• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Credits
 Letter of transmittal
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00029
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1943
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00029
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 4
    Main
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        Page 6
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    Index
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        Page v
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Full Text












UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT STATION




ANNUAL REPORT
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1943


3" ( 1 71











BOARD OF CONTROL

H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University'
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Directors
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifleld. M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.4
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editors
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editors
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager'
K. H. Graham, LL.D., Business Manager'
Claranelle Alderman, Accountants

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRONOMY

W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomists
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associate
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S, Assistant

ANIMAL INDUSTRY

A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist'
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandmans
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist8
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarians
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist4
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Hush.'
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy Mfg.
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.4
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A.. Asst. Dairy Husb.s
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.4
O. K. Moore, M.S., Asst. Poultry Husb.'
J. E. Pace, B.S., Asst. An. Husbandman'
S. P. Marshall, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition
C. B. Reeves, B.S., Asst. Dairy Tech.


ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL

C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist'1
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Assistant


ECONOMICS, HOME

Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
Ruth O. Townsend, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist


ENTOMOLOGY

J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist1
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associates
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant


HORTICULTURE

G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
A. L. Kenworthy, M.S., Asst. Hort.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.s
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturists


PLANT PATHOLOGY

W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist1
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.8
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist


SOILS

R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist' '
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologists
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
L. E. Ensminger, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist'
R. A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Biochemists
J. N. Howard, B.S., Assistant Chemist
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Microbiologist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor4
Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor'



1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
In Military Service.
5 On leave.

















BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY

J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush.4
W. C. McCormick, B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush.
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.'

Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Milton
Ralph L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED

A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist'
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Asso. Horticulturist

EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE

J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist'
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.ID., Sugarcane
Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Hush.
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.2
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.'
R. A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
E. C. Minnum, M.S., Asst. Truck Hort.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist

SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD

Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asso. Horticulturist
E. M. Andersen, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist


W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE

Clement D. Gordon, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry
Geneticist in Charge2


RANGE CATTLE STA., ONA

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., An. Husb. in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Asso. Agron., Wauchula
Gilbert A. Tucker, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
Randall A. Fulford, Asst. An. Husb.


FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge'

Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist

Monticello
S. O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologists

Bradenton
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Horticulturist in
Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
F. T. McLean, Ph.D., Horticulturist
A. L. Harrison, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist

Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
J. C. Russell, M.S., Asst. Entomologist

Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist2 5
Harry Armstrong, Meteorologists

1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 In Military Service.
5 On leave.








4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

LIST OF DEPARTMENT REPORTS
Page
Report of Director ........----......-..----------- ---. --- --- 5
Report of Business Manager ..-.........-...-------------- -....-------. 15
Editorial ...................-.....-------------.--.-------------. 22
Library ............-......---...........--------- -------- 30
Agricultural Economics .................... -...-- .. ----------- 31
Agronomy ..............----- -- ...-..--..-.- --.------------- 36
Animal Industry ..........-.......---......----- ------- ----------- 51
Entomology ......................---.---------- --------------. 62
Home Economics .................---------- ---------------. 65
Horticulture ..................... ..-----------.................. 69
Plant Pathology .....---............-... ---------------------------- 82
Soils .........................-------------------------.----------- 92
Celery Investigations Laboratory .................................... ..... ................. 104
Potato Investigations Laboratory .............................----................ .......... 107
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory .................................... 112
Vegetable Crops Laboratory .................................. ...... .................. 114
Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service .............................-........... 120
Everglades Station ....--............-- ..........------------. 123
North Florida Station ..........................----- .........--- ------- ----- 148
Range Cattle Station ...................................... .. --------- --....... 159
Sub-Tropical Station ....................................---....... ... 164
W est Central Florida Station ........................................................ 185
Citrus Station ................................-....--- ----...-------- ... ---------------- 191



Hon. Spessard L. Holland,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1943.
Respectfully,
H. P. ADAIR,
Chairman, Board of Control



Hon. H. P. Adair,
Chairman, Board of Control
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1943, and I request that you transmit
the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of
Florida.
Respectfully,
JOHN J. TIGERT
President, University of Florida







Annual Report, 1943


REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDING

JUNE 30, 1943

Dr. John J. Tigert, President
University of Florida
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the work
and investigations of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations,
together with the reports of the heads of the several departments and
branch stations, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1943.
WILMON NEWELL,
Director
INTRODUCTION
Immediately following the outbreak of war the whole effort of the
Agricultural Experiment Stations was channeled into a program having
as its objective the rendering of utmost assistance in the increase of needed
agricultural production. This reorganization and readjustment has con-
tinued as required so that all research investigations would be correlated to
the greatest possible extent with wartime requirements and that all avail-
able resources would contribute to the maximum in the solution of problems
arising from war demands. The results achieved have been most substantial
and gratifying.
Varied and numerous lines of research were conducted under 175 pro-
jects distributed among the 8 departments of the main station, the 6 branch
stations and 6 field laboratories. These included investigations on the
development of improved cultural and management practices with a wide
variety of horticultural and agronomic crops; control of plant and animal
diseases and insects; determination and correction of soil deficiencies af-
fecting plants and animals; nutrition of rural children and nutritive values
of foods; breeding of farm animals and economic plants for better adapt-
ability and quality; improvement of management practices with dairy and
beef cattle, swine and sheep; introduction and testing of new plants; hand-
ling, processing, packaging and storage of fruits, vegetables and meats;
collection and analysis of marketing, production and other information
affecting the economic position of agriculture; the utilization and con-
servation of basic resources.
In addition, emphasis was given to investigations with a wide number
of plants which are the sources of products formerly imported but made
unavailable because of the war. Of especial interest are experimental
plantings, made cooperatively with the U. S. Department of Agriculture,
of the rubber-producing Russian dandelion and of cordage and coarse fiber
plants; these have met with signal success. Many others have shown
adaptability and the possibility of commercial production should the need
arise.
Wartime emergencies have demanded a distinct type of service to meet
properly urgent problems arising in the attainment of agricultural goals,
in the adaptation of substitute fungicides, insecticides and other materials,
in the allocation and use of fertilizer and feed constituents, and in the
production of specialized crops under uncommon or untried conditions.
While these problems have been largely in addition to regularly projected
lines of research, for the major part they have been successfully resolved
through the unstinted efforts of all staffs concerned and, when required,
through correlated action of all agricultural agencies operating in the







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


State. In the latter connection, the Agricultural Division of the State
Defense Council has rendered highly commendable service.
Brief summaries of the progress made in each of the several divisions
will be found in the departmental and field station reports which follow.
IMPROVEMENTS AND ADDITIONS
Because of the exigencies of war no large improvements or additions
were made during the year. A tract of 160 acres of flatwoods land near
Gainesville was purchased for use in clover and pasture research. The
rehabilitation of the Experiment Station building, which normally would
have been completed long since, is progressing very slowly. A small addi-
tion to the Dairy Products Laboratory was made for use as a refrigeration
unit for experimental work on meat products. Minor repairs to property
were made as needed.
An additional branch station was authorized by legislative enactment,
as follows:
CHAPTER 21987, LAWS OF FLORIDA
"AN ACT Authorizing the Board of Control of Florida to Locate, Es-
tablish and Maintain a Branch Experiment Station in the Northern
Part of Either Santa Rosa County or Okaloosa County Near the
County Line Dividing Said Counties for the Purpose of Carrying on
Experiments in General Farm and Vegetable Crops and Livestock and
Pastures.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF
FLORIDA:
Section 1. That the Board of Control of the State of Florida be and
it is hereby authorized to locate, establish and maintain a branch experiment
station in the northern part of either Santa Rosa County or Okaloosa
County near the County line dividing said Counties in the State of Florida
for the purpose of carrying on experiments in general farm and vegetable
crops, the raising of livestock and in pastures for livestock and the best
methods adapted to said industries.
Section 2. For the purpose of carrying out the intent of this Act the
Board of Control may accept donations of land, houses, money and other
things of value suited thereto.
Section 3. This Act shall take effect upon becoming a law.
Approved by the Governor June 10, 1943.
No money was appropriated for carrying out provisions of this act.
An additional grant of 60 acres of land for use at the Range Cattle
Station was made as follows:
CHAPTER 21700, LAWS OF FLORIDA
"AN ACT Authorizing, Empowering and Requiring the Trustees of the
Internal Improvement Funds of the State of Florida to Convey to the
State Board of Education Lands Acquired by said Trustees under the
Provisions of the Murphy Act, located in Hardee County, as an Addition
to and to be Used for, and as a Part of the State Cattle Experiment
Station Located in Hardee County, Florida.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF
FLORIDA:
Section 1. That the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Funds of the
State of Florida, and the several members or Commissioners constituting








Annual Report, 1943


said Board of Trustees, shall convey by deed of conveyance to State Board
of Education, as a part of and to be used for the State Cattle Experiment
Station, located in Hardee County, the following described lands situate
in Hardee County to-wit:
NW% of NE% of SE% of Section 31, Township 35 South, Range 24
East;
SE% of NEi/ of NW%4 of Section 33, Township 35 South, Range 24
East;
NE% of SE% of NWYW of Section 33, Township 35 South, Range 24
East;
SE% of SEW1 of NE% of Section 33, Township 35 South, Range 24
East;
NEI of SE% of NEa of Section 33, Township 35 South, Range 24
East;
SW% of SW% of NE% of Section 33, Township 35 South, Range 24
East.
Section 2. That as soon after the passage of this Act as practicable, the
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund shall execute and deliver to
State Board of Education a deed conveying the lands described in Section 1
hereof for the purposes set forth in said Section 1.
Section 3. All laws and parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby
repealed.
Section 4. This Act shall take effect immediately upon becoming a law.
Approved by the Governor May 11, 1943.
CHANGES IN STAFF
Changes in staff have occurred as follows:
APPOINTMENTS
L. O. Gratz, Assistant Director, Research, Main Station, July 1, 1942.
C. R. Stearns, Associate Chemist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1942.
Phares Decker, Associate Plant Pathologist, Main Station, September 1,
1942.
G. K. Davis, Technologist in Animal Nutrition, Main Station, October 1,
1942.
J. E. Pace,1 Assistant Animal Husbandman, Main Station, October 1, 1942.
Harry Armstrong, Associate Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Service,
October 10, 1942.
E. C. Minnum,' Assistant Truck Horticulturist, Everglades Station, Octo-
ber 19, 1942.
C. B. Reeves,1 Assistant Dairy Technologist, Main Station, October 15, 1942.
L. E. Ensminger, Associate Soils Chemist, Main Station, November 1, 1942.
A. L. Harrison, Associate Plant Pathologist, Vegetable Crops Laboratory,
November 1, 1942.
A. L. Kenworthy,1 Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, November 16,
1942.
J. W. Sites, Associate Horticulturist, Citrus Experiment Station, November
16, 1942.
S. P. Marshall, Assistant in Animal Nutrition, Main Station, December 15,
1942.
J. N. Howard, Assistant Chemist, Main Station, February 1, 1943.
N. C. Hayslip,' Assistant Entomologist, Everglades Station, February 1,
1943.
R. L. Smith, Associate Agronomist, Mobile Units, North Florida Station,
March 10, 1943.
STo fill position while original appointee is on military leave.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


IN MILITARY SERVICE
S. O. Hill, Assistant Entomologist, Pecan Investigations Laboratory, April
25, 1941.
F. S. Andrews, Associate Truck Horticulturist, Everglades Station, August
1, 1941.
V. F. Nettles, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, September 1, 1941.
J. T. Hall, Laboratory Assistant, Sub-Tropical Station, November 10, 1941.
V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., Assistant Animal Husbandman, North Florida Sta-
tion, January 13, 1942.
J. C. Hoffman, Assistant Truck Horticulturist, Everglades Station, Feb-
ruary 4, 1942.
J. C. Cain, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, February 14, 1942.
W. W. Lawless, Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, February 28, 1942.
W. M. Fifield, Assistant Director, Administration, March 8, 1942.
G. A. Tucker, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Range Cattle Station, March
31, 1942.
L. H. Rogers, Associate Biochemist, Main Station, April 13, 1942.
Walter Dagley, 'Night Watchman, Main Station, May 11, 1942.
W. H. Chapman, Assistant Agronomist, North Florida Station, May 21,
1942.
J. W. Wilson, Entomologist, Everglades Station, June 16, 1942.
D. J. Smith, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Main Station, July 1, 1942.
L. E. Swanson, Parasitologist, Main Station, August 14, 1942.
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist, Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service,
September 4, 1942.
L. E. Mull, Assistant in Dairy Technology, Main Station, September 10,
1942.
R. D. Dickey, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, September 14, 1942.
R. E. Caldwell, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Main Station, December 27, 1942.
O. C. Olson, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Main Station, granted leave of ab-
sence January 9, 1943, to enter essential war work.

RESIGNATIONS
John P. Camp, Assistant Agronomist, Main Station, August 16, 1942.
W. B. Shippy, Associate Plant Pathologist, Celery Laboratory, September
30, 1942.
L. L. Rusoff, Assistant in Animal Nutrition, Main Station, November 6,
1942.
Thomas Whitehead, Jr., Assistant Chemist, Main Station, November 30, 1942.
K. W. Loucks, Plant Pathologist, Watermelon and Grape Investigations
Laboratory, February 17, 1943.
E. E. Hartwig, Assistant Agronomist and Pathologist, Watermelon and
Grape Investigations Laboratory, February 28, 1943.
J. H. Wallace, Associate Agronomist, Mobile Units, North Florida Station,
February 28, 1943.
Floyd L. Eubanks, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Range Cattle Station,
December 26, 1943.

W. A. Leukel, Agronomist, Main Station, died April 27, 1943.








Annual Report, 1943


SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES
The list of projects for the year, arranged by departments, was as
follows:
Agricultural Economics
Project No. Title Page
154 Farmer's Cooperative Associations in Florida ............................ 31
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
Citrus ............- ............................... -...... ........ .---..--.. --..- ---------. 31
317 Prices of Florida Farm Products ....----------------............... ........ --.. ..... 33
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Florida
D airy H erds ........ ....... ....... ......... .. .............. 33
349 Land-Use Planning .............---------......... --.........-- ------- .. 33
373 Agricultural Income and Land Utilization in a General Farming
Area of Northwest Florida ................ ..--.--- ..-----.--.....--------. 34
395 Input and Output Data for Florida Crop and Livestock Pro-
duction ......- --.----------- -- -------.. --......- --- 34
415 Effective Utilization of Farm Labor ................................... ...... 34
416 Florida Maximum Wartime Agricultural Production Capacity.... 35
...... Florida Truck Crop Competition .....--...------ 35
Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries to Groves in Florida 35

Agronomy
20 Peanut Improvement ............................. ...... .-.------- ..- ...... 36
55 Crop Rotation Studies with Corn, Cotton, Crotalaria and Win-
ter Legumes .........................................--------- 36
56 Variety Test W ork with Field Crops .................. ... .............. 38
163 Corn Fertilizer Experiments ........... .......... ............. ... 39
265 Composition Factors Affecting the Value of Sugarcane for Forage
and Other Purposes ........................... ....... ... .......... 39
267 Pasture Studies ............................................ ------ .. 39 /
295 Effect of Fertilizers on Yield, Grazing Value, Chemical Composi-
tion and Botanical Makeup of Pastures ..................................... ... 39 '
296 Eradication of Weeds in Tame Pastures --............................... 41 V
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies ................................ 41 L'
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement ..--...............-- ...-- ...-.-- ... 42
299 Growth Behavior and Relative Composition of Range Grasses as
Affected by Burning and the Effect of Burning on Maintenance
of Natural Grass Stands and Upon the Establishment of Im-
proved Grasses ........................ .... ........ ... .. ..... 43 v
301 Pasture Legumes ..-.......................-..---.. .......-----... -- 43
302 A Study of Napier Grass for Pasture Purposes ........................... 44
304 Methods of Establishing Permanent Pastures Under Various
Conditions ......-..........................-------. --.. -.....--- ---- ...-......---- 45 :
363 Oats Improvement ............. .......... ......................... 46
369 Effect of Form and Ratios of Nutrient Materials on Growth
and Composition of Forage Plants ......-----............................. -- 46
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement ...-- ........... ---- ..... .-................. 46
374 Corn Im provem ent .............................. ...--- ......--....-................. ..... 46
378 Flue-Cured Tobacco Fertilizer and Varieties ................................... -48
... Miscellaneous Experiments ..............------............ .......------...... .... 48

Animal Industry
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ........................................ .........--- 53
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to
Her Milk and Butterfat Production ............................-..-...--. ..... ...... 54
213 A Study of the Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops ................... 54
216 Cooperative Field Studies with Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle.... 54
251 The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions
in Animals .........- ......-...............-- .... ......- ...---- -- 55







Florida Agricultural Ixperiment Station


Project No. Title Page
258 Plants Poisonous to Livestock in Florida .................................. 55
274 Studies in Fleece and Mutton Production .............................. 55
302 A Study of Napier Grass for Pasture Purposes ................................ 55 V
307 A Statistical Study of the Relationship Between Temperature
and Egg Weight (Size), Body Weight and Egg Weight, Body
Weight and Production, Age and Egg Weight, of Single Comb
White Leghorn Pullets .------.------------..........- ------------- 56
309 Poultry Breeding ................---.......----...-- ----------- 56
320 The Vitamin Content of Shark Liver Oil ........................................... 56
337 Different Methods of Feeding Grain to Layers ..........................-..... 56
339 The Use of Molasses for Fattening Steers ----.................--- ......-........ 56
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Florida
Dairy Herds .................... --... -------------------- 56
346 Investigations with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition
Problems of Livestock .................--- ----------- --------- 57
350 Rotational Grazing and Internal Parasites in Sheep Production.... 57
352 Calcareous Mineral Supplements for Poultry Feeding .---..-........... 57
353 Infectious Bovine Mastitis .................................-.... 58
356 Biological Analyses of Pasture Herbage ................................... 58
360 Processing, Storage and Utilization of Dairy Products and By-
Products to Meet War-Time Food Needs and Limitations ........... 58
387 Longevity of Eggs and Larvae of Internal Parasites of Cattle.... 59
388 Mineral Supplements for Fattening Hogs on Peanuts ....-............ 59
394 Effect of Certain Feeds on Milk Flavor ......................................... 59
406 Liquid Skimmilk and Shelled Corn as a Laying Ration .............. 60
407 Condensed Buttermilk in Laying Rations ........................................ 60
408 Peanut Meal in Poultry Rations ..................... .. ....... ..... 60
412 Beef Yield and Quality from Various Grasses, from Clover and
Grass Mixtures, and Response to Fertilized and Unfertilized Car-
pet Grass .............................-..-.- .....-- .....-. ....... 60 /
414 Periodic Increase in Lighting Versus Continuous Lighting for
Layers ....... ............. ....................... ...... 61
Entomology
263 The Pepper Weevil- Its Biology, Distribution and Control ........ 62
379 Control of the Nut and Leaf Casebearers of Pecans .................... 62
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida.... 62
381 Propagation of Larra Wasps for the Control of Mole-Crickets.... 63
382 Root-Knot in Tobacco Fields ................................................ ......... 63
383 Breeding Vegetable Plants Resistant to Root-Knot Nematodes.... 64
384 Biology and Taxonomy of the Thysanoptera of Florida ................ 64
385 Effect of Mulches on the Root-Knot Nematodes ........................ 64
386 Control of Florida Flower Thrips ........................ .......... ........ 64
Home Economics
358 Vitamin A Activity of Foods .....................-......--- ..-... 65
359 Vitamin C in Florida Fruits and Vegetables ..............-----..---.. 66
370 Chemical Composition and Physiological Properties of Royal Jelly 67
396 Relation of the School Lunch to Health and Progress ................ 67
397 Relation of Diet of Florida School Children to Tooth and Bone
Structure ............................... ............................... ............................... 68
Horticulture
50 Propagation, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with Tung-Oil Trees 69
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and
Methods for Their Propagation ........................... ..................... 69
80 Cooperative Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards ............................ 70
110 Phenological Studies on Truck Crops in Florida .......................... 70

187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals .......................... 71
190 Cold Storage Studies of Citrus Fruits ..................................... ....... 71








Annual Report, 1943


Project No. Title Page
237 Maturity Studies of Citrus Fruits ............................... ............. ..... 71
268 Relation of Soil Reaction to Growth and Yield of Vegetable Crops 72
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vegetables
Adaptable to Commercial Production in Florida ............................ 72
283 Effects of Various Green Manure Crops on Growth, Yield and
Quality of Certain Vegetable Crops .................................................... 72
314 Fumigation of Horticultural Products ................................................ 73
315 Fumigation of Nursery Stock .............................................................. 73
319 Effects of Mineral Deficiencies on Adaptability of Certain Vege-
table Varieties to Florida ..................................................................... 73
365 Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree...................................... 74
375 Relation of Zinc and Magnesium to Growth and Reproduction in
P ecan s .......................................... ......................................... ...................... 76
376 Effects of Certain Growth Substances on Pecans ........................... 76
377 Storage and Handling of Florida Vegetables -..............--........- ...... 77
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ..................................... ....... ......... 77
413 Dehydration of Vegetables and Fruits ...................................... .... 78

Plant Pathology
258 A Study of Plants Poisonous to Livestock in Florida .................. 82
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants ........ 82
269 Host Relations and Factors Influencing the Growth and Parasit-
ism of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. ------........................ -----.....-------... 83
281 Causes of Failure of Seeds and Seedlings in Various Florida
Soils and Development of Methods for Prevention ........................ 84
284 A Comparative Study of the Pathogenicity and Taxonomy of
Species of Alternaria, Macrosporium and Stemphylium ............. 87
344 Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Eggplant .................................. 87
357 Azalea Flower Spot ............................-........-.....--- .........-- ..---- 88
371 Rhizoctonia Diseases of Crop Plants ............................-............ 88
..... Pythium Root Rot of Ariods ..................................... .......... 89
S Rose Gall ...... -.......-- -...-.............----- ...... ....................------ -. 90
...... W itches Broom of Oleander ........ .......- .. ......................... .... 90
Test of Strawberry Varieties ................... ....................... 90
Soils
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ..........................-..........----- ----...... 92
201 Composition of Plant Materials with Particular Reference to the
More Unusual Constituents ..-- ......................................----------- 92
256 Development and Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Methods of
Complete and Partial Analysis for Soils and Related Materials.... 93
306 A Study of the So-Called "Quick Methods" for Determining Soil
Fertility ...........-- .... ----------......... ----........................................-- ..--- ...... 94
326 Types and Distribution of Microorganisms in Florida Soils ....... 95
328 Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and Cropping
System s in Florida ..............................................-............................... .. 95
347 Composition of Florida Soils and of Associated Native Vegetation 95
348 Effects of Certain Mineral Elements on Plant Growth, Reproduc-
tion and Com position .....................................................................-.....- 96
368 Factors Affecting Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule De-
velopm ent ...................................................................................................... 96
389 Classification and Mapping of Florida Soils ...................................... 96
392 Maintenance of Soil Reaction and Organic Matter and Their Role
in Retention and Availability of Major Nutrient Elements ............ 98
393 Significance of Levels of Readily Soluble Major Nutrient Ele-
ments Removed by Various Extraction Procedures from Florida
Soils Under Different Cropping Practices .......................................... 101
404 Correlation of Inherent and Induced Soil Characteristics with
Pasture Crops Response ...................................................................... 102
..... Soil Factors Affecting the Availability of Minor Elements in
Fertility Studies with Certain Truck Crops ................................. 102








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Celery Investigations
Project No. Title Page
252 Soil and Fertilizer Studies with Celery ................................................ 104
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ...........................................-....................... 104
399 Injurious Insects in Vegetable Crop Plant Beds ................................ 105
400 Insect Pests of Iceberg Lettuce -----............................................. .... 106
...- Corn Earworm Control on Sweet Corn ......................................---. 106
Potato Investigations
130 Studies Relative to Disease Control of White (Irish) Potatoes.... 107
143 Investigation and Control of Brown Rot of Potatoes and Closely
R elated Plants ........................................................................................... 107
313 Control of Diseases of Potatoes and Vegetable Crops Caused by
Rhizoctonia .........................................-..................................................... 108
...... Downy Mildew of Cabbage ......................--......- -.. --..............--- 108
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ........................................................................ 108
...... Potato Culture Investigations ................................................................ 110
.... Cabbage Production and Fertility Studies .......................................... 110
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
150 Investigations of and Control of Fusarium Wilt, a Fungous Dis-
ease of W aterm elons ...................................... ...................................... 112
151 Investigations of and Control of Fungous Diseases of Water-
m elons .....................................------................................ ......... ............. 113
254 Investigations of Fruit Rots of Grapes .................................... ....... 113
Vegetable Crops Laboratory
281 Causes of Failure of Seeds and Seedlings in Various Florida Soils
and Development of Methods for Prevention .................................... 114
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida.... 114
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ........................................................................ 114
398 Breeding for Combining Resistance to Diseases and Insects in
the Tom ato ................................................................................................. 116
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn............ 117
402 Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Vegetable Crop Plants.... 117
405 Summer Cover Crops, Liming and Related Factors in Vegetable
Crop Production ......................................................................................... 118
Gladiolus Investigations .......................................................................... 118
..... Spraying for the Control of Foliage Diseases of Tomatoes............ 119
.. Miscellaneous Investigations on Tomato .......................................... 119
Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service
Report of Progress ......................- ...................................... 120
Everglades Station
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings.... 124
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Con-
ditions ............................................................................................................ 125
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ................................................................ 126
88 Soils Investigations .................................................................................. 127
89 W after Control Investigations ..................................... .......................... 128
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle .........................................-................ 129
168 'The Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the
Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades ............................................... 130
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugarcane Moth
B orer ...................................................................... ...................................... 132
171 Cane Breeding Experiments ................................................................... 132
172 General Physiological Phases of Sugarcane Investigations ............ 132
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
glades ...........--- ................ ........................................................... ............. 133







Annual Report, 1943


Project No. Title Page
202 Agronomic Studies with Sugarcane ............................----------- 134
203 Forage Crop Investigations ..................................... ... 136
204 Grain Crop Investigations .................................... -- 137
205 Seed Storage Investigations .. ... ............... ................. 137
206 Fiber Crops Investigations ............................. ..... ------ 137
208 Agronomic Studies Upon the Growth of Syrup and Forage Canes. 138
209 Seed and Soil-Borne Diseases of Vegetable Crops ....--.................... 138
210 The Leaf Blights of Vegetable Crops ..---.............-.....----------- 140
211 Physiological Phases of Plant Nutrition ....................................... 140
212 Relation of Organic Composition of Crops to Growth and Maturity 140
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations ......---...................------ 142
332 Varietal Comparisons with Various Species of Truck Crops at
Different Fertility Levels ............................... ... ---------- 142
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot -......... 142
336 Early Blight of Celery .......................................... 143
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ...................--... ---------.. 143
403 Shallu, Blackstrap Molasses and Sweet Potatoes for Fattening
Steers ..--..... ------..-. --------------------.. -------------. 145

North Florida Station

33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco ...........................-----.........--..-- 148
80 Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards ................................................... 149
191 Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Florida Shade Tobacco
Seed and Early Growth of the Seedlings .............--........................... 149
257 Columbia Sheep Performance Investigations ...............----..................... 149
260 Grain Crop Investigations .............................. --------------- 150
261 Forage Crop Investigations .................................. ...... -150
301 Pasture Legumes .......----- ----------------------- -... 151 V
321 Control of Downy Mildew of Tobacco ........................................ 152
355 Feed Crop Production and Utilization with Beef Cattle ................ 152
366 Oats Pasture as a Supplement to Corn for Fattening Hogs ............ 154
367 Tankage and Mineral Supplements in Rations for Fattening Hogs 154
409 Ground Oats for Fattening Steers ...............------------....-.----- 154
411 Two-Year Rotations for Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco ....----........................ 155
...... Miscellaneous Experiments ........----- --------- ---------.-- 155
.... Cooperative Fertilizer Experiments with Field Crops and Pastures
Mobile Unit No. 1 .......................................---- ---- 155
M obile Unit N o. 2 .....................----------........-- ...... .............. ...... 157

Range Cattle Station

390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida Environment.... 159
410 W entering Beef Cows on the Range .................................................... 159 V
...... Mineral Consumption by Cattle on Range Pasture .......................... 160
...... Grazing Experiments on Improved Pastures .............-.....--...-...... 160 /
...... Grass Variety-Fertilizer Tests ................................... -.. 161 x
Effect of Minor Elements on the Establishment of Pasture
Grasses ...............................-----..................-----.......-..... ........ 162
Clover Experiments ..........................---- ------------- 162
Water Control and Species Adaptation of Pasture Grasses on
Low-Line Lands ................................-.........-- ----------------.. 163 V
...... Off-Season Burning ......................... ................................ 163

Sub-Tropical Station

275 Citrus Culture Studies ............................-------................. ................. ... 164
276 Avocado Culture Studies .................... .. ........... ............... 166
277 Forestation Studies .........................-- --.................................................. ... 169
278 Improvement of Tomatoes Through Selection of New Hybrids.... 169
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ...................................... 169







14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
280 Studies of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals .......................................... 169
285 Potato Culture Investigations .................................................. ...... 173
286 Tomato Culture Investigations-.....................................--...................... 175
287 Cover Crop Studies .................................................................................. 175
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County ..................--.......-.......... 175
290 A Study of Diseases of the Avocado and Mango and Develop-
m ent of Control M measures ...................................................................... 176
291 Control of Tomato Diseases ...........................................-.................. 178
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .......................................................................... 180
...... A Bark Disease on Tahiti Lime Trees .............................................. 183
...... Miscellaneous War Emergency Crops ......................-....-.................. 183

West Central Florida Station
..... Cattle Breeding and Feeding ....................... .................. 185
.... Grasses and Legumes ................................................ ........ ...... 187
.... Poultry Breeding and Feeding Work ................................................... 189

Citrus Station
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection ....................................................... 191
102 Variety Testing and Breeding ................................................................ 191
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rots of Citrus Fruits.... 191
340 Citrus Nutrition Studies ........................................-......................-... 197
341 Combined Control of Scale Insects and Mites on Citrus ................ 214
...... Citrus Investigations in the Coastal Regions.................................... 216
...... Packinghouse Research .............................................................................. 220
.... Cooperative Packinghouse Research with the Florida Citrus Com-
m mission ................................................................ ................................... 221







Annual Report, 1943 15


REPORT OF THE BUSINESS MANAGER

MAIN EXPERIMENT STATION
Receipts
Balance 1941-42 ................................................ ........ $ $ 12,420.33
Appropriation 1942-43 ...................... .. ........... 237,887.00 $250,307.33

Expenditures
Salaries ...... ............ .................. ... $113,328.09
Labor ................... .................... 53,821.58
Travel ................................. 7,154.44
Freight, express .--...............---- ................ 1,608.03
Communication service ........................... 2,286.63
Heat, light, power ................................... 6,488.52
Printing --....................... ------............... 6,446.70
Repairs to equipment, miscellaneous.... 4,497.78
Repair to buildings, supplies ......----.......... 45,500.43
Equipm ent ....................... .................. 8,711.67
Improvements to land .............................. 161.93
Balance ................ ... ............... ..... 301.53 $250,307.33



CITRUS STATION
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 ......................... ................. $ 8,140.29
Appropriation, 1942-43 ...................................---- 67,092.00 $ 75,232.29

Expenditures
Salaries ................... ............ ...........$ 33,464.38
Labor .-.....................---..---- ...... -- 14,764.12
Travel ........................... ......... ..... ....... 2,031.35
Freight, express ........................................ 99.02
Communication service ............................ 335.43
Heat, light, power .................................... 1,282.21
Printing ...................................................... 104.56
Repairs, equipment, miscellaneous ........ 794.63
Repairs, buildings, supplies .................... 9,639.60
Equipment .......................-------.......... 597.39
Balance ....................------.............. 12,119.60 $ 75,232.29



VEGETABLE CROPS LABORATORY, SPECIAL: (ADDITIONAL FOR
GREENHOUSE, BUILDINGS FOR TRAILERS, EQUIPMENT
CHAPTER 20,980)
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 .......................- .... ..........----- $ 3,544.96
Receipts, 1942-43 ...............--....-- ...--- .---- 0.00 $ 3,544.96

Expenditures
Expenditures .............................................$ 0.00
Balance .................................. ....... ...... 3,544.96 $ 3,544.96








16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

EVERGLADES STATION
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 ....--.--..............---- ..- ----.--- $ 59.48
Appropriation, 1942-43 .................. ......------- ...... 51,840.00 $ 51,899.48

Expenditures
Salaries ...-.............. .....-- ...--- .... .... 30,061.40
Labor .....-----...- ..~.. ..----- ......... --- 13,134.43
Travel .............................. .... .... .... 347.81
Freight, express .................... ............----.. 71.10
Communication service .....--.................... 222.02
Heat, light, power -.......-- ...................... 1,114.20
Repairs, equipment, misc. ...................... 1,125.14
Repairs, buildings, supplies .................... 5,285.56
Equipment ........................- .............. 522.82
Land repairs ......-............ .... ..... ........ 15.00 $ 51,899.48



VEGETABLE CROPS LABORATORY, SPECIAL: (ADDITIONAL FOR
LABORATORY FOR PLANT PATHOLOGIST AND ENTOMOLOGIST
-CHAPTER 20,980)
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 ...............-..... ................ ...... $ 2,661.56
Appropriation, 1942-43 --...................--.-- .....- ... --9,000.00 $ 11,661.56

Expenditures
Salaries ................... --.......... .... .$ 5,206.50
Labor ........................-. . ..........-- .. 2,090.07
Travel ....-.......... ... --............ ...... 35.26
Freight, express ---..... ---........ ....-- ..... ---60.75
Communication service .........-..............-- 36.07
Repairs to equipment, misc. .-.............- 117.52
Repairs to buildings, supplies ................ 3,669.51
Equipment ............-........... ........- 445.88 $ 11,661.56



SUB-TROPICAL STATION
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 .-......---. -...........-. ----. ....... $ 68.18
Appropriation, 1942-43 ...................... ... ---..... -. 20,160.00 $ 20,228.18

Expenditures
Salaries ........- .......-.. --.............-----$ 14,348.00
Labor .......................... ..... ........---- --- 1,685.50
Travel ---................~..... ................. 528.10
Freight, express .-..........---~~....~.. ......-..... 19.37
Communication service .--...-.............-...-.. 147.94
Heat, light, power --....................- ........---. 262.48
Repairs to equipment, misc. .................. 401.91
Repairs to buildings, supplies ................ 2,687.64
Equipment ................. ....... ............ 50.29
Balance ........................ ..... ---- ..--96.95 $ 20,228.18







Annual Report, 1943 17

RANGE CATTLE STATION
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 ...................... .............. ............. $ 712.10
Appropriations, 1942-43 ....................... ....... 12,010.00 $ 12,722.10

Expenditures
Salaries -......................... ..................$ 5,235.48
Labor ................................... ................ 2,279.55
Travel ................. ........... ............ 275.60
Freight, express ....................................... 14.08
Communication service ............................ 34.85
Heat, light, power, rent ........................ 62.00
Repairs to equipment, misc. .......-....... 300.81
Repairs to buildings, supplies ................ 2,025.69
Equipment .................--- --........-............. 2,144.51
Improvements to lands .......................... 349.53 $ 12,722.10


WEATHER FORECASTING SERVICE
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 ...................................... .... $ 3,932.05
Appropriation, 1942-43 .................................. ..... 19,200.00 $ 23,132.05

Expenditures
Salaries ......................... ................. ..$ 1,016.13
Labor ......................- ...- ..--....-- .. ... 688.75
Travel .................................... ............. 9,243.29
Freight, express ...................... ......... .... 8.13
Communication service ............................ 2,049.16
Heat, light, power ..-................. .......... 36.00
Printing ..................................... ......... 12.00
Repairs to equipment ........................... 308.30
Supplies ....................... ...............-.. 222.79
Equipm ent ..................... ..................... 78.68
Balance ............ ........... ........... ....... 9,468.82 $ 23,132.05


VEGETABLE CROPS LABORATORY
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 ..........-............- ..-- ......-- .....-. $ 4,053.64
Appropriation ........................... .. ...- ...-..- 24,000.00 $ 28,053.64

Expenditures
Salaries ..................................... ............$ 7,533.55
Labor .................. --------- -- -......... -..... 5,975.63
T ravel .................................... .................... 312.65
Freight, express ...................................... 279.91
Communication service ............................ 173.31
Heat, light, power ..-................. ......... 641.04
Printing .................................. ........ 6.60
Repairs, equipment, misc. ...................... 194.26
Repairs to buildings, supplies .......-........ 5,712.67
Equipm ent ................................... ..... 1,115.67
B building ................................. ............. 88.20
Balance ........................................ ....... 6,020.15 $ 28,053.64







18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

EVERGLADES CONTINUING CHAPTER 8442
Receipts
Appropriation, 1942-43 ......................................... $ 5,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries .............. ............ .............$ 5,000.00 $ 5,000.00

NORTH FLORIDA STATION
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 ......................................................... $ 42.23
Appropriation, 1942-43 ----..-- .............. ....... 31,776.00 $ 31,818.23

Expenditures
Salaries ......-- ..-- --.......... ..--.................$ 14,628.00
Labor .................................... ................. 8,436.09
Travel ....................................... ......... 202.18
Freight, express ---.................................... 88.29
Communication service ............................ 333.04
Heat, light, power .................................... 239.76
Repairs, equipment, misc ....................... 813.99
Repairs, buildings, supplies .................... 6,677.62
Equipment ........................... ................. 399.26 $ 31,818.23


POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 ........-................... ................-... $ 45.15
Receipts, 1942-43 ..---.................... .......... ..... 11,520.00 $ 11,565.15

Expenditures
Salaries ......................... ........................ $ 6,600.00
Labor ..........................----......... ....-....... 2,748.58
Travel .................................... ......... .... 198.50
Freight, express ....-.................................. 15.05
Communication service ............................ 58.03
Heat, light, power .................................... 26.65
Repairs, equipment, misc. ...................... 168.45
Repairs, buildings, supplies .................... 1,121.60
Equipment ................................................. 628.29 $ 11,565.15


GLADIOLI INVESTIGATIONS
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 ........................................................ $ 2,681.65
Appropriation, 1942-43 .............................................. 4,800.00 $ 7,481.65

Expenditures
Salaries ........................-......................... -$ 3,000.00
Labor ...............- .......--..--...- ....-... 2,279.05
Travel .......................................................... 47.52
Rent of land ......................... .................. 160.00
Repairs to equipment .............................. 4.60
Repairs, buildings, supplies .................... 1,499.00
Equipm ent ............................ ...... ............ 206.80
Balance ........................... ........................ 284.68 $ 7,481.65







Annual Report, 1943 19

CELERY INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 .............-..............-- ----.---- $ 492.87
Appropriation, 1942-43 .................................. 14,400.00 $ 14,892.87

Expenditures
Salaries ....................... .......... $ 7,554.00
Labor ............................. ..... ........ 2,257.88
Travel ................................. ..... ..... 210.75
Freight, express ..................................... 11.53
Communication service ............................ 80.21
Heat, light, power .........-....................... 233.47
Repairs, equipment, misc. ........................ 59.90
Repairs, buildings, supplies .................... 1,269.52
Equipment ....................................... ..... 458.51
Land improvements ................................. 205.28
Balance ......................... .......... ...... 2,551.82 $ 14,892.87


WATERMELON AND GRAPE INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 ..........----.............-.. -------........ $ 2.08
Appropriation, 1942-43 .................. ............. ....... 12,960.00 $ 12,962.08

Expenditures
Salaries ........................ ........... .......... $ 2,673.50
Labor ............................-- .. ....-- ....--- 3,054.60
Travel ............................. .... .......... .. 256.35
Freight, express .............................. ....... 4.32
Communication service .......................... 105.22
Heat, light, power .................................. 82.33
Repairs to equipment, misc. .-.................. 149.88
Repairs to buildings, supplies ................ 957.30
Equipm ent ................................................ 238.80
Improvements to land .........~..........---... 404.00
Balance ............................. ................ 5,035.78 $ 12,962.08


STRAWBERRY INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 ............ ......... ............................ $ 1,509.05
Receipts, 1942-43 ............... ..-......--..----.-----. 6,050.00 $ 7,559.05

Expenditures
Salaries ..-..................-.......--....--- ...$ 4,800.00
Labor ........ .... .. ............ .......... 54.80
Travel ................................ ................. 33.65
Freight, express .................................... 5.31
Communication service ............................ 16.65
Heat, light, power .................................... 59.31
Repairs, equipment .........--.......---.........- .. 36.72
Repairs, buildings, supplies ................... 157.36
Equipm ent .................................................. 30.76
Balance .......................-- -...............-... 2,364.49 $ 7,559.05







20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

NORTH FLORIDA STATION MOBILE UNITS

Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 .----.........-------------....... $ 0.00
Appropriation, 1942-43 .......................... .............. 18,000.00 $ 18,000.00

Expenditures
Salaries ............... .......................------ - $ 5,808.00
Labor ........................---- ..................... 2,249.22
Travel .................- ---... --. -..... --..-- 580.30
Freight, express ............-.......................... 146.50
Communication service ............................ 76.74
Heat, light, power, rent .......................... 414.92
Repairs to equipment, misc. .................. 197.64
Repairs to buildings, supplies .............. 3,636.36
Equipment .........-.........------. ----.......... -- 1,161.16
Improvements to land .............................. 200.25
Balance ........................- -------....... 3,528.91 $ 18,000.00


FINANCIAL RESOURCES SUMMARY

Financial resources from State and Federal appropriations for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1943, were as follows:

Federal Funds
Hatch and Adams ....... ---.....--- ---------............................$ 30,000.00
Bankhead-Jones .............................-- -- ......... ------. 34,782.16
Purnell ..................--..--......------------........ 60,000.00
State Funds
Main Station .....--............. ...-.------------------............ 247,799.00
Citrus Station .........................- --------- ----- --------- 71,450.00
Everglades Station ..------- ---.-.. .--..--------- ..54,000.00
Additional Construction of laboratory building ...--.--... 25,000.00
Continuing appropriation ..-...................-....---------------. 5,000.00
North Florida Station ................................. ...................... 33,100.00
Sub-Tropical Station ........................................... ..... 21,000.00
Range Cattle Station ........................................... 12,500.00
Weather Forecasting Service ....................... ...... .... 20,000.00
Vegetable Crops Laboratory ...--.. ...--..................... 25,000.00
Additional -construction of laboratories ............-------. 10,000.00
Additional construction of greenhouse and storage house 10,000.00
Potato Investigations Laboratory ......... ------.........---...................... 12,000.00
Celery Investigations Laboratory ......----.......... -----..................... 15,000.00
Watermelon and Grape Laboratory ........---........ --------. 13,500.00
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory ......................................--- 6,300.00
Gladioli Investigations ...-........................................ 5,000.00
Ornamental Horticulture ........................... ---------------10,000.00
Soil Survey research ..................................... ..................... 5,000.00
Mobile Units .....................--------......------- 50,000.00
State-wide Soil Survey .............................. ...................... 10,000.00
Emergency Fund .---- ------.....................----------- 10,000.00
Not all of the foregoing State appropriations were available; some
funds were withheld wholly or in part.







Annual Report, 1943


STATE-WIDE SOIL SURVEY COOPERATIVE
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 .......................----- -...................
Appropriation, 1942-43 ..................-.............--

Expenditures
Salaries .-....-- ------........ ...................$ 5,632.25
Labor .............................. .... ..... ........ 1,746.60
Travel .............................. ....... .... ... 456.20
Repairs to equipment ............................ 9.39
Repairs to buildings, supplies ............... 575.83
Equipm ent ................................. ............ 213.45
Balance ............................ ............. 4,131.39

EMERGENCY FUND
Receipts
Balance, 1941-42 ........ .. .. ... ...........
Receipts ... ...... .. ....................

Expenditures
Expenditures .................... ....................$ 0.00
Balance --..........-----...- -.... .......... 16,110.85


E, CHAPTER 20,454

$ 3,765.11
9,000.00 $ 12,765.11







$ 12,765.11



$ 6,110.85
10,000.00 $ 16,110.85



$ 16,110.85


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
FEDERAL HATCH, ADAMS, PURNELL, AND BANKHEAD-JONES
FUNDS

Hatch | Adams IPurnell Bankhead-
Jones

Receipts
Receipts from the Treas-
ury of the United
States, as per appro-
priations for fiscal year I
ended June 30, 1943 .... $15,000.00 $15,000.00 $ 60,000.00 $34,782.16

Expenditures
Personal services ............ 15,000.00 14,034.20 51,078.30 25,450.80
Supplies and materials... ............... 305.46 3,721.35 4,206.21
Communication service.... ................ 9.36 26.40 3.53
Travel expense ................ ........................ ... 2,428.55 1,041.50
Transportation of things ............... ............... 69.90 39.46
Heat, light, water, power I
service, fuel .................. I ................ ....... .... 437.29 196.50
Equipment ..................... .. ................ 644.98 2,192.97 1,324.43
Structures and non-struc-
tural improvements .... ............... 6.00 45.24 | 1,239.73
Purchase of land .......-..- ................ .............. ................ 1,280.00

$15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000.00 $34,782.16







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


EDITORIAL

Tempo of distribution of vitally needed information to assist Florida
farm families in producing and harvesting food crops tremendously im-
portant to the Nation's war effort was accelerated during the year. As
usual, bulletins, news reports and radio constituted the principal means of
dissemination, all 3 being used more widely than before.
Cooperation was continued with the Agricultural Extension Service,
and the Editors devoted about % of their time to duties of that organization.

BULLETIN LIST GROWS
Seventeen new bulletins- the second largest number ever published
in 1 fiscal year were issued. In pages they ranged from 8 to 88, totaling
468. In edition they ranged from 4,000 to 25,000 copies, totaling 117,500.
Four were technical and 13 were popular in nature. This brings to 389
the number of bulletins published since the Station was established.
New bulletins are mailed to county and home demonstration agents,
libraries, technical workers and people who request them. Close to 100,000
Experiment Station bulletins are distributed annually.
Following is a list of bulletins published, showing pages and quantities:
Bul. Title Pages Edition
373 Sugarcane Silage, Shocked Sugarcane and Carpet
Grass as Roughages for Wintering the Beef Herd 20 6,000
374 Field Experiments in the Use of Sulfur to Control
Lice, Fleas and Mites of Chickens ............................ 8 25,000
375 Annual Lespedeza for Florida Pastures.......................... 24 8,000
376 Tung Tree Poisoning of Cattle --....------..... .................. 8 5,000
377 Factors Affecting Farming Returns in Jackson County,
Florida ............................................ ................................ 36 5,000
378 Water Control in the Peat and Muck Soils of the Flor-
ida Everglades --......................... ...---...-- .................... 76 8,000
379 Circulatory System of the Cow's Udder ........................ 20 4,000
380 Methods of Feeding Grain to Laying Pullets ................ 28 6,000
381 A Preliminary Report on Iron Deficiency of Tung
in Florida ..................................----.................-............ 20 4,000
382 The Manufacture of Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage
Cheese ................. ............... ................... 20 5,000
383 Storing Frozen Cream ......................--..-....-........-.......... 24 4,000
384 Minor Elements Stimulate Pasture Plants .................... 12 5,000
385 Shark Liver Oil, a Source of Vitamins A and D............ 16 6,000
386 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida, V........ 88 8,000
387 Adjustments for Greater Profits on Small Flue-Cured
Tobacco Farm s .................................................... ......... 24 6,000
388 Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and
Livestock, I ........................................................-........... 28 5,000
389 Comparative Value of Grazing Crops for Fattening
P igs ........................... .............. .............. ................ ... 16 7,500

WHAT THE BULLETINS COVER
The following brief summaries of bulletins give an idea of the material
covered in each:
373. Sugarcane Silage, Shocked Sugarcane and Carpet Grass as Rough-
ages for Wintering the Beef Herd. (W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown, 20 pp.,







Annual Report, 1943


4 figs.) Sugarcane harvested in early November can be kept for 4%
months by proper shocking. It makes a good winter feed, as does its
silage, when cut by a silage cutter. Feeding or ensiling whole sugarcane
stalks is wasteful and unsatisfactory. Properly managed carpet grass
pastures provide reserve roughage for winter.
374. Field Experiments in the Use of Sulfur to Control Lice, Fleas
and Mites of Chickens. (M. W. Emmel, 8 pp., 1 fig.)' Feeding 5 percent
of dusting sulfur in the mash for 3 weeks and sulfurizing the soil at the
rate of 2 pounds per 100 square feet controlled lice and fleas. Dusting
sulfur about the house and on litter, dropping boards and nesting material
controlled mites.
375. Annual Lespedeza for Florida Pastures. (J. D. Warner and R.
E. Blazer, 24 pp., 16 figs.) Proper fertilization is followed by good growth
of annual lespedezas in Florida pastures, furnishing additional grazing
through the lespedeza and the improved growth of associated grasses.
376. Tung Tree Poisoning of Cattle. (D. A. Sanders, M. W. Emmel
and L. E. Swanson, 8 pp., 1 fig.) When tung tree foliage is cut and
thrown into pastures even good pastures cattle will eat it and be
poisoned, although poisoning has not been observed among cattle grazing
in tung orchards. Technical.
377. Factors Affecting Farming Returns in Jackson County, Florida.
(Max E. Brunk, 36 pp., 7 figs.) Labor was used more efficiently on large
farms, but crop yields were not related to labor efficiency. There is a
need for better understanding between landlords and tenants. Good soils
and nearness to market were valuable assets.
378. Water Control in the Peat and Muck Soils of the Florida Ever-
glades. (B. S. Clayton, J. R. Neller and R. V. Allison, 76 pp., 15 figs.)
Reports studies on water control, the outstanding problem of the Florida
Everglades, and effects on soils, subsidence, seepage, rainfall evaporation
and temperature; control by pumping, by ditches and sub-drainage; and
water table studies.
379. Circulatory System of the Cow's Udder. (R. B. Becker and P. T.
Dix Arnold, 20 pp., 5 figs.) The blood vessel pattern may vary widely
from udder to udder, just as fingerprint patterns differ. Variation was
observed in numbers and location of valves and in direction of blood flow.
Technical.
380. Methods of Feeding Grain to Laying Pullets. (N. R. Mehrhof,
E. F. Stanton and D. F. Sowell, 28 pp., 0 figs.) Mash self-fed, with grain
mixture once a day in litter or in hoppers, grain mixture in hoppers all
day or corn, wheat and oats in hoppers all day proved satisfactory for egg
production. There were differences in feed consumption but no material
differences in egg weight, body weight or mortality.
381. A Preliminary Report on Iron Deficiency of Tung in Florida.
(R. D. Dickey, 20 pp., 9 figs.) Iron deficiency has been observed in 3 tung
orchards, 2 on alkaline and 1 on acid soils. Foliage and soil treatments
with iron sulfate brought responses which were not uniform.
382. The Manufacture of Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage Cheese.
(E. L. Fouts and L. E. Mull, 20 pp., 4 figs.) Lists steps in the making
of cultured buttermilk and cottage cheese, with time schedules.
383. Storing Frozen Cream. (T. R. Freeman, L. E. Mull and E. L.
Fouts, 24 pp., 2 figs.) Various antioxidants were tested on cream stored
frozen for several months to determine their effect on the cream itself and
on ice cream made from this 'cream. A number were definitely beneficial.
Technical.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


384. Minor Elements Stimulate Pasture Plants. (G. B. Killinger, R.
E. Blaser, E. M. Hodges and W. E. Stokes, 12 pp., 6 figs.) In the presence
of lime and complete fertilizer, minor or trace elements have greatly stimu-
lated growth of pasture grasses and clovers on 3 Florida soils.
385. Shark Liver Oil, a Source of Vitamins A and D. (L. L. Rusoff
and N. R. Mehrhof, 16 pp., 1 fig.) Shark liver oil contains approximately
9,000 USP XI units of vitamin A per gram and 35 AOAC units of vitamin
D per gram and can be used to reinforce rations low in vitamin A.
Technical.
386. Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida, V. Citrus Cooper-
atives; Trends in Financial Structure and Services; and Factors Determin-
ing Success or Failure. (H. G. Hamilton and A. H. Spurlock, 88 pp., 15
figs.) Associations with sufficient volume operate efficiently and usually
obtain good prices for fruit and desirable terms on credit. Volume of
fruit handled by cooperatives has increased at the same time the number
of associations was decreasing.
387. Adjustments for Greater Profits on Small Flue-Cured Tobacco
Farms. (Max E. Brunk and C. M. Hampson, 24 pp., 4 figs.) Most desir-
able acreage is that which will result in full barns. High yields are
desirable, as are good prices. Efficient utilization of labor also affects
profits.
388. Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock, I. A
General Farming Area in Florida. (Max E. Brunk and J. Wayne Reitz,
28 pp., 0 figs.) Presents figures on hours of man and mule labor per acre,
by operations as well as by 2-week periods, on corn, interplanted corn,
peanuts and velvet beans, cotton, peavine hay, oats, runner peanuts both
dug and hogged off, rye, sugarcane, sweet potatoes, flue-cured tobacco and
watermelons. Also presents material requirements and average yields per
acre.
389. Comparative Value of Grazing Crops for Fattening Pigs. (W. G.
Kirk, L. O. Gratz and V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., 16 pp., 5 figs.) While corn
and tankage produced highest gains, corn and cowpeas were satisfactory
for grazing pigs. Corn and peanuts in alternate rows returned lowest
gains, and peanuts supplemented with tankage were better than peanuts
alone.

PRESS BULLETINS
Sixteen new press bulletins, nearly all dealing with subjects timely
in the war effort, 9 reprints and a bulletin list were issued during the year.
Editions of new bulletins ranged from 2,000 to 15,000 copies mostly
3,000 and totaled 71,000. Editions were exclusively 3,000 on the reprints,
giving 27,000 copies of these.
Following is a list of press bulletins and authors:
573. War-Time Fungicides and Insecticides, W. B. Tisdale and J. R.
Watson.
374. Crotalaria spectabilis and C. retusa Poisoning of Livestock, M. W.
Emmel and D. A. Sanders.
575. Florida Calcareous Supplements for Egg Production, N. R. Mehrhof
and Jefferson D. Webb.
576. Manganese Deficiency of Palms in Florida, R. D. Dickey.
577. Home Making of Sugar from Sugarcane, F. D. Stevens.
578. Don't Waste Meat, R. S. Glasscock.
579. Fermate, a New Spray Material for Controlling Downy Mildew
(Blue Mold) of Tobacco, Randall R. Kincaid.








Annual Report, 1943


580. The Cause and Control of Avocado Scab, George D. Ruehle.
581. The Dade White-Sapote, S. J. Lynch.
582. Sweetening Ice Cream with Honey, E. L. Fouts.
583. Cause and Control of Cercospora Spot and of Anthracnose of the
Avocado, George D. Ruehle.
584. Papaya Leaf Spot, Erdman West.
585. Peanut Insects and Other Enemies, J. R. Watson.
586. Mulch Against Root-Knot, J. R. Watson.
587. Control of Intestinal Roundworms and Tapeworms of Poultry, M. W.
Emmel.
588. Control of External Parasites of Chickens, M. W. Emmel.
...... Bulletin List.
326. Spraying for Citrus Whitefly (reprint).
438. Pear Blight and Its Control (reprint).
458. Some Poisonous Plants in Florida (reprint).
490. The African Squash (reprint).
507. The Place of Minerals in Swine Feeding (reprint).
510. Prussic Acid Poisoning of Livestock (reprint).
521. Dried Citrus Pulp in Dairy Rations (reprint).
522. Phomopsis Blight of Eggplants (reprint).
560. Nursery Propagation and Top-Working of Mangos (reprint).

NEWSPAPER AND FARM JOURNAL COOPERATION
Daily and weekly newspapers and farm journals circulating in Florida
continued to use largely of Experiment Station news and articles. Weekly
clipsheet of the Agricultural Extension Service continued to carry from
1 to several Experiment Station items each week, largely to Florida weekly
newspapers. The Editors released 40 special stories to from 1 to 30 daily
newspapers direct and 14 through large news gathering associations. In
the spring of 1943 special material on peanuts was mimeographed and
sent to newspapers in the peanut area, and this contained several articles
written by Station staff members. Questions and answers copy, based
largely on questions received and answered by Experiment Station work-
ers, was sent regularly to 2 large dailies, part of the year to 1 other, for
weekly publication.
One national, 3 Southern and 2 Florida farm journals and periodicals
carried a total of 23 different articles written by the Editor and relating
to Station research work and recommendations for a total of 426 column
inches of printed material. The national journal printed 6 of the articles
which totaled 17 inches; the 3 Southern periodicals printed 11 articles
totaling 168 inches; and the 2 Florida publications carried 6 articles for
a total of 241 inches of material.
Articles of staff members other than the Editor, prepared primarily
for use on the radio, were forwarded to 2 Florida monthly farm papers
and were printed in copious numbers. These are listed in a following
section. Bulletin 374 was printed in Portuguese by a magazine circulating
in South America.
ON THE AIR
Experiment Station staff members, as usual, were the principal source
of talks on the Florida Farm Hour, daily radio program over WRUF
supervised by the Extension Editors. Workers other than the Editors
made 133 talks during the year. Some of these workers appeared regu-
larly while others appeared only sporadically.
The Editors send Farm Flashes to other radio stations throughout








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Florida; 14 stations at the end of the fiscal year, but 13 during most of
the year. Many of the flashes are supplied by the USDA, but 73 of the
talks made over WRUF by Station staff members were revamped into
Farm Flashes and forwarded to 13 stations.

ARTICLES IN POPULAR AND SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS

Allison, R. V., and Thomas Whitehead, Jr. Know Fertilizer Material Bet-
ter. Fla. Grower 51:1: (whole 1142): 4, 19. 1943.
Andersen, E. M. Crop Diversification is Answer. Homestead Leader and
Enterprise 32: 7. 1943.
Bair, Roy A. Growth Rates of Maize Under Field Conditions. Plant
Physiology 17: 619-631. 1942.
Becker, R. B. Florida Dairy Items. Hoard's Dairyman 87: 618. Nov., 1942.
Becker, R. B., et al. Preliminary Report on Pasture Investigations Tech-
nique. Jour. Dairy Sci. 26: 353-369. 1943.
Becker, R. B., and P. T. Dix Arnold. Bulls -How Long Can They be
Used? The Am. Dairyman 3: 20-21, 27-28. 1943.
Blackmon, G. H. Care of Orchard Plantings. The Citrus Ind. 24: 5: 6.
1943.
Blackmon, G. H. Handling Pecans for Home Use. Fla. Grower 51: 2:
(whole 1143) : 8. 1943.
Blackmon, G. H. Increased Tung Oil Production Meeting Urgent Need.
Farm for Victory p. 14. June 1943.
Blackmon, G. H. The Tung-Oil Industry. The Bot. Review 9: 1-40. 1943.
Blackmon, G. H. The Tung-Oil Tree in Florida. For Sale, Want and
Exc. Bul. Fla. Sta. Mktg. Bur., Fla. Dept. of Agr. 11: 3: 1, 6. 1942.
Blaser, R. E. Pasture Grasses and Legumes. Proc. Fla. Seedsmen's
Asso. 1942.
Blaser, R. E. Better Pastures from Adapted Seed. Fla. Grower 51: 5:
(whole 1146): 8, 12. 1943.
Blaser, R. E. Clover Pastures for Florida. Fla. Poultryman and Stock-
man 8: 11: 12-13. 1943.
Blaser, R. E. Lespedeza Pastures for Florida. Better Crops with Plant
Food 26: 9: 6-10, 41-42. 1942.
Blaser, R. E. Lespedeza Improves Florida Pastures. Fla. Poultryman
and Stockman 9: 2: 15-16. 1943.
Blaser, R. E. Clover Pastures for the Coastal Plains. Better Crops with
Plant Food 26: 8: 6-10, 41-43. 1943.
Blaser, R. E., and W. E. Stokes. The Chemical Composition, Growth, and
Certain Deficiency Symptoms of Carpet Grass, Axonopus afinis, as
Affected by Lime and Fertilizer. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 34: 765-768.
1942.
Dickey, R. D. The Importance of Tung Seed Selection. Proc. Amer. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 41: 127-130. 1942.
Dickey, R. D., and Matthew Drosdoff. Control of Manganese Deficiency
in a Commercial Tung Orchard. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 42. 1943.
Drosdoff, Matthew, and R. D. Dickey. Copper Deficiency of Tung Trees.
Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 42: 1943.
Drosdoff, Matthew, and R. D. Dickey. Copper Deficiency of Tung. Proc.
Amer. Tung Oil Growers' Asso. April, 1943.







Annual Report, 1943 27

Eddins, A. H., and C. N. Clayton. Late Blight of Potatoes and Its Control
Under Southern Conditions. The Amer. Potato Jour. 20: 107-112. 1943.
Emmel, M. W. Chart of Common Poultry Diseases. Fla. Grower 50: 10:
(whole 1139) : 8. 1942.
Emmel, M. W. Daubentonia Punicea (Cav.) Dc. Poisoning in Pigeons.
Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Asso. 102: 294-295. 1943.
Emmel, M. W. Symptoms and Treatment of Pullet Disease Discussed.
Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 8: 11: 11. 1942.
Emmel, M. W., D. A. Sanders and L. E. Swanson. The Toxicity of Foliage
of Aleurites fordi for Cattle. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Asso. 101: 136-137.
1942.
Forsee, W. T., Jr. Development of Evaluation of Methods for the De-
termination of Phosphorus in Everglades Peat under Various Conditions
of Treatment. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 4B: 1942.
Forsee, W. T., Jr., and J. R. Neller. Phosphorus Leaching Studies in Ever-
glades Peat under Lysimeter Conditions. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla.
4B: 1942.
Fouts, E. L. How We Take Cows to the Cowless. Fla. Grower 51: 5: 5.
1943.
Fouts, E. L. Suggestions on How to Control Grass and Feed Flavors in
Milk. Fla. Poultryman and Stockman 9: 6: 12. 1943.
Fouts, E. L. The Ice Cream Sweetening Problem. Fla. Dairy Prod. Asso.
Members' News Bul. 1: 6 & 7: 3. 1942.
Fouts, E. L., T. R. Freeman and John Faustini. Storing Cottage Cheese
in Brine. So. Dairy Prod. Jour. 33: 4: 10-11, 13. 1943.
Freeman, T. R. Oxidized Flavor of Milk Produced in Florida. The Milk
Dealer 32: 3: 26-27, 44, 46, 48. 1942.
Freeman, T. R. Suggestions on the Use of Casein in Ice Cream. Ice
Cream Field 41: 5: 14, 28. 1943.
Freeman, T. R., and E. L. Fouts. Wartime Mixes. The Ice Cream Trade
Jour. 39: 4: 20, 22, 46-53. 1943.
Hamilton, H. G. Marketing Florida Citrus Fruit. Economic Leaflets.
Bu. of Ec. and Bus. Res., Col. of Bus. Adm., Univ. of Fla. 2: 3: 1943.
Hughes, R. C. Preparation of Purified Inorganic Compounds for Use in
Spectrographic Standard. Jour. Optical Soc. of Amer. 33: 1: 49-60.
1943.
Jamison, F. S. Planting Table for Florida Truck Crops. Fla. Grower
50: 10: 11. 1942.
Jamison, F. S. Time to Plan Fall Gardens Now. Fla. Grower 50: 9: 9, 12.
1942.
Jamison, F. S. Vegetable Grower Faces Big Job. Fla. Grower 51: 2: 11, 13.
1943.
Jamison, V. C. Practical Considerations Related to pH Control in Sandy
Soils. The Cit. Ind. 24: 2: 3, 6-7, 17-18. 1943.
Jamison, V. C. The Effect of Phosphates Upon the Fixation of Zinc and
Copper in Several Florida Soils. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 56: 1943.
Jamison, V. C. The Slow Reversible Drying of Sandy Surface Soils Beneath
Citrus Trees in Central Florida. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. 7: 1942.
LeClerc, E. L., C. N. Clayton and A. H. Eddins. Report of the Sub-
Committee on the Control of Irish Potato Diseases of the War Service
Committee of the American Phytopathological Society. 1943.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Lynch, S. J., Margaret J. Mustard and Grant Slater. The Effect of Potash
Upon the Yield of Papaya Fruit and Upon Some of Its Chemical Con-
stituents. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 56: 1943.
Lynch, S. J., and H. S. Wolfe. Future May See Mahogany Forests in
Florida. Fla. Grower 50: 8: 6, 11. 1942.
Mehrhof, N. R. Let's "Give 'em the Bird" in '43. Fla. Grower 51: 2: 14.
1943.
Mowry, Harold. Wartime Fertilizer Restrictions. Fla. Grower 50: 10: 9.
1942.
Neller, J. R. A Comparison of Different Sources of Phosphorus for Use in
Everglades Peat. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 4B: 1942.
Mull, L. E. New Developments in the Ice Cream Industry. Fla. Dairy
Prod. Asso. Members' News Bul. 1: 6 & 7: 5-8. 1942.
Nettles, Victor F. Use Fertilizer to Best Advantage. Fla. Grower
50: 12: 11, 13. 1942.
Reitz, J. Wayne. The Problem of Parity Prices. Economic Leaflets. Bur.
of Ec. and Bus. Res., Col. of Bus. Adm., Univ. of Fla. 2: 4. 1943.
Ruehle, Geo. D. A New Disease of Persian (Tahiti) Lime Transmitted
Through Budwood. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 56: 1943.
Ruehle, Geo. D. Sectional Notes Florida. Amer. Potato Jour. 20: 96-97.
1943.
Rusoff, L. D. Feed Selection Helps Poultryman's War Output. Fla.
Grower 51: 3: 5. 1943.
Rusoff, L. L., N. R. Mehrhof and R. S. McKinney. Chick Feeding Experi-
ments with Solvent-Extracted Tung Oil Meal. Poultry Sci. 21: 451-454.
1942.
Rusoff, L. L., H. E. Skipper and P. T. Dix Arnold. Shark Liver Oil and
the Vitamin A Potency of Milk. Jour. Dairy Sci. 25: 807-813. 1942.
Shealy, A. L. Top Beef Production a War Need. Fla. Grower 51: 6: 4.
1943.
Smith, F. B. Contributions to the Development of Soil Microbiology from
the Southeastern United States. Science 96: 2483: 95-98. 1942.
Smith, F. B. The Importance of Organic Matter in a Soil Management
Program for Citrus. The Cit. Ind. 23: 7: 6-7, 12. 1942.
Smith, F. B. The Occurrence and Distribution of Algae in Soils. Proc.
Fla. Acad. of Sci. 6: 1942.
Smith, F. B., and J. W. Batista. The Nematode Problem from the Soil
Microbiological Standpoint. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 4: 1942.
Stahl, A. L. Pliofilm- Miracle Wrap for Seeds, Plants. So. Seedsman
5:9:7, 30. 1942.
Tisdale, W. B. Plant Disease Control Methods. Fla. Grower 51: 4: 9. 1943.
Tisdale, W. B. Use of Fungicides in War-Time. The Cit. Ind. 23: 7: 13,
18. 1942.
Tisdale, W. B. Use of Pest Control Measures in Wartime. The Cit. Ind.
23: 10: 3, 7, 11. 1942.
Tissot, A. N. The Mexican Bean Bettle in Florida. The Fla. Ent.
26: 1:1-8. 1943.
Townsend, G. R. The Control of Nematodes in the Organic Soils of Flor-
ida. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 4B: 1942.
Townsend, G. R., and B. L. Wade. Close-up of Something New in Snap
Beans. So. Seedsman 6: 3: 9, 40. 1943.








Annual Report, 1943 29

Trout, G. M., P. A. Downs, M. J. Mack, E. L. Fouts and C. J. Babcock.
Comparative Standardization of Butter, Cheese, Milk and Ice Cream
Flavor Scoring. Jour. Dairy Sci. 26: 63-68. 1943.
Trout, G. M., P. A. Downs, M. J. Mack, E. L. Fouts and C. J. Babcock. The
Evaluation of Flavor Defects of Butter, Cheese, Milk and Ice Cream as
Designated by Dairy Products Judges. Jour. of Dairy Sci. 25: 557-569.
1942.
Walker, M. N. A Useful Pollination Method for Watermelons. Jour. of
Hered. 34: 11-13. 1943.
Warner, J. D. New Oat Varieties for the Southeast. So. Seedsman
5: 12: 9, 29. 1943.
Watson, J. R. Control of Citrus Aphids. The Cit. Ind. 24: 4: 3, 7. 1943.
Watson, J. R. Control of Plant Bugs in Citrus Groves. The Cit. Ind.
23: 11: 4-5. 1942.
Watson, J. R. Control of Shade Tree Insects. The Cit. Ind. 23: 10: 5, 14.
1942.
Watson, J. R. Mow Bugs Down in Your Grove. Fa. Grower 50: 9: 4. 1943.
Watson, J. R. Root-Knot Can Be Controlled. Fla. Grower 50: 12: 9, 10.
1942.
Watson, J. R. Termites in the Citrus Grove. The Cit. Ind. 23: 12: 13, 17.
1942.
Watson, J. R. Time to Wage Citrus Insect War. Fla. Grower 51: 5: 11.
1943.
Watson, J. R. Two New Frankliniellas from Mexico (Thysanoptera).
Fla. Ent. 25: 3: 43, 46. 1942.
Watson, J. R., and G. F. Weber. Spray Schedule for the Common Truck
Crops of Florida. Fla. Grower 50: 10: 16. 1942.
West, Erdman. Beans Grandpappy of All Crops. Fla. Grower 51: 5: 4.
1943.
West, Erdman. Ergot on Natal Grass (Tricholaena repens (Willd.)Hitchc.).
Plant Dis. Reporter 27: 113-114. 1943.
West, Erdman. Victory for Summer Zinnia Bed. Fla. Grower 50: 7: 15.
1942.
Wilmot, R. J. A Note on Grafting Camellias. Amer. Nurs. 78: 1: 23. 1943.
Wilmot, R. J. Can Florida Grow Ship Cordage? Fla. Grower 51: 4: 8. 1943.
Wilmot, R. J. Florida Leads Plant Search. Fla. Grower 50: 9: 13. 1942.
Wilmot, R. J. Plants Whose Products May Become Important Because of
War Conditions. For Sale, Want and Exc. Bul., Fla. Sta. Mktg. Bur.,
Fla. Dept. of Agr. 10: 10: 1. 1942.







30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


LIBRARY

The library added to its shelves this year 1,563 volumes or about twice
as many as last year, bringing the total number of bound volumes to
18,204. Over 11,000 bulletins, pamphlets and continuations were received
and cataloged. The number of foreign publications received has been
greatly reduced. Those printed in Great Britain and in her possessions
have come through remarkably well, as well as have those from countries
in South America.
Of particular interest is the card catalog of botanical literature pub-
lished by the New York Botanical Garden. It has been brought up-to-date
by the purchase of 4,257 cards. New cards are now received currently on
a subscription basis.
Students, totalling 2,996, used 4,619 pieces of reserve material. This
record is noteworthy when considered from the viewpoint of number of stu-
dents drawn into war service. No record was kept of the amount of ma-
terial not on reserve that they used.
The importance of agriculture in the war has brought many people
into the library from all parts of the State and Nation. Interested research
workers have made extensive use of many foreign publications as well as
those of this country.
The Librarian acknowledges the gift of a collection of 18 books in
chemistry and agronomy from the private library of the late Dr. W. A.
Leukel; and a gift of 6 volumes pertaining to animal husbandry by Mrs.
W. E. French of Daytona Beach.
Statistics briefly summarized are:
Volumes sent to the bindery ........................ .......................... 613
Volumes bought, gifts, exchanges ............................................ 950
Volumes accessioned for the year ............................................ 1,563
Total number bound volumes in library .................................. 18,204
Pamphlets, bulletins, continuations .......................................... 11,039
Volumes lent to branch stations --.....................-................. 306
Volumes lent here ......................................................... 1,411
Volumes borrowed from other libraries .................................... 65
Botanical cards received .............................. ........................ 4,257
Catalog cards prepared and typed here .................................... 8,324
Catalog cards from Library of Congress ................................ 397
Total cards filed ........................................................................ 12,978
Number of pieces reserve material used ................................ 4,619
Total number of students (July 1942-June 1943) ............ 2,996







Annual Report, 1943


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

It was the policy of the Department to continue with long-time projects
begun before the war, if their discontinuance would seriously interfere
with the final outcome of the work as originally planned. When projects
are discontinued, however, they are replaced with work of shorter duration
and as directly in line with war needs as ascertainable. In accordance
with this policy, 2 projects have been completed during the year and 2 new
ones have been inaugurated.

FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 154 H. G. Hamilton, A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble
Analysis of 15 years' records of volume of fruit handled, f.o.b. prices,
packing costs, and grower prices has been completed for citrus cooperative
marketing associations in Florida. The results from this analysis are
reported in the fifth bulletin in a series on Farmers' Cooperative Asso-
ciations in Florida (Bul. 386).
Citrus marketing associations in Florida decreased slightly in number
from 1926-27, but increased their average volume several times. There
is also a trend toward offering additional services- such as, grove care-
taking and financing. There is no evidence that these services have affected
the financial position of associations adversely, or that they have affected
the prices received for fruit.
The most important factors determining the success or failure of citrus
marketing cooperatives are prices received for fruit, cost of packing and
volume of fruit handled. These 3 factors are closely interrelated. Volume
affects costs and prices, both of which affect the price paid the grower.
High prices received for fruit and low packing costs enable the payment
of high prices to members for fruit, which in turn increases the volume
of business the following year, thereby making still higher prices and
lower costs possible.
Wide variation was found between associations in f.o.b. prices received
for fruit, packing costs and prices paid growers. Fruit prices were only
slightly higher for associations with precooling plants than for those with-
out such plants. Pooling by variety, grade and size of fruit was universally
practiced. The length of the pool varied, the most common being the
seasonal pool.
A study of membership problems of citrus cooperative associations is
under way. Particular attention is being given to the effect of price per box
of fruit to members upon new memberships, withdrawals or renewals.

COST OF PRODUCTION AND GROVE ORGANIZATION STUDIES
OF FLORIDA CITRUS
Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage and C. V. Noble
The regular field and office work of closing the cooperative cost accounts
conducted with Florida citrus growers for the tenth consecutive season was
completed and the regular summaries are being prepared for return to
each cooperator.
During the past year and for the first time, additional grove summaries
were made for each cooperator, including data on each kind and age of
citrus, together with per acre and total figures for the entire grove. A
copy of this type of summary for a grove is shown in Table 1.




TABLE 1.-A COOPERATOR'S GROVE SUMMARY BY KINDS AND VARIETIES OF CITRUS FOR 1941-42 SEASON.
SI |Conner's
Pineapple Valencias Valencias Valencias Prolific Total
1921 1921 1926 1926 1921
Age ............ ................ ...... 20 20 15 15 20
Acres .............-........... ---- ..-- ... 4.17 2.08 4.73 2.02 .20 13.20
Trees per acre .............................. 96 97 70 97 90 87
Grove value per acre ................. $ 989.45 $1,000.00 $ 726.00 $ 725.74 $1,000.00 $ 856.52
Yield in boxes per acre .................. 303 303 139 193 660 233
Yield in boxes per tree .................... 3.15 3.13 1.99 1.99 7.33 2.68
Costs per acre:
Labor, power and equipment ...... $ 26.93 $ 27.02 $ 20.96 $ 27.13 $ 25.85 $ 24.82
Supervision ...................................... 2.19 2.18 1.85 2.20 2.00 2.06
Fertilizer and amendments .......... 67.62 65.82 44.43 62.90 69.30 58.33
Spray and dust ........................... 3.82 3.83 2.77 3.85 3.60 3.45
Irrigation and drainage ................ -
Interest at 7% ................................ 69.26 70.00 50.82 50.80 70.00 59.96
Taxes ........................... .................... 5.07 5.11 3.72 3.73 5.15 4.39
All other costs ............................. -
Total costs per acre ............ ......... 174.89 173.96 124.55 150.61 175.90 153.01
Returns per acre ........................ 304.93 456.62 210.33 291.91 642.35 298.06
Net returns per acre ......................... 130.04 282.66 85.78 141.30 466.45 145.05
Total costs per box .................... $ .578 $ .575 $ .898 $ .780 $ .266 $ .658
Returns per box ......................... 1.008 1.508 1.516 1.512 .973 1.282
Net returns per box ................... ... .430 .933 .618 .732 .707 .624
Total costs ................... ............ ... . $ 729.31 $ 361.84 $ 589.11 $ 304.23 $ 35.18 $2,019.67
Total returns ..................................... 1,271.56 949.78 994.86 589.65 128.47 3,934.32
Net returns .................................... ... 542.25 587.94 405.75 285.42 93.29 1,914.65
With no interest on grove valuation:l
Total costs per acre .......................... $ 105.63 $ 103.96 $ 73.73 $ 99.81 $ 105.90 $ 93.05
Returns per acre .............................. 304.93 456.62 210.33 291.91 642.35 298.05
Net returns per acre .......................... 199.30 352.66 136.60 192.10 536.45 205.00
Total costs per box ..................... $ .349 $ .343 $ .532 $ .517 $ .160 $ .400
Returns per box .................. .......... 1.008 1.507 1.517 1.512 .973 1.281
Net returns per box ..................... .. .659 1.164 .985 .995 .813 .881
Total costs .................-.......-............. $ 440.49 $ 216.24 $ 348.73 $ 201.61 $ 21.18 $1,228.25
Total returns ...................................... 1,271.56 949.78 994.86 589.65 128.47 3,934.32
Net return ............................................ 831.07 733.54 646.13 388.04 107.29 2,706.07
% return on est. value ........... .......... 20.1 35.3 18.8 26.5 53.6 23.9
Value -capitalized at 7% ............... $2,847.11 $5,038.05 $1,951.46 $2,744.27 $7,663.57 $2,928.65







Annual Report, 1943


A monographic study of the operations of a successful Highlands
County grove for a 9-season period has been completed.

PRICES OF FLORIDA FARM PRODUCTS
Purnell Project 317 A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble
During the past year the following calculations have been completed
under this project:
1. A combined index of Florida farm prices which included 37 products.
These products are arranged in 8 groups, as follows: Grains, cotton and
cotton seed, dairy products, poultry products, meat animals, citrus, truck
crops and miscellaneous products. Monthly and annual index numbers
have been prepared from August, 1909, to date except for the truck-crop
group which begins in 1924.
The base period used is August, 1909, to July, 1914. The index is of
the weighted aggregate type using fixed weights. Weights used represent
the average annual sales of each commodity during the calendar years
1924-29.
Discontinuous prices for short-season crops are included in the index
by carrying the last-month or closing price through months of no sales
until the new season begins.
2. The purchasing power of each commodity, each group, and all
products has been computed in terms of prices paid by farmers in the
United States. The index used excludes interest payments, taxes and
wages paid by farmers.
3. Index numbers of seasonal variation have been prepared for most
crop and livestock prices. A long period has been used for determining
these variations, being for most products the period 1925 to 1941, inclusive.
The method used for continuous series of prices was the 12-month moving
average; and for discontinuous series, the ratio of the monthly price to
the season average price.
4. Conversion factors to facilitate changing the index from the 1909-14
base to other base periods, 1924-29 or 1935-39, have been calculated for
each price relative and group index, as well as for the combined index.
These calculations completed the groundwork for a manuscript entitled
"Florida Farm Prices" which will be submitted at an early date for pub-
lication.
FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY
AND DEPRECIATION OF FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
Purnell Project 345 A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble
This is a cooperative project with the Department of Animal Industry.
For the report, see ANIMAL INDUSTRY Proj. 345.
LAND-USE PLANNING
Purnell Project 349 Max E. Brunk, C. V. Noble and C. M. Hampson
This farm management survey of 187 farm businesses was reported in
Bulletin 387 and the project has been closed.
The farm data indicate that the principles of farm management relating
to size of business, production per unit, quality of products as indicated
by prices received, and diversification of enterprises apply on small farms.
The lack of balance between the factors of production is detected more
easily on small farms than on large farms. The wide variations in the
amount of work performed per man and per mule, yields of crops, produc-
tion of livestock, quality of products, cash costs of production, and other
factors indicate that excellence may be attained on small farms.








34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

AGRICULTURAL INCOME AND LAND UTILIZATION IN A GENERAL
FARMING AREA OF NORTHWEST FLORIDA
Purnell Project 373 C. V. Noble and Max E. Brunk
Work under this project was completed and the results are reported
in Bulletin 377.
The land of Jackson County was classified into 3 grades based on in-
tensity of use. Farm management records were related to these areas.
Marked variations in farming returns were shown between different areas
for race, tenure, size of business, labor efficiency and crop yields. Tax
delinquency between these areas also varied from 5.36 to 30.58 percent.
Records on cotton farms for 1925, 1928, 1934 and 1935 revealed that
income over this period dropped from $2,419 to $979, while expenses fell
from $1,548 to $707. Decreases in expenses were due to economies in use
of labor and fertilizer. Over this same period the proportion of labor
expended on peanuts materially increased and that expended on cotton
decreased.
There is need for a State land policy concerning the use of extensive
areas of relatively unproductive land. Tax data revealed the over-assess-
ment of poor lands relative to good lands, thus continually forcing tax
troubles on poor land.
Many tenants in Jackson County move every year. There is a need
for better understanding between landlords and tenants.

INPUT AND OUTPUT DATA FOR FLORIDA CROP AND LIVESTOCK
PRODUCTION
Purnell Project 395 J. Wayne Reitz and Max E. Brunk
Data on total and seasonal labor requirements together with material
requirements were collected in a general farming area of North and West
Florida on 11 crops. A total of 202 individual crop records were obtained.
Similarly for livestock, labor, feed and material requirements were ob-
tained for hogs, cattle, horses and mules, and chickens. A sample of from
30 to 40 records was taken for each of these kinds of livestock. Crop and
livestock data have been summarized and prepared in usable form. A
manuscript is now with the printer covering this first phase of the project.
These data, together with normalized rates of output which were also
collected, have been used to show how a representative general farm busi-
ness can be analyzed and reorganized for greater efficiency and conse-
quently higher income. The data have been used also to demonstrate how
a farmer may more accurately estimate the advantages of annual adjust-
ments in crop and livestock production because of variable prices.
At present the collecting of input-output data for Florida vegetable
crops is progressing. Emphasis is being placed on the more important
vegetable crops in the leading truck crop areas.

EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF FARM LABOR
Purnell Project 415 Max E. Brunk and F. S. Jamison
Preparatory to this work Project Leader Brunk attended a 3-week
training course in the Industrial Engineering School at Purdue University.
The course consisted of motion and time studies as applied to industry
and their prospective application to agriculture. Plans were discussed
for agricultural research in motion and time studies in the various states
represented.
This project statement was approved on May 26, 1943. Since that
time considerable effort has been devoted to locating and obtaining the








Annual Report, 1943


essential laboratory equipment and facilities for conducting motion and
time studies. Some preliminary data have been obtained on the harvesting
of green beans, tomatoes, celery and potatoes. This project is being con-
ducted in cooperation with the Department of Horticulture. (See also
Report, HORTICULTURE, Proj. 415.)

FLORIDA MAXIMUM WARTIME AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTION CAPACITY
Purnell Project 416 C. V. Noble
This project was inaugurated in order that Florida might cooperate
with all other states in making the best possible appraisal, from the in-
formation and resources at hand, of the maximum agricultural capacity
of this country through 1945. It was approved on June 8, 1943. Data are
being accumulated and summarized for the appraisal. The leaders of this
study in the 5 Southeastern States South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama,
Mississippi and Florida--met with the regional representatives of the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics in Atlanta, Ga., June 28-29 to make final
decisions on subject matter, procedure and the final report.

FLORIDA TRUCK CROP COMPETITION
The usual annual summary of the weekly car-lot shipments of Florida
commercial truck crops and the competitive shipments from other states
was made and mimeographed as a supplement to Florida Bulletin 224.

MOVEMENT OF CITRUS TREES FROM NURSERIES
TO GROVES IN FLORIDA
Since 1928 the Florida State Plant Board has cooperated with this
Department in the summarization of citrus nursery stock movement to
grove plantings. These summaries have been very useful as foundation
material in projects dealing with the citrus industry. They are made as
early as practical after the close of the fiscal year.
There has been such an increase in requests for these summaries of
plantings that they were mimeographed during the past year to facilitate
the handling of such requests.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


AGRONOMY

Agronomy research conducted under the usual projects involved crop
variety testing, breeding, rotation, fertilization, cropping systems, cover
and green manure crop studies; forage and pasture crop testing, estab-
lishment, maintenance and evaluation. Preliminary turf investigations
for airport conditions were made also.

PEANUT IMPROVEMENT
State Project 20 W. A. Carver and Fred H. Hull
Variety trials containing 49 different Florida Station and Georgia Station
hybrids, and Spanish and Runner varieties, are planted in 1943. Seed of
Florida Station No. 231-51 is being increased for release to growers in
1944.
In the variety tests at Gainesville and Quincy in 1942 Florida Station
231-51 and Florida Station 88-4-1 excelled Florida Runner by over 30
percent. This corresponds closely to the 6-year averages.
Hybridization is being continued. From crosses made in the greenhouse
145 hybrid kernels are planted in the field and will produce F. plants in
1943. These crosses involve Spanish, Rasteiro, Florida Station hybrids
and Virginia Bunch.
The second generation planting of the attempted Tennessee Red x
Arachis glabrata Benth. showed no evidence that such a cross had actually
been secured.

CROP ROTATION STUDIES WITH CORN, COTTON, CROTALARIA
AND WINTER LEGUMES
Hatch 55 W. E. Stokes and G. E. Ritchey
Cotton-Corn-Legume Rotation.a-The 1942 season completes the thir-
teenth year of this experiment. Different cover crops were used; other-
wise the work was conducted as before. In the winter of 1941-42 cereal
rye and Augusta vetch were seeded on the plots at the rate of 40 pounds
each per acre. In the spring of 1942 the cover crop was plowed under
in 2%-foot strips, 5 feet from center to center, thus leaving a balk of 2%
feet of unplowed area between each row. The plowed strips were worked
into a good seed bed and planted to corn about 10 days after plowing. The
unplowed strips were torn up at the time of cultivation. Indigofera hirsuta
L. and Crotalaria lanceolata E. May. were planted in the corn for summer
cover at the time of the last cultivation.
Plots which grew corn following rye and Augusta vetch in rotation
with cotton produced about 1/ lower yields than those plots which had
grown corn annually for a period of 13 years. Cover crop treatments
seem to have made little difference in corn and cotton yields. Considerably
higher yields of cotton, however, were obtained from plots which have
been rotated with corn. Plots of corn which were rotated grew a high
percentage of Florida beggarweed in the natural vegetation. A small
percentage of beggarweed grew in the natural vegetation on the plots
growing corn annually.
Corn and Runner Peanuts Rotating with Crotalaria and with Native
Cover Crops.-This rotation experiment was continued. Table 2 gives the
yield of corn and interplanted runner peanuts for the years 1933-1942
for each of the 5 cropping systems under trial.
2 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I., Soils, and Agr. Eng.







TABLE 2.-YIELDS OF CORN AND PEANUTS AS AFFECTED BY CROTALARIA SP. AND RESTING THE LAND.
Bushels Corn per Acre*


Cropping System


1933 1934 I 1935 I 1936 I 1937 | 1938 1939 | 1940 1941 | 1942 1 Average


Corn and peanuts every year ....................---...... 4.43 4.03 2.68 12.27 6.51 6.21 3.46 8.86 7.46 6.07 6.20
Corn and peanuts Crotalaria seeded last 8.53 7. 5.4711.56 8.58 8.06 7.69
cultivation ... |4.66 |4.65 |2.82 14.58 8.53 7.97 5.47 11.56 8.58 8.06 -7.69
Corn and peanuts alternating with 1 yr. 1
crotalaria ..................... .. 7.11 | 18.29 ___ 11.38 17.62 12.86 13.45
Ccrn and peanuts alternating with 1 yr. rest .... 8.82 14.75_ 8.97 13.09 1 11.82 11.49
Corn and peanuts alternating with 2 yr. rest .. 10.44 10.68 11.52 1 10.88

Pounds Cured Nuts per Acre*
Cropping System 1933 1934 1935 | 1936 | 1937 1938 | 1939 1940 1941 1942 | Average
Corn and peanuts every year .......................... 1,123 727 557 504 50 456 424 860 457 395 555
Corn and peanuts every year
Croalaria at last cultivation ........................ 962 587 485 538 50 550 268 970 513 356 532
Corn and peanuts alternating with 1 yr. I I I I
crotalaria a.... .. -----.. 944 1 7161 8081 1,128 537 827

Corn and peanuts alternating with 1 yr. rest .... 1,009 964 921 1,083 575 910
Corn and peanuts alternating with 2 yr. rest .... I 369 | 1,175 660 735
Each yield recorded represents the average of at least quadruplicate plots. Florida W-1 hybrid corn used in 1942.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Corn in a 2-year-Rotation with Crotalarias and Weeds as Natural Land
Cover.-Since the crotalaria species used in this experiment have died out,
the experiments involved have been altered in an attempt to meet the
problem. Field No. 1 will be maintained as before; investigations are
in progress to determine the cause of the dying out of the crotalaria seed-
lings. Field No. 2, planted in 1942, includes hairy indigo (Indigofera
hirsuta L.), lupines, sweet clover, rye and oats and combinations of the
legumes.
Weed Burning-Fertilizer Experiment.-The experiment is designed to
compare the effect of burning off vs. turning under a cover crop. Thus
far no significant differences in yields of corn or peanuts have been noted
from the different methods of handling.
VARIETY TEST WORK WITH FIELD CROPS
Hatch Project 56 W. E. Stokes and G. E. Ritchey
The "Uniform Nurseries" described in the 1942 annual report were
continued and observational notes were taken on the perennial grasses.
Yield tests were made with the annual crops and Napier grass.
Grasses.-Plantings of Bahia grass included 1 strain of the commonly
grown, broad-leaf type, 2 selections of the Paraguay narrow-leaf type and
1 planting of the Pensacola type. All strains made good growth in 1942
and in 1943. The Paraguay strain No. Ba-3 is a larger, longer-leafed and
more rapid growing strain than No. Ba-1. Both of the Paraguay strains
produced more rapid growth and better ground cover than the commonly
grown wide-leaf type.
Two strains of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth.), 1 a commercially
grown strain and the other an improved strain introduced from Texas,
failed to withstand the winter of 1942-43 satisfactorily.
Strain tests of Pearl millet, Napier grass and Sudan grass were con-
ducted in 1942. The plants were cut when they were about 18 inches high.
Five cuttings were made, the first on May 28 and the last on August 13.
The grasses were fertilized with 50 pounds of sodium nitrate after each
cutting. The strains of Pearl millet included 2 selections made at the
Florida Station, 2 made at the Georgia Coastal Plain Station, and 1 com-
mercial strain.
None of the improved strains yielded appreciably more than the com-
mercially grown strain. The improved strain which was selected for
heavy leafage produced significantly higher grazing records than any of
the others.
Four strains of improved Napier grass were used in a yield and a
cafeteria grazing test. Strain No. 160 continued to produce the highest
yields when calculated on the basis of pounds per acre. No. 4 produced
the lowest tonnage of the 4 strains but the highest yields when measured
in terms of cow-hours of grazing per acre.
Cotton.-Twelve varieties of upland cotton representative of the better
stapled uplands were grown and the 5 leading in the order named were
as follows: Coker's 100 W/R, DPL-12, Stoneville 5A, Rhyne's Cook and
Coker-Wilds St. 13.
Oats.-Fulghum, Fulgrain, Victor grain, Suwannee Black, Quincy No. 1,
Quincy No. 2 and Fla. No. 167 were tested. Only the highly rust-resistant
Fla. No. 167, Quincy No. 1 and Quincy No. 2 showed up well when rust
was prevalent. The Quincy oats were too late in maturing for satisfactory
grain production on light sandy soils, but are good grazing oats on such
lands. Fla. No. 167 is good for either grain or grazing on the light lands.
3 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I., Soils, and Agr. Eng.








Annual Report, 1943


Rye.-Two strains of Abruzzi and the Florida Black were tested. Con-
trary to results of other years, Abruzzi strains were superior to Florida
Black.
Sugarcane.-Only the mosaic-resistant canes Co. 290, C. P. H. 29-116,
Fla. No. 762, Fla. No. 690 and Fla. No. 563 were included in the variety
test. The first 3 showed good syrup and forage possibilities. The Fla.
No. 690 and Fla. No. 563 were good chewing types, but were lower yielders;
also, growth was less satisfactory from the stubble than that of the others.

CORN FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS
State Project 163 W. E. Stokes and F. A. Clark
Work on this project consisted of fertilizer grade and ratio and lime
and trace element treatments on corn; also investigations on the effect of
winter legumes on yield and quality of corn. (See also Report, NORTH
FLORIDA STATION, Mobile Units.)
COMPOSITION FACTORS AFFECTING THE VALUE OF SUGARCANE
FOR FORAGE AND OTHER PURPOSES
State Project 265 W. A. Leukel
This project has been discontinued.

PASTURE STUDIES
Bankhead-Jones Project 267 Harold Mowry
The function of this project has been primarily the provision of facilities
and the implementing with both materials and personnel the comprehensive
pasture program included in the several companion projects. (Refer
Bankhead-Jones Projects 295, 297, 298, 299, 301, 302 and 304.)
Under these projects definite and immediately applicable information
has been obtained on kinds, combinations and rates of application of
fertilizers for numerous grasses and clovers; on clover-grass combinations
for grazing; on adaptability and management of newly introduced winter
clovers and other legumes; on disease resistance and adaptability, through
selection, of forage plants; and on selection, management and utilization
of different grasses. All of these findings under the pasture research
projects are now of particularly beneficial application and are being used
extensively in the present emergency in the increased production of beef
and dairy products.
During the year a 160-acre tract of typical flatwoods pasture land,
located within a comparatively short distance of the University, has been
purchased and will be devoted entirely to grass, legume and forage experi-
ments and trials with complementary grazing studies.
The project is discontinued with this report.

EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS ON YIELD, GRAZING VALUE, CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION AND BOTANICAL MAKEUP OF PASTURES
Bankhead-Jones Project 295 G. B. Killinger, R. E. Blaser
and W. E. Stokes
Combinations and Rates of Fertilizers on Carpet Grass Growth and
Composition.-Station Bulletin 390 summarizes this phase of the work as
follows:
Growth of established carpet grass was stimulated primarily by nitro-
gen fertilization. Lime, superphosphate and potash increased the efficiency
of the nitrogen fertilizer materially on 3 of the 4 soil types. March nitro-
gen applications increased the early and total season growth greatly, but
September or other late seasonal nitrogen applications did not augment








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the late season yields appreciably. Best growth and most desirable yield
curves were obtained when all of the nitrogen was applied in March or
March and June.
Omission of lime, superphosphate or potash from a lime and fertilizer
mixture retarded growth of carpet grass and produced grass low in the
mineral content of the nutrient omitted.
Light applications of lime and fertilizer (500 pounds of calcic lime,
36 pounds POs and 25 pounds K20 applied as 18% superphosphate and 50%
muriate of potash, respectively) produced as satisfactory yields as 4 times
the lime and fertilizer rates, provided the nitrogen applications were
identical.
The grass which was treated with nitrogen alone was generally lower
in calcium, phosphorus and potassium than unfertilized grass, while that
treated with lime and complete fertilizer was higher in minerals than
unfertilized grass.
Yields of carpet grass when treated with dolomitic and calcic limestone
were not significantly different. The grass was generally higher in calcium
content when treated with ground high calcic limestone, and the magnesium
content did not differ significantly.
Sources of Nitrogen.-A test on Leon fine sand to measure carpet grass
growth and composition with 4 sources of nitrogen was started in 1938.
Four sources of nitrogen (nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia, calcium
cyanamide and uramon) were applied with various combinations of lime,
superphosphate and potash in a factorial experiment. Best yields resulted
with a combination of lime, superphosphate and potash and with super-
phosphate and potash. Each of the 4 sources of nitrogen increased growth
greatly when compared with unfertilized grass or with grass treated with
combinations of minerals without nitrogen.
Grazing Tests.-A 20-acre area of carpet grass was divided into 8 pas-
tures of 2.5 acres each. The following comparisons in duplicated pastures
are being made: Unfertilized grass, fertilized grass, clover-grass mixture,
and a lespedeza-grass mixture.
The fertilized carpet grass pastures were treated initially with 1 ton
of lime and 400 pounds of an 8-8-4 fertilizer. A complete fertilizer will
be applied annually. The carpet grass-legume pastures were treated with
lime and an 0-16-8 fertilizer at the time the experiment was started. A
mixture of superphosphate and potash will be applied annually. These
pastures are being grazed with steers. During the past season the follow-
ing gains in pounds of beef per acre were obtained: Carpet grass (un-
fertilized) 87.5 pounds, fertilized carpet grass 172 pounds, clover-carpet
grass 559 pounds, lespedeza-carpet grass 179 pounds.
Carpet grass growth following clover, on the clover pasture, made a
vigorous, luscious, dark green growth when compared with the carpet grass
on other pastures. These tests are conducted cooperatively with ANIMAL
INDUSTRY.
Grazing Value of New Grasses.-Six 2.3 acre pastures established in 1942
with Coastal Bermuda, Pensacola Bahia and Digitaria decumbens Stint in
duplicate are being grazed with test animals this year. Preliminary records
indicate that these grasses tolerate close grazing and survive adverse tem-
perature and moisture relationships.
Eight additional pastures were established in the spring of 1943 to. test
the following grasses for grazing in duplicate pastures: Paraguay Bahia,
St. Lucie Bermuda, common Bahia and short-internode Napier grass. The
soil was limed and fertilized. Short-internode Napier grass was planted in
8-foot rows and Indigofera hirsuta L. was planted between the Napier








Annual Report, 1943


grass rows. St. Lucie Bermuda and one of the Paraguay Bahia pastures
were planted with stolons and the remaining pastures were seeded.
Grass, Fertilizer and Soil Type Interactions.-In 1942 8 grasses (com-
mon, Pensacola and Paraguay Bahia, common and No. 99 Bermuda, Dallis,
Carpet and Digitaria decumbens) were established in duplicate randomized
blocks on Leon fine sand near Callahan and Zephyrhills. Twelve lime and
fertilizer treatments (including lime and phosphorus from 2 different
sources) were randomized and applied to cross the grasses. These tests
were refertilized in the spring of 1943.
Preliminary results show that the grasses differ greatly in their nu-
tritional requirements. Dallis, Bermuda and Digitaria decumbens grew
best when a complete fertilizer and lime was applied. Carpet and Pensa-
cola Bahia grasses made as good growth with complete fertilizer as with
complete fertilizer and lime. All grasses became established more quickly
when nitrogen was applied, but Dallis, Digitaria and Bermuda were more
sensitive to a low nitrogen level than carpet grass and Pensacola Bahia.
When phosphorus was omitted irrespective of other fertilizer mixtures,
the grasses made very poor growth and the foliage was a dull, dark,
purplish green color typical of phosphorus deficiency. On the Leon fine
sand at Zephyrhills growth was retarded greatly by a deficiency of potash.
All grasses, with the exception of Paraguay and common Bahia, pro-
duced sods the first year in tests at Callahan. In the tests at Zephyrhills
only carpet and Pensacola Bahia produced a sod the first season.
Grass Growth as Affected by Minor Elements.-Two tests near Callahan
and Zephyrhills on Leon fine sand are being continued. Sixteen minor
element treatments, with various rates and mixtures, were applied with
and without a lime-complete fertilizer mixture. These plots were cross-
seeded with 4 grasses (Bermuda, Dallis, Bahia and Carpet). One experi-
ment with carpet grass at the Range Cattle Station embodying the same
minor element treatments was also established (see Report, RANGE
CATTLE STATION).
A preliminary report of these tests was published in Bulletin 384. These
preliminary experiments indicated that minor elements on virgin soils
yield significant growth increase of grasses only in the presence of lime
and complete fertilizer.
These tests are being continued and others will be established to de-
termine the best rate and mixture of minor elements for grasses.
Variety Tests with Bermuda Grasses.-This test established on Norfolk
sand in 1941 is being continued. It includes common, St. Lucie and other
Bermuda grasses developed by the Division of Forage Crops and Diseases,
B.P.I., Soils and Ag. Eng., USDA, in cooperation with the Georgia Coastal
Plain and Florida Stations. These grasses differ greatly in disease resist-
ance, productivity and rate of spread. St. Lucie Bermuda spreads most
rapidly and Coastal Bermuda, No. 99, and No. 1 were the most productive.

ERADICATION OF WEEDS IN TAME PASTURES
Bankhead-Jones Project 296 R. E. Blaser and Roy A. Bair
This project has been discontinued.

FORAGE NURSERY AND PLANT ADAPTATION STUDIES
Bankhead-Jones Project 297 G. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
Studies of the adaptation of new plants to climatic and soil conditions
and to various uses were continued. Several introductions of clovers
4In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases B. P. I., S., and Agr. Eng.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


(Trifoliums and Medicagos) which had shown particular promise in the
nursery plots were planted in pastures and subjected to intense grazing.
Medicago obscure Retz. was seeded on a field of fall-sown oats and was
grazed during the winter and spring. The Medicago plants made late
winter and early spring growth. They were grazed closely but made an
abundance of seed which was allowed to shatter for reseeding. Trifolium
nigrescens Viv., T. hirtum All. and T. echinatum Bieb. may be valuable
for grazing.
Several strains of Lespedeza striata (Thunb.) H. and A. and L. stipu-
lacea Maxim. are under observation in the nursery. There is marked
difference in the susceptibility of the different strains to various diseases.
One, of common lespedeza, has reseeded 3 successive years when all others
have failed.
Strains of Bird's-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) were seeded in
the fall on a closely grazed pasture. They have made good growth, stood
grazing well and are promising as a fall and spring grazing legume for
pasture.
Indigofera hirsuta L. was grown on small plots in several counties. It
produced satisfactory growth and with few exceptions the growers are
interested in its possibilities as a cover crop.
Pigeon peas were harvested August 17 and ensiled in cooperation with
investigators of the Department of Animal Industry (see Report ANIMAL
INDUSTRY, Proj. 213). The crop yielded 10,445 pounds (5.2 tons) green
material, or an equivalent of approximately 1.86 tons of hay, per acre. A
good silage resulted when ensiled with 4 percent by weight of citrus
molasses, although less palatable to cattle than Napier grass silage. Pigeon
peas, when properly ensiled, may be used for silage.
Several new strains of grasses have been under observation. A dwarf
strain of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) produced a heavy crop
of fine stems and leaves. Several Digitaria and Panicum species are under
investigation. Digitaria decumbens Stint, F PI No. 111,110, still is out-
standing and is being placed under measured grazing tests this season.
Fourteen grasses and grass combinations have been planted on airports
near Gainesville to determine their adaptation for turfs. (See also Turf
Investigations, p. 49.)

FORAGE AND PASTURE GRASS IMPROVEMENT '
Bankhead-Jones Project 298 G. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach).-Approximately
200 seedlings were grown in 1942. Eighteen of the best plants were
selected and planted in the field in the spring of 1943, of which several
types appear promising.
Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (L.) R. Br.-One improved strain
of Pearl millet was selected from those used in the yield tests of 1942, and
planted in seed-increase plots.
Sorghum sp.-One hundred and twenty varieties and strains of sorghum
and Sudan grass are under observation in 1943, as compared with 85 in
1942.
A single plant of sorghum which had gone through the season without
developing leaf diseases was selected from the disease investigations
nursery in 1941. Planting material has been increased considerably and
if this strain proves of value it will be used for seed increase.
Lupines (Lupinus angustifolius L.).-Selections for disease resistance
5 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I., S., and Agr. Eng.








Annual Report, 1943


were continued. From the 3,200 plant rows reported last year 35 families
were selected for further investigations, particularly with reference to
disease resistance. In 1943 there was considerable variation in suscept-
ibility but none was entirely resistant.

GROWTH BEHAVIOR AND RELATIVE COMPOSITION OF RANGE
GRASSES AS AFFECTED BY BURNING AND THE EFFECT OF
BURNING ON MAINTENANCE OF NATURAL GRASS STANDS
AND UPON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF IMPROVED PASTURE
GRASSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 299 W. A. Leukel and W. E. Stokes
Different areas of range grasses were again burned over at monthly
intervals during the past season. Summer burning of range grasses, as
before, resulted in retarded growth following the burn. The retardation
was greater where the burning followed 2 years of protection from fire
rather than 1 year only. Good stands were produced when carpet grass
was seeded on the burned-over areas during the rainy season without any
soil preparation or covering of the seed. The composition of range grasses
protected from fire showed lower protein and mineral content than range
grass growth following burning.

PASTURE LEGUMES
Bankhead-Jones Project 301 W. E. Stokes, G. E. Ritchey,
R. E. Blaser and G. B. Killinger
Sources of Lime and Phosphates with Combinations of Lime and Fertil-
izer as Related to Clover Growth.-Plot experiments with 4 phosphates
from different sources (superphosphate, rock and colloidal phosphate and
basic slag) and with dolomitic and ground limestone were started in 1938.
On the basis of results obtained new experiments were designed and
established in 1940 and 1941. Most of these have been refertilized annually
to study propagation of clovers during subsequent years.
This phase was summarized in detail in the last report and the data
this season are similar to those of previous years. These tests will be
carried on several years to study residual effects of various phosphates
from different sources. Thus far significant differences in the nutritional
requirements of clovers have been demonstrated.
Clover Variety Fertilizer Tests.-Clover variety fertilizer experiments
established in 1941 and 1942 are being continued. Effects of lime and phos-
phorus from different sources and also different lime and fertilizer mixtures
on growth of different clovers are being studied. Tests comparing lime
and phosphorus applied immediately before seeding with applications made
90 days before seeding are included. The plots were mowed for yield
records and clover samples were taken to study nodulation of clover va-
rieties as affected by lime and fertilization. (See SOILS Project 368.)
Four long-time experiments of 5 acres each were established on farms
in different locations and soil types in the fall of 1942. The fertilizers
were applied in %-acre plots, in duplicate. Lime and phosphorus from 2
different sources were included. The clover growth was inferior on all
because of adverse moisture conditions. The plots will be fertilized to
measure the effect of refertilization on clover growth.
Minor Element Tests.-Investigations started in 1941 are being con-
tinued. Two additional small-plot tests were started on 2 farms in 1942.
6 In cooperation with Div. of For. Crops and Dis., B. P. I., S., and Agr. Eng.








44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Results of 1941 tests were summarized in Bulletin 384. Preliminary
results showed that clovers respond primarily to boron, but also to certain
other minor elements. Boron deficiency symptoms were again noted on
California Bur clover in numerous locations this year. Black Medic and
annual sweet clovers also displayed serious deficiencies. Seed setting was
improved greatly when boron was applied. White Dutch clover exhibited
no deficiency symptoms, but summer survival was improved appreciably.
The 1942 tests made very poor growth due to drought.
New Clovers.-Nursery and pasture studies of several introduced
Trifolium, Medicago, and Lotus species alone and in combination with
other legumes and grasses were conducted during the 1942-43 season.
Medicago obscura Retz. and Trifolium nigrescens Viv. produced seed under
exceptionally close grazing. Indications are that they will compete with
grasses and will withstand close grazing. Lotus corniculatus L. is a pe-
rennial legume which withstood close grazing during the spring of 1943
and has persisted until mid-summer. (See also Proj. 297.)
Clover Seed Source Tests.-Tests with commercial and native seed of
Black Medic, California Bur, Hubam and yellow annual sweet clover are
being continued. Two additional ones with Hubam and Black Medic
clovers were established in 1942. Outstanding differences in morphological
characteristics, such as leafiness, size, color, growth habits and date of
maturity, were noted in different strains of all clovers.
Native strains of both Black Medic and sweet clover were much superior
to commercial seed in productivity, seed production, and volunteer growth.
The strains from commercial sources failed to produce sufficient seed for
the subsequent volunteer crop due to late maturity and drought. Seed
of several varieties of Black Medic and sweet clover were collected for
increased plantings.
California Bur clover often reseeds poorly because it is killed early
by anthracnose (Colletotrichum trifolii Bain). All varieties tested thus
far were susceptible.
In addition to variety tests, preliminary space planting tests of White
Dutch, Black Medic, Hubam and California Bur clover were made. The
best and poorest plants of the progeny lines were selected to determine
the efficiency of selection breeding.
Lespedeza Strain and Fertilizer Tests.-Results of these experiments
were published in Bulletin 375. These tests showed that Kobe, common
and Tennessee 76 lespedezas were adapted to sandy soils of peninsular
Florida. Korean made poor growth. Soils high in organic matter or with
favorable moisture relationships were most suitable. The soil should be
limed with % to 1 ton of lime and fertilized with 300 to 600 pounds of
an 0-14-10 or 0-10-10 mixture before planting. Preliminary tests indicated
that rock or colloidal phosphates may be used in place of superphosphate
in heavy applications. The calcium, phosphorus and potassium contents
of lespedeza were increased significantly by fertilization. Best results
occurred from early spring plantings.
On the basis of these tests, 2 pastures were seeded with lespedeza for
experimental grazing.

A STUDY OF NAPIER GRASS (PENNISETUM PURPUREUM
SCHUMACH.) FOR PASTURE PURPOSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 302 R. E. Blaser, G. B. Killinger
and W. E. Stokes
Napier Grass for Dairy Cows.-An 8-acre area of Napier grass was
planted in 1938 to measure its feeding value for dairy cows. This area







Annual Report, 1943


was fenced into 5 lots to permit rotational grazing. All lots received
complete fertilizer in March. Two lots received all nitrogen in 1 applica-
tion in May, while the remaining 3 lots received an equal amount of nitro-
gen in 4 applications during the grazing season. Apparently growth did
not differ appreciably for the 2 methods of applying the nitrogen. The
grass is being sampled for yields and analysis as in previous years. (See
ANIMAL INDUSTRY Project 302.)
Napier Grass Management and Fertilizer Studies.-The factorial ex-
periment to test the yield of 3 Napier grass varieties as affected by fertil-
ization and management is being continued. Growth was increased greatly
by fertilization, particularly with nitrogen. All 3 strains under test tolerate
cutting back to the ground when 3 to 5 feet high. Herbage from grass
cut frequently was more leafy than from grass cut twice annually.
The Napier grass fertilizer test, involving 4 sources of nitrogen, is being
continued. To date all sources of nitrogen tested (nitrate of soda, sulfate
of ammonia, uramon and calcium cyanamide) were satisfactory.


METHODS OF ESTABLISHING PERMANENT PASTURES UNDER
VARIOUS CONDITIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 304 R. E. Blaser and G. B. Killinger
The work of this project is closely correlated with that of projects 295
and 301. Methods of establishing permanent pastures are as follows:
Proper water control is essential. Numerous shallow ditches are
generally more satisfactory than deep ditches. If deep ditches are used
they should be equipped with water gates to retard flow during dry periods.
The native vegetation should be destroyed. This can be accomplished by
thorough cutting after burning; chopping with rotary choppers; combina-
tions of chopping and cutting after burning; burning of vegetation fol-
lowed with immediate seeding, subsequent heavy grazing to retard native
vegetation, arid mowing and chopping. Stumping and grubbing are often
necessary to facilitate management and cultural practices. The adapta-
tion of pasture plants from the viewpoint of temperature, moisture and
nutritive requirements should be considered as well as the effect of fertil-
ization on developing of sods for different pasture plants.
Permanent pastures should be fenced to control the grazing intensity.
Cattle grazing on strip plantings of improved grasses within large tracts
of wiregrass often overgraze the improved grasses.
Different strains of Bermuda grass were planted by spreading above-
ground stems and rhizomes, followed by immediate disking; and by dropping
stems and rhizomes 2 feet apart in 4-foot rows and covering with a turn
plow. A portion of each plot was left unfertilized, the remainder was
treated with lime and complete fertilizer. The grass failed when unfertil-
ized. Both planting methods gave satisfactory results but disking de-
veloped a sod more rapidly. Coastal Bermuda grass was also planted with
clippings for comparing with grass planted with stolons and rhizomes,
the clippings proving much inferior.
Some lespedeza plots are being continued and new ones have been
added.
Planting material has been distributed to farmers, to the Soil Con-
servation Service, to the North Florida Station and its mobile units from
1 acre each of Digitaria decumbens Stint, Coastal Bermuda and Bermuda
No. 99.







46 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

OATS IMPROVEMENT
Hatch Project 363 W. E. Stokes and G. B. Killinger
Selections were made of new strains of oats suitable for grain and hay
in central Florida on the basis of resistance to rust and smut, high grain
yield and heavy forage production. Early maturity was directly correlated
with heavy grain yields; late to medium late varieties stand less chance
of producing a satisfactory grain crop but may rank high in forage yield
for grazing purposes. Over 700 selections, including a number of 2-year-old
hybrid strains, were under observation and yield test. A number of these
new selections show promise of adaptability to the central section of
Florida. Florida 167, a new oat described last year, was increased this
year by several hundred bushels. It is being released to Florida farmers.
Rust resistant, it is a heavy grain yielder and has produced excellent
grazing.
Three varieties of rye were planted in a variety test to determine their
yielding ability. Two Abruzzi strains yielded more grain and produced
more early growth for grazing than 1 Florida Black strain.

EFFECT OF FORM AND RATIOS OF NUTRIENT MATERIALS ON
GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF FORAGE PLANTS
Adams Project 369 W. A. Leukel
This project was inactive during the year.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IMPROVEMENT
Adams Project 372 F. H. Hull, F. A. Clark and W. E. Stokes
The various crosses and selfed lots of seed from root-knot resistant
strains and commercial varieties were planted in the seedbed and some
plants set in the field in 1942. Sufficient seed was obtained from them to
continue the work but no definite conclusions are warranted at present.
Selections of vigorous root-knot free plants from heavily infested areas
of a field of the Bonanza variety were made in the fall of 1942. Sufficient
seed for testing was obtained from 449 individual plants. Preliminary
tests with young plants in a greenhouse bed of root-knot contaminated
soil did not indicate any great degree of resistance in a number of these
selections. However, the entire lot will be planted in a field bed for setting
in an infested field in 1944.

CORN IMPROVEMENT
Purnell Project 374 Fred H. Hull and W. A. Carver
Field Corn.-Plot work with varieties and experimental hybrids was
continued at the Main and North Florida stations as before. Selection
and inbreeding were continued at the Main Station as formerly with 600
inbred lines. Main emphasis is given to developing satisfactory yellow
inbred lines for a commercial hybrid. In earlier work the best general
utility lines obtained were white. The plan of converting such lines to
yellow type by out-crossing to a yellow corn and back-crossing to the line
has met unforeseen difficulties which have delayed the work 2 years or
more in most cases. Strong yellow seeds have not appeared in the back-
cross progenies as frequently as was expected. In many cases the strong
yellow seeds produced much poorer plant types than white or pale yellow
seeds from the same ears. Some investigations of the causes for such
results are in progress.







Annual Report, 1943


In spite of these difficulties 30 yellow lines were grown in a crossing
block in 1942 and 100 single crosses between the yellow lines are in yield
test plots at the Main and North Florida stations in 1943. Also, 100
yellow lines are in the 1943 crossing block.
Hand-pollinated seed of the 4 inbred line parents of Florida W-1 was
planted in detasseling and crossing blocks at the Main and North Florida
stations. (See also NORTH FLORIDA STATION Proj. 260.)
Bulk pollination of the largest and latest 1 percent of progeny plants
from a cross of Tuxpan x Golden Cross Bantam was practiced from 1936
to 1941, inclusive. This selection has developed a strain which is about
2 weeks later than standard field corn varieties grown in Florida; also
about 2 feet taller, with 2 to 4 more leaves than standard varieties. A
few FP hybrids of this late selection crossed with standard varieties and
1 experimental hybrid indicate increases of 50 percent or more in silage
yields. Yields of silage and grain will be recorded for these late hybrids
when they reach the harvest stage.
Cold storage tests with 5 lots of seed corn were begun May 1, 1941.
A sample of each lot is being held at 60, 42 and 65F. A fourth sample
of each lot is kept in the seed laboratory on the farm. Germination of
each of the 5 lots of corn was 55, 56, 86, 94, and 98 (av. 77.8) percent
at the beginning of the experiment.
TABLE 3.-GERMINATION PERCENTAGES OF SEED CORN IN COLD AND FARM
STORAGE SINCE MAY 1, 1941.
Date Germination Test
Type Storage Jan. 7, 1942 Feb. 13, 1942 May 14, 1943

Farm ................ 53.2 59.2 37.4
6 F. ............... 78.4 78.8 82.0 71.2*
42 F. ............... 76.4 82.0 82.8 63.6*
65 F. .............. 71.2 80.0 73.6 76.4*

Removed from cold storage Feb. 13, 1942, and held in the farm laboratory thereafter.
The data indicated first that germination declined very little in 24
months of cold storage. With farm storage germination dropped approxi-
mately from 78 to 55 percent from May to February or by the second
planting season and to 37 percent in 24 months. Samples in farm storage
for 14% months after 9 months of cold storage did not depreciate nearly
as much as did the original farm storage sample in the first 8 months of
farm storage.
The indication that cold storage may condition seed corn to preserve
its viability even with succeeding warm storage was then checked in a
second test. A lot of Florida W-1 seed with 97 percent germination was
divided into 5 samples which were held for 34, 13, 7, 2, and 0 days at 6 F.
All treatments terminated the same day when the 5 lots were placed in
an oven at constant 120 F. One week later germination of these lots
was 88, 89, 92, 89, and 1 percent. After 2 weeks germination was 24, 40,
29, 63, and 0 percent for the 5 samples, respectively.
The second test seems to confirm the conditioning effect of cold storage
on seed corn to withstand depreciation by storage at higher temperatures.
However, further tests are necessary at other temperatures and with other
seeds. The present results suggest that a surplus of valuable hybrid seed
corn might be held with reasonable safety through the Florida summer
if given only a few days in cold storage in the spring.
Sweet Corn.-Yield tests with 25 entries of which 10 were sweet hybrids







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


were run in 1942. The 1943 test includes 61 entries which are mostly ex-
perimental sweet hybrids. Eighteen of these hybrids involve inbred lines
developed by Southern experiment stations, including this station. These
18 are in tests at 5 or 6 locations in the Southern states as a result of
the organization of the Southern Corn Improvement Conference. These
tests will be continued in 1944, partly with seed produced by the Florida
Station. In such tests all Southern inbred lines are crossed on a single
tester variety to give a uniform measure of their behavior in hybrid com-
bination. Results so far indicate that new hybrids may be found much
superior to Golden Cross Bantam in production and nearly equal to its high
table quality.
Selection of inbred lines of sweet corn is being continued as noted in
previous reports.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO FERTILIZERS AND VARIETIES
Hatch Project 378 W. E. Stokes and Fred Clark
Experimental work was continued on Norfolk sandy soil as follows:
(1) trials of 11 varieties; (2) rates of fertilizers with different plant
spacings; (3) sources and combinations of sources of nitrogen; (4) 38
different formulas or grades of fertilizer; (5) comparison of acid, basic
and neutral fertilizer of the same analysis; (6) trace or secondary ele-
ment trials involving zinc, iron, copper, manganese, boron and cobalt; (7)
withholding part of the nitrogen for side-dressing 20 days after setting;
(8) the use of paradichlorobenzene (PDB) in cooperation with PLANT
PATHOLOGY for the control of downy mildew in plant beds.
Yellow Mammoth, Mammoth Gold, Virginia Bright Leaf, Gold Dollar
and Bonanza were the high-yielding varieties in the order named. In the
test of rates of fertilizer, 1,800 pounds of a 3-8-6 mixture with plants
spaced 26 inches in 4-foot rows produced the most pounds and the largest
gross return; although 1,400 pounds of a 3-8-6 fertilizer with plants spaced
23.23 inches in the drill produced less pounds but with considerably higher
quality to equalize the gross returns.
In the sources of nitrogen test 1/2 nitrate of soda and % sulfate of
ammonia produced highest gross returns, followed by sulfate of ammonia
and % cottonseed meal. Stable manure, 3,000 pounds per acre, applied
in addition to 1,000 pounds per acre of a 3-8-6 fertilizer produced suffi-
ciently heavy yields and average high quality to give higher gross returns
than any commercial fertilizer alone.
In the analysis or formula test, highest quality and gross returns were
obtained from a fertilizer high in potash and sulfur with normal nitrogen
and phosphorus; followed by a fertilizer having 3 percent nitrogen, 8 per-
cent phosphoric acid and 11 percent potash. Both were used at the rate of
1,000 pounds per acre. The acid and the neutral 3-8-6 mixtures were
superior to the basic. Withholding % of the nitrogen and applying it as
a side-dressing was not as good this year, due to weather conditions, as
the drill application at time of setting. Secondary elements added to a
4-8-8 fertilizer gave no outstanding results. Paradichlorobenzene again
gave excellent downy mildew control in plant beds.

MISCELLANEOUS EXPERIMENTS
PEANUTS
Dusting sulfur and copper-sulfur (10:90) were dusted on Spanish and
Florida Runner peanuts in experiments at 5 different locations near Gaines-
ville. Results indicate a profitable return from at least 3 applications of
20 pounds each of either dust. These treatments aided in the control of







Annual Report, 1943


leaf spot; they were started when the first spots appeared and continued
at 10 to 14-day intervals. The first leaf spots were observed about 55 to
65 days after planting.
An experiment had been started including 15 different fertilizer mix-
tures, a combination minor element mixture, and sulfur dusting. Seed
disinfectants, inoculation, sulfur, and copper-sulfur dusting are included
in another experiment with Florida Runner peanuts (W. E. Stokes).

TURF INVESTIGATIONS 7
Recent development of numerous air bases has created a demand for
information on turfs which will aid in preventing dust that endangers
pilots, causes accidents and wears motor parts. Therefore, experiments
were established as follows:
Tests With Fertilizers and Grasses.-One 8-acre area with 11 different
grasses and 1 mixture of grasses was established on an airport near Gaines-
ville where turf is used on runways. The grass strips were planted in
duplicate and crossed with 8 different fertilizer treatments. The fertilizer
treatments consisted of lime with 2 fertilizer rates and 2 rates of minor
elements and fertilizer. Fertilizer and minor element were applied also
without lime. The grasses used included carpet, common and Pensacola
Bahia, varieties of Bermuda (St. Lucie, Gainesville No. 1, No. 99, Coastal,
No. 69 and common), Paspalum plicatulum Mich., Digitaria decumbens
Stint, and a mixture of carpet, common and Pensacola Bahia and common
Bermuda grasses. Rye grass was seeded over the entire experiment in
November. The soil was well drained Norfolk fine sand.
The grasses were subjected to the drastic, constant taking off and
landing of light aircraft. The Bermuda grasses and Pensacola Bahia
appeared well adapted to this area, whereas carpet grass failed. Fertil-
ization hastened the formation of turfs.
Other experiments were established on a second airport near Gaines-
ville, October 12, 1942. Experiment A was established on a 10-acre area of
soil typical of the flat pine lands, primarily Leon and Plummer soil types.
The soil was badly deranged during the process of grading.
Twelve grasses and 1 mixture were seeded or planted in duplicate strips
and crossed with 14 soil treatments involving several rates of complete
fertilizer with and without minor elements, lime and organic nitrogen.
The grass strips were also seeded separately with 3 winter grasses, rye,
oats and Italian rye. The area was refertilized in the spring of 1943.
Preliminary results show that grasses sod rapidly when fertilized with
complete fertilizer or complete fertilizer and lime. The grasses sodded
most rapidly when treated with heavy applications of complete fertilizer.
The Digitaria, carpet, Pensacola Bahia and Bermuda grass varieties all
made satisfactory growth. Of the winter grasses, Italian rye was the
most satisfactory because there was less competition with the other
grasses.
Experiment B was established on a soil that had been stabilized with
lime. Two inches of lime rock was incorporated with the surface 6 inches
of lime and soil. This stabilization process is commonly used along run-
ways and taxi-ways. Five grasses (St. Lucie and common Bermuda, carpet
and Texas and Pensacola Bahia grasses) were planted in strips. The
Bermuda was seeded on 1 strip and sprigged on the other. The grass
strips were crossed with 4 fertilizer and minor element treatments. This
area was refertilized in the spring of 1943.
Common and St. Lucie Bermuda grasses are most satisfactory on soils
In cooperation with Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I., S., and Agr. Eng.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


stabilized with lime. The Bahia grass varieties and carpet grass have
failed to produce sods.
Saline Tolerance of Grass Species.-Work with certain military airport
turfs presented the question of the tolerance of different grass species to
the spray of brackish waters.
Plots of Bahia, Bermuda (common and St. Lucie), carpet, centipede
and St. Augustine grasses were marked off on established sods. Areas
of grass were sprayed biweekly with 50 grams of sodium chloride in solu-
tions of 1, 3 and 5 percent concentration. Other plots were sprayed with
ocean water and the rest with tap water. Spraying began February 27
and by May 3 very little, if any, effect could be noted on any of the
grasses.
Beginning May 8 the quantity of the 1, 3, and 5 percent saline solutions
was increased to apply 100 grams of salt per 9 square feet of grass per
application and applied semi-weekly. Bahia, carpet and centipede grasses
all showed browning of tips of the leaves. The common and St. Lucie
Bermuda and St. Augustine showed no injury by June 26. The ocean water
seemed to be more toxic to plant life than the 3 percent sodium chloride
solution.
Soil conditions at 8 naval bases in Florida, 1 in Georgia and 1 in Cuba
were inspected. A report giving details on seeding, sprigging, stabilization,
fertilization, adaptation of turf grasses and soil preparation for the various
air bases was made and submitted to the officers in charge. (Geo. E.
Ritchey, R. E. Blaser and G. B. Killinger.)
SEA ISLAND COTTON
Strain tests are in progress in the Leesburg, McIntosh and Gainesville
areas. Twelve B-2, Z-10, TZ and TZRV, representing selections out of
Seabrook, and several Sea Island upland hybrid cottons are included in
these tests.
Fertilizer work is conducted in the Leesburg, Gainesville and Madison
areas. The investigations are designed to determine the major and minor
element requirements of Sea Island cotton with particular emphasis on
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, copper, zinc, manganese, boron
and magnesium.
Thus far this cotton has shown good response to a complete fertilizer,
no particular response to lime, and in some instances response to minor
elements. On old plantation lands, Ruston soil, of Madison County rather
outstanding response to potash is noted.
Ample stocks of certified seed are being maintained for distribu-
tion. (W. E. Stokes, M. N. Gist 8, E. E. Hartwig and Paul Calhoun '.)
SDivision of Cotton and Other Fiber Crops and Diseases, B. P. I., S., and Agr. Eng.
9 State Department of Agriculture.







Annual Report, 1943


ANIMAL INDUSTRY

Research of the Animal Industry Department was conducted under 7
divisions: (1) dairy husbandry, (2) animal nutrition, (3) beef cattle, sheep,
and swine, (4) veterinary science, (5) poultry husbandry, (6) dairy manu-
factures and (7) parasitology.
The Dairy Herd.-The registered Jersey bulls Duke Victor Progress
440329 and Gold Bond Florida Lad 445712 were purchased during the year
as junior herd sires. These represent families used in the breeding studies.
The death of Sophie 19th's Victor 81st 331031 occurred from old age.
Through arrangement with the Florida State Farm, Raiford, artificial
insemination was practiced with the foundation herd of Guernsey females
at the Main Station.
Cows were assigned to experiments dealing with value of Napier grass,
effect of feeds on milk flavor, bovine mastitis treatment, citrus molasses
palatability, ensilability of Florida forages, relation of conformation to
production, and mineral nutrition. Jersey bull calves were provided for
studies of the internal organs and for classroom instruction in the College
of Agriculture.
Through courtesy of the University of Minnesota and Merck and Com-
pany, Inc., investigations on the influence of a synthetic hormone on udder
development, lactation and reproduction was initiated in cooperation with
the Veterinary Division and the Nutrition Laboratory.
Eight cows qualified for the Jersey Register of Merit and Guernsey
Advanced Registry, as follows:

Age I Milk I Fat Fat
yrs. I mos. I pounds I percent pounds

Jerseys
Florida Victor Lassie 1021791 .... ... 7 | 10 12,644 4.28 541.66
Eminent Jubilee Peggy 1037952 .... 8 0 8,970 5.13 460.48
Florida Victor Winnie 1060099 ....... 6 11 9,957 5.02 500.32
Florida Victor Carrie 1060100 ....... 6 11 10,664 4.30 458.89
Florida Countess Fancy 1107881 .... 5 10 9,932 5.93 589.04
Florida Victor Bellas 1157363 ....... 4 4 7,930 5.33 422.37
Florida Victor Heiress M 1181921 .. 4 1 0 7,420 5.11 378.88
Guernseys
Klondike Koralee 599261 ................. 2 10 8,164 5.31 433


All of these cows except F. V. Heiress M 1181921 were milked thrice
daily.
Heifers in the Experiment Station dairy herd were tested during the
first lactation and again at approximately mature age to study the in-
heritance of producing ability.
Beef Cattle Herd.-Herds of purebred Aberdeen Angus and Herefords
and grade Herefords were maintained for experimental and instructional
purposes. The males in the grade herd were castrated and used in grazing
and fattening experiments. Females in all herds were kept for replace-
ments. The purebred bull calves showing superior conformation were
sold to cattlemen for herd sires.
The Swine Herd.-The swine herd consisting of purebred Duroc Jerseys
and Poland Chinas was maintained to furnish experimental animals for
projects on swine production and for use in classroom instruction. In







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


addition, a small herd of native Essex and Guinea sows was maintained
for experimental studies in cross-breeding.
Sheep.-A flock of sheep was maintained to furnish experimental ani-
mals for projects on fleece and mutton production, parasite control, and for
instructional purposes. The flock consisted of purebred Columbia sheep.
Meat Laboratory.-A refrigerator and a smoke house were constructed
to facilitate experimental work in preservation, processing and canning farm
meats.
The Nutrition Laboratory-A complete change in personnel during the
year delayed somewhat the research projects in progress. However, ex-
periments with rats, rabbits and cattle are now conducted under the various
federal and state projects. Analyses of feed and forage samples have
been brought up to date. Laboratory facilities are being improved and
expanded to meet the needs of research in animal nutrition as rapidly as
possible.
Dairy Products Laboratory.-The functions of the laboratory include
teaching and research in the field of dairy products manufacture. The
laboratory operates on a semi-comme'cial scale and provides facilities both
for teaching and experimental work.
Students in dairy manufacturing are encouraged to work part-time at
the laboratory during the school term to gain commercial experience.
This training qualifies them for work in dairy manufacturing plants or
to continue their training toward higher degrees here or at other institu-
tions.
The research included primarily the problems of dairymen and the dairy
manufacturing industry. The long-time projects include methods of preser-
vation of dairy products. These are essential because during normal times
Florida dairymen are confronted with a seasonal surplus of dairy products.
Short-time projects have included examination of methods and materials
to meet war-time emergencies in dairy plants brought about by shortages
of dairy products and other essential materials.
Poultry Laboratory.-Three breeds of chickens, Single Comb Rhode
Island Reds, Single Comb White Leghorns, and Light Sussex are kept on
the poultry farm. The entire flock is in the National Poultry Improvement
Plan which is supervised by the State Live Stock Sanitary Board and the
flock is listed as U. S. Florida Certified and "Pullorum Disease Clean".
Eleven hundred pullets and hens were housed in laying quarters in the
fall of 1942. These birds were used for experimental feeding trials,
breeding work and laboratory assignments to students of the College of
Agriculture.
During the spring of 1943, approximately 5,000 chicks were hatched
and used in experimental feeding trials, growth studies of different breeds
and of a cross breed, and to produce pullets for future feeding and manage-
ment trials.
Cooperative experimental work was continued at the West Central
Florida Station, as shown under the report of that station. Experimental
feeding trials were continued at the Florida National Egg-Laying Test.
The staff members of the Poultry Division served as federal egg graders,
inspecting eggs purchased by the Food Distribution Administration, and
rendered assistance in locating and establishing these egg buying stations
during the flush egg production period of the spring of 1943. State-wide
conferences were held at the poultry Laboratory concerning these govern-
ment programs.
Rate of Growth of Chickens.-Studies in sex-linked inheritance were
continued during the past year, using silver plumage color carried by the







Annual Report, 1943


Light Sussex fowl. This color is a sex-linked dominant character. Com-
parative growth weights were obtained for hen and pullet chicks of the
Light Sussex and for pullet chicks of Single Comb Rhode Island Reds,
Single Comb White Leghorns and Single Comb Rhode Island Red x Light
Sussex crossbred chicks. This initial weight and the weights of the cockerels
and pullets at 10 weeks of age are shown in Table 4.

TABLE 4.-COMPARATIVE GROWTH OF HEN AND PULLET CHICKS FOR THE
VARIOUS BREEDS STUDIED.
Source of Eggs .
Hatched for Experi- Av. Initial Weight I Weight at 10 wks.
mental Birds Trial I Trial II Trial I Trial II
grams grams grams grams

Light Sussex pullets .. 38.64 37.46 cockerel 981.10 968.27
pullet 930.90 846.23

Light Sussex hens ........ 42.20 41.59 cockerel 1,079.43 967.81
pullet 930.87 895.17

L. S. x R. I. R. pullets 37.22 37.16 cockerel 1,021.56 969.12
I pullet 887.95 836.79
S. C. White Leghorn
pullets ..--...................- 40.21 39.60 cockerel 959.91 907.00
pullet 779.17 727.64
S. C. Rhode Island Red
pullets -......... 38.17 37.56 cockerel 1,025.67 938.88
pullet 877.94 750.85


Chicks from Light Sussex hens were heavier than those from Light
Sussex pullets at hatching time and at 10 weeks of age.
Veterinary Laboratory.-The veterinarians in this department made
diagnoses on numerous diseased chickens and other farm animals sent or
brought to the Veterinary Laboratory by poultrymen, farmers and cattle-
men. Many specimens of blood and other tissues were sent to the labora-
tory by veterinarians for examination.

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CATTLE
A. ANIMAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND BEEF CATTLE PHASE
Purnell Project 133 G. K. Davis, R. S. Glasscock, W. G. Kirk,
S. P. Marshall and R. W. Kidder
A field survey of some of the areas in the state where mineral deficiency
symptoms have occurred was made, including areas of muck land in the
Lake Okeechobee region and range lands in Hardee, Pinellas, Manatee,
Sarasota, Hillsborough, Volusia and Suwannee counties. Definite symptoms
have been located on the muck lands near Okeechobee and certain minerals
are being given to determine the cause of these symptoms.
Ten cattle which were suffering from "salt sick" were placed on experi-
ment at the Range Cattle Station. Blood samples from these animals are
being analyzed at the Nutrition Laboratory and the animals are being
fed and managed in such a way as to indicate the function of individual
minor elements in the correction of the deficiencies which may be concerned
in the production of "salt sick".
One lot of cattle of various ages has been placed on experiment at the







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Everglades Station and these cattle are being fed and managed so as to
provide a means of studying the deficiency condition known as "paces".
Blood samples have been taken from range cattle showing deficiency
symptoms, in central Florida. In past years it has been impossible to
graze cattle continuously on this range. Chemical studies are being made
of this blood.
B. DAIRY PHASE
R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and D. A. Sanders
Observations are continuing on the relation of mineral consumption to
reproduction with dairy animals. Wartime conditions, creating a scarcity
of bonemeal, have necessitated search for a safe quality of defluorinated
phosphate as a substitute. In absence of bonemeal, the content of marble
dust in the mixed dairy concentrates has been changed to 1.5 percent, in
place of 1.0 percent as previously used to provide adequate calcium.

RELATION OF CONFORMATION AND ANATOMY OF DAIRY COW
TO HER MILK AND BUTTERFAT PRODUCTION '
State Project 140 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, R. S. Glasscock,
G. K. Davis and S. P. Marshall
Changes in leadership because of military service and resignations de-
layed work on this project. One cow past usefulness in the dairy herd was
measured for body conformation. Nine lactations and calving records
were concerned with the record of this cow. This animal was the 49th
contributed to this project.

ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project 213 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
G. K. Davis and S. P. Marshall
Citrus molasses at 2 and 4 percent levels was used in ensiling Napier
grass, a non-saccharine grass, in 2 experimental silos. A third silo was
filled with Napier grass without the addition of citrus molasses. Jersey
cattle preferred the Napier silage containing 2 percent citrus molasses.
The silage containing 4 percent citrus molasses was second choice while
that containing no molasses was less palatable than the other 2. Pigeon
pea forage was ensilaged with 4 percent citrus molasses. This silage was
less palatable than the silages from Napier grass.
These forages, furnished by the Department of Agronomy, ensiled well
with the molasses additions.

COOPERATIVE FIELD STUDIES WITH BEEF AND DUAL-PURPOSE
CATTLE 11
State Project 216 A. L. Shealy, R. S. Glasscock and W. G. Kirk
The importance of using purebred sires on grade and native cows has
been studied in this project. Work was conducted in cooperation with
cattlemen in the central and southern parts of the state. Calves were
graded as "slaughter calves". The grades on 87 calves were as follows:
16 "Good", 49 "Medium", and 22 "Common". The cattlemen cooperating
on this project made a practice of selling the grade offspring as vealers
and calves. The foundation herds of breeding cows were wintered on pas-
tures alone.
10 In cooperation with Div. of Dairy Cattle Breeding, Feeding and Management, B. D. I.
11In cooperation with Div. of Animal Husbandry. B. A. I.







Annual Report, 1943


ETIOLOGY OF FOWL PARALYSIS, LEUKEMIA, AND ALLIED
CONDITIONS IN ANIMALS
State Project 251 M. W. Emmel
Experiments on the nature and mechanism of hemocytoblastosis in
chickens have been continued. These have involved the use of tissue frac-
tions and extracts the isolation of which has been reported previously.
The work has not progressed sufficiently for definite conclusions to be
drawn.

PLANTS POISONOUS TO LIVESTOCK
State Project 258 D. A. Sanders and M. W. Emmel
The death of several purebred Brahman bulls on a range in Pasco
County during the fall of 1942 was attributed to eating foliage of Lantana
camera L., an ornamental plant that had become established in the pasture.
Affected animals were weak and walked with a swaying gait. The skin
of the muzzle became dry, icteric and necrotic. Constipation occurred when
animals ate a small amount of the plant. When large amounts were con-
sumed severe diarrhea developed and deaths often occurred.
Cockle-bur poisoning was observed in 4 herds of hogs during the year.
Crotalaria poisoning in hogs and cattle was diagnosed on several occasions.
(See also PLANT PATHOLOGY Proj. 258.)

STUDIES IN FLEECE AND MUTTON PRODUCTION "
State Project 274 R. S. Glasscock
Studies have been made with regard to density, length, uniformity of
crimp, character and weight of fleeces produced by purebred Columbia
sheep. The weight and grade of lambs have also been observed.
Yearling sheep were graded with regard to mutton type, and slaughter
grades were estimated for the lambs.

A STUDY OF NAPIER GRASS FOR PASTURE PURPOSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 302 R. S. Glasscock, R. B. Becker
and P. T. Dix Arnold
A. Animal Husbandry Phase.-Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum
Schumach) was grazed rotationally during the entire grazing season to
determine its value for carrying capacity and for fattening cattle. Studies
also were conducted to determine its value for wintering cows. It was
shown that Napier grass has a high carrying capacity and that it has
great possibilities for fattening steers and as a source of reserve feed
for the entire herd. Trials have been discontinued temporarily until a pure
strain of Napier grass is developed and established sufficiently for grazing.
(See also AGRONOMY Proj. 302.)
B. Dairy Phase.-The fifth grazing season started May 11, 1942. Dur-
ing the 174-day period (May 11 to October 31) 16 different Jersey cows
were used on the pasture area for a total of 1,600 cow-days. The area
consisted of 8 acres divided into 5 lots for rotational grazing. Average
production per cow for this period was 20.4 pounds of milk and 1.0 pound
of butterfat daily. By inverse calculation it was found that the cows
obtained 65.97 percent of their total digestible nutrient requirements from
Napier grass and 34.03 percent from concentrates fed at milking time.
12 In cooperation with the Div. of Animal Husbandry, B. A. I.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


A STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEM-
PERATURE AND EGG WEIGHT (SIZE), BODY WEIGHT AND EGG
WEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT AND PRODUCTION, AGE AND EGG
WEIGHT OF SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORN PULLETS
State Project 307 0. K. Moore and N. R. Mehrhof
The egg and mortality data tabulated from records of the Florida
National Egg-Laying Test for 1939-40 and 1940-41 indicate the importance
of pauses in egg production prior to death. The results indicate that 92.7
percent of all birds that died had an average death pause of 36.8 days.
Persistent birds showed very low mortality from May 1 to September
22. Non-persistent birds showed relatively high mortality during this
period.
These data indicate that birds should be culled rigidly from May
through September.

POULTRY BREEDING
State Project 309 N. R. Mehrhof and 0. K. Moore
This project is closed with this report. Data are being summarized and
manuscripts prepared giving results secured.

THE VITAMIN CONTENT OF SHARK LIVER OIL
State Project 320 George K. Davis and N. R. Mehrhqf
Data of previous work have been summarized and published as Tech-
nical Bulletin 385. The project has been completed.

DIFFERENT METHODS OF FEEDING GRAIN TO LAYERS
State Project 337 N. R. Mehrhof, F. M. Dennis, O. K. Moore
and A. W. O'Steen
Ad libitum feeding of a mash containing 20, 26 and 32 percent protein
and grain was compared to ad libitum feeding of a 20 percent protein mash
and grain fed once a day in the late afternoon.
Protein intakes of the 4 different lots were approximately the same.
There was little difference in body weights of the birds in the 4 lots.
This project has been completed and a manuscript is being prepared
from the data obtained.

THE USE OF MOLASSES FOR FATTENING STEERS
State Project 339 W. G. Kirk
Data from this project were assembled and a manuscript is being
prepared for publication. This project has been completed.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY
AND DEPRECIATION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and A. H. Spurlock
(In cooperation with Department of Agricultural Economics)
Records of reproduction, inventory and losses were obtained from 10
herds, 1 large herd having been added during the year. A decided upward
trend in salvage values of discarded cows is reflected in the annual in-
ventory value of all animals.
A summary of bull records in relation to average useful life-span, and







Annual Report, 1943


causes of losses from service was made during the year. The percent
of dairy bulls going out of service from natural causes at a given age was
found from the records available to be as follows:

Number of bulls in Age in Number going Percent going
service years out of service out of service

1,811 1 and 2 36 2.0
1,775 3 47 2.7
1,728 4 80 4.6
1,648 5 90 5.5
1,558 6 128 8.2
1,430 7 158 11.1
1,272 8 192 15.1
1,080 9 182 16.9
898 10 236 26.3
662 11 205 31.0
457 12 170 37.2
287 13 145 50.5
142 14 78 54.9
64 15 34 53.1
| 16 and over 30 ......

INVESTIGATION WITH LABORATORY ANIMALS ON MINERAL
NUTRITION PROBLEMS IN LIVESTOCK
Purnell Project 346 G. K. Davis and S. P. Marshall
The rat and rabbit colonies have been increased to provide animals for
experimental work dealing particularly with nutritional anemia due to
the deficiencies of iron and copper as seen in Florida livestock. Rations
as nearly identical as possible to those fed to cattle have been devised for
rat and rabbit feeding. Problems which are now being studied should
make it possible to identify deficiencies of large animals with more cer-
tainty than has been possible in the past.
ROTATIONAL GRAZING AND INTERNAL PARASITES
IN SHEEP PRODUCTION
State Project 350 R. S. Glasscock
Phenothiazine was used as an anthelmintic in connection with pasture
rotation for the control of internal parasites of sheep. Studies were con-
ducted at the North Florida and Main stations. The drug was administered
in capsules and also by mixing into the feed in the ratio of 1 in 10 parts
of feed.
Phenothiazine has proved to be a valuable drug but should not be relied
upon as the sole means of control. Pasture rotation and proper manage-
ment are essential, in addition to phenothiazine treatment, for the control
of internal parasites of sheep.

CALCAREOUS MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR POULTRY FEEDING
State Project 352 N. R. Mehrhof and O. K. Moore
Clam, coquina and oyster shells were found to be satisfactory sources
of calcium for egg production.
Single Comb White Leghorts used in these trials consumed approxi-
mately the same amounts of the different shells. No significant differences
were noted in the breaking strength or the shell thickness of eggs produced
by birds fed the different calcareous supplements. These data were re-
ported in Press Bulletin 575. This project has been completed.







58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

INFECTIOUS BOVINE MASTITIS
Purnell Project 353 D. A. Sanders
A mastitis control and eradication program based upon sanitary methods
of herd management to prevent spread of the infection is being undertaken
in several dairies. The program involves detection of infected udders by
laboratory tests, disposal of unprofitable animals having marked udder
fibrosis, grouping or segregating the less severely infected cows in the
herd, and treatment of these diseased udders to destroy the foci of infection
before extensive fibrotic lesions occur in the glandular tissues. A process
of suspending sulfanilamide in plain or iodized mineral oil has been de-
veloped which results in a preparation suitable for injecting into the udder.
Intramammary injections of sulfanilamide suspension have proved this
drug to be a valuable chemotherapeutic agent for streptococcic mastitis in
lactating or dry udders and in acute or chronic infections. Outbreaks of
acute infectious mastitis may be reduced to a low incidence within a com-
paratively short period by application of this program. Results obtained
from use of sulfanilamide suspensions in the treatment of mastitis were
based upon improvement of the clinical condition of cattle following
treatment of acute mastitis, upon macroscopic and microscopic appear-
ance of milk from treated udders and upon cultural examination of milk
samples to detect the organisms.
Application of this program in herds affected with infectious mastitis
prevents further spread of the disease, reduces the incidence of infection,
lowers the bacterial content of the milk, preserves and in many instances
restores the productiveness of valuable dairy cattle.

BIOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF PASTURE HERBAGE
Bankhead-Jones Project 356 G. K. Davis, S. P. Marshall
and R. E. Blaser
Samples were collected from selected pastures and schedules were ar-
ranged for obtaining pasture grasses from conditions comparable to those
which would be grazed by animals. Chemical analyses have been con-
ducted on some of the samples to determine a standard basis for comparison
and evaluation of the material which is to be tested biologically. In con-
nection with Purnell Project 346 the animal colonies have been increased
and the animals prepared for experiment.

PROCESSING, STORAGE AND UTILIZATION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
AND BY-PRODUCTS TO MEET WAR TIME FOOD
NEEDS AND LIMITATIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 360 T. R. Freeman and E. L. Fouts
The second year's study of the stability of Florida milk to the develop-
ment of oxidized flavor has been completed. The results of this year's work
indicate that the defect was most serious from January to March and least
objectionable in September and October. No "spontaneous" oxidized milk
was obtained in the course of the 12 months' investigation. It is concluded
that the occurrence of oxidized flavor in market milk is a minor problem
in Florida.
Results from the second experiment dealing with the storage of frozen
cream justify the following conclusions: Frozen cream produced and
stored under commercial conditions may be held 12 months without develop-
ment of oxidized or other objectionable flavor. Avenex is an effective
antioxidant in frozen cream containing 1.5 p.p.m. added copper, whereas
Avenex concentrate is ineffective under like conditions.







Annual Report, 1943


An investigation is in progress to study seasonal variations in the ten-
dency of frozen cream to become oxidized during storage and to evaluate
a modified Ritter test for predicting keeping quality of frozen cream.
Preliminary experiments on methods of storing condensed whole milk
were completed during the year. Although the results indicate that plain
and sweetened condensed whole milk can be stored 12 months without
developing oxidized or other off flavors, further study is needed to justify
making definite recommendations.
Results of trials dealing with the storage of cottage cheese indicate
that this product can be stored successfully as long as 8 weeks by sub-
merging the uncreamed curd in 4 percent sodium brine and holding it at
35" F.
Methods of storing casein for subsequent use in ice cream were investi-
gated. It was found that casein can be stored at 350 F. for 5 to 8 weeks
with no mold growth or putrefaction if 0.2 percent sodium propionate is
added before it is placed in storage. Without sodium propionate the
storage period is reduced to about 2 weeks. Casein can be stored at 0 F.
for as long as a year without the use of a mold inhibitor.
The following products were investigated as possible substitutes for
a portion of the milk-solids-not-fat in ice cream: corn starch, farina, wheat
flour, soybean flour, cottonseed flour, peanut flour and peanut proteins.
Of these, general purpose wheat flour proved to be most satisfactory.
Certain commercial preparations were also tested; although more expen-
sive, they were not superior to wheat flour.
LONGEVITY OF EGGS AND LARVAE OF INTERNAL
PARASITES OF CATTLE
State Project 387 Leonard E. Swanson
This project was inactive during the year.
MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR FATTENING HOGS ON PEANUTS
State Project 388 J. E. Pace and R. S. Glasscock
Duroc Jersey and Poland China feeder pigs were used to hog-off 4
2-acre plots of Florida Runner peanuts. The pigs were divided as uniformly
as possible into 4 lots. Lot 1 received no mineral supplement; Lot 2
received sodium chloride only; Lot 3 received sodium chloride and calcium
carbonate in equal amounts; Lot 4 received the complete mineral mixture
recommended by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station--steamed
bonemeal 50 pounds, marble dust 50 pounds, common salt 25 pounds, red
oxide of iron 25 pounds, copper sulfate 1 pound, and cobalt chloride 2 ounces.
Lot 1 produced -08pounds of pork per acre; Lot 2, 279 pounds; Lot 3, $
392 pounds and Lot 4 which received the complete mineral mixture pro-
duced 466 pounds per acre.
EFFECT OF CERTAIN FEEDS ON MILK FLAVOR
State Project 394 E. L. Fouts and P. T. Dix Arnold
Four Jersey cows were selected for feeding trials in which certain
feeds were used to determine their effect on milk flavor. The cows were
chosen for uniformity on the basis of age, breed and stage of lactation.
The feeds used were Napier silage, Alyce clover and citrus molasses.
These 4 cows were placed on a dry lot for several days under con-
trolled feeding conditions. On the days the milk was sampled for flavor
scoring the cows were given their morning feed but were not permitted to
consume any more feeds until after the evening milking. On other days
the cows were given the feeds in question 2 hours before milking. Samples
of milk were scored for flavor by 3 judges.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The average score of the samples of milk when no feed was consumed
before milking was 38.3; when Napier was fed, 36.5; Alyce clover, 36.5,
and citrus molasses, 37.1.
The slight reductions in the flavor scores of the milk due to the use
of these 3 feeds are not considered to be important. It is felt that if these
feeds were given after milking little if any reduction from the normal
score would be noted.
LIQUID SKIMMILK AND SHELLED CORN AS A LAYING RATION
State Project 406 N. R. Mehrhof, F. M. Dennis,
O. K. Moore and A. W. O'Steen
This project was started in October. New Hampshire pullets were
divided into 3 lots and fed as follows: Lot I, liquid skimmilk ad libitum
and shelled corn once a day in the afternoon; Lot II, liquid skimmilk and
ground oats ad libitum and shelled corn once a day in the afternoon;
and Lot III, Florida National Egg-Laying Test egg mash ad libitum, moist
regular mash at noon, and grain mixture in the late afternoon.
Preliminary data show little difference in production between Lots I
and II, but both were below Lot III. The body weights were about the
same. However, in Lot II mortality was double that of Lots I and III.

CONDENSED BUTTERMILK IN LAYING RATIONS
State Project 407 N. R. Mehrhof, F. M. Dennis,
O. K. Moore and A. W. O'Steen
This project studies the value of condensed buttermilk in a moist mash
as a supplement to the egg ration in use at the Florida National Egg-
Laying Test. New Hampshire pullets were divided into 2 lots. Lot I
receives the regular egg mash moistened with water, while Lot II receives
the regular egg mash moistened with condensed buttermilk. Otherwise
the rations were identical.
For the first 8 28-day periods the birds in Lot II produced a few more
eggs than those in Lot I. Mortality in Lot II was slightly higher than in
Lot I. The body weights of the pullets were about the same in each lot.

PEANUT MEAL IN POULTRY RATIONS
State Project 408 N. R. Mehrhof and O. K. Moore
Peanut meal was used in fattening rations for hens. Protein supple-
ments in these trials consisted of meat scraps, dried skimmilk, meat scraps
and peanut meal, and peanut meal. Better gains were obtained with the
birds fed meat scraps and peanut meal than those fed peanut meal as the
only protein supplement.
Four to 6 days appeared to be the optimum feeding period for fattening
hens.
Feeding trials were begun in October with Single Comb White Leghorn
pullets and Rhode Island Red pullets in which peanut meal was fed at
the levels of 7, 16 and 23 percent of the ration. Production was progres-
sively lower as percentage of peanut meal increased.
BEEF YIELD AND QUALITY FROM VARIOUS GRASSES, FROM
CLOVER AND GRASS MIXTURES, AND RESPONSE TO
FERTILIZED AND UNFERTILIZED CARPET GRASS
State Project 412 R. S. Glasscock, J. E. Pace and W. G. Kirk
Preliminary grazing trials conducted in cooperation with AGRONOMY
during 1942 included 2 pastures of mixed clovers and carpet grass, 2 of







Annual Report, 1943


fertilized carpet grass, 2 of unfertilized carpet grass and 2 of lespedeza.
The carpet grass and clover combination furnished 745 steer-grazing
days per acre with an average daily gain of 0.75 pounds per steer. The
total gain per acre for the entire grazing season was 556 pounds.
The fertilized carpet grass furnished 199 steer-grazing days per acre
with an average daily gain of 0.80 pounds per steer. The calculated gain
per acre was 159 pounds for the year.
The unfertilized carpet grass furnished 167 steer-grazing days per acre
with an average daily gain of 0.53 pounds per steer. The calculated gain
per acre was 88.5 pounds.
The carpet grass and lespedeza furnished 199 steer-grazing days with
an average daily gain of 0.90 pounds per steer. The total gain per acre
was 179 pounds.

PERIODIC INCREASE IN LIGHTING VERSUS CONTINUOUS
LIGHTING FOR LAYERS
State Project 414 0. K. Moore and N. R. Mehrhof
Two lots consisting of 50 birds each of Light Sussex pullets were used
in these trials to determine the amount of light most effective for egg
production. The experiment was begun October 10, 1942, and continued
until March 26, 1943.
In Lot I the experimental period was divided into 14-day intervals in
which a changing schedule of artificial light was used. The first interval
provided no light in addition to the normal length of day. The second
period provided artificial light from 5:00 A.M. until daylight, the third
from 3:00 A.M. until daylight, and this schedule of increasing light was
continued until the birds received continuous light.
In Lot II the birds were subject to continuous light for the full length
of the experiment.
The following data were obtained during these trials:
Lot I Lot II
2-hour increase
Schedule of light each 14 days All night
Mash consumption per bird ........................... 19.2 lbs. 20.0 lbs.
Grain consumption per bird .-.................-. 23.2 lbs. 24.4 lbs.
Total feed consumption per bird .................... 42.7 lbs. 44.4 lbs.
Total egg production per bird ........................ 84.4 lbs. 92.8 lbs.
Pounds of feed to produce a dozen eggs........ 6.0 lbs. 5.7 lbs.

DEFLUORINATED PHOSPHATE IN POULTRY RATIONS
Due to the effect of war upon feed supplies, steamed and raw bone meal
have become almost unavailable. Meat scraps and fish meal also have
been restricted in quantity, making it necessary to find a new source of
phosphorus.
Defluorinated phosphate made in Florida is being fed in graduated
quantities to 12 lots of Single Comb Rhode Island Red and S. C. White
Leghorn chicks. At 4 weeks of age no evidence of fluorine toxicity has
been encountered in any group. At the highest level of feeding, defluori-
nated phosphate constituted 5.3 percent of the ration. (N. R. Mehrhof,
G. K. Davis, S. P. Marshall and 0. K. Moore.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ENTOMOLOGY

The numbers of inquiries on insect problems and the consequent cor-
respondence have been much greater than usual. This demand for in-
formation was occasioned by many who, without experience, were attempt-
ing to grow victory gardens and had great difficulty not only with insects
but also with root-knot. Most gardens and vacant lots are thoroughly
infested by nematodes.
Circulars were written to assist in the victory garden insect control
program and radio talks were given once a month. Information was ob-
tained and disseminated on substitutes for certain insecticides which are
now practically unavailable.

THE PEPPER WEEVIL--ITS BIOLOGY, DISTRIBUTION
AND CONTROL
State Project 263 J. R. Watson
This project was not active this year.

CONTROL OF THE NUT AND LEAF CASEBEARERS OF PECANS
State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
This project was continued at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory in
cooperation with the Division of Fruit Insect Investigations, Bu. of Ent.
and Plant Quar., U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Winter washes and insecti-
cide sprays were used. Straitar, 85 percent tar oil, again yielded favorable
results as a killing agent for the pecan casebearers while in their hiber-
nacula. Results obtained with dinitro-o-cresol and also with lime-sulfur
were not very encouraging. Several insecticides were used about April 1
against the overwintered brood of the casebearers while they were feeding
on the buds. Nicotine sulfate was apparently most effective at that date.
The nicotine sulfate-oil spray continued to be the most effective insecti-
cide used in experiments for control of first generation nut casebearer.
Lead and calcium arsenates were used against the summer broods of the
casebearers with good results. These insecticides were applied in com-
bination with bordeaux mixture, which gave good control of foliage diseases.
Good control of webworm and walnut caterpillar also was obtained with
these sprays.

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF CUTWORMS AND ARMYWORMS
IN FLORIDA
State Project 380 A. N. Tissot
The granulate cutworm, Feltia subterranean (F.), was the most preva-
lent species during the past year. It caused considerable damage to lettuce,
celery, Irish potatoes, tomatoes and other crops in several parts of the
state. A practical method was devised for rearing large numbers of cut-
worm larvae for use in bait tests and other experiments. Preliminary
control experiments with poison baits were made in an attempt to find
satisfactory substitutes for paris green. Wheat bran was used in all the
baits, the insecticides being used in the proportions of 1 to 50 and 1 to 25.
Applications were made at a rate equivalent to 40 pounds per acre. After
4 days paris green 1:50 gave a mortality of 68 and 1:25 gave 98 percent
mortality. Dutox (barium fluosilicate 72 percent, sodium fluoaluminate 8
percent) was fully as effective as paris green, the 1:50 and 1:25 mixtures







Annual Report, 1943


producing mortalities of 75 and 100 percent, respectively. Natural cryolite
(90 percent cryolite) was slightly less effective, the 1:50 and 1:25 mix-
tures giving kills of 72 and 80 percent, respectively. Other materials
tested gave mortalities as follows: sodium silicofluoride 1:25, 6 percent;
lead arsenate 1:50, 58 percent; 1:25, 60 percent; calcium arsenate 1:25, 12
percent; manganese arsenate 1:25, 31 percent. Phenothiazine 1:50 and
1:25 caused no mortality, although all the bait was eaten by the larvae.
(See also CELERY INVESTIGATIONS and VEGETABLE CROPS
LABORATORIES Proj. 380.)
PROPAGATION OF LARRA WASPS FOR THE CONTROL
OF MOLE-CRICKETS
State Project 381 J. R. Watson
Little work was done on this project during the past year. It was im-
possible to obtain wasps of either Larra americana Saussure from Puerto
Rico or Larra analis Fab. from Louisiana. Good sized beds of species of
Hyptis and Boerreria were raised and collections were made of the wasps
visiting their blossoms in an effort to determine whether Larra analis might
already be in the region; none were found. Both of these plants were
frozen in the wintertime and came up again in the spring, Hyptis from
roots, Borreria from seed. Neither showed any tendency to spread far.
Apparently further attempts to introduce these wasps must be deferred
until after the war.
ROOT-KNOT IN TOBACCO FIELDS
State Project 382 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
This project was undertaken to aid the Agronomy Department in de-
termining what occurs to root-knot infestations when land is allowed to
grow up in weeds for 2 years following a crop of cigarette tobacco. Of
the 83,627 plants examined for root-knot 62,626 were of host species. The
tract covered consisted of 13 acres of a so-called high-pine-turkey-oak
area, typical for growing tobacco. During the first 2 years all plants
growing on representative plots were examined; during the past year,
because of the time and labor involved, attention was given chiefly to
species which had previously been found to be hosts and to those plants
immediately surrounding those found to be infested this year. The object
of the examination of the surrounding plants was to discover other hosts.
A comparison of the amount of root-knot on the plots showed a marked
diminution after 1 and after 2 years of fallow; but, on tobacco after 2 years
of fallow there was still an appreciable infestation. In all, 25 species of
weeds growing on the plots have been found to be hosts of root-knot pro-
ducing nematodes to a greater or lesser extent. On some only a small
amount of root-knot occurred, or only a small percentage of the plants
showed any root-knot at all. Other species were quite generally and
heavily infested. Of the total number examined only 4.1 percent were
found to harbor root-knot. Of the 62,626 plants of the species found to
have root-knot, which were examined, only 5.4 percent of these actually
had root-knot; the other 95 percent probably escaped attack. The plants
found most commonly and abundantly infested were, in order: (1) Lupinus
villosus Willd. with 53.8 percent of the plants infested; (2) prickly pear
(Opuntia spp.) 50 percent; (3) Mexican clover (Richardia brasiliensis
(Moq.) Gomez,) 49.6 percent; (4) pokeberry, Phytolacca rigida Small,
14.6 percent. Apparently, a comparatively small number of the weeds
growing in this plot were responsible for the carryover of the nematodes.
The lupine was eradicated easily; it was pulled and left to die on top
of the soil; no plants were found in the following 2 years. Prickly pear,







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


however, had to be dug and carried from the field. The destruction of the
Mexican clover is complicated because there are 2 species with similar
above-ground parts but different roots. R. brasiliensis, the host plant, has
a fleshy root while the more common and not susceptible R. scabra St. Hil.
has a fibrous root system. Probably the most practical plan in eradicating
these hosts would be to dig and remove both species. Pokeberry would
need to be removed from the plots as it also would, in many cases like
Mexican clover, take root if left on top of the ground. The most common
host of root-knot in the plots is Isopappus divaricatus (Nutt.) T. and G.
but only 15 plants of 9,266 examined were found to be infested. The second
most abundant host was a species of fleabane, Erigeron, but only 5 plants
were observed to be infested of 7,860 plants examined.
BREEDING VEGETABLE PLANTS RESISTANT
TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES
State Project 383 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
The attempt to develop strains of vegetable crops resistant to root-
knot was continued. The most marked success resulted with Conch cow-
peas. Approximately 3 acres of these were planted this year to provide
seed for distribution. A high percentage of the plants of this strain was
found entirely free of root-knot when harvested in the fall of 1942.
The strains of lettuce, both Iceberg and Big Boston types, which showed
considerable resistance are again being tried and selected for further re-
sistance. Plantings of roselle, okra, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant and
papaya are under observation to find nematode-resistant strains.

BIOLOGY AND TOXONOMY OF THE THYSANOPTERA OF FLORIDA
State Project 384 J. R. Watson
Investigation of the ecological distribution, habits, seasonal distribution
and economic importance of the various species of thysanoptera in Florida
was continued. Several new species were added to the list of Florida
thysanoptera, 1 of which is of economic importance.

EFFECT OF MULCHES ON THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES
State Project 385 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
In the field an attempt was made on 6 plots to determine the depth of
mulch necessary to control root-knot by applying it in 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and
12-inch depths. Two plots were left as checks. In addition to lettuce and
okra, which were grown successfully under mulch last year, peas, squash
and cucumbers were similarly grown this year. In the greenhouse investi-
gations were conducted on 2 series of pots. Here the roots of all mulched
plants were about as badly knotted as those of the unmulched plants. Both
okra and tomatoes made good growth and bore as good a crop of fruit
as could be expected in an 8-inch pot, whereas those in the check pots
died before reaching the fruiting stage.
CONTROL OF THE FLORIDA FLOWER THRIPS
State Project 386 J. R. Watson
No heavy infestations of the Florida flower thrips developed in the
spring; even wisteria, usually heavily infested, was almost free.
There was a considerable infestation on chrysanthemums in the fall
of 1942. Sodium antimonyl hydroacetate was tried out as a substitute
for tartar emetic with good results. Apparently it was a safer material
to be used in the bait than tartar emetic but further work is necessary
before conclusions can be drawn.







Annual Report, 1943


HOME ECONOMICS

During the fiscal year 2 phases of work were undertaken: A study of
the nutritional status of children in relation to diet, and the determination
of vitamins and carotene in Florida-grown fruits and vegetables.
Dietary studies made during the year indicate that many children do
not have enough vitamin C and carotene in their food to supply even the
minimum requirement. Results of vitamin determinations show that the
range of carotene or vitamin C concentration in samples of different va-
rieties of fruit and vegetables may be considerable. This suggests that
varietal selection, especially of vegetables, offers an immediate means
of increasing these factors in the diet.

VITAMIN A ACTIVITY OF FOODS
Purnell Project 358 R. B. French and 0. D. Abbott
The determination of carotene and vitamin A by chemical, spectrophoto-
mic and biological procedure has continued. During the year the acces-
sories that permit determination of absorption at 328 millimicrons have
been in operation. The results of carotene analyses as obtained by the
spectrophotomic method are reported in terms of micrograms per 100
grams of samples as follows:

Lot 1 (Furnished by the College of Agriculture)
Carrots: Varieties- Nantes, 4,570; Imperator, 5,150.
Beet: Variety--Blood Red Market, 60.
Snap beans: Varieties -Plentiful, 157; Tendergreen, 256; Valentine,
279; Bountiful, 276; Kentucky Wonder, 409.
Summer squash: Varieties Table Queen, 164; Early Prolific, 67; Coco-
zelle, 16.
Pepper: Variety Florida Giant, 89.
Onion: Variety White Silver Skin, none.
Lot 2 (Obtained from Day, Lafayette County)
Corn: Variety -Yellow Dent, 76.
Field peas: Variety -Sugar Crowder, 247.
Peppers: Variety--Florida Giant, 288.
Cucumbers: Variety--White Spine, none.
Lot 3 (Obtained from Main Station)
Lambsquarter (Chenopodium alba L.) 4,760; pokeweed (Phytolacca
rigida Small), 5,270; Crotalaria spectabilis Roth, 46,700; coffee weed
(Cassia tora L.), 57,500.
Lot 4 (Furnished by the Vegetable Crops Laboratory)
Tomatoes: (11 varieties from experimental plots) ranging from 2,228 to
4,084 (average 2,908) micrograms.
This year only 6 of the 30 varieties of tomatoes analyzed last year were
available. Of these comparisons 4 showed excellent agreement, but in the
other 2 the carotene was considerably lower than the value obtained last
year while the vitamin C was considerably higher. A point plot of carotene
against vitamin C suggested that there may be a reverse correlation between
these 2 factors at lower levels of carotene or, conversely, at higher levels
of vitamin C.
Absorption coefficients indicated that the proportions of carotene found








66 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

in tomatoes differ somewhat from those usually found in most plants.
Emphasis should be placed on the fact that tomatoes are one of the best
food sources of carotene or pro-vitamin A.
Graded levels of vitamin A were fed to rats over a period of a year
and weight and differential leucocyte counts were made throughout the
experimental period. Vitamin A concentrate was administered at weekly
intervals to different groups at the following levels: 200, 100, 50, 30, 20, 15,
and 10 I. U. All animals on the 2 highest levels were alive at the end of
the experiment, while those on the lowest soon died. The longevity of the
intermediate groups depended upon the amount of concentrate intake.
The rats still alive at the end of the experiment were given a large dose
of either carotene or vitamin A concentrate. In each case a relatively
large increase in weight resulted.
All rats in this experiment, including those that were given a stock
diet, started in with low reserves of vitamin A. Though they were started
on the regimen when they were about 45 days of age, already their' weights
had begun to plateau. During the next month the average size of the
large lymphocytes increased rapidly. Thereafter, the average size of the
large lymphocytes of rats on stock diet and higher levels of vitamin A
tended to be smaller than those of rats on the lower levels. In most cases
a slow, steady increase in the average size of lymphocytes continued to
the end of the experiment. Naturally, as the rats increased in weight there
was a proportionate decrease in quantity of concentrate intake per kilogram
of body weight.

VITAMIN C IN FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Purnell Project 359 R. B. French and O. D. Abbott
Vitamin C determinations were made according to methods outlined
previously, namely the use of the dye 2- 6 dichlorobenzenonindophenol
where color did not interfere with the usual end point of the titration, and
the dye and the photolometer where color interfered.
In the following samples vitamin C is reported in terms of milligrams
per 100 grams of sample:

Lot 1 (Furnished by the College of Agriculture)
Carrots: Varieties- Nantes, 4.4 milligrams; Imperator, 4.9.
Snap beans: Varieties Plentiful, 3.5; Tendergreen, 20.9; Valentine,
17.00; Bountiful, 26.3; Kentucky Wonder, 14.60.
Summer squash: Varieties Table Queen, 5.10; Early Prolific, 5.70;
Cocozelle, 3.60.
Beet: Variety--Blood Red Market, 8.00.
Onion: Variety -White Silver Skin, 3.40.
Pepper: Variety- Florida Giant, 27.00.

Lot 2 (Obtained from Day, Lafayette County)
Corn: Variety -Yellow Dent, 28.5.
Peas: Variety -Sugar Crowder, 48.8.
Cucumbers: Variety- White Spine, 5.5.
Green Peppers: Variety--Florida Giant, 13.5.

Lot 3 (Obtained from Main Station)
Lambsquarter (Chenopodium alba), 1,145.
Pokeberry (Phytolacca rigida), 1,195.
Crotalaria spectabilis, 240.
Coffee weed (Cassia tora), 412.







Annual Report, 1943


Lot 4 (Furnished by the Vegetable Crops Laboratory)
Tomatoes: 11 varieties ranging from 15.5 to 22.5 and averaging 18.5.
The high food value of lambsquarter is worthy of special attention.
Because of the fine flavor and the high values of both vitamin C and caro-
tene, lambsquarter ranks alongside the most desirable and nutritious
greens. This plant is easily grown and could soon become a green of
considerable commercial importance.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
OF ROYAL JELLY
Purnell Project 370 R. B. French and 0. D. Abbott
It has been impossible to obtain royal jelly this season. Several feeding
tests were performed with royal jelly left from the preceding season.

RELATION OF THE SCHOOL LUNCH TO CHILD HEALTH
AND PROGRESS
Purnell Project 396 0. D. Abbott, Ruth O. Townsend and R. B. French;
C. F. Ahmann, M.D., Consultant
Since beginning this study early in 1942, 1,244 children in 9 schools in
2 counties have been examined; food records obtained from the 633 children
attending 6 of these schools; and special attention and study given the
children in 2 of them. In School 1 the planning and preparation of the
noon meal were directly under the supervision of the Department. Special
food and vitamin and iron concentrates were given children with symptoms
of gross malnutrition. When indicated, hookworm treatments were ad-
ministered by the physician and arrangements were made for surgery and
medical care. This part of the study was begun under Project 255 and
has been in operation for 3 years. In School 2 the children were examined
at the beginning and near the close of the term by the project leaders,
who acted only in an advisory capacity in regard to health and lunch
room problems. School 3 had no lunch room and the children in this
school served as controls.
Nutritional Status.-The nutritional status of the children was deter-
mined by physical examinations and haematological tests for anemia and
vitamin A deficiency. These examinations indicated that defects of chil-
dren in the various schools differ only in degree and not in kind. As re-
ported several times previously, common defects of rural children in
Florida are anemia, conjunctivitis, gingivitis, caries, heart and skeletal
abnormalities, and enlarged and diseased tonsils. Defects of the heart
are the most serious. This heart condition is functional and appears to
be associated with anemia. In one school 13 percent of the children had
heart defects and 63 percent of them were anemic; in another, in the same
county, less than 2 percent of the children were affected and only 25 per-
cent were anemic. It was observed also that the incidence of gingivitis
varied from 25 percent for children in the citrus growing section to 76
percent in children living without the section. In 6 of the schools more
than 70 percent of the children had eye defects traceable, for the most
part, to malnutrition while in the same schools the incidence of caries
varied from 78 to 91 percent.
Dietary Studies.-In the organization of the data on diets it was found
that all the individual items could be tabulated under 5 recognized food
types or classes. A numerical value was given each class and in this way
it was possible to compare the diets of individuals or groups with the
accepted standards of adequacy. A score of 40 was considered necessary







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


for an adequate breakfast and one of 50 or above for an adequate mid-day
or evening meal. By a comparison of scores and the frequency with which
certain protective foods were served it was found that the school lunch
provided a more nearly adequate and balanced meal than either of the
meals served at home. The scores for the noon meal in the 6 schools were
63, 61, 57, 52, 42, and 41. In the homes only 5 percent of the children had
an adequate supper and 19 percent an adequate breakfast. Meals of ques-
tionable adequacy were served at home to from 50 to 60 percent of the
children and grossly deficient ones to more than 30 percent. The protective
foods--milk, butter, eggs, and citrus fruits--were used daily by less
than 10 percent of the group and were not used at all by more than 50
percent. Yellow and green vegetables, because of their use by more than
67 percent of the children, were the best sources of both minerals and
vitamins.
Nutritional Studies.-Effects of 3 years of better food on the children
in School 1 were apparent. They were shown by unusual increases in
physical measurements and developmental age, improvement in general
health, school attendance and progress. With the exception of the children
who entered school this year, both anemia and gingivitis has decreased
from 56 to 73 percent in 1940 to 0.0 and 5 percent, respectively, at the
beginning of 1943. However, when the liberal use of citrus fruits was
inhibited because of scarcity and transportation difficulties, and ascorbic
acid and iron discontinued, the examination at the end of the school year
showed a considerable increase in the percentage of children with gingi-
vitis and anemia. The heart defects present in approximately 15 percent
of the children were still present, but in most cases improvement was
noted. The children in School 2 showed improvement also. At the begin-
ning of the school year all anemic children were given iron and liver con-
centrate and at the end of the term there were no anemic children and
only 15 percent had subnormal hemoglobin values. Because of the abun-
dant use of citrus fruits there were very few cases of gingivitis and these
were mild.
In addition to the improvements noted in the children in these 2 schools
the demonstration of the value of better nutrition to the mothers is an
outstanding accomplishment. In School 1 classes in food planning and
preparation have met with marked success. That the information given
in the classes has been applied is shown in the increased consumption of
milk, fresh vegetables and fruit with changes in farm programs to provide
these for home use. In School 2 the lunch room as a factor in promoting
better nutrition has been recognized also. Here, to provide a more ade-
quate noon meal, the teacher and pupils planted a large school garden.
This not only provided vegetables for current use and canning but also
furnished a surplus, which when sold at market prices, yielded enough
money to offset the increase in food costs.

RELATION OF DIET OF FLORIDA SCHOOL CHILDREN
TO TOOTH AND BONE STRUCTURE
Purnell Project 397 0. D. Abbott, Ruth O. Townsend and R. B. French;
C. F. Ahmann, Consultant
During 1942-43 roentgenograms were made of the wrists and teeth of
the children in Day School. Through the Bureau of Dental Health of the
Florida State Board of Health, a complete dental record of the teeth of
all children was obtained and 120 children received full dental service.
The children showing severe caries and delayed maturation of the wrist
bones were given, in addition to the noon meal, special diet supplements.







Annual Report, 1943


HORTICULTURE

Staff members of the department devoted considerable time to com-
piling information on horticultural crops for use in furthering a wartime
food program. This included both fertilizer recommendations and data
on yields as requested from time to time. Emphasis was placed on investi-
gations of crops important in the war program such as food, fiber, oil and
rubber; on the preservation of vegetables, fruits and nuts and on dehydra-
tion of vegetables.

PROPAGATION, PLANTING AND FERTILIZING TESTS
WITH TUNG OIL TREES
Hatch Project 50 A. L. Kenworthy and G. H. Blackmon
The experimental tung (Aleurites fordi Hemsl.) plantings on the Sta-
tion produced a fairly good crop of fruit in 1942. It averaged 18.7 percent
oil and yielded 4,524 pounds of oil. Small quantities of seed selected from
F2 and F9 trees were sold for planting purposes. Yield records for 1942
from seedling and budded F2 and F9 trees confirmed previous data that
seedling trees yield higher than budded trees of these strains. In 1942
the average production for F2 was higher than the average for F9.
Several seedlings were obtained from seed of 4 strains of A. fordi re-
ceived from Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. These will be given further
trial.
Fertilizer tests were initiated in a commercial orchard in Jefferson
County to determine the influence of various percentages of nitrogen,
phosphoric acid and potash on the yield and growth of tung trees. Sand
cultures were begun to observe various deficiency symptoms of tung.
Seedlings of F9 and F2 are used in replicated plots including a complete
series of deficiencies.
A characteristic cupping of the leaves was first observed in tung
orchards in Alachua and Levy counties. This was corrected by soil appli-
cations of copper sulfate either as crystals or in solution and as a foliage
spray. Experiments are now in progress to determine the proper amount
and method of applying copper, since it is apparent that excess amounts
may be injurious.
A factorial field experiment using 2 levels of calcium, copper, mag-
nesium, manganese and zinc was established in a new planting in Alachua
County to determine the effect of these elements in quantities greater
than required to prevent the appearance of deficiency symptoms. Also,
methods of applying minimum rates of zinc to control bronzing are under
investigation in another new planting.

TESTING OF NATIVE AND INTRODUCED SHRUBS AND
ORNAMENTALS AND METHODS FOR THEIR PROPAGATION
Hatch Project 52 R. J. Wilmot and A. L. Kenworthy
Test plantings of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Java jute) were made to
study its fiber production. Final results are not yet available. Fall plant-
ings of sage, fennel, lavender, rosemary and anise made good growth.
Spring plantings of sage were found to be attacked by nematodes on
infested soils.
The Russian dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin) shows possi-
bilities as a winter crop. In the summer it was heavily attacked by
13 In cooperation with Div. Fruit and Veg. Crops and Diseases, B. P. I., S. and Agr. Eng.








70 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

disease-producing organisms. Plants on muck lands near Weirsdale grew
larger than those on mineral soils at Gainesville. According to analyses
made by the Rubber Investigations Laboratory, B.P.I., S. and Ag. Eng.,
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, roots from individual plants from the muck
yielded minimum and maximum percentages of 2.10 and 8.18 rubber. Roots
of older plants grown on the mineral soils at the Main Station yielded
from 3.95 to 8.5 percent rubber.
Tephosia candida DC. and Tripterygium Regelii Sprague and Takeda
were planted for trial as possible sources of rotenone.
A 10-acre experimental planting of Sansevieria metallica Ger. & Labr.
was made by the B.P.I., S. and Ag. Eng. in Palm Beach County in cooper-
ation with this Station. Experiments include culture, methods of harvest
and production of fiber. (See also EVERGLADES STATION Proj. 206.)
Twenty-three species of plants from the Division of Plant Exploration
and Introduction, B.P.I., S. and Ag. Eng., USDA, were placed under trial.
In the camellia variety classification test the synonymy of 39 varieties
was worked out and the collection enlarged by the addition of more plants.
Investigations, in cooperation with PLANT PATHOLOGY, to discover
better cultural conditions for a satisfactory growth of Chinese evergreens
(Aglaonema simplex Blume) included the application of fertilizers of
different formulas with different amount of minor elements. High nitrogen
apparently aggravated the diseased condition of the roots in soil con-
taminated with rot-producing organisms. (See also PLANT PATHOLOGY,
Phythium Root Rot of Aroids.)

COOPERATIVE COVER CROP TESTS IN PECAN ORCHARDS
State Project 80 G. H. Blackmon
This work is a comparative investigation on the effects of basic slag
and of superphosphate on growth of vetch and, in turn, on pecan tree
growth and nut yields. Potash is applied in all plots at the same rate.
The first applications of materials were made in the fall of 1941, conse-
quently 2 vetch cover crops have been grown and there has been 1 full
year of tree growth and nut yields. Frotscher, Stuart and Moore varieties
located in a commercial orchard in Jefferson County are being used in this
experiment.
Augusta vetch is being grown as the winter legume. It was maintained
as a volunteer crop following a growth of natural vegetation. It pro-
duced slightly more than 10,000 pounds green weight per acre an all plots,
whether treated with basic slag or with superphosphate. Tree growth
for the 3 varieties in 1942 was satisfactory where either material was
applied. There was little difference in growth increments of trunk cross-
section of the trees of either variety. Nut yields in 1942 were light due
to a severe infestation of nut casebearer. There is a good nut crop prospect
for 1943.
The Frotscher and Stuart trees are being sprayed with bordeaux-zinc
to control foliage diseases and rosette. Certain arsenicals were added
to the bordeaux to determine their effectiveness in controlling the leaf
casebearer. This work is conducted in cooperation with the Pecan Investi-
gations Laboratory. (See NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Proj. 80 and ENTOMOLOGY Proj. 379.)

PHENOLOGICAL STUDIES ON TRUCK CROPS IN FLORIDA
State Project 110 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
During the summer of 1942 Triumph sweet potatoes were grown for
feed. These were dug during the late fall and an attempt was made to







Annual Report, 1943 71

grind and dry some of them. The ground potatoes were spread on roofing
paper for drying. Wet weather occurred immediately after the grinding
and spreading and the drying was difficult and unsatisfactory. Probably
coarser grinding and spreading the material in a thinner layer would have
given a better product.
An experiment to determine the approximate required amounts and
ratios of potash for onions was begun. Results indicated that on Arre-
donda loamy fine sand a fertilizer analyzing 4-7-5 applied at 1,800 pounds
per acre produced as large yields as 3,000 pounds of a 4-7-5 or 1,800
pounds of a 4-7-10 fertilizer. Indications were that the crop has approxi-
mately the same fertilizer requirements as potatoes.
A series of plots was treated, in cooperation with the Department of
Soils, with manganese, copper, zinc and boron. Peas and cabbage were
planted on all. Yield records and samples for chemical analysis were taken
at time of harvest from each plot. Preliminary review of the data indicates
that zinc significantly decreased yield of peas, while none of the treatments
were effective in producing increases. The yield of cabbage apparently
was increased by the addition of borax; manganese and zinc, when applied
together, reduced yields.

VARIETY TESTS OF MINOR FRUITS AND ORNAMENTALS
State Project 187 G. H. Blackmon, R. J. Wilmot and A. L. Kenworthy
A fertilizer and minor element experiment was initiated in a Beacon
vineyard near Lady Lake. The treatments were designed to determine
the fertilizer requirements and the interaction of minor elements in the
nutrition of grapes.
Selected varieties of mayhaws received from the Tennessee Valley
Authority 2 years ago fruited this spring and were no better than some
found wild in Florida.

COLD STORAGE STUDIES OF CITRUS FRUITS
Purnell Project 190 A. L. Stahl
Cold storage investigations were continued, in cooperation with various
citrus growers and shippers, with commercial shipments of different kinds
of citrus fruit. Pliofilm wrapping, 20 gauge, alone aided considerably,
but Pliofilm and cold storage kept carlot shipments of tangerines, limes
and grapefruit fresh and in excellent condition in the commercial market
3 times as long as fruit not so treated.
Pre-storage treatments were continued, using waxes which could be
obtained easily from Florida plants such as bayberry and wax myrtle.
Other things used as pre-treatments included some of the common hor-
mones and vitamins. Wax from wax myrtle berries, which are very
abundant in the Florida woods, was found to be equal, if not superior, to
carnauba and other commercial waxes now used on citrus fruits. Of the
other pre-treatments tried, those outstanding were indolebutyric acid and
alphanaphthylacetamine. Exposure to X-rays before and after pliofilm
wrapping proved satisfactory in controlling stem-end rot of oranges under
certain conditions and with no injury or bad effects to the fruit.

MATURITY STUDIES OF CITRUS FRUITS
Purnell Project 237 A. L. Stahl
Historical and morphological phases of the maturity of citrus fruits
were given considerable attention. Many microscopical section of both Pine-
apple oranges and Silver Cluster grapefruit at all stages of maturity were








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


made to supplement those made previously. Records of the morphology of
the various tissues were made by means of camera lucida drawings and
photo-micrographs. Selected sections representing a median, longitudinal
and trans-section were recorded and arranged to permit study of the various
tissues of the fruit such as juice sacs, seed, button, rind, etc. The origin
of these tissues was traced and their changes correlated with the maturity
or aging of the fruit.
The changes in pectin content of the various tissues were determined
in Pineapple oranges from the very immature stages to fully mature fruit.
The percentage of total pectic compounds in the albedo and in the pulp
increases gradually, then remains practically constant throughout a long
portion of the growth period and finally gradually declines, the period of
decline beginning in the early ripe stage.
A STUDY OF THE RELATION OF SOIL REACTION TO GROWTH
AND YIELD OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Adams Project 268 F. S. Jamison and Byron E. Janes
Beans were planted early in September on a series of plots that were
previously adjusted with lime and sulfur to a range of soil acidity. One-
half of each plot received, in the spring of 1942, an application of zinc,
boron, magnesium and iron as a supplement to the 5-7-5 fertilizer. When
in full bloom representative plants were taken from the plots for analysis
but frost prevented the securing of yield records. Following this crop
the plots were disked and planted to spinach. The stand, while rather poor,
was sufficiently good that samples of mature plants could be taken for
analysis. Fresh and dry weights were taken, the samples ashed and the
amounts of calcium, iron, boron, manganese, magnesium and phosphorus
determined just as for the bean plants and pods grown on the plots earlier.
Soil acidity apparently had little effect on the percentage of dry weight
of bean plants. The percentage of ash was decidedly lower in plants
grown on the more acid plots ahd increased in plants grown on the less
acid plots. This variation in ash was due in part to differences in the
amount of calcium present, which was from less than 1 percent of the
dry weight on the extremely acid plots to more than 2 percent on the
more alkaline plots. The percentage of magnesium, iron and manganese
increased as the degree of soil acidity increased. Applying boron as borax
increased the percentage of boron found by as much as 10 times. This
increase did not appear to be affected greatly by the acidity of the soil.
Additions of either manganese or iron resulted in an increase in the per-
centage of these elements at all pH levels but it was greater on the more
acid plots.
Analysis of mature bean pods did not show as wide fluctuations as the
plant analysis, but the same differential response to the minor elements
was noted.
SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF VARIETIES AND STRAINS
OF VEGETABLES ADAPTABLE TO COMMERCIAL
PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
State Project 282 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
This project was inactive during the year.
EFFECTS OF VARIOUS GREEN MANURE CROPS ON GROWTH,
YIELD AND QUALITY OF CERTAIN VEGETABLE CROPS
State Project 283 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
The field plots received the same treatment as described in previous
annual reports. Eleven cover-crop treatments were planted immediately







Annual Report, 1943


following the harvesting of potatoes from plots in 1942. These made fair
growth during the summer and fall months and were disked into the soil
or burned-off in late November. Sebago potatoes were planted on all
plots during the second week of February. Growth on all plots was ex-
cellent until April, when excessively dry weather restricted plant develop-
ment. Lack of moisture was particularly noticeable on the plots where
cattail millet had been grown as a cover crop. Total yields of potatoes
following the various cover-crop treatments are given in Table 5. Lowest
yields were secured where potatoes followed millet and highest yields
where mature Crotalaria spectabilis was burned off. Apparently the high-
est yields of potatoes occurred following those cover crops that decomposed
most rapidly. Yields following cowpeas, soybeans and velvet beans were
decidedly higher than those following C. spectabilis or where the cover
consisted of native weeds and grasses. Earlier disking may be advantage-
ous where millet, C. spectabilis, or native growth is the cover crop on land
used for growing potatoes.

TABLE 5.-EFFECT OF COVER CROP TREATMENTS ON THE YIELD
OF POTATOES.


Crop Treatment Preceding
Potatoes
Cattail m illet .-............................ ...... ........ .... -------------.
Crotalaria spectabilis (mature) ....-----......-............
Native growth .... .... ..---------- .....--------------
Native growth plus 10 tons manure an acre ............
Crotalaria spectabilis (immature) ........-- ......-.....-------
V elvet beans ..............................................---------
Crotalaria spectabilis plus 10 tons manure an acre....
Soybeans -----... --.........----..... ------.---------
Crotalaria intermedia .........-----............---..........-- --. ---
Cowpeas .-......-------- ------ -------..-------
Crotalaria spectabilis, burned off -..............---..-.....-.--


I Total Yield Bushels
per Acre
180
S 197
S 198
203
210
212
213
221
223
225
234


FUMIGATION OF HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS


State Project 314
This project was inactive during the year.


R. J. Wilmot


FUMIGATION OF NURSERY STOCK
State Project 315 R. J. Wilmot
Different varieties of narcissus bulbs were fumigated with methyl
bromide and hydrocyanic acid in the same way as in 1941-42 and planted
with adequate checks in 1942-43. Cold destroyed the flowers on Soleil d'Or,
Constantinople, White Pearl and Chinese Sacred. Either the cold or dry
weather caused losses of bulbs ranging up to 48 percent in Soleil d'Or and
Constantinople. Differences between treatments were not significant.
Cuttings of Chinese Evergreen (Aglaonema sp.) treated last year and
planted in heat-sterilized soil made good growth, while all other treatments
failed.

EFFECTS OF MINERAL DEFICIENCIES ON THE ADAPTABILITY
OF CERTAIN VEGETABLE VARIETIES TO FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones Project 319 B. E. Janes and F. S. Jamison
The minor element plots described in the 1942 report were planted
to 6 varieties of cabbage in the fall, followed by 6 varieties of tomatoes








74 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

in the spring. An application of hydrated lime and dolomite was made
in September. Borax and sulfates of manganese, iron and zinc separately
and in various combinations were applied in solution to the soil 1 week
after the cabbage was planted and again 2 weeks after the tomatoes were
planted. The cabbage plants were sprayed 3 times with the minor elements
and the tomatoes once. No symptoms which could be attributed to minor
element deficiencies developed in either crop.
A severe frost following a period of rapid growth damaged the cabbage
crop considerably. Only a few Early Jersey Wakefield were killed but
nearly 30 percent of the Red Acre plants died and a large number were
injured so severely that they did not head properly. The response to
minor elements, shown by number of marketable heads and total weight,
indicates that some were added in large enough quantities to decrease
yield. Plots which had all 4 elements added were consistently poor. The
varieties responded differently to the various treatments; the yield of
Early Jersey Wakefield was significantly reduced by zinc; those of Glory
of Enkhuizen and Allhead Early were also reduced by zinc but not as
markedly as Early Jersey Wakefield while Golden Acre, Green Acre and
Red Acre showed no response. The various treatments had no effect on
ascorbic acid content of the various cabbage varieties.
Because of poor stands of tomatoes caused by extremely dry weather
at time of setting it is difficult to interpret yield records. There is an
indication, however, that the combination of all 4 elements depressed
yields and that this depression was brought about by different elements
in different varieties.
Effect of minor elements on composition of tomatoes is shown in
Table 6. Treatment with zinc, boron, manganese and iron increased both
the titratable acid and soluble solids of all varieties and the ascorbic acid
in 4 of the varieties studied.
Pan-America and Marglobe tomatoes were grown in sand cultures
with complete nutrients except for manganese, which was at 5 different
levels--0.5, 0.38, 0.25, 0.13 and 0.0 p.p.m. Growth was equally good in
all plots when manganese was added, indicating that the minimum con-
centration of manganese necessary for growth of these varieties was be-
tween 0 and .13 p.p.m. The average dry weight of the plants grown with
manganese added 13.4 percent of the total weight for Pan-America and 13.8
percent for Marglobe. The average dry weight of plants grown without
manganese added to cultures was 10.2 percent for Pan-America and 11.5
percent for the total plant weight for Marglobe.

CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE MU-OIL TREE"
State Project 365 A. L. Kenworthy, Joseph Hamilton and F. S. Lagasse
A number of different strains of A. montana Hemsl. trees were planted
near St. Leo, and a total of 220 seedling trees were sent to 12 cooperators
for planting in the Vero Beach, Ft. Pierce, Belle Glade, Palmetto, Kissim-
mee, Apopka, Leesburg, Dade City, Micanopy, and Tavares areas. A
planting of 389 trees was made near Palmetto to furnish material for
breeding and as a test of available strains.
A. fordii x A. montana hybrids were set out north of Gainesville pri-
marily to test their cold resistance. Of 76 trees planted, 64 have survived
and made an average shoot growth of 32 inches.
A mature A. montana tree located on the Station grounds yielded 79
pounds of fruit in 1942. The minimum temperature of 19 F. that occurred
14 In cooperation with Div. of Fruits & Veg. Crops & Diseases, B. P. I., S., and Ag. Eng.















TABLE 6.-A COMPARISON OF TITRATABLE ACIDITY, PERCENT SOLUBLE SOLIDS AND ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT OF THE FRUITS
OF 5 TOMATO VARIETIES, WITH AND WITHOUT MINOR ELEMENTS DURING GROWING PERIOD.


Variety


No Minor Elements


Titratable Acidity
ml. of .094 N.NaOH
for 10 ml. Juice


Rutgers ......-- .......... 7.9
Pan-America .............. 8.8
Stokesdale* ............... 7.8
Stokesdale* ............... 8.1
Grothen's Globe ........ 6.8
Marglobe ................... [ 7.6
Seeds obtained from different sources.


Percent
Soluble
Solids
5.5
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.1
5.3


S Plants and Soil Sprayed with Manganese,
Zinc, Boron and Iron
Ascorbic Titratable Acidity Percent
Acid, Mg ml. of .094 N.NaOH Soluble I Ascorbic Acid, mg.
per 100 gm. for 10 ml. Juice Solids per 100 gms.
S 25.6 8.0 5.9 | 27.0
27.9 9.2 5.9 27.6
23.3 8.2 5.4 24.3
25.2 8.5 5.6 24.1
S 21.7 8.1 5.7 24.3
S 24.6 90 5.6 26.2








76 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

in February 1943 did not cause any severe wood damage to this and 2
other bearing trees nearby but the fruit buds were killed.
In a planting near Floral City 11 of 16 1-year-old Aleurites montana
(Lour.) Wils. trees were killed back by temperature of 22 in February
and 26* F. in March 1943. Of 10 A. fordii Hemsl. x A. montana in the
same planting 4 were killed nearly to the ground and 6 were only slightly
damaged. Also these low temperatures caused the loss of nearly all of
300 trees in a nursery located there. Temperatures of 30* F. in February
and 31" in early March failed to kill any trees in a nursery near Braden-
ton. Of the approximately 900 trees produced in the Floral City and
Bradenton nurseries, at the end of its first season's growth from seed the
largest tree measured 9.5 feet in height and had a trunk circumference
of 0.53 feet 1 foot from the soil line.

RELATION OF ZINC AND MAGNESIUM TO GROWTH
AND REPRODUCTION IN PECANS
Hatch Project 375 G. H. Blackmon
These investigations are conducted with Curtis, Kennedy, Moneymaker,
Moore and Stuart varieties in commercial orchards in Bradford, Jefferson,
Leon and Walton counties. The tests include soil applications of fertilizers
and of zinc and magnesium separately and together; zinc with and without
fertilizer containing potash; varying amounts of potash and magnesium;
and zinc applied as a foliage spray.
There is an indication, from the first year's record, that zinc and mag-
nesium, and zinc and potash have a beneficial effect on growth and yield
of Moneymaker and Moore trees. Curtis showed no response but Ken-
nedy trees made the most growth and highest yield when magnesium was
added to the fertilizer. The Stuart trees, which received high potash
applications, made the largest growth increment, 10 percent more than
those receiving high potash and high magnesium.
The Moneymaker trees in the Jefferson County experiment showed
varying amounts of leaf scorch. In August there was the least amount
of leaf scorch in the zinc-magnesium plots, with zinc and magnesium ap-
plied separately second and third, respectively.
The Moore trees gave no response to zinc and manganese applied as
foliage sprays. However, when zinc and manganese separately or to-
gether were added to the bordeaux mixture spray there was an increase
in tree growth and nut production. Defoliation was normal from the trees
thus sprayed while those not sprayed shed their leaves at a much earlier
date.

EFFECTS OF CERTAIN GROWTH SUBSTANCES ON PECANS
Adams Project 376 G. H. Blackmon
Naphthaleneacetic acid, naphthaleneacetamide, indoleacetic acid and
indolebutyric acid were used in concentrations of .0001, .001 and .01 percent
to study their effects on the growth and development of roots on trans-
planted pecan trees. In each treatment the roots of 30 trees were dipped
in solutions of each concentration for comparison with 30 trees not treated.
There was no significant difference in the percentage of trees which lived
or in the amount of top growth from the various treatments. However, in
root growth and development the best laterals were produced where dipped
in concentrations of .01 percent each of naphthaleneacetamide and indole-
butyric acid. Of the trees which survived after treatment with these 2
chemicals 58 and 52 percent, respectively, developed good lateral roots as
compared with 8 percent of those not treated.







Annual Report, 1943 77

Naphthaleneacetamide and naphthaleneacetic acid, at .0001 and .001
percent concentrations, and 1 commercial product were sprayed on pecan
nuts to determine their effects on shedding. Two Curtis trees, 1 Success
and 1 Big Z were used in these experiments. The hormones were applied
as a spray to 47 small branches containing a total of 753 nuts; like counts
of 47 other untreated were made. The applications were made on several
dates from August 3 to September 8. There was some shedding of nuts
after the applications were made but it was not unusually heavy and
apparently not affected by the hormones.

STORAGE AND HANDLING OF FLORIDA VEGETABLES
Purnell Project 377 A. L. Stahl and F. S. Jamison
Investigations on the handling and storage of Florida vegetables were
extended this year to lot shipments from various vegetable-growing areas;
these were made to markets and chain groceries where complete records
were taken on the condition and marketability of the produce. They in-
cluded pliofilm-wrapped vegetables as follows: broccoli car; cauliflower
1/4 car; carrots /4 car; lettuce % car; celery 2 cars.
From the carlot shipments it was found that pliofilm-wrapped vege-
tables had to be handled similarly to those not wrapped. With no refriger-
ation very poor results were obtained; when bunker icing was the only
refrigeration fair results were obtained and best results occurred when
both bunker icing and individual package icing were used. Wrapping with
20-gauge pliofilm and proper icing proved to be very satisfactory for the
vegetables mentioned above; these held twice as long and were in much
better condition than those not wrapped.
Laboratory experiments were conducted on peas, Lima beans, tomatoes,
peppers and sweet corn, and detailed experiments on the wrapping in
pliofilm of tomatoes which were picked at various stages of maturity
Results of the experimental wrapping in pliofilm of tomatoes in various
stages of maturity indicated the possibility of picking much more mature
and better quality tomatoes in Florida and shipping to market in better
condition than those picked green stage as is now the practice. Shelled
peas and beans were placed in pint berry boxes, the entire package wrapped
and sealed with 20-gauge pliofilm. This sanitary package held them in
the fresh state with very little change for a week. With refrigeration
the product could be kept much longer in this type of container.

VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS
State Project 391 F. S. Jamison
A number of tomato varieties grown at the Sub-Tropical Station and
the Vegetable Crops Laboratory were harvested when "green-mature" and
shipped to Gainesville, where they were stored at a uniform temperature.
The varieties were then compared for differences in rate of ripening and
certain chemical constituents. After 7 days all from the Sub-Tropical
Station had ripened with the exception of Improved Pearson. Only 1.5
percent of the fruits of this variety were red, while 30 percent were still
pink. Varieties from the Vegetable Crops Laboratory ripened considerably
slower. After 7 days all fruits showed some color but many of all varieties
were pink rather than red. The variety Stokesdale was particularly slow
in coloring, while Marhio was one of the first to develop red.
Ascorbic acid was measured on all varieties while the fruit was green
and again after ripening. Varieties from the Sub-Tropical Station aver-
aged 14.6 mg. ascorbic acid per 100 gms. of the green fruits and 16.9 mg.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


in the red fruits. The varieties from the Vegetable Crops Laboratory
averaged 18.9 mg. from the green fruits and 20.5 mg. from the red fruits.
It is possible that the variation of ascorbic acid may have been due to
varietal differences, since all varieties from the 2 sources were not identi-
cal. The variety Grothen Globe was lowest in ascorbic acid at both loca-
tions, while Pan-Amerca was highest. The other chemical constituents
measured showed less variation. (See also SUB-TROPICAL AND EVER-
GLADES STATIONS and VEGETABLE, CELERY, AND POTATO IN-
VESTIGATIONS LABORATORIES, Project 391.)

DEHYDRATION OF VEGETABLES AND FRUITS
P-rnell Project 413 A. L. Stahl and F. S. Jamison
A pilot plant has been installed for the study of the development and
adaptation of equipment, techniques and the adaptability of varieties for
home and commercial dehydration of Florida-grown vegetables and fruits.
Conditions existing in the commercial plant can be duplicated in the labor-
atory dehydrator in which the temperature, humidity and air flow can
be controlled. Cabbage, carrots, potatoes, green beans, sweet corn and
okra from selected sources were dehydrated and the effect of variety,
maturity, cultural treatment, season and storage was investigated.
Investigations include the determination of changes, if any, that take
place during and after dehydration in color, composition, texture and
palatability. Results so far show that Florida-grown vegetables lend
themselves very well to dehydration, equaling dehydrated products from
other localities and surpassing most of those examined. Very succulent,
fast-growing vegetables quite consistently gave the best dehydrated product.
Neither under-mature nor over-mature vegetables yielded as good a product
as those which were just mature; the under-mature produced a much
better product than the over-mature ones.
Records are being taken also on the effect of different conditions be-
fore, during and after dehydration on the quality of the finished product.
Among the factors being considered are temperatures, humidities, inert
gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen volumes and velocities of air-
flow in the dehydration chambers, prehydration and post-hydration pro-
cedures.

EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF FARM LABOR
Purnell Project 415 F. S. Jamison
See AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Project 415.

U. S. FIELD LABORATORY FOR TUNG INVESTIGATIONS
F. S. Lagassd, Pomologist in Charge
Research work of the U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations,
financed by federal funds, is carried out cooperatively under a memorandum
of understanding between the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agri-
cultural Engineering and the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
The numerous facilities extended, the use of certain plant materials, and
the close cooperation of the members of the Department of Horticulture
of the Florida Station are gratefully acknowledged.
An abnormal leaf condition characterized by cupping and chlorosis of
the younger leaves, followed by defoliation and dieback of the terminal
shoots, was found in 1942 on a few tung trees in a bearing orchard near
Morriston. Later, this condition was observed over a large acreage in







Annual Report, 1943 79

this same orchard and was also found widespread in a new planting near
Gainesville. In cooperation with the Horticultural Department it was
found that the disorder was due to copper deficiency. It was corrected in
1-year-old trees by the application of 1/ ounce of copper sulfate dissolved
in a pint of water to the soil at the base of each tree, and also by spraying
the foliage with a 1 to 2 percent copper sulfate solution containing an
equivalent percentage of lime. Experiments are now under way in the
copper-deficient area in the orchard near Morriston to determine the amounts
of copper sulfate that need to be applied to the soil in solution or as the
dry salt to effect recovery of the bearing tung trees. Spraying young trees
with different concentrations of copper sulfate to effect recovery is also
under study.
Analyses of the leaves and fruit from copper-deficient and normal trees
show that the starches and sugars are lower in both percentage and amount
per leaf in the copper-deficient leaves than in the normal ones, while
protein and soluble nitrogen accumulate in the copper-deficient leaves. Con-
siderably less oil is formed in the fruit of copper-deficient trees than in
that of normal trees. The kernels in fruit from the former averaged but
55 percent oil in comparison with 65 percent in the normal.
A study of the rate of fertilizer application in relation to the preva-
lence of copper deficiencies showed that medium or high nitrogen applica-
tions resulted in significantly greater severity of copper-deficiency leaf
symptoms than did the low nitrogen applications. The different phosphorus
and potash levels were without significant effect in this respect.
In cooperation with members of the staff of the U. S. Tung Laboratory
at Cairo, Ga., it was definitely established that the abnormal foliage con-
dition reported in 1941 as occurring over a widespread area in Florida and
characterized by interveinal chlorosis and necrosis is due to a deficiency
of potash. Applications of muriate and nitrate of potash corrected the
trouble and further experiments have been set up to obtain more informa-
tion on the optimum levels and sources of potassium for an economical
fertilizer program for that area.
It has been found that the oil content of fruit from potash-deficient
trees is lower than that from trees well supplied with potash. Potassium
was important in kernel filling and conversion of the reserve materials
into oil. In an orchard near Gainesville where no potash deficiency symp-
toms were in evidence applications of muriate of potash significantly in-
creased the percentage of oil in the fruit.
In cooperation with the Department of Horticulture of the Florida
Station it was found by means of field trials that 2 pounds of 65 percent
manganese sulfate per tree satisfactorily controlled severe manganese
deficiency in bearing tung trees. Ammonium sulfate applied either alone
or in combination with the manganese sulfate was beneficial in increasing
the absorption of manganese and correcting the deficiency. The ammonium
sulfate apparently increased the availability of the manganese in the soil.
Analyses were made of leaves from 3 bearing tung orchards to deter-
mine the effect on leaf composition of: (1) date of sampling, (2) position
of leaf on terminal shoot, (3) fruit on the terminal, (4) soil conditions and
fertilizer treatment. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium,
manganese, iron and ash were determined.
The percentage of calcium, manganese and ash increased as the season
advanced, while potassium and nitrogen decreased. No definite seasonal
trend was indicated with magnesium, phosphorus or iron. The percentage
of potassium was significantly lower in the basal leaves as compared with
midshoot leaves, and calcium and manganese were significantly higher.
In May the basal leaves were higher in nitrogen than the midshoot leaves







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


but later the midshoot leaves were higher. Only small differences in leaf
composition were found between fruiting and non-fruiting terminals.
Large differences in leaf composition were found due to the nature of
the soils, other factors being comparable. Table 7 gives the average chemi-
cal composition of basal tung leaves collected in 1941 from 3 comparable
bearing orchards on different soil types.

TABLE 7.-AVERAGE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BASAL TUNG LEAVES COL-
LECTED IN 1941 FROM 3 BEARING ORCHARDS ON DIFFERENT SOIL TYPES.

Orchard Soil Type I Constituents on a Dry-Matter Basis
Location I Ash Ca Mg N P K I Mn I Fe
% % % % % % |p.p.m.lp.p.m.
Lamont, Fla. Ruston fine sandy I. 1.23 .4
loam .................... 11343.23 .542.11 .13 .92 995 83

Morriston, Predominantly |
Fla. .......... Norfolk fine sand 9.8512.94 .4411.79 .12 .701 71 52

Pine Grove, Pheba fine sandy I I I I
La. ............ loam ............... 8.8512.421 .5711.30 .09 .561 2466 67

In the initial stages of germination of tung seed very little difference
was noted in the oil content of the embryo and endosperm, but the embryo
oil had a lower iodine value. Respiratory quotient studies show that the
respiration of the dormant seed is anaerobic. Upon soaking in water or
stratifying, the kernels absorb oxygen more rapidly and the respiratory
quotient falls, passing through the value of 1.00. The respiratory quotient
continues to decrease until a constant value of 0.46 is reached. This indi-
cated the utilization of the oil which had been stored as a reserve food
material.
In a tung orchard where blue lupine was used as a winter cover crop
it was found that the plants in the plots receiving nitrogen in addition to
phosphorus and potash were injured less by low temperature than those
receiving only phosphorus and potassium.
A factorial experiment for testing 3 levels each of nitrogen (N), phos-
phorus (P), and potash (K), comprising 81 plots with 2 trees each of 3
different clones per plot, has been started. Another experiment to test
the effect of N, P and K, each at 2 levels with and without addition of
lime, is in its second season. The effect of these treatments on the first
season's growth was not statistically significant but a significant difference
was found in the growth made by the 2 different clones.
Two plantings of tung trees each comprising 47 clones and 2 seedling
strains have been set out in cooperation with a grower in the Ocala area
and with one in the LaCrosse area. These trials are sufficiently extensive
to give quite reliable estimates of the yielding ability of the clones and
seedlings used.
Tung trees planted with whole tops and roots 3 feet or more in length
made more vigorous growth than those dug and transplanted in the ordi-
nary commercial manner. Further tests using trees which were dug in
a much more practical manner are now being conducted.
Analyses have been completed on about 200 soil samples covering the
important soil types of the tung belt. The following analyses have been
made: Exchangeable calcium, magnesium and potassium, total exchange
capacity, organic matter, pH, moisture equivalent, wilting coefficient, avail-
able phosphorus and mechanical analysis. The phosphorus-fixing capacity







Annual Report, 1943 81

of certain soils has been determined. The soils of the tung belt have ex-
change capacities ranging from less than 1 to about 14 milliequivalents
per 100 grams. The exchangeable calcium ranges from 2 to 700 p.p.m.
The available phosphate (Truog method) varies from a trace to 112 p.p.m.
In general, the soils in the eastern end of the tung belt (Florida, South
Georgia) have considerably more available phosphate than those in the
western area (Miss., La., Texas) but the reverse is true of exchangeable
potassium.
On soil type plots in 2 orchards on the southern edge of the commer-
cial tung producing area, trees on Norfolk fine sand with a sandy clay layer
at a depth of 3 to 5 feet are producing much more fruit than those on a
deep Norfolk fine sand. (F. S. Lagass6, Pomologist; H. M. Sell, Assoc.
Chemist; M. Drosdoff, Assoc. Soil Technologist; S. G. Gilbert, Asst. Plant
Physiologist; J. Hamilton, Asst. Pomologist; A. J. Loustalot, Asst. Physi-
ologist; G. T. Sims, Jr., Soil Scientist; G. Arbic, Jr., Scientific Aid; Lucille
H. Fay, Junior Clerk-Stenographer.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


PLANT PATHOLOGY

Work on plant diseases, as a whole, progressed in a satisfactory manner,
although handicapped somewhat by inadequate facilities of the temporary
laboratory. Much time was devoted to the immediately practical phases
of the projects and considerable applicable information was obtained.
Project 357 on azaleas was practically inactive because the disease did
not appear in the vicinity of Gainesville and because azaleas were con-
sidered non-essential to the war effort.

A STUDY OF PLANTS POISONOUS TO LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA
State Project 258 Erdman West
A total of 42 specimens of plants suspected as being poisonous to cattle
were sent or brought to the laboratory for identification during the past
year. These specimens included 40 different species of native and intro-
duced plants, of which 12 are known to be poisonous and 2 others are
probably poisonous but have not been tested.
One trip was made to Levy County to investigate reported deaths by
poisonous plants in a herd of cattle. (See also ANIMAL INDUSTRY Proj.
258.)
COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF SPECIMENS
OF FLORIDA PLANTS
State Project 259 Erdman West and Lillian E. Arnold
Additions during the past year and the total number of specimens on
file in each group in the permanent collections of the herbarium are as
follows:
Groups Accessions Totals
Spermatophytes ...........:....... 2,772 40,983
Pteridophytes ...................... 39 2,170
Bryophytes .............................. 6,480 7,445
Thallophytes .......................... 7,689 32,084
Seed collections ...................... 67 1,767

Grand total .................... ................. 84,449

The largest single acquisition was the botanical collection of the late
Severin Rapp of Sanford, which consists of 15,770 specimens of lichens,
liverworts and mosses. This collection is an excellent representation of
the Florida flora in these groups and contains a wealth of authentic refer-
ence material from other geographical regions. Nearly half of the speci-
mens are exsiccati of the world identified by specialists of international
reputation. All of this material was repacketed in substantial envelopes
and filed according to the most recent classifications. Specially prepared
labels have been attached to the specimens designating them as part of
the Severin Rapp Memorial Collection.
The private herbarium of J. B. McFarlin was acquired this year by
gift. It consists of 780 mosses, 655 liverworts and a few lichens, as well
as numerous unnamed specimens. Of the last, the Minnesota and Wiscon-
sin mosses await determination at the New York Botanical Garden. An-
other notable gift of 24 sheets of the Brazilian and Asiatic trees producing
chaulmoogra oil was received from the former director of this Station,
Dr. P. H. Rolfs, and his daughter, Clarissa Rolfs. Other gifts from various
sources include 222 specimens of Florida phanerogams. Exchanges with







Annual Report, 1943


other institutions and organizations netted nearly 800 more. Additions
to the fungi included 480 packets received on an exchange basis.
Collecting trips to obtain distribution records and Florida plants were
sharply curtailed to coincide with the war effort. Several, early in the
year, yielded 203 specimens from Nassau County, 182 from Flagler and
Volusia, and 50 cultivated plants from southern Florida.
In continuation of the cooperative project with the New York State
College of Forestry, herbarium sheets and wood samples of 61 species of
economic forest trees were received and 3 logs and corresponding herbarium
material were sent to maintain the status of this herbarium as one of the
key herbaria in the United States.
Rolf Singer, research associate of the Farlow Herbarium of Harvard
University studying Florida Agaricales, examined and annotated the pre-
served material, including many types, on file in the herbarium and is con-
tinuing his research with fresh material. Representative specimens from
his collections will be filed in the permanent collections.
Several scientists examined herbarium specimens and contributed to a
better understanding of the forms and species of several groups of plants;
Norman H. Giles, Jr., of Yale University obtained distribution records of
Cuthbertia in connection with his genetic studies of the genus Tradescantia;
F. L. O'Rourke of the U. S. Soil Conservation Service sought distribution
records of Vaccinium species in Florida; F. A. McClure of the Smithsonian
Institution examined flowering material and distribution records of bam-
boos in the herbarium and living specimens on the campus. The entire
collection of the genus Ranunculus was examined critically and annotated
by Lyman Benson; the genus Lechea by A. R. Hodgdon. Botanists from
various Florida institutions also made use of the herbarium facilities.
A large clump of bamboo on the campus bloomed profusely this year
and has been identified as Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeuschel hort. var.
Alphonse Karr. Herbarium material was distributed to 5 large herbaria
and the Florida State College for Women. Fruiting specimens of Wolf-
fiella floridana (J. D. Smith) C. H. Thompson, the first ever recorded, were
found by Herman Kurz and deposited in the permanent collections. Mazus
japonicus (Thunb.) Kuntze, an Asiatic weed, was found naturalized at
Gainesville.
About 200 collections of living Zephyranthes accumulated by Dean H.
Harold Hume from many parts of the Western Hemisphere were identified.
Herbarium specimens representative of the various species and forms have
been prepared and filed.
Demonstrations of the use and purpose of the Herbarium were made
for classes in agronomy and plant pathology. An exhibition of typical
plants of the Everglades drainage area was set up for the meeting of the
Florida Academy of Science.
Identifications of plants for Florida residents and members of various
institutions numbered 1,284; of fungi and plant diseases 532.

HOST RELATIONS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE GROWTH
AND PARASITISM OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII SACC.
Adams Project 269 Erdman West
Hot water treatment of bulbs infected with the fungus was continued
with Tangiers Iris and fancy-leaved caladium. Immersion for 15 minutes in
water at 40, 45 and 500 C. did not affect germination of the bulbs nor kill the
fungus, but exposure for 30 minutes at 50* C. killed bulbs nearly 2 centi-
meters in diameter and the fungus could not be cultured from infected
bulbs so treated. Caladium corms, partly decayed by the fungus, immersed







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


for 15 minutes in water at 45 C. grew rapidly when planted in sterile
soil and developed the disease in 2 to 3 weeks. Infected caladium corms
from 3 to 5 centimeters in diameter immersed for 30 minutes and 1 hour
at 50 C. were not killed. After the shorter treatment all sprouted im-
mediately when planted in sterile soil but 50 percent of those treated for
1 hour lagged 3 weeks. So far, 10 weeks after planting, no disease has
appeared in either lot. Infected corms similarly treated but placed in moist
chambers in an incubator at 30* C. for 1 month developed a growth of
various organisms but not Sclerotium rolfsii. When held for 3 additional
months at room temperature this parasite did not develop; they remained
sound and were planted for further observations.
The effect of wettable spergon (tetrachloro-para-benzoquinone), thiosan
(tetramethyl thiuramidisulphide) and fermate (ferric dimethyl dithio-
carbamate) on growth of the fungus on potato dextrose agar was tested
by introducing various concentrations of the chemicals into the medium.
Concentrations of 1 part in 800,000 had only a slight retarding effect on
rate of growth; 1 in 15,000 and 1 in 8,000 permitted growth at approxi-
mately % the rate of the checks. Under similar conditions new improved
ceresan (ethyl mercury phosphate) inhibited growth in concentrations of 1
part in 1,500,000. In each case the dilutions are based on the content of
active ingredient.
The effect of the above chemicals on the parasitism of the fungus was
tested in pot cultures and in field plots using as the test plant Lupinus
angustifolius L., a very susceptible host widely used as a cover crop. Plants
were grown in artificially infested sterilized potting soil in pots in the
greenhouse and in naturally infested soil in the field plots. Both lots were
treated with spergon, thiosan, fermate and new improved ceresan. Spergon
was used at the rate of 2 pounds to 100 gallons of water, thiosan and
fermate 1 pound to 100 gallons and ceresan 10 ounces to 100 gallons as
a soil drench. The suspensions were applied at the rate of about 1 quart
to a square foot of soil surface. Results are not yet complete but 6 weeks
after treatment most of the check plants were diseased, over 75 percent
of the spergon-treated plants are visibly diseased, and only the ceresan-
treated plants show better than 90 percent survival.
Russian dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rod.) is being tested for
susceptibility to the disease and response to various fungicides. Well
established rosettes, 15 centimeters or more in diameter, were grown in
soil artificially infested with Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. and treated with sus-
pensions of spergon, thiosan, fermate and new improved ceresan in the
same dilutions and rate as the lupines mentioned above. No infection has
occurred in any of the treated or check plots at the end of 2 weeks but
over % the leaves on those treated with ceresan have died. The disease
has been observed on this host in another location.
Herb plants grown in infested soil included dill (Anethum graveolens
L.), sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), bush basil (Ocimum minimum L.), borage
(Borago officinalis L.), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.), coriander
(Coriandrum sativum L.), horehound (Marrubium vulgare L.) and chives
(Allium Schoenoprasum L.). None of these became infected.

CAUSES OF FAILURE OF SEED AND SEEDLINGS IN VARIOUS
FLORIDA SOILS AND DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS
FOR PREVENTION
Adams Project 281 -W. B. Tisdale and A. N. Brooks
Work on this project was conducted in flats in the greenhouse, in out-
side seedbeds and fields at the Main Station and the Strawberry and Potato








Annual Report, 1943


Investigations Laboratories with crops important in the war effort. In
practically all cases the soil was heavily inoculated, either naturally or
artificially, with various strains of rhizoctonia. Results obtained from the
treatments showed the comparative effectiveness of the materials in con-
trolling both pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by this organism.
A species of pythium was used in 1 experiment. In most cases known
amounts of the organic chemicals, spergon (tetrachloro-para-benzoquinone),
arasan and thiosan (tetramethyl thiuramdisulfide), were compared with
certain inorganic chemicals that have proved most effective as seed-treat-
ing materials in other states. All experiments were so designed that the
results could be analyzed and evaluated by analysis of variance. Results
obtained are reported by crops.
Cabbage.-In 1 experiment conducted at the Strawberry Investigations
Laboratory in outside beds during the summer at the time growers start
their plant beds for the fall crop, cuprocide, semesan, spergon and thiosan
gave no significant increase in germination over the non-treated seed, and
cuprocide caused some injury. Later in the season spergon-treated seed
gave significantly higher germination than seed treated with cuprocide,
semesan or thiosan. The latter 3 were about equal in effectiveness and
gave significantly better germination than did the non-treated seed. None
of the seed showed any significant reduction in the amount of post-emer-
gence damping-off which was very pronounced during the summer and
early fall.
In a test conducted at the Potato Investigations Laboratory in Novem-
ber on Bladen fine sandy loam naturally infested with pythium and rhizoc-
tonia, semesan, spergon and thiosan produced highly significant increases
in germination over the non-treated seed. Semesan and spergon used at
the rate of .5 percent by weight of seed were more effective than at .25
percent, and .25 percent thiosan was more effective than at this con-
centration.
In a test conducted in a greenhouse with soil artificially inoculated with
a species of pythium isolated from cabbage seedlings in the test at the
Potato Investigations Laboratory fermate, semesan, spergon, thiosan and
zinc oxide caused highly significant increases in germination over the non-
treated seed. Thiosan-treated seed gave significantly better germination
than spergon- and zinc oxide-treated seed. Only a few plants showed
damping-off after they emerged.
Soil treatments with chloropicrin, methyl bromide, formaldehyde and
thiosan gave excellent results in controlling both pre- and post-emergence
damping-off in the summer of 1942. The thiosan was used at the rate of
5 gms. in 2 quarts of water per 17% square feet of soil. The first appli-
cation of this treatment was made in the furrow before planting the seed
and the other 2 subsequently at weekly intervals. The total amount for
the 3 applications was 3 ounces per 100 sq. feet. This treatment gave
good control of both phases of damping-off but germination was retarded
and the plants were stunted. The residual effect of this treatment was
apparent in seed planted 2 months later. In another experiment conducted
in December 3 concentrations of spergon and thiosan were tested as soil
drenches. The suspensions were applied in the furrows before the seed
were planted and no subsequent applications were made. None of the
treatments produced significant increase in germination over the checks;
spergon caused some reduction. Post-emergence damping-off was not im-
portant at this time and there were no differences in the occurrence of this
due to treatments.
Fordhook Lima Beans.-Several experiments were conducted in the
greenhouse at the Strawberry Investigations Laboratory during the winter







86 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

and spring when there were wide fluctuations in temperature, in which
spergon and thiosan were used at the rates of 2.08, 2.36 and 6.72 ounces
per 100 pounds of seed. In general, the lowest 2 rates of spergon gave sig-
nificantly less control of damping-off than did the highest rate, and thiosan
gave as good control at the lowest 2 rates as spergon did at the highest
rate. Thiosan caused some injury to the seed at the highest rate of appli-
cation. This injury was most pronounced during colder weather when
the seed remained longer in the soil before emergence. Also, during cold
weather the difference in germination between treated and non-treated
seed was greater.
In a field test at the Strawberry Investigations Laboratory where the
soil was heavily inoculated with a strain of rhizoctonia very pathogenic to
lima beans germination of treated seed was significantly higher than that
of non-treated seed. Germination of seed treated with thiosan at the rate
of 2.4 ounces per 100 pounds of seed was about the same as that from
seed treated with spergon at the rate of 4.8 ounces per 100 pounds. Plants
from non-treated seed were smaller than those from treated seed, and the
yield was lower than could be accounted for by the smaller number of
plants. Yield from the spergon-treated seed were not significantly differ-
ent from those of the thiosan-treated seed.
In a field experiment at the Main Station on Norfolk sandy loam soil
artificially inoculated with the same strain of rhizoctonia used in the field
test at the Strawberry Investigations Laboratory, 2 ounces of arasan per
100 pounds of seed, 4 ounces of fermate and 4 ounces of spergon caused
slight increases in germination over non-treated seed but the differences
were not significant. There were no significant differences in yields due
to seed treatments.
Pole Beans, U. S. Variety No. 3.-In 1 experiment conducted in the
greenhouse at the Strawberry Investigations Laboratory in January, both
spergon and thiosan at rates of 2, 4 and 8 ounces per 100 pounds of seed
gave excellent control of pre-emergence damping-off. Average germina-
tion for all treated seed was 95 percent as compared with 23 percent for
non-treated seed. There was no apparent injury from the highest rate of
application.
Lettuce.-In a test at the Potato Investigations Laboratory in Novem-
ber on Bladen'fine sandy loam soil naturally infested with rhizoctonia and
pythium no significant increases in germination were obtained with semesan,
spergon or thiosan applied in 2 concentrations. However, when potting soil
was inoculated in the greenhouse with the pythium isolated from lettuce
seedlings in the test at this laboratory, fermate, spergon, thiosan and zinc
oxide gave highly significant increases in germination. Germination of
thiosan-treated seed was significantly higher than that of seed treated with
zinc oxide but was only slightly higher than that resulting from the other 2
treatments. Average germination for all treated seed was 73 percent
as compared with 26.6 percent for the non-treated seed.
Spinach, Bloomsdale Savoy and Virginia.-Cooperative experiments car-
ried on throughout the United States tend to show that zinc oxide at the
rate of 32 ounces per 100 pounds of seed is one of the best treatments for
spinach. Experiments conducted at the Strawberry Investigations Labora-
tory in the greenhouse and in outside beds infested with rhizoctonia showed
that thiosan, 4 oz. per 100 pounds of seed, spergon 12 oz. per 100 pounds,
and fermate 12 oz. per 100 pounds are as good as, or better than, zinc
oxide. Similar results were obtained in 1 outside experiment at the Main
Station.
Sea Island Cotton.-In a test conducted in October on Norfolk sandy








Annual Report, 1943


loam, 5 percent ceresan, spergon and thiosan produced slight increases
in germination but the increases did not reach the point of significance.
However, the seed treatments provided some protection against post-
emergence damping-off and the differences in final stands 3 weeks after
the seed were planted were significant. In this respect spergon and thiosan
were better than ceresan.
Peanuts.-No increase in germination resulted from treating hand-
shelled Florida Runner peanuts with 2 percent ceresan, fermate, spergon or
thiosan in a test conducted in a greenhouse in January with soil infested
with rhizoctonia. Ceresan and fermate at the rate of 4 oz. per 100 pounds
of shelled seed caused some injury and slight reduction in germination.
Results of these experiments, together with those reported previously,
have shown that pre-emergence damping-off can be largely prevented by
treating the seed; that post-emergence damping-off can be controlled by
drenching the soil with certain chemicals, and that both phases of damping-
off can be controlled by treating the plant beds with chemicals before the
seed are planted.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE PATHOGENICITY AND
TAXONOMY OF SPECIES OF ALTERNARIA,
MACROSPORIUM AND STEMPHYLIUM
State Project 284 George F. Weber
Progress on this project during the past year has consisted almost en-
tirely of library reference work. In this respect the permanent list of
original descriptions of Alternaria spp. has been increased by 15; of
Macrosporium spp. by 7, and of Stemphylium spp. by 3.
Pathogenicity studies of all available species in these genera reported
as causal agents of tomato diseases showed that Alternaria solani (E. &
M.) J. & G., A. tomato (Cke.) Weber, and Stemphylium solani Weber were
parasitic on the uninjured foliage of young tomato plants and that Alter-
naria fasciculata (C. & E.) J. & G., Macrosporium sarcinaeforme Cay., and
Pleospora lycopersici March. caused no infection. The only other species
of these genera reported on tomato are Alternaria junci McAlp., and A.
rugosa McAlp., both from Australia. Cultures of them have not been
studied, but descriptions and illustrations indicate similarity to, and pos-
sible identity with, A. fasciculata (C. & E.) J. & G.

PHOMOPSIS BLIGHT AND FRUIT ROT OF EGGPLANT
Adams Project 344 Phares Decker
Two strains of eggplants, Muktak and Bengan, which remained rela-
tively free of phomopsis in the field in 1942, while plants of the commercial
New Orleans Market variety were severely damaged, are being used in a
breeding program. Both Muktak and Bengan appear to be heterozygous
for certain morphological characters. Selections from these strains have
few or no spines, but fruits lack desirable characteristics.
In the fall of 1942, 75 crosses were effected with pollen from New
Orleans Market on the Muktak and Bengan strains. Also seed of 40
selections of Muktak and Bengan were planted in the greenhouse and
pollinated with pollen of the common commercial varieties. Seventy
crosses were effected.
The hybrid plants possess considerable heterosis as shown by plant
growth, earliness of fruit set and maturity. They are resistant to tip-over
in the field as compared with the commercial varieties. Desirable in-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


dividual hybrids are being selfed or crossed in an attempt to fix a true
breeding individual possessing desirable plant and fruit characters and
resistance to tip-over.
AZALEA FLOWER SPOT
Adams Project 357 Erdman West
Inasmuch as azaleas are not essential to the war effort, this project
was carried on an inactive basis this year.
The experimental plantings of various varieties and species of azalea
were maintained with a minimum of attention to keep them alive. Exami-
nations at various times in the spring of 1943 revealed no infections with
the flower spot disease nor were any observed in the Gainesville area.
Specimens of the disease were received from several localities in Orange
County, all in nurseries, through the Nursery Inspection Department of
the State Plant Board.

RHIZOCTONIA DISEASES OF CROP PLANTS
Adams Project 371 W. B. Tisdale and A. N. Brooks
Work on this project pertained to cultural characteristics of various
isolates of rhizoctonia, their pathogenicity to different host plants, effect
of soil temperature on their pathogenicity, and the antagonism of different
isolates toward each other in mixed cultures.
Equipment was not available for determining the complete ranges for
growth, but all strains tested grew more rapidly at 75 to 80* F. than at
lower temperatures.
Rates of growth of different isolates on culture media varied widely
at the same temperature, even with isolates obtained from the same host
plant. In general, rate of growth in culture appeared to be correlated
with degree of pathogenicity of the organism isolated from cabbage; 1
isolate was very pathogenic and grew rapidly, another isolate was less
pathogenic with intermediate growth rate, and a third was slightly patho-
genic and grew very slowly.
One experiment was conducted in the greenhouse during the winter
in which 4 isolates of rhizoctonia obtained from cabbage, lettuce, spinach
and snap bean were compared for pathogenicity to cabbage, lettuce and
spinach at soil temperatures of about 65 and 850 F. Thiosan at the rate
of 1, percent was the only seed treatment included in the test. Analysis
of results of this experiment showed that all 4 isolates were pathogenic
to cabbage, 2 were pathogenic to spinach and none to lettuce. Patho-
genicity was greater at the higher temperature, especially with cabbage.
Germination of treated cabbage and spinach seed was significantly higher
than that of treated seed at the higher temperature but the differences at
the lower temperature were not significant. More post-emergence damp-
ing-off occurred at the high than at the low temperature.
In another experiment, under similar conditions of temperature, the
same isolates of rhizoctonia were tested for pathogenicity to Henderson
Bush lima bean, Stringless Black Valentine bean and cucumber. With
these crops the germination period was about 3 days longer at the lower
temperature, but there were no significant differences in percentage germi-
nation due to strain of organism, seed treatment or soil temperature.
However, the number of healthy plants was significantly larger at the
lower temperature than at the higher; all 4 isolates significantly reduced
the number of healthy lima bean plants, whereas only 3 of them were
significantly pathogenic to snap bean and cucumber. Lima bean was the
only variety that showed an increase in number of healthy plants due
to seed treatment.







Annual Report, 1943 89

Because of the general occurrence of trichoderma in soils, 1 experiment
was conducted with lettuce in which the soil was inoculated with a mixture
of pure cultures of trichoderma and an isolate of rhizoctonia pathogenic
to lettuce to determine whether it exerted any antagonistic effect on
rhizoctonia. Cuprocide, fermate, semesan, spergon, thiosan and zinc oxide
were used as seed-treating materials in the test. The daily temperature
was about 74 F. Germination resulting from all treatments except semesan
was better than that from non-treated seed in soil inoculated with rhizoc-
tonia alone, whereas all treatments except cuprocide gave significant in-
creases in germination in the soil inoculated with mixed cultures. Further-
more, germination from all treatments except cuprocide was better in soil
inoculated with mixed cultures than in the soil receiving rhizoctonia alone.
Germination of non-treated seed was better but the increase was not sig-
nificant. Also, germination and final stand resulting from all treatments
combined were significantly higher in soil inoculated with mixed cultures
than with rhizoctonia only.
More striking information is the finding that different strains or iso-
lates of rhizoctonia decrease the pathogenicity of each other. In an ex-
periment that was repeated 3 times and with similar results, 4 isolates of
rhizoctonia were used to inoculate soil, both singly and in mechanically
mixed combinations of 2 or 3 strains. Cabbage was used as the host
plant; 2 of the isolates (A and K) were highly pathogenic to cabbage,
1 (No. 1) moderately so, and the other (No. 3) was only weakly patho-
genic. When used singly as inoculum the isolates A and K did not allow
any seed to germinate, but when the 2 were combined practically 50 per-
cent of the seed germinated. Germination was about 40 percent in soil
inoculated with combinations of A and No. 1 and K and No. 1 and only
5 percent in the soil inoculated with combinations of A and No. 3 and
K and No. 3. It is possible that this antagonism may account for some
of the erratic behavior of rhizoctonia diseases in the field.
Of the several methods tested for inoculating the soil with rhizoctonia
1 has given most uniform results. This consists of culturing the organism
on about 15 cubic centimeters of potato-dextrose decoction in petri dishes,
removing the mycelial mats and macerating them in water with a Waring
blendor. The resulting mycelial suspension is either poured in the furrow
immediately before planting the seed or distributed over the soil surface
and thoroughly mixed with the top inch or so 1 or 2 days prior to planting
the seed.
While culturing the various isolates it was observed that rhizoctonia
will not grow in the absence of free oxygen. Growth is limited to the
surface of liquid media and it will not penetrate the mass of saturated soil
or corn meal. In the field growth appears to be confined to a thin top
layer of wet soil, whereas it will penetrate to a depth of several inches
in dryer soil.

PYTHIUM ROOT ROT OF AROIDS
In the autumn of 1940 growers of Chinese Evergreen or China Green
(Aglaonema simplex Blume) in Orange County reported that a disease
was causing considerable reduction in marketable plants. An inspection of
the nurseries involved revealed that the plants were affected with root rot.
Similar disease symptoms, although in a milder form, were observed on
Dieffenbachia (Diefenbachia picta Schott.), Nephthytis (Nephthytis
Afzelii Schott.), Philodendron (Philodendron cordatum Knuth) and Pothos
(Scindapsus aureus Engler). In the early stages of the disease affected
plants showed no symptoms of disease above ground, but Chinese Ever-
green plants that had most of their root systems destroyed could be recog-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


nized by their small size and drooped leaves which gradually turned yellow
and finally brown. Stems of some Chinese Evergreen plants rotted off up
to the soil surface and the plants fell over, but the part of the stem above
ground rarely decayed. Unrooted tip cuttings planted in infested soil often
never established a root system because the rootlets were attacked as soon
as they formed. The disease was recognized on the roots as brown lesions
on the tips and other parts. In early stages the lesions were watersoaked
but dried out later and appeared as a typical dry rot. The disease was
active the year round but growers reported that it developed most rapidly
during the spring and autumn.
Several fungi were readily obtained in culture from diseased tissue,
but only after numerous attempts was one obtained that was capable of
producing disease symptoms. This one proved to be a species of Pythium.
It was isolated from diseased roots of all the aroids listed above and it
produced a root rot of all of them typical of that occurring under the
sheds when healthy plants were set in soil inoculated with pure cultures
of the organism. A preliminary test showed that the fungus could be
eradicated from the soil by treating it with formaldehyde solution. (W.
B. Tisdale.)
ROSE GALL
Specimens of cultivated rose canes received from Bunnell, Flagler
County, showed an unusual kind of gall. A fungus was obtained in pure
culture from the galls which, when inoculated into wounds made in the
bark of Louis Phillipe rose canes, produced galls similar in structure to
the ones originally received. The fungus has morphological characters
similar to the genus Cephelosporium, but no record has been found in
literature of a species of this genus that causes galls on rose canes. Also,
a specimen of Dombeya wallichii Benth. & Hook. showing galls similar to
those on the rose was received from Tavares, Lake County. Cultures of
a fungus isolated from these galls were similar to the one obtained from
rose galls and the cultures from both sources produced similar galls on
each host in inoculation experiments. (W. B. Tisdale.)

WITCHES BROOM OF OLEANDER
During the past year 20 inoculations were mada into incisions near the
middle of the internodes of both green and mature stems. Infection oc-
curred in 19 cases but invasion was not sufficient to reach the nodes and
no brooms were formed. The fact that these cultures had been carried
for 3 years may account for the lack of virulence. Other methods of
inoculation are being tested. (Erdman West.)

TEST OF STRAWBERRY VARIETIES
The Klonmore variety and 3 hybrids were grown in plots for testing
their suitability to Florida conditions. The Klonmore was developed at
the Louisiana Experiment Station from a cross between Klondike and
Blakemore and was first released for trial in 1942, after its shipping
qualities had been found satisfactory. The plants for trial were obtained
from an Arkansas nursery early in December 1942 and were producing
fruit by the middle of January 1943. The fruit is somewhat rounder than
Missionary, more uniform in size, lighter red, sweeter, and the seed are
more sunken in the flesh. Because of the low acid content and certain
other qualities it is questionable whether the cold-pack companies would
accept the fruit for preserving. The fruit proved to be less resistant to







Annual Report, 1943 91

cold than that of the Missionary. The plants grow well and produce many
runner plants and the leaves appear to be as resistant to leaf spot diseases
as those of Missionary. Klonmore appears to be an excellent variety for
Florida home gardens.
Plants of 3 hybrids, 15-4 and 15-14, both crosses of Premier on Dorsett,
and 15-6, Premier on Missionary, were obtained from the Tennessee Ex-
periment Station and planted about the middle of February 1943. The
plants grew slowly with the leaves and fruit stems standing in an upright
position. This characteristic is desirable to the extent that it keeps the
fruit out of contact with the soil but undesirable because it exposes the
fruit to frost. The leaves are very susceptible to spotting and because
of this it appears doubtful whether any of these hybrids will be of value
under Florida conditions. (A. N. Brooks.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SOILS

Primary emphasis was given to the investigations of physical and
chemical characteristics of soil types based on the distribution and eco-
nomic importance of these types and as they affect the growth and quality
of plants; on the importance of soil reaction and organic matter, especially
in relation to the stability of the soil fertility complex; on the place of
the growing number of trace or minor elements essential for growth and
quality of plants in this complex; and on the requirements of soil micro-
organisms, especially to the extent the soil environment can be modified
to meet their rather exacting needs.
Good progress was made in the development and application of methods
of analysis for trace elements in both soil and plant materials. Several
phases of the various procedures continued to require considerable atten-
tion, among which is the ashing of the sample wherein both wet and dry
combustion methods have shown appreciable losses of some of these
elements under certain conditions.
Work with "quick methods" for the testing of fertility levels by exami-
nation of soil samples or plant tissues emphasized that caution must be
used in the development and interpretation of these methods under Florida
conditions.
The most important expansion in the department during the year was
the appointment of a Soil Chemist who will investigate soils under pasture
and field crop conditions. Results of value already obtained pertain to
leaching and fixation tendencies of various plant food elements, including
phosphorus, potash and several of the minor elements which are of con-
siderable importance to the fertilization and management of pastures and
other crops growing on Florida soils.

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE
PHASE C. SOIL AND PLANT RELATIONSHIPS
Purnell Project 133 J. R. Henderson and T. C. Erwin
Previous field surveys and studies on this project were extended during
the year to include the collection of a small number of soil and plant
samples in the Moore Haven area from both organic and inorganic soils.
These are in process of analysis at present.
Examinations to date of these and earlier samples by the improved
method for cobalt determination indicate wide differences in the content of
this element found in the soils of what are regarded as normal and deficient
areas in terms of animal symptoms involving this element. This composi-
tion range is found to extend from 0.005 to 50 parts per million. (See also
ANIMAL INDUSTRY Proj. 133.)
This phase of the project is completed with this report.

COMPOSITION OF PLANT MATERIALS WITH PARTICULAR
REFERENCE TO THE MORE UNUSUAL CONSTITUENTS
Purnell Project 201 R. V. Allison, J. N. Howard and T. C. Erwin
Work under this project during the year has consisted of spectrographic
analyses of soil and plant samples quantitatively for copper, man-
ganese, zinc and cobalt or examination by the rough-estimate method for
the entire 37 elements made possible by this latter procedure. These
materials included a series of citrus leaves, oats from a variously treated
cover crop on muck soil, clovers, cabbage and soil samples from various
other experiments; they included 22 profiles of virgin soil with 155 in-








Annual Report, 1943 93

dividual samples from Purnell Project 347 and such miscellaneous ma-
terials as organic fertilizers from large stocks in the trade, wood ash, and
a complex mineral mixture containing 64 different elements that has been
developed and proposed for study as a source of these elements. In all,
nearly 5,000 spectrographic determinations were made in this project dur-
ing the year, where each separate evaluation of the quantity of an element
present was considered as a determination.
In these investigations direct correlation of minor element content of
plant material was obtained with soil treatment in a rather large per-
centage of instances. Apparently the minor element content of virgin
soils may vary greatly from type to type. The minor element content of
11 samples of organic fertilizers spectroanalyzed during the year is sum-
marized in Table 8, where values are based upon weight of oven-dry
material.
TABLE 8.-SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYSES OF ORGANIC SOURCES OF FERTILIZER
NITROGEN.*
Minor Elements **


Material P "
2 .Rg g c 0-


F4-1 Castor pomace 11 10 8 2 9 11 1 10 1 6 10 0 9 4 1 9
F4-2 Castor pomace 11 10 7 2 8 11 0 10 1 5 10 0 8 4 1 8
F4-3 Castor pomace 11 7 7 3 7 11 1 9 1 5 7 0 11 3 1 7
F4-6 Castor pomace 11 8 8 4 8 11 0 6 2 5 9 0 9 1 1 9
F4-7 Castor pomace |11 8 5 4 8 11 0 8 7 7 8 3 11 1 1 8
F4-4 Peanut meal .... 11 5 5 2 5 11 7 8 1 3 1 0 7 3 0 7
F4-8 Peanut meal .... 11 4 6 4 4 11 0 8 1 3 2 1 7 6 0 6
F4-9 Soybean meal.. 7 4 6 0 7 10 0 7 2 6 3 0 0 0 0 6
F4-5 Cottonseed meal | 7 4 4 0 5 10 0 7 0 3 4 0 0 0 0 8
F4-10 Cottonseed meal 1 7 4 3 0 5 11 4 7 0 3 .3 3 1 0 0 7
F4-11 Cottonseed meal |11 5 7 3 5 11 2 7 0 3 4 2 8 3 1 5
These data are not the result of precision analyses but only "Rough estimates" of
the ash content converted to percent of the oven dry weight of the various organic materials.
All plates were examined for, but none of the following elements were found: antimony,
arsenic, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, caesium, cobalt, gold, lanthanum, lithium, mercury,
silver, thallium, tungsten, and zirconium.
** The percentage ranges of composition represented by the whole numbers used in
this table are listed as follows:
Range Concentration Range Range Concentration Range
No. (Percent) No. (Percent)
0 ........ ....................................... N ot detected 6 ................... .................................. 0008-.003
1 .......... ........................ Less than .0001 7 ............................................................ .001 -.005
2 ...... .......................................... 00008-.0003 8 ........................................... .......... .00 -.008
3 .................................. .... .0001 -.0005 9 .................................................... .005 -.01
4 ............................ .......................... .. 0003 -.0008 10 ....................... ..................... .008 -.03
5 ................................. .................... .0005 -.001 11 .............................................G greater than 0.01

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL
METHODS OF COMPLETE AND PARTIAL ANALYSIS
FOR SOILS AND RELATED MATERIALS
Purnell Project 256 R. V. Allison, T. C. Erwin, L. E. Ensminger,
J. N. Howard and H. W. Winsor
Activities under this project were centered largely around the improve-
ment of methods for the quantitative determination of minor elements in
soil and plant samples and the physical balance of these and other elements







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


in the soil. This has involved work on a solution method for copper and
zinc with quantitative application directly to the electrodes of the spectro-
graph; study of the ashing procedure and its control on the preparation of
samples for analysis; purification of dithizone with respect to tin where
this element is used as an internal standard for the fully quantitative
determination of copper and zinc; photometry with emphasis on plate types
and developers, especially in relation to time of exposure and temperature
of developer solutions; spectrum mapping with addition of 4 elements to the
usual 33 for which plates have been read in a routine way in the past;
adaptation of the cobalt method reported last year to analysis of plant ash
and revision and extension of it, through the use of different extracting
methods, to take care of the widely different types of soil of Florida; de-
velopment of a method for determining zinc on the Littrow-type spectrograph
by dithizone concentration and comparison with the Leiss spectrograph and
a new colorimetric method; critical study of a microchemical method for
boron; and work on a rapid, accurate method for determining base exchange
capacity in soils based on a modification of the original barium acetate
method.
These investigations resulted in a number of marked improvements and
safeguards in methods of analysis. Thus the use of the solution method in
preparing plant ash for spectrographic analysis whereby a measured quan-
tity of the solution is applied to the electrode after an internal standard
has been added insures better homogeneity in the sample and a more quan-
titative handling; ignition studies emphasized the very great importance
of ashing samples at the lowest possible temperature for the shortest pos-
sible time in view of the loss of certain elements that have been found
to occur; the photometric studies and improved cooling device installed
have greatly improved the control of plate development and consequently
the accuracy that is dependent upon it; continued improvement of the cobalt
method now makes it a more ready tool for routine application to both
plant and soil studies, a fact of great importance in our nutrition studies
involving this element; improvement of the micro method for boron em-
phasizes the importance of avoiding use of filter paper of any and all
grades in any stage of the determination due to contamination from this
source, and also has provided refinements in procedure to greatly reduce
or overcome intrinsic errors resulting from calcium turbidity or fading
from P0, (phosphate) and from salt concentration. The improved method
for determining base exchange capacity, aside from its speed and ac-
curacy, affords the advantage of a fully constant reaction (pH) in the
exchange environment and throughout the period of the determination
which, of course, is very important. The pH control is possible because
the excess saturating solution is determined by the difference in weight of
the dry soil and the soil after being leached with a .1N barium acetate
solution. This method has been tried on 7 Florida soil types, of widely
different characteristics, with good results.

A STUDY OF SO-CALLED "QUICK METHODS" FOR DETERMINING
SOIL FERTILITY
State Project 306 G. M. Volk, C. E. Bell and H. W. Winsor
Several hundred plant tissue tests using diphenylamine indicator solu-
tion for available nitrate were made on cabbage for the purpose of evaluat-
ing the method. It was found that the midrib of the second or third leaf
was the best test spot. Time of day, plant moisture content, age of plant
and soil nitrate level were found to influence the test. In general there
was poor correlation between the level of nitrate nitrogen in the soil and







Annual Report, 1943


in the tissue as determined by this test on young plants unless the plants
were abnormal in color or growth as a result of nitrate deficiency, under
which conditions the test would always be negative. As the plants aged
and a more efficient root system was developed, better correlation resulted.
The test changed from negative to positive when there were approximately
1.75 p.p.m. of nitrate nitrogen in the soil.
It appears that the test has limited practical application value. It
was quite accurate in indicating a deficiency of nitrate nitrogen in a plant
when such deficiency affected the plant to an extent that to an experienced
observer abnormal color and growth were evident. The test did not prove
to be accurate enough to differentiate between a healthy-appearing, slow-
growing crop and a fast-growing one. Thus the test could be erroneously
interpreted in this range.

TYPES AND DISTRIBUTION OF MICROORGANISMS
IN FLORIDA SOILS
State Project 326 F. B. Smith
The studies on the microbial population of certain soil types and on the
influence of the cropping system and soil treatments completed during the
year showed a characteristic flora for the different soil types. The numbers
of molds in Florida soils are generally low, but are affected significantly
by the cropping system practiced. Cropping of Arredondo fine sand con-
tinuously to corn and peanuts resulted in a significantly lower number of
molds in the surface 6 inches of soil than in soils in which a summer cover
crop of Crotalaria spectabilis Roth was grown. The curves show that the
numbers of microorganisms in Florida soils reach a peak in winter and
early spring and are lowest in late summer and early autumn. This is
almost opposite to the results reported for other soils where maxima are
nearly always reached in spring and autumn and minima in summer and
winter.
A study of the occurrence and distribution of algae in Florida soils
shows that Chlorococcum humicola (Nig.) Rab. is widely distributed in
the surface of most soils and to a depth of 25 inches in the Norfolk fine
sand. Hormidium sp. and Protococcus sp. were found widely distributed
in surface soils. There were soil type differences, and different soil types
appeared to have a characteristic algal flora.

INTERRELATIONSHIP OF MICROBIOLOGICAL ACTION IN SOILS
AND CROPPING SYSTEMS IN FLORIDA
State Project 328 F. B. Smith
Results of studies of biological interactions in soils indicated that
Trichoderma lignorum (Tode) Harz may have some antagonistic effect on
the free-living nematodes. However, further studies with mulched and
unmulched soils indicate that the beneficial effects of mulches may be
largely due to improved soil moisture conditions and the plant food con-
stituents liberated from the decomposing organic matter.

COMPOSITION OF FLORIDA SOILS AND ASSOCIATED
NATIVE VEGETATION
Purnell Project 347 J. R. Henderson, J. N. Howard and T. C. Erwin
Profile samples representing 10 profiles of the Gainesville-Arredondo-
Ft. Meade-Fellowship and the Hernando-Archer-Newberry groups of soils
were collected in Madison and Suwannee counties. This brings the total







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


number of soil samples collected under this project to 339, representing
53 different profiles of virgin mineral soils and 33 different series.
Analyses completed to the present include: Moisture equivalent and
pH values for all samples; mechanical composition for 174 samples, rep-
resenting 26 profiles; and minor element content for 148 samples, repre-
senting 22 profiles.
The data obtained present some interesting facts regarding the composi-
tion of virgin soils. As the volume of data is not adequate for definite
conclusions, only a few general statements are warranted at present. For
the surface soils, pH values range from 4.80 to 8.28; the clay content from
practically 0 to 16.6 percent; and the moisture equivalent from 2.30 to
25.18. Even greater ranges in these values were obtained for the subsoil
samples.
Of the 16 minor elements found in 1 or more of the samples analyzed
spectrographically, all were found in all horizons of 1 soil type only, namely,
Blakely fine sandy loam.

EFFECTS OF CERTAIN MINERAL ELEMENTS ON PLANT GROWTH,
REPRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION
PART B CHEMICAL PHASE
Purnell Project 348-B L. H. Rogers
This phase of the project continued inactive.

FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH OF LEGUME BACTERIA
AND NODULE DEVELOPMENT
Bankhead-Jones Project 368 F. B. Smith, G. D. Thornton and R. E. Blaser
During the past year 5 field tests, 2 greenhouse tests and 1 laboratory
experiment have been conducted. The field experiments included Rhizobia
strain tests; seed treatment with syrup, milk or phosphate; effect of lime
and phosphorus on nodulation; clover variety and its effect on nodulation;
and the effect of minor elements on nodulation. The greenhouse tests were
designed to determine the longevity of Rhizobia in the soil and to note
the effect of acid peat soils on nodulation. The laboratory experiment was
designed to determine the effect of certain of the vitamins on the physi-
ological functions of Rhizobium meliloti Dangeard.
Results obtained this year confirm findings of previous years that lime
and phosphate are essential for nodulation of clovers in Florida soils. Ex-
periments on the longevity of the root nodule organism in Florida soils
indicate a need for calcium, phosphorus and potassium. Results of experi-
ments on the physiological effects of certain vitamins on Rhizobium meliloti
showed a stimulation of growth and respiration, especially during the lag
phase of the life cycle of the organism. Most outstanding results this
year were increases in yield brought about by inoculation, with particular
reference to the effect of amount of inoculum and of different strains of
Rhizobium on growth of clover. These results are illustrated in the 3
photographs of plants which were grown under field conditions and removed
to pots for photographing (Figs. 1-3).

CLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING OF FLORIDA SOILS
State Project 389 J. R. Henderson and R. V. Allison
This cooperative work between the Station, the Soil Conservation Service
and the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering is
similar to that in other states. The work in cooperation with the Bureau





4'
flt-
- S.


1,


(AL.4


it',


Fig. 1.-Effect of inoculation on growth
of California Bur clover. 1, Uninoculated;
2, inoculated with 10 times the amount of
inoculant recommended by the producer.


Fig. 2.-Effect of amount of inoculum on
growth of California Bur clover. 1, Pro-
ducer's recommended amount; 2, 10 times
the recommended amount.


,4A.
a S1


V


1.
4


- A








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of Plant Industry included: (1) The reissuance of 2,500 copies for each
county of the soil survey reports for Lake and Polk counties. (2) A
generalized soil map of Collier County based on the field maps, and
showing the distribution of 36 soil groups was prepared for use by
Collier County officials and other interested agencies until such time
as the detailed report and map can be published. (3) Field work was
continued in Manatee County until January, when this survey was sus-
pended due to a shortage of
personnel. At that time a
l total of 360 square miles had
been surveyed and approxi-
i mately 210 square miles had
J been covered during the year.
2 (4) Moisture equivalent and
pH values were determined
2 on all samples collected in
Collier County. Most of the
soil types sampled belong to
newly established series. The
data indicate the necessity
Sof these new series for prop-
erly mapping soils in the
southern part of the state.
Cooperation with the Soil
Conservation Service was
limited to assistance in the
inspection of surveys in sev-
Fig. 3.-Effect of different strains of eral parts of the state and
Rhizobium on growth of California Bur payment of the field expenses
clover. 1, Regular culture at producer's of survey parties in Dade
recommended amount; 2, special culture at County and in the Ever-
producer's recommended amount. glades District. The survey
of Dade County, part of
which is in the Everglades Drainage District, was completed. Of the
1,669 square miles surveyed in the Everglades Drainage District, 983 were
in Dade County. Work is continuing in other counties in the District.
Surveys were initiated in Columbia, Sumter and Bay counties. Colum-
bia and Sumter counties are included in new soil conservation districts,
whereas Bay County was added to the Orange Hill District, which formerly
included only Washington County. At the end of the year surveys were
in progress in 15 soil conservation districts, the aggregate areas of which
embrace all of Santa Rosa, Walton, Washington, Bay, Gadsden, Leon,
Jefferson, Madison, Suwannee, Columbia, Marion and Sumter, and parts
of Escambia, Okaloosa, Holmes, Jackson and Highlands counties.
A number of soil areas used for cropping experiments by other depart-
ments of the Experiment Station were examined and the soil type or types
identified. A soil map was prepared of a 160-acre tract which was pur-
chased recently by the Experiment Station for pasture research.

MAINTENANCE OF SOIL REACTION AND ORGANIC MATTER AND
THEIR ROLE IN RETENTION AND AVAILABILITY OF
MAJOR NUTRIENT ELEMENTS
State Project 392 G. M. Volk and C. E. Bell
Soil Reaction Studies.-The relationship between lime requirement for
reaction adjustment and the pH scale was found to be very definitely linear
below pH 6.5 when precipitated chalk (C.P. CaCO.) was used in small field




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