• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Credits
 Letter of transmittal
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00031
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1945
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00031
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 4
    Main
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    Index
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        Page vii
Full Text













UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT STATION





ANNUAL REPORT

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1945


,r










BOARD OF CONTROL


H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
M. L. Mershon, Miami
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee


EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University"
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Provost for Agricul-
ture
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.'
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editors
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editors
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newell, Administrative Managers
K. H. Graham, LL.D., Business Manager
Claranelle Alderman, Accountants



MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomists
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associate
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Associate
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant


ANIMAL INDUSTRY

A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist' 3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandmans
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologists
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarians
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist4
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy Mfg.
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husbandman
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.4
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Hush.3
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
C. L. Comar, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.4
J. E. Pace, B.S., Asst. An. Husbandman'
S. P. Marshall, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition
C. B. Reeves, B.S., Asst. Dairy Tech.
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
Ruth Faulds, A.B., Asst. Biochemist
Peggy R. Lockwood, B.S., Asst. in Dairy Mfs.


ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL

C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agri. Economist1 3
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associates
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
May E. Brunk, M.S., Associate


ECONOMICS, HOME


Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist


ENTOMOLOGY

J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate3
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant


HORTICULTURE

G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. I. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2


PLANT PATHOLOGY

W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologistl 3
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist


SOILS

F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Chemist' 3
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemists
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist'
R. A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Biochemist
G. T. Sims, M.S.A., Associate Chemist
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Microbiologist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor'
Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor




1Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 In Military Service.
5 On leave.











BRANCH STATIONS


NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY


J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Animal
Husb.4
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.4
R. C. Bond, M.S.A., Asst. Agronomist


Mobile Unit, Monticello

R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist


Mobile Unit, Milton

Ralph L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist


Mobile Unit, Marianna

R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist


Mobile Unit, Wewahitehka

J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist


CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED

A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
V. C. Jamison. Ph.D.. Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist'
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Asso. Horticulturist5
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist


EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE

R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist'
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
G. R. Townsend. Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Hush.
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.2
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.4
R. A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
E. C. Minnum, M.S., Asst. Truck Hort.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist
Earl L. Felix, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
C. L. Serrano, B.S.A., Asst. Chemist


SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD


Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
H. I. Borders, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.

W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE

Clement D. Gordon, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry
Geneticist in Charge2

RANGE CATTLE STA., ONA

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D.. Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
Gilbert A. Tucker, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.4


FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg

G. K. Parris, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge

Plant City

A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Hastings

A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist

Monticello

S. O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2 4
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2

Bradenton

J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Horticulturist in
Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
D. B. Creager, Ph.D., Plant Path., Gladiolus
A. L. Harrison, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist

Sanford

R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
J. C. Russell, M.S., Asst. Entomologists

Lakeland

E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist 2 6
Warren O. Johnson, Meteorologist2



1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
In Military Service.
6 On leave.








4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Hon. Millard F. Caldwell.
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1945.
Respectfully,
H. P. ADAIR,
Chairman, Board of Control



Hon. H. P. Adair,
Chairman, Board of Control
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1945, and I request that you transmit
the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of
Florida.
Respectfully,
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida





LIST OF DEPARTMENT REPORTS
Page
Report of Director ...............................--. .-------- .. .................... 5
Report of Business Manager .............----......... --.........---- .. ..-.. 16
Editorial ...............--....--- ..------- --------- ----------- 22
Library .................---...........----- ---------------------- 31
Agricultural Economics .........--.............. ...-- --- ...-. ------------- 32
Agronomy ........................................ .......... ... ----------- 37
Anim al Industry ............. ........... ... ......................... 52
Entomology .........-----...........---------------- ---------------... 63
Home Economics ........................................ ........... .. ....... ----- 67
H horticulture ....................................... ................. -------- ........... 72
Plant Pathology .......................................... -- .. ----89
Soils ............................--.........---.. ------------..---- 99
Celery Investigations Laboratory ...................---.......------------ 106
Potato Investigations Laboratory ........--.............................----....----108
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory ...................................... 113
Vegetable Crops Laboratory ...................-----................. ----------- 114
Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service .....................................---------... 125
Range Cattle Station ...........................---..... --------....-----. 128
Sub-Tropical Station ....-...-------...................----.. ---------- 135
Citrus Station ............................................................................... 155
Everglades Station .. --.............-...........------------------- 185
North Florida Station .................................................... 218
W est Central Florida Station ............................................................ 229







Annual Report, 1945


REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDING

JUNE 30, 1945

Dr. John J. Tigert, President,
University of Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the work and
investigations of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, together
with the reports of the heads of the several departments and branch sta-
tions, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1945.
HAROLD MOWRY,
Director
INTRODUCTION
This is the 57th Annual Report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station. During this year the value of agricultural research was again
most clearly demonstrated. Throughout the year agricultural production
in Florida was beset with serious handicaps resulting from both unfavorable
weather and conditions incident to the war. In spite of these difficulties
yields of both fruits and vegetables, while not surpassing those of the
previous year, were very high. Their total gross value, however, far
exceeded that of any previous year. Such production would have been
impossible had it not been for the findings of research which the growers
are applying more and more.
Total production of citrus was about 33 and 43 million boxes 10 and 5
years ago, respectively, nearly 81 million a year ago and 69 million this
year (after about 25 million boxes had been destroyed by an October
storm). This tremendous increase during the past decade was made
possible by development, through Station research, of a superior nutri-
tional program which is in almost universal commercial use. Likewise,
the large acreage of vegetables was made possible through research which
demonstrated better cultural methods, among which, in Florida, the use
of minor elements is the most outstanding.
Seed and soil treatments for various crops and tested procedures for
disease and insect control have paid high dividends during the year.
Among these, for example, is the control of late blight of potatoes in the
lower East Coast area where the commercial use on 6,000 acres of zinc-
dithane, a new material proven by Station research, netted the growers
an increase of fully 1 million dollars.
New varieties of vegetable and farm crops, improved methods in corn
and tomato breeding, better cultural methods for nuts and small fruits,
improvements in harvesting, packaging and processing are all contributing
to the betterment of Florida's agricultural production. Investigations on
the composition of Florida-grown vegetables are in progress; the effect
of chemical and physical characteristics of Florida soils on the mineral
composition of vegetable crops, and the availability of minor elements also
are under study.
According to available data, Florida cattle from 1930 to 1935 increased
34 percent in number but 55 percent in weight; from 1935 to 1940 the
increase was about 8 percent in number and 12 percent in weight; again,
from 1930 to 1943 the increase was 76 percent in number but 131 percent
in weight. Discovery of the need, by Station investigators over a period
of years, of mineral supplements and their subsequent use by the industry







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


has been a major contribution and has resulted in much larger calf crops,
higher weight and better grade of cattle-more and better beef in shorter
time. At present there are about 1,159,000 cattle in Florida, an increase
of 36 percent since 1940. The use of mineral supplements is not responsible
alone for improvement of Florida's beef cattle industry. With it have
gone better breeds, better pastures, better management and probably
other factors, all of which are based on results of thorough-going research.
Investigations of nutritional problems of livestock through the use of
radioactive minor elements, the use of new materials such as penicillin
for control of certain diseases, and the control of external parasites by
DDT are among the newer forms of livestock research and offer much
promise.
Cost of production and marketing problems, utilization of farm labor
and many other problems of agriculture received constant attention during
the year, both to encourage maximum wartime production and to formulate
practicable and workable postwar plans. In this the Station workers co-
operated closely with USDA, Land Grant College and other Post-war
Planning agencies.
Research of the Station is State-wide and is conducted under 185
projects at the Main Station, 5 branch Stations and 6 field laboratories.
Brief summaries of the various projects, some of which are conducted
cooperatively with various divisions of the U. S. Department of Agriculture
or other agencies, are given on the following pages.
IMPROVEMENTS AND ADDITIONS
The hurricane in October caused some damage, not as much to build-
ings as to groves and plantings on the grounds of several Branch Stations.
This storm destroyed certain experimental work, was responsible for
certain delays and required considerable labor to remove the resultant
debris and uprooted trees.
At the North Florida Station an adjacent 315-acre tract was purchased
to provide for future expansion of the research program. At this station,
also, the water system was improved by replacing 4,723 feet of badly
corroded galvanized pipe with non-corrosive Transite pipe and by in-
stalling cathodic protection in the metal storage tank. A 7-acre tract of
land adjoining farm property at the Main Station was purchased for
additional experimental work.
The construction of a packinghouse for expansion of citrus research
was begun at the Citrus Station during the year, and Mobile Unit No. 4,
to conduct experimental work on pastures with headquarters in Wewa-
hitchka, was activated December 1.
Two additional branch stations were authorized by legislative action,
as follows:
Chapter 22998, LAWS OF FLORIDA
"AN ACT Authorizing the Board of Control to Establish and Maintain a
Branch Agricultural Experiment Station in or Near Sanford, Seminole
County, Florida; Providing for the Operation Thereof; Providing for
Consolidation of Same with the Celery Investigations Laboratory.
Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
Section 1. That the Board of Control is hereby authorized and directed
to locate, establish, and maintain a Branch Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion in or near Sanford, Seminole County, Florida, being a point in close
proximity to the principal perishable producing sections of the Counties
of Seminole, Orange, Lake, Volusia, and Marion; the primary purpose of








Annual Report, 1945


such station to conduct experiments for the betterment of growing of
perishables in these sections of the State of Florida; these studies to in-
clude insect pests, diseases, soil conditions, climatic factors; and to de-
termine what varieties of perishables will thrive best in each section, of
old or new and improved strains, and/or originate improved varieties
suitable for varying types of soil and other conditions, embraced in these
areas.
Section 2. That the supervision and direction of such laboratory and
experiments shall be vested in the Board of Control.
Section 3. That upon establishment of such Branch Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, the present Celery Investigations Laboratory, now main-
tained at Sanford, Florida, be consolidated with such Branch Agricultural
Experiment Station; and any appropriation for such Celery Investigations
Laboratory prior to such merger be consolidated with the appropriation
of the Branch Agricultural Experiment Station.
Section 4. That the Board of Control is hereby authorized to accept
donations of lands, groves, monies, or other things of value that may be
utilized in conducting the aforesaid investigations; provided that no Branch
Agricultural Experimental Station shall be established if such donation
be of less than thirty (30) acres of tilled farming land, suitable for such
investigations.
Section 5. That all laws or parts of laws in conflict herewith are
hereby repealed.
Section 6. That this Act shall take effect immediately upon its be-
coming a law.
Became a law without the Governor's approval."

Chapter 23140, LAWS OF FLORIDA
"AN ACT Providing that the Board of Control Shall Locate, Establish
and Maintain in or Near Live Oak, Florida, a Branch Experiment
Station of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station; Providing
the Purposes of Such Branch Experiment Station and Providing that the
Experiments Conducted Thereby Shall Be Focused Primarily upon the
Needs and Requirements of the Northeastern Section of the State.
Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:
Section 1. That the Board of Control shall locate, establish and main-
tain in or near Live Oak, Florida, a branch experiment station of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station for the purpose of experimenting
in methods to combat and eliminate tobacco blue mold and all parasites,
fungi, larvae and insects that are, or hereafter may be, destructive to
tobacco, vegetables or general farm crops, and for the further purpose of
experimenting in methods to control and eradicate the screw worm fly
and all parasites, larvae, insects and diseases that are, or hereafter may
be, harmful to cattle, swine and other livestock; and the experiments for
the purposes herein provided shall be focused primarily upon the needs
and requirements of'the northeastern section of the State.
Section 2. All laws or parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby
repealed.
Section 3. This Act shall take effect immediately upon its becoming
a law.
Became a law without the Governor's approval."
No money was appropriated for carrying out the provisions of this Act.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


CHANGES IN STAFF
APPOINTMENTS

R. V. Allison, Vice Director in Charge, Everglades Station, July 1, 1944,
transfer from head of Soils Department at Main Station.
Katherine McKoy Boney, Assistant Chemist, Main Station, November 1,
1944.
Huey I. Borders, Associate Plant Pathologist, Sub-Tropical Station, Sep-
tember 15, 1944.
D. B. Creager, Plant Pathologist, Vegetable Crops Laboratory, September
11, 1944.
Ruth Alice Faulds, Assistant Biochemist, Main Station, November 1, 1944.
Earl L. Felix, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, November
1, 1944.
Eugene R. Felton,' Assistant Animal Husbandman and Professor of Animal
Husbandry, June 11, 1945.
Peggy Reynolds Lockwood, Assistant in Dairy Manufactures, Main Station,
November 1, 1944.
J. R. Neller, Soils Chemist, Main Station, July 1, 1944.
George K. Parris, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Watermelon and Grape
Investigations Laboratory, February 1, 1945.
Calvin B. Reeves,' Assistant Dairy Technologist, Main Station, March 15,
1945.
C. L. Serrano, Assistant Chemist, Everglades Station, November 1, 1944.
Fred B. Smith, Microbiologist and Head of Department, Main Station, Jan-
uary 1, 1945.
Ross F. Suit, Plant Pathologist, Citrus Station, April 1, 1945.
J. B. White, Associate Agronomist, Mobile Unit No. 4, December 1, 1044.

IN MILITARY SERVICE

F. S. Andrews, Associate Truck Horticulturist, Everglades Station, August
1, 1941.
J. C. Cain, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, February 14, 1942.
R. E. Caldwell, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Main Station, December 27, 1942.
W. H. Chapman, Assistant Agronomist, North Florida Station, May 21, 1942.
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist, Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service,
September 4, 1942.
W. M. Fifield, Assistant Director, Administration, March 8, 1942.
J. T. Hall, Laboratory Assistant, Sub-Tropical Station, November 10, 1941.
S. O. Hill, Assistant Entomologist, Pecan Investigations Laboratory, April
25, 1941.
W. W. Lawless, Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, February 28, 1942.
Sidney P. Marshall, Assistant in Animal Nutrition, Main Station, June 13,
1945.
L. E. Mull, Assistant in Dairy Technology, Main Station, September 10, 1942.
V. F. Nettles, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, September 1, 1941.
Olaf C. Olson, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Main Station, June 1, 1945.
J. E. Pace, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Main Station, July 5, 1944.
L. H. Rogers, Associate Biochemist, Main Station, April 13, 1942.
Jack C. Russell, Assistant Entomologist, Celery Investigations Laboratory,
April 17, 1944.
D. J. Smith, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Main Station, July 1, 1942.
L. E. Swanson, Parasitologist, Main Station, August 14, 1942.

1 To fill position while original appointee is on military leave.








Annual Report, 1945


G. A. Tucker, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Range Cattle Station, March
31, 1942.
V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., Assistant Animal Husbandman, North Florida Sta-
tion, January 13, 1942.
J. W. Wilson, Entomologist, Everglades Station, June 16, 1942.

RETURNED FROM MILITARY SERVICE
R. D. Dickey, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, January 1, 1945.

RESIGNATIONS
D. B. Creager, Plant Pathologist, Vegetable Crops Laboratory, June 30,
1945.
Leonard E. Ensminger, Soils Chemist, Main Station, December 1, 1944.
Norman C. Hayslip, Assistant Entomologist, Eerglades Station, June 30,
1945.
S. J. Lynch, Associate Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Station, July 31, 1944.
W. C. McCormick, Assistant Animal Husbandman, North Florida Station,
December 31, 1944.
E. C. Minnum, Assistant Horticulturist, Everglades Station, June 30, 1945.
Calvin B. Reeves, Assistant Dairy Technologist, Main Station, September
15, 1944.
Ruth O. Townsend, Assistant in Home Economics, Main Station, October
1, 1944.
M. N. Walker, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Watermelon and Grape In-
vestigations Laboratory, January 1, 1945.

SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES
Agricultural Economics
Project No. Title Page
154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida .................................- 32
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
Citrus .............-.--.- - -.. -..................-------.............................. 32
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency, Causes of Losses, Replace-
ments and Depreciation of Florida Dairy Herds ....................... 33
395 Input and Output Data for Florida Crop and Livestock Production 33
415 Effective Utilization of Farm Labor .................................................. 33
416 Florida Maximum Wartime Agricultural Production Capacity and
Postwar Planning for Agriculture ........-- .............---- .........--------. 33
429 Analysis of Farms and Markets in the Plant City Area with
Respect to Postwar Economic Problems ..................................... ----- 34
430 Factors Affecting Costs of and Net Returns from Harvesting,
Packaging and Marketing Florida Celery .................................... 35
434 The Effect of Integration of Fresh and Processed Citrus Fruit
Marketing on Marketing Efficiency ...................... ................... 35
...... Florida Truck Crop Competition ........................................................ 35
... Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries to Groves .................... 35
- Postwar Possibilities for Air Freight ................................. ......... 36

Agronomy
20 Peanut Im provem ent ................... ................................. ....- .... ... 37
55 Crop Rotation Studies with Corn, Cotton, Crotalaria and Winter
Legumes .....................-----...... ..........--- ..... ----- 37
56 Variety Test Work with Field Crops ...-.............-- ...-....---------... 40








10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
163 Corn Fertilizer Experiments ..........................-........-.....------ ... -- 41
295 Effect of Fertilizers on Yield, Grazing Value, Chemical Com-
position and Botanical Makeup of Pastures ................................ 41
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies ................................ 42 V
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement ......................................... 42
299 Effect of Burning at Different Periods on Survival and Growth
of Various Native Range Plants and Its Effect on Establish-
ment of Improved Grasses and Legumes ........................................ 42
301 Pasture Legum es ................................................ ..... ......... ........... 43
302 A Study of Napier Grass for Pasture Purposes ....-.....................-..... 43
304 Methods of Establishing Pastures Under Various Conditions........ 44
363 Oat Im provem ent ......................................................................... ........ 44
369 Effect of Environment on Composition of Forage Plants ................ 44
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement ..........--------.....................---..... 46
374 Corn Improvement ..........................-------.............--- ----- ... 46
378 Flue-Cured Tobacco Fertilizers and Varieties .................................... 47
417 Methods of Producing, Harvesting and Maintaining Pasture
Plants and Seed Stocks ................-..--..-----------..........-- ............ .. 48
...... Miscellaneous Experiments (Chufas, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Pea-
nuts, Cotton) ............................. ........ ........ .................. 49

Animal Industry
133 Mineral Requirements for Cattle .................... --.......- .....--............. 53
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to Her
Milk and Butterfat Production ........................... ..... ............... 54
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops .................................................... 54
216 Cooperative Field Studies with Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle........ 55
307 A Statistical Study of the Relationship Between Temperature
and Egg Weight (Size), Body Weight and Egg Weight, Body
Weight and Production, Age and Egg Weight of Single Comb
W hite Leghorn Pullets ...................................................................... 55
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Florida
Dairy H erds ....................... .----..........--- .....-- ..-....------- .......--- ... 55
346 Investigation with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition
Problem s ................................... ...... . ............. 55
353 Infectious Bovine M astitis .............................. .................................... 55
356 Biological Analysis of Pasture Herbage ...................---................... 56
360 Processing, Storage and Utilization of Dairy Products and By-
Products to Meet Wartime Food Needs and Limitations ............ 56
394 Effect of Certain Feeds on Milk Flavor ...........-..........................--. 56
406 Liquid Skimmilk and Shelled Corn as a Laying Ration ................ 57
407 Condensed Buttermilk in Laying Rations ..................................... 57
408 Peanut Meal in Poultry Rations .................................-....... ........... .... 57
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixtures, and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized
Pastures ...... ... ........... ... .............................. .............. 57
414 Periodic Increase in Lighting Versus Continuous Lighting for
Layers .........----------...... ........ --................ ....-.----- -----------... 58
418 Sulfurization of Soil for the Control of Certain Intestinal Para-
sites of Chickens ......................... ...... ..- ........ ............ ..-...... 58
424 The "Transmission Agent" of Fowl Leucosis .................................... 58
425 The Etiology of Fowl Leucosis ....................................--....................... 59
426 Toxicity of Crotalaria spectabilis Roth .............................................. 59
431 Florida Waters as Related to Cleaning Problems in Dairy Plants 59








Annual Report, 1945 11

Project No. Title Page
436 Composition of Milk Produced in Florida .......... .......................... 59
437 Control of the Common Liver Fluke in Cattle .---................-.............. 60
438 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Cattle .............................. --- 60
SThe Toxic Principle of the Tung Tree ..................... ................ 60
S "Swollen Joints" in Calves ................................... -- ....- ....... 60
...... Dehydrated Celery Tops in Chick Rations ..................................... 61
...... Effect of Tung Meal for Growing Chicks ...... ---...........--.............----. 61
..... Grazing Trials with Poultry .................................... ................. 61
...... Use of DDT for Insect Control in Dairy Barns ................................ 62
Ammoniated Citrus Pulp for Dairy Cattle ........................................ 62
...... Effect of Diethylstilbestrol on Heifers and Cows ......................... 62

Entomology
379 Control of the Nut and Leaf Casebearers of Pecans .-------...................... 63
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida.... 64
381 Propagation of Lara Wasps for the Control of Mole-Crickets........ 64
382 Root-Knot in Tobacco Fields ................................................................ 64
383 Breeding Vegetable Plants Resistant to Root-Knot Nematodes ...... 64
384 The Biology and Taxonomy of the Thysanoptera of Florida........ 65
385 Effects of Mulches on the Root-Knot Nematode ................................ 65
386 Control of the Florida Flower Thrips ..................... .................. 65
438 Control of Insect and Arachnid Pests of Cattle ................................ 66
... Tests of D D T ......................................................... 66

Home Economics
358 Vitamin A Activity of Foods ................................... .- ...-- 67
359 Vitamin C in Florida Fruits and Vegetables .................................... 68
370 Chemical Composition and Physiological Properties of Royal Jelly 69
396 Relation of the School Lunch to Child Health and Progress............ 69
397 Relation of Diet of Florida School Children to Tooth and Bone
Structure ........... ...................................... 71

Horticulture
50 Propagating, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with Tung Oil Trees 72
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and
Methods for Their Propagation .. ---...... --......-- ......... ......... 73
80 Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards ............................................ 74
110 Phenological Studies of Truck Crops in Florida ............................ 74
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ................................ 75
190 Cold Storage Studies of Citrus Fruits ............................ ......... ..... 75
237 Maturity Studies of Citrus Fruits --- .............................. ........... 76
268 A Study of the Relation of Soil Reaction to Growth and Yield of
V vegetable Crops ............................................................... ................ 77
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vegetables
Adaptable to Commercial Production in Florida ....... ------. 77
283 Effect of Various Green Manure Crops on Growth, Yield and
Quality of Certain Vegetables .............................----------------- 77
315 Fumigation of Nursery Stock ................................................................ 77
319 Effects of Mineral Deficiencies on the Adaptability of Certain
Vegetable Varieties to Florida ..................................... ......... 77
348 Effects of Certain Mineral Elements on Plant Growth, Reproduc-
tion and Composition .......................................---------------- ----. 78
365 Investigations of the Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree 78







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Project No. Title Page
375 Relation of Zinc and Magnesium to Growth and Reproduction
in Pecans ....................---.... ------------------ ------- ----------- 78
376 Effects of Certain Growth Substances on Pecans ............................ 80
377 Storage and Handling of Florida Vegetables .................................... 80
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ............................. .......................... .. 81
413 Dehydration of Vegetables and Fruits ....................................... 81
420 Composition of Florida-Grown Vegetables as Affected by En-
vironm ent ........................ ...... ..... ............................................ 82
432 Effects of Boron on Certain Deciduous Fruits and Nuts ................ 83
435 Irrigation of Vegetable Crops ......................................................... 83
...... Freezing Preservation of Florida Fruits and Vegetables ................ 84
... U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations ................................ 84

Plant Pathology

259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants............ 89
269 Host Relations and Factors Influencing the Growth and Para-
sitism of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. .....................- --. .................... 90
281 Causes of Failure of Seed and Seedlings in Various Florida Soils
and Development of Methods for Prevention ................................ 91
344 Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Eggplant ........................-...... 95
357 Azalea Flower Spot .......................... .. .... .. ........-------- 95
371 Rhizoctonia Diseases of Crop Plants ....................... ................. 95
.. Camellia Dieback ........................------- --- ---- ------- 96
... Witches Broom of Oleanders .............---......---.. ------------- 96
...... Cucumber Dust Experiment .............. ....---- ..-- .. ----.... ..---- 96
...... Investigations of Lupine Diseases .................................... ... .. 96
... Turf Investigations ....................................-----.--- 98
...... Pythium Rot of Easter Lily ..................... .. ........ ........---...... 98

Soils

201 Composition of Plant Materials with Particular Reference to the
More Unusual Constituents .---.............................--------..... .... 99
256 Development and Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Methods of
Complete and Partial Analysis for Soils and Related Materials 99
328 Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soil and Cropping
System s in Florida ...................................................... -----.... 100
347 Composition of Florida Soils and of Associated Native Vegetation 100
368 Factors Affecting the Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule
Development .............................--- .......-------------- -------- 100
389 Classification and Mapping of Forida Soils .............-......................... 101
392 Maintenance of Soil Reaction and Organic Matter and Their Role
in Retention and Availability of Major Nutrient Elements ...... 101
393 Significance of Levels of Readily Soluble Major Nutrient Elements
Removed by Various Extraction Procedures from Florida Soils
Under Various Cropping Practices .............--- -........................... 102
404 Correlation of Inherent and Induced Soil Characteristics with
Pasture Crop Response ....................................... .........-...-......... 102
421 Effect of Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Florida Soils
on the Mineral Composition of Vegetable Crops .........-............. 104
428 Availability of Phosphorus from Various Phosphates Applied to
Different Soil Types ..........................----.... .......---- --. --- .--------. 105
433 Retention and Utilization of Boron in Florida Soils ........................ 105







Annual Report, 1945


Celery Investigations Laboratory
Project No. Title Page
252 Soil and Fertilizer Studies with Celery ............................................ 106
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .............................. .............. .......... 107
399 Injurious Insects in Vegetable Plant Beds ........................................ 107
. M miscellaneous ............................ ................ --- 107

Potato Investigations Laboratory
130 Studies Relative to Disease Control of White (Irish) Potatoes.... 108
143 Investigation and Control of Brown Rot of Potatoes and Related
Plants ..................-----... ---------------- ----------109
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ....................................... ................... 109
419 Downy Mildew of Cabbage ........................... ......... ............. 111
.. Potato Culture Investigations ...................... .......................... ... 111
...... Cabbage Production and Fertility Studies ........................................ 111

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
150 Investigation of and Control of Fusarium Wilt, a Fungous Dis-
ease of W aterm elons ......................................................................... 113
151 Investigation of and Control of Fungous Diseases of Watermelon 113
254 Investigations of Fruits Rots of Grapes ........................................-. 113

Vegetable Crops Investigations Laboratory
281 Causes of Failure of Seeds and Seedlings in Various Florida Soils
and Development of Methods for Prevention ................................ 114
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Forida........ 114
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .................................................... ................ 114
398 Breeding for Combining Resistance to Diseases and Insects in
the Tom ato ............................................................................ ............ 116
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn ........ 116
402 Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Vegetable Crop Plants........ 116
405 Summer Cover Crops, Liming and Related Factors in Vegetable
Crop Production ........................... ... ... ............................... 117
427 Economic Control of Mole-Crickets .................................................... 118
445 Insecticidal Value of DDT and Related Synthetic Compounds on
Vegetable Crop Insects in Florida .............................-----........... 119
448 Rapid Soil Tests for Determining Soil Fertility in Vegetable Crop
Production .................................................................................... ..... 121
449 Organic Fungicides for the Control of Foliage Diseases of Vege-
tables .................-........ ..- ... -----------... ............ 121
...... Gladiolus Investigations .............----- ....... ......--.-----........- 122
...... Miscellaneous Cultural Investigations ..-...-....-............ .......-............ 123
... Miscellaneous Soil Studies .........................------ ....---------- 123
.. Miscellaneous Pathological Observations .....--.............- .................. 124

Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service
The Year in Review ........-......-..... -------------------- 125

Range Cattle Station
390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida Environment...... 128
410 Wintering Beef Cattle on the Range ................-- .............. ....... 128
423 Effect of Fertilization and Seeding on the Grazing Value of
Flatw oods Pastures ...................................... ................... .... 129







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Project No. Title Page
...... Effect of Minor Elements on the Establishment and Growth of
Pasture Grasses .................................... ................ ...................... 131
.--. Surface Drainage on Flatwoods Pastures ........................................... 132
..... Grass Variety-Fertilizer Trials Mineral Consumption .............-- 132

Sub-Tropical Station
275 Citrus Culture Studies ............................................................. 135
276 Avocado Culture Studies .......................................................... 136
277 Forestation Studies ........-............................... .......... ..................... 138
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ................... .....-- ......... 138
280 Studies of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals .........................--.---....... 139
285 Potato Culture Investigations ....--.........-- ....................-........ 142
286 Tomato Culture Investigations ............................- ......... .........-.... 143
287 Cover Crop Studies ----...--....------------....------ .......--..-......... 145
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County ........................................ 145
290 A Study of Diseases of the Avocado and Mango and Development
of Control Measures ............... ........... ........ ........... 146
291 Control of Tomato Diseases ........................................ .................... 146
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ........................................ .................... 147
422 Diseases of the Tahiti (Persian) Lime ...................---................... 150
... M miscellaneous ...-........................------------........... ...- ......... ............ 151
...... Sclerotiniose Disease of Vegetables ......................--.......-.................. 153

Citrus Station
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection ...........................-- -....--....-.. 158
102 Variety Testing and Breeding ................................................ .......- 158
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rots of Citrus Fruits.. 158
340 Citrus N nutrition Studies ....................................................................... 158
341 Combined Control of Scale Insects and Mites on Citrus.................... 168
... Pathological Investigations Color-Add Studies .......-.................... 169
...... Cooperative Research with Florida Citrus Commission ................ 171
...... Citrus Investigations in the Coastal Regions ................................... 178

Everglades Station
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings.. 193
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Condi-
tions ............... ...... ....-............................... ................... 194
87 Insect Pests and Their Control .......-.................... .................... 195
88 Soils Investigations .........-...................... -............................. 199
89 W after Control Investigations ..............................- ......... ............. .. 202
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle .........--------................................- ........ 203
168 The Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the Peat
and Muck Soils of the Everglades ...--.....................-..........----.... 204
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of Sugarcane Moth
Borer ..... .............................. .................. ..... ................... 205
171 Cane Breeding Experiments ....................................................... ..... 205
172 General Physiological Phases of Sugarcane Investigations............ 206
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
g lades ......................... ................... ................... ......................... 206
202 Agronomic Studies with Sugarcane ...................................................... 207
203 Forage Crop Investigations .................................. .. ............... 208
204 Grain Crop Investigations ............--..... ---......--...... -- ................... 208
205 Seed Storage Investigations .................................. ......................... 208







Annual Report, 1945


Project No. Title Page
206 Fiber Crop Investigations ............................................................... 208
208 Agronomic Studies Upon Growth of Sirup and Forage Canes ........ 210
209 Seed and Soil-Borne Diseases of Vegetable Crops ............................ 210
210 Leaf Blights of Vegetable Crops ..................................................------.. 211
212 Relation of Organic Composition of Crops to Growth and Maturity 212
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations .................................... 212
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot .............. 212
336 Early Blight of Celery ......................................................... ............ 214
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida........ 215
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ............................................. ..-.................. 215
403 Shallu, Blackstrap Molasses and Sweet Potatoes for Fattening
Steers on W inter Pasture ..................... ........... ....... ........ 216

North Florida Station
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco ...................... .................. 218
80 Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards .................................................. 219
191 Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Florida Shade To-
bacco Seed and Early Growth of Seedlings ............................ 219
257 Columbia Sheep Performance Investigations .-..-...--.......................... 219
260 Grain Crop Investigations .......................... .............. --- ....... 219
261 Forage Crop Investigations ........................................ ................. 220
301 Pasture Legumes .----............---------.....-------...----..... 221 >
321 Control of Downy Mildew of Tobacco ................................................. 221
355 Feed Crop Production and Utilization with Beef Cattle ................ 222
409 Ground Oats for Fattening Steers ....................... ....................... 222
411 2-Year Rotation for Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ................................. 223
M miscellaneous ..................................... ........ ....... ......----- ............. 223
Cooperative Experiments with Field Crops and Pastures ............... 224
M obile Unit No. 1 ..................................... .................. 225
M obile U nit N o. 2 ..................................................... ........ ........... 226
Mobile Unit No. 3 ....-................................... -- .-----.. 227
M obile Unit No. 4 ................. ........................ .......................... 228

West Central Florida Station


---------------............... ......... .................. 229


Report of Progress ..........







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


REPORT OF THE BUSINESS MANAGER
MAIN STATION
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 ......................--........-- ... .... ....---- $244,355.00
Expenditures
Salaries ............-----------....-------.....-----........$129,869.15
Labor ................... ................................... 54,000.22
Travel ................................ ------- ........ ---...... 7,022.23
Transportation of things ..................... --................... 1,455.91
Communication service ....................... .... ............... 1,245.96
Heat, light, power ...--------......... ......- ---- ...-.. --5,221.95
Printing .--- --........................-----.......-------. 5,458.14
Repairs and contractual services .................................. 8,607.40
Supplies and materials ............................... ....... ......... 26,314.01
Equipm ent ..................... ....................... 5,126.59
Balance ..................... .. ............ ........... ..... 33.44 $244,355.00


CITRUS STATION

Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 ......................... ......................... ............
Expenditures
Salaries .............................. ...... ..... .... ............... $ 30,857.44
Labor ................ ....... ........ ....... ............... 21,315.59
Travel ........................... ... ................ ............. ... ......... 2,222.86
Transportation of things ........................................ .. 115.45
Communication service ......................----..........---.. 472.65
Heat, light, power .................................. ................. 970.72
Printing ..........................-.............. ... ........-.....9.00
Repairs and contractual services .................................. 245.31
Supplies and materials ....................................... ......... 8,705.24
Equipment ...-................... ------- ....-....... 4,727.89


$ 69,642.15










$ 69,642.15


EVERGLADES STATION


Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 .............................. .................
Expenditures
Salaries ........................................ ..... ................ ...........$ 27,351.28
Labor ........................ ------.....---. ..- 11,856.20
Travel ........................--........ .----....... ............ ...... 1,097.89
Transportation of things ............................................... 131.15
Communication service ................................................... 209.33
Heat, light, power ............................--------------- 1,238.42
Printing ........................................ .. .......... ........... 0.00
Repairs and contractual services .................................. 821.35
Supplies and materials .................................................. 5,762.41
Equipm ent .......................................................................... 203.97


$ 48,672.00










$ 48,672.00







Annual Report, 1945 17

EVERGLADES CONTINUING CHAPTER 8442
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 .... ................... .-- ....---- ----- $ 5,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries ............................- ------. ....... 5,000.00 $ 5,000.00


NORTH FLORIDA STATION
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 ...................................... .......... $ 26,896.00
Expenditures
Salaries .................... ..---- .-----...-.. ....-- 10,826.00
Labor ................... .............. .......................................... ... 8,027.54
Travel ..........................-.......-- -- -- --------- 238.53
Transportation of things ............................. ............ 58.80
Communication service ........................---- .....-------. 286.02
Heat, light, power ..................--- ..- ....- ... ------. 190.80
Printing ....................................... ................. 0.00
Repairs and contractual services .................................. 276.55
Supplies and materials .....................---- ...... ------- 6,739.39
Equipment ....................--...........-- ---- .. ----- 252.37 $ 26,896.00


NORTH FLORIDA STATION-MOBILE UNITS
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 ............................................. ...... $ 40,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries ................................ ............................. $ 12,207.33
Labor ..................................... ..................... 6,139.60
Travel .................-...........----... -----........ 1,498.95
Transportation of things ....----............................ ---........ 171.52
Communication service ............................ .......... ....... 146.77
Heat, light, power ......................... ......... ............... 1,164.10
Printing .............................................. .............. 0.00
Repairs and contractual services .....................----..........---. 435.21
Supplies and materials ........................ .......... ......... 6,844.08
Equipm ent ........................................ ..................... 2,829.35
Balance -.......... .......................... .. ........................ 8,563.09 $ 40,000.00


RANGE CATTLE STATION
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 ..................................... ............................ $ 12,500.00
Expenditures
Salaries ........................... .................. ......................... $ 4,000.00
Labor ............. .......... ..... ...... .................. 3,749.20
Travel ................-..-............---..........-............--................. 487.80
Transportation of things --..--...-... .......--.......--- ........ 41.40
Communication service ................................ .............. 20.89
Heat, light, power ...................................... ................ 0.00
Printing ............................................... .......... ........ 0.00
Repairs and contractual services ........-......................... 390.21
Supplies and materials ....................... .-..................-.. 2,560.50
Equipment .....--..........-----------..................... 1,250.00 $ 12,500.00







18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SUB-TROPICAL STATION
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 .................................................- $ 24,148.78
Expenditures
Salaries .-------....................... ---- .------- 14,042.33
Labor ...................................- -....--- ....--. 622.92
Travel .........-..................... .. --- -------......... 778.75
Transportation of things ........................ ......------... 12.49
Communication service ........................----. .----.--... 143.86
Heat, light, power .............................- -..............-... 337.07
Printing ...--......-.................---....-.. .............. -0.00
Repairs and contractual services ...................................-------. 372.60
Supplies and materials ......................... ............. ..... 6,580.10
Equipment..................--....... ------.........-- .. 1,258.66 $ 24,148.78



WEATHER FORECASTING SERVICE
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 ............... ------.............----- ..- $ 24,478.05
Expenditures
Salaries ....... ..... --------------.............--.$ 1,500.00
Labor ..................... -----.------ ------. 1,152.32
Travel ................... ---............... ---------. 11,997.93
Transportation of things ...................................... .... 0.00
Communication service ............. . .......................... 2,526.72
Heat, light, power ..... ---------.............. ............. 0.00
Printing .............---------...........................-- --- ......... 0.00
Repairs and contractual services .................................. 702.25
Supplies and materials .......................... .............. 124.59
Equipm ent .......................................................................... 5,196.32
Balance .........................--..... ........ 1,277.92 $ 24,478.05



WATERMELON, GRAPE, AND SEA ISLAND COTTON
INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 ...................... ................. $ 20,915.49
Expenditures
Salaries ................... ------- ...................... 3,516.94
Labor .................................................... ..... 3,713.20
Travel ........................ ......... .............. 384.76
Transportation of things ........................ ............. 12.34
Communication service ............................--------- 281.42
Heat, light, power .............--........ .........----- -- 245.97
Printing ........................................ ................. 1,621.31
Repairs and contractual services .......................------..----........ 239.62
Supplies and materials ................... -----------................... 1,859.09
Equipment .....--- --- ------.......................------- ....... 2,870.31
Balance .........-----.......---.......------. 6,170.53 $ 20,915.49







Annual Report, 1945

POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 ............ -----.-------. --- ----.....-...
Expenditures
Salaries .....................-..............$.$ 7,008.00
Labor ............................ ------....... .. 2,468.50
Travel ......... ................. ----------------- 66.15
Transportation of things .......--..-...........-- ---.------. 36.97
Communication service ..........-------....................--....--- 23.27
Heat, light, power ....-...............---- --.. ----------... 1.50
Printing ................................................................. 0.00
Repairs and contractual services ................----------------........... 353.68
Supplies and materials .--......-.. ~~-......... -----.---..... 2,020.58
Equipment ..............................------------------ 21.35


CELERY INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 ....... ---------......
Expenditures
Salaries .....-.................-...... ... -------. ...-- .. 4,200.00
Labor ..............-----........-- -------------------- 3,453.00
Travel .-------..................------------............ 145.44
Transportation of things .---.......--...........-.......------13.67
Communication service ......... ....... ......-- ........... 254.61
Heat, light, power ..... -------................. -------- 233.61
Printing .................---------.----------------... 16.35
Repairs and contractual services ...................---........ 610.21
Supplies and materials ........................ .------------ 2,040.03
Equipment ................. ------------..------- 1,318.41
Balance .--....---. --......------------------- 6,296.64


$ 12,000.00










$ 12,000.00




$ 18,581.96


$ 18,581.96


STATE-WIDE SOIL SURVEY COOPERATIVE, CHAPTER 22,827
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 .............. ....... .......... ....... $ 5,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries ............................................................. 3,000.00
Labor .....--........~........---------------- 0.00
Travel ...-...... ...-- ........... .........--............--- -. 667.15
Transportation of things ............................ ......... 4.96
Communication service ........................................... 0.00
Heat, light, power .---...............--------------------.... .. 49.42
Printing ..---...........................-------------------. 0.00
Repairs and contractual services .----..............................----... 176.16
Supplies and materials ................. ......................... 1,037.42
Equipm ent ........................................ ..... ............ 64.89 $ 5,000.00

EMERGENCY FUND


Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 ........................ -................
Expenditures
N one ....................................... ........................ 0.00
Balance ....-----------..............---- .....--- 10,000.00


$ 10,000.00


$ 10,000.00







20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

STRAWBERRY INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 ................... .................................. $ 8,116.52
Expenditures
Salaries .................................... .... ...........-- ..... 3,600.00
Labor ....... .--.--..-....... ---------------.............. 44.50
Travel ............................................................ 422.00
Transportation of things .............................................. .80
Communication service .................................................... 181.45
Heat, light, power ..............................- ................... 57.29
Printing ................................... ..... ............... 49.25
Repairs and contractual services ................................ 51.51
Supplies and materials ........................................ .... 157.86
Equipm ent ............-- ........-.................. ....--- ------. 41.30
Balance ....................-...-...........----------. 3,510.56 $ 8,116.52

VEGETABLE CROPS LABORATORY
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 .................................................................... $ 34,876.57
Expenditures
Salaries ......................... .... ......- .....----- $ 17,446.00
Labor .................................. .............. ........... .......... 8,098.99
Travel ........................... ..............-.....- ...... .. ......... 580.66
Transportation of things ................................. ............ 169.74
Communication service ....................... .................... 194.85
Heat, light, power ............................... ....................... 486.66
Printing ........... ..-... ........ ... .......................... 0.00
Repairs and contractual services .................................. 345.10
Supplies and materials ....................... ...................... 5,690.20
Equipment .........--------.............--..-...---.......- 1,863.40
Balance ........................................................... 0.97 $ 34,876.57

GLADIOLI INVESTIGATIONS
Receipts
Appropriation, 1944-45 ........................................ .................. $ 5,778.99
Expenditures
Salaries ............................................................. $ 2,706.67
Labor ........--- .............- .................-....-.. ......... 336.10
Travel ........................................ .......... ........... 83.10
Transportation of things ...................--..... -- ..--. ..... 19.02
Communication service ...-........ ---............ ... ... .......... 27.27
Repairs and contractual services .................................. 265.56
Supplies and materials .........................--....-............... 1,543.02
Equipment .......... -......................-............... 798.25 $ 5,778.99


FINANCIAL RESOURCES-SUMMARY
Financial resources from State and Federal appropriations for the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1945, were as follows:
Federal Funds
Hatch and Adam s ............... ... .......... ............. ............... $ 30,000.00
Purnell ...............................................-....................... 60,000.00
Bankhead-Jones -----.....................-......... .................... 34,782.16







Annual Report, 1945 21

State Funds
Main Station .........-......--.......... .... ...---------......-...$244,355.00
Vegetable Crops Laboratory ............................ ............. ...... 34,876.57
Gladioli Investigations ................... ... ............ ................. 5,778.99
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory ...............................--- .... 8,116.52
Potato Investigations Laboratory ........................................ 12,000.00
Celery Investigations Laboratory ........................................... 18,581.96
Citrus Station ............................ ........ ................... 69,642.15
Everglades-Continuing Appropriation ........................................ 5,000.00
Everglades Station ....................................................... 48,672.00
North Florida Station ...................................... .................. 26,896.00
Sub-Tropical Station ..........................--- ............ .............. 24,148.78
Watermelon, Grape, and Sea Island Cotton Investigations
Laboratory .............................................................. 20,915.49
Range Cattle Station ............................... ............. ................ 12,500.00
Soil Survey- Statewide .............................. ........... .............. 5,000.00
North Florida Experiment Station-Mobile Units -...................- 40,000.00
Emergency Fund ................. -------...............--- --................ 10,000.00
W weather Forecasting Service ...................... ............. ...... 24,478.05

FEDERAL HATCH, ADAMS, PURNELL AND BANKHEAD-JONES
FUNDS

Hatch Adams Purnell Bankhead
Jones

RECEIPTS
Receipts from the Treas-
ury of the United
States, as per appro-
priations for fiscal
year ended June 30,
1945 .............................. $15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000.00 $34,782.16


EXPENDITURES
Personal services ............
Labor .. ........................
Travel expense ................
Transportation of things
Communication service ..
Heat, light, water, power,
gas, electricity ............
Rent of space in build-
ings or equipment ......
Printing publications ....
Other printing and bind-
ing ................................
Repairs and alterations
to equipment, and other
contractual services not
otherwise classified:
Insurance ..........................
Repairs and alterations
to buildings (not capi-
tal improvements) ......
Supplies and materials....
Equipm ent ........................

Total expenditures .......


$14,927.01
70.25

2.74












-$15,000.00



$15,000.00


$15,000.00



















$15,000.00


$46,282.82
5,839.40
2,025.35
3.41
3.51

300.12








267.35


2,417.98
2,860.06

$60,000.00


$17,326.24
8,541.65
780.25
36.87










405.84


4,412.50
3,278.81

$34,782.16







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


EDITORIAL
Twelve new bulletins were printed by the Station during the year,
practically all on subjects of especial interest and help to Florida farmers
in meeting their wartime production goals. The dissemination of in-
formation through news releases, radio programs and farm journal articles
was continued on as widespread scale as possible, so that farm families
might take advantage of the knowledge gained by the Station's research
workers over the years.
Bulletins and press bulletins were distributed, as in the past, principally
through county agents and on special request. People who request such
service are notified when new bulletins become available. Libraries and
scientific workers are supplied with copies of new bulletins.
The 3 Editors and the clerical help in the department devote more than
half of their time to work of the Agricultural Extension Service, in a co-
operative arrangement.

BULLETINS ARE TIMELY
Most of the 12 bulletins printed during the year were especially timely
and helpful in connection with wartime production efforts. Only 1 was
technical in nature. The bulletins ranged in size from 12 to 80 pages, in
edition from 4,000 to 30,000 copies. All 12 totaled 388 pages in length
and 89,500 copies in edition. It was difficult to obtain printing this year,
and several of the bulletins were delayed in issuance.
Following is a list of the bulletins printed, together with size and
quantity issued:
Bul. Title Pages Edition
400 Soil Reaction '(pH)-Some Critical Factors in Its
Determination, Control and Significance ........................ 43 4,000
401 Defluorinated Superphosphate for Livestock ................ 15 6,000
402 Manufacture of Ice Cream with Limited Milk Solids .... 30 4,000
403 Factors Affecting Composition of Everglades Grasses
and Legumes, with Special Reference to Proteins and
M minerals .. -----......................-....-....................... ................. 19 5,000
404 Celery Harvesting Methods in Florida .........................----. 32 5,000
405 Commercial Vegetable Varieties for Florida .-................ 30 10,000
406 Effect of Various Factors Upon the Ascorbic Acid
Content of Some Florida-Grown Mangos ........................ 12 4,000
407 "Swollen Joints" in Range Calves .................................... 23 5,000
408 Availability of the Phosphorus of Various Types of
Phosphates Added to Everglades Peat Land ............--.. 28 4,000
409 Pastures for Florida .........................-.................... ......... 78 30,000
410 Comparison of Purebred and Crossbred Cockerels with
Respect to Fattening and Dressing Qualities ................ 16 5,000
411 Insects and Diseases of the Pecan in Forida ................ 62 7,500

THE BULLETINS IN BRIEF
The following very brief summaries convey some idea of what the
bulletins contain:
400. Soil Reaction (pH)-Some Critical Factors in Its Determination,
Control and Significance. (G. M. Volk and C. E. Bell, 43 pages, 11 figs.)
Discusses factors affecting the determination of soil pH, especially colori-
metric methods as compared to the standard method; factors in the ad-







Annual Report, 1945


justment and maintenance of pH; significance of pH in the retention of
exchangeable bases in Florida soils; and pH and phosphorus solubility.
Technical.
401. Defluorinated Superphosphate for Livestock. (R. B. Becker,
George K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, R. S. Glasscock, P. T. Dix Arnold and J. E.
Pace, 15 pages, 0 figs.) Commercial defluorinated superphosphate contain-
ing less that 0.2 percent fluorine can be substituted for feeding bonemeal,
which became difficult to obtain during the war.
402. Manufacture of Ice Cream with Limited Milk Solids. (T. R. Free-
man and E. L. Fouts, 30 pages, 0 figs.) Blended wheat flour was found
most satisfactory for supplementing limited milk solids in making ice
cream. Practical recommendations for its use are given.
403. Factors Affecting Composition of Everglades Grasses and Legumes,
with Special Reference to Proteins and Minerals. (J. R. Neller, 29 pages,
0 figs.) Grasses and legumes grown on Everglades peat are high in protein
and had normal contents of calcium, magnesium and iron. When mod-
erately fertilized with a phosphate fertilizer they also carried normal
phosphorus.
404. Celery Harvesting Methods in Florida. (Max E. Brunk, 32 pages,
35 figs.) Reports results of a study aimed at increasing efficiency of field
labor and covering 3 organizations in each of the 3 principal producing
areas-Sanford-Oviedo, Sarasota and the Everglades. Suggests ways of
increasing labor efficiency in harvesting and packing.
405. Commercial Vegetable Varieties for Florida. (E. M. Andersen,
J. R. Beckenbach, A. H. Eddins, E. N. McCubbin, R. W. Ruprecht, F. S.
Jamison and E. C. Minnum, 30 pages, 3 figs.) Lists recommended and
promising varieties of 24 kinds of commercial vegetables.
406. Effect of Various Factors upon the Ascorbic Acid Content of Some
Florida-Grown Mangos. (Margaret J. Mustard and S. J. Lynch, 12 pages,
4 figs.) Ascorbic acid values of mangos of southern Florida cover a wide
range. Several environmental factors and variations in degree of maturity
at time of picking may have been responsible.
407. "Swollen Joints" of Range Calves. (M. W. Emmel, 23 pages, 16
figs.) Trouble found to be caused by the organism Streptococcus pyogenes,
which gained entrance usually through the navel of new-born calves.
Screwworm fly is an important means of transmission of infection.
408. Availability of the Phosphorus of Various Types of Phosphates
Added to Everglades Peat Land. (J. R. Neller, 28 pages, 8 figs.) Reports
results with various forms of phosphates-superphosphate, rock phosphate,
basic slag and colloidal phosphate-n yields and phosphate content of
different grasses.
409. Pastures for Florida. (R. E. Blaser, W. E. Stokes, J. D. Warner,
Geo. E. Ritchey and G. B. Killinger, 78 pages, 45 figs.) Lists best methods
of establishing and maintaining pastures and describes adapted grasses
and legumes.
410. Comparison of Purebred and Crossbred Cockerels with Respect to
Fattening and Dressing Qualities. (N. R. Mehrhof, W. F. Ward and 0. K.
Moore, 16 pages, 0 figs.) Gives gain in body weight and feed required to
produce gain, live and dressed grading, dressing and drawing losses, and
shrinkage in transit of various purebred and crossbred cockerels 10 weeks
of age for a 2-week fattening period.
411. Insects and Diseases of the Pecan in Florida. (Arthur M. Phillips
and John R. Cole, 64 pages, 44 figs.) Lists best known methods of con-







24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

trolling various insects and diseases of the pecan; suggests combined
sprays for insect and disease control; gives hints on insecticides and fungi-
cides, the spray outfit, application of spray materials; contains a warning
on use and storage of poisons.

16 NEW PRESS BULLETINS
The Experiment Station also printed 15 new subject matter press
bulletins and 1 new bulletin list and reprinted 5 old press bulletins during
the year. One of the new publications was 2 pages in length, 5 were 3
pages, 9 were 4 pages and the bulletin list was 6 pages. Two thousand
copies of the list were printed, while editions of the others ranged from
3,000 to 8,000 and totaled 71,000 copies. Of the 5 reprints, 1 was 2 pages,
another 3 pages, the others 4 pages in length. Editions were 3 and 5
thousand for a total of 19,000 copies.
Following is a list of press bulletins and their authors:
599 The Use of Phenothiazine for Livestock, M. W. Emmel.
600 Herbs for Florida, R. J. Wilmot.
601 Ginger Growing in Florida, S. J. Lynch and R. J. Wilmot.
602 Composting and Mulching, F. B. Smith and Geo. D. Thornton.
603 Azalea Culture for Florida, R. J. Wilmot.
604 Camellia Culture, R. J. Wilmot.
605 The Blacklee Watermelon, M. N. Walker.
606 Soil Reaction (pH), G. M. Volk.
607 Moles, J. R. Watson.
608 Coccidiosis in Chickens, M. W. Emmel.
609 "Salamanders" and "Gophers", J. R. Watson.
610 Treat Peanut Seed for Better Stands, W. B. Tisdale.
611 Naphthalene Flakes Keep Mole-Crickets from Seedbeds, E. G. Kel-
sheimer.
612 Commercial Manufacture of Milk Sherbet, E. L. Fouts and Calvin B.
Reeves.
613 Sclerotiniose of Vegetables and Tentative Suggestions for Its Con-
trol, A. N. Brooks, W. D. Moore and H. I. Borders.
..... Bulletin List.
470 Mice and "Gophers" in Watermelon Fields (reprint).
525 Yellow Pine Blister Rust (reprint).
576 Manganese Deficiency of Palms in Florida (reprint).
589 Control of Downy Mildew of Cabbage with Spergon and Fermate
(reprint).
590 Conservation and Use of Poultry Manure (reprint).

BROADCASTING ACTIVITIES
Radio continued to be an important means of disseminating informa-
tion from the Experiment Station, broadcast over stations throughout the
State. Principal broadcast outlet, naturally, was WRUF, University
station in Gainesville, which carried the noonday Florida Farm Hour
every week day. Experiment Station workers made 167 talks on the Farm
Hour and 1.05 of these were reworked into farm flashes and sent to 10
or 12 other stations. Copies of more than 75 were sent to Florida farm
papers for publication.
The Editorial Office supplied a news agency with from 750 to 900 words
each week for its farm information service, which was distributed to from
8 to 11 stations. At least half of this copy was devoted to information
from and attributed to Experiment Station workers.







Annual Report, 1945


NEWSPAPER AND FARM JOURNAL COOPERATION
Daily and weekly newspapers of Florida continued to make fairly wide-
spread use of copy from the Experiment Station, while farm journals
throughout the country use more items each year.
Experiment Station news for weekly papers continued to be dissemi-
nated almost entirely through the clipsheet printed and distributed by the
Agricultural Extension Service. Each week this clipsheet carried from
1 to several items relating to the Experiment Station or its workers.
More important items in the clipsheet were picked up by the wire
services each Thursday and released to dailies. In addition, special stories
to 1 or more dailies or a press association were sent out each week. A
partial tabulation of these stories used reveals that more than 63 were
accounted for during the year.
In their policy of keeping their readers informed of current results of
research, 9 farm journals carried 15 items from the Editors for a total of
343 column inches of space. Four national journals printed 6 items, 132
inches; 3 Southern journals carried 6 items, 157 inches; and 2 Florida
journals printed 3 items, 54 inches.

ARTICLES IN POPULAR AND SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS
Following is a list of articles by staff members in both popular and
scientific journals and association yearbooks:
Abbott, 0. D., Ruth O. Townsend and C. F. Ahmann. Hemoglobin Values
of 2205 Rural School Children in Florida, Am. Jour. of Diseases of
Children 69: 346-349. 1945.
Beckenbach, J. R. A Pendant Fruited Pepper. Southern Seedsman 7: 10:
18. 1944.
Becker, R. B. Management of the Family Cow. Fla. Grower 53: (1170):
5: 13. 1945.
Becker, R. B. Summer Care Steadies Milk Output. Fla. Grower 53: (1171):
6: 17. 1945.
Becker, R. B. Jersey Breed Has Made Steady Progress in Florida Since
1886. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 10: 7-8: 22-23. 1944.
Becker, R. B. Guernseys in Florida. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 10:
9-10: 24-25. 1944.
Becker, R. B. Springtime Advice About Cows. Fla. Grower 53: (1169):
4: 19. 1945.
Becker, R. B., and P. T. Dix Arnold. The Bull is Half the Herd. Guernsey
Breeders' Journal 66: 14-15: 28-29. 1944.
Becker, R. B., P. T. Dix Arnold and Geo. K. Davis, Citrus Molasses-a
New Feed. Flour and Feed 45: 9: 36. 1945.
Blackmon, G. H. The Tung Oil Industry in Florida. Economic Leaflets.
Bur. of Ec. and Bus. Res., Col. of Bus, Adm., Univ. of Fla. 4: 3: 1945.
Blackmon, G. H. Preparing Land for the Rose Garden. Fla. Grower 52:
(1163): 10: 17. 1944.
Blackmon, G. H. Tung Oil Vital in War or Peace. Fla. Grower 53:
(1168) : 3: 20. 1945.
Blackmon, G. H. Tung Oil Production in Florida. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort.
Soc. 58. 1945.
Blaser, R. E. Dairymen Need Good Pastures. Fla. Poultryman 10: 9-10:
33-34. 1944.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Blaser, R. E., and I. S. Glasscock. All-Year Pasture Is Objective. Florida
Cattleman 8: 2: 6, 8. 1944.
Blaser, R. E., and R. S. Glasscock. New Grasses. Fla. Cattleman 9: 7:
12-13. 1945.
Blaser, R. E., W. E. Stokes, R. S. Glasscock and G. B. Killinger. Effect
of Fertilizers on Growth and Grazing Value of Pasture Plants. Proc.
Soil Soc. of America 8: 271-275. 1944.
Borders, Huey I. Sclerotiniose of Snap Beans and Other Vegetable Crops.
Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 58. 1945.
Brunk, Max E. Danger Ahead in Land Situation. Fla. Grower 53: (1167):
2: 15. 1945.
Camp, A. F. The Minor Elements in Citrus Fertilization. Com. Fort.
70: 22-32: 42-44. 1945.
Camp, A. F. Report on "Quick Decline" Inspection in California. The
Cit. Ind. 26: 6: 5, 8. 1945.
Camp, A. F., R. C. Evans and L. G. MacDowell. The Citrus Industry of
Florida. Dept. of Agr., State of Florida. 198 pp.
Camp, A. F. Zinc as a Nutrient in Plant Growth. Soil Sci. 60: 157-164.
1945.
Carver, W. A. Florida Scientists Develop a Superior Peanut. Fla. Grower
53: (1167) : 2: 6. 1945.
Clark, Fred, and W. E. Stokes. Controlling Weeds in Tobacco Seedbeds.
Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 58. 1945.
Cooper, J. F. Citrus Fertilizer Program. Commercial Fert. Yearbook 69:
4A: 20-22, 41-44. 1944.
Cooper, J. F. Florida Citrus Program Meets All Present Needs. Citrus
Ind. 26: 5: 21-22. 1945.
Cooper, J. F. New Ideas for Fla. Farmers. Prog. Farmer 59: 1: 14, 41.
1944.
Cooper, J. F. Florida Knows How to Fertilize Citrus. Better Crops with
Plant Food 28: 7: 6-10, 49-50. 1944.
Cooper, J. F. A New Goober that Clicks. Southern Seedsman 8: 4: 11,
51-52. 1945.
Cooper, J. F. Sweet Lupines. Southern Seedsman 8: 5: 11, 46. 1945.
Davis, Geo. K. Switching Feeds of Nutritional Values Calls for Serious
Study. Fla. Cattleman 7: 12:8-9, 26-27. 1944.
Davis, Geo. K., R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, C. L. Comar and S. P.
Marshall. Urea in Sorghum Silage. Jour. Dairy Sci. 27: 649. 1944.
Eddins, A. H. Cultivo, Enfermedades E. Insectos de la Papa en La Florida.
Control de Plagas, Publication Mensual Cientifica 6: 35-38. 1944.
Eddins, A. H., and E. N. McCubbin. Results of Potato Variety Tests at
Hastings, Florida. Am. Potato Jour. 21: 269-277. 1944.
Emmel, M. W. Micro-Organism Found to Be Responsible for Swollen
Joints in Calves. Fla. Cattleman 8: 1: 6, 29. 1944.
Emmel, M. W. Manage Poultry for Best Yields. Fla. Grower 53: (1170):
5: 17. 1945.
Emmel, M. W. So-Called Tick Paralysis in Chickens. Jour. Am. Vet. Med.
Assn. 106: 108. 1945.
Emmel, M. W. The Primary Screwworm Fly, Cochliomyia americana C.
and P., as a Vector of Joint Ill in Calves. Jour. Am. Vet. Assn. 106:
223. 1945.







Annual Report, 1945


Ensminger, L. E. Potash for Legume Pastures in Florida. Better Crops
29: 2: 23-25. 1945.
Ensminger, L. E. A Modified Method for Determining Base-Exchange
Capacity of Soils. Soil Science 58: 425-432. 1944.
Ensminger, L. E., and T. C. Erwin. The Penetration of Certain Minor
Elements from Surface Treatments into Leon Fine Sand and Their
Effect on Growth and Composition of Pasture Plants. Proc. Soil Sci.
Soc. of Fla. 6: 1944.
Erwin, T. C., R. A. Carrigan, L. H. Rogers and J. N. Howard. Methods of
Analysis for Minor Elements in Soil and Plant Materials. Proc. Soil
Sci. Soc. of Fla. 6: 1944.
Forsee, W. T., Jr., and R. V. Allison. Evidence of Phosphorus Interference
in the Assimilation of Copper by Citrus on the Organic Soils of the
Lower East Coast of Florida. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 6: 1944.
Fouts, E. L. Milk Is an Essential War Weapon. Fla. Grower 53: (1168):
3: 19. 1945.
Fouts, E. L. Bacterial Contamination of Milk. Fla. Poultryman 10: 11:
23-25. 1944.
Fouts, E. L. Sources, Controls of Organisms Causing Ropiness in Milk.
Fla. Poultryman 10: 12: 26-27, 31. 1944.
Fouts, E. L. Milk Can Be Pasteurized at Home Thru a Simple Process.
Fla. Poultryman 11: 6: 15. 1945.
Fouts, E. L., and T. R. Freeman. Coliform Organisms in Dairy Products
and Their Control. Jour. of Milk Technology 8: 89-94. 1945.
Freeman, T. R., and E. L. Fouts. Some Factors Affecting the Inversion of
Sucrose. Jour. Dairy Sci. 27: 8: 674. 1944.
French, R. B. Florida Foods Are Nutritious. Fla. Grower 53: (1167):
2:23. 1945.
Hamilton, H. G. Problems Confronting Citrus Industry. Citrus 7: 7: 6-7,
10-11; 8: 6-7. 1945.
Hamilton, H. G. The Importance of Florida Citrus Cooperatives. Citrus
7: 9: 8-10. 1945.
Hamilton, H. G. Post-War Problems in Citrus Fruit Marketing. Fla.
Grower 52: (1155): 11: 16, 21. 1944.
Harris, Henry C., Roger W. Bledsoe and P. W. Calhoun. Responses of
Cotton to Sulfur Fertilization. Jour. Amer. Soc. of Agron. 37: 323-329.
1945.
Harrison, A. L. Tests on Some New Organic Fungicides. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 58: 1945.
Harrison, A. L. Bean Rust on the West Coast Area of Florida. Plant
Disease Reporter 29: 448. 1945.
Henderson, J. R. Know Your Garden Soils Better. Fla. Grower 53:
(1167): 2: 12-13. 1945.
Hodges, E. M. Improve Feed for Better Cattle. Fla. Grower 53: (1166):
1:14. 1945.
Hodges, E. M., and W. G. Kirk. Minor Elements on Flatwoods Pastures.
Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 6: 1944.
Hull, Fred H. Recurrent Selection for Specific Combining Ability in Corn.
Jour. Amer. Soc. of Agronomy 37: 134-145. 1945.
Hume, H. H. The Year's Work at the College of Agriculture. Cit. Ind.
26: 2: 14-15. 1945.







28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Jamison, F. S. Vegetable Growers Beating Odds. Fla. Grower 52:
(1162):9: 10, 12. 1944.
Jamison, F. S. Newer Vegetable Varieties Good. Fla. Grower 52: (1163):
10:16. 1944.
Jamison, F. S. First Call for Spring Gardens! Your Own Vegetables
Grown Right Are Superior. Fla. Grower 53: (1166): 1: 17. 1945.
Jamison, F. S. The Future in Vegetable Research. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort.
Soc. 58. 1945.
Jamison, V. C. The Effect of Particle Size of Copper and Zinc-Source
Materials and of Excessive Phosphates Upon the Solubility of Copper
and Zinc in a Norfolk Fine Sand. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. 8:
323-326. 1944.
Janes, Byron E. The Relative Effect of Variety and Environment in
Determining the Variations of Percent by Weight, Ascorbic Acid and
Carotene Content of Cabbage and Beans. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
45: 387-390. 1944.
Janes, Byron E. Experimental Results from Using Minor Elements in
Growing Vegetables on Several Sandy Soils. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort.
Soc. 58. 1945.
Johnson, Warren O. October Hurricane Straddled the State. Citrus 7:
5: 6, 7, 13. 1944.
Kelsheimer, E. G. DDT as a Control for Cabbage Caterpillars. Proc.
Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 58. 1945.
Kidder, R. W. Results of Trials at Belle Glade. Fla. Cattleman 7:
10: 15-16, 30. 1944.
Kidder, R. W. Composition and Digestible Nutrient Content of Napier
Grass Leaves. Jour. Agr. Res. 70: 89-93. 1945.
Kirk, W. G. Mineral Consumption at Range Cattle Experiment Station.
Fla. Cattleman 9: 9: 12-13. 1945.
Mehrhof, N. R. The Poultry Industry of Florida. Economic Leaflets.
Bur. of Ec. and Bus. Res., Col. of Bus. Adm., Univ. of Fla. 4: 7: 1945.
Mehrhof, N. R. Preventing Poultry Feed Waste. Florida Grower 52:
(1163): 10: 14. 1944.
Mehrhof, N. R. History of Chipley Egg Laying Test Discloses Splendid
Record. Florida Poultryman and Stockman 10: 11: 4, 15-15. 1944.
Mehrhof, N. R. Poultry Research Marches On. Florida Poultryman and
Stockman 10:12:4. 1944; 11:1:6-7; 2:12; 3:10; 5: 12-13; 6:20.
1945.
Mowry, Harold. The Role of the Minor Elements in -Florida's Agriculture.
Farm for Victory, No. 18, June 1945.
Mustard, Margaret J. Mangos and Guavas as Sources of Ascorbic Acid.
Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 58. 1945.
Mustard, Margaret J., and S. J. Lynch. Flower Bud Development of
Mangos. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 58. 1945.
Neller, J. R. Oxidation Loss of Low Moor Peat in Fields with Different
Water Tables. Soil Science 58: 195-204. 1944.
Noble, C. V. Farmers Take Wartime Inventory. Fla. Grower 53: (1167):
2: 16. 1945.
Pardue, L. G., Jr. Horticultural Protection Service Ends Tenth Season.
Cit. Ind. 26: 4: 15, 22. 1945.







Annual Report, 1945


Pardue, L. G., Jr. Frost Warning Service 10th Season. Citrus 7: 4: 5-7.
1944.
Pardue, L. G., Jr. The Moon and Florida Freezes. Fla. Grower 53:
(1166): 1: 15. 1945.
Reitz, J. W., and H. G. Hamilton. Ceiling Prices Covering Florida Citrus
Fruit. Cit. Ind. 25: 12: 5-8, 18. 1944.
Ruehle, Geo. D. Sectional Notes-Florida (Potatoes). Amer. Potato Jour.
22:87. 1945.
Ruehle, Geo. D. Desirable Ornamental Shade Trees for Limestone Soils
of Southern Florida. Sixth Southern Shade Tree Conference. Proc.
Nat'l. Shade Tree Conf. 19: 1945.
Sanders, D. A. Stockmen Pay Dearly for Liver Flukes. Fla. Cattleman
9: 4: 26-27, 31. 1945.
Shealy, A. L. The Beef Cattle Industry of Florida. Economic Leaflets.
Bur. of Ec. and Bus. Res., Col. of Bus. Adm., Univ. of Fla. 4: 1: 1944.
Shealy, A. L. Beef Breeding Pays at Slaughter. Fla. Grower 52: (1163):
10: 11. 1944.
Sites, J. W. Citrus Fruit in Florida. Amer. Fr. Grow. 64: 7: 14. 1944.
Smith, F. B. The Importance of Microbial Action in Soils. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 58. 1945.
Spencer, Ernest L. Vertical Movement of Salts in Soils as Affected by
Irrigation Practices. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 58. 1945.
Spurlock, A. H. How Are Farmers Faring During the War. Fla. Grower
52: (1162):9:5. 1944.
Stahl, A. L. Concentration of Citrus Juice by Freezing. Cit. Ind. 25:
9: 5, 12. 1944.
Stahl, A. L. The Freezing Preservation of Citrus Hearts. Proc. Fla. Sta.
Hort. Soc. 58. 1945.
Stokes, W. E. Things You Should Know About Fertilizing. Fla. Grower
52: (1162) :9: 7, 16. 1944.
Stokes, W. E. Better Pastures from Research. Fla. Grower 52: (1164):
11:23. 1944.
Thompson, W. L. Progress Report on the Purple Mite and Its Control.
Cit. Ind. 25: 10: 5-9, 12, 14-15. 1944.
Thompson, W. L., and John W. Sites. Relationship of Solids and Ratio
to Timing of Oil Sprays on Citrus. Cit. Ind. 26: 5: 6-8, 14. 1945.
Thornton, Geo. D. Some Factors Affecting the Longevity of Rhizobium
in Florida Soils. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. 8: 238-240. 1944.
Tisdale, W. B. Chemical Treatments of Soil for Seedbeds and Gardens.
Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 58. 1945.
Tissot, A. N. Additions to the Lachnini of Florida. Fla. Ento. 27: 43-55.
1944; 102. 1945.
Tissot, A. N. To Get More and Better Cabbage. Fla. Grower 52: (1164):
11: 14. 1944.
Tissot, A. N. Be Careful Using Insecticides. Fla. Grower 53: (1170):
5: 11. 1945.
Tissot, A. N., and J. O. Pepper. Two New Aphids from Rhododendron and
Related Plants. Fla. Ento. 27: 21-33. 1944.
Townsend, G. R. The Ammonium Thiocyanate Treatment for Hastening
the Sprouting of Dormant Bliss Triumph Potatoes. Proc. Fla. Sta.
Hort. Soc. 58. 1945.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Walker, M. N. Galls on the Roots of Citron-Watermelon Hybrids. Phyto-
pathology 35: 480-482. 1945.
Watson, J. R. Control of Rust Mites. Cit. Ind. 25: 7: 15, 18. 1944.
Watson, J. R. Control of Aphids on Citrus. Cit. Ind. 26: 1: 10. 1945.
Watson, J. R. Natural Control of Citrus Insects. Citrus 7: 1: 10-12. 1944.
Watson, J. R. Herse Cingulatus Fab. as an Armyworm. Fla. Ento. 27:
58. 1944.
Watson, J. R. The Damage of Melipotis acontioides to the Royal Poinciana.
Fla. Ento. 27: 58-59. 1944; 103. 1945.
Watson, J. R. Cleanup Whitefly and Scale Now. Fla. Grower 52:
(1163) : 10: 15. 1944.
Watson, J. R. Mulches to Control Root-Knot. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci. 7:
151-153. 1944.
West, Erdman. Try Native Plants in Your Garden. Fla. Grower 52:
(1161) : 8: 11. 1944.
West, Erdman. Keeping Ahead of the Weeds. Fla. Grower 53: (1167):
2: 18. 1945.
West, Erdman. Notes on Florida Fungi III. Mycologia 37: 65-79. 1945.
Westgate, Philip J. Khaya nyasica Produces Viable Seed in South Florida.
Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 58. 1945.
Westgate, Philip J. Mealybug Wilt of Pineapples in South Florida. Proc.
Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 58. 1945.
Westgate, Philip J. Potato Dormancy Breaking Treatments in the Home-
stead Area. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 58. 1945.
Wilmot, R. J. Camellia C. M. Hovey The Flor. Rev. 95: 2469: 24, 25.
1945.







Annual Report, 1945


LIBRARY

During the year the Library acquired the entire second floor of the
Horticulture Building except the editorial offices. Because this expansion
required considerable reorganization, some phases of Library activity
were of necessity dispensed with for a period. For several months it was
impossible to circulate periodicals to workers stationed at branch stations
and field laboratories. This service was resumed and for the last 4 months
of the fiscal year, 209 books and periodicals were sent those staff members.
Records kept show that local staff members borrowed 1,447 books during
approximately the same time. Neither figure indicates the use of material
within the Library.
Books added to the shelves total 711. Of this number, 330 were bought,
received on exchange or as gifts, and 381 were newly bound periodicals.
The number of bound volumes on the shelves is 19,903.
Because of continued war conditions and shortages of paper, the
number of documents, periodicals and similar publications received was
only 8,588, or 2,956 less than the previous year. Of this number, 912
bulletins have been cataloged and the cards entered in the catalog. A total
of 9,845 cards were added to the catalog. Of this number, 6,412 were
made and typed here and 3,433 were purchased from the Library of Con-
gress and the New York Botanical Garden, the latter covering the field
of botanical literature.
To reorganize the Library it was necessary to reclassify a major portion
of the literature. Approximately 15,000 volumes and much unbound ma-
terial were included in this category. Fully three-fourths of the work
has been completed and the remainder sufficiently so to assure its correct
shelving.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

During the past year the Department cooperated with other agricul-
tural agencies in planning for and encouraging the production of adequate
foods and fibers for the nation at war. Also, aid was given to the formu-
lation of a plan to be followed for the advancement of agriculture when
the war comes to an end.
The decision was reached early in the year to close out Project 317,
"Prices of Florida Farm Products," with the publication of Bulletin 399.
The preparation of a Florida index of prices paid by farmers for goods
and services has been postponed until such time as government price
controls are removed and the results of this type of work would have
greater permanent value.
Project 415, "Effective Utilization of Farm Labor," is being related
to a more specific project, number 430, dealing with the celery crop only.
The former project will be discontinued during the coming year.
Work is in progress on 2 projects inaugurated since the beginning of this
calendar year. Project 429, "Analysis of Farms and Markets in the Plant
City Area with Respect to Post-War Economic Problems," was set up at
the urgent request of groups vitally interested in that area, and Project
434, "The Effect of Integration of Fresh and Processed Citrus Fruit
Marketing on Marketing Efficiency," which is being conducted in cooper-
ation with the Farm Credit Administration, is a logical "next step" in the
series of citrus marketing studies being conducted. It was possible to
start work on these 2 projects through a liberal grant-in-aid from the
General Education Board.
Work on all other projects has progressed as outlined.

FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 154 H. G. Hamilton and A. H. Spurlock
Basic data have been obtained during the year from approximately 25
citrus cooperative marketing associations for the 4 seasons 1940-41 to
1943-44, inclusive. These data include prices by varieties, packing costs,
volume of business and financial condition of the organizations. A number
of specific projects are contemplated in citrus marketing that will require
these basic data. In the meantime, they serve as a continuous checkup
on former work and indicate the trends that are in progress in citrus
cooperative associations.
The revision of Bulletin 245 was completed and a mimeographed report
was issued giving a classified list of all active farmer cooperative asso-
ciations in Florida during the 1943-44 season.

COST OF PRODUCTION AND GROVE ORGANIZATION STUDIES
OF FLORIDA CITRUS
Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage
The usual work of closing the growers' accounts for the 1943-44 season
and opening accounts for 1944-45 season was done. Tabulations were
made of the 1942-43 accounts.
High fruit prices and good yields resulted in high income. The cost
of production was higher than for previous seasons, but this increase
was not so great as the increase in returns from fruit. This increase in
returns, together with pent up buying power accumulated under wartime
conditions, has resulted in sharp increases in grove prices.








Annual Report, 1945


Present high grove prices cannot be justified in the light of returns
from citrus over the period of time this project has been in progress-
since 1932. These inflated values may prove detrimental to the Florida
citrus industry. Every effort is being put forth to bring this matter to
the attention of all Florida citrus growers as well as to those growers
who are cooperating in this project.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY, CAUSES OF
LOSSES, REPLACEMENTS AND DEPRECIATION OF
FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and A. H. Spurlock
Cooperative work was continued with the Department of Animal In-
dustry and is reported by that Department.

INPUT AND OUTPUT DATA FOR FLORIDA CROP AND
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
Purnell Project 395 J. Wayne Reitz, A. H. Spurlock and Max E. Brunk
During the year data were obtained from about 200 additional growers
of truck crops on usual requirements of labor and materials for production.
Materials were classified in as much detail as possible to include the quan-
tities of seed, fertilizer, spray, dust, poison bait, and any other material
used. Labor was itemized by jobs and by season of year when done.
Other information was obtained on usual varieties, fertilizer analyses, row
width, distance of plants and other cultural practices.
For some truck crops the current cost of production was prepared,
using the above data on labor and materials and applying current prices.
Additional information had to be obtained on land rent, repairs, deprecia-
tion, gas and oil, taxes, licenses, insurance and mule feed. Preliminary
cost-of-production summaries were prepared for the following crops and
localities:
Tomatoes-Dade County and Manatee County.
Celery-Belle Glade, Sanford, Sarasota.
Watermelons-Lake County and Newberry-Trenton Area.
String Beans-Belle Glade Area and Dade County.
Potatoes-Dade County.
Estimates on cost of production were prepared at the request of growers
concerned and were used in Office of Price Administration hearings on
ceiling prices.

EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF FARM LABOR
Purnell Project 415 Max E. Brunk and F. S. Jamison
Motion and time studies of harvesting and packaging celery were con-
tinued during the year, in cooperation with the Department of Horticulture.
Methods of handling celery in New York State were observed and com-
pared with Florida methods. Studies were made of celery wash-house
arrangement and equipment and field crew organization. This work is
reported in Bulletin 404. Also, a 2-reel 16 mm. color movie on celery
harvesting methods was made.

FLORIDA MAXIMUM WARTIME AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
CAPACITY AND POST-WAR PLANNING FOR AGRICULTURE
Purnell Project 416 C. V. Noble
The cooperative work under this project with the U. S. Bureau of Agri-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


cultural Economics was continued. It was divided into 2 phases. The
first phase was similar to the work of the previous 2 years and consisted
of arriving at the best statistical background possible for the formulation
of agricultural production goals for 1945. This work was done in June and
July, 1944, and the report was forwarded to Washington July 25, 1944.
The second phase was concerned with the setting up of "bench marks"
in the postwar period under 2 sets of assumptions-1 based upon full in-
dustrial employment and another based upon moderate industrial unem-
ployment. The crop and livestock patterns needed under these 2 sets of
assumptions were evolved. This report was forwarded to Washington on
December 1, 1944.
Cooperative work similar to the first phase of the study in 1944 is
now in progress to arrive at the "Suggested Agricultural Production Ad-
justments for 1946 in Florida". It is planned that this report will be
completed by August 1, 1945. Due to the need for earlier information
concerning suggestions for Florida winter vegetable crops for 1945-46
season, a preliminary acreage estimate was arrived at and forwarded to
Washington for the consideration of the National Goals Committee on
June 15, 1945. This preliminary estimate will be revised, if necessary,
and submitted in greater detail in connection with the general report on
August 1, 1945.
Other work under this project dealt with:
1. Close cooperation with the USDA Postwar Planning Committee,
Southeast Region, and in attending 2 of its regional conferences at At-
lanta, Georgia. The first conference on April 24-25, 1945, was concerned
with rural health and the second conference on June 15-16 was devoted
to a thorough discussion of the proposed conversion program for the
cotton South.
2. Attendance at a regional conference called by the Land-Grant Col-
lege Committee on Postwar Agricultural Policy, at Asheville, N. C.,
August 24-26, 1944. At this conference the Florida delegation submitted
some important agricultural policy issues for the postwar period which
were considered of particular importance to Florida. All of these recom-
mendations were embodied in the report of the committee.
3. Cooperation with the chairman of the agricultural subcommittee of
the Southwide Planning Committee Conference held at Birmingham, Ala-
bama, May 19, 1945, in formulating the recommendations that he would
submit to the conference. This conference was called by the Southern
Governors' Conference.

ANALYSIS OF FARMS AND MARKETS IN THE PLANT CITY AREA
WITH RESPECT TO POSTWAR ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
Purnell Project 429 J. R. Greenman and H. G. Hamilton
This work was undertaken at the request of local groups of citizens
in the Plant City area.
Intensive field work on the farm management phase of this project has
been under way for 6 weeks and should be completed within 6 more weeks.
Sixty labor and materials records have been collected. Detailed records
of receipts, expenses and farming practices have been obtained for 25 farms.
When collection of data in the field has been completed for the sample
drawn, it is anticipated that subsequent analysis will indicate some of the
important causes of success or failure of farmers in the area, and point
to ways in which farming conditions might be improved in the future.
Data also have been obtained which, when analyzed, will show the effect
of grade, daily volume, number of buyers buying and the size of the








Annual Report, 1945


grower's load on the price of strawberries for the 1942-43 and 1943-44
seasons.

FACTORS AFFECTING COSTS OF AND NET RETURNS FROM
HARVESTING, PACKAGING AND MARKETING
FLORIDA CELERY

Purnell Project 430 Max E. Brunk
This project became active in January 1945 and deals with a more
detailed study of the Florida celery enterprise as a follow-up of the work
accomplished under project 415.
Data on labor costs, measured in hours, and quality of work have been
collected from 17 organizations handling the harvesting, packaging and
marketing of celery in various ways. Carlot shipment-data are being
collected from the cooperating organizations which will be used to show
the relation of the various methods of harvesting, packaging and market-
ing to net returns. None of the information thus far collected under this
project has been summarized.

THE EFFECT OF INTEGRATION OF FRESH AND PROCESSED
CITRUS FRUIT MARKETING ON MARKETING EFFICIENCY
Purnell Project 434 H. G. Hamilton and M. C. Gay
(In cooperation with Farm Credit Administration)
Work under project 154 pointed to the necessity of determining under
what conditions integration of fresh and processing operations in handling
and marketing citrus fruits is desirable and under what conditions special-
ization of these operations is desirable. It is important to determine the
most efficient type of operation in order that mistakes involving large
expenditures in plant facilities may be avoided. This cooperative project
with the FCA was set up to render aid in making the best decisions.
It became active on March 15, 1945. Basic data obtained under project
154 are essential for this work, but will necessarily be supplemented with
much specific data for the analysis of this particular problem.
Forms have been prepared for obtaining data from 4 types of citrus
firms; namely, dealers supplying canners with fruit, fresh fruit operators,
operators of fresh fruit and canning operations combined, and cannery
operators. The necessary data, such as costs, prices received and prices
paid for fruit, have been obtained from approximately 30 of the dealers
supplying canners with fruit.

FLORIDA TRUCK CROP COMPETITION
Bulletin 224 was brought up-to-date by summarizing and mimeograph-
ing of the weekly car-lot shipments of commercial truck crops during
the 1943-44 season, indicating the competition between Florida and other
states for each important commodity.

MOVEMENT OF CITRUS TREES FROM NURSERIES TO GROVES
Cooperation was continued with the Florida State Plant Board in sum-
marizing the citrus nursery stock movement to Florida grove plantings
for the 1943-44 season. These summaries are being made available cur-
rently in mimeographed form.







36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

POSTWAR POSSIBILITIES FOR AIR FREIGHT
This department cooperated with the Edward S. Evans Transportation
Research and the Bureau of Agricultural Economics in furnishing detailed
production records for 1 complete season for 46 kinds of fruit, vegetable
and floricultural commodities and 21 classes of succulent plants. These
data were furnished by county and month of production. A manuscript
entitled "Florida's Production of Agricultural Perishables in Relation to
the Development of Air Freight" will appear in a publication of the
Edward S. Evans Transportation Research.








Annual Report, 1945 37


AGRONOMY

Agronomy research during the year was conducted under 17 regular
projects, together with miscellaneous projects on permanent seedbeds for
tobacco plants, peanuts, cotton, chufas and sugarcane. It involved crop
variety testing, breeding, rotation, fertilization, cover and green manure
crop studies and pasture establishment, maintenance and evaluation.

PEANUT IMPROVEMENT

State Project 20 W. A. Carver and Fred H. Hull
Peanut breeding by hybridization is being continued. Leading objectives
of the breeding work are: (1) an early maturing peanut having a rest
period of seed approaching that of Florida Runner; and (2) a Florida
Runner type peanut having high yielding ability and freedom from con-
cealed damage of seed. As breeding material for further selection, the
hybrid strains Fla. 230-118, Fla. 231-51 (Dixie Runner), Fla. 249-40, and
Ga. 207-3 have been intercrossed, making all of the possible combinations.
The variety strain test at Gainesville in 1945 contains 46 entries, in-
cluding 38 Florida hybrid strains of peanuts, 2 Georgia Station hybrids
and 6 varieties of small runner, Spanish, small bunch and large runner
types. The Quincy test contains 4 Florida and 1 Georgia strain and 3
Spanish and runner varieties.
Seed of Dixie Runner and several other Florida strains of different
plant types and seed colors and types are being increased at Gainesville.
Seed of Dixie Runner is being increased also by several farmer-seedsmen
and by members of the Crop Improvement Association in 12 Florida
counties.
Dixie Runner peanuts showed less concealed damage of seed in 1944
than any variety or strain of similar seed and plant type. Not more than
1 percent of concealed damage was found in over 30 seed samples of
Dixie Runner grown in different parts of the State. This is considered a
good record when compared with the damage of 8 to 20 percent which was
frequently found in Florida Runner peanuts. Data were taken on seed
soundness from 4 pairs of seed samples produced under about the same
conditions. Florida Runner had 6.24 times as much concealed damage as
Dixie Runner and 1.58 times as much visible damage.
Leading strains in the yield trials at Gainesville in 1944 were Fla.
230-118, Fla. 282-2, Fla. 249-40, Dixie Runner and Ga. 207-3. Ga. 207-3
was the leader and Fla. 249-18 was second in the trial at Quincy. In the
latter test, the drought late in the season greatly favored these early-
maturing strains. The average rank in yield of those strains which have
been in the tests 2 or more years are: Fla. 239-118, Ga. 207-3, Fla. 249-18
and Dixie Runner.

CROP ROTATION STUDIES WITH CORN, COTTON, CROTALARIA
AND WINTER LEGUMES -
Hatch Project 55 W. E. Stokes, Geo. E. Ritchey,
and Henry C. Harris
Cotton-Corn-Legume Rotation.-This project consists of a study of a
2-year rotation of corn and cotton as the crops are influenced by different

In cooperation with the Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I. S. & A. E., USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


cover crops and their combinations. The season of 1944 completes 15
years of data. Plots are grown as follows:
1. Corn and cotton rotating, with the natural vegetation growing
after the last cultivation of each crop.
2. Corn and cotton rotating, with a winter legume, following cotton
and preceding corn.
3. Corn and cotton rotating, with a summer legume growing in the
corn.
4. Corn and cotton rotating, with a winter legume following cotton
and preceding corn and a summer legume with the corn.
5. Corn continuously following natural vegetation which grows
after the last cultivation.
6. Cotton continuously following natural vegetation which grows
after the last cultivation.
Table 1 records mean yields of corn and cotton for the 15-year period.
Various species of peas and vetch have been used in the experiment
but none were successful. Blue lupines have been used as a winter cover
crop the last 2 years. Yields varying from 5,000 to 8,000 pounds, green
weight, per acre have been plowed under. Results of the experiment have
led to the following summary and conclusions:
1. Vetches and Austrian peas are not adapted to a corn and cotton
rotation on sandy soils of Central Florida.
2. Lupines are adapted to the better sandy loam soils of North
Central Florida and may be used successfully as winter green
manure crops, especially in favorable years.
3. The summer legume alone seems to be as effective in increasing
yields as the winter legume alone, or as a combination of the 2.
4. There has been considerable increase in yield as the experiment
advanced, and during the last 7 years the yields have been ma-
terially higher than during the first 8 years.
5. The percentage increase in yield of cotton due to rotation is
considerably higher than the percentage of increase in corn yields
due to rotation.
6. It appears that proper management and fertilization will main-
tain and possibly increase yields, even though the land is cropped
each year.
Winter Cover Crops Rotating with Corn or Cattail Millet.-In 1942 a
series of plots were established to be used in the study of winter cover
crops followed by a summer crop. These consist of replicated plots of
lupines, sweet clover and oats. Plots growing no planted winter cover
except the natural vegetation serve as checks.
In the autumn of 1942, blue lupines, white annual sweet clover and oats
were seeded on the respective plots. The white annual sweet clover re-
seeded in the spring of 1943 and a good volunteer stand was obtained
in 1943-1944. Lupines and oats were seeded again in 1943.
Average green weight yields of the cover crops turned under in the
spring of 1944 were: Blue lupines-21,635 pounds per acre, sweet clover-
11,180 pounds per acre, and oats-3,449 pounds per acre.
In the spring of 1944 Cattail millet was seeded on the plots and cut
twice during the summer. Average yields of all replications were as
follows:








Annual Report, 1945 39

On check plots (no winter cover) ....... 8,812 pounds per acre
On lupine plots ................................---21,666 pounds per acre
On sweet clover plots ............................17,291 pounds per acre
On oats plots -................ ............. --... 11,688 pounds per acre
Lupines Rotating with Corn or with Cattail Millet.-In the autumn of
1943 monthly plantings of blue lupines and yellow lupines were made from
September 15 to December 15. Observations were made during the season,
yields were taken and all plots were followed with corn.
September plantings produced poor stands of both species, due to heavy
disease and insect damage. October plantings produced a heavy growth.
Loss from disease and insects was slight. November and December plant-
ings made much less growth but produced good stands.
Yields of lupines were taken March 14 and 15 and the crop was turned
under immediately. Only lupines planted in September and October made
sufficient growth to maintain the yield of corn.

TABLE 1.-MEAN YIELDS OF EAR CORN AND SEED COTTON FOR A 15-YEAR
PERIOD IN A CORN AND COTTON 2-YEAR ROTATION EXPERIMENT FROM
PLOTS CROPPED CONTINUOUSLY WITH COTTON COMPARED WITH PLOTS
ROTATED WITH CORN AND COTTON WITH AND WITHOUT WINTER AND
SUMMER COVER CROPS, 1930-1944 INCLUSIVE.


Mean-15-yr. Period Increase
Over
(Pounds) (Bushels) Check
(Percent)


Averages (Pounds)
First 8 Last 7
Years Years
1930-1937 1938-1944


Corn and Cotton Natural Vegetation


Rotation-Corn
*Continuous-Corn
Rotation-Cotton
*Continuous-Cotton


1,241
1,073
356
258


17.7 15.66 1,100 1,402
15.3 943 1,222
37.98 327 398
230 291


Corn and Cotton Winter Legume


Rotation-Corn
*Continuous-Corn
Rotation-Cotton
*Continuous-Cotton


1,145
1,034
376
241


15.4 10.60 1,089 1,208
14.8 954 1,137
56.00 325 434
242 241


Corn and Cotton Summer Legume


Rotation-Corn
*Continuous-Corn
Rotation-Cotton
*Continuous-Cotton


1,280
1,094
499
369


18.3
15.6


16.73

35.23


1,004
860
410
293


1,596
1,238
602
455


Corn and Cotton Winter and Summer Legume

Rotation-Corn 1,180 16.9 | 7.57 981 1,407
*Continuous-Corn | 1,097 15.7 980 1,232
Rotation-Cotton 455 35.41 360 564
*Continuous-Cotton 336 | i 275 407
Plots growing corn and others growing cotton each year were used as checks against
rotated plots.


Crop


I








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Corn and Runner Peanuts Rotating with Crotalaria and with Native
Cover Crops.-This rotation experiment has now been run 12 years with-
out the addition of major or minor elements to the soil. Five cropping
systems have been under study, namely: (1) corn and peanuts every year,
(2) corn and peanuts every year with crotalaria or indigo seeded in the
corn and peanuts at the last cultivation, (3) corn and peanuts alternating
with crotalaria, (4) corn and peanuts alternating with native cover and (5)
corn and peanuts every third year with native cover the 2 intervening years.
Corn yields were best following 1 year of crotalaria, while peanuts
yielded best following 1 year of native cover. The entire area is being
cropped out uniformly to corn and peanuts to study residual effect of the
several rotations.

VARIETY TEST WORK WITH FIELD CROPS
Hatch Project 56 W. E. Stokes, Geo. E. Ritchey,
Henry C. Harris and Fred Clark
During 1944 2 strains of Cattail millet, an improved leafy 1 and a com-
mercial 1, and 3 strains of Sudan grass-Tift Sudan, Sweet No. S. A. 354
and a commercial strain-were planted in replicated plots and yields taken
when the plants reached a height of about 30 inches.
Cattail Millet.-The improved leafy strain yielded approximately 5
percent higher than the commercial strain. The improved leafy strain
yielded less in June and July but gave considerably higher yields in late
summer and early autumn, thus furnishing a longer grazing season than
the commercial strain.
Sudan Grass.-The commercial strain of Sudan yielded slightly higher
than the Tift or Sweet varieties. Late in the season the commercial strain
produced heads and seed at an early stage of growth after cutting. This
helps to account for the apparent higher yield. The plants were coarser
and doubtless lower in feed value than the Tift or Sweet strains which
were more succulent.
The commercial strain of Sudan was attacked by leaf disease early in
its growth, while Tift Sudan remained free from the disease.
Peanuts.-See reports, State Project 20.
Flue-cured Tobacco.-See report, Hatch Project 378.
Oats.-See report, Hatch Project 363. At the Watermelon and Grape
Investigations Laboratory oat varieties in 1944 yielded the following
bushels of grain per acre: Florida 167 38.7 bushels and Coker's Fulgrain
23.4 bushels.
Upland Cotton.-See miscellaneous report, Upland Cotton.
Sea Island Cotton.-See miscellaneous report, Sea Island Cotton.
Sugarcane.-Florida 31-762, C. P. H. 29-116 and Co. 290 were in the
test and gave syrup yields in the order named; while in the forage yields
C. P. H. 29-116 outyielded Florida 31-762.
Cowpeas.-During 1944 several varieties of field peas were tested,
namely Giant Ramhorn Wilt Resistant, Brown Sugar Crowder, Texas
Purple Hull, Ladyfinger, Cream Sugar Crowder, Conch or Acre pea, Im-
ported Conch, Black Cowpea from Madison County, and the Chinese Red
Cowpea. All varieties yielded well except the Ladyfinger, which did not
bloom but grew profusely.

3 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I. S. & A. E., USDA.








Annual Report, 1945


CORN FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS

State Project 163 J. D. Warner, W. E. Stokes, R. W. Lipscomb,
R. W. Wallace and R. L. Smith
The experiment underway this season involves a study of the residual
effect of fertilizer, including minor elements, on corn. No yield data are
yet available. (See also Cooperative Fertilizer Experiments with F.eld
Crops and Pastures, NORTH FLORIDA STATION.)

EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS ON YIELD, GRAZING VALUE, CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION AND BOTANICAL MAKEUP OF PASTURES
Bankhead-Jones Project 295 R. E. Blaser, W. E. Stokes, G. B. Killinger,
Henry C. Harris and Roger W. Bledsoe
Sources of Nitrogen.-Field work has been completed and laboratory
analyses of some vegetative samples are being made, after which the results
will be summarized for publication.
Grass Fertilizer and Soil Type Interaction.-Two tests with 8 grasses
and 12 fertilizers are being continued to study maintenance of grasses and
residual effects of fertilizers. The grasses differ greatly in adaptation to
fertility level and soil moisture. It is also evident that some of the grasses
are not sufficiently aggressive for maintenance of good stands. Practical
applications of this project have been published in Bulletin 409, Pastures
for Florida.
Grass Growth as Affected by Minor Elements.-The 2 minor element
tests with 4 grasses were continued to measure residual effects of minor
elements on growth and composition. The grasses treated with minor
elements without other nutrients have failed to sod. Certain minor element
treatments encouraged rapid sodding but have not given significant yield
increases after establishment.
Variety Tests with Bermuda Grasses.-Both tests reported last year
have been completed. Coastal and No. 99 Bermuda grasses are superior
to other strains in cold tolerance, retarding plant invaders, resistance to
disease, leafiness and productivity. In 1943 common Bermuda produced
900 pounds dry matter per acre as compared to 4,196 pounds for Bermuda
No. 99.
Hay Studies.-Preliminary data indicate that improved Bermuda and
Pangola grasses have the following desirable characteristics for making
hay: (1) upright growth habit, (2) fine stems-which aids quick drying,
(3) low water content when mowed for hay, and (4) good palatability.
The yields depend upon rate of nitrogen fertilization or growth of legumin-
ous associates.
Bermuda-Oats Rotation.-Bermuda grass was plowed under in the fall
and seeded to oats for winter grazing. It made very satisfactory growth
after oats in spite of the dry season.
Preliminary Oats Grazing Tests.-Tests indicate that oats properly
fertilized and managed are an excellent winter feed. Young steers aver-
aged 1 pound of gain per day without supplementary feed.
Grazing Tests.-Grazing tests to measure the value of fertilized and
unfertilized carpet grass, of carpet grass and legumes, and of grass
varieties have been continued. Fertilization has greatly increased the
productivity of grass and growth rate of steers. Grass-legume vegetation








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


produces a more satisfactory quality of feed than grass alone. The pro-
ductivity of different grasses and growth rate of animals differed appre-
ciably. (See also Reports, ANIMAL INDUSTRY.)

FORAGE NURSERY AND PLANT ADAPTATION STUDIES '
Bankhead-Jones Project 297 Geo. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
A large number of legumes and grasses have been under test in the
forage nursery and plots. A new legume, Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr.,
which is adapted to low lands, is showing promise as a new grazing crop.
Other legumes, including new strains of Paspalum, Andropogon and Penni-
setum, are being studied.
Adaptation of sweet lupines to grazing is being studied. During last
season cattle and hogs were pastured on a small field of the sweet blue
lupine. Cattle grazed the plants after all other vegetation had been con-
sumed but came off the field after 1 month's grazing in good condition.
Hogs ate only the seed after they had shattered to the ground and thrived
on them.

FORAGE AND PASTURE GRASS IMPROVEMENT 5
Bankhead-Jones Project 298 Geo. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
Plant improvement studies under this project were confined largely to
investigations of lupine. One strain of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.)
which volunteers the following autumn has been isolated and seed is being
increased.
A selection of the sweet yellow lupine made by Roland McKee of the
Division in Beltsville has been developed and appears to be an early
high-yielding type. Other selections including those for disease resistance
and flower color also have been under test.

EFFECT OF BURNING AT DIFFERENT PERIODS ON SURVIVAL AND
GROWTH OF VARIOUS NATIVE RANGE PLANTS AND ITS
EFFECT ON ESTABLISHMENT OF IMPROVED
GRASSES AND LEGUMES
Bankhead-Jones Project 299 G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes
Approximately 12 acres of cutover pine land supporting a sparse stand
of pine trees has been fenced, cleared of dead limbs and trees and prepared
for this experiment. Native vegetation other than trees is chiefly wire-
grass, ranging from a medium to heavy growth, with areas of runner oak
and hog palmetto interspersed. The soil is chiefly a Leon fine sand, pH
about 5.05, with a hardpan at from 8 to 24 inches below the surface.
On February 10 the native vegetation was burned off on 24 plots and
these were treated with 12 different fertilizer mixtures, including lime-
stone and minor elements. A like number of unburned plots were treated
with the same fertilizers and the entire area was seeded to a mixture of
grasses and lespedeza. The wiregrass was sampled for analysis on the
following March 7 and April 25. Due to extremely dry weather, little or
no grass seed germinated during this period.
Analysis of the wiregrass samples taken on March 7 indicated a large
increase in protein content in the grass burned and with no fertilizer, and
burned and treated with 600 pounds of a 4-8-4 fertilizer plus minor elements
over the unburned, unfertilized wiregrass. These protein percentages were
as follows: 13.08, 17.88, and 2.75, respectively. Phosphorus percentages
In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I. S. & A. E., USDA.
c In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I. S. & A. E., USDA.







Annual Report, 1945


for the same 3 treatments were: 0.234, 0.276 and 0.048. The potassium
content of the wiregrass was increased directly according to the amount
of potassium in the fertilizer-that is, the larger the amount of potassium
applied to the soil the higher the percentage in the grass. Calcium in the
grass was increased by all treatments while the magnesium content was
highest in the grass from the no-treatment plots.
Wiregrass sampled from the same plots on April 25, 74 days after
burning, analyzed much lower in protein and minerals. Another set of
plots will be burned in July and treated identically.
PASTURE LEGUMES
Bankhead-Jones Project 301 W. E. Stokes, Geo. E. Ritchey,"
R. E. Blaser, G. B. Killinger, Roger
W. Bledsoe and Henry C. Harris
Sources of Lime and Phosphorus.-Plots of 6 tests were retreated to
measure the residual effects of fertilizer materials. Annual fertilization
has increased clover production greatly, and annual applications of P2O
and K20 produced better yields than K20 alone. Fall fertilization produced
earlier and higher clover yields than spring applications of fertilizers.
Rock and colloidal phosphates with potash have produced unsatisfactory
clover yields. The addition of lime improved growth, but the clover was
yellowish and inferior in growth to clover treated with lime, PO5 and K20.
The phosphorus content of plants treated with phosphorus from different
sources did not differ greatly. Gypsum was added to rock and colloidal
phosphate plots to study the nutritional value of sulfur and calcium. Ap-
plication of 50 to 100 pounds of 20 percent superphosphate with rock phos-
phate treatments has improved growth and color of vegetation. Clovers
and lespedeza on Immokalee fine sand near Zephyrhills, Florida, have not
prove successful.
Minor Element Tests.-Five minor element tests were continued and
2 additional ones were started. The responses in yield differed with soil
types and plant species. White Dutch clover and lespedeza failed to yield.
Black Medic clover exhibited boron deficiency symptoms on several soils.
Seed Source Tests.-Seed source tests with Annual Sweet and Black
Medic clovers were continued. Clovers from different sources differed
greatly in morphological characteristics, productivity and date of seeding.
Florida-grown seeds were generally greatly superior to those from other
sources. Alabama-grown seed was the only out-of-state commercial strain
of Black Medic adapted to Florida.
Selective Breeding.-Space plantings of superior plant selections and
untested seed lots of Black Medic and Annual Sweet clovers were made to
obtain vigorous plants for developing superior varieties. An experiment
to test the efficiency of selective breeding with Black Medic clover was
established. Practical applications of this project have been published in
Bulletin 409, Pastures for Florida. (See also Project 301, NORTH FLOR-
IDA STATION.)
A STUDY OF NAPIER GRASS FOR PASTURE PURPOSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 302 R. E. Blaser, W. E. Stokes, R. B. Becker,
P. T. D. Arnold and R. S. Glasscock
Napier Grass for Dairy Cows.-See ANIMAL INDUSTRY, Proj. 302.
Napier Grass Management and Fertilizer Tests.-The Napier grass
management-variety test has been discontinued. Napier strain No. 4 was
6 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I. S. & A. E., USDA.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


greatly superior in yield when compared with strains No. 160 and No. 167
during each year of a 3-year period, irrespective of management treat-
ment. Highest total yields were obtained when the grass was cut twice
annually, but highest leaf yield and best quality of feed was obtained when
the grass was stripped to resemble grazing.
Nitrogen Tests.-Nitrogen tests with rates, date of application and
sources of materials were continued. Nitrogen from 4 sources increased
yields greatly when compared with no nitrogen plots. Yield differences
of grass treated with nitrogen from different sources did not differ sig-
nificantly during 1941-1944, except in 1942 when sulfate of ammonia pro-
duced significantly higher yields than nitrate of soda and calcium cyanamid.

METHODS OF ESTABLISHING PERMANENT PASTURES
UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 304 R. E. Blaser, Henry C. Harris
and Roger W. Bledsoe
Success in establishing pastures is associated with an interrelation of
plant varieties, fertility level, soil moisture, inoculation, cultural and other
factors as discussed in Bulletin 409, Pastures for Florida. Methods of
making vegetative plantings of Pangola and Bermuda grasses have been
improved and new tests are being continued.
Seed scarification increased germination with common and Paraguay
Bahia, but only slightly with Pensacola Bahia grass. The earliness of
germination was greatly increased by sulfuric acid scarification of seed.

OAT IMPROVEMENT
Hatch Project 363 W. E. Stokes, Henry C. Harris and Roger W. Bledsoe
Variety tests with oats and other small grains were almost a complete
failure this year because of the unusually dry spring. However, a few
selections and hybrids seemed to do reasonably well under the adverse
conditions and for that reason may be of value. They will be tested
further.
Approximately 6,000 bushels of Florida 167 seed oats were produced
in Florida this season, largely from seed distributed by the Experiment
Station through the Agricultural Extension Service last fall.
EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON COMPOSITION
OF FORAGE PLANTS
Adams Project 369 G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes
Protein and mineral analyses were made on a number of plant samples
from various sections of Florida. Various oat, wheat and barley samples
from a test at Quincy, hand plucked when 4 to 8 inches tall to simulate
grazing, analyzed high in protein, phosphorus and potassium. Average
analyses of 3 oat, 2 wheat and 2 barley varieties, hand plucked at 10-day
intervals, for 3 periods and the samples combined, are listed below:

Percentage Composition, Oven-Dry, Sand-Free
Crop Phos- Mag-
SProtein phorus Potassium Calcium nesium

Oats 35.19 0.367 3.143 0.409 0.600
Wheat ......... 29.64 0.375 3.036 0.342 0.328
Barley ............. 34.30 0.392 2.838 0.339 0.442
I I








Annual Report, 1945


The oat variety analyses given were from 3 new North Florida va-
rieties-Quincy Red, Quincy White and Florilee.
Two varieties of corn developed at the Main Station analyzed (on a
shelled corn basis) as follows:


Variety Percentage Composition, Oven-Dry, Sand-Free
of Corn Phos- Mag-
Protein phorus Potassium Calcium nesium

Florida W-1 10.14 0.241 0.311 0.018 0.051
Florident
Yellow ........ 11.14 0.264 0.287 0.018 0.093
I_________ I I
Blue lupines grown as a cover crop following dug peanuts analyzed as
follows:

Percentage Composition, Oven-Dry, Sand-Free
Plant Part Phos- Mag-
Nitrogen phorus Potassium Calcium nesium

Tops ..............- 2.855 0.298 1.043 1.415 0.220
Roots ............. 2.520 0.295 1.277 0.262 0.146

These lupines were sampled in the late bloom, medium pod stage and
yielded 27,678 pounds per acre green weight of tops and 4,628 pounds per
acre green weight of roots. The tops averaged 17.6 percent and the roots
27.6 percent dry matter.
Over 500 samples of grasses and legumes from the Main Station and
Range Cattle Station experimental pastures and plots were analyzed for
protein and minerals.
Carpet grass samples taken in 1944 from the Range Cattle Station
from duplicate fields, 1 set receiving no treatment and the other receiving
1,800 pounds per acre of rock phosphate in 1942, analyzed as follows:

Grass and Percentage Composition, Oven-Dry, Sand-Free
Treatment Phos- I Mag-
Protein phorus Potassium Calcium nesium

Carpet grass
(no treatment) 5.58 0.116 0.435 0.158 0.125
Carpet grass
(rock
phosphate) ... 6.95 0.270 0.552 0.281 0.157

The chemical composition of other grass and legume samples varied
somewhat according to the soil type and fertilizer treatment.
Peanuts grown at 3 different fertility levels were sampled at 4 growth
stages and analyzed. Sulfur dust applied to the peanut vines for controlling
leaf spot increased the yield of nuts and in all cases increased the ether
extractable oil content.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IMPROVEMENT
Adams Project 372 Fred H. Hull, Fred Clark and W. E. Stokes
The main emphasis is being given to breeding for a combination of
flue-cured type and resistance to root-knot nematode. Tests for root-knot
resistance have been made in the field and in the greenhouse in soil arti-
ficially inoculated with the root-knot organism. In such tests Nicotiana
repanda Willd. is the only species which has shown satisfactory resistance.
About 300 flowers of common flue-cured tobacco were emasculated and
then pollinated with pollen from N. repanda in 1944. Most of the blossoms
were also pollinated sparingly with pollen from the same variety a few
hours later to insure sufficient pollination to prevent early dropping of the
seed capsule. About 200 seed capsules were harvested and many of them
contained considerable seed of fair appearance. Most of this seed was
planted in field beds or in the greenhouse. Many plants were later set
in the field but it has not yet been possible to establish definitely that any
are crosses of the 2 species.
Seed of hybrids, N. repanda crossed with cigar-wrapper variety Rg.,
were obtained from Dr. R. R. Kincaid of the North Florida Station and
plants grown from these in inoculated soil have shown fair resistance to
root-knot. Crosses of these plants with 6 flue-cured varieties were made
in 1945.
The collection of tobacco varieties and related wild species being grown
numbers 60 or more. These are being checked for resistance to root-knot
and resistance to other pests and many of them are being given flue-curing
tests.
CORN IMPROVEMENT
Purnell Project 374 Fred H. Hull and W. A. Carver
Yield tests of many experimental and commercial hybrids and a few
standard varieties of field corn were planted at both Gainesville and
Quincy. The early March planting at Gainesville was seriously damaged
by a freeze on April 6, 1944. Records on yield and quality were taken on
most of the plots.
It is indicated by these and earlier tests that further improvement of
corn to be obtained by crossing the best inbred lines and extracting new
lines from them is apt to be slight. This result would be expected if yield
or corn behaves as an inheritance factor like the blue color of Andalusian
chickens or the roan color of Shorthorn cattle. It is well known that those
2 characters cannot be fixed in true breeding strains. Theoretical studies
with corn yield as mentioned in last year's report indicate that it too is a
character which cannot be fixed. A modified breeding plan which has
been designed to circumvent the difficulty has been started with both field
corn and sweet corn.
A large late selection of corn developed at Gainesville during the past
several years was crossed with 2 of the later inbred lines to produce a new
hybrid which may have considerable value for silage and possibly for grain.
This hybrid has produced 50 percent or more gain in total dry weight
over Florida W-1 and standard grain varieties and grain yields equal to
Florida W-1 in preliminary tests.
Florida W-1 was planted on about 15 percent of the corn acreage of
Florida in both 1944 and 1945. This hybrid has some faults but many
very good reports have come in about its performance with commercial
growers. Approximately 600 acres for production of Florida W-1 seed
are being grown in Florida from foundation seed stocks produced by this
Station.







Annual Report, 1945


Yield and quality trials with a number of new sweet corn hybrids have
shown that a few of the later Northern hybrids, such as loana and Illinois
Golden Hybrid No. 10, might be more satisfactory than Golden Cross
Bantam because of slightly larger size and better yields. These other
hybrids are not quite equal to Golden Cross Bantam in table quality. The
new hybrid Southern Cross Bantam developed at Gainesville has shown
good production and quality on the Main Station farm. It may be a little
too late for most satisfactory use. An earlier type of essentially the same
breeding and characteristics will be ready in 2 more seasons.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO FERTILIZER AND VARIETIES
Hatch Project 378 W. E. Stokes, Fred Clark and Roger W. Bledsoe
Experimental work was continued on a Norfolk sandy soil along the
following lines: (1) trials of 7 selected varieties using 2 fertilizer rates
and 2 fertilizer grades, (2) rates of fertilizer with a constant and variable
number of plants per acre, (3) sources and combinations of sources of
nitrogen, (4) 39 different grades or analyses of fertilizer, (5) comparison
of acid, basic and neutral fertilizer of the same grade, (6) withholding
part of the nitrogen for sidedressing 20 days after setting, (7) culture
studies with tobacco-wide row, wide and narrow row versus regular
4-foot row cultivation, (8) comparing, in cooperation with Plant Pathology,
the use of paradichlorobenzene and fermate for control of blue mold in
tobacco plant beds, (9) chemical treatment of the soil for control of weeds
in tobacco plant beds. (See MISCELLANEOUS EXPERIMENT-AGRON-
OMY.)
Mammoth Gold, Bonanza and Yellow Mammoth were high-yielding
varieties in the order named when a 4-8-11 fertilizer with 9 percent sulfur
(SO:i) was used at 1,000 pounds per acre.
Variety 401 was outstanding, followed by Mammoth Gold and Bonanza,
when a 3-8-11 fertilizer containing 11 percent sulfur (SO3) was used at
the rate of 1,000 pounds per acre.
Results from the higher rates of fertilizer with the different varieties
of tobacco are fairly consistent in quality and poundage, except in several
plots affected by root-knot.
In the rates of fertilizer test, using a 4-8-11 mixture with 3 percent
MgO, with rates varying from 1,000 to 1,600 pounds and plant spacing
varying from 5,026 to 5,926 plants per acre, the 1,600-pound per acre rate
with 5,926 plants, or 22-inch spacing, produced highest yield with best
quality.
In the sources of nitrogen test, data were not obtained because of ir-
regular stand.
In the grade or analysis test, several grades gave about equally good
results; a 4.5-8-16 mixture produced about the same quantity and equal
quality as 30 pounds nitrogen with 60 pounds of KO and 80, 117 and 192
pounds of phosphorus per acre. Each grade carried 8 percent CaO, 2
percent MgO, 9 percent SO:, 2 percent Cl and 0.005 percent boron and was
used at the rate of 1,000 pounds per acre.
Four percent chlorine in a 3-8-6 tobacco fertilizer used at 1,000 pounds
per acre produced highest yield in the chlorine test, with quality about
equal to any treatment this year.
The basic mix fertilizer was superior to either the acid or the neutral
mix fertilizer.
The application of all the nitrogen at planting gave better results
than where 13 of the nitrogen in a 3-8-6 fertilizer was withheld and ap-
plied as a sidedressing 3 weeks after planting.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Cultural investigations with wide rows, wide and narrow rows, and
regular row width, were conducted with results as given in Table 2.

TABLE 2.-AVERAGE ACRE YIELD, SELLING PRICE PER 100 POUNDS, AND
GROss VALUE OF TOBACCO PRODUCED BY WIDE, WIDE AND NARROW, AND
REGULAR ROW CULTIVATION WHEN 1,000 POUNDS OF A 3-8-6 FERTILIZER*
Is USED ON A NORFOLK FINE SANDY SOIL. GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA, 1944.

Average Yield Average Selling I Average Gross
Treatment Tobacco per Price per 100 I Value per
Acre (Pounds) Pounds Acre (Dollars)

Regular Row (4 ft.). .. 916 37.04 339

Wide and Narrow
(Row 6 and 2 ft.) ... .... 793 39.78 315

Wide Row (8 ft.) with
a peanut row in
middle ................... 366 38.79 142

The standard 3-8-6 fertilizer when applied at the 1,000-pound rate per acre supplied
the following pounds per acre: N 30; P20s 80; K2O 60; CaO 80; MgO 20; SOs 89; Cl 20;
boron 0.5.

Paradichlorobenzene and fermate were used to control blue mold in
tobacco plant beds. The paradichlorobenzene was used as generally recom-
mended and the fermate was used as a 25 percent dust mixed with Fullers
earth (XXX). Fermate dust was found to be quite effective in preventing
blue mold when directions were followed. Fermate, when used in several
beds after blue mold appeared, seemed to materially check the disease
without plant injury. This application was well above normal recommenda-
tions. Weed control studies are reported under MISCELLANEOUS EX-
PERIMENTS-AGRONOMY.
Starter Solutions and Liquid Fertilizers.-Fertilizer in water gave very
satisfactory yields and quality of flue-cured tobacco during 1944 on Norfolk
sandy loam soil at the Main Station. The maximum response from starter
solutions was obtained with 3 pounds of a 13-26-13 fertilizer mixture
dissolved in 50 gallons of water when applied at 12 pint per transplant.
A 6-12-16.5 fertilizer mixture in water was applied at rates equivalent
to 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,200 pounds per acre of the regular 4-8-11 fertil-
izer mixture. When equivalent amounts of fertilizers were used the yields
and quality of tobacco sidedressed with 1 to 3 applications of liquid
fertilizer were superior to 1 application of the 4-8-11 dry fertilizer applied
by the drill method.
Comparison of liquid and dry fertilizers was continued in 1945 but due
to the drought results appear to be rather erratic.

METHODS OF PRODUCING, HARVESTING AND MAINTAINING
PASTURE PLANTS AND SEED STOCKS
Bankhead-Jones Porject 417 R. E. Blaser, W. E. Stokes
and Henry C. Harris
Acre areas of Pangola, Coastal Bermuda and No. 99 Bermuda were
maintained for distribution of vegetative seed stocks to farmers, to County
Agricultural Agents and to the Soil Conservation Service, for establishing
nurseries for future increase plantings.







Annual Report, 1945


Five acres of improved Black Medic clover and Pensacola Bahia grass
were planted for seed production. A portion of this area was used to
study lime and fertilizer rates, minor elements and cultural treatments on
seed production. Yields of clover and grass have been taken.
Five acres of the Gainesville strain of Hubam and 4 acres of improved
Black Medic for seed production were planted near Gainesville.

MISCELLANEOUS' EXPERIMENTS
Chufa.-Previous work with chufas has indicated the need for a moder-
ate amount of complete fertilizer on the sandy soils of Central Florida, as
well as close spacing in a 3-foot row if best results are to be had.
This past season more spacing work was done, involving 6-inch to 8-inch
spacing and 12-inch to 16-inch spacing in both 3-foot and 2-foot rows, all
spacings being adequately fertilized. Results indicated best yield from
the close spacing in 3-foot rows and the reverse in 2-foot rows. (G. B.
Killinger)
Sugarcane.-Preliminary fertilizer experiments with this crop were
continued. There is more response to nitrogen than to any other major
element. (H. C. Harris and R. W. Bledsoe)
Permanent Seedbeds for Tobacco Plants.-Investigations were conducted
during 1944-45 using 3 beds bordered by concrete walls. Each bed was
subdivided into 18 plots separated by wood partitions. Treatments indicated
in Table 3 were made on November 21, and %1 of the plots were covered
with building paper in contact with the soil in an attempt to increase
the effect of the treatment. The covers were removed on January 2 and
all plots were seeded January 15. Weed counts were made on March 1.
TABLE 3.-EFFECT OF URAMON TREATMENTS ON WEED COUNT AND SOIL PH
IN TOBACCO SEEDBEDS.

Treatment
per Square Soil pH Weeds* Tobacco*
Yard 12/15/44 1/2/45|l/2352//4512/9/4 10/45 Sq. Yd. Sq. Yd.

14 lb. uramon
open ........... 8.78 8.14 6.64 5.97 5.71 100 100
14 lb. uramon |
covered ..... 8.87 8.13 6.93 6.07 5.53 58 89

1/ lb. uramon I
cpen ............ 8.93 8.65 7.03 6.49 5.73 38 110
12 lb. uramon
covered ..... 9.04 8.92 7.52 7.05 5.97 19 112

1 lb. uramon
open ........... 9.08 8.98 7.51 7.22 6.30 19 133
1 lb. uramon I
covered ...... 9.15 I 9.18 8.42 8.12 6.79 4 118

Not actual, but relative values using 100 (11/ pounds uramon open) as the base for
comparison.
Frcm Table 3 it is obvious that weed control increased with increase in
poundage of uramon applied. It is also apparent that covering of beds
increased the efficiency of any given treatment. The stand of tobacco
plants was satisfactory for all treatments. Soil pH is evidently a valuable
criterion of the relative efficiency of the treatments used. Indications are
that the use of uramon as a source of ammonia for seedbed treatment for







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


weed control will be of practical value on sandy soils. (Fred Clark and
G. M. Volk)
Sulfur Dusting of Peanuts.-Extensive field work was conducted at
Gainesville during the year to investigate further the role of sulfur dust
on peanuts. Sulfur dust this year had little influence on leafspot control
or peanut yields in 6 of 8 experiments, as contrasted with results of past
several years. However, sulfur dust increased the yields of peanuts 25
to 40 percent in a fertilizer and dusting experiment where peanuts were
grown following a crop of chufas and 13 percent where peanuts followed
peanuts.
Results from sulfur dust on peanuts in Florida indicate that, in addi-
tion to aiding in disease control, sulfur may function in 1 or more of the
following ways: (1) acts as a repellent to the army worm moth or to the
worm itself, (2) reduces the disease of the pegs of peanuts, (3) indirectly
influences the availability of other elements in the soil, or (4) acts as a
nutrient, inasmuch as oats, cotton and clover have responded to sulfur
fertilization in the Gainesville area.
Peanut Fertilizer Trials.-Six fertilizer tests with peanuts, which in-
cluded grades and rates, supplements of calcium, magnesium and sulfur,
and placement trials gave no significant differences in yields in 1944. This
year, in addition to fertilizer tests, a comprehensive study, in cooperation
with the departments of Entomology and Plant Pathology, is being con-
ducted to determine the value of different sources of dusting materials
for insect and disease control of peanuts.
Peanuts were planted in the experimental plots of the Sea Island cotton
fertilizer tests of 1944 and the tobacco fertilizer trials of 1942-43 and 1944
to determine the residual influence of various grades and rates of fertil-
izers on peanut yields. Greenhouse studies are being conducted to determine
the ratio of element absorption by the roots and pegs of the peanut.
Concealed Damage of Peanuts.-Stacking experiments were performed
with the new Dixie Runner peanut to determine if time of stacking after
pulling and size of stack and height of stack from the ground influenced
the amount of concealed damage of nuts. Irrespective of the time or
method of stacking or the amount of moldy hay present, the samples
were excellent in grade and not over 1 percent showed concealed damage.
Florida Runner peanuts stacked in somewhat the same manners as
above showed concealed damage of nuts of from 1 to 8 percent. Results
indicate concealed damage might be a varietal response. (See PEANUT
IMPROVEMENT, Project 20.)
Peanuts Following Blue Lupine.-Experiments are in progress to de-
termine if peanuts will produce satisfactorily year after year following
the growing and turning under of blue lupines, if adequate mineral nu-
trients are supplied and the proper production of blue lupine vegetative
material is maintained. (R. W. Bledsoe, H. C. Harris, G. B. Killinger,
W. E. Stokes)
Cotten-Upland.-Harris, Bledsoe and Calhoun (Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron.,
37: 323-329. 1945) demonstrated that applications of sulfur are necessary
sometimes for the growth of cotton. This is the first published proof of
the necessity of applying sulfur to the soils in Florida. The results do
not necessarily mean that all the soils are deficient in sulfur, but indicate
that there are situations in the State where it is necessary for the proper
growth of crops.
Near Madison, Florida, extra potash greatly increased the yield and
boll size of cotton.







Annual Report, 1945


A nitrogen sidedressing experiment was conducted on Stoneville 2-B
cotton at Gainesville. The yields were in the following order: ammonium
sulfate, sodium nitrate, urea, ammonium nitrate. However, differences
in yields were not statistically significant.
Seventeen varieties were tested. The leading ones in yield per acre
were in the following order: Dixie Triumph Wonder Wilt-Resistant Strain
9, Stonewilt Strain 4, Stoneville 2-B, Cleveland Wilt-Resistant Strain 4,
and Coker 4-in-1 Strain 6. When the value per acre of the crop was
calculated, the following was the order of the leading varieties: Coker
100 42-28, Victory Wilt, Dixie Triumph Wonder Wilt-Resistant Strain 9,
Coker-Wilds Strain 16, D-130-7-11-10, and Coker 4-in-1 Strain 6. The
difference in rating is due largely to the difference in staple length.
Cotton-Sea Island.-The Sea Island cotton fertility experiments at
Leesburg and Gainesville were continued the same as last year. Thirty
pounds of copper sulfate per acre increased yields 22 percent at Gainesville,
while 5 pounds of borax per acre increased yields 14 percent at Leesburg.
One hundred pounds of nitrate of soda per acre as a sidedressing at chop-
ping increased yields 12 percent at Leesburg but did not increase yields
at Gainesville as this crop followed a good crop of cowpeas which were
turned under ahead of planting.
Sea Island cotton strain tests at Leesburg and McIntosh indicated that
the Seaberry strain, a selection from a cross between Seabrook and West-
berry Sea Island cotton, is outstanding and is being tested further this
season. (W. E. Stokes, M. N. Gist,' H. C. Harris, R. W. Bledsoe and Paul
Calhoun S)

7 Division of Cotton and Other Fiber Crops and Diseases, B. P. I. S. & A. E., USDA.
8 State Department of Agriculture.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ANIMAL INDUSTRY

Research in the Animal Industry Department was conducted in the
following divisions: (1) dairy husbandry, (2) animal nutrition, (3) animal
husbandry, beef cattle, sheep and swine, (4) veterinary science, (5) poultry
husbandry and (6) dairy manufactures.
Dairy Husbandry.-The dairy herd changed greatly during the year.
Twenty cows were eliminated that had been used in a project on mastitis,
in research with diethylstilbestrol, and in breeding investigations for which
their usefulness had been completed. Bone samples and reproductive
organs were obtained from slaughtered animals for further study. The
Guernsey bull Florida Laddie Krix 333963 was sold and 2 registered Guern-
sey females were purchased. The Jersey bull State College Victor 391841
was eliminated because of sterility. Magnolia Standard Signal 463218
was purchased as a Jersey junior herd sire.
Production testing of first calf heifers was continued in the study of
proving sires and establishing the transmitting ability of cows in the
herd. The Guernsey cow Klondike Kipsie 685977 completed an official
record of 6,227.9 pounds of milk and 312.3 pounds of butterfat, starting
at 2 years and 3 months of age. Two Jersey cows, Florida Victor Peggy
1291722 and Florida Victor Wonder Heart 1157361, qualified for the Regis-
ter of Merit with records of 8,329 pounds of milk, 381 pounds of butterfat
and 7,924 pounds of milk, 378 pounds of butterfat, respectively.
Nutrition Laboratory.-With the aid of General Education Board Funds
it was possible to equip the Nutrition Laboratory to conduct, in addition
to its regular work, projects utilizing radioactive materials which require
the use of the polarograph and the measurement of ultraviolet and visible
light absorption. With this additional apparatus the Nutrition Laboratory
can employ the best available physical and chemical methods; it is 1 of
the better equipped such laboratories in the South.
Cooperative work was conducted with the Range Cattle Station on
problems of cattle nutrition as it affects cattle on ranges in southern
Florida; with the Everglades Station in projects involving the problems
arising on muck lands, and with the North Florida Station in the analysis
of pasture grasses from that station.
The nutritional value of shark meal was investigated extensively.
Shark meal produced in Florida was shown to be a good protein feed.
The need for a protein supplement that could be produced in Florida was
the basis of investigations into the value of urea and ammoniated citrus
pulp when included in cattle rations.
Analyses were made of feedstuffs from many sections of the state and
of blood samples secured from animals consuming these feedstuffs, in con-
nection with studies of the nutritional requirements of livestock in Florida.
The use of DDT with different wetting agents and their influence upon
the effectiveness of this insecticide have been studied in connection with
experimental animals.
Beef Cattle.-Purebred herds of Aberdeen Angus and Polled Herefords
and a herd of grade Herefords were maintained for experimental and in-
structional purposes. The male offspring in the grade herd were castrated
and used in grazing and fattening experiments. Females in all herds were
kept for replacements. The purebred bull calves showing superior con-
formation were sold to cattlemen for use as herd sires. An Aberdeen
Angus and a Polled Hereford bull have been purchased to head Station
herds of these breeds.







Annual Report, 1945 53

Swine Herd.-The swine herd was maintained to furnish experimental
animals for projects on swine production and for instructional purposes.
Purebred Duroc-Jerseys and Poland Chinas comprised the swine herd.
Veterinary Laboratory.-During the year numerous specimens of dis-
eased animal tissues were received at the Veterinary Laboratory for diag-
nostic purposes. Field trips were made to farms and ranches in Florida
at the request of livestock owners to investigate causes of losses among
farm animals. Liver fluke disease, mastitis, plant poisoning, anaplasmosis,
blackleg, photosensitization in cattle and numerous diseases of swine and
poultry were diagnosed. Control measures to prevent losses from these
diseases were recommended.
Dairy Products Laboratory.-In this Laboratory special emphasis is
given to research in the manufacture of ice cream and to the processing
of market milk and other milk plant products. The Laboratory operates
on a semi-commercial scale which provides excellent facilities for both
teaching and research in the field of dairy products.
Short courses for workers in dairy plants and other courses for milk
sanitarians were held during the year to aid in the training of personnel
for both of these fields, and the staff assisted those in the industry to make
changes in ice cream formulas conforming to the restrictions affecting
ice cream ingredients.
Pcultry Laboratory and Farm.-The poultry flock is composed mainly
of Single Comb White Leghorns, Single Comb Rhode Island Reds and
Light Sussex. A small number of New Hampshires have been added
during the year. The flock is used for experimental purposes in breeding,
feeding and management studies of mature stock.
The laying houses were filled in the fall of 1944 with approximately
1,000 pullets and hens. During the spring of 1945 approximately 3,750
chicks were hatched. Some of these chicks were used in experimental
feeding trials and the remainder brooded and reared on the range to pro-
duce stock for the 1945-46 feeding and management trials.
Cooperative poultry experimental work was continued at the West
Central Station which is operated jointly by the U. S. Department of
Agriculture and the Florida Station.
At the Florida National Egg-Laying Test experimental feeding trials
were continued to study the effect of supplemental feeding on egg pro-
duction.

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CATTLE
Purnell Project 133 George K. Davis, C. L. Comar, S. P. Marshall,
Ruth Taylor, R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
D. A. Sanders, R. S. Glasscock, W. G. Kirk, R. K. Kidder
For the second year this project was supported in expanded form by
funds from the General Education Board. This support made possible
the purchase of special equipment for fundamental studies on the functions
of mineral elements in nutrition.
Through cooperation with the Physics Department of the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, radioactive elements have been used for study
with laboratory animals and with cattle. Particular attention has been
given to the role of cobalt and to the location of cobalt action within the
animal body.
Studies with phosphorus, iron and copper were continued with cooper-
ating range cattlemen and with dairies where nutritional difficulties have
developed.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The nutrition work conducted cooperatively with the Range Cattle Sta-
tion has been continued through the first calving period with experimental
animals and the first evidences of deficiencies have been noted. Native
wiregrass pasture is studied under different systems of management, the
quality of the forage being determined for each management practice.
In furthering the study of salt sick cattle, typically salt sick animals
from a deficient area were purchased, kept under observation at the Range
Cattle Station and finally brought to the Nutrition Laboratory for inten-
sive studies employing radioactive cobalt.
In cooperation with the Everglades Station a herd of grade Devon
cattle has been maintained to study the development of nutritional abnor-
malities in that area of the state. See also EVERGLADES STATION,
Proj. 133.)
Blood, tissue and feed samples have been analyzed in connection with
the nutrition work that is being conducted at various points in the state.
Tests on the palatability of phosphorus supplements are being continued,
using dairy and beef cattle. Sixteen samples of bone have been added to
the series being used in the study of bone composition.
Forty-nine soil samples collected earlier from "salt sick" and "healthy"
ranges in cooperation with the Soils Department have been analyzed
spectrographically for cobalt. (See also SOILS, Proj. 256.)
Work has been continued on the observation of reproductive organs of
cows removed from the dairy herd as part of the study of reproductive
performance of cattle.

RELATION OF CONFORMATION AND ANATOMY OF THE DAIRY
COW TO HER MILK AND BUTTERFAT PRODUCTION
State Project 140 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, R. S. Glasscock,
George K. Davis and Sidney P. Marshall
This project was inactive during the year.

ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project 213 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, George K. Davis,
C. L. Comar and Sidney P. Marshall
Three separate problems dealing with ensiling were conducted during
the year. An observation was made on the density of prolific-type corn in
an upright silo, using the Florident White variety.
A second trial of urea and sorghum was conducted in the laboratory
silos. Urea was added at the rate of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.0 plus 1.0 percent
of Jackbean solution (as a source of urease enzyme) in the 4 silos. Dairy
cattle preferred plain sorghum silage. No significant effect on the acidity
of the silage could be attributed to use of urea at these levels.
Records were made of temperature changes during the ensiling process
and as each portion of silage was removed. The affect of urea on tempera-
ture change was slight and inconclusive. Analyses were made of the
silage as placed in the silos and as removed in an effort to determine the
changes occurring in the amount of urea present. Indications were that
some of the urea remained unchanged, except when Jackbean meal-solution
was added.
Grapefruit pulp was ensiled in 4 forms in a trench silo under field con-
ditions near Lakeland, and under controlled conditions in 4 laboratory silos
at Gainesville. The forms used were (a) plain grapefruit pulp, (b) pulp
plus Natal grass hay, (c) pulp plus cut sugarcane, and (d) plain citrus
press cake. All of these products ensiled satisfactorily in both locations,







Annual Report, 1945


but the high moisture content of the plain grapefruit pulp rendered it
difficult to handle later.
Samples of these silages were taken as placed in the silos and as
removed, and analyses and pH determinations were made. The acidity of
the silages as removed ranged from pH 3.2 to 3.5.

COOPERATIVE FIELD STUDIES WITH BEEF AND DUAL-PURPOSE
CATTLE
State Project 216 A. L. Shealy, R. S. Glasscock and W. G. Kirk
This project was inactive during the year.

A STUDY OF NAPIER GRASS FOR PASTURE PURPOSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 302 P. T. Dix Arnold and R. B. Becker
Dairy Phase.-The feeding of 2 levels of concentrates to dairy cows
grazing Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) during the pas-
ture season was undertaken, based on previous records of milk production
and body weights. A total of 1,528 cow-days grazing was obtained through
a period of 201 days on the 8-acre area grazed rotationally. This project
is cooperative with the Agronomy Department. (See also, AGRONOMY,
Proj. 302.)

A STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEM-
PERATURE AND EGG WEIGHT (SIZE), BODY WEIGHT AND EGG
WEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT AND PRODUCTION, AGE AND EGG
WEIGHT OF SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORN PULLETS
State Project 307 0. K. Moore and N. R. Mehrhof
This project was inactive during the year.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY AND DEPRECIA-
TION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and A. H. Spurlock
Breeding efficiency and depreciation of dairy cattle are being investi-
gated in cooperation with the Department of Agricultural Economics in
selected dairy herds of Florida. The year's records were accumulated from
9 herds. One cooperator died and the herd was sold, while labor shortage
caused records to be discontinued temporarily in 2 herds.

INVESTIGATION WITH LABORATORY ANIMALS OF MINERAL
NUTRITION PROBLEMS
Purnell Project 346 G. K. Davis and C. L. Comar
In conjunction with currenTnutritional anemia studies, investigations
have been made on the effectiveness of different forms of iron in relieving
anemias developed through the use of low iron rations. Radioactive cobalt
was used in studies of cobalt metabolism in the rat, preliminary to work
with large animals. Rabbits also have been used in this investigation to
identify species differences which apparently exist in cobalt metabolism.

INFECTIOUS BOVINE MASTITIS
Purnell Project 353 D. A. Sanders
During the past year investigations were in progress to determine the
specific causes of infectious bovine mastitis in representative dairy herds
located in different sections of the State. Results of these studies to date







56 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

indicate that the disease as encountered in Florida is associated with several
types of microorganisms, the most common type of bacteria being gram-
positive streptococci and staphylococci. Since gram-postive microorganisms
are reported to be highly susceptible to the antiseptic action of penicillin,
investigations are now under way on the use of this agent in the treatment
and control of infectious mastitis.

BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PASTURE HERBAGES
Bankhead-Jones Project 356 G. K. Davis, S. P. Marshall and R. E. Blaser
Dutch breed rabbits continued to be used as the test ainmals for the
biological analysis of pasture herbages. Commercial rabbit feed and a
mixture of 50-50 of White Dutch clover and Carpet grass have been used
as the standards of comparison. Bermuda, Carpet, Bahia and Pangola
grasses are being studied at present. In addition to feeding studies, chem-
ical analyses, vitamin analyses and differential analyses of amino-acid
contents of the pasture forages were used to evaluate their nutritive value.
Results obtained indicate considerable differences in the nutritive value of
the several grasses. (In cooperation with AGRONOMY.)

PROCESSING, STORAGE AND UTILIZATION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
AND BY-PRODUCTS TO MEET WARTIME FOOD
NEEDS AND LIMITATIONS
Bankhead-Jones 360 T. R. Freeman and E. L. Fouts
In all previous studies, inversion of sucrose was accomplished by boiling
the sugar-water-acid solution for 30 minutes. During the past year experi-
ments were conducted to ascertain the possibility of using lower tem-
peratures than boiling. The temperatures employed were 190 F. and 175'
F. Tartaric and phosphoric acids were used in varying concentrations.
Sirups inverted at 1900 F. were held at this temperature for 30 minutes,
45 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. Sirups inverted at 1750 F. were
held at this temperature for 45 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes and 120
minutes. In all, 80 laboratory batches of sirup were prepared. These
were analyzed for pH and quantitatively for dextrose and levulose.
Results of this investigation show that by using a slightly lower pH
than previously has been employed a more satisfactory inversion can be
obtained at either 175 F. or 1900 F. than when the sirups are boiled. This
means that ice cream manufacturers who do not have steam kettles will
be able to make their invert sirup in coil vats or other similar heating
equipment. Data from this study indicate that phosphoric acid gives
entirely satisfactory results as a hydrolyzing agent. This acid is much
more easily obtained than tartaric or citric acids, which were recommended
previously.
Limitations on the use of milk solids in frozen dessert made it desirable
for manufacturers to produce more milk sherbets. Experiments were con-
ducted to determine the best formulas for such products.
Collection of data on this project is completed and the results are
being assembled for publication.

EFFECT OF CERTAIN FEEDS ON MILK FLAVOR
State Project 394 E. L. Fouts and P. T. Dix Arnold
Citrus press cake silage was fed to 6 Jersey cows to determine any
effect it might have on the flavor of milk. The 6 cows were in dry lot
10 hours without feed and then ate approximately 25 pounds each of the
silage about 2 hours before being milked. Individual samples were col-








Annual Report, 1945 57

elected in milk bottles, cooled immediately in ice water and held at 350 F.
for 15 hours. They were then pasteurized at 143o F. for 30 minutes, cooled
to 600 F. and scored for flavor by 2 experienced judges. The scores ranged
from 33 to 40, with an average of 36.6, 4 of the 6 samples showing a feedy
to very feedy flavor. The average score of the milk when no feed was
given was approximately 2 points higher than when citrus press cake silage
was fed. The flavor imparted was similar to but somewhat stronger than
is usually encountered when corn silage is fed in the same manner.

LIQUID SKIMMILK AND SHELLED CORN AS A LAYING RATION
State Project 406 N. R. Mehrhof, F. M. Dennis, O. K. Moore
and A. W. O'Steen
This project was inactive during the year.

CONDENSED BUTTERMILK IN LAYING RATIONS
State Project 407 N. R. Mehrhof, F. M. Dennis, O. K. Moore
and A. W. O'Steen
Duplicate lots of New Hampshire pullets were used in this trial to
determine the value of condensed buttermilk in a moist mash as a supple-
ment to the egg ration.
During 12 28-day periods in the first trial birds in the lots receiving
condensed buttermilk averaged 11.64 more eggs and ate 9.58 pounds more
feed than the lots receiving no milk supplement. Pounds of feed required
to produce a dozen eggs was slightly higher with the lots receiving con-
densed buttermilk-7.15 pounds as compared with 6.95 pounds.
In the second trial, data for the first 8 28-day periods indicate little
difference in total egg production between the 2 lots.

PEANUT MEAL IN POULTRY RATIONS
State Project 408 N. R. Mehrhof and 0. K. Moore
Peanut meal was substituted for meat scraps in laying mashes fed to
Single Comb White Leghorn pullets. The approximate percentages of
peanut meal in the mashes were 0, 7, 16, and 23 percent. Egg production
was highest in the lot receiving only meat scraps and lowest in the group
receiving 23 percent peanut meal.
This project is closed with this report, and the data are being sum-
marized for publication.

BEEF YIELD AND QUALITY FROM VARIOUS GRASSES, FROM
CLOVER AND GRASS MIXTURES, AND RESPONSE TO
FERTILIZED AND UNFERTILIZED PASTURES
State Project 412 R. S. Glasscock and W. G. Kirk
Grazing trials during 1944 included 2 pastures of mixed clovers and
carpet grass, 2 of fertilized carpet grass, 2 of unfertilized carpet grass
and 2 of Lespedeza and carpet grass. Two pastures each of Bermuda.
Pangola and Pensacola Bahia grasses also were grazed.
Steers were weighed at regular intervals. Blood samples were analyzed
from steers grazing carpet grass areas. Some of the steers received only
common salt as mineral supplement while others received complete mineral
mixtures.
From March 30 to November 1 the carpet grass pastures that received
no fertilizer produced 72 pounds of gain per acre with an average daily
gain of 0.41 pounds per steer. Steers on the fertilized carpet grass made
141 pounds gain per acre with an average daily gain of 0.62. The addition








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of mineral supplements did not give a significant difference. For the
same period steers on the carpet-Lespedeza areas yielded gains amount-
ing to 200 pounds per acre and the average daily gain was 0.99 pounds
per steer.
The carpet-clover combination was grazed from January 26 to October
27 with steer-gains per acre amounting to over 700 pounds. The average
daily gain per steer was 1.13 pounds.
Pangola, Coastal Bermuda and Pensacola Bahia areas were grazed
from March 30 to November 1. The Pangola pasture produced 273 pounds
gain per acre, the Bermuda 257 pounds and the Pensacola Bahia 268 pounds.
There was very little difference in average daily gains. (See also, RANGE
CATTLE STATION Proj. 323.)
PERIODIC INCREASE IN LIGHTING VERSUS CONTINUOUS
LIGHTING FOR LAYERS
State Project 414 0. K. Moore and N. R. Mehrhof
Two lots of Light Sussex pullets were used in the trials with artificial
lighting, covering a period of 3 years.
The pullets in Lot I, in addition to normal day, received a changing
schedule of artificial light at night. This change was a 2-hour increase
each 14 days. The experimental period was divided into 14-day intervals.
The first interval provided no additional light. The second period provided
artificial light from 5 A.M. until daylight, the third from 3 A.M. until
daylight, and so on until the birds received continuous light.
In Lot 2, lights burned all night, subjecting the birds to light con-
tinuously for the full length of the experiment.
Birds receiving all-night light laid 2.44 percent more eggs during the
experiment than those receiving an increasing schedule of lighting.
A gradual increase in length of day produced a greater initial response
in increased egg production.
Birds in Lot 2, all-night lighting, consumed 0.32 pounds less feed per
dozen eggs than Lot 1 birds on an increasing schedule of lighting.
Birds in Lots 1 and 2 laid eggs in a normal progression mainly during
the daylight hours. The changing schedule of lighting used in Lot 1 did
not noticeably affect either time or rhythm of laying.
The project is closed with this report.
SULFURIZATION OF SOIL FOR THE CONTROL OF CERTAIN
INTESTINAL PARASITES OF CHICKENS
State Project 418 M. W. Emmel
Experiments have been conducted to determine the effect of sulfur
on the sporulation of coccidia. Coccidia sporulated in all of a series of
buffer solutions ranging in pH from 3.5 to 7.0. Coccidia also sporulated
in soil made acid by the addition of sulfuric acid (pH 4.0). Coccidia failed
to sporulate in soil made acid (pH 4.0) by the application of dusting sulfur
3 months previously. The indications are that the "fuming action" of
sulfur is responsible for this phenomenon.
THE "TRANSMISSION AGENT" OF FOWL LEUCOSIS
Adams Project 424 M. W. Emmel
Transmission agent RPL-16, capable of producing lymphomatosis when
injected into the breast muscles or peritoneal cavity of young chickens,
has been obtained from the Regional Poultry Disease Laboratory, East
Lansing, Michigan. The nature of this agent is being studied. Fourteen
serial passages have been made to date.








Annual Report, 1945


THE ETIOLOGY OF FOWL LEUCOSIS
State Project 425 M. W. Emmel
Adams Project 424 is an integral part of this project, which will
remain inactive pending the findings in the former project.

TOXICITY OF CROTALARIA SPECTABILIS ROTH


George K. Davis, R. S. Glasscock
and M. W. Emmel


Samples of Crotalaria spectabilis were gathered and 11/2 tons (green
weight) were ensiled in barrel silos at the Nutrition Laboratory for the
purpose of studying the effects of ensiling upon the toxicity.
Chickens have proved to be satisfactory for assay purposes and provide
a ready means of determining the monocrotaline content of samples.
The relative tolerance of chickens for small doses of crotalaria or mono-
crotaline is being studied.

FLORIDA WATERS AS RELATED TO CLEANING PROBLEMS
IN DAIRY PLANTS


Bankhead-Jones Project 431


T. R. Freeman, E. L. Fouts
and Peggy Lockwood


This study is divided into 2 principal phases: (1) analysis of water
samples obtained from dairies distributed throughout the State, and
classification of these samples into several types based upon their chem-
ical composition; and (2) investigation of available washing powders,
preparations and ingredients to ascertain their effectiveness for different
cleaning operations in the several types of water encountered.
The water analysis phase of this project is practically completed.
Some 150 samples of water have been analyzed for total solids, hardness,
calcium, magnesium, chlorides and sulfates. These samples represent
every section of the State in which dairies are located.
The following maximum and minimum values encountered in the sam-
ples analyzed indicate the wide variation in the composition of Florida
waters and suggest the complexity involved in the water angle of the
washing problem.


Sulfates .................
C a lciu m ...........................................
Magnesium ................................
C hlorides ....................................
Non-carbonate hardness
Total hardness ........................
T otal solids ...............................


Maximum
(parts
................................ ...................... 408.8
............................................. .............. 165.8
............................................................... 130.3
............... .... ............ ...... .................. 1,865.0
...... ............... ............ ......... ............... 769.1
............................................................... 894.0
........ .................... ................ .......... 3,078.0


Minimum
per million)
0.0
0.8
0.3
4.0
0.0
3.2
6.7


COMPOSITION OF MILK PRODUCED IN FLORIDA


Bankhead-Jones Project 436


E. L. Fouts, T. R. Freeman and
Peggy Lockwood


This project was approved April 23, 1945. A study of methods of
analysis has been made with special attention to the correlation of the
work to be done by all co-operating agencies. The sampling procedure
has been decided upon and the first samples will be taken from dairies in
the vicinity of Gainesville in the near future. This project is conducted in


State Project 426








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


cooperation with the Dairy Husbandry and Animal Nutrition Divisions of
this department and with the Department of Soils.

CONTROL OF THE COMMON LIVER FLUKE IN CATTLE
Purnell Project 437 D. A. Sanders
Studies on the control of the cattle liver fluke, (Fasciola Hepatica Linn.)
were begun in April, 1945. This work has been in progress for an insuffi-
cient time to obtain definite results.

CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID PESTS OF CATTLE
State Project 438 D. A. Sanders and A. N. Tissot
From the work accomplished thus far it appears that dilute concentra-
tions of DDT suspended in suitable dispersing agents are highly efficient
as a means of controlling horn flies on cattle. A 0.2 percent solution was
safe and efficient when used to dip cattle. A 2.0 percent solution of DDT
used in the wading vat plus spraying with the same strength also was
effective. Spraying cattle with a 2.0 to 2.5 percent concentration of DDT
gave excellent results in horn fly control on the experimental cattle. The
spray method of control seems preferable, due to its high degree of
effectiveness and lower cost. (See also, ENTOMOLOGY, Proj. 438.)

MISCELLANEOUS
Toxic Principle of the Tung Tree.-The foliage, sap and fruit of Aleur-
ites fordi Hemsl., as well as commercial tung meal, has been found to con-
tain saponin, a toxic principle which induces gastro-enteritis in animals. This
toxic principle is considered responsible for the major symptoms of poison-
ing by the products of the tung tree. The foliage of A. montana (Lour.)
Wils, A. moluccana (L.) Willd, and A. trisperma Blanco were less toxic
than that of A. fordi in the order named when fed to mature chickens. The
saponin content of commercial tung meal can be destroyed by hydrolysis
with 5 percent hydrochloric acid (300 cc. 5 percent HC1 per liter of meal
followed by heating in autoclave 30 minutes at 15 pounds pressure).
Commercial tung meal also contains another toxic substance which
retarded growth in chick feeding experiments. This substance is more
abundant in freshly milled tung meal than in old tung meal stored under
good conditions. It is extracted at least partially by hot 95 percent ethyl
alcohol. Experiments are being continued to determine the nature of
this substance. (M. W. Emmel)
"Swollen Joints" in Range Calves.-During the spring and early sum-
mer of 1944 "swollen joints" were found to occur in many sections of the
State. One or more leg-joints became acutely inflamed, resulting in the
death of 80 percent of the animals affected. Losses on individual ranches
ranged from 5 to 25 percent of the calf crop.
Stroptococcus pyogenes was isolated from naturally occurring cases of
"swollen joints" (navel ill) in range calves. The disease was induced
experimentally by navel infection with this micro-organism with or with-
out screwworm infestation. The primary screwworm fly, Cochliamyia
americana C. and P., is an important means of transmission of this type of
infection and the activities of the larva facilitate infection in infested
navels.
The most practical means of control is the prompt treatment of the
unhealed navel of new-born calves with or without screwworm infestation
with tincture of iodine and a reliable screwworm fly repellant, and subse-
quent treatment until the navel is healed completely. (M. W. Emmel)








Annual Report, 1945 61

Dehydrated Celery Tops in Chick Rations.-A large tonnage of vege-
table trimmings and below grade products occur in Florida each year and
it is probable that considerable quantities of protein, carotene and ribo-
flavin are being discarded in these vegetable wastes. If these products are
suitable as a feed for poultry much of this vegetable waste might be
prepared economically for use by the poultry industry. In the first trial,
conducted this year, dehydrated celery tops were used in chick rations to
replace alfalfa leaf meal.
Analyses of dehydrated celery tops were made by the Horticulture
Department. A comparison of the analyses of alfalfa leaf meal and
dehydrated celery tops follows:
Protein Vitamin A
Alfalfa leaf meal........................21.2 percent 29,484 I.U. per pound
Dehydrated celery tops.....15.0 percent 14,361 I.U. per pound
Single Comb Rhode Island Red Chicks were divided into 9 lots of 25
chicks each. The chicks were brooded in confinement in battery brooders.
All chicks were weighed at the start and then at weekly intervals. Feed
consumption also was recorded on a weekly basis.
Dehydrated celery tops fed at a level of 11.3 percent were apparently
palatable, as indicated by the consumption per chick. Data from this first
trial indicate small differences in weight of chicks, feed consumption and
feed efficiency. (N. R. Mehrhof, F. S. Jamison, B. E. Janes)
Effect of Tung Meal in Rations for Growing Chicks.-Eight lots of 25
Single Comb White Leghorn chicks were placed on experiment in battery
brooders and fed experimental rations 5 weeks. Lot 1 received the regular
University chick ration. Lots 2, 4 and 6 received 5 percent and Lots 3,
5 and 7 received 10 percent of the heat-treated, heat-treated sifted, and raw
tung meals, respectively. Lot 8 received 15 percent raw tung meal. The
quantity of soybean oil meal was adjusted to provide rations containing
approximately the same protein level.
The tung meal proved toxic, whether raw or heated, and caused heavy
mortality at the 10 and 15 percent levels. At the 5 percent level the tung
meals interfered with feed utilization. (George K. Davis, N. R. Mehrhof
and R. S. McKinney")
Grazing Trials with Poultry.-In cooperation with the Agronomy Depart-
ment, grazing trials with laying pullets were inaugurated during the fall
of 1944. The poultry yards, each 50 x 100 feet, were prepared and
planted with Coastal Bermula in August. During December oats and rye
were planted in the yards. There were 50 to 54 pullets in each lot.
Four lots of S. C. White Leghorn pullets and 3 lots of S. C. Rhode
Island Reds and 1 lot of RIR x LS pullets were used in the trials. All birds
were fed and managed alike except for the length of the grazing period.
Lot 1 grazed continuously; Lot 2 grazed /2 day; Lot 3 grazed from about
5 o'clock till dark; and Lot 4 had access to a bare yard continuously.
The birds were kept in confinement from October until February 22,
1945, and then allowed to graze. After grazing for 4 months the pullets
have not destroyed the pasture, except in very small areas around each
house. The Rhode Island Reds destroyed a larger area than did the
White Leghorns. Most damage to the grass was done where the birds
were on pasture continuously and least damage in the lots pastured after
5 o'clock. There were not sufficient birds to the lot to destroy the pasture
used, regardless of the length of time of grazing. (N. R. Mehrhof and
R. E. Blaser)
Bur. of Agr. Chem. and Eng., USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Use of DDT for Insect Control in Dairy Barns.-Cooperating with the
Entomology Department, tests were continued in the use of DDT for
control of flies and cockroaches about the dairy barn, using materials
supplied through the courtesy of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
(R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, A. N. Tissot)
Ammoniated Citrus Pulp for Dairy Cattle.-Ammoniated citrus pulp
was investigated as a feed for growing calves and its palatability tested
with dairy cows. This work was done in cooperation with commercial
interests and the support of the Florida State Department of Agriculture.
If proved satisfactory, ammoniated citrus pulp could substitute for a part
of the protein required in feed. (George K. Davis, Sidney P. Marshall,
Katherine Boney, R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold)
Effect of Diethylstilbestrol on Heifers and Cows.-A 2-year study was
made using the synthetic hormone diethylstilbestrol, in which 14 Jersey
heifers and 4 cows were brought into milk production without calving.
One cow failed to respond and promptness of response varied with indi-
viduals. The hormone-in-oil was injected subcutaneously in limited doses
and at frequent intervals in the experimental animals.
The udder tissue developed and milk secretion began in 15 to 64 days.
Infections ceased at this time with some animals but were continued for
from 32 to 89 days into the lactation period with others. The first milk
was typical colostrum. Milk yields obtained were less than those from
heifers of similar bloodlines following first normal calvings. When injec-
tions ceased on lactation, milk yields were slightly lower than in the group
with continued injections. The average butterfat percentage in the milk
from the group with continued injections was slightly higher during the
first three months of lactation and lower thereafter than from those in
which injections ceased at lactation. The colostrum and milk otherwise
were normal in contents of solids-not-fat, total protein and lactose.
Sexual excitation without ovulation was stimulated, followed by a
quiescent period. Other adverse effects of the hormone observed were in
relaxation of the pelvic ligaments and elevation of the tailhead as in typical
nymphomania. One animal suffered a double partial dislocation of the
illo-sacral junction and 2 others had broken tailheads. Most of the eperi-
mental animals were regarded as non-breeders when selected for this
study and conception took place in only 1 of the 6 animals bred after the
interval of ovarian quiescence. With the poor previous breeding histories
of these animals the results are inconclusive concerning production. (Sid-
ney P. Marshall, R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and D. A. Sanders)








Annual Report, 1945


ENTOMOLOGY

Increased interest in DDT (dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane) and the
easing of restrictions on its use have warranted increased investigations of
the effects of this potent insecticide on both harmful and beneficial
insects. It must be kept in mind that the indiscriminate spreading of this
material over the landscape might result actually in more damage than
occurs from the specific harmful insect involved.
The Mexican bean bettle has increased in destructiveness in the western
counties of the state and has appeared in the Jacksonville area and near
Gainesville; but on the whole its spread southward has not been marked.
No reinfestation was found in Hawthorne where the beetle apparently
had died out, but it was again abundant and destructive in Starke, where
it occurred last year.

CONTROL OF NUT AND LEAF CASEBEARERS OF PECANS
State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
Research work on control of the nut casebearer and leaf casebearer was
continued at 3 periods of the year.
Results of summer treatments with lead arsenate applied June 6, July 1
and July 25 show that 3 pounds of lead arsenate per 100 gallons of a 6-2-100
bordeaux mixture gave a control of 98.2, 100 and 94 percent of pecan case-
bearers on the Moore and 98.4, 91.8 and 98.4 percent on the Moneymaker
variety, respectively.
In late dormant sprays, Hytox Tar Oil "83-percent" at a dilution of 5
percent gave a 97.0 percent reduction in infestation of nut casebearer and
71.2 percent for leaf casebearer. Dinitro-O-Cresol in the form of "Elgetol
30" at !/ gallon per 100 gallons water gave 86.2 percent reduction for the
nut casebearer and 77.3 percent for leaf casebearer. DDT at 1/ pound per
100 gallons water gave a reduction of 75.9 and 66.6 percent, respectively,
for nut and leaf casebearers. DDT at 1 pound per 100 gallons water gave a
72.2 percent reduction for nut casebearer and 71.2 and 77.3 percent for leaf
casebearer on 2 plots.
Lead arsenate, nicotine sulfate and cryolite were applied March 16 for
control of pecan casebearers while larvae were feeding on buds and foliage.
Most effective sprays were nicotine sulfate, 13 ounces in 100 gallons of
6-2-100 bordeaux mixture, against the nut casebearer and lead arsenate at
3 pounds in 100 gallons of bordeaux mixture against the leaf casebearer.
Water dispersible DDT (25 percent) at 4 pounds plus 1 pound "Col-
loidal 77 sticker" and 1 quart summer oil emulsion per 100 gallons water
was the most effective spray used against the first generation nut case-
bearer and gave 93.0 percent control. Nicotine sulfate, 13 ounces plus 2
quarts summer oil emulsion per 100 gallons spray, gave 92.0 percent
control, while lead arsenate, 4 pounds in 100 gallons of a 6-2-100 bordeaux,
gave 84.7 percent. Cryolite, 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water, gave
70.8 percent, DDT (concentrate powder), 1 pound per 100 gallons of water
with wetting agent added gave 68.6 percent, and DDT-Pyrophillite (50-50
micronized), at 2 pounds per 100 gallons of water, gave 81.0 percent control
of nut casebearer.
In a cooperative experiment with HORTICULTURE, good control of
the pecan casebearer was obtained with single applications on June 5 of
3 pounds of lead or calcium arsenate in 100 gallons of a 6-2-100 bordeaux
mixture.








64 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF CUTWORMS AND ARMYWORMS
IN FLORIDA
State Project 380 A. N. Tissot
The rearing and life history work on Feltia subterranea (F.), Agrotis
ypsilon (Rothm.), and A. malefida Guen which was in progress at the
beginning of the year was unfortunately terminated in the fall of 1944 by
the dying of the larvae, which apparently were killed by accidental con-
tamination of the rearing cages with DDT. Cutworms are relatively free
from attack by parasites but a few parasites have been found. Eucelatoria
armigera (Coq.), (Diptera, Farn. Larvaevoridae) and Meteorus vulgaris
(Cress.), (Hymenoptera, Fam. Braconidae) have been reared from Agrotis
ypsilon. Exestastes bifenenstratus (Cush.), (Hymenoptera, Fam. Ichneu-
monidae) was reared from Agrotis malefida. Archytas incerta (Mq.),
(Diptera, Fam. Larvaevoridae) was reared from Prodenia latifascia
(Walker). Phosococephalus crassicornis (F.), Bonnetia comia (Fall.), and
Spallanzania bucephala (Mq.), all (Diptera, Fam. Larvaevoridate), Sar-
cophaga sp. (Diptera, Fam. Sarcophagidae), and Meteorus vulgaris, were
obtained from larvae of Feltia subterranean.
In come control experiments, half grown larvae of Feltia subterranea
were used. A bait consisting of 40 percent water dispersible DDT and
wheat bran, mixed in the proportion of 1:12/2, and applied at the rate of
40 pounds per acre gave a mortality of 100 percent in 48 hours. A dust
containing 5 percent of DDT was dusted over the surface of moist soil.
This likewise gave a kill of 100 percent within 48 hours. (See also
EVERGLADES STATION, Proj. 380.)

PROPAGATION OF LARRA WASPS FOR THE CONTROL
OF MOLE-CRICKETS
State Project 381 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
Through the close cooperation of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine and Dr. G. N. Wolcott of the Puerto Rican Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, arrangements were made for the shipment by
airplane from Brazil of some hundreds of the predacious wasp, Larra
americana Saussure. Most of these were shipped as adults, with Borreria
as a food on the way, but they were all dead upon arrival. The same was
true of the larvae, with 1 exception and this 1 died shortly. It would seem
that to get these parasites to Florida alive it will be necessary for some-
one to accompany the shipment so that the wasps can be fed on the way.
A study of the native wasps visiting Borreria was continued.

ROOT-KNOT IN TOBACCO FIELDS
State Project 382 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
This project was inactive during this year except for some treatments
of seedbeds with D-D.

BREEDING VEGETABLE PLANTS RESISTANT TO
ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES
State Project 383 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
The nematode-resistant strain of Conch cowpeas was distributed to 26
farmers and 2 seedsmen. Some growers lost their seed through unfavor-
able weather or soil conditions but 8 reported entire satisfaction with the
cowpeas. All of the correspondents reported a marked resistance to root-
knot. Two strains, Nos. 18 and 19, which in the past have given particular







Annual Report, 1945


promise, were planted this year on as large an acreage as the scarcity of
labor seemed to justify, in an attempt to increase further the supply of
these strains. A variety of garden pea, called "Creole," showed less injury
from root-knot than any other variety tried. It stood up better later in
the season than other varieties, perhaps largely because of this resistance
to root-knot.
As a soil fumigant, a mixture of dichloropropylene and dichloropropane
(D-D) continues to show marked promise. In addition to nematodes, an
active colony of mole crickets and another of ants were exterminated with
this material. In 1 case the material seemed to give an undesirable taste
to carrots, even when grown as far as 3 feet from the point of application.
This off flavor seemed to become less distinct as time elapsed. A similar
report was made concerning the flavor of strawberries grown on treated
land.

BIOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF THE THYSANOPTERA OF FLORIDA
State Project 384 J. R. Watson
This project was continued as during previous years. Its aim is
ultimately to make a rather complete publication on the Thysanoptera of
Florida. Numerous collections, especially from gladiolus, made by the
State Plant Board were determined. The gladiolus thrips as during pre-
vious years did not appear in numbers until January 1, even in the Ft.
Myers section. Collections in the fall, in addition to the Florida flower
thrips which is always found in blossoms, were chiefly the tobacco thrips,
Frankliniella fusca Hinds. Because of the inability to get brown sugar
for bait, both cane sirup and honey were tried as substitutes. Cane sirup
at the rate of 1 pint to replace a pound of brown sugar gave as good results
as the sugar; honey gave somewhat better results.

EFFECTS OF MULCHES ON THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE
State Project 385 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
This work was continued very much as during the previous year and
the results have closely parallelled those previously found, namely, that a
good heavy mulch of any vegetable matter which will decay has a very
beneficial effect on plants growing in infested soil. Although such plants
always show a large number of knots there is a larger proportion of
healthy roots and a marked improvement in growth. This seems true of
any crop that can readily be mulched and little difference was observed
in the effect on the different vegetables.

CONTROL OF THE FLORIDA FLOWER THRIPS
State Project 386 J. R. Watson
The greatly expanded growing of peanuts during the war has increased
the interest in the effect of thrips on these plants. Although this insect
is usually considered a pest of flowers, it frequently attacks the leaves
of tender plants, especially those which are folded in such a way as to
give essential shelter. The young and tender leaves of peanuts are par-
ticularly susceptible to injury at an early stage of growth, because of the
structure of the bud of peanuts which gives protection and good hiding
places to the thrips. Dusting with 3% nicotine sulfate did not give as
good control as spraying because of the difficulty of reaching the insects.
A new development this year has been the effect of a heavy infestation
of thrips in the blossoms of tung trees on the setting of the fruit. On a
tree with a heavy infestation of the blossoms, almost no fruit was set.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID PESTS OF CATTLE
State Project 438 D. A. Sanders and A. N. Tissot
Three lots of cattle, each containing 10 grade Angus cows, were treated
with DDT to test its effectiveness against external parasites. The cattle
in Lot 1 were dipped in an ordinary dipping vat containing a 0.2 percent
solution of DDT; those in Lot 2 were driven through a shallow wading vat
containing a 2.0 percent solution of DDT, and at the same time were
sprayed from above with a solution of the same strength; those in Lot 3
were sprayed on the back and sides with a 2.0 percent solution of DDT.
All treatments kept the cattle practically free of horn flies for 2 weeks.
Three weeks after treatment the fly population began to build up, par-
ticularly in Lot 1. After 4 weeks there was no apparent difference among
the 3 lots of animals and the flies were about as numerous as before treat-
ment. The treated animals were kept in separate pastures but were close
by other pastures containing large numbers of untreated and heavily
infected cattle. (See also ANIMAL INDUSTRY, Proj. 438.)

MISCELLANEOUS
Tests of DDT.-It is apparent that much work with DDT must be done
on each type of insect. It has proven highly efficient in controlling the
Colorado potato beetle. One dusting with a 2 percent dust protected the
plants for the balance of the season-over a month. On the other hand,
dusting for the Mexican bean beetle thus far has given poor results.
Results on young lubberly locusts were not satisfactory even though their
habit of remaining in a close colony for several days after hatching would
seem to adapt their control to dust applications. Both 3 and 10 percent
dusts were applied on newly hatched locusts at Penney Farms. The 10
percent dust was satisfactory on hoppers 1 or 2 days old but the kill was
not as good on older nymphs.
As during the previous year, control of the melon worm and pickle
worm on squash, cucumbers and cantaloupes with DDT was better than
with any other insecticide tried. On the other hand the squash bug,
Anasa tristis (DeG), proved very resistant. DDT gives promise of being
the best control yet tried for the chinch bug in St. Augustine grass.
This is chiefly due to the remarkable lasting qualities of the material, which
remains effective much longer than nicotine sulfate or tobacco dust. DDT
was found to be very effective against cockroaches, flies, mosquitos and
ants in buildings. It was also very effective against ants out of doors when
sprinkled on their nests. (J. R. Watson)








Annual Report, 1945


HOME ECONOMICS

At the close of the fiscal year 1944-45 the 5 projects which constituted
the principal work of the Department were completed or discontinued.
Results of these investigations are summarized below.
The proposed lines of investigation next to be undertaken are: (1) a
study of the vitamin B content of foods; (2) conservation and availability
of the B vitamins and iron in enriched, white and corn breads and grits.

VITAMIN A ACTIVITY OF FOODS
Purnell Project 358 R. B. French and 0. D. Abbott
Major results and conclusions of this project, begun November 7, 1940,
are summarized as follows:
A method for the determination of vitamin A, using the Cenco photolo-
meter and the Carr-Price reaction, was developed.
Chemical and biological methods for the determination of vitamin A
and carotene in milk have been compared with good agreement. In all
samples carotene was identified by its absorption spectra. When large
quantities of lycopene were present, as in the pink guava and tomato,
absorption on the most active dibasic calcium phosphate did not separate
the carotene and lycopene completely. A mathematical separation of these
was made from the spectrographic data.
The carotene content of several greenhouse-grown plants, tobacco
leaves and Sudan and Bahia grass was increased by ammonium sulfate fer-
tilization as compared with calcium nitrate as a source of nitrogen. In-
crease of carotene content from 2 to 4 times was obtained in the case of
the Sudan grass. No effect on carotene content was noted with either the
Bahia or Sudan grass at varying levels of either phosphorus or potassium.
A Sudan grass-sorghum .cross, grown in complete nutrient solution with
varying proportions of nitrate and ammonium ions, was grown with and
without greenhouse shade. In every comparison the plants grown in the
shade were higher in carotene than those grown without shade.
Papayas grown at different levels of potassium showed no consistent
response in carotene content.
Cabbage fertilized with various rare elements showed no significant
differences in carotene content.
Variation in carotene content of different varieties of magnos, guavas
and tomatoes was quite pronounced. Redland guava showed no evidence
that either the skin or flesh contained carotene, while the pink-fleshed
varieties ran very high in this constituent.
The quantity of vitamin A necessary to insure optimum nutrition for a
rat was higher than anticipated. Rats given a large amount of vitamin A
at 1 time do better than those given an equal quantity, but less than the
optimum, distributed over a period of time.
Selection of varieties of fruits and vegetables highest in carotene
offer an economical and probably the most effective means of increasing
the level of carotene or pro-vitamin A in the diet.
Wild greens such as lambsquarters, pokeweed and coffee weed and
fruits such as the Ceylon gooseberry, guava and mango, have possibilities in
significantly raising the average intake of vitamin A. Tomatoes are 1 of
the best sources of carotene.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


VITAMIN C IN FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Purnell Project 359 R. B. French and O. D. Abbott
Since the beginning of this project on July 23, 1940, vitamin C values
of 19 different fruits, 21 different vegetables and 9 edible wild plants were
determined. The vitamin C content of the fruits and vegetables showed in
the main no unusual variation from accepted values. Occasionally a value
was found that was significantly different from the average. However if
in the preliminary analyses the fruit or vegetable proved to be an unusually
poor source of vitamin C, and the values were in agreement with those
reported in the literature, no further analyses were made.
In addition to the data on the vitamin C concentration, the following
observations were made and conclusions reached:
1. Variations in vitamin C in oranges did not correlate with the different
geographical locations in which they were grown.
2. Differences in C content, both of samples of 1 variety and different
varieties of citrus fruits, were very large. Individual trees produce fruit,
the vitamin content of which varies within narrow limits, but these small
variations are sufficient to mask any changes occurring during maturation
of the fruit. Vitamin C concentration of oranges and grapefruit may
increase during the first few weeks of storage, but after this the con-
centration drops.
3. This investigation suggests that the range of variation in C of normal
samples is considerable and the effects of fertilizer or soil treatment on
such concentration is not enough to be statistically significant without
employing a larger number of samples than have been used. The large
variation in C among varieties of guavas, oranges and mangos emphasized
the probability that major differences in C concentration are most likely
to be associated with genetic differences. On the other hand, the use of a
much larger number of samples might show significant differences in C
due to varying environmental conditions.
In the presence of ample nitrogen no correlation was found between
vitamin C and high or low levels of either potassium or phosphorus in
tomato or tobacco leaves, or in Sudan or Bahia grass; shade caused an
increase while maturity was followed by a large decrease in the values.
Varying levels of potassium fertilizer had no effect on vitamin C concen-
tration in papayas. No effect of fertilization with rare elements on the
production of vitamin C in commercial lettuce was noted.
4. Cabbage, white-sapote, cucumbers and summer squash contained
appreciable concentrations of ascorbase. In preparing aliquots of such
materials for analysis, any disorganization of cell tissue must be accom-
panied by destruction of the enzyme by either heat or acid. Ascorbase
prepared from cucumbers acted upon the juice of both the pink-fleshed
guava and the Ceylon gooseberry to destroy any titration value. Such
results gave evidence that the titratable material in these juices is
vitamin C.
5. Effects of home canning processes on the vitamin C content of
tomatoes showed that very little destruction occurred during the usual
procedures.
6. Vitamin C was low in root crops, and in the cucumbers, squash, onions
and plums tested; it was not present in measurable quantities in grapes,
figs and peaches.
7. The vitamin C content of several varieties of tomatoes was deter-
mined over a period of 3 years without showing differences due to sea-
sonal variations.
The vitamin C values obtained in this study may be of importance in
dietary and nutritional surveys. Moreover, certain plants, due to adapta-








Annual Report, 1945 69

ability, ease of cultivation, long bearing, and the high production of both
vitamin C and carotene could become plants of extensive nutritional and
possibly economic, importance. Of the plants studied, Ceylon gooseberries,
certain varieties of guavas, lambsquarter and pokeweed were found to be
highest in vitamin C. There is considerable evidence-condition of the
gums and teeth-that many Florida children have low intakes of vitamin
C. Popularization of these foods would help raise the level of intake of this
important factor.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
OF ROYAL JELLY
Purnell Project 370 0. D. Abbott and R. B. French
This project was begun July 25, 1941. For the past 2 years no royal
jelly has been available and further work was therefore impossible. The
results and conclusions are summarized as follows: Royal jelly is a bitter,
milk-gray jelly used in feeding very young bee larvae, and constitutes the
only food of the larvae designed for queens. This food, containing pro-
tein, fats, carbohydrates and minerals, has a composition approximating
that of evaporated milk. The proteins have been fractionated into 2 major
components-1 evidently a globulin, the other albumin. These proteins
are present in the proportions of 2 to 1. The carbohydrate is largely
invert sugar while the ether extract is composed largely of a single fatty
acid. Purification of the globulin through dialysis reduced its ash content
from 4.5 to 1.4 percent. Of this, 0.62 percent was sulfur, 0.05 percent
iron, while phosphorus was lacking. About of the ether soluble matter
consisted of a hydroxy fatty acid not previously reported in the literature.
Work on this acid indicated that its empirical formula is C,oHisO:. Such a
formula suggests a ring structure, while molecular refraction computa-
tions indicate a straight chain compound. The hydroxy acid melts
sharply at 65-66o. Certain derivatives have been prepared: 3-5 dinitro-
benzoate, m. p. 88-91o; bromoanilide, m. p. 66; chloroanilide, m. p. 125;
piperazine salt, m. p. 108-11. Hydrolysis of the 3 nitrophthalate gave an
acid that, in a mixed melting point determination with the starting acid,
showed no depression of melting point. Injections of this acid into spayed
rats caused no apparent increase in partially cornified cells in the vaginal
smears; the typical cornified cell did not appear. Injection of the acid
into normal rats caused an interruption of the estrous cycle and the early
appearance of cornified cells.
Royal jelly has remarkable keeping qualities. Its resistance to molds
and bacteria is due in part perhaps to the high concentration of sugar, but
particularly to the presence of the fatty acid. Concentrations of this acid
in the proportions of 1 to 10,000 have a marked stimulating effect on the
growth of both staphylococcus and streptococcus, but at 1 part per 1,000
their growth is inhibited.
Because of its bactericidal and fungicidal properties, this acid may
become of value in the preservation of food. A knowledge of other con-
stituents and properties of this jelly might throw considerable light on
the essentials of both animal and human nutrition.

RELATION OF THE SCHOOL LUNCH TO CHILD
HEALTH AND PROGRESS
Purnell Project 396 0. D. Abbott Ruth O. Townsend and
R. B. French
The school lunch now appears to be a permanent part of the school
program. How effective it is, and can be, in preventing and curing mal-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


nutrition was the object of this project, started July 14, 1942. Children in
4 schools made up the group. Three of the schools had lunchrooms; in the
other, lunch was brought from home. In School 1, health problems as
well as the planning and supervision of the noon meal were directly under
the supervision of this department; in School 2, this department acted
only in an advisory capacity; in School 3 neither advice nor supervision was
given. At the initial examination, more than 70 percent of the entire
group were malnourished. The prevalent findings were anemia, gingivitis,
conjunctivitis and skin, skeletal and heart defects. Because of these
conditions many children were irregular in attendance, repeated grades
and did not complete grammar school. The economic status of many
families was low, primarily because of sickness and illiteracy.
The major results and conclusions are summarized as follows: The
effects of better food were shown by unusual increases in physical meas-
urements and developmental age, improvement in general health and
school attendance and progress. With the exception of children transfer-
ring from other schools and a few beginners, the children in both Schools
1 and 2 were, upon the whole, quite well nourished. In School 3 there
were also improvements in general health, but specific nutritional dis-
eases persisted. School 4 closed and the pupils were distributed among
several schools. A few of these pupils were found and examined, but
for the most part little improvement was noted. Diet records showed im-
provement in home-cooked meals, but in spite -of higher economic status
during the past 2 years the use of protective foods is still below recom-
mended standards. However, the wide distribution of information on
adequate diets, the higher standards set by the food administration in
subsidizing the school lunch, the home garden and canning program are all
helping to raise the standard of living.
With improved health, school attendance and progress have increased.
Better attendance was due in part to better health, since fewer days were
lost from school because of sickness. However, far too many children
were kept from school to assist with farm and home work.
During this study tremendous change has taken place in food habits
and food intake. At first many of the common foods such as beef, lamb,
prunes, raisins, macaroni, cheese, celery and even mashed potatoes were
not eaten at all or were eaten sparingly by many children. Even though
the children were suffering from gross malnutrition their food intake was
far below the minimum for school children. While many soon accepted
any food served, the intake remained low and from 3 to 4 years were
required for it to reach the recommended standard for children of
school age.
Recognition of the value of better nutrition on health and progress in
school was shown by active support of the program in both Schools 1 and 2.
This came not only from the district but from the county and state.
During the first year the lunch room facilities in both Schools 1 and 2
were very crude and 90 percent of the lunches in School 1 and 30 percent
of those in School 2 were free. Now modern lunchrooms have been
equipped in both schools and less than 10 percent of the lunches are free.
Plans are under way to re-district the county so that the enrollment
and teaching staff of School 1 can be increased. From this school the 10
boys called for examination by Selective Service were free from physical
defects and accepted for active service. The rejections of older men from
the district and other parts of the county were very high. Of the 21 girls
completing the 10 grades during this study, all graduated or are now
completing high school. The presidents of both the junior and senior
classes in the high school at the county seat were former pupils in School








Annual Report, 1945


1. This record from a school with a previous low rating is significant.
The school lunch can be a great factor in improving the health and progress
of children if it is managed and supervised by well trained personnel.

RELATION OF DIET OF FLORIDA SCHOOL CHILDREN TO TOOTH
AND BONE STRUCTURE
Purnell Project 397 0. D. Abbott and R. B. French
This project, begun July 14, 1942, is discontinued with this report.
Throughout these studies, dental caries and skeletal defects such as
winged scapulae, knock-knees, pigeon breast and scaphoid sternums were
constant findings. In 1942 roentgenograms were made of the wrists of
children in 6 schools in Marion County and in the Day School in Lafayette
County. Through cooperation with the Bureau of Dental Health of the
Florida State Board of Health, a complete dental record of the teeth of
all children of the Day School was obtained. After the initial examina-
tion roentgenograms were limited to the children in the Day School and
selected subjects in 2 other schools. All of the children showing severe
caries and delayed maturation of the wrist bones were given special
diet supplements.
From a study of 453 roentgenograms taken in 1941-42, it was found
that approximately 70 percent of the children 6 to 10 years of age showed
some degree of retarded development of the wrist bones. In about 10
percent of the cases, 1 to 3 bones were missing entirely, while in the
remaining 60 percent various defects in structure and development were
noted. With improved diet, yearly roentgenograms on selected cases
showed progressive improvement of the wrist bones. In some cases,
ossific centers which the year before appeared as mere shadows or points
had increased to a semblance of a bone and in many cases calcification ap-
parently was accelerated. In 1941 the incidence of caries in the Day School
and in a school in Marion County were 85 and 79 percent, respectively,
while the incidence of gingivitis in the same schools was 73 and 76 per-
cent, respectively. In 1944 the incidence of serious caries in both school
was rare and gingivitis had been greatly reduced. Even in 1945, when
transportation difficulties and high costs of citrus fruits had prevented
the use of these fruits in optimum amounts in School 1, there were still
no cases of severe gingivitis.
Approximately 16 percent of the children in the Day School had miss-
ing permanent teeth. The ones usually missing were the 6-year molars
and 2 of the upper teeth. Roentgenograms showed that in the case of the
incisors no tooth buds had been formed. In a few cases this was true
also of the 6-year molars, but usually these teeth had been lost because
of caries.
Caries is 1 of the most prevalent physical defects of the rural children
in the State and data collected under this project show also that delayed
appearance of ossific centers in the wrist and retarded calcification were
constant findings in the group studied. It was found that improved diet
lowered the incidence of caries and accelerated the appearance of ossific
centers and calcification. In the case of retarded bone development, it
was observed that this condition usually occurred in children who had used
little or no milk since infancy.








72 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HORTICULTURE

During the year work was done on all projects insofar as labor and
personnel permitted, with emphasis being placed on research in producing
and preserving horticultural crops used for food and oil purposes. The
department has actively cooperated with other agencies in the determina-
tion of goals for fruits, nuts and vegetables.
In cooperation with the Florida Citrus Commission, progress has been
made in constructing a pilot plant to help solve problems encountered in
the commercial production of citrus juices concentrated by freezing.

PROPAGATION, PLANTING AND FERTILIZING TESTS WITH TUNG
OIL TREES
Hatch Project 50 R. D. Dickey and G. H. Blackmon
In 1944 Florida produced an estimated 14,000,000 pounds of tung
fruit, which yielded approximately 2,240,000 pounds of oil, the largest
yield yet recorded.
In 1945 tung buds began growth by the second week in February and
trees were in full bloom the last week in February and the first week in
March in the Gainesville area. No freezing temperatures were recorded
in any location after trees started growth until the night of March 23, when
31.8 and 30.00 F. were recorded at 2 temperature stations located in
the tung block at the Station farm, but no injury to the young fruit or
foliage resulted. On the same night a temperature of 27.80 F. in a "cold
pocket" in a commercial tung orchard west of Gainesville completely
eliminated the crop and severely damaged the foliage in a very localized
area of probably not over 30 acres. No other trees were injured in this
orchard. With the exception just noted, all tung orchards in Florida
escaped cold damage this spring.
In previous years no natural fall of normal pistillate tung flowers had
been observed, indicating satisfactory pollination. However, during the
blooming period this year (1945) as many as 24 ovaries were found on the
ground under 1 tree at the Station farm and a few under several others
examined in the same planting. A similar condition was found in com-
mercial tung orchards in the Gainesville area.
An examination of the flowers showed that certain of the ovaries,
instead of being normal green in color, were dark brown. This discolora-
tion was produced by the sap which had exuded through the lacerated
epidermis of the young ovaries and had turned dark brown upon exposure
to the air. As injured fruits increased in size they appeared to be covered
with a dark brown scurf, much of which sloughed off as the fruit became
larger. There was an unusually heavy infestation of flower thiips this
spring, and it is possible that injury by these insects to the young ovaries
at flowering time caused this dropping of flowers and fruits.
On March 23, 1945, a number of fruits on 3 trees at the Station farm
were tagged. Later they were classified as to the degree of injury as
follows: None, slight, 50 percent and 100 percent. When next examined
April 11, 9.3 percent of the fruits had fallen in the 100 percent class but
none in the other classes. Later examinations (May 9 and June 25)
showed no further fruit fall. Stimulus for abscission layer formation
apparently comes from injury during the flowering period and the drop
took place then or shortly thereafter.
An unidentified trouble appeared in tung orchards in the Gainesville
and Monticello areas this spring. Newly expanding leaves, as they








Annual Report, 1945 73

emerged from the bud, showed dead, blackened areas. The amount and
severity of injury to individual leaves was quite variable. In some
instances only scattered, small, black spots were evident, in others con-
siderable areas of individual leaves were dead. The dead ares were
irregular in extent and outline and were scattered indiscriminately over
the surface of the leaf. Some of the affected leaves were thickened, tough
and brittle to the touch. When injury was severe, affected leaves abscissed,
leaving that particular branch practically leafless for a brief period. The
injury was confined almost entirely to basal leaves of the branch; new
shoots and foliage which developed later were normal. Affected leaves
which did not absciss were later distorted and wrinkled in varying degree.
This condition developed during the blooming period, but even where
most of the leaves had fallen from a branch, flowering and fruit set
apparently were not affected.
Individual orchards varied considerably in amount of trouble developing.
In some, many trees over considerable areas of the orchard were affected
in some degree; in others, only scattered trees evidenced symptoms; while
some orchards showed the trouble in intermediate amounts. /
Fertilizer tests were initiated in a Jefferson County tung orchard in
1943 to determine the effects of various amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus
and potassium on yield and growth of tung trees. Treatments applied
and 1944 yields are given in Table 4.

TABLE 4.-YIELDS, IN POUNDS OF AIR-DRIED FRUIT, FROM FERTILIZER
EXPERIMENT IN JEFFERSON COUNTY, 1944.

Average Yield of Air-Dried
Treatment Fruit per Tree

4-4-0 17.4
4-8-8 20.6
4-8-4 22.8
4-4-4 24.4
4-0-4 27.4
4-4-8 27.4
8-4-8 32.5
8-4-4 33.0

Least difference between treatments for significance, with odds of
19:1 =9.7 pounds of air-dried fruit.
Least difference between treatments for significance, with odds of
99:1 14.4 pounds of air-dried fruit.

Two general trends are evident, namely, (1) an increase in potassium
resulted in increased yields and improved tree conditions, (2) when potas-
sium was adequate the high level of nitrogen gave the largest yields.
The factorial field experiment using 2 levels each of calcium, copper,
magnesium, manganese and zinc is being continued as previously outlined."'

TESTING OF NATIVE AND INTRODUCED SHRUBS AND
ORNAMENTALS AND METHODS FOR THEIR PROPAGATION
Hatch Project 52 R. J. Wilmot and R. D. Dickey
Seed of the royal palm (Roystonea regia (H.B.K.) O. F. Cook)
treated for 3 to 5 minutes with concentrated sulfuric acid germinated
much sooner than untreated seed.
1" In cooperation with Div. Fruit and Veg. Crops and Diseases, B. P. I. S. & A. E., USDA.








74 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Sage grown from seed coming from nematode-resistant plants is making
good growth.
Hibiscus manihot L. has been planted for trial to determine its value
as a source of mucilaginous material.
Ilex purpurea var. Oldhamii and Ilex cornuta var. rotunda from the
Division of Plant Exploration and Introduction, B.P.I.S. & A. E., show
promise for use as ornamentals in the holly genus. Plants of Arundina
chinensis, Bougainvillea sp., Esenbeckia runyoni and Magistostegium
retusum from the same source were placed under trial.
In the camellia variety classification tests the synonymy of 46
varieties was established and the collection enlarged by the addition of 94
plants from widely distributed sources. A mimeographed report was dis-
tributed to the cooperators. The true variety C. M. Hovey was found dis-
tributed under the names Colonel Firey and William S. Hastie (Mississippi).
Work published in 1937 showed that a chlorosis of crape myrtle
(Lagerstroemia indica L.) was due to manganese deficiency. Foliage and
soil treatments were made in 1937 on a roadside planting of crape myrtle
near Gainesville at the rates of 1, 2, 3 and 4 pounds of commercial 80-83
percent manganese sulfate per tree. One pound of manganese sulfate
was as effective as larger amounts in controlling the disorder, under the
conditions of the experiment. To obtain information relative to the residual
effects of the soil treatment, records were taken, in subsequent years (1938
through 1941), of the recurrence of symptoms. No records were taken
in 1942, 1943 and 1944. It was found that the original 1 pound of man-
ganese sulfate per tree was as effective in preventing the reappearance of
symptoms over the 4-year period as the larger amounts.

COVER CROP TESTS IN PECAN ORCHARDS
State Project 80 G. H. Blackmon and J. D. Warner
The Jefferson County orchard in which the cover crop experiment is
being conducted was divided into replicated plots in 1943 to test the effects
of varying amounts of potash in connection with winter legumes. The 1944
results are therefore the first full year's records on growth and yield.
Augusta vetch gave very poor results in 1944-45. There was a good stand
of plants but diseases prevented growth and consequently a light tonnage
of organic material was produced.
Frotscher and Stuart trees receiving high levels of potash made most
growth in 1944. The reverse was true with the Moore trees. Nut produc-
tion followed the same trends as did tree growth. The quality of nuts
produced by trees in all treatments was below standard.
Control experiments for insects were conducted in these experimental
plots by the Pecan Investigations Laboratory. (See also NORTH FLORIDA
STATION, Proj. 80, and ENTOMOLOGY, Proj. 379.)

PHENOLOGICAL STUDIES OF TRUCK CROPS IN FLORIDA
State Project 110 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
Laxtonian peas were planted on a series of plots fertilized with 1,200
pounds per acre of a 4-7-5 fertilizer. Manganese, zinc, boron and copper
were applied separately and in combination with each and all of the others,
at rates recommended for these materials when used to correct deficiencies.
Six rows of peas were planted across each of the plots. Seed used in
planting 3 rows were inoculated. There was no observable difference
between the vines grown from inoculated and uninoculated seed. Yield
records showed no significant difference in the minor element treatments.
There was some indication that zinc depressed yield.







Annual Report, 1945 75

Sets of Crystal Wax and Yellow Bermuda onion were graded into lots of
various sizes and planted. At maturity the onions were harvested and
separated into split and non-split bulbs. Large sets produced a large per-
centage of splits while small sets produced relatively few splits (Table 5).
There was no apparent difference in the performance of the 2 varieties.
However, the number of large sets before grading was higher in the
Crystal Wax than in the Yellow Bermula.

TABLE 5.-PERCENTAGE OF BERMUDA ONIONS SPLIT AT HARVEST WHEN
GROWN FROM SETS OF VARIOUS SIZES.


Size of Sets Percent of Split Bulbs
Crystal Wax Yellow Bermuda

7/8" or larger .... 52 57
6/8" to 7/8" ...... 42 39
5/8" to 6/8" ..... 19 17
5/8" or under .... 14 14


VARIETY TESTS OF MINOR FRUITS AND ORNAMENTALS
State Project 187 G. H. Blackmon, R. D. Dickey and
R. J. Wilmot
A fairly good yield of fruit was produced in the grape experiment at
Lady Lake, conducted cooperatively with the Watermelon and Grape In-
vestigations Laboratory. There were no significant differences between
minor element foliage applications, but the vines in all plots which had been
treated with minor elements produced more fruit than those not treated.
The 1945 yield was reduced somewhat by poor pollination of a relatively
high percentage of the flowers. In 1944 the vines made satisfactory growth,
which averaged as good for 1 treatment as another.
Mayhaw seedlings set a fair crop of fruit for the first time, but no
outstanding individuals were observed. Chinquapins brought in from the
wild are growing well under cultivation. Blueberry seedling crosses from
the United States Department of Agriculture have been placed under trial,
a few of which produced fruit this year.

COLD STORAGE STUDIES OF CITRUS FRUITS
Purnell Project 190 A. L. Stahl
Attempts were made to control decay in citrus fruits during storage this
year by investigating the effect on the thermal death point, reaction of
media (pH), chemicals, fumigants, anti-biotic substances, radiation and
plant extracts on the causal organisms in pure culture. Control studies
of stem-end rot of stored citrus was continued.
The thermal death points of all the citrus decay organisms were found
to be higher than the temperatures which the fruit could stand without
injury. The stem-end rot organisms and the blue and green molds were
found to grow on media with a very wide range of pH. From several
hundred different chemicals, most of which had not been tried previously,
tested on pure cultures of penicillium (blue and green mold) and the
stem-end rot organisms (diplodia and phomopsis), only a few were out-
standing as to possible control. These were tried on inoculated fruit in
various strengths and under varying conditions after they proved lethal
to the organisms in pure culture. Ammonium phenyl borate, members of







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the chlorophenol group, hydroquinone, diphenol and orthophenol were most
outstanding. Of the many fumigants tried, sulfur dioxide, thionyl chloride,
sulfural chloride and allyl format all show promise in controlling these
citrus organisms.
Anti-biotic substances tried, such as penicillin, diplodin, phomopsin,
petulin and fumigacin, gave no control of stem-end rot organisms, either in
pure culture or on the fruit. These substances were made in the laboratory
and used when fresh. Plant extracts (the saps of various tissues of plants
of other groups) and extracts of the various tissues of the orange and
orange tree taken during different stages of maturity did not control stem-
end rot in the concentrations used.
Continued work on radiation indicated that with stronger ultra-violet,
infra-red and X-rays, control of citrus decay or a decrease in the amount
would be possible. Results indicated that further investigations should be
conducted.
Of the many new wrapping materials tried, several were found to be
very good but none as good as pliofilm for wrapping citrus fruits. The
vinylited films seemed to give best all-around results. Paper and pliofilm
wrappers impregnated with diphenol, ortho-phenol, Modex copper and gatax
gave good results in controlling penicillium but only fair results in con-
trolling stem-end rots.
Research on the concentration of citrus juices by freezing has been
continued from the standpoint of the commercial application. A continuous
commercial method was developed which gives a prepared frozen concen-
trate (3 to 1) which, when reconstructed, has the flavor, color and quality
of fresh citrus juices. An all-stainless-steel pilot plant was constructed in
cooperation with the Florida Citrus Commission in which commercial
methods are followed. Cost figures of producing various citrus juice con-
centrates using various freezers are being obtained. When several were
tested it was found that a good product could be obtained from all, but
best separation of ice from juice is obtained by slow freezing, where large
ice crystals are formed. The percent loss in preparation was highest in
freezers which produced very fine crystals and least in those producing
very large crystals.
Grapefruit hearts, orange hearts and the combination of both were
frozen in syrup solutions of various percentages with and without deaeration
and with several anti-oxidants. It was demonstrated that frozen citrus
hearts could be kept in good condition a year or more in frozen storage
without the use of chemicals or anti-oxidants. Best results were obtained
with those products which were dearated before packaging, thus preventing
discoloration and off-flavors.
Good results were obtained with all percentages of syrups, from fruit
held in its own juice up to a 60 percent sugar syrup. In taste, a 30 per-
cent syrup was most popular. An outstanding product was frozen Temple
orange hearts. The best anti-oxidant was found to be ascorbic acid but
this did not give as good a product as simple deaeration before packaging.
Tin cans for citrus were found to be slightly superior to the cellophane-
lined carton in that the product could be held in a vacuum throughout
frozen storage.

MATURITY STUDIES OF CITRUS FRUITS
Purnell Project 237 A. L. Stahl
Work on this project has been confined to tabulating and analyzing data
that have accumulated over several years in preparation for publication.
The project is closed with this report.







Annual Report, 1945 77

A STUDY OF THE RELATION OF SOIL REACTION TO
GROWTH AND YIELD OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Adams Project 268 F. S. Jamison
Plantings were made on plots where the soil acidity had been adjusted
by the application of lime or sulfur. During the year soil samples were
taken from 5 different locations within the individual plots as well as a
composite sample from each plot. Soil acidity variations within the
individual plot were small.
Broccoli was planted on all plots in November. The crop was fertilized
with 1,200 pounds per acre of a 4-7-5 fertilizer. Individual rows on each
plot were sprayed with solutions containing boron, manganese, zinc or ni-
trogen. Growth was satisfactory at pH 5.8 or above but quite poor at
lower pH levels. There were no observable or measurable effects from the
spray treatments.
Peppers were planted following the broccoli. They were well ferti-
lized with a mixture containing nitrogen, phosphate, potash and magnesium.
Dry weather made it difficult to secure a uniform stand. Five plants were
staked on each plot row and sprayed a number of times during the grow-
ing season with solutions of boron, manganese, zinc or nitrogen. Yields
were satisfactory on all but the very acid plots. There was no measurable
response to any of the supplemental materials applied as sprays.

SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF VARIETIES AND STRAINS
OF VEGETABLES ADAPTABLE TO COMMERCIAL
PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
State Project 282 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
In cooperation with Dr. Donald Reddick, Cornell University, selection of
a number of strains was made from a plot of late blight-immune potatoes.
These potatoes are now in storage but will be planted in several areas of
the State during the coming season.

EFFECT OF VARIOUS GREEN MANURE CROPS ON
GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF CERTAIN VEGETABLES
State Project 283 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
The moisture equivalent for all plots was determined, but no additional
crops were grown. Results of work under this project are being analyzed
to determine the effect of the various cover crops on the succeeding vege-
table crop and to determine the seasonal differences.

FUMIGATION OF NURSERY STOCK
State Project 315 R. J. Wilmot
Investigations to determine the effect of methyl bromide and hydrocyanic
acid gas fumigation on Chinese Sacred, White Pearl, Soleil d'Or, Constan-
tinople, Paper White, Grand Monarque and Gloriosa narcissus bulbs were
continued as in previous years. This year there were no significant differ-
ences between varieties. However, data accumulated over a period of years
show a definite increase in the methyl bromide lots for Grand Monarque and
Soleil d'Or.

EFFECTS OF MINERAL DEFICIENCIES ON THE ADAPTABILITY
OF CERTAIN VEGETABLE VARIETIES TO FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones Project 319 B. E. Janes and F. S. Jamison
The series of plots used for this project were severely washed by heavy
rain in 1944 and were abandoned. No crops were planted under this







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


project during the winter of 1944-45. Statistical analysis of the data
obtained during the past 3 years shows that on heavily limed Arredondo
soil, boron, manganese, zinc and iron supplied singly or in combination
with each and all of the others, either as a spray or soil treatment, had
no significant effect on the yield of cabbage. This was true for all varieties
(6) studied. The project is being terminated with this report.

EFFECTS OF CERTAIN MINERAL ELEMENTS ON PLANT
GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION
Purnell Project 348-A A. L. Stahl and L. H. Rogers
This project was inactive this year and is closed with this report.

INVESTIGATIONS OF THE CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS OF
THE MU OIL TREE
State Project 365 R. D. Dickey, Joseph Hamilton and F. S. Lagasse
A limited number of seedlings in the mu oil tree (Aleurites montana
(Lour.) Wils.) plantings have made fair growth. However, when con-
sidered from the standpoint of the performance of the entire group at all
locations, growth and subsequent stand have not been satisfactory. Four
seedling progenies were tested. There was no difference in growth between
them at any 1 location, but there was a definite difference in the general
growth response at different locations.
A planting, including 5 species of Aleurites and various A. montana x
fordi hybrids was made in muck soil on the high school grounds at Moore
Haven. A. montana and its hybrids made very good growth during early
summer. However, later heavy summer rains raised the water table and
the resulting "wet feet" conditions killed all trees in the experiment by the
end of the summer.
Fifteen Aleurites montana x fordi hybrids have flowered thus far, and
none of these seemingly offer any commercial possibilities. Fruit set has
always been very light; the number of seed per fruit is usually small, 1 and
2, whereas it should be 3 to 5; and seed viability is quite low.

RELATION OF ZINC AND MAGNESIUM TO GROWTH AND
REPRODUCTION IN PECANS
Hatch Project 375 G. H. Blackmon
Investigations were conducted in commercial pecan orchards in 4
counties with different varieties and applications. Curtis and Kennedy are
used in Bradford and Moore and Moneymaker in Jefferson for tests with
zinc and magnesium; Moore in Jefferson to study the effects of zinc with
and without potash; in Leon County magnesium with and without potash
is being applied in a block of Moneymaker trees. In Walton County
different amounts of potash and magnesium are being compared separately
and together in a Stuart orchard with zinc being supplied when needed
by the trees. In 1 block of Moore trees in Jefferson County zinc is being
applied to the foliage as a spray in bordeaux mixture with and without
manganese. The zinc and magnesium are applied in addition to the
regular fertilizers and cover crops used in the particular experiment.
Winter legumes supply the nitrogen in the experiment in Walton County
(Fig. 1) and in 1 in Jefferson County with superphosphate applied before
the cover crop seed are planted. In the other tests nitrogen is applied in
fertilizers.
11 In cooperation with Division of Fruit and Vegetable Crops and Diseases, B. P. I. S. &
A. E.. USDA.







Annual Report, 1945 79

With Curtis and Kennedy tree growth was best without zinc and mag-
nesium but there were only small differences in yields. In the magnesium
plots Moore and Moneymaker trees grew best and Moneymaker gave
highest yields, but Moore produced the most nuts in the zinc-magnesium
plots.
Moore trees made the largest growth and the heaviest production of
nuts with potash and zinc in the experiment in which zinc is being applied
with and without potash. In the potash-magnesium plots the Moneymaker
trees in Leon County made the largest growth and yields to date, but in
1944 the check trees gave the heaviest production.
In the Walton County Stuart experiment most growth was made by the
untreated trees. In all other comparisons the high level potash and
magnesium plots produced the most wood with the potash plots a close
second. Heaviest 1944 yields were produced by trees receiving relatively
high magnesium and second heaviest with high potash. However, highest
total yields to date have been produced by trees receiving high potash
applications.
In the sprayed plots of Moore trees in Jefferson County, most growth
and highest yields were produced with the zinc-bordeaux applications.
Least growth and lightest nut production were obtained in the zinc-man-
ganese-bordeaux plots.
The nuts produced in all experiments were of good quality, except in
Jefferson County. There Moneymaker nuts were fair but Moore were much
below normal. None of the treatments in any locality had any effect on
quality of nuts in 1944.

Fig. 1.-Lupine as a cover crop in Stuart pecan experiment in
Walton County.

..-"* '.

r / :4








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Experiments on the control of casebearer are being conducted by the
Pecan Investigations Laboratory in the Moore-Moneymaker orchard in
Jefferson County. (See also ENTOMOLOGY, Proj. 379.)

EFFECT OF CERTAIN GROWTH SUBSTANCES ON PECANS
Adams Project 376 G. H. Blackmon
Experiments were conducted to study further the effects which naphtha-
leneacetic acid and naphthaleneacetamide, each at 0.001 percent concen-
tration, and 1 commercial preparation containing naphthaleneacetic acid
would have on the shedding of pecans. Frotscher, Kennedy and Zinc (Big
Z) varieties were used in the tests.
In 1943 Kennedy branches sprayed with these growth substances shed
less nuts than the unsprayed branches, but in 1944 there were no beneficial
effects in any of the tests. With each variety in 1944 higher percentages
of nuts were shed from sprayed than from unsprayed branches. There
were no differences in the various dates of application of the chemicals.
The project is closed with this report.

STORAGE AND HANDLING OF FLORIDA VEGETABLES
Purnell Project 377 A. L. Stahl and F. S. Jamison
The work with packaging a riper tomato in Florida for the Northern
market has continued. New types of wrappers were used, new packaging
containers tried, and express and air shipments were made comparing
tomatoes at several stages of ripening. Measurements of the volume of
many tomatoes in the pink-ripe stage were made and compared to those
taken earlier on the same fruit when in the green mature stage. Measure-
ments in the field and in the greenhouse showed that from 25 to 35 per-
cent by volume is gained in the tomato when allowed to pink-ripen on the
vine rather than picking in the green-mature stage. Yield per acre by
volume would be much higher if the crop were picked in the pink-ripe stage.
The new high diffusible pliofilm gave very good results on tomatoes,
holding them in good condition 2 to 3 times as long as those not wrapped
and several days longer than those in regular pliofilm. It also retarded
ripening, thus permitting a riper tomato to be picked and still have it
reach the market before it became too ripe. The crate used for eggs.
proved to be ideal for tomatoes. A ventilated cylindrical package which is
so arranged as not to permit pressure on each layer proved to be good for
both air and express shipments from Florida to New York City. The vine-
ripened tomatoes sold at a premium, within a very short time, when placed
on sale in retail stores in competition with those picked green. The com-
bination of pliofilm wrap and the specially constructed carton made this
possible.
Carrots of 4 varieties were stored at 3 different temperatures, using
several kinds of wrappers and several wax coatings. Nantes and Clhante-
nay varieties reacted best in storage and the best temperatures were found
to be from 350 to 400 F. Pliofilm wrappers and brytene gave best results
in the retention of moisture and quality.
Many of the vegetables which have high respiration rates were tested
in the new pliofilm which permits high diffusion of carbon dioxide gas.
Broccoli, lettuce, snap beans and spinach were tried in liners of the film
and the broccoli and lettuce were individually wrapped. This pliofilm used
as a liner for the bushel crate gave good results for broccoli, lettuce and
spinach and was fair for snap beans when refrigerated but did not give such
results in those not refrigerated. The single wrappers of high CO2 diffus-








Annual Report, 1945


ion pliofilm gave better results on lettuce and broccoli than did the regular
pliofilm of the same gauge.

VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS
State Project 391 F. S. Jamison
Several varieties of vegetables appeared worthy of test by growers.
Longreen, a bean of the Tendergreen type, appeared outstanding. The
pod of this bean was round, medium green, of good quality and much
longer than Tendergreen. No. 13, included in All-American trials, also
appeared to be an excellent round-podded bean of high quality. The pod
of this bean was light green and the plant produced a heavy crop.
Golden Cross Bantam, Ioana and Illinois Golden No. 10 under good cul-
tural conditions produced a satisfactory crop of sweet corn. All-America
No. 28 produced 50 percent more marketable ears than Golden Cross
Bantam. The corn was of exceptionally good quality. All America No.
21 was a particularly high-yielding variety, producing as many ears as No.
28 and the ears were decidedly larger.
Texas Grano onion matured earlier than Early Grano and the bulbs were
more uniform in size and shape. San Joaquin produced a number of thick-
necked bulbs. It matured 4 or 5 days later than Early Grano.
Great Lakes and Imperial 44 produced good crops of crisp-headed
lettuce.
(See also SUB-TROPICAL and EVERGLADES STATIONS and VEGE-
TABLE, CELERY, and POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORIES,
Proj. 391.)
DEHYDRATION OF VEGETABLES AND FRUITS
Purnell Project 413 A. L. Stahl and F. S. Jamison
In nutritive and culinary value, dehydrated Florida foods were found
to be as good as those tested from other sections.
Samples of cabbage, beans, collards, broccoli and carrots from 8
widely separated locations in Florida were dehydrated under various con-
ditions. In addition, vegetable samples were dehydrated from the above
locations from plots of 3 fertilizer levels-low, medium and high. The
fertilizer treatment had no apparent effect on the dehydrated vegetables.
However, some locations in the State proved to be better than others for
some vegetables but, when good for 1, they would not necessarily be good
for all varieties and types. The best dehydrated products were obtained
from those locations producing good succulent growth, the muck soils
giving a more succulent growth than did the clay or sand soils.
It was found that '3 to 1/ of the original vitamin C is lost in the best
controlled dehydration of the above-mentioned vegetables and another %
to Y3 was lost in cooking after dehydrating. Vitamin C content was highest
in the product stored at refrigerated temperatures in moisture- and air-
proof containers.
The colder the storage temperature, the better the keeping quality of
the dehydrated food. That stored away from light kept much better
than that in light. A cool, dark, dry storage is ideal for dehydrated foods.
Many new dehydrated products were prepared from using vegetable and
fruit wastes. Dehydrated powders were made from the vegetable waste
left in the field or at the packing plant. The best of these were the
powders made from celery and spinach field leavings. The outer leaves and
stems were used and the products compared, and after controlled drying
were ground into a powder. It proved to be a good base for soup or baby
food and made an excellent seasoning salt. The vitamin C content was







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


higher in the dried product than in the fresh inside leaves and stems of
celery and spinach. Florida dehydrated fruits were very good substitutes
for the high priced candied fruits used in fruit cakes and candies. A very
good dehydrated boiled peanut was made.

EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF FARM LABOR
Purnell Project 415 Max Brulik and F. S. Jamison
See AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, Proj. 415.

COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA GROWN VEGETABLES AS
AFFECTED BY ENVIRONMENT
State Project 420 B. E. Janes
Soluble sugars, acid hydrolyzable carbohydrates, fiber, total ash, cal-
cium, phosphate, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, potassium and total nitro-
gen were determined of the samples of cabbage collected during the 1943-44
season. With the cooperation of the branch stations and field laboratories,
Italian Green Sprouting broccoli and Georgia or Southern collards were
grown at Quincy, Hastings, Gainesville, Leesburg, Sanford, Bradenton,
Belle Glade and Homestead and Danvers and Imperator carrots at all
these locations except Quincy. Plot designs and procedures for taking soil
samples and climatic records were the same as for 1943-44. Samples of
all crops were brought to Gainesville where analyses were made for dry
weight, ascorbic acid and carotene; samples were preserved for carbohy-
drate and mineral analysis.

7I7




L --1iL l H -

Le.u g aJd.nton Qlaer Alsnesille B01 .lade U met S.11 4dti.ls Sanford


Lee.burg Bradsntan Quincy Gaisvllle SBlle Glade Ho stead Kastings Sanford

Fig. 2.-Comparison of percent dry weight and ascorbic acid content of
cabbage, collards and broccoli grown at various locations in Florida.







Annual Report, 1945


Amount of fertilizer and variety influenced composition of the cabbage
to a slight extent. There was less than 1 percent decrease in dry weight
and only a slight increase in carotene and ascorbic acid content of collards
and broccoli when the fertilizer level was tripled. There was a small differ-
ence in the composition of the 2 varieties of carrots. Fertilizer level had
little or no effect on the percent dry weight and carotene content of carrots.
There was a marked decrease in yield at the higher fertilizer levels. In
contrast to these small variations due to fertilizer and variety, the variation
from location to location is very large. Figure 2 shows the variation at
8 locations in percent dry weight and ascorbic acid content of cabbage
grown in the 1943-44 season and of collards and broccoli grown in the
1944-45 season. It is noteworthy that collards and broccoli vary the same
from location to location but that cabbage is different. There is a direct
correlation between percent dry weight and ascorbic acid. This is more
evident in the case of cabbage, but an analysis of co-variance showed that
for all 3 crops the correlation was highly significant. The carbohydrate
and mineral contents of cabbage showed the same type variations as the
vitamin and dry weight; that is, there was little difference at the various
fertilizer levels or between varieties but large differences from location to
location.
To determine effect of age and season on carotene content of carrots, a
series of 5 plantings were made at Gainesville at intervals of 2 to 6 weeks
from October to February. A sample of carrots from all 5 plantings col-
lected on the same day showed a range of carotene values from 2.7 mg.
per 100 gms. for 91-day old carrots to 9.8 mg. per 100 gms. for 200-day old
carrots. Two samples of the same planting collected at 122 days and 200
days after seeding had 5.0 mg. and 10.7 mg. per 100 gm. carotene, respec-
tively. The fact that the carrots were not all harvested at the same age
may account for some of the large differences between locations.

EFFECTS OF BORON ON CERTAIN DECIDUOUS FRUITS AND NUTS
Adams Project 432 G. H. Blackmon
The boron work was initiated this spring. Stuart pecan trees growing
on the Station farm were treated with 7 rates of borax in randomized treat-
ments in 4 replications. The Soils Department made boron determinations
of the soil and pecan leaves and will repeat these as often as necessary.
There have been no observable differences in the foliage of the trees in
the various treatments to date, possibly attributable to the extreme drouth
which existed until June 18. (See SOILS, Proj. 433.)

IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Bankhead-Jones Project 435 F. S. Jamison
Two varieties of sweet corn were planted on a series of plots irrigated
with varying amounts of water. Due to the exceptionally dry weather imme-
diately after planting, it was necessary to apply water to all plots to secure
germination. After the corn was above ground 1 set of plots received no
additional water until after the first harvest was made. Another set
received 1/2 to % inch of water each week, while the third set received
twice this amount. Temporary equipment was used for applying the
water and it was exceedingly difficult to secure even distribution.
The yield from the plots receiving the heaviest irrigation were approxi-
mately 10 times that of plots receiving no irrigation except at planting and
first harvesting, and were double the yields where 1z to % inch was applied.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


MISCELLANEOUS
Freezing Preservation of Florida Fruits and Vegetables.-Samples of
beans, collards, broccoli and carrots from 8 widely separated locations in
Florida were frozen under various conditions. In addition, samples were
dehydrated from the above locations from plots of 3 fertilizer levels-low,
medium and high. Records as to nutrient changes, taste and appearance
of these before and after cooking were taken. Many of the Florida fruits
and vegetables were frozen in various manners and by various methods,
testing varieties, method and length of blanching. Many ready-to-eat
dishes or cooked frozen foods were prepared by frying, boiling and baking
and then preserved by freezing.
Fertilizer treatments had no apparent effect on the dehydrated vege-
tables as no consistent differences were noted in the frozen vegetable
products from different fertilizer plots. Leafy vegetables grown on the
muck soils proved to be better for freezing than those grown on the ofher
types of soil, while beans and carrots grown on sandy loam gave a better
frozen product than those grown on muck. It was found that from % to %1
of the vitamin C is lost in blanching and freezing and another %1 to 14 is
lost in cooking. All of the frozen products were found to be of satisfactory
quality.
Baked dishes of peas, beans, cauliflower, eggplant, white potatoes and
sweet potatoes all gave good frozen products and were very tasty upon
heating. One of the chief advantages of the pre-cooked frozen foods was
the obvious fact that they saved time in preparation and cooking. They
were all much lower in vitamin C, however, than those which were only
blanched and stored frozen. (A. L. Stahl.)

U. S. FIELD LABORATORY FOR TUNG INVESTIGATIONS

F. S. Lagasse, Pomologist in Charge

The research work of the staff of the U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung
Investigations, financed by Federal funds, is carried out cooperatively under
a memorandum of understanding between the Bureau of Plant Industry,
Soils and Agricultural Engineering of the U. S. Department of Agriculture
and the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. The numerous facilities
extended to the laboratory, the use of certain plant materials, and the close
cooperation of the members of the horticultural staff of the Florida Station
are gratefully acknowledged.
A simple electrically-operated mechanical device for flaking tung kernels
for oil analysis has been devised. The tung kernels are placed in a carriage
which moves back and forth under slight pressure over a stationary knife
blade mounted in a box-like structure. The flakes are collected in a metal
drawer which fits into the side of the box below the knife. The main advan-
tages of the machine are: (1) The kernels are flaked 6 to 7 times faster
than by hand. (2) A uniform sample of tung flakes is obtained. (3) The
cost of flaking the kernels is considerably reduced.
Growth measurements made at the end of the first year following trans-
planting show that tung trees trained to the vase type made 53 percent
more total shoot growth than those trained to the natural crown. The
semi-delayed vase type of pruning, which consists of pruning the tree to a
height of about 26 inches during the first summer in the orchard, proved
unsatisfactory.
At the end of the second year following transplanting trees trained to
the vase type had 40 percent greater cross-sectional area of trunk than







Annual Report, 1945


the natural-crown trees. Trees planted with whole tops had 9 percent
larger cross-sectional area than those trained to a natural crown. Trees
transplanted with 18- and 24-inch roots were, respectively, 12 and 16 per-
cent larger in cross-section than those transplanted with 12-inch roots.
Trees transplanted with manure in the bottom of the hole were 18 percent
larger than those without manure. Seedling trees were 54 percent larger in
cross-sectional area than the clone L2 budded trees. The vase and the
whole-top trees yielded nearly twice as many fruits as the natural-crown
trees. The medimum- and the long-rooted trees yielded more than twice
as many fruits as the short-rooted trees. Trees with fertilizer in the bottom
of the hole yielded 15 percent more fruit than those without fertilizer in
the hole. The seedlings yielded slightly more fruit than the L2 clone.
In the Ocala area growers have had considerable difficulty in developing
vigorous growth on their trees the first season after transplanting. Several
of the Tung Laboratory plantings have had to be abandoned because of
inadequate growth. To date our experiments have shown that the trees
respond to commercial fertilizer and manure, but such response is not
sufficient to produce vigorous, thrifty trees. Leaf analyses give little evi-
dence that the lack of growth is due to low N, P, K, Ca or Mg. None of
the known deficiency symptoms have been observed on the foliage. In. an
attempt to determine just what factors influence the development of trees
during the first year following transplanting, an experiment has been
started to study the effects of water, cultivation and early or late fertiliza-
tion. Other treatments include physical modification of the soil, with
relatively heavy applications of peat and collodial phosphate.
Most tung growers delay cultivating and fertilizing their orchards until
after blossoming, fearing that stirring the soil and applying the nutrients
before that time would induce earlier blossoming and thus increase the
danger of frost damage. However, a heavy application of ammonium
nitrate the early part of January plus cultivation every 2 weeks failed
during the past season to affect the time of blossoming. This information,
if borne out by further tests, should prove to be of considerable practical
importance, for, in many instances, it will permit a better distribution of
labor and will insure the fertilizer being applied before bloom, as is desir-
able if maximum effects from it are to be obtained.
In another study 4 pounds of ammonium nitrate fertilizer were applied
under the spread of the branches of 6-year-old seedling tung trees in
December, January, February or March. At each date of application, 9
trees were fertilized. Samples of roots, shoots and buds (leaves and fruits
at the March sampling) were taken at each date of application of the
fertilizer. Data now available show that the nitrogen applied in December
had significantly increased the nitrogen content of the roots but not of the
shoots and buds 1 month after the application was made. The February
sampling of the trees fertilized in December showed a further increase in
nitrogen content of the roots and an increase in the nitrogen content of the
shoots and buds over that of unfertilized trees. The trees fertilized in
January showed an increase in the nitrogen content of the roots, shoots,
and buds similar to that found in the tissues of trees fertilized in
December. Unfertilized trees showed a slight loss of nitrogen in roots
and shoots and an increase in the buds at the February sampling, indicating
that this element moves out of the roots and shoots into the buds at the
time of initial spring growth. The March application and sampling was
made, but the chemical analyses on this material have not been completed
as yet.
Treatment effects in the factorial experiment with N, P and K fertilizers
have been measured at Beverly Hills Plantation. Applications equivalent







86 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

to 1.11 and 3.37 pounds of nitrate of soda per tree at the beginning of the
second growing season resulted in increases in cross-section of trunk of 13
and 28 percent, respectively, over application of 0.37 pounds per tree.
Applications equivalent to 0.174 and 0.522 pounds per tree of 62-percent
muriate of potash resulted in increases of 7 and 14 percent, respectively,
over application of 0.058 pounds per tree. The effect of superphosphate on
cross-sectional area was negligible. The trees are still too young for data
on yields to be of any practical importance.
The crop on budded and seedling trees in a test near LaCrosse was
very light, and in parts of the orchard non-existent, due to frost damage
in the spring of 1944. Treatment effects, based on 1944 cross-sectional
area of the trees, did not quite reach statistical significance (1.92, whereas
an F value of 1.94 is required.) The budded trees as a whole have set a
heavy crop of fruit this spring, 1945, whereas the alternating rows of
seedling trees of the same age have but little fruit. The fertilizer treat-
ments will be continued but the quantity applied will be increased.
An original method of summer budding has been developed which has
proved satisfactory during the past season. Over a period of approximately
3 weeks, beginning in early July, the bud is set as high on the young stock
as the maturity of the bark permits, usually about 1 foot. At the time
the bud is inserted, all leaves above the bud are stripped off. If this is
not done, many of the tops will break dff at the point where the bud is
inserted. In a week or so the bands are cut and the stock is pruned back
to about 4 inches above the bud. Also at this time any stock buds that
are forcing out either above or below the set bud are rubbed off. The stock
buds are again removed a couple of weeks later, after which the tree is
given no further attention. Trees grown by this method during the sum-
mer of 1944 were transplanted the following spring and have made very
satisfactory growth to date. It should be emphasized that this method of
budding is feasible only in nurseries where the seedling stocks make a very
vigorous growth early in the season.
Germination tests made during the spring of 1944 indicated that seed
from trees deficient in copper and magnesium had a much lower percentage
of germination than did seed from trees containing an adequate supply of
these elements. Similar studies are being conducted during the 1945
season.
The comparison of the physiology of germination of stratified, dry-
stored, and morpholine-treated seeds has been completed. The data indicate
that the stratified seeds germinate more quickly and uniformly, having
activated enzyme systems at time of planting as a consequence of the
moisture and temperature conditions to which they have been subjected
during stratification. The conversion of oil to carbohydrates was found
to be more complete in the stratified seed during the early and intermediate
stages of germination than in the other seeds during these stages.
Data obtained indicate that copper is required by the tung tree for
normal metabolism. Under conditions of deficiency of copper the nitrogen
content, particularly protein nitrogen, is abnormally high in the midshoot
leaves and in the fruit, both on a percentage and on a milligram basis. The
carbohydrate fractions in general are low in the copper-deficient leaves and
kernels, but are higher in the copper-deficient hulls than in the normal
hulls. The copper content of the midshoot leaves of both normal and
copper-deficient trees increases during the growing season. The oil con-
tent of fruit from deficient trees is quite low. The suggestion is made
that copper functions in the nitrogen metabolism of the plant.
The development of symptoms of copper deficiency was found to be
aggravated by the application of nitrogenous fertilizers to trees growing







Annual Report, 1945


on soils supplying insufficient copper. The leaves from trees most
severely affected likewise had the highest nitrogen content, as well as the
least copper. Trees of clone F193 were more susceptible to copper defici-
ency under nitrogen fertilization than were those of L14 and A12. The
development of symptoms of copper deficiency could be prevented readily
by the application of copper compounds to the soil or as a spray to the
leaves, while the nitrogen level was kept low. The application of copper
was less effective when nitrogen was also supplied to the tree. The
existence of a copper-nitrogen balance was demonstrated in a factorial
experiment with copper and nitrogen.
Treatments were continued in the minor element experiment started in
cooperation with the Florida Station in 1943. The trees made very poor
growth during the 1944 growing season, probably due to defoliation by late
spring frosts. At the end of the season the trees were rated for vigor of
terminal shoot growth, but the treatment effects were far short of statistical
significance. Samples of foliage have been taken from certain plots for
chemical analysis.
In cooperation with the Florida Station, a factorial experiment with
5 so-called minor elements, each at 2 levels, was conducted. None of the
elements (calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese or zinc) was found to
have any significant effect on the symptoms of the foliage for copper or
zinc deficiency or on the amount of shoot growth, or on the cross-sectional
area of the trunk.
Magnesium deficiency continues to be widespread over this area, more
so this year than in previous years, and most of the tung growers have
been advised to use magnesium sulfate in their regular fertilizer program.
An experiment has been initiated to determine the best sources and
amounts of magnesium-carrying fertilizers for controlling magnesium
deficiency. At the end of the first season it has been found that on 6-year-
old trees the 1-, 2- and 4-pound soil applications of Epsom salt have been
beneficial, the heavier applications being most effective. On slightly or
moderately deficient trees the heavier applications of Epsom salt have
usually completely corrected the disorder, but on severely affected trees even
the 4-pound application did not completely correct the disorder the first
year. Sulfate of potash-magnesium treatments were not so effective as
Epsom salt in amounts that were equivalent on an MgO basis, but on the
basis of cost per unit of MgO the former is more economical. Dolomite up
to 14 pounds per tree (1,000 pounds per acre) and calcined magnesite (in
amounts equivalent in magnesium content to 14 pounds of dolomite per
tree) were both ineffective in correcting the disorder the first year. How-
ever, dolomite plus sulfur appeared to be beneficial, but the results were
not conclusive.
Magnesium-deficiency symptoms have been reported in several tung
orchards outside of the Gainesville area and in most cases the soil is a Nor-
folk sand or closely related type. In 1 orchard at Lloyd, Fla., the soil is
predominantly Red Bay fine sandy loam and requires a high-potash ferti-
lizer for best results with tung trees. The grower has been using a high-
potash fertilizer successfully, but in 1 small area of Norfolk sand a mag-
nesium deficiency has appeared, apparently induced by the use of the
high-potash fertilizer. This serves to emphasize the importance of main-
taining a proper magnesium-potassium ratio for best results with tung
trees and the necessity for information on soil type with reference to
fertilizer practice. Many observations during the past year have been
made on the effect of high-potash fertilizer materials in accentuating
magnesium deficiency and further work on this problem is under way.








88 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Yield records were obtained during the past year on the soil-type plots
established in this area in 1940. Total yield at 2 locations from plots on
Landrum fine sand (a soil type similar to Norfolk fine sand, except that
there is a brown, sandy clay layer at from 3 to 6 feet below the surface)
is almost twice that of plots on the Norfolk fine sand under the same cul-
tural and fertilizer treatment. This agrees with results of previous good
crop years and confirms the observations frequently made on the inferiority
of the Norfolk fine sand soil. These plots will be discontinued and the
records of the past 5 years will be assembled for publication.
Over 1,000 leaf samples were analyzed during the past year for 3 to
8 of the following mineral constituents: total ash, nitrogen, potassium, phos-
phorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron and manganese. Most of
these samples were collected from various field plots of the Federal
Laboratories for Tung Investigations at Cairo, Ga., Fairhope, Ala., and
Bogalusa, La., and the data used as an aid in interpreting the results
obtained in the field experiments. Some of the samples were taken from
commercial orchards and the data obtained are being used to build up a
background of information on the relation of commercial orchard produc-
tion to the mineral nutrition levels of the trees as indicated by leaf
analyses. Another group of leaf samples were analyzed in connection with
physiological studies on potassium, copper and magnesium nutrition.
Tung seedlings were grown in sand culture and supplied with nutrient
solutions of differential concentrations with respect to potassium and
nitrogen. The main objectives of the experiment were: (1) to obtain in
the leaves 3 levels of nitrogen in all possible combinations with 3 levels
of potassium while maintaining the levels of other elements such as
phosphorus, calcium and magnesium either at optimum or above deficiency
concentrations, and (2) to determine the effect of these conditions on
growth, photosynthesis and mineral and carbohydrate composition of the
plants. A 3 x 3 factorial design was used with 6 replications. A tenth
treatment consisting of an Na,+Ka+PS solution was included to determine
the effect of high phosphorus content as opposed to the medium phosphorus
content in the main 9 treatments. This approach to the problem of mineral
nutrition is unusual in that the results are to be interpreted on the basis of
the composition of the plants rather than the level of nutrients applied.
In regard to growth, results of the experiment may be summarized as
follows:
The nitrogen significantly increased the dry weight of the plants at the
0.01 level of significance while the effect of potassium on dry weight did
not quite attain significance at the 0.05 level. Nitrogen and potassium
each had a statistically significant effect on height and diameter of tree.
There was no statistically significant interaction between nitrogen and
potassium on dry weight, height or diameter. The N, and K, levels each
had a marked effect in depressing the dry weight, height and diameter of
these plants as compared with the plants at the N2, N, and Ks, K3 levels.
There was no appreciable effect of the N, level over N2 or of K, over KZ
with respect to height, diameter or dry weight. Additional details will
be published in full elsewhere. (F. S. Lagasse, Senior Pomologist; H. M.
Sell, Assoc. Chemist; M. Drosdoff, Soil Technologist; S. G. Gilbert, Asst.
Plant Physiologist; J. Hamilton, Asst. Pomologist; A. J. Loustalot, Asst.
Physiologist; Lucille H. Fay and Mary E. Heitzman, Clerk-Stenographers;
Maude H. Stokes and Ann M. Dennis, Scientific Aides.)







Annual Report, 1945


PLANT PATHOLOGY

Considerable information was obtained on some of the plant disease
projects, but little progress was made on others because the prolonged
warm, dry period prevented development of the diseases under considera-
tion. Summaries of the outstanding information obtained are given under
the respective project headings. Brief reports are also given of informa-
tion obtained from miscellaneous preliminary research not conducted
through numbered projects.

COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF SPECIMENS
OF FLORIDA PLANTS
State Project 259 Erdman West and Lillian E. Arnold
The following table is a resume of the additions made during the past
year and the total number of specimens on file in each group of the
permanent collections in the herbarium.
Group Accessions Totals
Spermatophytes ...... .. ................... .... 776 43,451
Pteridophytes ..... .... .............. ......... 0 2,170
B ryophytes ...... ..................................... 0 7,723
Thallophytes ....... ..... .......... ............. 540 39,536
Seed collections ...... ......... ........ 76 2,001
1,392 94,881

In addition, 198 sheets representing fragmentary material of little
value were replaced with recent desirable specimens.
Gifts and exchange specimens received included 154 packets of fungi
and 560 sheets of phanerogams, of which 291 sheets were Florida plants.
Exchange material sent to other institutions included 1,999 packets of
fungi and 286 sheets of phanerogams, all Florida specimens. An out-
standing gift consisted of 128 packets of Florida fresh water algae donated
by Dr. M. A. Brannon.
Only 2 collecting trips were made this year, 1 to Levy County to collect
Cyperus metzii (Hochst.) Matt. & Kiikenth., a species of the Old World
tropics, which was once collected in Martinique, West Indies, about 50 years
ago. Its presence in northern Levy County probably constitutes the first
record for the United States and continental America, according to Hugh
T. O'Neill, who determined the first specimen collected on August 24, 1939.
A large quantity of this material was collected, dried and sent to him for
distribution to various herbaria. The second trip was made to Citrus
County in March to collect for the herbarium certain species of violets
growing in little cavities of small rocks. To date the species has not been
determined. On this trip Gerardia floridana (A. Gray) Small was found
blooming in great numbers at a location about 150 miles farther north
than any previous collection of the species. In addition, 45 specimens of
higher plants were secured for distribution records.
The entire collections of the following genera have been sent away
for study and annotation by their respective specialists; Rhynchospora to
Shirley Gale Cross, Cuthbertia to Norman Giles and Eleocharis to Henry
K. Svenson. Only the latter has been completed and returned.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


In connection with the cooperative project with the New York State
College of Forestry, herbarium material of Aleurites montana (Lour.)
Wils. was prepared and sent to Syracuse and the log will follow.
Several botanists and other visitors have used the facilities of the
herbarium. One demonstration on the use and value of the herbarium was
made for a class in agronomy. A class in dendrology was conducted in the
absence of the instructor. An art class was brought to see the water
color paintings.
Identifications for citizens and members of this and other institutions
numbered 375 specimens of fungi and plant disease organisms, and 392
specimens of higher plants. Among the parasitic fungi present on plant
materials intercepted at Florida ports of entry by quarantine officers were
9 specimens of Leptosphaeria salvinii Catt., which causes a serious disease
of rice in the Orient.
A manuscript entitled "The Native Trees of Florida" has been completed
and sent to press.
A total of 22 specimens of plants suspected of being poisonous to
cattle or other animals were received by the laboratory for identification.
These were all different species of native or naturalized plants, of which
9 are known to be poisonous and 1 other is suspected but has not been
checked.

HOST RELATIONS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE GROWTH
AND PARASITISM OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII Sacc.
Adams Project 269 Erdman West
Experiments to determine the effect of organic matter on the growth
and parasitism of the fungus were continued in the greenhouse. Zephyr-
anthes grown in various mixtures of builder's sand and leaf mold infested
with sclerotia remained healthy for 2 successive seasons. Lupine plants
grown in various proportions of field sand and leaf mold in pots inoculated
at 1 side with sclerotia were attacked in all mixtures of sand and organic
matter and without regard to the position of the inoculum. More plants
survived in pure field sand than in any of the mixtures containing leaf
mold, indicating that the fungus spreads more rapidly in soil containing
organic matter. Fresh organic matter consisting of chopped or finely
ground green crotalaria tops mixed with field sand in various proportions
prevented the growth of lupine seeds planted in any of the mixtures a week
after their preparation. Seeds planted in pure field sand gave almost per-
fect emergence. Although all of these mixtures were inoculated by placing
sclerotia in each pot, the fungus was evidently not a factor in the failure
of the lupines.
Naphthalene flakes applied to field plots of infested Norfolk sand at
rates of 21 and 5 pounds per 100 square feet did not significantly reduce
the incidence of diseased plants. Lupine seeds planted 10 days after
treatment failed to germinate at the heavier dosage but at the lighter
dosage germination was as good as the check. Germination of seed
planted 1 month after the treatment was % as good with the heavier
treatment as with the lighter and the checks. When planted 2 months
after treatment, germination at both dosages was the same as that of the
checks.
Stock cultures of 14 strains of the fungus (some of which had been in
culture for several years) isolated from various hosts and showing wide
variation in morphological characters proved equally pathogenic to lupine
seedlings.








Annual Report, 1945


A comparative test in which zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate, calcium
dimethyl dithiocarbamate, Fermate Special P. C. (ferric dimethyl dithio-
carbamate), DuPont 1452-C and 1452-F (ethyl mercury paratoluene sul-
fonanilide) and New Improved Ceresan (ethyl mercury phosphate) were
used as soil drenches indicated that the last was most effective. This test
was made by inoculating flats of sterilized potting soil in the greenhouse
with equal numbers of sclerotia, I% of each drenched with a suspension or
solution of the fungicide and both halves planted with equal numbers of
lupine seeds. Treating the seed with Spergon before planting them gave
no significant increases in germination.

CAUSES OF FAILURE OF SEED AND SEEDLINGS IN VARIOUS
FLORIDA SOILS AND DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS
FOR PREVENTION
Adams Project 281 W. B. Tisdale, A. N. Brooks and A. L. Harrison
Experiments have been performed with both seed and soil treatments.
Most of the work with seed treatments has been completed and more time
has been devoted to the soil-treatment phase of the project than previously.
Cowpea.-Previous tests with cowpeas have shown little or no benefit
resulting from the use of seed protectants. Since 1 lot of California Black-
eye peas with rather low viability was available, 3 materials, Arasan, Dow
9B and Spergon, were tried on them. Included in the test was a lot of
Ramshorn Blackeye with high viability. All 3 materials improved emer-
gence of the California Blackeye, but only Spergon at a dosage of 1/
percent gave a significant improvement. It was also significantly better
than Dow 9B. None of the treatments increased emergence of the Rams-
horn Blackeye with high viability.
Lettuce.-One test was performed with lettuce to determine the com-
parative effectiveness of several seed treatment materials as protectants
against Pythium irregulare Buis. and Pythium splendens Braun. Soil arti-
ficially infested with these organisms was used, and the treating materials
were Arasan, 2% Ceresan, Dow 9B and 1452-F at dosages of 1/4 percent
and a copper bronze powder at a 12 percent. In this test P. irregular was
much more pathogenic than P. splendens, and all treatments offered less
protection against it. Emergence from the non-treated seed in soil infested
with P. irregular was only 0.6 percent, whereas that from seed treated
with Arasan was 41.6 percent, which was highly significant over any other
treatment. However, all treatments except Dow 9B gave significant
increases in emergence. In soil infested with P. splendens emergence from
non-treated seed was 40 percent, from Arasan 78 percent and from 1452-F
79 percent. All other treatments were significantly less effective than
Arasan and 1452-F, but gave highly significant increases over the check.
Spinach.-The same materials, dosages and species of Pythium used
with lettuce were used with spinach under similar greenhouse conditions.
P. splendens proved to be more pathogenic to spinach than P. irregular.
All treatments gave increases in emergence over the check in soil infested
with P. irregular, only that due to Arasan being significant. Dow 9B
was the only treatment that did not give significant protection against
P. splendens.
Several soil treatment tests were performed with different crops. One
cooperative seedbed experiment with cabbage was run at Plant City during
the period July to October, 1944. This was set up to test on a commercial
scale the methods which seemed to offer the best control of pre-emergence
and post-emergence damping-off. The test included treating seed,
treating the soil with chloropicrin before planting the seed, and spraying








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 6.-EFFECT OF SOIL TREATMENTS ON EMERGENCE, FINAL STAND,
NEMATODE INFESTATION AND GROWTH OF VEGETABLE SEEDLINGS.


I Final
Soil Treatments Emergence Stand
No. Plants No. Plants


Nematode Av. Wt. per
Infestation Seedling,
Percent Grams


Cabbage 37 Days after Planting Seed
None .....................-- ...-... 50.4 46.4 8.6 4.6
DD-6 cc. per sq. ft..... 39.4 34.8 0.0 11.7
Chloropicrin--2 1/ cc.
per sq. ft. ................. 52.6 46.2 0.0 11.0
Uramon--/ lb. per
sq. yd. ........................ 38.2 36.0 0.0 6.05
Uramon-1 lb. per
sq. yd. ........................ 4.4 3.0 0.0 2.7

Significant difference:
Odds 19:1 .................. 11.6 12.2 n.s.* 4.4
Odds 99:1 .................. 15.9 16.9 n.s.* 6.1
Lettuce 35 Days after Planting Seed
None ........................... 37.6 48.2 20.6 3.0
DD-6 cc. per sq. ft..... 18.8 36.2 0.0 5.9
Chloropicrin-21/ cc.
per square ft. -........ 33.4 50.2 13.5 7.7
Uramon--/ lb. per
sq. yd. ......................- 22.0 56.4 31.7 2.5
Uramon-1 lb. per
sq. yd. .................-... 2.8 15.6 3.0 1 1.3

Significant difference:
Odds 19:1 .........- ... 10.0 13.9 22.2 2.2
Odds 99:1 .................. 13.8 19.2 30.6 3.0
Spinach 39 Days after Planting Seed
None ........................ ... 31.2 27.6 90.4 4.7
DD-6 cc. per sq. ft..... 26.4 14.8 1.2 15.68
Chloropicrin-21/2 cc.
per sq. ft. ................ 63.0 60.0 37.5 9.16
Uramon--/2 lb. per
sq. yd. ........................ 52.8 50.0 51.0 5.24
Uramon-1 lb. per
sq. yd. ........................ 29.2 21.6 34.1 5.58

Significant difference:
Odds 19:1 .................. 18.4 18.0 41.0 4.9
Odds 99:1 .................. 25.4 24.8 56.5 6.8
Tomato 34 Days after Planting Seed
None ............................ 59.0 67.0 57.6 1.92
DD-6 cc. per sq. ft.-.. 57.6 64.4 0.0 6.56
Chloropicrin-2 % cc.
per sq. ft. .................. 58.6 71.6 29.0 6.38
Uramon-%/2 lb. per
sq. ft. ........................ 44.6. 72.6 12.5 2.86
Uramon-1 lb. per
sq. ft. ........................ 19.6 44.2 0.0 1.80
Significant difference:
Odds 19:1 .................. 15.9 17.2 31.6 2.2
Odds 99:1 .................. 21.9 24.4 46.9 3.0
Differences not significant.








Annual Report, 1945


the soil and seedlings with Spergon and Semesan. Seedling emergence was
high but post-emergence damping-off began to develop in 4 to 6 days after
emergence regardless of soil treatment, and was not checked by weekly
applications of Spergon or Semesan. The cause of severity of damping-off
and lack of control by the methods used were not determined, but the large
amount of vegetation disked into the soil shortly before planting might
have been responsible.
To test this possibility, an experiment was set up in the spring, using
Fordhook lima beans as a test crop. On 1 portion of the experimental area
the summer cover crop of velvet beans was disked and plowed under in
October while they were green, and disked subsequently to keep the land
free of weed growth until the beans were planted on March 2. On the
other area the velvet bean vines were allowed to mature and were disked
but not turned under in December. Because of mild weather the velvet
bean seed and weed seed germinated and grew vigorously. All of this
vegetation was disked into the soil 10 days before planting the seed.
The lima bean seed were treated with Spergon before planting. The
percentage emergence was significantly higher on land where the vegetation
was turned under early. Yield was more than twice as high on the clean
land, a highly significant increase.
Two soil-treatment experiments were performed at Gainesville, 1
with a seedbed and 1 with vegetable crops in the field. The soil was
approximately neutral Norfolk sandy loam. Test crops for the seedbed
experiment were cabbage (Copenhagen Market), lettuce (Imperial 44),
spinach (Virginia Savoy) and tomato (Rutgers). The seed were not
treated before planting. The soil treatments were chloropicrin, 21/2 cc.
per square foot, DD, 6 cc. per square foot and Uramon, 1/2 and 1 lb. per
square yard. The chloropicrin and DD were applied 9 days before planting
the seed and the soil was watered immediately after the materials were
applied, 5 hours later and again after 20 hours. The Uramon was applied
24 days before the seeds were planted and was thoroughly worked into the
soil. The soil was kept watered to keep it moist, and it was reworked
twice before the seeds were planted. All treatments were replicated 5
times and the crops were randomized in each plot. One hundred seed of
each crop were used for replication. Results of the experiment are sum-
marized in Table 6.
The number of weeds was reduced to some extent by all treatments.
Uramon at the 1-pound rate appeared to be most effective in this respect,
and DD ranked second. Both materials killed nut grass in the vegetative
stage at time of treatment and no other plants emerged during the experi-
mental period, while some plants came back in the plot treated with chloro-
picrin. Uramon also reduced emergence of all test crops and retarded
emergence of lettuce and tomato, indicating that the seed were planted too
soon after treatment.
In the field experiment, chloropicrin, 2% cc per square foot; DD, 6 cc.
per square foot; and granular calcium cyanamid, 1 pound per square yard,
were used as treatment materials, and snap bean (Stringless Greenpod),
lima bean (Henderson Bush), squash (Yellow Straightneck) and tomato
(Rutgers) were used as test crops. The plots were randomized in blocks
with 3 replications for each treatment and a check. The cyanamid was
applied 109 days before the seeds were planted and chloropicrin and DD
only 10 days before planting. The cynamid was dug into the soil thoroughly
and the soil was watered several times during the winter. Tomato plants,
5 per plot, were transplanted and seeds of the other crops were planted
directly in the plots. Fifty seed of lima bean and snap bean were planted
per plot and all plants that emerged were left. Several squash seed were








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 7.-EFFECT OF SOIL TREATMENTS ON EMERGENCE, FINAL STAND,
RHIZOCTONIA INFECTION, NEMATODE INFESTATION AND GROWTH OF CER-
TAIN VEGETABLE CROPS.


o

Soil Treatments P +) Ze .
SS .S^S 2,gs SJ


Snap Beans

None (check) ............................ 88.6 69.6 42.6 41.3 73.6
Calcium cyanamid-1 lb. per
sq. yd. ...................................... 90.0 84.6 27.3 42.3 36.6
Chloropicrin-2/2 cc. per sq. ft. 91.2 90.0 10.3 3.0 107.6
DD-6 cc. per sq. ft. -----..-....... 92.0 75.2 32.0 0.0 93.6

Significant difference:
Odds 19:1 ...................... ....... n.s.* 4.6 14.3 n.s.* 42.2
Odds 99:1 ...................................... 17.5......

Lima Bean (Henderson Bush)

None -.....--............... ... ........--- 81.2 76.0 72.6 49.6
Calcium cyanamid-1 lb. per
sq. yd. ..........................- ......--.. 76.0 66.6 88.2 32.0
Chloropicrin-21/2 cc. per sq. ft. 96.0 94.0 33.1 86.0
DD-6 cc. per sq. ft. .................. 84.0 71.2 0.0 77.6

Significant difference:
Odds 19:1 .............................. n.s.* n.s.* 46.1 26.4
Odds 99:1 ..................... .......... 32.3

Squash

N one ......-........ ...................-...... I 89.0 339.0
Calcium cyanamid-1 lb. per
sq. yd. ...................................------- ... 36.1 135.0
Chloropicrin--2% cc. per sq. ft. 30.5 328.3
DD-6 cc. per sq. ft. ............- 5.5 270.6

Significant difference:
Odds 19:1 ..................--- -.......... 52.3 41.15
Odds 99:1 ................................ I 79.3 62.35

Tomato

None ........................-...-.. ............- 100.0 427.3
Calcium cyanamid-1 lb. per
sq. yd. ........................................ 100.0 365.3
Chloropicrin-2Y2 cc. per sq. ft. 83.3 714.7
DD-6 cc per sq. ft. .................. 6.6 541.0

Significant difference:
Odds 19:1 ................................ 25.6 134.8

Differences not significant.








Annual Report, 1945


planted per hill, 6 hills per plot, and the stand was thinned to 2 plants per
hill. The data obtained are given in Table 7.
All crops on the cyanamid plots were stunted and a tip-burn persisted
throughout the experimental period on all crops except squash, which indi-
cated that the material had never completely broken down. (See also
Report, Vegetable Crops Laboratory, Proj. 281.)

PHOMOPSIS BLIGHT AND FRUIT ROT OF EGGPLANT
Adams Project 344 Phares Decker
In continuing the breeding for resistance to Phomopsis blight of egg-
plant, 74 hybrid families were grown during the fall of 1944, from which
98 selections were made for increase or further breeding. A severe epi-
demic of blight occurred in the fall crop, affording an opportunity to
select seeds from disease-resistant plants and fruits in the field.
Experience has proved that breeding can be done more satisfactorily in
the greenhouse during the cooler months than during the field-growing
season. The more promising selections were selfed and/or crossed with
the standard varieties in an attempt to get a true breeding purple-fruiting
plant. Seed from 129 selfed and/or crossed fruits were obtained and are
planted in a seedbed where the plants will be inoculated with the Phomopsis
organism. The surviving plants will be grown in the field during the fall.
Seeds of 76 hybrid families saved from the 1944 spring and fall crop
were planted in the greenhouse. The young plants were inoculated with
Phomopsis and the surviving plants were set in the field the first week of
April, 1945. Plants in these families range from 6 to 70 and are now
growing in the field. For the first time certain of these families are com-
ing true for purple-colored fruits, while most families are segregating,
showing from 10 to 75 percent off-colored fruits. Notes on the plant type,
fruit color, fruit types and yields are being recorded to aid in selecting
seed for increase or further breeding.

AZALEA FLOWER SPOT
Adams Project 357 Erdman West
No experimental work was conducted on this project during 1944-45
because infection was unusually light throughout the State and especially
in the Gainesville area. This appeared to be due to the unusually warm,
dry spring weather. Furthermore, the host plant is considered unessential
to the war effort. In all cases where the disease was observed, spots were
limited to small areas, rarely involving whole flowers and seldom bore
spores of the fungus. Isolations of the causal organism were made from
flowers of Fielders White variety in a well-irrigated planting, and the
culture will be carried through the summer if possible.
The experimental azalea nursery established several years ago has been
maintained for future use. Additional stock is being propagated to
complete the planting.

RHIZOCTONIA DISEASES OF CROP PLANTS
Adams Project 371 W. B. Tisdale and A. N. Brooks
Comparatively little experimental work was done on this project. In
connection with soil treatments under Project 281, isolations were made
from diseased plants to determine what organisms were involved. Rhiz-
octonia was obtained in a majority of cases. Observations made in the soil
treatment plots and in commercial fields have indicated that turning under
vegetation a short time before planting lima bean, snap bean and cabbage
increases the damage caused by Rhizoctonia. It was not determined







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


whether different strains of Rhizoctonia were involved in the various soil
treatments. This project is being discontinued with this report.

MISCELLANEOUS
Camellia Dieback.-Numerous specimens of a dieback disease of Camel-
lia japonica L. were received during the past year and other collections were
made in the variety-test plantings on the Station grounds. Isolations from
these specimens have yielded a preponderance of Diplodia sp., sometimes
mixed with Phomopsis sp., while a few have yielded Phomopsis sp. alone.
Very few isolations of Gloeosporium sp. have been obtained, although this
has been reported as the major cause of a similar trouble in other parts of
the United States. In 2 instances a Diaporthe sp., apparently D. camelliae
Fl. Tassi, has been found fruiting, once on a dying cutting and once on a
typical dieback specimen. A successful method of inducing the Phomopsis
sp. to fruit in culture will now permit inoculation experiments to be made
with this organism. Previous inoculations with Diplodia sp. have not
resulted in infections. (Erdman West)
Witches Broom of Oleanders.-Oleander plants in the greenhouse bear-
ing witches brooms and cankers produced by inoculation were carefully
pruned nearly to the ground to remove all external evidence of the disease.
The new growth, 6 feet or more in length, has remained healthy but 2
of the plants have developed new brooms on the old stems and 1 other has
died with a canker that developed near the ground line, girdling the stem.
Evidently pruning without the use of fungicidal sprays will not eliminate
the disease. (Erdman West)
Cucumber Dust Experiment.-A test was made to compare the perform-
ance of 4 new fungicides in controlling downy mildew of cucumber, using
the yield of fruit as a measure of effectiveness. The variety Abbott and
Cobb was used. Each treatment and a check was replicated 5 times in
randomized plots, each replication consisting of 5 hills, 2 plants per hill,
in a row 25 feet long. A total of 7 applications of dusts were made, the
first when the plants showed 3 to 4 leaves and the others at 5- to 7-day
intervals. The Spergon dust was prepared by the manufacturer and the
others were all mixed in the laboratory using a diluent known as Pyrax.
Downy mildew appeared in the check plots first and developed more
rapidly than in the dusted plots, but there was little difference in the
degree of infection of plants at the seventh or final picking. The dusts
used and the average weight of fruit are shown in the following table:
Av. Weight
Dust Material Percent of Fruit,
ounces
N o n e ............................................................ ...................... 1 1 7 .0
Zinc dimethyl dithio carbamate ......................... 5 223.4
F erm ate ................................................ ......................... 15 259.2
T ribasic copper ............................. ............................. 10 202.6
S p e rg o n ...................................................................................... 12 2 3 3 .6
Significant difference-Odds 19:1 99.85
These data show that all dusts except tribasic copper caused significant
increases in yields over the check. Since no fruit was obtained from the
check plots at the first picking and very few at the second, it is apparent
that the dusts did not interfere with the set of fruit. (W. B. Tisdale)
Investigations of Lupine Diseases.-Investigations of lupine diseases
were conducted in cooperation with R. C. Bond of the North Florida Station
and Geo. Ritchey of the Department of Agronomy.








Annual Report, 1945


TABLE 8.-SEED TREATMENTS, RATES, AVERAGE STANDS AND AVERAGE
GREEN WEIGHTS OF 6 REPLICATIONS FOR SEVERAL LOCATIONS OF BLUE
LUPINE 1944-45.

Rate per I Average Green
Seed Bushel, Average Stand Weight in Pounds,
Treatments ounces 12/20/44 1 3/3/45 3/3/45

Spergon .............. 2.0 75.47 72.9 9.7
1451 K ............... .5 76.07 72.3 10.2
1452 F .................. .5 72.73 70.4 10.0
Arasan ............... 2.0 74.40 72.0 10.9
Check ............... none 69.70 68.7 10.9
Fermate .............. 2.0 74.45 71.1 10.2
604 ...................... 1.0 73.73 73.3 9.7
Ceresan .............. 2.0 74.10 72.1 9.6

Sign. diff. 19:1.... 2.6 1.65 1.4


Seed treatments significantly increased emergence and final stands of
blue lupine. There were no significant differences in green weights of
lupine from the seed treatments (Table 8). Significant differences in emer-
gence, final stand and green weight were found among the locations, which
reflect the general growing conditions, fertilizer levels and the adaptation
of the lupine at the various locations (Table 9). The seed treatments did
not prevent nodulation of the plants, but Ceresan at 2 ounces per bushel
appeared to reduce the amount of nodulation as compared with the check
plants.
TABLE 9.-AVERAGE STANDS AND GREEN AVERAGE WEIGHTS OF 6 REPLICA-
TIONS OF 8 SEED-TREATING MATERIALS ON BLUE LUPINE AT SEVERAL
LOCATIONS.


Location


Average Stand
12/20/44 3/3/45


Average Green
Weight in Pounds,
3/3/45


Marianna ......~..................... 79.3 75.2 9.0
M ilton ................................. 63.6 *
Quincy ................................ 73.8 70.5 8.5
M onticello .........- ............ 80.7 74.8 14.5
Gainesville 1 ...................... 69.9 63.7 12.6
Gainesville 2 ....................... 75.9 73.8 6.1

Sign. diff. 19:1 ................ 2.98 2.21 1.05

Crop failed.

Spergon-treated seed gave improved stands and green weights of
lupines in the September 15 planting. In plantings made on October 15,
November 15 and December 15 no marked differences were observed
between the Spergon-treated seed and the non-treated seed.
The lupines were turned under as a green cover crop when they reached
full bloom and all plots were seeded to millet. Growth of the millet was
directly affected by the amount of green weight turned under. This was
especially apparent on the plots planted September 15, as the increased
green weight of lupine on the plots planted with treated seed supported a








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


much better growth of millet than the smaller green weight on plots
planted with non-treated seed.
Rhizoctonia, Selerotium rolfsii Sacc., Fusarium and Botrytis organisms
were observed in the field or isolated from diseased lupine plants received
in the laboratory during the year. (Phares Decker)
Turf Investigations.-Preliminary studies in cooperation with BPIS&AE,
USDA, have been conducted during the past year with the view of formu-
lating a postwar development of cooperative turf investigations.
A survey of 5 country club golf courses was made in the Tampa-St.
Petersburg area in an effort to learn the problems involved in maintenance
of golf courses. Insect troubles, disease problems and maintenance of
grasses free of weeds on greens and fairways were encountered. Mole-
cricket was the most destructive insect pest in this area. Since no satis-
factory control is known, an experiment with DDT will be initiated when
the material becomes available. Plans have been completed to put on some
trial experiments, using the selective weed killers for control of noxious
weeds on greens.
Most greenkeepers interviewed expressed interest in new types and
kinds of grasses for greens and fairways that would be more disease-
resistant and better adapted to the growing conditions found in Florida.
An area on the Lakewood Country Club of St. Petersburg was selected, the
pH adjusted with lime, the area fertilized and planted to 12 varieties and
selections of grasses. The performance of these grasses will be studied and
the grasses used when they appear to offer some improvement over the
grasses now being grown. (Phares Decker)
Pythium Root Rot of Easter Lily.-In the spring of 1944 a grower of
Easter lilies in Dade County reported a serious condition of his planting.
He had noticed the disease in a milder form the previous year in part of
his planting. Bulbs from that crop were planted on the same area and on
an additional acreage in 1944. The soil was of the Rockdale series.
When the field was examined in March, 1944, practically every plant
showed symptoms of disease in various stages. Practically all plants were
badly stunted and the lowest leaves were dead or yellow with dead tips,
and some of the plants were completely dead except for a few bud leaves.
Some plants appeared to be affected with 1 or more virus diseases, but the
plants were in such advanced stages of decline that accurate determinations
could not be made and no inoculations were made to check on the possibility.
The roots of all plants examined showed more or less decay, a majority
being entirely dead. New roots had developed at the bases of some stems
and these showed dead tips or lesions on other parts. Also, the outer
scales of many bulbs showed brown lesions of various sizes. Some bulbs
of the 1944 crop were saved and planted, but they failed completely.
Cultures of a Pythium were isolated from diseased roots and these
proved to be highly pathogenic to Easter lily. Indeed, it almost completely
destroyed the root system of vigorous plants in 21 days. Cultural char-
acters of this fungus and cross inoculations proved that it is the same
species as that which causes the root rot of Chinese Evergreen (Aglaonema
simplex Blume) reported in the Station Annual Report for 1943. Cultures
from both host plants have been identified as Pythium splendens Braun."1
Since the fungus has been isolated from Easter lily and Chinese Evergreen
plants from several localities, it appears to be widely distributed in the
State. Furthermore, it seems probable that the fungus may be dissemi-
nated readily on bulbs and cuttings. No work has been done on methods
of control. (W. B. Tisdale and Geo. D. Ruehle)
12 Determinations made by John T. Middleton.




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