on the 18th day; however, a few did not
hatch until the 54th day. Ox warble flies began laying eggs on the heels
of cattle during January and continued through February and March under
Florida conditions.
Ten herds of cattle with a total of 852 cows, 33 bulls, 197 yearlings
and 95 calves were treated with a mixture of 1 pound cube powder (5%
rotenone) and 2 pounds DDT 50-W to 10 gallons of water, using a power
spray machine which maintained over 400 pounds nozzle pressure. The
animals averaged 3.54 grubs per head, bulls and yearlings showing the
heaviest infection. The percentage of infected animals were: cows, 48%;
bulls, 72%; yearlings, 66%; and calves 14%.
It was determined that one treatment per year for a herd of grub-
infected cattle gave good control; however, the few grubs that appeared
in backs of cattle and cut holes through the hide after treatment were not
affected. For complete control, herds must be retreated.
The mixtures of DDT and rotenone or benzene hexachloride and ro-
tenone were effective in controlling ox warbles. Although the DDT or
benezene hexachloride has no effect on the grubs, it is beneficial in con-
trolling flies, lice and some species of ticks on cattle at the same time
rotenone is being applied for grubs.

State Project 461 R. S. Glasscock and S. J. Folks
Western prairie hay, ground snapped corn, cottonseed meal and sweet
sorghum silage were fed to maintain normal weight of brood cows during
the winter. All cows received hay alone from October 25 to January 28,
consuming an average of 600 pounds per cow. Beginning on January 28

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

all cows received a ration of 30 pounds of silage and 2 pounds of cotton-
seed meal daily per cow until the cows began dropping calves. As each
cow dropped her calf, 8 pounds of ground snapped corn were added daily
to the silage and cottonseed meal ration. All feeding was discontinued
on March 28.
It required an average of 600 pounds of hay, 1,800 pounds of silage,
120 pounds of cottonseed meal and 163 pounds of ground snapped corn
for each cow during the wintering period.
The purebred Hereford cows averaged 1,031 pounds after calving and
the average birth weight of the calves was 76 pounds. All calves ran
with their dams in pasture without supplemental feed and their average
weaning weight at 214 days was 478 pounds and the cows averaged 1,086
The purebred Aberdeen-Angus cows had an average weight of 987
pounds after calving and the average birth weight of the calves was 65
pounds. Their average weaning weight at 235 days was 518 pounds and
the cows averaged 1,066 pounds.

Purnell Project 462 D. A. Sanders and A. N. Tissot
Information obtained from carefully conducted field tests, on the ef-
fects of DDT sprays in controlling important *or potentially important
blood-sucking vectors of anaplasmosis, has been applied in several in-
stances to natural outbreaks of the disease. A reduction in the incidence
of the disease, following use of DDT sprays to control hornflies and Gulf
Coast ticks, occurred in such herds where heavy populations of these
arthropods existed. In these instances, a thorough spraying of the animals
was made with a 2.3 percent wettable DDT spray using about 2 pints
or 21 grams of DDT per adult animal. Use of DDT sprays did not notice-
ably reduce the number of horseflies in experimental herds of cattle. Since
horseflies are thought to be important vectors of anaplasmosis, further
work on their control will be required.

State Project 477 R. S. Glasscock and S. J. Folks
The swine herd is being carried under two systems of management.
Half of the pigs in spring litters were cared for according to the general
practice-given a limited ration until fall fattening crops were ready for
grazing. Under this system it is necessary to sell the finished slaughter
animals on a late market. Hogs marketed late in the season generally
bring a lower price due to heavy offerings.
The other group of pigs was fed to market weight as .soon as possible.
They were sold on an early market. Crops that mature early were used
extensively in this system.
The pigs that were full fed attained the desirable market weight of
180 pounds shortly after August 15, while those that were given a limited
ration as growing pigs reached market weight around the middle of Sep-
State Project 478 R. A. Dennison, N. R. Mehrhof,
R. B. Becker, G. K. Davis and E. L. Fouts.
Dehydrated celery tops meal was compared with alfalfa leaf meal in

Annual Report, 1948

chick rations This new product was used at 6 and 9 percent levels. The
weight of the chicks was used as a basis for determining the feeding
value of dehydrated celery tops meal.
The average weight per chick, using White Leghorn chicks, at 10
weeks of age was 740.70 grams for the 6 percent alfalfa leaf meal group;
765.71 grams for the 6 percent dehydrated celery tops meal group; and
778.09 grams for the 9 percent dehydrated celery tops meal group.

State Project 479 Glenn Van Ness
Supplying day-old baby chicks with organisms of various types isolated
from adult birds did not increase weight or otherwise improve the health
of these chicks. Four types of bacteria and three species of yeast were
tested. It has been thought that young chicks received some benefit from
certain micro-organisms that might be picked up naturally from being
exposed to environments of adult birds.
This project is completed with this report.
State Project 481 A. L. Shealy, R. S. Glasscock,
L. E. Swanson and W. G. Kirk
Records obtained from meat packers in Florida show that losses in
slaughter cows and calves amount to approximately $5.00 per 1,000 pounds
live weight. These losses come from bruises caused mainly by overload-
ing; horns; rough handling on farms, ranches, and markets; careless driv-
ing of trucks loaded with cattle; and improper bedding (footing) for
animals that are transported to market or packinghouse.
Losses in slaughter hogs amount to approximately $2.50 per 1,000
pounds live weight. Overloading and rough handling on farms and in auc-
tion markets were responsible, primarily, for these losses.
Increase in losses from liver fluke infestation was observed in certain
sections of the State. Liver flukes present a serious problem in infested
State Project 489 J. C. Driggers, G. K. Davis
and N. R. Mehrhof
Citrus seed meal was processed in an effort to determine the apparent
harmful factor when included in poultry rations by the following methods:
(1) Hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid, (2) extraction with water and (3)
extraction with ethyl alcohol. The first two methods proved ineffective,
while the third method gave encouraging results.
A crystalline substance was isolated from the alcohol extract and fed
to young chicks until six weeks of age. In this trial the chicks receiving
the control ration weighed 394 grams at the conclusion of the experiment;
those receiving the control ration plus 20 percent citrus seed meal weighed
128 grams; those receiving the control ration plus an amount of alcohol-
extracted citrus seed meal equivalent to 20 percent citrus seed meal
weighed 365 grams; those receiving the control ration plus 2 percent of
the crystalline substance from the alcohol extract weighed 227 grams.
State Project 490 J. C. Driggers and N. R. Mehrhof
This project was inaugurated to determine the -effect of treating eggs
with a commercial light weight, specially processed mineral oil as a means
of preserving their edible qualities.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Six groups of 92 eggs each, three groups treated with oil and three
untreated, were used in this experiment. Two groups, one treated and
one untreated, were stored in three different temperatures, one at room
temperature (50-90F.), one at electric refrigerator temperature (48-55F.),
and one at cold storage temperature (30-36F.). The experiment was
started June 6, 1947.
All eggs in the untreated groups stored at room temperature were
inedible by October 10, 1947. Two eggs in the treated group were edible
and were of grade C on June 6, 1948.
All eggs in the untreated groups stored at electric refrigerator temp-
erature were inedible by November 14, 1947. Twenty-one eggs in the
treated group were edible June 6, 1948, and of these, three were grade A,
seven grade B and 11 grade C.
Of all eggs in the untreated groups kept at cold storage temperatures,
61 were edible June 6, 1948, six were grade A, 26 were grade B and 29 were
grade C. Sixty-three eggs in the treated groups were edible and were of
the following grades: 20 grade A, 14 grade B and 29 grade C.

Bankhead-Jones Project 497 E. L. Fouts, W. A. Krienke
and L. R. Arrington
In determining the influence of water constituents in the manufacture
of ice cream, experimental mixes were composed of high fat cream and
plain condensed skimmilk as the only milk constituents; sucrose, as the
sugar; sodium alginate as the stabilizer; and water ranging from 0 to
400 p.p.m. hardness as the diluent. Processing procedures were varied
to include homogenization of some mixes and of certain fractions of other
mixes with or without some of the water. The mixes were frozen in a
40-quart batch freezer.
Lower viscosity mixes resulted with 0 hardness water than with 400
p.p.m. hardness water as the diluent when the homogenized fraction had
a low serum-solids to fat ratio, but this condition gradually reversed itself
as the ratio was increased. The degree of butterfat-globule clumping was
affected only slightly by water hardness but greatly by changes in the
serum-solids to fat ratio in the homogenized fraction. In general, ice cream
mixes whipped most rapidly when the diluent was of 0 water hardness.
More specifically, a higher serum-solids to fat ratio in the homogenized
portion favored rapid whipping of the mixes. This relationship also was
conducive to improved body and texture of the ice cream.
When using sodium alginate as the stabilizer, it was found that a
rapid whipping mix and a good body and texture of the ice cream re-
sulted if the homogenized fraction, consisting of the cream and the plain
condensed skimmilk only, was blended with the water-sugar-stabilizer
fraction and the entire mix subsequently pasteurized and cooled. Such a
procedure may have commercial application, especially if the size of the
homogenizer constitutes a "bottle neck" in the mix making process. These
recommendations apply to batch-frozen ice cream and may not necessarily
apply to continuous-frozen ice cream.

State Project 503 N. R. Mehrhof, A. W. O'Steen and F. S. Perry
The third feeding trial with broilers was completed. In the three trials
chicks fed a ration consisting of 20 percent protein mash for the first six
weeks, 18 percent protein mash for the following two weeks and 16 percent

Annual Report, 1948 61

protein mash for the last two weeks made the largest gains. Chicks fed
20 percent protein mash for the first six weeks, then 18 percent protein
mash plus cracked corn for two weeks and 16 percent protein mash plus
cracked corn ranked second.

State Project 512 R. S. Glasscock
Four pairs of steers were selected uniformly with respect to age,
weight, breeding, type, quality and grade. All steers received prairie
hay as roughage and a carbohydrate concentrate to which was added
cottonseed meal or ground sweet blue lupine seed in the ratio of 1 to 4.
Members of each pair consumed the same amount of feed. One member
received the concentrate with cottonseed meal as the protein supplement
and its pair mate received sweet blue lupine seed meal.
Average initial weights per steer were 436 pounds for steers receiving
cottonseed meal and 438 pounds for their pair mates. After 130 days
on feed average weights were 763 pounds per steer for steers fed cotton-
seed meal and 778 pounds per steer for those fed sweet blue lupine seed
meal. Average daily gain for the cottonseed meal group was 2.52 pounds,
for the sweet blue lupine group 2.62 pounds.
Total feed consumed for 100 pounds gain averaged 935 pounds for the
steers on the cottonseed meal ration and 927 pounds for their pair mates.
Shrinkage in transit to market averaged 6.89 percent for the steers that
had consumed cottonseed meal, 8.18 percent for the steers that had been
fed lupine seed meal. Average carcass weights were 404 pounds for
steers fed cottonseed meal and 408 pounds for those fed lupine seed meal.
All steers graded U. S. Good.
Significant differences did not occur with respect to weight gains, feed
consumed for 100 pounds gain, dressing percentages or carcass grades.
The steers that consumed the ration containing ground sweet blue lupine
seed showed a large shrinkage loss when shipped to market, but this dif-
ference was not large enough to be statistically significant with the
number of steers that were in trial. Sweet blue lupine meal proved to
be as valuable as cottonseed meal for meeting the protein requirements
of growing and fattening steers for a period of 130 days.

State Project 517 Glenn Van Ness
Experiments have shown that pullet disease is a metabolic disorder
in which reproductive disturbances of the laying fowl are of constant oc-
currence. This disease also has been observed in non-producing birds. The
activity of sodium and potassium ions in the physiology of the bird was
found to be definitely related to the problem. In naturally occurring cases
it appeared that a heavy ration of wheat was a very definite factor in caus-
ing pullet disease. Experimental grain mixtures containing a high percent
of wheat produced weight changes and reproductive disturbances typical of
pullet disease.
State Project 518 C. F. Winchester, C. L. Comar and G. K. Davis
Using iodinized protein, studies were initiated with 24 New Hampshire
pullets and six White Leghorn hens on the value of thyroactive compounds
in feeds for laying hens. In investigations on the thyroid requirements
of birds, radioactive iodine was injected into seven groups to destroy the
thyroid glands and thyroxin was injected following the gland destruction

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

as replacement therapy. Microscopic examination of frozen thyroid sec-
tions had been used to determine the extent of thyroid destruction. A sup-
plementary technique for determining thyroid destruction using radioactive
iodine 131 as a tracer is being developed. Other possible effects of iodine
131 in addition to its effect on the thyroid are being investigated.

Dried Citrus Pulp Dust.-Dried citrus pulp dust is a by-product of the
direct flamedrying of citrus pulp. Preliminary palatability trials are under
way with this product. (R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and Sidney P.
The Bovine Stomach, Its Development and Functions.-Pilot studies
deal with the bovine digestive system and its functions. Weights and
capacities of the stomach compartments and, in some cases, the entire di-
gestive system of bovine fetuses and calves have been obtained. Data on
changes in size and functions in relation to use of feed have been accumu-
lated following slaughter of animals at various ages. The triturating ac-
tion of the laminae in the omasum (manyplies) reduces feed particles
to the extent that a large proportion of the ingesta passes through a 1
millimeter screen.
Myriads of microorganisms of three types inhabit the rumen, reticulum
and omasum of the normal bovine. These types are: aerobic and anaero-
bic bacteria and protozoa. These appear to be associated intimately with
the welfare of the normal animal.
Thirteen genera of aerobic bacteria were identified in the stomachs
of dairy calves by H. F. Butner, of the Bacteriology Department, in co-
operative work. The experimental animals ranged from birth to 271
days of age. Bacteria appeared more abundantly in the stomachs during
the milk feeding stage than in the older calves.
In joint work with the Biology Department and Dr. E. Ruffin Jones,
Jr., Earle M. Uzzell found 19 species of protozoa in 13 experimental dairy
animals. These organisms are characteristic of the rumen and reticulum
with mainly only non-motile specimens in the omasum. None remained in
the contents of the abomasum (true stomach) or in the ileum (lower small
The species and numbers of protozoa found in calves raised in the
same environment were highly varied, ranging from two to 12 species
per animal. It was established that the rumen fauna were not present
in the stomach at birth of the calf. (R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and
Sidney P. Marshall.)
Palability of New Feeds.-Dried Irish potatoes appeared to be reason-
ably palatable when offered to 29 dairy cows after they had eaten their
regular feed in the dairy barn at milking time. Only three cows refused
to taste the dried potatoes by the fifth day of the trial. This feed was
considered to be reasonably palatable.
Citrus seed oil meal appeared to be quite palatable when offered to 44
cows in the usual manner. Thirty animals ate all of the first offering,
while only seven ate none of it. There were no reactions by the cows
suggestive of objectionable flavors in this product. (R. B. Becker, P. T.
Dix Arnold and Sidney P. Marshall.)
Influence of Copper on Phosphorus Metabolism in Cattle.-In a study
of blood from cattle in various stages of copper deficiency, results indicate
that alkaline blood phosphatase is influenced directly or indirectly by the
stage of copper nutrition. When the copper reserves are depleted, alkaline
blood phosphatase values have greatly increased along with a depletion of
bone calcium and phosphorus. These preliminary results would seem to

Annual Report, 1948 63

indicate that normal copper intakes are necessary to permit proper bal-
ance between bone depletion and the deposition of calcium and phosphorus
in the bones. A grant-in-aid from the U. S. Phosphoric Company, Division
of Tennessee Corporation supported this work. (G. K. Davis and Harry
Interrelationship of Copper, Molybdenum and Phosphorus.-The avail-
ability of radioactive isotopes has provided a tool which permits a study
of the interrelationships of elements required in extremely small amounts
for normal animal nutrition. Indications have been obtained that these
minor elements influence one another and also some of the major mineral
elements such as phosphorus and must be maintained in balance for opt-
imum animal nutrition. This work, started in February, 1948, has been
designed to investigate these interrelationships. A grant-in-aid from the
Nutrition Foundation supported this work. (Leon Singer, G. K. Davis and
C. L. Comar.)
Sweet Potato Experiments.-In cooperation with the Southern Regional
Laboratory, supplies of sweet potato meal (the residue from the starch
extraction process) and enriched sweet potato meal, which have had the
sweet potato protein that was extracted with the starch returned to the
sweet potato meal, have been supplied for cattle feeding trials. Eight
calves in all have been fed with these two products, using them in place of
corn. Results to date indicate that the protein enriched sweet potato meal
can be used to replace some of the corn, but results have not been as
satisfactory as when corn alone was used. (G. K. Davis and Katherine
Cooperative Vitamin D Studies.-Samples of milk and blood have been
collected from three different locations in Florida under winter and
summer conditions. These samples have been sent to a central laboratory
and analyzed biologically for vitamin D. Results obtained thus far have
indicated that Florida milk usually contains considerably above the av-
erage amount of vitamin D found in milk from other parts of the coun-
try. To conduct this work more in detail, samples of feed and cattle livers
have been secured to investigate the relationship of feed to liver storage
and to blood and milk vitamin D content. This work was supported by a
grant-in-aid from Standard Brands, New York. (G. K. Davis, R. B. Becker
and P. T. Dix Arnold.)
Vitamin A for Beef Cattle.-To investigate the possibility that beef
cattle under winter range conditions might benefit from additional vita-
min A, work was started in which cattle that were wintered at the Range
Cattle Station were divided into two groups. One group of cows received
two ounces of shark oil weekly for a period of four months while the other
group received no shark oil. Blood samples were secured at regular in-
tervals and analyses were made of blood constituents, including vitamin
A and carotene. No definite results can be reported at this time. The
work will be continued for several years to determine the possible effects
on calf crop and breeding efficiency, in addition to vitamin A levels in the
blood. Shark Industries Division of the Borden Company has supported
this work with a grant-in-aid. (G. K. Davis and W. G. Kirk.)
Phosphate Source.-Work under this project included the study of su-
perphosphate, rock phosphate and superphosphate plus lime. The experi-
ment is being expanded to include concentrated superphosphate, colloidal
phosphate and basic slag. Cattle have been kept on fertilized pasture
since November 1947, and results are being measured in terms of beef
production, forage yield and soil changes resulting from application of the
different types of phosphate. As nearly as possible, all factors except the
source of phosphate are being held constant, to discover the value of va-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

rious sources of phosphate when used with pastures over a period of years.
This work is being supported by a grant-in-aid from the Florida Agri-
cultural Research Institute. (G. K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, E. M. Hodges, D.
W. Jones and Harold Henderson.)
Ramie Meal for Broilers.-A repetition of a trial using ramie leaf meal
in place of alfalfa leaf meal in the regular chick ration gave essentially
the same results as were secured in the previous trial. There was no signif-
icant difference between the chicks receiving a ration containing 6 percent
ramie leaf meal and those receiving 6 percent alfalfa leaf meal. These
results are being prepared for publication. (N. R. Mehrhof and G. K.
Investigation of New Poultry Feed Ingredients.-A protein-enriched
sweet potato meal prepared as a by-product of sweet potato starch man-
ufactured by the Southern Regional Laboratory in New Orleans has been
fed in one trial with broilers and an additional trial is in progress. When
the enriched sweet potato meal replaced all the corn in the regular chick
ration, poor results were obtained. Chicks on the regular ration with
one-half of the corn replaced by enriched sweet potato meal did not do
as well as the controls on a regular chick ration, but results were suf-
ficiently encouraging to start a second trial. (J. C. Driggers, N. R.
Mehrhof and G. K. Davis.)
Sweet Blue Lupine in Chick Rations.-Sweet blue lupine was used in
all-mash chick rations to replace part or all of the soybean oil meal.
Higher mortality was experienced with the lots fed lupine.
The average weight per chick (S. C. White Leghorn) at 10 weeks of
age was 740.70 grams (soybean oil meal), 530.00 grams (lupine), and
703.37 grams (lupine plus soybean oil meal). (N. R. Mehrhof and G. K.
Citrus Feed Yeast in Chick Rations.-Citrus feed yeast has been used
in preliminary feeding trials with S. C. White Leghorn chicks in place of
soybean oil meal. The chicks receiving citrus feed yeast and no soybean
oil meal in the ration were lighter in weight than chicks receiving the
control ration. (G. K. Davis, J. C. Driggers and N. R. Mehrhof.)

Annual Report, 1948

There is a steady demand for information on the many new insecticides
now available. These insecticides are very specific in action and the ef-
fectiveness of any one of them against a particular pest can be determined
only by testing it against the pest. Considerable time and effort have
been devoted to testing new insecticides against a variety of pests on
various crops, so that reliable information can be given. Some of the
more important results of this work are the findings that chlordane and
benzene hexachloride applied to the soil give effective and satisfactory
control of mole-crickets in seedbeds, gardens, and lawns; that DDT, DDD
and chlorinated camphene give excellent control of tobacco budworms and
hornworms; that parathion dusts are very effective against aphids, fall
armyworms and other pests; and that sprays containing parathion give
good control of cottony-cushion scale.

State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
This project was continued at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory in
cooperation with the USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
Insecticides were applied at different periods of the year in an effort to
determine the most effective time to control nut and leaf casebearer.
On June 16, 1947, two sprays were applied against the pecan casebearer
larvae feeding on the foliage and nuts. DDT 50 percent wettable powder
at the rate of 2 pounds per 100 gallons of bordeaux mixture gave a re-
duction of 50 percent on the Moneymaker variety and 78 percent on the
Moore variety. Arsenate of lead at the rate of 3 pounds per 100 gallons
of bordeaux mixture gave a reduction of 80 percent on Moneymaker and
89 percent on Moore.
Three insecticides applied July 7, July 25 and August 13, 1947 for con-
trol of the hickory shuckworm on pecans also gave excellent control of
pecan casebearers. DDT 50 percent wettable powder at the rate of 4
pounds per 100 gallons of water gave a reduction of 93.8 percent. Ben-
zene hexachloride 50 percent wettable powder (6 percent gamma isomer)
at the rate of 6 pounds per 100 gallons of water gave a reduction of 93.8
percent. Toxaphene 25 percent wettable powder at the rate of 4 pounds
per 100 gallons of water gave a reduction of 100 percent.
DDT was the most effective material used against first generation nut
casebearer. Sprays containing 2 pounds of DDT 50 percent wettable
powder plus 2 quarts of summer oil emulsion and 2 pounds of zerlate
per 100 gallons of water, applied April 21, 23, 26, 28, 30, and May 3, gave
a reduction of 42.8, 71.1, 71.7, 71.1, 73.4, and 61.4 percent, respectively,
over that of 40 percent nicotine sulfate at the rate of 13 ounces plus 2
quarts of summer oil emulsion per 100 gallons of water, applied on April
30. DDT 25 percent emulsifiable composition at 2 quarts per 100 gallons
of water was as effective against nut casebearer as 2 pounds of wettable
Methoxychlor 50 percent wettable powder at 2 pounds, toxaphene 25
percent wettable powder at 4 pounds, and benzene hexachloride 50 percent
wettable (6 percent gamma isomer) at 6 pounds per 100 gallons of water,
were all more effective against nut casebearer than nicotine sulfate but
were not as effective as DDT. Chlordane 50 percent wettable powder at
2 pounds per 100 gallons was not as effective as nicotine sulfate.
DDT was used alone and in combination with various acaracides
against first generation nut casebearer. Sprays containing 2 pounds of
50 percent wettable powder alone in 100 gallons of water and the same

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

amount of DDT with 4 quarts of summer oil emulsion, 1 pound para-
thion 25 percent wettable powder, 1 pint IN-4200 (Lauryl-2-thiazolinyl sul-
fide), and 6 pounds wettable sulfur micronizedd) applied April 30 and
May 1 gave controls of 91.7, 88.7, 88.0, 88.4, and 89.2 percent, respectively.
Nicotine sulfate 13 ounces plus 2 quarts of summer oil emulsion gave
73.7 percent control and parathion 1 pound per 100 gallons of water gave
79.9 percent control of nut casebearer.

State Project 380 A. N. Tissot
Cutworms did not become numerous enough in the Gainesville area
during the past year to permit any control experiments being made. The
fall armyworm, Laphygma frugiperda (A. & S.), was exceptionally trouble-
some. Control experiments were made with this insect in the summer of
1947 and again in 1948.
1947 Tests.-Five applications of three insecticides were made. All
of the materials produced considerable larval mortality but there was a
constant flight of moths from older corn nearby and so many eggs were
laid that the best plots showed severe injury. The best results were ob-
tained with a dust containing 3 percent gamma isomer of benzene hexa-
chloride and 5 percent DDT. A 5 percent DDT dust was somewhat less
effective, and a benzene hexachloride dust containing 1.5 percent of gamma
isomer was considerably inferior to the DDT. The corn in the check
plots was completely destroyed and no ears were produced. The average
yields per plot for the three insecticides were: 3 percent gamma isomer
plus 5 percent DDT, 1.30 bushels; 5 percent DDT, 1.20 bushels; and ben-
zene hexachloride (1.5 percent gamma isomer), 0.65 bushels.
1948 Tests.-Nine insecticide materials were used on replicated plots
one-twentieth acre in size. The test planting was bordered by a field of
older corn which was severely injured by armyworms and there was a
steady flight of moths to the experimental plots. The experiment was
not finished but it had progressed sufficiently to indicate the relative
effectiveness of the various materials. All insecticides were used in dust
form and application was made with rotary crank dusters. Without ex-
ception treated plots were significantly better than checks. Plots receiv-
ing 1 percent parathion and 10 percent chlorinated camphene were out-
standingly better than all other treatments. DDT 3 percent, benzene hex-
achloride 1.5 percent gamma isomer, chlordane 5 percent and DDD 3
percent gave comparable results and plots treated with them were def-
initely better than those receiving methoxychlor 3 percent, lead arsenate
50 percent and cryolite 50 percent.
State Project 381 H. E. Bratley
Larra analis F. appears to be on the increase in the area where it was
first found in 1946. About twice as many specimens of the insect were
noted at collecting periods in 1947 as were observed during the previous
year. They appeared again during October and November. There has
been a noticeable decrease in mole-cricket activity in the immediate vi-
cinity, but this cannot be attributed definitely to the parasite. The con-
tinued attractiveness of Borreria to Hymenoptera is attested by the fact
that 23 species, seven genera and two families not heretofore recorded
were taken at the plants during the past year. Hymenoptera taken
at Gainesville on or near this plant now total 110 species, 53 genera and
16 families.

Annual Report, 1948

State Project 382 H. E. Bratley
Due to the inactivity of this project, no additional information has been

State Project 383 H. E. Bratley
In the 1947 plantings of strains 18 and 19 of the Conch cowpea, a
number of plants were found to be root-knot nematode infested. No in-
fasted plants had been observed in these two strains during the past two
years and they were believed to be immune to nematode attacks. It has
not been determined whether they have actually lost their immunity or
if the heavy population of nematodes in the soil resulted in the plants
becoming infested.
The loss of the 1947 crop of Creole English peas by cold prevented
a proposed comparative test of this pea with commercially grown varieties.
A large quantity of two-year-old seed was planted in an attempt to retain
the variety. A very poor stand was obtained but a small quantity of seed
has been saved for future tests.
The Kentucky Bibb lettuce was badly injured by the 200 temperature
of the January 1948 freeze. Plants that recovered from the cold injury
and the few uninjured ones showed less nematode infestation than those
of the previous year. These plants were from seed saved from non-in-
fested plants of the 1947 season, which were grown from seed obtained
from the seed store. The possibility of developing a resistant strain is
indicated and seed from desirable individual plants has been saved for
further trials.

State Project 385 H. E. Bratley
The new series of mulched plots set up in 1947 has not been in opera-
tion long enough to furnish any definite data. Plants now on the several
mulched plots are more vigorous in growth than those on the check plots.
Last summer the discontinued mulched plots area was planted to cowpeas.
They made a very rank vegetative growth but failed to set or mature
any seed. This spring the area was planted to tomatoes and excellent
growth and set of fruit were obtained.

State Project 438 D. A. Sanders and A. N. Tissot
In July, 1947, an experiment was set up to test further the relative
effectiveness of full coverage DDT sprays and ear smears against the
Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum Koch. The experimental herd
was in a pasture which was heavily infested with this tick the previous
year. For some reason, possibly the use of DDT on the cattle in previous
years, the expected tick infestation failed to materialize, and the experi-
ment was abandoned. No experimental work was done on the control
of horn flies, but observation made on various herds indicated the con-
tinuing effectiveness of DDT sprays against this pest. This project is
being closed with this report. Future work on the biology and control
of external parasites and pests of cattle will be carried on under Purnell
Project 462. (See also Project 438, ANIMAL INDUSTRY.)

68 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Purnell Project 462 D. A. Sanders and A. N. Tissot
Attempts to find suitable infestations of ticks and other known or sus-
pected vectors of anaplasmosis were unsuccessful. It was therefore impos-
sible to carry on any of the experimental control work that had been
planned. (See also Project 462, ANIMAL INDUSTRY.)

State Project 499 A. N. Tissot
An infestation of strawberry pameras, Orthaea bilobata (Say), ap-
peared in the experimental plantings about the middle of March, 1948.
Seven insecticides were tried against these insects in a replicated control
experiment. The plots consisted of five rows of plants (each row a dif-
ferent variety) and five plants per row. All the insecticides were used in
dust form and they were applied with a plunger type hand duster. The
dust was blown directly into the crowns of the plants without raising or
otherwise disturbing the leaves. Application was at the rate of approxi-
mately 50 pounds per acre. Pamera counts were made on March 16,
the day before the insecticides were applied, and post-treatment counts
were made March 19 and 22.
The materials used and the pamera counts are given in Table 2. Five
plants were examined in each plot. The counts for the three plots of each
treatment are combined so the number of insects recorded for each treat-
ment represents the total found on 15 plants.


Pamera Count
Material Pre-treatment Post-treatment
March 16 March 19 March 22
1. Marlate 3% 27 3 6
2. Chlordane 5% 34 2 6
3. Parathion 1% 19 1 6
4. Check 25 32 44
5. DDT 3 % 31 2 8
6. Isotox (1.5% gamma) 20 0 6
7. Kalite (0.75%/ derris resins) 33 12 11
8. Rothane 3% 24 7 9

Observations indicated that the insects were moving into the straw-
berries from surrounding areas in large numbers and it was believed that
the insecticides were actually more effective than the pamera counts in-
dicated. (See also Project 499, STRAWBERRY INVESTIGATIONS LAB-

Dusting to Control Grasshoppers.-Field and cage tests of a few of the
recently introduced insecticides indicated their effectiveness in controlling
the Eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera (Beuv.). In the field
trials, isotox (1.5 percent gamma isomer), chlorinated camphene 20 per-
cent and chlordane 5 percent were used. Chlordane did not produce as
effective control as the other two, which gave about equal results. For
the cage trials, chlorinated camphene 20 percent, chlordane 5 percent and

Annual Report, 1948 69

parathion 1 percent dusts were used. Final mortalities from the three
materials were nearly equal. However, chlordane acted more slowly and
a longer period of exposure was required. (H. E. Bratley.)
Effects of Annually Repeated Soil Treatments of D-D for Controlling
Nematodes on Gladiolus.-Rewi Fallu gladiolus was planted in March, 1946,
on an area treated in the winter of 1945-46 with DD to control nutgrass.
Growth and bloom were far superior to those produced in previous years.
Results indicated the desirability of more experiments with DD soil treat-
ments to determine the reasons for the results observed. In 1947, 12
plots, each 15 by 9 feet, were laid out. Half of them were treated with DD
while the other plots were managed in a like manner except for the DD
treatment. In each of four treated and four untreated plots, 124 size
No. 2 corms of Debonair gladiolus were planted. The remaining four plots
were planted to various sized Rewi Fallu corms that had been grown on
DD treated soil the previous year. More spikes, side spikes and flowerlets
were cut from the treated plots of both varieties than were taken from the
untreated ones. When the corms were dug, roots in treated plots were
found to be much less infested with root-knot than those in untreated
plots. Also noted on the treated plots was the apparent freshness of the
knots, indicating a recent infestation. Treated plots produced about 25
percent more corms % inch in diameter and larger than untreated plots.
(H. E. Bratley.)
Miscellaneous Pecan Insects.-In tests for control of the hickory shuck-
worm. Laspeyresia caryana (Fitch), on pecans, DDT 50 percent wettable
powder at the rate of 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water plus 4
ounces of duPont sticker, benzene hexachloride 50 percent wettable powder
(6 percent gamma isomer) at the rate of 6 pounds per 100 gallons of
water plus 4 ounces of sticker, and toxaphene 25 percent wettable pow-
der plus 4 ounces of sticker, applied July 7, July 25 and August 13, gave
a very small reduction in number of infested nuts. However, the reduction
in number of drops in the sprayed plots following the first and second
applications of the insecticides indicated an increase of 40 to 50 percent
in average yield of nuts per tree at harvest.
In preliminary tests for control of mites (Tetranychus sp.) on pecan,
tetraethyl pyrophosphate, hexaethyl tetraphosphate, summer oil emulsion
and xanthone all gave good control.
Four new infestations of the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), were
found in Jefferson and Gadsden counties during the fall of 1947. There are
10 known infestations of the pecan weevil in Jefferson, Leon and Gadsden
counties. (A. M. Phillips.)
Mole-Cricket Control.-A heavy infestation of mole-crickets in a lawn
in Gainesville offered an excellent opportunity to try some insecticides
against this pest. Different forms and concentrations of three insecticides
we're tested. Chlordane emulsion (25 percent) and chlordane wettable
(50 percent) were used at rates of 1.0, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 pints per 100
gallons of water. Benzene hexachloride wettable (5 percent gamma
isomer) was used at rates of 2 pounds and 1 pound per 100 gallons and
benzene hexachloride emulsion (9 percent gamma isomer) at 0.25 and
0.125 pints per 100 gallons. Parathion 3422 wettable (25 percent) was
used at rates of 2 pounds and 1 pound per 100 gallons. All 1 quid treat-
ments were applied at the rate of 10 gallons per 100 square feet. Chlor-
dane 5 percent dust was used at rates of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 pounds per
100 square feet and benzene hexachloride 1.5 percent gamma isomer dust
at rates of 0.3 and 0.15 pound per 100 square feet.
Effectiveness of the materials was evaluated on the basis of dead
crickets fund on the ground surface and on the amount of burrowing

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

following treatment. All liquid applications gave good control, though bur-
rowing was not completely stopped in any of the plots. On the whole, the
kill appeared to be more complete in the chlordane plots than in those
receiving benzene hexachloride and parathion. Chlordane dust treatments
also gave good control. There was little reduction in amount of burrowing
in plots dusted with benezene hexachloride. A few dead insects were found
in some of the plots as long as two weeks after application of the insecti-
The experimental area comprised approximately 5,000 square feet. A
total of 632 dead mole-crickets was recovered during the test. Of these
567 were Scapteriscus vicinus Scud., the rest S. acletus R. & H. (A. N.
Tobacco Insect Control.-Seven insecticides were used on tobacco in a
replicated plot test to obtain information on the effects of the materials on
the tobacco and their value against such insect pests as might appear.
Seven applications were made between April 9 and June 26, 1948. Effec-
tiveness of the various materials was determined by careful examination
of the plants for worm damage and larvae. The materials tested, the
total amount of each applied per acre, and the larvae found June 14, are
shown in Table 3. The last insecticide application preceding the larval
count was made June 3. The budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), and the
hornworm, Protoparce sexta (Johan.), were the only important pests


Pounds per Number of Larvae Found
Acre (total on 60 Plants 6-14-1948
of 7
Applications Budworm Hornworm

1. Rhothane 3% dust 144.0 25 2

2. Toxaphene 10% dust 148.9 20 3

3. Parathion 1% dust 166.4 72 5

4. DDT 3% dust 106.5 17 4

5. Check ........... 86 22

6. Chlordane 5% dust 118.7 58 5

7. Isotox 1.5% gamma isomer! 75.5 60 8

8. Marlate 3% dust 135.1 90 3

Worm injury to the tobacco closely paralleled the larval counts shown
above. Plots treated with DDT, rhothane and toxaphene showed excellent
control, with a minimum amount of feeding. Isotox and chlordane plots
were considerably better than the check, but definitely inferior to the first
three materials mentioned. Parathion and marlate plots were only slightly
better than the check and this difference probably was due to hornworm
control. All materials tested reduced hornworms materially. (A. N. Tissot
and Fred A. Clark.)

Annual Report, 1948 71

Publication in Bulletin 444 of results on the levels of carotene and
ascorbic acid in Florida-grown foods now makes it possible to assess values
for these dietary factors based on analyses of Florida grown foods. A com-
panion project on the B vitamins is under way. At present thiamine, ribo-
flavin and niacin are being determined. The completion of this project will
help round out data on the principal vitamins present in foods.
In the study of conservation and availability of the B vitamins and iron,
in enriched and unenriched breads, it was found that under the conditions
of the experiment, enriched bread offered no advantages over unenriched
bread when measured by appearance, weight and hemoglobin of experi-
mental animals. Certain data suggested disadvantages associated with en-
richment. Additional investigations were necessary to clarify these find-
ings. A revision of Project 442 was therefore made to include assessment
of the nutritive value of certain supplements when added to basal diets of
enriched and unenriched breads.

Purnell Project 442 0. D. Abbott and R. B. French
The study of the nutritive value of wheat bread, and of enriched and
unenriched breads both made with water and with the addition of 6 per-
cent dry milk solids, was repeated. Results were comparable in all respects
to those obtained in 1946-47. It was therefore concluded that under the
conditions of the experiment, enriched, bread, when measured by appear-
ance, weight and hemoglobin of rats, offered no advantages over unen-
riched bread.
After conducting this study for 21/2 years, certain data suggested dis-
advantages associated with enrichment. Additional investigations were
considered necessary to clarify these findings. A revision of the project
was therefore made to assess the nutritive value of certain supplements
when added to basal diets of bread.
In a previous study of the nutritive value of enriched and unenriched
breads both made with water, it was shown that when these breads were
supplemented so that the diets contained, a total of 10 percent fat and 200
I.U. vitamin A and fed as the sole diet of rats, no significant differences in
weight gains were found and no effects due to a lack of the enriching
factors appeared. There was the possibility that on these diets growth was
so inhibited that the vitamin content of unenriched bread was sufficient
to meet the low daily requirement. The question then arose if the diets
were supplemented so that more nearly normal growth occurred, would the
advantages of enrichment be demonstrated. Protein appeared to be a
limiting factor.
Effect of Protein Level ion the Weight of Rats Fed a Basal Diet of En-
riched and Unenriched Water Bread.-In this study, the protein in both
types of bread diets was increased from 14.2 to 18 percent by the addition of
non-fat dry milk solids. At the end of 13 weeks the rats fed enriched and
unenriched breads containing 14.2 percent protein weighed 67 and 63 grams,
respectively, while those fed the diets containing 18 percent protein weighed
176 and 179 grams, respectively.
With the improved diet wh'ch permitted better growth, there were no
indications of a deficiency in any of the rats fed unenriched bread. Again,
no advantages could be claimed for enrichment.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

When the protein content in the diet of unenriched bread was increased
to 24 percent (dry weight) by the addition of non-fat dry milk solids,
the average weight of rats on this diet at the end of 13 weeks was 228
grams, while the average weight of control animals of the same age was
209 grams. The animals on this high protein diet were lithe and sleek and
showed no signs of deficiency.
Apparently addition of higher levels of dry milk solids permitted
growth beyond that of the controls and at the same time provided an ade-
quate intake of the enriching factors, so that further supplementation was
without apparent effect on growth rate. This type of experiment exempli-
fies the major advantages of supplementation with dry milk solids as com-
pared with enrichment.
Comparison of the Nutritive Value of Non-fat Dry Milk with Casein and
Calcium, Two Components of Milk.-Throughout the studies of the nutri-
tive value of different breads, it was found that when the percentage of
protein in water bread diets was increased from 14.2 to 18 percent by the
addition of dry milk solids there was a corresponding increase in weight
of rats fed this diet.
An experiment was then planned to show whether the weight gains in
rats fed water bread supplemented with dry milk solids could be dupli-
cated by the addition of casein or CaHPO or by casein and CaHPO4. The
basal diet of enriched water bread was supplemented with dry milk solids,
technical casein, casein hydrolysate or vitamin-free casein so that the total
protein content of each diet was 18 percent. The calcium was added to the
basal diet of bread as CaHPO so that the total calcium content approxi-
mated that of milk (about 2% of the bread).
Average weight of rats fed the bread diet plus the milk supplement for
13 weeks was compared with that of rats fed casein supplement for the
same length of time. It was found that rats fed the milk supplement had
made the largest gain, those fed vitamin-free casein the least, while the
ones fed technical casein and the hydrolysate made intermediate gains.
Average weights for the four groups were as follows: 179, 131, 118, and 81
grams, respectively.
The average weight of rats fed a supplement of CaHPO4 was 84 grams,
or approximately the same as that of rats fed vitamin-free casein.
The differences in weight of rats fed the two types of casein and casein
hydrolysate suggests that during extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis the
nutritive value of casein was decreased, as greater weight gains were
made by rats fed technical casein than by those fed the other types. The
study of the nutritive value of supplements of technical casein and
CaHP04 is now in progress.
The work thus far indicates the superior nutritive value of dry milk
as a supplement for bread diets for rats as compared with that of casein or
Effects of Old and Fresh Non-fat Dry Milk Solids on Weight of Rats Fed
Basal Diets of Wheat Bread, Enriched and Unenriched Water Breads.-In a
.previous study it was noted that bread diets supplemented with dry milk
solids that had caked in the barrel produced no greater weight gains in
rats than did casein which furnished the same percentage cf protein. A
comparative study was then made of the nutritive value of old and fresh
milk solids as measured by the weight of rats. The protein content of all
bread diets was increased to 18 percent by the addition of milk solids. At
the end of the experimental period of 13 weeks the average weights of rats
on wheat bread, enriched and unenriched water bread supplemented with
old milk solids were 103, 84 and 83 grams, respectively; with fresh dr
milk solids were 184, 168 and 178 grams, respectively. From this study it

Annual Report, 1948 73

was concluded that aging lowers the nutritive value of non-fat dry milk
solids. The constituent of dry milk affected was not determined but a
change in protein, probably a decrease or destruction of one or more es-
sential amino acids, was suggested.

Purnell Project 443 R. B. French and 0. D. Abbott
Several modifications have been introduced into procedures. In the gas-
ometer the use of one leveling bulb instead of 12 has obviated complications.
Use of air stirrers for electrometric titrations has eliminated difficulties
caused both by stray currents and the comparatively large inertia of the
electric stirrers. Drying of samples in an infra-red oven has proved to be
more rapid and to have given samples of a better quality than ordinary
oven drying.
Several wild greens have been analyzed for thiamin and niacin. The
first value given is for micrograms of thiamine, the second is for milli-
grams of niacin, per 100 grams of fresh material: Peppergrass 45.3, 2.54;
lambs-quarters 110.0, 1.18; pokeweed 115.0, 1.19; chickweed 16.1, 0.51;
spiderwort 42.3, 0.24.
Two strains of peanuts of the Dixie Runner variety have been analyzed.
Values were as follows: Strain 1: whole, raw 967, 19.1; cooked in shell at
350C. for 18 minutes 246, 17.8; skins 600, 7.2. Strain 2: whole, raw 1,015,
15.8; cooked in shell at 350C. 273, 15.8; skins, 6.0. Roasting peanuts in
shell allowed considerable thiamine destruction, but had little effect on the
niacin content.
Breads used in Project 442 have been analyzed. Computed at 38 per-
cent moisture. Water bread 74, 0.95; water bread, enriched 125, 2.56; milk
bread 66, 0.83; milk bread enriched 237, 2.53.
Samples of the wild greens were dried in an infra-red oven at 80C. in
a current of air. The loss of thiamine during the process varied from 3
percent for peppergrass to 80 percent for pokeweed. The niacin value
showed little change after drying.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Research in processing, packaging, grading and handling of vegetables
was greatly increased during the year. The vegetable processing labora-
tory building was completed and occupied in February, 1948. (Figs. 6 and
7). Other investigations were conducted in various production problems of
several horticultural crops, including vegetables, deciduous fruits and nuts,
and ornamentals. An extensive breeding program for the improvement of
vegetables was started in the spring of 1948.

Hatch Project 50 R. D. Dickey and G. H. Blackmon
Bud counts made in April, 1947, in a Station block of 18-year-old tung
trees, indicated that there was a varietal difference in regard to the
amount of cold injury experienced by the dormant buds.
Bud counts, expressed in percent of buds injured, and yield data, are
given in Table 4. These data show that the budded trees and seedling
progeny of the variety F-9 had a higher percent of buds injured than simi-
lar trees of the Florida variety and that these differences are highly
Average yield per tree for five years is used as an index to the normal
ability to bear. Analysis of the data shows that there is no significant
difference in the ability to yield of the seedling progenies of Florida and

Fig. 6.-The Vegetable Products Building, in which is conducted research
in vegetable processing, grading, handling, packaging.

;-'CT ,ta.
*-r"--1 if

r = --- .

Annual Report, 1948


Percent Average Yield in Lbs. per Tree
Variety or Buds Five Years (1940,
Seedling Progeny IInjured '42, '44, '45, '46)* 1947

Florida-Seedling 9.8 54.7 20.1
F-9-Seedling 19.0 51.3 11.3
Florida-Budded 8.6 36.4 17.9
F-9-Budded 1 45.4 45.2 11.4
L. D. Sig. 0.05 1 6.9 5.7 3.8
L. D. Sig. 0.01 10.5 7.8 5.2
The 1941 and 1943 yields were omitted because of crop reduction by cold injury.

F-9 varieties for the five years used. In 1947, however, the difference in
average yield between these two groups is highly significant and F-9 seed-
ling progeny, which had the greater percent of its buds injured, also had
the lower yield. Average yield of F-9 budded is significantly higher than
Florida-budded. In 1947, however, when F-9-budded had a higher percent
of buds injured, their yield was significantly below that of Florida-
Average yields per tree of all trees in treatments receiving low and high
levels of potash in Experiments I and II in Jefferson County are given in

Fig. 7.-Inspecting and grading beans for processing in the Vegetable
Products Laboratory.

76 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Table 5. Trees receiving high potash (8%) produced larger yields than
those which received low potash (4%).

Potassium Level
Experiment Low (4%) I High (8%)

I 30' x 30' 15.8 24.5

II 15' x 30' 10.0 14.9

Hatch Project 52 R. D. Dickey and R. J. Wilmot
There was no residual fungicidal effect when azalea cuttings were given
fungicidal dips for the control of damp-off in conjunction with treatment
with root-inducing substances. There was, however, increased rooting of
cuttings in some cases from the use of fungicidal dips. Copper A inhibited
rooting of the cuttings of several varieties of azaleas.
Since it was found that azaleas could be grown in an artificial medium
of ion exchange materials and sand, a series has been started at various
levels of pH. Plots were set up using vermiculite and peat as soil amend-
ments to increase the exchange capacity of soil in which two varieties of
azaleas are planted.
The St. John fern collection has been added to until practically all Flor-
ida species are included except common local ones.
The cold storage experiments on tulip bulbs were repeated with Scar-
let Leader and Inglescombe varieties stored for 52 days at 370 F. and
42-45F. The bulbs were removed from storage and planted December 1,
1947. There was no difference between bulbs of the two varieties stored
at 37F. and those stored at 42-45F. in time of flowering and percent of
bulbs that flowered. Both cold storage temperatures were equally effec-
tive. The average number of days to emergence and to bloom was less
for those bulbs planted in the greenhouse than for bulbs planted in the
field. There were no significant differences between the varieties Scarlet
Leader and Inglescombe in time of emergence, number of days to bloom
and height of plant under any of the storage or growing conditions. Bulbs
"stretch wrapped" with pliofilm lost less weight during storage than
unwrapped bulbs but pliofilm did not increase the percentage of bulbs that
State Project 80 G. H. Blackmon, R. H. Sharpe and J. D. Warner
All investigate ons under this project were conducted in the experimental
orchard of Moneymaker and Moore at the North Florida Experiment Sta-
tion. (See Project 80, North Florida Experiment Station.)
State Project 187 G. H. Blackmon, R. D. Dickey,
R. J. Wilmot and R. H. Sharpe
In preliminary work on selection of superior strains of blueberries,
approximately 7,000 plants were examined in north central Florida plant-

Annual Report, 1948

ings during May and June. Less intensive scouting of northwest Florida
plantings also were made. Only 18 individual plants have been marked as
worthy of further observation and propagation trials.
Individuality in Mayhaw seedlings is becoming apparent and selections
can now be made on the basis of yield and fruit quality. Four seedlings
produced 4,800, 2,693, 1,906, and 1,904 grams of fruit. Jelly made from the
fruit showed considerable difference in quality from individual seedlings.
Soil treatments of three pounds of zinc sulfate per tree for two years
corrected chronic and severe symptoms of zinc deficiency on mature Pine-
apple pear trees at Gainesville.

Adams Project 268 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
Soil samples from 25 fields in north central Florida on which water-
melons were grown during the past season or on which melons were to
be planted during the present season were tested for soil acidity. It was
found that the pH values for these soils varied between pH 5.4 and pH 6.0,
which is in the range for successful watermelon culture in the State.
A summary of work done on field plots at Gainesville has been re-
ported previously. The project is closed with this report.

State Project 282 F. S. Jamison, B. E. Janes,
L. H. Halsey and F. E. Myers
Beans.-Twelve varieties and strains of beans were planted at Gaines-
ville during the spring of 1948. Three were from commercial seed com-
panies and the remainder were strains selected from a large number de-
veloped by the USDA, the majority being from the Regional Vegetable
Breeding Laboratory. All strains and varieties were planted in six repli-
cates arranged in randomized blocks.
Yield of beans secured varied from 136 bushels an acre for Tendergreen
to 311 for Z1. Stringless Black Valentine produced 160 bushels an acre,
while Logan produced 244 bushels. Logan, now a commercial variety, was
developed by the USDA Vegetable Breeding Laboratory in cooperation
with Florida and other Southern states. Its production is limited at pres-
ent only by an inadequate seed supply. Z1 is a high yielding, round-podded
bean that, under certain adverse growing conditions, may be slightly
tough. Seed are being released to seedsmen for increase. Another strain,
B-1625-17 produced 287 bushels an acre. This strain is similar in appear-
ance to Black Valentine, except that the pods are of superior quality and
the plant will produce large yields as compared to Black Valentine, partic-
ularly under adverse growing conditions. Seed of this bean is being re-
leased to seedsmen for increase and some seed should be available by the
late fall of 1949.
A number of the other strains produced yields superior to any of the
commercial varieties. 'Many of these strains produce round-podded beans,
some of which, in preliminary freezing trials, appear well adapted for
freezing. It is expected that, after another season's trial, certain of these
strains will be released to seedsmen for increase.
In addition to the strains grown to determine yielding ability, a num-
ber of additional strains and varieties were grown for observation. In-
cluded were several lots of Stringless Black Valentine secured through
the cooperation of the State Department of Agriculture. The pods pro-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

duced by these lots differed greatly in shape at first harvest. One strain
produced flat pods while another produced nearly round pods, the re-
mainder being intermediate.
Potatoes.-During the production season two lots of potato varieties
were grown. One consisted of potato varieties developed primarily by the
USDA potato breeding program; the other consisted of varieties developed
by Donald Reddick of Cornell University. All varieties or strains in the
second lot have been grown previously at Gainesville. Each variety or
strain was grown in six replicates of 20 hills spaced 15 inches apart. The
replicates were arranged in randomized blocks. The potatoes were grown
without the use of sprays for disease control.
The varieties included in Lot 1 produced yields of US No. 1 size pota-
toes varying from 70 to 214 bushels per acre. Among the high yielding
varieties were Ashworth, Teton and B69-16. In Lot 2 unnamed varieties
ECU-2, DMJ-3, and CZK-7 yielded as well as or better than Katahdin and
all three strains are resistant to late blight.
Peas.-The testing of pea strains developed in cooperation with the
USDA Regional Vegetable Breeding Laboratory was continued. To secure
a more adequate test, a number of recently introduced commercial varieties
were included. The peas were planted in January and heavy rain following
planting severely injured some varieties.
The small-podded, small-seeded varieties withstood the adverse grow-
ing conditions better than the large-seeded, large-podded type. This was
reflected in stand, yield and general plant vigor. Of the commercial va-
rieties included, Morse 55 and Morse 101 appeared definitely better than
Little Marvel, the standard variety now grown.
Tomatoes.-Twenty tomato varieties, eight commercial and 12 recently
developed by the USDA Regional Vegetable Breeding Laboratory and agri-
cultural experiment stations, were grown in eight plots each. Plants on
four plots were staked and pruned. Those on the other four were not.
Staked and pruned plants were spaced in the row at one-half the distance
of unstaked, unpruned plants. At harvest time the plots were further
divided: two staked plots and two unstaked plots had the fruit harvested
when they were judged "mature green," while on the remainder of the
plots the fruits were harvested after they began to show color.
At harvesting the fruits were graded into US No. 1, US No. 2, cracked
fruit, fruit affected with blossom-end rot, and cull fruit. The weight and
number of fruit in each group were secured. The US No. 1 and US No. 2
group were combined and classified as marketable fruits for ripening tests.
The ripening tests were carried out in a storage room where the tempera-
ture was held between 660 and 72F. and the relative humidity at approxi-
mately 87 percent.
There was wide variation, 490 to 275 pounds, in the total yield of in-
dividual varieties. Marketable yield (US No. 1 and No. 2 fruits) varied
from 182 pounds to 58 pounds. Varieties producing a large total yield did
not necessarily produce the largest marketable yield. To show further
the wide difference existing between total and marketable yield, the total
yield from all varieties combined was 7,996 pounds but only 2,344 pounds
of this total could be classified as marketable fruits.
The difference between total and marketable fruits was affected by the
maturity of the fruit at time of harvesting. When tomatoes were picked
as "mature green" fruits, 39 percent of the total weight could be classed
as marketable fruits, but when the fruits were harvested "turning pink"
only 16 percent were marketable. Unstaked plants had a higher percentage
of marketable fruits than staked plants.

Annual Report, 1948

Fruits other than marketable were classed as cracked fruits, fruits af-
fected with blossom-end rot, and culls. Cracked fruit was the most im-
portant cause of tomatoes being classed as non-marketable. Severity of
blossom-end rot varied with variety. One variety had only 12 fruits af-
fected, while the most susceptible variety had 378 fruits affected.
Ripening tests were conducted with all varieties grown. The fruit were
ripened in a room where the temperature was held between 660 and 72F.
with relative humidity of approximately 87 percent. With the 1947 crop
it was noted that certain varieties have a better color on ripening. This
was true irrespective of whether the tomatoes were "mature green" or
"turning-to-pink" when stored. These same differences were observed in
the 1948 crop. Tomatoes stored turning-to-pink required six days for the
major portion to ripen, while mature-green fruits required 15 days.
In addition to the tomato lines grown in yield trials, an additional 36
lots were grown for observation. Most of this material is additional strains
and varieties developed by agricultural experiment stations or the USDA.
Among the 36 lines, a number appeared to perform as well as or better
than Rutgers or Grothen Globe, the most important two varieties grown
in Florida. Should tests in other sections of this and adjoining states verify
these results, the varieties will be included in yield trials during the com-
ing season.
Onions.-In cooperation with Dr. H. A. Jones of the USDA, 40 lots of
Bermuda type onions were grown. These strains were segregated for color,
but all lines produced satisfactory type bulbs free of splitting, doubles and
thick neck. It was observed that there was a variation in disease incidence
on the different lines. The disease, identified by Dr. Phares Decker as
Botrytis squamosa, appeared to affect severely certain strains, while other
lines showed but little damage.

State Project 365 R. D. Dickey, G. H. Blackmon,
F. S. Lagasse and Howard Lassiter
Thus far 100 trees, which are first generation reciprocal crosses be-
tween Aleurites montana x A. fordi (mu oil and tung oil), have flowered
and all are relatively unfruitful. It is common experience that first gen-
eration crosses between two species may be relatively unfruitful. There
are usually, however, greater possibilities of a fruitful hybrid individual
appearing in the F0, F. and subsequent populations. Therefore, it would
be desirable to grow to fruiting size seedlings of this interspecific cross
representing F0 and later generations. Seven Fa seedlings were planted
March 9, 1948, at Gainesville. These trees have made growth which is
comparable to that made by tung trees of the same age in this area.
Trees of the five species of Aleurites have fruited in Florida, and fruit
samples have been supplied Dr. S. G. Gilbert of the USDA Laboratory
for Tung Investigations for oil analysis.

Hatch Project 375 G. H. Blackmon and R. H. Sharpe
These experiments involving added magnesium and zinc were first
initiated in 1941 and 1942 with trees that did not show deficiency patterns
typical of a lack of either element. Trees in the check plots during the
period over which the tests have been conducted have not developed pat-

A In cooperation with Division of Fruit and Vegetable Crops and Diseases, B.P.I..
S.&A.E., USDA.

80 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

terns to indicate deficiencies sufficiently to cause foliage breakdown. There
have been variations in yields but they were not significant.
In an orchard of Moore trees in Jefferson County where zinc sulfate
is applied in all plots, two pounds of nitrogen per tree gave a highly signifi-
cant response over the check plot receiving zinc only. Four pounds of
potash combined with the two pounds of nitrogen per tree gave a still
greater increase in yield.
Leaves were collected and samples analyzed for calcium, magnesium
and potassium, but no significant differences were found.
There were no differences in quality of nuts produced in the different
treatments. Stuart from the Walton County experiment developed well-
filled, plump kernels. All other nuts were of good quality except the Moore
nuts from one experiment.in Jefferson which were only fairly well filled,
due to heavy defoliation of the trees caused by mite injury.
These experimental plots have had borax applications superimposed on
them to study the effects of boron with magnesium and zinc. The borax
treatments are randomized and adequately replicated so that significance
can be accurately determined.
Insect control experiments are being carried cooperatively by A. M.
Phillips with Moore and Moneymaker in Jefferson County.

State Project 391 F. S. Jamison and F. E. Myers
Sweet Corn.-Twenty-four hybrid sweet corn varieties were grown. Each
variety was planted in six replicates arranged in randomized blocks. Yield
was measured in pounds and number of marketable ears.
Among the most promising varieties, as judged by yield or high quality
ears, were Bantam Hybrid 54, Bantam Hybrid 57, Golden Hybrid, Golden
Security and Erie. In addition to variation in yield, some varieties, such
as Improved Sencross, produced mature corn in 72 days while Keystone
Hybrid required 83 days. Most varieties included in the trials produced
ears between 7 and 9 inches in length and 1/2 to 1% inches in diameter.
This is approximately the same size ear as produced by loana, the stand-
ard variety now grown commercially. A tendency toward light suckering
was observed in Aristogold Bantam, Golden Hybrid 1734 and Flagship.
In addition to the varieties grown on replicated plots for yield tests, an
additional 42 varieties were grown on single-row plots for observation of
their horticultural characteristics. A number of these varieties appeared
to have sufficient merit to warrant their inclusion in yield tests.
Cabbage.-In cooperation with Dr. E. N. McCubbin, 14 commercial va-
rieties of cabbage were planted in four replicates arranged in randomized
blocks. Extremely heavy rains and severe cold reduced growth of the
plants. Of the commercial varieties tested, Green Acre, Glory of Enkhui-
zen, Resistant Detroit and Round Dutch all produced satisfactory yields.
Based on yield and appearance, Round Dutch, Copenhagen Market Extra
Early strain and Glory of Enkhuizen were particularly desirable.
Eighteen additional strains were grown on single-row plots and observa-
tions were made as to uniformity of head shape, solidity of head and other
desirable horticultural characteristics. Of the 18 strains, Early Glory and
Succession appeared especially good, producing uniformly sized heads of
good quality. They will be grown in yield trials during the coming season.
Cucumbers.-Six strains of cucumbers having resistance to mildew,
developed by the South Carolina Experiment Station, were planted in
replicated trials along with standard commercial varieties. Heavy rains
over a two weeks' period resulted in poor stands and lack of seed pre-

Annual Report, 1948

vented replanting. However, sufficient plants of all strains and varieties
grew and matured fruits so that the resistance to mildew and fruit char-
acter could be observed. The strain released as Palmetto appeared to show
considerable resistance and produced a well-shaped fruit having dark green
color. One other South Carolina strain, No. 6, warrants further trial.
Watermelons.-In cooperation with the State Department of Agri-
culture, five strains of certified watermelon seed of the Cannonball variety
were grown for observation. Four of these strains produced melons hav-
ing uniform color and shape while in the other strain 14 percent of the
plants produced melons having a definite stripe instead of the uniform
dark green skin usually associated with the variety.
Squash.-Eight varieties of squash in All America trials were grown.
Varieties that looked promising were Bush Acorn, a new strain of Zucchini,
and Banana Butternut.
(See also Subtropical, Everglades and Central Florida Stations and
Vegetable Crops, Strawberry and Potato Investigations Laboratories,
Project 391.)

State Project 420 B. E. Janes
Data accumulated during the past few years on the organic composi-
tion of cabbage, beans, collards, broccoli, carrots and tomatoes have been
assembled and a manuscript for a technical bulletin prepared.
This study has shown that the composition of Florida-grown vegetables
is similar to that reported for vegetables grown in other parts of the coun-
try. Climatic conditions associated with locations and/or seasons are re-
sponsible to a large degree for the variations in the organic composition
of vegetables.
Adams Project 432 G. H. Blackmon and R. H. Sharpe
Stuart pecans at Gainesville have recovered from severe toxicity de-
veloped in the leaves where 8 and 16 pounds of borax per tree were applied
in 1945 and again in 1947. Nut production was very light in 1947, but the
trees are carrying some nuts this year.
Monymaker trees in Jefferson County showed less leaf blotch where
borax was applied than where it was omitted. This is being checked again
this year in extensive boron experiments with Schley, Curtis, Kennedy,
Moneymaker, Moore and Stuart in Alachua, Bradford, Jefferson, Gadsden
and Walton counties.
In an experiment with Pineapple pears in Columbia County there were
no differences in growth with 0, , 1/2 and 1 pound applications of borax
per tree in the spring of 1947. Samples of mature fruit were examined
and the borax had no effect in reducing the amount of corky development
in the flesh of the fruit in 1947.

Bankhead-Jones Project 435 B. E. Janes and V. F. Nettles
Studies of the effect of irrigation on cabbage and corn were continued
on the plots established in 1945. The emphasis during the past season has
been on the effect of frequency of irrigation, time of planting and nitrogen
levels on yield and composition of cabbage and frequency of irrigation, time
of planting and spacing on yield of corn.
The amount of water used was varied by varying the interval between
applications. The three intervals used were based on evaporation as meas-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

ured from an open pan. The minimum intervals were two, four and eight
days for the frequent, medium and occasional applications, respectively.
During the cool weather of the winter months the evaporation was quite
slow so that it frequently required more than two days to evaporate 0.25
of an inch, thus increasing the intervals between irrigations; however, dur-
ing warm spring days evaporation was often as much as 0.25 inch a day.
Cabbage.-Glory of Enkhuizen was planted on October 20, December 3
and February 6. Each planting consisted of three 40-foot rows. One-half
of each plot was side-dressed with nitrate of soda. This side-dressing in-
creased the yield of all plots of the first and third plantings but only the
frequently irrigated cabbage benefitted in the second planting.
Average yields of the three plantings were 22,000, 9,000 and 19,000
pounds, respectively. The low yield of the second planting was due to
severe freeze followed by cold, wet weather. Since there was sufficient rain-
fall evenly distributed throughout the growing period of both the first
and second plantings, there was no response to irrigation.
The third planting was subject to relatively long periods of dry weather
and consequently there was a marked response to irrigation. Medium irri-
gation gave just as good results as frequent, indicating that % inch of
water every four days is sufficient on the type of soil used. Occasional
irrigation gave higher yields than no irrigation but they were both
lower in yield than the frequent and medium.
Samples of the first and third plantings of cabbage were taken for
chemical analysis.
Frequency of irrigation had no effect on either the percent dry weight
or ascorbic acid content of the first crop of cabbage. Associated with the
reduction in growth as a result of lack of moisture in the third planting,
there was an increase in percent dry weight and the amount of ascorbic
acid on both the fresh and dry weight basis. Cabbage from the frequent
irrigation plots had an average of 6.8 percent dry weight and that from
the non-irrigated plots averaged 8.5 percent dry weight. The ascorbic
acid content of the cabbage from the frequent irrigation plots averaged
603 mgs. per 100 gms. dry weight and the cabbage from the non-irrigated
plots averaged 660 mgs. per 100 gms. dry weight. Side-dressing with nitrate
of soda decreased the percent dry weight in both the first and third plant-
ings. Amount of nitrogen had little effect on ascorbic acid content.
Sweet Corn.-Golden Security sweet corn was planted on February 22,
April 6 and May 3 in the plots on which cabbage had been grown. Each
planting consisted of four rows, one each in which the plants were spaced
6, 12, 18 and 24 inches apart. The first planting had the best growing con-
ditions and therefore yielded higher than the other two plantings. Yield of
the second planting was quite satisfactory, but the third planting was made
too late in the season for sweet corn; the unfavorable weather conditions
and insect damage during this period caused a complete failure.
There was a very marked response to irrigation in both the first and
second plantings. Yield of plots receiving frequent and medium irrigations
were about equal and much higher than for the plots receiving occasional
or no irrigation. Occasional irrigation gave only slightly higher yields than
no irrigation. Average weight per ear decreased with decrease in frequency
of irrigation.
In the first planting the plants spaced 6 inches apart produced the
most ears and highest total weight. The weight per ear was slightly less
but the increase in numbers overcame the smaller size. There was little
difference in yield of the 6 and 12-inch spacings in the second planting.
With an increase in spacing the average weight of the ears and the num-
ber of ears per plant increased; however, this increase was not enough

Annual Report, 1948 83

to bring the yield of the 18 and 24-inch spacings up to that of 6 and 12-inch
State Project 452 R. J. Wilmot
Four varieties of Camellia japonica are being grown in an artificial
medium of crushed granite and ion exchange material at eight different
pH's, following the termination of preliminary trials in which it was found
that this medium could be used. This work was initiated to determine the
pH requirements of Camellia.
Work has been continued on the use of fungicidal dips on camellia cut-
tings before treatment with root-inducing substances. It has been found
that there is no residual effect from the fungicides on the control of damp-
off but that rooting may be increased in some cases.
One hundred twenty-four varieties and species have been added to the
variety collection, 83 of which were from Australia or England.
State Project 467 R. K. Showalter
Owinig to the amount of time required in vegetable packing research,
this project was inactive during the year.

State Project 468 R. A. Dennison and B. E. Janes
The study of the influence of different sources and amounts of potash
salts on cabbage, potatoes and tomatoes was continued. Field plot experi-
ments and greenhouse experiments were designed using the following
sources and amounts of potash:
1. No potash 3. KN3O 5% 5. KC1 10% 7. K,2SO4 10%
2. KC1 5% 4. K2SO4 5% 6. KNO3 10%
The above potash variations were used in fertilizer mixtures with 5%
nitrogen and 7% phosphoric acid. Each treatment was replicated seven
times with the cabbage and potato crops in the field experiment. There
were four replications of each treatment with the field tomatoes. Cabbage
and tomatoes were also grown in greenhouse soil benches and each of the
above fertilizer treatments was replicated four times with both crops.
Cabbage.-Seven weeks after the cabbage plants were set in the field
the first winter freeze occurred, the temperature dropping to 190F. Plant
counts made two weeks after the freeze showed an average of 16.3 plants
per plot (36% of the total) severely injured in the 10% KC1 treatments.
The 10% KNO.3 treatments had an average of 29.4 plants per plot (65%
of the total) severely injured and the no-potash had an average of 29.3
plants (65% of the total) severely injured. The number of plants in the
other treatments severely injured fell between these two extremes.
Plants from the greenhouse were placd in a 280F. room in the refrig-
eration plant. Leaves of the plants which received 10% KC1 were the last
to freeze; leaves of the plants in the 10% KNO. and no-potash treatments
froze the quickest.
Results from both field and greenhouse experiments would indicate that
when KC1 is the source of the potash fertilizer the cold resistance of cab-
bage plants is greater than with other sources of potash, especially with
KNO.3 as the source or when no potash is added with the fertilizer.
Several determinations were made of pH, conductivity and buffering
capacity, using the expressed sap of cabbage plants from both the green-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

house and field experiments. The buffering capacity was measured by
titrating 10 ml. of expressed sap with standardized NaOH. With the ma-
jority of samples the, pH values of the sap were lower from the no-potash
and KNOQ treatments than for the other treatments.. Conductivity of the
plants from the no-potash and KNO3 treatments was slightly greater than
for the other treatments.
Specific gravity was determined on 10 mature heads from each plot.
Plots receiving the 10% level of potash produced heads having a higher
specific gravity than those receiving the 5% level or no potash.
The severe freeze in January damaged the cabbage crop to such an
extent that much of the crop would not mature and produce marketable
heads. As a result, yield records obtained are not considered of value for
determining any differences in yield due to treatment.
Potatoes.-The potato crop was so badly infested with root-knot
nematode that no data obtained can be considered for determining differ-
enccs between treatments.
Tomatoes.-The highest tomato yields were obtained from the plots
receiving potash as KNO3. The fruit from the no-potash plots had the low-
est specific gravity, but no significant difference was found between the
treatments with the various potash sources.
The pH, conductivity and titratable acidity were determined for fruit
harvested from both field and greenhouse plots. No significant variations
were found in pH of fruit from the, different treatments. Conductivity
was consistently higher in fruit harvested from the no-potash plots. Titra-
table acidity was also markedly different. For the fruit from the no-potash
treatment approximately 7 ml. of 0.103 N NaOH were required to titrate

Fig. 8.-Ventilated cardboard carton used for shipping 12 consumer
packages of sweet corn.

Annual Report, 1948

10 ml. of the juice to the end point with the phenolphthalein indicator.
Fruit from the other treatments required approximately 9 ml. of the NaOH
to titrate 10 ml. of the juice to the end point.

State Project 473 R. A. Dennison and H. M. Reed
Work was conducted to determine the adaptability to preservation by
freezing of certain vegetable varieties. Varieties of green beans, peas,
sweet corn and strawberries from Station variety trials were frozen.
Studies were also made with broccoli and spinach to determine the blanch-
ing time which would give the best frozen product.
Strawberries.-The Missionary variety of strawberry gave the best
appearing frozen pack because of the deep red color. On the basis of tex-
ture and flavor, the Klonmore strawberry has been rated the highest.
Green Beans.-The green bean varieties which received highest rating
were B1643, B1733, B1763, B1586, B1486 and B1800.
Sweet Corn and Peas.-The sweet corn varieties Golden Cross Bantam,
Bantam Hybrid 57, loana and Oto appear favorable for freezing. The pea
varieties Little Marvel and No. 958 were scored highest for adaptability
to freezing.
Blanching spinach for a period of two minutes gave the best frozen
product. With broccoli, a blanching period of three minutes in boiling
water or five minutes in steam was considered best.

Bankhead-Jones Project 475 V. F. Nettles and F. E. Myers
Effects of DD, chloropicrin and dowfume W-10 on seed germination
were tested during the summer of 1947. Small plots of soil were fumigated
with these materials at the same rates used on plots where crops were
grown to maturity. Seed of squash, beans and other crops were planted
on these plots one day after fumigation and repeated plantings were made
at two-day intervals. No injury to germination was observed on any of the
plantings, including those made the day following fumigation. This test
was repeated during the same season and the same results were secured.
The entire area planted to tomato varieties was fumigated with DD at
rates recommended for control of root-knot. The fumigation was done
one month before the fertilizer was applied and plants were transplanted.
Severe rolling of leaves occurred when the plants began to set fruit. Early
set fruit also was severely affected with blossom-end rot. Ammonia nitro-
gen was found to be quite high in these soils. Since all the area
was treated, no check is available but it is probable that severe leaf rolling
and blossom-end rot are associated with the high level of ammonia nitro-
gen present. Root-knot was effectively controlled by the fumigation.

State Project 478 R. A. Dennison, N. R. Mehrhof, R. B. Becker,
G. K. Davis and E. L. Fouts
Samples of sweet potatoes from commercially dehydrated material were
analyzed for use in comparison with other processes in the future. No new
materials were prepared during the year. However, the poultry laboratory

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

conducted feeding trials with dehydrated celery tops prepared last year.
(See Project 478, Animal Industry.)

Purnell Project 483 R. K. Showalter, L. H. Halsey
and A. H. Spurlock
In cooperation with the Department of Agricultural Economics, exten-
sive studies were made this year on the various aspects of consumer pack-
aging of broccoli, cauliflower and sweet corn at Ruskin. Approximately
79,000 cartons (each with 12 packages) of the three vegetables were grown,
packaged and marketed by a Ruskin grower.
Broccoli.-The broccoli package contained 10 ounces of trimmed,
washed and precooled florets harvested mainly from the side branches of
the plants. The packages were automatically wrapped and sealed with
transparent film and held in 35" F. storage rooms for delivery by refrig-
erated truck to Florida and northern cities.
Data were obtained on temperature changes from time of harvest,
through the entire packaging operation, during shipment to market and in
the retail refrigerated display case. Test results showed that, if the broc-
coli were to reach the consumer in good condition, it must be rapidly pre-
cooled to 35-40"F. soon after harvesting and be held below 450 until pur-
chased in the retail store. A slight increase in the CO2 concentration re-
tards the yellowing of the buds, but ventilation of the packages was found
to prevent off-odors and flavors.
The addition of 100 to 200 p. p.m. of chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) to
the precooling water inhibited the growth of decay organisms which were
difficult to control on the cut surfaces of the stems. The testing of various
types of packaging film was limited because the wrapping machine was
adapted only for cellophane.
Cauliflower.-The consumer packages of cauliflower contained 10
ounces of curd cut into small segments ready for cooking. The prepara-
tion, precooling and packaging operations were similar to those used for
broccoli. More difficulty was experienced with decay and discoloration of
cauliflower. Chlorine gas and sodium hypochlorite were added to the pre-
cooling water in concentrations ranging from 16 to 630 p. p.m. of resi-
dual chlorine, but decay from bacterial soft rot and other organisms was
not satisfactorily controlled.
Precooling and storage tests indicated that cauliflower usually could
be held 10 days if the temperature were maintained between 35 and 400 F.
A mixture of ascorbic and citric acids used as a dip bath reduced the dis-
coloration on the cut surfaces but increased decay.
Sweet Corn.-During April, May and June 67,000 cartons of Ruskin
prepackaged sweet corn were sold to markets in nearly all the large cities
east of the Mississippi River. After the corn was husked, trimmed, washed
and precooled, two lengths of ears were packaged. The cardboard trays
held three five-inch ears placed lengthwise or five three-inch ears placed
Considerable information was obtained on the relationship of temper-
ature during precooling, storage and shipping to subsequent quality. The
shower of refrigerated water (36-44 F.) circulated over the corn during
the 9.2-minute precooling cycle lowered the temperature of the corn 25 to
300 F. This was not sufficient when the field temperatures were 80 to
850 F., so an additional 12-hour period in the cold storage rooms (28-34 F.)
was necessary before the corn was ready for shipment with a cob temper-

7 In cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Annual Report, 1948

ature of 40 F. or lower. A number of shipping tests with mechanical
and ice refrigerated trucks indicated that prepackaged corn can be trans-
ported to Northern markets in good condition if low temperatures are
Chlorination of the precooling water, huskers, cutting knives and con-
veyor belts was necessary to hold down the microorganism count. Many
agar plates were poured and counts made of the bacteria, yeasts and molds
to determine the sources of infection and control measures. At least 20
p.p.m. of residual chlorine must be maintained and 50 to 75 p.p.m. in the
precooler is desirable.
Attempts were made to control the discoloration of injured kernels by
various dips. Ascorbic, citric and hydrochloric acids and sodium chloride
solutions were somewhat effective when freshly prepared, but after a
short time produced more discoloration and decay than no dip treatment.
No means were available for refrigerating or chlorinating the dipping bath
and it was discontinued.
Package ventilation was found advisable to prevent high CO2 concen-
trations and a 1/4 inch automatic perforator was installed on the wrapping
machine. The most important factor in maintaining quality in all con-
sumer packaged vegetables was found to be temperature control.
Economic Studies.-The following phases of the prepackaging operation
were studied and when possible compared with the method of handling the
same vegetable in the conventional package: (1) Packing costs; (2) selling
prices; (3) net returns to the grower; (4) packed weights as prepared for
shipping; (5) consumer acceptance studies; and (6) waste and spoilage in
retail stores.
Packing costs were higher for prepackaging each vegetable than for
packing the same original quantity in conventional containers. Sweet corn
cost almost twice as much for materials and labor when consumer packed
as when packed in wirebound crates. Selling expense was also higher. All
prepackaged produce was sold at a delivered price rather than f. o. b., as
is sometimes done with bulk packages.
Packing costs for cauliflower were about 75 percent higher when pre-
packaged than when packed in cauliflower crates. Materials for prepack-
aging cost 45 cents per equivalent crate, against 38 cents for bulk crates;
direct packing labor was 40 cents for prepackaging and 21 cents for bulk
packing. Selling prices were somewhat higher for prepackaged cauliflower
than for the crates but, because of the higher packing costs, net returns
to the grower were about the same for prepackaged cauliflower as for bulk
Packing materials for broccoli were about 60 cents per bulk crate of
24 bunches and $1.25 for the same quantity prepackaged. Direct labor
for harvesting and packing cost 71 cents per crate of bulk and $2.33
for prepackaging. Net return to the grower, however, was somewhat
higher for prepackaged than for bulk broccoli because of the higher
selling price.
When prepared for prepackaging, each of the three vegetables weighed
less than when packed in bulk containers, since the waste and trimmings
were left. Sweet corn weighed only 43.5 percent as much; broccoli weighed
70.3 percent as much; cauliflower weighed 35.9 percent as much when
prepackaged as the same original quantity.
A consumer opinion survey in Tampa, in which some 700 housewives
were contacted, indicates that broccoli and cauliflower in prepackaged form
are acceptable products when marketed in good condition. Consumers'
reactions to prepackaged sweet corn were studied by the use of question-
naires of postcard size inserted in the corn package. A total of 74,000 cards

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

were sent to markets in the North, East and Middle West, as well as to
several cities in Florida.
Retail store studies were carried on continuously for about 41 months
in two stores in Tampa handling prepackaged and bulk produce. Waste and
spoilage losses were recorded on about eight vegetables, and volume of
sales of each in prepackaged form was compared with the volume for
the same vegetable in bulk.

(Cooperative Regional Marketing Project)
Research and Marketing Project 484 R. K. Showalter, L. H. Halsey
and A. H. Spurlock
The agricultural experiment stations of Florida and four other Southern
States, in cooperation with the USDA, are conducting a regional study of
tomato marketing problems. During the year the Departments of Horticul-
ture and Agricultural Economics of the Florida Station and the cooperating
Federal agencies made ripening studies, retail store studies and shipping
tests from Florida to Northern cities. Efforts were made to determine the
feasibility and economy of shipping and handling tomatoes in other than
the present conventional containers.
The shipping tests were made from the Ruskin area on the West Coast
of Florida. One truck shipment of prepackaged tomatoes to New York
City in January showed that pink to ripe tomatoes can be handled in
cardboard cartons stacked 10 layers high without mechanical injury to the
tomatoes or the containers. The high percentage of decay at the markets
(reported by J. S. Wiant of P.B.I., S.&A.E.,) was probably due to frost in-
jury before the tomatoes were picked. Ripening tests made at the shipping
point indicated that frost-damaged tomatoes should not be marketed,
even though they appear uninjured.
In May, four experimental truck shipments were made in various types
of containers. The majority of the first load trucked to Baltimore (termi-
nal market studies by L. P. McColloch, BPI) was paper-wrapped mature-
green tomatoes packed in standard 30 pound lugs. One lot of pinks was
packed in pony crates containing 23 pounds and another lot in standard
strawberry crates containing 48 pounds. The thin slats of the pony and
strawberry crates allowed considerable bruising and cutting of the to-
matoes, even though excelsior pads were placed between the layers. These
containers were received with uncertainty on the Baltimore market because
of the unattractive condition of the package and because they were
listed as having been shipped in the pink stage.
The second truck load to Baltimore (terminal market studies by L. P.
McColloch of BPI S & AE, and D. R. Stokes of PMA) was all mature green
tomatoes paper-wrapped and place-packed in standard lugs and jumble-
packed in square field boxes containing 62 pounds. The field boxes were
stacked three layers high with an excelsior pad between the boxes, and
the lugs were stacked on edge five layers high. The tomatoes in the field
boxes were in better condition than in the lugs because of the bruising in
the high bulge pack.
The truck load to Louisville (terminal market studies by C. N. Guellow
of BAE) was also divided between place-packed paper-wrapped lugs and
jumble-packed field boxes. A longer and narrower field box containing 59
pounds was used instead of the square box. Both the field boxes and lugs
were stacked five layers high. Records were kept on the two lots of toma-
toes while in the ripening room at destination. No significant differences
were obtained between field boxes and lugs as containers.
The last load of the season was trucked to Jersey City, New Jersey

Annual Report, 1948 89

(terminal market studies by J. S. Wiant of BPI). It included lots of ma-
ture-green tomatoes in lugs and square field boxes, and pink to ripe toma-
toes in pony crates and prepackaged cartons. No report has been received
on the lugs and field boxes but the prepackaged tomatoes and those in the
pony crates were rejected by the buyer because of decay (Rhizopus soft
rot) and advanced ripeness. The riper fruit in the pony crates also showed
bruising injury.
The cost of prepackaging and selling tomatoes was about 214 times
as high as for packing and selling the same quantity of tomatoes in stan-
dard lugs. Packing materials cost $0.45 per lug, and $0.89 for the same
quantity in consumer packages. Direct labor for packing, grading and
loading was $0.27 for a standard lug and $1.42 for prepackaging the same
quantity; selling cost was $0.10 per lug and $0.66 for prepackaged toma-
toes. Prepackaged tomatoes were sold delivered rather than f. o. b. and
delivery expense amounted to $0.82 per equivalent lug. The total cost, in-
cluding overhead, for packing, selling and delivering prepackaged tomatoes
to all markets used thus was $2.99 per equivalent lug; whereas for lugs
it was only $0.94 per lug. This latter figure does not, however, include
delivery expense for lugs.
The average farm price of tomatoes was almost twice as high for pre-
packaged as for lugs. After deducting materials, packing labor, overhead,
selling and delivery expense, prepackaged tomatoes returned more to the
grower than the same quantity of tomatoes packed in lugs. However, only
two sizes of tomatoes were included in the prepackaging, and other, less
desirable sizes also included in the lug prices. There is an additional loss
in prepackaging which reduced the return from this method of prepack-
aging almost as low as for lug packing, viz., the loss of tomatoes in the
ripening process. This loss was estimated to be about 15 percent.
Prepackaged tomatoes, ready to ship, weigh about as much as the
same quantity of tomatoes in lugs and occupy as much space.
Compared with tomatoes packed in lugs, the cost of packing the same
quantity in bushel field boxes was about 25 percent as much, excluding
crate loss and return expense; pony crates cost about the same as lugs;
and standard strawberry crates about 70 percent as much as lugs. Only
pinks and ripes are packed in pony and standard crates, however, and
they are not normally packed in lugs.
Studies conducted in one store in Tampa, Florida, covering a period of
17 weeks showed an average spoilage of bulk tomatoes of 16.9 percent,
whereas the loss on prepackaged tomatoes was only 7.5 percent. It is not
known to what extent this loss was influenced by quality of tomatoes re-
ceived for sale by the store. Sales of bulk tomatoes for the period were 58
percent larger in dollar value than for prepackaged tomatoes. Prices of
bulk and prepackaged tomatoes averaged almost the same for the 17
weeks, being 21.1 cents and 22 cents per pound, respectively. Prices of
bulk tomatoes, however, fluctuated much more than the prices of pre-
packaged tomatoes, which tended to remain rather constant.

State Project 499 B. E. Janes
Five varieties of strawberries-'Missionary, Klonmore, Blakemore,
Tennessee Supreme and Tennessee Beauty-were planted in replicated
yield trials at Gainesville. Klonmore yielded highest and had the best qual-
ity fruit but the berries were smaller than those of other varieties. They
were, however, not too small to be marketable until the very last of the
season. Missionary yielded quite well and had a fair quality fruit. The
other three varieties were definitely inferior as to yield, one of the reasons

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

being the injury sustained by the plants as a result of cold, wet weather
and insect damage.
Tennessee Shipper, Premier, Dunlap and Klondike were planted in an
observational trial. Tennessee Shipper was the only variety showing any
promise. The plants of Premier and Dunlap were severely injured by cold,
wet weather and insects. Klondike produces only a few inferior fruit.
Plants obtained through the cooperation of A. N. Brooks of seven new
seedlings were tried. Four of these seedlings originated in Louisiana and
three in Tennessee. Two of these seedlings, one from Louisiana and one
from Tennessee, showed considerable promise and will be tried again.
A number of more promising varieties were tested for adaptability to
freezing by Dr. R. A. Dennison. See Project 473.
(See also Project 499, Dept. of Entomology and Strawberry Labora-
Purnell Project 501 A. P. Lorz
In accordance with a general program set up March 1, 1948, for the
breeding of high-yielding, high-quality, disease-resistant vegetable varieties
adapted to the cultural conditions in the various production areas of Flor-
ida, work was started with snap and lima beans, peas and spinach.
Assembled collections of snap and lima beans as well as other Phaseolus
species and varieties have been under observation in the field as possible
breeding stocks. Segregating lines and selections from previous hybridi-
zation work at another Station also have been under observation under
the cultural conditions prevailing in the north-central Florida area during
the spring growing season of 1948, and further selections were made under
these conditions.
None of the selections is beyond the fourth generation of inbreeding,
so that purity of type is yet to be established.
In the work on both limas and snaps the emphasis will continue to be
on the selection of superior types suitable for the fresh market, although
some promising processing types are being inbred.
Because peas and spinach are not adapted to growth during warm
weather, it has been possible thus far only to continue to augment the
supply of breeding materials already available as a result of previous work
with these crops.
Preparation of Pickled Celery.-Pickled celery was prepared from both
Golden and Pascal types. The celery was cut into 1 to 1% inch pieces and
steam-blanched five minutes, cooled in cold water and then placed in pint
glass jars. It was covered with a pickling syrup made up in the following
proportions: 1 gallon distilled vinegar, 6 pounds sugar, 8 ounces salt and
6 ounces of mixed pickling spice. The pickles were acceptable to most
people who tasted them. (R. A. Dennison and H. M. Reed.)
Vegetable Canning.-Processing equipment for the Vegetable Products
Laboratory was set up and arranged for convenience in conducting the
experimental work. Preliminary canning tests were made of green beans,
celery stalks and celery juice from the leaves and trimmings. Work has
been started on the selection of a taste panel for judging the processed
foods. (H. M. Reed and R. A. Dennison.)

F. S. Lagasse, Senior Pomologist in Charge
A few seedling tung trees resulting from controlled hand pollinations
give promise of higher than average yields, on the basis of early produc-

Annual Report, 1948 91

tion records. Yields of these trees, located in the Gainesville area, were
seriously reduced by low temperatures in February, 1947. However, even
under such conditions one seedling, F271 x F195, in its fourth growing
season produced 21 pounds of dried fruit which was 37 percent more than
the next highest and 224 percent more than the average of 100 trees in
the planting. If this early superiority continues, particularly in years of
cold damage to the fruit buds, these superior individuals will be of much
value to the industry.
Yield records obtained in the fall of 1947 from seven-year-old trees in
a variety trial showed that the average yield (26.9 pounds per tree) of
the four highest selections was 85 percent more than the average yield of
the remaining selections under test and 110 percent more than the average
of the seedling trees included in the study.
Owing to their superior qualities, two selections, F-4 and F-99, made in
1938 by individuals at this laboratory were released in November, 1947, by
the U. S. Department of Agriculture to tung growers and nurserymen for
multiplication under the varietal names Cooter and LaCrosse. LaCrosse
appears to be particularly valuable because it reproduces fairly true to
type from seed. Cooter should be propagated only by budding.
During the past season no greater increase in cross-sectional area of
trunk or in yield was obtained from trees that received 20 pounds of 5-2-8
fertilizer than from those that received 10 pounds. Leaf analysis, how-
ever, revealed that an application of 1.15 pounds of hydrated lime per
tree in addition to the above fertilizer treatment resulted in a signifi-
cantly higher level of nitrogen in the foliage of the trees.
In the case of hybrids between Aleurites fordi and Aleurites montana,
only a very small proportion produce any pistillate flowers and even those
trees produce a very limited number. As a result, very little progress has
been made in the development of suitable interspecies hybrids.
A survey of the literature on the characteristics of the oil of the five
species of Aleurites showed wide differences in the values reported for the
different species by the various investigators. It has been important there-
fore to determine these characteristics of the oil of these five species more
accurately for guidance in the breeding program. Studies initiated by
Harold M. Sell in 1942 were continued in collaboration with R. D. Dickey,
of the Horticulture Department of the Florida Experiment Station, who
furnished the material.
Data from chemical and physical tests give the following ratings for
the oils, based on eleostearic acid content: fordi 81 percent, montana
66 percent, cordata 50 percent, trisperma 42 percent and moluccana 0 per-
cent. Two hybrids of A. fordi x A. montana had oils with an intermediate
eleostearic acid content of 73 percent.
During the past year about 800 leaf samples were analyzed for nitro-
gen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium. As in previous years,
most of these samples were collected from experimental plots at field sta-
tions in Georgia, Alabama and Louisiana, and the data have been used as
an aid in interpreting the results obtained in the orchard experiments.
Also, samples were collected as before from commercial orchards where
the orchard fertilizer and management practices as well as yields are
known, so that the mineral nutrition levels may be studied in relation to

s The research work of the staff of the U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Inves-
tigations, Gainesville. Fla., financed by Federal funds, is carried on cooperatively
between the United States Department of Agriculture and the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

A rapid quantitative colorimetric method for the determination of mag-
nesium in tung leaves and in soils has been developed. The use of this
method has sped up the leaf analysis work considerably.
A colorimetric calcium method developed elsewhere has been success-
fully adapted to our analytical procedure for tung leaves and this will
increase the speed of calcium determination.
In a fertilizer study on trees deficient in magnesium, those trees that
received all fertilizer elements except magnesium produced 8.2 pounds per
tree, whereas those that received magnesium in addition to the fertilizer
treatment averaged slightly more than 12 pounds per tree. This empha-
sizes the importance of strengthening the weak links in the fertilizer chain.
The whole-fruit method of tung oil analysis has been rather widely
adopted as the basis for commercial transactions in tung fruits. The
Hamilton-Gilbert blendor method is readily adaptable to the use of this
type of sample material except that a principal difficulty has been found
in correcting for the oil extracted from hull and shell, which is not tung
oil. Data obtained in 1947 and 1948 cast doubt on the validity of a simple
subtraction correction factor.
Because the dispersion index of oil extracted from the hull is consider-
ably different from that extracted from the kernel, the possibility of using
this physical method for correcting the oil readings made on samples of
whole ground fruit has been tested. Preliminary studies show sufficient
precision for routine use and are particularly encouraging because only
about one minute is required to make the determination on the oil solution
after blending and settling.
An improvement in the Hamilton-Gilbert method has been made
through the use of the centrifuge and a modified type of centrifuge flask,
which considerably reduces the time required for settling. Another modi-
fication that also reduces the time required to clear the solution is to filter
it on a suction funnel with a filter aid, such as Dicalite 4200. These modi-
fications enable one to complete an oil determination on whole-fruit sample
material in about two hours.
A continuation of the work in 1947 on the germination of tung seed
corroborated the results of 1946, namely, that tung seed stored for 30
days in moist shavings at 450 F. and then planted March 15 to April 1 in
soil thoroughly prepared just previous to planting have a shorter germina-
tion period and the cost of weed control is less than when dry-stored seed
is planted in mid-February. By the cold storage procedure the seed can
be held until conditions for planting are favorable, with no risk that they
will germinate in the stratification medium and become unfit to plant.
In a study of the effect of copper on the protein content of tung leaves,
the new filter paper partition method was used to determine the presence
of 16 amino acids, and four others were tentatively listed. Of the 16 iden-
tified, seven have not been recognized previously in leaf proteins. Alanine,
which occurred in major proportion, is one of those not previously reported
in the literature. The absence of alpha-aminobutyric acid was established.
Photographs were made of the filter paper chromatograms. It is tenta-
tively concluded from these studies that copper deficiency has no major
effect on the qualitative or quantitative differences in the amino acid com-
position of tung leaf proteins.
(F. S. Lagasse, Senior Pomologist; M. Drosdoff, Soil Technologist; S.
G. Gilbert, Associate Plant Physiologist; E. G. Fisher, Junior Pomologist;
D. C. Nearpass, Junior Chemist; Clare M. Gropp, (Agent) Junior Chemist;
J. H. Lassiter, Scientific Aide; Lucille H. Fay, Clerk-Stenographer; Maude
H. Stokes, Scientific Aide; Joyce H. Roberts, Scientific Aide.)

Annual Report, 1948


There has been an increasing valume of correspondence concerning
plant diseases and their control during the year. Also, there has been much
public interest in the use of new fungicides and weed killers.

State Project 259 Erdman West and Lillian E. Arnold
The following table is a resume of the additions made during the year
and shows the total number of specimens on file in each group of the
permanent collections in the herbarium.
Group Accessions Totals
Spermatophytes ...- ....................--------4,117 50,404
Pteridophytes .................... ............. 199 3,362
Bryophytes ...................... --.----- 85 7,880
Thallophytes ................... .........--- .. 795 41,796
Seed collections ..................... ............. 16 2,127

5,212 105,569

Gift and exchange specimens received included 112 packets of fungi,
165 specimens of lichens, 203 sheets of ferns, 52 packets of mosses, 4 of
hepatics, 147 of algae and 3,617 specimens of phanerogams. Of these items
2,699 were specimens of Florida plants and 918 were from out of the State.
Outstanding among these are 147 packets of algae presented by Melvin
A. Brannon, 110 packets of Cladoniae from Alexander W. Evans, 124
sheets of Indiana phanerogams from Ray Friesner, 13 phanerogams of
Costa Rica brought by H. H. Hume, and 751 specimens of phanerogams
collected by S. C. Hood in the Southwest. The duplicates from the her-
barium of J. B. McFarlin of Sebring have been received. From this col-
lection 1,143 sheets of Florida phanerogams and 72 of ferns have been
accessioned. The largest acquisition of the year consisted of a transfer
from the State Museum of more than 4,700 plant specimens which had
been deposited there prior to the existence of this herbarium. Among
them were found 680 sheets of Curtiss' First Distribution, as well as 1,317
other phanerogams, 30 ferns, 161 lichens, 201 fungi and 21 mosses-all
collections of historical value and mostly representing Florida material.
Florida material sent out on an exchange basis numbered 607 specimens.
Three short and three long collecting trips were made during the year,
among which the most important consisted of securing specimens of the
introduced horticultural plants grown at Chapman Field.. Material secured
during the six trips netted 403 specimens. In addition, there have been
1,225 collections of basidiomycetes (boleti).
Collections of the following genera have been sent away for study and
annotation by their respective specialists: Cladonia to Alexander W. Evans,
Galactia to Hollis J. Rogers, Tephrosia to Carroll E. Wood, Jr., Desmod-
ium to Bernice G. Schubert, Spiranthes and Cleistes to Oakes Ames,
Sphagnum to Henry L. Blomquist and the Umbilicariaceae to George
Llano. All of these except Desmodium have been annotated and returned.
An adventitious plant, Cleome ciliata Schum. & Thom., was found grow-
ing at Sebring, which constitutes the first report of its occurrence in the
State. Although not a first report, a first representation of Cynoglossum
virginicum L., found in Torreya State Park, was added to present col-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Demonstrations on the use and value of the herbarium were made
to 190 members of a class in forage crops, nine in a class on game man-
agement, 62 in plant pathology, 80 in propagation and 50 in a high school
class. Identifications for citizens and members of this and other institu-
tions numbered 512 specimens of fungi and plant diseases and 1,171 speci-
mens of higher plants.
The third printing (500 copies) of the book "The Native Trees of Flor-
ida" has been ordered and is being proofed. More than 125 drawings have
been made by Esther Coogle to be used in a projected book to be entitled
"The Native Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida."

Adams Project 281 W. B. Tisdale and A. A. Foster
Experimental work done on this project has been concerned with para-
sitism of different isolates of Rhizoctonia, antagonism of different isolates
of Trichoderma toward Rhizoctonia, and the influence of green manure
on both of these fungi.
Preliminary tests for antagonism made in the laboratory on potato-
dextrose showed that some of the isolates of Trichoderma were not antag-
onistic toward Rhizoctonia. The ones that showed antagonism were used
for soil tests in the greenhouse. The soil was inoculated with pure cultures
of the organisms at the time seed of beans, cabbage, celery and lettuce
was planted. All isolates of Rhizoctonia except the one from a pine seed-
ling reduced emergence of seedlings, and the one from bean caused great-
est reduction. None of the isolates of Trichoderma showed any significant
inhibiting effect on the parasitism of Rhizoctonia. However, emergence of
beans, cabbage and lettuce in flats which received green vegetation two
weeks before planting the seed was much lower than that in soil without
vegetation. Emergence of celery was practically the same under both
conditions. These differences due to antagonism of Trichoderma and to
green manure were less than those obtained the previous year under
similar conditions.
In replicated field plots snap beans and Fordhook lima beans showed
4 and 8 percent, respectively, higher emergence in soil without green
manure than with it. Eight weeks from planting, when the plants
were removed, stems of plants in soil to which green vegetation was added
showed about twice as many deep Rhizoctonia lesions as plants in soil
without green vegetation.

Adams Project 344 Phares Decker
The breeding of eggplants in an attempt to produce a commercial vari-
ety resistant or immune to Phomopsis blight has been continued through
Seventy-five hybrid lines were grown in the fall in comparison with
commercial varieties. Phomopsis blight caused complete failure of all
commercial varieties, while a number of hybrid lines remained free of dis-
ease. The hybrids produced from 5 to 60 percent off-colored fruits.
Seeds were saved from the promising hybrids and grown in the green-
house, where crosses between these selected hybrids were effected.
The 1948 spring crop grown from seed of hybrids selfed in 1947 has
made satisfactory progress and several lines have produced no off-colored
fruits. These lines also compare favorably with commercial varieties in
plant characters and fruit production. Several will be grown in yield tests
in all fall and winter eggplant-producing areas in Florida in 1948-49.

Annual Report, 1948

The fruit color in eggplants, although inherited, is also affected by en-
vironmental growing conditions. Off-colored fruits are seldom produced
by commercial varieties under good conditions, but are often produced
under adverse growing conditions. Improvement in fruit color of the dis-
ease-resistant hybrid lines has been made by backcrossing and selling
until they are nearly as stable as the commercial varieties.

Adams Project 455 Erdman West
A total of 46 specimens of camellia troubles were received in corre-
spondence from Florida citizens and 14 from other states. Over one-third of
these specimens were affected by camellia scab, formerly called oedema
but recently reported to be caused by a parasitic fungus (Sphaceloma sp.)
The dieback disease was next in importance, though fewer specimens than
usual were received because radio talks and published articles have en-
abled many growers to diagnose the disease in their plantings. Less im-
portant troubles included sunburning, root injury, leaf gall (Exobasidium
sp.), Rhizoctonia, Sclerotium rolfsi Sacc., slime mold, Diachea leucopoda
(Ball.) Rost., lichens and freezing. Leaf gall and dieback were found
on both Camellia japonica L. and C. sasanqua Thunb., the other troubles
on C. japonica.
Isolations from stems and shoots killed by dieback yielded Gloeosporium
sp. and Phomopsis sp. in over 90% of the trials and in a ratio of 7 to 1.
Cultures obtained from dead flower buds and the tissue just beneath them
taken before killing frost proved to be Gloeosporium sp. and Phomopsis sp.
in nearly 90 percent of the trials. A total of 40 isolations made from dead
twigs to which frozen flowers had remained attached for several months
yielded the same fungi as obtained from dieback twigs in nearly half the
cases. These results indicate that infection occurs much earlier than
previously suspected and that frozen flowers left on a plant offer an avenue
of entry for these fungi.
Inoculations have been made with both cultures and spores of Gloeo-
sporium sp. and Phomopsis sp. following wounding. A few infections with
cultures of each organism have been obtained, resulting in typical dieback
systems. The same organism was reisolated in the respective cases. No
infections have been secured by spores alone or without wounding.
Following the discovery of leaf gall on C. japonica as well as C. sasanqua
in Gainesville, reciprocal inoculations were made with both species.
The experimental nursery has been enlarged by the addition of 98 three-
to-five-year old plants donated by seven different nurseries and 77 one-year
old home-grown plants.

State Project 463 Phares Decker and R. C. Bond
The 1947-48 winter cover crop of blue lupine was adversely affected by
growing conditions and diseases in all of the Alabama, Georgia, and North
Florida areas with only the Gainesville area escaping. Anthracnose caused
by Glomerella cingulata (Ston.) Spauld. & Schrenk seriously damaged the
1947 seed crop. The disease may be seed-borne. The disease appeared in
most early fall plantings of 1947, causing losses of seedling plants and again
caused serious losses in the 1948 seed crop. "Brown spot," a disease of
lupines caused by Ceratophorum setosum Kirchn., common in central Eu-
rope, was found by Weimer to be present in Georgia. The disease became
widespread on lupines in areas of the Southeast, except in the Gainesville
area of Florida.
None of the 10 chemical seed-treating materials tested in the greenhouse

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

for the control of seed-borne anthracnose prevented the disease from de-
veloping on the seedlings, although dow 9 materially reduced incidence o1
the disease. The experiment was repeated in replicated field plots al
Gainesville, but no diseased plants were observed in the planting
Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe sp. was again present in the
Gainesville area, where it caused defoliation of the plants late in the spring,
reducing the seed crop. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) Massee was found
on lupine plants in the Gainesville area for the first time, but caused little
damage. Other diseases found on lupines but appearing to do little dam-
age this year were Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Scle-
rotium rolfsii Sacc. and Fusarium sp.
Nematodes (Heterodera marioni) were found on the roots of many
plants in several fields and appeared to cause some stunting of the plants
especially associated with poor nodulation and adverse growing conditions.
Investigations were made of the requirements for successful lupine
seed curing and storing conditions, in an attempt to reduce the losses of
seed that have occurred in recent years. The moisture content of many
seed lots was determined at harvest time, at various stages during the
curing process and during the storage period. Germination of the seed
lots was determined at monthly intervals from harvest until planting time
in October. It was found that lupine seed thoroughly matured in the field
and stored in a dry, well ventilated place with an initial moisture
content of from 10 to 16 percent would retain a high viability during the
normal storage period. Lupine seed stored with more than 16 percent
moisture deteriorated under all storage conditions. The seed must not be
allowed to heat before or during the curing process. Seed properly dried
to 16 percent or below can be successfully stored on a floor or in burlap
bags, provided the storage is dry and well ventilated.

Weed Killers.-Weed killers containing 2,4-D in ester form diluted to
1,000 ppm and applied as pre-emergence or post-emergence sprays to plots
of grain sorghum reduced the stand to less than 10 percent or eradicated
the sorghum completely. Weed growth, especially nut grass, was not af-
fected appreciably.
Similar weed killers containing 1,000 ppm, 2,000 ppm and 5,000 ppm
applied to plots of Centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro)
Hack.) caused temporary browning of the grass in proportion to the con-
centration but did not kill it. Occasional Bermuda grass plants (Cynodon
dactylon (L.) Pers.) were affected similarly. Cactus plants (Optuntia lata
Small) were stunted but not killed. (Erdman West.)

Annual Report, 1948 97

Progress in soils research was made during the year as indicated by
the numerous papers published in scientific journals and Experiment Sta-
tion bulletins.
Cooperative studies on soil fertility and management were established
at the West Florida Station. The area for plot work was located, mapped
in detail and planted to uniform crops this year. Cooperative work estab-
lished in former years with the Departments of Agronomy and Horticul-
ture and with the North Florida and Range Cattle Stations in soil fertility
and management have been continued.

State Project 328 F. B. Smith, G. D. Thornton and C. E. Bell
Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were carried out to test the
effect of certain commercial fertilizers recommended for nematode control
on microbiological action in soils, as compared with pure chemical fertili-
zer of equal N-P-K ratio. The commercial fertilizer recommended for
nematode control stimulated nitrification markedly, indicating a higher
organic nitrogen content than that on the guaranteed analysis. Subsequent
analysis showed this to be correct. However, there was no significant
difference in the incidence of root-knot nematode in the soils treated
with the different fertilizers.
A second greenhouse experiment measured the effect of decomposing
poultry manure, poultry manure and servol, oak leaves, and pine needles
on soil reaction. Poultry manure, with and without servol, reduced slight-
ly the pH values of the soil after 28 weeks.
The effect of wood sugar lignin on the ammonification of cottonseed
meal in Lakeland fine sand was studied in the laboratory. The amount of
ammonia produced in soil treated with wood sugar lignin was slightly
higher than that produced in soil without lignin. While this difference was
not considered significant, it shows that wood sugar lignin was not toxic
and did not depress ammonification in this soil.

Purnell Project 347 F. B. Smith, J. R. Henderson and C. E. Bell
Sampling of the important soils of Alachua County for physical,
chemical and spectrographic analysis was completed during the year. Two
hundred seventy-eight samples representing 46 profiles distributed among
9 soil types and phases have been collected. Determinations of organic
matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, moisture equivalent, reaction,
base exchange capacity, and exchangeable calcium, magnesium and po-
tassium have been made on all samples collected. The mechanical composi-
tion of 101 samples from 16 soil types was determined.
Most outstanding results from these analyses are the relatively high
hosphorus contents of certain types, such as Arredondo loamy fine sand,
Gaineville loamy fine sand and fine sands, Fellowship loamy fine sand,
Alachua loamy fine sand, and the Bayboro loamy fine sand; and the rela-
ively high base exchange capacity of certain types. These are character-
istics of great magnitude in the management practices for any soil type.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Bankhead-Jones Project 368 F. B. Smith, G. D. Thornton
and G. B. Killinger
Four individual strains of Rhizobium trifoii were compared with a cul-
ture of the four strains mixed and commercially prepared cultures in a
field experiment with White Dutch clover at the Range Cattle Station.
Nodule counts were made when the plants were approximately six weeks
old to determine the extent of nodulation as a result of the above treat-
Two of the individual strains and the four strains mixed gave highly
significant increased nodulation, while a commercially prepared culture of
a Florida strain of Rhizobium trifolii gave equally good results.
Effect of nitrogen fertilizers on stand, nodulation and yield of White
Dutch clover was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Ten parts per
million of nitrogen in solution were taken up in peat, servol and a 2
percent methocel sol and added to each pot mixed with the inoculated seed
at planting. Sources of nitrogen were ammonium nitrate, ammonium sul-
fate, ammonium phosphate and a commercial fertilizer carrying nitrogen
in the form of ammonium nitrate and organic compounds.
Results were inconclusive. However, certain worth while leads were
obtained, notably: (1) Ammonium nitrate reduced the number of nodules
per plant as well as yield of dry material; (2) largest yield of dry weight
and highest population counts were obtained where the commercial ferti-
lizer was used, however, nodulation was considerably reduced; (3) The
methocel plus ammonium sulfate gave increased population and yield
without reducing nodulation.

State Project 389 F. B. Smith, J. R. Henderson, Ralph G. Leighty,
R. E. Caldwell, J. B. Cromartie and V. W. Cyzycki
The survey of Hillsborough County soils was continued and 210 square
miles were mapped during the year, bringing the total mapped in the
county to 320 square miles. A progress inspection was made by the federal
inspector January 5 to 10, 1948, and was participated in by members of
the Soil Conservation Service and Experiment Station survey staffs.
The Collier County Soil Survey Report was completed and the prelim-
inary draft of the Dade County Report was written.
Farm planning surveys were initiated in Dixie, Glades, Lee, Levy,
Sarasota and Seminole counties by the Soil Conservation Service, in co-
operation with the Experiment Station.

State Project 392 G. M. Volk and C. E. Bell
Various combinations of anions and cations in the form of neutral
salts were added to 1/2,000 acre fallow lysimeters of four foot depth filled
with Lakeland (Norfolk) loamy fine sand by profile. Leachates were col-
lected and analyzed at frequent intervals for 166 days after treatment,
during which time 18.6 inches of water passed the profile. Nitrates and
Cl followed a generally uniform pattern with a concentration crest at 6.E
inches of leachate after treatment. Sodium also followed a uniform pat-
tern with a concentration crest at 7.2 inches of leachate.

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