Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal

Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00032
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1946
Frequency: annual
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00032
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
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Full Text



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JUNE 30, 1946


J. Thos. Gurney, Chairman, Orlando
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
M. L. Mershon, Miami
J. Henson Markham, Jacksonville
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee


John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Provost for Agricul-
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor8
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor3
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor3
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager3
K. H. Graham, LL.I., Business Manager3
Claranelle Alderman, Accountant3


W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist2
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associates
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant


A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist'
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman3
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist3
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husbandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.3
C. L. Comar, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
Ruth F. Taylor, A.B., Asst. Biochemist
J. C. Driggers, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Husb.


C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agri. Economist'1
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate3
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Associate5
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate

Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)

G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
J. C. Townsend Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statistician2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician2


Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist


A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist and Acting
Head of Department
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant


G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.5
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2


W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist' 3
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist


F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Chemist' 3
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
R. A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Biochemist
G. T. Sims, M.S.A., Associate Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Microbiologists
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
Wade W. McCall, B.S., Asst. Chemist

1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
In Military Service.
I On leave.



J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agron.
R. C. Bond, M.S.A., Asso. Agronomist
L. G. Thompson, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Frank D. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb.

Mobile Unit, Monticello

R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Milton

Ralph L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Marianna

R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Wewahitchka

J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist


A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
V. C. Jamison. Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. B. Redd, Ph.D., Insecticide Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
J. T. Griffiths, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, M.S., Plant Pathologist
J. E. Benedict, B.S., Horticulturist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Asso. Horticulturist5
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
J. A. Granger, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.


R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist'
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.2
W. D. Wylie, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. T. Forsee, Jr, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
Robt. C. Cassell, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
R. A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
Earl L. Felix, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
C. C. Seale, Asst. Agronomist
L. O. Payne, B.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
R. C. Ladeburg, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Russel Desrosiers, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.


Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
H. I. Borders, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Asso. Ento-
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist


Clement D. Gordon, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry
Geneticist in Charge2


W. G. Kirk, Ph.D.. Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
D. W. Jones, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
E. R. Felton, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.

R.W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
A. Alfred Foster, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
J. C. Russell, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.



G. K. Parris, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge

Plant City

A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist


A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist


S. 0. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2 '
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2


J. R. Beekenbach, Ph.D., Horticulturist in
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
A. L. Harrison, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
David G. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Robert 0. Magie, Ph.D., Hort., Glad. Inv.


Warren O. Johnson, Meteorologist2

1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 In Military Service.
6 On leave.

4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Hon. -Millard F. Caldwell,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1946.
Chairman, Board of Control

Hon. J. Thomas Gurney,
Chairman, Board of Control
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1946, and I request that you transmit the
same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
President, University of Florida

D director's R report ..................................... .-.... ............ ........ 5
Business M manager ........... ..... ........................... ... .- .......... ... 15
Editorial and M ailing ....... .... ......... ....... ............ 20
Library .............................................. ........ ............................... ................... 30
Agricultural Economics .......... .... ................................. ........ ....... 31
A gronom y ...... .... ... ...... ............................ ........ ........ 36
Animal Industry .......................... ....... ................................. 48
E ntom ology ....................... .............. ..- ..- .. ...... ...... ..... 61
Home Economics .............. ....... ..................... ................. .. ..............- 65
Horticulture ..................... ............................ 66
U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations .............................. 79
Plant Pathology .................... .............................................................. .......... 83
Soils .....................8................9..................................... 89
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory ............................................. .. 99
Watermelon and Grape Laboratory .................................. ........... 100
Potato Investigations Laboratory ............... ..................... ..... .. ...... 102
Vegetable Crops Laboratory ....................... ................... 106
Horticultural Protection Service ................................. ................. 120
Central Florida Station ....................................... 123
Range Cattle Station ............................................... ............... 126
North Florida Station ....................................... ......... 133
C itrus Station ................... .................. .......................................................... 147
SEverglades Station ........................................ 167
Sub-Tropical Station ................................ ....... ............ 192
W est Central Florida Station ........................................................... .............. 206

Annual Report, 1946 5


JUNE 30, 1946

Dr. John J. Tigert, President
University of Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the work and
investigations of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, together
with the reports of the heads of the several departments and branch
stations, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1946.
Florida's agriculture has made tremendous strides during the past
decade. The progress is demonstrated by the production data of the USDA
Bureau of Agricultural Economics and of the Florida State Marketing
Bureau's Annual Fruit and Vegetable Report, 1945-46 Season, for fruits
and vegetables during the past 13 years as follows:
Season Carloads
1933-34 ....................... ... ........... .... 139,451
34-35 .-----........ ....--...... ---........ .. 140,171
35-36 ..........-- .... ...... ............ 127,181
36-37 ---........ ..-.-. .....-- .... ............. 162,945
37-38 ........... ..... .. .......................... 186,094
38-39 .-.......... ......... ....-....- ... ... -- 220,975
39-40 ............... .................- ...... 184,563
1940-41 .......-.......--..------ .....---- --- .... -- 209,389
41-42 ......- --............................... ......... 200,308
42-43 .......... ........... ..... .............. 224,554
43-44 .........-.. .... ............ ..... ........... 261,197
44-45 ................... ................... 237,912
45-46 ................... ................... ...... .. 286,427

It is estimated that the gross income from agriculture in Florida during
the 1945-46 season amounted to fully $491,249,000. The above data evidence
the thoroughgoing research and its consistent application which have made
such production possible. Two decades ago vegetable and cane production
in the Everglades was making very slow progress because of a lack of
information on the use of copper, manganese, zinc and other minor elements.
Agricultural Experiment Station research yielded the needed facts for
tremendous production in that area. Ten years ago citrus production was
facing serious problems; these likewise were solved largely through exten-
sive investigations on soils and on the use of minor elements. There have
been numerous similar developments in agricultural production in Florida-
in pastures, farm, forage, fruit, nut and vegetable crops.
New varieties, better cultural and management practices, improved
nutritional programs, and newer procedures in pest control are constantly
being developed and tested. Post-war conditions emphasize the need of
improvement and maintenance of better quality of the farm products which
reach the consumer. This demands extensive and additional research on

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

varieties, cultural practices, harvesting, processing, packaging, transporta-
tion and marketing methods. It demands a better understanding of the
various soils and their management. Higher yields and better grading
result in more by-products, many of which investigations prove to be valu-
able. Research is in progress to develop methods for more effective
utilization of these materials.
Progress with livestock can go forward only as fast as progress is made
in supplying feeds for such stock. It has been estimated that in no State
have the quantity and quality of cattle improved faster than in Florida
during the last decade; her rank in the United States is now 16 in number
of range or beef cattle, 36 in dairying, 27 in total cattle, and 27 in swine.
With continuing progress resulting from present and expanded research
with feeds, pastures and livestock, Florida should shortly still further
improve her position in the production of animal and poultry products.
For further progress, and particularly under immediate post-war con-
ditions, information to growers on production costs and efficient marketing
methods, on better farm home conditions, on better nutrition for farm
people is most necessary and these phases are not being neglected. Station
workers are cooperating closely with the U. S. Department of Agriculture
and other agencies on such investigations.
In every phase of agriculture research is basic and fundamental to ad-
vancement. That it pays dividends is demonstrated by the progress made
and as indicated by data given above. During the year research by the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations throughout Florida was con-
ducted under 190 projects at the Main Station, 7 branch Stations and 5
field laboratories. Some of this work was conducted cooperatively with
various divisions of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and other States
or Federal and private agencies. Brief summaries of investigations under
the various projects are given on the following pages.


General expansion in several lines of research was provided through
increased State appropriations. 'This made possible the completion of a
packinghouse and the construction of a canning and by-products plant at
the Citrus Station; a small poultry disease laboratory and a vegetable
processing laboratory at the Main Station, both still to be constructed,
are authorized, and a laboratory is now under construction at the Ever-
glades Station for decortication and other investigations of ramie and other
plant fibers and fiber plants.
The Board of County Commissioners of Lake County deeded 105 acres
for research at the Watermelon Investigations Laboratory. One tract, con-
sisting of 480 acres, was purchased for use at the Main Station for addi-
tional farm crops, pasture and livestock research. A 28-acre farm was
donated by Seminole County and interested individuals for experimental
work on vegetables in that area.

F. S. Baker, Jr., Asst. An. Hus., North Florida Station, January 1, 1946.
H. C. Beard, Asst. Biochemist, Citrus Station, January 21, 1946.
James E. Benedict, Horticulturist, Equipment Specialist, Citrus Station,
April 25, 1946.
R. C. Cassell, Asso. Pant Path., Everglades Station, October 1, 1945.
Raymond A. Dennison, Asso. Hort., Main Station, January 1, 1946.

Annual Report, 1946

Russell Desrosiers, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, November
26, 1945.
J. C. Driggers, Asst. Poultry Hus., Main Station, October 1, 1945.
Ernest P. DuCharme, Plant Path., Citrus Station, February 1, 1946.
T. C. Erwin, Asst. Chemist., Everglades Station, December 16, 1945.
Eugene R. Felton, Asst. An. Hus., Range Cattle Station, January 1, 1946.
A. A. Foster, Asso. Hort., Central Florida Station, December 1, 1945.
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Soils Chem., Main Station, January 14, 1946.
J. A. Granger, Asst. Hort., Citrus Station, January 21, 1946.
W. J. Greene, Asst. An. Hus., Main Station, January 1, 1946.
James T. Griffiths, Entomologist, Citrus Station, January 28, 1946.
Roy W. Harkness, Asst. Chem., Sub-Tropical Station, February 16, 1946.
David W. Jones, Asst. An. Hus., Range Cattle Station, January 15, 1946.
R. C. Ladeburg, Asst. Hort., Everglades Station, March 23, 1946.
Wade W. McCall, Asst. Chemist, Main Station, February 1, 1946.
R. O. Magie, Hort., Vegetable Crops Laboratory, October 1, 1945.
L. O. Payne, Asst. Agronomist, Citrus Station, January 15, 1946.
Arthur J. Pratt, Asst. Hort., Vegetable Crops Laboratory, November 19,
J. B. Redd, Insecticide Chem., Citrus Station, July 1, 1945.
Herman J. Reitz, Asso. Plant Physiologist, Citrus Station, March 25, 1946.
G. Norman Rose, Asso. Ag. Econ., Main Station, November 1, 1945.
R. W. Ruprecht, Vice-Director in Charge, Central Florida Station, March
4, 1946, formerly Chemist in Charge.
C. C. Seale, Asst. Agron., Everglades Station, November 9, 1945.
R. K. Showalter, Asso. Hort., Main Station, December 24, 1945.
L. G. Thompson, Soils Chem., Main Station, July 1, 1945; transferred to
North Florida Station, June 1, 1946.
A. N. Tissot, appointed from Entomologist to Acting Head of Department,
Main Station, June 8, 1946.
B. F. Whitner, Jr., Asst. Hort., Central Florida Station, October 1, 1945.
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Asso. Entomologist, Sub-Tropical Station, December
5, 1945.
W. D. Wylie, Entomologist, Everglades Station, December 1, 1945.


F. S. Andrews, Asso. Truck Horticulturist, Everglades Station, March 1,
H. C. Beard, Asst. Biochemist, Citrus Station, June 1, 1946.
R. W. Bledsoe, Asso. Agron., Main Station, December 6, 1945.
T. R. Freeman, Asso. in Dairy Manufacturing, Main Station, February 28,
W. J. Greene, Asst. An. Husbandman, Main Station, March 11, 1946.
W. W. Lawless, Asst. Hort., Citrus Station, February 28, 1946.
Sidney P. Marshall, Asst. An. Hus., Main Station, October 1, 1945.
O. C. Olson, Asst. Soil Surveyor, Main Station, June 11, 1946.
Arthur J. Pratt, Asst. Hort., Vegetable Crops Laboratory, May 1, 1946.
Calvin B. Reeves, Asst. Dairy Technologist, Main Station, August 15, 1945.
C. L. Serrano, Asst. Chemist, Everglades Station, August 31, 1945.
G. R. Townsend, Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, June 30, 1946.
G. A. Tucker, Asst. Animal Husbandman, North Florida Station, April 2,
P. J. Westgate, Asso. Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Station, April 6, 1946.
V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., Asst. An. Hus., North Florida Station, October 15,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agronomist, with the North Florida Station (Tobacco
Experiment Station) since its inception, began work March 1, 1922; died
January 8, 1946.
Joseph R. Watson, Entomologist and Head of Department of Entomology,
began work as Head of Department September 17, 1911; died June 6,

Agricultural Economics

Project No. Title Page
154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida .................................. 31
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
Citrus ....--..------....-.............-..-..------......---.----- ------------- 31
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation of Florida
Dairy Herds ..-..........------ ............ -----..................-.-----....... 31
395 Input and Output Data for Florida Crop and Livestock Production 32
416 Florida Maximum Wartime Agricultural Production Capacity
and Post-War Planning for Agriculture .....-----.................................. 32
429 Analysis of Farms and Markets in the Plant City Area with
Respect to Post-War Economic Problems .................................... 32
430 Factors Affecting Costs of and Net Returns from Harvesting,
Packaging and Marketing Florida Celery ................................. 33
434 Effect of Integration of Fresh and Processed Citrus Fruit Mar-
keting on Marketing Efficiency ..........................------............... 33
451 Crop and Livestock Estimating on Florida Farms with Emphasis
on Vegetable Crops .............................------.. ..... ---.. ..... .. 33
... Miscellaneous (Estimated Milk Production Costs in Florida) (The
Tampa Market Area Survey) (Florida Truck Crop Competi-
tion) (Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries to Groves
in Florida) .--........... .... ...... .... ... ......... .......... 34

20 Peanut Improvement ....-................--............-........---- ------- --------- 36
55 Crop Rotation Studies with Corn, Cotton, Crotalaria and Winter
Legumes .....................-..........----...... ---- ---------- 36
56 Variety Test Work with Field Crops .......................- ..............- 38
163 Corn Fertilizer Experiments ..........--..... --.......-..---.. ---.--.. ..... ---- 38
295 Effect of Fertilizers on Yield, Grazing Value, Chemical Com-
position and Botanical Makeup of Pastures .............................. 39
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies ....-......-......-............. 40
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement .....................................-.. 40
299 Effect of Burning at Different Periods on Survival and Growth
of Various Native Range Plants and Its Effect on Establish-
ment of Improved Grasses and Legumes .................................... 40
301 Pasture Legumes ..................................----- -- ....- --------.. .....- 41
302 A Study of Napier Grass for Pasture Purposes .............................. 41
304 Methods of Establishing Pastures Under Various Conditions...... 41
363 Oat Improvement ...............................--------... ... ---....... ----..-- 42
369 Effect of Environment on Composition of Forage Plants................ 42
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement ...................................................... 42
374 Corn Improvement ............................------.---....--- ---------.--. 43
378 Flue-Cured Tobacco Fertilizers and Varieties ..................---.............. 44

Annual Report, 1946

Project No. Title Page
417 Methods of Producing, Harvesting and Maintaining Pasture
Plants and Seed Stocks ........................................------------------- 45
439 Function and Interrelation of Oxygen and Micronutrient Ele-
ments, Especially Iron, Manganese and Copper, in the Respira-
tion of Oats, Hubam and White Dutch Clovers, and Pangola
and Carpet Grasses ......-......................... --........... -- -------... ---.. . 45
440 Effect of Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S and Mg on the Growth of Oats,
Hubam and White Dutch Clovers, Pangola and Carpet Grasses
U under Field Conditions .........................-..........- .....--- .......-- ...---- 45
441 Starter Solutions and Methods of Applying Fertilizer on Tobacco
and Other Field Crops --.------ .........----------...... .. 45
444 Permanent Seedbeds for Tobacco Plants -..........-........................ 45
457 N nutrition of the Peanut .-.. ............................ .... .............. 46
...... M miscellaneous (Sugarcane) (Cotton) ...... ......................... .......... 46

Animal Industry
133 M ineral Requirements of Cattle ...............--.................. ..............----- 49
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to Her
Milk and Butterfat Production ....--.......................---- ....-..------- 50
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops .....--..-................-------.-----...- 50
216 Cooperative Field Studies with Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle.... 50
302 A Study of Napier Grass for Pasture Purposes ............................ 50
307 A Statistical Study of the Relationship Between Temperature and
Egg Weight (Size), Body Weight and Egg Weight, Body
Weight and Production, Age and Egg Weight of Single Comb
W white Leghorn Pullets .........................-.........................------- 50
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Florida
Dairy Herds .............. .....--- ..........---- ..--- ...-- ........- ----- -- ----------- 51
346 Investigation with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition
Problem s of Livestock ................ ...........--. ................. 51
353 Infectious Bovine Mastitis ....--...-- ...------................- ............ 51
356 Biological Analysis of Pasture Herbage .---................................... 52
387 Longevity of Eggs and Larvae of Internal Parasites of Cattle...... 52
394 Effect of Certain Feeds on Milk Flavor .............-............ .............. 52
406 Liquid Skimmilk and Shelled Corn as a Laying Ration ................ 52
407 Condensed Buttermilk in Laying Rations ....-...-..............-.............. 52
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixtures, and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized
Pastures .-................-- -- --- .. ...............--- ........................ 53
418 Sulfurization of Soil for the Control of Certain Intestinal Para-
sites of Chickens ....... ........ .... --............-.-- --- -...- .............--. 53
424 The Transmission Agent of Fowl Leucosis ....-............................. 53
425 The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions
in A nim als ...........................- ..... ---... ---.........- ....- ...... 53
426 Toxicity of Crotalaria spectabilis Roth ........................................ .. 53
431 Florida Waters as Related to Cleaning Problems in Dairy Plants 54
436 Composition of Milk Produced in Florida ......................... ............... 55
437 Control of the Common Liver Fluke in Cattle ............................. 55
438 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Cattle .............................. 55
450 Grazing Experiments with Poultry ............................... ........... 55
453 Floor Space Requirements for Broiler Production ........................ 56
456 "Leeches" in Horses ........................ --.-- -----------........................ 56
459 Control of the Common Liver Fluke in Cattle ................................ 56
460 Control of the Common Cattle Grub ................................. ........... 56

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
461 Supplemental Feeds for Nursing Beef Calves .........-............-......... 56
...... Miscellaneous (Breeding Dairy Cattle) (Feeding and Manage-
ment of Pigs) (Dried Snap Bean Vines as Feed) (DDT for
Insect Control in Dairy Barns) (Effect of Diethylstilbestrol)
(Ammoniated Citrus Pulp for Dairy Cattle) (Protein Supple-
ments for Chick Growth) (Tung Meal in Chick Rations)
(lodinated Casein in Chick Rations) (Calcareous Grit for
P poultry ) ......................................... ......................... 57

379 Control of the Nut and Leaf Casebearers of Pecans ............--........ 61
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida........ 61
381 Propagation of Larra Wasps for the Control of Mole-Crickets...... 62
382 Root-Knot in Tobacco Fields ................................ ... ........ .. 62
383 Breeding Vegetable Plants Resistant to Root-Knot Nematodes.... 63
384 Biology and Taxonomy of the Thysanoptera of Florida ............... 63
385 Effect of Mulches on the Root-Knot Nematode ............................. 63
386 Control of the Florida Flower Thrips ............................................. 63
438 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Cattle ............................ 63
Home Economics
442 Conservation and Availability of the B Vitamins and Iron in En-
riched, White and Corn Breads and Grits ................... 65
443 Vitamin B Content of Foods ................................. ..................... 65
454 Appetite Levels of Food Consumption --.......... .......... ... 65
50 Propagating, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with Tung Oil Trees 66
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and
Methods for Their Propagation ................ .................. 67
80 Cover-Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards .-............... ....................... 68
110 Phenological Studies of Truck Crops in Florida ......................... 68
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ........................... 69
190 Cold Storage Studies of Citrus Fruits .......................... .................. 69
268 A Study of the Relation of Soil Reaction to Growth and Yield
of Vegetable Crops ............................... ................... 70
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vegetables
Adaptable to Commercial Production in Florida ...................... 71
283 Effect of Various Green Manure Crops on Growth, Yield and
Quality of Certain Vegetables ............ ........ ......... 72
315 Fumigation of Nursery Stock ................ ............... ........... 72
365 Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree ..................................... 72
375 Relation of Zinc and Magnesium to Growth and Reproduction in
Pecans ............................. .................................. ................ 73
377 Storage and Handling of Florida Vegetables ............................... 73
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................ ....... ..- ....- ...- ........... 74
413 Dehydration of Vegetables and Fruits .............................................. 74
420 Composition of Florida-Grown Vegetables as Affected by En-
vironment .... ........... .......... .. ...... ........... ...... ...... 75
432 Effects of Boron on Certain Deciduous Fruits and Nuts ............ 76
435 Irrigation of Vegetable Crops ......... .......... ..... ............. ........... 76
452 Culture and Classification of Camellia and Related Genera ............ 77
Miscellaneous (Freezing Preservation of Florida Fruits) (Freez-
ing Preservation of Florida Vegetables) (Maintaining Fresh-

Annual Report, 1946

Project No. Title Page
ness in Vegetables with Ice) (Utilization of Vegetable Wastes
for Livestock Feed) ......... ............. .............. ............ 77
SU. S. Laboratory for Tung Investigations .......-... -------------........ 79

Plant Pathelogy

259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants ........ 83
269 Host Relations and Factors Influencing the Growth and Parasit-
ism of Sclerotium rolfsi Sacc. ...................--........... ............. 83
281 Causes of Failure of Seed and Seedlings in Various Florida Soils
and Development of Methods for Prevention ..............-............ 84
344 Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Eggplant ...........--..--- ......-- 87
455 Camellia Diseases .......................... ....----------------------- 87
463 Lupine Investigations -....----.......... .....- -...................87
Miscellaneous (Effect of Weed Killers on Florida Weeds) .......- 88


201 Composition of Plant Materials with Particular Reference to the
M ore Unusual Constituents ............................................ 89
256 Development and Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Methods
of Complete and Partial Analysis for Soils and Related Ma-
terials .............. ...........-- -- -.. ............ ............ 89
328 Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and Cropping
Systems in Florida ...-................... ... ---.----- .----- ......-------------... 90
347 Composition of Florida Soils and of Associated Native Vegetation 90
368 Factors Affecting the Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule
Development .-....--.. -------..... -- .---------------- 91
389 Clasification and Mapping of Florida Soils ........................ --....-- ..... 91
392 Maintenance of Soil Reaction and Organic Matter and Their Role
in Retention and Availability of Major Nutrient Elements.... 91
393 Significance of Levels of Readily Soluble Major Nutrient Ele-
ments Removed by Various Extraction Procedures from Florida
Soils Under Various Cropping Practices .................................. 92
404 Correlation of Soil Characteristics with Pasture Crop and Animal
Response .... ------- --- ----....... ........... .... ....... ... ......... 93
421 Effect of Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Florida Soils
on Mineral Composition of Vegetable Crops .............................-- 94
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied to
Different Soil Types ...................................... ......-... 94
433 Retention and Utilization of Boron in Florida Soils ........................ 96
446 Testing Soils and Limestone.....-..................-- .--- .....------- ..-- .. .... 97
447 Availability of Minor Elements in Florida Soils ............................ 98

Strawberry Investigations Laboratory
.. (Variety Tests) (Fertilizer Experiments) (Weed Killers) .......... 99

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
150 Investigation of and Control of Fusarium Wilt, a Fungous Disease
of W aterm elons ......................................... ........................ 100
151 Investigation of and Control of Fungous Diseases of Watermelons 101
254 Investigations of Fruit Rots of Grapes .............................-----....... 101

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Potato Investigations Laboratory
Project No. Title Page
130 Studies Relative to Disease Control of White (Irish) Potatoes ..- 102
143 Investigation and Control of Brown Rot of Potatoes and Related
Plants ...-.......-........-----------..---------- --------.. 103
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ..................... .... ..-- -- ---------------- 103
419 Downy Mildew of Cabbage ...-..-------....----..------------ 105
465 Fertility Studies in Cabbage Production ..-----.................-.....----..- 105
469 Improvement of Potato Cultural Practices ..............................------ 105

Vegetable Crops Laboratory
281 Causes of Failure of Seeds and Seedlings in Various Florida Soils
and Development of Methods for Prevention ................--......------- 106
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida.... 106
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ...... -.....-......-------....--- --- 107
398 Breeding for Combining Resistance to Diseases and Insects in the
Tomato ................-------.- ---.. -------.- -- ------........... ---......... 109
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn.......... 109
402 Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Vegetable Crop Plants...... 110
405 Summer Cover Crops, Liming and 'Related Factors in Vegetable
Crop Production .............................------ --- ---. .. 110
427 Economic Control of Mole-Crickets --........-----.....-..--------...... -111
445 Insecticidal Value of DDT and Related Synthetic Compounds on
Vegetable Crop Insects in Florida ........--..............-...........-...-- .. 112
448 Rapid Soil Tests for Determining Soil Fertility in Vegetable Crop
Production .-......----.......---- -------- ........ ----. 113
449 Organic Fungicides for the Control of Foliage Diseases of Vege-
tables .---.....-. -----------.------------------- 114
464 Gladiolus Variety Trials .............--- --.---------...---... ----------... 115
Miscellaneous-Vegetable (Hybrid Tomatoes) (Seedbeds)
(Plant Response and Weed Control) (Chemical Soil Studies)
(Plant Setting) (Root-Knot Control) (Nutgrass Control)........ 115
Miscellaneous-Gladiolus (Thrips Control) (Fertility Studies)
(Effect of 2,4D on Gladiolus) (Fusarium Corm Rot Control)
(Breaking of Dormancy) ........... ----.......----- ....-------.. 118

Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service
..- The Year in Review .....................----------------------. 120

Central Florida Station
252 Soil and Fertilizer Studies with Celery ......................... ....... -. 123
336 Early Blight of Celery ...................----..--- ---- ..... 123
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ........ .................. ...... ..... .... 124
Miscellaneous (Seedbed Diseases) (DDT and Other Organics as
Vegetable Insecticides) (Corn Earworm Control on Sweet
Corn) (Carrot Weevil) ............--.. ------...----.......... 124

Range Cattle Station
390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida Environment...... 126
410 Wintering Beef Cattle on the Range ..---........--...---..-..-..-......--------- 126
423 Effect of Fertilization and Seeding on the Grazing Value of Flat-
woods Pastures ....................--------------------------.. ---------------- .. 126
Miscellaneous (Pasture-Variety-Fertilizer Trials) (Mineral Con-

Annual Report, 1946

Project No. Title Page
sumption by Range Cows) (Citrus By-Products for Fattening
Steers) (Fluctuations in W ater-Table) ...................................... 128

North Florida Station
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco --............----..................... 133
80 Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards ......................................---- -.. 134
191 Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Florida Shade Tobacco
Seed and Early Growth of Seedlings ................. --.................-- 134
257 Columbia Sheep Performance Investigations ......................-............. 135
260 Grain Crop Investigations ......... ............. ... .. ........ ........... 136
261 Forage Crop Investigations ........... .. ......... ........................... 136
301 Pasture Legum es ..................... .. ...... ........ ............... ... 137
321 Control of Downy Mildew of Tobacco ....---......-.. ...---..-- ......-... -137
411 2-Year Rotation for Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ................................. 138
463 Lupine Investigations ..........----- ........................................... 138
...... Miscellaneous (Soil Fumigants for Nematode Control) (Peanuts)
(Beef Cattle) (Swine) .............. .................. ................ .. 139
...... M obile Units .. --- ----............ ................. ............... 141

Citrus Station
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection ........-...--.... ---.................... 147
102 Variety Testing and Breeding ......................................... ............... 147
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rots of Citrus Fruits.... 147
340 Citrus Nutrition Studies ..................---............-- ----.----........... 147
341 Combined Control of Scale-Insects and Mites on Citrus ................ 154
SMiscellaneous (Citrus Decline) (Parasites and Predators) .......... 156
Citrus Investigations in the Coastal Regions .................................... 158
-. Packinghouse Research ...................----...------- ................ 160
...... Insecticidal Chem istry .................... .. ..... ........................... 161
....- Cooperative Research with Florida Citrus Commission .................. 164

Everglades Station
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings.... 169
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Condi-
tions .............. -..........- --. -- -- ----------........ ........ 170
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ......................... ............... ..... 170
88 Soils Investigations .-..............-....---...-. ... .............. .. 172
89 W ater Control Investigations ....................... ...... .................... 174
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ................................---........ ------176
168 The Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the
Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades .............................--.......----.... 176
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of Sugarcane Moth
Borer ..-- -.......... ........... ...- -...--....-...-- .........-..-- 179
171 Cane Breeding Experiments ............................ ... ............. 179
172 Physiology of Sugarcane .................... ........ -----...----............- ... -180
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
glades --........................ .. ................ . ............ 180
202 Agronomic Studies with Sugarcane .................. ............... ... 181
203 Forage Crop Investigations -.............. .....------....... 182
204 Grain Crop Investigations .................... .. ... .... .................. 183
205 Seed Storage Investigations ... ...................................... 183
206 Fiber Crop Investigations ........... ...-................................ 183
208 Agronomic Studies Upon Growth of Sirup and Forage Canes........ 184
209 Seed and Soil-Borne Diseases of Vegetable Crops .................... ....... 184

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
210 Leaf Blights of Vegetable Crops .................................................... 185
212 Relation of Organic Composition of Crops to Growth and Maturity 185
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations ............................. 186
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot .......... 186
336 Early Blight of Celery ................................................... ................... 186
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida...... 187
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ........ .................. ............ 187
403 Shallu, Blackstrap Molasses and Sweet Potatoes for Fattening
Steers on W inter Pasture ........................ ........... ........... ........ 188
Miscellaneous (Weed Control with 2,4D) (Insect Pests in the
Everglades) (Plant Diseases in the Everglades) (Vegetable
Crop Diseases on Mineral Soils) (Virous Diseases of Vege-
tables) (Root Rot of Beans) ........... ........... ........... ...... 188

Sub-Tropical Station
275 Citrus Culture Studies ...................................... 193
276 Avocado Culture Studies .......................... ........ 194
277 Forestation Studies ................................. ......... ..... 194
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals .................................. 194
280 Studies of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals .................................. 194
285 Potato Culture Investigations .......... .........-.......... .......... 196
286 T6mato Culture Investigations ....... ................... .... 196
287 Cover Crop Studies ........................... ..................... 196
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County ................................... 196
290 A Study of Diseases of the Avocado and Mango and Development
of Control Measures ........... ...... ............ ........... ......... 198
291 Control of Tomato Diseases ................ ............... ........ 198
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ......-..........-............ .............. 201
422 Diseases of the Tahiti (Persian) Lime ......................................... 201
458 Sclerotiniose Disease of Vegetables ............................................ 201
Miscellaneous (Salt Intrusion into Marl Vegetable Lands) (In-
sect and Insecticide Investigations) .................... .......... ..... 205

West Central Florida Station
...... Report of Progress (Record of Merit, Record of Performance and
Grazing Tests) .................... .. ... .. .................. 206

Annual Report, 1946 1




Receipts from the Treas-
ury of the United
States, as per appro-
priations for fiscal
year ended June 30,
1946 ....... ......

Personal services ............
Travel expense ...........
Transportation of things
Communication service ..
Heat, light, water, power,
gas, electricity ...........
Rent of space in build-
ings or equipment ......
Printing publications ....
Other printing and bind-
ing ...............................
Repairs and alterations
to equipment, and other
contractual services
not otherwise classified
Insurance ..........................
Repairs and alterations
to buildings (not capi-
tal improvements) ....
Supplies and materials -.
Equipment .......... ........




Adams I Purnell


- - - - -


$60,000.00 j $37,680.68





34.16 1


-.--- ........... 3,760.38 3,419.81




Total expenditures ........ $15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000.00 $37,680.68


------- ------ -EXPENDITURES--------------

V W w c
E ,A Q GoI 1 I

Main Station ...

Special Agricul-
tural Economist.

Soil Survey
Research .............

Poultry Disease
Research ..............

Processing .

Central Florida
Station ** ...

Citrus Station

Citrus By-Products
and Processing .

Citrus Cultural
Expansion .........

Everglades Station

East Coast Vege-
table and
Agronomy ......

North Florida
Station ..... .

Soil and Peanut

Drainage Equip-
m ent .....................

Laboratory Furni-
ture and Equip-
ment .....................

1$203,127.78 $24,457.93 $11.689.34

7,849.70 3,609.27

2,696.15 44.25


5,211.32 591.60

12,369.87 284.01 260.30

46,085.921 16,512.90 3,231.43


. 9,489.15 4,536.90 1 765.84

52,076.82 31,343.90I 2,404.35
| I


21,466.97 5,695.77




31.839.53 $2,535.60 $6,844.21 $












69.13 167.49

974.70 974.22


93.811 121.53

810.721 2,512.82

135.72 108.3-

















8.251 1,306.3

$39,360.86 $1






) 7,537.30



61 19.369.511


11 7,305.40

S12,500.00 1 12,500.00


















$ 9,680.22




52 387.48*


























--- --- ---- --EXPENDITURES------ ----

SRange Cattle
Station ........ 5,775.00 3800.50 375.97 84.45 41.24 248.36 3,481.60 165.18 27.70 15,000.00

Range Cattle Ca I 1
Development and '
Range Cattle
Expansion ... I 1,577.09 1,953.15 246.00 129.86 9.60 65.27 39.30 725.74[ 3,386.38] 1,744.70 122.91 10,000.00
Station ...... 20,738.94 1.392.061 1,084.94 41.11 214.89 351.82 132.22 6.00 1,115.03 6,200.09 2,621.84 7,601.06 41,500.00
West Florida
Station ..... 17,600.007,400.00 25,000.00
Potato Investiga-
tions Laboratory 9,282.90 2,117.38 170.36 52.841 321.37 14.00 229.81 2,060.31 567.93 183.10 15,000.00
Strawberry i II
Laboratory ........ 3,879.39 184.73 214.75 15.331 6.76 65.39 5.00 86.30 907.17 168.43 766.75 6,300.00
Vegetable Crops
Laboratory ........ 26,324.65 9,600.21 1,465.67 5,001.90 1,816.18 1,015.35 47,000.00
Watermelon, Grape 191.09 244.68 471.35 49.35 819.57
Watermelon, Grape
and Sea Island
Cotton Laboratory 6,218.06 2,304.02 729.33 33.36 287.69 87.60 89.50 998.79 1,995.26 562.20 5,194.19 18,500.00
Weather Forecast- 682
ing Service ......... 2,700.60 11,408.89 26.80 2,512.91 194.00 135.46 422.85 2,598.49. 20,000.00
Statewide Soil I I
Survey .................. 1,711.25 211.98 25.36 221.15 826.20 1,627.66 5,376.40 10,000.00
Emergency t ..... 1,250.00 8,750.00 10,000.00
Contingent ...... 1,552.00 1,951.00 312.29 18.081 332.671 62.39 .751 641.92 1.562.66 1,066.24| 6,500.00 14,000.00

Includes appropriations for buildings.
** Formerly Celery Laboratory.
t $7,500 of this held in Permanent Reserve due to error in appropriation act, this amount having been appropriated for the Celery Laboratory.
ft Allotted to Citrus Station.
Allotted to Central Florida Station.




Everglades Ex-
periment Station
(Chapter 8442) $ 5,000.00

Mobile Units
(Chapter 20,983) $13,632.00


$7,899.78 $1,233.81






s i4


CU m



.87 $171.26 $43.50 $1,567.50 $678.72 $6,972.63|$3,993.53 $13,539.40



$ 5,000.00


$5,000.00 I'



-- --------EXPENDITURES- ---------------------------


Main Station .... $5,259.47$ 6,461.941$4.257.99

Central (1)
Florida Station .... 2.70

Citrus Station ........ 33,990.61 4.90
Everglades Station.... 4,774.70 198.01
North Florida Station 4,735.21 152.96

Range Cattle Station 402.45 282.72
Sub-Tropical Station.. I 241.91 366.02
West Central
Florida Station .... 780.00 4,432.67 7.09

Potato Investigations 2
Laboratory ....... ... 234.06 20.53

Vegetable Crops
Laboratory ........ 125.001 524.651 269.17

Watermelon, Grape
and Cotton Investi- I I
nations Laboratory. 2.20


372.7 B $ S .

372.77$ 90.33 $ 792.41

225.001 108.381

328.92 104.72 182.231
16.95 39.09 39.441

55.66 4.06
20.871 29.75 201.93

34.81 5.59

4.08 2.95

15.33 15.96 97.24





r '0

5 A r r
i -

]$2.669.00 $7,827.05 24,125.41 $8,484.23 4,8000 $ 4,684.18 $69,824.78

S 4.90 1.11 5.703.79 5,712.50

6 7,021.481 15,716.02 837.70 11,236.21 69,522.55
183.95 106.54 4,229.83 2,048.53! 12,157.44

0 1,008.67 3,225.83 3,213.12 18,665.821 31,100.09
5 133.19 698.00 2,220.37 11.77 3,809.47
1390.42 2,322.60 4829.59 3,614.651 13,017.74

21.05 4,386.27 320.00 947.53 10,935.01

7.27 842.00 1,926.181 3,037.07

0 4.40 514.28 897.01 7,793.441 10,257.98

3.40 107.41 118.58

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Scarcities of newsprint and other items made it difficult to procure
printing and to disseminate news on a widespread scale during the year.
Yet the Experiment Station printed 10 new bulletins and 14 new press
bulletins and distributed current information through news and radio re-
leases that were widely used.
Necessity for continued high production of most agricultural products
did not abate, and available information and new research results were
publicized in every possible way during the year to aid the country in its
production goals.
The Editors continued to devote approximately half of their time to
work for the Agricultural Extension Service under their cooperative em-
ployment provisions.
Bulletins.-Of the 10 new bulletins printed during the year, 8 were
popular and 2 technical in nature. They ranged in size from 12 to 40
pages and totaled 249 pages, in edition from 5,000 to 12,500 copies and
totaled 62,500 copies. Following is a list of bulletins published during
the year:
Bul. Title Pages Edition
412 Culture, Fertilizer Requirements and Fiber Yields of
Ramie in the Florida Everglades .................... .............. 40 10,000
413 Dust Treatments for Vegetable Seeds ............................ 32 7,500
414 Ascorbic Acid Content of Some Florida-Grown Guavas 14 5,000
415 Production of Artificial Manure ...................................... 20 7,500
416 Some Major Factors in the Leaching of Calcium, Po-
tassium, Sulfur and Nitrogen from Sandy Soils .......... 23 5,000
417 Legum e Inoculation ............................... .......................... 32 5,000
418 Weight Changes of Cattle on a Florida Range ............ 23 7,500
419 Chufas in Florida .......-.......---- ....--.... --........-- ....---- -..... 16 7,500
420 Periodic Increase in Lighting Versus Continuous
Lighting for Layers ..............................------..---------- ..-- 12 5,000
421 Selecting, Fitting and Showing the Beef Steer ............ 37 12,500

Brief Reviews of Bulletins.-Following are very brief summaries of the
principal points contained in the bulletins issued during the year:
412. Culture, Fertilizer Requirements and Fiber Yields of Ramie in
the Florida Everglades. (J. R. Neller, 40 pages, 11 figs.) Describes cul-
ture, fertilizer requirements and effect of various factors on fiber yields, and
reports results on rate of growth, improvement of old stands, different
methods of planting and composition of leaves and stems. Lists precautions
in planting rootstock materials and in harvesting.
413. Dust Treatments for Vegetable Seed. (W. B. Tisdale, A. N.
Brooks and G. R. Townsend, 32 pages, 1 fig.) Suggests recommended dust
treatments for seeds of principal vegetables, including beans, beets, broccoli,
cabbage, carrots, celery, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, mustard, peppers and
414. Ascorbic Acid Content of Some Florida-Grown Guavas. (Margaret
J. Mustard, 14 pages, 4 figs.) Ascorbic acid is not uniformly distributed
throughout the individual fruits, being concentrated just under the skin.
Some guavas contain more vitamin C when green, others when fully mature.
Wide variations were found between varieties.

Annual Report, 1946

415. Production of Artificial Manure. (F. B. Smith and G. D. Thorn-
ton, 20 pages, 5 figs.) Reports results from making composts with water
hyacinths, pine needles, Spanish moss and Spanish moss gin waste. Am-
monium sulfate, cottonseed meal, cyanamid, urea and horse manure were
used as sources of nitrogen, rock phosphate, superphosphate and basic slag
as sources of phosphorus.
416. Some Major Factors in the Leaching of Calcium, Potassium, Sulfur
and Nitrogen from Sandy Soils. (G. M. Volk and C. E. Bell, 23 pages,
5 figs.) A crop of turnips greatly reduced the amount of water lost by
leaching from a 4-foot profile of a Norfolk loamy fine sand. The crop
retained varying percentages of the fertilizer elements applied to the soil.
417. Legume Inoculation. (F. B. Smith, R. E. Blaser and G. D. Thorn-
ton, 32 pages, 9 figs.) Delimits the pH for successful inoculation of various
clovers and reports that recently processed cultures of bacteria isolated
from Florida-grown clovers are much" more satisfactory for inoculation
than are ordinary commercial cultures.
418. Weight Changes of Cattle on a Florida Range. (W. G. Kirk, A.
L. Shealy and Bradford Knapp, Jr., 23 pages, 12 figs.) Mature native cows
average losing 24 pounds from September to December, 80 pounds from
December to March. They gain 82 pounds from March to June and 22
pounds from June to September.
419. Chufas in Florida. (G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes, 16 pages,
5 figs.) Chufas give erratic response to fertilizers, their tops are low in
protein, they contain slightly more than half as much oil as peanuts, proper
spacing gives largest yield increases, and negro bugs are a damaging insect
420. Periodic Increase in Lighting versus Continuous Lighting for
Layers. (Oscar K. Moore and N. R. Mehrhof, 12 pages, 0 figs.) Birds
receiving all-night lights produced 2.44 percent more eggs than those re-
ceiving lights only part time. Those with all-night lights consumed less
than a pound more feed in a year than the others, but their feed consump-
tion per dozen eggs produced was slightly lower. Technical.
421. Selecting, Fitting and Showing the Beef Steer. (R. S. Glasscock,
37 pages, 13 figs.) Presents basic principles in selecting the beef steer,
fitting and caring for him, training and grooming him, and showing him
in the ring. Also tells how to make good rope halters.
14 New Press Bulletins.-Of the 14 new press bulletins issued during
the year 2 were revisions of the list of publications and 12 were subject
matter discussions. The bulletin list ran 6 pages, with 1,500 copies printed
each time. Of the 12 subject matter press bulletins, 10 were 4 pages and
2 were 2 pages in length. Five old press bulletins were reprinted.
The 14 new press bulletins were printed mostly in editions of 3,000 and
5,000 for a total of 46,000 copies.
Following is a list of press bulletins and their authors:
614 The Kent and Zill Mangos, Geo. D. Ruehle.
615 New Methods of Preparing Invert Sirup, Theo. R. Freeman.
616 Ice Cream with Less Sugar, E. L. Fouts.
617 Soil Testing, F. B. Smith and Geo. D. Thornton.
618 Use of the Lactometer to Determine the Solids Content of Milk and
to Detect Adulterations, E. L. Fouts.
619 Control of Three Household Insects, J. RI. Watson.
620 Lantana Poisoning of Cattle, D. A. Sanders.
621 Azalea Culture for Florida, R. J. Wilmot and R. D. Dickey.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

622 Importance of Water for Chickens, O. K. Moore.
623 Citrus Molasses, R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, George K. Davis
and E. L. Fouts.
624 Hairy Indigo, a Legume for Florida, Geo. E. Ritchey.
Bulletin List (printed twice).
509 Witches Broom of Oleander (reprint).
514 Importance of Bees in the Production of Watermelons (reprint).
527 Peach Varieties for Florida (reprint).
563 A Mild Reducing Diet (reprint).
580 Cause and Control of Avocado Scab (revision).

Radio stations are more numerous than ever before and have wider
audiences. With papers limited in newsprint, broadcasting assumed even
more importance as a means of disseminating information.
Principal broadcast outlet for Experiment Station information continued
to be WRUF, the University of Florida radio station in Gainesville, but
farm flashes were sent to 14 other stations scattered throughout Florida.
Experiment Station workers from all departments made 135 talks on
the Florida Farm Hour, WRUF's noonday program. Of these, 98 were
forwarded to 14 other stations as farm flashes.

In spite of space shortages, daily and weekly newspapers and farm
journals used much copy from the Experiment Station. The weekly clip-
sheet of the Agricultural Extension Service continued to be the principal
means of sending Station news to weekly papers, as this clipsheet carried
from 1 to many items each week relating to Station workers, their work
or their recommendations.
More important and timely articles in the clipsheet were picked up by
the Associated Press and other wire services and distributed to their
member papers. In addition, special stories to 1 or more dailies to the
number of 17 were sent and used, and 29 special stories from the Station
went to the Associated Press.
Farm journals throughout the country used liberally of information
supplied by Florida Station Editors, 9 of them carrying 21 articles that
filled 278 column inches of space. Of these, 5 were national journals
carrying 8 articles for 135 inches; 2 were Southern journals carrying 7
articles for 65 inches; and 2 were Florida publications carrying 6 articles
for 78 inches.
One Florida farm magazine carried from 3 to several articles by staff
members in each monthly issue, mostly copies of radio talks that had been
delivered on the Farm Hour and forwarded to the magazine by the Editors.
Another Florida farm magazine carried several articles in the same manner.


Following is a list of articles by staff members in both popular and
scientific journals and association yearbooks:
Allison, R. V. Soil Surveys in Farm Planning. Fla. Grower 54: (1181):
4: 26. 1946.
Beckenbach, J. R. Florida AES to Release New High Yield Tomatoes;
Limited Seed Samples Available by Next Spring. So. Seedsman 8:
12: 18, 48. 1945.

Annual Report, 1946 23

Becker, R. B. How We Got Citrus Dairy Feed. Fla. Grower 53: (1173):
8: 11, 13. 1945.
Becker, R. B. More Milk from Contented Cows. Fla. Grower 53: (1176):
11: 25. 1945.
Becker, R. B. Renewing Europe's Cattle Herds. Fla. Grower 54: (1182):
5: 16, 20. 1946.
Becker, R. B. Dairy News Notes. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 12:
2: 28; 3: 26; 4: 30; 5: 26; 6: 22. 1946.
Blackmon, G. H. Planned Pecan Management Pays. Fla. Grower 53:
(1173): 8: 2. 1945.
Blackmon, G. H. It's Rose Planting Time Now. Fla. Grower 54: (1178):
1: 20, 22. 1946.
Blackmon, G. H. Fertilizing Fruits and Nuts. Fla. Grower 54: (1179):
2: 9, 11. 1946.
Blackmon, G. H. Spring Jobs for Pecan Growers. Fla. Grower 54:
(1181) : 4: 23. 1946.
Blackmon, G. H. Midsummer Care of Roses. Fla. Grower 54: (1184):
7: 11-12. 1946.
Blackmon, G. H. Planting and Caring for the Home Orchard. Cit. Ind.
27: 2: 14. 1946.
Blaser, R. E. How to Start White Dutch Clover in Florida. Better Crops
with Plant Food 29: 8: 18-20, 45-47. 1945.
Blaser, R. E. Florida's Legume Pastures Depend on Seed Source. Better
Crops with Plant Food 29: 10: 11-13, 44. 1945.
Blaser, R. E. A Device for Setting Fertilizer Distributors Accurately and
a Simple Method of Calibration. Jour. Amer. Soc. of Agron. 37:
857-858. 1945.
Blaser, R. E. The Effect of Cutting Methods and Sod Treatments on the
Yield and Protein Content of Carpet Grass, Axonopus afinis Chase.
Jour. Amer. Soc. Agr. 38: 394-397. 1946.
Blaser, R. E. How to Grow Greener Pasture. Fla. Grower 54: (1179):
2: 16. 1946.
Blaser, R. E., and W. E. Stokes. Ecological and Morphological Character-
istics of Black Medic Strains. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 38: 325-331. 1946.
Bledsoe, Roger W., Henry C. Harris and Fred Clark. The Importance of
Peanuts Left in the Soil in the Interpretation of Increases in Yield Due
to Sulfur Treatments. Jour. Amer. Soc. of Agr. 37: 689-695. 1945.
Bledsoe, Roger W., Henry C. Harris and W. B. Tisdale. Leafspot of Peanut
Associated with Magnesium Deficiency. Plant Physiology 21: 237-240.
Borders, Huey I. Plant Disease Report Homestead Area, Dade County,
Florida, Fall and Winter Season 1945-46. Plant Dis. Reporter 30:
169-172. 1946.
Borders, Huey I. Effectiveness of Certain Fungicides in Control of Late
Blight of Tomato. For publication in Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59:
Brunk, Max E. Conserving Time and Effort on the Farm. Cit. Ind. 26:
8: 7. 1945.
Camp, A. F. The Status of Sour Orange Stock in South American Area.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 58: 59-65. 1945. See also The Citrus Indus-
try 26: 11: 5-7, 9, 16, 20-21. 1945.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Camp, A. F. Transplanting Large Citrus Trees. Cit. Ind. 26: 10: 16, 21.
Clark, Fred. Related Factors in Tobacco Production. For publication in
Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Florida 7: 1946.
Comar, C. L., George K. Davis and Ruth F. Taylor. Cobalt Metabolism
Studies: Radioactive Cobalt Procedures with Rats and Cattle. Archives
of Biochemistry 9: 149-158. 1946.
Cooper, J. Francis. Florida Likes White Dutch. So. Agr. 76: 2: 42. 1946.
Davis, George K. Livestock Need Minerals. So. Agr. 76: 2: 23. 1946.
Davis, George K., N. R. Mehrhof and R. S. McKinney. Effect of Tung Meal
in Rations for Growing Chicks. Poultry Sci. 25: 74-79. 1946.
Decker, Phares. Breeding for Resistance to Phomopsis Blight or "Tip-
over" of Eggplant. Proc. Fla. Seedsmen's Asso. 14: 14-16. 1946.
Decker, Phares. A Sclerotinia Disease of Lupine in Florida. Plant Dis.
Reporter 30: 277-278. 1946.
Decker, Phares. The Effect of Depth of Planting on the Emergence and
Survival of Blue Lupine. Phytopathology 36: 479-480. 1946.
Dickey, R. D. A Manganese Deficiency of Palms and Some Other Orna-
mental Trees in Florida. Proc. Nat'l. Shade Tree Conf. 21: 98-103.
Eddins, A. H. Transmission and Spread of Late Blight in Seed Potatoes.
The Amer. Potato Jour. 22: 333-339. 1945.
Eddins, A. H., and Erdman West. Sclerotium Rot of Potato Seed Pieces.
Phytopathology 36: 239-240. 1946.
Emmel, M. W. Hemocytoblastosis in Chickens. Fla. Poultryman and
Stockman 12: 1: 6, 18. 1946.
Erwin, T. C. Leaching and Availability of Copper as Affected by Phos-
phorus and Lime. For publication in Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 7:
Forsee, W. T., Jr. Application of Rapid Methods of Laboratory Analysis
to Everglades Soils. For publication in Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 7:
Fouts, E. L. Dairy Plant Management and Operation. Southern Dairy
Products Jour. 39: 2: 30-31. 1946.
Fouts, E. L., and L. E. Mull. The Manufacture of Cultured Buttermilk.
Southern Dairy Products Jour. 38: 6: 22, 24-25. 1945.
Fouts, E. L., and L. E. Mull. The Manufacture of Cottage Cheese. South-
ern Dairy Products Jour. 39: 1: 92, 96-97. 1946.
Freeman, T. R., and E. L. Fouts. Manufacture of Ice Cream with Limited
Milk Solids. Besco News 6: 3: 14-15. 1945.
Freeman, T. R., and E. L. Fouts. Grain Derivatives in Ice Cream Mixes.
Amer. Miller and Processor 74: 1: 85. 1946.
Fudge, B. R. The Relation of Foliage and Fruit Analyses to the Fertilizer
Requirement of Citrus. For publication in Proc. of Soil. Sci. Soc. of
Fla. 7: 1946.
Fudge, B. R. The Effect of Applications of Calcium and Magnesium Upon
Absorption of Potassium by Citrus. For publication in Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 59: 1946.
Gammon, Nathan. The Significance of Exchange Reactions in the Soil.
For publication in Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 7: 1946.

Annual Report, 1946

Glasscock, R. S. Select Breeding Stock with Care. The Florida Cattleman
10: 10: 7. 1945.
Glasscock, R. S. Lose No Pigs This Season. Fla. Grower 53: (1177):
12: 12. 1945.
Glasscock, R. S. Management Pays in Pig Business. Fla. Grower 54:
(1178) : 1: 18. 1946.
Gratz, L. O. Science Means Much to Citrus. Fla. Grower 53: (1172):
7: 13, 15. 1945.
Gratz, L. O. Science Saves Glades Farming. Fla. Grower 53: (1173):
8: 10, 15. 1945.
Gratz, L. 0. Mineral Research Aids Stock. Fla. Grower 53: (1174) : 9: 19.
Gratz, L. O. Pedigreed Plants Beat Disease. Fla. Grower 53: (1175):
10: 25, 28. 1945.
Gratz, L. O. Food Information a Weapon. Fla. Grower 53: (1176):
11: 23. 1945.
Gratz, L. O. Trace Elements Serve Farmers. Fla. Grower 53: (1177):
12: 19-20, 23. 1945.
Harris, Henry C. Place of Soil Analysis in Determining a Soil Fertility
Program. For publication in Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Florida 7: 1946.
Harris, Henry C. The Use of Lime in Florida Agriculture: Field Crops.
For publication in Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Florida 7: 1946.
Harris, Henry C., and Roger W. Bledsoe. Nutrition of the Peanut Plant.
For publication in Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Florida 7: 1946.
Harris, Henry C., Roger W. Bledsoe and P. W. Calhoun. Responses
of Cotton to Sulfur Fertilization. Jour. Amer. Soc. of Agronomy 37:
323-329. 1945.
Harrison, A. L. Breeding Tomatoes for Disease Resistance. Proc. Fla.
Seedsmen's Association 14: 24-29. 1946.
Harrison, A. L. Late Blight on Tomatoes on the West Coast of Florida.
The Plant Disease Reporter 30: 2: 49-50. 1946.
Hodges, E. M., and W. G. Kirk. Grazing Carpet and Common Bahia Grass
of Flatwoods Land. For publication in Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Florida
7: 1946.
Hull, Fred M. Corn Breeding. Proc. Fla. Seedsmen's Association 13:
14-18. 1945.
Hull, Fred H. Sweet Corn Varieties. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 58: 228-29.
Hull, Fred H. Improved Methods of Breeding Corn for Florida. Proc. Fla.
Seedsmen's Association 14: 29-33. 1946.
Hull, Fred H. Regression Analyses of Corn Yield Data. Genetics 31: 219.
Jamison, F. S. Some Changes in Vegetable Varieties. Proc. Fla. Seeds-
men's Association 13: 18-23. 1945.
Jamison, F. S. Sweet Corn Variety Trials. Proc. Fla. Seedsmen's Asso-
ciation 14: 38-39. 1946.
Jamison, Vernon C. The Penetration of Irrigation and Rain Water into
Sandy Soils of Central Florida. For publication in Proc. Soil Sci. Soc.
of America 9: 1945.
Jamison, Vernon C. Round Table Discussion on the Use of Lime in Florida
Agriculture. For publication in Proc. Scoil Sci. Soc. of Florida 7: 1946.

26 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Janes, Byron E. Experimental Results from Using Minor Elements in
Growing Vegetables on Several Sandy Soils. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 58: 214-218. 1945.
Janes, Byron E. Know What's in a Cabbage? Fla. Grower 53: (1174):
9: 16. 1945.
Janes, Byron E. Vegetables High in Vitamins. Fla. Grower 54: (1179):
2: 21-22. 1946.
Janes, Byron E. Promising Bean Varieties. Proc. Fla. Seedmen's Asso-
ciation 14: 18-21. 1946.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Notes on the Great Elm Leaf Beetle. The Fla. Ento.
28: 2: 25-27. 1945.
Kelsheimer, E. G. Cryolite as an Insecticide. Fla. Grower 54: (1178):
1: 4. 1946.
Kidder, Ralph W. A Proposed Method of Measuring Pasture Yields with
Grazing Cattle. Jour. of An. Sci. 5: 187-193. 1946.
Killinger, G. B. "Lupines", a High Tonnage Cover Crop for Florida.
Proc. Fla. Seedsmen's Association 14: 34-36. 1946.
Killinger, G. B. Keep Your Pastures Producing. Fla. Grower 54: (1183):
6: 2. 1946.
Killinger, G. B. Relation of Soil Type and Treatment to the Production
of Pastures in North and West Florida. For publication in Proc. Soil
Sci. Soc. of Fla. 7: 1946.
Killinger, G. B. The Use of Lime on Florida Pastures. For publication
in Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 7: 1946.
Kincaid, Randall R. Southern Shade Tobacco for Cigar Wrappers. South-
ern Agriculturist 76: 3: 27. 1946.
Kincaid, Randall R. Soil Factors Affecting Incidence of Root Knot. Soil
Science 61: 101-109. 1946.
Kirk, W. G., and E. M. Hodges. Ona Station is Hardee Project. Range
Cattle Experiment Station Seeks to Serve Stockmen. The Fla. Cattle-
man and Livestock Jour. 9: 12: 9, 18-20. 1945.
Luck, J. Murray, Harold Strain, C. L. Comar et al. The Nomenclature of
Carotenoid Pigments. (Report of the Committee on Biochemical Nomen-
clature. . .) Chemical and Engineering News, Am. Chem. Soc. 24:
1235-6. 1946.
McCubbin, E. N. Importance of Fertilizer Nitrogen for Cabbage Produc-
tion on Sandy Soils in Northeast Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
58: 238-242. 1945.
McCubbin. E. N. Transplanting Cabbage. For publication in Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 59: 1946.
McKee, Roland, H. L. Hyland and G. E. Ritchey. Preliminary Information
on Sweet Lupines in the United States. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agr. 38:
168-172. 1946.
Marshall, Sidney P., and George K. Davis. The Value of Shark Meal in
Swine Rations. Jour. of An. Sci. 5: 211-218. 1946.
Mehrhof, N. R. Lights Affect Egg Production. Fla. Grower 54: (1179):
2: 18. 1946.
Mehrhof, N. R. Poultry Research Marches On. Fla. Poultryman and
Stockman 11: 7-8: 4; 9-10: 12; 12: 5. 1945; 12: 1: 19; 2: 4; 4: 4;
5: 16. 1946.

Annual Report, 1946 27

Mowry, Harold. The Minor Elements Play No Minor Role in Florida. The
Citrus Industry 26: 8: 8. 1945.
Mowry, Harold. The Magic Minor Elements. Southern Seedsman 8:
11: 15, 38, 42. 1945.
Mowry, Harold. Handle Fertilizer Carefully. Fla. Grower 54: (1181):
4: 12. 1946. (See also The Citrus Industry 27: 4: 16-17. 1946.)
Nettles, Victor F. Preliminary Test of Several Soil Fumigants with Cucum-
bers. Proc. Fla. Seedmen's Association 14: 22-24. 1946.
Noble, C. V. We Are Planning Ahead for Florida Agriculture. Fla.
Grower 53: (1176): 11: 10, 12. 1945.
Noble, C. V. Agricultural Planning Should be from Soil Up. Fla. Grower
54: (1178): 1: 6, 25. 1946.
Noble, C. V. Forest and Livestock in Agricultural Planning. Fla. Grower
54: (1179): 2: 6, 29. 1946.
Noble, C. V. Research and Education in Agricultural Plans. Fla. Grower
54: (1181): 4: 5, 29. 1946.
Noble, C. V. Citrus Production Trend and Present Situation. Citrus
Magazine 8: 7: 8-12. 1946.
Parris, G. K. Use of D-D Mixture Permits Two Crops of Watermelons
per Year in Breeding Program. Phytopathology 36: 408. 1946.
Phillips, Arthur M. An Unusual Habit of the Pecan Budmoth in Florida.
Jour. of Ec. Ento. 38: 620. 1945.
Ruehle, George D. Desirable Ornamental Shade Trees for Limestone Soils
of Southern Florida. Proc. Nat'l. Shade Tree Conf. 21: 138-144. 1945.
Ruehle, George D. Future of Mango in Fla. The Amer. Eagle 40: 44:
Feb. 21, 1946.
Ruehle, George D. Promising New Guava Varieties. For publication in
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59: 1946.
Ruprecht, R. W. Sweet Corn in the Sanford Area. For publication in
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59: 1946.
Shealy, A. L. Cattlemen Proud of a Century's Progress. Fla. Grower
53: (1173): 8: 5, 16. 1945.
Shealy, A. L. Cattle Business Plans Ahead. Fla. Grower 54: (1178): 1:
12. 1946.
Sims, G. T. Value of Food Dependent on Soil. Fla. Grower 54: (1179):
2: 14-15. 1946.
Sims, G. T. Influence of Soil Type on the Retention of Soluble Phosphorus.
For publication in Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Florida 7: 1946.
Smith, F. B. Bacteria. The Citrus Industry 26: 9: 6-7, 15. 1945.
Smith, F. B. The Importance of Microbial Action in Soils. The Citrus
Industry 27: 5: 5, 16-17. 1946.
Smith, F. B. Falling Leaves are Valuable. Fla. Grower 54: (1178):
1: 28. 1946.
Smith, F. B. The Use of Lime in Florida Agriculture: Introduction. For
publication in Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Florida 7: 1946.
Smith, R. L. The Relation of Soil Type and Fertilizer to the Production
of Cotton in North and West Florida. For publication in Proc. Soil
Sci. Soc. of Florida 7: 1946.
Stahl, A. L. The Freezing Preservation of Citrus Hearts. The Citrus
Industry 27: 1: 20, 22; 2: 11, 13. 1946. (See also Fla. Grower 53:
(1177) : 12: 5, 8. 1945.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Stokes, W. E. Sorghums, Millets, Oats, Lupines. Proc. Fla. Seedsmen's
Association 13: 12-14. 1945.
Stokes, W. E. Cover Crops for Soil Enrichment. The Citrus Industry
26: 9: 12-13. 1945.
Stokes, W. E. How to Grow Florida Clover. Fla. Grower 53: (1176):
11: 18. 1945.
Stokes, W. E. What's New in Field Crop Seed. Proc. Fla. Seedmen's
Association 14: 34. 1946.
Thompson, W. L. Control of the Shot-Hole Borers. The Citrus Industry
26: 12: 3, 21. 1945.
Thompson, W. L. Preventive Sprays for Mite Control on Citrus. For
publication in Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59: 1946.
Tisdale, W. B. Preventing Seedbed Diseases. Fla. Grower 53: (1172):
7: 12, 16. 1945.
Tisdale, W. B. Two-Timing Two Melon Diseases. Fla. Grower 54:
(1181): 4: 20. 1946.
Tisdale, W. B. Soil Treatment for Preventing Plant Diseases. The Citrus
Industry 27: 4: 12, 14. 1946.
Tissot, A. N. Some Fallacies About Insects and Insect Control. The
Citrus Industry 26: 7: 14-15. 1945.
Tissot, A. N. Home and Garden Ant Control. Fla. Grower 54: (1178): 1:
16-17. 1946.
Townsend, G. R. Organic Fungicides for Celery. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 58: 242-243. 1945.
Townsend, G. R. The Development of New Bean Varieties for Florida.
For publication in Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59: 1946.
Townsend, G. R., R. C. Cassell and E. L. Felix. Diseases of Vegetable
Crops in Palm Beach and Broward Counties, Florida. The Plant Dis-
ease Reporter 29: 704-705. 1945.
Townsend, G. R., R. C. Cassell and E. L. Felix. Diseases of Vegetable
Crops During November in Palm Beach County, Florida. The Plant
Disease Reporter 30: 29-30. 1946.
Townsend, G. R., R. C. Cassell, E. L. Felix and Russell Desrosiers. Dis-
eases of Vegetable Crops During December in Palm Beach County,
Florida. The Plant Disease Reporter 30: 50-53. 1946.
Townsend, G. R., R. C. Cassell, E. L. Felix and Russell Desrosiers. Dis-
eases of Vegetable Crops During January in Palm Beach and Broward
Counties, Florida. The Plant Disease Reporter 30: 90-92. 1946.
Townsend, G. R., R. C. Cassell, E. L. Felix and Russell Desrosiers. Dis-
eases of Vegetable Crops During February in Palm Beach and Broward
Counties, Florida. The Plant Disease Reporter 30: 120-123. 1946.
Townsend, G. R., R. C. Cassell, E. L. Felix and Russell Desrosiers. Dis-
eases of Vegetable Crops During March in Palm Beach, Broward and
Martin Counties, Florida. The Plant Disease Reporter 30: 166-168.
Townsend, G. R., R. C. Cassell, E. L. Felix and Russell Desrosiers. Plant
Diseases in Palm Beach, Broward and St. Lucie Counties, Florida,
During April. The Plant Disease Reporter 30: 193-195. 1946.
Wallace, R. W. Relations of Soil Type and Treatment to the Production
of Peanuts in Northwest Florida. For publication in Proc. Soil Sci. Soc.
of Florida 7: 1946.

Annual Report, 1946

Watson, J. R. Control of Grasshoppers in Groves and Gardens. The Citrus
Industry 26: 10: 14. 1945.
Watson, J. R. A New Soil Fumigant for Root-Knot and Other Pests. The
Citrus Industry 26: 11: 8, 21. 1945.
Watson, J. R. Whiteflies on Gardenias. The Florida Entomologist 28:
2: 30-31. 1945.
Watson, J. R. Starving Controls Root-Knot. Fla. Grower 53: (1172):
7: 10. 1945.
Watson, J. R. Flowers that Fool Root-Knot. Fla. Grower 53: (1173):
8: 13, 16. 1945.
Watson, J. R. Watch Citrus for Summer Insects. Fla. Grower 53: (1173):
8: 14. 1945.
Watson, J. R. Stop Shooting Your Friends. Fla. Grower 53: (1176):
11: 21, 24. 1945.
Watson, J. R. Fighting Florida Peach Insects. Fla. Grower 54: (1178):
1: 14-15. 1946.
Watson, J. R. A New Host for Composia fidelissima vagrans Bates. The
Florida Entomologist 28: 29. 1945.
Watson, J. R. The Ecological and Geographic Distribution of the Thysanop-
tera of the Geenton. The Florida Entomologist 28: 33-36. 1945.
Watson, J. R. Some August Skippers of the Great Smoky Mountain
National Park and Vicinity. The Florida Entomologist 28: 50-53. 1946.
Watson, J. R. Distributional Notes on Two Species of Thysanoptera. The
Florida Entomologist 28: 53. 1946.
Watson, J. R. Cover Crops Fight Citrus Pests. Fla. Grower 54: (1181):
4: 16-17. 1946.
West, Erdman, and Lillian E. Arnold. The Native Trees of Florida. 212
pp. 1946. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida.
Wilmot, R. J. Packing Plants for Shipment. Fla. State Dept. of Agricul-
ture For Sale, Want and Exchange Bul. 5: 6: 12: 1. 1945. (See also
The Amer. Eagle 40: 46: 3: 5. 1946. And So. Fla. News 58: 43:
1: 21-22. 1946.)
Wilson, J. W. Present Status of the Wireworm Problem in South Florida.
For publication in Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59: 1946.
Wolfenbarger, D. O. Cuban Laurel Thrips Control on Ficus Benjamini.
The Florida Entomologist 28: (4): 82-83. 1946.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0., and P. J. Westgate. Mealybug Control Studies on
Pineapples. For publication in Proc. of Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59: 1946.
Wylie, W. D. Insects Affecting Sweet Potatoes in the Everglades. For
publication in Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59: 1946.
Young, T. W. Progress Report on Chemical Weed Killers. For publication
in Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59: 1946.
Young, T. W. Citrus Research on the East Coast of Florida. For publica-
tion in Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59: 1946.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


One of the most important phases of work during the fiscal year has
been the attempt to reestablish the exchange of publications with foreign
countries. The Librarian has written to 75 foreign agricultural institutions
with gratifying response. Among these are a number of new institutions
whose publications will be a valuable addition to the Library holdings.
Few of the older institutions have found it possible to keep up their
publications during the war. At some others documents were published
but their destruction makes it impossible to complete library files. To
date replies have come from 19 foreign countries and 320 documents have
been received. These are mostly of a periodic nature and will be coming
in regularly in future. It will require another year to complete the survey
of available foreign agricultural publications and to fill, as far as possible,
the gaps in the Library's files.
A complete check of documents of the several States has been made, as
a result of which many formerly lacking have been secured. This is
particularly true of the publications issued by the various State depart-
ments of agriculture. Bound volumes totaling 678 have been added to
the shelves, giving the Library 20,581 accessioned volumes. In 1944-45,
because of war conditions, the Library received only 8,588 documents and
periodicals. Only 912 of these were station bulletins. During this fiscal
year 11,453 documents and periodicals were received, nearly 3,000 more
than for the previous year. For the latter period 2,033 station bulletins
were received, all of which have been catalogued and shelved.
A total of 15,621 cards were added to the catalog. Of these 10,958 were
prepared and typed in the Library and 585 main entry cards were pre-
pared and supplied to the Central Catalog. Sixty photoprints and books
were secured for the use of research staff and 5 volumes from this Library
were loaned to other institutions.
The staff, faculty and graduate students, in addition to having access
to the stacks, borrowed 1,663 books for office use, and 421 were sent to the
branch stations.
With the return of the war veterans and beginning with the second
semester in February 236 students used this agricultural library. The
materials placed on reserve and used by them consisted of 6,751 publications.

Annual Report, 1946

This Department continued its cooperation with the Bureau of Agricul-
tural Economics, the Production and Marketing Administration, USDA,
and other agricultural agencies in establishing State goals or production
guides for agricultural commodities that would be helpful to Florida farm-
ers and growers in planning their production programs. Work is now
in progress to arrive at such guides for 1947.
Under the provisions of a special State appropriation, effective July 1,
1945, the Department is collaborating with the State Crop and Livestock
Estimates Division of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, USDA, with
headquarters at Orlando, Florida, in its vegetable crop estimating work.
This collaboration is more fully outlined below under State Project 451.
Also, this special State appropriation made it possible to inaugurate work
in vegetable crop cost-of-production studies. Plans are in progress for
these studies and some data have been obtained, particularly for winter
Progress made with Purnell Projects 429 and 434 has been stimulated
greatly by a grant-in-aid from the General Education Board. Further-
more, the effective cooperation of the Cooperative Research and Service
Division of the Farm Credit Administration in both personnel and finances
has aided materially with Project 434. Project 415, entitled "Effective
Utilization of Farm Labor", was closed during the year.

Purnell Project 154 H. G. Hamilton and A. H. Spurlock
During the year data were obtained on prices by varieties, packing cost,
volume of business and financial condition of about 35 cooperative asso-
ciations for the 1944-45 season. Average balance sheets for 29 cooperative
associations were prepared showing the conditions of these associations at
the end of the fiscal years 1940-41 to 1944-45, inclusive. This type of data
is essential as background for any type of project with cooperative asso-

Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage and C. V. Noble
Closing the accounts for the previous season and opening accounts for
the current season was done as in previous years. Tabulations were made
and mimeographed reports were prepared for the 1943-44 season.
Fruit prices were somewhat higher than for the previous season but
production was generally not quite so large. This resulted in slightly
higher costs per box and increased net returns per box and per acre.
The trend toward higher grove prices continued, with considerable
citrus lands changing ownership during the season.

Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and A. H. Spurlock
Records of replacements, causes of losses, length of service and inven-
tory values of cows were obtained during the year from 10 dairies. The
life span of each animal which died or was disposed of has been calculated

32 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

in preparation for analysis. Summaries have not been made yet, pending
the accumulation of more observations. (For more complete report see

Purnell Project 395 A. H. Spurlock, Wade P. Young, C. V. Noble,
Zach Savage and D. E. Alleger
Data required for labor and materials summaries were completed during
the year for the following crops and areas:
Cucumbers .................................... Hardee and Lee counties
Strawberries ........................................... Hillsborough County
Peppers ........................ Broward and Hillsborough counties
Potatoes ........................... Dade County and Hastings area
Lima Beans ..................... ......... ........... Alachua County
Squash .................................... Alachua and Marion counties
Tomatoes ................................. Marion and Sumter counties
The study of potato production practices in both Dade County and the
Hastings Area was expanded at the request of growers to arrive at an
estimated cost of production of the 1944-45 crop.
The work of obtaining labor and materials estimates from growers was
begun in Manatee County for cabbage, escarole, lettuce and peppers; and
in Sumter County for cucumbers.

Purnell Project 415 C. V. Noble and Zach Savage
This cooperative work was continued with the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, USDA, and other Federal and State agricultural agencies to
arrive at basic data for the establishment of production goals for farmers
and growers for the 1945-46 season. The estimates for winter vegetable
acreages, forwarded in June 1945, were revised on July 31 and again on
October 1, 1945, due to prospective demand changes brought about by the
termination of the war. The general report from the State Agricultural
Adjustments Committee was completed and forwarded to the National
Goals Committee on July 31, 1945.
The State Agricultural Adjustments Committee, reconstituted in June
1946, prepared and forwarded to Washington its suggested acreages for
Florida winter vegetables for 1946-47 and made plans for the estimates
for all other commodities to be completed not later than September 3, 1946.
The mimeographed "Report of Committee on Post-War Planning for
Florida Agriculture", submitted to the Florida State Planning Board
January 6, 1944, was summarized and. published in The Florida Grower
in a series of 4 articles in November, 1945, and in January, February and
April, 1946.
Purnell Project 429 J. R. Greenman, H. G. Hamilton,
D. E. Alleger, C. V. Noble
and A. H. Spurlock
Intensive field work on this project has been completed. Data collected
for the Plant City area include: records of approximately 15,000 individual

Annual Report, 1946

sales of strawberries by farmers on the Plant City Farmers' State Market
for the 1942-43 and 1943-44 seasons; crop acreage data for the 1942-43
season for 270 farmers; farm management records for the 1944-45 season
on 52 farms; records concerning methods of land preparation, cover crop
programs, irrigation, and other cultural practices and methods of market-
ing each crop on 40 farms; 88 labor and materials records for individual
crops; records of attendance by months, age of students in each grade and
the amount of vocational work taken by students graduating or dropping
out of school in 1945 for 24 white and colored schools in the area. Tabula-
tion and analysis of these data are nearing completion. A detailed pre-
liminary statement concerning cropping practices, labor and materials
requirements for the major vegetable crops produced has been prepared.
A final statement giving the complete results of the study is in the process
of preparation for publication. It is anticipated that this statement, in
addition to providing a picture of the production and marketing of farm
products in the Plant City area, will indicate some of the more important
causes of success or failure of farmers and will point to ways in which
farming and marketing might be improved in the future.

Purnell Project 430 Max E. Brunk and D. E. Alleger
Work under this project is being related to results obtained from celery
production studies under Project 415, which was closed. Data on labor
costs, measured in hours, and quality of work were collected for this crop.
All editing of the original schedule sheets has been completed and ap-
proximately 35,000 cards for electrical machine tabulation have been
punched. Analysis of these data has begun.

Purnell Project 434 H. G. Hamilton, J. K. Samuels, M. C. Gay,
C. V. Noble and A. H. Spurlock
(In Cooperation with Farm Credit Administration)
Field work was started in June 1945 and schedules pertaining to the
operations of the following types of firms have been obtained: (1) Approxi-
mately 40 schedules on dealers supplying canners for the 1944-45 season;
(2) approximately 60 schedules (120 schedules for the 2 seasons) on firms
handling fresh citrus fruit for the 1943-44 and 1944-45 seasons; (3) 24
schedules (48 for the 2 seasons) on firms canning citrus fruits for the
1943-44 and 1944-45 seasons. Office work is in progress on the schedules,
and practically all the records for 1 season are ready for tabulation.

State Project 451 G. N. Rose, J. C. Townsend, Jr., and J. B. Owens
This project was designed to supplement the work being performed by
the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, USDA, in Florida. The work since
November 1, 1945, has consisted of continuous checkups by field trips,
questionnaires, personal letters, by telephone and telegraph, on the acre-
ages, condition, yields and prices of Florida vegetable crops. All informa-
tion gathered was tabulated for analysis and interpretation, compared with

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

historic data for accuracy of samplings, summarized and placed in inter-
pretative reviews as reports to the Washington office of the Bureau of
Agricultural Economics and later for general release. These summaries
and reviews consist of Truck Crop News on the 1st and 15th of each month
during the Florida season, with acreage and production reports released
once each month. Condition, price and movement reports were sent to
Washington twice each month. All surveys of adverse weather condition.
damages were reported immediately upon making the investigation.
To further supplement this work a special field survey was made during
the 6-week period May 15 to June 30, 1946. This work was done in 8
important vegetable production areas by local men employed temporarily
for this purpose. These men were assisted by the field personnel of the
Emergency Farm Labor Program. Results from this work will be used
in making the final analysis of the 1945-46 vegetable season and for setting
up statistical data on a county basis.
A mimeographed report, "Vegetable Crops in Florida," was issued in
December 1945, giving a statistical summary of the commercial acreage
of each vegetable crop by counties for the seasons 1937-38 to 1943-44,
inclusive; the total commercial acreage, production, and value of these
crops from the fall of 1934 to the spring of 1944; also, the equivalent carlot
shipments from Florida by rail or boat of each commercial vegetable crop
from 1928-29 to 1943-44, inclusive.


Estimated Milk Production Costs in Florida.-At the request of the
Florida Dairy Association, a survey was made to determine the cost of
production of milk for wholesale delivery in Florida on March 1, 1946.
Data on costs were obtained from questionnaires returned by 187 Florida
dairymen, giving feed prices and rates for hired labor and by personal
visits to 40 dairymen who were keeping cost records on their herds. These
production costs were analyzed separately for the Miami, Jacksonville,
Tampa, and Orlando areas. The data have been summarized and issued
in mimeographed form.
The Tampa Market Area Survey.-Truck crop growers in the Tampa
market area have under consideration the establishment, of a farmers'
cooperative market at Tampa, Florida, which might more adequately serve
them than the present available facilities. These growers requested the
agricultural agencies in Florida to survey the situation and furnish them
with a better background for the type of marketing facilities needed.
This Department conducted a farm survey in Hillsborough and Manatee
counties. Personal visits were made to 401 truck crop producers in these
counties to determine their use of markets in the Tampa area, and their
reasons for using a particular market for specific crops or other farm
commodities. The principal markets involved were the Plant City Farmers'
Market, the Palmetto State Farmers' Market and the Tampa Wholesale
Produce Market. Each grower was asked to suggest changes or improve-
ments in the market facilities or method of operation which would enable
the market to serve him more adequately than at present. Also, each
grower's opinion was obtained as to whether an additional market is
needed at Tampa.
The results of this Department's work, "The Farm Survey in the Tampa
Market Area," have been mimeographed and circulated among the other
agricultural agencies of the State who are cooperating with the study.
It is the plan to combine all phases of the study in a final report to the
growers concerned.

Annual Report, 1946 35

Florida Truck Crop Competition.-The work of keeping current Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 224 was continued. The weekly
carlot shipments of commercial truck crops during the 1944-45 season
were summarized and mimeographed. This shows the competition between
Florida and other states for each important truck crop.
Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries to Groves in Florida.-With
the cooperation of the State Plant Board, a summary of the citrus nursery
stock movement to Florida grove plantings for the 1944-45 season was
prepared. This summary is by types and varieties of fruit and is made
available in mimeographed form.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Agronomy research during the year was conducted under 22 regular
projects, together with miscellaneous projects on peanuts, sugarcane and
cotton (Sea Island and long staple upland). It involved crop variety test-
ing, breeding, rotation, fertilization, cover and green manure crop studies
and pasture establishment, maintenance and evaluation. A brief report
on each project follows:


State Project 20 W. A. Carver and Fred H. Hull
Peanut breeding was continued by intercrossing 4 of the most promising
lines, viz.: Fla. 231-51 (Dixie Runner), Ga. 207-3, Fla. 230-118, and Fla.
249-40-B-4. Back crosses were also made with Fla. 231-51, Fla. 249-40-B-4,
and Ga. 207-3 to combine 50 percent heredity of Fla. 231-51 in 1 line and
50 percent of Ga. 207-3 in another. Selection will be made within these
new lines.
The variety Dixie Runner, selected from a cross of Dixie Giant X Small
White Spanish, continues to gain favor among growers and processors
in the Southeast. It is 10 days earlier than the commonly grown runner
peanut, is more productive and much less subject to concealed damage,
the latter being its chief advantage.
The leading strains in the yield trials at Gainesville in 1945 were Fla.
230-118 and Dixie Runner. The former, an earlier maturing line, led Dixie
Runner by 23 percent in yield of peanuts over a 3-year period. Further yield
trials and selection for a more uniform pod and plant appear to be needed in
Strain 230-118 before it can be released to growers. Several promising
new strains of hybrid origin are under test. Among these are bunch and
runner plant types with Spanish type seed and pod, and pure small runner
type seed and pod. White or pearl seed have been found easily damaged
by excessive moisture at curing time. This fault, along with deficiencies
discovered by peanut processors, has reacted unfavorably for increases
in the production of white-seeded peanuts.


Hatch Project 55 W. E. Stokes, Geo. E. Ritchey and Henry C. Harris
Cotton-Corn-Legume Rotation.'-This phase of the project was discon-
tinued with the 1945 data. It was desirable, however, to grow a uniform
crop of oats on all plots to determine the effect that the rotation has had
on the fertility of each plot.
Florida 167 was seeded in October 1945 and harvested in early May
1946. Yields were determined. All plots used in the rotation were tripli-
cated and checks were replicated 16 times.
Yields of seed oats in pounds and bushels per acre were as follows:
Oats Yields Following- Lbs. Bushels
Continuous corn-16 years .-.........................--.. 947 29.6
Continuous cotton-16 years .....-..........---....-... 548 17.1
Rotation-following corn, natural cover ........ 741 23.2
Rotation-following cotton, natural cover ...... 942 29.4
Rotation-following corn, summer cover ........ 1,211 37.8
SIn cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.

Annual Report, 1946

Rotation-following cotton, summer cover...... 1,211 37.8
Rotation-following corn, winter cover .......... 1,058 33.1
Rotation-following cotton, winter cover ........ 942 29.4
Rotation-following corn, summer and
winter cover ..................-...............-- ....--- .. -1,173 36.7
Rotation-following cotton, summer and
w inter cover ................................. ..... ..... 1,371 42.8

The above data show that lower yields of oats were obtained from the
plots growing natural cover crops. The yields obtained from the plots
growing cotton continuously were considerably lower than from any other
plots; rotation of corn and cotton without legumes had approximately the
same effect on oat yields as the growing of corn continuously without
legumes. The plots on which were rotated corn and cotton followed by a
summer legume for a 16-year period and those with both summer and
winter legumes made the highest yields.
Winter legumes were a failure until the last 2 years, 1943-44 and
1944-45, when lupines produced a fair crop. The failure of the winter
cover crops probably was responsible for the low yields of oats on the
winter cover crop plots.
Winter Cover Crops Rotating with Corn or Cattail Millet.-The proce-
dures and treatments to investigate winter and summer cover crops in
rotation are summarized as follows: On October 3, 1945, the pH of the
plots in the experiment varied from 5.71 to 6.75. On October 15, 1945,
all plots were given a uniform over-all application of fertilizer consisting
of 411 pounds of 18 percent superphosphate and 247 pounds 60 percent
muriate of potash per acre. The application also contained a combination
of minor elements as follows: 5 pounds borax; 15 pounds copper sulfate;
15 pounds zinc sulfate; 50 pounds manganese sulfate; and 5 pounds cobalt
per acre. In the autumn of 1942 1 ton of limestone was applied to one-
half of all plots. The other half received no lime.
Also on October 15, 1945, one-half of each plot which had received a
ton of limestone in 1942 was given a second application of 1 ton of crushed
limestone. The other half of these plots received no additional lime; one-
half of each plot which received no lime in 1942 received 500 pounds of
limestone on October 15, 1945. This provided 3 rates of application of
lime in the experiment and the replicated plots were left unlimed.
Blue lupines, white sweet clover and oats were grown on respective
plots in 1944-45 and checks were allowed to grow volunteer natural vege-
tation according to the original plan. The sweet clover was allowed to
volunteer but a poor stand was obtained because of an extended drouth.
Lupines and oats were planted in October 1944 and yields were determined
on March 1, 1945. The plots were uniformly seeded to Cattail millet May
27, 1945, and harvested July 17, 1945, or 7 weeks after seeding. Lupines,
oats and sweet clover were grown during the winter of 1945-46. Yields
are recorded in Table 1.
The lupines referred to in Table 1 were the only cover crop which made
growth sufficient to determine yields in 1945. Lack of growth by the
others was a result of extreme drouth during the autumn of 1944 and the
spring of 1945. The yields of Cattail millet in 1945 were about 5 times as
high on the lupine plots as on plots growing other covers. The use of
lime in 1946 had little or no effect on yields of lupines and little effect
on the yields of sweet clover. High lime application evidently did increase
the yield of oats.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

I Yields of Cover Crops
Yields 1945 Pounds Green Weight
per Acre 1946
Lbs. Green
Green Weight Check 500 2,000 4,000
SWeight of No | Lbs. Lbs. I Lbs.
per Cattail Lime I Lime Lime Lime
Acre Millet

Lupines .................-.... 32,128 50,900 43,432 44,048 42,160 40,527
*Sweet clover ..--..-.. ....--. 8,956 17,129 19,978 21,048 19,162
*Oats ........................... 10,183 8,492 8,927 7,992 11,323
N o cover crop ............ 0 12,187 ......... .......... ......

Yields were not determined due to an extremely poor stand and growth caused by
autumn and spring drouths.

Corn and peanuts have been planted on all plots and yields will be
determined in 1946.
Date of Planting and Seed Treatment of Blue Lupines.'-Plantings of
blue and of yellow lupines were made in September, October and late
November 1945. Yields were obtained March 8, 1946.
Blue lupines planted in mid-October yielded from % more to over 3
times as much green manure as those planted in September and from
nearly 4 to 8 times as much as those planted in late November. Best
results over a period of 3 years were obtained in the Gainesville area
from plantings made on about October 15. (See also, Project 463, PLANT
Date of Turning Lupines for Corn.1-A field which had grown lupines
for 7 consecutive years was planted uniformly to blue lupines. Triplicated
plots were plowed under on January 15, February 1 and 15 and March 5.
The plots turned under January 15 produced 21,332 pounds of green lupines
per acre; there was a progressive increase in the later plantings and those
turned March 5 yielded 37,740 pounds, or nearly twice as much.

Hatch Project 56 W. E. Stokes, Geo. E. Ritchey,
Henry C. Harris and Fred Clark
For a discussion of variety trials, see reports for State Project 20,
Hatch Projects 363 and 378, Bankhead-Jones Project 301 and for Sea Island
and Upland cotton.

State Project 163 J. D. Warner, W. E. Stokes, R. W. Lipscomb,
R. W. Wallace and R. L. Smith
The residual effects of minor elements, applied to Sea Island cotton in
1943, on corn grown in 1945, after taking off a crop of cotton and a crop
of oats, were not highly significant. There was, however, some response
to copper, zinc and manganese. (See also Cooperative Fertilizer Experi-
ments with Field Crops and Pastures, North Florida Station.)
1 In cooperation with USDA.

Annual Report, 1946 39

Bankhead-Jones 295 R. E. Blaser, W. E. Stokes and G. B. Killinger
Source of Nitrogen.-Field and laboratory work involving nitrogen
sources applied to carpet grass have been completed. Yield and composi-
tion data are being summarized for publication.
Effect of Fertilization and Legumes on Carpet Grass.-Four years' data
have been secured on 8 pastures of 2.5 acres each which include duplicate
treatments of the following: Unfertilized carpet grass; carpet grass
fertilized annually in March with a complete fertilizer; carpet grass top-
seeded to a mixture of clovers in 1940 and annually fertilized with phos-
phate and potash in November; carpet grass top-seeded to common and
Kobe lespedeza and fertilized annually each spring with phosphate and
potash. All fertilized pastures received 1 tons of high calcium limestone
at the beginning of the experiment. Samples of herbage have been col-
lected at 2- to 4-week intervals from each field for yield of forage and
chemical analyses.
Controlled grazing has been practiced on these fields and cattle gains
recorded. The lespedeza and unfertilized carpet grass pastures were
started in 1942.
Summarized herbage yield and cattle gain data on these 8 pastures
for the 4-year period 1942-45 are given in Table 2.


4 Year Average, 1942-45
Herbage Treatment Pounds per Acre
_Dry Herbage Beef

Carpet grass ........................ no fertilizer 2,328 75
Carpet grass ........................ fertilized 4,230 148
Carpet grass-clover ............ fertilized 8,840 619
Carpet grass-lespedeza ...... fertilized 4,167 219

More complete data including chemical analysis are being summarized
for a Station bulletin. These tests were conducted cooperatively with the
Department of Animal Industry.
Grass, Fertilizer and Soil Type Interaction.-The 8 grasses and 12
fertilizer treatment experiments started in 1942 were evaluated. However
no fertilizer was applied during the 1945-46 seasons. All grasses responded
to phosphate and potash fertilization. Lime appeared to be essential for
the survival and growth of Bermuda grass. Pensacola Bahia and carpet
grasses have given best results on the 2 experiments involved. As noted
in earlier reports, both of these tests are located on a Leon fine sand,
1 near Callahan and the other near Zephyrhills. Pangola grass has grown
well at Zephyrhills but appeared to drown out at Callahan. Bermuda grass
has not produced as much growth on these flatwoods areas as either Bahia
or carpet grass.
Minor Elements and Their Effect on Grass.-Establishment of sods from
newly seeded areas was much more rapid following small applications of
copper, zinc and manganese. Little effect of the minor elements can be
noted the third or fourth year after establishment.

40 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

New Grasses Under Grazing.-Coastal Bermuda, Pensacola Bahia and
Pangola (Digitaria decumbens Stent.) were established in duplicate 2.3-
acre pastures. Limestone was applied the first year and complete fertilizer
each spring. Results from cattle grazing for 3 seasons indicated gains
of approximately 210 pounds of beef per acre per year, with little difference
in gain between the 3 grasses. Yield of herbage and chemical composition
data are being compiled. (See also ANIMAL INDUSTRY.)

Bankhead-Jones Project 297 Geo. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
Observations are being continued on a number of new plant species
growing in the forage nursery. Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr. as a pasture
legume in low damp areas and several lespedezas are showing special
promise for pasture. The early strain of Indigofera has continued to
mature seed approximately a month earlier than the commonly grown
strain. The plant is a little smaller than the late strains but produces
sufficient growth for green manuring.
A single strain of Bahia grass, received from Argentina, is producing
satisfactorily and its seed is being increased. Several strains of vetches
are under observation and in particular 1 strain of Big Flower vetch is
showing promise for grazing. Selections of Augusta vetch are also under
test for adaptation to permanent pasture conditions.
The Dixie Wonder, a rapidly growing large field pea, shows much
promise for early winter grazing, either alone or with small grain. Seed-
ings of Lathyrus hirsutus L. (Caley pea) on established carpet grass sod
have done well. If the crop will reseed satisfactorily in grass sod its value
will be enhanced.

Bankhead-Jones Project 298 Geo. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
It was reported in the 1944-45 Annual Report that a volunteering strain
of yellow lupine had been isolated. This strain is a bitter or alkaloid-
containing strain and volunteered satisfactorily in 1945-46. A variety of
sweet or non-alkaloid yellow lupine, Florida Speckled, was developed which
produced good early growth of forage and is suitable for grazing or for
green manure. It yielded as well as or better than other strains of lupines.
The Florida Speckled volunteered well when a sufficient quantity of seed
was allowed to mature and shatter.
Strains of non-alkaloid, or sweet, blue lupines have been selected and
it is hoped that volunteering strains will soon be developed.
Napier grass improvement has been confined to observations of a group
of seedlings which have been selected and planted in variety test plots.
Yields are being taken in 1946.

Bankhead-Jones Project 299 G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes
Native wire grass on a Leon fine sand near Gainesville was burned
and fertilized and the area was seeded to carpet and Pensacola Bahia
2 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases. BPISAE, USDA.
3 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE, USDA.

Annual Report, 1946

in August of 1945. Part of the area was burned and received no fertilizer,
while part was not burned but fertilized. Another burn was made on
an adjacent area in December and another in January. The December
burn was treated the same as the August burn but had an additional top-
seeding of White Dutch clover on the day of burning. The January burn
was seeded to lespedeza in late February 1946. All of the areas involved
received the mixed grass seeding.
August burning (off season) controlled (suppressed) wire grass growth
a great deal more than either the December or January (seasonal) burns.
Both the Bahia and carpet grass germinated and made good growth on
the August burn. Excessive shading by the new growth wire grass on
seasonal burn caused many of the Bahia and carpet seedlings to die. White
Dutch clover grew well in spite of the late seeding on burned plots which
received phosphate, potash and lime. Plots receiving no lime supported
no clover growth after the first 6 weeks. Lespedeza did well on the fertilized
and limed, burned and unburned areas but little lespedeza survived in the
absence of lime.
Fertilized unburned wire grass analyzed about the same in minerals
as new growth wire grass from burned plots 6 weeks after treatment.
Bankhead-Jones Project 301 W. E. Stokes, Geo. E. Ritchey,4
R. E. Blaser and G. B. Killinger
Minor Element Tests.-Black Medic clover exhibited deficiency symp-
toms on a number of field test plots. Applications of borax corrected the
deficiencies and plants made normal growth.
Clover Variety Tests.-White Dutch, Black Medic and Sweet clover ap-
pear to be the clovers best suited to Florida conditions. Improved strains
of Black Medic and Sweet clover have been increased from selections of
native grown plants. Chemical analyses have been made of various clovers
treated with various fertilizers and rates of phosphate, potash and lime.
Seed Sources and Selective Breeding.-Native legumes growing along
railroad right-of-ways, highways and other places in Florida were com-
pared and several new and superior strains of Black Medic and Sweet clover
have been found. Space planting of these native seed have made it possible
to select superior plants. (See also Project 301, NORTH FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones Project 302 R. E. Blaser, W. E. Stokes, R. B. Becker,
P. T. Dix Arnold and R. S. Glasscock
Napier Grass for Dairy Cows.-Grazing with dairy cows was continued
on 5 Napier pastures and samples were taken for yield and chemical
analyses. Napier grass management and the grazing of Napier pastures
with beef cattle have been discontinued. Data relative to Napier grass
research are being analyzed and prepared for publication. This work is
conducted in cooperation with the Department of Animal Industry.
Bankhead-Jones Project 304 R. E. Blaser and H. C. Harris
This experimental work has resulted in definite information which is
summarized as follows:
In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, BPISAE. USDA.

42 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

1. Proper fertilization and seedbed preparation are important in estab-
lishing pastures.
2. Coastal Bermuda can be established satisfactorily by spreading
rhizomes over the soil and disking or turning with the tiller plow.
3. Pangola grass must be sprigged, allowing some of the tops to pro-
trude from the soil for best results.
4. Partial stands can be had by disking in similar to the Bermuda
5. Carpet grass does well when top-seeded and rolled or covered with
a cultipacker.
6. Bahia establishes best when covered about 1/4 inch deep.
7. All grasses tested do best on firm, well packed seedbeds treated with
a complete fertilizer.
Hatch Project 363 W. E. Stokes, W. A. Carver and H. C. Harris
Clipping experiments with oats indicate that several varieties are satis-
factory for grazing purposes in the Gainesville area. Florida 167 was
satisfactory and compared favorably with rye. Extra nitrogen applications
tend to increase the yield of forage and keep the protein content of the
clippings at a high level. Florida 167 was the only variety at Gainesville
this year that was satisfactory for grain.
Adams Project 369 G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes
Protein and mineral content of Florida 167 oat plants from 5 pastures
were made on samples collected at 2- to 3-week intervals from the time
grazing with cattle was started December 20, 1945. Ten steers grazing
on the 7 acres in this test produced 1,330 pounds of beef in a 122-day
grazing period. Protein and minerals were highest in the herbage during
the first 60 days of grazing, with the protein dropping off as the season
Velvet beans responded to increased rates of potash, as evidenced in
a test at Trenton. Rates of 0, 75, 150 and 225 pounds of K20 were used,
and plant material analyzed showed increases in potassium with each rate
Peanuts continued to analyze from 1.5 to 4 percent higher in oil content
from plots dusted with 60 pounds of sulfur per acre.
Bulletin 419 gives analytical data on chufas fertilized with 400 pounds
per acre of 4-8-4 and on others not fertilized. An analysis of the hay
indicated that fertilization had increased the mineral content of all those
elements for which determinations were made. The oil content of chufas
increased if they remained in the soil through the winter, while the yield
Analysis of lupines for a 3-year period show that on 1 field on the
Station farm the following equivalents per acre were returned to the soil
when the lupine crop was plowed under: Nitrate of soda 1,169 pounds, super-
phosphate (18 percent) 273 pounds, muriate of potash (60 percent) 159
pounds, calcium carbonate 203 pounds and magnesium sulfate 148 pounds.
Adams Project 372 Fred H. Hull, Fred A. Clark and W. E. Stokes
One of the introduced tobacco varieties on trial in 1945 was found to
be almost entirely free of root-knot galls. This variety from Honduras,

Annual Report, 1946

named Copaneco, was obtained from the Division of Tobacco Investigations,
BPISAE, as T.I. 706. It is the same species as domestic tobacco and
appears to be a much more promising source of resistance to root-knot for
breeding operations than is N. repanda Willd.
Numerous crosses of different domestic varieties and breeding strains
were made with T.I. 706 in 1945. Some of the crosses were tested in a
greenhouse bed which was artificially infested with root-knot nematodes.
All of the crosses were planted in field beds with no addition of nematode
infested material.
Field plots were set with plants from the greenhouse bed with least
root-knot development and with plants from the field beds. All field plots
were artificially inoculated with nematodes and susceptible varieties be-
came badly infested. All of the T.I. crosses are also infested with root-
knot nematodes but some much less than the common flue-cured varieties.
Root-knot resistance combined with satisfactory flue-cured type will be
sought in the second hybrid generations of these crosses next year. Pre-
liminary curing trials indicate that satisfactory flue-cured type may be
recovered in segregates from the T.I. 706 crosses.

Purnell Project 374 Fred H. Hull and W. A. Carver
Florida W-l, Florident Yellow and Florident White continue to be the
most satisfactory varieties of field corn for central and northern Florida.
Seed production of Florida W-1 has been curtailed somewhat by labor
shortage during the war period and by generally poor growing conditions
during the seasons of 1944 and 1945.
Helminthosporium leaf spot has been increasing for the past few seasons
in Florida. Some fields of corn were seriously damaged. Good supplies
of nitrogen, as where corn follows a winter crop of lupines, appear to re-
sult in less disease. Inbred line F2, which is 1 foundation line of Florida
W-l, has considerable resistance to Helminthosporium leaf spot. The other
3 foundation lines of Florida W-1 are susceptible, as is most of the corn
grown in Florida.
A collection of corn varieties from many different parts of the world
has been assembled in the past few years. These varieties are being
studied for desirable characteristics, particularly in crosses with some
of our better inbred lines. Present indications are that resistance to
Helminthosporium leaf spot may be easily recovered from some crosses.
A broad mixture of many varieties is being screened for yield factors
which may be unavailable in native varieties.
The Station's sweet corn inbred line F51 derived from P51, which is one
parent of Golden Cross Bantam, is quite resistant to Helminthosporium leaf
spot. This line is much larger and later than P51 but has good quality
and ear type. Line F39 derived from P39, the other parent of Golden
Cross Bantam, is fully susceptible to this disease, as is P39. F39 is also
somewhat deficient in ear size but has good table quality. New lines from
crosses of F39 with many large-eared and lower quality sweet varieties are
being tested in hybrid combinations with F51.
It was suggested in the previous report that high yield in corn may
be a character for which hybridity is fundamental. The character could
not then be fixed in a pure strain. In further study of this possibility, the
theoretical regression equation F = bi (P, + P2)/2 + b2PIP, has been derived
from the Mendelian theory of heredity. This equation has been approved by
leading specialists in the field of mathematical genetics. Analysis with
the foregoing regression equation of a considerable body of data on corn

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

yields taken in other states provides considerable evidence that high corn
yield is indeed a character which cannot be fixed in pure lines. Hybridity
seems to be fundamental to vigor of the corn plant. It is also indicated
in the same analysis that yields of inbred lines and hybrids do not always
maintain a constant relative order under different test conditions. An
inbred line which shows high performance in hybrids in 1 location may
be quite poor in another location in the same combinations and in com-
parison with the same group of other lines. These findings emphasize the
need for hybrids adapted to different climatic and fertility zones within
the State. It is, therefore, gratifying to note that organization of complete
corn breeding programs at the North Florida and Everglades Stations has
recently become feasible. This is partly because of additional personnel
on the technical staff. It is also possible because of an improved breeding
plan designed in the light of a better understanding the genetics of yield
and vigor.5 The time consuming and laborious process of selection within
and among large numbers of self-fertilized lines has been largely eliminated
as a preliminary step to testing hybrid combinations. Facilities of the
branch stations thus become adequate for complete breeding programs
of sufficient extent to provide considerable hope of success. Dependence
on the main station and out-of-state breeding programs for inbred lines,
except for a few tester lines to initiate the work, has been eliminated.
Recent rapid increase of the acreage of lupines as a winter cover crop
indicates that a major portion of the corn crop may soon be grown with
considerably more available nitrogen in the soil. Attempts to develop
hybrids specifically adapted to utilize the heavier supplies of nitrogen
from preceding crops of lupines are being made by growing lupines in
rotation on the corn breeding plots.
A preliminary report on these investigations of the genetics of yield
and vigor of corn and efficient breeding plans was made to a joint meeting
of the Genetics Society of America and the American Statistical Asso-
ciation at St. Louis, March 29, 1946.

Hatch Project 378 W. E. Stokes and Fred Clark
The experimental work was continued on a Norfolk fine sand on the
following: (1) Fertilizer test with 6 varieties; (2) rates of fertilizer with
different spacings; (3) fertilizer studies with varying rates of nitrogen,
phosphorus and potash; and (4) cultural studies.
Mammoth Gold, Bonanza, Yellow Mammoth, Gold Dollar, Virginia
Brightleaf, and 401 were the highest yielders.
Varieties receiving a 4-8-11 tobacco fertilizer at 1,200 pounds per acre
produced the highest average yields. In the grade or analysis test the
highest yield, with good quality, was produced from a 4-10-11 fertilizer,
carrying 8.5 percent CaO, 2 percent MgO, 14 percent SOs, 2 percent chlorine
and 0.05 percent boron and used at 1,000 pounds per acre.
In the rates of fertilizer test using a 4-8-11 tobacco fertilizer at 1,000,
1,200, 1,400, and 1,600 pounds per acre, the 1,400- to 1,600-pound rates
have continued to yield best.
In cultural studies of standard row width (4 ft.) versus wide rows
(8 ft.) versus wide and narrow row (tobacco rows 2 feet apart with a
6-foot middle), the standard 4-foot rows yielded about equal to wide rows
and produced a quality of leaf valued at 2 cents more per pound.

6Hull, Fred H. Recurrent Selection for Specific Combining Ability in Corn. Jour.
Ameri. Soc. Agron. 37: 134-145. 1945.

Annual Report, 1946 45

Bankhead-Jones Project 417 R. E. Blaser and W. E. Stokes
The 1-acre areas, reported last year, of Pangola, Coastal Bermuda and
No. 99 Bermuda grasses were further maintained for distribution of vege-
tative seed stocks to farmers, to county agricultural agents and to Soil
Conservation Service workers for establishing nurseries for future increase
plantings. This season 80 truck loads of planting material were obtained
by interested parties.
The 5-acre tract of improved Black Medic clover produced about 200
pounds of seed which will be used for further increasing seed stocks. Some
Pensacola Bahia grass seed was saved also for enlarging plantings.
The 5-acre planting of the Gainesville strain of Hubam clover and the
4-acre planting of improved Black Medic planted near Gainesville in co-
operation with cattlemen each yielded about 400 pounds of seed, all of
which will be used for increasing plantings for seed production.

Adams Project 439 H. C. Harris
The work done on this project has been of a preliminary nature, but
data thus far obtained indicate that the peanut is a high oxygen require-
ment plant.

Bankhead-Jones Project 440 H. C. Harris
This project was initiated recently and no data are available.

Hatch Project 441 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
The project was inactive this year.

State Project 444 Fred Clark and G. M. Volk
Either 1 pound of uramon, 1 pound of calcium cyanamid, or 1 pound
of uramon plus % pound of calcium cyanamid, per square yard has con-
tinued to give good weed control and excellent plants. Several new
combinations proved very satisfactory this past season; for example,
1 pound uramon and %1 pound calcium cyanamid, 1 pound uramon and
pound dolomite and 1 pound uramon and % pound calcium sulfate per
square yard. The chemically treated soils have produced plants much
earlier for transplanting than non-treated soil.
The soil pH has been a good measure of the effectiveness of the various
treatments, since free ammonia apparently killed weed seed. The pH

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

continued high for 60 days following treatments with 1 pound of uramon
per square yard in open beds. Where beds were covered with asphalt
roofing the pH continued high for 75 days. One-half pound of uramon
when covered produced a higher pH than 1 pound in open beds, but weed
control was approximately the same. It appeared to be more practical
to use the higher amount and not cover the beds. A combination of 1
pound of uramon with pound of cyanamid produced a still higher pH
than the above treatments and it continued high for a longer period,
making it unsafe to plant seed at the end of 60 to 75 days, as was possible
with the preceding treatments.
The 15 percent fermate dust and 10 percent fermate plus 1 percent
zinc sulfate were equally effective in controlling blue mold and both were
more effective than the calcium dimethyldithiocarbamate.
This work is conducted cooperatively with the departments of Soils,
Plant Pathology and Entomology.

Bankhead-Jones Project 457 H. C. Harris
Studies using nutrient solutions indicate that nutrients have to be in
the pegging zone as well as the root zone for the fruit to develop. Appar-
ently the roots are the main absorbing area but because of inadequate
translocation the pegs may not secure a sufficient supply of nutrients for
the production of peanuts. Under those conditions the pegs are able to
absorb at least some elements in sufficient quantity that the nuts will
develop. There is a suggestion that some of the elements, absorbed through
the peg, are translocated and used in other parts of the growing plant.
Leafspot developed on the leaves of plants only where the roots were
growing in a solution without magnesium. (Published in Plant Physiology
21: 237-240. 1946.)
In some dusting and fertilizer experiments at Gainesville this year,
3 dustings of sulfur had little effect on leafspot. Both DDT and cryolite
gave good control of the velvet bean caterpillar. Fertilizer applications
caused more peanuts to be left in the soil at digging and DDT and cryolite
dusting decreased the percentage left in the soil. The quality and grade
of peanuts was inferior in certain portions of the field, this suggesting
that some factor as soil or drainage, while not readily apparent, was
In some tests with peanuts following a tobacco fertilization experiment
as much as 1,100 pounds per acre of peanuts were shed and left in the
soil in the digging process. This work is conducted cooperatively with
the departments of Entomology, Plant Pathology, and Animal Industry.


Sugarcane.-The only fertilizer treatment that had any appreciable
effect on the yield of sugarcane at Gainesville this year was nitrogen.
Eighty pounds of nitrogen per acre gave larger yields than lesser quan-
tities, and splitting the application, half the first of June and half the
last of July, was not as good as all in early June. Splitting similarly
1,000 pounds of 4-8-4 fertilizer per acre was not as good as applying it all
at one time. (H. C. Harris.)
Cooperative Sea Island and Long Staple Upland Strain and Fertilizer
Tests."-These experiments consisted of combination Sea Island strain and
side-dressing tests, Sea Island strain and fertilizer tests, and variety tests

Annual Report, 1946

of Upland cotton at Leesburg, McIntosh and Evinston and in Madison
Seaberry yielded best in the Sea Island strain-side-dressing trials; side-
dressing with potash produced the highest yield, followed next by nitrogen
and potash, with nitrogen side-dressing third and no side-dressing lowest.
In the fertilizer-strain test the Seaberry strain yielded higher than
strain 12B2; 500 pounds of 4-7-5 fertilizer without side-dressing yielded
best, followed by the same rate at planting with a nitrogen side-dressing;
1,000 pounds of a 4-7-5 fertilizer at time of planting and with no side-
dressing yielded poorest.
The 15-acre Seaberry strain seed increase planting yielded about 200
pounds of lint per acre and supplied a quantity of seed stock which is being
stored for future use.
The irregular stand in the long staple Upland test at McIntosh made
it impossible to evaluate the relative value of the varieties tested. In the
Madison County tests Stoneville 2B yielded highest, followed by Coker-
Wilds Strain 15, with Ewing 452 ranking third.
Several Sea Island-Upland crosses were satisfactory as to both lint
characteristics and satisfactory production under boll weevil conditions
in Florida. These are being given further trial. (M. M. Gist," Paul Cal-
houn7 and W. E. Stokes.)

( In cooperation with Division of Cotton and Other Fiber Crops and Diseases, BPISAE,
SState Department of Agriculture.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Research in the Animal Industry Department was conducted in the
following divisions: (1) Dairy husbandry, (2) animal nutrition, (3) beef
cattle and swine, (4) veterinary science, including parasitology, (5) poultry
husbandry, and (6) dairy manufactures.
The development of techniques for using radioactive isotopes was con-
tinued during the year and those facilities which have been developed in
the nutrition laboratory were available for cooperative work with other
departments. Cooperative studies were conducted with Michigan State
College. By using radioactive tracer elements, results have been achieved
which could not have been obtained with any other known methods. The
purchase of additional equipment has increased the capacity of the labora-
tory so that several hundred samples can be analyzed for a radioactive
element in a few days, instead of months or years. Analyses were made
of feed samples collected in connection with experimental feeding studies
at the Nutrition Laboratory and of samples from cooperative experiments
with the Everglades, Range Cattle and North Florida Stations.
As part of the research work in minor element nutrition, methods have
been perfected and analyses for minor elements made on animal tissues
and on many feeds and pasture forages. Investigations were made on
several animal species and cooperative work was conducted with the other
divisions of Animal Industry and with the Soils and Agronomy Depart-
ments. Stock colonies of rats and rabbits were maintained at the Nutrition
Laboratory for the purpose of supplying animals with comparable, con-
trolled histories for experimental work. The value of this practice has
been well demonstrated this year because the high cost of these laboratory
animals on the open market, even when they could be obtained, has made
it almost impossible for some experimental laboratories to continue work.
The herd of purebred Aberdeen-Angus cattle has increased to approxi-
mately 20 cows of breeding age, and the purebred Polled Hereford herd
to 9 head of females of breeding age.
Superior heifer calves in both herds were kept for replacements and
the best bull calves sold for breeding purposes. The other bull calves were
castrated and will be used for experimental projects.
The swine herd consists of purebred Duroc-Jerseys. By rigid selection
a uniform type is being established.
During the year numerous trips were made to farms and ranches in
the State to investigate losses in livestock. Numerous specimens from
diseased animals were examined in the laboratory. Many sick and dead
chickens and other fowl were received for diagnoses. Projects in para-
sitology were resumed when the parasitologist returned from military
The poultry flock is composed of approximately 400 Single Comb Rhode
Island Reds, 150 Light Sussex and 50 New Hampshires. It is-used for
experimental purposes in breeding, feeding and management of mature
stock, and for conducting research studies with baby chicks and growing
stock on range or in confinement in battery brooders. During the spring
of 1946 approximately 3,500 chicks were hatched. Some of these chicks
were used in experimental feeding trials and the remainder brooded and
reared on the range to produce stock for the 1946-47 feeding and manage-
ment trials. All adult birds were pullorum tested and no reactors were
found. The Poultry Division is cooperating with the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board, which supervises the National Poultry Improvement Plan

Annual Report, 1946 49

in Florida, in developing its program to improve the quality of chicks by
breeding and disease control.
Cooperative poultry experimental work was continued at the West
Central Florida Experiment Station. At the Florida National Egg Laying
Test an experiment in floor space requirements for broiler production was
The Dairy Products Laboratory conducts a research program on problems
in market milk and the manufacture of ice cream. Service was given the
dairy industry through recommendations on immediate problems that con-
front plant operators.

Purnell Project 133 Geo. K. Davis, C. L. Comar, Ruth F. Taylor,
R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, D. A. Sanders,
R. S. Glasscock, W. G. Kirk and R. W. Kidder
Radioactive tracer studies have revealed that only a very small per-
centage of injected cobalt is retained in the animal body. The liver is
the principal storage center of cobalt, with small amounts accurring in a
few other organs. The fact that cobalt is rapidly eliminated from the
animal body indicates that small amounts of this element should be sup-
plied continuously or at short intervals for maximum benefit to cattle on
deficient range. Feeding cobalt was more effective than injecting it into
the blood stream.
Blood analyses have been continued for 3 years from grade Guernsey
cows at the Range Cattle Station. Results obtained to date indicate that
insufficient feed continues to be the principal obstacle to growing cattle
on native ranges. Cattle receiving minor element supplements were more
thrifty on the feed available. Results from determinations made of feed
constituents in forage from native pastures indicate that wide variations
in nutrients available to livestock may result from different management
A herd of grade Devon cattle kept on a virgin muck pasture planted
with Roselawn variety of St. Augustine grass developed a syndrome of
copper deficiency. Varying levels of copper sulfate were used in ascertain-
ing the response of these animals to copper therapy. Results to date show
abnormal phosphorus metabolism occurring with copper deficiency. (See
also EVERGLADES STATION, Project 133.)
Collection of cattle bone samples was continued to establish values for
normal composition. Bone samples from 17 cows and calves that were
eliminated from the dairy herd brought the total number of samples to 85.
Palatability trials were conducted on 6 combinations of common salt
with fused phosphate obtained from the Tennessee Valley Authority. These
trials were conducted with herds near brackish water and on inland areas.
Dairy cows and heifers preferred the mixtures with the least fused phos-
phate. Under similar conditions, cows and heifers preferred mixtures of
common salt with disodium phosphate which had the largest proportions
of the latter. Disodium phosphate tends to form a hard.cake when mixed
with salt.
Eleven stations from which virgin soils had been sampled in the early
investigations of nutritional anemia were revisited for the purpose of
reidentification or verification of the soil types. On 2 of these stations
in deficient areas, the practice of "changing the range" to maintain the
cattle in healthy condition had been replaced by the use of the iron-copper-
cobalt supplement. The cattle were being maintained in better thrift than

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

formerly when no supplement was used and the cattle changed from
range to range.

State Project 140 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
R. S. Glasscock and George K. Davis
This project was inactive during the year.

State Project 213 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, George K. Davis,
C. L. Comar and Katherine Boney
Observations concerning the density of prolific type corn silage in an
upright silo were continued. Excessive spoilage resulted from inability
to obtain building paper to seal off the top of the cut forage.
One laboratory silo was filled with Crotalaria spectabilis Roth to furnish
silage for chemical analyses and biological trials in toxicity experiments
with crotalaria. (See also Project 426.)
A third trial with the laboratory silos in which urea was added to
sorghum for silage was completed during the year. Levels of 0, 0.5 and
1 percent urea were used, analyses being made before and after ensiling.
Results of the crude protein analyses indicated some movement of the
urea through the silage and considerable loss of urea through decomposi-
tion. The addition of 0.5 percent urea resulted in crude protein values
of the silage almost as high as with additions of 1 percent of the compound.

State Project 216 A. L. Shealy, R. S. Glasscock and W. G. Kirk
This project was inactive during the year.

Bankhead-Jones Project 302 P. T. 'Tix Arnold, R. B. Becker,
R. E. Blaser and W. E. Stokes
Dairy Phase.-The Napier pasture (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach)
reported for previous years was refertilized and grazed with dairy cows.
The 8-acre area provided grazing through a 160-day period for a total
of 2,593 cow-days, between May 25 and October 11, 1945.
Collection of data on this project is completed and results are being
assembled for publication.

State Project 307 N. R. Mehrhof
The data assembled during the operation of this project are being
prepared for publication. Work on this project is completed with this

Annual Report, 1946

Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and A. H. Spurlock
In determining the importance of certain factors affecting breeding
efficiency and depreciation of dairy cattle, records were obtained during
the year on breeding, inventory valuations and replacements of dairy
cows in 7 of the cooperating herds during the year.
Data on the length of the useful life of dairy bulls were analyzed. A
total of 2,109 bulls, living out their natural period of usefulness, sired
their last calves when at an average age of 10.68 years. Owners disposed
of 1,074 bulls at an average age of 6.24 years for various reasons while
these bulls yet were fertile. Infectious diseases were the cause of death
or disposal of 17.6 percent of bulls; sterility from various causes claimed
27.8 percent; accidents and injuries 12.9 percent; old age 9.7 percent; while
other non-infectious causes accounted for 32 percent of the animals under

Purnell Project 346 George K. Davis, C. L. Comar and Ruth F. Taylor
In following radioactive cobalt and radioactive phosphorus through the
animal body in an effort to obtain more information on the metabolism of
these elements, extensive use has been made of rats and rabbits. By use
of metabolism cages, information has been accumulated on (1) the rate
of cobalt absorption and elimination; (2) the rate of phosphorus utiliza-
tion; (3) the influence of copper, iron and phosphorus on cobalt utilization
when the animals are in different states of nutrition, and (4) the location
of cobalt activity within the animal. It has been determined that cobalt
is eliminated rapidly, regardless of whether it was injected or fed by
Investigations with phosphorus showed that the distribution of this
element to all parts of the body, including bone, is extremely rapid, indi-
cating the possibility of a more rapid turnover in bone composition than
was previously suspected.


Purnell Project 353 D. A. Sanders
Investigations in the use of penicillin in the treatment and control of
infectious mastitis were continued. Research on the susceptibility of mas-
titis organisms to the action of penicillin revealed that mastitis streptococci
were highly susceptible to the antibacterial action of this drug, mastitis
staphylococci were less susceptible, yet were usually destroyed by large
doses. Colon-type. microorganisms within the udder were more difficult
to destroy with penicillin than the streptococci and staphylococci but ap-
pear to be within the scope of effective treatment with this drug. Intra-
mammary injections of penicillin solutions through the teat canal proved
to be non-coagulating for the udder secretion, and non-irritating to the
tissues of the lactating or non-lactating udder. The effective antibacterial
action of penicillin against the common microorganisms of mastitis is of
great practical value in combating the disease. A technique of using peni-
cillin which will be of maximum effectiveness in treating the different types
of mastitis is still under investigation. Four or 5 intramammary injections

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

at 24-hour intervals via the teat canal, using 25,000 to 100,000 units of
penicillin dissolved in 1 to 2 ounces of sterile distilled water, are recom-
mended as a basis for treating the average case.

Bankhead-Jones Project 356 George K. Davis and R. E. Blaser
Bermuda grass, Pensacola Bahia, and a mixture of Carpet grass and
White Dutch clover were used in feeding trials with Dutch breed rabbits,
using a larger number of animals than in past trials. Results show that
the quality of Bermuda grass protein is nearly as good as that of the
clover-carpet grass mixture. The quantity of protein in Bermuda grass,
however, is considerably less. Bahia proved to be inferior to the other
forages in both quantity and quality of protein, but it did support slow
growth and development in the rabbits. (Conducted in cooperation with

State Project 387 L. E. Swanson
Cattle parasite larvae of Haemonchus contortus and H. similis, Oster-
tagia ostertagia, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia spp., Oesophagostomum
radiatum, Trichuris discolor, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Dictyocaulus vivi-
parous and Nematodirus filicollis were unable to survive a starvation period
of from 10 to 19 months on carpet grass pasture. These parasites proved
infective for a 6%-month period.

State Project 394 E. L. Fouts and P. T. Dix Arnold
This project has been inactive during the year.

State Project 406 N. R. Mehrhof and A. W. O'Steen
Due to the acute feed shortage it was impossible to obtain skimmilk
and shelled corn. The data obtained previously are being assembled for
Work on this project is completed with this report.

State Project 407 N. R. Mehrhof and A. W. O'Steen
A second trial to determine the value of condensed buttermilk in a moist
mash as a supplement to the ration for laying hens was conducted. Dupli-
cate lots of New Hampshire pullets were used in the experiment. In the
first group there was no significant difference in egg production by the
lots; in the second group, the lot receiving condensed buttermilk laid an
average of 25.73 eggs per bird more than the birds receiving no buttermilk
The amount of feed consumed per dozen eggs produced was 0.32 pounds
more for the lot that received buttermilk supplement in the first group
and 0.22 pounds more for the lot receiving no milk in the second group.
This project is completed with this report and a manuscript is being
prepared for publication.

Annual Report, 1946 53

State Project 412 R. S. Glasscock, J. E. Pace,
D. J. Smith and W. G. Kirk
Two pastures of mixed clovers and carpet grass were grazed from
January 30 to October 30 and yielded 581 pounds of beef per acre. The
average daily gain per steer was 0.75 pounds. At the end of the grazing
period 10 steers were slaughtered and the carcasses graded as follows:
2, Good; 6, Commercial; and 2, Utility.
Pastures sodded to Pangola, Pensacola Bahia and Coastal Bermuda also
were grazed with steers. The amount of beef per acre from these grasses
was a follows: Pangola, 216 pounds; Coastal Bermuda, 258 pounds; Pensa-
cola Bahia, 210 pounds. There was little difference in the average daily
gain of steers on these pastures. Slaughter data showed the following
grades of carcasses from the various pastures: Pangola, 3 Commercial and
2 Utility; Coastal Bermuda, 1 Commercial and 4 Utility; Pensacola Bahia,
1 Commercial and 4 Utility.
Two fertilized and 2 unfertilized carpet grass pastures were grazed
with steers. The fertilized pasture produced 164 pounds of beef per acre
while the unfertilized pasture yielded only 46 pounds per acre. The average
daily gain per steer was 0.88 pounds for the fertilized pasture and 0.32
pounds for the unfertilized.
Two pastures of lespedeza were grazed by heifers during the season.

State Project 418 M. W. Emmel
Laboratory experiments show that the viability of coccidia and common
round worm eggs is destroyed by the "fuming action" of sulfur when the
latter is applied to infested soil at the rate of 10 pounds per 100 square
feet. Under field conditions the hydrogen ion concentration of the soil
reaches a pH of approximately 3 to 4 within 3 months after initial appli-
cation of this amount of dusting sulfur.

Adams Project 424 M. W. Emmel
Transmission agent RPL-16 has been carried through 56 serial trans-
missions. Investigations, from which no definite conclusions can be drawn
now, are being made to determine the nature of this agent.


State Project 425 M. W. Emmel
This project has been inactive during the year.

State Project 426 George K. Davis, C. L. Comar and Ruth F. Taylor
Crotalaria spectabilis Roth was ensiled in a pilot silo to determine the
effect of the ensiling process upon the toxicity of this plant material. The

54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

original material and the silage were analyzed for feeding value and
toxicity. The results were contradictory and further work will be necessary
before the values can be published.

Bankhead-Jones Project 431 T. R. Freeman, Peggy Lockwood
and E. L. Fouts
Work on this project was divided into 2 phases, (1) collection and
analysis of water samples from numerous areas in Florida, and (2) the use
of available washing powders with the various types of water in determin-
ing the best combination for cleansing dairy equipment. Water from the
various areas was classified as Type I, soft water; Type II, hard water;
and Type III, very hard water. Of the 160 samples collected and analyzed
27.5 percent were soft, 48.75 percent were hard and 23.75 percent were
very hard.
A machine called the Deterg-O-Meter (Fig 1) was built to make the
washing trials, using 59 general purpose commercial washing powders in
the 3 types of water.
Solubility and sudsability of powders were not materially affected by
water hardness. Approximately 50 percent of the washing powders used
in this experiment were classified as "Good" in all 3 types of water, 6
percent "Fair" or "Poor" in soft water, 15 percent "Fair" or "Poor" in
hard water, and 29 percent "Fair" or "Poor" in very hard water.

Fig. 1.-The Deterg-O-Meter developed at the Dairy Products Laboratory
for use in washing trials with different washing powders.

Annual Report, 1946

Bankhead-Jones Project 436 E. L. Fouts, T. R. Freeman
and Peggy Lockwood
A few samples of locally produced milk have been analyzed in the
process of testing analytical procedures. Plans have been made for the
collection of milk samples from various areas in the State. Sufficient data
are not yet available to make any significant report on the composition of
Florida milk. Analytical methods have been selected and standardized
to provide a comprehensive analysis of Florida produced milk.

Purnell Project 437 D. A. Sanders
Approximately 200 crossbred steers and purebred beef and dairy cattle
grazing on fluke-infested pastures in different sections of Florida were
found by microscopic examinations of fecal material to be infested with
flukes (Fasciola hepatica L.) and were treated with hexachlorethane-
bentonite suspension in water. Dose levels ranging from 10 to 20 grams
of hexachlorethane per 100 pounds of body weight were used. Observations
were made for evidence of clinical improvement in the cattle following
treatment and their tolerance for the high dose levels. Careful post-
mortem examination of a representative number of livers of steers was
made at slaughter for evidence of fluke infestation and fluke injury. It
appears that hexachlorethane is an effective drug for destroying flukes
present in the livers at the time of treatment, especially when used before
extensive calcareous lesions occur in the bile ducts. Animals receiving high
dose levels developed symptoms of hexachlorethane toxicity of several days'
duration but showed definite improvement in thrift and appearance follow-
ing treatment. It appears that the dose level should not be higher than
10 grams per 100 pounds of live weight. Work on this project is closed
with this report, since the parasitologist has returned from military service
and State Project 459 has become active under his leadership. (See also
Report, Project 459.)

State Project 438 D. A. Sanders and A. N. Tissot
Observations have been continued on the use of DDT suspended in
suitable dispersal agents for controlling horn flies and ticks on cattle.
Spraying cattle with a 2.0 to 2.5 percent water dispersable DDT gave ex-
cellent results in the control of horn flies. This substantiated earlier work
as being practical, safe and efficient. Further work will be necessary
to determine practical methods of controlling ticks on cattle.
This work is conducted cooperatively with the Department of Ento-
mology of this Station and the Bureau of Entomology, USDA.


State Project 450 N. R. Mehrhof, R. E. Blaser and G. B. Killinger
In determining the value of grazing by poultry, 4 lots of Single Comb
White Leghorn and 4 lots of Single Comb Rhode Island Red pullets were
housed and managed alike except for the grazing period allowed. Coastal
Bermuda was the permanent pasture grass used which afforded grazing
from spring until fall. Florida 167 oats, seeded on top of the Bermuda,
provided winter grazing.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The pullets in Lot 1 were allowed to graze all day; Lot 2, day; Lot 3,
bare yard all day; and Lot 4, grazed from 5 p.m. until dark.
During the first 6 periods of 28 days each the pullets that grazed part
or all day produced more eggs than those on the bare yards with no grazing.

State Project 453 N. R. Mehrhof and A. W. O'Steen
In determining requirements for floor space in producing broilers, 4
lots of 168 chicks each were used. Floor space allowances were as follows:
Lot 1, 1 square foot; Lot 2, % square foot, and Lot 3, % square foot, these
lots having a yard 20 by 50 feet in which the chicks spent part of the day.
The chicks in Lot 4, the check lot, had 1 square foot floor space per chick
and were confined to the house at all times.
At the end of the 12 weeks' feeding trial the lot having 1 square foot
floor space plus a yard produced heavier broilers on less feed than all
other lots, while the check lot ranked second. There was little difference
between the other 2 lots.

State Project 456 M. W. Emmel
Skin lesions from 8 horses affected with "leeches" have been examined
grossly, histopathologically and culturally. All specimens yielded at least
1 common species of fungus with which efforts are being made to repro-
duce the disease. A method for isolation of the fungus in pure culture
from the "leech" has been perfected.

State Project 459 L. E. Swanson
Liver flukes have been found to be the cause of serious loss in herds
of cattle in 9 counties in this State. Cooperating with a cattleman in a
fluke-infested region a pasture area has been obtained on which various
agents will be used in efforts to control the common liver fluke (Fnsciola
hepatica L.).
Liver fluke eggs obtained from the gallbladder of infested cattle hatched
in 11 to 12 days under laboratory conditions. Possible natural limiting
factors in the propagation of the specific water snail that harbors the
fluke in 1 stage of its life history are being studied. (See also Report,
Project 437.)
State Project 460 L. E. Swanson
Reports from cattlemen indicate that the cattle grub (Hypoderma lineata
(DeVill)) is becoming a real menace in the large pasture areas, whereas
only a few years ago it was not found in herds in the central and southern
parts of the state. Experimental herds have been located through co-
operation with cattlemen, and directions for control measures using washes,
dips and sprays have been given. Due to the life cycle of the cattle grub
these control measures are effective only during December, January and
State Project 461 R. S. Glasscock, D. J. Smith and J. E. Pace
The object of this experiment, begun in May, is to determine the most
economical and practical method of wintering beef cattle to produce high

Annual Report, 1946

quality calves. In the absence of home-grown roughage due to the short-
age of silage crops, the cow herd was maintained during the winter on
Western prairie hay. It required approximately 1,500 pounds per cow for
wintering. Cows that calved before grazing was available in the spring
were given 4 pounds of a concentrate mixture daily in addition to the hay,
but cows that calved after April 1 were wintered without any grain or
protein supplement.
The average weight of Hereford cows after calving was 890 pounds
and the calves averaged 71.6 pounds at birth, while the average weight
of Aberdeen-Angus cows after calving was 978 pounds and the average
birth weight of their calves was 68.8 pounds.

Breeding Dairy Cattle.-Six registered Jersey heifers were added to
the breeding herd by purchase during the year. Duke Victor Progress
440329 died April 4, 1946, of septicemia caused by a foreign body piercing
the lung. Twenty cows completed records on test during the year, of
which 10 qualified in the Register of Merit with records up to 10,970
pounds of milk and 542 pounds of butterfat. Twenty-six cows are on test
at present. (R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and Burdette Schee.)
Feeding and Management of Pigs for Economical Pork Production.-
This experiment is to determine the possibility of a practical system of
raising feed crops for fattening the spring-farrowed litter of pigs for
marketing in early fall when hog prices are generally highest.
Two groups of pigs were selected for 2 systems of feeding and manage-
ment. One group was fed on a high plane of nutrition during the period
between weaning and the time that early-maturing fattening crops became
available, while the other group was fed a limited quantity of a balanced
ration sufficient to produce only moderate growth until late-maturing fat-
tening crops were ready for grazing in the fall.
Crops have been raised for grazing under these 2 systems of swine
Individual weights of pigs have been taken at weaning time and records
were kept of the amounts of feed furnished each group until they were
turned on fattening crops. (D. J. Smith, R. S. Glasscock and J. E. Pace.)
Dried Snap Bean Vines as Feed.-At the instance of the Department of
Horticulture, dried snap bean vines were tested in a palatability trial with
30 cows in milk, offering 2 pounds per animal after their regular feeding
of concentrates was consumed. Since the vines had been processed in a
commercial citrus pulp drier there was some contamination with dried
citrus pulp. Only 7 of the 30 animals left any of the dried bean vines,
all consuming at least a part of the dried material. The dried snap beans
were highly palatable. (R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and R. A. Dennison.)
DDT for Insect Control in Dairy Barns.-Cooperating with the Depart-
ment of Entomology, tests were continued with DDT for control of flies
and cockroaches in the dairy barn, using a 50 percent water-dispersible
powder in water in a 2.5 percent concentration. Satisfactory control of
these insects was obtained. Observations were made of the area spray
program in Orange County under leadership of County Agent K. C. Moore,
W. G. Bruce of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, USDA,
the E. I. du Pont De Nemours and Company, dairymen and cattlemen of
the county. All cattle, interiors of dairy barns, and feed rooms, were
sprayed with a 2.5 percent concentration of water-dispersible DDT. Satis-
factory control of house flies, horn flies and mosquitoes was obtained.
The control was less effective with deer flies and other blood-sucking

58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

insects that do not remain long on the sprayed surface. (R. B. Becker,
P. T. Dix Aronld and A. N. Tissot.)
Effect of Diethylstilbestrol on Heifers and Cows.-Results and ob-
servations obtained during a 2-year study with diethylstilbestrol in cotton-
seed oil injected subcutaneously in virgin heifers and dairy cows have been
assembled. A brief technical manuscript dealing with lactation and re-
production is in press, and a station technical bulletin manuscript is in
preparation which deals with the entire investigation. Heifers responded
with reasonable uniformity by the development of secretary tissue in the
udders, and milk secretion at reasonably lower levels than did related
animals following normal calvings. Sexual excitation, but without ovula-
tion, was an early marked effect of the synthetic hormone. A period of
ovarian quiescence followed. At an interval after injections ceased, con-
ception occurred in 1 heifer that had been considered barren earlier.
Changes in conformation of the rump and tailhead were typical of those
in nymphonamia in cattle, with a tendency to return to normal slowly
after injections ceased. The first milk was colostral in composition, soon
changing to the composition of normal milk. Based on observations to
date, the use of this material to bring temporarily sterile heifers into
lactation may be advisable only with animals representing highly valued
blood lines that would have to be discarded otherwise. (R. B. Becker, P. T.
Dix Arnold and D. A. Sanders.)
Ammoniated Citrus Pulp for Dairy Cattle.-Ammoniated citrus pulp can
be used as a satisfactory feed for cattle in supplying carbohydrates and
crude protein in the ration, provided not more than 30 to 40 percent of
the total digestible nutrients are supplied by this feedstuff. At higher
levels palatability is poor and insufficient feed is consumed to do much
more than maintain the body weight of the animal.
Best results were obtained when between 30 and 40 percent of the total
digestible nutrients and 15 to 20 percent of the crude protein were supplied
by ammoniated citrus pulp. (George K. Davis, Katherine Boney, R. B.
Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold.)
Protein Supplements for Chick Growth.-Solvent-extracted cottonseed
meal, low in gossypol content, solvent-extracted soybean oil meal, shark
meal and meat scraps were used as sources of protein in chick rations.
During the first 8 weeks of the trial best growth results have been
obtained when the principal source of protein in the ration was soybean oil
meal. Special solvent-extracted cottonseed meal and meat scrap were
satisfactory also. Shark meal in this study gave results very different
from those obtained previously, and this supplement was rated unsatis-
-factory. Additional research will be conducted to determine the place of
shark meal in the poultry ration. (G. K. Davis, N. R. Mehrhof and J. C.
Tung Meal in Chick Rations.-Similar to last year, 8 lots of 2-day old
chicks were fed 0, 5, 10 and 15 percent levels of tung meal and 1 additional
lot of 3-weeks-old chicks were fed a 15 percent level of tung meal to in-
vestigate its possible use as a source of protein in poultry rations. The
tung meal proved toxic, whether raw, heated or heated and sifted, and
caused heavy mortality at 10 and 15 percent levels. At 5 percent and
higher levels the tung meals interfered with feed utilization.
Tung meal, raw or autoclaved at 115.5' C. and 11.5 pounds pressure or
at 1280 C. and 22 pounds pressure, is not safe for use in chick feeds. (G.
K. Davis, N. R. Mehrhof and R. S. McKinney.)
lodinated Casein in Chick Rations.-Four lots of 50 2-day old chicks
each were fed an all-mash chick ration supplemented with varying per-

Annual Report, 1946 59

centages (0.05 to 0.1 percent) of iodinated casein. The iodinated casein
(Protomone) was furnished through the courtesy of Cerophyl Laboratories.
Under the conditions of this experiment the chicks receiving the basal
ration without iodinated casein made the best gain in weight and the most
efficient use of feed. Next best gain was obtained with the ration con-
taining a reduced amount of soybean meal and 0.05 percent iodinated casein.
In lots receiving iodinated casein with the basal ration, it appeared that
the iodinated casein reduced the rate of gain and the efficiency of feed
utilization. (G. K. Davis, N. R. Mehrhof and J. C. Driggers.)
Calcareous Grit for Poultry.-A simple feeding trial was conducted
with a calcareous grit to determine whether it could be used to replace
other sources of calcium concentrate and also insoluble grit.
It was observed that "hen-size" oyster shell and grit were not completely
dissolved, even after leaving the gizzard, because small particles of each
were found in the intestinal tract. From this test it appears that oyster
shell and grit are comparable in aiding the gizzard in its function and also
supplying calcium for the birds. (J. C. Driggers, N. R. Mehrhof and G. K.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Professor J. R. Watson came to Florida as Entomologist and Head,
Department of Entomology, September 17, 1911, and served in that capacity
until his death, June 6, 1946. He was widely known for his work on the
control of the velvet bean caterpillar, the lubberly locust, root-knot nema-
todes, and other crop pests. Among entomologists he was best known for
his investigations of Thysanoptera. He described over 30 new species
of thrips, and built up a collection of these insects consisting of nearly
40,000 slides. Through his many publications, his almost weekly appear-
ance since 1928 on the Florida Farm Hour program of the University of
Florida radio station, and by extensive correspondence he has rendered
the State and Nation a most distinctive service.

Annual Report, 1946

During the year entomological research was carried on under 9 projects.
In addition, miscellaneous observations and control experiments were made
on several insect pests. The insecticide DDT still retains its major interest
and importance, and an appreciable effort was devoted to learning more
about its effects on various insects and its value in their control. Pre-
liminary experiments were conducted on another new synthetic insecti-
cide, benzene hexachloride. Considerable attention was given to the root-
knot problem and further effort was directed toward the production of
nematode-resistant or nematode-tolerant and otherwise desirable vege-
table plants. The work of the Pecan Investigations Laboratory, Monticello,
dealt entirely with insect pests of pecans and their control.
State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
This project was continued at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory
in cooperation with USDA Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
Experiments for control of the nut casebearer and leaf casebearer were
conducted at 3 different periods of the year.
Lead arsenate at 3 pounds per 100 gallons of a 6-2-100 bordeaux mix-
ture applied on May 29 and 30, June 25 and July 25 gave a control of
96.8, 77.4 and .80.6 percent of the casebearers on the Moore variety for
the respective dates.
DDT emulsion (20 percent DDT by weight) at 2 quarts per 100 gallons
of water applied in late dormant period gave a reduction of 87.7 and 96.4
percent in infestation of nut casebearer and leaf casebearer, respectively.
DDT-50 percent water dispersible powder at 4 pounds per 100 gallons
of water-gave a reduction of 91.0 and 89.3 percent for the two case-
bearers. Hy-Tox Tar "83" at 5 percent dilution and Dinitro-O-Cresol in
form of "Elgetol 30" at 1/2 gallon per 100 gallons water both gave poor
results when compared with results obtained in 1945.
DDT, nicotine sulfate and lead arsenate were applied April 3 for control
of pecan casebearers while the larvae were feeding on buds and foliage.
DDT 50 percent, at 4 pounds per 100 gallons of a 4-1-100 bordeaux mix-
ture, was by far the most effective and gave a reduction of 92.6 percent
in infestation of the nut casebearer and 100 percent for the leaf casebearer.
The DDT 50 percent water dispersible powder at 2 pounds per 100
gallons of a 4-1-100 bordeaux mixture was the most effective spray used
against the first generation nut casebearer. The above spray applied
April 27 gave 89.2 percent control; when applied on April 30 it gave a
85.1 percent control, and when applied on May 2 it gave a 96.2 percent
control. Nicotine sulfate, lead arsenate and benzene hexachloride at the
concentrations used were much less effective against the first generation
nut casebearer.
Results obtained with DDT indicate that it is an effective control for
the pecan casebearers during the late dormant period while the larvae
are in their hibernacula, in eary spring while the larvae are feeding on the
buds and foliage, and especially while attacking the young nuts.
State Project 380 A. N. Tissot
Cutworms, especially Feltia subterranea (F.), have been very destruc-
tive in some sections of the State year after year on certain crops, par-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

ticularly carrots and onions. To learn something of their food habits,
larvae of this species were fed exclusively on each of a variety of cultivated
plants and adventitious plants likely to be growing in vegetable fields.
The larvae from 5 egg clusters were used for each kind of plant. Moths
were obtained from 15 common vegetable plants and from the following
adventitious plants: white sweet clover, white Dutch clover, lamb's quar-
ters, Mexican clover and cocklebur. Larvae fed to a limited extent on
grasses but no adults were obtained from them.
In some insectary tests further work was done with DDT as a control
for cutworms (F. subterranea). A bait consisting of 50 percent water
dispersible DDT and wheat bran, 1:25, moistened before application, gave
38 percent mortality in 24 hours and 100 percent in 48 hours. The same
bait applied dry gave 72 and 100 percent mortality in 24 and 48 hours,
respectively. Broccoli plants dusted with 5 percent DDT and the leaves
fed to larvae gave a 48 percent kill in 24 hours and 100 percent in 48
hours. A 3 percent dust used in the same way gave 22 percent kill in 24
hours and 92 percent in 48 hours.
An insecticide containing 31.8 percent benzene hexachloride (18 per-
cent gamma isomer) was dusted on cutworm larvae which were then fed
unpoisoned cowpea leaves. This resulted in a mortality of 18 and 26 per-
cent in 24 and 48 hours, respectively. When both the larvae and food
material were dusted, 42 percent of the larvae died in 24 hours and 100
percent in 48 hours. When dusted leaves were fed to untreated larvae a
30 percent kill was noted in 24 hours, 60 percent in 48 and 100 percent in
72 hours.
In March 1946 a strawberry planting became heavily infested with
cutworms. Three 2-row beds about 30 feet long were dusted with 5 percent
DDT dust and 3 similar beds with an all-purpose dust containing 5 percent
DDT, 0.75 percent rotenone and 5 percent of each of 2 fungicides. The
dusts were blown directly into the plants with a bellows-type duster, at the
rate of approximately 50 pounds per acre. Both dusts completely checked
cutworm damage within 2 days, while it continued unabated in the check
beds. (See also Proj. 380, VEGETABLE CROPS LABORATORY and

State Project 381 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
No attempt was made this year to import the Brazilian species, Larra
americana Sauss. A native species, Larra analis, F., occurring in Louisiana,
is parasitic on mole-crickets and it or related species may occur in Florida.
Borreria bloom is very attractive to these wasps and a planting of this
has been established at Gainesville. Plantings also have been made at
sub-stations in other parts of Florida where mole-crickets are a problem.
At frequent intervals during its blooming period, collections and observa-
tions were made of the Hymenoptera visiting the borreria at Gainesville.
From the hundreds of specimens taken, 30 species in 5 families have been
identified by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, USDA.

State Project 382 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
This project was relatively inactive this year. A manuscript was pre-
pared and submitted for a press bulletin. This contains in tabulated form
a list of the 25 species of weeds which were found to be infested with root-

Annual Report, 1946

knot, during 3 year's examinations of the natural growth in the fields used
in the 3-year tobacco rotation tests. It also includes a discussion of the
10 species of weeds most heavily infested by nematodes and their preva-
lence and control.

State Project 383 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
An extended period of wet weather during harvest caused the loss of
the main seed crop of the Conch cowpeas. The vines continued to produce
seed in small quantities, which was saved, thus maintaining the stock of
the 2 most resistant strains, Nos. 18 and 19. A little seed of a few other
promising strains was saved so that these may be tested further.
The "Creole" garden pea continued to show nematode resistance.
Enough seed of this pea was produced that it can be compared in tests with
commercial varieties grown in Florida.
Tomatoes and pimiento peppers have been added to the list of vege-
tables being tested for nematode resistance.
Limited tests were made with a few of the recently introduced chemicals
in the control of root-knot.

State Project 384 J. R. Watson
Important this year was the finding of a new thrips on beans in the
Everglades. When first taken and studied, it was thought to be the common
flower thrips, Frankliniella cephalica (Crawf.). However, careful micro-
scopic examination showed it to be distinct, though the 2 species are super-
ficially very much alike. The known localities where the new pest has
been taken are: Lake Harbor, South Bay, Chosen, Pahokee, Canal Point,
Sand Cut and Belle Glade. All collections were from snap beans and
made by Dr. W. D. Wylie. This project is closed with this report.

State Project 385 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
Fallen oak leaves furnished 1 of the most satisfactory, easily obtained
mulching materials. They formed a dense, compact mat that tends to
discourage growth of nut grass and other weeds. In this first year's trial
as mulching material they have proven fully as effective as other materials
for conserving soil moisture and promoting the growth of nematode-
susceptible plants in infested soils. This year's work showed that large
amounts of disintegrated mulch material mixed in the top 4 to 6 inches
of soil caused rapid and excessive drying of the soil, unless covered by a
layer of fresher, less disintegrated material.

State Project 386 J. R. Watson
This project was inactive during this year and is closed with this report.

State Project 438 D. A. Sanders and A. N. Tissot
Preliminary experiments in 1945 indicated that DDT sprays and dips
could be used safely on cattle. On July 27, 1945, an entire herd of 689

64 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

cattle was sprayed with an emulsion-type spray containing 2.5 percent
DDT. The application averaged 0.66 pints per animal. Before spraying,
the hornfly population was estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 per animal. On
August 24 the hornflies were estimated to average 10 per animal and by
September 28 the number had increased to about 800 per animal and the
entire herd was sprayed again.
On July 27, 144 cows were separated from the rest of the herd, to be
used in a study of ear treatments in tick control. The ears of 51 animals
were thoroughly coated inside and out with a preparation containing 5 per-
cent DDT in an adhesive, non-drying, non-oxidizing, synthetic resin base.
The other 93 cows were kept in the same pasture and used as a check.
The animals were examined at 1 or 2-week intervals until October 12,
when no more ticks were found. Except for 1 specimen of Amblyomma
americanum (L.) and 2 of Dermacentor variabilis (Say), all ticks found
were the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum Koch. There was a
rather significant difference in the numbers of ticks found in the ear-
treated and the non-treated animals. The average for all the observations
was 1 tick to 5 animals in the treated lot and 1 tick to 3 animals in the
check lot. There was an even greater difference in the numbers of attached
ticks. The cows with treated ears had an average of 1 attached tick to
each 6.5 animals, the check cows 1 attached tick to each 3.3 animals. (See
also Project 438, ANIMAL INDUSTRY.)

Annual Report, 1946

The results of a 5-year study of the effects of an adequate noon meal
in improving the nutritional status of malnourished school children have
been assembled for publication. In this investigation the more recent
scientific procedures have been used to assess the value of the 1 improved
meal. From vitamin studies now completed, data are available which
make it possible to assess values for carotene and ascorbic acid based on
analysis of Florida-grown foods.
Purnell Project 442 O. D. Abbott and R. B. French
Whole wheat bread and enriched and non-enriched white breads made
with water and with milk were prepared for animal feeding. For this
cooperative project the B vitamins and iron in these breads were deter-
mined in the laboratories of the American Dry Milk Institute. These breads
are being fed as the sole diet of young rats and the effect of this regimen
on growth and reproduction noted. A study of the effect of the iron salts
used in enriching flour (iron phytate, iron reductum, iron phosphate and
iron pyro-phosphate) on regeneration of hemoglobin in anemic rats is now
in progress. In cooperation with the Department of Electrical Engineering,
University of Florida, a preliminary study was made of the effect of the
type of baking (radiant vs. dielectric) on water loss and retention of
thiamine in bread made with water and with milk. The palatability and
practicability of cooking grits supplemented with 6 percent and with 12
percent dry milk solids have been determined.
When equal weights of dough made with water and with milk were
subjected to radiant and to dielectric baking, the water loss and thiamine
retention were as follows: In both types of baking, the water loss was
higher in the bread made with water than in that made with milk; while
in both types of bread the thiamine retention was better in dielectric than
in radiant baking. There was a suggestion that the percentage loss of
thiamine was less in bread made with milk than in that made with water.
When 12 percent dry milk solids were added to grits and the product
cooked according to the usual method, texture, palatability and flavor were
improved and food value materially increased. There were considerable
increases in protein, calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin and thiamine, with
lesser, though significant, increases in other minerals and vitamins.
Purnell Project 443 R. B. French and 0. D. Abbott
Apparatus has been prepared and methods assessed for the determina-
tion of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin.
Purnell Project 454 0. D. Abbott and R. B. French
In cooperation with the Military Planning Division, Research and De-
velopment Branch, Office of Quartermaster, War Department, a study of
the appetite levels of food consumption was begun June 1, 1946. Data are
now being collected on rate of acceptance, range in degree of preference
and preferred method of preparation for foods used in selected areas of
Florida. These data are to be used for establishing standard reference
tables on food acceptance rates for a national list of foods, to serve as
the companion to tables on food composition of the National Research

66 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Research was continued during the year with deciduous fruits and nuts,
ornamentals and vegetables; on citrus storage and, in cooperation with
the Florida Citrus Commission, the concentration of citrus juices by freez-
ing. Investigations were also conducted on the dehydration of celery and
bean vine waste as possible sources of livestock feeds; freezing preserva-
tion of vegetables; and the use of cracked ice to maintain freshness in
packed vegetables.

Hatch Project 50 R. D. Dickey and G. H. Blackmon
Thrips infestation was very severe in 1945 and injury to the young
ovaries by this insect was reported in the 1945 Annual Report. Careful
search was made for recurrence of this injury during the 1946 blooming
period. No drop of pistillate flowers or young ovaries was found and only
slight injury observed.
The physiological disorder, different from any yet recognized, and
described in 1945 was again prevalent this spring in all commercial orchards
examined. In 1945 symptoms developed on the basal leaves as they
emerged from the bud and in acute cases many or all leaves of a shoot
abscissed; but, in most instances, the new shoots developed normal leaves.
However, this season characteristic symptoms appeared on the newly de-
veloped shoot leaves as well as on the basal leaves. Symptoms developing
on growing shoots were like those on the basal leaves, especially in severe
stages; however, in mild stages they were similar to symptoms of incipient
copper deficiency and may have been so considered in the past. Another
symptom prevalent this spring was an irregular blotch-like chlorosis found
most often on the basal leaves of a branch. Growing shoots on affected
trees continued to develop symptoms until late in May; after this new

Potassium Average Annual
Treatment Dead Trees Deficiency Score Yield per Tree
Percent (1945) (1945)* (1944-1945)

4-4-0 ............ 35.4 84.7 11.1
4-8-4 .........-.. 8.3 18.9 15.4
4-8-8 ........... 4.2 5.5 16.8
4-4-4 ............ 6.3 13.2 18.1
4-0-4 ............ 4.2 12.8 20.2
4-4-8 ............ 2.1 2.9 21.5
8-4-4 ...... .... 16.7 30.1 22.3
8-4-8 ............ 4.2 6.8 23.7

Least difference between treatments for significance, odds 19:1 =7.4
pounds of air-dried fruit and 14.6 points in potassium deficiency score.
Least difference between treatments for significance, odds 99:1 = 9.9
pounds of air-dried fruit and 21.5 points in potassium deficiency score.
On a scale from 0, which indicates no symptoms, to 100. which indicates very severe
symptoms on all foliage.

Annual Report, 1946 67

foliage was normal. Diagnostic foliage dips of boron, molybdenum and
copper were applied to shoots on severely affected trees on March 29, 1946,
without result.
Fertilizer tests in a Jefferson County tung orchard were continued as
previously outlined. Treatments applied, average annual yields for 1944-45,
percent of dead trees and 1945 potassium deficiency scores are given in
Table 3.
The highest potassium deficiency score, percent of dead trees and lowest
yields occurred in the no-potash treatment. It will be noted that the potas-
sium deficiency score and percent of dead trees closely follows the percent-
age of potash in the formula. However, there are indications that the
high level of nitrogen (8 percent) and medium level of potash (4 percent)
might produce greater potassium deficiency than medium levels of nitro-
gen (4 percent) and potash (4 percent).
Yields were not so consistent as potassium deficiency score and percent
of dead trees, except that the lowest yield was obtained where no potash
was applied while the treatment receiving the highest levels of nitrogen
(8 percent) and potash (8 percent) produced the largest yields.


Hatch Project 52 R. D. Dickey and R. J. Wilmot
It was found in 1942 that a physiological disorder of the plumy coconut
(Arecastrum romanzoffanum Becc.), variously called "frizzle leaf", "curly
leaf", "curly bud" and "curly top," could be corrected by soil or foliage
applications of manganese sulfate. Generally from 3 to 6 months were
required for response. Treatments were applied in 1941 and 1942. To
obtain information relative to the residual effects of these treatments the
experiments were examined in summer and early fall of 1945.
By June 1942 palms receiving manganese sulfate either to the soil or
as a foliage spray had materially improved in condition, while the un-
treated plants showed little change. However, when examined in 1945
the untreated palms and those which had received a manganese-lime spray
evidenced approximately the same degree of symptoms, whereas those
receiving soil applications showed no increase in symptoms over those
exhibited in 1942. The exact duration of the residual effects of manganese
applied as a spray is not known for it was not possible to take records
during 1943 and 1944; however, some time between 1942 and 1945 the
sprayed trees again developed symptoms comparable in severity to those
exhibited at time of treatment. Soil application, where satisfactory re-
sponse can be obtained, appears to be the most desirable method of treat-
A chlorosis of the Canary Island Date palm (Phoenix canariensis
Chaub.) responded to soil applications of manganese sulfate. Treatments
were made in April 1942, and when examined in June the treated palms
had shown a marked response. No further record of tree condition was
taken until 1945. The treated palms evidenced no material increase in
symptoms in 1945, though 3 years had elapsed since manganese had been
Green lavender cotton (Santolina sp.) appears to be well adapted to
local conditions and should make an excellent edging or border plant for

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

State Project 80 G. H. Blackmon and J. D. Warner
The experiment at Monticello was continued as previously reported
except that lupine was grown as the winter legume. The lupine seed were
planted late and consequently the tonnage of green material produced
was not so heavy. In this experiment, muriate of potash is being applied
at rates of 5 to 10 pounds per tree to test the effects of amounts of potash
on the yield and quality of pecans produced with winter legumes.
There were only small differences in the growth of Frotscher and Moore
trees receiving either of the 2 levels of potash. However, Stuart trees
made better growth in plots where the higher amounts of potash were
The 1945 yields were fair and good, respectively, for the Frotscher
and Moore trees, but very light for the Stuart. While there were vari-
ations in yields there were no consistent differences that could be attributed
to the amount of potash applied.
Frotscher nuts were of good quality, Moore and Stuart only fair.
Apparently the higher amount of potash had no direct influence in 1945
on the filling of the nuts. (See also Report, Project 80, NORTH FLORIDA

State Project 110 F. S. Jamison, V. F. Nettles and B. E. Janes
Larvacide, dowfume W-10 and uramon were applied individually to
randomized field plots to determine their effect on the yield of cucumbers
grown on nematode-infested soil. Uramon was applied 58 days prior to
planting at the rate of 1 pound per square yard, larvacide 15 days and
3 cc. per square foot, and dowfume W-10 12 days prior to planting at the
rate of 2.5 cc. per square foot. All treatments were made only to the area
occupied by the seed row.
The soil fumigant plots were further divided into split plots for the
study of fertilization and the use of hotcaps. Half of each plot received
1,400 pounds of an 8-7-5 fertilizer and the other half of each plot received
1,400 pounds of a 4-7-5 fertilizer plus additional nitrogen as a side-dressing
to make it equivalent to the 8-7-5 fertilizer. Half of each fertilizer treat-
ment had hotcaps placed over the seed at planting and the remaining half
was left uncovered.
Cucumbers, variety Cubit, were planted March 2. Germination counts
showed poor germination and seedling injury where uramon was applied.
Germination was high and no seedling injury occurred with the other
The average bushel per acre yield of U. S. No. 1 cucumbers resulting
from the soil fumigant treatments were: larvacide, 359.4; dowfume W-10
319.4; check, 251.7. Yields from uramon plots were not included, due to
poor stand resulting from the low germination. No differences in yield
were found where plots were fertilized with an 8-7-5 fertilizer or a 4-7-5
fertilizer plus additional nitrogen as a side-dressing.
The use of hotcaps tended to increase the yield of cucumbers except
on plots which received the combination of dowfume W-10 and the 4-7-5
fertilizer with subsequent side-dressing.
Larvacide, dowfume W-10 and uramon reduced the nematode infesta-
tion on the roots of the cucumber plants, even though no effects of the
infestation were observed in plant growth.
Three soil fumigants, larvacide, iscobrome and DD, were applied to

Annual Report, 1946

plots 25 feet long by 12 feet wide. The materials were applied on Septem-
ber 20, with a continuous flow applicator in rows 10 inches apart. Mission-
ary strawberries were planted October 28. Total yields, in grams per
plot, were: larvacide, 2,271; DD, 1,320; iscobrome, 1,214, and no treatment,
1,596. The increase in yield of the larvacide-treated plots occurred in the
early pickings. In addition to the increase in yield by the use of larvacide,
there was a reduction in the amount of weed growth, especially nut grass.
This reduction in stand of weeds, as a result of this treatment, became
more apparent with the general rapid increase in number of weeds during
the summer.

State Project 187 G. H. Blackmon, R. D. Dickey and R. J. Wilmot
Mayhaw plants flowered very freely this spring but practically all the
blooms were destroyed by fire blight. Fruit from 1 seedling, analyzed
by Dr. B. E. Janes on April 12, 1946, contained 42.8 mg. vitamin C per 100 g.
Several blueberry hybrid seedlings have fruited, but none of these pro-
duced high quality fruits. The fruits were of medium size and very seedy.
The grape experiment at Lady Lake, conducted in cooperation with the
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, produced a fair crop
of fruit. The vines sprayed with bordeaux-zinc produced the highest yields
in 1945, and those sprayed with bordeaux among the lowest. Vines receiv-
ing bordeaux-manganese spray were intermediate in production. (See

Purnell Project 190 A. L. Stahl
Inoculation studies have shown that fresh citrus fruits are not as
susceptible to stem-end rot infection as fruits that have been held in cold
storage (37 F.). The longer the fruits were stored, the less resistance
they had against infection by stem-end rot pathogenes. The highest percent
stem-end rot was obtained in wrapped and unwrapped fruit during the
third and fourth weeks after removing from cold storage to room tem-
Eighty-nine chemicals-64 as fumigants and 25 as surface disinfect-
ants-were tested for effectiveness in controlling stem-end rot of citrus
fruits. Mercaptoethanol, dehydracetic acid, propionitrile and compounds
1013 and 1079 gave very promising results when used as fumigants. The
fruits were not injured after 16 hours at the controlled dosage (0.05 to 3
grams per 900 cc. of water). Methyl 2,3-dichloracrylate, 2,2,3-trichloro-
propionitrile and compounds Nos. 44-120 and 221 also gave good control
of the rot but injured the fruits, even at the very low controlled dosage.
The pure cultures of the stem-end rot pathogenes failed to resume their
growth on potato dextrose agar after being exposed to fumes of these
chemicals at the controlled dosage for 16 hours. Mercaptothiazoline was
the only one of 25 chemicals used to disinfect fruits by dipping that gave
good control of the citrus fruit decay organisms in a 1 percent water
solution without injuring fruits.
X-ray radiation was found to be effective in inhibiting or killing the
pathogenic organisms on stored citrus fruit. In pure culture, when the
irradiation was made at 6 inches from the X-ray tube, operated at a po-
tential of 100 kilovolts and 10 milliamperes at the focal point, spores of
Penicillium italicum Wehmer failed to germinate after 224 minutes of

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

exposure (approximately 100,000 roentgen (r) units). Definite lethal effect
on the mycelium of Diaporthe citri Wolf was found at 342 minutes of ex-
posure (approximately 150,000 r). For Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans no
killing effect was observed after exposing to the X-ray at the highest
possible intensity given by this machine, 374 minutes with approximately
160,000 r. Retardation on the rate of growth was observed with as low
as 64 minutes of irradiation (27,000 r). This inhibitive effect was found
to be only temporary, for after 24 hours of incubation all the treated
cultures regained the normal. rate of growth. At this highest available
intensity (27,750 r), the infection on the inoculated fruit was not con-
The intensity required to produce lethal effect was found to be too high
and the time of exposure too long to make X-ray treatment practical
commercially. Even at these high intensities and long exposures none of
the citrus fruits were injured.
Phenyl mercury acetate, phenyl mercury chloride, dichloroacrylate and
dinitro phenyl gave very good control in various fungicidal tests when 5
parts of these chemicals were incorporated into the N-1 pliofilm to test
their effectiveness in controlling citrus fruit rots. However, injury to
the fruit was obtained at the controlled dosage.
The N-1 pliofilm with either 5 parts of diphenyl or orthophenyl and
the diphenyl tissue wrapper gave very little control of rot after 2 months,
the percent rot being 62, 60 and 64, respectively, as compared to 78 percent
in the regular 20-gauge N-1 pliofilm wrapper. Fruits which were wrapped
either in the phenyl mercury acetate pliofilm or the phenyl mercury chloride
were badly injured, none being marketable after 2 months.
Oranges mechanically wrapped in pliofilm on the commercial stretchwrap
machine were compared at various storage temperatures with those hand-
wrapped. No differences were found. None of the new wrapping materials
tried gave as good results with citrus as the 20-gauge N-1 pliofilm.
The investigation of the preservation of grapefruit, orange and tanger-
ine hearts by freezing was continued. A citrus juice or syrup pack was
found superior to the dry pack, especially for long storage periods. Con-
tainers holding a slight vacuum (tin or glass) gave better results for
citrus hearts than those which were moistureproof but would not hold a
vacuum (pliofilm or cellophane bag, waxed carton, etc.).
Through cooperation with the Florida Citrus Commission, the pilot
plant for the concentration of citrus juices by freezing was completed
during the year. Several types of continuous freezers were tried and it
was found that the percentage loss of juice through centrifuging was
higher in all these fast freezers than when the juice was frozen slowly
in brine. The Flake-Ice machine gave best results of the continuous
freezers tried.
Sedimentation studies indicate that juice reconstructed from the con-
centrate remains stable longer than fresh juice untreated or vacuumized.
The stability of vitamin C is affected by the type of container used, the
efficiency being in the order named: enameled can, heavily waxed carton
and cellophane bag in box. It was also found that the lower the storage
temperature, the lower the fungous and bacterial count.


Adams Project 268 F. S. Jamison
The plots in this experiment have received no supplemental treatments
for adjusting hydrogen-ion values for the past 3 years. There has been

Annual Report, 1946 71

a steady return to the level existing before the supplemental treatments
were applied. The range of values is now from pH 4.6 to 6.6. However,
the soil of most plots varies between pH 5.0 and 6.4. Sweet corn was
planted on all plots and fertilized with a 4-7-5 fertilizer at the rate of 300
pounds an acre. The growth of corn was exceedingly uniform on all plots;
as the corn approached maturity there was some indication of "firing" of
the lower leaves on certain plots but it was impossible to correlate this
condition with plot treatment. The yields varied from 159 ears weighing
75 pounds to 244 ears weighing 122 pounds. Variations in yield were
apparently due to factors other than soil acidity.


State Project 282 F. S. Jamison and Byron E. Janes
Twelve strains of peas from the USDA Regional Vegetable Breeding
Laboratory were planted for comparison with a standard variety. Two
of the strains, Numbers 762 and 958, were planted in commercial plantings
in the vicinity of LaCrosse and Belle Glade. Both produced an excellent
crop of peas in the LaCrosse area but growth was poor and yield low at
Belle Glade. Of the 12 strains planted at Gainesville 8 appeared sufficiently
promising to warrant further trials.
In cooperation with other agricultural experiment stations of the South-
ern states and the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 39 recently developed
strains of tomatoes were grown for observation of horticultural characters.
The strains were compared with standard varieties, Rutgers and Grothen
Globe, for bush type, earliness, productivity and color, size, shape and
quality of fruit. Fruit of these strains were harvested when estimated
to be mature green, and stored at a temperature of 70 F. There were
considerable differences in rate of ripening. All fruits of some strains
were ripe after 8 days of storage, while others had only 60 percent of
sound fruit ripe after 16 days of storage. None of the fruit from certain
varieties rotted before ripening, while as much as 45 percent from other
strains rotted before ripening. A number of the varieties are of sufficient
merit to warrant further trials to determine yielding ability.
Seventy varieties and strains of green beans were tested during the
fall and spring months. The varieties grown included recently introduced
Logan, Florida Belle, Fulgreen and Long Tendergreen. The strains or
lines were primarily those produced by the USDA Regional Vegetable
Breeding Laboratory, although strains developed by Dr. Zaumeyer of the
USDA and several seed companies were grown also. A number of the
strains produced yields exceeding that of standard varieties and quality
was exceedingly good.
Samples of the high yielding strains were selected for processing by
freezing, and the percent dry weight, ascorbic acid and carotene determined.
Notes were taken also as to the type of bush growth, length of pod and
position of fruit. The higher yielding strains will be grown in larger units
during the 1946-47 season.
During the season of 1945 Dr. Donald Reddick of Cornell University,
cooperating with Dr. Decker of the Department of Plant Pathology, planted
at Gainesville approximately 400 lines of his late blight-immune potato
selections. At harvest time 92 strains were selected for additional trials
under Florida conditions. Potatoes from these 92 lines were held in cold

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

storage until February 1946, when they were removed and planted.
Northern-grown certified seed of Sebago, Katahdin, Sequoia and Pontiac
were planted for comparison. Most of the 92 blight-immune lines grown
from Florida produced seed-stock showed heavy infection of leaf roll and
other virus diseases upon emergence. At harvest time, while most lines
were unproductive, 19 strains produced yields as high as or higher than
the standard varieties with which they were compared. Every effort will
be made to secure Northern-grown disease-free seedstock of these lines for
additional testing in commercial potato producing areas of Florida.

State Project 283 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
This project was inactive during the year.


State Project 315 R. J. Wilmot
In fumigation experiments with narcissus bulbs neither methyl bromide
nor hydrocyanic acid gas had any effect on flower production. It was
found that the number and quality of flowers were determined by the size
and vigor of the bulbs planted. In 1945 the fumigants had no effect on the
number of bulbs produced by Paperwhite and Gloriosa narcissus bulbs.


State Project 365 R. D. Dickey, G. H. Blackmon,
F. S. Lagasse and J. Hamiltons
Fifty-four of 96 Aleurites montana-A. fordi hybrids planted in 1942
flowered this spring (1946) but none set fruit, as was true with 12 that
bloomed in 1945. Female flowers were observed on a few trees. Two
trees originating from a backcross to A. fordi flowered in 1946 but set no
Several trees of Aleurites cordata R. Br., budded on Aleurites fordi
Hemsl. rootstock, developed acute symptoms of zinc deficiency in the sum-
mer of 1945. A 3-3-100 zinc-lime spray applied in June effected immediate
recovery. Symptoms were similar to those shown by tung and mu oil trees.
One-year budded trees of Aleurites cordata in a nursery in Alachua
County showed no more cold damage during the winter of 1945-46 than
did 1-year budded A. montana trees in the same nursery. This is further
evidence that A. cordata is comparable in hardiness to the mu oil tree.
One of the two Aleurites cordata trees at Gainesville that bloomed in
1945 matured several fruit. The seed were germinated in pots and the
seedlings transplanted to the soil floor of the greenhouse, where they are
growing vigorously.
Crosses between Aleurites trisperma Blanco and A. fordi produced no
viable seed. (See also Report, U. S. FIELD LABORATORY FOR TUNG

8 In cooperation with Division of Fruit and Vegetable Crops and Diseases. BPISAE,

Annual Report, 1946 73

Hatch Project 375 G. H. Blackmon
This project was continued with Curtis, Kennedy, Moore, Moneymaker
and Stuart varieties, using the same materials and the same locations as
reported last year.
Stuart trees in Walton County made the most growth and produced
the highest yields following heaviest potash applications. Yields in all
other experiments were light and growth was irregular, due mainly to
unfavorable moisture conditions and diseases. It is difficult, therefore, to
evaluate any effect the different applications may have had on the trees
in 1945.
Foliage diseases caused excessive defoliation of trees in unsprayed
experiments, resulting in poorly filled nuts. This was especially true with
the Stuart in Walton County. Moore and Moneymaker nuts in Jefferson
County were poorly filled, apparently due mainly to pecan scab, partly to
unevenness of soil moisture.

Purnell Project 377 A. L. Stahl and F. S. Jamison
Several new wrapping materials were tried at various temperatures
on tomatoes, beans, cucumbers, sweet corn, cabbage and peas. Among
those tried were 75FF pliofilm (very high CO2 diffusion rate), lumarath,
several types of VB vinylites and a special vinylite film having a high
CO diffusion rate. These were compared with 20-gauge N-1 pliofilm,
which had proved best for vegetables in former tests.
The 75-gauge FF pliofilm gave very good results on tomatoes, cucum-
bers, cabbage, sweet corn and peas. In addition to holding the vegetables
in marketable condition for a longer period, the 75-gauge film was found
tougher and less apt to tear with handling than the 20-gauge pliofilm.
This film also proved less brittle at cold storage temperatures.
Lumarath was not moisture-proof but had the advantage of not clouding
over with moisture after having been wrapped several hours, as did the
other films.
The VB vinylite films proved to be better than other vinylite film
tested formerly. None of these was as good as either 75FF or 20 N-1
None of these new wrapping materials gave good results with beans.
Lumarath was the only 1 which did not allow inside sweating, but it
permitted much weight loss. It made an attractive package and gave
protection from handling.
Investigations on the retardation of enzymatic action in fresh vege-
tables by other means than temperature have given some interesting re-
sults. Numerous chemicals were used as dips or fumigants just before
packaging, on peas and beans, and some showed results which merit further
investigation. Carbon monoxide gas and carbon dioxide gas both retarded
action sufficiently to be used as a pre-treatment before packaging. Ethyl
phenylacetate, pimelic acid, nicotinic acid, thiamin hydrochloride, ascorbic
acid, thiourea, bismuth acetate and carbon dioxide, which were known to
have inhibitory effects on enzyme activity, were used to treat samples of
Golden Cross Bantam sweet corn. The treatment varied according to the
type of chemical and previously published data on optimum concentration
for maximum effect on enzymes. Various storage temperatures were
used. None of these, under the conditions employed, gave exactly the

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

type of inhibition desired, but encouraging results were obtained with
carbon dioxide, thiourea, ascorbic acid and nicotinic acid.

State Project 391 F. S. Jamison
Eighteen varieties of hybrid sweet corn were grown in replicated plots.
Golden Cross Bantam, loana and Illinois Golden Number 10, varieties now
grown in the State, produced satisfactory yields. Seneca Chief produced
the largest number of ears of any variety and was 3 to 5 days earlier in
maturing than Golden Cross Bantam. The ears were slightly smaller.
Tri-State also produced a larger number of ears than Golden Cross Bantam.
The ears were just as large and reached maturity at the same time. Oto
produced a long, slender ear as compared to Golden Cross Bantam.
Twelve varieties of cabbage were planted for determination of yielding
ability, while 20 additional varieties were grown for observation of horti-
cultural characters. The 12 varieties planted for determination of yield
varied considerably in this respect. The varieties Resistant Detroit, Re-
sistant Premier and Copenhagen Market were high yielding, while Globe,
Marion and Golden Acre were low yielding. Of the varieties and strains
included in the test 2 strains of round-headed Charleston Wakefield ap-
peared worthy of further trial. Danish type varieties were all too late for
adaptation to Florida production.
A number of recently introduced strawberry varieties are under test.
Several varieties of other crops were grown for observation. Great Lakes
and Imperial 44 produced hard heads of lettuce. Variety trials of lima
beans and watermelons were so severely injured by heavy rainfall that
the trials were of no value.
In the trials of All America selections there were several outstand-
ing varieties. A yellow Bermuda onion that produced bulbs remarkably
uniform in size and shape and that matured 10 to 14 days earlier than
either Crystal Wax or Early Grano was included in these. Freedom from
thick necks was another desirable characteristic. Of a large number of
sweet corns entered in the All America trials, Numbers 28, 30 and 32 were
particularly outstanding. (See also SUB-TROPICAL, EVERGLADES, and

Purnell Project 413 A. L. Stahl and F. S. Jamison
Investigation of the effect of various storage temperatures and packages
was continued on cabbage, beans, collards, broccoli and carrots, and analyses
were made at various intervals throughout the year. It was found that
the change in taste, appearance, color, vitamin C and percent sugar was
much less in those stored at 370 and 42 F. than those stored at 70 F. and
room temperature. Changes over a year's storage at refrigerated temper-
atures could hardly be detected, while changes in the samples stored at
higher temperatures were great. The efficiency of the package in retain-
ing a good eatable dehydrated vegetable was found to be in the following
order: Vacuum can, glass jar in darkness, air-tight can containing CO0
gas, air-tight can, moistureproof cellophane or pliofilm bag in box, glass
jar in light, waxed carton, parchment bag, waxed bag. The product be-
came darkened in color when exposed to light.
Very good dehydrated products were obtained from eggplants, peppers,
squash and field peas. In all cases, vitamin C was reduced from 14 to %

Annual Report, 1946 75

and the vegetables averaged from 1/3 to Y2 of the original quality as meas-
ured by appearance and taste.
Several varieties of mango, guava, papaya and lychee were dehydrated
under varying conditions. Varieties highest in acid gave the best de-
hydrated products. The vitamin C content of these fruits was found to be
less affected by dehydration than that of vegetables. Several samples of
dried guavas contained from 300 to 350 milligrams per 100 grams of vitamin
C after 6 months' storage. A good product was obtained by grinding dried
guavas, mangos and papayas, which could be used as a pulverized powder
over desserts. The mangos and papayas lent themselves well to dehydrat-
ing for use as a dessert fruit. The change in taste, appearance and sugar
was also found to be less in these fruits than that in vegetables.

State Project 420 B. E. Janes
Evidence obtained from the analysis of collards and broccoli grown at
Gainesville during the fall and spring of 1944-45 indicated that difference
in environmental factors associated with difference in season has as much
influence on composition as the environmental factors associated with
location. To obtain more information on this point, samples of 7 varieties
of cabbage which had been grown at Sanford, Hastings, Bradenton and
Gainesville were secured and analyzed for dry weight, ascorbic acid and
carotene. These plants were grown on the same plot or plots close to the
ones on which cabbage was grown in 1943-44. That year there was a large
variation from location to location and small variation between varieties.
The variation from location to location in the 1945-46 cabbage was much
less than for the 1943-44 cabbage, being only slightly more than that
between varieties. If the variations from location to location were due
to soil differences, it would be expected that similar variations would occur
during different seasons. However, since there was as much difference
from season to season at 1 location as from location to location during
1 season, it would seem that climatic factors are much more important
than soil in determining the composition of crops.
A series of plantings was made to determine the effect of age, time
of planting and amount of irrigation on the composition of carrots. Plant-
ings of the Imperator variety were made at Gainesville at monthly inter-
vals from October to February. Four plots were planted on each date;
2 of these were given supplemental irrigation at frequent intervals, the
other 2 were irrigated only at the time of planting to insure germination
of the seed. The rainfall was quite heavy and well distributed over the
season and there were only a few short periods when the non-irrigated
plots were dry. The first analyses were made when the carrots were
approximately 100 days old, others at monthly intervals. There were 5
analyses of the October plantings and 1 of the January and February
.There was a slightly higher carotene content-not statistically sig-
nificant-in the carrots taken from the non-irrigated plots. The carotene
content of the 100-day old carrots planted in November and December
and harvested in February and March was lower than that of carrots
planted in October, January and February and harvested in January, April
and May. As reported last year, the greatest difference was associated
with age of carrots-the older the carrots the higher the carotene content.
In addition to these studies on crops grown this past year, samples of
beans, broccoli, collards and carrots which had been collected and stored

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

during the previous 2 seasons were analyzed for carbohydrates. Samples
of cabbage and beans were analyzed for iron. As was the case with the
vitamins and minerals reported previously, there is little or no effect
of fertilizer levels and only a slight effect of variety on iron or carbo-
hydrate content. The greatest differences are associated with location.

Adams Project 432 G. H. Blackmon
Stuart pecan trees set in 1928 in Arredondo soil on the Station farm
at Gainesville were divided into 4 blocks, each containing 7 single-tree
plots, for the borax treatments. Borax was applied at the rates of 0, %,
1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 pounds per tree in June 1945, and again in Blocks A and C
in 1946. Micrograms of boron per 10 sq. cm. of leaf were determined for
the trees in Block B at the time borax was applied and on 9 dates there-
after in 1945 and once in 1946. Toxicity in the leaves scored on 9 dates
from July 9 to September 29 and the percentage of leaves showing mar-
ginal burn was recorded.
Boron content of the leaves from trees in the different treatments was
directly correlated with the amount of borax applied. Boron in the leaves
at the start ranged from 0.39 to 0.60 micrograms per 10 sq. cm. These
values rose to 2.90 micrograms for the 0 application to 37.50 for the leaves
on the tree that received 16 pounds of borax. The highest boron content
was found at 117 days in the check, at 48 days with %-pound, and 69 days
with 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16-pound applications of borax. In May 1946, without
additional borax, the boron content of the leaves varied with the amount
of borax applied in 1945, with 1 exception, but was much lower than the
high readings in 1945.
No toxicity symptoms were observed in the leaves on the trees receiving
1/2 and 1, and only slight toxicity with 2 pounds of borax applied to each
tree. The trees receiving 4 and 8 pounds of borax each showed 38 and
53 percent, respectively, on September 7. The leaves from the 16-pound
application of borax were scored 80 percent toxicity on August 1 and
attained 100 percent by August 23. All foliage showing marginal burn
contained 17.76 micrograms per 10 sq. cm. of leaf, or more. The trees
held most of their leaves until time for normal defoliation.
In 1946 the trees leafed out normally but some which received the
8- and 16-pound applications of borax showed slight toxicity in early leaves
on the lower branches. All trees now seem to be in excellent condition
and are making vigorous growth, except some of those that received the
highest 2 amounts of borax.
The foliage analyses were made by H. W. Winsor of the Department
of Soils, who is cooperating in this work under Project 433.

Bankhead-Jones Project 435 V. F. Nettles and B. E. Janes
Plots were established during the year for irrigation studies with per-
manent overhead sprinkler irrigation equipment. Cabbage was planted as
a fall crop and snap beans as a spring crop. Moisture treatments were:
(1) No irrigation; (2) irrigation to maintain moisture above the point
where permanent wilting would occur; (3) irrigation to maintain the moist-
ure near the moisture-holding capacity; (4) the same amount of irrigation
as (3) but applied in split applications.
Plots planted with cabbage were subdivided into 3 sections to permit a
fertilization study. Fertilizers applied were: (a) 2,000 pounds an acre

Annual Report, 1946

of an 8-7-5; (b) 1,600 pounds an acre of a 4-7-5 plus-2 side-dressings, each
composed of 200 pounds of nitrate of soda; (c) 1,600 pounds an acre of
a 4-7-5.
Copenhagen Market cabbage was planted in October and all plots were
irrigated immediately after the plants were set. No additional irrigations
were made until January 12. Rainfall was scattered uniformly throughout
the remainder of the growing season and only 4 irrigations were necessary.
Analyses of the data show that irrigation was not significant in increasing
the yield of cabbage. Cabbage fertilized with 1,600 pounds per acre of a
4-7-5 with 2 side-dressings of nitrate of soda made significantly higher
yields than that grown with other fertilizer treatments.
Two varieties of snap beans, Florida Belle and Logan, were planted
at 2 rates of sowing in the spring. The normal rate was at a spacing of
8 seed per foot and the wider spacing was at the rate of 6 seed per foot.
Except for the first 2 weeks of the growing season, rainfall was uniformly
distributed. No single irrigation treatment gave a significantly higher yield
of beans. However, beans grown under the light irrigation treatment and
the heavy irrigation treatment applied in split applications increased yields
significantly over the heavy irrigation treatment applied in 1 application
and over the no-irrigation treatment. No significant differences in yield
of varieties were found. Without correcting for stand, the normal spacing
of beans gave yields significantly larger than did the wider spacing.

State Project 452 R. J. Wilmot
This work, which started as an effort to eliminate some of the confusion
in camellia varietal nomenclature, was previously reported under Hatch
Project 52. It is based on a collection of approximately 1,500 plants sent
to Gainesville by 65 cooperators. The first plants were collected in 1939
and the synonymy of 81 varieties has been found, 70 of which have been
previously reported. Methods of culture, propagation, nutrition and dis-
ease control are being investigated.
Fertilizer source plots were set upon both large and small plants to
determine the growth following the use of neutral and acid fertilizers.
Fall-rooted camellia cuttings, potted and held in the greenhouse, made a
flush of growth before they were lined out in the lath shade in early spring,
in this way gaining at least 1/2 season's growth. Losses in grafting were
usually due to fungous attack rather than failure to make a union.
One hundred and forty-eight varieties of C. japonica L., C. sasanqua
Thunb., C. saluensis Stapf., and C. reticulata Lindl., were added to the
collection as contributions of either plants or scions for grafting. A dona-
tion of 50 bare-rooted plants for grafting stock was also received.
Freezing Preservation of Florida Fruits.-Several varieties of mango,
papaya, guava and lychee were frozen under varying conditions and all
gave a good product. The Haden, Sandersha, Mulgoba, Brooks, Bennett and
Cambodiana mangos were outstanding. Best results were obtained when
the fruit was packaged in a dilute syrup or limeade. Less drying and
less oxidation were obtained in this type of pack than in the dry pack.
Fast freezing of individual slices or dices before packaging also gave
good results.
The best frozen papaya product was obtained from the Betty variety,
sliced or diced in a dilute syrup or lime juice (ade strength). All the guava

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

varieties reacted well to freezing preservation and all gave a product
with a high vitamin C content, ranging from 100 to 400 milligrams per 100
grams. The flavor of these 3 fruits (mango, papaya, guava) was not
changed and the texture was only slightly changed from that of the fresh
fruit. All 3 reacted best in vapor-moisture-proof containers. Some of
the lychees were frozen just as they came from the tree, while others were
skinned and seeded. Those not skinned gave best results and could be
eaten when frozen. The skin readily peeled from the fruit after removal
from frozen storage, leaving a delicious mass of frozen pulp which had
all the flavor and texture of fresh lychees. (A. L. Stahl.)
Freezing Preservation of Florida Vegetables.-Investigations of the best
varieties of vegetables for freezing were continued. An effort is being
made to test the existing commercial varieties of corn, peas, beans, lima
beans, spinach, collards, broccoli, field peas, carrots and beets. In addition
new varieties of beans and sweet corn are being tried for freezing preserva-
tion in order to find the best possible varieties for freezing in Florida.
In these tests the color of green vegetables was preserved by the 2
percent brine pack. Much darkening and browning occurred in the dry
pack, but a brine dip just before packaging helped to retain the color in the
dry pack. When packaging in dry pack, a very good moisture-proof con-
tainer was found necessary. When using a liquid pack, such as the 2 percent
brine, a less moisture-proof container could be used, as the frozen liquid
served as a protection against drying out and oxidation. (A. L. Stahl and
R. A. Dennison.)
Maintaining Freshness in Vegetables with Ice.-This work was started
in January 1946. Cracked ice was evaluated as a means of preserving
the fresh qualities in 7 vegetables during the period required for trans-
porting to Northern markets. Quantities of broccoli, cabbage, endive,
lettuce, peas, green beans and sweet corn were packed in containers with
and without cracked ice and stored in controlled temperature rooms of
370, 48 and 70* F. No ice was added after the original packing; therefore
the length of time the vegetables remained in ice was dependent upon the
room temperature. Observations were made as to quality and samples
were taken for percent moisture, vitamin C and carbohydrates at time
of harvest and at intervals of 1, 3, 7, and 14 days.
The following conclusions can be drawn from the results at this time:
1. Icing of the vegetables has shown a considerable retention of vitamin
C in the majority of the analyses, but not in all. Icing proved of greatest
value in retaining vitamin C in endive, followed in order by peas, broccoli,
green beans and cabbage. It was of the least value for sweet corn and
2. Only a small fraction of the total differences in quality between
the iced and uniced vegetables was revealed by the vitamin C tests, since
the iced lots were superior in freshness, color, flavor and texture. There
was considerable weight loss in the uniced lots while, in many cases, the
iced vegetables weighed more after several days than at the time of harvest.
3. The higher the temperature of the storage room the more rapid was
the general drop in quality.
4. In the 700 room the ice melted after 1 or 2 days and the iced vege-
tables started decomposing more rapidly than the uniced because of the
additional moisture. In general, the analyses on the first and third days
of storage indicated a higher vitamin C value for the iced vegetables, but
after 7 days the greatest loss was in the iced lots.
5. In the 37 room the ice melted very slowly; wilting and weight loss
were prevented for the 2-week period. The low temperature delayed the

Annual Report, 1946

loss of vitamin C in the absence of ice, but the iced vegetables still retained
from 0 to 36 percent more vitamin C than those without ice.
6. The results at the 48 temperature were intermediate between the
700 and 370 temperatures. (R. K. Showalter.)
Utilization ef Vegetable Wastes for Livestock Feed.-Celery strippings,
trimmings and other waste at packinghouses and green bean vines har-
vested after beans were picked were dehydrated in an effort to produce
a product that could be used as feed for livestock. The celery was de-
hydrated in an open-flame dehydrator used for dehydrating citrus pulp,
while the bean vines were dehydrated in a steam dehydrator used for the
same purpose.
Freshly dehydrated celery strippings had a carotene content of 18.0
mgs. per 100 gms. dried material, compared with 2.4 mgs. per 100 gms.
in a sample of alfalfa leaf meal obtained from the Station's Poultry Labora-
tory. The Pascal type of celery was found to have a higher content of
carotene than the Golden type. Analyses showed that most of the carotene
is located in the leaves of the celery and very little in the stems. The
moisture content of the dehydrated celery waste and bean vines was ap-
proximately 93 and 89 percent, respectively.
The Animal Industry Department is investigating bean vines as feed
for cattle and poultry and is also conducting poultry feeding trials with
dehydrated celery strippings. (See Report, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY.) (R.
A. Dennison.)

F. S. Lagasse, Senior Pomologist in Charge
The research work of the staff of the U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung
Investigations, financed by Federal funds, is carried out cooperatively
under a memorandum of understanding between the USDA Bureau of
Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering and the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station. The numerous facilities extended to the
laboratory, the use of certain plant materials, and the close cooperation
of the members of the horticultural staff of the Florida Experiment Station
are gratefully acknowledged.
The mechanical device for flaking tung kernels reported last year was
improved in accordance with suggestions of the late F. H. Hayes of the
Drake Memorial Laboratory at the University of Florida by changing the
basic movement of the flaker from the horizontal to the rotary. As a result,
a sample of whole kernels can be flaked more quickly and even more finely.
The new method of summer budding tung trees reported last year con-
tinues to prove satisfactory and field trials are now under way to compare
summer-budded with standard-budded clones for growth and production.
Studies were conducted during the past year on the effect of tempera-
ture and moisture conditions during storage on the subsequent germination
of tung seed. The data show that seed stored at 420 F. in wet sawdust
for 1 to 2 months started to appear above ground about 30 days after
planting, while those stored dry did not emerge until about 46 days after
planting. The rate and the percentage of germination of the wet-sawdust-
treated seeds were higher following storage at 420 F. than at the other
2 storage temperatures of 60 and 70. Similar studies are now being
conducted with temperatures ranging from 0 to 450 F.
A simplified method for determining the percentage of oil in tung kernels
has been developed and put to extensive use during the past year. The
flaked kernels are agitated with a solvent in a Waring Blendor to disinte-
grate the kernel and dissolve the oil. After the extracted particles of kernel

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

have settled, the solvent is evaporated from an aliquot of the oil solution
and the oil is weighed. This method was critically compared with the other
conventional methods and found to have distinct advantages in speed of
determination, precision and accuracy. It is now the standard method
of the laboratory.
Samples of fruit from Aleurites fordi Hemsl., A. montana (Lour.) Wils.,
A. moluccana (L.) Willd. and A. trisperma Blanco have been analyzed dur-
ing 3 seasons for their oil content and oil characteristics. The data show a
close similarity in the oil from fordi and from montana, as has been re-
ported in the literature consulted. The constants for the other 2 species
are variously reported in the literature. In the samples used, moluccana
contained only a negligible quantity of eleostearic acid by the maleic
anhydride test while trisperma oil contained about 51 percent of the amount
of eleostearic acid found in fordi oil. The average iodine numbers of the
oils were: moluccana, 145; trisperma, 124; montana, 159; and fordi, 160.
An exploratory experiment was set up to determine some of the limit-
ing factors in the growth of young seedling tung trees. A 2x2x2 factorial
design was used, the factors under study being (1) watering versus no
watering during growing season, (2) frequent versus infrequent spading,
and (3) early fertilization versus late fertilization. At the end of the
season it was found that by far the greatest response was due to spading
of the soil. Trees that were frequently spaded averaged about 300 cm.
in top growth (length of trunk plus half the length of the primary
branches) while trees that were not spaded averaged only about 100 cm.
in top growth. Beneficial effects due to watering and late fertilization
were not of the same order of magnitude as the frequent spading of the
soil around the tree.
With the advent of Reed's portable huller for tung fruit, the problem
of storage of the hulled nuts became important in connection with the use
of this machine. Studies begun in March 1945 showed that when the hulled
nuts containing not to exceed 20 percent moisture were kept in sacks in
ventilated piles the lipolytic deterioration which results in high acid
numbers was negligible, but that nuts with cracked shells (kernels exposed)
mold rapidly and form free acid when stored under conditions of inadequate
ventilation. Similar lots of nuts were dried immediately after hulling in
a commercial bin drier at about 2000 F. for 8 hours. These nuts with about
5 percent moisture showed no evidence of any type of deterioration, even
after storage in tightly closed containers. From these results it was
concluded that (1) either artificial drying or adequate ventilation offers
promise as storage treatment for hulled nuts; (2) the principal danger
of high acidity is to be expected from the mechanically damaged nuts,
particularly at moisture levels above 10 percent; and (3) under proper
drying and storage conditions the oil can be solvent-extracted even after a
year's storage.
Additional study of the effect of copper deficiency on nitrogen and
carbohydrate metabolism and oil synthesis revealed that there were no
significant differences between leaves from normal and copper-deficient
trees in the percentage of non-reducing sugar, but that the percentage
of reducing sugar in deficient leaves was low, about 4 percent, and that
of starch very low, less than 1 percent, which indicates either a decrease
in formation or an increase in utilization of reserve carbohydrates, or both.
The total nitrogen of deficient leaves averaged about 2.7 percent and was
always higher than the normal leaves, which averaged about 2 percent.
This was due in large measure to the abnormally high amount of water-
insoluble nitrogen found in deficient leaves. The accumulation of this
elaborated nitrogen fraction was a symptom characteristic of copper de-

Annual Report, 1946

ficiency and indicates the importance of copper in the nitrogen metabolism
of the normal plant. It appears likely that in the absence of sufficient
copper the plant forms abnormal amounts of complex nitrogen compounds
at the expense of part of the polysaccharide reserve of the plant.
A most important effect of copper deficiency was the failure of the
kernel to attain normal size and to synthesize a normal amount of oil.
The copper-deficient kernels contained only about 56 percent of oil as
compared with 66 percent for the normal. Further study is under way
on the role of copper in nitrogen metabolism.
In a study of the effect of applying various forms of magnesium to 7-
year-old tung trees that are deficient in this element, it was again found
that 2-pound and 4-pound applications of Epsom salt and equivalent amounts
of MgO as sulfate of potash-magnesia corrected the deficiency symptoms
for the most part, although as much as 14 pounds of dolomite per tree
and an equivalent amount of calcined magnesite were ineffective. How-
ever, the high potash (12 percent) used in the fertilizer applied to this
area by the grower tended to obscure the beneficial effects of the mag-
nesium fertilizer. The application of 14 pounds of dolomite plus 4 pounds
of sulfur per tree largely corrected the disorder and in addition increased
the yield to about 29 pounds of air-dry fruit per tree, as compared with an
average of 16 pounds per tree for all treatments. This difference is highly
significant statistically. The beneficial effect of this treatment was most
pronounced on trees that did not have severe magnesium deficiency symp-
toms. It remains to be determined whether the beneficial effect is due to
the direct effect of sulfur or its indirect effect in acidifying the soil and
rendering other elements available to the tree.
Statistical analysis of the yield data from this experiment also shows
that trees exhibiting only slight magnesium deficiency averaged about 22
pounds of air-dry fruit per tree, while those with more severe magnesium
deficiency averaged about 13 pounds per tree. This difference is highly
In cooperation with the Florida Station a study was made to determine
the effectiveness of copper sulfate spray in correcting copper-deficiency
symptoms. Seventy-five 3-year-old trees comparable in severity of copper-
deficiency symptoms were selected for treatment at the Beverly Hills
orchard. Two concentrations of a bordeaux spray were used, 1-1-100 and
8-8-100. On June 6, 30 trees were sprayed with each concentration and
15 trees were left unsprayed. At the end of the season it was found that
in every case the higher spray concentration was completely effective in
correcting the deficiency and preventing its recurrence during the season.
The weaker spray corrected the disorder but failed to prevent its recurrence,
as some of the trees later developed copper-deficiency symptoms. All trees
left unsprayed continued to show copper-deficiency symptoms.
In a fertilizer study comparing various combinations of low and high
levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, with and without the appli-
cation of calcium, on growth and yield of 2 selected clones, it was learned
that the trees in plots receiving high levels of nitrogen and potassium had
a significantly larger cross-sectional area of trunk and higher yields than
those trees receiving the low level. In all plots the selection F99 greatly
outyielded the selection L8. Thus in the plots receiving favorable fertilizer
treatments, the F99 trees averaged 22 pounds of air-dry fruit per tree in
their fourth year, whereas the L8 selection averaged 6.3 pounds per tree.
A study was made also of the effect of time of application of am-
monium nitrate on nitrogen absorption and distribution within the tree.
The data showed that when ammonium nitrate was applied as early as
December and January, nitrogen was absorbed by the roots and transported

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

to the growing points previous to the time growth started in the spring.
Trees receiving this early fertilizer treatment also made at least as good
growth, as indicated by shoot weight and length and number of leaves
per shoot, as did trees fertilized in February, March or April. There was
no evidence that early fertilization caused the trees to bloom earlier.
During this past year, as in the previous year, over 1,000 leaf samples
were analyzed for 4 to 8 of the following mineral constituents: total ash,
nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron
and manganese. Most of these samples were collected from various field
plots at different USDA tung stations and the data have been used as an
aid in interpreting results obtained in field experiments. Some were taken
from commercial orchards and the data obtained are being used to build
up a background of information on the relation of commercial orchard
production to mineral nutrition levels of trees as indicated by leaf analyses.
Another group of leaf samples was analyzed in connection with physiologi-
cal studies on potassium, copper and magnesium nutrition.
The unknown abnormality, described in last year's report, occurring
in tung foliage shortly after it emerges was observed again this past season
in a number of orchards in the Gainesville area. The possibility of its
being due to drouth or low temperature, mentioned last year, now seems
to be eliminated. The past winter was quite mild and more than average
rainfall occurred this spring. It is possible that the cause may be a dis-
ease organism or a virus.
Thermograph records through the fall and winter months indicated
approximately the same amount of cold weather as in 1944-45, for by Jan-
uary 30, 1946, 486 cold units (hours below 450 F.) had occurred in the
Gainesville area, while by January 30, 1945, 475 such units had occurred.
Blossoming occurred March 10, 1946, approximately the same time as last
year, which was March 8. During the period October 1, 1945, to February
28, 1946, 595 cold units accumulated in the Gainesville area, as compared
with 476 in the Ocala area, or 119 more. There were several times during
the winter, however, when it was considerably colder at both Morriston and
Ocala than at Gainesville. (F. S. Lagasse, Senior Pomologist; M. Drosdoff,
Soil Technologist; S. G. Gilbert, Assistant Plant Physiologist; E. G. Fisher,
Junior Pomologist; D. C. Nearpass, (Agent) Junior Chemist; J. H. Lassiter,
(Agent) Scientific Aide; Lucille H. Fay, Clerk-Stenographer; Maude H.
Stokes, Scientific Aide.)

Annual Report, 1946 83

A general outbreak of late blight of tomato appeared in the fall crop
in the southern part of the State and spread northward as the season
progressed. It took a heavy toll of fruit in home gardens as well as in
commercial plantings. This was the most widespread and destructive
epiphytotic of late blight of tomato that has been reported in Florida.
Reports on control of the disease will be found in reports of the Stations
where the work was done.
Downy mildew of cucumber, squash and watermelon and anthracnose
of watermelon have caused great reductions in yield and quality of melons.

State Project 259 Erdman West and Lillian E. Arnold
The following is a resume of the additions made during the past year
and the total number of specimens on file in each group of the permanent
collections in the herbarium.
Group Accessions 1945-46 Totals
Spermatophytes .................... 1,088 44,539
Pteridophytes ..................... 826 2,996
Bryophytes .............. ............ 0 7,723
Thallophytes ....................... 1,276 40,812
Seed Collections .................. 79 2,080
Specimens received by gift or exchange were as follows: Fungi, 269
packets; spermatophytes, 1,096 sheets; and ferns, 777 sheets. The most
outstanding gift was the entire fern collection of Robert P. St. John,
representing many years work in Florida, New York, Canada, the West
Indies and part of Central America. Another interesting gift consisted
of wild and cultivated plants from the island of Tinian, received from
Franklin W. Knight. Specimens distributed on an exchange basis totaled
965 sheets of spermatophytes, almost wholly Florida material.
The entire collections of certain genera were sent to specialists in the
respective groups, for study and annotation, and the facilities of the
herbarium were used by several botanists from other institutions and
by numerous members from other departments of the University. Demon-
strations of the use and value of the herbarium were made for University
classes in agronomy and taxonomy, as well as for students of the P. K.
Yonge Laboratory School.
Identifications for residents of Florida and workers in related fields in
this and other institutions included: fungi and plant diseases, 621; plants
both native and cultivated, 803. In addition over 750 specimens of wood-
inhabiting fungi from Mexico and Panama collected by mycologists in other
schools were identified by Dr. W. A. Murrill. Many valuable specimens
from these collections were retained in the herbarium.
The book, "The Native Trees of Florida," written by the project leaders,
was published by the University of Florida Press.

Adams Project 269 Erdman West
Field plots on Norfolk sand infested with Sclerotium rolfsi Sacc. were
treated in October with calcium cyanamid, uramon, uramon and cyanamid,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

uramon and lime, and ceresan suspension. Lupine seeds planted 6 weeks
later did not germinate well on any plots treated with uramon, but plant-
ings made in January, 12 weeks after treatment, gave uniformly good
germination on all treated and check plots. Disease counts made 10 weeks
after planting revealed no outstanding differences between treatments.
The perfect or basidial stage of the fungus was found for the first time
under natural conditions on leaves of climbing fig (Ficus pumila L.), an
unreported host. The perfect stage has been reported on culture media
in the laboratory 4 times in foreign countries and once in the United States,
sometimes as Corticium centrifugum (Lev.) Bres., and sometimes as C.
rolfsi (Sacc.) Curzi. The Florida fungus is distinct from C. centrifugum
in being thinner, differing in color when either fresh or dried and in the
size of the basidia. The measurements previously published for the re-
productive organs of C. rolfsi on culture media agree fairly well with
those of the fungus obtained in nature, and since the growth of a fungus
on culture media usually varies from that produced under natural condi-
tions, the discrepancies noted in this respect may not be significant. For
the present, the basidial stage on the fig leaves is regarded as Corticium
rolfsi (Sacc.) Curzi, but inasmuch as Corticium species having an areolate
hymenium have been segregated in the genus Pellicularia, the combination
Pellicularia rolfsi (Sacc.) nov. comb., is proposed as the correct name.
Fifteen single basidiospore cultures from the fresh hymenia on fig
leaves have been compared, and considerable variation was noted in color,
markings, size and frequency of the sclerotia and the characteristics of the
mycelial growth. Some isolates resembled typical Sclerotium rolfsi Sacc.
and others resembled S. dephinii D. S. Welch. in the characters of both
mycelium and sclerotia. All 15 isolates are parasitic on Lupinus angusti-
folius L.

Adams Project 281 A. N. Brooks and W. B. Tisdale
Efforts were devoted primarily to a study of the effect of vegetable
matter and soil fumigants upon seed decay and post-emergence damping-
off caused by Rhizoctonia sp. In 1 greenhouse test similar vegetable ma-
trial was compared in green and dry conditions. This consisted of a mix-
ture of crabgrass (Richardia) and beggarweed which was chopped up into
short pieces and mixed with soil in greenhouse flats. One pound of green
material or 1/4 pound of dry material was added to each flat, and cultures
of Rhizoctonia were mixed with the soil at the same time. One series con-
taining green and another containing dry vegetation were prepared 6
weeks and 2 weeks before planting seed in the soil. Cabbage and lettuce
were used as test crops. One lot of seed of each variety was treated with
a 0.25 percent dosage of arasan, and the treated and non-treated seeds
were planted in randomized rows in each flat, using 100 seed per replication.
In this test emergence was lowest where the vegetation had been turned
under only 2 weeks, and was significantly lower with green than with dry
vegetation. Also, increases in emergence due to seed treatment were
highest where the vegetation had been turned under only 2 weeks.
All plants in this test were allowed to grow in the flats for 5 weeks
from seeding and then were chopped up and returned to the soil without
further inoculation with Rhizoctonia. Four ounces of the mixture, cabbage
and lettuce, were added to each flat in 3 of the series and the same weight
of green oats plants were added to the series of flats to which green vegeta-

Annual Report, 1946

tion was added 2 weeks before the first seeding. After keeping the soil
moist for 4 weeks the flats were again planted to cabbage and lettuce.
Results showed no significant differences in emergence of cabbage due
to soil treatment, and emergence was low regardless of this or previous
treatment. With lettuce, emergence with 1 treatment was much lower
than from the others. Seed treatments caused highly significant increases
in emergence in all cases, and emergence from treated seed was practically
the same in all soil treatments. These results indicate that the ability of
Rhizoctonia to produce seed decay decreases with the progressive decom-
position of vegetable matter in the soil.
To test this further, another experiment was performed in which young
blue lupine plants of the same age were incorporated in sterilized soil at
3 intervals-6, 4, and 2 weeks-before seeding. A half pound of the chopped
lupine plants and a culture of Rhizoctonia were added to each greenhouse
flat of soil and the soil was kept at favorable moisture content until the
seed were planted. One series of flats was prepared without lupines but
inoculated with cultures of Rhizoctonia. Treated and non-treated cabbage
and lettuce seed were planted in all series.
Emergence of cabbage in this test was better in the series where the
vegetation had been added 6 weeks than where it had been added 4 weeks
or 2 weeks before seeding. With lettuce there was no difference. Emer-
gence was highest with both cabbage and lettuce where no vegetation had
been added to the soil. Treating the seed with arasan caused significant
increases in all series, except the 1 which received no vegetation.
One test was performed outdoors to determine whether the time of
turning under vegetation with respect to seeding would have any effect
upon emergence, final stand and yield of snap and lima beans. A heavy
crop of crabgrass and other weeds was turned under on replicated plots
210, 135 and 37 days before planting seed. Analyses of results obtained
showed no significant differences in emergence, final stand or yield due
to treatments. This was apparently due to an uneven infestation of the
soil with the root-knot nematode and Rhizoctonia. Light rainfall during
the period between the time of turning under the vegetation and seeding
also may have influenced the results.
The effect of vegetation on activity of Rhizoctonia was studied at the
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory in 1 greenhouse test during the
summer. Soil heavily infested with Rhizoctonia was used to fill 50 flats.
This soil was kept at optimum moisture for plant growth. In 25 of the
flats all weeds were pulled out as they appeared, while in the other 25
the weeds were allowed to develop until they were 8 to 10 inches high, at
which time they were chopped up and incorporated with the soil.
Charleston Wakefield cabbage seed were planted immediately afterward,
250 seed broadcast in each flat. There were no significant differences between
the percentage germination in the clean and trashy flats, and the plants
in the trashy flats made better growth than those in the clean flats. The
number of plants with Rhizoctonia lesions under clean conditions was not
significantly different from those under trashy conditions, the percentage
infection being less than 1 percent in both cases.
Isolations were attempted from diseased plants according to the tech-
nique which always previously had given a high percentage of Rhizoctonia,
but in this case, almost 100 percent Trichoderma was obtained.
When the plants had reached transplanting size all of them were pulled
from the flats, the soil was reworked and velvet beans were planted as a
cover crop. When these were 12 to 16 inches high they were pulled out of
the 25 clean flats and incorporated into the soil of the trashy flats, together
with the crop growing on the latter.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

One week later, Fordhook lima beans were planted, 50 seed per flat in
all flats. Again there were no significant differences between percentage
germination in clean and trashy flats. The lima beans grew well in all
flats. There were no Rhizoctonia lesions on plants in the clean flats and
only 10 plants in the trashy flats developed lesions. Isolations were made
from these diseased plants and again Trichodeima was predominant. No
cultures of Rhizoctonia were obtained.
These results raise the questions as to whether the Rhizoctonia was
parasitic, or whether the presence of Trichoderma had any influence on the
Rhizoctonia. An attempt was made to repeat the 1945 experiment with
Fordhook lima beans by planting seed in soil which had been prepared a
sufficient length of time before planting so that all plant refuse would
be well rotted and also planting seed in soil prepared shortly before plant-
ing time so that only partially rotted plant refuse was in the field. The
cover crop on this land during the fall of 1945 was much lighter than
the crop the previous year; hence there was not as much difference between
the clean and trashy land in 1946 when the lima beans were planted as
there was in 1945.
Germination ran higher than 80 percent in both soil treatment blocks.
Only 11 plants were killed in the trashy and 12 in the clean soil, which
is about 0.6 percent. Isolations from these plants gave 100 percent Tricho-
There was no significant difference in yield between clean and trashy
blocks. In 1945 the yield was significantly higher on the land where the
vegetation was turned under early than where it was turned under just
before planting the seed.
However, the 2 seasons were quite different. The 1945 season was ex-
tremely dry, whereas in 1946 there was optimum soil moisture.
In 1 plant bed experiment on Norfolk sandy loam with reaction of about
pH 6.9 the soil fumigants DD, chloropicrin, dowfume G and iscobrome were
used in dosages of 2% and 5 cc. per 81 square inches. Uramon was added
alone at the rate of 1 pound per square yard, and 1 pound in combination
with % pound of calcium cyanamid and 1 pound with /2 pound of hydrated
lime per square yard. All of the liquid fumigants were applied 14 days
before the seed were planted, and uramon and its mixtures were added 153
days before seeding. All treatments were replicated 5 times in randomized
arrangement. Cabbage, lettuce and tomato were used as test crops and
observations were made on emergence, final stand, growth and nematode
The data show that cabbage, lettuce and tomatoes responded somewhat
differently to the various soil fumigants. Some of the fumigants caused
definite decreases in emergence and final stand, which indicated that they
were not toxic but stimulated the activity of Rhizoctonia. Certain of the
fumigants caused a significant increase in weight of 1 crop and no increase
or a reduction in another. Uramon and the mixtures gave greatest con-
sistent increase in weight.
Results for the control of root-knot were inconsistent, indicating that
the soil was unevenly infested. However certain fumigants showed evidence
of effectiveness, DD and uramon + lime being most consistent in this
DD in the higher dosage and chloropicrin in both dosages killed most
of the nutgrass, or inhibited its growth during the experimental period.
None of the treatments inhibited growth of all other weeds, but they greatly
reduced their numbers. Uramon and its combinations with cyanamid and
lime were about equally effective in reducing the stand of nutgrass and
other weeds, but did not eradicate all of them. These were about equal to

Annual Report, 1946

DD and choloropicrin in reducing the stand of weeds but were not as effec-
tive in eradicating nutgrass. Dowfume G and iscobrome apparently had
no effect as weed eradicants. (See also report, VEGETABLE CROPS
LABORATORY, Proj. 281.)

Adams Project 344 Phares Decker
Attempts by breeding to produce a blight-resistant or an immune com-
mercial variety of eggplant was continued during the year. A planting
of 110 hybrid families was started in a seedbed in July 1945. The seed-
lings were inoculated with the blight organism and the surviving plants
set in the field. From these, 75 selections were made for increase or further
breeding. A spring crop of 150 hybrid families was started in the green-
house in January 1946 and the plants set in the field. These hybrids were
grown in comparison with standard varieties.
As the selections were backcrossed to the disease-susceptible com-
mercial varieties to intensify the purple fruit color, a large percentage of
the progenies were killed by the blight. This year crosses between selected
hybrids were made in an attempt to obtain a larger percentage of resistant
individuals, and selections for increases and further breeding were made
in the field.
The disease was so abundant in both the fall and spring plantings that
all standard varieties were 100 percent affected. A number of the selected
families which have remained free of blight and have produced a good
yield of uniform, purple fruit will be grown in field trials at Gainesville
and Bradenton.
Adams Project 455 Erdman West
Diseased camellias constituted nearly 9 percent of the large total
number of plant disease specimens received during the year. Certain
physiogenic troubles such as oedema, sunburning and bud drop were re-
sponsible for over half of the inquiries. Among the troubles caused by
parasitic organisms were leaf gall (Exobasidium camelliae Shirae), dieback
(organism not yet identified), damping-off of cuttings (Rhizoctonia sp.),
leaf spotting (Phyllosticta sp., Pestalotia sp., and Gloeosporium sp.), ring
spot (virus), algal spot (Cephaleuros virescens Kze.) and dodder (Cus-
cuta sp.).
Isolations have been made from 174 specimens showing typical dieback
symptoms, but at present the isolates from only a few of these have been
identified. The fungi appearing most consistently in these cultures were
Diplodia sp., Phomopsis sp., and Gloeosporium sp., in order of frequency.
All of the isolates are being grown on sterilized camellia twigs and leaves
to induce sporulation.


State Project 463 Phares Decker and R. C. Bond
Seed treatments with spergon, 1451K, 1452F, arasan, fermate, 604 and
ceresan improved the stands of blue lupine, but increased stands due to
treatment failed to give consistent increases in green weight. Results
indicate that the cost of seed treatment is not justified.
Soil treatment with chloropicrin at the rate of 300 pounds per acre
increased the stand and green weight of blue lupine, while DD and isco-
brome at the rate of 300 pounds per acre failed to increase the yield over
the non-treated checks.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Rhizoctonia, Sclerotium rolfsi Sacc., Fusarium and Botrytis were ob-
served in the field, but only the latter appeared to be more abundant than
last season. A disease caused by Sclerotinia sp. was observed in a few
fields where 85 percent of the plants in localized areas were killed. The
sclerotia of the fungus were found inside of the stems and seed pods of
diseased plants. By the present method of harvesting the seed some
sclerotia may be carried with the seed and serve to initiate the disease
in new fields. Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe sp. was observed to
cause a premature dying of some plants, materially reducing the seed crop.
A dipterous insect, Hylemya lupini Coq., was found causing some
damage to the lupine plants. The larva may enter the plant through the
growing point, kill the bud and stunt the plant.

Effect of Weed Killers on Florida Weeds.-In view of the great public
interest in the herbicides recently placed on the market, and the lack of
information regarding their effect on Florida weeds and grasses, some
exploratory tests were made during the past year. Certain weed killers
containing 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) or 1 of its salts with
or without emulsified oils or waxes were used. These included the com-
mercial products known by name or number' as weedone, weed-no-more,
A-510, 2-4-Dow, IN-6065 and G-652. All materials were diluted according
to the manufacturer's instructions, resulting in a solution containing about
1,000 parts per million of the active ingredient.
In general, grasses were only slightly affected by these materials, while
certain broad-leaved plants were killed. The species killed included:
Amaranthus hybridus L., Cassia tora L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L.,
Corchorus acutangulus Lam., Coridochloa cimicina (L.) Nees, Crotalaria
spectabilis Roth., Desmodium purpureum Mill., Diodia teres Walt., Erigeron
pusillum Nutt., Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) B.S.P., Heterotheca subaxillaris
(Lam.) Britt. & Rusby (in rosette and preblooming stages), Mollugo
verticillata L., Phyllanthus carolinensis Walt.,' Pilea microphylla (L.)
Liebm.,' Portulaca pilosa L., Richardia scabra St. Hil., Sida carpinifolia L.f.
The species that were injured or stunted but recovered later included:
Cenchrus echinatus L., Cyperus rotundus L., Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh)
Steud., Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby (in full flower),
Indigofera hirsulta L., Opuntia lata Small, Oxalis martiana Zucc.' Paspalum
sp.,' Quercus laurifolia Walt.,' Stenophyllus sp.,' and Tradescantia flumi-
nensis Veil.'
The species not visibly affected by these treatments included: Cenchrus
pauciflorus Benth., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Dactyloctenium aegypticum
(L.) Richt., Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Eremochloa ophiuroides
(Munro) Hack., Panicum maximum Jacq., Stenotaphrum secundatum
(Walt.) Kuntze, Tricholaena repens (Willd.) Hitchc., and Wahlenbergia
gracilis Schrad.
Trials using weedone at various dilutions on St. Augustine grass in the
shade, observed 1 month after treatment, gave the following results: dilu-
tions of 1 to 160, 1 to 120 and 1 to 80 had no visible effect; dilution of 1 to
40 produced visible deterioration as evidenced by a few dead leaves and
little or no growth of new shoots; dilution of 1 to 20 caused distinct in-
jury, as half the leaves were dead and very few new leaves were develop-
ing. (Erdman West.) (See also MISCELLANEOUS, STRAWBERRY

I Plants growing in dense shade.

Annual Report, 1946


All phases of the reorganized research program were active during the
year. Incompleted phases of Projects 201 and 256 were dropped or trans-
ferred to other projects. Project 404 was revised to include cooperation
with the Animal Industry Department and new work was initiated at the
Range Cattle Station. Two new projects were initiated during the year,
namely 446, Testing Soils and Limestone; and 447, Availability and Leach-
ing of Minor Elements in Florida Soils. Cooperative work in soil fertility
and management was established at the Range Cattle and the North
Florida Stations.
Important data obtained during the year included information on:
Effects of lime and phosphate on the leaching of copper from soils and
the uptake of copper by millet; increased amounts of cobalt, copper,
molybdenum and nickel in pasture grasses and legumes over 3 years after
the application of small amounts of these elements to the soil; the rapidity
of leaching of phosphates from certain soil types; a rather complete in-
vestigation of the mineral composition of Florida-grown vegetables and
of the soils in which they were grown; extremes in the mineral composi-
tion and chemical characteristics of different soil types; and ability of
plants to translocate moisture in measurable quantities from relatively
moist soil zones to relatively dry zones, that the process enables roots to
grow into dry zones, and that nutrient absorption is significant at soil
moisture percentages near the permanent wilting point. Excellent results
were obtained for weed control in tobacco seedbeds by the use of urea.
Soil pH was found to be the criterion of effectiveness. Details of the latter
cooperative investigation appear under the report of the Department of
Purnell Project 201 L. H. Rogers, R. A. Carrigan
and T. C. Erwin
Spectrographic analyses for about 30 minor elements were made on
numerous samples of a variety of crop plants including citrus, pasture
grasses and clovers, corn, cover crops, sweet potatoes, peach leaves and
twigs, oats, cabbage, peanuts, cotton, tung, beans, tomatoes and many
other materials, including soils and fertilizers. Elements which seemed
to be of practically constant occurrence in plants were manganese, copper,
zinc, boron, strontium, barium, aluminum and iron. Elements frequently
detected were chromium, vanadium, cobalt, nickel, silver, zirconium, titan-
ium, molybdenum, tin and lead.
The sum total of work done under the project since its beginning
amounts to thousands of analyses for individual elements. Most of this
work has been done as a service for other projects, but 5 publications
have resulted from work under this project. The project is discontinued
with this report.
Purnell Project 256 L. H. Rogers, R. A. Carrigan
and T. C. Erwin
This project was discontinued during the year and work on methods
was transferred to the projects for which the methods are needed.

90 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Some of the methods perfected during the operation of the project
are "rough estimate" method of spectrographic analysis of soils and plant
and animal tissues; and quantitative spectrographic methods for zinc,
copper, molybdenum, manganese, beryllium and cobalt.

State Project 328 F. B. Smith and C. E. Bell
The effects of animal manures and a mulch of oak leaves on the re-
action of Norfolk fine sand were studied in a greenhouse experiment over
a period of 18 weeks. Cow manure from mature animals, containing 40
percent moisture with pH 7.75; a commercial grade of sheep manure
containing less than 5 percent moisture with pH 7.60; and poultry manure
from half-grown fowls, containing 22 percent moisture and with pH 5.95
were used.
The decomposition of these materials results in an increase in soil
acidity. A mulch of oak leaves brought about an increase in soil acidity,
reducing the pH from 6.04 to 5.38 in 18 weeks.
Small-scale experiments on the sterilization of soil by diathermy showed
partial sterilization, but the dielectric method seems hardly practical for
the sterilization of soils on a large scale.

Purnell Project 347 F. B. Smith, J. R. Henderson,
C. E. Bell and L. H. Rogers
Fifty-eight samples from 10 profiles of 8 soil types in Alachua County
were collected for analysis during the year. The pH reading, moisture
equivalent and mechanical composition were determined for all. In addi-
tion, several other determinations have been completed for several. Spec-
trographic rough estimate analyses were made for 31 elements on 25
samples from Scranton loamy sand, Leon sand, Norfolk fine sand and
Blanton fine sand. The exchange capacity, exchangeable potassium, cal-
cium and magnesium, total phosphorus, total potassium, total nitrogen,
and organic matter were determined on the Fellowship fine sandy loam,
Gainesville loamy fine sand, Hernando fine sandy loam, Newberry fine sand,
and the Newberry fine sand, deep phase. In all, 406 soil samples represent-
ing 65 profiles have been collected for analysis to date.
The mechanical composition data reveal wide extremes in clay content
of the soils examined. For example, the 48-70 inch depth of the Newberry
fine sand, deep phase, contained only 0.2 percent clay, whereas the 27-42
inch layer of Fellowship fine sandy loam was 47.2 percent clay. The
moisture-holding capacity of the soils varied with the clay content, being
1.92 and 41.68 percent, respectively, for the 2 soils. Iron, manganese,
copper and boron were found in all soils examined but the amounts varied
between soil types and between horizons of the same type, the highest
concentration usually occurring in the surface horizon, except for iron
where the greatest amount was frequently found at lower depths. All
soils examined were moderately to strongly acid in reaction. All were
low in organic matter and total nitrogen content. The phosphorus content
was extremely variable. Organic matter and nitrogen were more plentiful
in the surface layers, but the phosphorus content was frequently highest
in the subsoil layers of certain types. The exchange capacity varied with
the clay content.

Annual Report, 1946


Bankhead-Jones Project 368 F. B. Smith, G. D. Thornton,
R. E. Blaser and G. B. Killinger
In a field experiment to compare the effectiveness of several strains
of legume bacteria on the inoculation of peanuts, largest increase of
harvested peanuts was obtained from seeds inoculated with a mixture of
cultures from lespedeza and Alyce clover. However, the average yield of
peanuts from all inoculated plots was not significantly higher than the
yield from uninoculated plots. The peanuts this year were on land follow-
ing chufas, whereas they followed peanuts in last year's trials in which
inoculation gave significant increases in yield.
Inoculated Alyce clover made better growth on both Portsmouth fine
sand and Leon fine sand fertilized with 300 pounds per acre of 0-14-10
and 3,000 pounds of ground limestone than with the same fertilizer plus
250 pounds per acre of a commercial mixture of minor elements. It is
very probable that the amount of minor element mixture recommended by
the manufacturer is slightly excessive for the fine sands low in organic


State Project 389 F. B. Smith, J. R. Henderson and R. E. Caldwell
Approximately 100 square miles of Manatee County soils were mapped
since February 15, 1946, when R. E. Caldwell returned from military leave
and resumed the survey.
Work on the Soil Survey Report of Dade County has been resumed
during the year by BPISAE and the Soil Conservation Service. The soil
map of the county is in the process of drafting and its completion in the
near future is anticipated.
The cooperative arrangement on Soil Surveys with BPISAE and the
Soil Conservation Service was revised during the year according to plans
and recommendations of the National Joint Committee on Soil Survey.
Under the revised program the basic soil survey will be the responsibility
of the state and BPISAE and farm planning soil conservation surveys
will be the responsibility of the Soil Conservation Service, with the assist-
ance of the State in inspection and preparation of legends. Farm planning
surveys were initiated in Orange, Lake, Pasco and Gilchrist soil conserva-
tion districts.
The identification of soils for experimental purposes by various depart-
ments of the Station was a service continued during the year.


State Project 392 G. M. Volk
Results obtained previously were summarized in Technical Bulletin 416,
"Some Major Factors in the Leaching of Calcium, Potassium, Sulfur and
Nitrogen from Sandy Soils," published in September 1945. The project
will be revised to include a study of the maintenance of organic matter
and nitrogen in Florida soils.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

State Project 393 G. M. Volk
The following is the result of work initiated at the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station and completed at the University of Wisconsin by the
Project Leader while on educational leave:
Significance of Moisture Translocation Within the Soil Medium by Plant
Roots.-Plants absorb water from the soil by means of tension or suction
force developed within the plant roots. Opposing tension is built up in
the soil as the available moisture approaches depletion. Absorption ceases
when these forces become equal. A plant growing under normal conditions
draws moisture from both the surface and the subsoil, but the surface soil
is usually depleted of available moisture first, mainly because of root con-
centration and surface evaporation. If evaporation continues after equi-
librium between the tension forces in the plant roots and the surface soil
have become equal, then the tension in the soil will become greater than
that in the plant roots and the tendency will be toward withdrawal of
moisture from the plant. It was the purpose of this investigation to
determine the significance of this phenomenon with respect to root develop-
ment into dry soil zones, the maintenance or build-up of soil moisture
therein, and the absorption of mineral nutrients by plants therefrom.
These investigations were made with plants having divided root systems
which were developed by means of 2-compartment containers. One was
filled with the soil under investigation, while the other was filled with
soil or sand to serve as a source of moisture, and in some instances nutrient
The soil moisture percentage at equilibrium with the roots of a turgid
plant is called the critical soil moisture for the purpose of this investiga-
tion. It was determined by permitting a corn plant with a divided root
system to reduce the moisture of the soil in question contained in a sealed
compartment down to a constant percentage while adequate moisture was
supplied to sand in the other compartment of the culture. The critical
soil moisture for Clyde silt loam was found to be 9.91 percent, which is
1.00 percent above the permanent wilting point for this soil. The critical
soil moisture for Plainfield sand was found to be 1.70 percent, or 0.18
percent above the wilting point.
Root growth into dry soil was investigated by means of a 2-compartment
culture in which roots developing above the second node of a corn plant
penetrated dry soil, while moisture was supplied to those roots which
developed from the second node and below into moist sand. Corn developed
a greater mass of roots in Clyde silt loam at initial moisture contents of
6.43 percent and 7.92 percent than it did in Plainfield sand at a moisture
content of 0.43 percent. More roots developed in dry, unfertilized Plain-
field sand than in Plainfield sand to which ammonium nitrate and mono-
potassium phosphate had been added at a rate of 1,000 pounds of 5-7-5
per acre. The net increase of moisture content was 0.57 percent in the
root zone of the Plainfield sand, 0.27 percent in the root zone of the Clyde
silt loam of lower moisture content, and 0.87 percent in the case of the
latter at the higher moisture content.
There was no response in terms of growth or nutrient uptake to the
fertilizer added to the Plainfield sand, but there was. a response to the
nitrogen and potassium contained in the dry Clyde silt loam as compared

Annual Report, 1946

to the Plainfield sand. Indications were that phosphorus was not absorbed
from the dry soils. A culture similar to the above, in which Plainfield
sand was used with an application of fertilizer much higher in soluble
salts than previously used, gave a reduced yield of corn in both green and
dry weight, but which was higher in percentage of potassium. It appeared
that the plants developed roots into a substrate which was unfavorable.
The possibility of soil moisture loss to the air by translocation through
corn roots from a zone of high moisture content to 1 of low moisture
content was investigated by means of a 2-compartment culture in which
1 was allowed to dry out after establishment of a divided root system,
while the other was used as a source of moisture and nutrient elements.
In 1 series both compartments were sealed against moisture loss by evapor-
ation, while in the other the dry-soil compartment was left open. Water
utilization was determined by taking into account the amount added and
the change in weight of the cultures. Water loss as a result of transloca-
tion to the unsealed -dry soil was calculated to be equivalent to not more
than 3.4 percent of transpiration loss.
Effect of evaporation from soil at the wilting point on root development
and nitrogen assimilation was investigated by means of 2-compartment
cultures in which 3 degrees of seal were used. Total nitrogen assimilated
by millet transplanted with 1/2 of its root system in a high-nitrogen soil
at the wilting point under complete seal was only 55 percent of that as-
similated from the same soil at optimum moisture. However, it was over
6 times that originally present in the transplanted seedling. Root develop-
ment in the dry soil at the wilting point was very marked. Plants grown
in cultures in which the dry soil compartments were left uncovered or
only partially sealed took up only from 8.0 to 18.0 percent as much nitrogen
as plants in the fully sealed cultures; root development in the dry soil was
not apparent.
The ability of established root systems to absorb phosphorus and potas-
sium from dry soils was investigated by means of cultures in which divided
root systems were established in wet soil, followed by rapid removal of
available water by auxiliary plants to below the wilting point. One series
of cultures was then left open to become air-dry, while the second series
was sealed to permit the maintenance or build-up of moisture by trans-
location. Nitrogen was supplied in part from the moisture supply com-
partment. The dry weight yield was 33 percent higher from the sealed
cultures; the percentages of potassium and phosphorus were 14 percent
and 28 percent higher, respectively.
The data from this investigation demonstrate that plants do have the
ability to translocate moisture in measurable quantities from relatively
moist soil zones to relatively dry zones, that the process enables roots to
grow into dry soil zones, and that nutrient absorption is significant at soil
moisture percentages near the permanent wilting point.
This project is terminated with this report.


Bankhead-Jones Project 404 F. B. Smith, Nathan Gammon, Jr.,
J. R. Neller and R. A. Carrigan
Chemical determinations of soluble phosphorus in soil from pastures on
Immokalee fine sand show that an application of rock phosphate will
maintain a higher level of soluble phosphorus for a larger number of years
than is obtained by an application of superphosphate. Replicated plots
planted with carpet grass were established on this soil type for a comparison

94 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

of several different phosphates such as superphosphate, basic slag, heat-
treated phosphate and finely ground rock phosphate. Lime at 2,000 pounds
per acre changed the reaction of this soil from an average of pH 4.35
before to 5.03 after liming. The lime reduced the amount of soluble phos-
phorus of rock phosphate treatments, increased it for superphosphate and
was of little effect in the case of heat-treated phosphates and of basic slag.
A new series of 124 plots involving a combination of calcium, mag-
nesium, potassium, phosphorus and minor element treatments has been
established cooperatively at the Range Cattle Station. These plots have
been established primarily to determine the effect of combinations of
these elements on rates of leaching, fixation and utilization, and on the
exchange complex in Immokalee fine sand under pasture, as well as to
obtain yield responses of the pasture.
Forty-eight samples of clover and carpet grass from the fourth annual
sampling of the minor element plots at the Florida Farm Colony, Gaines-
ville, have been spectrographically analyzed. Enhancement in the content
of cobalt, molybdenum, copper and nickel is still observable in the pasture
plants, almost 31/ years after small applications of these elements were
made to the soil. An accumulation of this type of data will materially
advance our understanding of the possibilities inherent in soil applications
of minor elements as a means of improving the growth and nutritional
quality of pastures.

State Project 421 G. T. Sims and G. M. Volk
Commercially grown vegetables from Homestead, Hastings, Bradenton,
Sanford, Belle Glade, Ft. Myers, Ft. Pierce, Sarasota, McIntosh, Quincy,
Collier County and Palm Beach County (East Coast) were analyzed for
nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and ash. The cor-
responding soil samples in which each sample was grown have been analyzed
also for exchange capacity, exchangeable calcium, magnesium and potas-
sium, soluble phosphorus, organic matter, moisture equivalent and pH.
The data obtained from crops sampled in these areas show the nutri-
tional value of these crops. The soil analyses show the plant nutrient
levels at time of harvest and the soil characteristics which influence the
nutrient levels in the soil and ultimately plant composition. In addition
to the plant-soil relationship, the edible portions of cabbage and collards
were divided to better evaluate the data obtained. These data show that
for an accurate comparison of plant composition, specific information
must be obtained as to what portions of the plant are included or excluded
from the analyses. The data in Table 4 show the average composition of
crops by areas.

State Project 428 J. R. Neller
Phosphate-Wood Waste Experiments.-Since in previous work with
Florida soils it has been found that soil organic matter tends to reduce
loss of fertilizer phosphate as caused by fixation or by diffusion, experi-
ments were started using wood waste products such as waste liquor from
sulfite pulp mills and hydrolyzed sawdust. Sulfite liquor neutralized with

Annual Report, 1946

No. of I
Area Sam- *Prot./% Ca%/ Mg% I P% / K% Ash%
ples __ i

Bradenton (1) ...........
Bradenton (2) .........

Belle Glade (1) ........
Belle Glade (2) ..........

McIntosh (1) .............
McIntosh (2) ...........

Hastings (1) ...........
Hastings (2) ...........

Winter Garden (1) ....
Winter Garden (2) ....
Average (1) ............
(2) ..........

Quincy (3) .......- ....
Quincy (4) ..............

Homestead (Rockdale)
Homestead (Marl) ...

Collier County .........

Ft. Myers ............ ...

Ft. Pierce -......... ....
Average ..................

Belle Glade .............. 8

Palm Beach ............ 9

Homestead .................. 8
Average ...............

Belle Glade ......- .....

Sanford ................I

Sarasota .................. .
Average ................
(N x 6.25).
(1) Cabbage head.
(2) Outer leaves.
(3) Leafy portions.
(4) Petioles.


10 16.94

8 25.88

6 21.38

10 20.44

8 18.50






11 35.25 2.01
24.01 1.08

7 19.31 .20
9 18.81 .20

8 21.50 .15

11 16.88 .12

8 23.31 .19
19.94 .22

24.38 .60

21.62 .50

22.69 .62
22.90 .57 |

17.00 1.56

14.81 1.31

17.19 0.77
16.33 1 1.21






.39 2.88 8.61
.41 2.96 11.21

.53 3.27 11.11
.53 3.44 17.11

.47 2.79 8.53
.48 3.01 12.04

.56 3.28 9.61
.60 4.09 15.26

.47 2.86 9.14
.49 2.92 13.47
.49 3.05 9.40
.50 3.28 13.81

.41 .55 3.17 12.96
.32 .41 4.91 13.62





.48 4.39
.53 4.87

.42 4.24

.65 4.35

.73 4.46
.56 4.48





.28 .42 3.02 8.41

.26 .48 2.53 7.32

.25 .56 3.05 8.58
.26 .49 2.87 8.10

.23 .51 8.47 25.77

.19 .56 6.23 24.06

.21 .71 6.42 23.04
.32 .59 7.04 24.29

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

lime (calcium ligno sulfonate) was used also. These wood wastes are
plentiful and are high in lignin, thereby being slow to decay, a factor of
importance for the sandy soils of the latitude of Florida.
The lignin wastes were mixed with different types of phosphates before
addition to the soil. Preliminary results indicate that when neutralized
with lime the sulfite lignins tend to increase the amount of available
phosphorus retained by the soil. Amounts equal to as much as 1 percent
of the weight of the surface soil did not retard plant growth.
Lysimeter Studies.-During the period April to September, about 90
percent of the citrate-soluble phosphorus of heat-treated and superphos-
phates was recovered in the leachates from fine sand types of soils, whereas
negligible amounts of phosphorus were obtained from loamy fine sands
and fine sandy loams treated in a similar manner. For the fine sand types
lime reduced the leaching of phosphorus, especially where finely ground
rock phosphate was the source of phosphate.
Decrease in soluble phosphorus as shown by extraction with distilled
water and with a sodium acetate-acetic acid solution were in good agree-
ment with the leachate data.
Radioactive Phosphorus Studies.-Since supplies of radioactive phos-
phorus have become available again, experiments were started with the
P32 isotope. Preliminary results show that the use of p32 constitutes a
rapid, inexpensive method of determining the fixation of soluble phosphate
in different soil types. This was done by ascertaining how much of the
P32 was retained as shown by means of extracting solutions and by analyz-
ing plants grown in the phosphated soils in the greenhouse and in outdoor
lysimeters. In general, more of the P32 was recovered from soils heavily
phosphated or previously phosphated (corresponding to a previous applica-
tion of fertilizer). Air-drying of the soil, after addition of soluble phos-
phate plus P32, markedly increased retention of phosphate as compared
with addition of the soluble phosphate plus P32 in the extracting solution.
Field Experiments.-On December 6, soil samples were taken from
the surface 3 inches of the phosphate source plots established last year at
the Range Cattle Station. These show a considerable reduction in soluble
phosphate as measured by extracting solutions. Liming the soil (Immoka-
lee fine sand) caused the maintenance of a higher level of soluble phosphate
where superphosphate and heat-treated phosphate had been used, a lower
level in the case of rock phosphate, with uncertain results for basic slag.
(See also Project 404.)

State Project 433 H. W. Winsor
A study was made of boron uptake in pecan trees from soil application
of borax on June 7, 1945, at rates of 0, 1, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 pounds per
tree. Ten sets of foliage samples, gathered at frequent intervals through-
out the summer, were analyzed for boron by a direct tissue-extraction
method. The data indicate that boron was taken up readily, in direct
relation to the amount of borax applied. (See also Report, HORTICUL-
TURE, Proj. 432.)
Soil samples were taken from beneath these trees at monthly intervals
over the same period and analyzed for water-soluble boron. Downward
movement of borax was sufficiently rapid through the summer that by
October 22 the sampling was done down to the 42-inch depth in order to
get a comprehensive picture of boron penetration. These data appear in
Table 5. Penetration was very rapid, considering the rather heavy clay

Annual Report, 1946 97

subsoil. Of particular interest is the rate of loss of the applied boron.
The samples taken May 17, 1946, showed that in the 0-14 inch zone the
1, 2 and 4-pound applications had left an average value of only 0.41 ppm.
as compared to the native level of 0.10 ppm. Thus, of the original applica-
tion representing about 233 pounds of borax per acre, only 2.3 percent
remained in the 0-14 inch zone after 111'/ months and 59.65 inches of rain.
Table 6 shows the values for native soil boron and the influence of borax
applications upon both soil and foliage.
Four of 5 experimental units planned for studies of boron-soil-plant
relationships are active in the initial stages and 210 soil samples have been
taken for analysis to date.


Depth of Borax, Pounds per Tree (Pecans)
Sampling 0 1/2 1 2 4 8 | 16

0-3" .............. 0.18 0.26 0.55 0.79 0.65 1.33 1.15
3-7" .............. 0.08 0.14 0.45 0.60 0.62 1.13 0.98
7-14" ........ 0.04 0.14 0.40 0.82 1.25 2.40 2.00
14-21" 0.00 NS* 0.90 NS 2.60 NS 7.20
21-28" .......... 0.05 NS 0.98 NS 2.38 NS 10.80
28-35" ...... 0.08 NS 0.57 NS 1.35 NS 13.00
35-42" ....... 0.09 NS 0.40 NS 0.83 NS 9.00
_______ I
*NS- not sampled at these depths.

(Soil values as ppm water-soluble B, 0-14 inches deep; foliage values as
micrograms easily-extractable boron per 10 sq. cm. of leaf.)

Native Borax Soil Foliage II Soil I Foliage
Tree Soil Lbs./Tree Boron Boron II Boron Boron
No. Boron June 7 Aug. 21 Sept. 10 || Sept. 18 Oct. 2

11 0.09 0 0.10 2.66 0.11 2.90
12 0.08 1z 0.15 3.80 0.14 4.26
10 0.09 1 0.54 6.12 0.47 7.12
8 0.11 2 0.82 7.62 0.67 8.12
13 0.07 4 0.98 13.50 0.83 14.76
6 0.09 8 2.13 14.76 | 2.28 15.88
9 0.08 16 5.33 22.50 5.84 29.00

Inches rainfall since
borax applied (June 7) ........ 27.02 31.26 33.76 34.05

State Project 446 F. B. Smith, G. D. Thornton and C. E. Bell
Approximately 3,400 samples of soil, limestone and irrigation waters
were tested during the year for growers and others. Recommendations
were made regarding liming, fertilizing and management of these soils.
The laboratory tests made included pH and lime requirement, available

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese,
salt content and organic matter content. In many cases the tests revealed
nutrient deficiencies or toxic excesses and suggestions were made for im-
proving the productivity. A number of soil and water samples from
areas flooded by salt water during the hurricane last fall revealed toxic
concentrations of salt. A large number of samples consisted of limestone
which were tested for calcium and magnesium content, purity, fineness
and general suitability for agricultural use.

Purnell Project 447 L. H. Rogers and R. A. Carrigan
An experiment to determine the effect of phosphorus and lime on the
leaching and availability of copper in Norfolk fine sand was completed.
Quintuplicates of 13 treatments with varying levels of phosphorus, lime
and copper were set up in 4-gallon lysimeters which were exposed to
natural leaching and cropped to Pearl millet, the duration of exposure being
8 months. Two accumulations of leachates, 2 collections of leaves and
stems, and 1 collection of seed heads were analyzed spectrographically
for copper. Noteworthy increases in the leaching of copper were observed
when phosphate was added. In contrast, increasing the phosphate supply
decreased the content of copper in the plants, showing that when the
phosphate supply is variable the mobilization of copper into the leaching
water cannot be taken as indicative of increased availability to plants.
During the whole experiment the total copper leached from any treatment
was less than 1 percent of the copper applied to the soil.
Increasing lime in the soil treatment increased the copper content of
the plants and decreased loss of copper by leaching, with some exceptions
where phosphorus treatments were low.
Considerable effort was devoted to the preparation of specially purified
chemicals for the studies of availability of minor elements in soils planned
under this project.
Studies on the factors affecting zinc availability in Florida soils have
been started. Various spectrographic slit illumination systems were
evaluated from the following standpoints: Reduction of background, uni-
formity of slit illumination and zinc sensitivity. Of those studies, the most
satisfactory has been 1 utilizing 2 external quartz condensing lenses with
an external diaphragm to shield out the continuum from the hot tips of
the graphite electrodes.

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