• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Credits
 Letter of transmittal
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00028
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1942
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00028
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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    Index
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
Full Text























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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT STATION




ANNUAL REPORT
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1942








EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of
the University3
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Directors
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifleld, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.'
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor'
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor3
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor3
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager3
K. H. Graham, Business Manager3
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant3
MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist1
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist3
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., AgSrnomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate2
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associate
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Fred A. Clark, B.S.A., Assistant
ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist' 8
R. B. Becker, Ph.Y., Dairy Husbandman3
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist3
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Vetinarian3
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Assoc. in Dairy Mfg.
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.s
L. L. Rusoff, Ph.D., Asst. in An. Nutr.3
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.
O. K. Moore, M.S., Asst. Poultry Hush.
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURE
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' S
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
Ruth O. Townsend, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'-
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturistl
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
Bryon E. Janes, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.-
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist2
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist'
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.3
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist1 s
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist3
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Associate3
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Asso. BiochemistV
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Chemist
Thos. Whitehead, Jr., M.S.A., Asst.
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Soil Surveyor
Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Soil Surveyor


BOARD OF CONTROL

H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
J. T. Diamond, Secretary,'Tallahassee
BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agron. in Charge
R. R. Kinkaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Asso, Agron.
J. H. Wallace, M.A., Asso. Agron.
Elliott Whitehurst, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
W. C. McCormick, B.S.A.. Asst. An. Hush.
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron. Tobacco
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.'
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Chg.
V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Associate Ento.
F. F. Cowart, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist'
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Hort.
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Hort. Coastal
EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Chg.
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane Phys.
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asso, Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.2
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.'
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
SUBTROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
E. M. Andersen, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. CEN. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman in
Charge2
RANGE CATTLE STA., ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., An. Husb. in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Asso. Agron.
Gilbert A. Tucker, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
Floyd Eubanks, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
FIELD STATIONS
Leesbnrg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Plant Path.
E. E. Hartwig, Ph.D., Asst. Agron. & Path.
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.
Monticello
S. 0. Hill, B.S., Entomologist2 4
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2
Bradenton
Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Truck Horti-
culturist in Charge
E. K. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
F. T. McLean, Ph.D., Horticulturist
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge,
Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Jack Russell, M.S., Asst. Ento.
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist2
1 Head of Department
In Cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4On leave for military service.






Annual Report, 1942 3

LIST OF DEPARTMENT REPORTS
Page
R report of D director ............. ............................... .... ... ... .. ..--- 5
Report of Business Manager ...............-- ..-..---- ..-----.......---- ...--.. 15
Editorial ........................................... ......... ............ .... 25
Library ........ ............................................... .......... 35
Agricultural Economics .................................. .... .............------- 36
Agronomy ...............-....... --....................---.------------ 40
Anim al Industry ......... ........... ......... ..... ............... 59
Entomology .......--..........----- ----------..--..--.... .... ---.. --- 72
Home Economics ........................................-------------- 76
H horticulture ....................... .......... .......................... .. -.. 79
Plant Pathology ........................................... -.................. 92
Soils ........................................------- ----- ---.....-- ....... .....-- ..--- 101
Celery Investigations Laboratory .-.................... ............. ....... 115
Potato Investigations Laboratory ......---..............-..............-.... ..-- 118
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory ................................... 124
Vegetable Crops Laboratory ............................... ...................... 126
Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service ......-................................. 131
Citrus Station .............................................................. .... 134
Everglades Station ..................................... ............. .. --- ----- ..... 158
N north Florida Station .......................................................................... 179
Range Cattle Station .............................................- .... . 188
Sub-Tropical Station .................... ............... ..... ... ............. ..... 192
W est Central Florida Station ............................................................................ 213



Hon. Spessard L. Holland,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1942.
Respectfully,
H. P. ADAIR,
Chairman, Board of Control


Hon. H. P. Adair,
Chairman, Board of Control
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1942, and I request that you transmit
the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of
Florida.
Respectfully,
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


FINANCIAL RESOURCES
Financial resources from State and Federal appropriations for the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1942, were as follows:
Federal Funds
Hatch and Adams ..............--- -............ ................. 30,000.00
Bankhead-Jones ...----................-.................--- ..-- 34,782.16
Purnell ................----- ...- ..............-----..-----.. 60,000.00
State Funds
Main Station.. ..........---.....-..-... ---....---- ----. ..-. 247,799.00
Citrus Station ......................- ..... ............... 71,450.00
Everglades Station ..................................................................... 54,000.00
Additional-Construction of laboratory building ............ 25,000.00
Continuing appropriation ....................... .. .................. 5,000.00
North Florida Station ............................. .................. ..... 33,100.00
Sub-Tropical Station ................................ ................ ... 21,000.00
Range Cattle ................................................... .......................... 12,500.00
Weather Forecasting Service .................................................... 20,000.00
Vegetable Crops Laboratory .................................................. 25,000.00
Additional-construction of laboratories .......................... 10,000.00
Additional-construction of greenhouse and storage
house .................................................................................. 10,000.00
Potato Investigations Laboratory ......................................... 12,000.00
Celery Investigations Laboratory ............................................ 15,000.00
Watermelon and Grape Laboratory ........................................ 13,500.00
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory .................................... 6,300.00
Gladioli Investigations .............................................................. 5,000.00
Ornamental Horticulture ....................................................... 10,000.00
Soil Survey- research ................................. ................. ..... 5,000.00
M obile U nits ....................... ............ .............. ................... 50,000.00
State-wide Soil Survey ................................................................ 10,000.00
Emergency Fund .......................................................................... 10,000.00
Not all of the foregoing State appropriations were available; some funds
were withheld wholly or in part.







Annual Report, 1942


REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDING

JUNE 30, 1942


Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the work and
investigations of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, together
with the reports of the heads of the several departments and branch sta-
tions, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1942.
WILMON NEWELL,
Director

RESEARCH CONTRIBUTES TO WAR-TIME FARMING
Under war conditions the improvements and advances resulting from
past research findings must be utilized to the utmost and new methods of
meeting currently arising problems must be developed promptly and placed
in operation without delay. Thus, in the new and added emphasis placed on
their work by the Nation's agricultural needs, the agricultural experiment
stations have a vital role and a major responsibility.
Much of the Nation's progress in agriculture has been due to the use of
findings of the various research agencies, among which are the state and
federal agricultural experiment stations. In this the Florida Station has
contributed its proportionate share. Fortunately, during this critical time
and as a direct result of the Nation's research program, new varieties of
vegetables, of corn, oats, sugarcane, forage and soil building crops have been
developed or introduced and already taken their rightful place; better pas-
tures through improved cultural methods and new feeds have been and are
being developed, resulting in the consequent rapid expansion of the cattle
industry; cultural practices on field, vegetable and fruit crops have been im-
proved and pest control measures have been bettered; micro-element de-
ficiencies of many crops are being recognized more and more and remedied;
many new substitute plants have been placed under trial; and the live-
stock industry has been aided through improvement in management prac-
tices, correction of nutritional deficiencies, and control of parasites and dis-
eases.
At the Florida Station, as elsewhere, the effects of war are keenly felt;
a number of staff members have been granted leave of absence for military
service, and shortages of materials and equipment have presented many
problems. During the year there has been a reevaluation of all experiment-
al work in progress; in this the research which has a most direct bearing
on war-time needs was particularly stressed. The members of the staff
have given freely of their time and information to both local and state de-
fense councils, both with reference to the solving of problems incident to
abnormal conditions and shortages brought about by the war, and to actual
preparation for defense of life and property.
The fifty-fourth annual report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station presents herewith a brief review of the major investigational work,
all of which is conducted under definitely planned projects. These projects
were in progress in the various departments of the Main Station, at the 5
Branch Stations, and at 6 Field Laboratories throughout the year.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


IMPROVEMENTS AND ADDITIONS
Rehabilitation of the old Experiment Station building, long needed, was
begun immediately after its evacuation in November and is now in progress.
The renovation of the building necessitated the relocation of the different
departments and their equipment in temporary quarters elsewhere, and re-
quired the construction of 3 frame buildings, 26 x 100, 26 x 60, and 18 x 24
feet.
A deep well and grove irrigation system were installed at the Citrus
Station, a greenhouse and laboratory was built at the Vegetable Crops Lab-
oratory, and a barn and implement shed was constructed at the Watermelon
Investigations Laboratory. At the Everglades Station a 6-inch main was
laid from the Belle Glade water system to station properties. Extension of
this main provides a long needed and adequate supply of water for all sta-
tion uses as well as for fire protection.

CHANGES IN STAFF
Changes in staff have occurred as indicated below:

APPOINTMENTS
R. E. Blaser, Assistant Agronomist, appointed Associate Agronomist, July
1, 1942.
W. M. Fifield, Assistant to Director, appointed Assistant Director, Admin-
istration, July 1, 1942.
G. D. Ruehle, Associate Plant Pathologist, appointed Plant Pathologist in
Charge, Sub-Tropical Station, July 1, 1942.
J. D. Warner, Agronomist Acting in Charge, appointed Agronomist in
Charge, North Florida Station, July 1, 1942.
A. M. Phillips,1 Assistant Entomologist, Pecan Investigations Laboratory,
July 1, 1941.
G. D. Thornton, Assistant Soil Microbiologist, Main Station, September 1,
1941.
O. K. Moore, Assistant Poultry Husbandman, Main Station, September 1,
1941.
R. A. Bair, Assistant Agronomist, Everglades Station, October 1, 1941.
-C. R. Steams, Jr., Chemist, Citrus Station, September 1, 1941.
G. B. Killinger, Associate Agronomist, Main Station, November 1, 1941.
J. C. Hoffman,1 Assistant Horticulturist, Everglades Station, October 15,
1941.
E. M. Hodges, Associate Agronomist, Main Station, December 1, 1941.
Grant Slater,' Laboratory Assistant, Sub-Tropical Station, November 10,
1941.
R. W. Wallace, Associate Agronomist, North Florida Mobile Units, Decem-
ber 1, 1941.
O. C. Olson, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Main Station, December 1, 1941.
R. E. Caldwell, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Main Station, December 1, 1941.
G. A. Tucker, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Range Cattle Station, Novem-
ber 17, 1941.
W. H. Chapman, Assistant Agronomist, North Florida Station, January 15,
1942.
A. E. Taylor, Associate Soil Scientist, Main Station, January 15, 1942.
R. S. Glasscock, Associate Animal Husbandman, Main Station, February 1,
1942.
T. W. Young, Assocaite Horticulturist, Citrus Station, January 15, 1942.

1 To fill position while original appointee is on military leave.







Annual Report, 1942


E. E. Hartwig, Assistant Agronomist and Plant Pathologist, Watermelon
and Grape Investigations Laboratory, March 1, 1942.
J. C. Russell, Assistant Entomologist, Celery Investigations Laboratory,
March 1, 1942.
F. T. McLean, Horticulturist, Gladioli Investigations, Vegetable Crops Lab-
oratory, March 1, 1942.
J. R. Henderson, Soils Chemist, appointed Technologist, Main Station,
March 1, 1942.
E. G. Kelsheimer, Entomologist, Vegetable Crops Laboratory, March 1,
1942.
B. E. Janes,' Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, March 16, 1942.
H. O. Sterling,1 Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, March 3, 1942.
W. C. McCormick,' Assistant Animal Husbandman, North Florida Station,
March 16, 1942.
J. H. Wallace, Associate Agronomist, North Florida Mobile Units, April 1,
1942.
T. E. Whitehead, Jr., Assistant Chemist, Main Station, May 1, 1942.
F. L. Eubanks, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Range Cattle Station, May
1, 1942.
Margaret Mustard,' Laboratory Assistant, Sub-Tropical Station, May 18,
1942.
R. A. Carrigan,' Assistant Chemist, appointed Associate Chemist, May 1,
1942.
MILITARY LEAVE OF ABSENCE

F. S. Andrews, Associate Truck Horticulturist, Everglades Station, August
1, 1941.
V. F. Nettles, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, September 1, 1941.
J. T. Hall, Laboratory Assistant, Sub-Tropical Station, November 10, 1941.
V. E. Whitehurst, Assistant Animal Husbandman, North Florida Station,
January 13, 1942.
J. C. Hoffman, Assistant Truck Horticulturist, Everglades Station, February
4, 1942.
J. C. Cain, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, February 14, 1942.
W. W. Lawless, Assitant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, February 28, 1942.
W. M. Fifield, Assistant Director, Administration, March 8, 1942.
G. A. Tucker, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Range Cattle Station, March
31, 1942.
L. H. Rogers, Associate Biochemist, Main Station, April 13, 1942.
W. H. Chapman, Assistant Agronomist, North Florida Station, May 21,
1942.
J. W. Wilson Entomologist, Everglades Station, June 16, 1942.
M. N. Walker, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Watermelon and Grape Investi-
gations Laboratory, granted leave of absence June 1, 1942, to enter ser-
vice of Board of Economic Warfare, U. S. Government.

RESIGNATIONS

M. L. Messec, Laboratory Assistant, Citrus Station, January 31, 1941.
W. H. Moore, Laboratory Assistant, Everglades Station, February 14, 1941.
Grant Slater, Laboratory Assistant, Sub-Tropical Station, April 1, 1941.
W. M. Neal, Associate in Animal Nutrition, Main Station, March 31, 1941.
F. F. Cowart, Associate Horticulturist, Citrus Station, June 30, 1942.
C. K. Clark, Chemist, Citrus Station, May 31, 1942.

1 To fill position while original appointee is on military leave.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


L. B. Nash, Assistant Horticulturist, Main Station, died October 21, 1941.
John H. Jefferies, Assistant in Citrus Breeding, Citrus Station, retired De-
cember 31, 1941.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
Cooperation of the various agencies of the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture is hereby acknowledged. Among these, and which are mentioned on
following pages in connection with reports of specific projects were:
Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and Engineering
Division of Agricultural Chemical Research
Bureau of Animal Industry
Division of Animal Husbandry
Bureau of Dairy Industry
Division of Dairy Cattle Breeding, Feeding and Management
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Division of Cotton Insect Investigations
Division of Fruit Insect Investigations
Bureau of Plant Industry
Division of Cereal Crops and Diseases
Division of Cotton and Other Fiber Crops and Diseases
Division of Forage Crops and Diseases
Division of Forest Pathology
Division of Fruit and Vegetable Crops and Diseases
Division of Mycology and Disease Survey
Division of Plant Exploration and Introduction
Division of Soil Survey
Division of Tobacco Investigations
Soil Conservation Service








Annual Report, 1942


SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES
The list of projects for the year, arranged by departments, was as
follows:
Agricultural Economics
Project No. Title Page
154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida ........................... 36
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
C itru s ............................................ ...... ........... .. .... .. ... 37
317 Prices of Florida Farm Products ................................... -.......--- .. 37
325 Production Credit for Citrus and Vegetable Growers in Selected
Areas of Florida ..-- .. ............... .. ...........--....... .............. 37
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Flor-
ida D airy H erds ...................................................... .......... .......... 38
349 Land U se Planning .........................................----- ........... ...-- ...... 38
373 Agricultural Income and Land Utilization in a General Farm-
ing Area of Northwest Florida ..................... .....-............... 38
395 Input and Output Data for Florida Crop and Livestock Pro-
duction ....................... .. ....................... ... .. ---- ...... ...... .... .. 39
Florida Truck Crop Competition ................................ ........ ... 39
...... Summary of 1940 Census for Florida Agriculture ....................... 39
Agronomy
20 Peanut Im provem ent .................- ......................... ..............- .... 40
55 Crop Rotation Studies with Corn, Cotton, Crotalaria and Aus-
trian Peas ..............----................. ........ .. ------- .........-- 40
56 Variety Test Work with Field Crops .................... .... .......... 43
163 Corn Fertilizer Experiments ........................................................... 44
265 Composition Factors Affecting the Value of Sugar Canes for
Forage and Other Purposes ............--....... ... .... ..............- ----- 44
267 Pasture Studies -- --... -------......................-........ ..... ................--- 45
295 Effect of Fertilizers on Yield, Grazing Value, Chemical Compo-
sition and Botanical Makeup of Pastures ................................... 45
296 Eradication of Weeds in Tame Pastures ..................................--- 48
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies ............................ 48
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement ....................................... 48
299 Growth Behavior and Relative Composition of Range Grasses
as Affected by Burning and the Effect of Burning on Mainte-
nance of Natural Grass Stands and Upon the Establishment
of Improved Grasses ---....-----.. ...............--.......--......-- 49
301 Pasture Legum es ................................ ........... .................... 49
302 A Study of Napier Grass (Pennisetum Purpureum Schumach)
for Pasture Purposes ..................................... ....... ................ 53
304 Methods of Establishing Permanent Pastures Under Various
Conditions ..............................-...........-.- ....--- ....... .. ..---...... ....-. 54
312 Spacing and Plant Competition in Common Field Crops ........ 54
363 Oats Improvem ent ............ .. ...... ......... -........- -................. 55
369 Effect of the Form and Ratios of Nutrient Materials on the
Growth and Composition of Forage Plants .................. ------.............. 55
372 Flue-Cured Tobacco Improvement ......................--.................. 56
374 Corn Im provem ent ............................................... ......... .... .. 56
378 Flue-Cured Tobacco Fertilizers and Varieties ............................... 57
...... Miscellaneous Peanut Experiments ... ---.......---.........--- .----------....... 58
--. Sea Island Cotton .......---........ ... .... --.-.....-- ............... 58
Animal Industry
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ..................... .......................... 63
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to
Her Milk and Butterfat Production .................... ..................... 63








10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
213 A Study of the Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops ................ 63
215 Beef Cattle Breeding Investigations ...............................----...--. .. 63
216 Cooperative Field Studies with Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle 64
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations ................................ 64
251 The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Condi-
tions in A nim als .................................................................. ... ......... 64
258 A Study of Plants Poisonous to Livestock in Florida .................. 64
274 Studies in Fleece and Mutton Production ........................................ 65
302 A Study of Napier Grass for Pasture Purposes ........................... 65
307 A Statistical Study of the Relationship Between Temperature
and Egg Weight (Size), Body Weight and Egg Weight, Body
Weight and Production, Age and Egg Weight, of Single Comb
W hite Leghorn Pullets ..........................---.... ..---- .... -- ......... 65
309 Poultry Breeding ................... ... .............. ........ .. ......-----....... 66
310 Deficiencies of Peanuts When Used as Feed for Swine ................ 66
311 Methods of Handling Sows and Young Pigs .................--................. 66
320 The Vitamin Content of Shark Liver Oil ................-----....................... 66
331 Comparative Value of Sugarcane Silage, Shocked Sugarcane,
and Pasture, Supplemented with Cottonseed Meal or Cake, in
W entering the Beef Herd ..................................... ..... -.--- 67
337 Different Methods of Feeding Grain to Layers ............................ 67
339 The Use of Molasses for Fattening Steers ----......................-......... 67
343 Influence of Sulfur on the Body Populations and Various Stages
of the Life Cycle of Ectoparasites, on the Intermediate Hosts
of Helminths and on the Incubation of Roundworm Eggs of
Chickens ...............................................-........-------.. ---. ----- 68
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Flor-
ida Dairy Herds ................----.............-- -.........-- ...... -----.---- 68
346 Investigation with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition
Problems of Livestock ............................................. ... .-------. 69
350 Rotational Grazing and Internal Parasites in Sheep Production 69
352 Calcareous Mineral Supplements for Poultry Feeding ................ 69
353 Infectious Bovine Mastitis .................... ............................................ 69
356 Biological Analyses of Pasture Herbage ........................................ 70
360 Processing, Storage and Utilization of Dairy Products and By-
Products to Meet War-Time Food Needs and Limitations ........ 70
387 Longevity of Eggs and Larvae of Internal Parasites of Cattle 71
388 Mineral Supplements for Fattening Hogs on Peanuts ................ 71
Entomology
263 The Pepper Weevil-Its Biology, Distribution and Control .... 72
379 Control of the Nut and Leaf Case-bearers of Pecans ................ 72
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida 72
381 Propagation of Larra Wasps for the control of Mole-Crickets .... 73
382 Root-Knot in Tobacco Fields ............................................... ......... 73
383 Breeding Vegetable Plants Resistant to Root-Knot Nematodes 73
384 Biology and Taxonomy of the Thysanoptera of Florida ............ 74
385 Effect of Mulches on the Root-Knot Nematode .......................-.... 74
386 Control of Florida Flower Thrips .......... .......---... ----------....... 74
Home Enonomics
255 An Investigation of Human Dietary Deficiencies in Selected
Counties in Florida, with Special Reference to Nutritional Ane-
mia in Relation to the Composition of Home-Grown Foods ........ 76
358 Vitamin A Activity of Foods ...................................... -- ...... 76
359 Vitamin C in Florida Fruits and Vegetables ...............................----- 77
370 Chemical Composition and Physiological Properties of Royal
Jelly .....-..-........---....-........--.. ..-..-...-- -- --- ---... 78







Annual Report, 1942


Horticulture
Project No. Title Page
47 Cooperative Fertilizer Tests in Pecan Orchards ........................ 79
50 Propagation, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with Tung-Oil Tree 79
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and
Methods for Their Propagation .........---...........---- .........--..--. 81
80 Cooperative Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards ........................ 82
110 Phenological Studies on Truck Crops in Florida ............................ 82
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ........................ 82
189 Study on the Preservation of Citrus Juices and Pulps ............... 83
190 Cold Storage Studies on Citrus Fruits ........................................ 83
237 Maturity Studies on Citrus Fruits .............................................. 84
268 A Study of the Relation of Soil Reaction to Growth and Yield
of Vegetable Crops ..............................--..- .....-.- ......... ..- ..-- ---- 85
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vege-
tables Adaptable to Commercial Production in Florida ............ 85
283 Effects of Various Green Manure Crops on Growth, Yield and
Quality of Certain Vegetable Crops ...................----....-----...... 85
314 Fumigation of Horticultural Products ..............................--.. 86
315 Fumigation of Nursery Stock .................-..... ......... .............--. 86
319 Effects of Mineral Deficiencies on Adaptability of Certain Vege-
table Varieties to Florida ............----... ..... ........... .............. .-------- 86
348-A Effects of Certain Mineral Elements on Plant Growth, Repro-
duction and Composition ....................----. ...-- ----- .......... --86
365 Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree .................................... 87
375 Relation of Zinc and Magnesium to Growth and Reproduction
in Pecans ....... ............. ...... .................... .. ............. ---- 88
376 Effects of Certain Growth Substances on Pecans ........................ 89
377 Storage and Handling of Florida Vegetables ..........................---- 89
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ................. ------.---..........---- ------ 90
.... U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations ............................ 90
Plant Pathology
126 Investigations Relative to Certain Diseases of Strawberries of
Importance in Florida .........--....................... .....-....-------. ..... 92
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants 92
269 Host Relations and Factors Influencing the Growth and Para-
sitism of Sclerotium Rolfsii Sacc. ....................-......------------..... 93
281 Causes of Failure of Seeds and Seedlings in Various Florida
Soils and Development of Methods for Prevention .................--..... 94
284 A Comparative Study of the Pathogenicity and Taxonomy of
Species of Alternaria, Macrosporium and Stemphylium ............ 97
344 Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Eggplant ................----................ 97
357 Azalea Flower Spot ......-................................. ----- ......-- 97
371 Rhizoctonia Diseases of Crop Plants ...........--........... .............. 98
...... Cam ellia Dieback Disease ........................ ..... --- ........ ......... 98
...... Cucumber Dust Experiment ............................... ... ............ ... 98
...... Oleander Witches Broom Diseases ........................ .......-...... 98
...... Tobacco Plant Bed Demonstrations ............................. ........... .... 99
..... Control of Zinnia Leaf Spot and Powdery Mildew ........................ 99
--... Phytogaster cubensis Pat., a Wood Decaying Fungus of South-
ern Oaks and Waxmyrtles ................................. ---------------- 99
.. Miscellaneous Observations and Investigations .................-... .. 100
Soils
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ................... ........................ 101
201 Composition of Plant Materials with Particular Reference to the
More Unusual Constituents ...... .................... ................ 101







12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
256 Development and Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Methods
of Complete and Partial Analysis for Soils and Related Ma-
terials .............................-....... .....------.................. ---.... ....................... 102
306 A Study of the So-Called "Quick Methods" for Determining
Soil Fertility .... ------..............................--............ .....-.............. ------- 102
322 Soil and Vegetation Surveys in Relation to Pasture Develop-
ment in Florida -.....................------------------.. .................................-. ...... 103
326 Types and Distribution of Microorganisms in Florida Soils ........ 103
327 Metabolism and Functional Relationships of Soil Microorgan-
isms Under Florida Conditions --........................ ..................... .... 104
328 Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and Crop-
ping System s in Florida ............................................ ................... 104
347 Composition of Florida Soils and of Associated Native Vege-
tation .--------...-------- ... ........... ..........- ......... ........................... 104
348 Effects of Certain Mineral Elements on Plant Growth, Repro-
duction and Composition .........................-- .. ..................... 104
361 Adjustment of Reaction of Florida Soils ........................................ 104
368 Factors Affecting Growth of Legume Bacteria and Nodule De-
velopment ..... ----....-- -----...---......-------.......... .------................. 105
389 Classification and Mapping of Florida Soils ..................-............. 106
392 Maintenance of Soil Reaction and Organic Matter and Their
Role in Retention and Availability of Major Nutrient Elements 106
393 Significance of Levels of Readily Soluble Major Nutrient Ele-
ments Removed by Various Extraction Procedures from Flor-
ida Soils Under Different Cropping Practices ................................ 108
-- Availability of Calcium and Phosphorus of Colloidal Phosphate
Applied to Soils Adapted to Pastures .............................................. 109
... Soil Factors Affecting the Availability of Trace Elements in
Fertility Studies with Certain Truck Crops .................................... 110
... Effect of Type and Treatment of Florida Soils on Yield, Com-
position and Quality of Citrus ....................-- ............................ 111
Celery Investigations
252 Soil and Fertilizer Studies with Celery ...-------................................ 115
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot ........ 115
336 Early Blight of Celery .................. .....---- ...... ..................... 116
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .....-- .......----------------.... .................... 116
Potato Investigations
130 Studies Relative to Disease Control of White (Irish) Potatoes .... 118
143 Investigation and Control of Brown Rot of Potatoes and Close-
ly Related Plants ...-----..-........---- -------- ----------..... .................. -......... 119
313 Control of Diseases of Potatoes and Vegetable Crops Caused
by Rhizoctonia .......... ......... ........-.................. 119
...... Downy Mildew of Cabbage .........----....-----.-................-... 119
391 Vegetable Variety Trials .............. .............---.... .......... ....... 120
...... Potato Culture Investigations .................. ------ ....................... 121
...... Cabbage Production and Fertility Studies .................................... 122
Watermelon and Grape Investigations
S150 Investigations of and Control of Fusarium Wilt, a Fungous
Disease of W atermelons ...-............----.....-...... --........................... 124
151 Investigations of and Control of Fungous Diseases of Water-
melons .-----.........-- ...------------ ------- ---............................... 124
254 Investigations of Fruit Rots of Grapes -------------------..............-.-... 124

...... Propagating Grapes by Aerial Roots ..............................------ 125







Annual Report, 1942


Vegetable Crops Laboratory
Project No. Title Page
380 Biology and Control of Cutworms and Armyworms in Florida 127
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ...............-- ....... .............. -----------127
398 Breeding for Combining Resistances to Diseases and Insects
in the Tom ato ............. ...................... .... . ............. ------128
401 Control of the Lepidopterous Larvae Attacking Green Corn .... 128
... Gladiolus Variety Studies ................................................. ............. 128
.... Control of Insect Pests and Diseases of Gladiolus ........................ 129
Control of Vegetable Crops Diseases ......................................... 129
.. Cultural Factors Affecting Tomato Yields ....--..-.......................... 129
Secondary Element Requirements and Deficiency Symptoms of
V vegetable Crops ..................... ....... ..... .. .. ............. ........... 130
Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service
Report of Progress ................................... .................... 131
Citrus Station
24 Citrus Scab and Its Control .................... .. ....................- 134
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection .................... ........................... 134
102 Variety Testing and Breeding ............................... .................... 134
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rots of Citrus Fruits 134
340 Citrus Nutrition Studies .........................................----.....-........ 138
341 Combined Control of Scale Insects and Mites on Citrus ............ 149
..... Citrus Investigations in the Coastal Regions .............................. 151
..... Packinghouse Research ..................... .. ................ ....... ....... 155
--.. Cooperative Packinghouse Research With the Florida Citrus
Com m mission ........................... ....... .. ........ .....-----..... 156
Everglades Station
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings 159
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Con-
ditions ....-..........................-----...... --- ----- ---- ---- --------- 159
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ..............................- ...... 160
88 Soils Investigations .................. .......... ................. ... 161
89 W ater Control Investigations ...................................................... 161
168 Studies Upon the Role of Special Elements in Plant Develop-
ment upon the Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades ................ 163
169 Studies upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugarcane
Moth Borer, Diabraea saccharalis Fab. ....................................... 164
171 Cane Breeding Experiments ........................................ ...-....... ... 164
172 General Physiological Phases of Sugarcane Investigations ........ 165
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
glades ........................................ ... ----.................. 166
202 Agronomic Studies with Sugarcane ..................... ................ 167
203 Forage Crop Investigations ............---..........--- ..---- ------..-- 168
204 Grain Crop Investigations ........... ...... ............................ ....... 168
205 Seed Storage Investigations ........-................. .. ----.... ...... 169
206 Fiber Crops Investigations ............................................. .......... 169
208 Agronomic Studies Upon the Growth of Syrup and Forage
Canes ...................-- ...........-....... ....--....-- -----.... ------.- . -- -- 170
209 Seed and Soil-Borne Diseases of Vegetable Crops ......--............ 170
210 The Leaf Blights of Vegetable Crops ....................... ..... .......... 172
211 Physiological Phases of Plant Nutrition .....................................--. 173
212 Relation of Organic Composition of Crops to Growth and Ma-
turity ...............-.-.-- ...........-.... ....... .......---...-- ..--.... ---......... 174
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations ............................... 174
332 Varietal Comparisons with Various Species of Truck Crops at
Different Fertility Levels ...................................---. ... ... 174
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot ........ 175







14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project No. Title Page
336 Early Blight of Celery ......... ..........-- ...-............---..........--- ... 176
364 Fattening Steers on Winter Pastures with Ground Snapped
Corn, Ground Shallu Heads, Molasses and Cottonseed Meal ........ 177
391 Vegetable Varietal Adaptation Trials .......................................... 177
-.-- Special Investigations in Animal Nutrition .................................. 178
North Florida Station
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco ....................................... 181
80 Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards .....--...............................-- -----181
191 Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Florida Shade To-
bacco Seed and Early Growth of the Seedlings ...................-........ 181
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations ................................ 181
257 Columbia Sheep Performance Investigations .........---..........-....... --182
260 Grain Crop Investigations ................. ................................ .. 182
261 Forage Crop Investigations ............-- ....-..-.......--.....------ 182
301 Pasture Legumes ..-..........--....-..-.....----- ...-.....---- ----------- 183
321 Control of Downy Mildew of Tobacco ............................................ 183
354 Cultural Practices for the Control of Root-Knot of Tobacco ........ 183
355 Feed Crop Production and Utilization with Beef Cattle ............ 184
362 Kudzu and Peanut Hays as Roughages for Fattening Steers .... 185
366 Oats Pasture as a Supplement to Corn for Fattening Hogs ........ 185
367 Tankage and Mineral Supplements in Ration for Fattening Hogs 186
Sweet Potatoes ......---.............----.....-----...------- -- ---------- 186
...... Cotton Variety Test ...............-.. ----.......-..- ------ ..... 186
--. Castor Beans .~.......... ----.. .......... .....--.- .....--- 186
...... Flax ....................--.............. .. ----------. ------ 187
..... M obile Units .......................-.............. ......... ... ------- ------ 187
Range Cattle Station
390 Breeding Beef Cattle for Adaptation to Florida Environment 188
.- Clover Variety, Fertilizer and Incorporation Tests .............--..... 189
...... Effect of Fertilization on the Feeding Value of Improved Pas-
ture Grass Alone and in Combination with Legumes ................ 189
... Wintering the Beef Herd on the Range ................................-...... 190
...... Mineral Consumption by Cattle on Range Pasture .....--------................. 190
...... Water Control and Species Adaptation of Pasture Grasses on
Low Lying Lands ......................-----------...... -------------.... 191
Sub-Tropical Station
242 Investigations of a Bark Disease on Tahiti Lime Trees ........-.... 192
275 Citrus Culture Studies .......................-.--. -------...--...-- 193
276 Avocado Culture Studies ..-.~...........-- .............. ..--..........-- 195
277 Forestation Studies ........................---- -- ...---.....------....--..----....--- 196
278 Improvement of Tomatoes Through Selection of New Hybrids 196
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals .-....--............................ 196
280 Studies of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals .............-...................... 198
285 Potato Culture Investigations ...................... ......---.--- ----- 203
286 Tomato Culture Investigations ....--........---............... --------204
287 Cover Crop Studies .................................... ................................... 205
288 Varietal Tests of Carrots, Corn and Other Vegetable Crops .... 206
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County ......................---.............. 206
290 A Study of Diseases of the Avocado and Mango and Develop-
ment of Control Measures ..........----..............-- ....-- ........--. 208
291 Control of Tomato Diseases .-........................--------...----- 210
391 Vegetable Variety Trials ....-.....--.........-- .. ..... .............. 210
...... Cassava A adaptation Trial ................................ ........... ........... 211
West Central Florida Station
.. Cattle Breeding and Feeding ..........................- .................. ..... 213
Grasses and Legumes ......................--- ..................... 215
...... Poultry Breeding and Feeding ............ ......--...........---.... .. 215







Annual Report, 1942 15



REPORT OF THE BUSINESS MANAGER
MAIN STATION

Receipts, 1941-42 .................................. ................... $247,799.00
Expenditures:
Salaries .. ........................ .................. $108,999.61
Labor ...................................... .... .... 44,125.53
Stationery and office supplies ................................ 1,853.36
Scientific supplies ..............................-- 5,291.61
Feeding stuffs ...... ...... .................. ......... 15,894.36
Fertilizers ............ --.. ... ............. 2,765.40
Other supplies ............................ ............... 10,813.10
Communication service ........................... 1,947.29
Travel expense ............ ........ ..... ............ 7,663.37
Transportation of things ............................ 1,272.71,
Publications ............................... .. .. ..- 7,394.95
Heat, light, power, water ................. ..................- 9,070.04
Contingent expense .................... ..... ........ 1,483.76
Furniture, fixtures ..................................... 1,760.90
Library ........................................... 3,380.98
Scientific equipment ..................... ............. 1,082.88
Livestock ................................................. .......... 534.91
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. .............................. 3,546.49
Structures other than buildings, rent .................. 1,772.32
Buildings .................... ................. ....- ....... 4,674.43
Unexpended balance ..... ............ ............ .. 12,471.00

Total ................... .............. ............ .... $247,799.00

CITRUS STATION
Receipts, 1941-42 ............................... ......... ....... $ 71,450.00
Expenditures:
Salaries ........................ .... ...---- ..$ 30,690,18
Labor .......... ............ ................. .. ---.. ...... 15,835.38
Stationery and office supplies ......................... 134.04
Scientific supplies ................. ......................... 3,172.42
Feed stuffs ............. -..........-........... 126.24
Fertilizers ................. ........... ...........- 4,386.35
Other supplies ................... ........ .......... 869.16
Communication service ........................ .............. 293.69
Travel expense ................... ... ........-..... 1,861.80
Transportation of things ...................................... 69.15
Heat, light, power, water .................................... 1,822.29
Contingent expense ...................................-..... 179.74
Furniture, fixtures ..................... ............-. 115.83
Library -..-- ...-................. .... ............ 155.76
Scientific equipment ..................-................. 460.53
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc ............................ 1,586.63
Structures other than buildings ....................... 100.10
Buildings .................... ... .................... 1,450.42
Unexpended balance ......................--................. 8,140.29

Total ......................... ........ ........................... ..... .... $ 71,450.00







16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

EVERGLADES STATION
Receipts, 1941-42 ...... ............ .. -......... ....................
Expenditures:
Salaries ....................................... ..... ................ 32,570.02
L abor ........................................ ............... ............. 9,661.92
Stationery and office supplies ................................ 146.13
Scientific equipment ...................................... 891.00
Feed stuffs ..............- ............---- ............. 1,335.10
Fertilizers ............................................ 748.83
Other supplies ............................... ................. 1,835.62
Communication service ....................--.. ..--.. ... 230.38
Travel expense ............... .................... 692.94
Transportation of things ............................... 182.87
Heat, light, power, water ..................................... 2,883.35
Contingent expense ......... ........................ 197.61
Furniture, fixtures ................................... 26.70
Library ........................................... ..... 178.85
Scientific equipment ...................................... .... 96.49
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. .......................... 1,591.13
Structures other than buildings ............................ 238.15
Buildings .................... .................... ..... .......... 433.43
Unexpended balance ......................................... 59.48

T total ......... ..... ........... .........................
EVERGLADES CONTINUING CHAPTER 8442
R eceipts, 1941-42 .................................................. ................
Expenditures:
Salaries .................................. .. .......... ........ $ 5,000.00

T otal ....--------....--- .........- ....-- ...... .... .....................

NORTH FLORIDA STATION
Receipts, 1941-42 ............................................... ...........
Expenditures:
Salaries ..........................-..........$.. 15,109.00
Labor ........................................ 8,153.60
Stationery and office supplies ............................. 74.19
Scientific supplies ............-..........~........-....- 170.66
Feed stuffs .................. .................. ............ .. 592.49
Fertilizers ................ ................................... 2,720.44
Other supplies ................................................. 2,339.98
Communication service ................................ 161.93
Travel expenses ............... ....... ........-... .... 412.65
Transportation of things .................................... 398.68
Heat, light, power, water ..................................... 706.29
Contingent expense .......................... ... ............ 115.12
Furniture, fixtures ................................ ............. 157.75
Library ........................ ....................... 18.60
Scientific equipment ............................. .......... 51.35
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ......................... 366.11
Structures other than buildings ........................... 68.20
Buildings .......................... ....... .... .............. 1,440.73
Unexpended balance ............................... ......... 42.23


........... .................. ................. $ 33,100.00


$ 54,000.00


$ 54,000.00


$ 5,000.00



$ 5,000.00


$ 33,100.00


Total .......................







Annual Report, 1942 17




SUB-TROPICAL STATION

Receipts, 1941-42 ................................ ...... .......... .... $ 21,000.00
Expenditures:
Salaries .............. ..... ........- .. .. .. ........-$ 14,094.16
Labor ...................................... ......... ..... .... 1,826.75
Stationery and office supplies .................................. 120.99
Scientific supplies .......................-- .- -. 249.39
Fertilizers .........-....---------------- ---...--- --.. .. 1,880.39
Other supplies ............................. ......... 304.95
Communication service .................... ............. 167.71
Travel expense ............................ ............ 641.45
Transportation of things ..............~......-------...- 29.35
Heat, light, power, water ..........................--. 786.16
Contingent expense .................... .........---- --- 53.16
Furniture, fixtures .......... ............. ... ---- ---- ... 28.25
Library .......................... ............ 54.11
Scientific equipment ................................ 28.78
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ........................ 453.30
Buildings ............................ ................... 212.92
Unexpended balance ...................... ......--.. 68.18

Total ........... ~.... ....-......... ..... ... -...... .. .... $ 21,000.00




RANGE CATTLE STATION

Receipts, 1941-42 ........................... ........ ........... $ 12,500.00
Expenditures:
Salaries ........ .... ...... ........ ------- --$ 4,500.00
Labor .....................- ........ ---..- ..... ---.. ..... 2,594.55
Stationery and office supplies .............................. 45.33
Scientific supplies .......... .... ............ ......... 26.35
Feed stuffs ......................- ....... .. .......-- 259.20
Fertilizers ............................. -.... .... 24.55
Other supplies ................................ ............ 127.76
Communication service .................................. 11.72
Travel expense ................................ 477.79
Transportation of things ----............................. .. 16.06
Heat, light, power, water ................................... 274.88
Contingent expense ......................... ........... 15.48
Livestock ................................................... 900.00
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc ....... .................. 1,966.35
Structures other than buildings ........................ 128.50
Buildings ............ ... ..................... ........ 419.38
Unexpended balance ................................... 712.10


$ 12,500.00


Total







18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station



WEATHER FORECASTING SERVICE

Receipts, 1941-42 .................................. -----------------.................... $ 20,000.00
Expenditures:
Salaries .......................... ......................$ 1,200.00
Labor .................................................... 273.75
Stationery and office supplies ................................ 111.73
Other supplies ................................ .............. 111.46
Communication service ...............................--...... 3,045.24
Travel expense ........-..---... ... ....................... 7,985.27
Transportation of things ........................................ 9.00
Heat, light, power, water .....--..................... ....... 346.45
Contingent expense ................................................ 30.50
Furniture, fixtures ................................................... 109.21
Scientific equipment ............................................... 661.39
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. .........--................ -16.72
Structures other than buildings ............................ 38.75
B buildings ..................... ........................................... 128.48
Unexpended balance ........................... ..- ........... 5,932.05

Total ........---.... -- ..... --- .. .................................... $ 20,000.00




VEGETABLE CROPS LABORATORY

Receipts, 1941-42 ..-.......--.......---- .....--..............-.. ......-- $ 25,000.00
Expenditures:
Salaries ....... ............ ..... ........................$ 8,260.00
Labor ........................................ ...-.................. 4,968.73
Stationery and office supplies ................................ 177.60
Scientific supplies -....................-.....--.---....-..... 431.70
Feeding stuffs ............................................................ 228.60
Fertilizers ................ ............ .......... .............. 398.59
Other supplies ...................... ........................ 790.90
Communication service .....---...-..........-- ....-- ...... 161.58
Travel expense .........................--....--..-....- 397.01
Transportation of things .......................................... 273.77
Heat, light, power, water ......................----............ 509.01
Contingent expense .................................-....-...... 76.00
Furniture, fixtures ........................... ........ ...... 367.83
Library ........................................................................ 12.33
Scientific equipment ........................... .... ........ 219.10
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ............................ 1,631.88
Structures other than buildings, rent .................... 545.61
Buildings ........................ ......-- ....- -.....-- .. 1,452.87
Improvement to land ................................................ 43.25
Unexpended balance ........................... ................. 4,053.64


T otal ................ ..............


$ 25,000.00







Annual Report, 1942 19








VEGETABLE CROPS LABORATORY, SPECIAL: (ADDITIONAL FOR
LABORATORY FOR PLANT PATHOLOGIST AND ENTOMOLOGIST
-CHAPTER 20,980)
Receipts, 1941-42 ...................................................... $ 10,000.00
Expenditures:
Salaries ..... ....................... ...........................$ 1,816.66
L abor ....................................... ...................... 1,188.28
Stationery and office supplies ....---............-...-....... 79.70
Scientific supplies ................... .... --....... .... 1,492.57
Feed stuffs .......................... ..... .... .......... 8.53
Other supplies .................................. ...... ............ 405.52
Communication service ... ................. ---.... ..... 6.50
Travel ................................... ................................. 21.14
Transportation of things ...................................... .60
Contingent expense ................................. ........ 13.00
Furniture, fixtures ........... ......................- ...... 584.04
Library .................................................... 79.17
Scientific equipment ............----. ..... ......... .... 293.50
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. .---........................ 82.86
Buildings ..................................... ........ ........... 266.37
Unexpended balance ....................... ............... 3,661.56

Total ..-.......-....------------....... -----.------...... -..... $ 10,000.00




VEGETABLE CROPS LABORATORY, SPECIAL: (ADDITIONAL FOR
GREENHOUSE, BUILDINGS FOR TRAILERS, EQUIPMENT
-CHAPTER 20,980)

Receipts, 1941-42 ............................................ ................. .. $ 10,000.00
Expenditures:
L abor ..................................... ......... ..........-- 559.55
Other supplies ......................... ... .. .......... 5.36
Furniture, fixtures ........................ ..................... 98.37
Buildings ............. .................. ......................... 5,791.76
Unexpended balance ..................... ................... 3,544.96


.................................... ...................... $ 10,000.00


Total .....







20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY

R eceipts, 1941-42 ................................................ .................... $ 12,000.00
Expenditures:
Salaries .............................---$ 6,600.00
Labor .................................................... ... ..... - 3,055.30
Stationery and office supplies ............................ 76.09
Scientific supplies .............................. -............-. 184.56
Fertilizers .. .... ........... .............................. 390.92
Other supplies .....-.........----..... .....-------..... 521.01
Communication service ...... -..................... .......... 62.42
Travel expense ........................................................ 92.90
Transportation of things ................................-- .. 28.27
Heat, light, power, water ..................................... 138.23
Contingent expense ..................... ------...-.. ......... 25.30
Furniture, fixtures ...............----...... --............ 16.53
Library ..................... ................................ 2.00
Scientific equipment ....................................... 160.26
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ............................ 354.60
Structures other than buildings, rent .--..........-.... 39.67
Buildings ............... .................. .. .... ............. 206.79
Unexpended balance ....-...... .. ...................... 45.15

Total ......-- ...--------........... ..... .................... 12,000.00




CELERY INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY

Receipts, 1941-42 .............. .......... ..................... .... .... $ 15,000.00
Expenditures:
Salaries ........................ .............. .......- $ 8,066.66
Labor ............- ....................--....... .............. ..... 2,726.31
Stationery and office supplies ..................--.......... 32.18
Scientific supplies .............................. ............... 167.36
Feed stuffs ........... ..... ............ .....--- ......--- 2.02
Fertilizers .................. ................... ............ 628.07
Other supplies .................. ................-......--. 242.83
Communication service -......... .............................. 92.00
Travel expense ....................- ...................-.... 167.97
Transportation of things ........................................ 9.86
Heat, light, power, water --.................--........----.... 306.74
Contingent expense -- --... --........................ ........ 21.25
Furniture, fixtures ................................... .............. 197.80
Library .................................... ......... .... 38.49
Scientific equipment .....................-....... ....... ...... 4.90
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ............................ 1,139.44
Structures other than buildings ............................ 191.96
Buildings ...................................................................... 266.40
Improvement to land ........---............ ..........----- .. 204.89
Unexpended balance .....-- ..---.......... -...........----- 492.87


Total ................... .............................................................


$ 15,000.00







Annual Report, 1942


WATERMELON & GRAPE INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY

Receipts, 1941-42 ................... ......... ..................... ... ......... $ 13,500.00
Expenditures:
Salaries ...................................... 7,347.03
Labor ...................................... .. .. .... ... 2,004.15
Stationery and office supplies ............................ 38.57
Scientific supplies ............. ..... ..... .... .... 87.02
Fertilizers ................. ......... .. .... .---....-- 351.00
Other supplies .................. .............................. 268.74
Communication service ......................................... 136.14
Travel expense .................... ...................-- 809.35
Transportation of things.. ........... ..... ........... 18.98
Heat, light, power, water ....................................... 395.80
Contingent expense .......................... 99.39
Furniture, fixtures ................................. ........ 14.25
Library ........................................ 6.75
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc .......--.............. 111.44
Structures other than buildings .......................... 1,091.45
Buildings ....................... .... ..... ....... ....- 717.86
Unexpended balance .................. .................. 2.08

Total ....................................-....-....... $ 13,500.00




STRAWBERRY INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY

Receipts, 1941-42 ...................... .................. $ 6,300.00
Expenditures:
Salaries .................................... .. ...... $ 2,900.00
Labor ............................ ........................... 644.10
Stationery and office supplies ............................ 3.55
Scientific supplies .....-............... ........... 114.82
Fertilizers ........... .... ................ ............... 60.35
Other supplies .................... ............ ............ 123.68
Communication service .......................... ....... 8.35
Travel expense ........................................ 202.80
Transportation of things ...................... ........ .... 21.98
Heat, light, power, water ............ ............. ..... 82.60
Scientific equipment .............................. .............. 490.00
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. .......................... 35.57
Buildings ........ ....-- .............. ............... 103.15
Unexpended balance .................. ...................... 1,509.05


Total $ 6,300.00


$ 6,300.00


Total ..............







22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station






GLADIOLI INVESTIGATIONS

Receipts, 1941-42 ..................--- -.............. -................... 5,000.00
Expenditures:
Salaries ................ .. .... ..................... ...$ 1,000.00
Slabrie ..------------------------------------------------- 1490.25
Labor ... ............................................... ........ 149.25
Stationery and office supplies .---............--............ 19.75
Scientific supplies .-.............. ................. .... 378.60
Other supplies ..................----... ...... ...... ....... 309.03
Communication service ...................--- .... ---... ..... 1.00
Travel expense ................... ........ ....- ........ 54.24
Transportation of things ...................................... 44.72
Furniture, fixtures ......................-- ---..-. --......... 87.15
Scientific equipment ..................--..-......------. 203.25
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc ......---............--.... 15.00
Buildings ........ -........................... ............. 56.36
Unexpended balance .................... .....-............. 2,681.65

Total ............... ........ .....--...... -. ......... ........ $ 5,000.00




NORTH FLORIDA STATION MOBILE UNITS-CHAPTER 20983

Receipts, 1941-42 -.....-........- .................. .................. $ 50,000.00
Expenditures:
Salaries .................-.... ................... ........... $ 2,176.00
L abor ......................... ........... ................................. 578.40
Stationery and office supplies ........................... 9.28
Scientific supplies ... ................. ........... ... 140.12
Feed stuffs .....-........ .................. ..... ........ 105.60
Fertilizers .......... .. ..... ................ ........... 1.030.26
Other supplies .............---....-- ... ----- .............. 428.92
Communication service ...........................---.....-- 5.07
Travel expense ...................... ......................... 765.35
Transportation of things .--........--............ ............ 98.95
Heat, light, power, water ........................................ 89.45
Contingent expense .............------- .......................... 6.17
Furniture, fixtures .................. ....................... 222.10
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ............................ 1,160.92
Buildings .. ...... ............ .......................... ........ 85.78
Unexpended balance ..........................-- ............. 43,097.63


Total .


$ 50,000.00







Annual Report, 1942 23












STATE-WIDE SOIL SURVEY COOPERATIVE, CHAPTER 20454

R eceipts, 1941-42 .................... ............................ ............... $ 10,000.00
Expenditures:
Salaries .....-............-- ...--.... ............... 3,658.05
Labor ............. .............................. .............. ---284.80
Stationery and office supplies ...........................---- 116.10
Scientific supplies ................................. .. ............. 311.31
Other supplies ....................................... .... ........... 36.28
Travel expense .................................. .......... ...... 1,330.06
Heat, light, power, water .................................... 205.63
Furniture, fixtures .............................. ............. 210.47
Scientific equipment --............................. ........... 19.38
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ............................ 62.81
Unexpended balance .......-....--- ..............- ..-- ... 3,765.11

Total ......................................................................................... $ 10,000.00




EMERGENCY FUND

Receipts, 1941-42 ............................................... .......................... $ 10,000.00
Expenditures:
Labor ................-.......... ......................... $ 1,110.24
Travel expense .............................................. ........ 21.15
Transportation of things ........................................ 27.53
Buildings .......................................... ..........- 2,730.23
Unexpended balance .............................................. 6,110.85

Total .................... ............................................. ........ ...... $ 10,000.00










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
FEDERAL, HATCH, ADAMS, PURNELL & BANKHEAD JONES FUNDS

HATCH ADAMS PURNELL BANKHEAD-
S__JONES

RECEIPTS
Receipts from the Treasury of the United States, as per
appropriations for fiscal year ended June 30, 1942........................ $15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000.00 $34,782.16


EXPENDITURES

Personal services ............................................ ........................................ $15,000.00 15,000.00 52,009.18 23,307.17
Supplies and materials ........... ................... ................ ................. 3,491.24 5,858.20
Com m unication service ............... .......................... ................ ................ ................ 1.68
Travel expense ..................... ... ....... ............................................... ............ 1,995.88 883.75
Transportation of things ........................................ .............. ................. ................ 14.82 255.55
P rin ting ................................................ .................................................. ................ ................ 743.26
Heat, light, water, power service, fuel ................................ ............ ................. ................ 23.20 536.85
Contingent expense ........... ......... ....... ..... ................. .................. ................ ................ 1.75
E quipm ent ........................................ .................. .............. ................... ................ ................ 1,665.69 2,286.65
Structures and nonstructural improvements ........................................ ............... ................ 55.05 1,652.24

$15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000.00 $34,782.16







Annual Report, 1942


EDITORIAL

The Station's dissemination of information kept pace with its research
and the tempo of both was increased by the country's preparedness and war
programs, in keeping with the important part played by farm products in
the war effort. Bulletins, news reports and radio talks assumed added im-
portance as farm production became increasingly vital.
Cooperation was continued with the Extension Service and Editors and
mailing clerks devoted more than half of their time to duties of that organi-
zation.
A BAKER'S DOZEN BULLETINS
New bulletins issued during the year numbered 13. They ranged in size
from 20 to 120 pages, totaling 764, and in edition from 4,000 to 20,000
copies, totaling 98,500. Three of the new bulletins were technical and 10
were popular in nature. New bulletins are mailed to county and home dem-
onstration agents, libraries, and to people who request them.
Following is a list of the bulletins published during the year:


Bul. Title
360 Cattle Feeding in Southern Florida ...........................
361 Crotalaria for Forage, I, II and III ..............................
362 Relation of Maturity in Bliss Triumph Potato Seed
Stocks to Effectiveness of Ethylene Chlorhydrin
and Other Treatments ......-..........--..... .... ... ..
363 Fusarium Wilt of Watermelons, I...................... ..........
364 Ground Covers for Florida Gardens ................................
365 Crisp-Head Lettuce in Florida ......................................
366 Spraying and Dusting for the Control of Celery Early
Blight in the Everglades .......................................
367 Production Credit in Florida Citrus and Vegetable
A areas ........................................................... ... .... .
368 Some Analytical Studies of the Persian Lime ..........
369 Pliofilm in the Preservation of Florida Fruits and
Vegetables ......................................... ........ ....... ...
370 Insects and Other Pests of Florida Vegetables ............
371 Life History and Taxonomy of the Fungus Physalos-
pora rhodina ................ .... ........ .......
372 Deficiency Symptons in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut
Ration ........... .............. ............


Pages Edition
24 8,500
72 5,000


5,000
4,000
12,000
8,000

7,500

7,000
4,000

6,000
20,000

4,000

7,500


BRIEF SUMMARIES OF BULLETINS
Following is a very brief summary of each bulletin issued:
360. Cattle Feeding in Southern Florida. (R. W. Kidder and W. G.
Kirk, 24 pp., 3 figs.) The fattening of steers promises to become a success-
ful enterprise in southern Florida. Steers fed forages produced in southern
Florida made satisfactory gains, where sufficient concentrates were sup-
plied, and the beef was of good quality. Freshly cut sugarcane, sugarcane
silage and Dallis grass pasture proved satisfactory for forage.
361. Crotalaria for Forage: I, Production of Crotalaria for Forage,
II, Value of Crotalaria as Feed; III, General Discussion, Summary and Con-
clusions. (Geo. E. Ritchey, Roland McKee, R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal, and
P. T. Dix Arnold, 72 pp., 17 figs.) Crotalaria incana and intermedia were
/







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


fairly satisfactory for hay or silage, when cut in the bud stage or earlier,
the intermedia being reasonably palatable, holding its leaves better, and
seeding more profusely.
362. Relation of Maturity in Bliss Triumph Potato Stocks to Effective-
ness of Ethylele Chlorhydrin and Other Treatments. (G. R. Townsend, 40
pp., 0 figs.) The ethylene chlorhydrin dip treatment increases stand and
yield of most stocks of potatoes. For fall potatoes in the Everglades, seed
which have been harvested early, stored for 10 weeks and treated are more
productive than those stored 5 weeks. The spring crop may be planted with
seed produced elsewhere and no dormancy treatment will be required.
Ways of avoiding over-treatment are listed. Technical.
363. Fusarium Wilt of Watermelons: I, Efect of Soil Temperature on
the Wilt Disease and the Growth of Watermelon Seedlings. (M. N. Walker,
32 pp., 8 figs.) Optimum temperature for infection and injury of water-
melon seedings is 27C.; infection declines rapidly about 30C. and prac-
tically ceases at 33C. Germination of watermelon seeds and growth of the
young plants is optimum between 31 and 33C. Minimum, optimum, and
maximum temperatures for the growth of the wilt organisms are about 7.5,
27, and 38C., respectively.
364. Ground Covers for Florida Gardens. (J. M. Crevasse, Jr., 60
pages, 36 figs.) Outlines climatic adaptions, propagation, cultural methods,
soil adaptations, light requirements, and desirable characteristics of
ground covers. Lists and describes more than 35 species. Also lists ground
covers for special purposes.
365. Crisp-Head Lettuce in Florida. (J. R. Beckenbach, F. S. Jamison,
R. W. Ruprecht, and F. S. Andrews, 20 pp., 5 figs.) Reports experiments
at many different points in Florida which show that Imperial 44 is the most
suitable variety of crisp-head lettuce available. Reports experimental data
on cultural practices.
366. Spraying and Dusting for the Control of Celery Early Blight in
the Everglades. (G. R. Townsend, 28 pp., 0 figs.) Reports experiments
showing that best results are obtained when the copper : lime ratio in
celery early blight sprays is 2 : 1. Improved bordeaux mixture formulas
are superior to insoluble copper compounds.
367. Production Credit in Florida Citrus and Vegetable Areas. (J.
Wayne Reitz, 104 pp., 3 figs.) In the season studied it was estimated that
Florida citrus and vegetable growers obtained approximately $13,500,000 of
short-term credit from merchants and cash lending agencies, both federal
and private. Costs of credit from different agencies and by types of farm-
ers is reported.
368. Some Analytical Studies of the Persian Lime. (S. J. Lynch, 24 pp.,
2 figs.) Reports analyses over three seasons for variations in juice content,
percent acids and percent soluble solids as affected by storage and maturity
of Persian lime fruits from trees grown on five rootstocks. No correlation
was found between the specific gravity of the whole lime fruit and its per-
cent juice content by weight. Technical.
369. Pliofilm in the Preservation of Florida Fruits and Vegetables. (A.
L. Stahl and P. J. Vaughn, 92 pp., 26 figs.) A new fruit and vegetable
wrapper, made largely of rubber hydrochloride, was found to be very satis-
factory in preserving fruits and vegetables both on cold storage and at room
temperature.
370. Insects and Other Pests of Florida Vegetables. (J. R. Watson
and A. N. Tissot, 120 pp., 63 figs.) Presents life history and control meas-
ures of all the principal insects affecting vegetable crops, classified under
crops attacked.







Annual Report, 1942


371. Life History and Taxonomy of the Fungus Physalospora rhodina.
(R. K. Voorhees, 92 pp., 16 figs.) Presents evidence to show that numerous
forms of the genus Diplodia should properly be classified under this bino-
mial. Technical.
372. Deficiency symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration. (W.
G. Kirk and R. M. Crown, 52 pp., 8 figs.) Reports feeding tests which re-
veal that salt, in addition to calcium carbonate and cod liver oil, is necessary
for hogs grazing peanuts or fed peanut ration.
PRESS BULLETINS
Eleven new press bulletins were issued during the year and 5 were re-
printed. The new ones ranged from 2 to 6 pages in size and from 2,000 to
6,000 in edition. Total copies printed numbered 49,000 for the new ones,
19,000 for the reprints.
Following is a list of press bulletins and authors:
563. A Mild Reducing Diet, by M. R. Overstreet and C. F. Ahmann.
564. Powdery Mildew of Roses, by W. B. Shippy.
565. Mycosis in Chickens, by M. W. Emmel.
566. The Milk Flush for Chickens, by M. W. Emmel.
567. Control of Celery Pink Rot, by A. N. Brooks.
568. Disposal of Surplus Milk by Producer-Distributors, by T. R. Freeman.
569. Powder-Post Beetles, by A. N. Tissot.
570. Alyce Clover, by R. E. Blaser, Geo. E. Ritchey, and W. E. Stokes.
571. Establishing Carpet Grass Under Range Conditions, by W. A. Leukel
and W. E. Stokes.
572. Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions, by M. W. Emmel.
Bulletin List.
327. How to Poison Ants (reprint).
446. Mosaic Diseases of Vegetable Plants (reprint).
450. Yellowing of Centipede Grass and Its Control (reprint).
518. Raising Pigs in Florida (reprint).
524. Blossom-End Rot of Tomatoes (reprint).
STATION WORK IN THE NEWS
Reports of results of current research and accumulated information of
timely interest were released regularly to daily and weekly newspapers and
farm journals. The weekly clipsheet distributed by the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service carried in each issue from one to many stories emanating
from the Experiment Station and provided coverage to the weekly news-
papers and Florida farm papers. Special stories over the wires of 2 press
associations serviced the dailies, and many other stories were mailed direct-
ly to one or more dailies.
Two widely circulated dailies carried columns of questions and answers
on farming subjects once each week, and most of the copy consisted of let-
ters written by Experiment Station workers in reply to inquiries received.
Another large daily carried a weekly page devoted to Florida developments
and resources, and numerous agricultural features were included.
Experiment Station information continued to be disseminated through
Florida, Southern and National farm journals and periodicals, which were
not only generous in using the material but anxious to obtain it. Three dif-
ferent Florida magazines, 1 Southern and 3 national farm journals carried
such material, prepared by the Station Editor.
Copies of from 8 to 20 radio talks made by staff members other than
Editors were forwarded to 3 Florida farm papers each month, and most of
them were printed in a few months after receipt.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


RADIO BROADCASTING

Station staff members continued to be the principal and most consistent
speakers on the Florida Farm Hour, noon-day radio program over WRUF
directed by the Extension Service. Staff members other than the Editors
made 146 talks during the year, each about 7 minutes in length, and 66 of
these talks were forwarded as Farm Flashes to 12 other radio stations in
the state.
A remote-control broadcast was staged from the West Centrol Florida
Station near Brooksville on the occasion of a field day visit to this Station
by hundreds of farm people from nearby counties.

POPULAR AND SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL ARTICLES BY
STAFF MEMBERS

Eperiment Station information was disseminated through scores of ar-
ticles written by staff members other than Editors and published in various
popular and scientific journals in Florida and elsewhere throughout the Na-
tion. Many of these articles were copies of radio talks forwarded by the
Editors to Florida farm publications. Most of the others were sent directly
to the journals by the authors. Following is a list of all articles by staff
members published in popular and scientific journals during the year:
A Lysimeter for Organic Soils. J. R. Neller and W. T. Forsee, Jr. Jour.
Amer. Soc. Agr. 34: 345-352. 1942.
A new Frankliniella from Florida (Thysanoptera). J. R. Watson. Florida
Entomologist 25: 2: 17-18. 1942.
A New Species of Sphaceloma on Poinsettia. Anne E. Jenkins and G. D.
Ruehle. Proc. Biol. Soc. of Washington 55: 83-84. 1942.
A New Stephanothrips from Texas, Stephanothrips whitcombi n. sp. J. R.
Watson. Florida Entomologist 24: 4: 65-66. 1942.
A New Willow from Florida. W. A. Murrill and Ernest J. Palmer. Jour.
Arnold Arboretum 22: 580-581. 1941.
A Note on the Parasite Fauna of Georgia. L. E. Swanson. Proc. Helminth
Soc. of Washington 8: 62-63. 1942.
A Report on the Need for Such Unusual Chemical Materials as Salts of
Magnesium, Manganese, Copper and Zinc in Florida Agriculture. A. F.
Camp. Prepared for Agr. Division of the State Defense Council. (Re-
printed by Lyons Fertilizer Company.) 32 p. 1942.
A Xylaria Tuber Rot of Potato. Geo. D. Ruehle. Phytopathology 31: 936-
939. 1941.
Adsorption and Fixation of Copper in Some Sandy Soils of Central Florida.
V. C. Jamison. Soil Science 53: 287-297. 1942.
An Adequate, Well Balanced Diet. L. L. Rusoff. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci.
6: 1942.
An Ointment for the Treatment of Infectious Keratitis in Cattle. M. W.
Emmel. So. Vet. Medical Assn. 1941. (Published also: Mich. Sta. Col.
Vet. 2: 16. 1941; North American Vet. 23: 204. 1942.)
Attacking Low-Income Problems in Rural Areas of New York State. M. E.
Brunk. Jour. Land and Public Utility Economics 17: 493-497. 1941.
Bean Field Selection Important. Careful Location Helps Beat Insect Pests.
A. N. Tissot. Florida Grower 49: 8: 10. 1941.
Biological Control of Diatraea saccharalis in the Florida Everglades During
1940 and 1941. J. W. Wilson. Florida Entomologist 24: 3: 52-57. 1942.








Annual Report, 1942 29

Boost "Certifield" for More Certain Profits. M. N. Walker. Southern
Seedsman 4: 8: 8,22. 1941.
Borers in Shade Trees. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry 22: 8: 4,13. 1941.
Brittle Bones. Calcium, Phosphorous Deficiencies Show up as Sweeny or
Rickets. R. B. Becker. Florida Cattleman and Dairy Journal 5: 12:
6,22. 1941.
Bug "Blitz" for Home Gardens. How to Make and Use Insecticides Effect-
ively. J. R. Watson. Florida Grower 50: 3: 11. 1942.
Care and Feeding of Ornamental Plants in South Florida. S. J. Lynch.
Proc. Ann. So. Shade Tree Conf. 5: 20-21. 1942.
Chemical Composition and Grazing Value of Napier Grass, Pennisetum pur-
pureum Schum., Grown Under a Grazing Management Practice. R. E.
Blaser, W. G. Kirk and W. E. Stokes. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 34: 167-
174. 1942.
Chick Feeding Exepriments With Solvent-Extracted Tung Oil Meal. L. L.
Rusoff, N. R. Mehrhof and R. S. McKinney. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci. 6. 1942.
Citrus Ending Successful Season. C. V. Noble. Florida Grower 50: 5: 9,
10. 1942.
Comparative Value of Various Methods for Determining the Keeping Qual-
ity of Butter. W. A. Krienke and E. L. Fouts. Proc. So. Agr. Workers'
Assn.:43. 1942.
Contributions to the Development of Soil Microbiology from the Southeast-
ern United States. F. B. Smith. Proc. So. Agr. Workers' Assn. 43.
1942.
Control of Ants in Home or Yard. A. N. Tissot. Citrus Industry 22: 10:
19. 1941.
Control of Aphids on Citrus. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry 23: 3: 9,12.
1941.
Control of Termites in Citrus Groves. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry 22:
12: 9,12. 1941.
Correlation of Sugar Yields With the Percent of Joints Bored by Diatraea
saccharalis (F.). Sugarcane Borer Studies I. J. W. Wilson. Florida
Entomologist 25: 19-24. 1942.
Cover Crops. F. S. Jamison. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 3: 1941.
Cover Crops Valuable to Pecans. G. H. Blackmon. Florida Grower 49: 10:
4. 1941.
Cutting Hog Production Losses. D. J. Smith. Florida Grower 50: 3: 10.
1942.
Dairy Bulls Most Dangerous of Farm Animals. R. B. Becker. Florida
Cattleman and Dairy Journal 6: 12:3. 1941.
Deficiency Symptoms and Chemical Composition of Lespedeza as Related
to Fertilization. R. E. Blaser, G. M. Volk and W. E. Stokes. Jour.
Amer. Soc. Agron. 34: 222-228. 1942.
Disease in Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco Plant Beds in Florida in 1942. R. R.
Kincaid. Plant Disease Reporter 26: 223. 1942.
Early Diagnosis of Magnesium Deficiency in Citrus. B. R. Fudge. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
Effect of Cold Weather Upon Insects in Their Wild Habitats. J. R. Watson.
Florida Entomologist 25: 14-15. 1942.
Effect of Sulfur and Limestone Soil Treatments on Potato Scab in a Sandy
Soil. A. H. Eddins. Amer. Potato Jour. 18: 312-316. 1941.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Effects of Self-Pollination in Sweet Clover. E. E. Hartwig. Jour. Amer.
Soc. Agron. 34: 376-387. 1942.
Experimental Data on the Freezing of Plants at the Lakeland Meteorologi-
cal Laboratory. L. G. Pardue, Jr. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 22: 383-385.
1941.
Facts About the Japanese Beetle. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry 22: 8: 18.
1941.
Fall Cleanup for White Flies and Scale Insects. J. R. Watson. Citrus In-
dustry 22: 10: 13. 1942.
Fertilizer Experiments in an Orange Grove in the Eastern Everglades. J.
R. Neller and W. T. Forsee. Citrus Industry 22: 12: 6-7. 1941.
Fertilizing Pasture Plants in Florida. R. E. Blaser. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of
America 7. 1942.
Florida Agriculture is Prepared. How Our Farmers Can Best Serve and
Be Served in Wartime. W. M. Fifield. The Florida Grower 50: 3: 4.
1942.
Florida Climatic Factors in Iceberg Lettuce Production. The Homestead
Area. E. M. Andersen. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
Florida Climatic Factors in Iceberg Lettuce Production. R. W. Ruprecht.
Proc. Fla. Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
Florida Sugarcane Varieties With Particular Reference to F31-762. F. D.
Stevens. The Sugar Journal. March, 1942.
Florida W-1 Hybrid is "Tops". F. H. Hull. Southern Seedsman 5: 3: 15,
31. 1942.
Found-An Ideal Fruit and Vegetable Wrapper. A. L. Stahl and P. J.
Vaughn. Florida Grower 50: 4:5,9. 1942.
Free Fatty Acids in Cream and Their Effects on Butter Quality. E. L.
Fouts. Proc. So. Agr. Workers' Assn. 43. 1942.
Further Studies of Soil Reaction. R. A. Carrigan. Proc. Fla. Soil Sci. Soc.
3. 1941.
Further Study in Relationship Between Fruit and Air Temperatures. P. J.
Powell. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 23: 16-21. 1942.
Gathering Christmas Decoration. Beautiful Material Found in Florida
Woods. Erdman West. Florida Grower 49: 12:13,16. 1941.
Grazing Tests with Napier Grass. W. G. Kirk, R. E. Blaser and R. M.
Crown. Proc. So. Agr. Workers' Assn. 43. 1942.
Health and Nutrition Studies in Florida. L. L. Rusoff. Proc. Fla. Acad.
Sci. 6. 1942.
Highlights of the 4th Annual Poultry Institute. N. R. Mehrhof. Florida
Poultryman and Stockman 7: 9-10: 2. 1941.
How Eggs for Government Are Handled and Inspected. N. R. Mehrhof.
Florida Poultryman and Stockman 8: 5: 2,3. 1942.
How Ice Cream Manufacturers Can Overcome the Sugar Shortage. E. L.
Fouts, L. E. Mull and T. R. Freeman. Members' News Bulletin-Flor-
ida Dairy Products Assn. 1: 3: 1-4. 1942.
How to Brood Earlier and Better in 1942. O. K. Moore. Poultry Tribune.
Feb. 1942.
Ice Cream: A Food-Not a Fad. T. R. Freeman. Ice Cream Field 38: 4:
10,34,46-55. 1941.
Immediate Problems Facing the Citrus Industry. H. G. Hamilton. Citrus
Grower 3: 52: 3,6. 1942.







Annual Report, 1942


Inheritance of Growth Habit, Cotyledon Color and Cup-Leaf in Melilotus
alba. E. E. Hartwig. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 34: 160-166. 1942.
Insect Conditions in Florida in 1941. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry 23: 2:
6,14. 1942.
Insect Enemies of Chufas. J. R. Watson. Florida Entomologist 25: 6.
1942.
Investigations of the Unfruitfulness of the Haden Mango (Mangifera in-
dica Linn.) in Florida. Thomas D. Young. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc.
55. 1942.
Iodized Mineral Oil as a Treatment for Bovine Mastitis. D. A. Sanders.
Amer. Jour. Vet. Res. 2:407-410. 1941.
July Florida Dairy Management. Summer Planning Leads to Greater Win-
ter Profits. R. B. Becker. Florida Grower 50: 6: 10. 1942.
Keeping Florida Fruits and Vegetables Fresh With Pliofilm. A. L. Stahl.
Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
Khaya Nyasica, a New Mahogany for South Florida. S. J. Lynch and H.
S. Wolfe. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
Mathematical Analysis of the Significant Factors in the Hygrometric Fore-
casting Equation of Florida Minimum Temperatures. J. W. Milligan.
Amer. Meteor. Soc. 22: 385-389. 1941.
Migrations and Food Preferences of the Lubberly Locust. J. R. Watson.
Florida Entomologist 24: 2: 40-42. 1941.
Mosquito Control on the Farm. A. N. Tissot. Florida Grower 49: 11: 21.
1941.
Natural Control of Our Citrus Insects. J. R. Watson. The Citrus Grower
3: 36: 3,8. 1941.
Needle Rusts of Pine Trees in Florida Caused by Coleosporium Sp. G. F.
Weber. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci. 6. 1942.
New Florida Hawthorns. W. A. Murrill. Castanea 7: 19-30. 1942.
New Varieties of Mango for Florida. H. S. Wolfe and S. J. Lynch. Proc.
Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
New Wilt-Resistant Varieties of Tomatoes. D. G. Kelbert. Proc. Fla. Hort.
Soc. 55. 1942.
Nutrition in Defense. Ruth Overstreet. Citrus Industry 22: 9: 19. 1941.
Occurrence and Control of Zinc Deficiency in Tomatoes in the Manatee
Area. J. R. Beckenbach. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
Orphan "Chile" Steps Out. Augusta vetch. G. H. Blackmon. Southern
Seedsman 4: 8: 5,27. 1941.
Pecan Cultural Problems in Florida. G. H. Blackmon. Proc. Southeastern
Pecan Growers' Assn. 36: 48-54. 1942.
Phenothiazine as an Anthelminthic for Sheep. V. E. Whitehurst and L. E.
Swanson. Journal An. Sci. 1: 256-259. 1942.
Poinsettia Scab Caused by Spacheloma. Geo. D. Ruehle. Phytopathology
31: 947-948. 1941.
Poultry Industry in Florida Shows Steady Growth Since 1910. N. R. Mehr-
hof. Florida Poultryman and Stockman. 7: 7-8: 2. 1941.
Poultry Research Marches On. N. R. Mehrhof. Florida Poultryman and
Stockman. 7: 7-8: 8; 7: 9-10: 16; 7: 11: 13; 7: 12: 24. 1941.
Poultry Research Marches On. N. R. Mehrhof. Florida Poultryman and
Stockman. 8: 1: 32; 8: 2: 8; 8: 3: 16; 8: 4: 16; 8: 5: 7; 8: 6: 16. 1942.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Poultrymen Called to "Arms". N. R. Mehrhof. Florida Grower 50: 1: 6.
1942.
Practical Considerations Related to pH Control in Sandy Soils Planted to
Citrus. V. C. Jamison. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
Practical Preservative Wrappers for Fruits and Vegetables. A. L. Stahl.
Citrus Industry 23: 3: 5,13. 1942.
Preliminary Report on the Algal Flora of Some Florida Soils. F. B. Smith
and H. R. Ellis. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci. 6. 1942.
Preliminary Report on the Storage of Frozen Cream. T. R. Freeman.
Proc. So. Agr. Workers' Assn. 43. 1942.
Preliminary Report on a Study of Nitrogen Sources for Citrus Fertilization.
Eugene Borda and G. M. Volk. Citrus Grower 3: 42: 2. 1941.
Present Knowledge of the Nutritional Value of Grassland Herbage. W. M.
Neal. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 33: 666-670. 1941.
Prevalence and Control of Bacterial Spot of Tomatoes. G. D. Ruehle. Proc.
Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
Probable Effect of the War on Prices. H. G. Hamilton. Citrus Grower
3:45:4-5. 1941.
Proper Tung Orchard Methods Pay. R. D. Dickey. Florida Grower 49: 11:
8. 1941.
Prospects of Deciduous Fruit and Nut Crops in Florida. G. H. Blackmon.
Citrus Industry 22: 8: 19. 1941.
Ptychogaster Cubensis, a Wood Decaying Fungus of Southern Oaks and
Waxmyrtle. Ross Davidson, W. A. Campbell and George F. Weber.
Mycologia 34: 142-153. 1941.
Quality Truck Brings More Profit. F. S. Jamison. Florida Grower 49: 11:
13. 1941.
Recent Experiments Show How to Save Sugar in the Manufacture of Ice
Cream. L. E. Mull. So. Dairy Products Jour. 31: 4: 33-38. 1942.
Relation of Cover Crops to Citrus Insects. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry.
22: 7: 4,16. 1941.
Rust Mite Control. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry 23: 6: 3,12. 1942.
Rust Mites of Citrus. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry 23: 5: 3,14. 1942.
Rust on Sapodilla in Florida. G. D. Ruehle. Plant Disease Reporter 26:
260-261. 1942.
Sarcophaga bullata Parker as a Cause of Intestinal Myasis. J. R. Watson.
Florida Entomologist 25: 5-6. 1942.
Scab of Poinsettias. G. D. Ruehle. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
Sea Island Cotton, a Specialty Crop. M. N. Walker. Southern Seedsman:
5:4: 10,31. 1942.
Selecting Soils for Pastures in Florida. J. R. Henderson. Proc. Fla. Soil
Sci. Soc. 3. 1941.
Shark Liver Oil and the Vitamin A Potency of Milk. L. L. Rusoff, H. E.
Skipper and P. T. Dix Arnold. Proc. So. Agr. Workers' Assn. 43. 1942.
Soil Life and Treatment. F. B. Smith. Citrus Industry 22: 9: 3,18. 1942.
Soils Research in Relation to Florida Agriculture. Harold Mowry. Proc.
Soil Soc. of Florida 3. 1941.
Solving a Seasonal Milk Flavor Problem. T. R. Freeman. Members' News
Bulletin, Florida Dairy Products Association 1: 4: 3. 1942.
Some Florida Lepidoptera Records. J. R. Watson. Florida Entomologist
24: 4: 75-76; 25: 10-12. 1942.








Annual Report, 1942


Some Influences of Magnesium Upon Yield and Deadwood of Citrus Trees.
W. W. Lawless. Citrus Grower 3: 40: 6-7. 1941.
Some Problems of Control of Scale Insects on Citrus. W. L. Thompson.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 55. 1942; also, Citrus Industry 23: 6: 6-7,
14-15, 18-19. 1942.
Spiders of Alachua County, Florida. W. A. Murrill. Florida Entomologist
25: 7-9. 1942.
Spring Advice for Grape Growers. K. W. Loucks. Florida Grower 50: 5
(whole 1134): 10,13. 1942.
Structure of a Dunkirk Silty Clay Loam in Relation to pF Moisture Meas-
urements. V. C. Jamison. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 34: 307-321. 1942.
Structure of Some Organic Soils and Soil Mixtures as Shown by Means of
pF Moisture Studies. V. C. Jamison. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 34: 393-
404. 1942.
Symptoms and Prevention of Mineral Deficiencies. W. M. Neal. Florida
Poultryman and Stockman 8: 1: 28,31. 1942.
Termite Control in Buildings. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry 23: 3: 6,13.
1942.
The Composition of Quality Fruit and the Effect of Certain Fertilizer Prac-
tices Upon the Composition and Time of Maturity of Oranges and
Grapefruit. F. F. Cowart. Citrus Grower 3: 35: 3,6. 1941.
The Effect of Magnesium Deficiency in Grapefruit Trees Upon the Compo-
sition of Fruit. F. F. Cowart. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 40: 161-164.
1942.
The Effect of Magnesium Deficiency on Purple Scale, Lepidosaphes beckii
(Newm.), Infestations on Citrus in Florida. W. L. Thompson. Jour.
Econ. Entomology 35: 351-354: 1942.
The Efficient Use of Fertilizers for Vegetables. F. S. Jamison. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
The Florida Citrus Season to Date. C. V. Noble. Citrus Industry 23: 6: 4,
13. 1942.
The Importance of Organic Matter in a Soil Management Program for Cit-
rus. F. B. Smith. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
The Influence of Previous Regimes of Protein Feeding on the Endogenous
Nitrogen Metabolism of Rats. R. B. French, J. I. Routh and H. A. Mat-
till. Jour. of Nutrition 22: 383-389. 1941.
The Perfect Stage of Phomopsis vexans. L. O. Gratz. Phytopathology 32:
540-542. 1942.
The Relation of Climatic Conditions to Color Development in Citrus Fruit.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., and G. T. Young. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 55.
1942.
The Resistance of Fatty Acids to Neutralization. Paul E. Johnson and E.
L. Fouts. Proc. So. Agr. Workers' Assn. 43. 1942.
The Soil Science Society of Florida. R. V. Allison. Citrus Industry 23: 2:
3,14. 1942.
The Spread of the Mexican Bean Beetle. J. R. Watson. Florida Entomolo-
gist 25: 25. 1942.
The Toxicity of Indigofera Endecapyhylla Jacq. for Rabbits. M. W. Emmel
and Geo. E. Ritchey. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 33: 675-677. 1941.
The Use of Zinc Salts with Copper Fungicides on Tomatoes in Dade Coun-
ty. G. D. Ruehle. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The Ventilation Problem in Indoor Battery Plants. M. W. Emmel. Jour.
Amer. Vet. Med. Assn. 99: 232-234. 1941.
The Well Drained Soils of Central Florida. J. R. Henderson. Citrus In-
dustry 22: 11: 7,18. 1941.
The Yield, Composition and Nodulation of Several Clover Varieties as Af-
fected by Sources of Calcium and Phosphorus in Combination with Other
Fertilizers on Several Soils. R. E. Blaser, G. M. Volk and F. B. Smith.
Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of America 6: 298-302. 1941.
Timely Peanut Growers' Advice. Careful Management Improves Yield and
Quality. W. A. Carver. Florida Grower 50: 2: 12. 1942.
Tomato Variety Studies in the Homestead Area. E. M. Andersen. Proc.
Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
Truck Crops Need Aphid Control. Timely Spraying Saves Many Dollars
Crop Loss. A. N. Tissot. Florida Grower 49: 9: 4. 1941.
Vegetable Varieties. F. S. Jamison. Florida Grower 50: 5: 8,10. 1942.
Veterinary Advice to Farmers. D. A. Sanders. Florida Grower 49:11:
17. 1941.
Water Table Levels in Sawgrass Peat Soils in Relation to Yields of Vege-
tables. J. R. Neller. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 55. 1942.
Why Dairy Cattle Need Cobalt. W. M. Neal. Florida Grower 50: 2: 15.
1942.
Why Grade and Weigh Eggs? N. R. Mehrhof. Florida Grower: 50: 5: 11.
1942.
Wintering the Beef Herd. W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown. Animal Science
1: 64-65. 1942.
Wire Tag Comes off Feed Bags. R. B. Becker. Florida Poultryman and
Stockman. 8: 2: 16. 1942.








Annual Report, 1942


THE LIBRARY
With 16,642 bound volumes on its shelves, and receiving over 14,000
pamphlets, periodicals and serials annually, it is evident that the library
is growing steadily in size and in importance to agriculture. Statistics show
that this year more volumes were sent to the bindery, more were received
by purchase, gift and exchange, and more were accessioned than in any pre-
vious year.
Statistics, briefly summarized, are as follows:
Volumes sent to the bindery .............................................. 509
Volumes received by gift, purchase or exchange ........... 282
Volumes accessioned for the year --............................---- 791
Total number of bound volumes in library ........................16,641
Pamphlets, periodicals and serials received ........................14,321
Volumes lent to branch stations ................................. ...-- 281
Volumes lent on campus ...........................-- ..- ............. 1,669
Volumes borrowed from other libraries ................................ 97
Catalog cards typed and filed .............---.............................. 10,800
Catalog cards received from Library of Congress ............ 2,259
Number of items reserved and used .................................... 8,941
Number of different students using library .................... 1,531
Total number of students using library from November
1941 to May 1942, inclusive ......--............-- .......----..- 4,532
Acknowledgment is made of the gift of 12 veterinary books by the es-
tate of the late Dr. W. R. Grutzman, and 2 lengthy German translations by
Dr. George Hocking while a graduate student in the School of Pharmacy.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Work of the Department during the year was focused upon efforts that
would be of value in the food production program. One project was termin-
ated and a new one was submitted which pertains directly to the immediate
needs for planning the food and fiber program for Florida.

FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 154 H. G. Hamilton, A. H. Spurlock
and C. V. Noble
A limited amount of field work has been necessary for obtaining addition-
al data on caretaking service and prices paid growers for fruit. An index
number of prices paid growers for fruit has been prepared for these associa-
tions for a period of 15 years. The data reveal that there has been a defi-
nite trend to finance fixed assets through the use of capital stock rather than
certificates of indebtedness.
Citrus marketing cooperatives have increased the number of production
services for members, such as spraying, dusting, fertilizing, cultivation, ir-
rigation and pruning. In 1925-26 only 3 associations were performing any
kind of production service for members. In 1939-40 25 citrus associations
were performing production services and 4 of these were performing 3
distinct services (Table 1).
TABLE 1.-NUMBER OF CITRUS MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS PERFORMING CARE-
TAKING SERVICES, BY NUMBER OF SERVICES PERFORMED AND BY SEASONS,
1925-26 TO 1939-40, INCLUSIVE.

Total Number
Total of Associa-
Season Number of Services Performed Number tions Perform-
Associa- ing Caretak-
1 | 2 1 3 i 4 1 5 1 6 INone IUnknownl tions ing Service

1925-26 2 1 50 53 3
1926-27 2 2 49 53 4
1927-28 3 3 47 1 54 6
1928-29 3 6 47 2 58 9
1929-30 9 46 3 58 9
1930-31 17 1 1 44 4 57 9
1931-32 2 17 1 2 40 5 57 12
1932-33 1 7 3 2 35 3 51 13
1933-34 3 6 6 2 1 24 3 45 18
1934-35 4 9 5 4 1 27 5 55 23
1935-36 4 8 4 6 2 21 3 48 24
1936-37 4 7 7 5 1 3 19 1 47 27
1937-38 4 6 6 7 1 4 16 1 45 28
1938-39 1 4 5 3 9 3 4 14 1 43 28
1939-40 43 2 9 3 4 13 1 39 25


Two papers were presented and later published based upon results from
this project. One, "Immediate Problems of the Citrus Industry," was given
at the American Institute of Cooperation, Atlanta, Georgia, in January 1942.
The other, "Probable Effect of the War on Prices", was presented before
growers at the Florida Citrus Institute, Camp McQuarrie, and at the annual
meeting of the Florida Association of Citrus Production Managers, Winter
Haven.








Annual Report, 1942


COST OF PRODUCTION AND GROVE ORGANIZATION STUDIES OF
FLORIDA CITRUS
Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage and C. V. Noble
The ninth season of cooperative cost accounts with Florida citrus grow-
ers was completed. Mimeographed reports were returned to each operator
for each kind and age of bearing citrus included in his accounts. In these
reports comparisons were made of the individual grower's production costs
with the average for all cooperators having a similar kind and age of citrus.
This enables each grower to learn wherein his costs differ from those on
other groves and indicate where more economical operations may be applied.
In past years these comparisons have resulted in many growers changing
fertilizer, pest control and other practices for more economical fruit pro-
duction.
PRICES OF FLORIDA FARM PRODUCTS
Purnell Project 317 A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble
This project, inactive for a large part of the year, was awaiting a re-
vision by the United States Department of Agriculture of the price series
of citrus fruits. These series are necessary to construct the combined index
for all Florida farm products.
Price relatives, using the period August 1909 to July 1914 as 100, have
been prepared for all commodities for which prices are available.
Six group price indexes have been compiled as follows: Grains, cotton
and cottonseed, meat animals, poultry, dairy products and truck crops.

PRODUCTION CREDIT FOR CITRUS AND VEGETABLE GROWERS IN
SELECTED AREAS OF FLORIDA
Purnell Project 325 J. Wayne Reitz and C. V. Noble
This project was terminated in May 1942 with the publication of Bulletin
367.
It was found that 38.9 percent of the growers interviewed borrowed for
production purposes. Of citrus growers, 25.3 percent borrowed, while 71.8
percent of the vegetable growers obtained short-term loans. Growers inter-
viewed obtained 25.4 percent of their credit from merchants, a source of
high costs. In fact, had this merchant credit been obtained at a rate com-
parable to cash loans it is estimated that Florida citrus and vegetable grow-
ers would have saved $225,000 in credit costs during the 1937-38 season.
Eighty-three percent of all merchant credit was for fertilizer.
It was found that some of the problems of grower borrowers were: (1)
inability to obtain sufficient cash credit, (2) necessity of obtaining credit
from more than one source in order to meet their needs, (3) lenders control-
ling the marketing of their crop, (4) cumbersome methods of furnishing se-
curity, (5) yearly fluctuations in income which frequently make it difficult
to repay loans maturing on an annual basis.
Growers should scrutinize their source of credit more carefully so as to
obtain funds at the lowest cost from a dependable source. In order to re-
duce costs of obtaining short-term credit the procedure in giving security
should be simplified. Merchant credit is costly and might well be absorbed
by cash lending agencies with facilities for varying charges in accordance
with risk.
Since citrus and vegetable growers are faced with price and production
hazards, there is need for both growers and lenders to consider a short-term
system of credit in which average needs and ability to repay are considered
over a 5-year period rather than for a single season. This would perhaps








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


require that growers and lenders cooperate in building a reserve in good
years to be equalized over a 5-year period. Thus, a more permanent and de-
pendable credit system would be assured.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY AND
DEPRECIATION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
Purnell Project 345 A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble
The work conducted in cooperation with the Department of Animal In-
dustry consisted in revisiting the cooperating Florida dairymen and taking
current inventories of each animal in these herds. Birth dates and breed
were obtained for animals not previously recorded.
Record was made of the reason for disposal, together with the date and
salvage value, for all animals disposed of since the previous inventory.
Probable cause of death was recorded for all animal losses. (See also AN-
IMAL INDUSTRY, Proj. 345.)

LAND USE PLANNING
Purnell Project 349 Max E. Brunk, C. V. Noble
C. M. Hampson
The data from 187 farm management records from Columbia County,
Florida, have been summarized on the basis of tenure, race and size of busi-
ness. Tabulations of farm income data of 1-mule and 2-mule owner-operat-
ed farms are being studied in an attempt to discover the specific factors
which contribute to the success or failure of individual farms.
Home survey data were obtained by state home demonstration workers
for 144 of the farms covered by the farm management surveys. These data
were used as the basis for Florida Extension Circular 61, "Food for Home
and Victory", intended primarily for use in the national food production pro-
gram.
AGRICULTURAL INCOME AND LAND UTILIZATION IN A GENERAL
FARMING AREA OF NORTHWEST FLORIDA
Purnell Project 373 Max E. Brunk and C. V. Noble
Following the revision of this project on May 19, 1941, additional farm
management data were collected from the files of the Agricultural Adjust-
ment Administration, the Soil Conservation Service and from the Jackson
County Tax Assessor's office. Additional data were obtained from farmers
throughout Jackson County. For the purpose of studying land utilization
in the county, a large mosaic of aerial photographs was prepared.
Tax delinquency and land cultivation maps have been prepared for Jack-
son County. The extent of land use in the county has been determined. Tax
data reveal over-assessment of poor lands and under-assessment of good
lands. Tax delinquency and state ownership in selected areas of about 40,-
000 acres varied from 5.36 to 30.58 percent.
Farm management data recorded on 499 farm records for 1925 have been
analyzed on an area basis according to land use. Marked variations in
farming returns were shown between different areas for race, tenure, size
of business, labor efficiency and crop yields. The principal reason for these
variations was the class of land on which these farms were located.
Detailed analysis was completed for 20 owner-operated farms in the
Graceville area for the crop years 1925, 1928, 1934 and 1935. This shows
the changes in the combinations of enterprises under different price condi-
tions.








Annual Report, 1942 39

A careful study was made of 130 cotton fields to determine the effects of
land type, rotation and fertilizer practice on cotton yields. This was limited
to small farms having only 1 field of cotton. Fields on which cotton was
planted every year averaged the highest yield of cotton. Yields were lowest
on cotton fields from which peanuts had been harvested during 1 or 2 of the
preceding 4 years in the rotation. On soils classed as excellent, yields aver-
aged 308 pounds of lint per acre. On soils classed as fair, yields averaged
210 pounds of lint per acre.
A bulletin, "Some of the Factors Affecting Farming Returns in Jackson
County, Florida," is now in press and will terminate this work.

INPUT AND OUTPUT DATA FOR FLORIDA CROP AND LIVESTOCK
PRODUCTION
Purnell Project 395 J. Wayne Reitz and Max E. Brunk
The objectives of this recently inaugurated project are:
1. To collect and present in usable form data on seasonal and total labor
and material requirements in the production of crops and livestock in vari-
ous types of farming areas of Florida.
2. To collect normal rates of output for each enterprise by areas.
3. To analyze the businesses of representative farms selected in each
area.
FLORIDA TRUCK CROP COMPETITION
The regular annual summary of the weekly car-lot shipments of Florida
commercial truck crops and the competitive shipments from other states and
from importing countries was made to supplement Florida Bulletin 224.

SUMMARY OF 1940 CENSUS FOR FLORIDA AGRICULTURE
A graphic summary of Florida agriculture on a county basis was made
from the results obtained in the Federal Agricultural Census taken April 1,
1940. This summary has been mimeographed and distributed to persons di-
rectly concerned with the food production program in Florida. It will serve
as a source of quick reference for much important agricultural statistical
material.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


AGRONOMY
The work of this department consisted of crop variety testing, breeding,
rotation and fertilizer testing with a wide number of field crops, and the
establishment, fertilization, management, maintenance and evaluation of
pastures.
PEANUT IMPROVEMENT
State Project 20 W. A. Carver and Fred H. Hull
Peanut breeding by hybridization was continued, with 218 kernels from
11 different cross combinations planted in the field this (1942) season.
Among these crosses, 4 were made for improving small runner peanuts, 6
for improving large-seeded peanuts, and 1 for an improved hay-type peanut.
The first generation seed of the cross Tennessee Red by Arachis gla-
brata Benth. were red and similar in other respects to the red-seeded or fe-
male parent. If a cross has actually been effected, differences in seed size,
shape, or covering should be apparent at the harvest of second generation
plants. Second generation plants in the field in 1942 appeared very similar
to plants of Tennessee Red.
In the variety tests of 1941 at Gainesville and Quincy, 4 Florida Station
hybrids exceeded Florida Runner in yield of nuts per acre. One of these
lines, because of its consistent good performance, is being increased for
release to growers and seedsmen.
A variety test is being conducted on the Station farms at Gainesville,
Quincy and Belle Glade in 1942. The number of hybrid entries at Gaines-
ville is 42, at Quincy 12, and at Belle Glade 4. The number of hybrid lines
in the yield trials at Gainesville has been greatly increased during recent
years in order to get yield data on a large number of lines which are carried
in the pedigreed breeding work.
The 1941 yield trials of Florida hybrid strains in 3 neighboring states
have shown continued good performance of the strains which lead in Florida
tests. The same experiment stations are testing Florida hybrids again in
1942.
CROP ROTATION STUDIES WITH CORN, COTTON, CROTALARIA
AND AUSTRIAN PEAS
Hatch Project 55 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp and G. E. Ritchey
Cotton-Corn-Legume Rotation.2-This project, which involves the study
of corn and cotton rotating with and without winter and summer legumes
alone and in combinations, and natural vegetation as cover crops has been
continued as in the past. The present season completes 12 years of data
which are recorded in Table 2. The yields of corn and cotton have been
calculated on the basis of 6-year averages, thus giving the mean yields for
the first and second half of the experiment. The yields of the cover crops
are recorded in terms of pounds of partially dry material. The crop was
separated into 4 parts: Crotalaria, beggarweed, corn stalks, and all other
material comprising grasses and weeds, termed "trash". In addition to
plots on which corn and cotton were rotated, other plots growing corn con-
tinuously and cotton continuously were distributed throughout the field for
comparison with those which were rotated.
The yields of corn were definitely higher on plots rotated with cotton
than where corn grew continuously. Larger increases were obtained during
the latter half of the experiment. This was evidently due to a residual
2 In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I.




TABLE 2.-YIELDS OF CORN AND COTTON GROWN IN DIFFERENT COVER CROP SYSTEMS.
(In pounds of ear corn and of seed cotton per acre, expressed in means for two six-year periods; also mean expressed in
pounds per acre of cover crops produced during the three-year period 1939-1941, inclusive.)

6-Year Average 6-Year Average 3-Year Averages-Summer Cover Crops 1939-1941, inc.
Treatment 1930-1935, inc. 1936-1941, inc. Beggar- Corn Trash
Corn* Cotton* || Corn* I Cotton* II Crotalaria weed Stalks Total

Corn and Cotton (Native Vegetation)

Rotating ............ 1,000 348 1,397 291 0 8,306 1,526 9,741 19,573
Continuous I
cropping ........ 922 216 1,120 280 0 1,580 1,464 16,344 19,388

Corn and Cotton (Winter Cover)

Rotating ........... 978 323 1,248 310 0 | 7,294 1,501 11,568 20,363
Continuous
cropping ...... 876 198 1,116 273 0 2,178 1,398 15,159 18,735

Corn and Cotton (Crotalaria and Native Cover)

Rotating .....- 957 420 1,390 406 1,980 6,955 1,741 10,908 21,584
Continuous
cropping ....... 920 251 1,143 368 0 2,338 1,384 15,810 19,532

Corn and Cotton (Crotalaria and Winter)


377 1,308 413 850 10,053

291 1,158 354 0 11,666


1,488

1,415


9,966 22,357

16,104 19,185


* Pounds of ear corn and seed cotton respectively.


Rotating ...
Continuous
cropping


910

929










TABLE 3.-YIELDS OF CORN AND PEANUTS AS AFFECTED BY CROTALARIA AND RESTING THE LAND.

Cropping System _Bushels Corn per Acre*
I 1933 1934 | 1935 1936 1 1937 1 1938 1 1939 1940 1 1941 | Ave.
Corn and peanuts every year ................................... 4.43 4.03 2.68 12.27 6.51 6.21 3.46 8.86 7.46 6.21
Corn and peanuts-crotalaria seeded last cult. .... 4.66 4.65 2.82 14.58 8.53 7.97 5.47 11.56 8.58 7.65
Corn and peanuts alternating with 1 yr. crot. ..... 7.11 18.29 11.38 17.62 13.60
Corn and peanuts alternating with 1 yr. rest ........ 8.82 14.75 8.97 13.09 11.41
Corn and peanuts alternating with 2 yr. rest ........ 10.44 10.68 11.52 10.88


Cropping System Pounds Cured Nuts per Acre*_
S1933 1934 | 1935 1936 1 1937 1938 | 1939 1940 194 1 Ave.
Corn and peanuts every year .................................... 1,123 727 557 504 50 456 424 860 457 573
Corn and peanuts every yr.-crot. at last cult. .... 962 587 485 583 50 550 268 970 513 552
Corn and peanuts alternating with 1 yr. crot. ...... 944 716 808 1,128 899
Corn and peanuts alternating with 1 yr. rest ........ 1,009 964 921 1,083 994
Corn and peanuts alternating with 2 yr. rest ........ 869 1,175 660 901

Each yield recorded represents the average of at least quadruplicate plots.







Annual Report, 1942 43

effect from the use of the different cover crops. Cotton yields were slightly
higher following crotalaria.
Corn and Runner Peanuts Rotating with Crotalaria and with Native
Cover Crops.-This rotation experiment continues to show the value of cro-
talaria as a soil-improving crop. Table 3 gives the yields of corn and inter-
planted Runner peanuts for the years 1933-1941 for each of the 5 cropping
systems under trial.
Corn in a 2-Year Rotation with Crotalarias and Weeds or Natural Land
Cover.-The study of 4 crotalarias, namely Crotalaria intermedia Kotschy,
C. lanceolata E. Mey., C. spectabilis Roth, and C. striata DC., was con-
tinued through the season 1941-42. Corn was grown on alternate years with
crotalaria following on the intervening years, and growing with the corn
after the last culivation the last of June.
Field No. 1.-This field was planted to triplicated plots of Crotalaria
intermedia, C. striata and C. spectabilis in 1934 and grew crotalaria
each succeeding year. Heavy autumn rains in 1941 flooded the plots and
made it impossible to use them in the spring of 1942.
The 3 crotalaria species used in this test did not grow satisfactorily dur-
ing the last few years. C. striata has almost entirely disappeared, while the
plots of C. intermedia and C. spectabilis produced very poor stands. The
plots which had been planted to C. striata were planted to C. lanceolata in
the spring of 1942.
Field No. 2.-This field was first planted in 1936. Four crotalaria spe-
cies, Crotalaria intermedia, C. lanceolata, C. striata, and C. spectabilis, were
grown and yields were recorded and compared with similar yields of cover
crops of natural vegetation. All plots were planted to corn each alternate
year and allowed to grow to volunteer vegetation the intervening years.
None of the crotalaria species produced a satisfactory crop in 1941. The
tendency of each species to decrease in yield from year to year, as reported
for Field No. 1, is showing in Field No. 2 also.
As a result of the failure of crotalaria to persist, the experiment is being
reorganized to include other cover crops.
Weed Burning-Ferilizer Experiment.-This experiment, inaugurated in
1938, was designed to furnish data on the effect of burning off vs. turning
under a cover crop. Corn and Runner peanuts are used as the indicator
crops. The corn and interplanted peanuts are grown on 1 field each year
while another field remains unplanted. Each February the field which was
"resting" the year before is plowed after the weeds on half the plots are
burned.
As yet the burning of the cover crop of weeds has not materially affected
the yields of corn or Runer peanuts.
VARIETY TEST WORK WITH FIELD CROPS3
Hatch Project 56 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp and G. E. Ritchey
The cooperative "uniform nurseries", as described in last year's report,
and including improved strains of Pearl millet, Napier grass, Bahia grass,
Rhodes grass and some of the Western grasses, were continued this year.
Three selected strains, together with commercial strains of Pearl millet,
were planted in yield test plots. Yields varied from 32,439 to 44,230 pounds
green weight per acre. The highest yielding strain was a type which was
selected for leafiness. The commercial strain yielded slightly less than the
selected strains. The strains of Bahia grass are showing differences but
since the sod is only 1 year old no conclusions can be drawn. The Rhodes
grass has not made a satisfactory yield.
:' In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Studies are being made of several strains of Pearl millet and of Napier
grass this season.
Upland Cotton.-Thirteen of the best varieties of upland cotton now in
commercial use were again tested, and Coker's 4-in-1 strain 4 and Cook
Stoneville and Rhyne's Cook were the best. Twelve upland varieties con-
stitute the variety test planting for 1942.
Sugarcane Varieties.-Of the sugarcane varieties tested F31-762 con-
tinues to show up best for syrup and forage purposes because of its resist-
ance to disease and its ability to yield well both as plant and as stubble
cane.
A number of new hybrid canes that might have higher value for chewing
purposes than F31-762 are being tested.
Castor Beans.'-Six of the most promising varieties of castor beans, U.
S. 4, Kansas Common, Kentucky 38, Doughty 11, Conner and U. S. 7, are
under test at Gainesville, Leesburg, Brooksville and Quincy this year.
Previous castor bean tests in Florida have not been encouraging because
of poor seed yields resulting from damage to flowering and seed parts by
gray mold disease and pumpkin bugs. (See also Report, NORTH FLORIDA
STATION.)
CORN FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS
State Project 163 J. D. Warner, J. P. Camp and W. E. Stokes
This project during the year consisted of fertilizer grade and ratio ex-
periments and lime and trace element treatments on corn. (See also Report,
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, Mobile Units.)

COMPOSITION FACTORS AFFECTING THE VALUE OF SUGARCANE
FOR FORAGE AND OTHER PURPOSES
State Project 265 W. A. Leukel
Laboratory determinations of organic and inorganic composition were
made on various forage crops and silages produced from these crops. Re-
sults from these determinations were compared with sugarcane and sugar-
cane silage when ensiled alone and in combination with cowpeas. The dif-
ferent crops included in this treatment were corn, Napier grass, sorghum,
Napier grass and sorghum, sugarcane, cowpeas, and sugarcane and cowpeas.
Variations in the percentages of the different carbohydrate and nitrogen
fractions in these various crops and in the respective silages from each
showed interesting trends. The inorganic composition likewise showed vari-
ations between the original crop and its silage.
The percentage of dry matter indicated a downward trend in all the si-
lages when compared with the original crop or crops with the exception of
corn and Napier grass. Total and reducing sugars were strikingly lower in
all the silages than in the freshly cut crops from which they were produced.
In general, the percentages of the more stable carbohydrates, as starch and
hemi-cellulose, were higher in the silages than in the freshly cut crop from
which they were produced.
In all instances protein percentages were lower in the different silages
than in the freshly cut crops. But water soluble nitrogen and the various
soluble nitrogen fractions, including amide nitrogen and amino-acid nitro-
gen, showed a higher percentage level in general in the different silages than
was found for them in the respective freshly cut crops. Total nitrogen like-
wise was higher in the different silages than in the freshly cut crops in all
instances.

4In cooperation with Div. of Fruits and Vegetable Crops and Diseases, B. P. I.







Annual Report, 1942


In general, the percentages of inorganic elements of calcium, phosphorus,
magnesium, and potassium were slightly higher in the silages than in the
respective freshly cut crops. This was especially true for calcium, phos-
phorus and magnesium. The more soluble element, potassium, was higher
in the silage, but the percentage level was more variable.
In these trials where sugarcane was combined with cowpeas for the pro-
duction of silage, a fine grade of silage resulted, higher in nitrogen and min-
erals than that produced from sugarcane alone. In addition, it did not have
the fetid odor, due to partial decomposition, present in silage produced from
cowpeas alone.
Since sugars in the ensiling process are broken down into alcohols, car-
bon dioxide and organic acids, they were always very low in the silage prod-
uct. On the other hand, these acids may be instrumental in the hydrolysis
of the proteins which are to a great extent broken down into the lower nitro-
gen compounds. What proportion of sugarcane should be utilized with a
certain quantity of legumes depends upon the growth stage and composition
of the latter crops.
PASTURE STUDIES
Bankhead-Jones Project 267 Harold Mowry
Assistance in maintenance and enlargement of other Bankhead-Jones
pasture projects through provision of required equipment, materials and
labor has been the chief function of the project. Results of the work of
those several projects (reviewed elsewhere in this report), especially those
concerned with clovers and minor element deficiencies, have been particular-
ly adaptable and timely. Through these findings, which have been immedi-
ately available and widely adopted, a most definite contribution has been
made in the needed increase of dairy and beef products.

EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS ON YIELD, GRAZING VALUE, CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION AND BOTANICAL MAKEUP OF PASTURES
Bankhead-Jones Project 295 G. B. Killinger, R. E. Blaser and W. E. Stokes
Combinations and Rates of Fertilizers on Carpet Grass Growth and Com-
position.-The 4 fertilizer experiments to study soil type, fertilizer and car-
pet grass growth and composition interactions were started in 1937 and dis-
continued after the 1941 season. Clippings were taken for yield data on the
4 soil types. Chemical analyses of some of these have recently been com-
pleted.
Briefly, the data show that growth as well as phosphorus, calcium and
potassium content were augmented significantly by fertilization. Nitrogen
was the most important element in stimulating growth, but the efficiency of
nitrogen was increased greatly by supplementing with other minerals. On
the basis of these tests 200 to 400 pounds of 8-8-5 fertilizer per acre or
similar fertilizer was satisfactory. Iron, copper, zinc, manganese, magnes-
ium and boron used in combination or alone did not stimulate growth of car-
pet grass. The effect of these trace elements on chemical composition was
not measured.
Source of Nitrogen.-A test to measure carpet grass growth and com-
position responses with 4 sources of nitrogen-nitrate of soda, sulfate of
ammonia, cyanamide and uramon-in the presence of various combinations
of lime, superphosphate and potash was started in 1938. All 4 sources used
alone or with other minerals significantly increased the early and total sea-
son yield of carpet grass. Nitrate of soda and sulfate of ammonia produced
better growth responses than cyanamide or uramon. The lowest yields re-
sulted when cyanamide nitrogen was used.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Soil samples for pH measurements were taken in March. Clippings of
carpet grass from this test were obtained but have not been analyzed.
Grazing Tests to Compare Unfertilized Carpet Grass, Fertilized Carpet
Grass, Lespedeza and Carpet Grass, and Clover and Carpet Grass.-Provision
was made for the comparative study of duplicate pastures of both unfertil-
ized and fertilized carpet grass, fertilized carpet grass and clover, and fer-
tilized carpet grass and lespedeza. A 10-acre area of established carpet
grass pasture was divided into 4 pastures of 2.5 acres each. The 2 pastures,
fertilized with 2,000 pounds lime and 600 pounds 0-16-8 fertilizer per acre
and seeded to a clover mixture in the fall of 1940, produced a total of 330
pounds of beef per acre during 1941 (Table 4). In comparison, carpet
grass fertilized with 400 pounds per acre of an 8-8-5 fertilizer produced 118
pounds of beef per acre. The mean daily gains were 0.98 pounds for the
carpet grass-clover mixture and 0.63 for the fertilized carpet grass.
During March 1942, 4 additional pastures were fenced, of which only 2
were fertilized and seeded to a 50/50 mixture of inoculated Kobe and com-
mon lespedeza. The lespedeza is producing much feed in association with
carpet grass.
Grazing Value of New Grasses.-Six 2.3-acre lots of an old cultivated
field at Gainesville, classified as Alachua fine sandy loam, were fenced early
in March and planted in duplicate to 3 new grasses, namely, Bermuda grass
TABLE 4.-VALUE OF FERTILIZED CARPET GRASS AND A CLOVER-CARPET
GRASS MIXTURE IN TERMS OF HEIFER GAINS DURING THE 1941 SEASON.
Pounds Cattle
Vegetation Date Daily Gain Beef Days
-per Heifer per Acre per Acre

Clover and carpet
grass* ................ Apr. 14 to Aug. 1 1.61 pounds 300 186

Carpet grass** .... Apr. 17 to Aug. 1 .77 pounds 75 97


Clover and carpet
grass* ................ Apr. 4 to Nov. 1 .98 pounds 330 337

Carpet grass** ... Apr. 17 to Nov. 1 .63 pounds 118 188

Fertilized with 1 ton ground limestone and 600 pounds of 0-16-8 per acre in October
1940. Seeded with a mixture of White Dutch, California Bur and Red clover in November.
** Fertilized with 400 pounds of 8-8-5 per acre.
No. 35, Digitaria decumbens Stint, and Pensacola Bahia. Bermuda No. 35
and Digitaria were planted vegetatively and the Bahia grass was seeded.
The soil was fertilized with 1 ton of lime and 400 pounds of an 8-8-5 fertil-
izer.
Digitaria has made the most vigorous growth and will be put on a graz-
ing test this season if animals are available. All lots are to be grazed next
season. All of the grazing tests are conducted in cooperation with ANI-
MAL INDUSTRY.
Experiments to Study New Grasses, Fertilizer and Soil Type Interactions
Cooperatively with Farmers-1941 Experiments.-Yield records were taken
of some of the grasses in the grass variety fertilizer tests established on a
Leon fine sand at the Farm Colony, Gainesville, during the spring of 1941.
Digitaria decumbens and Para grasses developed good growth and sods the
first season. Other grasses in the test include commercial Bermuda, com-






Annual Report, 1942


mon Bahia, Dallis, Vasey, Paraguay Bahia and St. Augustine. Fertilizer
mixtures consisting of lime and complete fertilizer or a combination of rock
phosphate, potash and nitrogen produced better stands and growth of grass
than the no-fertilizer plots.
According to the yield indices of several grasses variously fertilized, on
Plummer fine sand at Orlando, it was apparent that fertilization greatly im-
proved growth (Table 5). Preliminary results showed that rock phosphate
with potash and nitrogen or lime with complete fertilizer was the best fer-
tilizer treatments.
1942 Experiments.-Eight grasses with and without lespedeza and under
various fertilizer treatments have been established on range land near Cal-
lahan and Zephyrhills. Twelve fertilizer treatments including lime and
complete fertilizer mixtures and rock phosphate with fertilizer mixtures are
included in these grass variety experiments. The objective is to find differ-
ences in nutritional requirements 6f grasses, adaptation of grasses to vari-
ous soils, comparative palatability, and yield of grasses as stimulated by
fertilization.
TABLE 5.-EFFECT OF VARIOUS FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON GROWTH OF
SEVERAL GRASSES ON PLUMMER FINE SAND, ORLANDO, 1942.

Fertilizer Treatments Yield Indices I Mean
I Paspalum*l Vasey Dallis I Bahia I

1. No fertilizer ...........................i 1.9 2.0 0.15 1.6 1.4
2. Lime-500 lbs. 8-8-5 ............ 7.6 4.2 5.2 3.1 5.0
3. No lime-500 lbs. 8-8-5 ....... 5.2 6.5 2.4 2.0 4.0
4. Lime-500 lbs. 8-8-0 ........... 3.0 3.9 5.6 2.7 3.8
5. Lime-500 lbs. 8-0-5 ........... 5.7 5.0 2.5 2.0 3.8
8. Lime-500 lbs. 0-8-5 ......... 7.7 1.9 3.5 1.3 3.6
6. 2000 lbs. rock phosphate ...... 4.2 5.1 1.4 0.8 2.9
7. 2000 lbs. rock phosphate,
500 lbs. 8-0-5 ...................... 10.4 5.2 6.0 4.2 6.5
9. 3000 lbs. rock phosphate,
500 lbs. 8-0-5 ...................... 9.0 8.4 5.7 1.4 6.1
10. 3000 lbs. rock phosphate,
500 lbs. 16-0-10 ................. 10.6 8.7 2.8 2.7 6.2

Paspalum malacophyllum Trin.
Grass Growth as Affected by Minor Elements.-Two experimental areas
established near Callahan and Zephyrhills were planted to 4 grasses and
treated with 7 minor elements and 13 combinations of them. One experi-
ment was started at the Range Cattle Station, embodying the same minor
elements (see also Report, RANGE CATTLE STATION). These experi-
ments are designed to show plant responses and animal reaction to any in-
crease in the mineral content of the pasture plants involved. Included in
these tests are copper, iron and cobalt, 3 minerals commonly used in the
"salt sick" mixture by cattlemen.
Variety Tests with Bermuda Grasses.-A Bermuda grass variety test
was established on a Norfolk sand in August of 1941. Common Bermuda
grass and varieties of Bermuda grass developed by the U. S. Department of
Agriculture at the Tifton, Georgia, and Gainesville Experiment Stations
were included in this test. These grasses differed greatly in rate of spread
and productivity as indicated by the yields in pounds per acre as follows:
common Bermuda 319; Gainesville No. 1, 1,878; Gainesville No. 2, 762;
Tifton No. 35, 965 and Tift No. 99, 1,336.







48 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

A further test on low, poorly drained soil (Leon fine sand) was started
this spring.
Grazing Studies at the Range Cattle Station, Ona, Florida.-A 100-acre
grazing project, conducted cooperatively by the Agronomy Department,
Range Cattle Station, and the Animal Industry Department to study perti-
nent grazing problems, has been established. The area was divided into 20
lots of 5 acres each, treated with 6 fertilizers and planted to 2 grasses and
2 legumes. The plot treatments consisted of: no fertilizer, rock phosphate,
complete fertilizer with rock phosphate and with superphosphate, and a
complete fertilizer with minor elements.
Common Bahia, carpet grass, clover and annual lespedeza are the plants
in the test. All treatments are in duplicate and each set of duplicate lots
will be under controlled grazing. (See also Report, RANGE CATTLE STA-
TION.)
ERADICATION OF WEEDS IN TAME PASTURES
Bankhead-Jones Project 296 R. E. Blaser and Roy A. Bair
This project was inactive during 1941-42.
FORAGE NURSERY AND PLANT ADAPTATION STUDIES
Bankhead-Jones Project 297 G. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
The study of new grasses and legumes for forage and cover crop work
was continued in the nurseries at Gainesville and Brooksville. Several new
plants were brought under observation during the last year and increase
plots have been planted to a few of the most promising ones.
Seed supplies of one species of Medicago (Bur clover) which is showing
promise as a pasture legume are being increased that it may be tested in
pasture plots in the near future.
Several grasses, including Brachiaria plantaginea (Link.) Hitch., Chloris
gayanua Kunth. (Rhodes grass), Paspalum plicatulum Mich., and a new
strain of Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum Fliigge), are under observation
and increase plots of all have been planted to obtain seed for further trials.
The pasture cafeteria was again used to evaluate the different strains of
pasture plants. The species of Digitaria continue to produce the highest
yields of palatable grass in quantity of grazing obtained.
One hundred seventy-five plantings of clovers were grown in the trifoli-
um nurseries. The majority were imported species being tested for their
ability to persist under competition with grasses and other legumes. Five
outstandingly promising species have developed from this group. Trifolium
hirtum All., T. nigrescens Viv., T. echinatum Bieb. and T. Michelianum
Savi. are all types which should produce good grazing, while T. petrisavii
Clem. is a type containing characteristics which should fit into a hay pro-
gram.
FORAGE AND PASTURE GRASS IMPROVEMENT"
Bankhead-Jones Project 298 G. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach).-Seedlings of im-
proved strains of Napier grass are under observation.
Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (L) R. Br.-The work with Pearl
millet is confined to yield tests of selected strains and strains from com-
mercial seed. In all cases the improved strains outyielded the commercial
ones.


SIn cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I.







Annual Report, 1942


Sorghum sp.-Eighty-five strains of sorghum and Sudan grass varieties
were under observation for disease resistance. There was considerable
variation in the resistance to leaf diseases, although no strain or variety has
shown immunity to all diseases.
Lupines (Lupinus angustifolius L.).-Selections of strains of blue or
narrow-leaf lupine for resistance to the root and stem diseases have pro-
gressed satisfactorily. During 1941-1942, 3,200 plant rows were under
study. Approximately 6 percent of the rows were free of infection. Fami-
lies represented by these rows will be studied further in 1942-1943.
Nearly 200 plant rows of sweet lupines were planted in an endeavor to
find a non-alkaloid strain with sufficient vigor to make it a profitable crop.

GROWTH BEHAVIOR AND RELATIVE COMPOSITION OF RANGE
GRASSES AS AFFECTED BY BURNING AND THE EFFECT OF BURN-
ING ON MAINTENANCE OF NATURAL GRASS STANDS AND UPON
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF IMPROVED PASTURE GRASSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 299 W. A. Leukel and W. E. Stokes
Different areas of range grasses were again burned over at monthly
intervals during the past season. Grass areas burned after the month of
May failed to produce native aftergrowth for practically a year. The new
aftergrowth then appearing often consisted largely of a different plant pop-
ulation. Grass areas protected from fall burning for 2 seasons or more
showed greater retardation of native aftergrowth than these areas protected
from burning for only 1 season. Good stands of carpet grass were produced
from seeding this grass on the burned-over areas during the rainy season
without any soil covering. Occasional stands were produced from seedings
at other periods; i.e., when burned over after the month of August; but
such stands occurred only when soil moisture was sufficient and when occa-
sional rains took place to wash the seed into the soil.
Grass areas burned and seeded during past seasons and grown over
with native grasses because of no grazing were again burned over during
the early part of this year. The carpet grass apparently persisted on these
areas because some time after burning good carpet grass stands again de-
veloped thereon. Burning during the early part of the year did not appear
to injure the growth of the carpet grass. These burnings are being con-
tinued to determine if carpet grass is more susceptible to injury from burn-
ing during the growing season when in a vegetative condition than in late
fall or early winter when dormant.
During the last growing season the grass on several areas was clipped
close to the surface of the ground and the aftergrowth compared with that
from similar areas burned over during the same period. In all instances, on
areas where the native grass was clipped during the rainy season, after
May, a vigorous vegetative aftergrowth was produced, while on the burned
areas, aftergrowth was retarded, as previously mentioned, for almost a year.
Specific directions for burning range grasses in flatwood areas and seeding
them to carpet grass during the rainy season are given in Press Bulletin 571.

PASTURE LEGUMES'
Bankhead-Jones Project 301 W. E. Stokes, G. E. Ritchey,
R. E. Blaser and G. B. Killinger
Sources of Lime and Phosphates with Combinations of Lime and Fertiliz-
er as Related to Clover Growth.-Plot experiments with 4 sources of phos-
I In cooperation with Div. of Forage Crops and Diseases, B. P. I.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


phate (superphosphate, basic slag, rock and colloidal phosphates) and 2
sources of lime dolomiticc and calcic limestone) were begun on 8 different
soils in 1938. Two additional tests were established in 1940 on 2 different
soil types. The fertilizer treatments used in the 1940 tests were altered to
answer problems concerning the research findings in the 1938 treatments.
These experiments have been refertilized annually to study propagation of
clovers during subsequent years.
Summarizing results of these tests: (1) Rock and colloidal phosphates
produced fair to good growth of White Dutch and other trifoliums on the
less acid flatwoods soils such as Plummer, Portsmouth and Bladen fine sands
when applied at the rate of 3,000 pounds per acre. (2) Growth was improv-
ed greatly when lime was supplied with the rock or colloidal phosphates to
the more acid soils. The amount of lime to apply per acre when using rock
or colloidal phosphates depends upon the acidity of the soil. Lime at the
rate of 2,000 pounds per acre was distinctly beneficial on the more acid flat-
woods soils such as Leon fine sand. On less acid soils it retarded the avail-
ability of phosphorus in rock or colloidal phosphate. (3) Fertilizer treat-
ments consisting of 2,000 pounds of basic slag and 100 pounds of 50 percent
muriate of potash per acre or 750 pounds basic slag, 2,000 pounds ground
limestone and 100 pounds of 50 percent potash per acre gave satisfactory
growth, but the yields were less than clover treated with 1 ton of lime and
600 pounds of 0-16-8 fertilizer per acre. (4) Chemical composition data
showed that clovers obtain ample phosphorus from high rates of colloidal or
rock phosphates (3,000 pounds per acre) when compared with 600 pounds of
superphosphate per acre. (5) Ground limestone was more satisfactory for
the species of Medicago and Melilotus than dolomite. Both sources are sat-
isfactory for the trifoliums. (6) White Dutch and California Bur differ
greatly in their nutritional requirements, as demonstrated by significant
variations in the ratio of White Dutch to California Bur in different lime and
fertilizer treated areas.
Clover Variety Fertilizer Tests.-Because fertilizer test plots seeded
with a mixture of clover varieties demonstrated significant differences in the
nutritional requiremtns of clovers, experiments were established in 1940 and
1941 to study these nutritional requirements of the different varieties.
Eight clover variety and fertilizer experiments were established in 1940
on different soil types and 2 additional experiments were established in 1941.
A split-plot factorial experiment was used.
The nodulation of clovers was altered significantly by fertilizer treat-
ment. White Dutch and other trifoliums were quite satisfactorily nodulated
when treated with 3,000 pounds of rock phosphate per acre, but 750 pounds
of lime per acre improved nodulation greatly. Medicago and Melilotus spe-
cies were not nodulated satisfactorily with the rock phosphate treatment,
but the addition of lime resulted in ample nodulation. Both clover groups
were satisfactorily nodulated with the standard clover treatment of 1 ton of
lime and 600 pounds of 0-16-8 fertilizer per acre. Growth responses to fer-
tilization were similar to nodulation responses.
Two tests were established in 1941 to study the effects of incorporation
and surface application of various lime and fertilizer mixtures and of 2
sources of phosphates on nodulation and growth of White Dutch and Cali-
fornia Bur clovers. Incorporation of fertilizer materials improved nodula-
tion slightly over surface applications, but the results were not reliable be-
cause of large variance in treatment and soil.
On both tests the incorporation of fertilizer increased the growth of
clovers significantly over surface applications. It is possible that the
growth increase was due to extermination of grasses and other competing







Annual Report, 1942


growth rather than to incorporation of fertilizer. These experiments are to
be continued.
Clover Seed Source Test.-Commercial and native grown seed of 5 clover
varieties, White Dutch, Black Medic, California Bur, Hubam and Yellow An-
nual Sweet clovers, were tested. The soil was fertilized uniformly with 1
ton of lime and 600 pounds of 0-16-12 fertilizer per acre. The clover seed
source plots were seeded in randomized blocks and replicated 4 times.
Nine seed selections from old established pastures or volunteer stands
and 4 commercial seed lots of California Bur clover all proved to be sus-
ceptible and seriously injured by anthracnose (Colletotrichwmn trifolii Bain).
The clovers, however, differed greatly in appearance and size of plants.
Best growth was from the California grown seed.


Fig. 1.-Adapted seed produce better Black Medic. Above, growth ob-
tained from commercial seed. Below, Black Medic seed from a well estab-
lished pasture near Gainesville proved well adapted. Both clovers were
limed and fertilized. Planted in December, photographed in May.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Six native seed selections of White Dutch clover and 1 commercial seed
lot of Mississippi grown seed were planted in this test. The yields differed
greatly but were uniformly good. Kent Wild, Dixie, New York Yield, and
New Zealand White Dutch clover varieties having proved to be unadapted in
earlier tests, were not included.
Ten native seed selections and 2 commercial lots of Annual Sweet clovers
(Hubam and Yellow Annual) were tested. Preliminary results show these
to differ greatly in productivity, seeding habits and earliness.
Ten seed selections of Black Medic from volunteer stands and established
pastures in Florida all made excellent growth. The commercial seed lots
of this clover were poorly adapted and made inferior growth (Figure 1).
About 30 pounds of native seed were collected for seed production and pos-
sible future seed distribution to farmers.
Clover Response to Minor Elements.-In December 1941 a tract of pine
flatwoods land (Leon fine sand) near Gainesville, typical of much land in
this area, was prepared for clover seeding and a minor element experiment.
Treatments were randomized on plots 15 x 30 feet replicated 3 times. Four-
teen minor elements were used singly and in several combinations, mak-
ing 20 treatments per replicate. All plots received ground calcic limestone
at the rate of 2,000 pounds, 600 pounds of 20 percent superphosphate and
200 pounds of 50 percent muriate of potash per acre. The minor elements
were thoroughly mixed with the lime-phosphate-potash mixture and surface
broadcast immediately by hand. Inoculated California Bur (Medicago his-
pida Gaertn.) and a Louisiana strain of White Dutch clover (Trifolium re-
pens L.) were seeded, following fertilization, at the rate of 7 pounds per
acre for the 40/60 percent seed mixture. Compounds of copper, zinc, man-
ganese, magnesium, iron, boron, cobalt, molybdenum, aluminum, nickel, io-
dine, chromium, lead and tin were included in the treatments.
California Bur and White Dutch clovers gave significant yield responses
to a number of minor elements. Observations of these treatments indicated
the existence of a boron deficiency in this soil for the normal growth of Cali-
fornia Bur and Louisiana White clover. Ten pounds of borax per acre cor-
rected deficiency symptoms in late season on California Bur and stimulated
growth of Louisiana white clover.
A similar condition was noted on some nearby plots seeded to Black
Medic (Medicago lupulina L.) but not a part of this experiment. Affected
Black Medic plants in many instances produced sterile seed heads. A series
of Annual Sweet clover (Melilotus alba Desv.) plots in the same area show-
ed a like chlorotic condition.
Similar conditions were noted on clover fertility plots at Wauchula on
Immokalee fine sand, at Brooksville on Fellowship fine sand, and at Quincy
on a Norfolk fine sandy loam. (See also Report, N. FLA. STATION, Proj.
301.)
Lespedeza Strain and Fertilizer Tests.-Three factorial fertilizer and
lespedeza variety experiments were established on 2 sandy soil types in
1937 and 2 additional tests were established in 1941 and 1942. These experi-
ments were located in different parts of Florida in order to study soil types.
The fertilizer treatments consisted of sources of phosphates and lime with
various fertilizer mixtures. Variety tests with several annual lespedezas
were included in most of the experiments.
Results of these experiments may be summarized as follows: (1) Growth
of inoculated seed of common varieties or Kobe was best when planted in
February or March in peninsular Florida. Korean made poor growth in all
tests. (2) Lespedeza when fertilized with % to 1 ton of lime and 450
pounds of 0-16-8 fertilizer produced excellent growth on virgin soils. Les-
pedezas treated with rock phosphate at the rate of 3,000 pounds per acre







Annual Report, 1942 53

with potash also made good growth, but better growth was produced when
750 pounds of lime, 1,500 pounds rock phosphate and potash were used. (3)
The phosphorus, calcium, and potassium content of lespedeza was increased
greatly by fertilization.
In March 1941 5 acres of lespedeza were planted on an established carpet
grass pasture. This area furnished excellent grazing.

A STUDY OF NAPIER GRASS (PENNISETUM PURPUREUM
SCHUMACH.) FOR PASTURE PURPOSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 302 R. E. Blaser, G. B. Killinger and W. E. Stokes
15-Acre Planting.-A 15-acre area of mixed types of Napier grass was
planted in 1938. This area was divided into 10 fields and grazed rotational-
ly for 3 years. Following is a summary of this experiment: (1) The com-
position of Napier grass as managed for grazing was higher in dry matter
and protein than grass managed for soilage; (2) the ungrazed residue of
Napier grass, primarily stems, is inferior to grazed grass in protein, ash,
calcium, phosphorus, fat and fiber; (3) this well fertilized grass produced an
average of 231 animal days grazing and 369 pounds of beef per acre, and 1.6
pounds daily gain per steer; (4) Napier grass as managed for grazing in
these experiments was a palatable and nutritious grass during the entire
grazing season; (5) good stands of Napier grass were maintained except on
low, wet areas; (6) because of the variability in types of Napier grass there
was much difference in closeness of grazing: The desirability of using plants
with uniform genotypes for grazing tests with tall growing grasses is in-
dicated. Full details of this experiment are given in "Chemical Composi-
tion and Grazing Value of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) Grown
Under a Grazing Management Practice," Jour. Amer. Soc. of Agron., 34:
161-168. 1942.
During 1941 2 fields of Napier grass in this test were grazed until July
and protected for the remaining season. This grass, even though it had
been frosted, was grazed during December and January. Test beef animals
maintained their weight satisfactorily without supplementary feed. It thus
appears that Napier grass will be of considerable value in a frosted stage
for winter feed. The grass in this test is now being grazed closely for eradi-
cation. Varieties of Napier grass will be tested after the present grass is
completely eradicated.
7.5 Acres of Napier Grass.-This planting of Napier grass has been used
for management and fertilizer studies since 1940. Two of the fields were
fertilized annually, early in the season, with 400 pounds of 5-7-5 fertilizer
and the remaining 3 fields received an application of 400 pounds of 8-8-4 fer-
tilizer in March plus an additional application of 32 pounds of nitrogen per
acre. Data on carrying capacity and gains for the 2 fertilizer levels are to
be obtained.
Grazing was discontinued in early November and the aftermath was
grazed after it was killed by frost. Cattle were maintained satisfactorily
on the frosted grass without supplementary feed for approximately 90 days.
Napier Grass for Dairy Cows.-Eight acres of Napier grass were planted
in 1938 to measure its feeding value for dairy cows. The area was fenced
into 5 lots to permit rotational grazing. During the first 2 seasons all fields
were fertilized with 400 pounds of 5-7-5 fertilizer per acre plus 5 applica-
tions of nitrate of soda at the rate of 75 pounds per acre. During the last
2 seasons 2 fields received the total amount of nitrogen supplementing the
complete fertilizer previous to June while the remaining 3 fields received
several nitrogen top-dressings during the season. Preliminary results show
that early nitrogen applications are as satisfactory as several delayed ap-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


plications. The grass was sampled for yield and chemical composition after
each grazing as for previous seasons.
Napier Grass Management and Fertilizer Studies.-In 1940 a factorial
experiment was set up to measure yield, chemical composition and leafiness
as affected by fertilization, variety and management. Three grass varieties,
selected by G. E. Ritchey, 7 cutting management practices and 8 fertilizer
treatments are included. Preliminary results show that stands of Napier
grass can be maintained when clipped to the ground after it has reached 3
to 5 feet in height. Grass cut in this stage yields less than grass cut twice
annually, but the quality of grass is improved greatly because of the in-
creased leafiness. It is apparent that Napier silage could be improved
greatly by cutting the grass frequently, although probably some preserva-
tive would be needed to prevent spoilage. (See also Report, ANIMAL IN-
DUSTRY, Proj. 302.)

METHODS OF ESTABLISHING PERMANENT PASTURES
UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 304 R. E. Blaser and G. B. Killinger
Nutritional requirements of grasses and legumes as conducted under
Projects 295 and 301 are the primary factors to consider in establishing
various pasture plants. Two experiments involving 8 grasses with different
fertilizer treatments were established on 2 soil types in 1941. Two addition-
al cooperative grass experiments, 1 near Callahan and 1 near Zephyrhills,
were established in late spring of 1942. The object of these tests is to study
the differences in nutrition and moisture requirements of grasses.
Eight grasses (Bermuda No. 99, Bermuda No. 35, Dallis, common Bahia,
Carpet, Paraguay Bahia, Pensacola Bahia and Digitaria decumbens Stint.)
were planted with clover to test their suitability as associates of White
clover. Several methods of planting were used with Digitaria decumbens-
planting with a commercial tomato planter with and without watering and
by disking in runners. All these methods gave as satisfactory stands as
hand planting and also reduced planting costs appreciably.
Nine varieties of Bermuda grass were planted by (1) spreading above-
ground stems and rhizomes and immediate disking; and (2) dropping stems
and rhizomes 2 feet apart in 4-foot rows and covering with a Dixie plow.
The rapidity of spread will be measured. One type of Bermuda grass was
propagated satisfactorily by spreading stems and rhizomes 4 feet apart in
4-foot rows when using a commercial tomato planter. Another hay type
of Bermuda was also propagated satisfactorily by spreading clippings and
immediate disking.
Tests continue to show that Lespedeza makes satisfactory growth on
moist soils of the flat pine woods, provided that proper nutrients are sup-
plied and inoculated seed is planted in February or March.
Experiments were started in 1940 and 1941 to study the nutritive, soil
type and inoculation requirements of Alyce clover. These tests show that
it should be planted on well-drained soil, treated with 50 to 100 pounds muri-
ate of potash and 200 to 400 pounds of superphosphate per acre. Lime ap-
plied at 1,000 to 2,000 pounds per acre was of some benefit. Growth did not
respond appreciably to inoculation. Details of these experiments are given
in Press Bulletin 570.

SPACING AND PLANT COMPETITION IN COMMON FIELD CROPS
State Project 312 J. P. Camp
This project was inactive during the year and has been terminated.







Annual Report, 1942


OATS IMPROVEMENT
Hatch Project 363 J. P. Camp
Oat hybrid selections from the Division of Cereal Crops and Diseases,
B. P. I., and from the work at the Florida Station are under observation.
Many of the hybrid lines of oats offer considerable promise and some are
now being increased to obtain seed for larger trial plantings. During the
1941-42 growing season 1 selection from a cross between Bond and Fulghum,
known as Florida No. 167, was increased to the point where about 70 bushels
of seed are now available for fall 1942 seedings.

EFFECT OF THE FORM AND RATIOS OF NUTRIENT MATERIALS
ON THE GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF FORAGE PLANTS
Adams Project 369 W. A. Leukel
Work and study of results obtained on the physiological response of
Bahia grass to different forms of nitrogen with high, low and normal levels
of phosphorus and potassium continued. The nutrient solutions in each
series (NH4 and NO4:) showed a neutral reaction except in the high phos-
phorus solution which was somewhat acid.
The chlorotic condition of nitrate-treated plants during early growth in-
dicated poor utilization of iron. The use of nitrates as a source of nitrogen
was associated with the oxidation of ferrous iron to the ferric form and its
resultant precipitation. But ammonia-treated plants utilized iron very
readily and showed practically no precipitation of the element in the ferric
form.
Percentages of calcium and magnesium in the vegetative top growth in-
dicated similar trends. Phosphorus in the vegetative top growth varied di-
rectly with the concentration of this element in the sand culture for both
series (NH4 and NO4) but was decidedly higher for the ammonia-treated
plants. Potassium, being a more labile element serving many functions,
did not give consistent variations.
In general, carbohydrate fractions reached a higher percentage level in
the nitrate-treated plants, although some exceptions were evident as a result
of specific treatments. Total carbohydrates were higher in the nitrate-
treated plants on a percentage basis for all treatments except in the low
potassium treatment. The different nitrogen fractions in the vegetative top
growth likewise varied in percentage as a resultt of the form of nitrogen
utilized. Plants utilizing ammonia as a source of nitrogen yielded a higher
percentage of the various forms of assimilated nitrogen. This was especially
true for amino-acid nitrogen which gave a constant higher percentage level
in the vegetative top growth of the ammonia-treated plants.
Further work this year with Bahia grass utilizing ammonia and nitrate
forms of nitrogen at different growth periods showed somewhat similar re-
sults.
Sudan grass failed to utilize ammonia as a sole source of nitrogen, but
produced good growth using nitrate and ammonia forms of nitrogen to-
gether in equal proportions by weight. A new strain of Sudan grass de-
veloped by the Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia, utilized
ammonia nitrogen after going through the early growth stage utilizing ni-
trate nitrogen.
Bahia grass grown in plots under field conditions using ammonia and ni-
trate forms of nitrogen with normal, high and low levels of phosphorus and
potassium produced higher yields where ammonia was used as a source of
nitrogen. From 3 cuttings made during the growing season in 1941 the
ammonia-treated areas consistently produced higher yields than areas treat-
ed with nitrates.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Cuttings are being made at more frequent intervals this season. Similar
results in yields were evident thus far for the present season.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IMPROVEMENT
Adams Project 372 Fred H. Hull, F. A. Clark,
J. P. Camp and W. E. Stokes
Work was begun in January 1941 on root-knot resistance in the flue-cured
types of tobacco. Seventeen lots of seed were obtained from the North
Florida Station where work has been in progress for some years on resist-
ance in cigar tobaccos. Among these were included 6 introduced selections
which workers of the Division of Tobacco Investigations, B.P.I., had de-
scribed as having satisfactory resistance. The varieties White Honduras
and Faucette Special which have been reported to have some resistance were
also included, along with some hybrids between them and the flue-cured
varieties Bonanza and Gold Dollar.
The several lots were set in a field plot of nematode-infested soil in quad-
ruplicate plots. Bonanza was also included in this test. Each plant was
pulled in August and graded on the amount of root-knot present.
Susceptible lots such as Bonanza and various hybrids and including even
Faucette Special showed 90 to 95 percent of heavily knotted plants. Four
of the Division of Tobacco Investigation selections and White Honduras
ranged from 50 to 85 percent of the plants with heavily knotted roots. There
was an appreciably greater degree of resistance in these 5 lots than is
found in flue-cured varieties, but it was relatively much smaller than report-
ed at the North Florida Station or by U. S. Dept. of Agriculture workers in
Georgia and the Carolinas.
Leaf samples were run through the flue-curing process and all of the
more root-knot resistant pedigrees produced very poor quality of cured leaf.
Self-pollinations were made on 8 plants in each of 18 lots in the field. In
addition, crosses were made of each of the 6 Division of Tobacco Investiga-
tion's resistant selections and White Honduras with the flue-cured varieties
Bonanza and Gold Dollar. Satisfactory quantities of seed were obtained
from most of the selfed and crossed seed heads.
Some effort was given to testing the various selections in greenhouse
plantings by inoculation of the soil with root-knot nematodes. So far in
such tests the roots of nearly all plants have become heavily knotted. A few
plants which developed few or no knots on their roots were set in the field
in 1942 for seed production.
The 17 lots from the North Florida Station and the varieties Bonanza
and Gold Dollar were continued in 1942 with field plantings from self-polli-
nated seed.
CORN IMPROVEMENT
Purnell Project 374 F. H. Hull and W. A. Carver
Field Corn.-Four varieties and a number of hybrids were included for
the first time in tests at Gainesville and Quincy. None produced yields
equal to those of hybrid Fla. W-1 or to those of the varieties Florident
Yellow and Florident White.
Seed of the 4 inbred lines and 2 single crosses of the double cross hybrid
Fla. W-1 was produced in sufficient quantities to plant 200 acres for com-
mercial double crossing in 1942. Commercial producers of the double cross
hybrid seed have expressed the belief that a much greater demand for the
seed will arise in the next 2 years.
Plat work at Gainesville included 3,200 plats of 16 hills each. Hand








Annual Report, 1942


pollination for the development of superior inbred lines was practiced in
2,000 plats while yields and other records are being taken on 1,200 plats.
Main emphasis is directed toward the development of a good yellow double
cross hybrid. Plat work at Quincy included 1,600 test plats of varieties and
experimental hybrids.
Cold storage tests with seed corn have been in progress since May 1,
1941. Germination tests on samples up to March 1942 indicated that cold
storage has a very definite value in preserving viability in seed corn which
is held over for 1 year. Seed removed from cold storage in February 1942
retained viability for 4 weeks, as did also duplicate samples remaining in
cold storage. Very little difference between both of the above 2 methods was
found with cold storage temperatures ranging from 6 to 650F.
Sweet Corn.-Tests with 23 corn varieties and hybrids of both sweet and
roasting ear type were made in 1941. The 1942 test included 25 entries of
which 2 were new sweet varieties from the Louisiana Experiment Station
and 1 was a new sweet hybrid from the Tennessee Experiment Station.
Recently isolated inbred lines of sweet corn from a cross of Golden Ban-
tam and a late Southern field corn have much larger plants and table qual-
ity equal to Bantam. Crosses of these lines were made by hand pollination
to include their F1 hybrids in the 1943 yield and performance test.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO FERTILIZERS AND VARIETIES
Hatch Project 378 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp and Fred Clark
The experimental work was continued on a Norfolk medium sandy soil to
include: (1) Trials of 11 varieties; (2) rates of fertilizers with different
plant spacings; (3) sources and combinations of sources of nitrogen; (4) 38
different formulas or grades of fertilizer; (5) comparison of an acid, basic
and neutral fertilizer of the same analysis; (6) trace or secondary element
trials involving zinc, iron, copper, manganese, boron and cobalt; (7) with-
holding part of the nitrogen for side-dressing 20 days after setting; (8) the
use of paradichlorobenzene (PDB) for the control of downy mildew (blue
mold) in plant beds. The control of downy mildew was conducted coopera-
tively with PLANT PATHOLOGY.
Yellow Mammoth, Mammoth Gold, Virginia Bright Leaf, Gold Dollar and
Bonanza were the high yielding varieties in the order named. In the fer-
tilizer rates test of fertilizer, 1,800 pounds of 3-8-6, with plants spaced
26 inches in 4-foot rows, produced the most pounds and the greatest gross
returns; although 1,400 pounds of a 3-8-6 complete fertilizer, with plants
spaced an average of 23.23 inches in the drill, produced less pounds with
considerably higher quality to equalize the gross returns.
In the sources of nitrogen test % nitrate of soda and % sulfate of am-
monia followed by % sulfate of ammonia and 1/ cottonseed meal produced
the largest gross returns. Compost, applied at 3,000 pounds in addition to
1,000 pounds per acre of a 3-8-6 fertilizer, produced excellent poundage and
average quality to give greatest gross returns.
In the analysis or formula test, highest quality and most gross returns
were obtained from a fertilizer high in potash and sulfur with normal nitro-
gen and phosphate. An acid and neutral 3-8-6 was superior to a basic
3-8-6 fertilizer. Withholding two-thirds of the nitrogen and applying it as
a side-dressing was not as good this year, due to weather conditions,
as drill application at time of setting. Secondary elements added to a
4-8-8 fertilizer gave no outstanding results. Paradichlorobenzene again
gave excellent downy mildew (blue mold) control in plant beds.








58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

MISCELLANEOUS PEANUT EXPERIMENTS
J. P. Camp and W. E. Stokes
Inoculation, sulfur dusting and copper-sulfur dusting, as well as some
lime, fertilizer and trace element experimental work of a more or less ex-
ploratory nature is again under way with Spanish and runner peanuts at
Gainesville and at various points in the state. Data from the 1942 trials
have not yet been obtained.

SEA ISLAND COTTON EXPERIMENTS
W. E. Stokes, M. N. Walker, E. E. Hartwig, M. N. Gist' and C. S. Rude8
Boll weevil control experiments on Sea Island cotton were discontinued
this spring because of the transfer of C. S. Rude. Some assistance by S.
H. Walkup' in checking weevil infestations in Sea Island fields over the
territory was continued and served to keep growers posted as to the neces-
sity for poisoning for weevil control. The Sea Island cotton strain test was
continued at Leesburg and McIntosh. About 15 acres of pure Seabrook Sea
Island cotton are being grown at Leesburg by the cooperating agencies for
seed for distribution to growers; also, about 300 acres of extra long fibered
strain No. 10 Seabrook are being grown by cooperating farmers. The cotton
was rogued by M. N. Gist7 and will be ginned at the Experiment Station-
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture gin at Fruitland Park.
The fertilizer experimental work, now in progress, with Sea Island cot-
ton was enlarged over last year. In this work, Dr. J. J. Skinner' is cooper-
ating. The experiments involve: (1) Source and time of applying nitrogen
side-dressings; (2) fertilizer ratio and rates test; (3) minor elements test
involving copper, zinc, iron, cobalt, boron, manganese; and (4) comparative
effect of sodium and potassium on Sea Island cotton. These fertilizer tests
are being conducted in Gainesville, Madison, McIntosh and Leesburg areas.

7 Division of Cotton and other Fiber Crops and Diseases, B. P. I.
s Division of Cotton Insect Investigations. Bur. of Ent. and P1. Quarantine.








Annual Report, 1942


ANIMAL INDUSTRY

The research of the Animal Industry Department is conducted in the
following 7 divisions: (1) dairy husbandry, (2) animal nutrition, (3) beef
cattle, sheep, and swine, (4) veterinary science, (5) poultry husbandry, (6)
dairy manufactures, and (7) parasitology.

THE DAIRY HERD

Three registered Guernsey heifers were purchased during the year for
use in laboratory instruction, research in breeding, and dairy production.
The addition of these animals will contribute materially to the investiga-
tions under way with the herd of registered dairy cattle.
Animals were assigned for research purposes to the grazing trials with
Napier grass now in the fifth year of investigation. Others contributed to
the studies of bovine mastitis, mineral requirements of cattle, parasite in-
vestigations, and instructional purposes with classes in the College of Agri-
culture.
Two cows qualified for the Register of Merit on two milkings daily. The
record of a third cow, milked 3 times daily, was terminated at 190 days.
These records were as follows:
SI Fat I
Age | Milk (per- Fat
Iyrs. I mo. I (pounds) cent) (pounds)

Florida Fox May 1181912 ..... .... 2 6 5,689 5.44 309.60
Florida Victor Play Girl 1138675 .. 4 4 7,988 4.83 385.63
Florida Victor Fancy 1021792 ........ 7 11 8.033 5.20 417.55


All previous records used in proving transmitting ability of sires and
dams have been completed on 2 milkings daily. This year a selected group
of mature cows is being milked 3 times daily with increased production.
Twenty-five Jersey cows consumed the entire offering of concentrates
that contained 5 and 10 percent of citrus molasses with apparent relish and
without previous access to this feed. This new product is replacing part of
the blackstrap molasses formerly used in mixed feeds in this territory.

STUDIES OF PEANUT HAY
Preliminary studies of peanut hay from 4 different areas showed it to
consist of 26 percent of leaves and fine stems by weight, 63 percent of coarse
stems and roots, 6 percent of shelled nuts, 3 percent of peanut shells, and 2
percent of foreign matter.
Analyses of peanut hays were assembled as determined by the Florida
State Chemist from official samples on the market. By applying the aver-
age of coefficients of digestibility for other legume straws harvested at a
comparable stage of growth, peanut hay of this quality was calculated to
provide 4.4 percent digestible crude protein and 43.2 percent total digestible
nutrients. This estimate is based on the assumption that cows would con-
sume the entire offering of peanut hay. Although peanut hay is secondary
to peanuts, the value is sufficient to justify attempting to preserve hay of
good quality for use as feed.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


BEEF CATTLE HERD
Purebred herds of Aberdeen Angus and Herefords and a grade herd of
Herefords were maintained for experimental and instructional purposes.
The male offspring in the grade herd were castrated and used in grazing and
fattening experiments. Females in all herds were kept for replacements.
The purebred bull calves showing superior conformation were sold to cattle-
men as herd sires.
Response of Beef Cattle to Fertilized and Unfertilized Pastures.-In co-
operation with the Agronomy Department additional pastures have been es-
tablished consisting of (1) carpet grass plus clover, (2) carpet grass plus
lespedeza, (3) Pensacola Bahia, and (4) digitaria. Steers were put on these
pastures during the winter and spring months. Grass samples were taken
every 28 days for proximate analysis.

THE SWINE HERD
The swine herd was maintained to furnish experimental animals for
projects on swine production and for instructional purposes. Purebred
Duroc Jerseys and Poland Chinas comprised this herd.

SHEEP
A flock of sheep was kept to furnish experimental animals for projects
on fleece and mutton production, parasite control, and for instructional pur-
poses. The flock consisted of purebred and grade Columbia sheep.
VETERINARY LABORATORY
Diagnoses were made on numerous specimens of diseased chickens and
other farm animals during the year. These birds and animals were sent to
the Veterinary Laboratory by veterinarians, poultry owners, and farmers.

NUTRITION LABORATORY
Proximate and mineral analyses were made of feed samples from graz-
ing and feeding experiments conducted in this department. Controlled feed-
ing experiments with mineral deficient rations for cattle were continued.
The rat colony has been used for a study of deficiencies of peanuts, the feed-
ing value of shark meal, and nutritional anemia studies with milk.
Feeding tests were conducted with chicks using solvent-extracted tung
oil meal. These tests were conducted in cooperation with workers in the
poultry division of this department and the Division of Agricultural Chem-
ical Research, Bur. Agr. Chem. and Engineering.

DAIRY PRODUCTS LABORATORY
The laboratory is well equipped for teaching and research in dairy man-
ufactures. Assistance was given plant operators and dairymen in solving
some of their problems related to the manufacture of dairy products. Many
samples of products were analyzed during the year for dairymen and dairy
plant operators.
War Production Board rationing of sugar, allowing ice cream manufac-
turers only 70 percent of the sugar they used last year, made it necessary
to study the ice cream sweetening problem to determine how the sugar
shortage could be met.
Experiments with Florida-produced honey revealed that it could be used
to replace a maximum of 50 percent of the cane sugar in ice cream mixes.
In this amount, the honey flavor was easily distinguishable in the ice cream,








Annual Report, 1942


but it was pleasant to most people. Gallberry and orange blossom honeys
produced the mildest flavor and were least noticeable in the ice cream. Pal-
metto and tupelo honeys produced a rather strong flavor when used to re-
place 50 percent of the sugar. Considerable difference was noted in quality
and intensity of flavor between lots of honey of the same variety. Honey
was found to be an expensive sweetener.
Invert sugar syrup prepared by the action of heat and acid on sucrose
has possibilities for use in ice cream. It was found that a syrup consisting
of 100 pounds of sugar, 44 pounds of water, and 100 grams of tartaric acid,
after boiling very gently for 30 minutes, could be used pound for pound to
replace 50 percent of the cane sugar in the mix, with modifications in the
formula to compensate for reduced solids. Recommendations were prepared
and given to ice cream manufacturers, thereby enabling them to utilize this
product under varying conditions. Invert sugar syrup was also found satis-
factory for use in chocolate milk.
As a result of experiments in which the sugar content of ice cream was
varied it was learned that most consumers prefer an ice cream containing
15 percent sugar. Little difference was noted between ice creams contain-
ing 13 to 14 percent sugar, but the 12 percent product was definitely infer-
ior in quality and "flat" in flavor. It was concluded that, if necessary, the
sugar content of ice cream could be reduced to 13 percent.

THE POULTRY LABORATORY AND FARM
The poultry flock consisted of 3 breeds of chickens, Single Comb Rhode
Island Red, White Leghorn, and Light Sussex.
During the late spring of 1942 approximately 60 Light Sussex breeding
females were purchased from the West Central Florida Station. These
birds will be used to continue the breeding program inaugurated at Brooks-
ville by the Division of Animal Husbandry, B.A.I.
The entire flock at the University is in the National Poultry Improve-
ment Program which is sponsored by the USDA Bureau of Animal Industry,
under the supervision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. During the
test made in the fall of 1941 no reactors to pullorum disease were found in
any of the birds tested.
The 1,150 pullets and hens comprising the flock of layers were housed in
the laying quarters in the fall of 1941. These birds were used for experi-
mental feeding trials, breeding experiments, and student laboratory assign-
ments.
During the spring 4,000 hatching eggs were incubated to supply chicks
for experimental feeding trials and to produce pullets for the 1942 feeding
and management trials with layers.
Cooperative experimental work was continued at the West Central Flor-
ida Station, studying the rate of growth, livability, rate of maturity and egg
production and using the following breeds and crosses: (1) Rhode Island
Red-Light Sussex cross; (2) Rhode Island Reds; (3) Light Sussex; and (4)
White Leghorn crossed on the first generation of Rhode Island Reds X Sus-
sex. Fattening trials there and grading of live and dressed birds at the
Main Station were continued.
At the Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley, feeding trials using
different protein mashes were continued.
Staff members of this division acted as Federal egg graders and inspect-
ed eggs purchased by the Agricultural Marketing Administration. An egg
grading and poultry breeding school was held at the Poultry Laboratory
during the past year with workers from the Division of Animal Husbandry,
B.A.I., serving as instructors.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Feeding trials were completed in which different levels of solvent-ex-
tracted tung oil meal were fed to experimental birds. These experiments
were conducted in cooperation with workers in the Tung Oil Research Lab-
oratory, Div. of Agr. Chem. Research, Bur. of Chem. and Engineering,
Gainesville, and with workers in the Nutrition Laboratory in this depart-
ment.
An experiment was undertaken to hasten sexual maturity in a group of
16 slow-maturing Rhode Island Red pullets, 8 of which were treated with
0.48 milligrams of trihydroxy estratriene and 8 of which served as con-
trols. Another group of 12 White Leghorn pullets was treated similarly, 6
receiving 0.48 milligrams of trihydroxy estratriene while the remaining 6
served as controls. The treated birds received a single implantation of the
estrogenic substance in the cervical region at 5 months of age. It was as-
sumed that sexual maturity was attained when the bird laid the first egg.
Implantation of the estrogen apparently had no effect upon rate of develop-
ment of the sexual organs in either breed. Treated White Leghorns at-
tained sexual maturity at a mean age of 227.0 days; controls at a mean age
of 228.2 days. Treated Rhode Island Reds attained sexual maturity at a
mean age of 250.2 days; control at 246.0 days of age.
Effect of Length of Lighting Period on Winter Egg Production.-A com-
parison of all-night lights vs. changing light period was studied with Light
Sussex pullets during the winter months. Birds receiving the changing
length of light produced more heavily during the winter period than did the
pen receiving all-night lights.
A Cheaper Chick Ration.-To provide a cheaper chick ration, a feeding
trial was started with substitutions in the sources of protein. The regular
University of Florida all-mash chick ration has 10 percent meat scrap and
10 percent dried skimmilk as sources of protein. In the revised chick ration
5 percent meat scrap, 5 percent fish meal, 5 percent soybean meal, and 5 per-
cent of a commercial product consisting of lactoflavin concentrate, soybean
oil meal, skimmed milk and dried whey were used. The cost of the new
ration as of June 8, 1942, was 38 cents a hundred pounds lower than the
old ration. Data for the first 4 weeks indicate that the new ration is satis-
factory as judged by weight of birds and feed consumption per pound of
gain.
Rate of Growth of Chickens.-Weight changes in chicks of the following
breeds, Rhode Island Red, Rhode Island Red x Light Sussex cross, White
Leghorns, Light Sussex (pullet) chicks, from pullet and hen eggs, were
compared. In the first trial the White Leghorns were the heaviest at 10
weeks of age and the Rhode Island Reds the lightest. In the second trial
the crossbred chicks were the heaviest and the White Leghorns the lightest.
Feed efficiency was greatest with the Light Sussex.

PARASITOLOGY LABORATORY
Many inquiries have been received from farmers and veterinarians con-
cerning parasites of farm animals. Post mortem examinations have been
made on animals heavily parasitized and parasites identified.
Tests were made with "derris wash", which consists of derris powder,
rotenone, soap and water. This mixture proved highly effective in destroy-
ing the grubs in the backs of cows affected with ox warbles.
Smear No. 62, consisting of diphenylamine, benzol, turkey red oil and
lamp black, proved effective in controlling screw worms in animals.
Phenothiazine was administered to 68 horses. These tolerated the dose
of 0.065 grams per kilogram of body weight. Parasites were eliminated by
the use of this drug and the blood picture was changed temporarily in that
the hemoglobin content was lowered, though no fatalities occurred.








Annual Report, 1942


MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE
Purnell Project 133 W. M. Neal and L. L. Rusoff
A. Animal Biochemistry and Beef Cattle Phase.-Controlled feeding
trials with 14 cattle and analyses of tissues for copper content comprised
the activity of this phase. Analyses of organs and tissues of animals main-
tained on rations from "salt sick" areas without mineral supplement showed
accumulation of copper in the liver, while the liver of an animal receiving
only cobalt as a supplement contained less copper. Liver, hair, and blood
were the tissues found to show greatest variation in copper content, these
3 varying directly with the intake of this element.
B. Dairy Phase.-R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal, P. T. Dix Arnold and
D. A. Sanders
Formerly, the mixed concentrates fed to the dairy cows in the station
herd contained 2 percent of feeding bonemeal to supplement the low-calcium
roughages available locally. To reduce costs, 1 percent of marble dust was
used as a calcium supplement, replacing V of the bonemeal. After 3 years
under this feeding practice, Jersey cows milked twice daily were shown to
be in good mineral storage as indicated by bone strength determinations.
Further records on consumption of mineral supplements by Jersey heif-
ers were obtained. The breeding efficiency of these heifers was noted.
A systematic study was made of bone samples from 21 cows between 4
and 13 years of age. These samples had accumulated for the past several
years. This work was conducted jointly with the Department of Soils. (See
also Report, SOILS, Proj. 133.)

RELATION OF CONFORMATION AND ANATOMY OF THE DAIRY
COW TO HER MILK AND BUTTERFAT PRODUCTION'
State Project 140 R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal, P. T. Dix Arnold
No records were obtained in this project during the year.

A STUDY OF THE ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project 213 W. M. Neal, R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold
Additional records were obtained on the density of silage from prolific
type corn, based on total amount of cut forage placed within the silo and
the amount of silage removed from the silo. The chemical phase of ensiling
Florida forage was investigated.

BEEF CATTLE BREEDING INVESTIGATIONS"1
State Project 215 A. L. Shealy, W. G. Kirk and R. S. Glasscock
Grade cows of the Devon, Hereford, Brahman and Red Polled breeds com-
prised the breeding herds during the past year. All male offspring were
marketed as slaughter calves. Work on this project was conducted at Pen-
ney Farms in cooperation with Foremost Properties, Inc. Since the pasture
area on which the cows grazed was taken over by the United States Army,
work on this project was discontinued November 1, 1941. Data obtained
during the past 9 years will be published later.


o In cooperation with Div. of Dairy Cattle Breeding. Feeding, and Management, B. D. I.
10 In cooperation with Div. of Animal Husbandry, B. A. I.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


COOPERATIVE FIELD STUDIES WITH BEEF AND DUAL-PURPOSE
CATTLE
State Project 216 A. L. Shealy, R. S. Glasscock and W. G. Kirk
Cooperative work was conducted on 10 ranches in this state. The grade
of offspring as "slaughter calves" was determined. Percent of calf crop
was noted. The marketing program was studied on the various ranches in
an effort to determine the most desirable age and size to market offspring.
Information with regard to the feeding practice during the winter months
was obtained for each herd.
BEEF AND DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE INVESTIGATIONS"
State Project 219 A. L. Shealy, R. S. Glasscock and D. J. Smith
Purebred herds of Aberdeen-Angus and Hereford cattle and a herd of
grade Herefords were used in this project during the past year. All aminals
were weighed at 28-day intervals throughout the year. All calves were
graded as slaughter calves. During the past 7 years information has been
obtained on birth weight of calves, on growth rate of grade and purebred
calves as indicated by weights at regular intervals, and on grade as slaugh-
ter calves. This project is closed with this report.
THE ETIOLOGY OF FOWL PARALYSIS, LEUKEMIA AND ALLIED
CONDITIONS IN ANIMALS
State Project 251 M. W. Emmel
Leukemia in the chicken can be induced by repeated intravenous injec-
tions of desiccated chicken liver. Liver tissue was fractionated in an at-
tempt to isolate the fractions involved. The action of specific fractions and
the interrelationship of these fractions were studied insofar as the ability
of these products to alter the blood picture is concerned when injected intra-
venously into chickens. Four fractions which appear to be of importance
and as reported earlier have been isolated: (1) cell increasing fraction; (2)
cell reducing fraction; (3) an intoxication fraction; (4) a fraction capable
of reversing normal polymorphonuclear-lymphocyte relationship.
A STUDY OF PLANTS POISONOUS TO LIVESTOCK
State Project 258 D. A. Sanders, Erdman West, M. W. Emmel
Fourteen head of purebred Hereford and Aberdeen-Angus cattle among
a herd of 44 animals died as a result of eating green and partly cured fo-
liage from nursery stock of the tung tree, Aleurites fordi Hemsl., which had
been discarded in the pasture. Tests conducted on the palatability of green,
wilted and cured tung tree foliage proved that it was readily consumed
when offered to cattle grazing on improved pasture. Outstanding clinical
symptoms of tung tree foliage poisoning in cattle consist of profuse watery
diarrhea containing large amounts of blood, loss of appetite and emaciation.
The mortality rate is very high. The most pronounced post mortem lesions
of such poisoning in cattle consist of severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and
passive congestion of the abdominal organs. Under natural conditions
cattle pastured in tung groves have not been observed to eat tung tree fo-
liage or nuts, but graze on native grasses or cover crops present. Con-
ditions under which cattle were poisoned fatally by tung tree foliage may
occur on farms where necessary precautions are not taken.
During the year a total of 34 specimens of Florida plants suspected of
being poisonous were received for identification. Thirteen of the plants
belonged to the group of poisonous plants.

11 In cooperation with Division of Animal Husbandry, B. A. I.







Annual Report, 1942 65

STUDIES IN FLEECE AND MUTTON PRODUCTION"1
State Project 274 A. L. Shealy and C. H. Willoughby
The foundation flock of sheep consisted of purebred Columbias and grade
Hampshires. The average weights of fleeces for the 1942 shearing period
were as follows: purebred Columbias, 9.89 pounds; grade Hampshires 6.09
pounds. The fleeces were scored for length and fineness of fiber, character,
and density prior to shearing. All yearling sheep were graded as to breed-
ing and mutton type, and slaughter grades were determined for the lambs
after they were shorn.

A STUDY OF NAPIER GRASS FOR PASTURE PURPOSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 302
A. Animal Husbandry Phase. R. S. Glasscock, A. L. Shealy and D. J. Smith
Steers grazing on Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) fer-
tilized with a 5-7-5 mixture produced 228 pounds of beef per acre as com-
pared with 396 pounds per acre from Napier grass that was fertilized with
the same amount of 5-7-5 mixture plus 48 pounds of a nitrogenous fertilizer.
Wintering tests using Napier grass that had been killed with the first frost
showed that cows maintained their weights satisfactorily without supple-
mental feeding. (See also Report, AGRONOMY, Proj. 302.)
B. Dairy Phase R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold
Napier grass planted on an 8-acre area in 1938 was under rotational
grazing for the fourth season in 1941. A total of 1,529 cow-days of grazing
was secured from this area between May 19 and November 1, 1941. The
average production for this period was 25.6 pounds of milk and 1.2 pounds
of butterfat per cow daily. By inverse calculations it was found that the
cows obtained 43.5 percent of the total digestible nutrients required for
maintenance and milk production from concentrates fed at milking time in
the barn and 56.5 percent from Napier grass.

A STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEM-
PERATURE AND EGG WEIGHT (SIZE), BODY WEIGHT AND EGG
WEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT AND PRODUCTION. AGE AND EGG
WEIGHT OF SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORN PULLETS
State Project 307 0. K. Moore and N. R. Mehrhof
Correlations have been made between annual egg production and body
weight at the start of the bird's first year of production, at mid-year, and at
the end of the year. The correlations were made at various egg production
levels, groups consisting of 150 to 220 egg birds, 221 to 260 egg birds and
261 to 325 egg birds. No significant correlation was found between rate of
production and body weight.
Comparisons of seasonal changes in body weight indicate that the weight
at the start of the year, and at mid-year, are positively correlated -
r = 0.7743. Body weights at mid-year and at the end of the year were
found to have a significantly positive correlation of r = 0.7507. The ini-
tial and final body weights likewise were positively correlated but not to the
extent of being highly significant (r = 0.5237).
No significant differences in body weight were found in a high and a
low egg laying population of birds by seasons. Body weight at the mid-year
is more variable than at the start of the first year of production, while at
the end of the year it is most variable. Low egg producing birds have long-
er and more variable winter pauses than high egg producers.
12 In cooperation with Div. of Animal Husbandry, B. A. I.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


In high egg producing birds (232 or more eggs annually) there is no
significant correlation between length of winter pause and seasonal body
weight. In low egg producing birds (231 or less eggs annually) there was
no significant correlation between length of winter pause and body weight
at the start of the year and at mid-year, but winter pause and body weight
at the end of the year were negatively correlated in the low producers.
Correlations between winter pause and body weight were computed for
birds that died. These data were not analyzed from the standpoint of rate
of egg production. Winter pause was negatively correlated with body
weight at the start of the year and also at mid-year (r = -.3158 and
r = .3784, respectively).
Ninety-two percent of the birds that died during the first year of pro-
duction underwent a pause in egg production prior to death, with a mean
interval of 36.88 days. This pause in egg production has been termed death-
pause by the authors. A significant negative correlation at the 0.05 proba-
bility level, but not at the 0.01 level, was found in 2 large populations of
birds between death-pause and percent egg production. Thus, as death-
pause increased in length rate of egg production decreased.
The number of days prior to the winter pause was found to be highly
correlated with annual egg production. Hence, by breeding birds so that the
winter pause will occur later in the season annual egg production can be in-
creased, although by so doing the length of pause will not be decreased.
POULTRY BREEDING
State Project 309 N. R. Mehrhof and O. K. Moore
Studies in sex-linked inheritance were undertaken during the past year,
utilizing the sex chromosome-borne dominant gene for silver plumage color
carried by the Light Sussex fowl. The mean weight of day-old Light Sus-
sex x Rhode Island Red chicks was found to be intermediate between the
weight of purebred Rhode Island Red and purebred Light Sussex chicks.
The mean weight of pureberd Light Sussex day-old chicks was 36.78 grams,
Light Sussex x Rhode Island Red chicks 35.66 grams, and purebred Rhode
Island Red chicks 33.42 grams. Furthermore, it was found that the mean
weight of day-old cockerel chicks from the Light Sussex x Rhode Island Red
cross, irrespective of egg weight, was greater than the weight of the pullet
chicks, the mean weight of the former being 36.32 grams and of the latter
35.00 grams.
DEFICIENCIES OF PEANUTS WHEN USED AS FEED FOR SWINE
State Project 310 D. J. Smith
This project was terminated with the publication of Station Bulletin 372.
METHODS OF HANDLING SOWS AND YOUNG PIGS
State Project 311 D. J. Smith
In the management of brood sows, maximum use has been made of an-
nual grazing crops. The crops used were oats, millet, Sudan grass, corn,
runner peanuts, and sweet potatoes. The use of rotational grazing has re-
duced kidney worm infestation. Annual grazing crops provided the most
economical method of raising pigs.
Birth weights and growth rates of spring and fall farrowed pigs were
obtained. Work on this project is concluded with this report.
THE VITAMIN CONTENT OF SHARK LIVER OIL
State Project 320 L. L. Rusoff and N. R. Mehrhof
Trials to determine the vitamin A content of shark liver oil were repeat-
ed. Six lots of Light Sussex-Rhode Island Red crossbred chicks were used.







Annual Report, 1942 67

These chicks were fed the basal vitamin D-free ration supplemented with
varying levels of shark liver oil as compared with lots receiving definite
amounts of U.S.P.XI Reference cod liver oil.
The data indicate more efficient utilization of vitamin D with pullets than
with cockerels. The shark liver oil used in these trials contained approxi-
mately 35 A.O.A.C. units of vitamin D per gram.

COMPARATIVE VALUE OF SUGARCANE SILAGE, SHOCKED SUGAR-
CANE AND PASTURE, SUPPLEMENTED WITH COTTONSEED MEAL
OR CAKE IN WINTERING THE BEEF HERD
State Project 331 W. G. Kirk and D. J. Smith
The project was completed with the publication of Station Bulletin 373.

DIFFERENT METHODS OF FEEDING GRAIN TO LAYERS
State Project 337 N. R. Mehrhof, E. F. Stanton, and D. F. Sowell
Four methods of feeding laying pullets were tested over a 2 year period
at the Main Station and the Florida National Egg-Laying Test. The meth-
ods of offering feed were: (1) mash self-fed, grain mixture once nightly in
litter; (2) mash self-fed, grain mixture once nightly in hoppers; (3) mash
self-fed, grain mixture in hoppers all day; and (4) mash self-fed, corn,
wheat and oats in separate hoppers all day.
All 4 methods of feeding laying pullets appeared to give satisfactory egg
production. When lights and moist mash were used the best results were
obtained with the lot which had mash self-fed and grain fed in litter once
nightly. The methods of feeding gave no significant differences in egg
weight, body weight or mortality. Significant differences were found in the
ratio of mash and grain consumption between the different methods of
feeding. A higher percentage of grain was consumed in the lots in which
the feed was placed in hoppers and the birds had access to the feed all day.
Considerable variation occurred in the proportion of oats, corn, and wheat
consumed during the different periods.
Feed cost per dozen eggs was approximately the same in the 4 different
lots in the Main Station trials. In the Egg-Laying Test trials the feed cost
per dozen eggs was lowest with the birds hand-fed grain in litter once a
day and highest with the birds self-fed corn, wheat, and oats all day.
During the past year additional feeding trials were repeated comparing
20 percent, 26 percent, and 32 percent protein mash and ad libitum feeding
of corn, oats, and wheat with a 20 percent mash and hopper feeding of a
grain mixture once nightly.

THE USE OF MOLASSES FOR FATTENING STEERS
State Project 339 W. G. Kirk, A. L. Shealy and D. J. Smith
A third trial was conducted on the use of blackstrap molasses as a
substitute for a part of the ground snapped corn in the rations of fattening
steers. Three lots of 10 steers each of grade Hereford, grade Brahman
and Braford breeding were used. Lot I received a ration of ground snapped
corn, peanut meal, sorghum silage, and Alyce clover hay. Lot II received
the same ration as Lot I except that blackstrap molasses was used to replace
half of the ground snapped corn; Lot III received the same ration as Lot II
except that the molasses was self-fed in a separate trough and the steers
were allowed to consume as much as they desired. Steers in all lots had








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


access to salt sick mineral," feeding bonemeal and common salt at all times.
Table 6 summarizes the results of this trial:

TABLE 6.-A COMPARISON OF THE FEEDING VALUE OF GROUND SNAPPED
CORN ALONE AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN AND MOLASSES MIXED AND
SELF-FED.

I Lot II Lot III
Ground Ground
Lot I Snap Snap Corn
Ground Corn I and
Snap and Molasses
Corn Molasses (molasses
(mixed) self-fed)

Av. initial weight-pounds .............. 618 612 611
Av. final weight-pounds ................. 836 860 837
Av. gain per steer (120 days)-pounds 218 248 226
Av. daily gain per steer-pounds ............ 1.820 2.069 1.884
Av. initial grade (feeder steers) .............. Low good Low good Low good
Av. final grade (slaughter steers) .......... Av. good Av. good Av. good
Av. carcass grade ................................ Low good Low good Av. good
Av. dressing percentage ......................... 58.39 59.20 58.00


INFLUENCE OF SULFUR ON THE BODY POPULATIONS OF VARI-
OUS STAGES OF THE LIFE CYCLE OF ECTOPARASITES, ON THE
INTERMEDIATE HOSTS OF HELMINTHS AND ON THE INCUBATION
OF ROUNDWORM EGGS OF CHICKENS
State Project 343 M. W. Emmel
Field experiments showed that lice or fleas on poultry can be controlled
by incorporating 5 percent of "dusting" sulfur in the regular mash for a
period of 3 weeks and dusting the sulfur over the surface of the yards at
the rate of 2 pounds per 100 square feet. Feeding sulfur alone, without
applying it to the soil, did not give complete control of lice or fleas. The ap-
plication of "dusting" sulfur to the soil without feeding it in the mash was
not effective in the control of these parasites. Both methods of application
were required for complete control. Mites were controlled by dusting sulfur
about the house and on the litter, dropping boards and nesting material.
This project was completed with this report and the publication of Bul-
letin 374.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY AND DEPRECIA-
TION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and A. H. Spurlock
This work, conducted in cooperation with the Department of Agricultural
Economics, consisted of taking herd records which were kept in cooperation
with 10 selected dairymen, 8 of these for the second year. A material in-
crease was made during the year in records of useful life-span, and of
causes for losses of bulls in major dairy breeds. (See also Report AGRI-
CULTURAL ECONOMICS, Proj. 345.)

18 Common salt 100 pounds, red oxide of iron 25 pounds, pulverized copper sulfate 1
pound, cobalt chloride 2 ounces.







Annual Report, 1942


INVESTIGATION WITH LABORATORY ANIMALS OF MINERAL
NUTRITION PROBLEMS OF LIVESTOCK
Purnell Project 346 W. M. Neal and L. L. Rusoff
Two phases of this investigation were conducted by using 1 group of rats
which was fed peanuts and another group which was fed milk from a co-
balt deficient cow.
A basal ration of peanuts, sodium chloride, calcium carbonate, calcium
phosphate, and methionine was offered with various fractions of milk and
with various fats in an effort to identify the active supplementary factor of
milk.
Milk from a cobalt-deficient cow was used as the basal ration for rats.
The rats were divided into groups as follows: (a) basal ration only; (b)
basal ration plus cobalt; (c) basal ration plus iron and copper; (d) basal
ration plus iron, copper and cobalt. Cobalt supplementation prolonged life
above that of rats on the sole milk diet. The additions of (1) iron and
copper and also of (2) iron, copper and cobalt, permitted normal hemoglobin
production in their blood. The rat has an infinitesimal but definite require-
ment for cobalt. Work on this project has been discontinued.
ROTATIONAL GRAZING AND INTERNAL PARASITES IN SHEEP
PRODUCTION
State Project 350 R. S. Glasscock, D. J. Smith and L. E. Swanson
Effort was made to raise sheep without medication in the control of in-
ternal parasites by use of such annual crops as oats, cat-tail millet and cow-
peas in rotational grazing. However, after grazing 6 months on these an-
nual crops the lambs and many old sheep became heavily infested with
parasites. The lambs became unthrifty and greatly emaciated. Microscopic
examinations of feces revealed the presence of large numbers of parasite
ova. It was demonstrated clearly that internal parasites could not be con-
trolled through the use of annual pastures even under rotational grazing.
It was decided to continue the project with rotational grazing of annual
crops, and in addition, administering phenothiazine in the feed every 23
days. During the past year the sheep were treated in this manner and
parasites were apparently kept under control as indicated by the general
thrift and healthy appearance of the adult sheep and the satisfactory gains
in weight of the lambs.
CALCAREOUS MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR POULTRY FEEDING
State Project 352 N. R. Mehrhof and L. L. Rusoff
Quadruplicate feeding trials with Single Comb Rhode Island Reds were
conducted comparing clam and oyster shells as sources of calcium for
growth and egg production. The average weight per pullet at 24 weeks of
age in the oyster shell lot was 1,562 grams and in the clam shell lot 1,568
grams. The average weight per cockerel was 1,977 grams in the oyster
shell lot and 2,073 grams in the clam shell lot.
Egg production, feed consumption, blood calcium analysis and breaking
strength of eggs were fairly uniform in the clam and oyster shell lots. Ad-
ditional trials comparing oyster, clam, and coquina shells indicated that
these 3 products were good sources of calcium as judged by egg production,
breaking strength and shell thickness.
INFECTIOUS BOVINE MASTITIS
Purnell Project 353 D. A. Sanders
A study ot the therapeutic value of iodine in mineral oil as a treatment
for bacterial infections of the bovine udder was continued. It was desired







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


to develop a technique of administering the drug which would destroy bac-
terial infections of the mammary gland without irritating the epithelial tis-
sues with which it came in contact. Udders found to be shedding mastitis
microorganisms and those showing a high leucocyte content of the milk or
an abnormal appearance of the udder secretion due to acute or chronic
mastitis infections were treated with iodized mineral oil. Treatment of dry
udders precludes interference of mammary secretions with the medicinal
agent. From 300 to 500 cubic centimeters of a 1 to 1,250 dilution of resub-
limed iodine crystals of liquid petrolatum (heavy medicinal mineral oil)
were injected under aseptic conditions into the milk cistern of infected dry
quarters via the teat canal. In an effort to distribute the iodized mineral
oil over the epithelial surface of the mammary tissues the quarters were
massaged immediately following injection. The injected material was
permitted to remain within the udder during the entire dry period. In cer-
tain instances, depending upon the degree of infection present, the quarters
were stripped out within 10 days after treatment and the injection repeated.
This method of treating dry udders as observed in 20 cases of chronic mas-
titis proved valuable in destroying the causative microorganisms and in
eliminating the high bacterial and leucocyte content of milk due to chronic
infections.
Chronic mastitis associated with an abundance of purulent exudate was
treated by injections with iodized mineral oil in an effort to alleviate the
condition. It was found that such quarters should be "dried off" when it is
safe to do so. Treatment should then be given as described above.
It was found that 300 to 500 cubic centimeters of a 1 to 1,250 dilution of
iodine in oil may be injected into the milk cistern in cases of acute mastitis.
Removal of any coagulum present was facilitated by rinsing the cistern with
the iodized mineral oil. Efficiency of the treatments in these cases depended
upon location and extent of infection and upon udder secretions which ad-
versely influence bactericidal action of the drug.
Treatment of clinical cases of mastitis as they arise will not result in
proper control or eradication of the infection within a herd. Clinical mani-
festations of the disease in one or more animals of a dairy herd gave evi-
dence that unknown infections exist in udders of cows which are not sus-
pected of harboring the causative microorganisms. A program for control-
ling or eradicating mastitis infections within a dairy herd should include,
as a prerequisite, reliable diagnostic tests capable of detecting the presence
of causative microorganisms which exist in milk of unknown carriers.
BIOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF PASTURE HERBAGE
Bankhead-Jones Project 356 W. M. Neal, L. L. Rusoff and R. E. Blaser
Feeding trials conducted with rabbits showed the necessity of improving
the technique of such trials and using rabbits as pilot animals to parallel
work with cattle Carpet grass was increased in copper content as a result
of fertilization. This work was conducted cooperatively with AGRONOMY.
PROCESSING, STORAGE, AND UTILIZATION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
AND BY-PRODUCTS TO MEET WAR-TIME FOOD
NEEDS AND LIMITATIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 360 T. R. Freeman and E. L. Fouts
In the preceding annual report this project was entitled "Storage of
Dairy Products". A study of the stability of Florida milk toward the de-
velopment of oxidized flavor indicates that greatest stability occurs during
fall and winter months. Other investigators have reported that milk is
most stable in the spring and summer. These investigations will be con-
tinued.







Annual Report, 1942


One experiment dealing with frozen cream storage was completed dur-
ing the year after a storage period of 7 months, and a second one was
started in January 1942. Results obtained thus far seem to indicate that:
1. Ice cream of satisfactory quality can be made from cream which has
been stored 7 months at 0F., provided the cream is relatively free from
copper. 2. Avenex (1.5%), avenex concentrate (0.1%), and trypsin
(0.003%) were effective antioxidants in frozen cream stored 7 months. 3.
When stored frozen cream is used for ice cream manufacture the degree of
oxidized flavor in the finished product is not always proportional to the de-
gree of oxidized flavor in the stored frozen cream. 4. Ice cream prepared
from stored frozen cream containing 1.5 parts per million of added copper
will probably develop an oxidized flavor in less than a week, even though the
frozen cream itself is free of oxidized flavors.
In December 1941 a study was begun of the possibilities of storing con-
densed whole milk for use later in ice cream. Five lots of milk were divided
into 24 sub-lots for the purpose of comparing various methods of processing
and storage. Storage periods up to 12 months will be attempted.
Preliminary trials with a modification of the Ritter test for copper indi-
cate that it may have possibilities as a simple method for predicting the
keeping qualities of cream stored in the frozen state, but more work is
necessary to warrant conclusions.
LONGEVITY OF EGGS AND LARVAE OF INTERNAL PARASITES OF
CATTLE
State Project 387 Leonard E. Swanson
Pasture plots were provided for investigations of parasites in cattle with
special attention given to longevity of the various stages in the life cycle
of these parasites.
The feces of calves on the experimental plots were examined every 7 or
14 days for parasitic ova. The ova of the different parasites were identified
and counted on the basis of ova per gram of feces.
It was found that larvae of Haemonchus contortus (Rud.), Nematodirus
filicollis (Rud.), Cooperia sp. and Trichuris discolor (Linst.) were able to
survive a non-grazing period of 372 days. The parasites Haemonchus simil-
is Travossos, Ostertagia ostertagi (Stiles), Trichostrongylus axei (Cob-
bold), and Oesophagostomum radiatum (Rud.) survived a non-grazing
period of 141 days.
A technic has been developed for culturing larvae from feces and also
from female worms. Grass samples from a cattle and sheep pasture were
passed into a Baerman apparatus and found to contain numerous larvae of
cattle and sheep parasites. The use of this apparatus will assist materially
in determining the degree of infestation of pastures.
MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR FATTENING HOGS ON PEANUTS
State Project 388 D. J. Smith
Four 2-acre lots of peanuts were grazed by purebred Duroc-Jersey and
Poland China pigs in the initial feeding trial. Pigs in Lot I received no
mineral supplement; pigs in Lot II received only common salt as a supple-
ment; those in Lot III received a mixture of equal parts of common salt
and calcium carbonate; those in Lot IV received steamed bone meal 50
pounds, marble dust 50 pounds, common salt 25 pounds; red oxide of iron
25 pounds, copper sulfate 1 pound, and cobalt chloride 2 ounces.
Estimates were obtained on peanut yields and peanuts consumed by pigs
in each lot. Records were made of gains in weight by pigs in each lot, and
of the amount of feed required to produce 100 pounds gain. Slaughter data,
including dressing percentages, grade and firmness of carcasses, and break-
ing strength of bones, were obtained.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ENTOMOLOGY

Research activities followed the same general plans as last year. Work
was begun on a new project on cutworms and armyworms and new phases
of investigation were taken up under some of the other projects.
Of entomological interest was the discovery of the Mexican bean beetle,
Epilachna varivestris Muls., in 3 widely separated localities in Alachua
County, over 100 miles south of any previously known infestation. The
beetle has been present in western Florida for several years, but the nearest
known infestation last year was at Havana, where it did much damage. In
addition to those in Alachua County, infestations were found this year in
Leon and Jefferson counties, but no intermediate infestations were located.

THE PEPPER WEEVIL-ITS BIOLOGY, DISTRIBUTION
AND CONTROL
State Project 263 J. R. Watson
This project was inactive again this year. Careful cleanup of crop resi-
dues in recent years had effectively held the weevil (Anthonomus eugenii
Cano) in check. However, some growers negligently left many peppers in
the fields in 1941 and the heaviest infestation in several years is now pres-
ent in Manatee and Hillsborough counties. This demonstrates that the
spring cleanup after harvest is extremely important. If the weevil spreads
northward into counties where peppers are grown during summer this
project must again become active and control measures developed.

CONTROL OF THE NUT AND LEAF CASE-BEARERS OF PECANS
State Project 379 A. M. Phillips, H. E. Bratley
Work on this project was conducted at the Pecan Investigations Labor-
atory at Monticello under the cooperative agreement with the Division of
Fruit Insect Investigations, Bur. of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
Control experiments against the case-bearers included the use of winter
washes against the overwintering larvae in their hibernacula, early spring
sprays against young overwintering larvae feeding on tender buds and foli-
age, and sprays against the larvae of the summer broods.
The tar oil emulsions that gave the best control of overwintering larvae
the past 2 years were not available this year and the best that could be ob-
tained gave only fair control. Preliminary tests with a spray containing
dinitro-o-cresol indicated that this may prove an effective control for the
overwintering larvae. A pyrethrum-rotenone spray applied in early spring
when 95 percent or more of the larvae had become active gave good control
of the leaf case-bearer. Lead arsenate and cryolite have been applied for
control of the summer broods of the case-bearers but their effectiveness has
not been determined.

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF CUTWORMS AND ARMYWORMS
IN FLORIDA
State Project 380 A. N. Tissot and J. W. Wilson
Work on this project consisted almost entirely of biological studies of the
insects concerned. Cutworms and armyworms were unusually scarce in the
Gainesville area and control experiments have been impossible.
Larvae and pupae from various localities were reared in the laboratory
and adults of several species, not yet identified, have been obtained. An
interesting finding in regard to 1 species (apparently belonging to the








Annual Report, 1942


genus Feltia) is that the mature larvae aestivate. Partially grown larvae
collected in March fed avidly for a time and then suddenly or gradually
stopped eating. Some have taken no food since the middle of April. On
June 30 about 25 of these dormant larvae were still alive and these are being
kept for further observations on their development. A few parasites have
been reared from cutworm larvae and pupae. Attempts to obtain eggs from
caged moths have so far been unsuccessful. (See also Report, VEGE-
TABLE CROPS LABORATORY, Proj. 380.)

PROPAGATION OF LARRA WASPS FOR THE CONTROL OF
MOLE-CRICKETS
State Project 381 J. R. Watson
Attempts to establish the Larra wasps in Florida were unsuccessful.
Two shipments of pupae of Larra analis Fab. were received from Louisiana
but only 1 adult emerged. No material of Larra americana Saussure
could be obtained from Puerto Rico, and because of the war neither species
has been procurable this year. Larra analis is known to occur in the South-
east but frequent collecting on the blossoms of its known host plants failed
to produce the insect, indicating that it may not occur in the vicinity of
Gainesville. In Puerto Rico, L. americana feeds largely on flowers of species
of Hyptis and Boerreria. These plants have been successfully introduced
and an adequate supply is available whenever the insects may be obtained.

ROOT-KNOT IN TOBACCO FIELDS
State Project 382 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
Observations of plant roots have been continued to determine the amount
of root-knot persisting 1 and 2 years following a tobacco crop, when natural
vegetation is allowed to grow. The second year growth showed a marked
diminution in the amount of root-knot as compared with the first year
growth. The field which grew a crop of tobacco in 1939 is in tobacco this
year, beginning the second cycle in the 3-year rotation program. Some
of the plants in this field show indications of root-knot.

BREEDING VEGETABLE PLANTS RESISTANT TO ROOT-KNOT
NEMATODES
State Project 383 J. R. Watson
Several acres of the root-knot resistant Conch cowpeas were harvested
last year. Seed was saved only from plants known to have been exposed to
nematodes and seed from plants showing appreciable amounts of root-knot
was discarded. One or 2 okra plants growing in each hill of cowpeas served
as an indicator of exposure to nematodes. If the okra showed no signs of
root-knot it was assumed that the cowpeas had not been exposed and the
seed from those plants was discarded. A goodly percentage of the cowpeas
grown in infested hills was entirely free of root-knot. Several acres were
planted this year and some seed was distributed to seedsmen and farmers.
The Alabama strain of Kentucky Wonder bean was grown in considerable
quantity and further selections were made and attempts are being made to
develop root-knot resistant tomatoes, eggplant, and lettuce of the Iceberg
type. Success has not been as marked as with the cowpeas and beans,
though some of the tomatoes now growing show some promise. A number
of varieties of papaya are being grown to see if these show any variation
in susceptibility to root-knot. Roses which have been growing under heavy
mulch for several years are still thrifty and producing flowers except for a
few that have been killed by cold weather.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


BIOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF THE THYSANOPTERA OF FLORIDA
State Project 384 J. R. Watson
Further data were collected on the ecological, geographical, and sea-
sonal distribution and on the habits of Florida Thysanoptera. A new
species found in tuberose bulbs was described and several undescribed
species were collected from leaf mold. Taeniothrips dianthi Priesner, a
species of thrips very destructive to Dianthus in Europe, was discovered on
the Lower East Coast of Florida. This is the second recorded occurrence of
this species in North America.

EFFECT OF MULCHES ON THE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE
State Project 385 J. R. Watson
Studies on the effect of mulches on root-knot were continued. In addition
to the 8 0.01-acre plots under observation for several years, 2 series of pot
experiments were conducted, using tomatoes as the test plant. One series
was run in winter and the other in spring and early summer. The soil for
these tests came from an area that had grown tomatoes for several years
and was known to be heavily infested with nematodes. The tomatoes were
started in 4-inch pots and transferred to 8-inch pots when they showed
symptoms of becoming pot bound. Two dozen pots were heavily mulched
with decaying material taken from outdoor mulched plots. Two dozen were
watered with an infusion made by soaking some of the mulch material in
water for several days. Two dozen unmulched pots watered with tap water
were used as checks. The check plants died without producing fruit and
most of them did not bloom. Their roots were heavily damaged by root-
knot. Two of the mulched plants died from some undetermined cause but
the rest lived to produce fruit. An examination of the roots showed very
little root-knot. Three of the plants watered with the mulch infusion died
from an undetermined cause. Eight plants lived to produce fruit, though
their roots showed a light infestation of root-knot. In all cases the roots
were examined before the plants were entirely dead. Work on the spring-
summer series has not been completed.
In connection with the Department of Soils, a study was made of the
fauna in the soil under mulch as compared with that in unmulched soil.
(See also Report, SOILS, Proj. 328.) Two species of fungi found in great
abundance under the mulch were absent in the unmulched plots. A plot
mulched last year had the mulch removed this year for observation on the
after-effect of mulch on root-knot. Lettuce grown on this plot was decidedly
better and was less heavily infested than that on the check plot, indicating
that nematode injury was retarded for at least 6 months.
To determine the depth of mulch needed under field conditions, 6 0.01-
acre plots were mulched to varying depths of % to 6 inches and 2 plots were
unmulched.

CONTROL OF FLORIDA FLOWER THRIPS
State Project 386 J. R. Watson
Infestations of flower thrips in the spring were too light to warrant the
use of control measures. Wisteria blooms, usually most heavily infested,
were almost free of thrips. Gladiolus sprayed with the tartar emetic-brown
sugar bait for control of the gladiolus thrips, Taeniothrips simplex Morison,
showed a market diminution of flower thrips in comparison with unsprayed
plants. This indicates that the poison bait is effective against flower-inhab-
iting thrips also, though the control did not last as long, due to the heavy
migration of flower thrips as compared with the gladiolus thrips. The thrips







Annual Report, 1942 75

most commonly observed in gladiolus blossoms in the fall was, as in previous
years, the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). This species causes
very little damage but is of importance because it is commonly mistakefi
for the gladiolus thrips. This error leads to much needless spraying with
poison bait before the gladiolus thrips makes its appearance.
Due to war rationing, brown sugar was not available for poison baits.
It was found, however, that syrup or molasses was just as satisfactory and
honey proved to be better than brown sugar.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HOME ECONOMICS
Investigations of human nutrition and of the chemical composition and
vitamin A and C content of Florida fruits and vegetables were continued.
Recently 2 new projects were initiated; one, a study of the relation of the
school lunch to child health and progress; the other, a study of the relation
of tooth and bone structure to diet.

AN INVESTIGATION OF HUMAN DIETARY DEFICIENCIES IN SE-
LECTED COUNTIES IN FLORIDA, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO
NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA IN RELATION TO THE COMPOSITION OF
HOME-GROWN FOODS
Purnell Project 255 0. D. Abbott, Ruth O. Townsend and R. B. French
With this report Project 255 is completed. Results may be summarized
as follows:
1. The nutritional status of 5,000 subjects has been determined.
More than three-fourths of them were rural school children living in the
north-central part of the state. 2. Less than 10 percent of the children
were without gross defects. The prevalent defects were carious teeth, en-
larged and diseased tonsils, conjunctivitis, gingivitis, enlarged glands, and
heart and skeletal abnormalities. 3. In this, as well as in the earlier studies,
the endemic nature of anemia was noted. In the sections where the local
cattle ranges were classed, by workers of the Department of Animal In-
dustry, as deficient in relation to "salt-sick" of cattle, the children had lower
hemoglobin values, less iron in their diets and in their home-grown pot-herbs
than children living in sections where the ranges were classed as healthy.
4. The lack of correlation between incidence of anemia and hookworm in-
festation contradicts the prevailing idea that the high incidence of anemia
is due to hookworm infestation.
Practical applications of the data may be summarized as follows: 1.
Through this investigation, the cause and prevention of nutritional anemia
has been popularized. 2. Information is available which will help families
to choose foods that will prevent anemia. 3. As a demonstration of the cur-
ative effects of iron, more than 800 anemic children have had their hemo-
globin restored to normal by its administration. 4. With the restoration of
hemoglobin, listless, sick, retarded children regained health and were able to
participate in the activities of the school program.
Results of this investigation have been published as follows:
1. Abbott, Ouida Davis, and Chester F. Ahmann. Nutritional Anemia
and Its Prevention. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 328, 12 pp. 1938.
2. Abbott, O. D., and C. F. Ahmann. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children.
Am. Jour. Dis. Child. 58:811-816. 1938.
3. Abbott, Ouida Davis, and Chester F. Ahmann. Trace Element Content
of Certain Florida Soils and Related Plant Materials; Human Relationships.
Soil Sci. Soc. Proc. 2:109-114. 1940.

VITAMIN A ACTIVITY OF FOODS
Purnell Project 358 R. B. French and O. D. Abbott
A method for carotene determination that promises to be more rapid and
accurate than previous methods was investigated. This involved simultane-
ous grinding and extracting of plant pigments, with subsequent pigment
absorption on selected differential absorbents and final determination of pig-
ment concentration by the use of a spectrophotolometer. This method yield-
ed results in micrograms of carotene per 100 grams of sample as follows:







Annual Report, 1942


Lot 1. (Furnished by the Department of Horticulture.)
Cabbage: Variety No. 1 216 micrograms and variety No. 2 153 micro-
grams; with the addition of certain rare elements, variety No. 1, 161 micro-
grams and variety No. 2, 87 micrograms.
Lot 2. (Furnished by the Sub-Tropical Station.)
Papaya: Variety Betty 10 to 106 micrograms. (These papayas had re-
ceived various levels of potassium but no association between carotene and
potassium level in the fertilizer was obvious.) Papaya skin, 629 micro-
grams.
Guava: Variety Redland none in skin or flesh; variety Acid, 2,660; variety
Indian Red Skin 2,578; variety Stone 4,890 micrograms.
Ceylon gooseberry (Dovyalis hebecarpa Warb.) 679-1,804 micrograms.
Jujube (Zizyphus Jujuba Miller) none in skin or flesh.
Canistel (Lucuma nervosa A.DC.) 330 micrograms.
White-sapote (Casimiroa edulis LaLlave) none in skin or flesh.
Lot 3. (Furnished by the Vegetable Crops Laboratory.)
Tomatoes (29 varieties from experimental plots) 1,600 to 5,500 (aver-
age 3,300) micrograms.
High values for vitamin C concentration in both the pink-fleshed guavas
and the Ceylon gooseberry were associated with a high level of carotene;
also, the Florida grown tomato had a notably higher level of carotene than
that given in standard tables.
Studies of the effect of feeding graded levels of vitamin A on the blood
picture of rats are in progress. With low levels of vitamin A intake a com-
plete change in the white cell picture occurred. Correlation between the
measured size of the lymphocyte and the degree of vitamin A deficiency is
under investigation. This work indicated that the quantity of vitamin A
necessary to insure optimum nutrition over a long period of time is much
higher than had been expected, and that a rat which obtains a considerable
quantity at one time grows better than another getting an equal amount
which is less than the optimum and distributed over a period of time.

VITAMIN C IN FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Purnell Project 359 R. B. French and O. D. Abbott
A colorimetric procedure involving the use of the dye 2-6 dichloroben-
zenonindophenol and the spectrophotolometer was adapted for use where
color interferes with the usual endpoint of the titration.
Cabbage leaves and white-sapote were found to contain very active con-
centrations of ascorbase. In preparing aliquots of such materials for analy-
sis any disorganization of cell tissue must be accompanied by destruction
of the enzyme by either heat or acid.
Analyses on fruit furnished by the Sub-Tropical Station gave the follow-
ing values in terms of milligrams of vitamin C per 100 grams of material:
Papaya: Betty 42-57; papaya skin 70; guava: Redland 40, Acid 389, Indian
Red Skin 388, and Stone 341; Ceylon gooseberries 139, 203, 195, 245, 202;
jujube 60; skin of jujube 9; canistel 53; and white-sapote 39-56. Values for
29 varieties of tomatoes from the Vegetable Crops Laboratory ranged from
11 to 27. Attention is particularly called to the high concentration of vita-
min C in the pink-fleshed' guavas and the Ceylon gooseberry. Only small
variations in vitamin C content were obtained from fertilizing a closely
pollinated strain of papaya with different levels of potash.
A Sudan grass cross with sorghum grown in cooperation with AGRON-
OMY in nutrient solution under cheesecloth cover gave consistently higher
values for C concentration than that grown without shade.







78 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
OF ROYAL JELLY
Purnell Project 370 R. B. French and 0. D. Abbott
Chemical and biological studies continued until January 1942, when the
demand for queen bees was so great that the breeders were unable to supply
jelly for experimental purposes.
The ether soluble hydroxy acid C1oH.O3, has a sharp melting point. It
has been crystallized as the 3 nitrophthalate and the starting acid recovered.
This recovered acid had the same melting point as at the beginning and
showed no depression in a mixed melting point with the starting material.
These are good evidences of its purity.
Injection of the acid into spayed rats caused an increase in the number
of nucleated partially cornified cells in the vaginal smear picture; the typi-
cally cornified cell did not appear. Injection of the acid into normal female
rats caused an interruption of the estrus cycle and an early appearance of
the cornified cells.
The isolated acid has bactericidal properties and may be of value in the
preservation of food. It is evident that a knowledge of other constituents
of this jelly might throw considerable light on the essentials of animal as
well as human nutrition.







Annual Report, 1942


HORTICULTURE

In this department particular emphasis was placed on problems in pro-
duction of food crops-fruits, nuts and vegetables-and their preservation
and the production of tung oil.
In addition, cultural and adaptability tests have been conducted with
plants whose products include condiments, essential oils, fixed oils, medi-
cines, fiber, rubber and other products. Planting materials of these have
been sent to the branch stations and field laboratories for trials in different
parts of the state.

COOPERATIVE FERTILIZER TESTS IN PECAN ORCHARDS
State Project 47 G. H. Blackmon
Adequate plant foods are essential for annual production of nuts. Best
results can be had when they are applied in conjunction with cover crops of
legumes grown and returned to the soil annually. Under such a program
the fertilizers are much more effectively utilized by the trees than where
covers are not employed in the soil management program. Further, when
heavy tonnages of leguminous organic material are returned to the soil an-
nually pecans can be produced with less commercial nitrogen and therefore
at less cost. This is important during the present critical period of nitro-
gen shortages. Best results with fertilizers have been obtained where
cover crops have been grown, which returned fresh organic materials to the
soil annually.
In Jefferson County Moore trees generally made the greatest average
growth increments, although in Walton County Stuart made about as much
growth in 3 plots which received additional applications of nitrogenous fer-
tilizers in summer. Moneymaker averaged least growth.
Moneymaker in Leon County produced heaviest yields in 1941 but during
these experiments total yields were decidedly in favor of the Moore variety
in Jefferson County. Percentage increases in yields of fertilized trees over
the unfertilized checks were largest with the Kennedy but both Moore and
Curtis exceeded it in total yields. Varieties included in these experiments
were Curtis, Kennedy, Moneymaker, Moore and Stuart. Of these the Moore
showed greater consistency in annual production of nuts than the others.
Moneymaker trees are often defoliated by leaf diseases, causing them to
force new growth; this reduces the food reserves to such an extent that
fewer bloom buds are differentiated. The Moneymaker trees in Jefferson
County were sprayed with bordeaux mixture in 1940. They were carrying
a relatively good crop, held their leaves until time for normal defoliation
and produced a fair crop in 1941, despite a heavy infestation of twig girdlers
in the fall of 1940 which cut off a large percentage of fruiting wood. Arsen-
icals were added to the bordeaux mixture for insect control. The spraying
program was conducted in cooperation with the Pecan Investigations Lab-
oratory. This project is closed with this report.

PROPAGATION, PLANTING AND FERTILIZING TESTS
WITH TUNG OIL TREES
Hatch Project 50 R. D. Dickey and G. H. Blackmon
Investigations of iron deficiency continued, but response to soil treat-
ments was irregular. Some trees returned to a normal green color follow-
ing treatment, while others failed to respond satisfactorily. These latter
trees were acutely affected at time of treatment in early summer 1941 and,
with one exception, showed no improvement during that season. Two were








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


reduced in vitality to such an extent that in 1942 they started into growth
several weeks later than normal trees and produced a very limited amount
of foliage which was quite chlorotic. Additional soil treatments of iron
sulfate were made this season in May and June. At this time these 2 trees
were sprayed with a 1 percent iron-lime spray but 1 died and the other has
shown no improvement.
The soil on which these trees are located is quite acid, ranging in pH
from 4.13 to 5.00. Under such conditions it would seem that soil applica-
tions would be as uniformly satisfactory as previous spray treatments;
however, with these trees little, if any, response was evident.
Symptoms of manganese deficiency of tung characteristically appear in
the spring and early summer and seem to be aggravated by dry weather.
However, it has been observed that, in general, within a few weeks after
summer rains had begun most of the symptoms disappeared whether or not
the trees had been treated. The rapidity and degree of disappearance of
symptoms varied between seasons and also between orchards.
Soil treatments of manganese sulfate were made in 2 blocks in an or-
chard near Gainesville. Both untreated and treated trees improved in con-
dition soon after summer rains started. In subsequent years following the
initial treatments, in comparison with the untreated trees, symptoms were
much reduced on those trees which had received sufficiently heavy applica-
tions of manganese sulfate. The amount required to effect control or pre-
vent the appearance of symptoms varied with age and size of the tree and
soil type.
Continued cold weather during the late winter and early spring months
delayed dormancy until quite late again this year and as a result trees were
at the height of their bloom during the first and second weeks of April in
the Gainesville area. For 3 successive years (1940, 1941, 1942) all Florida
tung plantings have escaped injury from late spring frosts. It is of interest
that over the last 20 years (1923-1942), during which time accurate records
were kept as to cold injury, trees heretofore had not completely escaped
injury from late spring frosts for a period of over 3 years in succession.
Further data relative to the importance of tung seed selection were ob-
tained by comparing the 1940 yield records of 2 blocks of trees planted on
the Experiment Station grounds at Gainesville. The trees used to plant the
New Tung Block came from a mixture of seed from the original 10 trees and
possibly from some other trees growing upon Station grounds and are con-
sidered an example of trees from unselected seed. They were planted in
1923. In 1930 a block of open-pollinated seedlings of Tree 2 and Tree 9 of
the original 10 trees was planted on the Minor Farm. The parent Tree 2
is the type tree of the Florida variety (cluster type) and parent Tree 9,
though a "single type", is an exceptionally high-yielding tree. These trees
are representative of seedlings from parent trees of known high yielding
ability.
The trees in these blocks were divided into 10 classes on the basis of
yields. A much higher percentage in the New Tung Block fell in the lower
yielding classes and a comparatively lower percentage in the higher yield-
ing classes than did No. 2 seedlings and No. 9 seedlings. This point was
further emphasized by the average yield per tree of air-dried whole fruit
of 3 groups as follows: No. 2 seedlings averaged 78.6 pounds; No. 9 seed-
lings 73.4 pounds; and the New Tung Block 57.7 pounds per tree.
During 1940 the No. 2 and No. 9 seedlings were examined to determine
how closely they resemble their parent trees. Five characters were con-
sidered: (1) Yield; (2) habit of growth; (3) inflorescence; (4) shape and
size of fruit; and (5) time of fruit fall. It was found that 56.9 percent of
No. 2 and 59.4 percent of No. 9 seedlings were alike in all 5 characters.







Annual Report, 1942


Furthermore, 12.3 percent of No. 2 and 15.4 percent of No. 9 seedlings vary
from the parent type in only 1 character, which means that 69.2 percent of
No. 2 and 74.8 percent of No. 9 seedlings were fairly true to type. This is
additional confirmation of the decided superiority in yielding ability of
seedlings from selected parent trees of known high yielding ability as com-
pared to those from unselected stock.

TESTING OF NATIVE AND INTRODUCED SHRUBS AND ORNA-
MENTALS AND METHODS FOR THEIR PRODUCTION
Hatch Project 52 R. D. Dickey and R. J. Wilmot
Plumy Coconut Palm.-A serious physiological disorder of the plumy
coconut palm (Arecastrum Romanzoffanum Becc.), variously called "curly
top", "curly bud", "curly leaf" and "frizzle leaf", is quite prevalent in Flor-
ida. This trouble is found wherever the palm is growing in the state but
appears to be present in greater degree on the calcareous soils of the coastal
areas. The leaflets of affected palms are chlorotic and present a streaked
appearance due to a darker green color in the veins. In advanced stages the
leaves are much reduced in size, necrotic areas appear in the leaflets in
varying degree and the entire leaf presents the characteristic "frizzle leaf"
appearance. In the final stages growth is reduced and the palm finally dies.
Results of two years' treatments with manganese, zinc, magnesium, cop-
per, iron and boron clearly indicate that this is a manganese deficiency
which can be controlled by the application of manganese sulfate either to the
soil or as a foliage spray. Both methods of application were equally effect-
ive and 1 application per year produced just as good results as 2 under the
conditions of these experiments. Also, soil and foliage applications made
in March, May and August were equally effective. In most instances a de-
cided improvement in condition was evident in 3 months and in 6 months
most of the palms had completely recovered. In these experiments all trees,
treated and untreated, received an application of nitrogenous fertilizer.
Effective soil applications carried from Y2 to 5 pounds of 80-83 percent man-
ganese sulfate per tree, depending upon tree size.
Canary Islands Date Palm.-A chlorosis of the Canary Islands date palm
(Phoenix canariensis Chaub.) was noted at several locations on the East
and West Coasts. The characteristic "frizzle leaf" condition was lacking,
and reduction of leaf size and necrotic areas were not present as in the
plumy coconut.
Soil treatments with several of the micro-elements were made on a group
of palms at Eau Gallie on April 4, 1942. On June 27 those palms which had
received manganese sulfate evidenced a marked response, whereas the un-
treated palms and those treated with zinc sulfate, magnesium sulfate, cop-
per sulfate, iron sulfate and borax showed no improvement in condition.
Chlorosis of Woody Ornamentals.-In addition to the above, it has been
found that a chlorosis of the butterfly bush (Buddleia offcinalis Maxima)
responded to foliage applications of 1 percent solution of chemically pure
manganese sulfate; also, a chlorosis of Viburnum odoratissimum Ker. was
corrected by foliage application of 1 percent solution of commercially pure
manganese sulfate and soil treatment with the commercial 80-83 percent
manganese sulfate.
Plant Testing.-To determine the adaptability of various plants which
produce drugs, essential or fixed oils, condiments, rubber or fibers, 56 differ-
ent kinds were planted at the Main Station and distributed to the different
substations and laboratories.
Sixty-one species of plants for testing were received from the Bureau of
Plant Industry, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Soil Conservation







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Service. Caesalpinia mexicana A. Gray and Eurya acuminata DC show
promise for the Gainesville area.
Seeds of various ornamentals were treated to hasten germination. That
of Butia palm and black locust seed was hastened by immersion in concen-
trated sulfuric acid for 30 minutes.

COOPERATIVE COVER CROP TESTS IN PECAN ORCHARDS
State Project 80 G. H. Blackmon and J. D. Warner
Augusta vetch made relatively light growth in all locations during the
past year due to root rot. Root rot is apparently more destructive during
winters of heavy rainfall. However, Austrian winter peas made excellent
growth in the Walton County Stuart experiment and produced more than
30,000 pounds green material per acre.
In the Jefferson County experiment the trees made the greatest growth
increment in 1941 in the Frotscher and Moore plots in which the NPK fer-
tilizers were applied and natural vegetation was utilized as the cover crop.
However, in the Stuart orchard, growth increments were largest in the win-
ter legume plots where only superphosphate and muriate of potash were
applied.
Yields were generally better in both the Jefferson and Walton County
experiments where the legumes have been grown, except in one instance
with the Stuart in Jefferson County. In Walton County there was response
in all plots receiving potash; the yields were heavier than where it was
omitted, either with or without legumes. (See also Report, NORTH FLOR-
IDA STATION, Proj. 80.)

PHENOLOGICAL STUDIES ON TRUCK CROPS IN FLORIDA
State Project 110 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
Study of the placement of fertilizers continued. Green beans and pep-
pers were fertilized with 800, 1,200 and 1,600 pounds per acre of a 5-7-6
fertilizer containing 0, 25 and 50 percent organic nitrogen. The fertilizer
was applied in bands to each side of the plant and mixed in the row with
the seeds or plants. The beans were a complete failure due to extremely
dry weather. The yield of peppers was not as greatly influenced by the
method of application, the amount or the percentage of organic nitrogen as
it was during the previous season. The greatest increase resulted where 50
percent organic nitrogen was applied in bands. Top-dressing with nitrate
of soda was not effective when 1,600 pounds of fertilizer was used at plant-
ing time.
In cooperation with SOILS, cabbage and peas were planted on a series
of plots that received, in addition to the usual fertilizer, supplements singly
and in combination, of manganese, zinc, copper and boron. See alse Re-
port, "SOILS, Factors Affecting the Availability of Trace Elements in Fer-
tility Studies with Certain Truck Crops". Yield records by grade were se-
cured and samples of the soil and of plants from each plot taken for
analysis.

VARIETY TESTS OF MINOR FRUITS AND ORNAMENTALS
State Project 187 G. H. Blackmon, R. D. Dickey and R. J. Wilmot
Pears.-A physiological disorder presenting a rather definite symptom
pattern in the leaves of sand pears has been observed in localized areas near
Gainesville. Spray treatments on 12 old severely affected trees on Station
property were made in June 1941. These consisted of zinc sulfate, man-







Annual Report, 1942


ganese sulfate and copper sulfate, separately and in combination. All trees
which received zinc sulfate responded to the treatment and 75 percent of
them showed excellent recovery. Neither the unsprayed trees nor those
which received a spray without zinc sulfate showed any recovery. It is
noteworthy that the symptoms of this disorder are somewhat similar to
those caused by zinc deficiency in certain other deciduous fruits.
Mayhaws.-No field selections were made this year but attention was
given to growing selected seedlings of Crataegus luculenta Sarg., C, aes-
tivalis (Walt.) T. & G. and other species. Many of the seedlings were found
to be susceptible to cedar apple rust.

STUDY ON THE PRESERVATION OF CITRUS JUICES AND PULPS
State Project 189 A. L. Stahl
Monochoracetic and dichoracetic acids, good preservatives for some food
products, were found to have no advantages over benzoate of soda when
used in orange juice, either canned or cool-stored in milk bottles, except
that no off-tastes resulted. Orange and grapefruit juices were prepared
with small additions of strawberry, blueberry, grape, papaya and mango
juices. All combinations made a very delightful blend, the 6 to 1 ratio giv-
ing best results. The blended juices reacted equally well when stored either
frozen or cool.
Detailed studies on the effect of various kinds of freezing on citrus juices
showed that quick-freezing from -40 to -60o F. had little advantage over the
slower freezing at 0F. Much smaller ice crystals were formed at the
lower temperatures and the product stood up a bit better after thawing,
but no differences in taste were detected. Air blast freezing, when compar-
ed to liquid immersion freezing, showed a slight advantage in that air-tight
containers were not necessary, while liquid immersion freezing was faster.
Papaya juice and pulp prepared and packaged in pliofilm-lined containers
and frozen after 12 months, could not be distinguished from the fresh prod-
uct.
COLD STORAGE STUDIES OF CITRUS FRUITS
Purnell Project 190 A. L. Stahl and J. C. Cain
Detailed investigations on the use of pliofilm, a rubber hydrochloride
product, as a wrapper for tangerines, tangelos and Temple and King
oranges showed that these citrus types could be successfully stored for 3
months at 37, and doubled and tripled the marketable life of the fruit at
70 F., the average temperature of the retail store. Either the 20-gauge
pliofilm sheet wrapper or the pliosealed (stretch-wrapped) 10 to 30-gauge
wrapper was efficient. Unwaxed fruit reacted just as well as waxed fruit.
These investigations were largely reported in Bulletin 369.
Investigations on the sterilization of fruit with light of various wave
lengths were continued. In addition to the ultraviolet rays which killed the
penicillia, infrared rays and X-rays were found to be very effective. Pencil-
lia were materially reduced with very short exposures to the infrared rays
and were controlled completely with X-rays. Infrared rays had little effect
on the stem-end rot organism but preliminary work showed a remarkable
reduction in stem-end rot by exposure to short-time intervals of X-ray.
O-Phenylphenol superimposed on several moisture-proof wrappers did
not significantly reduce any of the penicillia on citrus fruits and had no
effect at all on controlling the stem-end rot organisms (Diplodia natalensis
Evans and Diaporthe citri (Faw.) Wolfe) even when used in the amount
of 8 milligrams of O-phenylphenol per square foot of wrap. In most cases







84 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

the stem-end rot was heavier in the fruit in the treated than in the untreat-
ed wrappers. No injury to the rind nor off-taste of fruit was obtained with
dosages up to 8 milligrams per square foot.
When papayas were exposed to either the ultraviolet or the infrared rays
or a combination of both, a considerable reduction in the amount of rot was
obtained.
MATURITY STUDIES OF CITRUS FRUITS
Purnell Project 237 A. L. Stahl
The physical and chemical properties of 1,000 Pineapple oranges of ex-
cellent taste and 1,000 Pineapple oranges having poor taste were determined
and compared. The average data showed the fruit of good taste to excel in
size, weight, specific gravity of the fruit, deeper color of rind, specific gray-
its of juice, percent acid, percent total sugars in peel, seed, rag and juice,
percent protein in peel, seed and rag, and percent vitamin C. The average
data showed the fruit of poor taste to be higher in percent ash in juice, per-
cent seed and deeper color of juice, and percent protein in juice. The differ-
ences between the fruit of good and poor taste with respect to other char-
acteristics determined were so small that they could be considered within
the error of experimentation.
The same procedure was followed for comparing the physical and chem-
ical properties of 1,000 select or of the best packinghouse grade with 1,000
poor or rough or of the poorest packinghouse grade. The average figures
showed the select to be higher in weight, color of rind, texture of rind, tex-
ture of pulp, percent of peel, thickness of rind, percent of seed, percent of
juice, percent of acid in juice, percent of sugar in seed, percent of sugar in
rag, percent of ash in juice and peel, and percent of protein. The average
4 50

400

3so


300
S/ UN-REATED
E-4
S250
Z
.4 200
P I TREATED
9 ioo
0 150-

100

so


4.0 .5 5.0 5so 60 6.5 70 75
pH OF SOIL
Fig. 2.-Beans grew best in soil with pH readings above 5.5 that had
not been treated with minor elements. Ten treated and 10 untreated plants
were weighed from each of 7 different soil reactions.







Annual Report, 1942


figures showed the fruit of poorest grade to be higher in specific gravity of
the fruit, size of fruit, percent of rag, color of juice, specific gravity of
juice, percent of sugar in peel, and percent of sugar in juice. The differ-
ences between the other characteristics determined were all within the ex-
perimental error and not significant.

A STUDY OF THE RELATION OF SOIL REACTION TO GROWTH AND
YIELD OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Adams Project 268 F. S. Jamison
The series of plots used in determining the effect of soil acidity on plant
growth were planted during the past season to green beans. One half of
each plot received a 5-7-6 fertilizer at the rate of 1,000 pounds per acre.
The other half received the same fertilizer treatment plus supplements of
copper, manganese, magnesium and zinc in the form of sulfates and boron
from borax, applied at the rates recommended for these materials when
used on soils known to be deficient in them.
Figure 2 shows that the weight of plants increased steadily with de-
creasing soil acidity. This increase was much more rapid at the lower pH
levels and on that part of the plots which received no materials other than
the regular application of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash. Plants
from that part of the plots receiving applications of Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn, and B
weighed less at all pH levels than those from the area that did not receive
these materials. Weights were taken when the plants were about in full
bloom. Yield of beans was closely correlated with weight of plants. Un-
doubtedly one or more of the supplemental materials used was toxic to
beans. Samples of the plants and fruits were taken for analysis.

SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF VARIETIES AND STRAINS OF
VEGETABLES ADAPTABLE TO COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
IN FLORIDA
State Project 282 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
Commercial planting during the past season of Imperial 44 lettuce has
shown that this variety has at least one serious defect, that being its sus-
ceptibility to tip-burn. Thus work will be continued in attempting to secure
a suitable heat-resisting strain of crisp-heading lettuce for growing in Flor-
ida. The Early Grano onion was grown very successfully in commercial
quantities during the past season. Planting of this variety of onion in
preference to others during the coming season will be limited only by the
availability of seed.
Sixty additional lots of peas from the U. S. Regional Vegetable Breed-
ing Laboratory, Charleston, S. C., were planted. A number of these strains
possessed sufficient merit to warrant trials on a larger scale. Strains of
lettuce, eggplants, peppers, cantaloupes and cucumbers were tested to de-
termine whether they possess especially valuable characteristics.

EFFECTS OF VARIOUS GREEN MANURE CROPS ON GROWTH,
YIELD AND QUALITY OF CERTAIN VEGETABLE CROPS
State Project 283 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
Only 1 crop, potato, was planted on the series of plots devoted to this
study. The green manure crops were planted the last week of June and
disked into the soil during the first half of December, with the exception of
those plots on which Crotalaria spectabilis Roth. was burned off and another
set of plots where C. spectabilis was disked into the soil when the plants
were in full blossom. Part of each plot was planted with the variety of Ka-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tahdin and the remainder with Sebago. Both varieties were planted on the
same day and harvested on approximately the same date. There was con-
siderable variation in response of the 2 varieties. This was partly accounted
for by the fact that the Katahdin matured earlier than the Sebago. Very
wet weather during the winter months followed by an exceptionally dry
spring delayed the decomposition of green manures. Thus the yield and
grade of the early maturing crops of Katahdin apparently was little affected
by the preceding type of crops grown. However, the yield of Sebago was
definitely influenced by the green manure crop treatment. The yield of this
variety was definitely lower where the native weeds and grasses constituted
the green manure crop. The yield of the Sebago was high following cow-
peas, immature C. spectabilis and where the latter was supplemented with
manure. It is of interest that over all treatments Sebago yielded approxi-
mately 10 percent more than Katahdin while, on certain treatments, it
yielded 45 percent more.

FUMIGATION OF HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS
State Project 314 R. J. Wilmot
This project was inactive during this year.

FUMIGATION OF NURSERY STOCK
State Project 315 R. J. Wilmot
The lots of narcissus bulbs fumigated with methyl bromide and hydro-
cyanic acid and their increases, as shown in the 1941 Annual Report, were
given similar treatment and planted with adequate checks in 1941-42. Those
fumigated with methyl bromide again produced a larger number of flower
spikes on Grand Monarque and an increase of slabs in Soleil d'Or, but the
results were not entirely consistent with those of the previous year.
A number of plants of the Chinese Evergreen (Aglaonema sp.) and in-
fested soil in which they had been grown were fumigated with methyl bro-
mide to determine the control of the banana nematode. However, insuf-
ficient time has elapsed to evaluate results.

EFFECTS OF MINERAL DEFICIENCIES ON ADAPTABILITY
OF CERTAIN VEGETABLE VARIETIES TO FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones Project 319 F. S. Jamison and B. E. Janes
Six varieties of cabbage were planted on a series of heavily limed plots
of Arredondo loamy fine sand. Part of the liming material used was dolo-
mite. The plots were treated with manganese, zinc, iron and boron, by
themselves and in combination with each and all of the others, the material
being applied to the soil and as a spray. The soil application was made pre-
vious and the spray was applied to the plants at from 4 to 6-week intervals.
Field observations failed to show any definite deficiency patterns develop-
ing on the plants, even on those plots where none of the materials were
used. At harvest time the number and weight of the heads were secured
after the heads were cut. There was no correlation between interior con-
dition and treatment. However, Golden Acre and Glory of Enkhuizen ex-
hibited a condition of the core that has been described by others as boron
deficiency. Plants growing in plots receiving no boron were no more se-
verely affected than plants from the boron plots. Other varieties, including
All Head Early, Early Jersey Wakefield, Red Acre, and Volga did not show
this condition.
Analysis of the yield data has not been completed but a preliminary sur-
vey indicates that there was a definite increase in yield obtained from the








Annual Report, 1942


use of zinc and by a combination of boron and iron. Certain varieties ap-
parently were more affected by the treatments than others.
To obtain accurate descriptions of the physiological response of vege-
table varieties to mineral element deficiencies, equipment has been installed
in the greenhouse for growing plants in culture solutions.
EFFECTS OF CERTAIN MINERAL ELEMENTS ON PLANT
GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION
Purnell Project 348-A A. L. Stahl and L. H. Rogers
When barium and strontium were substituted in equal amounts for cal-
cium in solution cultures of purified salts with lima beans it was found that
both elements were very toxic to the plants. Controlled conditions of light,
temperature and humidity were maintained. When either barium or stron-
tium-in amounts equal to calcium-was added to the complete solution no
toxicity resulted. Chemical analyses of these various plants are being
made and compared. (See also Report, SOILS, Proj. 348-B).
INVESTIGATIONS OF THE CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE
MU-OIL TREE"
State Project 365 R. D. Dickey, Joseph Hamilton and F. S. Lagasse
According to reports in the literature and past experience by some in
Florida, propagation of A. montana (Lour.) Wils. from seed is difficult. The
necessity for a solution of this phase of the problem was apparent before
other lines of work could proceed.
To obtain information relative to the effect of time and depth of plant-
ing upon germination and subsequent development of 2 strains of A. mon-
tana, 4 successive plantings of seed were made at the Vegetable Crops Lab-
oratory on December 5, 1941, and January 20, February 20 and March 20,
1942. Also at each planting date 2 depths of planting of 2 and 4 to 5 inches
were employed. A second nursery was planted at Floral City.
From careful observation of both nursery plantings it now seems certain
that drought is the most important cause of failure. The young seedlings
do not develop roots fast enough to keep them at moist soil levels in a dry
period and, as a result, the plants wilt beyond the point from which they
can recover. Seed planted early and deep has the best chance of survival.
Therefore, during most years it will be necessary to provide irrigation for
A. montana nurseries during dry periods in the spring to obtain any degree
of success.
Test plantings were made during the winter of 1941-1942 at several lo-
cations in the state and several different types of nursery stock were used,
as follows: 1. Large, vigorous 2-year old trees grown at Bogalusa, Louisi-
ana; 2. medium-sized thrifty 2-year old trees from the greenhouse at Gaines-
ville; 3. thrifty 1-year old trees grown in a nursery at Floral City and
transplanted directly to the field; 4. unthrifty 2-year old trees grown in a
slat shed at Gainesville; 5. small, whip-like trees developed by germinating
seed in pots or flats and transplanting them immediately to tar paper pots
which were approximately 1 foot high and 5 inches in diameter; 6. seed
planted in small tar paper squares and the resulting seedlings transplanted
to the field when they had formed from 2 to 6 leaves.
From these plantings it was evident that the use of unsuitable trees and
improper care are responsible for some failures in these and previous trials.
The medium-sized thrifty trees grown in the nursery at Floral City and
transplanted without extra handling compared favorably with A. fordi
plantings in the Gainesville area. Likewise, the medium-sized trees from

I In cooperation with Div. of Fruit and Veg. Crops and Diseases, B. P. I.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the greenhouse gave best results at Dade City. The large vigorous trees
from Bogalusa did not prove satisfactory, probably due to the heavily
pruned root system. The mortality of the smaller trees was high and
growth was not very vigorous on those remaining alive.
These plantings demonstrated that transplanted A. montana trees are
extremely susceptibile to drought. The large trees with very few fibrous
roots grown at Bogalusa were the first to suffer. The relatively smaller
trees with fibrous roots from the greenhouse suffered much less. Results
to date indicate that under ordinary conditions transplanted A. montana
trees must be watered 2 or 3 times during the first year.

RELATION OF ZINC AND MAGNESIUM TO GROWTH AND
REPRODUCTION IN PECANS
Hatch Project 375 G. H. Blackmon
Experiments in 2 orchards have been set up to test the effects of zinc
and magnesium on growth and yields of pecans-Moore and Moneymaker
in Jefferson County and Stuart in Walton County. Soil applications only
were made in Walton, where magnesium was being tested along with various
amounts of potash and with zinc applied to correct rosette when the dis-
order appears. In Jefferson both zinc and magnesium were applied to the
soil and in addition zinc was sprayed on the foliage in certain plots. The
spray applications were begun in the summer of 1941 but the soil treatments
in both experiments were not started until the spring of 1942.
No results are yet available for the soil treatments. Moore trees which
received bordeaux mixture in 1941 with or without zinc held their leaves
until normal defoliation in the fall of 1941 and started growth in 1942 10
to 14 days later than trees which did not receive bordeaux. This may have
been largely due to the control of foliage diseases. All Moneymaker trees
were sprayed with bordeaux, since this variety is very susceptible to dis-
eases which cause early defoliation. In cooperation with the Pecan Investi-
gations Laboratory, arsenicals were added to the spray mixture to deter-
mine their effectiveness in controlling insects.
In an experiment on Moneymaker trees in Jefferson County zinc oxide
was compared with zinc sulfate for the control of rosette. Zinc oxide ap-
plied to the soil seemed effective in correcting rosette, but a longer time was
required for response than with zinc sulfate. The oxide was not as effective
as the sulfate when applied as a foliage spray.
In Bradford County soil applications of zinc were made for several years
in a Curtis orchard. Nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash were applied to
some plots, in other plots nitrogen was supplied as a supplement to NPK
fertilizers applied by the grower to the inter-crop. In each instance the
trees made more growth with zinc sulfate than without it.
Moore and Moneymaker trees receiving zinc sulfate in Jefferson County
gave significant increases but somewhat less than those for the Curtis in
Bradford County. With these 2 varieties greatest growth increment in
1941 was made by trees which received zinc sulfate and ammonium sulfate.
Heaviest yields, however, were produced by trees which have been supplied
with NPK fertilizers and zinc sulfate.
The Curtis, Moneymaker and Moore in Bradford and Jefferson counties
were in rosette plots. Trees selected for zinc sulfate applications were
those which manifested rosette to a greater extent than those where zinc
was not applied. The zinc sulfate corrected the zinc deficiency (Fig. 3) in
all but a few trees and these after treatment showed only a trace of the
disorder.







Annual Report, 1942


Fig. 3.-Pecan trees (Moneymaker) recovering from severe rosette fol-
lowing application of 21 pounds zinc oxide to the soil in the spring of 1940.
Photographed in the summer of 1942.
EFFECTS OF CERTAIN GROWTH SUBSTANCES ON PECANS
Adams Project 376 G. H. Blackmon
Experiments were started to determine the effects of certain growth
substances on root development on transplanted pecan nursery stock. The
roots of different lots of trees were subjected to 3 concentrations of 4
growth substances, with a comparable number untreated to serve as con-
trols. The chemicals applied were napthaleneacetic acid, napthalenea-
cetamide, indoleacetic acid and indolebutyric acid, each in concentrations of
0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01 percent. Several methods which were employed in
treating included immersion, placing the substances in cuts in the roots,
and forcing into small holes in the roots with toothpicks which had been
soaked in the several concentrations of the different chemicals. To date
definite results cannot be reported. Treatments also were made to deter-
mine the effects of growth substances on the germination of nuts and the
subsequent growth of seedlings. The seedlings which grew from the nuts
treated with concentrations of 0.001 percent naphthaleneacetic acid or in-
dolebutyric acid developed the best root systems.
STORAGE AND HANDLING OF FLORIDA VEGETABLES
Purnell Project 377 A. L. Stahl and F. S. Jamison
The effects of several types of pliofilm wrappers, several prepared waxes
and different temperatures and storage and handling conditions were studied
in preserving the original quality of several Florida vegetables, including
tomatoes, peppers, green beans, celery, lettuce, corn and cucumbers, during
short holding periods. Color, flavor, general appearance and percentage
loss in weight were recorded. In some cases vitamin C content was deter-
mined. These experiments were conducted under refrigeration and at the
average temperature of the retail store.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The percentage weight loss of the unwrapped produce averaged 20 times
greater than that protected by pliofilm and 2 to 10 times greater than that
protected by wax coatings; the high percentage weight loss was accompa-
nied by shriveling, change of color and loss in flavor. The pliofilm wrappers
were very efficient in preserving the original harvest quality and appear-
ance. The wrapped vegetables remained in this condition and were market-
able from 2 to 10 times as long as those vegetables not so protected. The
wax coatings were not as efficient as the pliofilm wrapper but showed a re-
markable preserving effect on the vegetables.
A larger amount of the vitamin C content in the vegetables tested was
retained during storage in those samples protected by pliofilm. New types
of pliofilm packages were developed for more efficient and sanitary market-
ing of corn on the cob and shelled peas and beans.
Certain data on the preservation of vegetables by pliofilm were presented
in Bulletin 369.

VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS
State Project 391 F. S. Jamison, E. M. Andersen, F. S. Andrews,
J. R. Beckenbach, E. N. McCubbin and R. W. Ruprecht
This project was initiated after the planting dates for vegetable varieties
at Gainesville, hence no tests were started. (See also Reports, SUB-TROP-
ICAL and EVERGLADES STATIONS and VEGETABLE, CELERY and
POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORIES, Proj. 391.)

U. S. FIELD LABORATORY FOR TUNG INVESTIGATIONS'
Felix S. Lagasse and Harold M. Sell
In an effort to learn why certain soils are suited to tung production and
others are not, determinations were made on the more prominent soils of the
tung belt for exchangeable bases, base exchange capacity, organic matter,
pH, moisture equivalent, wilting coefficient, and mechanical analyses. A
study was also in progress on the seasonal trend in soil moisture on 2 im-
portant soil types. Work was recently started on the determination of the
zinc content of the foliage of tung trees growing on the various soil types.
Determination of the types of colloids present in representative tung or-
chard soils was made, inasmuch as these are the most active constituents
in the soil and are responsible for important soil properties.
Yield records obtained in 1941 from 2 large blocks of 5-year old tung
trees indicated that the low-headed trees have produced about % more fruit
than high-headed trees.
In the nursery 69 individual trees grown from seed produced by a self-
pollinated high-headed parent attained an average height of 64 inches by
the end of the first growing season. Only a few of these trees branched
and the average height of the first branch was 62.8 inches; of 312 trees
grown from seed produced by a selfed low-branching parent, 305 branched
low in the nursery, the average height of the first branch being 31.5 inches.
Because of the difficulty in developing properly branched tung trees after
transplanting to the orchard when they did not branch the first year in the
nursery, it appears that selfed low-branched trees of superior yielding
ability would assure the production of seed from which could be grown a
high percentage of well branched nursery trees.
Analyses of leaves collected periodically during the growing season
from trees located on different soils and receiving different fertilizer treat-

15 Work conducted by Div. of Fruit and Vegetable Crops and Diseases, B. P. I., in co-
operation with HORTICULTURE.







Annual Report, 1942 91

ments were made to determine the difference in concentration of various
mineral elements used in the nutrition of tung trees and how they were re-
lated to growth and yield. Determinations were made for ash, calcium, mag-
nesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, manganese and iron. These analy-
ses were a help in interpreting certain abnormal leaf patterns indicative of
mineral deficiencies and served as a guide for understanding the fertilizer
requirements of the tung tree under different soil conditions. By means of
leaf analyses, an abnormal leaf condition of tung trees found over a wide-
spread area in Georgia and Florida was shown to be associated with a low
potassium content of the leaves. Plots were established in an affected area
to determine if the application of potash fertilizer would correct the condi-
tion and restore the trees to normal growth.
Experiments on prolonging the dormancy of tung buds to escape injury
from frost were conducted near Floral City. Indole-3-acetic acid and naph-
thylacetamide produced observable effects in delaying flowering. Whether
the differences in the effectiveness of the methods and materials used are
due to the differences in concentration of the chemicals or in the manner of
application has not yet been established. That the effect was due to the or-
ganic substance rather than the lanolin carrier was shown by field tests and
laboratory experiments.
Preliminary data obtained on some of the important biochemical changes
in germinating tung nuts showed that the oil content of the kernel de-
creases during the process of germination and is transformed into reducing
sugars and starch. Little change occurred in calcium, potassium, mag-
nesium, phosphorus and nitrogen. No significant change was found in the
saponification number, iodine value and refractive index, which indicated
that the large molecules of fatty acids are utilized throughout the entire
period of germination. There was an increase of alcohol-soluble nitrogen,
which indicated a breakdown of proteins. The lipase activity increased
at the time of oil transformation into sugars.
Preliminary observations on the time and method of oil synthesis in
tung trees indicated that the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed per 100 sq.
cm. of leaf surface decreased from 3.80 mg. in May to 0.70 mg. in Novem-
ber. The maximum amount of reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and
starch was found in the fruit in May, June, July, and August at the time of
greatest photosynthetic activity of the tung leaf. There was an increase in
total nitrogen, which indicates an accumulation of proteins in the kernel dur-
ing maturity. Tests for oil formation showed that the sugars are trans-
formed into oil and that the oil increases gradually in the fruit from August
to November. Little change was noted in the ash content of the fruit during
this period. The tannin and pectic acid content in the hulls decreased
throughout the latter stages of the fruit development up to maturity.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


PLANT PATHOLOGY

This year certain phases of work outlined in some of the project state-
ments were temporarily discontinued, but other phases which have more im-
mediate application were initiated. In addition to this work, considerable
time was spent in identifying plants and plant diseases, and on correspond-
ence, consultations and radio talks in connection with the application of
known control measures.

INVESTIGATIONS RELATIVE TO CERTAIN DISEASES OF
STRAWBERRIES OF IMPORTANCE IN FLORIDA
State Project 126 A. N. Brooks, Strawberry Laboratory
As previously reported, a strawberry nursery could not be established
for several months following an application of calcium cyanamide at 1,500
pounds per acre during March 1940 for the control of the strawberry bud
nematode Aphelenchoides fragariae Bos. because of dry weather and tox-
icity of the cyanamide. However, during February 1941 Missionary straw-
berry plants from 6 different sources were planted in randomized plots with
4 replications on this land and they made excellent growth. These plants
and the runner plants which they produced were examined frequently dur-
ing the spring and summer months for the development of the disease,
crimp, caused by this nematode. During the middle of August it developed
in some of the plants from one of the sources of supply but did not appear
in any of the plants from the other sources. This meant that the nemas
had come in on the plants. Since the land had been rather uniformly in-
fested with the bud nema during the summers of 1938 and 1939 and since
none of the plants from 5 of the sources showed any initial infestation dur-
ing the summer and fall of 1941, it appears safe to conclude that the cyana-
mide treatment had freed the land of the bud nemas. This report con-
cludes work on the project.

COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF SPECIMENS OF
FLORIDA PLANTS
State Project 259 Erdman West and Lillian E. Arnold
Most of the work during the past year dealt with the higher plants such
as grasses and legumes. Brief collecting trips into Citrus, Dixie, Hamilton,
Marion, Putnam, St. Johns, and Union counties netted a total of 1,309
records and specimens of this nature. Over 8,800 specimens from pasture
land areas were identified. Requested plant identifications totalled 610,
while diagnoses of plant diseases and fungi numbered 739. Numerous in-
quiries concerned the identification or diseases of drug, fiber or rubber
plants.
Additions to permanent collections housed in the herbarium with the
totals now on file are as follows:
Groups Additions Totals
Spermatophytes ................................... 3,603 38,211
Pteridophytes .................... ...... ........ 42 2,131
Bryophytes ................ ............ 275 906
Thallophytes ................... ............... 737 24,395
Seed collections ................................ 26 1,700

67,343







Annual Report, 1942 93

Through the generosity of Mrs. H. T. Fernald, Winter Park, Florida,
the herbarium received a gift of 300 water color paintings of Florida wild
flowers, the results of 15 years' work. A suitable display cabinet is neces-
sary and, for the duration of the war, the paintings will therefore remain in
safe storage and inaccessible to the public.
Numerous other gifts of specimens were received this year. They in-
cluded 139 packets of forest tree diseases, 67 collections of Poria, spp., 245
packets of mosses, 57 collections of Santa Rosa Island plants, over 200 dune
plants and a collection of 18 various large gourds. Over 500 collections of
mostly unnamed plants from the Everglades Drainage Basin were received
from Dr. John H. Davis, Jr., who is surveying that region ecologically for
the Florida Geological Survey. This herbarium is one of 14 key herbaria
in the United States cooperating with the New York State College of For-
estry and received in exchange during the year 64 herbarium specimens as
as well as wood samples and miscellaneous fruits.
Invaluable aid was received when the collections of sedges in the genus
Scleria were critically examined and annotated by Dr. E. L. Core, a nation-
ally accepted specialist of that group, and specimens of the section Viorna
in the genus Clematis were revised by a research student.
Specimens of the iris, Neubeckia verna (L.) Alef., not previously re-
ported in Florida were received from A. M. Laessle. Specimens of cork-
wood Leitneria floridana Chapm. were collected along the Waccassassa River
in Levy County. These constitute the first specimens of this interesting
species in the Station collection and extend the known range of the plant
nearly 100 miles farther southeast.
Studies in the genus Crataegus by Dr. W. A. Murrill culminated this
year in the publication of descriptions of 15 new species. He is continuing
his studies of fleshy fungi and descriptions of several new species have been
published. The types of all of these new species as well as authentic sup-
plementary material are deposited in the herbarium.
The usual demonstration classes were conducted this year for 2 groups
in agronomy, 2 groups in local botany in Summer Session and 1 in general
High School biology.

HOST RELATIONS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE GROWTH
AND PARASITISM OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII SACC.
Adams Project 269 Erdman West
Experiments with ethyl mercury phosphate in 1 to 25,000 dilution
were continued to determine its effect on various hosts and on the para-
sitism of Sclerotium rolfsii.
A block of Zephyranthes candida (Lind.) Herb. in heavily infested soil
was divided into 3 equal plots; one was given an application of the mercury
solution, another an application of napthalene flakes and the third was un-
treated. The survival of plants in the plot treated with the mercury solu-
tion was 11 times that in either of the others. Weekly treatments of 14
common garden annuals were completed with the following results: Severe
stunting or death of treated plants occurred with cornflower, calendula, ver-
bena, strawflower, annual larkspur and blue lace flower; treated statice
plants were slower to bloom than untreated ones, and no noticeable differ-
ence in vigor was observed between treated and untreated plants of pinks,
carnations, hollyhocks, scabiosa, annual lupine, Queen Anne's lace and
baby's breath. None of the treated plants became infected with S. rolfsii,
while 24 percent of the untreated ones was killed by the fungus.
Observations on the size of sclerotia formed by isolates from 35 different
sources grown under identical conditions revealed variations in mean length







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


from 0.71 to 1.46 millimeters with 68 percent 0.7 to 1.0 millimeter long;
and in mean width from 0.59 to 1.12 millimeters with 80 percent 0.6 to 0.9
millimeter wide. Cultures from a single isolate grown from the smallest
and largest sclerotia produced sclerotia having almost identical mean length
and width.
Hot water treatment of healthy Tangiers Iris bulbs 1 centimeter in di-
ameter at temperatures of 40, 45 and 50 degrees C. resulted in no apparent
injury or other effect when planted. Sclerotia of the fungus similarly
treated gave the following germination: check, 88 percent; 40 C., 96 per-
cent; 45 C., 84 percent; 50 C., 0 percent.
New or unusual hosts under natural conditions included Yellow Hop
clover (Trifolium agrarium L.), common oats (Avena sativa L.) and
Ornithogalum arabicum L.

CAUSES OF FAILURE OF SEED AND SEEDLINGS IN VARIOUS
FLORIDA SOILS AND DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS
FOR PREVENTION
Adams Project 281 W. B. Tisdale and A. N. Brooks
Work done on this project was concerned with treating seeds of various
crops with known percentages of chemicals. The seeds were planted in
soils of various reactions and organic content and during different seasons
to determine whether these factors might have any influence on the effect-
iveness of the treating materials. One experiment was conducted at the
Potato Investigations Laboratory, and the others at the Strawberry Investi-
gations Laboratory and at the Main Station.
Results obtained are reported separately by crops, as follows:
Fordhook Lima Beans.-The experiments carried on during the past 2
seasons showed that under the average soil conditions existing in eastern
Hillsborough County treatment of Fordhook lima bean seed is advisable to
control pre-emergence damping-off but that care must be exercised in the
selection of a seed treatment material. Most of the metal-bearing materials
exhibited some deleterious effect upon the germinating seed. These ma-
terials could be used safely only when the soil had a high organic content
and a soil reaction about pH 6. Incidentally, Fordhooks grew much better
when the soil reaction was above pH 6.0. The new organic materials, tetra-
methylthiuramdisulfide (thiosan) and tetrachloroparabenzoquinone (sper-
gon), were satisfactory to use in treating Fordhook lima bean seed.
An experiment was conducted in March at Gainesville in which cupro-
cide, thiosan and spergon were used as treating materials. The soil was
Norfolk sandy loam and naturally infested with rhizoctonia. One plot had
been treated with sulfur the previous year to lower the reaction to pH 5.64
from the original of pH 6.85. The results showed no significant increases
in germination due to soil or seed treatment. However, plants emerging
from seed treated with spergon and thiosan emerged more evenly and were
more vigorous than the ones from seed treated with cuprocide or those from
the checks. On the latter 2 lots the seed coats adhered to the cotyledons,
resulting in stunting and distortion of the primary leaves. The plants
in soil with high pH were more vigorous than the ones in that of low pH.
Cabbage.-A total of 10 experiments with cabbage seed included seed
and soil treatments on different soil types in different planting seasons. Re-
sults have shown that on the lighter sandy soils in Hillsborough County sper-
gon, semesan and zinc oxide are the most effective seed treatment materials.
However, benefits derived from their use varied somewhat with the season
and degree of soil infestation. On the heavier soils with reactions above
pH 6.0 cuprous oxide was used without deleterious effect on germination.







Annual Report, 1942


For best results these materials were applied to the seed at the rate of Y4
to 1 percent by weight of seed. In the summer post-emergence damping-
off was as important as preemergence damping-off and at this time it was
necessary to apply fungicidal drenches to the soil after the seedlings emerg-
ed. Best materials for this purpose were cuprous oxide, semesan and zinc
oxide, used at rates recommended by the manufacturers.
At Gainesville, Copenhagen Market cabbage seed was treated with 3 con-
centrations of New Improved 5 percent ceresan, cuprocide, semesan, sper-
gon and zinc oxide and planted in Norfolk sandy loam that had been treated
with manure and sulfur to produce 4 conditions. Significant increases in
germination due to seed treatment, each soil condition being considered
separately, were obtained only on the bed with high organic content and low
pH. In this case cuprocide gave no increase. However, the combined means
for seed treatments on all soils showed a significant increase in germination
due to treatment with certain concentrations of all materials.
All of these treating materials, except cuprocide, gave significant in-
creases in germination of Copenhagen Market cabbage seed when they were
planted in Bladen fine sandy loam at Hastings.
Cucumber.-In the eastern Hillsborough County area both pre-emergence
and post-emergence damping-off usually occur in the cucumber fields in the
early spring months. The post-emergence phase is usually confined to
plants during the first 14 days after emergence.
In 4 experiments highly significant increases in germination were
obtained by treating the seed before planting. The materials used were
cuprocide, semesan, spergon, thiosan and zinc oxide. All of these were
about equally effective in reducing pre-emergence damping-off and none of
them showed signs of injury to the seed. The best rates of application of
these materials to the seed were apparently cuprocide 0.2 percent, semesan
0.3 percent, spergon 0.2 percent, thiosan 0.125 percent and zinc oxide 0.5
percent by weight of seed. For the duration of the war it would appear
advisable to use spergon and thiosan because they are wholly organic and
will probably be more readily available.
Cotton.-One experiment with Sea Island cotton was conducted in dup-
licate plots on Norfolk sandy loam the reaction of which had been lowered
from about pH 7.0 to pH 4.91 and pH 5.79 by the addition of sulfur. New
improved 5 percent ceresan, thiosan and spergon, at concentrations of 14,
%1, and /2 percent, respectively, were the materials and concentrations used,
and the seed was planted on March 31. The treated seed showed no signifi-
cant improvement in germination over the checks.
Peanuts.-In one experiment with Florida Runner peanuts significant
improvement in germination was obtained by treating the shelled seed
with either spergon, thiosan, or new improved 1 percent semesan at concen-
trations of 1/4, s, and 1/4 percent, respectively.
Lettuce.-A test was conducted in October at Gainesville on Norfolk
sandy loam under 4 soil conditions and with 3 concentrations of ceresan,
cuprocide, semesan, spergon and zinc oxide. No significant increases in
germination resulted from any of the soil or seed treatments, but ceresan
caused a significant reduction. It was also found that ceresan reduced
vitality of the seed when the treated seed was allowed to stand in open
packets for 3 weeks before planting.
A cooperative test was conducted in March 1942 in which 2 percent cu-
procide, zinc oxide and semesan at the rate of z ounce to 15 pounds of seed
were used. Reaction of the Norfolk sandy loam used for this test was
pH 5.4, and the soil was known to be infested with rhizoctonia. No improve-
ment resulted from any of the treatments.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


On the other hand, seed from the same source and treated with the same
materials produced a highly significant increase in germination over the
checks when planted at Plant City in soil artificially infested with a strain
of rhizoctonia isolated from lettuce, and with a reaction of pH 6.0.
In a test at Hastings in November 1941 % percent cuprocide was the
only material that gave a significant increase in germination over the check.
Tomato.-It is known that the organisms which cause certain diseases
of tomato are carried in the seed and that surface treatment of the seed with
chemicals does not eradicate them. A test was conducted to determine the
effect of hot water upon vitality of the seed by immersing different lots for
30 minutes in a water bath held constant at 20, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58 and 60
degrees Centigrade, and planting them the same day for comparison with
untreated seed. After 19 days the seed treated at 58 and 60C. were the
only lots that showed any significant reduction in germination, but germina-
tion of the lot treated at 56 was considerably retarded.
Peppers.-In the 1 experiment with peppers the seed was treated before
planting and after the plants emerged the soil was drenched with suspen-
sions or solutions of the materials. The seed was planted in single-row plots
randomized by blocks. Three applications of the drenches were made, 7,
21 and 28 days atfer the seed was planted. There were no significant differ-
ences in germination resulting from seed treatments, but the drenches gave
significant benefit in preventing post-emergence damping-off.
Snap Beans.-Giant Stringless Greenpod beans treated with either 14
percent cuprocide, I4 percent spergon or % percent thiosan and planted
in Norfolk sandy loam soils adjusted to pH 5.42 and pH 6.32 showed no
significant increase in germination over the check. Manure added to areas
with the above reactions also did not produce any significant difference in
germination. However, growth of the plants was more vigorous and yield
of pods on the plots with high pH was about twice as great as on the plots
with low pH. Post-emergency damage by rhizoctonia was most severe on
the plot with low pH and manure.
At Plant City a highly significant increase in germination was obtained
with 2-year-old Improved Kidney Wax beans by treating them with either
cuprocide, spergon or zinc oxide at 1% percent by weight of seed. A high
percentage of the seedlings were baldheadss", but there was no significant
difference due to treatment.
In the greenhouse, Giant Stringless Greenpod beans treated with either
% percent cuprocide,.semesan, spergon or zinc oxide gave highly significant
increases in germination when planted in soil artificially infested with rhi-
zoctonia isolated from beans.
Spinach. One experiment was conducted with Bloomsdale Savoy
spinach seed at Gainesville beginning on November 21. It was replicated on
4 blocks on Norfolk sandy loam that had been treated with sulfur and ma-
nure to change the pH reaction and organic content. The soil temperature
1 inch below the surface during the experiment ranged between 42 and 75
with an average daily mean of 63 degrees Fahrenheit. Three concentrations
of 5 materials were used. None of the treatments in any concentration
produced significantly better germination than the checks, but from some
of them it was significantly poorer than that in the checks. Likewise, the
percentage germination was significantly poorer in the soil treated with
sulfur and manure.
In a cooperative test conducted at Plant City 9 materials were used.
The seed was planted in outside beds in March when the temperature ranged
between 40 and 89, with an average daily mean of 68.8 degrees Fahrenheit.
The soil reaction was pH 6.0. The materials used were different brands of
zinc oxide and zinc hydroxide, cuprocide and spergon. Spergon was used at







Annual Report, 1942


the rate of 1 percent by weight of seed; the others at the rate of 2 percent.
All treatments gave highly significant increases in percentage germination
but the zinc compounds were superior to cuprocide and spergon.
One test was conducted in November at Hastings in wet soil with a pH
reaction of 5.69. Two concentrations of 5 treating materials were used. In
this test the percentage germination was significantly improved with cupro-
cide, semesan and spergon in concentrations of % and 1 percent, while the
results with ceresan and zinc oxide were not significant.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE PATHOGENICITY AND TAXON-
OMY OF SPECIES OF ALTERNARIA, MACROSPORIUM AND
STEMPHYLIUM
State Project 284 George F. Weber
Certain foreign-language literature on these 3 genera has been reviewed
and abstracted. Numerous specimens of plant diseases caused by them have
been collected, the organisms identified and the specimens prepared for the
herbarium. In most cases cultures have been made of the new collections
and studied in comparison with others on hand.
Work on an index of hosts and parasites is in progress.

PHOMOPSIS BLIGHT AND FRUIT ROT OF EGGPLANT
Adams Project 344 L. 0. Gratz
Twelve different selections of eggplant, several of which offer promise
for resistance, were under observation during the season. Plants of sus-
ceptible varieties, when planted in experimental plots contaminated with the
causal organism a year earlier, were badly diseased, showing leaf spot, stem
and twig lesions, fruit rot, and a small percentage of tip-over. Plants of
these same susceptible varieties when planted 200 yards away, where the
organism was not known to be, went through the season with only a small
amount of leaf spot, practically no twig or stem lesions and no fruit rot.
It is apparent that various agencies introduced inoculum from the first to
the second plot which was not very far removed.
Comparative studies on both artificial media and plants in the green-
house have demonstrated that the pathogen from eggplant which produced
the perfect stage in culture (Diaporthe vexans (Sacc. and Syd.) Gratz),
while similar to, is not identical with Diaporthe phaseolorum (Cke. & Ell.)
Sacc., which was isolated from ornamental peppers nearby. It did not prove
pathogenic on eggplant.
AZALEA FLOWER SPOT
Adams Project 357 L. 0. Gratz and Erdman West
Very little natural infection occurred in the Gainesville area in 1941-42
and very few reports or specimens of the disease were received from other
parts of the State. With a view of testing the effect of certain fungicides
and cultural practices on the development of infection, the experimental
plot was artificially infested with the fungus by mixing naturally-formed
sclerotia with the mulch. Certain plants in the plot were then caged in
wire screening and treated with ethyl mercury phosphate, tetrachloropara-
benzoquinone or cleaned and remulched with uncontaminated leaves. Due
to the small amount of infection on the check and other neighboring plants
the results were inconclusive.
All attempts to produce apothecia from sclerotia either naturally formed
or produced on artificial media, in culture tubes on agar or on soil under
controlled conditions have failed completely. Stock cultures of the fungus







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


for use in future experiments are being maintained on steamed wheat as
the substratum. The experimental plots of azalea plants are also being
maintained for experiments next season.
RHIZOCTONIA DISEASES OF CROP PLANTS
Adams Project 371 W. B. Tisdale and A. N. Brooks
Work on this project consisted of isolating cultures from diseased plants
of various crops and testing them for pathogenicity to crop plants from
which they were isolated and others. One series of experiments was con-
ducted with cultures from 4 hosts in similar soil maintained at 2 tempera-
tures. In general, the cultures were more pathogenic to the crops from
which they were isolated than to other crops, and the cultures tested were
more pathogenic at an average daily mean soil temperature of 64 than at
81 degrees Fahrenheit. Differences have been noted in the character of
growth of cultures from various hosts, even when the host plants were
growing simultaneously in the same plots. It has not been determined
whether or not these differences are constant.

CAMELLIA DIEBACK DISEASE
Erdman West
Numerous specimens of dieback of Camellia japonica L. were received
during the past year and many more collections were made in the variety
plots on the Station grounds. Isolations from this material have yielded
Diplodia sp. and Phomopsis sp. consistently and in a few cases, Gloeospor-
ium sp. Winter injury was not common this year.
Inoculations with 3 isolations of Diplodia sp. and 2 of Phomopsis sp.
made last year have not resulted in positive infection. Further inoculations
are in progress with these fungi as well as with some of the Gloeosporium
sp. isolates.
CUCUMBER DUST EXPERIMENT
A. N. Brooks, Strawberry Investigations
The tests consisted primarily of a comparison of 2 forms of copper dusts,
copotox (26% copper) and dry pyrox (38% copper) mixed with different
diluents for controlling downy mildew. One set of 5 dusts was prepared
in which 14 pounds of dry pyrox were used per 100 pounds of the mixture,
using 5 different diluents. Another set was made up containing the same
diluents but substituting 10 pounds of soybean flour per 100 pounds of dust.
Seven applications of the dusts were made at approximately weekly inter-
vals. Downy mildew appeared first in the check plots and gradually spread
over the dusted plots. The cucumbers were picked 4 times and graded into
2 groups, choice and fancy, and culls. Differences in yields from different
treatments did not quite reach significance, but the addition of soybean meal
caused an increase in yield when used with all diluents except pulverized
limestone, with which it produced a decreased yield. Pulzerized limestone
and gypsum were difficult to mix and to apply with the rotary hand duster.
OLEANDER WITCHES BROOM DISEASE
Erdman West
Fifteen oleander plants in the greenhouse were again kept under obser-
vation for the formation of new infections. All of these plants had been in-
oculated in past years and 9 had shown positive infection in the form of
cankers or brooms at the point of inoculation but were otherwise uninfected.
In December all of the plants were severely headed back to bare stems so
that all infections except 2 were removed completely and the pruning
wounds were left unprotected. Since no new infections have developed dur-




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