• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Credits
 Letter of transmittal
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00030
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1944
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00030
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 6
    Main
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    Index
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        Page v
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Full Text



























In













UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT STATION




ANNUAL REPORT

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1944











BOARD OF CONTROL

H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
M. L. Mershon, Miami
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee


EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University3
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Provost for Agri-
culture
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.'
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editors
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editors
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers
K. H. Graham, LL.D., Business Manager8
Claranelle Alderman, Accountants


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY

W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist1
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomists
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associate
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Associate
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant


ANIMAL INDUSTRY

A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist1
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman8
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologists
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist4
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy Mfg.
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.
C. L. Comar, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush.4
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.s
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.4
O. K. Moore, M.S., Asst. Poultry Hush.8
J. E. Pace, B.S., Asst. An. Husbandmans
S. P. Marshall, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition
C. B. Reeves, B.S., Asst. Dairy Tech.
Ruth Faulds, A.B., Asst. Biochemist
Dorothy J. Nodine, B.S., Asst. Biochemist


ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL

C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist'1
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Assistant


ECONOMICS, HOME

Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
Ruth O. Townsend, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist


ENTOMOLOGY

J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate8
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant


HORTICULTURE

G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
J. Carlton Cain. B.S.A., Asst. Hort4
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2


PLANT PATHOLOGY

W. B. Tisdale. Ph.D., Plant Pathologist1 *
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist


SOILS

R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist' 3
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist3
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
L. E. Ensminger, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist*
R. A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Biochemist5
G. T. Sims, M.S.A., Associate Chemist
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Microbiologist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor'
Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor

1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
*In Military Service.
6 On leave.
















BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.4
W. C. McCormick, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.4
R. C. Bond, M.S.A., Asst. Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Milton
Ralph L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Asso. Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Asso. Horticulturist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist4
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist

EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist4
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.2
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.'
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
R. A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
E. C. Minnum, M.S., Asst. Truck Hort.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist

SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asso. Horticulturist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist


W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE

Clement D. Gordon, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry
Geneticist in Charge2


RANGE CATTLE STA., ONA

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Asso. Agron., Wauchula
Gilbert A. Tucker, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'


FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg

M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charges

Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist

Monticello

S. 0. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist# 4
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologists

Bradenton

J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Horticulturist in
Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
A. L. Harrison, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist

Sanford

R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
J. C. Russell, M.S., Asst. Entomologist

Lakeland

E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist2 5
Warren O. Johnson, Meteorologist2



1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
SIn Military Service.
6 On leave.











































PETER HENRY ROLFS
April 17, 1865 February 23, 1944
Director from 1906 to 1920; also, Dean, College of Agri
culture, during the same period, and Director, Extensio
Service, from 1914 to 1920. In 1921 he founded the Ecol
Superior de Agricultura y Veterinaria, State of Minas-
Gerais, Brazil, and was its director until 1928. From 1928
to 1933 he was technical consultant for agriculture, State
of Minas-Gerais. Spent his last years in Gainesville.











































WILMON NEWELL
March 4, 1878 October 25, 1943
Director from 1921 until his death; Dean, College of
agriculture 1921-38; Provost for Agriculture, 1938-1943;
director Agricultural Extension Service, 1921-1943; Plant
commissioner State Plant Board, 1915-1943. Leader of
;he Federal-State forces which eradicated citrus canker
tnd the Mediterranean fruit fly from Florida. Instigator
ind conductor of research of tremendous importance to
;he State.







6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Hon. Spessard L. Holland,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1944.
Respectfully,
H. P. ADAIR,
Chairman, Board of Control


Hon. H. P. Adair,
Chairman, Board of Control
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1944, and I request that you transmit
the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of
Florida.
Respectfully,
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida



LIST OF DEPARTMENT REPORTS
Page
Report of Director ..............--...----------- ---------------- 7
Report of Business Manager .................... ..-- -..... -----..------ 16
Editorial ...........------.................------------------ 22
Library ...... -----------..................------ ------------ 30
Agricultural Economics .................----....------.---------- 31
A gronom y ................ .............................. .................... 34
Animal Industry ......................... ..... .... ..............--- --........... 46
Entomology ......---------------.............-.. ------------ 56
Home Economics .....................................-------............ 61
Horticulture ...-------.................----- ------------ 64
Plant Pathology .................... .---------.. ....... ............ 80
Soils ....................................---.........------------ ----- -------- 88
Celery Investigations Laboratory .................----------- ------------ 99
Potato Investigations Laboratory ..................---...... ....------- 102
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory ..............-................---. 106
Vegetable Crops Laboratory ..-------..............---- --------.................. 107
Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service .......................................... 118
Everglades Station ............................--------- ---------- 121
North Florida Station ................-.....--------.. ----...... 143
Range Cattle Station ......................----------------------- 155
Sub-Tropical Station ............................................ 161
West Central Florida Station ..---........ ------......... .---.--.--- 183
Citrus Station ..................... --------------------------- 188







Annual Report, 1944


REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDING

JUNE 30, 1944

Dr. John J. Tigert, President
University of Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the work and
investigations of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, together
with the reports of the heads of the several departments and branch sta-
tions, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1944.
HAROLD MOWRY,
Director
INTRODUCTION
The entire research program of this, the 56th, year of the Station again
was directed toward the immediate problems and practical phases of Flor-
ida's agricultural industry. All investigations were integrated as closely
as possible with the Nation's wartime needs. The year's research has
developed and made available new and additional information directly
usable in the solution of problems of the State's wide and varied agri-
culture.
The investigational work of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tions-the Main Station, 5 Branch Stations and 6 Field Laboratories-was
conducted under 185 definitely outlined and planned projects. Some of
these were conducted cooperatively with various divisions of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture and other agencies. These projects, as indicated
by the brief summaries of the year's work given herein, cover many and
varied lines of research.
During the year many facts pertinent to crop acreages, materials
allocations, goals, yields and prices were marshalled and released relative
to both present and postwar requirements.. Investigations brought forth
timely labor-saving procedures of immediate application to fruit and vege-
table growers. Progress was made in obtaining basic facts on Florida's
soils and nutritional requirements of its plants and animals. Recently
developed methods of processing citrus juices are being refined and im-
proved and investigations of the mineral and vitamin content of the dehy-
dration of Florida's vegetables are yielding valuable information. New
varieties, improved plant pest control measures, integrated spraying pro-
grams, and recommended fertilizer practices which include both the major
and minor elements are being adopted widely throughout the State as are
also the results from the research program with livestock. For the past
2 years Florida's agricultural production has been the highest in history.
This was made possible in no small measure by the applications of the
findings of research.

IMPROVEMENTS AND ADDITIONS
War conditions, as last year, precluded any large building improvements
or additions. The title to 10 acres of land adjoining the Range Cattle
Station was transferred by the Trustees of the State Internal Improve-
ment Fund to the State Board of Education, and the area was made avail-
able for use by that Station. Also, 178 acres of land adjoining the farm
property of the Main Station were purchased for expansion of the research
work there. The Experiment Station building, under reconstruction for







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the last 2 years, was dedicated Newell Hall on May 12, in honor of the
late Director Newell.


















Fig. 1.-The remodeled Agricultural Experiment Station building,
now named Newell Hall, was dedicated May 12, 1944.

CHANGES IN STAFF
APPOINTMENTS
C. L. Comar, Associate Chemist, Main Station, August 1, 1943.
R. W. Bledsoe, Assistant Agronomist, Main Station, September 1, 1943.
Henry C. Harris, Assistant Agronomist, Main Station, September 1, 1943.
R. C. Bond,' Assistant Agronomist, North Florida Station, September 15,
1943.
G. T. Sims, Associate Chemist, Main Station, October 1, 1943.
E. L. Spencer, Soils Chemist, Vegetable Crops Laboratory, October 1, 1943.
Harold Mowry, Director, Agricultural Experiment Stations, November 1,
1943.
Philip J. Westgate, Associate Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Station, Novem-
ber 1, 1943.
Warren O. Johnson, Meteorologist in Charge, Weather Forecasting Service,
November 1, 1943.
Olaf C. Olson, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Main Station, February 1, 1944.
Dorothy Jane Nodine, Assistant Biochemist, Main Station, February 1, 1944.
Ruth Faulds, Assistant Chemist, Main Station, May 1, 1944.
Ralph W. Lipscomb, Associate Agronomist, Mobile Unit No. 3, Marianna,
April 10, 1944.
IN MILITARY SERVICE
S. O. Hill, Assistant Entomologist, Pecan Investigations Laboratory, April
25, 1941.
F. S. Andrews, Associate Truck Horticulturist, Everglades Station, August
1, 1941.
V. F. Nettles, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, September 1, 1941.
J. T. Hall, Laboratory Assistant, Sub-Tropical Station, November 10, 1941.
V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., Assistant Animal Husbandman, North Florida Sta-
tion, January 13, 1942.
1 To fill position while original appointee is on military leave.








Annual Report, 1944


J. C. Cain, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, February 14, 1942.
W. W. Lawless, Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, February 28, 1942.
W. M. Fifield, Assistant Director, Administration, March 8, 1942.
G. A. Tucker, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Range Cattle Station, March
31, 1942.
L. H. Rogers, Associate Biochemist, Main Station, April 13, 1942.
W. H. Chapman, Assistant Agronomist, North Florida Station, May 21, 1942.
J. W. Wilson, Entomologist, Everglades Station, June 16, 1942.
D. J. Smith, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Main Station, July 1, 1942.
L. E. Swanson, Parasitologist, Main Station, August 14, 1942.
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist, Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service,
September 4, 1942.
L. E. Mull, Assistant in Dairy Technology, Main Station, September 10, 1942.
R. D. Dickey, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, September 14, 1942.
R. E. Caldwell, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Main Station, December 27, 1942.
Jack C. Russell, Assistant Entomologist, Celery Investigations Laboratory,
April 17, 1944.
RESIGNATIONS
Alvin L. Kenworthy, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, December 29,
1943.
E. M. Andersen, Associate Horticulturist, Watermelon and Grape Investiga-
tions Laboratory, February 15, 1944.
John Nelson Howard, Assistant Chemist, Main Station, March 17, 1944.
F. T. McLean, Horticulturist, Vegetable Crops Laboratory, May 20, 1944.
R. K. Voorhees, Associate Plant Pathologist, Citrus Station, June 30, 1944.
DEATH
Wilmon Newell, Director, Agricultural Experiment Stations, October 25,
1943.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES
The list of projects for the year, arranged by departments, follows:

Agricultural Economics
Project No. Title Page
154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida ................................ 31
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
C itrus ................................................................ ..................................... 31
317 Prices of Florida Farm Products ...............-...................................... 31
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency, Causes of Losses, Replace-
ments and Depreciation of Florida Dairy Herds ........................ 32
395 Input and Output Data for Florida Crop and Livestock Production 32
415 Effective Utilization of Farm Labor ..................-.......--.---..............-.. 32
416 Florida Maximum Wartime Agricultural Production Capacity and
Post-War Planning for Agriculture ..............................-............. 33
...... Florida Truck Crop Competition .....-..............----- ...... ---.................. 33
..... Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries to Groves in Florida.... 33

Agronomy
20 Peanut Improvement .....................-- ...........................- ..----..........- .... 34
55 Crop Rotation Studies with Corn, Cotton, Crotalaria and Winter
Legum es ........-...................--- ...-------- .........---- ....... ......................... 34
56 Variety Test Work with Field Crops ..----.........................- ........... 35
163 Corn Fertilizer Experiments ... -----... ---........--- ---...........- 36
295 Effect of Fertilizers on Yield, Grazing Value, Chemical Composi-
tion and Botanical Makeup of Pastures ........................................ 36 v
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies ............................-... 37
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement .......................................... 38 /
299 Effect of Burning at Different Periods on Survival and Growth
of Various Native Range Plants and Its Effect on Establish-
ment of Improved Grasses and Legumes .................................... 39 '
301 Pasture Legum es -........-..-......----.................... ...........-.........-.................. 39
302 A Study of Napier Grass for Pasture Purposes ................................ 40 /
304 Methods of Establishing Pastures Under Various Conditions........ 41
363 Oat Im provem ent ..................................................................................... 41
369 Effect of Environment on Composition of Forage Plants................ 41
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement ........................................................ 42
374 Corn Improvement .......-......-...--- ......----- ...-.....................--.............- .... 42
378 Flue-Cured Tobacco Fertilizers and Varieties .................................... 42
417 Methods of Producing, Harvesting and Maintaining Pasture Plants
and Seed Stock ..................................................................................... 43
... M miscellaneous Experim ents ..................................................................... 44

Animal Industry
133 Mineral Requirements for Cattle ......................................................... 48
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to Her
M ilk and Butter Production ............................................................ 49
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops ................................................... 49
216 Cooperative Field Studies with Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle.... 49
251 The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions
in Anim als ........................-..........-...... ...... ............--...................... 49
258 Plants Poisonous to Livestock ................................................................ 49
274 Studies in Fleece and Mutton Production ......................................... 50
302 A Study of Napier Grass for Pasture Purposes ................................ 60
307 A Statistical Study of the Relationship Between Temperature and
Egg Weight (Size), Body Weight and Egg Weight, Body
Weight and Production, Age and Egg Weight of Single Comb
W hite Leghorn Pullets .................................. .................................... 50








Annual Report, 1944 11

Project No. Title Page
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Florida
D airy H erds ................ ...... .......... .............................. ......... 50
346 Investigation with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition
Problems ............. ------.......... .............--------------- ..--..-....-- 51
350 Rotational Grazing and Internal Parasites in Sheep Production.... 51
353 Infectious Bovine Mastitis .................-................- ....---- ........--- ..-.......... 51
356 Biological Analysis of Pasture Herbage ............................................ 51
360 Processing, Storage and Utilization of Dairy Products and By-
Products to Meet Wartime Food Needs and Limitations........ 51
387 Longevity of Eggs and Larvae of Internal Parasites of Cattle... 52
388 Mineral Supplements for Fattening Hogs on Peanuts ................... 52
394 Effect of Certain Feeds on Milk Flavor ................................................ 52
406 Liquid Skimmilk and Shelled Corn as a Laying Ration ............... 52
407 Condensed Buttermilk in Laying Rations ....--.................................--. 53
408 Peanut Meal in Poultry Rations ............................... ....................... 53
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixtures, and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized
Pastures ................................ ........... .....-. ..- .............. ....---.-- 53
414 Periodic Increase in Lighting Versus Continuous Lighting for
Layers ......................... .---------................-- .. . ........-----.-- .. 53
418 Sulfurization of Soil for the Control of Certain Intestinal Para-
sites of Chickens ....................................... .......... ....... .............. ...... 54
... Wartime Emergency Laying Rations ...................................--... -54
Defluorinated Superphosphate in Poultry Rations ......................... 55

Entomology
379 Control of the Nut and Leaf Casebearers of Pecans ....................... 56
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida........ 57
381 Propagation of Larra Wasps for the Control of Mole-Crickets.... 58
382 Root-Knot in Tobacco Fields ........................................................... .. 58
383 Breeding Vegetable Plants Resistant to Root-Knot Nematodes .. 58
384 The Biology and Taxonomy of the Thysanoptera of Florida........ 59
385 The Effect of Mulches on the Root-Knot Nematode ....................... 59
386 Control of the Florida Flower Thrips .................................--...... 59
...... Thrips on Gladiolus ..................................... .... -- -------- ------ 60

Home Economics
358 Vitamin A Activity of Foods ....................-....... ........ ---- 61
359 Vitamin C in Florida Fruits and Vegetables ...................--............. 62
370 Chemical Composition and Physiological Properties of Royal
Jelly ..-----.....-------..................---- .....----.............-.... ........-- 62
396 Relation of the School Lunch to Child Health and Progress....-.. 62
397 Relation of Diet of Florida School Children to Tooth and Bone
Structure .......................... ............ ..... ....... ..... ...... ........ 63

Horticulture
50 Propagating, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with Tung Oil Trees 64
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and
Methods for Their Propagation ..........-------........................---... 64
80 Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards ............................................... 65
110 Phenological Studies of Truck Crops in Florida ................................ 65
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ....................-.~......... 66
190 Cold Storage Studies of Citrus Fruits ........................................... 67
237 Maturity Studies on Citrus Fruits .----................................-........ 68
268 A Study of the Relation of Soil Reaction to Growth and Yield of
Vegetable Crops ..................... ...................... ...........-- -..... .. 68
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vegetables
Adaptable to Commercial Production in Florida ........................ 69







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Project No. Title Page
283 Effect of Various Green Manure Crops on Growth, Yield and
Quality of Certain Vegetables .........-..............-.....------------ 69
315 Fumigation of Nursery Stock .......................... .....-- ....-.... 70
319 Effects of Mineral Deficiencies on the Adaptability of Certain
Vegetable Varieties to Florida ................................-.... ......... 70
348 Effects of Certain Mineral Elements on Plant Growth, Reproduc-
tion and Composition ................------- ... ------- ------- 70
365 Investigations of the Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree
(Aleurites Montana (Lour.) Wils.) ...............................--..---.. 71
375 Relation' of Zinc and Magnesium to Growth and Reproduction in
Pecans .--................-.------------------ ----. 71
376 Effects of Certain Growth Substances on Pecans .........---...........--.. 71
377 Storage and Handling of Florida Vegetables ...........--....-..-.---..... 71
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ..------------. ---------.-........72
413 Dehydration of Vegetables and Fruits ...---.. --.... .......--- -------- 73
415 Effective Utilization of Farm Labor .......-....-...-..---- ..--- ....--...--.- 76
420 Composition of Florida-Grown Vegetables as Affected by Environ-
ment ----- ----.. ----.----.-----------------. 76
U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations .-.....--....................... 77

Plant Pathology
258 A Study of Plants Poisonous to Livestock in Florida .................... 80
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants........ 80
269 Host Relations and Factors Influencing the Growth and Para-
sitism of Sclerotium Rolfsii Sacc. ....--....... .------------..... 81
281 Causes of Failure of Seed and Seedlings in Various Florida Soils
and Development of Methods for Prevention ............................... 82
344 Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Eggplant ..---.........-----.... 85
357 Azalea Flower Spot Disease ..--.---... ---.......-..--.. -------... 85
371 Rhizoctonia Diseases of Crop Plants ..................... .. - ----...........- 85
.... Seed Treatments of Winter Cover Crops .............-..... ......-- ----- 86
.. W itches Broom of Oleanders ......................................-. 87
...... Strawberry Variety Tests ...............---- ......----- ...... ------------------------ 87

Soils
201 Composition of Plant Materials with Particular Reference to the
More Unusual Constituents ....-....... -----......... --. -----.- 88
256 Development and Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Methods
of Complete and Partial Analysis for Soils and Related Ma-
terials .------- -----....----- ---------....------. 90
306 A Study of So-Called "Quick Methods" for Determining Soil
Fertility------ ..--.-.---------------....---------- 92
326 Types and Distribution of Microorganisms in Some Florida Soils 92
328 The Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soil and Crop-
ping 'Systems in Florida ......................... ...........-. .. 93
347 Composition of Florida Soils and of Associated Native Vegetation 93
368 Factors Affecting the Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule
Development .......................-.............. ....- 94
389 Classification and Mapping of Florida Soils .................................... 94
392 Maintenance of Soil Reaction and Organic Matter and Their Role
in Retention and Availability of Major Nutrient Elements....... 95
393 Significance of Levels of Readily Soluble Major Nutrient Elements
Removed by Various Extraction Procedures from Florida Soils
Under Various Cropping Practices .................................--..----- 96
404 Correlation of Inherent and Induced Soil Characteristics with
Pasture Crop Response .............................. .. 96
421 Effect of Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Florida Soils
on the Mineral Composition of Vegetable Crops ........................ 97
Soil Factors Affecting the Availability of Minor Elements in
Fertility Studies with Certain Truck Crops ............................. 98








Annual Report, 1944 13

Celery Investigations Laboratory
Project No. Title Page
252 Soil and Fetilizer Studies with Celery ............................ ............ 99
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ..................... ................. ..... .......... 99
399 Injurious Insects in Vegetable Crops Plant Beds ............................ 100
... Dichloro diphenyl trichlorethane (DDT) as a Vegetable Insecticide 101

Potato Investigations Laboratory
130 Studies Relative to Disease Control of White (Irish) Potatoes ..... 102
143 Investigation and Control of Brown Rot of Potatoes and Related
P plants ......................- .. --....... ............................................................. 102
313 Control of Diseases of Potatoes and Vegetable Crops Caused by
Rhizoctonia .......................................... ................... ... 103
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ........................... .. ........... .....- .... 103
419 Downy Mildew of Cabbage .............................--........... ............. 103
...... Potato Culture Investigations ..............-..--------......------...- ...-.. 104
...... Cabbage Production and Fertility Studies ......................... ...... 105

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
150 Investigation of and Control of Fusarium Wilt, a Fungous
Disease of W watermelon ................... ---...... ---....................- ... ...... 106
151 Investigation of and Control of Fungous Diseases of Watermelons 106
254 Investigations of Fruit Rots of Grapes ..-----....-..............--......-...---- ..106
...... Sea Island Cotton .-----........... .............-------.... --........ ....... 106

Vegetable Crops Investigations Laboratory
281 Causes of Failure of Seeds and Seedlings in Various Florida Soils
and Development of Methods for Prevention ................................ 107
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida........ 108
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ......................... .......----.-------. 108
398 Breeding for Combining Resistance to Diseases and Insects in the
Tomato ...................---------------............---............-....-- --..........---- 109
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn-......... 110
402 Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Vegetable Crop Plants ....... 110
405 Summer Cover Crops, Liming and Related Factors in Vegetable
Crop Production .......................-....-...... .............. ..... -- -- --- 112
..... Miscellaneous Cultural Investigations ....................................... ..... 113
...... Miscellaneous Entomological Investigations ........................................ 114
...... M miscellaneous Soil Studies ........... ...... ................................... ........ 115
...... Miscellaneous Pathological Observations ..................................-.. 116
. Control of Insect Pests and Diseases of Gladiolus ......---.......--.......... 116

Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service
... Report of Progress .................................. ....................... ..... 118

Everglades Station
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings.... 122
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Con-
ditions ........-- ......--. ..--- ........---.. .......... ................. ... ..-...--- --- 123
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ..........................--..........---.......---- 124
88 Soils Investigations ..........-...................--............. .....-....---- 125
89 W ater Control Investigations ....................................................... 126
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ............. .....-----.........-.-----.......- 127
168 The Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the
Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades ..........-..........-..........-- ..-- 127
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of Sugarcane Moth
Borer ...... ...... ..... ....... .................. ........... 128
171 Cane Breeding Experiments ....... ....--------... ..~..-..........--...-... 128








14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
172 General Physiological Phases of Sugarcane Investigations............ 129
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
glades ..---................ ------...-... ..--.- ......... ........----. ------- 129 V
202 Agronomic Studies with Sugarcane ................ ................................ 130
203 Forage Crop Investigations -................---...........-- .-....-.......-..--- 131
204 Grain Crop Investigations ..................................... .......--.. 132
205 Seed Storage Investigations ......------............................................................ 133
206 Fiber Crop Investigations ..... ...............-...............------------------ 133
208 Agronomic Studies Upon Growth of Sirup and Forage Canes........ 133
209 Seed and Soil-Borne Diseases of Vegetable Crops ............................ 134
210 Leaf Blights of Vegetable Crops ............................. ................ 136
211 Physiological Phases of Plant Nutrition ................-------........---........... 137
212 Relation of Organic Composition of Crops to Growth and Maturity 137
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations ................----------................. 137
332 Varietal Comparisons with Various Species of Truck Crops at
Different Fertility Levels ..-----....................-----..................-- 138
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot........... 138
336 Early Blight of Celery --....---------...................................................----.................. 138
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida...... 138
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................................... ................................... 139
403 Shallu, Blackstrap Molasses and Sweet Potatoes for Fattening
Steers on W inter Pasture ........................................ ...................... 140
...- Special Investigations ................ -........... .---. -...... .........- --------- 140

North Florida Station

33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco .................------ --- --.................. 143
80 Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards ................--- ..........-- ....................---- 144
191 Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Florida Shade To-
bacco Seed and Early Growth of Seedlings ...........................-....... 144
257 Columbia Sheep Performance Investigations ..-----............................. 145
260 Grain Crop Investigations .................................--------- --- -------...... 145
261 Forage Crop Investigations .................. .......................................... 146
301 Pasture Legumes .---......... --.... ..---- ....-- ....----- ..........----..--.... 147 V
321 Control of Downy Mildew of Tobacco .................................--- --------............. 147
355 Feed Crop Production and Utilization with Beef Cattle ................ 148
366 Oats Pasture as a Supplement to Corn for Fattening Hogs..........- 148
367 Tankage and Mineral Supplements in Rations for Fattening Hogs 148
409 Ground Oats for Fattening Steers ..........................---------- ............ 149
411 Two-Year Rotations for Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ......................... 149
...- Preliminary Hog Grazing Experiments on Oats ................................ 149
.... Miscellaneous Experiments -------.................... -............. -------..... 150
...- Cooperative Fertilizer Experiments with Field Crops and Pastures 150
Mobile Unit No. 1 ..............- ..........-....-....--.------..----........ 151
Mobile Unit No. 2 ..................................... .... .----------. 152
Mobile Unit No. 3 ..---......---........--.....---..---..........................--.. 154

Range Cattle Station

390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida Environment........ 156
410 Wintering Beef Cows on the Range ..................... .------................... 156 U
423 Effect of Fertilization and Seeding on the Grazing Value of Flat-
woods Pastures ...........................~..~-. ........-- ..............------ ..........--.... 156'
... Effect of Minor Elements on the Establishment and Growth of
Pasture Grasses .........................-------.............----. ...... ........... ......... .. 157
.... Off-Season Burning ............................................... .. --------159 U
....- Grass Variety-Fertilizer Test .........--- .. .............................. ... 159 V
.... Clover Experiments ...................... .. -........... ..................... 159 -
.... Mineral Consumption by Cattle on Range Pasture ...........................-------. 159
.- .. Surface Drainage on Flatwoods Pastures ...................----- -----................. 160







Annual Report, 1944 15

Sub-Tropical Station
Project No. Title Page
275 Citrus Culture Studies .................................. .... ..................................... 161
276 Avocado Culture Studies .......................... ....................................... 162
277 Forestation Studies ........................------.... -... --. .---------------. 164
278 Improvement of Tomatoes Through Selection of New Hybrids.... 164
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals .................................... 164
280 Studies of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ........................................ 165
285 Potato Culture Investigations ....................... .................. 167
286 Tomato Culture Investigations ......................-.......- .......- 169
287 Cover Crop Studies .......... ........................... .. 170
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County ...................... ......-- 171
290 A Study of Diseases of the Avocado and Mango and Development
of Control Measures ......................................- ---- 173
291 Control of Tomato Diseases .........................-...... ...--------- -- 176
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ..............................--..- 179
422 Diseases of the Tahiti (Persian) Lime -....... ......... -----.... 181
...... Miscellaneous War Emergency Crops ................................. 181

West Central Florida Station
...... Cattle Breeding and Feeding ......................... ....... ........ ...... 183
.. Pasture Studies .... ... ..............................---.. 185
...... Poultry Breeding Investigations ....... ................................. ......... 186

Citrus Station
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection .............................. 188
102 Variety Testing and Breeding .......................... .. 188
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rots of Citrus Fruits.... 188
340 Citrus Nutrition Studies ......... ................. ..... ............. 192
341 Combined Control of Scale Insects and Mites on Citrus .................. 203
Citrus Investigations in the Coastal Regions ................. ..204
.... Packinghouse Research .---..............................- 209
.... Cooperative Packinghouse Research with Florida Citrus Com-
mission ... ......... ..............---- .... ...... ........ .. 211







16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


REPORT OF THE BUSINESS MANAGER
MAIN STATION

Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 ................................... ...... ... ---- $244,395.37
Expenditures
Salaries ....... ........... ............... -------.............. $130,489.52
Labor ....................--..... .-----.. ---. 51,311.62
Travel ............................ ...--------....... 7,264.82
Transportation of things ................. ........------------.... 1,007.99
Communication service ....................... .............. .. 1,245.47
Heat, light, power .................. ......... ----------- 5,684.46
Printing ........................ -----.... --- ---.................... 2,083.66
Repairs and contractual services ......--------..................... 2,835.38
Supplies and materials ..--- -- ------................. ................... 37,354.16
Equipment ................. ............. ........... 5,034.69
Improvements to land .--- ------------...................... 83.60 $244,395.37



CITRUS STATION
Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 .................. ..............------- $ 66,830.00
Expenditures
Salaries ....... .... ............................. 32,835.29
Labor .................................................... 16,987.78
Travel ....................................-- -................ 2,465.65
Transportation of things ....................................... ... 74.08
Communication service ................................................. 412.63
Heat, light, power ..............-..............--- ----..... 1,346.99
Printing ......................................................... ............ 4.50
Repairs and contractual services ................................. 492.45
Supplies and materials ............................................ .... 7,217.37
Equipment ..........-------.......---------------- 2,181.11
Balance ......................- ----------... 2,812.15 $ 66,830.00



EVERGLADES STATION
Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 ................................---- .. ..... ... $ 48,672.00
Expenditures
Salaries ....................... .................................................... $ 27,298.66
Labor ..................... .... ..... .....------------------.......... ....... 13,291.55
Travel ........................................ ---......-.....-- ..- ----. 972.86
Transportation of things ................................................ 135.28
Communication service .................................................... 245.35
Heat, light, power ............................................................ 1,099.76
Repairs and contractual services ................................ 501.62
Supplies and materials .................................................... 4,836.64
Equipment ............................................. 290.28 $ 48,672.00







Annual Report, 1944 17

EVERGLADES CONTINUING CHAPTER 8442
Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 ................... ....... ........ $ 5,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries ........................... ...........................$. 5,000.00 $ 5,000.00

NORTH FLORIDA STATION
Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 .. ................................... ...... $ 26,896.00
Expenditures
Salaries ................................. .................. 11,856.87
Labor ........................................... ....... 7,825.42
Travel ...................... ........... ............... 297.25
Transportation of things ..................................... 62.66
Communication service ........................... ................... 198.56
Heat, light, power ............................................................ 178.96
Repairs and contractual services .................................. 816.19
Supplies and materials ..................................... ...... 5,600.59
Equipment ...................... .................. 59.50
Balance ........................................................ 0.00 $ 26,896.00

NORTH FLORIDA STATION-MOBILE UNITS
Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 .......................................... ........................ $ 30,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries ........................................................................... $ 6,825.77
Labor ................................................ ..................... 3,718.12
Travel ................................................................................. 636.15
Transportation of things ................................................ 115.69
Communication service .................................................... 115.27
Heat, light, power .......................................................... 602.50
Repairs and contractual services .................................. 587.48
Supplies and materials ................................... .... 5,601.50
Equipm ent ................................... ............................. ... 1,563.19
Improvements to lands ............................................. 90.75
Balance .............................................................. ............... 10,143.58 $ 30,000.00

POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 ...................................................................... $ 12,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries ................................................................ .............. .$ 7,008.00
Labor .................................................................................... 3,022.41
Travel ............................................................................. 153.75
Transportation of things ...................................... .... 34.12
Communication service .................................................. 118.22
Heat, light, power ..-. -- ---....................... .. ...... ..--. 28.85
Repairs and contractual services .................................. 207.04
Supplies and materials .................................................. 1,144.61
Equipment ........................................................................ 283.00 $ 12,000.00







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


RANGE CATTLE STATION


Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 ......................................... ................

Expenditures
Salaries ...............----------.---. ----------------$ 3,901.99
Labor .....................................-------------------..... 3,206.82
Travel ................................-------------.................................... 188.95
Transportation of things ..................................... ..... 74.47
Communication service .....-..................-- ......-------- 51.45
Repairs and contractual services .................................. 354.70
Supplies and materials ......................... ........... ....... 1,686.62
Equipment ........... ------------...-...-......---.------.... 2,897.29
Improvement to lands ..................................................... 137.71
Balance .......................--------...-----------.... 0.00


$ 12,500.00










$ 12,500.00


SUB-TROPICAL STATION


Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 .-----....................------..---- --------

Expenditures
Salaries .............-----------------........-..$ 13,727.22
Labor ....................---.. -------------------. 777.71
Travel ..-----............................-------- ----...-.---.. 853.64
Transportation of things --..........----........ .. --- 28.45
Communication service .... --... -- --... ................. 226.11
Heat, light, power ..---- .......-..----.-----......------..... 324.15
Repairs, equipment, misc. ................................................ 256.78
Supplies and materials .................................................... 4,380.36
Equipment .... ........ ................... .......... 1,600.80
Improvement to lands ..................----..................--- ---.. 76.00
Balance ...---...........----.--. --------------...- 948.78


$ 23,200.00











$ 23,200.00


WATERMELON AND GRAPE INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY

Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 ...................--- ...................... $ 16,300.00
Expenditures
Salaries ............... .................. ......................-- -------- .. $ 3,223.37
Labor ......................... ... ..---------.. 4,344.35
Travel ....................---...........-----. .............. 553.64
Transportation of things ................................ ........ .72
Communication service ................... .................---- .. 410.25
Heat, light, power ............................................................ 181.53
Printing ........................... ........ .................... .. 1,257.77
Repairs and contractual services .................................... 280.92
Supplies and materials ............................... ................. 1,367.14
Equipm ent ....................... ..................... 20.82
Improvement to lands ..................................... .. 44.00
Balance .......................... .. ................. 4,615.49 $ 16,300.00







Annual Report, 1944

WEATHER FORECASTING SERVICE
Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 ..................................... -----.................
Expenditures
Salaries ....-...............---... ---.. ....---- ---------$ 1,360.00
Labor .... --..-........ .............. ........... 970.45
Travel ....-.....-............... ---....-- ... ......... .. 10,403.70
Communication service ..................-.......... ---------- .. 2,454.91
H eat, light, pow er ................................................ 6.00
Printing ............................................ 1 49114.98
Repairs and contractual services .................................... 10.00
Supplies and materials ..........................................-- .... 86.29
Equipm ent ................ ....................................... 85.62
Balance .........................................- --4,478.05


CELERY INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 ................................. ---- ----..............................
Expenditures
Salaries .........................---------------------- 6,489.00
Labor ........ ........ ......... ........ ....... ...-- .. 2,946.83
Travel ...................... .....--- ..... .................----- .. 233.34
Transportation of things ..........................-------------- 8.57
Communication service .................- ............ --.... 85.87
Heat, light, power ........------..---..--. ----.....--- -... 244.83
Repairs and contractual services .........-.........-----.... 116.77
Supplies and materials ........................-- ...----- .... 914.58
Equipment ........... --.......--....-..------------ 35.45
Improvement to lands .........----....-..---........--- .--- 342.80
Balance ................ ..... ....... ... .. .............. ... 3,581.96


$ 20,000.00










$ 20,000.00


$ 15,000.00











$ 15,000.00


STATE-WIDE SOIL SURVEY COOPERATIVE, CHAPTER 22,071
Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 .-..........................---- --- --- -- ...- ...--- $ 5,000


Expenditures
Salaries .......................-- ....- .. ...--------- $ 3,000.00
Travel ................................ -- ----- -- --------- 424.56
Transportation of things .....................-------.-. ---.. 9.66
Repairs and contractual services ................... ------........ 25.51
Supplies and materials ....---... .-...... ...........------ ---. 1,474.97
Equipment .......................... ---------------------...... ----- 65.30
Balance ..................................... ..------0.00


EMERGENCY FUND
Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 ................................------ ...................
Expenditures
Balance ........................ ...... ..................-.........$$ 10,000.00


$ 5,000.00


$ 10,000.00

$ 10,000.00


'.00







20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

STRAWBERRY INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 ....................................... ............
Expenditures
Salaries ..............------.........~-------........$ $ 3,800.00
Labor ............................ ------ ...-- ...-..-- .. -184.00
Travel ............................... ---. --- ..-- ..--... 238.80
Transportation of things ...............-----...... ........ ..... 3.01
Communication service ...........---------................... 9.11
Heat, light, power ........................ ---- -----------.... 54.96
Repairs and contractual services .......................-...-..... 14.50
Supplies and materials ............ ........ ............... ..... 176.85
Equipment .......... ------..............--.------- 2.25
Balance ................---.-- .. .--- ------- .....-- .. 1,816.52


VEGETABLE CROPS LABORATORY
Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 ........................ ......... .................
Expenditures
Salaries ........................... ...-----............ $ 16,219.00
Labor .................................................................................... 9,245.34
Travel ....................----... ------ -------------- 667.72
Transportation of things ..................... .....-----------...... 99.37
Communication service .............................. ..... ....... 52.50
Heat, light, power ............................ ................. .. 109.83
Repairs and contractual services .................................... 340.81
Supplies and materials ......................... .----------. 4,369.87
Equipment .................................... ............ ...... 1,282.54
Balance ........................------------------- 1,280.57

GLADIOLI INVESTIGATIONS
Receipts
Appropriation, 1943-44 ................................ .. ....................
Expenditures
Salaries .......................-... .. .......-------- 2,661.29
Labor .............................. ................. 444.33
Travel ...........--.--.............------------... 148.00
Transportation of things ..-------------.................... ............ 8.58
Communication service ......................----------........ 116.84
Heat, light, power ...........................-- ..--........ 608.52
Repairs and contractual services .................................. 35.90
Supplies and materials .-----.....................--........--- .. 191.66
Equipment ..................... ........................ 5.89
Balance ...........................---- ----- .. 778.99


$ 6,300.00










$ 6,300.00



$ 33,667.55










$ 33,667.55


$ 5,000.00










$ 5,000.00


FINANCIAL RESOURCES-SUMMARY
Financial resources from State and Federal appropriations for the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1944, were as follows:
Federal Funds
Hatch and Adams ........... .......... ..... ................ ........$ 30,000.00
Bankhead-Jones ..................................................... 34,782.16
Purnell .................. ... ........................ .. ..... ..................... 60,000.00







Annual Report, 1944 21

State Funds*
Main Station ................... ............... ........... ..- ..........$247,799.00
Citrus Station ..............................---- ------------- ----- --- -- 71,450.00
Everglades Station .........................---.....................54,000.00
Everglades-Continuing appropriation .................-.................---- 5,000.00
North Florida Station ................................ ........................... 33,100.00
Mobile Units .............-........-....... -----. ... 50,000.00
Sub-Tropical Station .................------..--- ....- ---- .. 25,000.00
Range Cattle Station .......................... ---.. .---- 12,500.00
Weather Forecasting Service ............................. 20,000.00
Celery Investigations Laboratory ........................... ............ 15,000.00
Potato Investigations Laboratory .................. ......................... 12,000.00
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory ............................-.-.. 6,300.00
Vegetable Crops Laboratory ........... .................... 35,000.00
Gladioli Investigations ----------.................------. -- 5,000.00
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory .................... 18,500.00
Soil Survey-Statewide .......................- -...- ........ 5,000.00
Emergency Fund ...................... ..............-- 10,000.00
Less $25,000 deduction from Incidental Fund.
Not all of the State appropriations listed above were available; some
funds were withheld wholly or in part. Not included above but available
for research in plant and animal nutrition was a grant by the General
Education Board of $25,000.

FEDERAL HATCH, ADAMS, PURNELL, AND BANKHEAD-JONES
FUNDS

Hatch Adams Purnell Bankhead-
Jones

Receipts
Receipts from the Treas-
ury of the United
States, as per appro-
priations for fiscal
year ended June 30,
1944 ...................... $15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000.00 $34,782.16
Expenditures
Personal services ............ $14,782.34 $14,805.40 $53,108.28 $25,341.17
Travel expense ........... 1,624.90 742.65
Transportation of things ..... 12.58 52.43
Communication service.... 35.31 ....... 5.30 .....
Heat, light, water, power,
gas, electricity .. .... 388.97 152.84
Other contractual
services ....................... .... 163.71 221.69
Supplies and materials.... 28.57 ............ 2,606.15 5,571.94
Equipment ........................ .......... ............ 1,496.68 2,194.71
Lands and structures
(contractual) ................ ..... .. .... .- .. 277.60
Contributions to retire-
ment (State Teach-
ers') .............. ..... 153.78 194.60 593.43 227.13


1 $60,000.00 1 $34,782.16


j (eooao.oa ) $34,782.16


Total Expenditures ....


$15,000.00 $15,000.00







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


EDITORIAL
The Agricultural Experiment Station printed 10 new bulletins during
the fiscal year. The dissemination of information through other means-
principally newspapers and radio-was stepped up to fill the wartime
need for information to aid Florida farmers in their production efforts.
Distribution of bulletins, to libraries and scientific workers, through
county agents and on special request from individuals, was continued. The
Editors and other workers devoted over half of their time to duties of the
Agricultural Extension Service.

BULLETINS COVER VARIETY OF SUBJECTS
While only 10 new bulletins were printed, they covered almost as many
subject matter fields. Also, 1 bulletin printed in 1942 (Bulletin 369 on
pliofilm) but now out of print was reprinted to fill a consistent demand.
The additional order covered 2,500 copies.
The 10 new bulletins ranged in size from 8 to 108 pages, totaling 316
pages, and in edition from 4,000 to 8,000, totaling 55,500 copies. Follow-
ing is a list of the new bulletins published:
Bul. Title Pages Edition
390 Effect of Fertilizer on Growth and Composition of
Carpet and Other Grasses ...---...................................... 32 8,000
391 Fattening Steers on Winter Pasture with Ground
Snapped Corn, Ground Shallu Heads, Molasses and
Cottonseed Meal ..----------...............-....................... 16 5,000
392 Cultural Practices for Root-Knot Control Between
Annual Crops of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ................ 16 5,000
393 Preparation and Use of Invert Syrup in the Manu-
facture of Ice Cream --.........................................-........ 16 4,000
394 Effect of Method of Rearing S. C. White Leghorn
Chicks Upon Rate of Growth, Feed Efficiency and
M mortality .--.................................................................... 12 5,000
395 Functional Relationships Between Boron and Various
Anions in the Nutrition of the Tomato .................... 36 4,000
396 Types and Distribution of Microorganisms in Some
Florida Soils ................................................................... 44 4,000
397 Controlling Damping-Off and Other Losses in Celery
Seedbeds ............... ..... --------....-............------- 28 5,000
398 Cane Syrup in Infant Feeding ........-................................- 8 8,000
399 Florida Farm Prices ........................................................... 108 7,500

BRIEF SUMMARIES OF BULLETINS
Some idea of the materials covered in the bulletins is contained in the
following very brief summaries:
390. Effect of Fertilizer on Growth and Composition of Carpet and
Other Grasses. (R. E. Blaser and W. E. Stokes, 32 pp., 2 figs.) Growth
of established carpet grass pasture was stimulated primarily by nitrogen
fertilizers, but lime, phosphate and potash increased the efficiency of the
nitrogen. Infrequent heavy and frequent light applications were compared,
the latter being more efficient on Leon and Bladen soils. Technical.
391. Fattening Steers on Winter Pasture. (R. W. Kidder, 16 pp., 1 fig.)
Steers receiving limited rations of cottonseed meal made slightly better
gains on ground shallu heads than on ground corn. Blackstrap molasses
was an efficient supplement for either shallu or corn. Popular.







Annual Report, 1944 23

392. Cultural Practices for Root-Knot Control Between Annual Crops
of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco. (Randall R. Kincaid and Jesse Reeves, 16 pp.,
7 figs.) In old tobacco shades infested with nematodes, clean fallow after
the crop was harvested, followed by oats sown in October, gave best results
in nematode control. Popular.
393. Preparation and Use of Invert Syrup in the Manufacture of Ice
Cream. (E. L. Fouts, L. E. Mull and T. R. Freeman, 16 pp.) Invert
syrup, properly made, can replace 50 percent of the sucrose in the ice
cream mix, thus giving more sweetening from the same amount of sugar.
Technical.
394. Efect of Method of Rearing S. C. White Leghorn Chicks Upon
Rate of Growth, Feed Efficiency and Mortality. (N. R. Mehrhof, W. F.
Ward and O. K. Moore, 12 pp.) Battery brooders and wire-floored brooder
houses produced better pullets than did wooden-floored brooder houses
with either "clean" or "used" range. Popular.
395. Functional Relationships Between Boron and Various Anions in
the Nutrition of the Tomato. (J. R. Beckenbach, 36 pp., 8 figs.) Signifi-
cant interactions between boron and nitrate and between boron and phos-
phate were observed in tomato plants grown in pure quartz sand culture
by the constant drip method. Technical.
396. Types and Distribution of Microorganisms in Some Florida Soils.
(F. B. Smith and Owen E. Gall, 44 pp.) Each type of soil has its charac-
teristic flora of microorganisms. Numbers of organisms are influenced by
rainfall and temperature. Popular.
397. Controlling Damping-Of and Other Losses in Celery Seedbeds.
(G. R. Townsend, 28 pp., 5 figs.) Proper management of the beds con-
trols damping-off and other losses. Care is needed in leveling, fertilizing
and irrigating. Fungicidal dusts or sprays control damping-off. Popular.
398. Cane Syrup in Infant Feeding. (Ruth O. Townsend, O. D. Abbott
and C. F. Ahmann, 8 pp.) Cane syrup used as the supplementary sugar
for cow's milk in feeding babies kept the babies healthy, their hemoglobin
values at a high level. Popular.
399. Florida Farm Prices. (A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble, 108 pp.,
20 figs.) Gives factors affecting farm prices, combines index of 37 farm
product prices, and contains comparisons of prices paid with prices re-
ceived, prices in Florida with those in other states, and seasonal variations
in prices. Popular.
PRESS BULLETINS
Eleven new press bulletins were published and distributed and 3 were
reprinted. Seven of these leaflets, used largely in answering inquiries,
ran 4 pages in length, 3 were 2 pages and the bulletin list was 6 pages.
All save 2 were printed in 3,000 quantities, 1 being 5,000 and the bulletin
list 1,500 in number. Two of the 3 reprints were of 2 pages, the other 4.
All were printed in 3,000 quantities.
Following is a list of press bulletins and their authors:
589. Control of Downy Mildew of Cabbage with Spergon and Fermate,
A. H. Eddins.
590. Conservation and Use of Poultry Manure, O. K. Moore, N. R. Mehrhof
and R. V. Allison.
591. Control of the Pecan Nut Casebearer and Leaf Casebearer, Arthur
M. Phillips.
592. Control of Bacterial Soft Rot of Tomatoes, A. L. Harrison and A. N.
Brooks.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


593. Storing Cottage Cheese in Brine, E. L. Fouts, T. R. Freeman and John
Faustini.
594. Cocklebur Poisoning Among Livestock, M. W. Emmel.
595. Chicken Pox, M. W. Emmel.
596. Coryza and Roup in Chickens, M. W. Emmel.
597. Defluorinated Superphosphate in Chick Rations, N. R. Mehrhof, O. K.
Moore, G. K. Davis and S. P. Marshall.
598. A New Organic Fungicide for Control of Potato Late Blight in Florida,
G. D. Ruehle.
.. Bulletin List.
437. Brown Patch of Lawns and Golf Greens and Its Control (reprint).
451. Crotalaria (reprint).
492. Downy Mildew of Cucurbits (reprint).

RADIO BROADCASTING
Experiment Station staff members made more radio talks this year
than previously. On the Florida Farm Hour, daily noontime feature over
the University of Florida station, WRUF, Station staff members other
than the Editors presented 161 talks, or an average of 3 a week. Some
of the speakers appeared regularly on the Farm Hour, others occasionally.
Of the 161 talks, 108 were revised and sent to 10 other Florida radio
Stations as Farm Flashes in a cooperative service between the USDA and
the Extension Service.

INFORMATION DISSEMINATED THROUGH NEWSPAPERS
AND FARM JOURNALS
Despite both wartime restrictions limiting the use of paper for print-
ing and the competition of war and government news, daily and weekly
newspapers and farm magazines circulating in Florida continued to dis-
seminate information from the Experiment Station in copious quantities,
thus enabling the institution to reach a large number of people with in-
formation of value under current conditions.
The weekly clipsheet of the Agricultural Extension Service was the
principal means of disseminating Experiment Station information to the
weekly press. The wire services rewrote and released the principal items
from each clipsheet to the daily newspapers and the Editors supplied 38
special stories to the wire services or one or more dailies during the year.
Three national, 1 Southern and 2 Florida farm periodicals printed 21
different items written by the Station Editor, in addition to numerous
articles from other staff members. The 3 national journals printed 4
articles occupying 56 column inches of space, the 2 Southern magazines
carried 12 articles totaling 210 column inches, and the 2 Florida periodicals
printed 5 articles which amounted to 207 column inches for a grand total
of 473 column inches.
Articles by staff members other than the Editors, largely copies of talks
prepared for radio broadcast, were forwarded to 2 Florida monthly farm
magazines at the rate of about 10 a month, and many of them were printed.
Staff members also sent a number of articles direct to technical journals.

ARTICLES IN POPULAR AND SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS
The journal articles listed below are largely by staff members other
than Editors, but most of those listed from popular periodicals were edited
and forwarded by the Editors.
Beckenbach, J. R. The Tomato Breeding Project at the Vegetable Crops
Laboratory. Proc. Fla. Seedsmen's Asso. 1: 1943.







Annual Report, 1944 25

Becker, R. B. Soy Meal Vital in Wartime Feeds. Fla. Grower 52: (1159):
6: 10. 1944.
Becker, R. B., P. T. Dix Arnold, G. K. Davis and E. L. Fouts. Citrus
Molasses-A New Feed. Jour. Dairy Sci. 27: 269-273. 1944.
Blackmon, G. H. Dormancy Care Gives More Grapes. Fla. Grower 52:
(1155) : 2: 12. 1944.
Blackmon, G. H. Florida Pecan Crop Prospects. Fla. Grower 51: (1151):
10: 7. 1943.
Blackmon, G. H. Peach Culture in Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
57. 1944.
Blackmon, G. H. Peach Culture in Florida Shows Improvement. Fla.
Grower 52: (1159) : 6: 16. 1944.
Blackmon, G. H. Preliminary Report on Fertilizer Tests with Grapes.
Proc. Fla. Grape Growers' Asso. 1944.
Blackmon, G. H. Prescription for Better Roses. Fla. Grower 52: (1155):
2: 19, 20. 1944.
Blackmon, G. H. Report on Yields of Tung Trees from Selected Parentage.
Proc. Amer. Tung Oil Asso. 1944.
Blaser, R. E. Florida Pasture Plants Compared in Table. The Fla. Cat-
tleman 7: 12: 12-14, 28. 1943.
Blaser, R. E., and W. E. Stokes. Pastures and Forages. Fla. Dept. Agr.
Bul. 28: 117-136. 1944.
Blaser, R. E., W. E. Stokes, R. S. Glasscock and G. B. Killinger. Effect
of Fertilizers on Growth and Grazing Value of Pasture Plants (1).
Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. 8: 271-275. 1943.
Boyd, Mark F., and Jack Russell. Preliminary Observations on the Inheri-
tance of Susceptibility to Malaria Infection as a Character of Anopheles
Quadrimaculatus Say. Am. Jour. of Trop. Med. 23: 451-457. 1943.
Bratley, H. E. Feather-Legged Fly Aids Growers. Fla. Grower 51:
(1149): 8: 6. 1943.
Brooks, A. N. Crops Get Disinfectant-Happy on Pet Seed Treatment.
So. Seedsman 7: 2: 12, 42. 1944.
Brunk, Max E. Getting Farm Jobs Done Despite Scarce Labor. Fla.
Grower 52: (1154): 1: 6, 8. 1944.
Camp, A. F. A Resum6 of Feeding and Spraying Citrus Trees from a
Nutritional Viewpoint. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 56: 60-79. 1943.
Cit. Ind. 24: 9: 3, 6, 7, 9, 12-15, 18; 24: 10: 6, 7, 14-15. 1943.
Carver, W. A. How to Harvest Better Peanuts. Fla. Grower 51: (1150):
9:4. 1943.
Cooper, J. Francis. Experiments Promise Fine Cattle. Fla. Grower 51:
(1149) : 8: 11. 1943.
Cooper, J. Francis. Have You an Experiment Station on Your Farm?
Fla. Grower 51: (1152) : 11: 6, 8. 1943.
Cooper, J. Francis. The Lupines: For Bitter . Or For Sweet? So.
Seedsman 7: 6: 26-27. 1944.
Cooper, J. Francis. U. S. Beachhead Established by Tropical Legume. So.
Seedsman 6: 11: 12, 52. 1943.
Davis, G. K. Range Cattle Face Feed Problem. Fla. Grower 52: (1154):
1: 10. 1944.
Drosdoff, Matthew, and Alvin L. Kenworthy. Magnesium Deficiency of
Tung Trees. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 44: 1944.








26 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Drosdoff, Matthew, Felix S. Lagasse and G. H. Blackmon. Symptoms and
Corrective Treatments for Magnesium Deficiency in Tung Trees. Proc.
Amer. Tung Oil Asso. 1944.
Eddins, A. H. Protecting Cabbage Plant Beds from Downy Mildew with
Spergon. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 1944.
Eddins, A. H., and E. N. McCubbin. New Spuds, a Boon to South. So.
Seedsman 6: 9: 12, 22. 1943.
Emmel, M. W. Chicken Pox. Your Farm 2: 8: 70-72. 1944.
Emmel, M. W. Cocklebur Poisoning Among Livestock. Your Farm 2:
8: 56-57. 1944.
Emmel, M. W. Crotalaria Spectabilis Poisoning of Livestock. Vet. Med.
38: 255-257. 1943.
Emmel, M. W. Perosis in Swans and Chickens Fed Manganese-Fortified
Mashes. Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Asso. 104: 30, 32. 1944.
Emmel, M. W. Sources of Epidemic Tremor in Florida Chickens Discussed.
Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 10: 4: 12. 1944.
Emmel, M. W. The Toxic Principle of Aleurites fordi Hemsl. Jour. Amer.
Vet. Med. Asso. 103: 162. 1943.
Emmel, M. W. The Toxicity of Glottidium Vesicarium (Jacq.) Harper for
Cattle. Jour. Amer. Vet. Med Asso. 104: 222, 223. 1944.
Forsee, W. T., Jr., and J. R. Neller. Phosphate Response in a Valencia
Grove in the Eastern Everglades. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
Fouts, E. L., L. E. Mull and T. R. Freeman. Preparation and Use of Invert
Sirup. The Ice Cream Rev. 27: 5: 30, 32, 62-64. 1943.
Fouts, E. L. Preventing Defects in Bottled Milk and Cream. The Milk
Dealer 33: 5: 29-30, 62, 64. 1944. Also, So. Dairy Products Jour. 35:
4: 80-85, 88. 1944.
Freeman, T. R., L. E. Mull and E. L. Fouts. Frozen Stored Cream. The
Ice Cream Rev. 27: 2: 30, 32, 34, 36. 1943.
Freeman, T. R. Wheat Flour as an Ice Cream Ingredient. Ice Cream Field
42: 5: 16-17, 48, 50, 52, 56, 60. 1943.
French, R. B. Victory Gardeners Reap Health. Fla. Grower 52: (1157):
4: 12, 16. 1944.
Glasscock, R. S. Planning to Meet Stock Quotas. Fla. Grower 52: (1155):
2: 14. 1944.
Groff, G. Weidman, and S. J. Lynch. Ginger, a Desirable Home Garden
Crop for Florida. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
Harrison, A. L., and D. G. A. Kelbert. Late Blight (Phytophthora in-
festans) on Eggplant. Plant Dis. Rept. 28:116. 1944.
Hayslip, N. C. Notes on Biological Studies of Mole-Crickets at Plant City,
Florida. Fla. Ent. 26: 33-46. 1943.
Hull, Fred H. Better Green Corn for Market. Fla. Grower 52:(1154):
1: 9. 1944.
Hull, Fred H. Points in Seed Corn Selection. Fla. Grower 51: (1148):
7: 19. 1943.
Jamison, F. S. Good Gardener Busy in December. Fla. Grower 51: (1153):
12: 15, 17. 1943.
Jamison, F. S. Picking Good Vegetable Seed. Fla. Grower 51: (1148):
7: 16. 1943.
Jamison, V. C. The Effect of Phosphates Upon the Fixation of Zinc and







Annual Report, 1944 27

Copper in Florida Soils. The Citrus Industry 24: 10: 3-5, 12-13. 1943.
Also, Proc. Soil Sci. of Amer. 8: 323-326. 1943.
Jamison, V. C. Some Fertility Problems Connected with Research on Soils
Planted to Citrus in Florida. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 5. 1943.
Janes, B. E. Variation in the Composition of Vegetables Grown in Different
Areas of the State. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
Kelsheimer, E. G. A Test of Some Poisons and Their Carriers on Two
Destructive Cutworms. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
Kenworthy, A. L., and J. N. Howard. Purification of Water by Use of
Synthetic Ion-Exchange Resins: Using pH as a Control. Soil Sci. 57:
293-297. 1944.
Kincaid, R. R. Effect of Storage Conditions on the Viability of Tobacco
Seed. Jour. of Agri. Res. 67: 10: 407-410. 1943.
LeClerc, E. L., P. M. Lombard, A. H. Eddins, H. T. Cook, and J. C. Camp-
bell. Effect of Different Amounts of Spindle Tuber and Leaf Roll on
Yields of Irish Potatoes. The Amer. Potato Jour. 21: 3: 60-71. 1944.
Lynch, S. J. Notes on Some Newer Hard Drying Vegetable Oils: Aleurites
Trisperma Blanco and Garcia Nutans Rohr. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc.
57. 1944.
Lynch, S. J. Third Report of the Avocado Variety Committee. Proc. Fla.
Sta. Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
McCubbin, E. N. Cabbage Variety Tests in the Hastings Section. Proc.
Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 56: 177-182. 1943.
McCubbin, E. N. Premature Seeding or Bolting of Cabbage. Proc. Fla.
Sta. Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
McKee, Roland, and G. E. Ritchey. Lupines, New Legumes for the South.
USDA Farmers Bul. 1946: 1-9. 1943.
Mehrhof, N. R. State Poultrymen Do Their Bit. Fla. Grower 52: (1154):
1: 11. 1944.
Minnum, E. C. Colossal "V" Garden . The Everglades. So. Seedsman
6: 12: 12, 44-45. 1943.
Minnum, E. C. New Varieties of Vegetables. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc.
57. 1944.
Moore, 0. K. How to Use Poultry Feed Wisely. Fla. Grower 51: (1152):
11:9. 1943.
Mowry, Harold. The Role of the Experiment Station in Agricultural
Progress. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
Neller, J. R. Influence of Cropping, Rainfall and Water Table on Nitrates
in Everglades Peat. Soil Sci. 57: 275-280. 1944.
Neller, J. R. Significance of the Composition of Soil Air in Everglades
Peat Land. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. 8: 341-344. 1943.
Noble, C. V. The Florida 1942-43 Citrus Season to Date. The Cit. Ind.
24:7:4-5. 1943.
Pace, J. E. Getting Bigger Livestock Gains. Fla. Grower 51: (1153):
12: 20. 1943.
Pace, J. E. Still More Pork is Victory Need. Fla. Grower 51: (1153):
12: 14. 1943.
Ruehle, G. D. New Fungicides for Potatoes and Tomatoes. Prc. Fla.
Sta. Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
Ruehle, G. D. Outstanding Potato Late Blight Control in Florida with a







28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

New Organic Fungicide Combined with Zinc Sulfate. Plant Dis. Rept.
28: 242-245. 1944.
Ruehle, G. D. Sectional Notes-Florida (Potatoes). Amer. Potato Jour.
21: 21. 1944.
Russell, J. C. DDT, a New Insecticide for Vegetables. Proc. Fla. Sta.
Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
Sanders, D. A. Further Observations on the Use of Iodized Mineral Oil
as Treatment for Bovine Mastitis. Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Asso. 103:
86-89. 1943.
Sanders, D. A. Mastitis in Heifers Following Injury by the Horn Fly,
Haematobia serrate Desv. Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Asso. 104: 284-285.
1944.
Shealy, A. L. Goats as Aid in Meat Shortage. Fla. Grower 52: (1154):
1: 8. 1944.
Shealy, A. L. How to Save Spring Pig Crops. Fla. Grower 52: (1156):
3: 15. 1944.
Sims, G. T., and G. M. Volk. Nature and Occurrence of Calcium Cyana-
mide Toxicity on Citrus. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 5. 1944.
Spurlock, A. H. Florida Citrus Cooperatives. Economic Leaflets. Bur. of
Ec. and Bus. Res., Col. of Bus. Adm., Univ. of Fla. 3: 1-4. 1943.
Smith, D. J. Hogs Thrive on Good Summer Care. Fla. Grower 51: (1148):
7: 15. 1943.
Stahl, A. L. Concentration of Citrus Juices by Freezing. Proc. Fla. Sta.
Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
Stahl, A. L. Factors Affecting the Quality of Florida Dehydrated Vege-
tables. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
Stahl, A. L. For Sale: Fresh Florida Orange Juice All Year. Fla. Grower
52: (1159): 6: 5, 12. 1944. Also, Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
Stokes, W. E. Winter Cover Crops. The Cit. Ind. 24: 10: 18. 1943.
Thompson, W. L. Prospects for Scale and Mealy Bug Infestations During
1944. The Cit. Ind. 25: 6: 5, 8, 9, 18. 1944.
Thornton, G. D. Some Factors Affecting the Longevity of Rhizobium in
Florida Soils. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. 8: 238-240. 1943.
Tisdale, W. B. Control Disease in Home Garden. Fla. Grower 52: (1156):
3: 16, 19. 1944.
Tisdale, W. B. Preparation of Vegetable Seedbeds. Fla. Grower 51:
(1148):7: 4. 1943.
Tisdale, W. B. Preventing Sweet Potato Rots. Fla. Grower 51: (1151):
10: 9, 12. 1943.
Tisdale, W. B. Root Rot of Aroids. P1. Dis. Rept. 27: 16: 307-308. 1943.
Tissot, A. N. Control of Household Insects. Cit. Ind. 25: 3: 12, 13. 1944.
Tissot, A. N. Plant Bug Control Measures. Fla. Grower 51: (1150): 9: 9.
1943.
Tissot, A. N. Prevent Cabbage Insect Damage. Fla. Grower 52: (1154):
1: 13. 1944.
Townsend, G. R. The Management of Celery Seed Beds. Proc. Fla. Sta.
Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
Volk, G. M. Significance of Soil Nitrate Test for Cabbage. Proc. Fla.
Sta. Hort. Soc. 57. 1944.
Volk, G. M., Engene Borda and R. V. Allison. Comparative Value of Vari-
ous Nitrogen Fertilizers for Citrus. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 5. 1944.







Annual Report, 1944 29

Volk, G. M., G. C. Willson and R. E. Blaser. Relative Availability of Waste
Pond Phosphate as a Source of Phosphorus and Calcium for Clover.
Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 5. 1944.
Voorhees, R. K. A Comparison of Some Copper Fungicides in Controlling
Citrus Melanose. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 56: 49-55. 1943. Also,
Cit. Ind. 24: 12: 5-8, 14-15. 1943.
Watson, J. R. A New Cuban Pest of Citrus. Fla. Ent. 27: 1: 13, 18. 1944.
Watson, J. R. A Tropical Book Worm in Florida. Fla. Ent. 26: 4: 61.
1943.
Watson, J. R. Aphids Threaten Citrus Growth. Fla. Grower 51: 7: 15, 16.
1943.
Watson, J. R. Control of Citrus Aphids. Cit. Ind. 25: 3: 14, 15. 1944.
Watson, J. R. Control of Rust Mites and Red Spiders. Cit. Ind. 24: 7: 14.
1943.
Watson, J. R. Control of the Pecan Tree Borer. Cit. Ind. 24: 10: 8, 9.
1943.
Watson, J. R. Melipotis acantoides (Guen) in Florida. Fla. Ent. 26: 4: 71.
1943.
Watson, J. R. Doctor Wilmon Newell. Fla. Ent. 26: 4: 1-2. 1943.
Watson, J. R. Effect of Cover Crops on Citrus Trees. Cit. Ind. 24: 8: 6-7,
14-15. 1943.
Watson, J. R. Everglades Parasites Flown to Australia. Citrus 6: 8: 10.
1944.
Watson, J. R. Flowers that Resist Root-Knot. Fla. Grower 51: (1148):
7:14. 1943.
Watson, J. R. How to Control Cowpea Insects.. Fla. Grower 51: (1148):
7: 11. 1943.
Watson, J. R. Postwar Insecticides Promising. Fla. Grower 52: (1159):
6:8. 1944.
Watson, J. R. Stop Squash and Cuke Worms. Fla. Grower 52: (1154):
1:4. 1944.
Watson, J. R. The Mutillidae of Georgia. Fla. Ent. 26: 3: 46. 1943.
Watson, J. R., and E. W. Berger. Dr. Peter Henry Rolfs. Fla. Ent. 27:
1: 2-4. 1944.
Weber, G. F. Southern Blight, Corticium rolfsii, of Potato Tubers. Phyto-
path. 33: 7: 615-617. 1943.
West, Erdman. A Botrytis Leaf-Spot of Onions New to Florida. P1. Dis.
Rept. 28: 6: 198-199. 1944.
West, Erdman. Exobasidium galls on Camellia spp. P1. Dis. Rept. 28: 463.
1944.
West, Erdman. Florida Wild Flowers Blooming. Fla. Grower 52: (1158):
5: 17. 1944.
Wilmot, R. J. Camellia Names in Catalogs. Amer. Nurseryman 78: 7: 7.
1943.
Wilmot, R. J. Seeks Agreement Among Growers on Camellia Varietal
Names. The Florists' Rev. 93: 2393: 17. 1943.
Wilmot, R. J. Why Use a Mulch. Home Gardening 3: 146-147. 1943.
Wisecup, C. B., and N. C. Hayslip. Control of Mole Crickets by Use of
Poisoned Baits. U. S. Dept. of Agr. Leaflet 237: 1-6. 1943.
Young, T. W. A Study of the Irrigation of Citrus Groves in Vero Beach
Section. Cit. Ind. 25: 4: 6-9, 11, 14, 20; 25:5: 3, 7, 14-15; 25: 6: 12,
13, 18. 1944. Also, Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 56: 8-22. 1943..







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


LIBRARY
A General Education Board allocation to this Library was used for
the filling in of gaps in the files of 23 important periodicals. Twenty-four
new periodical titles also were added, each of which will become increasingly
valuable for research. There were acquired by purchase, gift and exchange
588 new books. Over 3,000 pamphlets and bulletins have been received
and cataloged, making the total of all publications received, cataloged and
filed during the year 11,544. A high record of 16,893 cards have been
prepared, typed and filed in the catalog and 6,228 cards were received
from the Library of Congress and from the New York Botanical Garden.
This makes a total of 23,121 cards added to the catalog for the year. A
special catalog for reprints of articles has been organized and 1,589 cards
have been prepared and typed to facilitate the use of the reprints.
A Central Catalog in the University Library was made possible by a
grant from the General Education Board and this library co-operated with
the University Library in organizing it. The catalog is an author index
to all the publications on the University of Florida campus. To date the
contribution from this library is 42,581 cards. This library will continue
to furnish the Central Catalog with an entry card for each book and for
each document cataloged in order that its holdings will be currently covered.
Students, 205 in number, have used 1,009 reserved books.
Statistics summarized show:
400 volumes sent to bindery
588 books added by purchase, gift or exchange
3,026 bulletins received and cataloged
11,544 documents, periodicals, etc., received
41 volumes borrowed from other libraries
16,893 catalog cards prepared, typed and filed
6,228 catalog cards purchased
23,121 cards added to the card catalog
24 new titles added to periodicals
23 fill-in periodicals received







Annual Report, 1944


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Much time and effort was given during the year to cooperative work
with the Federal Bureau of Agricultural Economics to establish back-
ground material for a maximum wartime agricultural production capacity
estimate for Florida. Cooperative work on postwar planning for Florida
agriculture was conducted, also, with that Bureau and the Florida State
Planning Board.
The work originally planned under the project dealing with prices of
Florida farm products has been completed, but a revision of this project
is contemplated for the purpose of preparing a Florida index of prices
paid by farmers for goods and services. This index is needed to arrive at
the relative farmer purchasing power at different periods. All other
projects are being continued as originally planned.

FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 154 A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble
Investigations concerning membership problems of citrus cooperative
associations became inactive during the year because of the more urgent
demands for emergency war work. At the end of the year work was in
progress to bring the information on the status of all Florida farmer co-
operative associations, as reported in Bulletin 245, up-to-date. This revision
will be mimeographed when completed.

COST OF PRODUCTION AND GROVE ORGANIZATION STUDIES
OF FLORIDA CITRUS
Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage
Cooperative cost of production studies were continued with a group of
Florida citrus growers. Grove summaries for the 1941-42 season were
completed and copies returned to each cooperator, together with the original
accounts kept by him.
Field and office work of closing the grove accounts for the 1942-43
season was completed and tabulations were made from which the annual
summary sheets for 1942-43 have been obtained. Mimeographed summaries
have been prepared giving comparative data of similar varieties and ages
of citrus averaged for 2 5-year periods, 1932-37 and 1937-42, and annual
data for the 1941-42 and 1942-43 seasons. These summaries will be re-
turned to each cooperator, together with results from his own grove for
the 1942-43 season.
PRICES OF FLORIDA FARM PRODUCTS
Purnell Project 317 A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble
A combination price index reported last year and including 37 Florida
farm products was completely revised to incorporate several changes sug-
gested by the U. S. Bureau of Agricultural Economics. Grapefruit prices
were removed from the index until January 1924 to eliminate the down-
ward bias given the index by the very high grapefruit prices during the
base period August 1909-July 1914. Grapefruit during this period has
the characteristics of a luxury commodity, when only small quantities
were sold, and grapefruit prices were not determined by the same factors
as other farm prices until some years later. Omitting grapefruit prices
until January, 1924, raised the level of the combined index somewhat and
raised the citrus group index appreciably.
Using the period of August 1909-July 1914 as a base or 100, the com-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


bined index of Florida farm prices averaged 199 during 1943, the highest
since 1922. Farm prices began to rise slowly after the outbreak of th
war in Europe and on May 15, 1944, the index stood at 220. Those fo
sweet potatoes, tobacco, chickens, beef cattle, calves, cotton seed, and
truck crops as a group were among the highest during 1943, while those
of cotton lint, milk, citrus and corn were relatively low. Florida farm
wage rates rose even faster than farm prices after the beginning of the
war. The index averaged 213 during 1943, on the 1910-14 base, and on
April 1, 1944, reached 248, both higher than any previous record. This
index as revised when published will contain individual monthly prices
and price relatives for each product from 1910 (or earliest date available)
to 1943, inclusive.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY, CAUSES OF
LOSSES, REPLACEMENTS AND DEPRECIATION
OF FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
Purnell Project 345 A. H. Spurlock
For report of this cooperative project see, ANIMAL INDUSTRY,
Project 345.
INPUT AND OUTPUT DATA FOR FLORIDA CROP AND
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
Purnell Project 395 Max E. Brunk, J. Wayne Reitz and A. H. Spurlock
Data were collected on 5 of the leading Florida winter vegetable crops
and in the main production areas as follows: 1, beans-Pompano, Dade
County, Belle Glade; 2, celery-Belle Glade, Sarasota, Sanford; 3, peppers
-Pompano; 4, potatoes-Hastings, LaCrosse, Dade County, Belle Glade;
5, tomatoes-Dade County, Manatee.
These data included materials and labor used in crop production on
the basis of normalized plans of operation. Labor requirements were
broken down by type of operation and the usual period of performance.
While final summaries have not been prepared, preliminary tabulations
have been used by Selective Service and farm labor program officials in
formulating plans and policies.

EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF FARM LABOR
Purnell Project 415 Max E. Brunk, F. S. Jamison and A. H. Spurlock
This project, conducted cooperatively with HORTICULTURE, includes
motion and time studies in progress during the past year, on tying staked
tomatoes; harvesting tomatoes, potatoes, celery, beans, citrus; celery
seedbed methods; and on setting celery. Some of these studies were com-
pleted while others are now in progress. Motion pictures have been made
of most of these. By request, a short picture was also prepared of an
improved method of stumping land. These pictures are used, (1) to record
motion so that detailed study of such motion can be made and (2) for
presenting results of the study. The films shown to farmers and farm
laborers in Florida were on harvesting celery, beans and citrus, on labor-
saving ideas on celery seed beds, on setting celery, and on stumping land.
"Picking Citrus" was used to help train nearly 2,000 new, inexperienced
workers. The "Picking Beans" picture is being revised in cooperation
with Cornell University, for use in New York and New Jersey in summer
(1944) and in Florida this winter.
During the year a faster method of tying staked tomatoes was de-
veloped and used in the Bradenton area. Studies were made of the methods
of harvesting celery used by the different organizations in the State. The







Annual Report, 1944


results of these studies were made available to these organizations as soon
as each study was completed. Using the results of these investigations,
some organizations increased their output per worker as much as %.
Methods of handling celery seedbeds have been worked out so that labor
on this operation could be reduced by some growers as much as 50 percent.
In connection with celery harvesting a new type of field box was de-
veloped for the purpose of reducing the amount of box breakage. The new
box uses less costly materials, has greater strength and is simple to con-
struct. Investigations are also in progress on a mechanical celery har-
vester and loading machine.

FLORIDA MAXIMUM WARTIME AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
CAPACITY AND POST-WAR PLANNING FOR AGRICULTURE
Purnell Project 416 C. V. Noble
During the summer of 1943 cooperation was given to the U. S. Bureau
of Agricultural Economics in arriving at estimates by agricultural com-
modities as to the best background upon which to base the Florida agri-
cultural production goals for 1944. In addition, an appraisal was made
at that time of the maximum wartime agricultural capacity for Florida.
Four mimeographed reports were prepared from this work and submitted
to the Bureau. Estimates are now being made as background for the
Florida agricultural production goals for 1945.

FLORIDA TRUCK CROP COMPETITION
The regular summary was prepared and mimeographed as a supplement
to Florida Bulletin 224 to present the competition between Florida and
other states in the weekly car-lot shipments of commercial truck crops
during the 1942-43 season.

MOVEMENT OF CITRUS TREES FROM NURSERIES TO
GROVES IN FLORIDA
Cooperation was continued with the Florida State Plant Board in sum-
marizing the citrus nursery stock movement to grove plantings for the
1942-43 season. These summaries are arranged by varieties of citrus and
by counties where plantings are made.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


AGRONOMY

Agronomy research during the year was conducted under 17 regular
projects, together with miscellaneous projects on Sea Island cotton and
peanuts. It involved crop variety testing, breeding, rotation, fertilization,
cover and green manure crop studies, and pasture establishment, main-
tenance and evaluation. A brief report on each project follows.
PEANUT IMPROVEMENT
State Project 20 W. A. Carver and Fred H. Hull
A peanut variety-strain test containing 33 Florida, 2 Georgia and 4
North Carolina strains and 7 standard varieties is planted at Gainesville
in 1944. The variety test of 1944 at Quincy contains 7 entries, including
Georgia and Florida strains and 2 standard varieties.
Yields from the variety test of 1943 at Gainesville and Quincy averaged
with past tests to include 1937, show Florida strain 231-51, a runner
peanut, leading Florida Runner by 30 percent, while Florida strain 88-4-1
leads by 27 percent. In these tests of 1942 and 1943, Georgia Station 207-3
excelled Florida Runner by 33 percent, and Georgia Spanish 18-38 excelled
Florida Spanish D4 by 21 percent. These 2 Georgia strains are being
carried in the 1944 tests at Quincy and Gainesville.
The seed of Florida strain 231-51 was released to cooperative growers
in 1943. Approximately 400 bushels of it were planted by growers in
1944, and 100 tons of seed should be available for 1945 planting. Strain
231-51 has been named "DIXIE RUNNER". The strain came from a 1933
cross of Dixie Giant and Small White Spanish.
The building of a small peanut picker made it possible to get yield
weights on a large volume of hybrid material. This machine was built
during the summer of 1942 and further improved in 1943. The machine
is operated by.4 men and powered by a 3 horsepower gasoline engine.

CROP ROTATION STUDIES WITH CORN, COTTON, CROTALARIA
AND WINTER LEGUMES 2
Hatch Project 55 W. E. Stokes, G. E. Ritchey and H. C. Harris
Cotton-Corn-Legume Rotation.-The year 1943 completed 14 years of
this experiment. It was continued as in the past with no changes except
that blue lupines were used as the winter cover crop in place of vetch
and rye. The summer legumes again consisted of Crotalaria spectibilis
Roth, C. striata DC, and C. lanceolata E. May, but these have almost gone
out of the picture. As reported in 1943, Indigofera hirsuta L. was planted
between the corn rows as the summer cover crop at the time of the last
cultivation of the corn. A good crop was obtained and plowed under.
As stated in past reports, it has been exceedingly difficult to obtain a
stand of a winter legume cover crop. During 1943-44, however, a good
crop of lupines was grown on the winter cover crop plots. Inasmuch as
a poor stand has always been obtained, little, if any, influence of the winter
cover crop on corn or cotton yields could or did result.
The results of this work may be summarized as follows: (1) Rotation
of corn and cotton during the 14-year period has been more responsible
for the increase of yields than any other factor; (2) the summer legume
which was composed largely of crotalaria has evidently had little effect
on the yield of corn; and (3) the summer legume in the rotation has
evidently been responsible for an increase in cotton yields.
2 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I., Soils and Agr. Eng.







Annual Report, 1944 35

Corn and Runner Peanuts Rotating with Crotalaria and with Native
Cover Crops.-This rotation experiment is in its 12th year. Five rotations
or cropping systems are under study as follows: Corn and peanuts every
year, corn and peanuts every year with crotalaria seeded in the corn and
peanuts at the last cultivation, corn and peanuts alternating with crotalaria,
corn and peanuts alternating with native cover and corn and peanuts every
third year with native cover the 2 intervening years.
No fertilizer has been applied in this experiment; corn yields were
best following 1 year of crotalaria while peanut yields have been best
following 1 year of native cover.
Corn in the 2-Year Rotation with Crotalaria and Weeds as Natural
Plant Cover.-As reported in 1943, this experiment was changed somewhat
and during the last year winter cover crops were grown on the land pre-
paratory to studying the effect of rye, blue lupines and Annual Sweet
clover on succeeding crops. Results are not yet available.

VARIETY TEST WORK WITH FIELD CROPS 3
Hatch Project 56 W. E. Stokes, G. E. Ritchey,
H. C. Harris and F. A. Clark
The uniform nurseries maintained and reported on since 1941 have
been continued and the following can be reported:
Bahia Grass.-The strains of Paraguay Bahia grass No. Ba-3 and Ba-1
have reacted similarly to previous years and no further report will be
made concerning them at this time. The Pensacola type of Bahia has
made more growth and produced larger plants than the Paraguay, is
more cold-resistant but has not produced a denseness of sod compared to
the Paraguay strain.
Sorghum.-Ninety-two varieties and strains of sorghums were planted
for studying disease resistance. No varieties were resistant to all dis-
eases. A few varieties, including White African F. C. No. 6,604, Atlas
(op) F. C. No. 9,112, Rox Orange F. C. No. 13,640, Coleman F. C. No.
16,159, Hodo (op) S. A. 307, were reasonably free of the most serious
diseases.
Peanuts.-See Report State Project 20.
Flue-Cured Tobacco.-See Report Hatch Project 378.
Oats.-See Report Hatch Project 363. At the Watermelon and Grape
Investigations Laboratory oat varieties in 1943 yielded the following bushels
of g ain per acre: Florida 167, 49.4; Coker's Fulgrain, 21.1; Suwannee
Blackhull, 11.9.
Upland Cotton.-Of 13 varieties tested, Stoneville 2B and Coker 100
Wilt Resistant Strain 2 were leaders, averaging slightly over 1,800 pounds
of seed cotton per acre with a lint percentage of 35.1 and 37.7, respectively,
and stapling 1% and 1- inches, respectively. Of the semi-long staple
cottons, Meade, Tidewater and Coker-Wilds, Tidewater led with Coker-
Wilds a close second.
Sugarcane-Florida 31-762, Florida 37-85, Co. 290, and C. P. H. 20-116
were tested. In forage yield C. P. H. 29-116 led, in syrup yield Florida
31-762 was the leader. The leading chewing cane varieties are Florida
31-563, Florida 31-699, and Co. 290.
Cowpeas.-California Blackeye, Brown and Cream Crowder, Blue Goose,
Brabham, Conch, and Chinese Red varieties are in the test in 1944.

3 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I., Soils, and Agr. Enc.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Rye.-Both Florida Black and Abruzzi rye gave satisfactory yields in
small plots.
CORN FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS
State Project 163 W. F Stokes
The outstanding fertilizer grade was a 4-8-8 applied at 300 pounds
per acre. The outstanding winter legume for increasing corn yield was
blue lupine. Dolomitic limestone at 250 pounds per acre applied in the
drill previous to planting did not increase corn yields.

EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS ON YIELD, GRAZING VALUE, CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION AND BOTANICAL MAKEUP OF PASTURES
Bankhead-Jones Project 295 R. E. Blaser, W. E. Stokes,
G. B. Killinger and R. W. Bledsoe
Sources of Nitrogen.-A nitrogen source test on Leon fine sand was
designed and started in 1938 to measure growth and composition of carpet
grass as affected by 4 sources of nitrogen with various combinations of
lime, P.O. and KO. All 4 sources of nitrogen increased growth materially,
irrespective of other mineral combinations; however, best growth generally
resulted when nitrogen was used in the presence of phosphorus and potash
or phosphorus, potash and lime. The test is being maintained to measure
residual effects of nitrogen on grass growth and on soil reaction.
Grass, Fertilizer and Soil Type Interaction.-Eight grasses were planted
in replicated blocks and treated with 12 lime and fertilizer mixtures on
Leon fine sand near Callahan and Zephyrhills in 1942. The plots were
retreated in the spring of 1943 and 1944. The experiment will be continued
so as to get information on the adaptation of grasses, their survival in
subsequent years under competition with native and other improved pasture
grasses and residual effects of fertilizers on growth and composition. The
grasses differ greatly in nutritional requirements and soil adaptation. Car-
pet and varieties of Bahia grass appear better adapted to the low soils of
the flat pine lands than other grasses. Bermuda varieties and Digitaria
decumbens Stent. were seriously retarded in growth because of temporary
flooding. Both of these grasses have made satisfactory growth on well-
drained soils. Dallis grass failed to survive in the Zephyrhills test, but
the growth is quite satisfactory in the Callahan test. The Digitaria was
damaged severely by either cold or excess moisture on the Callahan plots.
It is apparent that many of the grasses will be exterminated through
competition with carpet grass. However, the Bahia grasses appear suffi-
ciently vigorous to compete with carpet grass.
All grasses except carpet and Pensacola Bahia failed to sod without soil
treatment, but their rapidity of sodding was increased greatly when fertil-
ized. The sodding and growth of the grasses show that the lime and
fertilizer requirements differ considerably. Chemical analysis of the herb-
age is being made to measure the effect of fertilization on quality of herbage.
This work is conducted cooperatively with SOILS.
Grass Growth as Affected by Minor Elements.-Two tests near Callahan
and Zephyrhills on Leon fine sand are being continued to measure the resi-
dual effect of minor elements on growth and composition. Minor elements
applied in the absence of complete fertilizer and lime failed to yield signifi-
cant growth increases. Apparently minor elements are of most value
during the period when grasses are being established, as reported in Florida
Station Bulletin 384. Growth responses due to minor elements were not
significant during the past year on the established sods of 4 grasses.
Variety Tests with Bermuda Grasses.-The 2 Bermuda grass variety








Annual Report, 1944


tests were continued. The improved types of Bermuda, such as Coastal
and Gainesville No. 1, produced much better yields than commercial,
common or St. Lucie varieties, due to a vigorous root system and to their
resistance to Helminthosporium leaf spot. Bermuda No. 99 produced 4,196
pounds of dry matter as compared to 900 pounds per acre for common
Bermuda grass on a Norfolk fine sand, when cut for hay. Preliminary
data indicate that the tall types of Bermuda may have value in a forage
crop program in several ways, such as, (1) in permanent pastures, (2) in
oats-Bermuda grass rotation, where the Bermuda is turned every fall and
the field is planted to oats for winter grazing, (3) in a program where
cattle are withheld from grazing areas in August, September, and October
and allowed to graze accumulated feed in late fall, and (4) in a combina-
tion program of grazing and hay making.
Grazing Tests.-A 20-acre area of carpet grass was divided into 8
2%-acre pastures to measure the value of fertilized grass, unfertilized
grass, clover-grass mixtures and lespedeza-grass mixtures. During the
1943 season the gains in live weight per acre of beef cattle for the various
pastures were as follows: Carpet grass without fertilizer, 93 pounds;
carpet grass fertilized with complete fertilizer, 127 pounds; carpet-lespedeza
pasture refertilized with P20, and KO2, 170 pounds; carpet-clover pasture
refertilized with P2Os and K20, 695 pounds. These tests are conducted co-
operatively with ANIMAL INDUSTRY.
Grazing Value of New Grasses.-Six 2.3-acre pastures established in
1942 with Coastal Bermuda, Pensacola Bahia and Digitaria decumbens in
duplicate are being grazed with test animals. The grasses have all sodded
satisfactorily and tolerated fairly close rotational grazing. All 3 grasses
survived satisfactorily during the dry spring and none were killed by
frost. All of these grasses furnished earlier and later grazing than carpet
grass. During the 1944 grazing season from March 30 to May 26 the
gains in live weight per acre for the 3 grasses were as follows: Pensacola
Bahia, 139 pounds; Coastal Bermuda, 103 pounds; Digitaria, 141 pounds.
Additional pastures established to Paraguay Bahia, St. Lucie Bermuda
and common Bahia have not yet been grazed with test animals, as these
grasses have not yet produced a sufficiently pure sod.

FORAGE NURSERY AND PLANT ADAPTATION STUDIES'

Bankhead-Jones Project 297 G. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
During the year a large number of grass and legume species were
added to the plants that were under observation last year. Most investiga-
tions have been confined to the nursery, while those showing the most
promise were planted in larger plots in fields and pastures for observations
on a more extensive scale.
Medicago obscure Retz. was seeded in the pasture in the fall of 1942.
The autumn months were dry and the pastures were grazed very closely.
However, it made a fair growth and produced seed; few plants volunteered
in the fall of 1943 and it appears that it will not volunteer readily when
grazed closely. Trifolium nigrescens Viv. was seeded on the same pasture.
It made a good growth in spite of the drought and was grazed exceedingly
close during the spring of 1943. It produced an abundance of seed and
volunteered to a good stand in the fall of 1943. This 1 test indicates that
this species will reseed and volunteer under adverse conditions. It appears
also that it will stand close grazing.
Strains of Lotus corniculatus L. and L. uliginosus Schkuhr. are under
SIn cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Dis.. B. P. I., S. and Agr. Eng.







38 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

observation in the nursery. Both of these species seem to be adapted to
low land. No grazing tests have been made on these species in Florida.
Indigofera hirsuta L. appears to have the qualifications of a good cover
crop but its use has been limited by late maturity of seed. It has volun-
teered on the University Farm for 6 consecutive years in the field of corn.
A strain is now under observation which appears to mature early enough
to avoid frost in the fall.
A field of Indigofera and Guinea grass planted together was used for
grazing in 1943. A portion of the field was planted in rows 3 feet apart
and the other portion was broadcast. The crop produced a yield varying
from 31,000 pounds per acre when seeded as a mixture in the row to 42,000
pounds when the mixture was seeded broadcast. Indigofera may be used
as a leguminous grazing crop with grasses.
Lupines.-More than 30 species of lupines were planted in the nursery
in 1943-44. Of these Lupinus angustifolius L., L. luteus L. and L. albus L.
showed most promise. A number of the other species, especially L. texensis
Hook (Texas bluebonnet), have some characteristics which may make them
valuable breeding stock. L. luteus shows indications of being better adapted
to sandy soils than L. angustifolius. A small increase plot of this species
was harvested this season.
FORAGE AND PASTURE GRASS IMPROVEMENT 5

Bankhead-Jones Project 298 G. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
The work with legume and grass improvement has continued with little
change from that reported last year.
Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach).-The planting of
18 strains which were selected from seedlings of Napier grass No. 4 has
been enlarged to study more effectively the characteristics of the individual
plants. Several strains which appear to be superior to the parent plant
have been isolated. Ten other seedlings have been added to the planting.
Considerable interest has been developed over the State in the growing
of Napier grass for forage. It was reported by 1 County Agent that more
than 200 acres of variety No. 4 have been planted in that county. These
plantings represent about 75 farmers and are grown for increase purposes.
Similar records have been made in other counties.
Sorghum.-It was reported in the 1942-43 Report that selections were
being made of sorghum varieties for the purpose of obtaining disease-
resistant strains. Of numerous selections made earlier, 1, reported last
year, was planted in a small field for seed increase. It made a good
growth and went through the season with little disease. The plants were
cut during the early winter and a fair stand has been obtained from the
stubble.
Lupines.-Of 5 selections of Lupinus angustifolius L. made in 1943
for resistance to various diseases 1 shows particular promise. Further
selections have been made for next year's observations; thus far no strain
has shown complete resistance.
One strain of Lupinus albus L. has been selected which is free from
alkaloid and produces plants which yield comparably with the common
alkaloid-containing strains.
Hairy Indigo.-Some progress has been made in selections of Indigofera
hirsuta L. for earliness but none withstood early freezing. One introduced
strain has indications of maturing 2 to 3 weeks earlier than any strain
previously grown.
5 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I., S. and Agr. Eng.








Annual Report, 1944


For report on cooperative disease and seed treatment studies see Report,
PLANT PATHOLOGY, Seed Treatment of Winter Cover Crops.

EFFECT OF BURNING AT DIFFERENT PERIODS ON SURVIVAL AND
GROWTH OF VARIOUS NATIVE RANGE PLANTS AND ITS EFFECT
ON ESTABLISHMENT OF IMPROVED GRASSES AND LEGUMES
Bankhead-Jones Project 299 G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes
This project has been revised recently and the work continues under
the title as given above.
Carpet grass seeded on areas burned and newly seeded without further
soil preparation in 1943 continues to make good growth. Press Bulletin
571, Establishing Carpet Grass Under Range Conditions by Controlled
Burning and Seeding, summarizes the burning results to date. This work
is being transferred to the Station's area known as the WILLIAMSON
TRACT where more careful control of the field phases of the experiment
can be had. In addition to burning, fertilizing with both major and trace
elements and seeding with various grasses and legumes are being added.

PASTURE LEGUMES
Bankhead-Jones Project 301 W. E. Stokes, G. E. Ritchey,' R. E. Blaser,
H. C. Harris and G. B. Killinger

Sources of Lime and Phosphorus with Combinations of Lime and Fer-
tilizer as Related to Clover Growth.-Plot experiments with 4 phosphate
sources and with dolomitic and ground limestones, started in 1938, have
been refertilized to measure later the residual effects of fertilizer. Data
on dry yields and chemical and botanical composition of herbage are being
obtained for the purpose of evaluating the various fertilizer treatments
and sources of nutrients.
Clover Varieties Fertilizer Tests.-The clover varieties fertilizer experi-
ments established in 1941 and 1942 are being continued. The fertilizer
treatments were designed to measure the effects of lime and phosphorus
from different sources and also different lime and fertilizer mixtures on
growth of several varieties of clover. Different clover varieties show large
differences in nutritional and soil requirements. Louisiana White Clover,
Black Medic, California Bur and Annual Sweet clovers are best adapted
to existing conditions where tried. Crimson clover has invariably failed
to make satisfactory growth and Red clover fails to reseed satisfactorily
because of the lateness of seed production and concurrent drought. The
plots were mowed for yield records and pure clover samples were hand-
plucked for chemical analysis so as to evaluate the growth and quality
of herbage produced under various soil treatments.
The 5-Acre Tests.-The 4 long-time experiments of 5 acres each,
established in different locations and on several soil types in the fall of
1942, were retreated. On 2 of these clovers treated with superphosphate
made much better growth than those treated with rock phosphate. On rock
phosphate plots 0-8-24 fertilizer stimulated clover growth much more than
muriate of potash. In 1 test clover treated with rock phosphate was yellow-
ish in color, possibly indicative of some mineral deficiency.
Minor Element Tests.-The test started in 1941 at the Florida Farm
Colony is being continued. During the first year the growth of California
Bur and White Dutch clover was increased significantly by minor elements,
as reported in Bulletin 384. Yields of clover or of a clover-grass mixture
In cooperation with Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I., S. and Agr. Eng.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


were not affected significantly by minor elements during the last 2 seasons.
Lack of significant growth responses may be explained partially by the
absence of California Bur clover, which was crowded out by the White
Dutch clover. It is evident that experiments with more replicates will be
desirable to measure the small differences in growth which occur because
of minor element applications.
One-half of each fertilizer plot on the 1941 clover variety fertilizer test
was treated in 1942 with a minor element mixture consisting of copper,
zinc, manganese and boron. The yields were significantly increased by the
minor element mixture over the untreated in the ratio of 100: 60. (See
also NORTH FLORIDA STATION, Project 301.)
Clover Seed Source Tests.-Black Medic, Hubam and Yellow Annual
Sweet clover tests comparing commercial seed sources with native selec-
tions are being continued. The strains differ greatly in morphological
characteristics, growth habit and date of maturity. Native selections of
all 3 clovers proved to be superior to commercial varieties in produc-
tivity of seed and forage. The commercial varieties did not volunteer
satisfactorily due to the lateness of seeding and concurrent drought.
Space-planting tests with Black Medic and annual sweet clovers were
made for the purpose of selecting superior lines. Seed from the best and
poorest plants from 25 selected plant lines of Black Medic clover were
space-planted in flats. These plants were subsequently transplanted to
the field in a split plot lattice experiment to test the efficiency of selective
breeding. Both of these tests failed, due to excess rain.
The breeding behavior of Black Medic, California Bur, Medicago minuti-
flora, and annual sweet clovers was studied. All made seed when bagged
without tripping, indicating that they are largely self-pollinated.
Some of these tests are cooperative with SOILS. (See also Report 301,
NORTH FLORIDA STATION.)
A STUDY OF NAPIER GRASS FOR PASTURE PURPOSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 302 R. E. Blaser and W. E. Stokes
Napier Grass for Dairy Cows.-All 5 lots of the 8-acre area of Napier
grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) planted in 1938 received com-
plete fertilizer in March. In May 2 of the lots received all of their supple-
mentary nitrogen in 1 application, while the nitrogen for the remaining
3 lots was applied in 4 equal applications during the grazing season. Growth
did not differ appreciably for the 2 methods of nitrogen fertilization. The
grass was disked with a heavy cut-away disk in February as in previous
years. Protected areas in all fields are being plucked for yields and chem-
ical analysis of herbage as in previous years.
Napier Grass for Beef Cattle.-Two 1%-acre fields of short internode
Napier grass were grazed with beef cattle. This variety tolerated more
intensive grazing than the ordinary Napier grass, but preliminary data
indicated that it is not a very productive strain. (See also ANIMAL
INDUSTRY, Project 302.)
Napier Grass Management and Fertilizer Studies.-Three Napier grass
varieties were given 8 different fertilizer treatments and plucked or cut
in 7 different manners to resemble various cutting and grazing intensities.
All plots were refertilized as in previous years, but all are to be cut alike
this season to determine the effect of previous management treatments
on productivity.
The Napier grass fertilizer test involving 4 sources of nitrogen and
heavy rates of nitrogen made in 1 application versus split applications is
being continued. Herbage samples have been composite for making







Annual Report, 1944


chemical analysis to supply information on the effect of fertilizer on both
quality and quantity of herbage.
METHODS OF ESTABLISHING PASTURES UNDER
VARIOUS CONDITIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 304 R. E. Blaser, H. C. Harris
and R. W. Bledsoe
Success in establishing most grasses and legumes depends upon proper
soil treatments; thus, this project is closely associated with many phases
of work carried on in projects 295 and 301.
An experiment on a deep phase of Norfolk sand was started in
August, 1944, to study different planting methods for Digitaria and Coastal
Bermuda grasses, both planted from vegetative material stolonss, rhizomes
and stems). The test was designed to measure the suitability of the
various plant parts for propagation, depth of covering, and various cultural
methods. The experiment was a failure, due to the drought nature of
this soil and accompanying dry weather.
Five acres of No. 99 Bermuda were satisfactorily established by drop-
ping rhizomes in the tiller row of a tiller plow in February. The grass
was covered an average depth of 4% inches and spaced 2 feet apart in
4-foot rows.
An additional 15-acre area of Coastal and No. 99 Bermuda was estab-
lished by the same method during the summer to determine the effect of
various fertilizer treatments.

OAT IMPROVEMENT
Hatch Project 363 H. C. Harris and R. W. Bledsoe
Varieties and Improvement.-Fifteen varieties of oats were tested this
past year. Florida 167, a selection out of a Bond x Fulghum cross, which
is a rust resistant variety selected at this Station from seed furnished by
the USDA, gave good results as compared with the standard varieties
grown in this part of the country. Quincy 1 and Quincy 2 are not as
well adapted to the Gainesville area as is Florida 167, although they are
good grazing oats and do especially well in northern Florida. In addition
to the varieties several hundred individual heads, crosses and selections
are being tested.
Five hundred bushels of Florida 167 oat seed were produced by the
Experiment Station for distribution to farmers.
For comparison with oats several varieties of rye, wheat and barley
were grown but the latter 2 did very poorly. Of the small grains, oats
and rye seem to be most suitable for Florida.

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON COMPOSITION OF FORAGE PLANTS
Adams Project 369 G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes
Results of analyses indicate that Digitaria decumbens Stent and Ber-
muda No. 35 (Coastal Bermuda) grasses are somewhat higher in minerals
than Pensacola Bahia grass grown on the same soil under like conditions,
and that the protein content varies from 15.33 percent in the Digitaria
to 11.87 percent in Pensacola Bahia grass.
The protein content of Florida 167 oats varied from 12.30 percent with
no nitrogen to 13.56 percent for the same oats topdressed with 40 pounds
of nitrogen from nitrate of soda and ammonium nitrate. Green oat yields
on the same areas varied from 5,082 pounds to 15,972 pounds per acre.
These oats were sampled in the boot to early bloom stage.
Various fertilizer ratios with phosphorus and limestone from different







42 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

sources produced carpet, common Bermuda, Dallis, Coastal Bermuda, and
Pangola grasses which varied in composition according to treatment.
FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IMPROVEMENT
Adams Project 372 Fred H. Hull, Fred Clark and W. E. Stokes
Tobacco selections which showed some resistance to root-knot and which
were mentioned in earlier reports could not be further tested because of
the failure of field plantings due to drouth.
Attempts are being made with apparent success to cross the wild native
species Nicotiana repanda Willd. with common flue-cured varieties of to-
bacco. This wild species has been reported highly resistant to root-knot
and has been found so in these trials in severe tests in the greenhouse root-
knot bed. N. repanda has the same number of chromosomes as N. tabacum
(n = 24). General experience of various workers has shown that fertile
hybrids may be expected between species of Nicotiana where chromosomes
numbers are the same.

CORN IMPROVEMENT
Purnell Project 374 Fred H. Hull and W. A. Carver
Breeding by the standard method of isolating selfed lines and testing
first generation hybrids has been continued with both field and sweet corn
and results continue to be promising with both.
During the year a comprehensive analysis of theories and experimental
data with respect to hybrid vigor has been undertaken. From these studies
a modified breeding method has been designed in which selection within a
crossbred lot for combining ability with a specific homozygous line is
practiced recurrently. Theoretical calculations indicate that this modified
method may be much more effective than the above mentioned standard
method in isolating' high yielding hybrids. Preliminary steps to put the
new plan into operation were taken in the growing season of 1944.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO FERTILIZERS AND VARIETIES
Hatch Project 378 W. E. Stokes, Fred Clark and R. W. Bledsoe
This experimental work has been continued on a Norfolk sandy soil
along the following lines: (1) Fertilizer studies with 5 selected varieties,
(2) rates of fertilizer, with different plant spacing, (3) sources and
combination of sources of nitrogen, (4) 38 different formulas or grades
of fertilizer, (5) comparison of acid, basic and neutral fertilizers of
the same grade, (6) withholding part of the nitrogen for side-dressing
20 days after setting, (7) comparing the use of paradichlorobenzene for
control of downy mildew in tobacco plant beds with other treatments,
and (8) chemical treatment of the soil for the control of weeds in tobacco
plant beds.
Gold Dollar, Bonanza, Yellow Mammoth, Virginia Bright Leaf and
Mammoth Gold were the high yielding varieties in the order named when
a 4-8-11 with 9 percent sulphur (SO.) was used at the rate of 1,000 pounds
per acre.
The results of the higher rates of fertilizer with the 5 different vari-
eties are consistent in quality and poundage. In the rates of fertilizer
test, with the rates ranging from 1,000 to 1,800 pounds per acre, the 1,800
pounds per acre rate produced the highest yield with excellent quality.
In the sources of nitrogen test, % nitrate of soda, % urea and %
cottonseed meal, followed by % nitrate of soda, % sulfate of ammonia
SClayton, E. E.. and Foster, H. H. Disease resistance in the genus Nicotiana. Phyto-
pathology 30: 4 1940.








Annual Report, 1944


and 1/ urea, produced highest yields and quality. Compost, applied at
the rate of 3,000 pounds per acre plus 1,000 pounds per acre of a 3-8-6
mixture, produced excellent poundage and quality.
In the grade or analysis test, the highest quality and poundage pro-
duced was from a 4-8-11 fertilizer carrying 8 percent CaO, 2 percent
MgO, 9 percent SOa, 2 percent Cl and .005 percent boron, used at 1,000
pounds per acre.
Fifty pounds of magnesium per acre with a normal 3-8-6 tobacco fer-
tilizer at 1,000 pounds per acre gave excellent results. Previous tests
indicate the need for more than 2 percent magnesium on the very light
and heavily cropped soils.
Withholding part of the nitrogen for side-dressing was outstanding
over the drill application of all the nitrogen at transplanting time.
A neutral fertilizer was superior to either a basic or acid fertilizer.
Starter Solutions and Liquid Fertilizer.-Experimental work is under
way to find the most efficient means of using plant nutrients (fertilizers)
on flue-cured tobacco. The usefulness of liquid fertilizers as starter solu-
tions has been amply demonstrated in the growing of several vegetable
transplants. However, no work has come to the attention of the authors
where starter solutions were used on tobacco.
The application of plant nutrients in water gave very satisfactory flue-
cured tobacco growth this year on Norfolk sandy loam at the Gainesville
Station. Field plats of tobacco were set with 4 starter solutions consist-
ing of 1, 3, 6, and 9 pounds of a 13-26-13 fertilizer mixture dissolved in
50 gallons of water. Each tobacco transplant received approximately %
pint of starter solution. No plant injury was noted from any of the
treatments. However, 3 pounds of 13-26-13 fertilizer dissolved in 50
gallons of water appeared to be the optimum rate. Plant growth responses
from the starter solutions were very good and the number of resets were
much fewer than on the check plots.
Additional investigations are being conducted to compare the efficiency
of various rates of liquid fertilizer when applied in 1 to 3 applications as
a side-dressing versus 1 application of a dry fertilizer by the drill method.
Results are incomplete, but tobacco plant growth this year indicated that
the unit cost of growing tobacco might be reduced by the application of
fertilizer in water.
METHODS OF PRODUCING, HARVESTING AND MAINTAINING
PASTURE PLANTS AND SEED STOCK
Bankhead-Jones Project 417 R. E. Blaser and W. E. Stokes
An area established to 1 acre each of Digitaria, Coastal Bermuda and
Bermuda No. 99 grasses was refertilized to obtain maximum production
of vegetative seed stocks for distribution to farmers. These 3 grasses now
have been distributed to many farmers in all parts of Florida. It is antici-
pated that a sufficient number of nurseries of these grasses will be planted
in various places in Florida to furnish planting material to the different
communities.
Five acres of land on the Williamson Tract were cleared in the fall of
1943 and planted to improved Black Medic and Pensacola Bahia grass. An
experiment involving 2 rates of lime with 2 rates of 0-10-10 fertilizer, 12
minor element treatments, and 2 types of seedbed preparation was estab-
lished. It is anticipated that seed production studies of both Black Medic
and Pensacola Bahia can be made, since these 2 crops seed at different
times.
The Black- Medic clover made very poor growth because of late plant-
ing and dry, loose soil. It was not possible to prepare the soil and apply







44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

fertilizer well in advance of seeding because of the late date at which this
property was obtained. The experiment will be reseeded and continued.
Improved varieties of Sweet and Black Medic clovers were harvested
for increasing seed next fall. Sweet clover seed can be harvested directly
from the field with the combine. Preliminary tests indicate that Black
Medic should be mowed and cured in the window to avoid shattering
of seed. Carpet and Bahia grass seed were combined directly from the
field without previous mowing.
Some of these tests are conducted cooperatively with SOILS.
MISCELLANEOUS EXPERIMENTS
WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO PLANT BEDS
The object of this study was to determine the relative efficiency of
uramon, ammonium carbonate, ammonium thiocyanate, ammonium persul-
fate, ammonium sulfamate, calcium cyanamide, and cottonseed meal as
weed seed killing agents in tobacco plant beds.
There were 4 methods of placement of compounds: (1) Worked in soil
to depth of 4 inches, (2) worked in soil to depth of 4 inches and covered
for 5 weeks, (3) applied on soil surface and watered in, and (4) applied
on soil surface and watered in and covered for 5 weeks.
There were 2 replicates of each treatment with each method of place-
ment. Compounds were applied approximately 90 to 120 days ahead of
planting the beds and at the rate of % pound per square yard. Tobacco
bed fertilizer was applied and worked into the soil of all beds at the usual
time. Tobacco seeds were sown as usual.
Tobacco seed germination was good on all plats. However, resultant
plant growth was retarded on plats treated with ammonium sulfamate and
ammonium thiocyanate.
Plats covered for 5 weeks following bed treatments resulted in better
weed control than the uncovered plats with both methods of placement of
compounds. Uramon gave satisfactory weed control, the other compounds
only fair. (F. A. Clark and R. W. Bledsoe.)
PEANUTS
Last year fertilizer and dusting experiments on Florida Runner peanuts
showed but little returns from fertilizer treatment where peanuts followed
sweet potatoes well fertilized on Norfolk sand but a very profitable return
from 3 applications of 20 pounds each of sulfur dust.
The experiment of last year, which included 15 different fertilizer mix-
tures, a combination minor element mixture, and sulfur dust, is being
repeated in the same plot and row location. A duplicate of this experiment
is also being conducted on a new site.
Greenhouse experiments and field plot work are also under way to study
the influence of the following factors on peanut production: (1) Rate of
fertilizer application, (2) placement of fertilizer, (3) the role of calcium,
magnesium, potassium and sulfur, and (4) sulfur as a dust versus sulfur
as a nutrient. Some attention is also being paid to the problem of so-
called hidden damage in Runner peanuts.
Evidence is accumulating pointing to the possibility of sulfur being
deficient in Florida soils, consequently preliminary experiments dealing
with sulfur nutrition are being conducted on peanuts and other crops.
(R. W. Bledsoe, H. C. Harris, G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes.)
SEA ISLAND COTTON
Strain tests as carried at Gainesville, McIntosh and Leesburg in 1943
are being repeated this year. The strain TZRV small leaf, a selection of








Annual Report, 1944 45

Seabrook, and several Sea Island upland hybrid selections look promising.
Fertilizer work involving lime, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur,
magnesium, minor elements, liquid fertilizer vs. solid, and placement of
the fertilizer is under way.
Sea Island cotton shows good response to complete fertilizer, not much
immediate response to lime, and some response to copper sulfate, sulfur
and magnesium on Norfolk, Ruston and Arredondo soils. The sulfur re-
sponse was noticeable where the sulfur in fertilizer was held at a normal
level compared to a very low sulfur level; apparently normal use of 18 to
20 percent superphosphate in complete fertilizer supplies enough sulfur.
Liquid fertilizer, of the same grade as solid, is being compared at equal rates
and lesser rates. Results will not be available until after picking.
The experimental roller gin, operated jointly by the U. S. Department
of Agriculture and the Florida Station, handled 3 bales of long staple
upland cotton and 2 bales of Sea Island cotton. Approximately 100 bushels
of seed were saved. (W. E. Stokes, M. N. Gist H. C. Harris, R. W. Bled-
soe and Paul Calhoun.')
s Division of Cotton and Other Fiber Crops and Diseases, B. P. I.. S. A. E.
0 State Department of Agriculture.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ANIMAL INDUSTRY

Research in the Animal Industry Department is conducted in the fol-
lowing divisions: (1) Dairy husbandry, (2) animal nutrition, (3) beef
cattle, sheep and swine, (4) veterinary science, (5) poultry husbandry,
and (6) dairy manufactures.
Dairy.-Registered herds of Jerseys and Guernseys were kept for ex-
perimental and instructional purposes. The senior sire, Sophie 19th's
Victor 81st 331031, died from natural causes when 13% years old. Fifty
daughters sired by this bull have official records on a mature basis which
averaged 8,418 pounds of milk and 429 pounds of butterfat. Eleven other
younger daughters will be tested as they come of age. Floss Duke's Count
357288 died at the age of 10% years. A weakness in the wall of the
esophagus near the entrance to the stomach allowed feed to accumulate
and block the food passage. This bull was also a tested sire, having 10
daughters with official records which averaged on mature basis 8,238 pounds
of milk and 444 pounds of butterfat. He has 21 other daughters which
will be tested when they freshen the first time.
Animals were assigned for research purposes to grazing trials with
Napier grass, to investigations with bovine mastitis and to the study of
mineral requirements. Palatability of urea-sorghum silage was tested
with a group of dry cows.
Five cows completed official records during the year, as follows:
Age Milk Test Butterfat
Yrs. Mos. Pounds Percent Pounds
Klondike Krixsie 611285 ................ 2 5 11,443 5.22 597
Florida Victor Pogis Fairy 1071689 7 6 9,941 5.50 547
Florida Victor Winnie 1060099 ...... 8 2 9,670 4.85 469
Florida Pearl 1083833 ..................... 7 11 11,829 4.93 583
.Florida Countess Fanny 1244183.... 3 6 6,941 5.53 384
Disposition was made of a number of cows because of age, sterility or
defective udders. Certain others were culled because they were low-
producing individuals and represented poor transmitting families.
Nutrition Laboratory.-Remodeling of the nutrition laboratory has made
possible the expansion of work on minor element nutrition of animals. A
grant from the General Education Board made possible the employment
of additional personnel. Samples of plant and animal tissues collected
from many sections of Florida, including several new products proposed
for commercial production, were analyzed. Samples of forage, animal
tissue and miscellaneous items from the North Florida, Range Cattle and
Everglades Stations and some from cooperating departments at the Main
Station also were analyzed and the results were made available.
Work has been renewed on the problem of poisoning by Crotalaria
spectabilis Roth and investigations are being conducted to obtain informa-
tion on the relative toxicity of plants from different sections of Florida.
Information is also being obtained on the amount of monocrotaline, the
poisonous alkaloid in spectabilis, in the different parts of the plant, the
minimum lethal doses for different species, and the possibility of destroying
monocrotaline by different plant treatments. A method of assay using
chickens is being worked out.
Beef Cattle.-A purebred herd of Aberdeen-Angus and a grade herd
of Hereford cattle were maintain for experimental and instructional
purposes. Several purebred Angus bull calves were sold to cattlemen
for breeding purposes and 6 purebred Polled Hereford females and a







Annual Report, 1944


bull were purchased for the establishment of a Polled Hereford herd.
These cattle will replace the grade herd as fast as possible.
Sheep.-A flock of purebred Columbia sheep was maintained to furnish
experimental animals for projects on fleece and mutton production, parasite
control and instructional purposes.
Swine.-A small herd of purebred Duroc-Jersey and Poland China hogs
was maintained to furnish animals for experimental projects and for
instructional purposes. A number of outstanding individuals were sold
to Florida farmers for breeding purposes.
Veterinary Laboratory.-During the past year 1 member of the staff
investigated diseases of livestock in the British West Indies at the request
of the Department of Agriculture of the Bahamas Colonial Government.
Numerous field trips have been made to investigate losses among livestock
occurring on farms and ranches in Florida. Some of the conditions investi-
gated were: Flukes, poisonous plants, swamp fever, pullorum disease,
parasitic infestations and "swollen joints" in calves.
Dairy Products Laboratory.-The Dairy Products Laboratory is well
equipped for teaching and research and special emphasis was placed on
the processing of market milk and the manufacture of ice cream. Equip-
ment for the manufacture of condensed milk, butter and cheese was main-
tained. The laboratory operated on a semi-commercial scale, supplying
dairy products to the cafeterias and other units on the campus where food
was served. This laboratory increased its commercial operations nearly
to full capacity to supply the greatly increased demands for dairy products,
due to the military personnel located on the campus. This provided facili-
ties for both teaching and research under conditions comparable to those
in the dairy plants in Florida. It provided part-time work for students
interested in dairy products with very valuable dairy plant experience.
The laboratory attempted to assist those in the industry in Florida to make
the changes necessitated by war conditions and to supply formulas for ice
cream and other dairy products to meet war-time restrictions and limita-
tions.
The many military units located in Florida have caused large quantities
of milk and other dairy products to be imported into the State during the
past 2 years. In normal times, however, due to seasonal changes in popu-
lation, surpluses of dairy products occurred frequently. A project dealing
with the storage and utilization of these surplus dairy products has been
continued.
Poultry Laboratory and Farm.-The experimental farm operated by the
Poultry Division embraces facilities for research in breeding, feeding and
management of mature stock; for studies with baby chicks and growing
stock either on range or in confinement in battery brooders; for research
in the field of egg quality; and for instructional purposes. Three breeds
of chickens are maintained, Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, S. C. White
Leghorns and Light Sussex. All flocks participate in the National Poultry
Improvement Plan which is supervised in Florida by the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board. The Poultry Division flocks are classified under the
National Poultry Improvement Plan as U. S. Florida Certified and Pullorum
Disease Clean.
Experimental work pertaining to the development of a yellow pig-
mented breed was continued at the West Central Florida Station in co-
operation with the USDA Bureau of Animal Industry. At the Florida
National Egg-Laying Test experimental feeding trials were continued.
Poultry division staff members served as federal egg graders during
the year to facilitate removal of the spring surplus. The War Food Ad-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ministration was assisted in locating, establishing and operating surplus
egg buying stations throughout the State in the spring and summer of
1944. The staff also helped in the federal grading of government-procured
eggs and in the allocation of these to qualified State agencies. A state-
wide conference was held at the Poultry Laboratory on the operation of the
government surplus egg purchasing program.
Experimental work was undertaken during the year in an effort to find
a method for the successful storage and preservation of eggs on farms
and in the homes of consumers. Mineral oil and pliofilm were the ma-
terials tested. Mineral oil gave indications of having good preservative
qualities for eggs. The eggs were dipped in a commercial grade of oil,
removed, allowed to dry, and stored at room temperature and in household
refrigeration. Eggs so treated maintained good quality under both con-
ditions for 6 weeks. Eggs sealed in pliofilm have kept well under house-
hold refrigeration, but like untreated eggs they developed molds at room
temperature when held for 6 weeks.
A home-made laying cage unit was devised to supplement brooding and
fattening cages.

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CATTLE

Purnell Project 133
A. Animal Biochemistry Phase-G. K. Davis, S. P. Marshall and C. L.
Comar
Tissue and forage samples were obtained from various sections of the
State for analysis to obtain data on the relationship between the chemical
composition of these materials and conditions observed in livestock.
Experiments with cattle, swine and poultry have shown that defluori-
nated superphosphate is a safe substitute for steamed bonemeal, and when
properly mixed with salt is satisfactory from the standpoint of palatability.
B. Beef Cattle Phase--R. S. Glasscock, R. W. Kidder and W. G. Kirk
Surveys have been made and areas located involving most of the soil
types and deficient ranges in the State. The blood picture of 10 anemic
animals has been studied the past year at the Range Cattle Station to
determine the response to various mineral elements. The response with
regard to weight gains and general well-being has been considered also.
Cattle with abnormal conditions have been observed on muck soils and
response to treatments studied. An area of raw muck land is being pre-
pared at the Everglades Station for the study of deficiencies which may
occur in cattle that are grazed on unfertilized muck.
Investigations were made to determine the cause of conditions known
as swollen joints and rheumatism.
C. Dairy Cattle Phase--R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and D. A. Sanders
Reproduction and breeding efficiency in the dairy herd are being checked
by pregnancy diagnosis and examination of the reproductive organs. On
autopsy of females removed from the herd, a detailed study was made of
the entire reproductive tract. The herd had free access to an iron-copper-
cobalt supplement, common salt and either steamed bonemeal or defluori-
nated superphosphate.
Thirty-four samples of bones from cows in the Station herd have been
added to the series of samples obtained previously, for bone composition
studies. This work is conducted in cooperation with the Spectrographic
Laboratory of the Soils Department. Work on this project was expanded
due to support by the General Education Board.







Annual Report, 1944


RELATION OF CONFORMATION AND ANATOMY OF THE DAIRY
COW TO HER MILK AND BUTTER PRODUCTION
State Project 140 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, R. S. Glass-
cock, G. K. Davis and S. P. Marshall
The record of Florida Reception Heiress 839773 was obtained during
the year, making a total of 50 records contributed to this project. This
animal had dropped 11 calves and had 11 lactation records. She was
barren and dry at time of slaughter and measurements.
This project was conducted in cooperation with the USDA Bureau of
Dairy Industry.

ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project 213 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, G. K.
Davis, S. P. Marshall and C. L. Comar
During the year the 4 laboratory pit silos were filled with sweet
sorghum, provided through the cooperation of George E. Ritchey, Associate
Agronomist, B.P.I.S.A.E., U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Urea was added
at 3 levels-0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 percent. No urea was added to the forage
in 1 silo, used as a control.
Temperatures were observed during the ensiling process and upon
removal of the silage. All the silages were palatable except that contain-
ing the highest level of urea. Analyses were made of the fresh forage
and of the silages to determine effects of the added urea.
An additional observation was obtained on the density of silage from
prolific type corn, using a 20-foot silo at the dairy barn.

COOPERATIVE FIELD STUDIES WITH BEEF
AND DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE
State Project 216 A. L. Shealy, R. S. Glasscock and W. G. Kirk
Work on this project, on 4 ranches in the State and in cooperation with
the Division of Dairy Cattle Breeding, USDA Bureau of Animal Industry,
was conducted to determine the improvement made in grade offspring when
purebred bulls were bred to native Florida cows. During the year 160
calves were graded as slaughter calves as follows: Choice, 8; good, 24;
medium, 75; common, 53. The grade cows were much larger and thicker-
fleshed than the native cows that comprised the original herds.
Most of the cooperators sold the offspring as calves rather than as
yearlings or 2-year olds.

THE ETIOLOGY OF FOWL PARALYSIS, LEUKEMIA
AND ALLIED CONDITIONS IN ANIMALS
State Project 251 M. W. Emmel
Work is being continued on the preparation of extracts of various
normal chicken tissues and fractions thereof and the effect of these agents
when injected into healthy birds.

PLANTS POISONOUS TO LIVESTOCK
State Project 258 D. A. Sanders, Erdman West and M. W. Emmel
A number of plants suspected as being poisonous were tested during
the past year but none proved toxic. This project is being discontinued
with this report. (See also PLANT PATHOLOGY, Proj. 258.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


STUDIES IN FLEECE AND MUTTON PRODUCTION
State Project 274 R. S. Glasscock
Studies were made with regard to density, length, uniformity of crimp,
character and weight of fleeces produced by purebred Columbia sheep.
The weight and grade of lambs were obtained also.
The yearling sheep were graded as in previous years for mutton type
and slaughter grades were estimated for the lambs. This work is con-
ducted cooperatively with the Division of Animal Husbandry, USDA Bureau
of Animal Industry.
This project is completed with this report.

A STUDY OF NAPIER GRASS FOR PASTURE PURPOSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 302
A. Animal Husbandry Phase-R. S. Glasscock
The animal husbandry phase of this project was temporarily discon-
tinued until a pure strain of Napier grass can be established. Two plots
of short internode Napier grass were grazed to determine the value of
this strain for grazing.
B. Dairy Phase-P. T. Dix Arnold and R. B. Becker
Grazing of the Napier grass by dairy cows, delayed until May 31, 1943,
because of dry weather throughout the spring season, was continued from
then until October 29, 1943, or for 151 calendar days. Ten milking Jersey
cows produced 18,899 pounds of milk and 878 pounds of butterfat during
855 cow-days and received 61.6 percent of the nutrients required for main-
tenance and production from Napier grass. Since too few milking cows
were available to utilize efficiently the growth of herbage, 12 additional
dry cows were grazed for a total of 737 cow-days. It was calculated that
these dry cows obtained 6,085.49 pounds of total digestible nutrients from
the Napier grass during the period, making a total of 13,971.18 pounds of
total digestible nutrients from the 8-acre area for the season. (See also
AGRONOMY, Proj. 302.)

A STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEM-
PERATURE AND EGG WEIGHT (SIZE), BODY WEIGHT AND EGG
WEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT AND PRODUCTION, AGE AND EGG
WEIGHT OF SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORN PULLETS
State Project 307 0. K. Moore and N. R. Mehrhof
This project was inactive during the year.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY AND
DEPRECIATION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble
Breeding, replacement, salvage and inventory records were obtained
from 9 cooperating dairy herds during the year. A summary involving
1,670 records of dairy bulls indicated an average useful life span of
10.68 years. The major losses were from sterility, old age and accidents.
Lumpy jaw was the major infectious disease affecting the animals studied.
Losses from all infectious diseases accounted for 17 percent of 2,221 bulls
studied to date. (In cooperation with AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS.)








Annual Report, 1944


INVESTIGATION WITH LABORATORY ANIMALS OF
MINERAL NUTRITION PROBLEMS
Purnell Project 346 G. K. Davis, C. L. Comar and S. P. Marshall
Rats were given rations low in certain mineral elements to determine
the cause and prevention of "lime hidedness" in cattle. Observations have
been made on the blood picture of experimental animals and some progress
has been made towards producing a condition in rats similar to that seen
in cattle.

ROTATIONAL GRAZING AND INTERNAL PARASITES
IN SHEEP PRODUCTION
State Project 350 R. S. Glasscock
Phenothiazine has proved to be a valuable anthelmintic when given in
capsule form or mixed with the feed. During the past year the flock has
been placed on permanent contaminated pasture and given access to salt
containing 10 percent of phenothiazine by weight to determine if internal
parasites can be controlled by this system of management. Thus far the
results have been very encouraging.
This project is completed with this report.
INFECTIOUS BOVINE MASTITIS
Purnell Project 353 D. A. Sanders
Studies were continued on the prevention and control of infectious bovine
mastitis in dairy herds. The causative organisms of mastitis are shed
in the secretion of infected udders. The most favorable period for spread
of the infection is at time of milking. Milk from infected udders con-
taminates the milker's hands and the teat cups of the milking machine,
thus aiding in the spread of the disease. Organisms responsible for mas-
titis gain entrance into susceptible udders through the external teat orifice.
Unclean or careless methods of hand milking, improper cleaning of the
teat cups of the milking machine and failure to isolate or milk infected
cattle last, aid in spreading the disease from infected to non-infected
animals.

BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PASTURE HERBAGE
Bankhead-Jones Project 356 G. K. Davis, R. E. Blaser and S. P. Marshall
Rabbits of the Dutch breed were fed different herbages to correlate
animal response with chemical composition of the plants. Results obtained
to date indicate marked differences in the quality of different pasture
herbages. (In cooperation with AGRONOMY.)

PROCESSING, STORAGE AND UTILIZATION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
AND BY-PRODUCTS TO MEET WARTIME FOOD
NEEDS AND LIMITATIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 360 T. R. Freeman and E. L. Fouts
The study of seasonal variations in the storability of frozen cream,
begun the preceding year, was concluded during the past year. Cream
was placed in storage at intervals of 3 to 5 weeks. Processing consisted
of pasteurizing at 170* F. for 10 minutes, followed by cooling. Each lot
of cream was stored 12 months and was examined for oxidized flavor at
2-month intervals. No oxidized flavor was observed in any of the lots.
It appears that cream produced commercially in Florida can be stored
in the frozen condition for at least 1 year with little danger of oxidized








52 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

flavor. Since no oxidized flavor occurred in any of the cream, it is im-
possible to evaluate the modified Ritter test for predicting keeping quality.
An objectionable flavor contributed by coconut milk made this product
unsatisfactory as a sweetening agent for dairy products.
Certain factors affecting the inversion of sucrose were investigated.
Results to date suggest that the kind and amount of acid used affect the
completeness with which the sucrose is hydrolyzed.
The investigation of substitutes for serum solids in ice cream has been
completed. Work done during the past year has been mainly a detailed
study of wheat flour as an ingredient of ice cream. It has been demon-
strated that soft, medium or hard wheat flour can be used with equal success
to improve the quality of low-solids wartime ice cream.

LONGEVITY OF EGGS AND LARVAE OF INTERNAL
PARASITES OF CATTLE
State Project 387 Leonard E. Swanson
This project was inactive during this year.

MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR FATTENING HOGS ON PEANUTS
State Project 388 J. E. Pace and R. S. Glasscock
Purebred Duroc-Jersey and Poland China pigs were used to "hog off"
4 2-acre lots of Florida Runner peanuts (Table 1).

TABLE 1.-RESPONSE BY PIGS GRAZING ON PEANUTS WITH AND WITHOUT
MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS.*
Lot 3
Lot 1 Lot 2 Calcium Lot 4
No Mineral Common Carbonate Complete
Supplement Salt and Cor- Mineral
mon Salt Mixture

Average daily gain .... 1.27 1.42 1.61 1.61

Pounds pork per acre 238 266 301 301

Mineral mixture consisted of the following ingredients:
Steamed bonemeal ......................................................... ........... 50 pounds
Marble dust or ground limestone ........................................ .... 50 pounds
Common salt .................. ................. .................................. 25 pounds
Red oxide of iron ........................................ ................ 25 pounds
Pulverized copper sulfate ......................... ....... 1 pound
Cobalt chloride or cobalt sulfate ........................................ 2 ounces
Lot 1 received no mineral supplements, lot 2 common salt only, lot 3
calcium carbonate and common salt in equal amounts and lot 4 the com-
plete mineral mixture recommended by the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station.
This project is completed with this report.
EFFECT OF CERTAIN FEEDS ON MILK FLAVOR
State Project 394 E. L. Fouts and P. T. Dix Arnold
This project was inactive during the past year.
LIQUID SKIMMILK AND SHELLED CORN AS A LAYING RATION
State Project 406 N. R. Mehrhof, F. M. Dennis,
O. K. Moore and A. W. O'Steen
This project was inactive during the year.







Annual Report, 1944 53

CONDENSED BUTTERMILK IN LAYING RATIONS
State Project 407 N. R. Mehrhof, F. M. Dennis,
O. K. Moore and A. W. O'Steen
This trial, to determine the value of condensed buttermilk in a moist
mash as a supplement to the egg ration, was continued at the Florida
National Egg-Laying Test. Duplicate lots of New Hampshire pullets were
used. The birds in Lots 1 and 3 received a moist mash composed of the
regular egg mash moistened with condensed buttermilk, while the birds
in Lots 2 and 4 received a moist mash composed of the regular egg mash
moistened with water. All other conditions were uniform.
For the first 6 28-day periods the birds receiving the condensed butter-
milk supplement produced approximately 7 eggs more per bird than the
birds receiving no condensed buttermilk. It required 6.55 pounds of feed
per dozen eggs produced for the birds fed the condensed buttermilk supple-
ment and 6.41 pounds of feed per dozen eggs for the birds receiving no
condensed buttermilk.
PEANUT MEAL IN POULTRY RATIONS
State Project 408 N. R. Mehrhof and O. K. Moore
Four groups of Single Comb White Leghorn pullets, 50 birds to a
group, were fed rations containing approximately 7, 16 and 23 percent
peanut meal. One group used as a control received only meat scrap as a
protein supplement. The group that received 23 percent peanut meal did
not receive meat scrap.
Production during the first 8 28-day periods was highest with the group
receiving no peanut meal in the mash and lowest in the group receiving
23 percent peanut meal. The birds receiving 7 and 16 percent of peanut
meal produced approximately the same number of eggs per bird.
BEEF YIELD AND QUALITY FROM VARIOUS GRASSES, FROM
CLOVER AND GRASS MIXTURES, AND RESPONSE TO
FERTILIZED AND UNFERTILIZED PASTURES
State Project 412 R. S. Glasscock, J. E. Pace and W. G. Kirk
Grazing trials during 1943 included 2 pastures each of mixed clover and
carpet grass, of fertilized carpet grass, of unfertilized carpet grass, of
lespedeza, of Bermuda, of Pensacola Bahia and of Digitaria. The steers
grazing these pastures were weighed at regular intervals to determine the
value of these different grasses and legumes for beef production. Blood
samples were taken for chemical analysis. Data are not yet available.
PERIODIC INCREASE IN LIGHTING VERSUS CONTINUOUS
LIGHTING FOR LAYERS
State Project 414 0. K. Moore and N. R. Mehrhof
Two lots of Light Sussex pullets were used in these trials. The ex-
periment started October 29, 1943, and continued until April 14, 1944.
In Lot 1, in addition to the normal length of day, a changing schedule
of artificial light at night was used with a 2-hour increase each 14 days.
The experimental period was divided into 14-day intervals. The first
interval provided no light in addition to the normal length of day. The
second period provided artificial light from 5:00 A. M. until daylight, the
third from 3:00 A. M. until daylight, and continued at 2-hour increases
each 14 days until the birds received continuous light.
In Lot 2 lights burned all night, subjecting the birds to light continuously
for the full length of the experiment. Table 2 gives a summary of the
results.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 2.-SCHEDULE OF LIGHTING, FEED CONSUMPTION AND EGG
PRODUCTION OF EXPERIMENTAL BIRDS.


I Lot 1
2-Hour
Increases
Each 14 Days


Mash consumption per bird ..............---
Grain consumption per bird ....................
Total feed consumption per bird ...........
Total egg production per bird ................
Pounds of feed to produce a dozen eggs


15.75
23.93
39.68
78.73
6.05


Lot 2
All
Night

16.90 lbs.
23.55 lbs.
40.45 lbs.
84.24 lbs.
5.76 lbs.


SULFURIZATION OF SOIL FOR THE CONTROL OF CERTAIN
INTESTINAL PARASITES OF CHICKENS

State Project 418 M. W. Emmel
Maintaining the soil reaction by treating with sulfuric acid, within the
pH range of 3.0 to 7.0, did not retard the sporulation of coccidia. Sporula-
tion was retarded in sulfurized soils within this pH range; the action of
sulfur is more effective at high temperatures.

WARTIME EMERGENCY LAYING RATIONS
N. R. Mehrhof and O. K. Moore
Two wartime laying rations were devised which conformed to the
voluntary government-sponsored feed conservation program suggesting re-
striction to 2.25 percent animal protein in laying mashes. In addition,
these rations contained neither corn meal nor whole corn. They were
compared with a pre-war type ration containing corn and animal by-
products. The 3 rations were fed to lots of Single Comb Rhode Island
Red pullets, 50 birds to the lot. The composition of the rations is given
in Tables 3 and 4.

TABLE 3-COMPOSITION OF THE MASH MIXTURES FOR 3 LOTS OF
EXPERIMENTAL BIRDS.


Lot 1
Pre-War
Mash


Lot 2
Wartime
Mash No. 1


Lot 3
Wartime
Mash No. 2


pounds pounds | pounds
Yellow corn meal .............. 23.5
Ground wheat .................... .... 66 40
W heat bran ........................ 23.5 .... 20
W heat shorts ...................... 23.5 .... 30
Ground barley ..--....-......---- 50..
Ground oats ........................ 23.5 22
Soybean oil meal ... 50 50
Meat scrap -...........-......... 20.05 8 6
Dried whey ........................ 5.88
Alfalfa leaf meal ......... 5.98 14 20
Steamed bone meal .......... ... 6 6
Ground shell ...................... 1.65 4 4
Salt ...................................... 0.71 2 2







Annual Report, 1944


TABLE 4.-COMPOSITION OF THE GRAIN MIXTURES USED FOR 3 LOTS OF
EXPERIMENTAL BIRDS.
Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3
Pre-War Grain Wartime Grain Wartime Grain
Mixture Mixture Mixture

Corn ...................... 1
W heat -......--.......... 1
Oats ...................... 1 1 1
Barley ..... .. | 1 1

Average egg production for the first 8 28-day experimental periods
by rations was as follows: Lot 1, 107.60 eggs per bird; Lot 2, 95.38 eggs
per bird; and Lot 3, 91.59 eggs per bird.

DEFLUORINATED SUPERPHOSPHATE IN POULTRY RATIONS
N. R. Mehrhof, G. K. Davis, S. P. Marshall, O. K. Moore
Experiments indicate that defluorinated superphosphate may be sub-
stituted for steamed bone meal as a source of phosphorus in chick rations.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ENTOMOLOGY
Considerable time was given again this year to answering corre-
spondence on insect control from victory gardeners, to writing circulars
and to the preparation of weekly radio talks on insect control problems.
Apparently the most serious problem of victory gardeners is that of the
root-knot nematode. A revival of interest in peaches has occasioned the
mailing to householders of over 300 circulars on the plum curculio and
general spray schedule for peaches and plums, as well as others on San
Jose scale and peach tree borers.
During the year DDT (dichloro diphenyl trichlorethane) was under
trial on many plants such as corn, squash, beans, cucumbers, lettuce, canta-
loupes, peas, cabbage, okra, collards, Brussels sprouts and cowpeas. Most
of these trials were made with the 3 percent dust and no injury to the
plants was observed. This material was found to be rather specific for
certain insects. Control of Mexican bean beetle was rather poor but results
on both larvae and adults of Colorado potato beetles were most excellent.
One of the most satisfactory kills was that of the melon worm and espe-
cially the pickle worm on squash and cantaloupes. Because it works mostly
as a miner, the latter is hard to control by use of arsenical or fluorine
compounds and dusting with 3 percent DDT was much more effective,
probably because of its lasting qualities. These larvae work in the petioles
of the leaves and in the blossoms when there is no fruit but come into
contact with this insecticide when they move from one petiole to another.
DDT has been the most effective material tried against these insects,
which are the worst pests of cantaloupes and squash and often a limiting
factor in their production. Either 3 or 4 dustings of corn silks resulted
in about 75 percent control of the corn ear worm.
The Mexican bean beetle has continued to spread in Florida. A rather
heavy infestation occurred at Starke and others have been reported at
Macclenny and Jasper. These are new localities farther east than those
reported earlier. The insect apparently is thoroughly established in the
Monticello and Tallahassee areas and is destructive in the neighborhood
of Quincy. The infestation in Gainesville and Hawthorne 2 years ago
apparently has died out.
Melipotis acontioides (Gn.) gave much trouble in Key West, where it
generally defoliated the Royal Poincianas and some trees have died, ap-
parently as the result of repeated defoliations.

CONTROL OF THE NUT AND LEAF CASEBEARERS OF PECANS
State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
Research work on control of the nut casebearer and leaf casebearer
was continued at 3 periods of the year.
Results of summer treatments with lead arsenate and cryolite applied
June 18, July 13 and August 13 show that 8 pounds of lead arsenate
per 100 gallons of a 3: 1: 100 bordeaux mixture gave a control of 75.8, 93.0
and 74.6 percent, respectively. Cryolite gave very poor results when
applied on those dates and its use has been discontinued in these trials.
In late dormant sprays, straitor (85 percent) tar oil, at a dilution of
7 percent, gave 72.9 percent reduction in infestation of pecan casebearers.
Dinitro-o-cresol (40 percent) at 3 pounds in 100 gallons of water gave
only 62.2 percent reduction.
Nicotine sulfate, lead arsenate and cryolite were applied March 21
for control of pecan casebearers while larvae were feeding on buds and
foliage. Lead arsenate at 4 pounds in 100 gallons of a 6: 2: 100 bordeaux







Annual Report, 1944 57

mixture was the most effective against the nut casebearer and lead arsenate
at 3 pounds in 100 gallons of bordeaux mixture was the most effective
against the leaf casebearer.
Nicotine sulfate 13 ounces plus 2 quarts summer oil emulsion in 100
gallons of water was the most effective spray used against the first genera-
tion nut casebearer and gave 89.2 percent control. DDT at 1 pound in
100 gallons of water gave only 69.1 percent control but was comparable to
lead arsenate or cryolite at 4 pounds in 100 gallons of water.
In a cooperative experiment with HORTICULTURE good control of
the pecan casebearers was obtained with single applications of 3 pounds
of lead or calcium arsenate in 100 gallons of water and applied on June 7
and 8. Single applications of lead and calcium arsenate at 3 pounds in
100 gallons of bordeaux mixture applied June 4 gave fair control of the
first brood of fall webworms. Similar sprays applied on September 3 gave
good control of the second brood of fall webworm.

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF CUTWORMS AND ARMYWORMS
IN FLORIDA

State Project 380 A. N. Tissot
Rearing work was continued with the granulate cutworm, Feltia sub-
terranea (F.), this species now being in the seventh consecutive insectary
reared generation. Since July 1, 1943, the insect has passed through the
end of the second generation, all of the third, fourth and fifth, most of the
sixth, and a small beginning of the seventh. Eggs have been laid during
every month except March. The incubation period varied from 4 to 25 days.
From the middle of May to the end of September practically all eggs hatch
in 4 days. The longest incubation period occurs in December and January.
The total development period from egg to adult varied from 43 days (eggs
laid about the middle of May) to 155 days (eggs laid in September).
Work was started on the greasy cutworm, Agrotis ypsilon Rott. This
species is now in the beginning of the third insectary reared generation.
Another species, as yet undetermined, but apparently belonging to the
Feltia group, also is being reared.
Experiments were made to determine (1) the influence of available
green plant material on the effectiveness of poison baits with and without
added attractants, (2) the comparative effectiveness of moist and dry baits
and (3) the possibility of substituting other materials for the bran in cut-
worm baits. The addition of syrup or honey significantly increased the
effectiveness of bran baits containing Paris green or barium fluosilicate
when green plant material was available, did not increase effectiveness
when no green material was available. With green plant material avail-
able the Paris green-bran bait (1:25) moistened with water gave a mortality
of 65 percent. Syrup and honey added to the water each increased mortality
to 95 percent. There was no significant difference between moist Paris green-
bran bait (1:25) and moist barium fluosilicate-bran bait (1:25) compared
with the same baits applied dry. Ground citrus pulp, ground cane pulp
and ground peanut hulls were tested as substitutes for bran in cutworm
baits. All proved to be much inferior to the bran and the addition of
syrup did not increase their effectiveness. F. subterranean was used in all
of the above tests.
A mixture of dichloropropylene and dichloropropane (DD) proved
highly effective against cutworms in the soil. Applications of 10 cc. and
5 cc. in holes spaced 18 and 9 inches apart, respectively, produced a mor-
tality of 100 percent in F. subterranea within 48 hours.







58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

PROPAGATION OF LARRA WASPS FOR THE CONTROL OF
MOLE-CRICKETS
State Project 381 J. R. Watson
Transportation difficulties induced by the war and inability to get the
wasps collected in Puerto Rico again has made it impossible to get any
shipments of Larra americana Saussure from Puerto Rico. Plantings of
Hyptis and Boerreria are being maintained, and the hymenopterous visitors
to the blossoms of these plants have been observed in a search for Larra
analis Fab. but none have been found. The blossoms of both of these
species are markedly attractive to wasps.
ROOT-KNOT IN TOBACCO FIELDS
State Project 382 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
This project was inactive during this year.
BREEDING VEGETABLE PLANTS RESISTANT TO
ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES
State Project 383 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
Three acres of the nematode-resistant strain of Conch cowpeas were
harvested in the late summer and early fall of 1943. Consistent selection
apparently has resulted in a strain of cowpeas that is fully as resistant as
the Iron or Brabham varieties and is at the same time a good table variety.
About 2 bushels of the seeds of this resistant strain were distributed to
seedsmen and growers over the state. Two acres of these are again being
grown this year with okra serving as the indicator plant, 1 plant per
hill of cowpeas, as described eariler.
Investigations of nematode-resistant strains of lettuce, both Big Boston
and Iceberg, were continued. The Big Boston strain previously reported
apparently was quite resistant to root-knot but further work is necessary.
Thus far no nematode-resistant strain of tomato has been found. Roselle
(Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) was found to be heavily infested with root-knot
but apparently is quite tolerant as it has made good growth. Another
species of hibiscus, H. cannabainus L., grown for fiber seems to be very
susceptible to root-knot and is much stunted in its growth.
Among the promising new soil fumigants tried was a mixture of di-
chloropropylene and dichloropropane (DD). Ten basins with cement par-
titions extending to a depth of 5 feet, each 6 feet square, were used for
this preliminary work. Two of these were not treated; 3 were treated
with different strengths of DD; 1 was treated with a water-soluble form
of DDT; 3 with HCN hydrocyanicc acid gas); and 1 with ammonia alone.
In 1 of these the gas was released according to the standard treatment-
soaking the bed with a solution of sodium cyanide at the rate of 1,200
pounds per acre followed by ammonium sulfate solution at the rate of
1,800 pounds per acre. In the early part of the year, growers had diffi-
culty in getting ammonium sulfate. For this reason liquid ammonia was
substituted for the ammonium sulfate in 2 of the plots. All plots were
planted to okra. Results of the control of nematodes on the plots are not
yet available. Weeds were most thoroughly killed in the plots treated with
HCN but there was a marked diminution in the plots treated with
DD, DDT and ammonia alone. Plants in all treated plots made much
more vigorous growth and were a deeper green, regardless of the treat-
ment. At the end of 6 weeks the plants in the plot treated with HCN
generated by the application of sodium cyanide and ammonium sulfate are
showing much more vigorous growth than any of the others. The effect
of this material lasted longer than in the case of the DD which apparently







Annual Report, 1944 59

offers promise as a soil fumigant for nematode control, particularly in back-
yard gardens and city lots, where the use of HCN would be unsafe. DD is
more quickly applied than the double treatment of sodium cyanide and
ammonium sulfate and is cheaper; it should be applied only with a safe
applicator and must not be gotten on the skin, clothes or shoes. Like HCN,
it kills all insect life in the soil. Numerous ant nests were completely
destroyed, as well as some mole-crickets in 1 of the basins.

THE BIOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF THE THYSANOPTERA
OF FLORIDA
State Project 384 J. R. Watson
Several new species were added to the known thysanopterous forms of
Florida, and a number of identifications were made for different agencies,
among which were the Estacion Experimental Agronomica of Cuba and
the Florida State Plant Board. A considerable number of surplus slides
of thysanoptera are being distributed to other workers, among which are
full sets of duplicates to the University of Kansas and to the Agricultural
Colleges of Utah and Mississippi.
THE EFFECT OF MULCHES ON THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE
State Project 385 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
Lettuce, peas, squash, cucumber, okra, cantaloupes, tomatoes, roses,
peach and fig trees were successfully grown under mulch in 1/100 acre
plots. These plots were treated with different amounts of mulch at different
depths and with that from different materials, such as grass, oak and
other tree leaves, crotalaria and various weeds. The source of the material
apparently made little difference if it decayed quickly and covered the
ground well. Leaves from hammock-grown trees, such as oak, were best
for keeping down the growth of weeds, apparently because they made a
more compact mulch. All mulched plants made better growth than those
not mulched and the deeper the mulch the better. However, mulched plants
suffered more from frost damage than those not mulched. This is definitely
a disadvantage, and another is the hindrance to cultivation. The mulch
method of combating nematodes is particularly applicable to the backyard
garden, where plenty of material raked up from the lawn and other parts
of the yard is available. Mulching conserves moisture, making it necessary
to use less water, and may add some plant nutrients to the soil.
Further attempts were made to discover just how the mulch functions.
Investigators have observed the destruction of nematodes by fungi pro-
duced in and under the mulch. An attempt was made to determine if there
might be other factors involved. One set of pots in the greenhouse was
watered exclusively by an infusion obtained by soaking the mulch in water.
The plants in these pots made almost as good growth as those in the pots
that were mulched. In digging up the plants under a mulch, both in the
pots and in the field, nearly as many knots are found on the plants under
the mulch as in the checks, but there are definitely more healthy roots on
the plants under the mulch.
CONTROL OF THE FLORIDA FLOWER THRIPS
State Project 386 J. R. Watson
This work was carried on about as during previous years. The spring
was characterized by considerably more precipitation than normal; this
reduced the infestation of thrips, in general, including those in flowers.
There was no serious outbreak on citrus nor even on wisteria, which is
one of the most susceptible plants. Roses also suffered less damage than







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


usual. As during previous years, the Florida flower thrips in the experi-
mental plots showed a definite preference for white roses over red.

THRIPS ON GLADIOLUS
Numerous collections of thrips from gladiolus made by inspectors of
the State Plant Board were submitted for identification. The most com-
mon, found on leaves, was the gladiolus thrips, Taeniothrips simplex Mor-
rison. The next most common was the Florida flower thrips, Frankliniella
cephalica (Crawford). This is also, by all means, the most common in
the flowers of the gladiolus. In the fall the most common thrips on gladi-
olus leaves was the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca Hinds. Although
it is larger than T. simplex, the adult looks so much like that species that
it is commonly confused with it, which results in much unnecessary spray-
ing in the fall and early winter. However, the presence of the bright
yellow larvae underneath the bracts of the flower spikes and the presence
of pale silvery areas on the leaves are sure signs of the presence of T. sim-
plex. F. fusca never causes these areas and its larvae, like those of the
Florida flower thrips, are very pale in color. As before, it was observed
that T. simplex would not build up a heavy infestation until the latter
part of December, 2 or 3 weeks earlier in Lee County and then in Manatee
or Pinellas.
Gowdy's thrips, Haplothrips gowdeyi (Frank.), is common in the flow-
ers of the Florida gladiolus as in other flowers. This thrips is much larger
than that of any of the other species and it belongs to the tubulifera sub-
order, i.e., its abdomen ends in a tube instead of the knife-like ovipositor
of the female of the other sub-order. Even a low magnification (X 10)
will enable a grower to distinguish this comparatively harmless thrips from
the gladiolus thrips.
Onion thrips are sometimes found on gladiolus, particularly those grown
near a field of onions. These are very scarce in Florida during the summer,
though a few were found on collards. This is in marked contrast to condi-
tions farther north where they are abundant even as far south as South
Carolina in the summer, but not in Louisiana (according to C. O. Eddy).
As during previous years, onion sets purchased in the market in September
showed an average of about 60 thrips per quart. When one considers the
rapidity with which thrips can multiply, this number is sufficient to start
a heavy infestation in a garden by spring.







Annual Report, 1944


HOME ECONOMICS
The Department of Home Economics continued the study of the nutri-
tive value of Florida fruits and vegetables as expressed in terms of vita-
mins A and C, and the relation of better food to child health and progress.
While the vitamin A and C content of Florida fruits and vegetables showed
in the main no unusual variation from values accepted as average, oc-
casionally values quite significantly different from the usual were found
which merit further study.
The results of better nutrition on the health and progress in school of
the children in School 1 have won recognition and active support not only
in the district but also in the county. During the first year the lunch
room facilities were very crude and 90 percent of the lunches were furnished
without charge; this year only 40 percent of lunches were free. A modern
lunchroom is being equipped by the county. During the 4 years that this
program has been in progress, the 10 boys from this school called for
examination by Selective Service were free from physical defects and were
accepted for active service. The rejections of older men from the district
and in other parts of the county were very high. Of the 21 girls completing
the 10 grades, all have graduated from or are attending a senior high
school. During the current year the presidents of both the junior and senior
classes in the senior high school of the county were formerly from School 1.
Such results are indicative of the value of the program.
P VITAMIN A ACTIVITY OF FOODS
Purnell Project 358 R. B. French and 0. D. Abbott
Carotene analyses of Florida fruits and vegetables have been extended,
using chromatographic technic and the spectrophotolometer for analysis
and identification.
Carotene is reported on the following in terms of micrograms per 100
grams of fresh material.
Samples grown at the Subtropical Experiment Station gave the follow-
ing results:
Bullocks heart, Annona reticulata L., none.
Jujube, Zizyphus mauritiana Lam., none.
Guavas: Donaldson, none; 58728 (Red Skinned Indian Seedling), 1,780;
Supreme, none.
Mangos: Haden immature, 3,380, mature, 4,830; Amini immature,
3,236, mature, 3,260; Cecil immature, 3,630, mature, 2,400; Cambodiana
immature, 2,030, mature, 2,290.
Samples grown in Palm Beach County: Mangos: Cambodiana, 3,160;
Edward, 2,070; Paheri (Pairi), 3,310; Martin, 2,640; Simmonds, 4,470;
Samini, 1,170; Haden, 2,150; Saigon, 2,830; Stannard, 5,300; Mulgoba,
2,100; Round Amini, 2,120.
Samples grown at the Vegetable Crops Laboratory at Bradenton: To-
matoes: Pan America, 1,190; Rutgers, 1,454; Grothen's Globe, 1,148;
Marglobe, 1,050; Pritchard, 1,364; Garcia Globe, 3,880; W20-1, 1,316;
W41-2, 1,176; W43-1, 1,090; W57-2, 1,374.
Samples furnished by the Celery Investigations Laboratory: Celery:
Green (Pascal type), outside stalks, 345, inside stalks, 249, hearts, trace,
leaves, 4,508; bleached, outside and inside stalks and heart, trace, leaves,
4,500.
The variation in carotene content of different varieties of both mangos
and tomatoes was quite pronounced. Carotene content of individual fruits
of the same variety in guavas showed considerable variation, while in
tomatoes the level characteristically was more stable.







62 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

In all samples the material noted as carotene was identified by its
absorption spectra. When large quantities of lycopene were present, as
in the pink guava and tomato, absorption on dibasic calcium phosphate
did not separate the carotene and lycopene entirely. Simultaneous equations
were set set up using the spectrographic data and employed to estimate the
amounts of carotene present.

VITAMIN C IN FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Purnell Project 359 R. B. French and O. D. Abbott
The methods used for determination of vitamin C are the same as
previously noted-titration with the usual oxidation-reduction indicator
and photometric procedures where color interferes with the endpoint.
Vitamin C is reported in the following in terms of milligrams per 100
grams of fresh material.
'The samples analyzed were the same as those reported in Project 358.
From the Subtropical Experiment Station: Bullocks heart, 41; jujube, 56.
Guavas: Donaldson, 372; 58728 (Red Skinned Indian Seedling), 139;
Supreme, 44.
Mangos: Haden immature, 14; mature, 18; Amini immature, 12,
mature, 12; Cecil immature, 44, mature, 42; Cambodiana immature, 29,
mature, 28.
Samples grown in Palm Beach County: Mangos: Cambodiana, 33;
Edward, 58; Paheri, 17; Martin, 14; Simmonds, 33; Samini, 24; Haden, 21;
Saigon, 38; Stannard, 54; Mulgoba, 31; Round Amini, 14.
Samples from the Vegetable Crops Laboratory: Tomatoes: 1%n Amer-
ica, 20; Rutgers, 18; Grothen's Globe, 15; Marglobe, 19; Pritchard, 18;
Garcia Globe, 19; W20-1, 25; W41-2, 18; W43-1, 21; W57-2, 19.
Samples from the Celery Investigations Laboratory at Sanford: Celery:
Green (Pascal type)-Outside stalks, 6, inside stalks, 9, hearts, 9, leaves,
31; bleached-outside stalks, 10, inside stalks, 12, hearts, 20, leaves, 37.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
OF ROYAL JELLY
Purnell Project 370 R. B. French and O. D. Abbott
No royal jelly has been available this season. The purified acid
CIoHisO. from royal jelly has been tested for physiological action upon
several pyogenic strains of cocci. When added to broth culture at 0.01
percent concentration, growth of these cocci was stimulated greatly, but
when the concentration was increased to 0.1 percent, growth was inhibited
and most of the organisms were killed. The effects were similar upon
either gram negative or gram positive organisms. Following identifica-
tion procedures, several new acids have been obtained by degradation
oxidation of C1oHuO..
RELATION OF THE SCHOOL LUNCH TO CHILD HEALTH
AND PROGRESS
Purnell Project 396 0. D. Abbott, Ruth 0. Townsend and R. B. French
During the year 385 children in 4 schools were examined; food records
were obtained for the second year on these children and special attention
and study were continued on the children in 2 of these schools. In School
1 the planning and preparation of the noon meal as well as the health
problems were directly under the supervision of the Department; in School
2 the children were examined but the Department acted only in an ad-
visory capacity in regard to health and lunch room problems. The 2 re-
maining schools served as controls and in neither school was advice or







Annual Report, 1944


supervision given in regard to the lunch. In 1 school the lunch was
brought from home; in the other it was prepared at school.
Nutritional Status.-After 4 years of special feeding and the correction
of major nutritional defects in the children in Schools 1 and 2, the value
of a well planned school meal in preventing and ameliorating malnutrition
in school children is being demonstrated. Except for a few beginners and
children transferring from other schools, there are now no cases of severe
or gross malnutrition. In both schools 1 and 2, there are still a few chil-
dren with a mild degree of anemia and gingivitis but at the beginning of
the feeding program these children had been severely malnourished. For
the first time since the initiation of the program the food intake of the
children is now up to the recommended standard for children of school age.
In Schools 3 and 4 there was a trend towards improvement, but the exami-
nation showed that many children were undernourished and nutritional
deficiency diseases were common.
Dietary Studies.-From dietary studies it was evident that meals pre-
pared at home and the lunches prepared at school were more nearly ade-
quate than in former years. No doubt this was due to several factors:
(1) The wide distribution of information on adequate diets, (2) increased
incomes which made possible the purchase of better foods, (3) the higher
standards and requirements set up by the food administration in sub-
sidizing the school lunch. In many families there were increases in the use
of milk, fruit and vegetables and most families were using enriched flour
and bread. Since corn meal, grits and rice are so widely used, the en-
richment of these foods with iron and the B complex would help materially
in preventing deficiency diseases due to an inadequate intake of these
factors.
There has been a rapid turnover of teaching personnel in School 1 and
of necessity many are emergency teachers. But in spite of poorly qualified
teachers, with improved health, school progress was accelerated. This was
due in part to better attendance since fewer days were lost from school
because of illness. However, far too many children were kept at home
to assist with farm work.

RELATION OF DIET OF FLORIDA SCHOOL CHILDREN
TO TOOTH AND BONE STRUCTURE
Purnell Project 397 0. D. Abbott, Ruth O. Townsend and R. B. French
During the current year the study of the relation of diet of Florida
children to tooth and bone structure has been limited to re-examination of
selected children from 2 schools. Under prevailing conditions the cost
of X-ray examination has prevented the study of the prevalence and degree
of these defects in children in various sections of the State. There are,
however, indications that these defects are widespread. In School 1,
special diet supplements were given children showing severe caries and
delayed calcification of the wrist bones. The children in School 4 served
as controls.
At the initial examination in 1940-41 70 percent of the children in
School 1 and 43 percent of those in School 4 showed skeletal defects. In
both schools about 10 percent of the cases had from 1 to 3 wrist bones miss-
ing entirely while in the remaining cases various defects in structure and
development were noted. During the same school year the incidence of
caries and gingivitis in School 1 was 85 percent and 73 percent, respectively,
and in School 4 79 percent and 76 percent, respectively. In 1944 only 46
percent of the children in School 1 had active caries, while the incidence
of gingivitis had dropped to 5 percent.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HORTICULTURE

In the investigational work of this department most emphasis was
placed on those crops and products important in the war program, such
as food, fiber, oil and rubber production, and on the preservation of horti-
cultural food products. Vegetable research showed that growing condi-
tions influenced the composition of cabbage, beans and tomatoes more than
either varieties or fertilizer levels. Research has developed methods of
citrus juice concentration by freezing and centrifuging which give a con-
centrate that can be kept frozen indefinitely and by addition of water will
produce a product which is equal to the fresh juice.
Extensive investigations have shown that Florida-grown vegetables
are well suited for dehydration and produce satisfactory products for
rehydration. The facilities for this work include a pilot plant to determine
the factors affecting such dehydration and rehydration of vegetables.
Garcia nutans (Rohr.) produces seed that yields an oil of high quality
for many products in which tung oil is now used. It is being tested in
numerous locations in the State from Gainesville southward.

PROPAGATING, PLANTING AND FERTILIZING TESTS
WITH TUNG OIL TREES
Hatch Project 50 G. H. Blackmon and R. J. Wilmot
Yields of fruit in 1943 in the different tung experiments were severely
reduced by freezes in late February and early March and no significant
differences could be determined for the various fertilizer treatments. The
cold in March and April 1944, on the Experiment Station farm, caused
about 40 percent loss in yield.
Conditions of growth and foliage were recorded in the Jefferson County
experiment in which various fertilizer mixtures are being tested. Potash
deficiency was quite severe in most of the plots in which no potash is being
applied, and to some extent in all low-potash plots. This year, 1944, with
the trees carrying a heavy crop of fruit, the deficiency was showing in
June in the leaves of the no-potash plots and some of the low-potash plots.
A severe marginal leaf scorch was observed in several tung orchards
in north central sections of the State in the latter part of the 1940 grow-
ing season, and in additional plantings since that time. Field and labora-
tory investigations 10 during the past 3 years demonstrated that this was
caused by a deficiency of magnesium which was corrected by soil appli-
cations of magnesium sulfate. Trees sprayed with either a bordeaux
mixture or with a solution of copper sulfate showed no symptoms of copper
deficiency a few weeks after the sprays were applied.
Approximately 10 pounds of oil were recovered from a sample of candle-
nut (Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.) collected at Homestead. The oil
was expressed from shelled kernels with a laboratory model Anderson ex-
peller. A sample of this oil was submitted to a commercial concern for
testing as to its possible uses. This work was conducted cooperatively
with the USDA Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and Engineering.

TESTING OF NATIVE AND INTRODUCED SHRUBS AND
ORNAMENTALS AND METHODS FOR THEIR PROPAGATION
Hatch Project 52 R. J. Wilmot
The germination of cabbage palmetto seed (Sabal Palmetto (Walt.)
Lodd.) was accelerated by subjecting it to 40 C. for 21 days.
'o In cooperation with Div. Fruit and Veg. Crops and Disease, B. P. I., S. & A. E.







Annual Report, 1944


Sage seedlings from seed produced by a number of plants which sur-
vived are being grown, in addition to other herbs which show promise.
Of 2 plots of Hibiscus cannabinus L. 1 made very good growth and the
other was heavily attacked by nematodes and badly stunted.
The USDA Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineer-
ing is conducting experimental work in southern Florida with sansevieria
for the production of fiber. Assistance has been given whenever possible
to solve the cultural problems involved and in locating material of different
species. The Bureau has installed a decorticator for determining fiber
yields of both wild and cultivated sansevieria.
The synonymy of 23 varieties of camellias was determined the past
flowering season, and 78 plants from widely distributed sources were added
to the present collection.

COVER CROP TESTS IN PECAN ORCHARDS
State Project 80 G. H. Blackmon
In the Jefferson County pecan experiment Augusta vetch has been
grown as the winter legume since 1938. Reseeding occurred annually but
the tonnage of green material returned to the soil, while quite satisfactory,
has varied considerably from year to year, depending in part upon the
prevalence and development of various diseases. During the past season
growth was fairly good and over 6 tons of green material per acre were
returned to the soil. There was no difference in growth of vetch in plots
receiving superphosphate and basic slag.
There was no significant difference in the growth of the Frotscher trees
where superphosphate and basic slag have been applied. However, trees
of both Moore and Stuart varieties made more growth with superphosphate
than with basic slag. Yields of the Frotscher trees were higher with
superphosphate, those of the Stuart were higher in the basic slag plots.
Differences in the Moore plots were not significant.
Insect control work was also conducted in these experimental plots
by the Pecan Investigations Laboratory. (See also NORTH FLORIDA
STATION, Proj. 80, and ENTOMOLOGY, Proj. 379.)
PHENOLOGICAL STUDIES OF TRUCK CROPS IN FLORIDA
State Project 110 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
Peas and cabbage were grown on a series of plots that, for the previous
2 years, received manganese, boron, copper and zinc. Each minor element
was applied singly and in combination with each and all of the others.
During the present season no minor elements were applied. The usual
application of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash was made. Growth
of the peas was good and yields were satisfactory. There was considerable
variation in yield but the difference in yield due to residual effects of the
minor elements was small and lacked significance.
Growth of cabbage was affected by dry weather. Comparatively low
yields were obtained from all plots. Variations in yield from the different
treatments were quite large. However, these differences are probably
not significant because of the very large variations in yield of individual
plots receiving the same treatment.
Sweet potatoes grown on Norfolk sand were fertilized with 400, 800
and 1,200 pounds of a complete fertilizer containing 4 percent nitrogen
and 7 percent phosphoric acid. The source and quantity of potash in the
fertilizer was varied. Sulfate of potash, muriate of potash and sulfate
of potash-magnesia were used as sources of potash and the percentage
of K20 in the fertilizer was 4, 8, and 12 percent. Three replications of each
treatment were planted.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Increasing the application of potash from 16 pounds to 32 pounds of
KLO per acre resulted in a marked increase in yield. This was true ir-
respective of whether the increased potash was obtained by doubling the
percentage in the fertilizer or from applying twice as much 4-7-4 fertilizer.
Increasing the amount of potash to more than 32 pounds of KsO per acre
did not result in additional increases in yield. There were no significant
differences between sulfate of potash, muriate of potash, and sulfate of
potash-magnesia at the lower rates of application. Where 64 or more
pounds per acre of KO were applied yields secured from sulfate of potash-
magnesia were lower than where muriate or sulfate of potash was applied.

VARIETY TESTS OF MINOR FRUITS AND ORNAMENTALS
State Project 187 G. H. Blackmon and R. J. Wilmot
Grape vines in the experiment of the Extra (Florida Beacon) variety
produced a good yield in 1943 and set a heavy crop this year (1944). Rainy
weather and the heavy vine growth made it impossible to control black
rot which destroyed about 60 percent of the fruit, even under the recom-
mended spraying program with bordeaux mixture.


Fig. 2.-Steps in the production of citrus juice concentrate by freezing.
Left to right: Oranges, juice, water removed, frozen concentrate.
There have been no significant differences to date in response to the
various minor elements applied to either the soil or the foliage. Excellent
vine growth was obtained and large numbers of fruiting canes are avail-
able for production next year.
Mayhaw seedlings from selected plants flowered for the first time but







Annual Report, 1944


failed to set fruit. Seedling wild plums flowered for the first time and
set a heavy crop.
Several holly plants were added to the variety collection.

COLD STORAGE STUDIES OF CITRUS FRUITS


Purnell Project 190


A. L. Stahl


Further experiments with X-ray treatments of citrus fruits to control
stem-end rots were conducted in cooperation with a local physician who
had equipment available for such tests. Preliminary results were con-
firmed that with sufficient dosage stem-end rot can be fully controlled by
killing the casual organisms with no injury to the fruit itself.
Many chemicals were used as dips or sprays and those showing control
of the citrus organisms were superimposed on or added to the pliofilm
wrapper as plasticizers. Of these the diphenol and ortho-phenol impreg-
nated pliofilm wrapper definitely were the most outstanding. A very
decided decrease in the penicilliums and stem-end rot organisms was ob-
tained with these 2 chemicals superimposed onto the pliofilm itself.
Considerable effort was made to improve the quality and to simplify
methods to retain the flavor and color of concentrated citrus juices. Dur-
ing the year a method of concentrating citrus juices was perfected which
resulted in a product more
nearly like fresh juice
than has yet been found;
it works equally well for
oranges, grapefruit, tange-
rines and limes. The juice
is concentrated by freez-
ing out the water. This
is done by freezing to a
slush consistency and then
centrifuging to complete
the separation. It is then
frozen in blocks or briq-
uettes in convenient sizes
and held in a frozen state.
Earlier attempts to mar-
ket commercially frozen,
single strength juices were
not successful due to the
problem of distributing
large quantities; by this
method the bulk is de-
creased to 1/4 or even to
%, thereby reducing the
cost of transporting and
holding. Single strength
juices also presented the
problem of requiring a
very long time for melt-
ing for serving. This fresh
concentrate has been con-
centrated to such strength Fig. 3.-Reconstituted citrus juice. Left to
that it can be reconsti- right: Frozen concentrate, water added, juice
tuted by the addition of ready to serve.







68 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

measured amounts of tap water, and by stirring with a spoon fresh juice
can be obtained within a few seconds' time. No change in color or taste
was observed after 2 years' storage at 0 F. The reconstituted juice stays
in suspension longer than freshly extracted juice. After 2 years' storage
the prepared frozen juice still contains 85 percent of the vitamin C content.
In cooperation with the Florida Citrus Commission, a pilot plant is being
established at the Main Station to investigate the problems of producing
this concentrate commercially. Already 2 commercial plants are pro-
ducing juice by this method and considerable time was spent in advising
and in checking equipment for efficiency and products for quality for these
plants. Many samples of the grapefruit, orange and lime frozen concen-
trate were prepared for trial by the Quartermaster Corps Subsistence and
Research Development Laboratory, U. S. Army.
From the investigations made on stretch-wrapping of pliofilm under
this project, an automatic stretch-wrap machine has just been completed
by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and the Florida Citrus Ex-
change which will stretch-wrap from 500 to 1,000 oranges per minute
at a cost below that of regular paper wrappers. Some time was spent
in advising and in determining proper gauges and types of film for use
in this machine.

MATURITY STUDIES ON CITRUS FRUITS
Purnell Project 237 A. L. Stahl
Investigations with the various tissues of Pineapple oranges from the
very immature stages to full maturity showed that the vitamin C content
increases in the pulp up to the fully mature fruit, when it gradually begins
to decrease. In the outer, or flavedo rind, it increases up to the time of
color change, after which it decreases. The locular and albedo walls show
very little vitamin C at any time but the amount increases with maturity.
The changes in pectin content of Duncan grapefruit were determined
for all stages of maturity. The same changes were found here in grape-
fruit as were found previously for Pineapple orange, namely that the total
pectin compounds increase gradually in the albedo and pulp, then remain
practically constant throughout a long portion of the growth period and
then gradually decline in the early ripe stage. Complete data covering
these investigations are being assembled.

A STUDY OF THE RELATION OF SOIL REACTION TO GROWTH
AND YIELD OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Adams Project 268 F. S. Jamison
Plots located at Gainesville on Arredondo fine sandy loam, having a
pH range of 4.3 to 7.8, were planted to Tendergreen beans. A good stand
was obtained on all plots. The plants were severely injured by frost during
the first week of April and a second planting was made between the rows
of the injured plants. However, the first planting made excellent recovery
and yield records were taken only from it.
The yield of beans at the various levels of soil acidity varied only
slightly from that reported in former years. Average yields from plots
adjusted to various pH levels are given in Table 5.
The pH range for the largest yield of beans was from 5.4 to 5.8. As
the acidity increased production dropped rapidly, while on plots having
pH values higher than optimum the decline in yield was much slower and
of less magnitude.
No adjustment of pH values has been made on any plot for the past 2
years. Plots having a very low or very high pH value 2 years ago have







Annual Report, 1944


TABLE 5.-AVERAGE YIELD IN POUNDS OF TENDERGREEN BEANS GROWN AT
VARIOUS LEVELS OF SOIL ACIDITY.
Yield of Beans
pH of Plot (in pounds per plot)

4.4 4.8 ................................-........... 14.39
4.9 5.3 ..................... ........-........... 21.61
5.4 5.8 .......................... ................... 34.76
5.9 6.3 ............................................. 28.57
6.4 6.8 .................................... ........ 24.24


tended to revert toward the original level of soil acidity, approximately
pH 5.6, that existed at the beginning of the experiment. However, changes
in pH were small on all plots and seldom more than 0.6 pH.

SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF VARIETIES AND STRAINS OF
VEGETABLES ADAPTABLE TO COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
IN FLORIDA
State Project 282 F. S. Jamison and Byron E. Janes
Testing of new or recently introduced varieties formerly reported under
this project is reported under Project 391. No other research on this project
was conducted during the year.

EFFECT OF VARIOUS GREEN MANURE CROPS ON GROWTH,
YIELD AND QUALITY OF CERTAIN VEGETABLES
State Project 283 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
Potatoes were grown at Gainesville on a series of 1/60-acre plots that
have received cover crop treatments continuously for 9 years. Two va-
rieties, Sebago and Katahdin, were used, % of each plot being planted to
each variety. Due to difficulty in securing seed potatoes the Katahdin
was planted 10 days later than the Sebago. Both varieties made excellent
growth until April 6, when they were severely injured by cold, approxi-
mately 4 inches of the top of the plants being killed. The plants failed
to resume satisfactory growth. The crop was not sprayed for disease
control and there was but little evidence of blight in either variety until
10 days before harvesting.
Average yield of Katahdin from all treatments was 161 bushels an
acre; that of the Sebago was 198 bushels-a difference of 37 bushels un-
doubtedly partly due to the difference in time of planting but largely to
the inherent higher yielding ability of Sebago.
Highest yields of Katahdin were secured following velvet beans, cow'peas
and Crotalaria intermedia Kotschy, while the highest yield of Sebago was
secured following velvet beans, native growth plus 10 tons per acre of
manure and Crotalaria spectabilis Roth plus 10 tons per acre of manure.
Katahdin yield was low following Crotalaria spectabilis, millet and
Crotalaria spectabilis burned off.
Sebago yields were low following mature Crotalaria spectabilis, cow-
peas and millet. The yield records substantiate the results of previous
years.
The same cover crops listed in previous annual reports were planted
on all plots in June 1943 except that Crotalaria spectabilis was omitted.
While there were a large number of volunteer crotalaria plants on the
crotalaria plots, there were also many pigweeds, coffee beans and other
weeds. Plots on which dense, low-growing crops such as cowpeas and








70 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

velvet beans were grown have remained comparatively free of weeds.
The native vegetation on all plots has increased and changed in character
since the beginning of this experiment; the predominant cover on those not
seeded is a mixture of pigweed, coffee beans and a few plants of Crotalaria
spectabilis.

FUMIGATION OF NURSERY STOCK
State Project 315 R. J. Wilmot
Fumigation investigations testing the effects of methyl bromide and
hydrocyanic acid gas on varieties of narcissus bulbs were continued as in
previous years. There were no significant differences between treatments
this year.
To determine the effects of fumigants on sweet potatoes, 4 bushels were
fumigated with methyl bromide for 1% hours at the rate of 3% pounds
per 100 cubic feet. No injury was observed.

EFFECTS OF MINERAL DEFICIENCIES ON THE ADAPTABILITY
OF CERTAIN VEGETABLE VARIETIES TO FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones Project 319 B. E. Janes and F. S. Jamison
During the fall of 1943 6 varieties of cabbage were again planted on a
series of plots established in 1941 and described in previous annual reports.
All plots were fertilized with a 4-7-5 fertilizer prior to planting and were
subsequently top-dressed with nitrate of soda as conditions warranted.
Manganese, zinc, iron and boron were applied singly and in combination
with each and all of the others. The materials were applied as a spray
to the plants the first 3 weeks after transplanting and again 6 weeks later.
At maturity the weight and number of heads from each plot were recorded
and a number of heads from each plot were cut in half and the condition
of the interior was noted.
In March 6 varieties of tomatoes were planted on the plots on which
the cabbage had been produced. Frost, followed a week later by a heavy
rain, injured the plants severely and caused considerable washing of soil
across plot lines, rendering the crop and plots useless for securing reliable
results. The test was abandoned.
No deficiency symptoms were found in the cabbage that could be cor-
related with specific treatments. Many of the heads of certain varieties
showed internal browning, often associated with boron deficiency, but this
disorder occurred on plants from plots receiving boron as well as on plants
that had not received the spray. Considerable variation in yield from
different varieties and treatments was recorded. However, a preliminary
review of the data indicate no significant varietal response to the minor
elements used in this test.
When 2 varieties of tomatoes--Pan America and Marglobe-were grown
in the same crock in sand culture with a low level of manganese, deficiency
symptoms appeared earlier on Marglobe.

EFFECTS OF CERTAIN MINERAL ELEMENTS ON PLANT GROWTH,
REPRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION
Purnell Project 348-A A. L. Stahl
This phase of the project was inactive during the year. (See also
SOILS, Proj. 348.)








Annual Report, 1944 71

INVESTIGATIONS OF THE CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE
MU-OIL TREE (ALEURITES MONTANA (LOUR.) WILS.)"
State Project 365 G. H. Blackmon, J. Hamilton and F. S. Lagass6
Trees in an extensive experiment near Palmetto planted in March
1943 died because of an extremely dry spring followed by excessively wet
weather during the summer. There are only a few trees remaining on
the higher locations in this test and those have been retained for observa-
tion.
A planting, including all species of Aleurites and various A. montana
hybrids, was made in March of this year (1944) in muck soil on the high
school grounds at Moore Haven. Trees in this experiment will be used
for further study of the growth and behavior of A. montana in comparison
with trees of the other Aleurites species.
Additional trees were distributed for testing during the past planting
season and some new cooperators were added to the list reported for 1943.
These plantings are located at various places from Gainesville southward.
At some locations the A. montana trees have made fair growth but none
have been outstanding in this respect.

RELATION OF ZINC AND MAGNESIUM TO GROWTH AND
REPRODUCTION IN PECANS
Hatch Project 375 G. H. Blackmon
Soil applications of magnesium in addition to the regular fertilizers
produced best growth and yield with Moore trees and with Moneymaker
in 1 test but not with Moneymaker in another test. Curtis produced most
growth and yield without the supplements, while Kennedy made greatest
growth and produced the most nuts where magnesium and zinc were ap-
plied with the regular fertilizer. The Stuart trees grew the largest
amount of wood with high potash and low magnesium but yields were
highest with high potash and high magnesium, and the trees in this treat-
ment were second in growth.
A severe infestation of nut case-bearers this year reduced the crop
considerably except where there was a heavy bloom. A fairly good crop
of nuts has set in all experiments except the 2 with light blooms; in these
the yields will be greatly reduced because of the severe infestation of nut
case-bearer.
EFFECTS OF CERTAIN GROWTH SUBSTANCES ON PECANS
Adams Project 376 G. H. Blackmon
Indolebutyric acid treatments did not increase the number of laterals
on root systems of pecans transplanted in January 1944. Growth in dia-
meter of the roots was much greater where they were treated.
Kennedy and Frotscher were used to test the effects of hormones on
the shedding of nuts. With Frotscher there were no significant differences.
With Kennedy the unsprayed branches shed 25.5 percent of the nuts; those
sprayed with a commercial preparation containing naphthaleneacetic acid
shed 8.6 percent; and there was no shedding from branches sprayed with
a .001 percent concentration of either naphthaleneacetic acid or naphthalene-
acetamide.
STORAGE AND HANDLING OF FLORIDA VEGETABLES
Purnell Project 377 A. L. Stahl and F. S. Jamison
Ripening tests carried out with Rutgers and Marglobe tomatoes showed
"In cooperation with Div. Veg. Crops and Diseases, B. P. I.. S. and Ag. Eng.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


that the unwrapped "green mature" fruit ripened at 70* F. in the dark
from 12 to 18 days as compared to 16 to 24 days for those wrapped in
20-gauge pliofilm. Of those not wrapped 55 percent ripened in salable
condition while of the pliofilm-wrapped 85 percent ripened in good condi-
tion. Of fruit picked in the "pink or turning" stage and stored at 70* F.
95 percent unwrapped ripened in good condition after 6 or 8 days and 100
percent in pliofilm wrappers were in good salable condition after 14 to 18
days.
By arrangement with retail stores a number of small-scale express
shipments of "pink" tomatoes wrapped in pliofilm were made to various
Northern points. The tomatoes were reported to be equal in quality to
Northern-grown vine-ripened tomatoes.
Measurements of volume change of Rutgers tomatoes in the "mature
green" and "pink turning" stages showed from 20 to 35 percent volume
increase between these 2 stages of maturity.
Tendergreen beans were stored in cellophane and pliofilm liners in
hampers at various temperatures. Best results were obtained at 42* F.
in the 20-gauge pliofilm liner. Those at lower temperatures pitted badly
while those at higher temperatures rotted after several days. At 42 F.
green beans kept splendidly for 20 days in cellophane liners and for 35
days in pliofilm liners.
Several kinds of waxes and wrappers were used on 4 different varieties
of carrots. Best results were obtained by using 20-gauge pliofilm and
pliofilm stretch-wrap on the Chantenay and Imperial varieties. All wrap-
pers gave better results than waxes. Best storage temperature of those
tried was 37* F.
Small-scale truck shipments of lettuce from the Everglades were made
to markets in Miami and Jacksonville after wrapping in pliofilm at the
point of packing. This was successful when iced trucks were used and care
was taken not to let the temperature of the lettuce get above 60* F. The
lettuce remained in good condition for 30 to 40 days where kept refriger-
ated in the retail store after removing from the iced trucks.

VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS
State Project 391 F. S. Jamison
The scope of this project has been reduced. However, during the past
season new or recently introduced varieties of tomatoes, watermelon,
carrots, snap beans, edible cowpeas, summer squash, cucumbers and sweet
corn have been grown. Certain of these varieties were entered in the
All-America trials, which are being conducted by the Station for the
first time.
Of 40 strains and varieties of tomatoes grown there were only 4 that
appeared desirable for further testing. Three of these are unnamed and
are included in the All-America trials. Sioux, a variety developed by the
Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station, sets a heavy crop of fruit
in hot, dry weather. The foliage is sparse and the fruit medium in size.
The fruits are of good color, uniform in shape and size and of good depth.
Its resistance to wilt is unknown.
Several small watermelons were tested. They produced fruits weighing
approximately 12 to 15 pounds, of poor quality.
Twelve varieties of cowpeas or field peas were tested for desirability
as vegetables. Texas Purple Hull was one of the best. It produced a
large, well-filled pod. The peas were relatively easy to shell and were
of fair quality. It matures a few days later than California Blackeye.
The snap bean test was injured by late frost and dry weather. Florida







Annual Report, 1944


Belle and Logan were outstanding in their ability to produce fruits under
adverse conditions.
A summer squash having the color of Zucchini and the shape of Patty-
Pan is an All-America entry that should be acceptable on the market.
Ioana and Illinois Golden No. 10, 2 varieties of sweet corn, produced
more vigorous plants and slightly larger ears than Golden Cross Bantam.
The ears were 5 to 7 days later in maturing than those of Golden Cross
Bantam.
None of the cucumber varieties tested appeared superior to existing
commercial varieties.
Red Cored Chantenay, Imperator and Nantes or Coreless varieties all
produced carrots having excellent quality and color. Imperator is superior
to the other 2 where the crop is being grown for bunching. (See also
SUB-TROPICAL and EVERGLADES STATIONS and VEGETABLE, CEL-
ERY, and POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORIES, Proj. 391.)
DEHYDRATION OF VEGETABLES AND FRUITS
Purnell Project 413 A. L. Stahl and F. S. Jamison
It was demonstrated that the quality of any dehydrated fruit or vege-
table at the time it is used is controlled by a long chain of factors be-
ginning with the selection of the variety and continuing through planting,
culture, harvesting and susequent handling.
Varieties for Dehydration.-It was found that the desirable properties
of a suitable variety are tenderness, uniform texture, attractive appear-
ance and good nutritive value; it should not suffer undue changes in quality
during dehydration and should give a profitable yield. Those varieties
already grown in a given locality were most often the ones that were
most suitable for dehydrating.
Cabbage.-The Savoy, a green-leafed, open-headed cabbage, was found
to give a very good dried product that contained a high vitamin C content,
even after lengthy storage. Golden Acre and Copenhagen Market were
found to be very satisfactory varieties. Flat Dutch and Wakefield have
not proved suitable, owing to a tendency to darken during drying. Early
Jersey had a tendency to develop a stale odor and flavor in drying. The
greener the variety the better looking and tasting was the dehydrated
product. These dehydrated much better and had less tendency to brown
upon cooking.
Carrots.-Imperator and Chantenay gave very good results, Nantes
fair and the others only fair to poor. The Chantenay had the higher caro-
tene content, and after drying it showed a deeper orange color than the
Imperator, especially at the core. Imperator had the highest yield of
dried product per unit of prepared fresh carrots, Nantes second. Chantenay
often developed a green crown and core which turned brown on drying.
Flavor of the Chantenay after drying, refreshing and cooking was rated
slightly superior to Imperator.
Green Beans.-Seven varieties of green beans were compared for 2
seasons. Most of the tasters preferred bush to pole beans in general
quality after dehydrating, refreshing and cooking, largely because bush
beans became plump, whereas pole beans remained wrinkled on cooking.
Stringless Green Pod was most desirable, Bountiful next and Tendergreen
third. Black Valentine also reacted well to dehydration. Considering
all factors, Stringless Green Pod could be recommended over the others
tried.
Sweet Potatoes.-No comparisons of sweet potato varieties for dehydra-
tion were made, beyond drying samples of the Jersey (dry type) and the







74 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Porto Rican (moist type). The Porto Rican type was preferred after
drying, refreshing and cooking.
Irish Potatoes.-Only 3 varieties of white potatoes were tried-Katahdin,
Sebago and Sequoia. Katahdin reacted best to dehydration. The others
darkened with drying and tended to case-harden. More investigation is
needed before recommendations can be made.
Corn.-Golden Cross Bantam and Golden Bantam were much more
suited to dehydration than the other varieties of corn tried. They were
equally good in general quality, but the drying ratio of the hybrid was
better than the Golden Bantam type. The preference was given by most
tasters to the Golden Bantam, it being more attractive in appearance
and higher in pigment content. Of the white varieties, Country Gentle-
man was best, and of the field corn varieties, Oklahoma Silver Mine was
outstanding, but neither was as good as the yellow varieties.
Onions.-The more pungent varieties of onions gave the best dehydrated
products.
Others.-Beets, squash, lima beans, field peas, English peas, tomatoes,
okra, spinach, and other vegetables were dehydrated, but not enough data
are now available to recommend varieties. Investigations on these are
being continued.
Freshness of Raw Material.-Peas, string beans, all vegetables of the
leafy type except cabbage, and other green vegetables should be garden-
fresh for dehydrating. They should be dehydrated immediately after
harvest, as vitamin C and sugar contents decreased rapidly in storage.
Potatoes, sweet potatoes, onions and cabbage kept for a short time without
serious deterioration before drying, but carrots did not store well and
must be dehydrated immediately.
Use of Culls.-Cull vegetables are not recommended yet; U. S. No. 2
products, if carefully sorted and processed soon after harvesting, can be
used. From culls the losses in trimming, peeling and sorting are exces-
sive; labor is costly and the dried product is inferior.
Maturity of the Product.-Samples of English peas, green beans, cab-
bage, sweet corn, carrots and spinach in 3 stages-immature, mature, and
over-mature-were handled, prepared and dehydrated in the same manner
throughout. In every instance the best product was obtained from those
vegetables which were just mature, with the exception of spinach in which
the immature samples were better. In most cases the over-mature was
superior to under-mature, but strong flavors were obtained in some of the
over-mature samples of cabbage and carrots. The immature samples of most
of the vegetables were tasteless, would not rehydrate and stayed wrinkled
and darkened after refreshing and cooking. It is important to harvest
vegetables for dehydrating within the short range when they can be
considered at right maturity for fresh markets.
Soil Types and Fertilizer.-To study the effect of soil types and fertil-
izers on dehydration products, samples are being dehydrated from the
plots used in Project 420 at 8 different locations from the southern to the
northern sections of the State. Three different levels of fertilizer are
applied at each place. This investigation has not as yet proceeded far
enough to make any definite statements, but it should show any effects
soil types and fertilizer may have on suitability of Florida vegetables for
dehydrating. So far, vegetables from no 1 section of the State are out-
standing in their reaction to dehydrating when all things are considered.
It appears that vegetables grown on the medium fertilizer plots gave the
best dehydration products on both muck and sandy loam.








Annual Report, 1944


Preparation.-The preparation of vegetables for dehydration is as im-
portant as the drying process itself. Speed, cleanliness and efficiency are
all-important. Most products are washed, graded, peeled, trimmed, cored
or pitted, sliced, cubed, shredded, halved or otherwise divided; washed again
and blanched just before they are dehydrated. These steps are modified
for some commodities; onions, for example, are not blanched, and beets
should be cooked before they are cut.
Blanching.-Prepared vegetables, except onions and garlic, must be
subjected to partial cooking in steam or boiling water. Color was better
preserved in most vegetables by blanching in boiling water but steam
blanching gave best results, as there were fewer spoilage organisms and
less dissolving out of valuable nutritive constituents. Steam blanching
preserved the vitamin C content, prevented the toughening of tissues and
the loss of flavor and sugars, and retarded the darkening and discoloration
of the tissues. Every vegetable except onion gave a better dehydrated
product when fully blanched.
Sulphuring.-Some vegetables such as potatoes, carrots, rutabagas and
others which are apt to oxidize and discolor in air were greatly improved
by exposure of the freshly prepared material to burning sulfur (sulfur
dioxide gas). This stabilized color and in every instance resulted in a
higher vitamin C content; however, a destructive effect on some of the
other vitamins was observed.
Moisture Content of Product.-Slight increases in moisture content of
sample made very little difference in amount of energy required to de-
hydrate. Moist samples usually were not as apt to case-harden as were
the drier ones. Under the same conditions all Florida samples dehydrated
to a specific dryness in the same time required for samples grown in other
areas. In most cases Florida vegetables, when compared with those grown
in other sections, were only slightly higher in moisture content and in
some cases they were equal or lower.
Temperature, Humidity and Air Flow of Dehydrator and Length of
Drying Time.-Temperature of air, rates of air movement and length of
time required to complete the drying varied widely with the method and
the materials used. Some products required longer to dry than others,
but the usual range was from 3 to 8 hours. The initial temperatures may
be as high as 210 F. for certain foods, but a temperature that can be
used without scorching or otherwise injuring the product are recommended.
Vitamin C retention was found to be better by hot, rapid drying than by
slower, cooler drying.
Packaging and Storage.-Some dehydrated foods kept well in air; others
required its exclusion. Replacing the air in a package of food with inert
gas was found to retard loss of desirable factors in certain dehydrated
foods that are subject to oxidation. Inert gas atmosphere was especially
necessary for carrots and cabbage. Inert gases which gave equal results
are carbon dioxide and nitrogen, but carbon dioxide is preferred because
it is less expensive. Low-temperature storage decreased the rate of changes
that resulted in vitamin losses.
Retention of Nutritive Values.-Dehydrated vegetables supply prac-
tically as many calories as fresh ones and retain most of their mineral
values. Adverse conditions produced high losses in vitamin content. Loss
in vitamin C was found to be great, but with especial care this could be
reduced considerably. Vitamin C is hardest to retain and is easily lost
on contact with air. It dissolves in water, so the dryer the product, the
better will be its retention.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Reconstitution and Cooking.-The success of rehydration depends on
many factors, such as quality of the material, amount of liquid added,
composition of the liquid, and length of time the food is soaked or boiled
in it. For cooking most of the dehydrated vegetables it was found to be
best to soak only until they are plump, or cook without soaking; to cook
in the same water in which they are soaked; to simmer rather than to
boil; to cook only until tender, and to use left-over cooking water. They
should be seasoned and served exactly like cooked fresh vegetables.

EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF FARM LABOR
Purnell Project 415 Max Brunk and F. S. Jamison
See AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, Proj. 415.

COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA-GROWN VEGETABLES
AS AFFECTED BY ENVIRONMENT
State Project 420 B. E. Janes
The composition of 2 varieties each of cabbage, beans and tomatoes
grown under different environments is being determined. Effects of tem-
perature, latitude, soil and fertilizer level on the composition are being
considered. With the cooperation of the Branch Stations and field labora-
tories, Copenhagen Market and Early Jersey Wakefield cabbage were grown
at Quincy, Gainesville, Hastings, Leesburg, Sanford, Bradenton, Belle
Glade and West Palm Beach. Tendergreen and Bountiful beans were
grown at Quincy, Gainesville, Hastings, Sanford, Belle Glade, West Palm
Beach and Homestead. Pan America and Rutgers tomatoes were grown
at Gainesville, Sanford and Homestead. There was a range of latitude
of approximately 500 miles between the plots at Quincy and those at
Homestead. Many of the important soil types of the State were represented.
At each location the 2 varieties were grown at 3 fertilizer levels, %
normal, normal and 1 normal-normal being the average amount for
that particular area and soil type. Each treatment was duplicated, making
12 plots for each crop at each location. A graphic record of the tempera-
ture was kept at each place. In cooperation with the Soils Department,
soil samples for physical and chemical analysis were taken from each plot
just before the fertilizer was applied and again at time of harvest. The
crops were harvested and yield records were obtained at the time they
reached commercial maturity. A representative sample from each plot
was taken to Gainesville, where the analyses were made by using standard
methods.
Determination of dry weight, ascorbic acid and carotene in the cabbage,
beans and tomatoes has been completed, as well as the titratable acidity
and soluble solids of tomatoes. Samples have been preserved for carbo-
hydrate and mineral analysis. Data from completed analyses show con-
siderable variations in the composition of Florida vegetables. The most
marked variation resulted from different growing conditions as represented
by different locations. For example, the ascorbic acid content of Early
Jersey Wakefield cabbage varied from 66 mg. per 100 gms. at Sanford
to 41 mg. at West Palm Beach; the percent dry weight at these 2 locations
was 10.6 and 6.0, respectively. In addition to effect of growing conditions,
there was a varietal effect. Early Jersey Wakefield cabbage had an
average dry weight of 9.1 percent and Copenhagen Market cabbage an
average of 8.1 percent. Similar varietal and locational differences in
composition of beans and tomatoes were found. Differences in the beans
and tomatoes, which are fruits, were not as marked as in cabbage, where
the leafy part of the plant is used. In cabbage an increase in fertilizer








Annual Report, 1944 77

from % to 1 times the normal amount for the crop on a particular soil
increased the head size and decreased the percent dry weight. In tomatoes
there was an increase in percent and weight as the fertilizer increased. The
fertilizer level did not affect significantly the ascorbic acid or carotene
content of either cabbage or tomatoes. There was no significant variation
in composition of beans grown at different fertilizer levels.
As the head size of cabbage increased the percent dry weight de-
creased. As the percent dry weight increased the concentration of ascorbic
acid increased.

U. S. FIELD LABORATORY FOR TUNG INVESTIGATIONS

The research of the staff of the U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung In-
vestigations, financed by federal funds, is conducted cooperatively under
a memorandum of understanding between the Bureau of Plant Industry,
Soils, and Agricultural Engineeering and the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station. The numerous facilities extended to the laboratory, the
use of certain plant materials, and the close cooperation of the members
of the horticultural staff of the Florida Experiment Station are gratefully
acknowledged.
Small-scale preliminary studies indicate that early spring (February)
applications of fertilizer to tung orchards as well as early disking do not
hasten the opening of leaf or flower buds, which is quite contrary to
grower opinion.
Experimental work was conducted to determine why stratified tung
nuts germinated more evenly than did those that were dry-stored. Analyses
of the kernels at various stages of germination were made for oil, nitrogen
and carbohydrate fractions in the endosperm and embryo. The results
indicate that at comparable physiological stages of germination occurring
after emergence of the radical more effective conversion of oil to carbo-
hydrates took place in stratified seed than in those stored dry. This was
indicated by a very low acid content in comparison with the dry-stored
kernels at all comparable physiological stages of development.
In cooperative study with the Florida Station a marginal leaf scorch
observed in a number of tung orchards was definitely proven to be due
to a deficiency of magnesium which seriously affects the growth and pro-
duction of the trees. Results of experiments in 2 severely affected orchards
show that soil application of epsom salts over a 2-year period (8 pounds
per year for 10- to 12-year-old trees and 4 pounds per year for 6- to 8-year
old trees) have been outstanding in effecting improvement and recovery
of affected trees. Applications of nitrogen along with magnesium sulfate
proved beneficial, whereas muriate of potash tended to accentuate the
disorder. This would indicate the importance of a proper magnesium-
potassium ratio in the fertilizer used in magnesium-deficient areas. Dolo-
mite was partially effective in correcting the disorder. Further experi-
ments are now under way to obtain more specific information on several
source materials and the amount of magnesium fertilizer for the control
of magnesium deficiency in commercial tung orchards. The deficiency has
been observed in at least 8 commercial bearing orchards in peninsular
Florida.
A further cooperative study with the Florida Station during the past
year showed that applications of 2, 4, and 8 ounces of copper sulfate in
solution to the soil at the base of 9-year-old bearing trees were not com-
pletely effective in correcting copper-deficiency symptoms during the first
year of application. Soil applications under the spread of the branches
of 1/ pound of the dry copper sulfate per 9-year-old bearing tree per year








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


were effective during a 2-year period. It was found earlier that small
amounts (% ounce) of copper sulfate applied in solution to the base of
1-year-old trees were effective in correcting the copper-deficiency symptoms.
Tests conducted on 1-year-old trees at Hague, Florida, showed, in July,
that neither % ounce nor 3 ounces of copper sulfate applied in the spring
satisfactorily controlled copper-deficiency symptoms. The higher appli-
cation caused damage to the foliage soon after it was made. Later de-
ficiency symptoms on developing foliage were apparent but to a lesser
degree (with high significance) than in the case of the lower application.
Soil applications of manganese sulfate significantly increased copper-
deficiency symptoms and soil applications of zinc sulfate significantly de-
creased them.
Spray treatments in early summer with different concentrations of copper
sulfate and lime have been tried on copper-deficient 2-year-old trees. Con-
centrations as low as 1 pound of copper sulfate plus 1 pound of lime per
100 gallons of water have proved effective in correcting the foliage dis-
order within a week; but after about 2 months the symptoms recurred,
thus indicating that 1 spraying is not adequate for effective control of
copper deficiency during the entire growing season. Further work is in
progress to determine the most efficient and economical methods for con-
trolling copper deficiency.
In cooperation with the Florida Station it was demonstrated that a
spring application of 4 ounces of zinc sulfate to 1-year-old trees as com-
pared with % ounce greatly reduced the occurrence of bronzing symptoms
at the time the trees were observed the following October.
In seedling nursery trees there was no evidence of inheritance of
susceptibility or of resistance to zinc-deficiency. At the end of the first
year in the nursery it was shown that those trees that did not exhibit
zinc deficiency symptoms in September later became dormant in a normal
manner. Those that showed bronzing symptoms in September dropped
their old leaves but the buds, instead of becoming dormant, swelled and
developed immature foliage in December. This tendency again appeared
during the spring when the surviving bronzed trees forced out their buds
first.
Copper and zinc deficiencies definitely reduced the rate of apparent
photosynthesis in leaves of young tung trees, the amount of reduction
being less in the case of zinc deficiency than for copper deficiency under
the conditions of the experiment. Even the normal-appearing leaves on
deficient plants showed a highly significant reduction in carbon dioxide
assimilation. The highest rate of apparent photosynthesis in fall occurred
about the middle of October and was associated with favorable weather
conditions. As a rule, the rate was higher in the morning than in the
afternoons.
Work on the physical and chemical analyses of the important soil
types of the tung belt has been completed for the samples on hand.
The determinations included silt, clay, moisture equivalent, wilting co-
efficient, organic matter, pH, base exchange capacity, exchangeable cal-
cium, magnesium and potassium, and readily soluble phosphorus. The
soils examined were: (1) Sandy loam from northern and western Florida,
Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, including the Gainesville, Ruston,
Red Bay, Norfolk, Orangeburg, Cuthbert (Shubuta), Pheba, and Ora
series; (2) sands and loamy sands from peninsular Florida, including the
Norfolk, Fort Meade, Blanton, Arredondo and "Landrum" series. The
data on most of the sandy loams from the western area show the need
12 Drosdoff, Matthew, and R. D. Dickey. Copper Deficiency of Tung. Proc. Amer.
Tung-Oil Assn. 1943.







Annual Report, 1944 79

for lime and phosphate fertilization. The organic-matter content of the
surface soils has a mean of 2.25 percent. The base-exchange capacity is
relatively low, seldom exceeding 10 m. e. per 100 grams of soil even when
the clay content is high, thus indicating that the kaolinite type of clay
mineral predominates in these soils.
The exchangeable bases are low, with calcium predominating and po-
tassium being present in the smallest quantity. Exchangeable magnesium
is intermediate. Soils from northern Florida are especially low in potas-
sium and deficiencies have been found to be prevalent in tung orchards
in that general area. Data on sands and loamy sands from peninsular
Florida show that clay and organic matter are very low, resulting in low
exchange capacities. Exchangeable bases are low and many deficiency
symptoms are prevalent on trees in that area unless they have been ade-
quately fertilized. Limited data on moisture relations of some representa-
tive samples indicate that the amount of available soil moisture at field
capacity is low, regardless of the organic matter and clay content of the
soil.
In a fertilizer study near Gainesville, budded tung trees receiving the
higher levels of nitrogen and potassium are making more growth than
those receiving lower levels. A fair bloom on budded trees this spring
was injured considerably by late frost but some fruit was set and they now
have a light crop. Seedling trees of the same age in alternating rows are
almost without fruit.
Leaf analyses are being continued as an aid in diagnosing the fertil-
izer requirements of tung trees and in interpreting results of field experi-
ments.
It was found that during the first year after setting budded trees on
Arredondo and on Gainesville soils N, P and K fertilizers have little measur-
able effect on shoot extension. Low nitrate levels resulted in chlorotic
foliage. Zinc- and copper-deficiency symptoms were aggravated by in-
creasing the nitrogen.
Among 29 compounds applied to shoots in tests to prolong dormancy,
alpha-naphthalene-acetic acid and its derivatives and indole-3-acetic acid
were the only ones that gave indication of effectiveness, but these killed
more buds than did the lanolin-emulsion controls. No significant differ-
ences were noted in the effects of the 0.50 and 0.25 percent concentrations.
The 0.01 percent concentration was approximately as effective as either
the 0.50 or the 0.25 percent concentration and produced less injury. Two
applications of 0.25 percent alpha-naphthalene acetamide in a lanolin
emulsion made about 30 and 15 days prior to bud expansion proved most
effective in prolonging dormancy in tung buds but caused the highest
percentage of killing. Since injury occurred whenever blossoming was
delayed, no practical combination of concentration and time of application
was determined. (F. S. Lagass6, Pomologist in charge; H. M. Sell, Asso.
Chemist; M. Drosdoff, Asso. Soil Technologist; S. G. Gilbert, Asst. Plant
Physiologist; J. Hamilton, Asst. Pomologist; A. J. Loustalot, Asst. Physi-
ologist; T. F. Nostrand, Jr., Junior Chemist; Lucille H. Fay, Clerk-Stenog-
rapher; Maude H. Stokes, Scientific Aid; Mary E. Perry, Scientific Aid.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


PLANT PATHOLOGY
Because of the need for maximum yield of crops, investigations during
the year were concerned primarily with practical phases of the projects.
Much of the information obtained has been released to growers over the
radio and by correspondence and personal contacts. A summary of the
progress made is reported under each project.
A STUDY OF PLANTS POISONOUS TO LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA
State Project 258 Erdman West
A total of 39 specimens of plants suspected as being poisonous to cattle
or other animals were sent in or brought to the laboratory for identifi-
cation. These specimens included 32 species of native and introduced
plants, of which 9 are known to be poisonous and 2 others are suspected
but have not been tested. (See also Report, ANIMAL INDUSTRY,
Proj. 258.)
COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF SPECIMENS
OF FLORIDA PLANTS
State Project 259 Erdman West and Lillian E. Arnold
The following table is a resume of the additions made during the past
year and the total number of specimens on file in each group of the per-
manent collections in the herbarium:
Groups Accessions Totals
Spermatophytes ............................ 1,692 42,675
Pteridophytes ................................ --2,170
Bryophytes ...............................--- .... 278 7,723
Thallophytes ................................. 6,912 38,996
Seed collections ............................ 158 1,925
93,489
Gifts and exchange specimens received included 516 packets of fungi
and 524 sheets of phanerogams, of which 84 were Florida plants. Exchange
material sent to other institutions included 878 packets of fungi and 200
sheets of phanerogams, all Florida species. A collection of economic
seeds totaling 500 vials, prepared by the United States Department of
Agriculture, was placed in the herbarium for safe-keeping. Most note-
worthy of the gifts was a collection of fruits and seeds of Brazilian and
Asiatic 'plants producing chaulmoogra oil received from Miss Clarissa
Rolfs. Numerous specimens of fungi and host plants were turned over
to the herbarium by A. S. Rhoads of the Emergency Plant Disease Pre-
vention Project, Division of Mycology and Disease Survey, B. P. I. S. A. E.,
and in return numerous fungous and phanerogamic determinations were
made of specimens collected in this survey. S. C. Hood donated a number
of valuable books on the taxonomy of mosses.
Only 2 collecting trips were made this year, 1 to Volusia County, yield-
ing 54 specimens, and 1 to Gilchrist County, yielding 119 specimens. Much
material collected in previous years was examined and desirable specimens
representing new county distribution records were intercalated in the
permanent collections.
To keep the identifications in the herbarium on a sound and reliable
basis, certain groups were submitted to specialists of national reputation
for examination, annotation and, where necessary, correction as to species
names. Those handled in this manner during the past year included:
Scirpus to A. A. Beetle; Croton to Leon Croizat; Oenothera to P. A. Munz;







Annual Report, 1944


a total of 42 specimens of Septobasidium to J. N. Couch; and over 200
packets of Minnesota and Michigan mosses from the J. B. McFarlin col-
lections to Frances Wynne.
One demonstration of the use and value of the herbarium was made
for a class in Agronomy. Extensive additions were made to the index to
Florida fungi and their hosts and distribution. Identifications of plants
for citizens and members of this and other institutions numbered 935;
of fungi and plant diseases, 521.

HOST RELATIONS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE GROWTH
AND PARASITISM OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII SACC.
Adams Project 269 Erdman West
Experiments begun in the spring of 1943 to compare the effects of wet-
table spergon (tetrachloroparabenzoquinone), thiosan (tetramethyl thiuram-
disulphide), fermate (ferric dimethyl dithiocarbamate) and new improved
ceresan (ethyl mercury phosphate) used as soil drenches indicated that
only the latter gave practical control of the disease. Ninety percent of the
plants in the ceresan-treated pots and plots still survived when all the
plants were dead in the checks and in the pots treated with the other
materials. However, these died later, as only 1 application of the drench
was made. After the pots of soil used in these tests were held in the
greenhouse for a year and then planted to bitter lupine seeds the resulting
seedlings died at about the same rate in all pots.
In a test to evaluate the effect of organic matter on activity of the
fungus, a series of pots were filled with sand and leaf mold mixtures,
ranging from pure sand to pure leaf mold. Five seedlings of Zephyranthes
spp. were planted at 1 side of each pot and sclerotia of the fungus were
placed in the soil at the other side. No infection had occurred in any pot
in 6 months. In outdoor plots no conclusive results were obtained on the
comparative effect of high and low organic content of soil on parasitism
of the fungus when bitter lupines, string beans, peppers, tomatoes and
annual larkspur were used as test plants. To date lupine plants on the
manured plots average 95 percent dead and on the non-manured plots
about 66 percent dead. A small amount of infection is developing on the
larkspur plants but none has developed on the other plants to date.
Treating lupine seed with spergon, fermate or new improved ceresan
before planting in infested soil in plots non-treated and treated with new
improved ceresan as a soil drench gave no significant differences in germi-
nation. However, seedlings from seeds dusted with ceresan, growing in
either treated or non-treated soil, were stunted distinctly as compared with
those from other treatments and checks.
The basidial stage of the fungus has not been observed under natural
conditions. On many plants, especially those fleshy or succulent by nature,
there are formed crusty or fleshy fungous growths resembling, in macro-
scopic characters, the sporophores of some Thelephoraceous fungi. The
hymenium-like character of these has been determined but spores or basidia
bearing sterigmata have not been demonstrated. The most promising
growths occurred on the petioles of fancy-leaved caladium, but similar
structures were found on cantaloupe fruits, liatris crowns, zephyranthes
bulbs and stems of Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd. Cultures of several
isolates of the fungus have failed to produce the basidial stage on special
kinds of culture media exposed to different temperatures. Exposures of
cultures to ultraviolet irradiation for periods varying from 30 seconds to
5 minutes also have not stimulated the development of basidia. At the
longer exposures to ultraviolet waves the aerial mycelium has collapsed.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


New hosts observed this year included climbing lily (Gloriosa Roths-
childiana O'Brien), red hot poker plant (Kniphofia sp.) and an Indian drug
plant (Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd.)

CAUSES OF FAILURE OF SEED AND SEEDLINGS IN VARIOUS
FLORIDA SOILS AND DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS
FOR PREVENTION
Adams Project 281 W. B. Tisdale, A. N. Brooks and A. L. Harrison
Work on this project was conducted in artificially inoculated and
naturally infested soil in greenhouses or in the field at Bradenton, Plant
City and Gainesville. It consisted in treating the seed or soil for prevent-
ing pre- and post-emergence damping-off. All experiments were so de-
signed that the results could be analyzed statistically. Results obtained
are reported by crops.
Cabbage.-In soil artificially inoculated with Rhizoctonia isolate K seed
treatments with %1 percent arasan or % percent spergon caused a 57
percent increase in germination. These materials were equally effective
and significantly better than fermate at a dosage of percent. A second
test was conducted in the same soil without further inoculation. Fermate
and spergon were compared in dosages of % and 1 percent. Germination
of non-treated seed was 26 percent better than in the first test, but sig-
nificantly lower than all treatments. Germination of the treated seed was
about the same as in the first with the respective treatments. There was
no difference in effectiveness between the 2 dosages of spergon or fermate
and both dosages of spergon were significantly better than either dosage
of fermate.
In a soil treatment test at Plant City the crude and redistilled forms
of DD (1, 3- dichloropropylene, 1, 2- dichloropropane) were compared with
chloropicrin and methyl bromide as soil disinfectants. Both field and pot-
ting soils were used. The soils were heavily inoculated with Rhizoctonia
isolate K and then placed in steel drums, treated, sealed and allowed to
stand for 3 days before placing in flats. Seed were planted immediately
after treatment and 4 and 13 days later. Germination was reduced in
the first 2 plantings but was higher in the third than the check, especially
in the field soil. Redistilled DD gave the highest increase in germination,
but the percentage of post-emergence damping-off was higher in this than
in the check. No post-emergence damping-off developed in the soil treated
with crude DD or the other chemicals.
In a series of field plots at Gainesville, treated with redistilled DD and
chloropicrin, there were no significant increases in germination or decreases
in post-emergence damping-off due to treatment. This may have been
due to recontamination of the soil between the time of treatment and
planting, which was 30 days. During this period some of the plots were
flooded with surface water from heavy rains. However, the plants on the
treated plots were more vigorous than the ones in the non-treated plots.
The DD apparently killed all weed seeds and nutgrass, as none grew on the
treated plots during the 60-day period.
Lettuce.-The only seed treatment test with lettuce was conducted in
soil artificially inoculated with a species of Pythium isolated from lettuce
seedlings. This test was set up for comparing the effectiveness of arasan,
fermate and spergon with cuprocide, semesan and zinc oxide. The mean
germination of the non-treated seed in inoculated soil was only 3 percent,
whereas it was 92 percent in sterilized non-inoculated soil. Arasan in a
dosage of 0.30 percent was significantly the best protectant, giving 93
percent germination. Fermate and spergon were next in order, with 77








Annual Report, 1944 83

and 79 percent germination, respectively. Cuprocide 2 percent and zinc
oxide 1 percent gave only 32 and 25 percent germination, respectively.
Semesan 0.5 percent was significantly better than either of these.
When lettuce was planted in soil treated with redistilled DD or cholor-
picrin 1 month after treatment no significant increase in germination was
obtained, nor was there any decrease in post-emergence damping-off. How-
ever, the plants in treated soil showed much better vigor.
Cucumber.-Slight increases in germination of cucumber seed were
obtained by treating them with arasan, cuprocide, fermate, semesan and
spergon before planting them in Norfolk sandy soil, but none of the in-
creases were significant.
Lima Beans and Snap Beans.-In 1 test at Plant City, Tendergreen beans
were treated with 0.15 percent arasan and 0.30 percent spergon and
planted in the field in early spring. There were no significant increases
in germination due to treatment. This confirms results of most previous
tests, so it appears that seed treatment will not prove beneficial very often.
Fordhook lima beans treated with the same dosages of the materials
used for snap beans and planted in field plots at Plant City also showed no
significant differences due to treatment. This ineffectiveness of the ma-
terials was probably due to the fact that the soil was dry when the seed
was planted and remained dry for 2 weeks afterward.
At Gainesville, Fordhook lima beans were treated with 2 dosages of
arasan, fermate and spergon and planted in field plots on Norfolk sandy
loam soil infested with Rhizoctonia. A total of 5.8 inches of rain fell in 10
days of the 15-day experimental period. All treatments gave significant
increases in germination, but there were no significant differences between
materials or dosages. The percentage of baldhead plants was unusually
high, regardless of treatments. The highest mean percentage was 33 per-
cent. This apparently was due to Rhizoctonia which gained entrance after
the seed coats were broken and invaded the plumules before the plants
emerged. The first leaves of many plants that were not baldheads were
very ragged.
These plants were plowed up after the final count and seed from the
same lot, treated with the same materials and dosages, were planted.
Only 1.04 inches of rain fell during this experimental period and the tem-
perature was practically the same as during the first test. All treatments
gave slight improvement in germination but the increases were not signifi-
cant. The percentages of baldheads was very low as compared with the
first, the maximum being 9 percent.
Peanuts.-Arasan, 2 percent ceresan, fermate or spergon used as seed
treatments did not improve germination of hand-shelled Florida Runner
peanuts, either when they were planted immediately after treatment or
after they were held in storage for 60 days after treatment. However,
germination of the seed treated with 2 percent ceresan and spergon and
held in storage was 6 and 10 percent lower, respectively, than that of seed
planted immediately. Germination of the non-treated seed and those
treated with arasan and fermate in both cases was almost identical.
Germination of machine-shelled seed planted immediately after treat-
ment was greatly improved by all treatments, 2 percent ceresan giving
the maximum increase of 32 percent. Arasan in a dosage of 0.125 percent
and 2 percent ceresan in a dosage of 0.20 percent were significantly better
than fermate in a dosage of 0.125 percent, but about the same as fermate
in 0.25 percent dosage. When planted 60 days after treatment germination
resulting from all treatments, except 2 percent ceresan, was practically the
same as when planted immediately after treatment; germination of this







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


lot was 14 percent lower than in the first test. Arasan was significantly
better than the ceresan in this respect.
Soybeans.-One cooperative seed treatment test was conducted with
the Bansei variety. Two dosages of arasan, fermate and spergon were
used. Heavy rains fell the first week after the seed were planted, with a
total of 4.9 inches for the 19-day experimental period. All lots of seed
showed a high percent germination, and spergon in the dosage of 0.156
percent was the only treatment that gave a significant increase.
Spinach.-Two tests were conducted with Virginia Savoy spinach in
artificially inoculated soil to compare the effectiveness of certain seed-
treating materials and to determine to what extent Rhizoctonia retained
its pathogenicity in the soil. The inoculum was placed in the bottom of
the rows at the time the seed were planted for the first test and seed for
the second test was planted without further inoculation of the soil. The
seed did not retain all of the arasan in a dosage of 0.25 percent or the
2 percent phenyl mercury acetate and 4 percent phenyl mercury chloride
in 0.5 percent dosages.
In the first test all treatments gave highly significant increases in germi-
nation, and arasan 0.25 percent, fermate 0.5 percent and 4 percent phenyl
mercury chloride 0.5 percent were better than spergon. Fermate was
slightly better than the 3 next highest with a 50 percent increase in stand
over the check. None of the treatments caused any retardation in germi-
nation or stunting of the plants.
Seed for the second test were planted 2 days after plants of the first
test were removed and 16 days after the soil was inoculated. Fermate
and 2 grades of spergon were used in dosages of % and 1 percent. Germi-
nation of the non-treated seed was 16 percent higher than in the first test,
whereas germination of the treated seed was about the same in both tests.
However, all treatments produced highly significant increases in germi-
nation and fermate was better than spergon. Differences in germination
between dosages of the same materials were not significant. The higher
percentage germination of non-treated seed in the second test indicates
that the fungus had become less pathogenic.
Sweetcorn.-Three varieties of sweetcorn, Golden Cross Bantam, loana
and Long Island Beauty, were used in seed treatment tests at Plant City.
Arasan 0.13 percent and 2 grades of spergon 0.30 percent were used as
treating materials for the Golden Cross Bantam and Long Island Beauty.
The seed were planted on January 21 and the final counts were made 30
days later. All 3 treatments gave highly significant increases in germi-
nation of Long Island Beauty, and arasan was better than either of the
other 2, but none of them caused significant increases in Golden Cross
Bantam. This variety germinated quickly and the non-treated seed showed
a high percentage germination, whereas germination of the Long Island
Beauty required a longer time and was lower.
The test with the loana variety was made in cooperation with the
National Seed Treatment Committee. Germination of the seed of this
variety was only 73 percent. Arasan, semesan Jr., spergon and barbak C
were used as treating materials, and each material was used in dosages of
1.5 and 3 oz. per bushel. The seed was planted February 18 and the final
stand count made 3 weeks later showed the differences in percentage
germination to be highly significant. Arasan was best with an increase of
23 percent over the check. Spergon and semesan Jr. ranked second and
were about equally effective. Barbak C produced no improvement and
the lower dosage caused a significant reduction. Both dosages of arasan,
spergon at 3 oz. per bushel and semesan Jr. at 1.5 oz. per bushel also pro-
duced a significant increase in height of plants, and arasan was better








Annual Report, 1944


than spergon or semesan Jr. in this respect. (See also Report, VEGE-
TABLE CROPS LABORATORY, Proj. 281.)

PHOMOPSIS BLIGHT AND FRUIT ROT OF EGGPLANT
Adams Project 344 Phares Decker
Attempts to establish a commercial variety of eggplant immune or re-
sistant to Phomopsis vexans Sacc & Syd. have been continued along the
same general lines started in September 1942.
During the year 3 crops of eggplants, representing 3 generations of
hybrids, were grown. A total of 150 crosses were effected and 100 hybrid
selections were made. The hybrid material now comprises F,, F2, F3 and
1st and 2nd back-cross generations.
Seed of all selections and hybrids have been planted in the greenhouse,
the seedlings were inoculated with culture of Phomopsis and the surviving
plants transplanted to the field where they were compared with the com-
mercial varieties for resistance. In the field the hybrids were evaluated,
selections were made and desirable ones used as parental breeding ma-
terial in an effort to obtain an immune or a resistant variety, void of
spines and combining all necessary commercial characteristics.
Plants of the Muktak and Bengan varieties have remained free of
Phomopsis blight in the field but seedlings of these varieties have been
attacked and killed by Phomopsis in greenhouses. It may be that these
varieties are not homozygous for resistance or that the seedlings are
susceptible and become more resistant as they grow older. Again the
organism Phomopsis vexans may comprise physiological or pathogenic
races.
The hybrid or segregating populations exhibit a wide variety'of char-
acteristics. All hybrids that show commercial promise are being used in
a breeding program. Before a variety becomes useful to the grower it
must come true from seed. To determine the usefulness of a hybrid it is
necessary to plant the seed and to observe the plants of successive gener-
ations.
The perfect stage of Phomopsis vexans, Diaporthe vexans (Sacc & Syd.)
Gratz, was found for the first time in the field on dead stalks of the Ft.
Myers Market and Black Beauty varieties.

AZALEA FLOWER SPOT DISEASE
Adams Project 357 Erdman West
No experimental work was carried out on this project during 1943-44
because the host plant involved is an ornamental not essential to the war
effort. The experimental azalea nursery established several years ago
has been maintained for future use.
Observations on the disease in the Gainesville area indicated that it
was not a serious problem this year, as only occasional flowers showed
symptoms of the trouble. Specimens received from State Plant Board
inspectors, chiefly in the central part of the State, showed severe injury
to the flower clusters. In every case positive identification was possible
because the characteristic sclerotia developed on the diseased flowers when
kept in a moist chamber. Attempts to re-isolate the organism failed
because suitable fresh material of the conidial stage was lacking. Isola-
tions made in previous seasons failed to grow when transferred this year.

RHIZOCTONIA DISEASES OF CROP PLANTS
Adams Project 371 W. B. Tisdale and A. N. Brooks
Work done on this project has been concerned with the pathogenicity








86 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

of various Rhizoctonia isolates to their host plants and the aversion or
antagonism of different isolates toward each other in mixed cultures.
It was found that certain isolates become less pathogenic after being
carried in artificial culture for several months. Also, a smaller percent-
age of damping-off occurs in soil that has been inoculated for several weeks
than in soil freshly inoculated.
Further tests with the same isolates did not show antagonism between
isolates, as was found in previous tests. The cause for this has not been
determined. Separately, each isolate was highly pathogenic, but there
was no reduction in pathogenicity with mixed cultures.

SEED TREATMENTS OF WINTER COVER CROPS
Blue Lupine.-Two experiments were conducted during the year in
cooperation with Geo. E. Ritchey to test the effect of several seed-treating
materials on the germination and stand of lupine and the effect of nodu-
lating bacteria when used with and without the seed-treating materials.
Both experiments were so designed that lots of seeds were treated with
all possible combinations of the seed-treating materials and the nodulating
bacteria. Lots of seed receiving no seed-treating material or nodulating
bacteria were used as controls.
Spergon, arasan and ceresan were used as seed-treating materials. Two
commercial brands of nodulating bacteria were used, nitragin and nodogen.
One experiment was conducted in the greenhouse where each treatment
was planted in formaldehyde-treated soil in 6-inch clay pots. Each pot
represented a single treatment and all treatments were replicated 3 times.
Results of this experiment, based upon 10 plants per treatment, justify
the following conclusions: The seed treatments did not improve the stand
of lupine planted in treated soil; the lots of seed receiving no nodulating
bacteria failed to produce nodules on the plants, while lots treated with
nitragin and nodogen produced many nodules on the plants. Nitragin and
nodogen were equally effective in effecting nodulation. Seed treatments
did not hinder the nodulation of the plants.
The second experiment was planted in the field which had not been
previously planted to lupine. Each treatment containing 100 seed was
replicated 4 times. Both blue and yellow lupine were used.
The seed were planted in September, which was very dry. Attempts to
water the plot by overhead irrigation were only partly adequate. The
germination of the seed was poor and there was only about a 40 percent
stand in the plots when the roots of the plants were examined for nodules in
February.
The results of this experiment showed clearly that it is necessary to
inoculate the seed of lupine with bacteria to obtain nodulation of the plants
where lupine had not been grown previously. Two percent of the control
plants developed nodules on the roots, while 28 percent of all the nitragin
and 26 percent of all the nodogen treated seeds developed nodules. Plants
grown from seed receiving nodulating bacteria, but no seed-treating ma-
terial, were 89 percent nodulated as compared with 2 percent of the con-
trols. All seed-treating materials hindered the formation of nodules in
this experiment. Nineteen percent of the plants treated with spergon,
5 percent treated with arasan and 4 percent treated with ceresan developed
nodules on the roots, as compared to 89 percent of the plants receiving
no seed-treating material. The seed-treating materials show spergon
slightly better than the controls, while arasan and ceresan were slightly
below the controls in final stand.
In general, similar results were obtained for blue and yellow lupine.
The reason for the detrimental interaction of the seed-treating materials







Annual Report, 1944


and the formation of nodules on the roots as observed in the field experi-
ment and not in the greenhouse experiment is not known. The treatment
of the soil and the environmental factors of the 2 experiments were dif-
ferent and the experiments will be repeated in an attempt to establish
the factor or factors involved. (Phares Decker.)

WITCHES BROOM OF OLEANDERS
Witches broom continues to be the most important disease affecting
the common oleander in Florida. Public-spirited citizens have attempted,
especially through the local press, to arouse public interest in community-
wide efforts to eradicate the disease in several areas, including Daytona
Beach and Miami, but with very little success.
No inoculations with spores from pure cultures have been possible
because the fungus (Sphaeropsis sp.) has not produced spores in culture.
Wound inoculations with the mycelium are usually positive, but this does
not appear to be the plausible explanation for the natural spread of the
fungus from plant to plant. Infection occurs readily but spreads slowly
along the stem, forming cankered areas in the bark up to 9 centimeters
long and 3 centimeters wide in 3 years. In such cankered areas the fungus
had formed fruiting bodies bearing large numbers of spores. The next
year 2 of the plants, on which the largest cankers had existed, exhibited
typical witches brooms near the base. It seems probable that these were
caused by spores washed down from the cankered areas. Infection has
been obtained on a double pink variety and a single white one. (Erdman
West.)

STRAWBERRY VARIETY TEST
The Klonmore variety was again compared with the old variety, Mis-
sionary, for yield and quality of fruit. The test also included a comparison
of ammonium nitrate with ammonium sulfate and nitrate of soda as sources
of nitrogen. Klonmore is a little earlier than Missionary, yields as well
and the fruit has a brighter color, is mild and sweet, thus making it a
promising variety for local use. Ammonium nitrate was not quite as
good a source of nitrogen as the mixture of ammonium sulfate and nitrate
of soda. (A. N. Brooks.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SOILS

The work of the State-wide soil survey during the year was conducted
largely through Federal and local cooperation. Surveys of the "utilitarian"
type were continued in several soil conservation districts in scattered sec-
tions of the State under the exclusive support of the Soil Conservation
Service.
An intensive study of the significance of type and composition of the
soil in determining the nutrient quality of truck crops was begun during
the year under a grant from the General Education Board. The first
or survey phase of the work has consisted of the collection of a consider-
able number of soil and plant samples of the principal truck crops from
areas of known soil type and treatment. These will be subjected to a com-
plete mineral analysis, including the minor elements, with particular em-
phasis on those known to play a vital part in plant and human nutrition.
Numerous improvements in methods of analysis, both chemical and
spectrographic, were made during the year, notable among them being the
development of a more accurate and rapid procedure for determining the
base exchange capacity of soils. Work of this type is of particular im-
portance in studying the fertility characteristics of the lightly buffered,
sandy types so prevalent in Florida. Improvement of chemical and spectro-
graphic methods has involved copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt and boron
as well as the intiation of a study of the effect of various temperatures
at which plant materials are ignited, or other conditions under which they
are reduced, on the trace elements which they contain. Evidence has
been obtained which indicates that heating only to charring temperatures
is accompanied by a substantial loss of copper in some materials; also
that this and certain other elements are lost to quite an appreciable extent
under conventional conditions of wet combustion.
Legume inoculation studies have continued to indicate a marked advant-
age for locally isolated strains of Rhizobium over ordinary cultures com-
mercially available on the market; also the great value of heavy growths
of such legumes as sweet clover when properly treated in building up the
fertility of Florida soils.

COMPOSITION OF PLANT MATERIALS WITH PARTICULAR
REFERENCE TO THE MORE UNUSUAL CONSTITUENTS
Purnell Project 201 R. V. Allison, J. N. Howard and T. C. Erwin
Numerous spectrographic analyses of a routine nature were made
during the year that included special samples of wood ash, organic fertil-
izers and bentonite sulfur. The quantitative examination of crude beryl-
lium ores for this important element was continued as a contribution to
the war effort. In all, 44 samples of ore were examined before the work
was terminated.
A considerable number of plant and related soil samples including
clovers, pasture grasses, cabbage and citrus were analyzed in connection
with cooperative studies of quality in food and feed plants and are re-
ported below.
Spectrographic analyses of different sources of distilled water were
made during the year, in cooperation with the Horticultural Department,
with the view of determining the effectiveness of certain synthetic resins
(amberlites) for water purification by ion-exchange with very promising
results comparable, for the most part, to redistillation from pyrex.
Spectrographic analyses for 31 of the minor elements by the rough
estimate method were made of peanut leaf and related soil samples taken








Annual Report, 1944


from an area showing unusual conditions of chlorosis in the foliage. These
showed that 1 or more of the plant samples contained 17 of these elements.
A lower boron content in the chlorotic leaves was the only consistent
variable found in the leaf sample insofar as their trace element content
was concerned. The comparable soil sample were found to be slightly
lower in boron.
Quantitative and semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of leaf
and seed samples taken from long staple (Seabrook Z-8) cotton plants that
had been side-dressed with cobalt sulfate at the rate of 2% pounds per
acre at about 10 weeks of age showed an increase of from 50 to 150 times
in their content of cobalt. This indicates the readiness with which this
important element in the nutrition of animals is taken up by some plants
when made available in the soil. Similar treatments with copper, manga-

TABLE 6.-MINOR ELEMENT CONTENT OF 26 SAMPLES OF TUNGSEED MEAL
HAVING AN AVERAGE ASH CONTENT OF 9.20 PERCENT. 2
Total Number
Range of Samples
Element Composition Containing
Element

Strontium .......................- ........ 2-7 26
Lithium ...................-.........-.... 0-1 22
Rubidium .....-.-.......--..---.... .. I 6-10 26
Caesium ...................................... 0-1 25
Barium ........................ ........ 3-9 26

Iron .. ......................... ...... 8-11 26
Vanadium .... ........... ........ 1-4 26
Chromium ................................-..... 1-5 26
Manganese ...... ....................... 4-8 26
Aluminum .........................- 9-11 26

Cobalt ..... ............................. -- 0-4 15
N ickel .................................... .... 4-8 26
Zirconium .......... .......................... I 0-4 6
Silver ............. ......... .................. 0-2 2
Copper ....... .. ........ ......................... 3-10 26

Titanium ........................................ 1-9 26
Molybdenum ............................... 0-4 17
Tin .................................... 1-6 26
Lead .................... ....................-- .. 2-6 26
Boron ............................. .......... .... 4-10 26
Zinc .......... .................................... 4-11 26


SSamples made available for analysis by U. S. Tung Laboratory as collected from
Scranton, Leon, Arredondo, Fellowship, Norfolk, Ft. Meade, Gainesville and Ruston soils.
2 Composition expressed on basis of oven-dry material.
8All samples were examined for but none of the following elements were detected:
Thallium, Yttrium, Lanthanum, Cadmium, Beryllium, Bismuth, Antimony, Arsenic, Ger-
manium, Mercury, Gold.
"Range of composition" for the 26 samples in terms of each element is expressed as
"Range Numbers," each of which, in turn, represents the following "Percentage Ranges":


Percentage Range
Not detected
< .0001
.00008 -.0003
.0001 -.0005
.0003 -.0008
.0005 -.001


Range No.
6
7
8
9
10
11


Percentage Range
.0008 -.003
.001 -.005
.003 -.008
.005 -.01
.008 -.03
> .01








90 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

nese, zinc and boron at different rates and in considerably larger quantities
than cobalt failed to show any consistent effect on the composition of the
leaves or seed, insofar as they were studied in these tests.
The spectrographic analysis of tungseed meal (press cake) by the
rough estimate procedure showed a surprising range of trace elements,
some of them in considerable quantity, as set forth in Table 6. These
values compare favorably, for the most part, with those for a number
of other organic fertilizers reported last year (Ann. Rept., 1942-43, page 93).
Spectrographic analysis of a series of bean leaves taken from plots
at the Everglades Station wherein the only difference in soil treatment
was fumigation with chloropicrin, confirmed Dr. Townsend's observation
of manganese deficiency on the treated plots by showing a considerably
lower manganese content in the leaves of the chlorotic plants growing in
the untreated soil. Both plots had received the same treatment with
manganese sulfate before the beans were planted.

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL
METHODS OF COMPLETE AND PARTIAL ANALYSIS FOR
SOILS AND RELATED MATERIALS
Purnell Project 256 R. V. Allison, T. C. Erwin, L. E. Ensminger,
J. N. Howard and H. W. Winsor
General Improvement in Spectrographic Procedure.-The sensitivity of
the Littrow spectrograph was increased for both quantitative and rough
estimate work by the development of a new optical illuminating system
which also eliminates the necessity of changing the system for the 2 types
of use as in the past. The work also was greatly facilitated by the use
of a Leiss spectrograph loaned by the Physics Department. This instru-
ment is necessary for rough estimate as well as quantitative work with
zinc.
Other Improvements of the Rough Estimate Spectrographic Method.-
The rough estimate spectrograhic method was improved during the year
by: (1) Weighing all samples and standards upon the electrodes; (2)
revising the method of reporting results to include the lowest limit of
detectability for each element and using the oven-dry rather than the ash
basis for plant materials and soils high in organic matter; (3) including
some of the so-called major elements such as phosphorus, magnesium and
sodium for special purposes in the 46-element medication already in use.
Copper.-The method for copper was improved considerably through
a more quantitative handling of the tin used as an internal standard.
Comparisons of the spectrographic method with a chemical method com-
monly in use gave favorable results on citrus leaves, provided special care
was used with the latter where higher concentrations of copper were in-
volved.
Manganese.-A curve was developed for manganese with the use of
the same internal standard as for copper, namely, tin. This affords the
convenience of quantitatively determining both elements simultaneously on
the same plate where this is desirable. Excellent results were obtained
in comparing spectrographic results for both manganese and copper on
a series of tung leaves with those obtained by chemical methods by Dr.
Matthew Drosdoff of the U. S. Tung Laboratory.
Zinc.-A comparison of spectrographic and colorimetric methods for
zinc has been continued. The former is still unsatisfactory, due to the
shallow slope of the working curve which induces poor sensitivity. A fairly
straight-line photelometer curve for the latter method has been finally







Annual Report, 1944 91

obtained through the use of locally synthesized di-beta-naphthylthiocarba-
zone instead of dithizone and a study of this method is in progress.
Boron.-Sensitivity of the Naftel method for the determination of boron
was appreciably increased and its stability improved by careful regulation
of the amount of calcium hydroxide used; use of potassium chloride as a
stabilizing agent; decanting rather than filtering the color reagent; and
substituting a potassium dichromate solution (synthetic blank) for dis-
tilled water as the reference solution in the photoelectric colorimeter.
Loss of Major and Minor Elements During Ashing.-The possible loss
of minor elements during ashing has been investigated. Because of the
sensitivity and reliability of the method for copper most attention has
been given to this element. To have an absolute basis for comparison which
does not involve preliminary oxidation of the sample in any form, a press
was made which will pellet oven-dry samples so that they may be run
directly on the spectrograph without previous ashing. A working curve
for copper in these pellets has been developed which checks favorably
with an ash working curve.
Tung leaf samples analyzed as pellets by direct arcing in this manner
have shown a much higher copper content than the same sample after
ashing. It was even found that after a tung leaf sample was carbonized
at 200* C. and pelleted the copper analysis agreed with that made on
the ash. Therefore, it is assumed that the copper loss occurs in good part
with the smoke. Attempts at collecting and analyzing smoke samples
from such sources have shown an exceptional case as high as 100 percent
of the copper loss. Others have shown less but always copper has been
present in the smoke sample. The satisfactory collection of smoke samples
for analysis in this way is both difficult and tedious.
In an effort to develop a satisfactory wet digestion method, the dis-
tillate from various digestions was spectrographically analyzed and found
to contain considerable quantities of calcium, magnesium, silica, copper,
iron and manganese. Work is continuing with wet digestion methods
where a reflux column is used in an effort to prevent losses of this nature.
A series of sandy soils, ashed and unashed, were run by the rough
estimate method to determine whether it was necessary to ash soils low in
organic matter. The results indicate that ashing is unnecessary before
the rough estimate analysis is made on the spectrograph.
Base Exchange.-The barium acetate method for determining base ex-
change capacity in soils has been improved and facilitated by (1) adding 5
ml. of n-butyl alcohol per liter of saturating solution to lower surface
tension and expedite equilibrium in the system and (2) determining barium
by adding standard sulfate solution and back-titrating with standard
barium chloride solution to the endpoint of THQ sulfate indicator. The
method of determining exchangeable hydrogen in the barium acetate leach-
ate resulting from the determination of base exchange capacity has been
facilitated by measuring the pH of the leachate (250 ml. of neutral barium
acetate) and calculating the milliequivalents of hydrogen it contains from
a standard curve prepared from data obtained by adding 5 ml. portions
of 0.2N acetic acid to 250 ml. of N barium acetate solution and measuring
the pH after each addition of acetic acid. The pH was then plotted against
milliequivalents of acetic acid to give the standard curve. This method
of determining exchangeable hydrogen compares favorably with the estab-
lished method of back-titrating the leachate to its original PH with standard
hydroxide and in addition is more rapid.
Neutral N ammonium acetate has been used more than any other
saturating salt for determining base exchange capacity of soils. The data







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


presented in Table 7 show that NH4 gives low values as compared to cal-
cium and barium. Calcium adsorption should come nearest to being the
true exchange capacity of a soil, since it is the dominant base in most
soils. Since barium is easy to determine and gives about the same capacity
as calcium, it appears to be a satisfactory cation to use for determining
the base exchange capacity of Florida soils.


TABLE 7.-BASE EXCHANGE CAPACITY AS INFLUENCED BY THE
SATURATING CATION.

Base Exchange Capacity in m.e. per 100
gms. as Measured by Various Neutral
Soil Type Acetate Solutions
Ammonium Calcium Barium
Acetate Acetate Acetate

Leon fine sand ............................ 5.5 8.4 7.9
Fellowship fine sandy loam ........ 8.4 12.6 11.8
Portsmouth fine sandy loam........ 14.4 21.5 22.8
Bayboro fine sandy loam ............ 32.0 44.4 45.3
Orangeburg fine sandy loam ...... 5.3 8.4 7.7
Norfolk fine sandy loam ............ 2.9 5.5 4.5
Brighton peat ............................ 95.3 136.0 135.7
Everglades peat .......................... 144.1 245.3 240.0
Okeechobee muck ........................ 84.5 120.4 114.0



A STUDY OF SO-CALLED "QUICK METHODS" FOR
DETERMINING SOIL FERTILITY
State Project 306 G. M. Volk, C. E. Bell and H. W. Winsor
This project was inactive for the past year and is discontinued with
this report. Work of this nature is now included in several projects of
specific application to certain phases of soil investigations.

TYPES AND DISTRIBUTION OF MICROORGANISMS IN
SOME FLORIDA SOILS
State Project 326 F. B. Smith
Study of the occurrence and distribution of algae in Florida soils was
continued. Chlorella ellipsoidea Gerneck was found in the surface 0 to 1
inch of Norfolk sand, Orangeburg fine sandy loam, Ruston fine sandy loam
and Portsmouth fine sand. This organism was also found in the 4- to 5-inch
depth in the Orangeburg fine sandy loam, and at the 8- to 9-inch depth
in both the Orangeburg fine sandy loam and the Ruston fine sandy loam.
Stichococcus subtilis (Kiitz.) Klecker was also of common occurrence in
these soils. Phormidium tenue (Menegh.) Gom. was the only blue-green
found. It occurred in the surface of Orangeburg fine sandy loam and the
Norfolk fine sand. Kentrosphaera facciolae Borzi was found in the 4- to
5-inch depth of the Orangeburg fine sandy loam. Stichococcus bacillaris
Nag. was found in the 0- to 1-inch depth of the Norfolk fine sand. Chlorella
pyrenoidosa Chick was found in the 0- to 1-inch and 4- to 5-inch depths of
Bradenton fine sandy loam.
This project is being discontinued with this report.







Annual Report, 1944


THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OF MICROBIOLOGICAL ACTION IN
SOIL AND CROPPING SYSTEMS IN FLORIDA
State Project 328 F. B. Smith
Microbiological tests on soils taken under healthy orange and grape-
fruit trees and adjacent trees in advanced stages of "decline" showed no
essential differences in numbers or kinds of molds or numbers of bacteria
and actinomyces developing on the ordinary agar plate. The nitrifying
power of these soils was variable but weak. The number of ammonia-
oxidizing bacteria was quite low in all these soils but the tests indicated
fewer in the soils under the declining trees than under the healthy trees.
Tests on the associative growth of Rhizobia and certain soil molds
indicated an inhibiting effect of Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh., Fusarium sp.
and Penicillium sp. Penicillin had a stimulating effect on the growth of
Rhizobium lupini (Schroeter) Eckh., Baldw. & Fred.


COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA SOILS AND OF ASSOCIATED
NATIVE VEGETATION
Purnell Project 347 J. R. Henderson, J. N. Howard and T. C. Erwin
The following determinations were made during the year: Trace ele-
ment content for 191 samples representing 29 soil profiles; mechanical
composition for 165 samples representing 27 profiles; base exchange capacity
and exchangeable hydrogen for 221 samples representing 33 profiles.
Up to the present 339 samples representing 53 profiles have been col-
lected; determinations of pH, moisture equivalent, mechanical composition
and trace element content have been completed for all samples; and meas-
urements of base exchange capacity and exchangeable hydrogen have been
made on approximately % of them .
The data support the belief that a wide variety of soil conditions exists
in Florida. lgor instance in the samples collected to date, all of which are
from mineral soils, the following ranges in various properties have been
found:
Surface Soil* Subsoil*
Percent coarse sands .................... 5.2 to 49.0 9.2 to 44.7
Percent fine sands ........................ 19.3 to 83.7 14.1 to 79.8
Percent silt .................................... 1.3 to 37.6 0.2 to 29.2
Percent clay .................................... 0.0 to 31.0 0.0 to 47.8
Percent solution loss ....--.............. 0.7 to 11.5 0.0 to 1.4
Moisture equivalent ...................... 2.3 to 47.3 1.45 to 30.0
Exchange capacity ........................ 3.4 to 27.5 3.1 to 8.2
pH ............................ ... ..- 4.80 to 8.28 4.70 to 8.88

As used here, surface soil refers to the first sample and subsoil to the last sample of
the profile.
Although the properties, when considered for all samples, exhibit wide
ranges, a given soil type should have a very narrow range. Of the types
studied to date, only a few are represented by complete data for more
than 1 profile. For the Norfolk, Tifton, Ruston, Faceville, Orangeburg,
Gainesville, Arredondo, Ft. Meade and Newberry soils 2 or nore profiles
of each have been analyzed. From these results, general ranges for each
soil and apparent differences between the soils within the various groups
may be noted. However, analyses of a number of profiles of each soil
type will be required for accurate definition of its range in properties.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


FACTORS AFFECTING THE GROWTH OF LEGUME BACTERIA
AND NODULE DEVELOPMENT
Bankhead-Jones Project 368 F. B. Smith, G. D. Thornton,
G. B. Killinger and R. E. Blaser
During the year 4 field tests and 2 greenhouse experiments were con-
ducted. The greenhouse tests were to determine the longevity of several
strains of Rhizobium in 2 soil types; also to study the effect of strain and
seed treatment on the inoculation of peanuts.
In the field experiments 12 seed treatments were made with Black
Medic clover inoculated with a commercial preparation of Rhizobium cul-
ture and a culture of the same organism prepared by the Experiment
Station, making a total of 24 treatments. Rhizobium strain tests were
made with California Bur clover. Strain and various seed treatment tests
also were made with peanuts.
Adverse weather conditions prohibited the sampling of all replications
in the Black Medic and California Bur clover tests, making results in-
conclusive. Treating peanut seed with arasan prior to inoculation pro-
duced no significant difference in number of nodules. No significant differ-
ences were obtained among 9 strains of Rhizobium used to inoculate peanut
seed either in the field or in the greenhouse.
A locally isolated strain of Rhizobium meliloti Dangeard persisted in
larger numbers in a Blanton fine sand than a commercial strain of the
same organism. However, in a Plummer fine sand neither strain has
persisted, regardless of whether the soil was cultivated or uncultivated.
Locally isolated as well as commercial strains of Rhizobium trifolii Dan-
geard were able to survive in Plummer fine sand while both strains have
greatly diminished in numbers in the Blanton fine sand.

CLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING OF FLORIDA SOILS
State Project 389 J. R. Henderson, O. C. Olson and R. V. Allison
Activity in the State soil survey program has been reduced to a mini-
mum as a result of a substantial cut in appropriations for this type of
work. The cooperating agencies (the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils
and Agricultural Engineering and the Soil Conservation Service) have
been handicapped by a shortage of trained personnel.
Work in Manatee County was resumed on January 1 and the survey
of about 80 square miles in the northwestern part of the county has been
completed. The area surveyed to date in this county is about 430 square
miles. At present the field work of this project is being carried entirely
on county funds under the supervision of the Agricultural Experiment
Station. I
Surveys by the Soil Conservation Service were continued in previously
organized soil conservation districts and initiated in several others that
have been more recently established. As a result of personnel shortages,
detailed surveys in these areas were discontinued in favor of utilitarian
surveys.
During the year 1,124 square miles of detailed surveys, including the
Everglades survey, and 365 square miles of utilitarian surveys were com-
pleted. In these the Station has cooperated in inspection and in the prep-
aration of mapping legends and land use capability tables, but has given no
assistance in the mapping.
Studies of mechanical composition and trace element content were
completed for all samples collected in Collier County, moisture equivalent
and pH values having been previously determined.







Annual Report, 1944


Outlines have been prepared and various kinds of data assembled for
the soil survey reports for Collier and Dade counties and for the Ever-
glades Drainage District.

MAINTENANCE OF SOIL REACTION AND ORGANIC MATTER AND
THEIR ROLE IN RETENTION AND AVAILABILITY OF
MAJOR NUTRIENT ELEMENTS
State Project 392 G. M. Volk and C. E. Bell
Work under this project has resulted in compilation of a manuscript
presented for publication as a technical bulletin, a partial summary of
which follows:
Soil pH is a significant factor in the retention of bases by sandy soils
of low exchange capacity but not in soils of high exchange capacity such
as those Florida soils high in organic matter. It is also a significant
factor in the relative solubility of phosphorus residuals. Greatest re-
tention of bases and most favorable solubility of phosphorus occurs in
the neutral to slightly acid range of acidity. Solubility of phosphorus
decreases and leaching of bases increases in general as pH drops. How-
ever, the solubility of phosphorus reverses and is high at the extreme
low range of natural soil acidity.
Absolute lime requirement is determined by titrable acidity in the soil.
However, this is not a measure of field lime requirement because all of the
lime applied does not react with the soil in any reasonable time. Type of
material, method of incorporation, the time element, tillage practices and
the absolute lime requirement of the soil determine the field application to
be used to obtain a given pH change.
Additional work was done on the rate of decomposition of various crop
residues in the soil. These include lupines, hairy vetch and Austrian winter
peas turned under in early stage of growth, and the residues of lupines,
clovers and oats turned following the harvest of seed by combining. Lupines
in early seed stage of growth decomposed very rapidly, reaching a maxi-
mum nitrate production approximately 21 days after incorporation. The
nitrogen retained in the crop residue held on a 2 mm. sieve dropped from
38 pounds per acre down to 17 pounds per acre for combined lupines and
from 45 pounds per acre down to 11 pounds per acre for combined oats
in a period of 14 weeks following incorporation. It seems logical to assume
that a significant portion of this nitrogen became available for plant
growth as decomposition of the crop residue released it.
The crop residues that had been incorporated with the soil after har-
vesting (combining) the crop for seed were found upon being separated
out by screening to contain from 0.46 to 0.66 percent nitrogen on the oven-
dry basis. The C/N ratio of lupine residue was 15.8 and of the oat resi-
due 22.5.
The effect of type of treatment and volume of plant growth on the
volume of water leaching through a sandy soil and the nutrient loss asso-
ciated with it is brought out by lysimeter studies. The lysimeters in which
the studies were carried out were 1/2000 acre in area and 4 feet in depth.
They were filled by profile with virgin Norfolk loamy fine sand and planted
to turnips.
During the period of turnip growth from January 10 to April 2, 12.7
inches of rain fell, of which approximately 1/ leached through the soil,
over and above crop utilization. Where the soil was kept fallow approxi-
mately 80 percent of the rain passed through the 4-foot depth. Loss of
water which can actually be attributed to crop utilization was approxi-
mately 30 percent of the rainfall during the period.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


As a result of reduced water loss and utilization of nutrients by the
crop, loss of nitrate nitrogen was reduced from approximately 112 pounds
to about 15 pounds per acre. Potassium loss was of the same relative order
but much lower in actual amount because of the favorable pH of the soil
for base retention.

SIGNIFICANCE OF LEVELS OF READILY SOLUBLE MAJOR NUTRI-
ENT ELEMENTS REMOVED BY VARIOUS EXTRACTION PRO-
CEDURES FROM FLORIDA SOILS UNDER VARIOUS CROPPING
PRACTICES
State Project 393 G. M. Volk
Water, carbonic acid and .002N.ILSO4 were compared as solvents of
phosphorus residuals built up in Norfolk loamy fine sand over a period of
17 years. As a result of the study it is concluded that the general solu-
bility of phosphorus residuals in Norfolk and other similar types of soil
in peninsular Florida may be expected to increase with rise in pH in the
general range pH 5.0 to 8.0 except where lime complicates the relationship.
An increase in sesquioxides in the range pH 4.0 to 5.0 has a relatively
greater effect on fixation of phosphorus against water or carbonic acid
solubility than against .002N.H2SO solubility. An increase in lime content
in the range pH 5.5 to 8.0 tends to reduce solubility in water or carbonic
acid as compared to its effect on solubility of phosphorus in the dilute
H.SO4. A change in sesquioxide content or in lime content in the respective
pH ranges referred to above has the same effect on phosphorus solubility
in water that it does on phosphorus solubility in carbonic acid for any
given pH. However, solubility of phosphorus residuals in carbonic acid
increases more rapidly with rise in pH above 5.0 than does solubility in
water. In the light of the preceding, it appears that carbonic acid is the
best extractant to use in the estimation of relative availability of phos-
phorus residuals because it reacts most nearly in order with plant response
to the effects of pH, lime and sesquioxides on phosphorus solubility.
Soil nitrate level was found to be a significant measure of the avail-
ability of this form of nitrogen for plant growth. During the late stage
of growth of cabbage after the plant has a well developed root system,
it was found that below 32 pounds per acre nitrate nitrogen becomes a
consistently limiting factor. This point incidentally coincides with the
change in nitrate tissue test from negative to positive. Above 3% pounds
per acre the nitrate nitrogen begins to lose its significance as a single
limiting factor, and other factors such as temperature, moisture and other
fertility elements become significant in their effect so that the relationship
of soil nitrate nitrogen to yield becomes less definite. In terms of yield
the 3% pound per acre point is in the 80 to 85 percent range. There is still
a consistent, though more erratic, yield response up to approximately 8
pounds of soil nitrate nitrogen per acre. It also appears that not less
than 13 pounds per acre are necessary to have a reasonable assurance of
a 90 percent yield and under certain conditions yield response continues
up to a 20 pound minimum in the soil.

CORRELATION OF INHERENT AND INDUCED SOIL
CHARACTERISTICS WITH PASTURE CROP RESPONSE
Bankhead-Jones Project 404 L. E. Ensminger and R. V. Allison
Organic matter, pH, total and soluble phosphorus, total and exchange-
able potassium, and exchangeable calcium and magnesium determinations
were made on a number of soil samples collected from pasture fertility
plots established in various parts of the State. A number of plant samples







Annual Report, 1944


were collected and analyzed for calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potas-
sium and minor elements.
White Dutch clover samples from plots established by the North Florida
Station on Dunbar fine sandy loam near Quincy showed that superphosphate
applications increased the phosphorus content of the plants materially and
increased their calcium content appreciably. According to plant analysis,
rock phosphate was not a satisfactory source of phosphorus on this soil,
probably because the reaction of untreated soil (pH 6.1) was too high.
Dolomite applications increased the calcium and magnesium contents of
the clover appreciably. Potash applications caused a large percentage
increase in the potash content of the clover. Carbonic acid-soluble and
dilute sulfuric acid-soluble phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were
very low in the untreated soil. Soluble phosphorus increased with increas-
ing amounts of phosphate added, with most of the soluble phosphorus
being concentrated in the 0- 0.5 inch depth under conditions of broadcast
applications. Exchangeable potassium increased in proportion to the
amount of potash added to the soil.
Analyses of soil and plant samples from the lime and phosphate test
plots with clover located at the Farm Colony near Gainesville showed that
increasing amounts of lime on plots receiving insoluble phosphates de-
creased the carbonic acid-soluble phosphorus but not to a low enough level
to affect the phosphorus content of Hop clover. The phosphorus content
of Hop clover was as high from plots receiving 1,500 pounds per acre of
rock phosphate as from plots receiving up to 6,000 pounds per acre.
An analysis of virgin soils from several of the experimental pasture
plots in various parts of the State showed a very low fertility level. Most
of the small amounts of potash present were found to be in the exchangeable
form. Since potash is subject to severe loss by leaching it appears that
this element will have to be applied every year in most cases for pasture
maintenance. The phosphorus reserve is also very low in these soils and
will need to be applied in most cases for the establishment of pastures.
However, since this element is not subject to severe loss by leaching and
is not fixed in an unavailable form to an appreciable extent in the light
sandy soils of peninsular Florida, less phosphorus will be required for
pasture maintenance after the first 2 or 3 years.


EFFECT OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
FLORIDA SOILS ON THE MINERAL COMPOSITION
OF VEGETABLE CROPS

State Project 421 G. T. Sims and G. M. Volk

A total of 231 samples of human food crops consisting mainly of cab-
bage, tomatoes, snap beans and celery were collected from 19 recognized
truck crop-producing areas in the state. These materials were collected
and oven-dried when the crops reached marketable maturity. Soil samples
representative of the area from which each plant sample was harvested
were taken at the same time as the plant samples. Soil samples also were
taken just prior to fertilization and planting, wherever possible.
A complete analysis of the plant samples for both major and minor
elements significant in either human or plant nutrition is under way.
The soil samples also will be analyzed for the same elements in an attempt
to correlate nutrient solubility and other soil characteristics with plant
composition under the various cultural practices represented by the samples.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SOIL FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVAILABILITY OF MINOR
ELEMENTS IN FERTILITY STUDIES WITH CERTAIN
TRUCK CROPS
H. W. Winsor and G. M. Volk
Supplements applied beneath the row in the 1943 tests were much more
efficient in supplying certain minor elements to vegetable crops than were
those applied as side-dressings in 1942. While there was no increase in
the Mn content of cabbage where manganese sulfate was applied as a
side-dressing (1942), the increase in uptake of this element was more
than 60 percent where it was applied as a band beneath the row (1943).
The effectiveness of applications beneath the row is indicated also in the
boron response of English peas where, relative to controls, the application
of 12 pounds of borax or 150 pounds of a complex (Riddle) mineral mixture
per acre produced a gain in plant boron of 450 and 800 percent, respectively.
Analysts for soluble boron were made of the untreated soils as well
as those that had received borax and the Riddle mixture; also for total
boron in the plant materials, peas (English peas-entire immature plant,
pods and seeds included) and cabbage, produced thereon through the use
of the hot water method of Naftel with certain modifications. Correlation
between water-soluble boron in the soil and the amount taken up by the
plant was found to be highly significant, especially in the peas.
Spectrographic analysis for copper on the cabbage ash samples has
been completed but is rather inconclusive. No gain in copper was induced
by the use of supplements containing copper, boron or zinc alone. In fact,
both boron and zinc when used alone appeared to reduce the uptake of
native copper. However, a rise in copper content was noted where man-
ganese was used alone; and where copper, manganese, zinc and boron
were used in conjunction.
In these studies the inverse relationship between moisture equivalent
of the soil and the uptake of copper and manganese by the plant was
strongly apparent; on the other hand, ash values of the plant materials
were positively related to moisture equivalent, especially in the case of
English peas. The average copper content of cabbage (dry weight basis)
from low vs. high moisture equivalent plots was 1.84 vs. 1.31 p.p.m. in a
study embracing replications of the following treatments: copper, man-
ganese, zinc and boron singly; these 4 elements in conjuction; and the
Riddle mixture. The average moisture equivalent value in the low and
high group was, respectively, 5.49 and 8.21.




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