• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Credits
 List of department reports
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00033
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1947
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00033
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
        Page 3
    List of department reports
        Page 4
    Main
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    Index
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Full Text







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT STATION





ANNUAL REPORT
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1947













UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT STATION





ANNUAL REPORT
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1947










BOARD OF CONTROL

J. Thos. Gurney, Chairman, Orlando
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
M. L. Mershon, Miami
J. Henson Markham, Jacksonville
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee


EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
Universitys
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Provost for Agricul-
ture
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editors
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editors
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers
K. H. Graham, LL.D., Business Managers
Claranelle Alderman, Accountants


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRONOMY

W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomisti
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist2
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant


ANIMAL INDUSTRY

A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialistt
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman3
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologists
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarians
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.s
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husbandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.'
C. L. Comar, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
J. C. Driggers, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Hush.
Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist
S. John Folks, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. in Dairy Mfs.


ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL

C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agri. Economist1 '
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associates
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate


D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate


Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)

G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
J. C. Townsend Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statisticians
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician2
W. S. Rowan, M.S., Asst. Agr. Statistician'


ECONOMICS, HOME

Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist


ENTOMOLOGY

A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologisti
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant


HORTICULTURE

G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist1
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2


PLANT PATHOLOGY

W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist'i
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist


SOILS

F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Chemist1s
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
R. A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Biochemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Microbiologist'
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
Wade W. McCall, B.S., Asst. Chemist
J. B. Cromartie, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor




1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
s Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
In Military Service.
SOn leave.










BRANCH STATIONS


NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY

J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agron.
R. C. Bond, M.S.A., Asso. Agronomist
L. G. Thompson, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Frank D. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Hush.

Mobile Unit, Monticello

R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Marianna

R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Wewahitchka

J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, DeFuniak Springs

R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist


CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED

A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
J. T. Griffiths, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, M.S., Plant Pathologist
J. E. Benedict, B.S., Horticulturist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
James K. Colehour, M.S., Asst. Chemist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Asso. Horticulturist6
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
J. A. Granger, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soil Chemist
A. E. Willson, B.S.A., Asso. Soil Phys.
R. W. Jones, Asst. Plant Path.
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
D. R. Langfitt, B.A., Asso. Chemist


EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE

R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.2
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Hush.
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
R. A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
C. C. Seale, Asst. Agronomist
L. O. Payne, B.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
Russel Desrosiers, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist
J. C. Hoffman, M.S., Asso. Hort.
C. B. Savage, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
W. D. Wylie, Ph.D., Entomologist


SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD

Geo. D. Ruehle. Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist

W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE

C. D. Gordon, Ph.D., Geneticist in Charge2

RANGE CATTLE STA., ONA

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
D. W. Jones, B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush.
E. R. Felton, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD

R.W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
A. Alfred Foster, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.

WEST FLORIDA STATION, MILTON
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Asst. Agronomist


FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg

G. K. Parris, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge

Plant City

A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Hastings

A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist

Monticello

S. O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2

Bradenton

J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Horticulturist in
Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., Hort., Glad. Inv.
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Path.
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.

Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, Meteorologist2


1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 In Military Service.
On leave.








4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

LIST OF DEPARTMENT REPORTS
Page

Director's Report -.........................---- .- ------ -----. 5

Business Manager ...... -------.............. ---- --- ----------- 18

E editorial ...............................-- ...----...... ............ 24

Library ...................-- ...... -------------------------- 33

Agricultural Economics ......................-- -- -- ..................... 34

Agronomy .................----.......--- --------------------- 41

Anim al Industry ...--- ................ .......... .................... 53

Entomology .....................---.-. -------- -----------. 66

Home Economics .......--........ -. ..---------- ..----------- 72

Horticulture ........................ --...---- -----......................... 75
U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations .............-...................... 90

Plant Pathology ........-----.............------------ ------------ 92

Soils .....................--...--- -------------- ---- -- ----------------------- 97

Federal-State Prost Warning Service ........................-----..-------- ... 106

Potato Investigations Laboratory ................ .------....................... 109

Strawberry Investigations Laboratory ....................... ........... ........... 112

Vegetable Crops Laboratory ....................... ..---- ---------.---- 116

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory ......................-......----..... 136

Central Florida Station ....................... -------------------------- 139

Citrus Station ..........................--..--.---------...... 144

Everglades Station .............-- ....------- ...--- ---- ---------- 177

North Florida Station ..................----..-.....-- --.--------.------. 211
Mobile Units ...........-..................---------------------- 224

Range Cattle Station .......................-...........---.--..... -----.... 231

Sub-Tropical Station ..............-------.......----------------- 238

West Central Florida Station (Federal) ........................-......---- .....-- -- 251

W est Florida Station ......................................... ........ --- --------...... 253








Annual Report, 1947


REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDING

JUNE 30, 1947

INTRODUCTION
Florida's geographical position, lack of significant altitude differences
and variable, largely marine-borne, soils have had a pronounced and mani-
fest influence in the development of the State's complex and highly diversi-
fied agriculture. Much of that agriculture in no small measure is based
on advantages of climate. Some 80 percent of the current agricultural
production is from fruits and fresh vegetables; fruits that cannot be grown
in less temperate climates, and vegetables produced during the season when
low temperatures preclude their growth in most other states. A large
floral and ornamental plant acreage also owes its existence to a favoring
climatic environment. General farm crops in wide variety are in greatest
acreage in the northern sections, but livestock production, especially of
beef cattle, is practically statewide. Differences in winter minimums and
in soils and soil moisture have tended to a dispersion of crops to areas
adapted to their economical production and as a result, instead of uni-
formity in the State's agriculture, there are numerous localities of special-
ized production, each differing somewhat from the others in local
environmental conditions.
In the introduction and culture of the numerous kinds of field crops,
vegetables, fruit and nut trees and other economic plants, each has been
accompanied with its own peculiar problems of adaptation, control of
insect pests and diseases, determination of best cultural practices and
nutritional needs, and handling, packaging, processing and marketing of
the produce. Likewise with livestock, successful production has been
dependent upon improvement in breeds and management practices, which
in turn had to await elimination or better controls of parasites and dis-
eases, the recognition and overcoming of nutritional deficiencies, and
development of improved pasturage and feeds. With few exceptions, each
field of Florida's agriculture has met with distinctive problems, many of
which are further complicated by local differences for which the findings
or solutions of other regions were of no effect or required amendment
before practical application.
It is the function and obligation of the Agricultural Experiment Station,
through research and experimentation, to develop factual information on
the solution of problems affecting all phases of crop and livestock produc-
tion in all sections of the State. A closely correlated system of agricul-
tural experiment stations, consisting of the main station, 7 branch stations
and 6 field laboratories, has been established to meet the urgent and varied
demands for assistance. Each of the field stations has been located with
full regard to the needs involved, which makes possible the conducting of
investigations directly under the local conditions of the area affected with
results which are immediately applicable.
Major lines of research are in the broad fields of agronomy, agricultural
economics, animal industry, entomology, home economics, horticulture,
plant pathology and soils. The breadth in scope of the work during the
past year is indicated by the number of active projects, 190, plus numerous
unprojected studies, mostly of a minor nature. These projects included
many which were cooperative with other State agencies and several divisions
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The Federal-State Frost warning








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Service, covering the whole tof the peninsula during the winter months,
is conducted cooperatively with the U. S. Weather Bureau. Comprehensive
fiber investigations were initiated late in the year under partial financing
of the U. S. Department of Commerce. Projects have been approved for
cooperative work on regional marketing problems with other Southern
States and the U. S. Department of Agriculture under the recently enacted
Federal Research and Marketing Act and will be activated during the
coming year with availability of Federal funds.
In both the general and specialized fields of Florida's agriculture, the
advancements resulting from organized research have been rapid and of
far-reaching significance. The State leads the Southeast in vegetable
production, is now the world's largest citrus-producing area, and has over
114 million head of cattle-of which over 200 herds are purebred-on its
farms and ranges. No state leads Florida in the development and utiliza-
tion of knowledge relative to plant and animal nutritional requirements
and the alacrity with which research findings are adopted and put into
practice. Recognition and correction of soils deficiencies, breeding and
selection of adapted disease-resistant and higher quality plant varieties,
new and improved materials and methods for insect and disease control,
better and increased pasturage through importation and breeding of
grasses, clovers and forage crops, introduction of soil-building legumes,
new controls of animal parasites and diseases, higher quality in livestock,
new crops, increased processing, new packaging or wrapping methods,
utilization of waste products, mechanization, improvements in marketing,
wider scope and detail in economics information, and a general betterment
of managerial practices by farmers, fruit growers and stockmen are among
the research contributions which have combined and had no small part
in the attainment of the present broad and sound basis of the State's
agricultural industry.

AWARD OF THE FLORIDA VEGETABLE COMMITTEE
The Florida Vegetable Committee signally honored the staff of the
Agricultural Experiment Station by presenting them with its 1947 Dis-
tinguished Service Award. The citation accompanying the plaque (Fig. 1)
reads as follows:
CITATION
FOR outstanding accomplishment in the progress of the State of Florida
to its present position in the Southeastern States of the United States
in horticultural production and merchandising;
FOR extraordinary achievement in determining the greater adaptability
to Florida soil and production conditions of such new vegetable varieties
as the Sequoia, Pontiac and Sebago potatoes; the Pascal variety of celery;
new tomato varieties more resistant to disease; the Tendergreen, Florida
Belle and Dixie Belle varieties of beans;
FOR continuous and productive application to the study of plant breed-
ing, selection and comparative trials to determine effective disease resist-
ance and other qualities;
FOR the development of improved cultural and nutritional practices for
soil treatment and care;
FOR aiding in development of new organic fungicides, insecticides and
nemacides, which have borne satisfactory results in elimination of plant
and animal pests;








Annual Report, 1947


Fig. 1.-Distinguished service award plaque presented to the Experiment
Station by the Florida Vegetable Committee.


FOR the initiation of studies in marketing and merchandising of Florida
vegetable commodities and their processed by-products; and
FOR scientific skill and initiative devoted unselfishly to the overall
development of their State and its people.
This Plaque, the physical evidence of the Distinguished Service Award
of the FLORIDA VEGETABLE COMMITTEE, is presented for the year
1947 to HAROLD MOWRY, Director, Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station, and








8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Through Harold Mowry to each member of the staff of the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Approved by the Executive Committee this 16th day of June, 1947.
L. L. Stuckey, Chairman
Dixon Pierce, Vice-Chairman
L. L. Chandler, Director
Perry N. Whitehurst, Director
Louis Fisher, Director

IMPROVEMENTS AND ADDITIONS
Building funds allocated under the Florida State Building Program to
the Agricultural Experiment Stations during the past biennium have
exceeded the total amounts previously expended at all branch stations for
construction purposes. The active interest and assistance of the Board
of Control, State Improvement Commission, Board of Commissioners of
State Institutions and Legislature have placed the several stations at least
a decade ahead of the usual progress in construction. These essential
facilities will provide for an expansion in the scope of demanded research
activities and contribute markedly to the Stations' ability to fulfill their
function and duties.
While the whole of the authorized building program is not complete,
the greater part is either completed or under construction and the balance
under contract. The buildings, their location and completion status as
of June 30 were as follows:

Main Station
Vegetable Processing Laboratory........................Under Construction
Poultry Disease Laboratory....................... ........................Completed
Dairy Products Laboratory Addition..................Under Construction
Agronomy-Soils Greenhouse ...... -------..... Under Construction

Citrus Station
Citrus Packinghouse............---......... ------ .... ... Completed
Citrus Processing Laboratory........................................ ..... Completed
Office, Auditorium and Library...............................Under Construction

Everglades Station
Laboratory Addition.................................... Under Construction
Ramie Fiber Laboratory...........--- ...-- ----................ .....Completed
Quonset W warehouses (2)...................................... Completed
Staff Houses (4).......-- ------................ ....................... Completed

Sub-Tropical Station
Laboratory Addition........................ ........................ Under Contract
Quonset Warehouses (2)..............................1 Completed; 1 on Order

Central Florida Station
Laboratory Addition-------------............................................Under Construction

North Florida Station
Staff Houses (5)................................1 Completed; 4 Under Contract








Annual Report, 1947 9

Range Cattle Station
Laboratory and Office......-.............------...............- Under Contract
Staff Houses (3)............................. .. .............Under Contract

West Florida Station
Barn, Seedroom and Storehouses.....................-....Under Construction
Garage and Implement Shelter...............--............Under Construction
Staff Houses (3)....------..........- ..................... Under Construction
Laborers' Cottages (3)...........................................Under Construction

Potato Investigations Laboratory
Machinery Shelter..--.. ....................................... Completed

Vegetable Crops Laboratory
Laboratory ........................... .......... .................. Under Construction
Storage and Implement Shelter...........................--- ....Under Contract
Land additions included the purchase of an unimproved 40-acre tract
in the Cortez area of Manatee County for use of the Vegetable Crops
Laboratory; the purchase of a 640-acre tract, unimproved, in Santa Rosa
County as the site of the new West Florida Branch Station; and, by pur-
chase and donation, 3 unimproved tracts totaling 90 acres adjoining current
holdings of the Range Cattle Branch Station in Hardee County.

CHANGES IN STAFF

Appointments
J. B. Cromartie, Asst. Soil Surveyor, Main Station, July 1, 1946.
A. N. Tissot, from Acting Head to Head of Entomology Department, July
1, 1946.
N. C. Hayslip, Asst. Horticulturist, Everglades Station, August 9, 1946.
Francine Fisher, Asso. Plant Pathologist, Citrus Station, August 12, 1946.
J. K. Colehour, Chemist, Citrus Station, August 12, 1946.
Donald S. Burgis, Asst. Horticulturist, Vegetable Crops Laboratory, Septem-
ber 1, 1946.
S. John Folks, Asst. Animal Husbandman, Main Station, September 15, 1946.
Donald L. Brooke, Asso. Agricultural Economist, Main Station, October 1,
1946.
Walter A. Krienke, Asso. in Dairy Manufactures, Main Station, November
1, 1946.
David R. Langfitt, Asso. Chemist, Citrus Station, November 1, 1946.
H. W. Lundy, Asst. Agronomist, West Florida Station, December 1, 1946.
Irvin W. Wander, Soil Chemist, Citrus Station, January 1, 1947.
Jas. W. Kesterson, Asst. Chemist, Citrus Station, January 1, 1947.
Jas. C. Hoffman, Asso. Horticulturist, Everglades Station, January 1, 1947.
Jas. M. Walter, Plant Pathologist, Vegetable Crops Laboratory, January 1,
1947.
C. B. Savage, Asst. Horticulturist (Temporary), Everglades Station, Feb-
ruary 1, 1947.
Robt. W. Jones, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Citrus Station, February 15, 1947.
Allan E. Willson, Asso. Soil Chemist, Citrus Station, April 1, 1947.
Ralph L. Smith, Asso. Agronomist, Mobile Units, April 1, 1947.
W. S. Rowan, Asst. Agr. Statistician (Collaborator U.S.D.A.), Main Station,
May 15, 1947.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Resignations
R. C. Cassell, Asso. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, July 31, 1946.
K. C. Mock, Asst. Agr. Engineer, Everglades Station, August 10, 1946.
D. J. Smith, Asst. Animal Husbandman, Main Station, August 15, 1946.
R. C. Ladeburg, Asst. Horticulturist, Everglades Station, August 24, 1946.
G. T. Sims, Asso. Chemist, Main Station, August 31, 1946.
A. L. Harrison, Plant Pathologist, Vegetable Crops Laboratory, August
31, 1946.
Ruth F. Taylor, Asst. Biochemist, Main Station, September 1, 1946.
E. L. Felix, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, September 30,
1946.
J. C. Cain, Asst. Horticulturist, Main Station, September 30, 1946.
J. B. Redd, Insecticide Chemist, Citrus Station, October 1, 1946.
R. E. Blaser, Asso. Agronomist, Main Station, October 31, 1946.
V. C. Jamison, Soil Chemist, Citrus Station, December 31, 1946.
Ralph L. Smith, Asso. Agronomist, Mobile Units, November 15, 1946.
Max E. Brunk, Asso. Agr. Economist, Main Station, January 1, 1947.
J. C. Russell, Asst. Entomologist, Central Florida Station, Fabruary 1, 1947.
A. L. Stahl, Horticulturist, Main Station, June 1, 1947.
W. D. Wylie, Entomologist, Everglades Station, June 30, 1947.
David R. Langfitt, Asso. Chemist, Citrus Station, June 30, 1947.









Annual Report, 1947


SCOPE AND SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES

The major part of the Station's research is conducted under regularly
approved projects. Those projects together with some of the miscellaneous
investigations are listed below.
Agricultural Economics
Project No. Title Page
154 Farmer's Cooperative Associations in Florida ................................- 34
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
Citrus ................................................ ................... ........... ... .... 34
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation of Florida
D airy H erds .................. .... ......... .. ................ ................ 34
395 Input and Output Data for Florida Crop and Livestock Production 34
416 Florida Maximum Wartime Agricultural Production Capacity and
Post-W ar Planning for Agriculture ........................... ............... 35
429 Analysis of Farms and Markets in the Plant City Area with Re-
spect to Post-War Economic Problems ....................................... 35
430 Factors Affecting Costs of and Net Returns from Harvesting,
Packaging and Marketing Florida Celery .................................... 36
434 Effect of Integration of Fresh and Processed Citrus Fruit Market-
ing on M marketing Efficiency ................................ ............... ... 37
451 Crop and Livestock Estimating on Florida Farms with Emphasis
on Vegetable Crops ...................................... ........------- ................ 38
480 Cost of Production and Returns on Vegetable Crops in Florida.... 39
482 Rural Land Ownership in Florida .................................. ............ 40
483 Consumer Packaging of Vegetables at the Shipping Point ............ 40
...... Miscellaneous: Tampa Market Area Survey; Florida Truck Crop
Competition; Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries to
Groves; Summary of 1945 Census for Florida Agriculture.... 40
Agronomy
20 Peanut Improvement ....... ...-.. ............... ........... 41
55 Crop Rotation Studies ...................................................... 41
56 Variety Test Work with Field Crops..................... ................ 42
163 Corn Fertilizer Experiments ... ........................... ............. 43
295 Effect of Fertilizers on Yield, Grazing Value, Chemical Com-
position and Botanical Makeup of Pastures ................................ 43
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies ....---------................ 43
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement ................-...................... 44
299 Effect of Burning at Different Periods on Survival and Growth
of Various Native Range Plants and Its Effect on Establish-
ment of Improved Grasses ............................................. 44
301 Pasture Legum es ................................................. ............ ............ ..... 44
304 Methods of Establishing Pastures Under Various Conditions.......... 46
363 Oat Improvement ................................................................ 46
369 Effect of Environment on the Composition of Forage Plants.......... 47
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement ....................................... 47
374 Corn Improvement ........................................................................ 47
378 Flue-Cured Tobacco Fertilizers and Varieties .............................. 48
417 Methods of Producing, Harvesting and Maintaining Pasture
Seed Stock .................................................... 48
439 Function and Interrelation of Oxygen and Micronutrient Elements,
Especially Iron, Manganese and Copper, in the Respiration of
Oats, Hubam and White Dutch Clovers, and Pangola and Car-
pet Grasses ......................... ......... ..... .................. 48








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Project No. Title Page
440 Effect of Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S and Mg on the Growth of Oats, Hubam
and White Dutch Clovers, Pangola and Carpet Grasses Under
Field Conditions ............................. ..--------------- ..---- ............-----.. 49
441 Starter Solutions and Methods of Applying Fertilizer on Tobacco
and Other Field Crops ........................................ ........................ 49
444 Permanent Seedbeds for Tobacco Plants ............................................ 49
457 Nutrition of the Peanut ..................................... ..... ....... .... 50
... Miscellaneous: Sea Island and Upland Cotton ................................. 50

Animal Industry
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ........--......---....- ---..--...--...---.....--. 54
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to Her
Milk and Butterfat Production ............. ................................ 55
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops .................................................... 55
216 Cooperative Field Studies with Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle...... 55
302 A Study of Napier Grass for Pasture Purposes ................................ 55
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Florida
D airy H erds ...................................................................... .......... ........ 55
346 Investigation with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition Prob-
lems of Livestock ...........................----------...... --..... 56
353 Infectious Bovine Mastitis ............................... .................. --- 56
356 Biological Analysis of Pasture Herbage .............-..............-.............. 56
387 Longevity of Eggs and Larvae of Internal Parasites of Cattle...... 57
394 Effect of Certain Feeds on Milk Flavor ..........................................-. 57
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixtures, and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized
Pastures ..................................................................................... ....... 57
418 Sulfurization of Soils for the Control of Certain Intestinal Para-
sites of Chickens ....................................... .......... .................. 57
424 The Transmission Agent of Fowl Leucosis .-----...............--..........-....- 57
426 Toxicity of Crotalaria spectabilis Roth .............................................. 57
431 Florida Waters as Related to Cleaning Problems in Dairy Plants 58
436 Composition of Milk Produced in Florida ......................................... 58
438 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Cattle ................................ 58
450 Grazing Experiments with Poultry ............... ---..............--- ...--- 59
453 Floor Space Requirements for Broiler Production ............................ 59
456 "Leeches" in Horses .................... ....---.. .....---.. --- ----.......... ....- 60
459 Control of the Common Liver Fluke in Cattle .................................... 60
460 Control of Cattle Grubs ..................................... .. .................. 60
461 Supplemental Feeds for Nursing Beef Calves .................................... 61
462 Anaplasmosis in Cattle ..........................................----------------... 61
477 Feeding and Management of Pigs for Economical Pork Production 61
478 Dehydration and Utilization of Vegetable By-Products as Dairy
and Poultry Feeds ................................................................. ........... 62
479 In Vivo Studies of Intestinal Organisms of the Fowl ...................... 62
481 Losses in Marketing Livestock ......................................................... ... 62
489 Feeding Value of Citrus Meal and Citrus Seed Meal for Poultry.. 63
490 Treating Eggs with Oil for Storage ..........................................-........ 63
...... Miscellaneous: Vitamin D Metabolism of Dairy Cows: Interrela-
tionship of Copper, Molybdenum and Phosphorus; Ramie Meal;
Protein Supplements for Chick Growth; Roccal; Inversion of
Sucrose; "Blue Comb" or "Pullett" Disease ................................ 63








Annual Report, 1947


Entomology
Project No. Title Page
379 Control of the Nut and Leaf Casebearers of Pecans ........................ 66
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida........ 67
381 Propagation of Larra Wasps for the Control of Mole-Crickets........ 67
382 Root-Knot in Tobacco Fields .............--................ ..........-----..... ----67
383 Breeding Vegetable Plants Resistant to Root-Knot Nematodes.... 67
385 Effect of Mulches on the Root-Knot Nematode .................................. 68
438 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Cattle ................................ 68
462 Anaplasmosis in Cattle ......................----- .......-.... .......-....... .--- .--- 69
Miscellaneous: Grasshopper Control; Tobacco Aphids; Flower
Thrips; Pecan Insects ................. ................ ............... .. 69

Home Economics
442 Conservation and Availability of the B Vitamins and Iron in En-
riched, White and Corn Breads and Grits .................................... 72
443 Vitamin B Content of Foods .....----.----.............. .................. 73
454 Appetite Levels of Food Consumption ............................................. 73

Horticulture
50 Propagation, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with Tung Oil Trees 75
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and
Methods for Their Propagation ........................ .......................... 76
80 Cover-Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards .............................................. 77
110 Phenological Studies of Truck Crops in Florida ............................... 77
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ................................ 77
190 Cold Storage Studies on Citrus Fruits ............................................. 78
268 Study of Relation of Soil Reaction to Growth and Yield of Vege-
table C rops .............................................................................................. 78
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vegetables
Adaptable to Commercial Production in Florida ..---................... 79
283 Effects of Various Green Manure Crops on Growth, Yield and
Quality of Certain Vegetables .................................... .. ...... 80
315 Fumigation of Nursery Stock ............................... ...... .................. 80
365 Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree .......................................... 80
375 Relation of Zinc and Magnesium to Growth and Reproduction in
P ecans .......................................................... ............... ............ 80
377 Storage and Handling of Florida Vegetables .................................... 81
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ........................................................... 81
413 Dehydration of Vegetables and Fruits --....................---..........-........ 81
420 Composition of Florida-Grown Vegetables as Affected by En-
vironm ent ........................................................ ....... .......... ............... 82
432 Effects of Boron on Certain Deciduous Fruits and Nuts ................ 82
435 Irrigation of Vegetable Crops ................................................................ 83
452 Culture and Classification of Camellia and Related Genera .......... 84
467 Maintaining Freshness in Vegetables with Ice ...............-................-... 84
468 Quality of Vegetables as Related to Fertilizing Materials with
Emphasis on Potash Salts ................................................................. 85
473 Freezing Preservation of Certain Florida-Grown Vegetables.......... 86
474 Consumer Packaging of Florida Vegetables .................................... 86
475 Effect of Soil Fumigants on Yield and Quality of Vegetables........ 87
478 Dehydration and Utilization of Vegetable By-Products as Dairy
and Poultry Feeds --- ------.......................................................... 87
483 Consumer Packaging of Vegetables at the Shipping Point............ 88


j









Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Project No. Title Page
499 Strawberry Variety Trials ............................. ... ........ .............. 89
... Miscellaneous: Quality Testing of New Potato Strains ................ 89
--- U. S. Laboratory for Tung Investigations ..................... .................. 90

Plant Pathology
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants ........ 92
269 Host Relations and Factors Influencing the Growth and Parasitism
of Sclerotium rolfsi Sacc. .....---......-------..............-..... .. --- 93
281 Damping-off of Vegetable Seedlings ............--~....................... 93
344 Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Eggplant ..................-................. 94
455 Camellia Diseases ....... ............. ......- -.................. 94
463 Lupine Investigations ............---.~-.. --------....-- ----........ 95
... Miscellaneous: Weed Killers --....----....--...... ... .............-----. 96

Soils
328 Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and Cropping
Systems in Florida ...- ----------------.......................................---- --- 97
347 Composition of Florida Soils and of Associated Native Vegetation 97
368 Factors Affecting Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule Develop-
m ent .... ....... ..................... - -. ... ........... ........ .. ... ..- 98
389 Classification and Mapping of Florida Soils ...................................---- 98
392 Maintenance of Soil Reaction and Organic Matter and Their Role
in Retention and Availability of Major Nutrient Elements...... 99
404 Correlation of Soil Characteristics with Pasture, Crop and Animal
Response -..................- .............----- ......-...----------------- ------------- 99
421 Effect of Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Florida Soils
on Mineral Composition of Vegetable Crops ................................ 100
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied to
Different Soil Types ........................................ ................. ..... ..- .. 101
433 Retention and Utilization of Boron in Florida Soils ..................-..... 102
446 Testing Soils and Limestone ........................--- ....... .... ........... 104
447 Availability of Minor Elements in Florida Soils ............................... 105

Federal-State Frost Warning Service
...... Report 1946-47 Season ......... ..... .............................. ..... 106
Potato Investigations Laboratory
130 Studies Relative to Disease Control of White (Irish) Potatoes.... 109
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................................ ...... ................. 110
419 Downy Mildew of Cabbage ..................................-.................... 111
465 Fertility Studies in Cabbage Production .......................................... 111
469 Improvement of Potato Cultural Practices ........................................ 111
500 Alternaria Leaf Spot of Cabbage and Other Crucifers .................. 112

Strawberry Investigations Laboratory
499 Strawberry Variety Trials ...............................------.......... ............. 113
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ......................................... ............................ 114
..... Miscellaneous: Weed Killers; Root-Knot Control; Strawberry In-
sects; Squash "Freckles" ...................................... .................... 115

Vegetable Crops Laboratory
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida..... 118
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ........................ ......------- -..... ........---- 118








Annual Report, 1947


Project No. Title Page
398 Breeding for Combining Resistance to Diseases and Insects in the
Tom ato ............................................................... ...-..... ...... --- 122
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn ........ 123
402 Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Vegetable Crop Plants...... 124
405 Summer Cover Crops, Liming and Related Factors in Vegetable
Crop Production ...... ......... ............................ 124
427 Economic Control of Mole-Crickets .................................................... 125
445 Insecticidal Value of DDT and Related Synthetic Compounds on
Vegetable Crop Insects in Florida .............................................. 126
448 Rapid Soil Tests for Determining Soil Fertility in Vegetable
Crop Production ......................... ... ....... ........................................ 127
449 Organic Fungicides for the Control of Foliage Diseases of Vege-
tab les ............ ... ............................. ................... .. ........... 128
464 Gladiolus Variety Trials .................. ........................... 129
502 Gladiolus Corm Disease Control ....................................... ...... 129
504 Controlling Insect Pests of Gladiolus ...................... ...----................ 130
...... Miscellaneous: Leaf and Spike Disease of Gladiolus; Seedbed
Management; Hybrid Tomatoes; Plant Setting; Cracking of
Tomato Fruits; Loss of Potash and Nitrogen by Leaching;
Tomato Mosaic; Weed Control; Gladiolus Corm Production.... 130

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
150 Investigation of and Control of Fusarium Wilt, a Fungous Disease
of Watermelons ..........................--------.. ........---- ...........-- 136
151 Investigations and Control of Fungous Diseases of Watermelon.... 138
254 Investigation of Fruit Rots of Grapes .....................................--. 138

Central Florida Station
252 Soil and Fertilizer Studies with Celery ...................-................... 139
281 Damping-Off of Vegetable Seedlings .............................................. 139
336 Early Blight of Celery .............. .......... ........................... -140
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms .-...................... 140
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................... ............................. .. 141
399 Injurious Insects on Vegetable Crop Plant Beds ..........- .-----............... 142
500 Alternaria Leaf Spot of Cabbage and Other Crucifers ................... 142
501 V vegetable Breeding ................................................... ...................... .... 142
... Miscellaneous: Corn Earworm; Cutworm; Weed Control; Root
Knot Nematodes --....--.............. .... ................ 142
Citrus Station
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection .......................................... ........ 144
102 Variety Testing and Breeding ......................................... ......... ...... 144
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rots of Citrus Fruits.... 144
340 Citrus N nutrition Studies ..................................................... .................... 144
341 Combined Control of Scale-Insects and Mites on Citrus .................... 153
... Miscellaneous: Citrus Decline; Biological Control of Citrus Insect
Pests; Irrigation Studies; Manganese Studies; Citrus Investi-
gations in the Coastal Regions; Chemistry of Insecticides; Co-
operative Research with the Citrus Commission ........................ 157
Everglades Station
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings.... 179
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Condi-
tions ................................ .. ......................... 179








16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ................................. ................... .. 181
88 Soils Investigations ............... ....... ............ ..................... 183
89 W ater Control Investigations ............................... ......... .... 184
133 M ineral Requirements of Cattle ............................................................ 186
168 The Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the
Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades .......................................... 187
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of Sugarcane Moth
Borer .......----------------... ......... ....... ...-----. 189
171 Cane Breeding Experiments ........----................-- .... ................ 190
172 Physiology of Sugarcane ......-----..........---........---------..-- 192
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
glades --............................---------- .....---- ...-----..---- 192
202 Agronomic Studies with Sugarcane ..................... .................. 192
203 Forage Crop Investigations ........------.............. -------.--- 193
204 Grain Crop Investigations ..----.--..............--- --.-- .....----. 195
205 Seed Storage Investigations -......~...--.... ---.......... --.....-..... 195
206 Fiber Crop Investigations ................-............ .-----...-..-.----.------. 196
208 Agronomic Studies Upon Growth of Sirup and Forage Canes........ 197
209 Seed and Soil-Borne Diseases of Vegetable Crops .....-----.................... 197
210 Leaf Blights of Vegetable Crops .........-.............----------- ....... 197
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations ....--------............................... 198
336 Early Blight of Celery ................... ---------............. 198
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ....---............-..-.. ..--... -------199
..-- Vegetable Crop Improvement ---............--...-------- ---.... ..-- 201
- Cultural Requirements of Vegetable Crops --------............................-- .. 202
... Strawberry Culture ..........................- ------ .-----------. 203
...... Insect Pests of the Everglades ...................... .. .................... 203
...... Control of Insects with Aerosols .-------.......... ..-. -- -.~.~.---..-- ... 203
Nematode Control ...................................------------- ------ 204
S Virous Diseases of Vegetable Crops ........................ .. ............... 205
...... Improvement of Beef Cattle ................ ---.-..-.....---- -....------. 206
- Steer Finishing Under Everglades Conditions .................................. 206
.. Grasses for Lawns, Roadsides, and Recreational Areas .........-....... 207
... Weed Control through the Use of 2,4-D ....----....................---...........-- .. 207
.... Vegetable Crop Investigations in the Fort Pierce-Stuart Area --...... 208

North Florida Station
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco .................. .............----- .. 211
80 Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards .............-...... --....................... 212
191 Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Florida Shade Tobacco
Seed and Early Growth of Seedlings ...................................... 212
257 Columbia Sheep Performance Investigations ...........................--..... .. 212
260 Grain Crop Investigations ................................ --------212
261 Forage Crop Investigations ..................--.. .---------....... 217
301 Pasture Legumes ...........-----..-............... ---- ------- 218
321 Control of Downy Mildew of Tobacco ....................................-------..... 218
411 2-Year Rotation for Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco .................................... 218
463 Blue Lupine Investigations .............................................. 218
491 Production of Feeder Pigs --..-.......--......- ----- ...........------- .---- 220
492 Crimson Clover and Oats Pastures as Supplements to Corn for
Fattening Hogs .......................... ...... ------------- 220
493 Soil Management Investigations ........................................................... 221
498 Utilization of Pastures in the Production of Beef Cattle .-- --............... 221
.. Miscellaneous: Soils Fumigants for Nematode Control in To-








Annual Report, 1947


Project No. Title Page
bacco; Peanuts; Blue Lupine for Corn; Crimson Clover Fer-
tilizer Tests .. --.............-......................... 221
.... Mobile Units ......................... ........ ........... .......... 224

Range Cattle Station
390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida Environment...... 231
410 W entering Beef Cattle on the Range ..............................---------...... 231
423 Effect of Fertilization and Seeding on the Grazing Value of Flat-
woods Pasture .........-............-...--...-......--- -------------- -- 2231
466 Fluctuation in Water Table Levels in Immokalee Fine Sand and
Associated Soil Types ..........---.......................-------..... 234
476 Utilization of Ctrus Products for Fattening Cattle ......................... 234
...... Miscellaneous: Pasture Variety-Fertilizer Trials; Mineral Con-
sumption by Range Cattle; Phosphate Amendments and Animal
Response ..............-... .. .. .................--........... . 235

Sub-Tropical Station
275 Citrus Culture Studies ..-............- ... .. ...... .......... ......... 238
276 Avocado Culture Studies ......... ................................. 238
277 Forestation Studies ........................................ -------------239
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ....----..............-......--... 239
280 Studies of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ...-----...........................-----.......- 239
285 Potato Culture Investigations ..................... .. ................... 240
286 Tomato Culture Investigations ................................---............ ......... 241
287 Cover Crop Studies ......................................................... ... 241
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County ........................................ 242
290 A Study of Diseases of the Avocado and Mango and Development
of Control M measures .................. ............ ..... .. .. ................... 244
291 Control of Tomato Diseases ....---- -..... ... .. ................... 245
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................. .......----- ....---- ... .. -- -- 245
422 Diseases of the Tahiti (Persian) Lime ....................- .................. 246
458 Sclerotiniose Disease of Vegetables .................................................... 247
470 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Subtropical Fruits .......... 247
471 Biology and Control of Insects Affecting Winter Vegetable Crops.. 249
472 Control of Pineapple Mealybug ...................................... ....... 250
...... Miscellaneous: Effect of Salt Concentration on Beans, Tomatoes,
and Potatoes ...........................................--.. .... .. 250

West Central Florida Station
Cattle Breeding ....................--............ .. .............. .... 251
...... Grazing Tests ................... ......... ...... ................. ... 251
...... W inter Feeding ................ ... ...... ................ 251
...... Poultry Breeding .............---........ ---.-------.------ 252

West Florida Station
. Progress Report ................ ............ .............................. ............... 253








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


REPORT OF THE BUSINESS MANAGER

FEDERAL HATCH, ADAMS, PURNELL AND BANKHEAD-JONES
FUNDS

Bankhead
Hatch Adams Purnell Jones

RECEIPTS
Receipts from the
Treasury of the United
States, as per appro-
priations for fiscal
year ended June 30,
1947 ................................ $15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000.00 $37,680.70


EXPENDITURES
Personal service-
salaries .......................... $15,000.00 $15,000.00 $59,579.40 $22,459.00
Personal services- labor ............ ............ ............ 6,087.03
Travel expense ................ ............ ............ ............ 313.08
Transportation of things ............ ........... ............ 193.18
Communication service .. ............ ............ 1.05 .25
Heat, light, water,
power, gas, electricity ............ ............ ........... 4.80
Rent of space in build-
ing or equipment ........ ---.......... .
Printing publications,
other printing and
binding ..........................
Repairs and alterations
to equipment, and
other contractual serv-
ices not otherwise
classified- insurance .. ........... ............ ............ 112.60
Repairs and alterations
to buildings (not capi-
tal improvements) ... ............ .......
Supplies and materials .. ............ ........... 42.55 6,793.97
Equipment ........................ ........... ............ 377.00 1,716.79
Land ..-- -- ---............ ............ ............


$15,000.00


Total expenditures ........


$15,000.00


$60,000.00


$37,680.70




SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES FROM STATE APPROPRIATIONS, 1946-47


Main Station ........ $

Contingent Fund,
Main Station ...

Emergency Fund,
Main Station ..

Poultry Disease
Research ............

Poultry Disease
Research-
Building and
Equipment ..........

Vegetable
Processing ..........

Vegetable Process-
ing, Building
and Equipment

State-wide Soil
Survey ..............

Special Agricul-
tural Economist

Special Agricul-
tural Economist,
Contingent .........

Soil Survey
Research ..............

Citrus Station ......

Citrus By-Products
and Processing ..


220,362.87


11,724.00




6,349.80






14,662.15





6,968.89


11,084.52





3,273.55

60,363.12


15,671.40


$25,275.68 $109.00


112.50




3,457.52


109.60


6,791.20


$11,667.16







657.49






546.55





958.65


4,184.10





39.00

4,196.16


0-,0
rcs
E-E


$1


EUI
VS c .)


&- mawr w


,961.93 $3,303.92






.82.
.......... .82



- ... 63. ............


318.63 ...........



......... ............


1,131.26


7.28

1,340.98


122.25 17.84 5.98 ..


$5,536.72 $ 171.34


24.03






1,060.99





7.74


1,112.10


.25








123.72


143.41


.75


c'

U
ar
0, QA


$5,889.68 $3,414.20






............ 848.87
848.877


190.01





103.191


152.66





12.93

386.03


578.80


.m.
r" 0
s^ U2


4.a

02 5~


$ 735.901$41,009.37 $ 9,347.10


4,316.76


2,057.11


E a cd
S na u~
Sm





3,333.66 ............


1,651.56 11,723.24





625.211 251.9(


80.49 593.21


1,096.80

14,324.73


11,905.31


843.99 ...

3,418.57 ...


6,169.07 ...


S:
p
0


$ 5,305.35


0.00


1,600.00


632.62



1.55


19,735.41



30,000.00


5,743.32


1,055.02


276.00


30.3C

54.96


528.6(


I ...........--- .


$334,090.22


11,724.00


1,600.00


15,000.00



6,792.98


50,000.00



30,000.00


14,800.00


17,150.00


276.00


5,303.85

93,581.79


35,000.00







SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES FROM STATE APPROPRIATIONS, 1946-47-(Continued)




Building and





Equipm ent .......... ............. 22,102.20 ........ ....... ............ 445.50 ............ 5,619.5: ........... 11,912.12 ............ ............ 4.25 40,083.60
S0 .s .SE s s U




and Processing,
Building and
Equipment .......... ....... 22,102.20. ...... ............ 6. 3 ............ .... .... ... 34,619.53 ............ 1,912.1208 13, 7. ............ 9,884.2 40,083.60
Expansion Citrus
Cultural Inv .. 29,044.80 1,892.60 ....... 2,880.99 100.27 2.26 .......... ............ 519.17 ............ 1,264.08 ,760.73 .......... 19,67.05 84,302.
Everglades Station 87,019.265 34,509.60 10.00 944.29 564.44 769.96 2,165.91 2.00 ............ 1,966.35 216.05 27,129.32 10,622.18 ............ 80.75 166,000.00

Laboratory Equip-
ment, New Addi-
tion, Glades
Station ................ ..... .. .................... 6.35 .............. ... .......... ....... .......... 3.00 ............ 1,281.08 13,27.63 ............ 9,881.94 25,000.00
East Coast Vege-
table and Agron-
omy, Glades Sta. 11,832.14 1,871.95 ........ 4,190.17 .......5... 63.965 ............ 1560.00 ............ 179.17 ............ 2,707.08 634.73 ........ 629.59 22,248.78
Drainage Equip-
ment, Everglades
Station ................ ........... ............ ....... ........... 463.60 ............ ............ ............ ...------.. 25.00 ............ 1,246.23 8,425.50 ............ 4,389.67 14,500.00
Buildings, Ever-
glades Station .. ............ ............ ........ ........... .......... ............. ......... ........... ............ ............ ........... ........... ............ 25,882.74 25,882.74
North Florida
Station ............. 26,945.00 6,426.89 ........ 360.44 12.90 168.37 152.75 23.00 ............ 319.99 76.82 7,255.52 195.32 ........... 104.03 42,041.03
Soil and Peanut
Research, North
Florida Sta. ...... 6,180.97 ............ ........ 22.80 4.10 30.00 ............ 122.50 ............ .......... .......... 1,748.0 23.50 ............ 481.6 8,613.55
Emergency Fund,
Range Cattle
Station- Dev. .... ............. ........... ........ ....... ....... ........... ..... ..... ........... ............ ........................... ............ 20 00 200.00
Range Cattle
Station ................ 9,027.70 1,602.55 ........ 296.34 13.80 69.23 79.1 ............ ........ 1,538.13 148.89 2,251.91 ........... ............. 0.00 15,027.70
Range Cattle
Station-Emer-
gency Fund ....... 800.00 ............ ........ ............ .............. ..................... ............. ............ ............ ....... ............ ............ ............ 0.00 800.00
















Range Cattle Sta-
tion-Develop-
ment and
Expansion ..........

Sub-Tropical
Station ................

Sub-Tropical
Station-Con-
tingent Fund ....

Sub-Tropical
Station-Emer-
gency Fund ........

Celery Investiga-
tions Laboratory

Celery Investiga-
tions Laboratory,
Emergency Fund

Potato Investiga-
tions Laboratory

Potato Investiga-
tions Laboratory,
Emergency Fund

Strawberry Investi-
gations Labora-
tory ................

Vegetable Crops
Laboratory ........

Vegetable Crops
Laboratory,
Emergency Fund


SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES FROM STATE APPROPRIATIONS, 1946-47-(Continued)



I ^ l- Ol St r3, ^ *
C b o b.e r
~ 44
a -v .O
0E '- 8. .5 " U".- S s 22 S f a ?-
0 8
r. l oE I r W r
S a 0 0 r
4 5d 5 Eo A. 44< 1S a N 4
" PO e~O r ~g~,


4,121.90


20,741.73



1,812.00



1,812.00


12,415.05



3,200.00


10,398.43



600.00



4,607.40


29,354.18



1.500.00


1,786.50 50.00


1,369.43 ........







............ ........


1,771.35 ........



4,431.05 ........


1,906.95 ........







261.90 ........


11,451.39 21.50



............ ........


305.40


1,067.61










111.38














93.35


1,305.43


206.52










9.01






79.62










113.65


11.61 21.45


301.46 667.50










38.79 48.12






39.08 5.86







39.13 49.28


217.28 459.95



............ ............


12.78










.75






14.90







4.75


56.74


............ 101.05


............ 883.20










............ 122.46






............ 277.99







............ 3.75


............ 387.85


............ ............


132.71










19.92






19.08










22.09


3,288.99


5,987.32










438.34






1,258.21







755.09


4,029.66


435.00


1,031.47










31.88






1,182.31







192.75


594.46


...........


------------



S....... ..



............


............



------------


............



............



-----------.


------------


1.01


9,199.33



188.00



188.00


31.08



968.95


.67



0.00



313.21


1.17



0.00


. o


-


10,122.91


41,601.06



2,000.00



2,000.00


15,038.13



8,600.00


15,183.10



600.00



6,320.61


48,015.35



1.500.00








SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES FROM STATE APPROPRIATIONS, 1946-47-(Continued)


EXPENDITURES FROM CONTINUING APPROPRIATIONS,


d .a~~ca


0 r cc 0E
0 0 0pnwg


1946-47


bo
0 4
uI ;,4 c a
,"" ne
____________________________ Ie' I I


Everglades Station
(Chapter 8442).. $ 5,000.00 $ ............ $ ........ $ ... .......... $ ........... ... ... $ ..... $ .. ........ $ ........... $ $ ...... $ ....... .. ............ $ 0.00 $ 5,000.00

Mobile Units
(Chapter 20,983) 16,194.1 7,276.10 ........ 1,064.46 27.70 211.42 10.00 1,610.65 .. 587.45 92.3 6,878.99 2,367.39 ............ 10,386.51 4,9655.13


a s
a 9-
S o
S a
ffi p:




















Main Station ........ $ 18,294.29


Citrus Station ......

Everglades Station

North Florida
Station ................

Range Cattle
Station ................

Sub-Tropical
Station ................

Celery Investiga-
tions Laboratory

Potato Investiga-
tions Laboratory

Vegetable Crops
Laboratory ........

Watermelon,
Grape, and Sea
Island Cotton
Investigations
Laboratory ........

West Central
Florida Station..


4,989.77



5,529.07

1,498.75







558.15

1,756.20







780.00


EXPENDITURES FROM INCIDENTAL FUNDS-ALL STATIONS, 1946-47


a. S .. r
~r
.t .I 1- .. 3
I b0 SS 0, 1

5d c Fj a
E-I i M1| P P4 11 ri U0 C ca Id II
M ~ a i- ftcl <-p aPB~i ft a Sor Z MS w B B (a


6,344.72

1,836.53

1,303.60

1,384.11

599.15




923.00

636.00










4,413.10


10.00


3,645.50

9.53

768.00

259.56

268.10

294.38

633.76

38.59







111.20


$ 749.95


434.46

22.16

52.95

5.61

35.44

7.89

3.27


24.65


$ 494.16

326.00

78.52

54.16

.47

30.37

107.58

19.44


$1,098.58

4.00

239.61

48.22

39.29

138.87

134.42




39.90




14.01


49.50

8.16

130.00

27.85

100.00


15.25

.75 ...

2.00 .




75.00 ...


$2,849.83


$1,449.35 $17,223.19


104.15 1,018.50

3,863.17 ............

80.16 17.35

146.51 510.00

232.28 ............

475.71 ............

4.05 1,200.00


Irlzoo


170.511


7.73


$42,630.98

5,985.61

2,785.47

2,084.09

2,403.41

2,156.01

2,909.07

1,263.09

481.89




171.97

2,463.60


$2,681.48
4,276.70

4,064.14

1,606.00

1,437.97

73.54

1,320.72

951.08

20.60







2,250.00


200.00


6,000.00


$ 3,930.91 $101,450.44

4,996.32 22,432.62

2,864.441 13,790.89

18,977.12 33,865.51

386.27 7,033.87

282.24 3,637.53

2,497.87 8,816.74

219.97 4,203.67

1,182.97 10,706.63


368.06

267.05


740.24

10,393.67








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


EDITORIAL
Although the war had been over almost a year when this fiscal year
began, the purchase of printing became even more difficult than during
the period of hostilities. Even so, publications in near-normal numbers
were issued during the year and news and radio activities were carried on
as usual. The 3 Editors devote at least half of their time to work for
the Agricultural Extension Service under their cooperative employment.

12 NEW BULLETINS ISSUED
The Station printed 12 new bulletins, 5 of them technical and 7 popular
in nature, and reprinted 1 on which supplies had become exhausted. The
new bulletins ranged in size from 16 to 96 pages, totaling 432 pages, and
in edition from 4,000 to 15,000 copies, totaling 81,000. The reprinted
bulletin was 36 pages in length and 5,000 copies in edition.
Following is the list of bulletins issued:
Bul. Title Pages Edition
422 The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied
Conditions in Animals XI .......................................... 48 5,000
423 Citrus Pulp Silage .......-...........-......... .................. 16 8,000
424 Infectious Bovine Mastitis ................------......... -........- 16 7,500
425 The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied
Conditions in Animals XII ........................................ 44 5,000
426 Effectiveness of the School Lunch in Improving the
Nutritional Status of School Children .................... 32 7,500
427 Potato Diseases in Florida ..................................... ..... 96 8,000
428 Fattening Market Hogs in Dry Lot ................................ 20 5,000
429 Columbia Sheep-Productiveness in Florida and Use
for Crossing with Native Sheep ....-.......................... -36 6,000
430 The Significance and Maintenance of Nitrate Nitro-
gen in Bladen Fine Sandy Loam in the Production
of Cabbage ............................................ ..... . 24 5,000
431 The Toxic Principle of the Tung Tree ......................... 36 4,000
432 Peanuts in Florida -...-......---... ............--.................. 48 15,000
400 Soil Reaction (pH) (reprinted) --..........................-......... 36 5,000
Content of Bulletins.-Some of the principal points covered in the
bulletins are discussed briefly here.
422. The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions
in Animals, XI. (M. W. Emmel, 48 pages, 4 figs.) Reports experiments
to determine the mechanism by which Salmonella aertrycke induces hemo-
cytoblastosis in the chicken. The conclusion was reached from these and
previous experiments that when birds are reared on soil the organism can
become established in the intestinal tract during or following intestinal
parasitism. Later they gain entrance to the blood stream and defensive
blood cells attempt to destroy them. (Technical.)
423. Citrus Pulp Silage. (R. B. Becker, George K. Davis, W. G. Kirk,
P. T. Dix Arnold and W. P. Hayman, 16 pages, 3 figs.) Citrus pulp offers
possibilities for use as silage, particularly when combined with grass hay
or cut sugarcane.
424. Infectious Bovine Mastitis. (D. A. Sanders, 16 pages, 2 figs.)
Sanitation and good herd management are fundamental in mastitis control.
Treatment of infected udders with penicillin helps combat most types of
mastitis.








Annual Report, 1947


425. The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions
in Animals, XII. (M. W. Emmel, 44 pages, 8 figs.) Discusses the relation
of adverse atmospheric conditions to the development of this group of
diseases under indoor-battery conditions. Points out that overcrowding
or poor air circulation can result in adverse conditions and suggests forced
air ventilating to correct lack of air circulation. (Technical.)
426. Effectiveness of the School Lunch in Improving the Nutritional
Status of School Children. (0. D. Abbott, Ruth 0. Townsend, R. B. French
and C. F. Ahmann, 32 pages, 6 figs.) A balanced school lunch definitely
improved the nutritional status of school children studied in this test.
427. Potato Diseases in Florida. (A. H. Eddins, Geo. D. Ruehle and
G. R. Townsend, 96 pages, 41 figs.) Discusses diseases due to fungi, bac-
teria, viruses and other causes, and control measures as known for each
ailment. Suggests the use of certified seed and vigilance to prevent the
introduction of new troubles.
428. Fattening Market Hogs in Dry Lot. (W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown,
20 pages, 2 figs.) Grapefruit meal can replace 5 percent, blackstrap
molasses 10 percent of the corn in the ration.
429. Productivity of Columbia Sheep in Florida and Their Use for
Crossing with Native Sheep. (V. E. Whitehurst, R. M. Crown, Ralph W.
Phillips and Damon A. Spencer, 36 pages, 7 figs.) Columbia sheep did not
reproduce as efficiently at Quincy, Florida, as at Dubois, Idaho. However,
ewes from native ewes and Columbia rams were superior to natives in both
reproduction and wool production. (Technical.)
430. The Significance and Maintenance of Nitrate Nitrogen in Bladen
Fine Sandy Loam in the Production of Cabbage. (G. M. Volk, C. E. Bell
and E. N. McCubbin, 24 pages, 3 figs.) A positive correlation was found
between nitrate nitrogen in the soil just prior to harvest and yield of
marketable cabbage. (Technical.)
431. The Toxic Principle of the Tung Tree. (M. W. Emmel, 36 pages,
4 figs.) Saponin occurs in both foliage and fruit. A second toxic substance
was isolated from the kernel and from commercial tung meal. (Technical.)
432. Peanuts in Florida. (G. B. Killinger, W. E. Stokes, Fred Clark
and J. D. Warner, 48 pages, 53 figs.) Contains 2 sections, 1 on peanut
growing and the other on chemical composition of the peanut plant. Points
out that sulphur appears to play a part in the nutrition of the peanut.
Press Bulletins.-The Station printed 12 new subject matter press
bulletins and issued a new bulletins list twice during the year. Each
subject matter bulletin was 4 pages in length. Editions varied from 3,000
to 5,000 copies, totaling 44,500. The bulletin list was 6 pages long, with
1,500 copies run at each of the two printings. In addition, 5 press bulletins
were reprinted in the sum of 19,000 copies.
A list of press bulletins issued during the year follows:
625 The Place of Minerals in Swine Feeding, by W. G. Kirk.
626 Chicken Pox, by M. W. Emmel.
627 Winter Oats as Grazing for Beef Cattle, by G. B. Killinger, R. S.
Glasscock and W. E. Stokes.
628 Newcastle Disease of Chickens, by M. W. Emmel.
629 Weeds as a Factor in the Control of Root-knot in Tobacco Fields, by
H. E. Bratley.
630 DDT on Cattle and in Dairies, by D. A. Sanders.
631 DDT as a Control for Common Household Cockroaches, by E. G. Kel-
sheimer.
632 Control of Late Blight of Tomatoes, by Geo. D. Ruehle.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


633 Control of Downy Mildew of Cabbage with Spergon, by A. H. Eddins.
634 Control of Thrips and Other Insects of Gladiolus, by R. 0. Magie
and E. G. Kelsheimer.
Bulletin List (printed twice).
560 Nursery Propagation and Topworking of Mangos (reprint).
605 The Blacklee Watermelon (reprint).
606 Soil Reaction (pH) (reprint).
610 Treat Peanut Seed for Better Stands (reprint).
614 The Kent and Zill Mangos (reprint).

NEWS AND JOURNAL SERVICE
Daily and weekly newspapers and farm journals continued to use
liberally of material from the Florida Station, despite the fact that space
continued at a premium in most of them. The weekly clipsheet of the
Agricultural Extension Service continued to be the principal means of
disseminating Station news and recommendations to weekly papers.
Each week the Associated Press and United Press picked up the more
important and timely articles from the clipsheet and put them on their
wires. In addition, at least 21 special news stories were released to the
news associations or one or more newspapers during the year.
Sixteen brief items supplied by Station Editors were printed in state,
regional and national farm journals for an even 100 inches of space. Three
national journals (Country Gentleman, Farm Journal, Victory Farm Forum)
carried 5 articles which occupied 24 inches of space. One Southern periodical
(Progressive Farmer) printed 6 articles for 29 column inches. One Florida
house organ (Florida Farm Bureau Bulletin) printed 5 articles which
occupied 47 column inches.
In addition, articles by various staff members-many of them forwarded
to journal editors by the Station Editors-appeared in large numbers in
all kinds of periodicals, both scientific and popular.
One journal (La Hacienda) printed in Portuguese and circulated in
South America translated and reprinted Experiment Station Bulletin 415,
Production of Artificial Manure.

BROADCASTING ACTIVITIES
Experiment Station workers continued to play an important role in the
daily Florida Farm Hour program over WRUF and in the Farm Flashes
forwarded to other stations. The Farm Hour aired 127 talks by Station
workers during the year, of which 105 were revised into Farm Flashes
for other stations.
Four foreign agricultural officials visiting the Experiment Station dur-
ing the year were interviewed on the Farm Hour. They came from France,
Yugoslavia and the Belgian Congo. Dr. Carlos Muniz, a visitor from
Puerto Rico, was interviewed also.

FARM PAPER AND JOURNAL ARTICLES
Following is a list of articles by all staff members published in popular
and scientific journals, farm papers and association yearbooks during the
year:
Allison, R. V. The Significance of Water Conservation in the Agricultural
Development of South Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59: 8-16.
1946. Also, The Citrus Industry 27: 11: 5-9, 11, 17. 1946.
Beckenbach, J. R. Tomato Varieties for Spring Planting. Market Growers
Jour. 76: 1: 17, 35. 1947.








Annual Report, 1947


Beckenbach, J. R. Late Blight of Tomatoes in Florida, 1946-47. Market
Growers Jour. 76: 6: 22. 1947.
Becker, R. B. Evaluation of Pasture in D. H. I. A. Records. Jour. Dairy
Sci. 29: 474-476. 1946.
Becker, R. B. Annual Boys' 4-H Short Course Held at University of
Florida. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 12: 7-8: 28. 1946.
Becker, R. B. Tenth Annual Field Day Ranked Tops by Dairymen. Fla.
Poultryman and Stockman 12: 9-10: 14-15. 1946.
Becker, R. B. Becker Reviews Meeting of American Dairy Science Asso-
ciation. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 12: 11: 25, 29. 1946.
Becker, R. B. Feed Dealers and Fla. Exp. Sta. Sponsor Nutrition Confer-
ence. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 12: 12: 26-27. 1946.
Becker, R. B. Dr. Becker Reports Proceedings at Two Agricultural Meet-
ings. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 13: 3: 29-30. 1947.
Becker, R. B. Milk Sanitarians Meeting and Livestock Show Held at
Florida University. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 13: 5: 21. 1947.
Becker, R. B. Dairy Doings. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 12: 9-10: 4,
12: 1946; 13: 1: 38-39; 2: 28-29; 4: 23; 5: 22-23; 6: 15, 17. 1947.
Becker, R. B. Green Pasture in Winter Pays. Fla. Grower 55: (1189):
12: 16. 1946.
Becker, R. B. Boosting Winter Milk Supply. Fla. Grower 55: (1189):
12: 22. 1946.
Becker, R. B. Florida Dairying Makes Gains. Fla. Grower 56: (1192):
3: 16. 1947.
Becker, R. B. Citrus By-Products as Feeds for Dairy Cattle. Abstracts
So. Div. (21st Ann. Meeting) Ann. Dairy Sci. Assn. 1947, p. 18.
Becker, R. B., T. C. Erwin and J. R. Henderson. Relation of Soil Type and
Composition to the Occurrence of Nutritional Anemia in Cattle. Soil
Sci. 62: 383-392. 1946.
Becker, R. B., W. J. Nolan and Joe Graham. Florida Jerseys. The Fla.
Jersey Cattle Club. 1945-46. 41 pp.
Blackmon, G. H. Fertilizing Pecan Trees for Good Crops. The Citrus
Industry 27: 12: 24-25. 1946.
Blackmon, G. H. Fall Jobs in the Nut Orchard. Fla. Grower 55: (1188):
11: 18. 1946.
Blackmon, G. H. Productive Home Orchard Pays. Fla. Grower 56: (1191):
2: 17-18. 1947.
Blackmon, G. H. Experiments with Growth Substances on Pecans. Proc.
Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 47: 147-148. 1946.
Blackmon, G. H. How Much Borax will a Pecan Tree Tolerate? Proc.
Southeastern Pecan Growers' Assn. 40: 77-83. 1947.
Blackmon, G. H. Tung Oil-A Gift of China. Econ. Bot. 1: 2: 161-175.
1947.
Blackmon, G. H., and L. H. Lewis. When Producing, Harvesting and Selling
Pecans. Fla. Dept. of Agr., State Marketing Bureau, For Sale, Want
and Exchange Bul. 6: 12: 1, 4. 1946.
Blackmon, G. H., and H. W. Winsor. Boron Uptake in Pecans. Proc. Am.
Soc. for Hort. Sci. 47: 149-152. 1946.
Blaser, R. E. Clovers Spend the Winter in Florida Pastures. Fla. Grower
55: (1188): 11: 6. 1946.
Bledsoe, Roger W., and R. E. Blaser. The Influence of Sulfur on the Yield








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


and Composition of Clovers Fertilized with Different Sources of Phos-
phorus. Jour. Am. Soc. of Agron. 39: 146-152. 1947.
Borders, Huey I. Tomato Blight Controls Tested. Fla. Grower 55: (1187):
10: 10-11. 1946.
Brunk, Max E. The Application of Work Simplification Techniques to
Maketing Research. Jour. Farm Economics 29: 1: 209-218. 1947.
Burgis, D. S., and E. L. Spencer. Herbicides Give Control of Certain Weeds
in Vegetable Seedlings. Market Growers Jour. 76: 8: 13, 49. 1947.
Camp, A. F. Magnesium in Citrus Fertilization in Florida. Soil Sci. 63:
1: 43-52. 1947.
Carrigan, R. A. Are You Wondering About pH? Fla. Grower 56: (1190):
1: 23. 1947.
Clark, Fred. Curing Right Gives Good Leaf. Fla. Grower 55: (1194):
5: 19. 1947.
Comar, C. L. Indirect Calibration of the Filter Photometer by Means of
the Spectrophotometer. Ind. and En. Chem. 18: 626-628. 1946.
Comar, C. L. Cobalt Metabolism Studies: III. Excretion and Tissue Dis-
tribution of Radioactive Cobalt Administered to Cattle. Archives of
Biochemistry 12: 257-266. 1947.
Comar, C. L., George K. Davis, Ruth F. Taylor, C. F. Huffman and Ray E.
Ely. Cobalt Metabolism Studies, II. Partition of Radioactive Cobalt
by a Rumen Fistula Cow. The Jour. of Nutrition 32: 61-68. 1946.
Comar, C. L., and J. R. Neller. Radioactive Phosphorus Procedures as
Applied to Soil and Plant Research. Plant Physiology 22: 174-180. 1947.
Davis, G. K. Cobalt Lack is Discussed by Davis. The Fla. Cattleman
and Livestock Jour. 11: 4: 10-11, 13-16, 38. 1947.
Davis, G. K. Cattle Malnutrition Shows. Fla. Grower 55: (1186): 9: 16,
18. 1946.
Decker, Phares. "Super" Plants Boon to Farmer. Fla. Grower 55: (1186):
9: 12. 1946.
Dickey, R. D. Home Orchard Varieties. The Citrus Industry 27: 12: 9.
1946.
Driggers, J. Clyde. Stretching Poultry Feed Supply. Fla. Grower 54:
(1184): 7: 4, 14. 1946.
Eddins, A. H. Losses Caused by Potato Diseases at Hastings, Florida.
Plant Dis. Reporter 30: 379-380. 1946.
Eddins, A. H., E. Q. Proctor and Erdman West. Corky Ringspot of Potatoes
in Florida. Am. Potato Jour. 23: 330-333. 1946.
Emmel, M. W. Newcastle Disease-How to Prevent and Control It. Fla.
Poultryman and Stockman 12: 7-8: 11, 20. 1946.
Foster, A. A. Stimulation and Retardation of Germination of Some Vege-
table Seeds Resulting from Treatment with Protective Fungicides.
Phytopath. 36: 680. 1946.
Fouts, E. L. Fresh Fruits in the Manufacture of Ice Cream. So. Dairy
Prod. Jour. 40: 9: 3, 38. 1946.
Fouts, E. L., and T. R. Freeman. A Device to Aid in Determining the
Effectiveness of Dairy Detergents. Jour. Dairy Sci. 29: 512. 1946;
30: 61-63. 1947.
Freeman, Theo. R. New Methods of Preparing Invert Syrup for the Manu-
facture of Ice Cream. So. Dairy Prod. Jour. 40: 4: 52. 1946.
Glasscock, R. S. How to Fit and Show Beef Steers. The Fla. Cattleman
and Livestock Jour. 11: 2: 10-12. 1946.








Annual Report, 1947


Glasscock, R. S. Grooming Show Steers Important. The Fla. Cattleman
and Livestock Jour. 11: 3: 23-26. 1946.
Glasscock, R. S., R. E. Blaser, J. E. Pace and A. L. Shealy. Beef Production
in Florida on Improved Pastures. Jour. An. Sci. 5: 411. 1946.
Gratz, L. O. Need for Minor Elements. Com. Fertilizer 73: 5: 30. 1946.
Gratz, L. O. Radioactive Materials. Cor. Fertilizer 74: 3: 36. 1947.
Gratz, L. O. Chemical Treatment of Florida Soil Increases Yield Threefold.
Agr. Chemicals 2: 5: 17, 65. 1947.
Griffiths, J. T., Jr. The Role of Biological Balance in Citrus Insect Control.
The Cit. Ind. 28: 6: 20-21. 1947.
Harris, H. C., and Fred Clark. Electric Fence for Keeping Small Animals
Out of Peanut Plots. Jour. Am. Soc. of Agron. 38: 1110-1111. 1946.
Harris, H. C., W. B. Tisdale and A. N. Tissot. Importance of Experimental
Technique in Fertilizer Dusting and Calcium Experiments with Florida
Runner Peanuts. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 11: 413-416. 1947.
Harrison, A. L. 2,4-D for the Control of Nut-Grass. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 59: 78-81. 1946.
Harrison, A. L. Control of Tomato Late Blight in Seed-Beds. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 59: 113-117. 1946.
Harrison, A. L. Tests for the Control of Late Blight on "Mature Green"
Tomato Fruits. Plant Dis. Reporter 31: 1: 2-7. 1947.
Henderson, J. R. Managing and Using Our Soil. Fla. Grower 56: (1191):
2: 12-13. 1947.
Hodges, E. M. Winter Pastures are Urged. The Fla. Cattleman and Live-
stock Jour. 11: 5: 16, 18-19. 1947.
Hull, Fred H. Plant Breeding in Relation to Soil Fertility and Climate.
Better Crops with Plant Food 30: 8: 12-14, 41-44. 1946.
Hull, Fred H. Overdominance and Corn Breeding Where Hybrid Seed is
Not Feasible. Jour. Am. Soc. of Agron. 38: 12: 1100-1103. 1946.
Hull, Fred H. Cryptic Homozygous Lines. Jour. Am. Soc. of Agron. 39:
5: 438-439. 1947.
Jamison, F. S. Sweet-Corn Variety Trials. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
59: 84-86. 1946.
Jamison, F. S. Quality Sets Produce Prices. Fla. Grower 55: (1187): 10:
21. 1946.
Jamison, F. S. Vegetable Outlook is Bright. Fla. Grower 56: (1191):
2: 15, 25, 28. 1947.
Jamison, Vernon C. Resistance to Wetting in the Surface of Sandy Soils
Under Citrus Trees in Central Florida and its Effect Upon Penetration
and the Efficiency of Irrigation. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 11: 19-22.
1946.
Janes, Byron E. Variations in the Dry Weight, Ascorbic Acid and Carotene
Content of Collards, Broccoli and Carrots as Influenced by Geographical
Location and Fertilizer Level. Proc. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 48:
407-412. 1946.
Janes, Byron E. Laboratory Tests Vegetables. Fla. Grower 56: (1193):
4: 14-15. 1947.
Kelbert, D. G. A. Sweet Corn for the Florida West Coast. Market Growers
Jour. 75: 12: 18, 38. 1946.
Kelbert, D. G. A. Brighter Outlook for Cucumber Growers Through New
Disease-Resistant Varieties. Market Growers Jour. 76: 7: 37, 40. 1947.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Hybrid Sweetcorn Plus Oil Treatment-A Good Com-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


bination for Earworm Control. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59: 82-84.
1946.
Kelsheimer, E. G. A Fog Machine for Applying Insecticides. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 59: 117-120. 1946.
Kelsheimer, E. G. DDT as a Soil Treatment for the Control of Mole-
Crickets in Seed-Beds. Market Growers Jour. 75: 10: 40. 1946.
Kelsheimer, E. G. The Latest on Insect Control. Ann. Digest of the Fla.
Vegetable Committee 1947: 89, 185-187, 189.
Kern, Frank D., and Erdman West. Another Gymnosporangial Connection.
Mycologia 39: 120-125. 1947.
Killinger, G. B. Why Fertilize Our Pastures? Fla. Grower 55: (1187):
10: 18, 28. 1946.
Kirk, W. G. Enormous Cattle Loss Due to Lack of Feed. The Fla. Cattle-
man and Livestock Jour. 11: 3: 6, 13, 30-31. 1946.
LeClerg, E. L., P. M. Lombard, A. H. Eddins, H. T. Cook and J. C. Campbell.
Relation of Spindle Tuber and Leaf Roll to Percentage Reduction in
Yield of Irish Potatoes as an Aid in Plant-Disease-Survey Practice.
Plant Dis. Reporter 30: 440-445. 1946.
McKee, Roland, G. E. Ritchey, J. L. Stephens and H. W. Johnson. Crota-
laria Culture and Utilization. U.S.D.A. Farmers' Bul. 1980: 1-17. 1946.
Marshall, S. P., R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold. Effects of Stilbestrol
on Lactation and Reproduction. Jour. Dairy Sci. 29: 524-525. 1946.
Marshall, S. P., and George K. Davis. Shark Meal as a Protein Supplement
in Chick Rations. Poultry Sci. 25: 381-386. 1946.
Mowry, Harold. Florida Horticultural Research. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 59: 5-8. 1946. Also, The Citrus Industry 27: 7: 5, 12-13. 1936.
Mull, Leon E., and E. L. Fouts. Some Observations on the Use of Roccal.
Jour. of Milk and Food Tech. 10: 102-104. 1947.
Mustard, Margaret J., and S. J. Lynch. Flower-Bud Formation and Develop-
ment in Mangifera indica. The Bot. Gazette 108: 136-140. 1946.
Neller, J. R. Good Crops Require Phosphate. Fla. Grower 55: (1194):
5: 17. 1947.
Parris, G. K. Growers Urged to Treat Seed. Fla. Grower 55: (1187):
10: 17. 1946.
Pratt, A. J., E. L. Spencer and J. R. Beckenbach. The Production of Tomato
and Celery Plants in Seed-beds as Affected by Method of Irrigation,
Fertilization and Soil Sterilization. I. Plant Response. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 59: 76-77. 1946.
Rogers, Lewis H. The Role of Zinc in Crop Production. The Citrus In-
dustry 27: 12: 5, 19-20. 1946.
Ruehle, Geo. D. Report of the Avocado Variety Committee. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 59: 156. 1946.
Ruehle, Geo. D. New Varieties Add to Desirability of Guava. Fla. Grower
55: (1185): 8: 6, 13-14. 1946.
Ruehle, Geo. D. Growing Bananas in Florida. The Homestead Leader-
Enterprise, Jan. 3, 1947.
Ruehle, Geo. D. Growing Guavas in Florida. The American Eagle 42: 6:
May 29, 1947.
Sanders, D. A. Carefully Watching Stock Pays. Fla. Grower 55: (1187):
10: 20. 1946.
Savage, Zach. Should Veterans Stake Future on Citrus Grove? Fla.








Annual Report, 1947


Grower 55: (1188): 11: 5, 19. 1946; Also, The Citrus Industry 28:
2, 3, 10, 20, 1947.
Savage, Zach. Records Help Cut Grove Cost. Fla. Grower 56: (1192):
3: 4, 25, 28. 1947. Also, Orlando Sentinel, Feb. 9, 1947.
Savage, Zach. Fertilizer and Other Grove Costs. Cit. Ind. 28: 5: 5,
20-21. 1947.
Shealy, A. L. Get Top Prices for Fall Hogs. Fla. Grower 55: (1187):
10: 14. 1946.
Shealy, A. L. Top Beef Output Necessary. Fla. Grower 55: (1188):
11: 27. 1946.
Shealy, A. L. More Livestock for 1947 Market. Fla. Grower 56: (1193):
4: 10-11. 1947.
Shealy, A. L. Bases of Success in Ranching. Fla. Grower 55: (1194):
5: 26. 1947.
Smith, F. B. Soil is the Farmer's Workshop. Fla. Grower 55: (1186):
9: 9, 11. 1946.
Spencer, E. L. Irrigating the Seed Bed. Market Growers Jour. 75: 11:
22, 24, 32. 1946.
Spencer, E. L. Irrigating for Vegetable Production on Sandy Soil. Market
Growers Jour. 76: 3: 13, 40. 1947.
Spurlock, A. H. Melon Growers Have Good Year. Fla. Grower 55: (1185):
8: 2, 19. 1946.
Stahl, A. L., and M. B. Jordan. The Concentration of Citrus Fruit Juices
by Freezing. Food Freezing 1: 10: 375-377. 1946.
Stokes, W. E. Lupine-A Great Cover Crop. The Citrus Industry 27:
10: 15. 1946.
Stokes, W. E. Better Sugar Cane fromn Study. Fla. Grower 55: (1187):
10: 15, 28. 1946.
Suit, R. F. Spreading Decline Seen as a Serious Threat. Citrus 8: 12:
6-7. 1946.
Suit; R. F., and E. P. DuCharme. The Cepheleuros Disease of Citrus.
Cit. Ind. 27: 9: 3, 10, 15, 22. 1946.
Suit, R. F., and E. P. DuCharme. Citrus Decline. Cit. Ind. 28: 7: 5-8,
13. 1947.
Suit, R. F., and E. P. DuCharme. Report on Citrus Decline Studies. Citrus
9: 1: 8. 1946.
Swanson, L. E. Livestock Parasite Problems in the Southeast. Proc.
U. S. Livestock Sanitary Assn. 50: 91-95. 1946.
Tisdale, W. B. Control of Diseases in Seed. Fla. Grower 55: (1188):
11: 10. 1946.
Tisdale, W. B. Seed Protectants Given Tests. Fla. Grower 55: (1189):
12: 25-26. 1946.
Tidale, W. B. Soil Treatment Cuts Disease. Fla. Grower 56: (1192):
3: 14-15. 1947.
Tisdale, W. B. Spring is Orchard Spray Time. Fla. Grower 56: (1193):
4: 25, 28. 1947.
Tisdale, W. B. Blue Mold in Florida. Plant Dis. Reporter 31: 3: 122. 1947.
Tisdale, W. B. Progress Report on Tobacco Blue Mold. Plant Dis. Reporter
31: 5: 198. 1947.
Tissot, A. N. Timely Pest Control Pointers. Cit. Ind. 27: 12: 7, 20. 1946.








32 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Tissot, A. N. Efficient Use of DDT in Insect Control. Cit. Ind. 28: 1:
3, 20. 1947.
Tissot, A. N. Seasonal Insect Control Pointers. Cit. Ind. 28: 1: 16-17.
1947.
Tissot, A. N. Some Insecticides and How to Use Them. Cit. Ind. 28:
6: 3, 8-9. 1947.
Tissot, A. N. DDT-The "Atomic Bomb" of Insect Control. Fla. Grower
55: (1185): 8: 5, 12, 14-15. 1946.
Tissot, A. N. Insect Control Saves Money. Fla. Grower 56: (1191): 2:
20-21, 30. 1947.
Townsend, G. R., R. A. Emerson and A. G. Newhall. Resistance to Cerco-
spora apii Fres. in Celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce). Phytopath.
36: 980-982. 1946.
Van Ness, Glenn. How to Recognize and Control Newcastle Disease in
Poultry. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 12: 12: 3, 18. 1946.
Van Ness, Glenn. Pointers on Diagnosing Diseases of Baby Chicks. Fla.
Poultryman and Stockman 13: 1: 10-11. 1947.
Van Ness, Glenn. Staphylococcus Citreus in the Fowl, Case Report. Poultry
Sci. 25: 647-648. 1946.
Van Ness, Glenn. The Production of So-Called "Pullet Disease". Poultry
Sci. 26: 304-305. 1947.
Van Ness, Glenn, and M. W. Emmel. Newcastle Disease Found in Flock
in Jacksonville Area. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 13: 6: 11. 1947.
Volk, Gaylord M. Significance of Moisture Translocation from Soil Zones
of Low Moisture Tension to Zones of High Moisture Tension by Plant
Roots. Jour. Am. Soc. of Agron. 39: 93-106. 1947.
West, Erdman. Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. and its Perfect Stage on Climbing
Fig. Phytopath. 37: 67-69. 1947.
West Erdman. Camellia Dieback. The Am. Camellia Yearbook. 1946:
46-48.
West, Erdman. Camellia Leaf-Gall. The Am. Camellia Yearbook. 1946:
49-5Q.
West, Erdman. Cammelia Die-Back. Home Gardening for the South 6:
442. 1946.
West, Erdman. Some Unusual Florida Trees. Cit. In. 27: 12: 3, 20. 1946.
West, Erdman. Florida Has Medicinal Plants. Fla. Grower 55: (1188):
11: 23. 1946.
West, Erdman. Making Paint Mold Resistant. Fla. Grower 55: (1189):
12: 23, 27. 1946.
West, Erdman. Florida Beauty a Big Problem. Fla. Grower 56: (1191):
2: 27. 1947.
West, Erdman. Plant Diseases or Bug Pests. Fla. Grower 55: (1195):
6: 8. 1947.
Wilmot, R. J. Camellia Sports in Old Literature. The Am. Camellia
Yearbook. 1946: 8-9.
Wilmot, R. J. The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station's Camellia
Varietal Classification Project. The Am. Camellia Yearbook. 1946:
25-30.
Wilmot, R. J. Values of a Mulch. The Am. Camellia Yearbook. 1946:
57-58.
Wolfenbarger, D. O. Observations on the Airplane for Application of
Sprays and Dusts. Jour. of Econ. Ento. 39: 503-505. 1946.








Annual Report, 1947


LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap

The Library has endeavored to keep abreast of the research work being
done by the various departments. Every effort has been made to make
the Library function for the staffs of the Main and Field Stations. To do
this effectively it is necessary to gather and arrange all the agricultural
information available, and to place it in the hands of the scientists who
require it. The purchase of books and magazine subscriptions is limited
by the budget but there remains a vast wealth of material that may be had
through exchanges and gifts.
While only 326 books were added, the Library acquired 15,915 docu-
ments and periodicals. Cataloging is a continuous process.
Work has continued on re-establishing foreign exchanges and filling
in gaps that occurred during the war years. Reference work has increased
fully 100 percent, and the same is true of bibliographical research.
In addition to the increased use of the Library by the staff of the
Station, there has been an unprecedented use of it by the faculty and
student body of the College of Agriculture and 2,743 students used 11,638
books on reserve. No record was kept of the other material they used.
Staff members borrowed 2,561 books which is only a small percent of the
material used in the Library, no record of which was kept.
The Library furnished the Central Catalog of the University Library
with 298 main entry cards. To its own Catalog, 12,803 cards were added.
And 2,938 documents published by other agricultural experiment stations
were received and catalogued.








34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Since the passage of the Research and Marketing Act on August 14,
1946, considerable time and effort have been given -to the outlining of an
appropriate research program under this Act. This is true particularly
for marketing projects to be conducted cooperatively on a regional basis.
Collaboration continued with the State Crop and Livestock Estimates
Division of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Orlando, Florida, and
W. S. Rowan, Assistant Agricultural Statistician, Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, was appointed as collaborator on the staff of this Department
to further this cooperative arrangement.
The grant-in-aid from the General Education Board has been of material
help, particularly with Purnell Projects 429 and 434. The Cooperative
Research and Service Division of the Farm Credit Administration has con-
tinued its effective cooperation with Purnell Project 434, also, both with
its staff personnel and with finances for clerical help.

FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 154 H. G. Hamilton and A. H. Spurlock
During the fiscal year ending June 30, financial statements, profit and
loss statements, pool analysis and number of members were obtained from
approximately 25 citrus cooperatives. Data were obtained also from the
office of the Secretary of State as to the number of cooperatives that were
chartered since 1944 when the last check was made.

COST OF PRODUCTION AND GROVE ORGANIZATION STUDIES
OF FLORIDA CITRUS
Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage and C. V. Noble
Tabulations were completed and mimeographed reports prepared for the
1944-45 season. Accounts were closed for the 1945-46 season and opened
for the current season.
Fruit prices were higher during the 1944-45 season than any other
season since the inception of this project. Yields were good but less than
the previous season, due chiefly to hurricane winds in October. The fruit
loss was especially heavy in parts of Polk and Highlands counties.
Prices for bearing groves remained high, but changes in ownership
were at a reduced rate.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY AND
DEPRECIATION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and A. H. Spurlock
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Department of Animal
Industry. Refer to Project 345, ANIMAL INDUSTRY.

INPUT AND OUTPUT DATA FOR FLORIDA CROP AND
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
Purnell Project 395 A. H, Spurlock, C. V. Noble,
Zach Savage and D. E. Alleger
Field work required for labor and materials data was completed dur-
ing the year for 5 additional crops and summaries were prepared. About
80 farmers were interviewed and estimates of the usual per-acre require-
ments for labor, by operations, and for materials were obtained.








Annual Report, 1947


Crop studies completed this year are: (1) Trough cucumbers, spring-
Sumter County; (2) watermelons-Jackson County; (3) cabbage-Putnam,
St. Johns and Flagler counties; (4) Irish potatoes--Lee County; and (5)
tomatoes, fall and spring-St. Lucie County.

FLORIDA MAXIMUM WARTIME AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
CAPACITY AND POST-WAR PLANNING FOR AGRICULTURE
Purnell Project 416 C. V. Noble
This cooperative work with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics,
USDA, which has been in progress for the past 4 years, was continued
in the summer of 1946. The State Committee on Agricultural Production
Adjustments, through its 7 sub-committees, prepared advance estimates
of the suggested 1946-47 acreages for Florida commercial vegetable crops,
potatoes and sugar cane for sugar. These were completed and submitted
to the chairman of the State USDA Council on July 12, 1946. The final
report of the State Committee, entitled "Suggested Agricultural Production
for 1947 in Florida", was completed and forwarded through the same chan-
nels on August 20, 1946. All reports were approved promptly by the State
USDA Council and forwarded to the National Goals Committee, where they
were used in arriving at the recommended guides or goals for Florida agri-
cultural production for the 1946-47 season.
This project is being closed, but results of this annual inventory have
been so useful in outlook work and in establishing goals for individual
commodities that the work is being repeated this summer under State
Project 451. The work will be conducted cooperatively with the Bureau
of Agricultural Economics, USDA, the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service and other Florida agricultural agencies. Results will be used
primarily in the agricultural outlook program of the State Extension
Service.

ANALYSIS OF FARMS AND MARKETS IN THE PLANT CITY AREA
WITH RESPECT TO POST-WAR ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
Purnell Project 429 J. R. Greenman, H. G. Hamilton, D. E. Alleger,
C. V. Noble and A. H. Spurlock
Farm Management and General.-At the end of the last fiscal year the
following data concerning the Plant City area had been collected and par-
tially tabulated and analyzed: Crop acreage data for 1942-43 season for
270 farms; farm management records for the 1944-45 season on 52 farms;
records concerning methods of land preparation, cover crop programs,
irrigation and other cultural practices and methods of marketing each
crop on 40 farms; 88 labor and materials records for individual crops;
records of attendance by months, age of students in each grade and amount
of vocational work taken by students graduating or dropping out of school
in 1945 for 24 white and colored schools. During the current fiscal year
tabulation and analysis of these data were completed. In the process of
tabulation and analysis certain omissions in information were revealed.
Most of the field work necessary to obtain the missing information was
carried out during the year. A final report is now in progress.
Results obtained under this part of the project will provide a picture
of the production of farm products in the Plant City area and will indicate
some of the most important causes of success or failure of farmers and
ways in which farming in the Plant City area might be improved in the
future.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Marketing.-At the end of the last fiscal year I.B.M. punch cards had
been punched for 8,000 of the 15,000 individual sales of strawberries by
farmers on the Plant City State Farmers' Market. During the year the
remaining 7,000 sales were punched on I.B.M. cards. The cards have been
sorted and recorded as to price received by days, grades and buyers.
Summarization of the data, which have been tabulated on the I.B.M. cards,
is in process.

FACTORS AFFECTING COSTS OF AND NET RETURNS FROM
HARVESTING, PACKAGING AND MARKETING FLORIDA CELERY
Purnell Project 430 Max E. Brunk and D. E. Alleger
This project has been completed and results presented by the senior
leader as partial fulfillment for the Ph.D. degree at Cornell University
in June, 1947. The manuscript entitled, "An Economic Analysis of Methods
of Harvesting, Packaging and Selling Florida Celery", is being revised
for publication as a Florida Station bulletin.
Five different approaches were used: (1) Motion studies, (2) time
studies, (3) analysis of records of daily output, (4) analysis of quality of
workmanship, and (5) analysis of records of sales. Motion and time
studies were made of selected operations in the process of handling celery.
Records of daily output were obtained from 9 firms; records of quality
of workmanship from 16 firms; and sales records, covering 3,185,009 crates
of celery, were obtained from 18 firms. The firms chosen for the work
were representative of the 3 major celery production areas of Florida,
namely, Sanford, Belle Glade and Sarasota.
Some of the results obtained were:
1. Studied by operations in the entire process of harvesting and
packaging, no 1 firm was either the most or the least efficient in every
operation.
2. Stripping the outside leaves from the celery stalks is the most
time-consuming harvesting operation. All stripping should be done either
in the field or at the washhouse. A step-by-step procedure for stripping
celery in the field was developed.
3. A flexible strap was developed to fit over the top of field boxes.
This strap holds the celery firmly in the crate while being loaded on trucks
and hauled to the washhouse.
4. Top cutting should be done with a saw rather than a machete, to
prevent damage to the celery and to the field crate.
5. The optimum size field loading crew was found to consist of either
3 or 4 workers.
6. An analysis of broken field crates resulted in the construction of
a new type of crate which is now being used by many celery firms.
7. Celery harvesting crews varied from 15 to 123 workers. When the
push-knife method was used in cutting the roots and the crews were
working across the celery rows, a crew of 30 workers was the optimum
size. It was found, also, that if more than 1 crew was used in a single
celery field, more accomplishment per crew was obtained if they were
not permitted to work side by side.
8. Dumping celery on the stripping chain at the washhouse required
58 less man-hours per acre of celery than the method of placing each
individual stalk on the chain one at a time, with little difference in the
quality of pack. An improved style of dumping table was designed to
simplify the job.









Annual Report, 1947


9. The time required for sorting and packing celery in the washhouse
varied from 11.5 to 26.0 hours per 10,000 stalks. The most efficient
results were obtained in houses where the same worker did the sorting
and packing in crates.
10. A crate closing device was made for squaring up the packed crate
and holding it rigid while the top was placed in position and fastened.
This eased the crate closing job and reduced the damage to the crate as
it was being closed.
11. Of the 3,185,009 crates of celery sold by 18 Florida celery firms
during the 1945 season, 63 percent was of the Golden type and 37 percent
of the Pascal type. The Golden type brought an average net seasonal
price to shippers of $3.53 per crate, compared with $3.42 per crate for
the Pascal type.
12. The 4 bases of sale for Florida celery in 1945 were f.o.b., consign-
ment, delivered, and price arrival, but about 90 percent of the total sales
were on the f.o.b. and the consignment basis. F.O.B. sales averaged much
higher in price for both Golden and Pascal types than consignment sales.
13. Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Detroit and Chicago received 39
percent of the total volume of celery shipped in 1945 by the 18 Florida
firms. The states east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio rivers
received 63 percent of the total volume shipped.
14. In general, net returns to shippers were more satisfactory for
celery shipped to the smaller markets.
15. Because of the confidential nature of the sales records, analysis
of individual firms will not be publicized. It was found that factors other
than methods of harvesting and packing, seasonal volume shipped, type,
size and grade of celery, basis of sale and market outlets influenced the
prices individual firms received for celery. Some firms consistently realized
higher prices than others for the same grade, size and type of celery sold
on an f.o.b. basis.
Many of the findings in this study already have been put into practice
by Florida celery firms. Other recommendations, such as the optimum
size and management of field crews, remodeling and rearrangement of
packinghouses, are being seriously considered by some of the most pro-
gressive firms.

EFFECT OF INTEGRATION OF FRESH AND PROCESSED CITRUS
FRUIT MARKETING ON MARKETING EFFICIENCY

Purnell Project 434 H. G. Hamilton, J. K. Samuels, M. C. Gay,
C. V. Noble and A. H. Spurlock
(In cooperation with Farm Credit Administration)
While the major portion of the field work covering the 1943-44 and
1944-45 seasons was completed in the fiscal year ending June, 1946, it has
been necessary to obtain supplementary data in a few cases and to recheck
data in other cases.
A cost of handling index is being constructed which will make possible
the comparison of firms even though they handle different products in
different types of containers.
While costs and factors affecting costs of handling fresh and processed
citrus fruit are major results expected of the project, other significant
phenomena such as methods of disposition of fresh and processed citrus
and prices received by method of disposition and variety of fruit are being
developed.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


On the basis of preliminary analysis, cost of processing citrus fruit was
lower for integrated firms (that is, where both the processing and fresh
operations are carried on by the same firm) than for firms with specialized
operations.
Firms with large volume on the average had lower processing costs
than those with small volume. In handling fresh citrus fruit, cost of
packing was only slightly lower for firms with large volume than for
those with small volume.
Two mimeographed reports were issued and distributed to cooperating
agencies during the year, namely: "Cost of Handling Florida Citrus Fruit
in Processed and Fresh Form, 1944-45 Season",. and "Costs and Methods
of Operation of Dealers Supplying Canners with Citrus Fruits, 1944-45
Season".

CROP AND LIVESTOCK ESTIMATING ON. FLORIDA FARMS WITH
EMPHASIS ON VEGETABLE CROPS
State Project 451 G. Norman Rose, J. C. Townsend, Jr., and J. B. Owens
(In Collaboration with the Division of Crop and Livestock Estimates, Bureau
of Agricultural Economics, Orlando, Florida)
In general the method of procedure was field work for the purpose of
making objective counts and measurements of crops. First, a preliminary
estimate was made early in each truck crop season, followed by repeated
investigations for more accurate data after plantings were completed or
were well underway. Successive field trips were made to observe conditions
and estimate the approximate production of each crop under observation.
The time of these studies was directly influenced by the nature of each
crop; e.g., the Ft. Pierce tomato crop is seeded to the row, consequently
the acreage planted can be determined much earlier than a crop trans-
planted or 1 that has consecutive plantings following a daily or weekly
schedule.
Seasonal production of Florida vegetables is concentrated in rather
small areas, often widely separated. Early fall plantings are principally
in Central Florida areas, ranging from Ocala to Ft. Myers and the Ever-
glades. Plantings for winter harvest are mainly in Collier County and
along the Lower East Coast, with the exception of leaf crops which are
rather generally distributed from the Hastings area through the Ever-
glades. In the spring, production reverts to the fall areas with the addi-
tion of LaCrosse and Hawthorne sections in Alachua County and the
Hastings potato crop in that area. Repeated field trips into these areas
involved a great amount of travel. This was lessened to some extent by
the use of mailed schedules, personal letters and telephone calls. General
truck crop schedules were mailed semi-monthly requesting opinions on
crop conditions, prices and general information relative to the various
crops being produced and/or marketed in the grower's particular section.
A special schedule was mailed on cabbage, cucumbers, peppers, potatoes
and strawberries (1 on each); 2 schedules on tomatoes; 3 on watermelons;
and a special on acreages and conditions.
All information gathered was tabulated for analysis and interpretation,
compared with historic data for accuracy of samplings, and prepared into
summaries and interpretative reviews as reports to the Washington office,
and later were released to the general public. These reports consist of
Truck Crop News as of the 1st and 15th of each month throughout the
producing and marketing season with acreage and production data incor-
porated into the latter release each month. Condition, price and movement








Annual Report, 1947 39

reports were made semi-monthly, and acreage and production estimates
were made as requested by the Washington office.
After the Office of Price Administration was terminated, insofar as
it affected vegetable sales, growers made less frequent calls on the Bureau
for re-estimates of crop damages due to heavy rains, freezes and disease.
Interest reverted from the direct influence on returns to the grower to the
influence that BAE statistics might have on the industry as a whole.
The special field survey in progress at the close of the fiscal year
1945-46 was continued over into July and August with the assistance of
personnel on loan to this office by the Emergency Farm Labor office. No
personnel was compensated for this work out of funds set up for this
project after June 30, 1946. The entire survey was edited and tabulated
during the months of September and October. All the material included
in this survey has not been used, as data on cost of harvesting, packaging
and selling is on file for ready reference or for future study and possible
release. The data on acreages planted, lost by natural causes or due to
economic reasons, and remaining for harvest were closely studied along
with production and sales from these acreages. Averages obtained from
these data were utilized in annual revisions. A similar survey program
was again started as areas completed their harvest in 1946-47 but it will
be handicapped by limited personnel. Last year 8 men were employed
on a temporary basis for the purpose of making this enumerative survey
and the services of an additional 10 men were utilized on a loan basis from
the Emergency Farm Labor office. This year 1 man on loan was available
in addition to Station personnel. The survey will cover all producing areas
as completely as possible.
Volume II of the mimeographed bulletin, "Vegetable Crops in Florida,"
was released in late winter. All statistical data were brought up through
Spring, 1946. A new breakdown was added giving statistical data on an
area and county basis, showing acreages planted and for harvest with
average yields and total production as well as production of value. One
thousand copies were mimeographed and the bulk of them distributed.
A manuscript on the cost of producing and marketing Florida celery
has been prepared for release in conjunction with work under State
project 480.

COST OF PRODUCTION AND RETURNS ON VEGETABLE
CROPS IN FLORIDA

State Project 480 Donald L. Brooke
Field schedules of costs and returns on vegetable crops for the 1945-46
season were obtained from 241 growers representing 23,585 acres. Crops
covered in 1 or more of the major producing areas were: Tomatoes, cab-
bage, cucumbers, snap beans, lima beans, sweet corn, escarole, green
peppers, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, eggplant and squash. Areas
involved were: Winter Garden, Sanford, Oviedo, Zellwood, Sarasota, Web-
ster, LaCrosse, Hawthorne, McIntosh, Ft. Pierce, Indiantown, Pompano,
Dania, Belle Glade and Homestead. Summaries by crops and areas have
been prepared but are being held until further data can be accumulated
for publication.
Field schedules of costs and returns for the 1946-47 season on green
peppers, cucumbers, eggplant and tomatoes have been obtained from the
Ft. Myers and Wauchula areas.
A manscript on the cost of producing and marketing Florida celery
for the 1945-46 season has been prepared in cooperation with leaders of
State project 451.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


RURAL LAND OWNERSHIP IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 482 D. E. Alleger and C. V. Noble
Data on State-owned rural lands have been gathered and summarized.
Acreages in state highways, county roads and railroads have been sum-
marized by counties. Eleven counties have been visited and land data
gathered. Additional summaries have been made at Tallahassee relating
to land ownership for 6 other counties. Tabulation of county data at
Tallahassee is still in process.
Cooperation of the Division of Land Economics, Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, USDA, is anticipated in securing data on Federal-owned rural
lands in Florida comparable to the work under this project on State-owned
lands.

CONSUMER PACKAGING OF VEGETABLES AT THE
SHIPPING POINT
Purnell Project 483 R. K. Showalter and A. H. Spurlock
This project, approved March 3, 1947, is being conducted cooperatively
with the Department of Horticulture and is reported in that Department.

MISCELLANEOUS
Tampa Market Area Survey.-The participation of this Department in
a survey of the Tampa market area was reported last year. All phases
of this survey were brought together in 1 report and issued by the Market-
ing Facilities Branch, Production and Marketing Administration, USDA,
April, 1947, entitled "The Wholesale Fruit and Vegetable Markets of Tampa,
Florida".
Florida Truck Crop Competition.-The regular supplement to Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 224 was prepared covering the
1945-46 season. This gives the weekly carlot competition between Florida
and other states for each commercial truck crop.
Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries to Groves in Florida.-With
the cooperation of the Florida State Plant Board, a summary of the citrus
nursery stock movement to Florida grove plantings for the 1945-46 season
was made. This has been done annually since the 1928-29 season and the
results made available in mimeographed form.
Graphic Summary of 1945 Census for Florida Agriculture.-Mimeo-
graphed graphic summaries have been made of pertinent data from each
Federal Census for Florida since 1925. These summaries have served
a real purpose in giving a quick picture of Florida agriculture. The sum-
mary based upon the 1945 Census is in progress.









Annual Report, 1947


AGRONOMY

The comprehensive research program dealing with major problems
affecting field crop production and maintenance was continued. Special
emphasis was given variety introduction and testing, breeding, rotation
and fertilizer requirements of the many field crops, and the evaluation
and maintenance of numerous pasture plants and summer and winter
cover and soil-building crops.

PEANUT IMPROVEMENT
State Project 20 W. A. Carver and Fred H. Hull
Pedigreed selection is being continued in hybrid material involving 3
Florida and 1 Georgia line as previously reported. Hybrid combinations
of Fla. 249-40, Fla. 231-51 and Ga. 207-3 appear most promising at present.
The best selections for large pod have come from crosses between A. rasteiro
and large-podded hybrid strains related to Virginia Jumbo. Crosses have
been made between strains of rasteiro extraction and Holland Jumbo for
further selection toward large pod, seed soundness and high yield. Strains
with smaller pods somewhat like N. C. Runner and with sounder seed have
been isolated from Fla. 230-118. Selection is being continued with hybrid
lines which have runner and bunch plant types associated with Spanish,
runner and intermediate Virginia types of pod and seed.
Seven Dixie Runner lines in the variety test at Gainesville in 1946
produced from 2 to 25 percent more sound peanuts per acre than 2 Florida
Runner entries and averaged 15 percent more than the Florida Runners.
Fla. 230-118-11, having the same parents as Dixie Runner, and 223-11, of
rasteiro extraction, produced 96 percent as much as Florida Runner in
sound peanuts. The spacing 6x36 inches produced 11 percent more pea-
nuts per acre than 10x36 inches and 21 percent more peanuts than 15x36
inches over a 3-year period, using Dixie Runner peanuts. Yield compari-
sons of Florida Runner and Dixie Runner planted at different spacings
show that Dixie Runner is able to utilize space more efficiently than
Florida Runner.
The State Department of Agriculture is certifying Dixie Runner seed
produced in 1947 from seed lots received by growers from the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station in the spring of 1947.

CROP ROTATION STUDIES
Hatch Project 55 W. E. Stokes and Geo. E. Ritchey
Winter Cover Crops Rotating with Corn or Cat-tail Millet.-The purpose
of this phase of the project is to study the relative effect of different winter
cover crops on summer crops that follow them immediately. Procedures
and treatments of the plots were outlined in last year's report.
No fertilizer applications were made for the 1946-47 crops. The plots
were turned with a large disc plow March 8 and the cover crops were well
covered. The plots were equally divided, % planted to corn April 1 and
the other half planted to Dixie Runner peanuts May 16.
The yields of the cdver crops, and of the corn and peanuts following
them, are recorded in Table 1.
Both peanuts and corn following sweet clover produced higher yields
on heavily limed plots than when following lupines similarly limed. Heavy
lime application tended to depress the yield of lupines. Peanuts following









Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 1.-YIELDS OF WINTER COVER CROPS AND OF PEANUTS AND OF CORN
FOLLOWING THE COVER CROPS IN 1946 AT GAINESVILLE.
Yields of Cover Crops, Yield of Peanuts in
Lbs. of Green Wt. the Hull, Lbs. per Yield of Ear Corn in
per Acre Acre I Bu. per Acre
500 2000 4000 | 500 2000 4000 500 2000 4000
Cover Crop No Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. No | Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. No Lbs. Lbs. Lbs.
Lime Lime Lime Lime Lime LimeLime Lime Lime Lime Lime Lime
Lupines ............ 43,432 44,048 42,160 40,527 741 730 376 316 53.6 | 48.6 42.4 41.4
Sweet Clover...... 17,129 19,978 21,048 19,162 849 1,095 821 877 49.2 50.3 53.7 48.2
Oats .............. 8,492 8,927 7,992 11,323 859 839 272 246 20.4 29.7 41.2 39.2
No Cover .......... 0 0 0 0 655 592 329 276 6.5 7.4 12.3 13.1


lupines on the heavily limed plots produced approximately half the yield
of the plots receiving no or a low application of lime.
Date of Turning Lupines for Corn--The object of this project is to
determine effect of date of turning under lupines on a corn crop following
the cover crop. The procedure was explained briefly in the 1946 report.
A field which had grown lupines 7 consecutive years was planted to
a uniform seeding of blue lupines in October of 1945.
Yields of blue lupines plowed under at the different dates and yields
of corn harvested from the plots are recorded in the following table:

Pounds Pounds Pounds
Date Green Dry Pounds Corn Bushels
Turned Lupines Lupines Nitrogen Silage Ear Corn
per A. per A.* per A.** per A. per A.

Jan. 14 .. 21,332 3,200 101 14,520 28.6
Jan. 31 .. 27,465 4,120 129 18,362 31.8
Feb. 14 .. 32,162 4,824 152 20,253 37.4
Mar. 5 .... 37,740 5,661 178 18,301 33.4

Calculated on basis of 15% dry weight.
** Calculated on basis of 3.14% nitrogen in air-dry lupines.
Corn was planted April 1.

Yields of lupines increased uniformly as the season advanced, with
highest yields being obtained from the March turning. Slightly higher
yields of corn were obtained on plots which were turned the middle of
February than on plots turned in January or March.

VARIETY TEST WORK WITH FIELD CROPS

Hatch 56 W. E. Stokes, G. E. Ritchey, H. C. Harris and Fred Clark
For a discussion of variety trials, see reports for State Project 20,
Hatch Projects 363 and 378, Bankhead-Jones Project 301, Purnell Project
374, and miscellaneous cotton.
The following varieties of sugar cane are under test: Fla. 31-762, Co.
290, U. S. 29-116, Fla. 40-28, 108, 164 and 206, Fla. 41-10, 15, 20, 25, 45,
82, 84, 117, 168, 171, 182, 189, 197, 199 and 222, Fla. 42-55, 63 and 129,
Fla. 43-35, 81, 90, 105, 106, 142 and 153, Fla. 44-3, 17, 19, 37 and 114, Fla.
31-699 and USDA P 133-29.








Annual Report, 1947


CORN FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS
State Project 163 J. D. Warner, R. W. Wallace, R. W. Lipscomb,
R. L. Smith, W. E. Stokes and G. B. Killinger
Corn grown behind blue lupines plowed under as a green manure pro-
duced 68 bushels per acre, as compared with a yield of 30 bushels from
land on which no cover crop has been grown. The protein content of corn
was increased when the crop was grown following lupines. Ammonium sul-
fate applied to corn after the lupines were turned under gave only slight
yield increases and had no effect on protein content.
Corn grown in northern Florida and side-dressed with nitrogen in
amounts ranging up to 160 pounds per acre analyzed higher in protein
with increases in side-dressing nitrogen.
Nitrogen rate tests for corn with constant and ample phosphoric acid,
potash and minor elements are being continued.

EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS ON YIELD, GRAZING VALUE, CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION AND BOTANICAL MAKE-UP OF PASTURES
Bankhead-Jones Project 295 W. E. Stokes and G. B. Killinger
Clover-Carpet Grass Pasture Management.-Two 2/2-acre carpet grass
pastures were limed, fertilized and seeded to a mixture of White Dutch
clover, Black Medic and Hubam clovers in the fall of 1946. These 2 pas-
tures were used in combination with 2 clover-carpet grass pastures estab-
lished in 1940 to determine the merits of continuous grazing versus rota-
tional grazing. One of the newly seeded pastures was paired with 1 of
the old seeded pictures for each system of grazing.
New Grasses Under Grazing.-Pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens),
coastal Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon) and Pensacola Bahia (Paspalum
notatum) in duplicate 2.3-acre pastures were grazed for the fourth season.
Excessive rainfall throughout the 1946 growing season caused a heavy
loss of nitrogen from the soil by leaching, which was reflected in the quality
and quantity of the herbage of these pastures.
Pastures, 1.5 acres each, of Paraguay Bahia and Common Bahia grass
were put under grazing in the spring of 1947.
Herbage samples were collected from a number of quadrats in each
pasture throughout the season to determine yield of grass. Other herbage
samples were hand-plucked once each month for chemical analysis. (All
grazing tests were conducted cooperatively with the Department of Animal
Industry.)

FORAGE NURSERY AND PLANT ADAPTATION STUDIES'
Bankhead-Jones Project 297 Geo. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
More than 150 new strains of grasses and legumes have been under
study in the forage nursery during the last year.
Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr., big trefoil, is continuing to spread under
grazing conditions on plots which were seeded in the autumn of 1945. It
is a legume which is adapted only to moist soil. A seeding made in October
1946 on centipede sod has become established and is furnishing grazing
8 months after planting. Tests show that autumn seedings are more
successful than seedings made in other seasons. The plant is not injured
by ordinary frosts, but freezing temperatures will kill it to the ground.
Paspalum notatum Flugge F.P.I. No. 148,996, an Argentine strain of
Bahia grass, continued to show special promise. Seed production is being
1 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B.P.I.S. & A.E., U.S.D.A.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


increased as rapidly as possible. Several other interesting strains of Bahia
grass are under study.
Four strains of molasses grass, Melinis minutiflora, have survived the
cold winter. This is the first time that this species has survived a winter at
Gainesville satisfactorily.
About 25 strains of lespedeza are under observation. A search is being
made for strains which can be depended upon to volunteer in the extreme
southern section. Two strains, F. C. No. 31858 and F. C. 31481, are doing
well.
Augusta vetch (Vicia angustifolia Roth.), Big Flower vetch (Vicia
grandiflora), and rough pea (Lathyrus hirsutus) continue to indicate that
they may be valuable winter pasture legumes which will volunteer an-
nually. The Dixie Wonder, pea makes an early heavy growth when seeded
in autumn. This pea does not volunteer, necessitating annual seeding.
Its rapid early growth should make it a valuable temporary winter grazing
crop.

FORAGE AND PASTURE GRASS IMPROVEMENT
Bankhead-Jones Project 298 W. E. Stokes and Geo. E. Ritchey
Selection has continued with yellow and blue lupines. The work with
the Florida Speckled and Crescent, 2 selections of the sweet yellow, is
still in progress. Seed of Florida Speckled yellow sweet lupine are being
increased for distribution.
Selections are being continued for hard seed-coat strains. Some progress
has been made with an alkaloid-containing strain of yellow lupine.
Efforts are being made with lespedeza strains to obtain a type which
can be depended upon to volunteer from year to year in grass pastures.
Encouraging results have been obtained.
The selected seedlings of Napier grass have been narrowed to 6 strains.

EFFECT OF BURNING AT DIFFERENT PERIODS ON SURVIVAL AND
GROWTH OF VARIOUS NATIVE RANGE PLANTS AND ITS
EFFECT ON ESTABLISHMENT OF IMPROVED GRASSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 299 G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes
The controlled burning of wire grass and other native plants in October,
January and July has been continued. Off-season burning in June, July
or August destroys food reserves in the roots and crowns of wire grass
and results in slow recovery of the grass. New or improved grasses can
be seeded following this off-season burn and are not seriously affected
by native grass competition. Table 2 shows the effect of various treat-
ments on the composition of wire grass.
Winter clover and lespedeza continued to grow well on all burned,
fertilized and limed plots without soil preparation.

PASTURE LEGUMES

Bankhead-Jones Project 301 W. E. Stokes, Geo. E. Ritchey,2
and G. B. Killinger
Augusta vetch, Big Flower vetch, Austrian and Dixie winter peas,
rough pea and annual and biennial sweet clover were seeded on a mixed
sod of carpet, centipede, Bermuda and Bahia grasses in October 1946. On
the basis of 2 years' results, rough pea, Augusta vetch and Big Flower
2 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases. B.P.I.S. & A.E., U.S.D.A.


L








Annual Report, 1947


TABLE 2.-EFFECT OF VARIOUS TREATMENTS ON THE CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION OF WIRE GRASS.

I Percentage Increase Over
Wire Grass Treatment No-Fertilizer No-Burn Treatment
Ferti- Burned or Phos- Potas- Mag-
lization Not Burned Nitrogen phorus sium Calcium nesium

None ..... No burn .. .... ----. -
None .-..... Burn ....... 160 115 58 29 152
4-8-4 and
Lime .... No Burn .. 58 92 66 47 53
4-8-4 and
Lime .... Burn ........ 214 211 211 92 74

Soil Type: Leon fine sand
Fertilizer Rates: 600 pounds per acre
Limestone Rate: 2,000 pounds per acre (high calcic)
Burned: 8-7-45
Sample: 10-16-45

vetch will reseed and volunteer satisfactorily and furnish grazing as
volunteer pasture legumes.
The biennial white sweet clover has grown satisfactorily in heavy grass
sod and is furnishing grazing July 1.
Big trefoil (Lotus uliginosus) has made good stands with carpet grass
on low areas where water stands occasionally. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus
corniculatus) has not made satisfactory growth at Gainesville.
Life History Studies of Louisiana White Clover (Trifolium repens L.).-
An increase in total productivity of a mixture of clover and grass herbage
was generally associated with increased rate of P2O and K.O. The data
indicate that yield increases were not sufficient to justify the use of appli-
cations of POs5 and KO2 above 50 pounds per acre. When 100 pounds of
P2.O and K.O per acre were applied in 1 application or 2 applications of
50 pounds each, yields were not significantly different.
Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of clover herbage were
increased as the rate of applications of P5Os and KO2 were increased.
Increases in potassium content were accompanied by decreases in calcium
content. Phosphorus, calcium and potassium composition varied without
altering the yields. Mineral and nitrogen contents differed with season
of sampling.
Fall fertilization resulted in decided increases in early season yields
in the 1946-47 season. During the previous year, fall fertilization showed
no advantage over spring or February fertilization. This differential re-
sponse for the 2 years probably was associated with the number of
perennial white clover plants. In the early season of 1946-47, 343 pounds
of clover herbage were obtained per acre when perennial plants were
present in the sod. One pound per acre was obtained when only seedling
plants were present. Thus, the number of perennial clover plants would
be expected to be associated with possibilities of early fall grazing and
the desirability of making fall fertilizer applications.
The perennial characteristics of white clover, as evidenced by shoot
survival, were not affected by fertilization. Without a grass associate
the shoot numbers increased. A tall grass sod probably caused a reduction
in the survival of shoots. The effect of clipping intensity cannot be
determined definitely, since this study was confounded with grass asso-








46 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

ciates. Large differences in perennial clover numbers during the falls of
1945 and 1946 may be attributed to differences in weather conditions,
particularly moisture supply.
Clover content in the herbage declined during summer, irrespective of
fertilizer treatments. Data taken during August on the percentage of
clover composition in the sod as displayed by botanical separates of the
herbage, number of clover strikes per quadrat stand, and survival of shoots
showed no relationship with fertilization.
After the summer decline, the white clover stand improved. The in-
clined point quadrat data show that content of white clover was higher
in November than in August. Content of white clover in the sod during
November was improved by fall fertilization. The weight of bud-shoots,
weight and linear length of stolons, and stolon length per shoot were
increased by fertilization.
The relationship of germination of volunteer Louisiana white clover
seed in natural soil environment to temperature and duration of exposure
was studied. Germination was very low for samples of soil and seed that
were exposed to room temperatures (75 to 84* F.) and at a constant tem-
perature of 710 F. Six hours of exposure to 370 F. and 3 hours to 0 F.
increased germination. With periods of exposure ranging from 3 to 312
hours at 37 F. germination was increased as the time of exposure was
increased up to 24 hours.
Alternating temperatures resulted in additional seed germination, 're-
gardless of the initial temperature to which the seeds were exposed.
Scarification was more effective in increasing germination than low or
alternating temperatures for both volunteer and commercial seed. Low
temperature treatments under low moisture potentials did not influence
germination and water absorption.
Close clipping with a power mower or burning over of grass sod
resulted in increases in germination when compared with mowing with
a field mower or leaving the sod unmowed. This increased germination
was attributed to the wider extremes in temperature, particularly the
development of lower temperatures during cool periods. The germination
data suggest that in the absence of perennial plant numbers, earliness
of herbage production from seedling plants probably can be influenced
by grazing management.

METHODS OF ESTABLISHING PERMANENT PASTURES UNDER
VARIOUS CONDITIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 304 W. E. Stokes and G. B. Killinger
Nursery seedbeds of Pangola grass, Coastal Bermuda and Bermuda 99
have been plowed for the 4th season and the vegetative material raked
out for increased plantings on Florida pastures. Complete fertilization
in the spring and side-dressing of nitrogen after each plowing have caused
the 3 grasses to make rapid recovery and to establish a complete sod
from one season to the next.
Burning of native ranges and seeding to improved grasses without soil
preparation appears to be a practical method of pasture establishment.
Fertilization and liming hastens complete sod coverage of the improved
grasses.
OAT IMPROVEMENT
Hatch Project 363 W. E. Stokes, W. A. Carver and Henry C. Harris
At Gainesville in the spring of 1947 Helminthosporium victoria was
present, but H. avenue was predominant on premature dead plants of the








Annual Report, 1947


oat variety Ranger. Florida 167 was first observed to be attacked by
crown rust (probably race 45).
First generation plants of 7 crosses combining Victorgrain, Fulgrain
and Florida 167 with early-maturing lines of Fulghum-Black Hull extrac-
tion were grown in the 1946-47 season. Among other hybrid materials
planted in 1946-47 are lines of early segregating generations, originating
with the U. S. Cereal Office. These lines have medium early and early
maturity, stiff straw, good grain characters, and apparent resistance to
the diseases now present. More than 700 head selections were made from
20 lines and mass selection of early heads were made in 11 lines during the
season.
About 85 percent of the oat plants in 2 clipping experiments were
killed in early February following the first and only clipping. In the test
with varieties, Florida 167 oats produced a significantly higher yield of
dry forage than Victorgrain and Fulgrain oats and Abruzzi rye. In the
test of planting rates using Florida 167, the 1-bushel-per-acre rate pro-
duced 31 and 54 percent less forage than the 2- and 3-bushel rates. In
the variety test for grain, Florida 167 produced significantly higher yields
than Victorgrain and Fulgrain.

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE COMPOSITION OF
FORAGE PLANTS

Adams Project 369 G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes
A number of analyses have been made on corn, cob and shucks from
fertility plots in northern and central Florida.
White Dutch clover composition varies with fertilizer treatment. Phos-
phorus and potassium are increased in the plant with increased applications
of the fertilizer materials.
The ether extract or oil content of peanuts is increased 2 to 3 percent
when the peanut vines have been given from 3 to 6 applications of dusting
sulfur at the rate of 20 pounds per acre, starting when the first bloom
appears 50 to 60 days after planting. The highest increase in oil is noted
on peanuts grown on the more sandy soils and the lowest increase from
peanuts grown on the heavier clay soils in northern and western Florida.
Florida Experiment Station bulletin 432, "Peanuts in Florida", gives
more detailed information on the composition of peanuts, vines, pegs and
roots grown under varied fertility levels. It represents some completed
work under this project.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IMPROVEMENT
Adams Project 372 Fred H. Hull, Fred Clark and W. E. Stokes
Three acres of tobacco hybrids were grown in 1947. All of this area
was artificially infested with the root-knot nematode.
The better appearing hybrid plants are being self-pollinated for further
testing or are being crossed back to the better flue-cured varieties.
Some of the hybrids apparently are highly resistant to root-knot.
Most of them probably are not good flue-cured types. Curing tests are in
progress at the time of this report.

CORN IMPROVEMENT
Purnell Project 374 Fred H. Hull and W. A. Carver
Field corn breeding was continued with 200 new test-cross hybrids in
a yield test at Gainesville in 1946. Seed of this group was sent also to








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the North Florida Station for testing. Fifty selections from the 1946
tests are being repeated in 1947, and 500 new test-crosses are also being
tested in 1947.
Foundation seed for a new white hybrid Fla. W-2 was produced in 1946
and a limited quantity was supplied to 1 producer of hybrid seed. This
will provide sufficient seed of the new hybrid to allow large-scale testing
and trial in 1948.
Results thus far indicate that Fla. W-2 may be appreciably superior
to Fla. W-1 on the lighter soils or where the crop receives little or no
fertilizer.
Sweet corn breeding was continued with 200 new test-cross hybrids.
This group was planted in the fall of 1946 at Boynton by Dr. R. A. Bair
of the Everglades Station and in the spring of 1947 at Bradenton by Dr.
E. G. Kelsheimer of the Vegetable Crops Laboratory.
Tests at Gainesville in the spring of 1947 were grown without irriga-
tion, and with irrigation in cooperation with the Horticulture Department.
From records on yield, quality and worm damage in all of these tests,
a selection of 19 of the better hybrids was made and these selections were
intercrossed for further breeding.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO FERTILIZERS AND VARIETIES
Hatch Project 378 W. E. Stokes and Fred Clark
This project has been inactive except for some preliminary tests on
the use of blue lupines in rotation with tobacco uniformly fertilized, and
the use of certain hormones for suppression of axillary (sucker) growth
in tobacco varieties.
Preliminary results of these tests to date indicate that caution must be
used in growing tobacco after lupines and that the use of hormones for
controlling suckers on tobacco needs more thorough study.

METHODS OF PRODUCING, HARVESTING AND MAINTAINING
PASTURE SEED STOCK
Bankhead-Jones 417 G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes
Grass nurseries were maintained to study production, harvesting and
maintaining pasture seed stocks and to furnish material to interested
Florida cattlemen. Over 180 farmers secured seed stock of Pangola,
Coastal and Bermuda 99 grasses from the Experiment Station in the spring
of 1947.
Selected strains of Black Medic, white sweet clover and Pensacola Bahia
grass were increased. The Black Medic and white sweet clover are improved
Florida strains which have proven higher yielding and better adapted to
Florida conditions than such crops from the regular commercial seed supply.

FUNCTION AND INTERRELATION OF OXYGEN AND MICRONU-
TRIENT ELEMENTS, ESPECIALLY IRON, MANGANESE AND
COPPER, IN THE RESPIRATION OF OATS, HUBAM AND WHITE
DUTCH CLOVERS, AND PANGOLA AND CARPET GRASSES.
Adamns Project 439 H. C. Harris
Only exploratory experiments have been conducted this year.








Annual Report, 1947


EFFECT OF CU, MN, ZN. B, S AND MG ON GROWTH OF OATS,
HUBAM AND WHITE DUTCH CLOVERS, PANGOLA AND
CARPET GRASSES UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 440 Henry C. Harris
Florida 167 oats grown on the Station farm at Gainesville have exhibited
a nutritional deficiency disease. The disease develops during the winter
or spring. It may completely kill the plants, cause the plants to die in
the bud-producing few heads-or cause the heads to be light, depending
on the severity of the trouble. Copper chloride at the rate of 10 pounds
per acre applied to the soil before seeding prevented the disease. Copper
sulfate at 30 pounds per acre in 1942 and copper chloride at 2 pounds
per acre in 1944 appeared to have considerable residual effect on oats in
1947. A heavy top-dressing with sodium nitrate appeared to accentuate
the trouble. Treating the seed with new improved ceresan seemed to
have little effect.

STARTER SOLUTIONS' AND METHODS OF APPLYING FERTILIZER
ON TOBACCO AND OTHER FIELD CROPS
Hatch Project 441 Fred Clark and Henry C. Harris
This project has been inactive during the year.

PERMANENT SEEDBEDS FOR TOBACCO PLANTS
State Project 444 Fred Clark and G. M. Volk
Identical chemical treatments were continued in the same plots used
in treatments for 1945-46.
The 1946-47 tobacco plantbed season produced some very erratic results
from the use of chemical treatments. A very dry season probably accounts,
in part, for the erratic results.
One pound of calcium cyanamid and the 1 pound of uramon and 1/
Found of calcium cyanamid did not produce a satisfactory yield and stand
of plants in a test bed that was treated October 8, 1946, seeded on Novem-
ber 19, 1946, and in which subsequent plantings were made at 10-day inter-
vals until December 23, 1946. These plantings had been watered frequently.
Good seed germination was obtained in all plantings except that of Novem-
ber 19. A majority of the plants died.
Another test involving similar treatments was used on a new soil area
and produced a good stand of plants, although watering was continued
and planting was done on January 15. The later planting date, watering
and frequent showers probably helped in reducing toxicity of the treatments.
Soil analysis in conjunction with the various tests showed that there
was a marked residual effect of 1 pound of calcium cyanamid on soil pH
1 year after treatment. The soil pH was 7.68 when calcium cyanamid was
used, while the untreated check was only 6.18. This probably accounts
for the fact that severe calcium cyanamid injury occurred the second year
of use and not the first. The soils high pH and low buffer capacity probably
permitted the hydrogen cyanamid to revert to dicyanodiamide, a compound
that is toxic to plants and much more resistant to decomposition in the
soil than is hydrogen cyanamid. The latter is the usual product expected
from the application of calcium cyanamid. Repeated use of calcium cyana-
mid on the same bed area should be avoided until more information about
dicyanodiamide formation is obtained.








50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Accumulation of up to 20 ppm of nitrate nitrogen was found in beds
to which uramon was applied. The presence of calcium cyanamid in com-
bination with uramon reduced the amount of nitrate nitrogen found, while
addition of lime to a uramon treatment increased the amount found. The
persistence of ammonia formed from uramon was enhanced by the presence
of calcium cyanamid. Nitrates were also held at a lower level in the
combination treatment. Calcium cyanamid evidently had a sterilization
effect on both nitrite- and nitrate-forming organisms, while the effect
of uramon was only at high pH values, and there only on the nitrate
former.
As a result of the dry season, commercial tobacco beds showed up to
1,000 pounds of ammonia per acre at the time of seeding of tobacco.
Observations indicate that tobacco seed will germinate and the plants
survive even at this level of ammonia in the soil if the beds are kept
properly covered and moist to prevent surface accumulation of salts.

NUTRITION OF THE PEANUT
Bankhead-Jones Project 457 Henry C. Harris
Nutrient solution studies with peanuts were continued in the manner
already described (Plant Physiology, 21: 237-240. 1946). Omission of cal-
cium in the pegging zone prevented the formation of peanuts. The shells
were not formed. Failure to produce nuts did not result when any other
element was left out of the pegging zone, but there was some indication
that leaving other elements out of the pegging zone might result in a
partial yield of nuts. There was little relation between the amount of
tops produced and the yield of nuts.
A peanut dusting experiment was conducted in which 250 pounds of
sulfur per acre were applied as 12 frequent dustings, 250 pounds of sulfur
per acre to the soil at the first dusting, and 90 pounds of sulfur per. acre
in 4 ordinary dustings. DDT and cryolite were used for worm control.
Color of foliage seemed to be affected by the sulfur treatments when
applied to either foliage or soil. The most pronounced effect resulted from
the frequent dustings. Frequent sulfur dustings greatly decreased the
amount of leafspot on the foliage, but the soil treatment and the 4 sulfur
dustings only moderately decreased leafspot. DDT and cryolite were both
effective in controlling the velvet bean caterpillar. The late sulfur dustings
also appeared to be effective in repelling the caterpillars. The peanuts
were harvested after the optimum time of harvest.
The 12 sulfur dustings, sulfur on the soil and 4 sulfur dustings increased
the harvested yields 360 percent, 40 percent, and none, respectively. How-
ever, when all the peanuts were scratched out of the soil and the total
yields secured, the frequent sulfur dustings increased the total yield only
14 percent, soil sulfur decreased it 12 percent, and the 4 dustings had
no effect.

MISCELLANEOUS
SEA ISLAND COTTON AND UPLAND COTTON
W. E. Stokes, M. N. Gist and P. W. Calhoun '
Cotton variety and fertilizer tests were continued. Emphasis in the
variety studies was placed on the evaluation of new Sea Island and long
staple upland strains developed by the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and
Agricultural Engineering, USDA, while the fertilizer'studies were designed
3In cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural
Engineering.








Annual Report, 1947


to give further information on cotton fertilization under Florida conditions.
With these ends in view, Sea Island strain and fertilizer tests were
conducted at Leesburg and McIntosh, while 2 Sea Island seed increase
plantings were made near McIntosh and 1 near Ft. Meade. The principal
long staple upland strain test was located near McIntosh, while 4 smaller
auxiliary long staple upland strain tests were made in the Madison-Monti-
cello-Tallahassee area. Several strains of Sealand-crosses between Sea
Island and upland-were included in the long staple upland tests, and 1
Sealand seed increase planting was located in Alachua County. Several
seed increase plantings of Ewing long staple upland were made in Alachua
and Columbia counties also.
Sea Island yields in the Leesburg tests were exceptionally high and
the bolls were exceptionally large, indicating optimum growing conditions
at Leesburg during the 1946 season. In the Sea Island strain side-dressing
test, yields in pounds of seed cotton per acre, average of all side-dressing
treatments for each variety, were as follows: Montserrat x Gaddis, 1,747;
Concord x Gaddis, 1,631; Seaberry, 1,560; 12B2, 1,467; Puerto Rican x
Gaddis, 1,380; TZRV (very poor stand), 974. Yields for the 4 side-dressing
treatments, average all varieties, in pounds of seed cotton per acre, were:
(a) no side-dressing, 1,341; (b) 20 pounds nitrogen per acre, 1,625; (c)
25 pounds K.O per acre, 1,436; (d) treatments b and c combined, 1,438.
In the Sea Island fertilizer-strain test at Leesburg, average yields for
Seaberry and 12B2, the 2 varieties used, for the 5 fertilizer treatments
were as follows: Treatment 1, 500 pounds 4-7-5 at planting, no side-
dressing, 1,093; Treatment 2, No. 1 plus 20 pounds nitrogen at chopping,
1,174; Treatment 3, No. 1 plus 25 pounds KO at chopping, 1,177; Treatment
4, 1,000 pounds 4-7-5 at planting, no side-dressing, 1,291; Treatment 5, 250
pounds 4-7-5 at planting with a side-dressing of 20 pounds nitrogen and
25 pounds K-O at chopping, 1,186. Average yields of Seaberry and 12B2
for all fertilizer treatments were 1,258 and 1,110 pounds of seed cotton
per acre, respectively.
These exceptional yields for the Leesburg tests generally are thought
to have been due principally to more evenly distributed rainfall throughout
the season than usual. Apparently sufficient moisture was present at all
times to sustain normal growth, yet few leaching rains occurred.
The McIntosh tests suffered from drought just after planting and from
excessive rainfall during most of the remainder of the season, resulting
in poor and irregular yields in these tests, especially in the Sea Island
test. Seaberry yielded highest in the Sea Island strain side-dressing test,
and Coker Wilds strain 15 led in the long staple upland strain test.
In the Sea Island fertilizer-strain test at McIntosh, treatments were
identical to those at Leesburg. Treatment 4 yielded highest and Treat-
ment 3 lowest, with averages for the 2 varieties of 489 and 314 pounds of
seed cotton per acre, respectively. Seaberry averaged 384 pounds per acre
for all fertilizer treatments, while Seabrook 12B2 averaged 344 pounds
per acre.
In the smaller tests in the western part of the state, Coker-Wilds and
Ewater-a cross between Ewing and Tidewater-produced somewhat better
than other long staple varieties. A small area of Sea Island in the test
near Madison yielded 890 pounds of seed cotton per acre in spite of being
severely damaged by weevils which migrated in from adjacent upland,
indicating that. Sea Island, where conditions are favorable, will produce
a good yield relatively early in the season.
At the experimental gin at Leesburg, 10 commercial bales were ginned,
as well as 142 test innings of 50 pounds each to determine lint percentages








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of different plantings on a commercial gin basis. Approximately 800 boll
sample lots were ginned on a 16 inch roller gin, and lint percentages were
calculated for individual plots in all cooperative tests, as well as upland
variety and fertilizer tests conducted by the Mobile Units. Lint samples
from approximately 450 of these were prepared for detailed fiber studies
and forwarded to the U. S. Cotton Field Laboratory at Knoxville.
In the 1947 plantings, in addition to fertilizer and strain tests as in
previous years, Sealand seed increase plantings totaling about 35 acres
have been placed in Marion, Alachua, Union and Columbia counties. About
25 acres of the above were planted before the spring drought, and these
fields have a good crop of half-grown bolls as of July 1. The remaining
10 or 12 acres represent plantings that were not made before the spring
drought, and the cotton in these is very young as of July 1. These late
plantings will be studied to determine if insect control is practicable in
this area on Sealand cotton planted sufficiently late to open after the worst
of the rainy season has normally ended.
Grower interest in these Sealand plantings appears high, and interest
in cotton in general is increasing in Florida; 1947 acreage is reported 25
percent above that of 1946.
Two relatively new insecticides, one a mixture of 4 percent DDT and
3 percent gamma isomer benzene hexachloride, the other a chlorinated
hydrocarbon, "toxaphene", are being checked against calcium arsenate
with 1 percent nicotine in several fields. These 2 new insecticides have
been reported to be very effective in preliminary tests in Texas.








Annual Report, 1947 53


ANIMAL INDUSTRY

Research in the Animal Industry Department was conducted in the
following divisions: (1) Dairy husbandry, (2) dairy industry, (3) animal
nutrition, (4) animal husbandry, (5) poultry husbandry, and (6) veterinary
science, including parasitology.
During the year, Register of Merit tests have been completed on 27
cows in the study of milk production and the transmitting ability of both
male and female animals in the herd.
Bet's Volunteer Observer 384533, a 4-star Jersey bull, qualified as a
tested sire with 10 daughters averaging 6,536 pounds milk testing 5.46%
fat and 357 pounds butterfat on a mature equivalent basis for a 305 day
2 times milking. Ten of his daughters, classified for conformation, have
an average score of 82.5%. He has 1 Gold and 2 Silver Medal daughters
to date.
A junior Jersey herd sire, Duke Successor Lad 485289, was obtained
from Randleigh Farm, Lockport, N. Y.
In addition to work on dairy production research, the dairy herd has
been a source of certain experimental animals for research in veterinary,
animal nutrition and dairy products projects. Laboratory exercises with
classes of students in the College of Agriculture have been conducted in
selection, management, judging and breeding studies of dairy cattle.
Selected animals have been used in demonstrations and judging dairy type
by 4-H club groups.
The Dairy Products Laboratory was used for research and instruction
in the field of dairy industry. Condensed milk, cheese and butter were
manufactured on a pilot plant basis during the year.
In the field of animal nutrition, through the use of the raido-active
trace elements and employing special techniques, fundamental information
has been obtained concerning the metabolism of cobalt, copper and phos-
phorus in the animal body. Through feeding and injection procedures
followed by slaughter studies, basic information has been obtained which
has been of interest in fields as varied as public health administration and
tissue biology. From a practical standpoint, the same studies have indi-
cated that cattle must have a continuing source of minor elements in their
rations.
Analyses of various materials used in nutrition studies continued to
require considerable time. This work provided a base upon which to
evaluate quantitatively the animal experiments. The need for a better
knowledge of the amino acid composition of the proteins being used has
resulted in the expansion of efforts in the field of microbiological analysis,
using bacteria as the test organisms.
As in previous years, new feeds being proposed for use with livestock
have been tested, in cooperation with other divisions, to evaluate them.
The need for mineral supplements in Florida has been re-emphasized
by work conducted during the past year. From the experimental work,
a film on the role of copper in cattle nutrition has been prepared.
Beef herds of purebred Aberdeen-Angus and Herefords afforded animals
for fundamental research in feeding and herd management practices.
Five heifers were entered in the first annual Aberdeen-Angus sale for this
state. Five animals were entered in competition at the Florida State Fair
and made a creditable showing.
Five Hereford heifers were obtained during the past year for foundation
breeding stock. A few top bull calves were sold to Florida cattlemen dur-
ing the year to be used as future herd sires.








54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The swine herd, consisting of purebred Durocs, has been increased from
4 to 7 sows and 3 bred gilts. Two sows have qualified for the Duroc
Registry of Production and 2 additional sows have been entered in these
performance tests. By rigid selection for type combined with production,
a high degree of uniformity was obtained within the foundation breeding
herd.
The poultry flock was composed of approximately 400 Single Comb
White Leghorns, 350 S. C. Rhode Island Reds, 125 Light Sussex and 25
New Hampshires. It was used for experimental purposes in breeding,
feeding and management of mature stock, and in research with young stock
reared on the range or in battery brooders. During the spring of 1947
approximately 3,750 chicks were hatched. Some were used in experi-
mental feeding trials and the remainder were brooded and reared on the
range to produce stock for the 1947-48 feeding and management trials.
All adult birds were pullorum tested and no reactors were found.
The Poultry Division is cooperating with the State Live Stock Sanitary
Board in the National Poultry Improvement Plan in Florida for improving
the quality of chicks by approved breeding practices and through disease
control. Cooperative poultry experimental work was continued at the
West Central Florida Experiment Station. The report of the breeding
work is listed under the report of that station.
Research in veterinary .science included projects on diseases of poultry,
cattle and horses. Experimental work in parasitology consisted of life
history investigation and control measures for the cattle grub and liver
flukes in cattle. Many diseased birds were sent to the veterinary labora-
tory for diagnosis. Investigations of suspected plant poisoning in livestock
were made during the year. The veterinary division is called on for service
in rendering diagnosis of many livestock diseases for veterinarians, cattle-
men and farmers.

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE
Purnell Pioject 133 G. K. Davis, C. L. Comar, Ruth F. Taylor, R. B.
Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, D. A. Sanders, R. S.
Glasscock, W. G. Kirk and R. W. Kidder
Work conducted in cooperation with the Everglades Station has shown
that cattle grazing on unfertilized pasture must have a copper supplement
which should be provided constantly to meet the daily requirements. Under
some circumstances depriving the cattle of copper for as little as 4 to 6
weeks may initiate signs of copper deficiency. Muck areas in other por-
tions of Florida also have been found to need copper supplementation for
efficient utilization of the forage grown on such soils. Cattle grazing on
these muck areas have responded to copper supplementation very rapidly,
satisfactory gains being made by affected cattle as a result of this treat-
ment.
Using radioactive material obtained from the Atomic Energy Commis-
sion at Oak Ridge, copper has been followed through the animal body
in the same manner as previously reported for cobalt, and it has been
shown that a large proportion of the copper fed to cattle passes through
the animals without being absorbed. Copper was found to be necessary
for proper phosphorus metabolism, and cattle suffering from copper de-
ficiency exhibited many of the symptoms of phosphorus deficiency, although
phosphorus values in the blood remained normal.
Radioactive phosphorus has been traced from feed to the various
fractions of milk. Transfer of phosphorus from feed to milk was found
to be very rapid, the initial appearance of the phosphorus in the milk








Annual Report, 1947


occurring in the first milking after consumption of the radioactive phos-
phorus.
No evidence has been obtained yet that deficiencies of iron or copper
occur at the Range Cattle Station near Ona, although cattle have been
kept on pastures at that station for 4 years.
The normal bone sample series has been completed with a total of 86
samples representing 86 normal cattle of varying ages to provide a standard
against which values obtained from other cattle in the State may be
compared. Analyses of these samples were continued. Cooperative
projects with the Soils Department and with the Michigan State College,
Dairy Division, using radioactive isotopes were continued.

RELATION OF CONFORMATION AND ANATOMY OF THE DAIRY
COW TO HER MILK AND BUTTERFAT PRODUCTION

State Project 140 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
R. S. Glasscock and Geo. K. Davis
The measurements and organ weights of a 14-year old Jersey cow were
obtained during the year. Twelve calving records (1 set of twins) and
10 lactation records were included. More than 50 records from this station
have been contributed to this project, cooperative with the Bureau of Dairy
Industry, U.S.D.A.

ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS

State Project 213 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, G. K. Davis,
C. L. Comar and Katherine Boney
When more than 0.5% of urea was added to sorghum in the laboratory
silos, free ammonia was produced which proved unpalatable to dairy cattle
until it volatilized and passed off. Analyses have been completed on the
urea-sorghum samples.

COOPERATIVE FIELD STUDIES WITH BEEF AND
DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE

State Project 216 A. L. Shealy, R. S. Glasscock and W. G. Kirk
Data on grades of slaughter calves resulting from the breeding of
purebred bulls to native cows were completed. This project is closed with
this report.

A STUDY OF NAPIER GRASS FOR PASTURE PURPOSES
Dairy Phase

Bankhead-Jones Project 302 P. T. Dix Arnold, R. B. Becker
and W. E. Stokes
Chemical analyses of the Napier grass samples have been completed.
In general, milk cows in medium production obtained from 54 to 66%
of their requirements of total digestible nutrients from the grass.
This project is completed with this report.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY AND
DEPRECIATION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and A. H. Spurlock
A preliminary analysis of losses of dairy cows based on 1,066 animals
between the ages of 2 and 20 years that left dairy herds showed that








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


mastitis caused 23.6% of the disposals; low production 15.7%; reproductive
troubles 15.2%; diseases other than mastitis 8.2%; accidents 3.8%; and
disposal for unknown causes 29.2%.
The average life span of 776 cows was 6.6 years, or about 4% years
in productive service.
Additional records of useful life span of purebred dairy bulls were
accumulated from many herds.
During the year, 1 cooperator in this project dispersed his herd and
2 others were added, making a total of 11 herds contributing records to
this investigation.

INVESTIGATION WITH LABORATORY ANIMALS OF MINERAL
NUTRITION PROBLEMS OF LIVESTOCK
Purnell Project 346 George K. Davis and C. L. Comar
Large numbers of rats were used in the project with radioactive cobalt,
phosphorus and copper. Detailed investigations were made upon the ab-
sorption of these elements from the feed by the digestive processes and
upon the distribution of these elements in the animal body. Relationship
of phosphorus and copper in the mineral metabolism of the animals was
given particular attention in an effort to ascertain, if possible, why copper-
deficient animals suffer a rarification of the bones, resembling symptoms
manifested in phosphorus deficiency. Using these same animals, chemical
studies have been made on the influence of copper upon the enzymatic
systems of the blood and liver. Copper appeared to serve as an activator
for some enzymes and as an inhibitor for others.

INFECTIOUS BOVINE MASTITIS
Purnell Project 353 D. A. Sanders
Various practices regarding concentration, amount and time of intra-
mammary injections of penicillin solutions were tested in an effort to
determine the most effective measures in treating different types of
mastitis. Sanitary milking practices are essential in the control of this
disease. Strict surgical cleanliness was found to be necessary in making
intramammary injections of penicillin solutions. For maximum beneficial
results, it was learned that consideration must be given to the severity
of the disease, type and stage of infection, size of udder, amount of milk
produced and stage of lactation. Four or 5 intramammary injections via
the teat canals, given at 24-hour intervals, using 50,000 to 100,000 units
of penicillin dissolved in 2 or 3 ounces of sterile distilled water, were
effective in the treatment of streptococcus mastitis. Dry quarters generally
responded more favorably to the treatments than lactating quarters.

BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PASTURE HERBAGE
Bankhead-Jones Project 356 George K. Davis, G. B. Killinger
and Katherine Boney
Results from feeding rabbits Bermuda grass, carpet grass, White Dutch
clover and Bahia grass have indicated that much of the difference in re-
sponse shown by the rabbits was due to the variation in amino acid contents
of these various forages. To determine the feeding value of forages in
terms of amino acid content, the forages were analyzed by microbiological
methods using Lactobacillus casei and Neurospora. It was learned that
both quantity and quality of protein were responsible for the varying
responses obtained with these forages.








Annual Report, 1947 57

LONGEVITY OF EGGS AND LARVAE OF INTERNAL
PARASITES OF CATTLE

State Project 387 Leonard E. Swanson
This project has been inactive during the year.

EFFECT OF CERTAIN FEEDS ON MILK FLAVOR
State Project 394 E. L. Fouts and P. T. Dix Arnold
This project has been inactive during the year.

BEEF YIELD AND QUALITY FROM VARIOUS GRASSES, FROM
CLOVER AND GRASS MIXTURES, AND RESPONSE TO FERTIL-
IZED AND UNFERTILIZED PASTURES
State Project 412 R. S. Glasscock and W. G. Kirk
Two pastures consisting of mixtures of carpet grass and clover were
grazed with cows and nursing calves. Clover was not as early as usual
and the grazing did not begin until February 22, 1946, and was discontinued
October 24, 1946.
There was a total of 304 cow and calf grazing days per acre, giving
116 pounds gain per acre for the cows and 504 pounds for the calves.
Steers were used for grazing Pangola, Bermuda and Pensacola Bahia
pastures. The steer gains per acre were 131, 124, and 121 pounds, re-
spectively, with average daily gains of 0.51, 0.48 and 0.44 pounds. Grazing
began April 20, 1946, and was discontinued October 11, 1946. All steers
were in the Utility grade. (In cooperation with Agronomy Department.)

SULFURIZATION OF SOILS FOR THE CONTROL OF CERTAIN
INTESTINAL PARASITES OF CHICKENS
State Project 418 M. W. Emmel
The summary of 1 experiment extending over a period of 4 years and
in which 2 groups of birds were confined to equal sized yards indicated
that there was no appreciable difference in egg production from the birds
confined in sulfurized yards and those confined in non-sulfurized yards.
The incidence of roundworm infestation in birds confined in sulfurized yards
was reduced 80 percent as compared with the control group in non-sulfur-
ized yards.

THE "TRANSMISSION AGENT" OF FOWL LEUCOSIS
Adams Project 424 M. W. Emmel
A standard technique has been perfected for the transmission of "trans-
mission agent" RPL 16, an agent which induces a tumor when injected into
the breast muscle of chickens 4-6 weeks of age. The "transmission agent"
injected intraperitoneally and intravenously also produced a pathological
condition, particularly in the former instance. Experiments were con-
ducted to determine the physical properties of this agent.

TOXICITY OF CROTALARIA SPECTABILIS ROTH
State Project 426 George K. Davis, C. L. Comar and Ruth F. Taylor
This project has been inactive during the year.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


FLORIDA WATERS AS RELATED TO CLEANING PROBLEMS
IN DAIRY PLANTS
Bankhead-Jones Project 431 E. L. Fouts
This project was divided into 2 phases: (1) To collect and analyze
samples of water used by dairies in all dairy sections in Florida, and (2)
to study the efficiency of various commercial detergents in cleaning dairy
equipment when used in different types of water.
The precipitation of hard water constituents due to reaction with deter-
gents varied from none to excessive amounts, both in washing strength
solutions and in very dilute solutions. The surface tension of washing
strength solutions varied widely, the values ranging from 27.94 to 71.00
dynes per centimeter.
Milkstone formation on metal strips after 20 washings in hard water
varied from 1.1 milligams to 12.5 milligrams. Somewhat less milkstone
formed when rinsing was done with water at 1600 F. than when rinsed
at 700 F.
Of the above tests, no single 1 proved to be a suitable criterion to
determine the effectiveness of dairy detergents when Deterg-O-Meter
values' were used as the standard. Each test provided some specific
information which will be of value when detergents are being selected for
specific cleaning operations.
This project is closed with this report.

COMPOSITION OF MILK PRODUCED IN FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones Project 436 W. A. Krienke and E. L. Fouts
Milk samples from local dairies range between the following values:

Minimum Maximum
Butterfat .............. 3.90 percent 6.77 percent
Total solids .......... 13.28 percent 15.46 percent
Casein .................... 2.49 percent 2.95 percent
Ash ........................ 0.67 percent 0.85 percent
Vitamin C --.......... 15.90 mg. per liter 19.00 mg. per liter
Ash samples have been prepared for spectrophotometric analysis.

CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID PESTS OF CATTLE
State Project 438 D. A. Sanders and A. N. Tissot
Extensive field tests were conducted on the use of DDT sprays and
ear-smear preparations as means of controlling the Gulf Coast tick,
Amblyomma maculatum Koch, in cattle. When all parts of the animal
had received an application of 2.3 percent of wettable DDT spray, the
Gulf Coast tick was controlled as effectively as with the best present
ear-smear. The number of applications of the spray and the minimum
concentration of DDT for maximum effectiveness have not been determined.
The simplicity of the spray method and the fact that spraying will control
a number of other external blood-sucking parasites of cattle indicate that
this method is highly practical.
This work is conducted cooperatively with the Entomology Department
of the Station and the Bureau of Entomology of the U.S.D.A. (See Project
438, ENTOMOLOGY.)
4 See Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rpt. 1946.









Annual Report, 1947 59

GRAZING EXPERIMENTS WITH POULTRY
State Project 450 N. R. Mehrhof and G. B. Killinger
Four lots of Single Comb White Leghorn and S. C. Rhode Island Red
pullets were used in grazing tests on Coastal Bermuda grass in summer
and oats (Florida 167) seeded on the Bermuda sod during the winter.
Birds were housed in October and oats became available December 19, 1946.
Pullets in Lot 1 grazed all day; Lot 2, one-half day; Lot 3, kept on bare
land; and Lot 4, grazed from 5 o'clock each day until dusk. Data during
the first six 28-day periods indicated slightly lower feed requirements
per dozen eggs in those lots having access to green grazing plants all day
and for one-half day.

FLOOR SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR BROILER PRODUCTION
State Project 453 N. R. Mehrhof and A. W. O'Steen
In 4 trials dealing with floor space requirements for broiler production
the lots (168 chicks each) were allowed space as follows: Lot 1, 1 square
foot floor space per chick; Lot 2, V square foot; Lot 3, % square foot;
and Lot 4, 1 quare foot floor space per chick. Lots 1, 2 and 3 had a yard
20 by 50 feet each, while the chicks in Lot 4 were confined to the house.
The amount of space allotted, average weight per chick by lots and
trials at 12 weeks, amount of feed required to produce 1 pound of dressed
bird, and death losses are shown in Table 3.

TABLE 3.-AMOUNT OF SPACE ALLOTTED, WEIGHT PER CHICK AT 12 WEEKS,
FEED REQUIRED TO PRODUCE ONE POUND OF DRESSED BIRD, AND DEATH
LOSSES IN BROILER PRODUCTION.

Space Lot 1* Lot 2* Lot 3* Lot 4**
Allowed 1 Sq. Ft. 0.5 Sq. Ft. 0.75 Sq. Ft. 1 Sq. Ft.
Average live weight at 12 weeks

Trial Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
I ...... .......... 2.86 2.66 2.65 2.78
II ................. 3.05 2.74 2.89 2.79
III ............. 2.83 2.60 2.83 2.75
IV ................. 3.49 3.28 3.31 3.13

Average ........ 3.05 2.82 2.92 2.86

Feed required per pound of dressed bird

I ................. 3.71 4.31 4.26 4.11
II ................ 3.81 3.91 3.84 4.11
III .................. 3.83 4.46 3.99 3.84
IV .................. 3.78 3.93 3.89 3.94

Average ........ 3.78 4.15 3.99 4.00

Total number of birds that died during the 4 trials

15 37 34 30

Birds in these lots had access to yards 20x50 feet.
** Birds in this lot were confined to the house.








60 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

"LEECHES" IN HORSES
State Project 456 M. W. Emmel
Cultures made from 8 naturally occurring cases of "leeches" in horses
indicate that fungus is probably responsible for the development of this
disease. Too few cases have been examined to determine whether or not
infection is specific. Attempts to reproduce the disease by infecting horses
experimentally with the fungi have given negative results to date.
CONTROL OF THE COMMON LIVER FLUKE
State Project 459 Leonard E. Swanson
Liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica Linn.) caused death in 1 herd of cattle
and were responsible for the condemnation of livers and for lower prices
received for slaughter cattle from endemic areas in the State.
The lymnaeid snail, Pseudosuccinea columella Say, has been identified
as the principal intermediate host for liver fluke in Florida. These snails,
collected from endemic areas, have been found naturally infected with
cercariae of Fasciola hepatica. These snails, collected in the field or raised
in the laboratory, have been infected experimentally with miracidia.
Mature cercariae have been liberated from these infections. The identity
of the cercariae from naturally and experimentally infected snails has
been proven by feeding the encysted cercariae to sheep, calves and rabbits.
Naturally infected snails liberated from 1 to 225 encysted cercariae with
an average of 44.6 per snail from 33 field-collected mollusks. Experi-
mentally infected snails, P. columella, liberated from 7 to 55 cercariae in
a period of 48 to 53 days following infection. Encysted cercariae found
on vegetation in the field were in standing water, usually at the water
level. Experimentally, it was found that cercariae encysted on vegetation
and other objects at the water surface. However, a few encysted to a depth
of 1 inch below the surface. A small percentage of cercariae were free
in the water.
It was observed that the fluke snails, Pseudosuccinea columella, pre-
ferred shallow fresh water, less than 3 inches in depth. They were found
crawling and feeding on muddy, seeping banks and in creek eddies and
shallow swamps. Algae, bacteria and decayed vegetation are their prin-
cipal foods. They were found in waters exposed to geological formations
to contribute substances not usually found in surface drainage. The
reaction of the water has not been found to be the natural control of
snail propagation but rather the elements which change the acidity of
soils and water.
Liver fluke disease was controlled readily by draining surface water,
controlling artesian wells, etc., that served as breeding areas for snails.
The egg, miracidium, snail and cercariae require water to survive. Snails
died within 10 days on completely drained areas.
Copper sulphate, applied at a rate of 24 pounds per cubic foot flow
of water per second, killed all the snails within the distance it flowed
in 24 hours-usually 1 mile. The chemical applied to ponds, sloughs or
wet areas at a rate of 20 pounds per acre-foot destroyed all snails. One
part of copper sulphate was mixed with 6 parts of dry earth for ease of
distribution. The treatments should be repeated in 21 days to destroy
the newly hatched snails, as copper sulphate is not destructive to snail eggs.

CONTROL OF CATTLE GRUBS (OX WARBLES)
State Project 460 Leonard E. Swanson
The cattle grubs (Hypoderma lineata) were destroyed readily by spray-
ing the backs of cattle with a mixture of 1 pound derris or cub6 powder








Annual Report, 1947


which contained 5% rotenone and 2 pounds of 50 percent wettable DDT
to 10 gallons water. The treatment must be applied with at least 400
pounds nozzle pressure, or the backs must be scrubbed with a stiff fibre
brush to loosen the scabs, allowing the material to penetrate the grub
holes. Treatment must be applied in December and Jaunary, when the
grubs first cut holes in the hide. Two to 3 treatments were essential for
complete control.

SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDS FOR NURSING BEEF CALVES
State Project 461 R. S. Glasscock
Western prairie hay, ground snapped corn and cottonseed meal were
used to maintain the normal weight of purebred brood cows during the
winter. The average cost of wintering was $34.00 per head and varied
with date of calving from $15.00 to $54.00. From January 16 to April
1 it required 10 pounds of hay per head daily to maintain cows not nursing
calves. Cows nursing calves required 10 pounds of concentrates in addition
to the hay to maintain their weight on frosted pasture.
The average weight of Hereford cows after calving was 1,063 pounds
and the calves averaged 75 pounds at birth. Angus cows averaged 983
pounds after calving and the calves averaged 65 pounds at birth.
The calves averaged 202 days old and 425 pounds weight at weaning.

ANAPLASMOSIS IN CATTLE
Purnell Project 462 D. A. Sanders and A. N. Tissot
Controlled field tests were conducted on the effectiveness of DDT as a
means of controlling external blood-sucking insects and arachnid parasites
of cattle which are considered important or potentially important vectors
of anaplasmosis. Several drugs, highly effective in the treatment of
malaria, trypanosomes and filaria in the human, were tested in the treat-
ment of clinical cases of anaplasmosis.
DDT sprays were highly effective in controlling blood-sucking vectors
such as horn flies, mosquitoes, stable flies and lice on cattle. A thorough
spraying with a 2.3 percent wettable DDT solution, using approximately
2 pints or about 21 grams of DDT per animal, definitely reduced the Gulf
Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum Koch, which is a serious pest of cattle.
Results obtained in controlling this tick suggested that this method may
be effective for the control of other ticks known to be important vectors.
The incidence of anaplasmosis in the experimental herd receiving DDT
spray was definitely reduced.
Intraperitoneal, intravenous or oral administration of the antimalarial,
4 (3'-N-piperidylemethyl 4' hydroxaniline) 7-chloroquinoline dihydro-
chloride monohydrate indicate that this compound may be of value in pre-
venting or relieving some of the alarming symptoms of experimental cases
of anaplasmosis. It appears to have no influence upon the general course
of the disease or upon the carrier state of recovered animals.
The entomological phase of this work is conducted in cooperation with
the Entomology Department.

FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF PIGS FOR ECONOMICAL
PORK PRODUCTION
State Project 477 R. S. Glasscock and S. J. Folks
Pigs farrowed in the Experiment Station herd have been carried under
2 systems of management: (1) The usual system of giving spring litters








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


a bare subsistence ration until fall fattening crops are ready, and (2)
the use of early maturing crops in an effort to produce top market hogs
with a shorter feeding period and marketing at a more favorable time.
The experiment has not been in progress for sufficient time to give con-
clusive results.

DEHYDRATION AND UTILIZATION OF VEGETABLE BY-PRODUCTS
AS DAIRY AND POULTRY FEEDS
Poultry Phase
State Project 478 N. R. Mehrhof and G. K. Davis
Dehydrated celery tops and bean meal were used in all-mash chick
rations to replace alfalfa leaf meal. The check ration contained 6%
alfalfa leaf meal and the other rations contained 6 and 9 percent dehydrated
celery tops and bean vine meal, respectively. The chick rations containing
dehydrated celery tops and bean vine meal were apparently palatable as
indicated by feed consumption, and only small differences were noted
in the average weight of chicks at 10 weeks of age, on all rations, includ-
ing the check group receiving alfalfa meal.

Dairy Phase
R. B. Becker
A palatability trial and a preliminary biological feeding trial of dried
snap bean vines were conducted with dairy cattle. The product was palat-
able for the animals. Two Jersey heifers maintained their thrift while
on a ration of dried bean vines plus mixed concentrates and a mineral
supplement. The bean vines had been contaminated with citrus pulp
during the drying process. A sample of the dried bean vines (with citrus
pulp contamination) was analyzed at the Nutrition Laboratory with the
following results:
Water 12.94%, protein 7.79%, ash 10.02%, Ca 2.33%, Mg 0.21%, P 0.21%,
fat 3.53% and crude fiber 14.79%. (See Project 478, HORTICULTURE.)

IN VIVO STUDY OF INTESTINAL ORGANISMS OF THE FOWL
State Project 479 Glenn Van Ness
Three species of non-pathogenic yeasts were tested for effect in day-
old chicks. The response was negative. In connection with other work,
organisms which normally have been found in the lower intestinal tract
have appeared in the upper portion associated with non-specific enteritis.

LOSSES IN MARKETING LIVESTOCK
State Project 481 A. L. Shealy, R. S. Glasscock,
L. E. Swanson and W. G. Kirk
This project was conducted in 9 meat packing plants and slaughter
establishments. Factors responsible for loss as given by packers and
slaughterers were: (1) Rough handling at auction markets, (2) over-
crowding, (3) carelessness on part of packers' truck drivers, (4) nervous
Florida steers, directly from ranges, and (5) animals with horns being
crowded into trucks and loading pens.
The State Marketing Bureau and livestock departments of railroads
rendered valuable assistance in the work of this project.








Annual Report, 1947


FEEDING VALUE OF CITRUS MEAL AND CITRUS SEED
MEAL FOR POULTRY
State Project 489 J. C. Driggers, G. K. Davis and N. R. Mehrhof
Previous work at this station has demonstrated that citrus meal as then
prepared could not be used successfully in a chick ration. This project
was initiated in an effort to determine the harmful factor in citrus meal
and to determine whether citrus seed meal, another citrus by-product,
contained such a harmful factor, with the ultimate objective of attempting
to remove the harmful factor or factors, thereby possibly making citrus
by-products useful as poultry feed ingredients.
In the initial phase of this work it was found that citrus seed meal
was unsatisfactory as a chick feed ingredient. The next phase involved
the extraction of citrus seed meal with ether, evaporating the extract
to dryness and feeding the dried extract portion to 1 lot of chicks while
the ether-extracted citrus seed meal was given another lot. The dried
extract produced satisfactory growth for 3 weeks; however, the ether-
extracted citrus seed meal was noticeably harmful. All chicks in the
latter group were dead at the end of 3 weeks.

TREATING EGGS WITH OIL FOR STORAGE
State Project 490 J. C. Driggers and N. R. Mehrhof
The object of this project is to determine the effect of treating the
shells of eggs with a specially processed commercial light weight mineral
oil in preserving the edible qualities in eggs.
Three groups of eggs were treated and are being held at (1) ordinary
room temperature, (2) ordinary refrigerator temperature and (3) cold
storage temperature, with corresponding check lots of untreated eggs,
to determine quality at end of test period.
Maximum and minimum temperatures and humidity are being recorded
and the quality of the eggs determined by candling.

MISCELLANEOUS
Vitamin D Metabolism, of Dairy Cows.-Cooperating with Standard
Brands, Inc., in a nation-wide survey of the vitamin D nutrition of dairy
cows, blood samples from selected dairy cows were submitted for assay
at different seasons of the year. The vitamin D contents of the blood from
cows in the Station herd during the winter were approximately double
those of cows in latitudes where stabling in winter months is practiced.
Butter from the herd likewise was high in vitamin D. Samples of blood
will be collected from the same cows in the summer, and the values will
be compared with those obtained in the principal dairy sections of the
United States. (George K. Davis, P. T. Dix Arnold and R. B. Becker.)
Interrelationship of Copper, Molybdenum and Phosphorus.-With the aid
of a grant from the U. S. Phosphoric Company, Division of Tennessee
Corporation, studies have been instituted on the interrelationships of cop-
per, molybdenum and phosphorus. Evidence has been accumulating that
possibly a deficiency of copper results in increased enzymatic activity
leading to excess removal of phosphorus from the bones, or failure of
deposition of phosphorus in the bones. (George K. Davis, C. L. Comar
and Harry Hannan.)
Ramie Meal-A New Feed.-Ramie meal (the dehydrated and ground
tops of the ramie plant, the stalk of which is used for the production of








64 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

fiber) has been studied as a feed for cattle and poultry. Ramie meal
containing less than 3 parts per million of molybdenum is an acceptable
feed for poultry and cattle. In cooperative studies with the Poultry
Division, it was shown in feeding trials with baby chicks that ramie meal
could be used equally as well as alfalfa leaf meal in a growing mash.
Cattle fed ramie meal which contained 20% protein were able to use this
feed and make good gains. Ramie meal which contained levels of 9 to 12
parts per million of molybdenum proved to be unsatisfactory, unless high
levels of copper sulphate (0.8 gm. per day) were included in the ration.
When the copper was fed along with the molybdenum-containing ramie
meal, good results were obtained. The toxic symptoms of molybdenum
feed developed rapidly and precautions should be taken to insure a ramie
meal low in molybdenum content, if it is to be used as cattle feed. (George
K. Davis, N. R. Mehrhof, C. L. Comar, Leon Singer and Katherine Boney.)
Value of Different Protein Supplements for Chick Growth.-Sweet blue
lupine was used in all-mash chick rations to replace part or all of the
soybean oil meal. At the end of the first 4 weeks average weight of the
lupine-fed chicks was considerably below the weight of chicks receiving
soybean oil meal as a source of protein. Higher mortality was experienced
with the chicks fed lupine than with those fed the check ration. (N. R.
Mehrhof and'G. K. Davis.)
Some Observations on the Use of Roccal.-Roccal, a quaternary am-
monium compound, has been giving satisfactory results as a chemical
bactericide in eating establishments for several years. It is not yet
generally recognized as a completely satisfactory chemical to use for the
sterilization of milk plant equipment. Results indicated that roccal added
directly to milk reduced the bacteria count, the effect being more notice-
able on low count milk than on high count milk. This bactericidal effect
was not great enough, however, to bring about significant decreases in
the bacteria count of milk unless an excessive amount of roccal was added,
in which case the product could be detected in milk by tasting. (E. L.
Fouts and L. E. Mull.)
Some Observations on the Inversion of Sucrose. Part I.-By Acids.-
During periods of sugar shortage the inversion of a portion of the sugar
used in ice cream is practical to increase its sweetening value. The following
factors affecting the acid inversion of sucrosewere studied: (1) Effect
of kind of acid and pH, (2) concentration of sugar solution, (3) effect
of boiling time and (4) effect of time, temperature and pH. Results
indicated that when boiling temperatures were employed the optimum pH
range was 2.0 to 2.6. When temperatures of 1750 to 1900 F. were employed,
it was necessary to maintain pH values between 1.65 and 1.75. When
used correctly, tartaric, citric, lactic, hydrochloric, sulphuric and phos-
phoric acids proved to be satisfactory in the preparation of invert syrup.
Three factors influencing the inversion of sucrose appeared to be posi-
tively interrelated. These were temperature of heating, time of heating
and hydrogen ion concentration. When any 1 or 2 of these is increased,
the other 1 or 2 may be decreased. Invert syrup of good quality was
prepared at 1750 F. and 190o F. by holding the syrup at these temperatures
for 45 minutes to 90 minutes. The exact temperature and time were found
to be less critical factors than pH.
Part II.-By Invertase.-Experiments were conducted to determine the
effect of the following factors on the inversion of sucrose by invertase:
(1) Concentration of sucrose solution, (2) pH of sucrose solution, (3)
concentration of enzyme, (4) temperature and (5) time required for
inversion. Results indicated that a solution containing 55% sucrose was


L









Annual Report, 1947 65

inverted at a more rapid rate than a solution containing 65% sucrose; a
pH range of 4.5 to 5.5 was found to be optimum for the inversion process;
the rate of inversion was proportional to the concentration of enzyme
used in the syrup; temperature of 149 produced the most rapid rate of
inversion within the pH range 4.5 to 5.5; the rate of inversion was most
rapid at the beginning of the process and declined steadily as inversion
continued; the dextrose-levulose ratio varied little from 1.2 to 1. (E. L.
Fouts, L. E. Mull and L. R. Arrington.)
Potassium as a Possible Cause of "Blue Comb" or "Pullet Disease".-
The pathological changes induced by an increased potassium content of the
ration were found to resemble those of "blue comb" or "pullet disease."
Increased sodium and calcium relieved certain of these potassium-induced
changes. Warm humid weather increased the severity of potassium effect.
(Glenn Van Ness.)


j









Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ENTOMOLOGY
The past year was characterized by exceptionally severe outbreaks of
certain insect pests and by the appearance of new entomological problems
of major importance. The serpentine leaf miner appeared in extraordinary
large numbers in the Everglades and other vegetable-producing areas and
caused considerable damage to tomatoes, peppers and other crops. In
the Gainesville area the worst infestation of flower thrips in recent years
caused severe injury to roses, wisteria and other flowers as well as to
beans, tomatoes and other vegetable crops. Grasshoppers moving into
cultivated fields from their breeding grounds in waste land and idle fields
caused some concern in northern Alachua County and elsewhere. The out-
standing entomological feature was the appearance of the green peach
aphid as a major pest and a severe threat to Florida's multimillion dollar
tobacco crop.
CONTROL OF THE NUT AND LEAF CASEBEARERS OF PECANS
State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
Work on this project was continued at the Pecan Investigations Labora-
tory in cooperation with USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine. In the control experiments against the nut and leaf casebearers,
insecticides were applied at different periods of the year in an attempt
to determine the most advantageous time to combat these pests.
On June 11, 1946, 2 sprays were applied against the casebearer larvae
feeding on foliage and nuts. Arsenate of lead at the rate of 3 pounds per
100 gallons of 6-2-100 bordeaux mixture gave a reduction of 80.3 percent.
DDT, 50 percent water dispersible powder, at the rate of 2 pounds per 100
gallons of bordeaux mixture, gave a reduction of only 46.7 percent.
Three insecticidal materials were used as late dormant sprays in the
spring of 1947 when the casebearer larvae were in their overwintering
hibernacula. Two pounds of DDT, 50 percent water dispersible powder,
plus 2 ounces of sticker, in 100 gallons of water gave a reduction of 94.0
percent for the nut casebearer and of 100.0 percent for the leaf casebearer.
Two quarts of 25 percent (by weight) DDT emulsifiable concentrate in 100
gallons of water gave reductions of 91.0 and 98.9 percent of the 2 case-
bearers, respectively. Dinitro-o-cresol in the form of "Elgetol 30", used
at the rate of 2 quarts in 100 gallons, gave reductions of 72.8 and 84.1
percent for the respective casebearers.
On April 8, 1947, when nut casebearer larvae were feeding on buds and
foliage, a spray containing 2 pounds of DDT, 50 percent water-dispersible
powder, plus 2 ounces of sticker in 100 gallons of 4-1-100 bordeaux mixture
was applied. This reduced the casebearer infestation 75.2 percent, which
was inferior to the results obtained with a similar spray in 1946.
Once again DDT was, the most effective material used against the first
generation nut casebearer. Sprays containing 2 pounds of 50 percent
water-dispersible powder, plus 2 ounces 6f sticker in 100 gallons of 6-2-100
bordeaux mixture applied May 8, 13, 15, and 16, gave control of 84.7,
89.1, 85.3, and 84.0 percent, respectively. Nicotine sulphate 13 ounces, plus
2 quarts of summer oil emulsion in 100 gallons of 6-2-100 bordeaux mix-
ture, applied May 15, gave a control of only 76.2 percent. Benzene hexa-
chloride 50 percent wettable powder (containing 6 percent gamma isomer),
used at the rate of 6 pounds, plus 2 ounces of sticker, in 100 gallons of
6-2-100 bordeaux mixture gave a control of 83.2 percent.
The good results obtained with DDT against the first generation nut
casebearer substantiate those of 1945 and 1946. However, a severe leaf








Annual Report, 1947


scorch condition appeared late in June 1947 in 2 large experimental plots
that had been treated with DDT. Mites were numerous on these leaves
and further observations are needed to determine if they are responsible
for the condition.

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF CUTWORMS AND ARMYWORMS
IN FLORIDA
State Project 380 A. N. Tissot
This project was inactive during the year. (See Project 380, CENTRAL
FLORIDA STATION AND VEGETABLE CROPS LABORATORY.)

PROPAGATION OF LARRA WASPS FOR THE CONTROL OF
MOLE-CRICKETS
State Project 381 A. N. Tissot and H. E. Bratley
At frequent intervals during the year collections and observations were
made of Hymenoptera visiting and feeding at the blossoms of Borreria.
Seventeen specimens taken between October 9 and November 6, 1946, have
been identified as Larra analis F., a parasite of mole-crickets. During the
same period, 13 additional wasps were taken, that agree with the description
of the female of L. analis. The relatively large number of specimens taken
indicates that the insect is well established in the vicinity of Gainesville.
The attractiveness of Borreria to the Hymenoptera is shown by the fact
that 87 species, in 46 genera, of 14 families of these insects have been
taken at its blossoms during the past 2 years. This year's collecting has
contributed 56 species, 29 genera and 9 families, which had not been
recorded before.

ROOT-KNOT IN TOBACCO FIELDS
State Project 382 H. E. Bratley
This project was inactive during the year.

BREEDING VEGETABLE PLANTS RESISTANT TO ROOT-KNOT
NEMATODES
State Project 383 H. E. Bratley
A favorable season and harvest produced a fair quantity of good quality
seed of strains Nos. 18 and 19 of the Conch cowpea.
A test was started to compare the Creole English pea and the 3 most
favored varieties of this section, Thomas Laxton, Kilgore's Winner and
Little Marvel. All varieties grew nicely and were commencing to bloom
when the freezes of February 5, 6, and 10, 1947, killed all varieties except
the Creoles. A few of the Creole vines persisted and produced some pods.
A Government thermometer located 300 feet away on slightly higher
ground registered 24 degrees on each of these dates.
A surprising discovery in the 1946 tomato tests was the fact that
heavy producing strains were less resistant to nematodes than some of
the less prolific ones. This is contrary to the usual belief, that heavy
nematode infestation causes low yields. Seeds from both high-yielding
strains and those having low nematode infestations were saved for future
tests.
The pimiento pepper test was not encouraging as no nematode resist-
ance was noted. All plants in the test were infested, with 40 to 50 percent








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of their roots knotted. This was sufficient to inhibit later fruit production
and finally to cause the death of the plants.

EFFECTS OF MULCHES ON THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

State Project 385 H. E. Bratley
A new series of 12 mulch plots was set up during this year. This is
designed to evaluate more accurately the different mulching materials and
their effects on root-knot and on crop yields. Fallen leaves collected in
the forest were used on 4 of the plots; dry weeds, grasses and other plant
materials on another 4 plots; and 4 were left without mulch for checks.
Okra and tomatoes are being grown on the plots as test plants.

CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID PESTS OF CATTLE
State Project 438 D. A. Sanders and A. N. Tissot
Observations made in 1945, when cattle were sprayed for hornfly
control, indicated that DDT sprays had a marked effect on the Gulf Coast
tick, Amblyomma maculatum Koch. An attempt was made to verify these
observations and to determine the relative effectiveness of DDT sprays and
the best 2 available ear smears. Approximately 100 yearling grade Angus
heifers were used in this experiment. They were separated from the main
herd and kept in a pasture by themselves during the test period. These
animals had been sprayed late in June for hornflies, with a DDT spray
of about 0.3 percent concentration.
The first test spray and the ear treatments were applied August 13,
1946. The spray was applied with an adjustable orchard spray gun
operated from a small power sprayer developing a pressure of about 300
pounds per square inch. All parts of the animals' bodies were thoroughly
wet with the spray. The smears were applied with the bare hands to
both the inner and outer surfaces of the ears.
Lot 1, containing 26 animals, received the spray which was made by
mixing 2 pounds of water-dispersible powder containing 50 percent of DDT
in 5 gallons of water. Approximately 6.5 gallons of spray was used, giving
an average application of 2 pints or about 21 grams of DDT per head.
The ears of the 25 animals in Lot 2 were treated with Savannah No. 5,
an experimental smear containing 7.5 percent of DDT. These animals
received an average application of 1.6 ounces or 3.6 grams of DDT per head.
The ears of the 25 animals in Lot 3 were treated with Stock 1037, a
commercial preparation containing 5.0 percent of DDT. They received
an average application of 2.7 ounces or 4.0 grams of DDT per head.
Lot 4, containing 30 animals, was used as the check lot. They received
neither spray nor ear treatments.
The ear treatments were applied only once, but the animals in the
spray lot were sprayed again September 5, with the same concentration of
DDT. At that time they received an average application of 2.4 pints or
26 grams of DDT per head.
Results of this test are summarized in Table 4. The pretreatment
counts were made August 13. Subsequent observations and counts were
made August 22, September 5, 12, 20 and 26 and October 4.
These results indicate that a full coverage DDT spray is fully as
effective against ear ticks as the best available ear smears.
This work is done in cooperation with the Animal Industry Department
of this Station and the USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine. (See also Project 438, ANIMAL INDUSTRY.)








Annual Report, 1947


TABLE 4.-RESULTS OF EAR TREATMENTS IN CONTROLLING GULF COAST
TICKS ON CATTLE.

Number Number
Treatment of of Percent
Ticks Lesions Control

DDT Pretreatment count .................... 71 10
Spray Total of post-treatment counts 11 0 82

Savannah Pretreatment count .-................. 70 19
No. 5 Total of post-treatment counts 19 0 68

Stock Pretreatment count ................... 63 15
1037 Total of post-treatment counts 12 2 82

Check Pretreatment count .................... 70 20
Total of post-treatment counts 106 35 0


ANAPLASMOSIS IN CATTLE


Purnell Project 462
See Project 462, ANIMAL INDUSTRY


D. A. Sanders and A. N. Tissot


MISCELLANEOUS

Grasshopper Control Experiments.-A preliminary field test with sixide
(benzene hexachloride, 1 percent gamma isomer) and rivicol 5 (5 percent
chlordane) indicated that these materials were far more effective against
the lubberly locust than any previously tried insecticide. On the basis of
this test, it was thought advisable to make some cage trials to determine
more accurately their effectiveness. The results of these trials are sum-
marized in the following table.


No.
Insecticide Inse
Used Usn

Sixide .............. 15

Check ................ 11

Rivicol 5** ...-.... 15

Check ............... 7


of
cts
ed

0

7

0


No. of Live Insects After Exposure of


2 Days

34

116

70

74


5 Days

6*

114

24

74


I 8 Days


Terminated on the 5th day of exposure.
**The insects used in this test averaged 1 instar older than those used in the sixide test.

Other tests with these dusts have given comparable results and indicate
that there is little difference in their effectiveness on grasshoppers.
These same dusts were tested on the American bird grasshopper.
Insects used in the tests were 4th and 5th instar nymphs and general adults.
At the end of a 24-hour exposure period all were dead. (H. E. Bratley.)
Aphids on Tobacco.-The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer),
which first became a pest of tobacco in the summer of 1946, is now present
in many tobacco shades in Gadsden County and in fields of flue-cured


I








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tobacco in other sections. In a preliminary insecticide test, 7 dust materials
and 7 sprays were applied to 4-row plots about 25 feet in length. All
plants in these plots were heavily infested with aphids at time of treat-
ment. One week after treatment the plot dusted with benzene hexachloride
(1.5 percent gamma isomer) had only a few aphids on 2 plants. The plot
dusted with a 20 percent chlorinated camphene had a few aphids on about
14 of the plants. Plots dusted with 5 percent DDT and with 5 percent
chlordane had most of the plants lightly infested a week after treatment.
Three different nicotine dusts gave quick initial kills, but at the end
of a week these plots had become heavily infested again.
Only 1 of the sprays was as effective as the better dusts. The plot
sprayed with benzene hexachloride emulsion (0.8 pound of gamma isomer
per gallon) used at the rate of 2 quarts per 100 gallons of water had a
very light aphid infestation on 5 plants, 1 week after treatment. DDT
emulsion (25 percent DDT), 2 quarts per 100 gallons, DDT, 50 percent
water-dispersible, 2 pounds per 100 gallons, and rhothane emulsion (25
percent DDD) 2 quarts per 100 gallons were about equal in effectiveness.
Most of the plants in these plots had aphids on them but the infestations
were light. (A. N. Tissot.)
Control of Flower Thrips.-Flower thrips were extremely numerous
in the Gainesville area in the spring of 1947 and this afforded a good
opportunity to test the effectiveness of some new insecticides in their
control.
Six insecticide materials were applied on April 23, 1947, to blooming
pyracantha shrubs heavily infested with thrips. The average number
of thrips per flower cluster before treatment was 225. The average number
of thrips per cluster 44.,hours after treatment was as follows for the
various materials used: ^Rivicol 22 emulsion (containing 0.5 pounds of
chlordane per quart), 1 quart to 100 gallons of water, 102; rhothane
emulsion (25 percent dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane), 1 quart to 100
gallons, 68; gamex w-10 (water-dispersible benzene hexachloride contain-
ing 10 percent gamma isomer), 2 pounds per 100 gallons, 151; gamex
e c-9 (emulsifiable benzene hexachloride, 9 percent gamma isomer), 1
quart to 100 gallons, 91; DDT (50 percent water-dispersible), 2 pounds per
100 gallons, 98; check, 214. It is believed that the insecticides were more
effective than these figures indicate and that the large number of thrips
in the blossoms after treatment were insects that had migrated to them
from untreated blossoms nearby.
Snap beans in a 6-block replicated experimental planting of the Horti-
culture Department were heavily infested with thrips at blossoming time.
Five of these blocks were sprayed April 26, 1947, with DDT (2 quarts 25


* Untreated check.


j








Annual Report, 1947


percent emulsion concentrate to 100 gallons of water). The sixth block
was left unsprayed as a check. All the blossoms were blasted before
treatment but 2 days after treatment the plants were blooming normally.
The effectiveness of this treatment is indicated in the table on page 70.
(A. N. Tissot and B. E. Janes.)
Miscellaneous Pecan Insects.-In preliminary tests for the control of
the hickory shuckworm, Laspeyresia caryana (Fitch), on pecans, DDT 50
percent water-dispersible powder used at the rate of 4 pounds to 100
gallons of 6-2-100 bordeaux mixture, plus a sticker, applied July 8 and
August 2, 1946, gave a reduction in infested nuts of 37.1 percent. Used
at the rate of 8 pounds to 100 gallons it gave a reduction of 53.8 percent.
Benzene hexachloride 50 percent water-dispersible powder (the BHC con-
taining 11.5 percent gamma isomer) at the rate of 8 pounds to 100
gallons of the bordeaux gave a reduction of 36.3 percent. The insecticides
used in this test gave 100 percent control of the fall webworm, Hyphantria
cunea (Drury).
Three new infestations of the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn),
were found in Leon and Jefferson counties during the fall of 1946. This
makes 6 known infestations of the insect in the 2 counties. (A. M. Phillips.)
Soil Fumigation Tests.-A new type of soil fumigant (bead-like capsules
containing pure ethylene dibromide) was tested and compared with 3
commercially available materials. The following table indicates that this
new method of application is about as effective in reducing root-knot as
the other materials used at comparable rates. (A. N. Tissot)


'Number of Plants Showing Various
Treatment Amounts of Root-knot
Free I Light I Medium 1 Heavy

1. Ethylene dibromide capsules.. 103 16 16 0
2. D-D ........................................ 139 13 1 0
3. Dowfume W-10 ........................ 127 11 1 0
4. Chloropicrin ............................ 127 17 12 0
5. Check ...................................... 26 38 68 18








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HOME ECONOMICS

The recently equipped biological chemistry and food laboratories will
greatly facilitate the work of the department, since much work has been
held in abeyance this year because of lack of laboratory facilities and
necessary equipment.
The survey on appetite levels of food consumption began June 1, 1946,
in cooperation with the Committee on Food Research, Office of the Quarter-
master General, was completed March 31, 1947. Data secured in this and
in similar studies made in several sections of the United States will be
of value in establishing standard reference tables on food acceptance rates
for a national list of foods, which can supplement the tables on food com-
position secured by the National Research Council. The data can serve also
as the beginning of a set of national standards of food acceptance for use
in military feeding programs, ration and menu planning, for use in pro-
curement of supplies, and furthermore, can serve as guides to food in-
dustries responsible for feeding the general population and responsible
during times of national emergencies for feeding the armed forces as well.

CONSERVATION AND AVAILABILITY OF THE B VITAMINS AND
IRON IN ENRICHED, WHITE AND CORN BREADS AND GRITS
Purnell Project 442 C. D. Abbott and R. B. French
In 1945 an experiment was begun for the purpose of comparing the
nutritive values of the 5 types of bread in general use: viz., enriched and
unenriched breads made with water; enriched and unenriched breads made
with water and containing 6 percent dry milk solids, and wheat bread.
These breads supplemented with vitamin A and fat were fed as the sole
diets of 5 groups of young rats.
Appearance.-Photographs of these rats taken at the end of 105 days
showed the characteristic sign of varying degrees of malnutrition which
came as a result of feeding the several types of bread. Rats fed wheat
bread or the 2 types of milk bread, while not comparable in appearance
to the controls, were greatly superior in size and general condition to the
extremely malnourished animals fed the 2 types of water bread.
Weight.-When the average weights of the several groups of rats were
plotted against days on the bread diets, considerable differences in weights
were noted. The significance of the observed differences was determined
by analysis of the data by Students' "t" test for unpaired differences.
Regardless of the type of bread, only slight differences occurred in the
weights of the 5 groups of experimental animals during the first 28 days.
Thereafter the average weights of rats fed wheat bread or enriched or
unenriched breads containing 6 percent nonfat milk solids were significantly
higher (P=.001) than those fed either type of water bread.
No significant differences in weight were found between rats fed the 2
types of water bread (P =.44) nor between rats fed wheat bread and
enriched bread containing dry milk solids ( = .87). However, the average
weight of rats fed unenriched milk bread was significantly higher (P = 0.2)
than that of rats on a diet of enriched milk bread.
Supplements.-When it became evident that the weights of all animals
on bread diets were far below those of the controls fed stock ration, an
effort was made to determine the missing factor or factors in these diets.
Two types of supplements, administered orally and manually, were evalu-
ated; one, B complex concentrates, the other, proteins and essential amino








Annual Report, 1947


acids. The average weights of rats on bread diets constituted the base
lines which were used in evaluating the effective results of the supplements.
The data show that the B complex concentrates (Becotin and Bezon) were
both ineffective in increasing the weights of rats fed water or whole
wheat breads. The essential amino acids in the quantities and combinations
used were also ineffective in increasing weights of rats on a diet of water
bread or enriched milk bread. The addition of casein or yeast was quite
effective in increasing the weights of rats fed water bread.
Mineralization.-The roentgenograms of rats fed either enriched or
unenriched water bread show very poor skeletal development and mineral-
ization. Mineralization was particularly light in the extremities and in the
tails and somewhat heavier in the teeth and jaws. Rats receiving either
enriched or unenriched milk bread had better skeletal development and
mineralization than those on water bread. It is of interest that the rats fed
a diet of unenriched milk bread had better mineralization than the ones fed
enriched milk bread. To a lesser extent the same is true of the rats fed
unenriched and enriched water bread. There was the suggestion that
mineralization was slightly less in rats fed whole wheat bread than in those
fed unenriched milk bread.
Realimentation.-After the animals had been on the bread diets for 105
days they were given the regular stock diet. During the next 56 days
the weight of all groups rose rapidly and thereafter began to level. The
average maximum weight attained by the animals, either male or female,
on both types of water bread was approximately % that of their litter
mate controls, while the weight attained by the rats fed either type of
milk bread was approximately % that of the controls.
Throughout the entire experimental and realimentation periods there
was little or no variation in hemoglobin values, in total red and white
counts or in the differential leucocyte count of the different experimental
groups. The hemoglobin values of rats fed unenriched bread were approxi-
mately the same as those fed enriched bread.
After realimentation for 165 days it was found that both males and
females fed water breads were infertile and only those animals that had
been fed wheat bread and the 2 types of milk bread were able to repro-
duce. The litters produced by these rats were normal as to number and
weight and at weaning time (21 days) had attained the weight of stock
rats of that age.

VITAMIN B CONTENT OF FOODS
Purnell Project 443 R. B. French
This project has been held in abeyance pending the installation of a
laboratory and of necessary equipment.

APPETITE LEVELS OF FOOD CONSUMPTION
Purnell Project 454 0. D. Abbott
The plan of this survey on appetite levels of food consumption was to
secure data from Florida-born males and females 17 to 19 and 45 to 58
years of age. Approximately 50 percent of the respondents were to be
from several small cities and the remainder from the surrounding country.
Those from the city were to be city-bred and reared and live in a city
where practically all their food was bought, while those from the country
were to be country-bred and reared where practically all their food was
produced on the home farm or nearby.









74 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Because of the great influx of people from other states during recent
years and the relatively few native-born Floridians that met the require-
ments, no satisfactory statistical design for the selection of the population
sample could be found. Therefore, respondents were selected as follows:
The 45 to 58 year old groups from lists of Florida-born individuals ob-
tained from church, civic and social societies, from older residents and from
tax record; 17 to 19 year old group primarily from high school records
and college directories. Interviews were then arranged to determine
suitability and willingness to cooperate.
The questionnaire was designed to furnish data on acceptance and
degree of preference, size of serving desired, preferred preparation, effects,
either favorable or otherwise, of 471 food items. The survey was designed
also to furnish supplementary data on preferred recipes, typical menus
and personal and medical histories.
The food items included in the typical preferred menus and the degree
of preference for certain foods were used as the basis for collecting recipes.
The preference for a specific recipe was determined by interviews with
housewives included in the survey, home demonstration agents who had
served in the state 30 or more years, home economics teachers, lunchroom
managers and professional cooks.
SFrom the beginning of this survey June 1, 1946, until its completion
March 31, 1947, 402 questionnaires were secured from 102 males and 100
females 17 to 19 years of age, and from 100 males and 100 females 45 to 58
years of age. One half of each group lived in a city and was city-bred
and reared and the other half lived in the country and was country-bred
and reared. Approximately 100 preferred recipes were collected for the
preparation of foods most favored in the typical menus.
Since the records were sent to the Food Acceptance Branch, Chicago,
for compilation and statistical analysis, it is impossible at this time to give
an analysis of the data. However, certain dietary trends and patterns
were noted as follows: There were some differences in the food likes and
dislikes of urban and rural respondents. There were differences in the
food likes and dislikes associated with both age and sex. The diets of many
of the respondents were limited to relatively few food items prepared in
very simple ways. Many in all groups had not tried, tolerated or disliked
from 40 to 50 percent of the 60 listed vegetables.
The degree of preference for milk and fruit was high but the typical
menus indicated that, in general, diets were low in these foods. In many
homes outside the citrus section citrus fruits were used sparingly or only
occasionally. Except for apples and bananas, fruits grown out of the
State were practically unknown to rural people and rarely were used by
city people. The most widely used cereals were corn meal, grits, rice and
oatmeal. The favorite meats were chicken, pork and beef. Veal, lamb,
mutton and the glandular parts of meat were generally disliked. In all
groups fish was a very popular item of diet. Men and boys had little
or no information as to preferred seasonings or as to methods of food
preparation. Only when the statistical data are available can the sig-
nificance and validity of these observations be determined. The records
indicate, however, the need of education on food selection and preparation
and the need for broadening the dietary pattern by introducing and
popularizing new foods and new methods of food preparation.









Annual Report, 1947


HORTICULTURE
In horticultural research additional emphasis was given to prepackaging,
storing, icing and freezing of vegetables, and to the preparation and
utilization of vegetable wastes. A laboratory building which will provide
facilities for this expanded processing program will be completed within
the next few months. Studies on production of vegetables, deciduous
fruits and nuts, and ornamentals were continued.

PROPAGATION, PLANTING AND FERTILIZING TESTS WITH
TUNG OIL TREES
Hatch Project 50 R. D. Dickey and G. H. Blackmon
Records kept since 1922 reveal that tung has not escaped crop reduction
by cold damage for more than 3 successive years. The last 4-year period
was no exception. No injury was experienced from 1944 to 1946 but
damage resulted from severe freezing temperatures in February and
March, 1947, while the trees were dormant. The amount of injury was
less than in any previous 4-year period of record.
To determine the amount of injury, bud counts were made in several
orchards in the Gainesville area after the trees had started growth. From
these observations and data several points of interest are apparent. Re-
gardless of location or age of trees, there is a large variation in amount
of bud injury evidenced by individual trees. In general, trees that have
made strong vigorous growth the previous season are less susceptible to
injury than those that have made weak growth. There is a varietal dif-
ference as to the amount of injury experienced. In an experimental plant-
ing on the Station farm, 17-year-old seedlings and budded trees of the
Florida variety had, respectively, 9.8 and 8.2 percent of their buds injured;
for the F-9 trees of the same age, the injuries were 19.3 and 45.0 percent.
The treatments applied, 1946 potassium deficiency scores and average
annual yields for 1944-46 of fertilizer tests in a Jefferson County orchard
are given in Table 5.

TABLE 5.-AVERAGE ANNUAL YIELDS IN POUNDS OF AIR-DRIED FRUIT AND
POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY SCORE.

Potassium Deficiency Average Annual Yield
Treatment Score (1946)* per Tree (1944-46)

4-4-0 ....................... 39.5 8.5
4-8-4 ............................. 13.6 14.4
4-8-8 .............................. 1.4 17.4
4-4-4 ......................... ... 9.6 17.6
4-0-4 .............................. 5.2 20.4
8-4-4 .............................. 16.4 21.9
4-4-8 ............................. 2.1 22.5
8-4-8 ..................... 3.1 27.1

Least difference between treatments for significance odds 19:1 = 6.5 pounds
of air-dried fruits and 12.7 points in potassium deficiency score.
Least difference between treatments for significance odds 99:1 = 8.6 pounds
of air-dried fruit and 17.2 points in potassium deficiency score.
On a scale from 0, which indicates no symptoms, to 100, which indicates very severe
symptoms on all foliage.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The treatments receiving the high level of potash (8%) have a lower
potassium deficiency score than those receiving the medium (4%) and no
potash levels. The treatment with high nitrogen (8%) and medium potash
(4%) had a higher potassium deficiency score than the treatment receiving
the low level of nitrogen (4%) and medium potash (4%) in the fertilizer.
Apparently, the stimulation to growth by high nitrogen intensifies the
potassium deficiency symptoms. Highest yields were obtained from high
levels of nitrogen (8%) and potash (8%).
Soil applications of boron (as borax) failed to correct an unidentified
disorder of 3-year tung trees in Station plantings. This disorder was
described in the 1945 Annual Report.

TESTING OF NATIVE AND INTRODUCED SHRUBS AND ORNA-
MENTALS AND METHODS FOR THEIR PROPAGATION
Hatch Project 52 R. D. Dickey and R. J. Wilmot
Observations by several individuals of Easter lily plantings on the muck
soils of the Lake Placid-Sebring area brought up the question of whether
or not excessive applications of nitrogen were producing an injury which
could not be distinguished from symptoms of virus fleck. Though con-
siderably past planting time, a preliminary experiment was set up on March
23, 1946. Muck soil in which to grow the plants was obtained from a
grower's field and brought to Gainesville. Bulbs 3 to 4 inches in circum-
ference were planted singly in pots and the pots placed in the greenhouse.
The treatments given were: Muck soil (no fertilizer) and a 4-7-5 at rates
of 500, 1,000 and 2,000 pounds per acre-each applied in 2 applications
supplemented with nitrate of soda at the rates of 100, 200 and 500 pounds
per acre. No symptoms of virus fleck appeared nor did injury to the
foliage result from any of the treatments.
Water was withheld from the bulbs in late September, 1946, and the
plants died down. The bulbs were left in the pots as the dry muck soil
served as a suitable storage medium. Regular watering was resumed in
November and the bulbs started growth soon thereafter. No fertilizer
was applied at this time. The following treatments were made April 18,
1947: Muck soil (no nitrate of soda) and nitrate of soda at the rates of
250, 500 and 1,000 pounds per acre. No injury was produced by any of
the treatments and no symptoms of virus fleck developed.
The results of these experiments suggest it is unlikely that toxicity
symptoms are produced by field applications of nitrogen-carrying fertil-
izers, such as nitrate of soda, at the rates used in commercial Easter lily
plantings.
In general, tulips are unsuited for growing in Florida and unsatisfactory
results usually are obtained. Recently, individual successes with bulbs
given cold storage have attracted attention. Tulip bulbs of the varieties
The Bishop and Scarlet Leader were obtained and held under 6 conditions
of storage. Bulbs of both varieties given cold storage emerged in much
less time and growth was more vigorous than those stored at room tem-
peratures. Those held at 37 F. and 42-45 F. for 52 days emerged sooner
than bulbs stored at the same temperatures for 26 days. The best growth
and flowering of both varieties was from bulbs stored 52 days at 42-45* F.
Seventeen varieties of holly were added to the Ilex collection under
trial in the Horticultural Test Grounds.
The E. P. St. John fern collection has been presented to the Experiment
Station and is being planted on the horticultural grounds. This will be his
complete collection of Florida ferns and some of the plants are the only
known specimens of certain species.








Annual Report, 1947


Pothos and philodendron made very good growth in an artificial medium
of sand and ion exchange materials. The average growth did not vary
significantly with the different concentrations. (In cooperation with Soils
Department.)

COVER CROP TESTS IN PECAN ORCHARDS
State Project 80 G. H. Blackmon and J. D. Warner
In this experiment cover crops of lupine have been grown to supply
nitrogen for the trees. Phosphoric acid has been applied in constant
amounts for the cover crops and through these to supply the pecan trees.
Potash has been applied in 2 levels, 5 and 10 pounds muriate of potash
per tree, to study the effects of potassium on growth of trees, yield and
quality of nuts produced where legumes are grown and returned to the soil.
Growth of the trees in the Jefferson County experiment varied between
treatments but the differences have not been significant. Five pounds and
10 pounds of muriate of potash per tree each produced about the same
amount of wood in all plots of each variety.
Yields for Frotscher trees have been higher in the plots receiving 10
pounds of muriate of potash per tree. However, there have been no sig-
nificant differences in the plots of Stuart and Moore receiving the 2 amounts
of potash. Considering all varieties and treatments, Moore yields were
heaviest and Stuart lightest, with Frotscher coming in between.
The cracking tests of nut samples showed some variations but all nuts
were of somewhat better quality than they were during the previous year.
The nuts containing the highest percentage of kernel were produced by
the Moore trees which received the 10 pounds of muriate of potash appli-
cations. (See report Project 80, North Florida Station.)

PHENOLOGICAL STUDIES OF TRUCK CROPS IN FLORIDA
State Project 110 F. S. Jamison, V. F. Nettles and B. E. Janes
Work formerly reported under this project is reported under State
Projects 282 and 420 and Bankhead-Jones Projects 435 and 475. The project
is closed with this report.

VARIETY TESTS OF MINOR FRUITS AND ORNAMENTALS
State Project 187 G. H. Blackmon, R. D. Dickey and R. J. Wilmot
Mayhaw seedling selections under test for yield and fruit quality pro-
duced a good crop this year. Plant growth and yields were satisfactory but
none of the plants produced fruit superior in quality to the general run of
seedlings.
To determine the effectiveness of soil fumigation on growth of peach
trees an experiment was started at Leesburg. Chloropicrin and DD were
injected into the soil in an area 6x9 feet and the trees planted in the center.
The trees are now growing nicely and have not. shown any injury.
There was a fairly good yield of fruit in the grape experiment at Lady
Lake. While the yields have been somewhat. higher with zinc sulphate
sprayed on the foliage than where it was omitted in the Bordeaux, the
differences have not been significant. .
This work ,with peaches and grapes, is.,being carried in cooperation
with the Watermelon and Grape Laboratory.
Spanish moss is troublesome on many plants because of shading which
retards growth. During the spring of 1947 experiments were conducted








78 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

with copper and lead arsenate to determine their effectiveness for killing
Spanish moss. A satisfactory kill of Spanish moss was obtained with
either a low-lime bordeaux or arsenate of lead. The bordeaux was made
with 10 pounds copper sulphate, 2 pounds lime and 100 gallons water,
while the arsenate of lead was used at the rate of 2 pounds to 100 gallons
of water. Before final recommendations can be made it will be necessary
to determine whether the plants to be sprayed can tolerate the concentra-
tions of copper and arsenate of lead required to kill the moss.

COLD STORAGE STUDIES ON CITRUS FRUITS
Purnell Project 190 A. L. Stahl
Oranges mechanically wrapped in pliofilm by a commercial stretch-
wrapping machine were stored at various temperatures and compared with
those hand-wrapped. Fruit wrapped by both methods held up equally well.
The 75-gauge FF pliofilm, a high CO and 02 diffusion film, did not give
as good results in keeping oranges as did the 20-gauge N-1 pliofilm.
In juice concentration the Flake-ice machine proved to be a good contin-
uous freezer in the freezing concentration investigation. The stability of
vitamin C was found to be affected by the type of container used; enameled
can being best, followed in order by heavily waxed carton, cellophane bag in
box, and lightly waxed carton. The project is closed with this report.

STUDY OF RELATION OF SOIL REACTION TO GROWTH AND
YIELD OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Adams Project 268 F. S. Jamison
Field work on this project has been concluded. In the series of plots
located on Arredondo loamy fine sand used in this experiment the highest
yields of good quality were obtained with most vegetables when the soil
acidity was held between pH 5.4 and pH 6.0. When the soil acidity dropped
below pH 5.4 only badly stunted plants were produced. Above pH 6.0 yield
dropped slowly as acidity decreased. Certain crops, such as sweet corn,
are apparently tolerant to a much wider range of soil' acidity. Where
manganese, zinc, copper and boron were applied to the soil the intake of
the elements by the plant was much higher in the more acid soils.

SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF VARIETIES AND STRAINS OF
VEGETABLES ADAPTABLE TO COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
IN FLORIDA
State Project 282 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
Beans.-The varietal work with green beans started in the fall of 1945
was continued. In September, 1946, 49 strains and varieties were planted.
Twenty-seven originated at the USDA Regional Vegetable Breeding Labora-
tory, 9 were selections made at the Everglades Station, while the others
were either commercial varieties or new strains developed by seed com-
panies. Records of type of plant, position of the pod on the plant, length
and type of pod, and yield were obtained.
In the spring of 1947, 22 of the better strains as determined from the
fall crop were planted. The same records were taken on the spring crop.
The better yielding varieties of both the fall and spring crops were tested
for adaptability to quick freezing. (See Project 473.)
From the 4 trial plantings of the past 2 -years it appears.that 10 strains
excel the present commercial varieties. As rapidly as possible these strains








Annual Report, 1947 79

will be tested in growers' fields to determine their adaptability under com-
mercial production practices.
Tomatoes.-The scope of the tomato work conducted under this project
was increased. In cooperation with other stations, 21 varieties were planted
in a yield performance test and an additional 40 varieties were grown for
observation of horticultural characters. In the yield trials a number of
commercial varieties were included for comparison with the newly developed
strains. All varieties were grown on staked and unstaked plants and
fruit was harvested from one-half the plots when "mature green" and from
the remainder when pink. Records of total fruit and marketable fruit
were taken, as well as performance of the various strains when the "mature
green" fruit were ripened in a ripening room.
Of the 21 strains and varieties included, 8 had total yields equal to or
larger than Rutgers, the most widely grown commercial variety. Eleven
produced as good yields of marketable fruits. The percentage of total fruits
that were classed as marketable varied with varieties and whether fruit
were picked as "green mature" or "pink". Some varieties, when harvested
as "green mature", had as few as 39 percent of the fruit classed as market-
able, while certain others had as much as 80 percent. When harvested as
"pink" the variation was from 25 to 75 percent. Much of the difference
among varieties was due to the susceptibility of the fruit of certain
varieties to crack at the stem end as it reaches maturity.
More fruit per plant was harvested-either "mature green" or "pink"-
from staked than unstaked plants. Both staked and unstaked plants pro-
duced larger yields when the fruit was harvested "mature green", although
certain strains produced equally as well when picked as "pinks".
Potatoes.-With the cooperation of Dr. Donald Reddick of Cornell Uni-
versity and Dr. Phares Decker of the Department of Plant Pathology,
seed stock of 20 strains of late blight-immune potatoes were secured from
New York growers. Most of these strains were grown at Gainesville
during the spring of 1946 and appeared worthy of further trial. The
seed potatoes, in the spring of 1947, were planted at Gainesville, Hastings
and Homestead. At Gainesville 4 replicates of 20 hills of each of the 20
varieties were planted February 6. Katahdin, a standard variety, was
also included in the test. Eight strains produced a total yield equal to
that produced by Katahdin and 6 strains produced good yields of U. S.
No. 1 tubers. Many of the strains are too late in maturing for growing
in Florida and many strains produced tubers which were poorly shaped,
sprouted prematurely or were extremely knobby. All strains were tested
for quality and samples placed in storage to determine how they reacted
to certain storage temperatures.
Seed stock of all strains is being produced in New York state and stock
of several of the most promising strains is being increased in North
Dakota and Maine.
Peas.-Pea strains originating at the USDA Regional Vegetable Breed-
ing Laboratory have been under test for several years. During the past
season 12 strains were planted for comparison with 2 strains of Little
Marvel. They were severely injured by the February freeze. All varieties
recovered sufficiently to produce a fair crop with the first harvest being
made April 10. Eight strains yielded as well as Little Marvel. These
strains produce decidedly larger pods than Little Marvel and the pods are
well filled with peas. Samples of all varieties were quick frozen to de-
termine their adaptability to this method of preservation. Seed is being
increased for further trials of the strains that appear to be suited for
production.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


EFFECTS OF VARIOUS GREEN MANURE CROPS ON GROWTH YIELD
AND QUALITY OF CERTAIN VEGETABLES
State Project 283 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
Over the course of the experiment Crotalaria spectabilis that was al-
lowed to grow to maturity proved the most satisfactory cover or green
manure crop for use on land to be planted in late winter and spring to
vegetables. The use of this crop was particularly valuable when followed
with long-season vegetables, such as peppers or eggplants.
Disadvantages of this crop are the difficulty some seasons of securing
a stand, difficulty of turning the plant under, and nut grass encroachment
on land where it is used as a summer cover. Cowpeas will prevent the
encroachment of nut grass but are not suitable as a summer cover on
land used for late winter and spring vegetable production. Other crops
tried included Crotalaria intermedia, velvet beans, Sudan grass, millet,
soybeans and native weeds.
The project is closed with this report.

FUMIGATION OF NURSERY STOCK
State Project 315 R. J. Wilmot
This project was inactive during the year and is closed with this report.

CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE MU-OIL TREE5
State Project 365 R. D. Dickey, G. H. Blackmon,
F. S. Lagasse and Howard Lassiter
Freezing temperatures in late January, February and early March of
1947 injured Mu-oil trees, Aleurites montana (Lour.) Wils., at Gainesville.
Most injury was to 1-year seedlings which were killed to the bank. Trees
4 to 6 years old had some buds, twigs and, in certain cases, a few of the
larger limbs killed, while 2 old trees had only a few buds and small twigs
killed.
As a group, the A. montana x A. fordi hybrids are more susceptible
to cold injury than tung trees, but there are individual hybrids comparable
in hardiness to A. fordi.
Again, Aleurites cordata (Thunb.) Muell. Arg., proved as hardy as
the Mu-oil trees or possibly more so. Five trees of A. cordata showed no
cold injury while nearby mu-oil trees of the same age had some buds,
twigs and, in certain cases, a few limbs injured.
Of 95 A. montana x A. fordi hybrids planted in 1942 and 1943, 72
flowered this spring. Of these, 9 produced female flowers and 2 have set
a few fruits.

RELATION OF ZINC AND MAGNESIUM TO GROWTH AND
REPRODUCTION IN PECANS
Hatch Project 375 G. H. Blackmon
The experiments testing the effects of magnesium and zinc on pecans
are being conducted with Curtis, Kennedy, Moneymaker, Moore and Stuart
varieties located in Bradford, Jefferson, Leon and Walton counties. Yields
were fair to good in all experiments except with Moneymaker in Leon
and Stuart in Walton. Here there were crop failures due to defoliation


6 In cooperation with U.S.D.A.








Annual Report, 1947 81

of the trees in 1945. Curtis produced heaviest yields of all varieties,
averaging more than 100 pounds of nuts per tree. There were variations
in yields but no definite trends have been established with reference to zinc
and magnesium requirements of pecan trees where no rosette is present.
Nuts produced in 1946 were of fairly good quality. Kernel content was
best in Curtis, averaging a little better than 50%. The nuts of the other
varieties were not so good but showed considerable improvement over the
percentages of kernel in 1945.
There was a considerable amount of leaf scorch during August and
September, but it was not so severe earlier in the season and did not cause
excessive early defoliation. The disorder has been causing trouble for
many years. During recent years it seems to have become more acute
and has caused severe defoliation of pecan trees during late summer.
The amounts of magnesium and zinc applied have not proven effective
in reducing leaf scorch. Analyses of pecan leaves with and without scorch
have shown some variations in composition. However, this varied with
the applications of the elements rather than with the percentage of leaves
showing scorch.
In cooperation with A. M. Phillips, of the Pecan Laboratory at Monti-
cello, nut casebearer control experiments are being conducted in a Moore
and Moneymaker orchard in Jefferson County.

STORAGE AND HANDLING OF FLORIDA VEGETABLES
Purnell Project 377 A. L. Stahl and F. S. Jamison
This project was inactive during the year except for investigations
with films, which are reported under Project 474. The project is closed
with this report.

VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS

State Project 391 F. S. Jamison
An extensive variety test with sweet corn during the spring included
65 hybrid varieties, 25 of which were planted in replicated plots for yield
test while the remaining 40 varieties were grown for observation of horti-
cultural characters.
Of the 25 varieties, 5 equalled or excelled loana or Golden Cross Bantam,
varieties now widely grown. The 5 varieties were Erie, Golden Security,
Oto, Seneca Chief, Tri-State and Victory Golden. The quality of these
varieties is quite acceptable. All except Seneca Chief have ears as large
as or larger than Golden Cross Bantam. Many were tested to determine
their adaptability for quick freezing.
Varieties included in the observation trials that appear to warrant
further testing were KVF-45, Golden Hybrid No. 54, Golden Hybrid No. 50,
Stowell's Hybrid and Ohio Gold.
(See also Subtropical, Everglades and Central Florida Stations and
Vegetable Crops and Potato Investigations Laboratories, Project 391.)

DEHYDRATION OF VEGETABLES AND FRUIT
Purnell 413 A. L. Stahl and F. S. Jamison
This project was inactive during the year. It is closed with this report.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


THE COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA-GROWN VEGETABLES AS
AFFECTED BY ENVIRONMENT
State Project 420 B. E. Janes
Cabbage, bean, collards, broccoli and carrot samples collected during
the past 3 years were analyzed for iron, manganese and nitrogen; in addi-
tion, beans were analyzed for total ash, calcium, magnesium, potassium,
sodium, phosphate and sulphate.
In previous reports on this work emphasis has been placed on the
finding that the organic composition-that is, ascorbic acid, carotene,
carbohydrates and proteins-is influenced by climatic conditions associated
with location or season to a much greater extent than by soils, fertilizer
level or variety. The mineral analyses completed during the past year
indicate that the greatest differences in mineral content are also associated
with location; however, the most important factor is the soil type or at
least the availability of the elements. For example, those vegetables grown
on Manatee fine sandy loam at Bradenton were always lower in manganese
and iron, while those grown on Marlboro fine sandy loam at Quincy were
higher in iron and manganese. The variation in iron content from location
to location was much less than the variation in manganese content.

EFFECTS OF BORON ON CERTAIN DECIDUOUS FRUITS AND NUTS
Adams Project 432 G. H. Blackmon
Blocks A and C of Stuart pecans at Gainesville received repeat appli-
cations of borax in 1946 while Blocks B and D were not retreated. Leaf
samples were collected at various dates and the boron content determined.
Trees were examined on several dates prior to September 23, 1946, and
June 30, 1947, and the percentage of leaves showing boron toxicity re-
corded. With no retreatments in 1946 the leaves contained about % or
less the amount of boron shown in those from the trees in the re-treated
plots. Leaves of re-treated trees receiving 4 pounds or more of borax
showed boron toxicity by August. Trees previously receiving 16 pounds
of borax and not re-treated developed toxicity.
Moneymaker pecan trees in a Jefferson County orchard were used for
an experiment to determine the effects of boron on leaf scorch. The experi-
ment consists of 3 materials at 3 levels in a factorial design. Borax,
sulphur and muriate of potash are used as soil applications around the
trees. Borax was applied at 0, 2 and 4 pounds per tree; sulphur at 0, 10
and 20; and muriate of potash at 0, 10 and 20 pounds per tree.
No definite results can be reported at this time but there are indications
that boron may be effective in reducing somewhat a leaf scorch and leaf
blotch that have appeared in the Monticello area. A score of the leaves
showed less scorch and blotch in the leaves on the trees where borax had
been applied than where it was omitted.
A cork-like development in the flesh of the fruit which may occur in
any part from the core outward to the peel has been observed frequently
in fruits of the Pineapple pear for several years. To determine if this
condition is due to a lack of boron, an experiment was started this spring
in a Pineapple pear orchard near Lake City. Borax was applied at 4
levels-0, %4, V2 and 1 pound per tree. Single tree plots were set up in
blocks replicated 10 times. No injury had been caused by boron in any
of the plots by June 23 and all trees were making satisfactory growth
and had a good crop of fruit.
(H. W. Winsor of the Soils Department is cooperating in this work
under Project 433.)


L








Annual Report, 1947 83

IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Bankhead-Jones Project 435 V. F. Nettles and B. E. Janes
Irrigation studies with cabbage and snap beans were continued on plots
established in 1945. Applications of irrigation water were made after
recording approximately 1 inch of evaporation of water from an open tank
48 inches in diameter and 9 inches deep. The 4 moisture treatments tested
consisted of the following approximate amounts of water being applied
for each treatment at each irrigation: (1) No water; (2) 0.5 inch of
water; (3) 1 inch of water; (4) 1 inch of water applied in 2 applications
of 0.5 inch 3 days apart. The irrigation was applied by an overhead
sprinkler irrigation system.
Cabbage-Glory of Enkhuizen-was planted as a fall crop. Irrigation
treatments were found to affect significantly the stand of cabbage with
more replants required on plots receiving no irrigation. The rainfall
was light during the earlier portion of the growing season, with heavier
rainfall near the harvest period requiring a total of 5 irrigations for the
season.
Severe cold near the season's end damaged the crop to the extent that
it would not mature and produce commercial heads. However, the cabbage
was harvested and records of weight and number of heads were secured.
Irrigation treatments were found upon analysis of data to affect signifi-
cantly the yield of cabbage. Average yields in tons of cabbage per acre
resulting from the irrigation treatments were: No water, 2.35; 0.5 inch
of water per irrigation, 5.24; 1 inch of water per irrigation, 5.77; 1 inch
of water applied in 2 applications of 0.5 inch 3 days apart, 6.77.
Plots planted to cabbage were subdivided to permit a fertilization study.
Treatments were: (A) 2,000 pounds per acre of an 8-7-5 fertilizer; (B)
1,600 pounds per acre of a 4-7-5 fertilizer plus 2 side-dressings, each com-
posed of 250 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre; (C) 1,600 pounds per
acre of a 4-7-5 fertilizer. No significant differences in cabbage yields were
found as a result of these fertilizer treatments.
A decrease in aphid population was found on plots receiving irrigation.
Two varieties of snap beans, Logan and Stringless Black Valentine,
were planted as a spring crop. Little rainfall was recorded after the first
week and 7 irrigations were made during the season with significant
effect on yield of snap beans. Average bushel yields of snap beans per
acre resulting from the irrigation treatments were: No water, 23.96;
0.5 inch of water per irrigation, 197.09; 1 inch of water per irrigation,
230.31; 1 inch of water per irrigation applied in 2 applications of 0.5 inch
3 days apart, 291.20. Logan snap beans produced more than Stringless
Black Valentine.
Dry weight, ascorbic acid and carotene contents were determined from
samples of beans grown on each irrigation treatment. The amount of
irrigation markedly affected the beans. Beans grown without supple-
mental irrigation were much smaller and contained considerably less water
than those grown under irrigation. The lower moisture content of the non-
irrigated beans resulted in a higher concentration of both carotene and
ascorbic acid. This increase in concentration, however, is not due entirely
to a drying out as is indicated by the fact that the increase due to lack
of irrigation was 26% in dry weight, 39% in ascorbic acid and 132% in
carotene, when the heavy irrigation was used as a base.
There was little difference between the 2 varieties. Logan tended to
be larger than Black Valentine and to have less dry weight and ascorbic
acid.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


CULTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF CAMELLIA AND
RELATED GENERA
State Project 452 R. J. Wilmot
Best rooting of camellia cuttings taken periodically through the sum-
mer occurred the last week in July and the first week in August. An
increase in rooting was obtained with cuttings dipped in solutions of fermate
or other suitable fungicides before they were treated with root-inducing
substances.
One hundred twelve varieties and species were added to the collection
as contributions of either plants or scions for grafting. These will be used
in a further study of characteristics in determining correct nomenclature
of varieties.
In cooperation with Dr. N. Gammon of the Soils Department it was
found that camellia plants can be grown successfully in an artificial medium
consisting of sand and ion exchange materials. Under the conditions of the
experiment, best growth was made at a pH slightly above 4.0.

MAINTAINING FRESHNESS IN VEGETABLES WITH ICE
State Project 467 R. K. Showalter
Further studies were conducted on the value of cracked ice as a means
of preserving the vitamin C, sugars, weight, color and texture of fresh
vegetables. The broccoli, cabbage, pea, green bean and sweet corn carbo-
hydrate samples collected during the spring of 1946 were analyzed for
reducing and hydrolyzable sugars and starch. These samples were taken
at intervals of 1, 3, 7 and 14 days from iced and uniced storage treatments
at temperatures of 370, 48 and 700 F.
Ice was found to be most effective in maintain the original sugar
content of sweet corn and peas. The increase in starch was more rapid
in uniced and higher temperature treatments.
Ice had little effect on the sugar composition of broccoli and green
beans. The 37 storage temperature retained a higher percentage of
sugars than the presence or absence of ice. There was very little change
in carbohydrates in cabbage.
During 1947 quantities of spinach, peas and green beans were stored
in shipping containers with and without cracked ice for periods of 1, 4
and 9 days. At the end of the storage periods each lot of vegetables was
divided into 3 portions. One portion was placed in cracked ice in a vege-
table display case, 1 in a tray at room temperature and 1 was used for
determining the vitamin C and carbohydrates.
The composition of the iced and uniced vegetables was determined
after they had been on display for 1 or 2 days. Icing proved more effec-
tive in retaining vitamin C in spinach and peas than in green beans. After
1 day in 70 storage iced spinach retained 22 percent more vitamin C
than uniced. Iced peas under similar conditions were 27 percent higher
in vitamin C. After 9 days iced storage at 450 and 2 days on display,
spinach on iced display had lost 76 percent of the original vitamin C while
the lot on uniced display lost 86 percent. After the same treatment iced
peas had lost only 11 percent as compared with 27 percent without ice.
Ice was very effective in maintaining the original color, texture and
flavor of spinach, peas, and beans. Losses in weight were always evident
in the uniced treatments while the iced lots usually increased slightly.









Annual Report, 1947


QUALITY OF VEGETABLES AS RELATED TO FERTILIZER
MATERIALS WITH EMPHASIS ON POTASH SALTS
State Project 468 R. A. Dennison, B. E. Janes and V. F. Nettles
An experiment was begun to study the influence of different sources
and amount of potassium on 3 crops-cabbage, potatoes and tomatoes.
Field plots were designed on which the following sources and amounts of
potash were used:

1. KC1 2% 4. KC1 6% 7. KC1 10%
2. KNO, 2% 5. KNO3 6% 8. KNOs 10%
3. K2SO0 2% 6. KSO. 6% 9. K2SO. 10%

Each of the 9 treatments was replicated 4 times. The fertilizer mixtures
were applied at the rate of 2,000 pounds per acre, using the above variations
of potash with 5% nitrogen and 7% phosphoric acid. Ten weeks after
planting the potato plots were side-dressed with an additional 1,000 pounds
of complete fertilizer, using the same sources and amounts of the con-
stituents as originally applied.
The cabbage crop was severely damaged by the freezing temperatures
in February which followed unseasonably warm weather of December and
January. The cabbage was harvested for yield records, but no additional
studies were made. Cabbage heads produced on plots receiving KNO3
weighed significantly more than those produced on plots receiving KC1
or K2SOa.
Potato yields were not significantly influenced by variations in fertilizer
treatments, but certain physical tests showed some differences. Specific
gravity of the tubers was determined by using brine solutions of various
concentrations. Tubers from plots receiving 2% potash had a significantly
higher specific gravity than those produced on plots receiving higher levels
of potash. Cooking quality was determined by cooking a sample of 5
potatoes from each plot in boiling water for 30 minutes, using only tubers
having the average specific gravity for the plots. These cooked potatoes
were tasted and examined for color and texture. Potatoes from plots
fertilized with 2% KC1 were lumpy and of poorer cooking quality than
tubers from plots receiving the other treatments: Samples from each plot
were stored under 2 conditions: (1) No temperature or humidity control,
and (2) 45 F. and 600 humidity. Periodic examinations for spoilage and
market quality are being made.
Highest tomato yields were obtained from plots receiving 2% potash as
compared with the 6% and 10% levels. Plots receiving KNO. produced
significantly higher yields than those treated with KC1 or KiS04. Fruit
from each harvest were stored at room temperature and examined
periodically. Any significant differences which might have resulted from
the various fertilizer treatments were masked by the occurrence of
spoilage as a result of insect and disease injury which were in no way
related to the treatment. A portion of the fruit from 2 harvests was
analyzed for titratable acidity and soluble solids. No significant differ-
ences were observed in either of these constituents.
A very marked difference was observed in the vegetative condition of
both potatoes and tomatoes. Twelve weeks after the potatoes were planted
all leaves on plants of the KC1 plots began showing a definite chlorotic
condition. Color difference between plots continued to be very noticeable
until the plants started to become senescent. Five weeks after the tomatoes
were set leaves of plants in the KC1 plots showed a chlorotic condition or








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


a slightly yellow cast. However, in the case of tomatoes this difference
in color was noticeable for a period of only 3 weeks.

FREEZING PRESERVATION OF CERTAIN FLORIDA-GROWN
VEGETABLES
State Project 473 R. A. Dennison and A. L. Stahl
Testing of varieties of green beans, sweet corn and peas for adapt-
ability to preservation by freezing has been continued. The quality of the
frozen produce was determined largely on the basis of taste or flavor,
texture and color.
Green bean varieties which appear most favorable for freezing are
B1763, B1755, B1586, Z1, Z13, and Z18. Varieties Z1, Z13, and Z18 do not
have a good color after freezing, but do have a good taste and texture.
Bountiful, Black Valentine, B1625 and B1746 have been graded lowest for
freezing quality.
Sweet corn varieties loana, Golden Cross Bantam, and Oto gave the
best frozen product. Erie and Golden Grain did not seem to be favorable
for freezing.
Only a preliminary check has been made of the freezing quality of the
peas, but Little Marvel appeared to be superior to other varieties.
Various blanching methods for frozen corn-on-the-cob were tried in
an effort to find a means of preventing the common defect of cob flavor.
The cob flavor develops due to insufficient scalding to inactivate all the
enzymes in the cob tissue. However, frequently when corn-on-the-cob is
blanched sufficiently long to prevent development of the cob flavor the
kernels present a cooked taste and the texture is tough and soggy.
Various packaging methods were compared. A liquid pack using 2
percent brine was found to be a very good protection against oxidation
and dehydration of the frozen product as compared with the dry pack.

CONSUMER PACKAGING OF FLORIDA VEGETABLES
State Project 474 R. K. Showalter and A. L. Stahl
Laboratory investigations were started during the year on the basic
materials and methods of vegetable consumer packaging. In November,
1946, green beans were packaged in 13 different transparent films. Com-
parisons were made between washed and unwashed beans, sealed and un-
sealed packages, and storage at 42* and 70 F. The beans remained
salable 5 to 7 days at 70 and 12 to 16 days at 42* F.
Spinach was packaged in 16 different films, including various types
of pliofilm, vinylite, lumarith and cellophane. The spinach was graded,
washed and centrifuged dry before packaging and storing at 45" and 70.
At intervals of 3, 5, 8 and 14 days the spinach was evaluated for color
changes, wilting and spoilage. At the same time the packages were
weighed and evaluated for condensed moisture and general appearance.
After 14 days at 450 a few of the packages were still salable.
Twelve kinds of film were evaluated for packaging lettuce. The heads
were washed, dried and individually wrapped. Deterioration was rapid
at 70* and most heads were unsalable after 4 days. At 45* the lettuce
remained in good condition for 6 to 7 days but with considerable variation
in quality among the individual heads in the same kind of package. Future
investigation will be carried under 483 and this project is closed with this
report.








Annual Report, 1947


EFFECT OF SOIL FUMIGANTS ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF
VEGETABLES
Bankhead-Jones Project 475 V. F. Nettles
Investigations of the effect of several soil fumigants on yield and quality
of squash, strawberries, peas, cucumbers and watermelons were made.
Squash was planted in the fall to test the possible residual effect from
uramon, larvacide and dowfume W-10. These soil fumigants had been
applied 7 months earlier to rows in replicated plots being planted to
cucumbers. Yield of squash was not influenced by the fumigation treat-
ments and infestation of the squash root by nematodes was not affected
by any residual from the treatments.
Results from separate tests with peas and strawberries grown on
replicated plots treated individually with uramon, larvacide, DD and
dowfume W-10 show no significant differences in yield. The fumigants
were applied to the entire individual plot area. Upon examination of the
roots of both crops at termination of harvesting, no evidence of nematode
infestation was found. During the tests with peas, weed counts indicate
that larvacide and DD greatly reduced the stand of nut grass.
Cucumbers were planted in the spring on the same nematode-infested
area used in the 1946 soil fumigation experiment with cucumbers. Two
weeks prior to planting, larvacide, dowfume W-10 and DD were applied
individually to the randomized plots by making injections of the fumigants
only to the area to be occupied by the seed row. Larvacide and dowfume
W-10 were applied at the rate of 2% cc. per linear foot of seed row,
DD at the rate of 3 cc.
The plots were further divided into split plots for the study of fertil-
ization and the use of hotcaps. Half of each plot received 1,400 pounds
of a 4-7-5 fertilizer plus additional nitrogen as a side-dressing to make
it equivalent to the 8-7-5 fertilizer. Half of each fertilizer treatment had
hotcaps placed over the seed at planting and the remaining half was left
uncovered.
The stand of cucumbers was influenced by fumigation treatment with a
larger number of plants being found on plots receiving no treatment.
Unlike the similar experiment reported in 1946, no significant increases in
yield of cucumbers were secured by the use of the several soil fumigants
or by the use of hotcaps. A significant increase in yield of cucumbers
resulted on plots fertilized with a 4-7-5 fertilizer plus additional nitrogen
as a side-dressing.
Examination of the roots showed medium to heavy nematode infestation
on plots not fumigated and little to light infestation on plots treated with
any of the fumigants.
Hill applications of larvacide, dowfume W-10 and DD gave no significant
increase in yield of watermelons in a test conducted near Williston. In
this test the plots were divided and copper sulphate was broadcast to half
of each plot at the rate of 50 pounds per acre. No benefits from the use
of copper were found.
No variation in quality of vegetables was observed due to soil fumi-
ation treatment.
DEHYDRATION AND UTILIZATION OF VEGETABLE BY-PRODUCTS
AS DAIRY AND POULTRY FEEDS
State Project 478 R. A. Dennison, N. R. Mehrhof, R. B. Becker,
G. K. Davis and E. L.-Fouts
A study of the possible use of dehydrated vegetable ,,y-products for
livestock feeds has been continued. Vines of green beans grown on peat








88 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

soil were harvested after beans were picked and dehydrated in a rotary
open-flame dehydrator at Canal Point and shipped to Gainesville.' Celery
tops were dehydrated in a similar dehydrator at Sarasota.6 The Poultry
Laboratory conducted poultry feeding trials with the dehydrated bean vines
and celery tops. Small quantities of celery tops, cabbage and broccoli
were dehydrated using various methods by a commercial firm at Tampa.'
The influence of dehydration method on the chemical composition of these
materials was determined.
Cabbage and celery tops were dehydrated on a 600 size Vincent vacuo
dehydrator. Three different dehydrated products of each were prepared:
(1) Dehydration of the cabbage or chopped celery, (2) pressing the
materials before dehydration to prepare cabbage or celery top press cake,
(3) concentrating the press waters, adding the concentrate back to the
press cake and drying the whole. Dehydration of the whole material
without pressing gave the best quality product. Pressing the materials
removed a large percentage of the carotene and caused some loss in protein,
ash and phosphorus contents. When the press water concentrate was
added back to the pressed material none of the removed constituents were
completely recovered;
Dehydrated vegetable meals lose carotene in storage due to oxidation.
Experiments are being conducted using several types of containers and
conditions of storage in an effort to reduce the loss of carotene by
oxidation.
(See Animal Industry, Project 478.)

CONSUMER PACKAGING OF VEGETABLES AT THE
SHIPPING POINT
Purnell Project 483 R. K. Showalter, A. H. Spurlock and A. L. Stahl
In cooperation with the Department of Agricultural Economics, pre-
liminary data have been obtained on the feasibility and economy of pack-
aging sweet corn in consumer type packages by growers at Ruskin and
Lake City.
At Ruskin, 2 types of consumer packages were studied in comparison
with the 2 types of bulk or conventional shipping containers. The un-
husked corn packed in bags and boxes was refrigerated and shipped out of
the State. The prepackaged corn was sold within the State because the
over-all cardboard containers used could not be adequately refrigerated for
shipment to Northern markets.
During the 4 weeks' harvesting period about 80,000 consumer packages
of husked, precooled and cleaned sweet corn were retailed in Tampa,
Jacksonville and Miami. Many ears that were U. S. No. 1 grade in every
respect except length were cut by a machine to a uniform length in order
to fit 1 of the 2 package types. One type was a grower brand-named
tray which held 7 ears cut to a length of 3% inches. The corn and tray
were overwrapped with cellophane and sealed by an automatic packaging
machine. The other type of package was a pliofilm window box closed by
hand, which accommodated 3 ears reduced to a length of 5 inches. Both
of these packages were packed in dozen lots in ventilated cardboard boxes
and hauled by truck to the grocery warehouses. The trucks were refriger-
ated by a layer of snow ice on the floor, but this did not have sufficient
cooling power, even during the night when all the deliveries were made.
Thermograph records showed a rise in temperature of 2 to 10 degrees
SThanks are due Newport Industries, Inc.; Silva Products, Inc., and Dan Vincent, Inc.,
who dehydrated the various products that were studied in conducting these experiments.








Annual Report, 1947


inside the master cartons located near the top of the load during a 7-hour
trip.
At Lake City a small amount of sweet corn was husked and packaged
in pliofilm as individual ears. These were cooled in snow ice, delivered
to local grocery stores and sold from iced display cases.
Consumer acceptance and quality of prepackaged corn were studied
in various groceries of cities where it was marketed. Housewives readily
accepted the new packages, but showed a decided preference for those
with the highest degree of visibility. The window boxes were not sold as
rapidly because the ends of the ears could not be seen.
Storage life of the corn was found to vary with storage temperature
and stage of maturity at time of harvest. Many ears harvested at the
correct time were still in excellent condition after 2 weeks when held at
temperatures below 38 F. In contrast, 1 day without refrigeration was
enough to destroy the sweet taste by allowing the conversion of sugars
to starch, and in some cases to produce souring.
Since prepackaged corn and corn packed in the usual way were not
marketed at the same place, comparisons of prices and of net returns for
equivalent amounts are not quite valid. Costs for packages, packing
materials and direct labor for packing were about 2 times as much for
the most desirable type of consumer package as for packing % bushel
bags when an equivalent amount of corn is packed both ways.
Two factors tend to offset the higher costs of prepackaging sweet corn:
(1) The inclusion of shorter ears which are of good quality but not long
enough to pack the regular way. They can be cut down to a uniform
length and packaged, whereas previously they were a loss. (2) Lower
precooling, transportation and refrigeration costs. While prepackaged
corn must have good refrigeration, the packed weight is reduced by about
50% and the precooling is much more rapid after the insulating husk
is removed.
STRAWBERRY VARIETY TRIALS
State Project 499 B. E. Janes
Preliminary trials with strawberry varieties in 1946 indicated that
several varieties which had not been tried previously in this area showed
promise of having some importance in Florida. Plants of the following
varieties were grown during the summer and planted in replicated plots
during the past season: Klonmore, Tennessee No. 48-18, Missionary,
Louisiana-37, Konvoy, Fairfax, Klondike, Dorsett, Louisiana-11, Louisiana-
39, Massey, North Carolina 1039, North Carolina 1942, Tennessee-39 short,
Tennessee-109-7, and Tennessee Sport. Due to a number of unfavorable
conditions, many of the plants were lost and no accurate yield records were
obtained. Information on plant production, time of fruit setting and quality
of fruit indicate that Missionary is still 1 of the best berries as far as
production is concerned. Several other berries are superior in quality.
The climatic adaptability of Klonmore is about equal to that of Mis-
sionary and it produces higher quality fruit. Klonmore is somewhat later
bearing than Missionary. The 2 unnamed strains obtained from North
Carolina showed considerable promise and will be tested further. Both
were good plant producers, were relatively free of leaf spot and produced
fruit of high quality.
(See Strawberry Laboratory, Project 499.)
MISCELLANEOUS
Quality Testing of New Potato Strains.-A quality study was made of
the potatoes harvested from the blight-resistant potato trials reported








90 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

in Project 282. Samples were obtained from both the Horticultural plots
at Gainesville and the plots of the Potato Laboratory at Hastings.
The specific gravity was determined by using 50 potatoes of each strain
and taking the average of the lot. The percent dry weight of the potatoes
was determined and there was found to be a close correlation between
specific gravity and percent dry weight. Taste tests were made using
potatoes which had the average specific gravity for the group. Samples
of the potatoes were stored under 2 conditions, room temperature and
45 F. These stored potatoes are being examined periodically for any
differences in keeping qualities. (R. K. Showalter and R. A. Dennison.

U. S. FIELD LABORATORY FOR TUNG INVESTIGATIONS'
F. S. Lagasse, Senior Pomologist in Charge
Greatly increased growth of young tung trees resulted again this
season when competition with weeds and grasses was eliminated by either
frequent hoeing or the application of 10 to 15 pounds of dried mulch
about each tree. At Hague, Florida, frequently cultivated trees averaged
265 inches in total growth while the infrequently cultivated averaged only
47 inches. The beneficial effects of cultivation were due primarily to
keeping the area free of weeds in the spring months, as little or no stirring
of the soil gave the same response as moderate or deep stirring. Beneficial
effects of cultivation after June 15 were not significant, even though
considerable weed growth occurred on the uncultivated plots.
The stand of tung trees in the nursery in the past has been so dependent
upon spring moisture and temperature conditions that it has varied greatly
from year to year. As a result of several years' work on the problem, a
good stand of nursery trees can now be assured each year. The procedure
consists of storing the seed or nuts in moist wood shavings at 45* F.
for about a month just previous to planting in March or April. The seed
is then placed in a bag that is kept moist and warm (70' to 80 F.) for
3 or 4 days and then planted. The more rapid germination, 3 to 4 weeks
as compared to 8 weeks for the untreated seed, plus greater uniformity
of emergence of seedlings permits much better weed control and less hand
labor is required. Additional trials are now in progress.
Since previous work had clearly demonstrated the importance of the
protein relationship in copper deficiency, the project was continued with
an investigation of the leaf proteins of tung as related to copper nutrition.
An experiment now in its fourth year wherein 2 pounds of 62 percent
manganese sulphate has been applied to each of a number of trees origin-
ally showing leaf s~yiiptoms of manganese deficiency has failed to increase
the yield of sucheltrees over comparable untreated trees, even though the
leaf symptoms have now been corrected on treated trees but are still
apparent on untreated trees.
Soil samples were collected from fertilizer plots on Red Bay fine sandy
loam soil in 1942 and again in 1946 after 4 years of treatment with different
amounts and sources of potassium fertilizers. The application of 1.32
pounds of K0O-as either KC1 or K.SO4-over a 4-year period more than
doubled the exchangeable potassium in the 0-6 and 12-18 inch layers which
originally averaged about 0.11 m.e. per 100 gm. of soil. It more than
tripled it in the 6 to 12-inch layer. There was no effect on the lower layer.

7The research work of the staff of the U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations,
financed by Federal funds, is carried out cooperatively between the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture and the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.








Annual Report, 1947


The application of half the amount of K20 had roughly about half the
effect in increasing the exchangeable potassium of the 0-6 and 6-12 inch
layers but had no effect on the 12-18 inch layers. Vetch mulch applied in
the spring and carrying an equivalent of 0.66 pounds of K20 each year
did not increase the exchangeable potassium content of the soil but the
Crotalaria mulch applied in the fall and carrying the same amount of
K=0 about doubled the exchangeable potassium in the 6-12 inch layer and
increased it some in the 12-18 inch layer, but did not affect the surface
6 inches.
In a fertilizer and varietal study budded 5-year-old trees of F99 re-
ceiving a complete high level fertilizer (10 pounds of 5-2-8 per tree) plus
1.15 pounds of calcium per tree had an average yield of 35.6 pounds of
air-dry fruit, as compared to 11.5 pounds per tree for the selection L-8.
In the plots receiving calcium the average yield per tree of the low-level
(2.5 pounds of 5-2-8 per tree) plots was 26.2 pounds for F99 and 9.4 for
L8; high N low PK 22.3 for F99, 8.8 for L8; high P low NK 23.4 for F99
and 7.8 for L8; high K low NP 26.3 for F99 and 18.2 for L8. The same
holds true for the plots not receiving the calcium.
Results of a study comparing winter and spring applications of am-
monium nitrate to tung trees during the past season showed, even in a
rather sandy soil, that the tung trees were able to utilize nitrogen applied
in December or January just as effectively as that applied at the conven-
tional time from mid-February to mid-March. This evidence supports
that previously reported in that no undue risk is being taken by applying
the fertilizer in December and January. However, no increases in growth
were noted as compared to later application. This experiment was on a
rather limited scale, however, and more extensive tests have been set up
to obtain further evidence on early winter fertilization.
It has been difficult in many instances to distinguish between the leaf
symptoms of potassium and magnesium deficiencies. Because of the need
for a rapid and inexpensive method of differentiating between the 2 de-
ficiencies, the quick tests recommended by Morgan were adapted for use
on tung leaf petioles and found to be satisfactory. The principle of the
method is as follows: The upper 1/ (and nearest the leaf blade) of the
petioles is cut into pieces not more than 3 mm. long. One teaspoonful of
the material is shaken for about 2 minutes with 10 ml. of Morgan's Uni-
versal extracting solution after the addition of a pinch of decolorizing
carbon. The suspension is filtered into a vial and the extract is tested for
potassium and magnesium, using the reagents recommended by Morgan.
Samples from a number of orchards located on widely different soil types
where the nutritional conditions were known were tested by the quick tests
and the leaf blades of the same samples were analyzed quantitatively for
potassium and magnesium. The correlation coefficients far exceeded the
0.01 level of significance.
Studies on the storage of tung nuts (hulled fruit) showed that while
nuts with intact shells could be stored safely under conditions of relatively
high (20 percent) moisture content in sacks stacked in well ventilated
piles, any nuts with exposed kernels would deteriorate rapidly, presumably
by infection with microorganisms. When the moisture content of the
nuts had been reduced to about 5 percent water in the kernel, by either
heat or natural drying provided by good ventilation, the storage of such
material was very satisfactory.
(F. S. Lagasse, Senior Pomologist; M. Drosdoff, Soil Technologist; S. G.
Gilbert, Associate Plant Physiologist; E. G. Fisher, Junior Pomologist;
D. C. Nearpass, Junior Chemist.)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


PLANT PATHOLOGY
Miscellaneous observations were made on several plant diseases and
many isolations were made from diseased plants. In some cases inocula-
tions were required with organisms obtained to determine cause of the
trouble so recommendations for control could be made.
Late blight of tomato again appeared in the fall crop in southern
Florida and caused considerable damage where no control measures were
employed. Where dithane plus zinc and lime or some of the copper-
containing fungicides were used according to recommendations the disease
was controlled successfully. Freezing weather in .February killed about
all potato and tomato plants. After this, late blight appeared on the
spring crop of tomatoes in some localities but never became a serious
threat. It is assumed that the dry, warm weather in April and May was
the controlling factor. Late blight was not observed in the Gainesville
area until late in May after a rainy period of several days' duration.
It spread over experimental plantings of tomato on the Station farm, even
though the daily mean temperatures were comparatively high.

COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF SPECIMENS OF
FLORIDA PLANTS
State Project 259 Erdman West and Lillian E. Arnold
The following table is a resume of the additions made during the past
year and shows the total number of specimens on file in each group of
the permanent collections in the herbarium.
Group Accessions 1947 Totals
Spermatophytes ....................- ............. 1,748 46,287
Pteridophytes .. .........................-......... 167 3,163
Bryophytes ...................-..........-......... 72 7,795
Thallophytes ........................ .............. 189 41,001
Seed Collections ................-- .......----.-- 31 2,111

2,207 100,357

In addition, 45 sheets representing replications of single collections of
spermatophytes and 9 sheets of pteridophytes were removed and the acces-
sion numbers placed or recent and more desirable specimens.
Gift and exchange specimens received included 72 packets of basidiomy-
cetes, 22 packets of Cladoniae, 176 specimens of ferns and 1,358 specimens
of phanerogams, of which 527 were specimens of Florida plants and 831
were from out of State. Outstanding among these are the 22 packets of
Cladoniae presented by Alexander W. Evans of Yale, 30 sheets of phanero-
gams from the Southern Appalachian Botanical Club, 171 specimens of
Georgia plants, and 411 specimens of the plants of Indiana. Florida
material sent out on an exchange basis numbered 535 specimens.
During the year 245 specimens of wood blocks of the trees of the
United States have been received from the New York State School of
Forestry under their Project I. Herbarium specimens and a log of Ilex
cornuta Lindl. were seat in continuation of the cooperative arrangement.
The book, The Native Trees of Florida, was published by the University
of Florida Press. Over 50 drawings of native shrubs and woody vines
have been made by Esther Coogle.
From Bradford County a second record of Cyperus metzi (Hochst.)
Matt. & Kukenth. was made for the State and the second collection of








Annual Report, 1947


Eragrostis unioloides (Retz) Nees was obtained. The first Florida speci-
mens of Quercus phellos L. and Carya cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch. were
added, courtesy L. T. Nieland, who found them in Jackson County.
The entire collections of the following genera have been sent for study
and annotation by their respective specialists: Fimbristylis to H. K. Sven-
son, Asclepias to R. E. Woodson, Jr., and Potomogeton to E. C. Ogden.
Studies of the first 2 have been completed and the material returned.
Last year's loans of Liatris to L. O. Gaiser and Desmodium to Bernice G.
Schubert have been returned properly annotated. Selected species of Sida
were sent to the Gray Herbarium. In February 294 specimens of the
permanent collection of Panicum were sent to Jason R. Swallen for veri-
fication. On several occasions small loans of selected species of Cladonia
have been made to Alexander W. Evans.
Demonstrations on the use and value of the herbarium were made to
classes in agronomy and taxonomy, and many individual students in den-
drology consulted with the staff.
Requested identifications numbered 652 specimens of fungi and plant
diseases, and 1,775 specimens of higher plants.

HOST RELATIONS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE GROWTH
AND PARASITISM OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSI Sacc.
Adams Project 269 Erdman West
Observations on the perfect stage of the fungus were continued during
the summer of 1946. Additional spore measurements were made to com-
plete the description of the basidial stage. A description of the perfect
stage and the disease caused by the fungus on climbing fig (Ficus pumila
L.) were published in Phytopathology 37: 67-69. 1947. This project is
being discontinued with this report.

DAMPING-OFF OF VEGETABLE SEEDLINGS
Adams Project 281 W. B. Tisdale
Further greenhouse studies of the effects of organic matter on damping-
off of cabbage and lettuce seedlings and the antagonism of Trichoderma
to Rhizoctonia confirmed most of the results obtained in 1946. The addition
of green vegetation to soil infested with Rhizoctonia 2 weeks before seed
were planted again caused a statistically significant reduction in emer-
gence. Although there was some indication of antagonism of Trichoderma
toward Rhizoctonia, the differences were not statistically significant. At
the end of 28 days the plants in soil without the additional organic matter
were larger than the ones in soil containing the organic matter. Chemical
analyses of the plants and soil did not show enough differences to account
for the differences in size of plants. Condition of the roots also gave
no clue to the cause.
In 1 test the emergence of cabbage and lettuce was very low and
uneven, and emergence from seed treated with several materials was all
lower than from non-treated seed. The cause for this was not determined.
The seed were not killed, since they germinated when removed from the
soil and planted on moist paper in petri .dihes. In outdoor plots the
addition of green organic matter to the soil 14 days before planting
caused a significant decrease in emergence of cabbage and lettuce, especially
with cabbage. Lettuce seed treated with arasan at a dosage of 0.25 per-
cent also gave a lower percentage emergence than non-treated seed.
Fordhook Lima Beans.-Addition of green organic matter to the soil
14 days before planting the seed caused no significant difference in emer-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


gence of Fordhook lima beans. However, plants in soil containing additional
organic matter emerged with seed coats adhering to the cotyledons due
to the presence of Rhi:zoctonia mycelium. The fungus had attacked the
embryo and killed or caused a ragged condition of the primary leaves of
many plants. These plants grew more slowly, and after 41 days stem
lesions at about the soil level were deeper than the ones on plants in soil
without additional orgaric matter.
Peanuts.-In a seed treatment test with machine-shelled Florida Runner
peanuts arasan at a dosage of 0.125 percent gave a 28 percent increase
in germination. Spergcn at a dosage of 0.20 percent ranked second with
an increase of 24 percent. Dow 9B, a zinc salt of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, at
dosages of 0.125 and 0.25 percent gave increases of 18 and 15 percent,
respectively; G-4 (2,2'-dihydroxy-5,5'-dichloro diphenyl methane) at a
dosage of 0.20 percent gave a 10 percent increase, not statistically significant.
(See Project 281, CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION.)

PHOMOPSIS BLIGHT AND FRUIT ROT OF EGGPLANT
Adams Project 344 Phares Decker
The breeding of eggplants in an attempt to produce a phomopsis-
resistant or an immune commercial variety has been continued.
Seed from crosses of hybrids by hybrids and from selfed hybrids were
saved from the spring crop of 1946. The spring season of 1946 was
favorable for the development of phomopsis blight, yet certain hybrid
lines remained free of the disease, making it possible to use only seed
from disease-free plants for further propagation.
A fall crop of 75 of these and other hybrids was grown in field for
yield records in comparison with standard commercial varieties. The
season was favorable for the development of both phomopsis and eggplant.
The season was unusual in that the plant went through until February,
1947, before being killed by frost. Yield of all standard varieties was
affected by phomopsis which showed as "tip-over" of the plant, stem
cankers, leaf spots and fruit rot. On the other hand, certain families
remained free of the disease. Twenty hybrid lines produced from 4 to 6
times more marketable fruits than any standard varieties. However, a
number of hybrids were eliminated because of poor type plant, poor
shape of fruit or poor color of fruit. Ten hybrid lines were selected for
further study and increase in both a spring and fall crop in 1947.
Selections of individual plants from this crop will serve as the founda-
tion seed for a new variety that will be released to growers for trial.
All breeding stocks are being maintained to insure an adequate program.

CAMELLIA DISEASES
Adams Project 455 Erdman West
A total of 66 specimens of camellia troubles were received in correspond-
ence. One-third of these specimens represented physiogenic disturbance,
such as oedema, sunburning, bud-drop and unfavorable soil conditions.
Nearly half the specimens were of dieback. Most of this was on Camellia
japonica L., but a small amount affected C. sasanqua Thunb. and C.
saluenensis Stapf. The warm mid-winter followed by late freezing tem-
peratures caused considerable injury to flowers and new growth.
Isolations made from 285 specimens of dieback during the year yielded
cultures of Gloeosporium sp., Diplodia sp. and Phomopsis sp. Gloeosporium
sp. has been most common in cultures made this spring and Phomopsis sp.








Annual Report, 1947


rather rare. Cultures from petals of frozen flowers yielded Gleosporium
sp. and molds, and from receptacles of such flowers Diplodia sp. and molds.
Inoculations with pure cultures of Gloeosporium sp., Diplodia sp. and
Phomopsis sp., without wounding, gave negative results.
Leaf gall (Exobasidium camelliae Shirai) has been found several times
on Camellia sasanqua and 1 specimen on C. japonica was received from
a neighboring Southern state.
Other important troubles received or observed this year include damp-
ing-off of cuttings by Rhizoctonia sp., algal leaf spot (Cephaleuros vires-
cens Kze.) and crown gall (Agrobacterium tumiefaciens (E. F. Sm. &
Town.) Conn.).

LUPINE INVESTIGATIONS

State Project 463 Phares Decker and R. C. Bond
Studies of the diseases of lupine and of agronomic practices best suited
for the production of blue lupine have been conducted in cooperation with
the North Florida Station and the Agronomy Department.
Little improvement in stands of blue lupine has been obtained by the
use of chemical seed treatments, so that an extensive experiment designed
to improve the stand of lupine was conducted at the North Florida Station.
Various methods of preparing the seedbed, rates and dates of planting,
and depth of planting were studied in connection with the occurrence of
diseases and insect pests.
The search for disease-resistant plants has been continued. Many
selections made at Gainesville and Quincy were tested in the greenhouse
for resistance to Rhizoctonia and Sclerotinia. A few withstood inocula-
tion tests in the greenhouse and were transplanted to the field.
Chemical seed treatments were tested in the laboratory and field on
lots of blue lupine seed with low viability. Results of these studies indicate
that a number of chemicals may increase the germination in laboratory
tests, but under field conditions they gave little or no benefit.
The failure of many seed lots to germinate well at seeding time,
although the lots had germinated well soon after harvest, prompted some
experimental investigations to gather data on the requirements for hand-
ling lupine seed. Lupine seed are harvested with a combine before they
shatter from the pods and are placed on a floor to dry or are dried by
various applications of heat. The proper moisture content of the seed
for storage is not known and there is no standard procedure of storing.
Some preliminary laboratory studies, attempting to gather information
upon the effects of varying moisture content of the seed and storage tem-
perature, indicate that both may affect viability. Laboratory tests showed
that lupine seed containing 10 percent moisture would tolerate tempera-
tures from 400 C. to 65" C. until the moisture content was reduced to 4
percent without decreasing the germination more than 15 percent. When
the moisture content was reduced below 4s percent germination dropped
rather rapidly. Increasing the moisture content from 10 percent to 20
percent and holding the seed at room temperature for 15 days did not
materially affect germination. However, after 30 days at 20 percent
moisture germination dropped to 30 percent. When the moisture content
of seed was increased from 10 to 15 percent and then reduced to 10 percent
for 3 successive times germination was not decreased by more than 10
percent. However, if seed are subjected to heat without allowing the
moisture to escape from them, they may be killed in a few hours.
Seed with high viability developed very few molds in the germinator.
However, if the seed are killed by moisture or heat alone or in combination








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


molds always develop on the seed in the germinator, indicating that the
molds develop as a result of seed injury rather than being the direct cause
of seed deterioration. With these studies as a basis, an extensive experi-
ment has been initiated, using freshly combined lupine seed to study effects
of moisture content of seed, method and extent of drying seed, and types
of storage upon the viability of seed.
Sclerotium ralfsii Sacc., a warm weather organism, caused 70 percent
loss of seedling lupine in some fields in the Gainesville area and also was
more abundant in the Quincy area than in previous years. Rhizoctonia
was present in all fields but was not serious.
The perfect stage, apothecia, of Sclerotinia was found in November
and December, 1946, in fields where the disease was present in 1945-46,
proving that the organism will over-summer in the soil. Sclerotinia has
been found in no new fields this season.
Anthracnose, caused by Glomerella cingulata (Stonem.) Spauld. and
V. Schrenk, was found on young lupine plants in the Monticello area where
it killed many plants in 1 field. This infection ceased to develop during
the cool winter months. However, it was reported from western Florida,
Milton and Marianna areas, where it was found on plants at blooming
time. Serious losses in seed crop were reported from many fields in that
area. The organism attacks stems, leaves and pods and may enter the
seed. Many seed-bearing mycelia and spores of the organism have gone
into storage. Germination tests will be made to determine its effect upon
the viability of seed in storage.
Powdery mildew, Erysiphe sp., developed on all blue lupine plants in
the Gainesville area that were not killed by the cold weather. This disease
appeared just before blooming time and caused leaf shedding and seriously
affected seed development. It was not observed in other areas.
Hylemyia lupinii (Coq.) was not found in any new areas, but was
more severe in some fields in the Quincy area where 90 percent of the
plants were damaged. Another dipterous maggot, Hylemyia cilicrura Rond,
was found in several areas feeding in the below-ground parts of the
lupine plants. The lesser corn stalk borer was common in the early fall
in the Gainesville area. Thrips were abundant on several plantings of
sweet blue lupine and appeared to reduce materially the seed crop. (See
also Project 463, North Florida Station.)

MISCELLANEOUS

WEED KILLERS
Erdman West
Following numerous requests for information on the control of nutgrass
(Cyperus rotundus L.) and reports that 2,4-D would kill nutgrass, a small
experiment was set up in April, 1947. The plots, infested with 100 or
more nutgrass plants per square foot, were treated with 2,4-D ethyl ester
and 2,4-D sodium salt at 1,000 and 2,000 parts per million, thoroughly
wetting the plants with the spray. The plots were in full sunlight; soil
dry at surface, moist inch below; temperature above 80* F.; plants
growing vigorously but no flower spikes visible. The weaker dilution
killed the foliage but very few of the nuts; the double strength killed
foliage, nuts at the base of each plant and most of the nuts attached
directly to this basal nut. Nuts farther removed were not affected. Loose
dormant nuts were unaffected. One application of double strength (2,000
p.p.m.) gave approximately 90 percent eradication in this test. (See also
Miscellaneous, Strawberry Investigations Laboratory.)








Annual Report, 1947


SOILS

Considerable progress was made in the survey of Florida soils and
in the physical, chemical and spectrographic analysis of soils identified
and classified. Cooperative field experiments in soil management were
established at the North Florida Station. Fundamental investigations
employing the nitrogen isotope of Mass 15 and radioactive phosphorus
were made with promising results. Investigation of the mineral composi-
tion of commercially grown vegetables and the soils they were grown on
was completed during the year and a manuscript prepared setting forth
results.
Research in the major and minor elements in soils devoted to pasture
and other crops was expanded during the year and cooperative investiga-
tions on the effect of various fertilization practices on growth and quality
of strawberries at the Strawberry Investigations Laboratory were estab-
lished. Further progress was made in the study of cobalt, copper,
manganese, zinc and boron in Florida soils.

INTERRELATIONSHIP OF MICROBIOLOGICAL ACTION IN SOILS
AND CROPPING SYSTEMS IN FLORIDA
State Project 328 F. B. Smith and C. E. Bell
Microbiological action in 12 virgin soil types as measured by the decom-
position of added organic matter was correlated with the native organic
matter content of these soils and was lowest in the Lakeland fine sand.
DD, chloropicrin, DDT and 2,4-D had an initial depressing effect on
nitrification in Lakeland fine sand. DDT had a stimulating effect after
21 days, but the depressing effect of DD and 2,4-D was still apparent
after 70 days. Chloropicrin was most effective in checking nitrification
and the amount of nitrification after 42 days was very small.
Copper sulphate had a slight stimulating effect on nitrification in Lake-
land fine sand for 4 weeks after application at the rate of 25 pounds per
acre, but a slight depressing effect when applied at the rate of 100 pounds
per acre.
Manganese and zinc sulphate had no apparent effect on the oxidation
of ammonium sulphate in Lakeland fine sand in applications from 10 to
400 pounds per acre.
Borax and lime stimulated nitrification in Lakeland fine sand markedly.
Initially, 20 pounds per acre of borax were more effective than 10 pounds
and borax plus limestone at the rate of 1,500 pounds per acre was more
effective than borax alone; but after 4 weeks 10 pounds of borax were
as effective as 20 pounds, and borax alone was as effective as borax
plus lime.

COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA SOILS AND OF ASSOCIATED
NATIVE VEGETATION

Purnell Project 347 F. B. Smith, L. H. Rogers,
J. R. Henderson and C. E. Bell
One hundred and ten samples of soil representing 18 soil types in
Alachua County have been analyzed and are characterized briefly as follows:
The organic matter content was highest in the surface horizon of all
soils, except in the Leon fine sands where there was an accumulation in
the B horizon. The amount of organic matter in the surface soils varied








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


between 1.18 percent in the Hernando fine sand and 8.15 percent in 1 of
the Fellowship loamy fine sands. Total nitrogen content of these soils
was closely related to the organic matter.
Total phosphorus content of Alachua County soils varied between wide
extremes of 0.01 percent in the surface of Lakeland fine sand and 0.29
percent in the surface of Arredondo loamy fine sand. The significance of
these data are apparent when one considers that the average phosphorus
content of soils in the United States is 0.10 to 0.15 percent. The Arre-
dondo, Gainesville, Fort Meade, Fellowship, Kanapaha and Jonesville soils
were above average in phosphorus in some horizon of the profile.
The base exchange capacity of these soils varied widely. The lowest
was 2.2 m.e. per 100 grams in the Lakeland fine sand and the highest was
25.6 m.e. per 100 grams for the Fellowship loamy fine sand. The Leon soils
were the most acid, pH 4.27; all other soils being less acid, mostly moder-
ately to slightly acid. One Fellowship loamy fine sand was pH 6.53.
Rough estimate spectrographic analyses of Kanapaha fine sand, Bay-
boro loamy fine sand and Orlando fine sand showed the presence of
strontium, barium, vanadium, chromium, aluminum, nickel, zirconium,
titanium, iron, manganese, copper and boron in varying amounts. Cobalt
was detected only in the subsoil of the Kanapaha fine sand.

FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH OF LEGUME BACTERIA AND
NODULE DEVELOPMENT
Bankhead-Jones Project 368 F. B. Smith, G. D. Thornton
W. W. McCall and G. B. Killinger
Cooperative work on legume inoculation was initiated with the Division
of Soil Microbiology, B.P.I.S.A.E., and 6 specially prepared cultures each
of Black Medic clover and blue lupine were tested in a field experiment
on Leon fine sand. Results show wide differences in efficiency of different
cultures. Further studies on legume inoculation included (1) the effects of
combined nitrogen on nodulation and growth of several legumes; (2) the
effect of different degrees of calcium saturation on nitrogen fixation and
utilization of combined nitrogen by sweet clover; and (3) the absorption
of nitrogen by peanut gynophores. The nitrogen isotope of Mass 15 was
employed in these experiments.

CLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING OF FLORIDA SOILS
State Project 389 F. B. Smith, J. R. Henderson,
R. E. Caldwell and J. B. Cromartie
Two changes were made during the year in the classification of Florida
soils as follows: (1) Soil types are to be named on the basis of the texture
of the surface horizon, and (2) the concept of the series has been restricted
to profiles of relatively uniform characteristics, except the texture of the
surface horizon. These changes have been applied in the final correlation
of all soils mapped since the Statewide Soil Survey was initiated in 1937
and have resulted in the recognition of several new series. For example,
soils formerly mapped as Norfolk ranged from less than 1 foot to 20
feet or more in depth of the A horizon. This is regarded as too wide
a range and separations into 2 or more series according to profile char-
acteristics will be made. The Norfolk series has been reserved for all
these soils with the proper profile characteristics.
The field work in Manatee County was completed during the year and
the report is in preparation.




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