Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Changes in staff

Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00027
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1941
Frequency: annual
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00027
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
    Changes in staff
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Full Text


Agricultural Experiment


JUNE 30, 1941

John J. Tigert, M. A., LL.D., President
of the University3
Wilmon, Newell, D.Sc., Director3
Harold Mowry, M. S. A., Asst. Dir.,
W. M. Fifield, M. S., Asst. to Director
J. Francis Cooper, M. S. A., Editor3
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J, Assistant Editor3
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager3
K. H. Graham, Business Manager3
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant3
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist1
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist3
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate2
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
Fred A. Clark, B.S.A., Assistant
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Indus-
tralist 1 3
R. R. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman3
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologists
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Associate in Dairy
W. M. Neal, Ph.D.. Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
D. J. Smith, B.S.A.. Asst. in An. Husb.3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy
L. L. Rusoff, Ph.D., Asst. in An.
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' 3
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M. S., Assistant
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ-
Ruth Overstreet, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Fumigation
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Lee B. Nash, Ph.D., Assistant
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist3
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturists
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist' s
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.3
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist 1 '
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist3
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Associate3
L. H. Rogers, M.S., Asso. Biochemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist

H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

J. D. Warner, M.S., Agron. Act. in Chg.
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Elliott Whitehurst, B.S.A., Assistant An.
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Chg.
John H. Jefferies, Asst. in Cit. Breeding
Chas. K. Clark, Ph.D., Chemist
V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Associate
F. F. Cowart, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Chg.
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Frederick Boyd, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage En-
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Associate Plant
Pathologist Acting in Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
E. M. Andersen, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charges
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman
in Charge
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
in Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Assistant Plant
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Asso. Truck
Samuel O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2
Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Truck Horti-
culturist in Charge
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in
Charge, Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologists
'Head of Department
'In cooperation with U. S.
3Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.

Annual Report, 1941


Report of Director ..... __------
Report of Business Manager --
Editorial -.-- -------..
Library .... ...-----------
Agricultural Economics -------
Agronomy ...----------
Animal Industry .------
Entomology .... ----------
Home Economics .--------..
Horticulture ---------------
Celery Laboratory .---------

--...-....- 5
------------.--.--.-------... 14
-------- 25
--------- 35
----- ------ 39
-------.-- 57
.....-- 71
----------- 76
------..---- 79
.-------- -- 92

Vegetable Crops Laboratory ................------
Plant Pathology --...-. ------------------
Potato Disease Laboratory .--..----- ------------
Soils ... ..- ----------------
Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service --....
Citrus Station -..---- -- ----
Everglades Station ...------------------
North Florida Station ----------
Range Cattle Station .-----------------------
Sub-Tropical Station -.---------------------------
West Central Florida Station -..---. --------.......

-- 97
- 103
- 116
-- 122
-. 135
-- 138
--- 157
--- 179
_- 190
___ 192
--_ 205

Hon. Spessard L. Holland,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida
SIR: I have the honor to
of the University of Florida
ending June 30, 1941.

transmit herewith the annual report of the Director
Agricultural Experiment Stations for the fiscal year

Chairman, Board of Control.

Hon. H. P. Adair,
Chairman, Board of Control
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the Director of
the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1941, and I request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law,
to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
President, University of Florida.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Staff changes during the fiscal year were as follows:
E. L. Fouts, dairy technologist, appointed August 1, 1940.
V. V. Bowman, assistant to director, resigned August 31, 1940.
A. S. Rhoads, plant pathologist, Citrus Laborato:y, resigned August
31, 1940.
L. H. Greathouse, chemist, Citrus Station, resigned October 1, 1940.
L. E. Mull, assistant in dairy technology, appointed October 1, 1940.
Fred A. Clark, assistant agronomist, appointed October 1, 1940.
R. M. Crown, assistant in animal husbandry, resigned October 15, 1940.
D. J. Smith, assistant animal husbandman, appointed October 16, 1940.
Bruce McKinley, associate agricultural economist, died October 18, 1940.
C. K. Clark, chemist, Citrus Station, appointed December 15, 1940.
Michael Peech, soil chemist, Citrus Station, resigned December 31, 1940.
W. M. Fifield, horticulturist acting in charge, Subtropical Station, ap-
pointed assistant to director, January 1, 1941.
M. E. Brunk, assistant agricultural economist, appointed February 1,
T. R. Freeman, associate in dairy manufactures, appointed February
1, 1941.
W. G. Kirk, associate animal husbandman, transferred to Range Cattle
Station as animal husbandman in charge April 1, 1941.
V. C. Jamison, soil chemist, Citrus Station, appointed April 1, 1941.
L. B. Nash, assistant horticulturist, appointed April 1, 1941.
E. M. Andersen, assistant horticulturist, Subtropical Station, appointed
April 1, 1941.
O. W. Anderson, assistant poultry husbandman, resigned April 1, 1941.
L. E. Swanson, parasitologist, appointed May 1, 1941.
Frederick T. Boyd, assistant agronomist, Everglades Station, resigned
June 30, 1941.


Annual Report, 1941

Report for the Fiscal Year ending

June 30, 1941

Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the work and investiga-
tions of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, together with the reports of
the heads of the several departments and branch stations, for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1941.
Wilmon Newell,

This is the Station's fifty-third annual report. Since the organization
was established in 1888 emphasis has been placed on research having
practical application to Florida's agricultural industry. At first, ten-
dencies in Florida leaned toward an agricultural program centered
around a few major crops, but more recently efforts have been directed
toward replacing the "single crop" system with a more diversified
program. This diversification has required intensive research.
Farmers apparently are showing an increasing interest in the tech-
nical aspects of crop production. This is due in part to the fact that
poor prices and strong competition have made it necessary for success-
ful producers to employ knowledge of the more intricate relationships
between the crop and its environment. This greater increase in atten-
tion to basic principles is reflected in a much heavier correspondence
and a larger number of personal interviews between farmers and staff
members at the Experiment Station.
Since problems confronting the farmers of Florida, for the most
part, are peculiar to the soils and climate of this state, much of the
Station's research is without the benefit of material assistance from ex-
periments performed in other states. Outstanding among the original
contributions of the Florida Station have been the measures recom-
mended for controlling deficiency disorders of citrus, avocados, other
fruits, vegetables, corn and numerous other crops. The Florida live-
stock industry is expanding rapidly, chiefly as the result of application
of research findings to improve pastures, and to the health and nutri-
tion of animals. Research in vegetable crops recently has been ex-
panded considerably, and as pointed out in the pages which follow, has
contributed much of practical value during the past year. Through
systematic breeding, new varieties of corn, sugarcane, oats, tomatoes,
tobacco, watermelons and other crops have been produced which have
attained ready acceptance because of their better adaptation to Florida
During the year members of the Station staff have cooperated active-
ly in the land-use planning program, serving in advisory, administrative
and fact-collecting capacities. Many served on subcommittees of the
State Land-Use Planning Committee, assisting in the preparation of the

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Unified State Agricultural Program To Meet The Impacts of War, which
was completed in June at the request of the Secretary of Agriculture.
The attention of the organization also has been directed toward ac-
tively assisting in the national defense program. Cooperation has been
extended to the State Defense Council in formulating a program for
agriculture during the present emergency, and in organizing an advisory
committee for the Division of Agriculture of the State Defense Council,
to aid in working out plans and policies in regard to emergencies which
might develop as the war continues.
Research is conducted under the project system, in which each line
of investigation is definitely planned and outlined prior to initiation.
Experiments are conducted in eight departments of the Main Station,
and in five branch stations and seven field laboratories located at key
points throughout the state. In this report the progress attained during
the year is described under the 201 project headings for the different
departments, branch stations and field laboratories. In some instances
cooperative projects are carried on by two or more divisions, in which
instances the contribution of each division usually is described under
its own respective heading.


Outstanding among the improvements this year was the construc-
tion of buildings and the acquisition of an additional 1180 acres at the
Range Cattle Station. With this additional land, deeded through the
Board of County Commissioners of Hardee County, the property at the
Range Cattle Station now totals 2,180 acres. The state appropriation
made possible the erection of a superintendent's cottage, a foreman's
cottage, a well tower and tank, a bridge over the canal, and a barn and
corral for work stock, a cattle pen, chute and scale shed, and a machine
shed. In cooperation with the Works Progress Administration and the
Hardee Board of County Commissioners, a one mile graded dirt road
was built from the county highway to the building site.
At the Main Station an implement shed and a building for housing
cattle for internal parasite investigations were completed, as also were
two concrete silos and a concrete molasses storage tank. An additional
50 acres of land was cleared and 8 miles of fencing erected.
A greenhouse and additional slathouse were erected at the Sub-
tropical Station.
At the Celery Laboratory at Sanford, the laboratory, greenhouse and
service building which had been loaned to the Station for several years,
along with 6.5 acres of land, were deeded to the State Board of Educa-
tion by Seminole County for Station use.


In cooperation with the Atlantic Coast Line and the Louisville and
Nashville railroads, the Experiment Station, the College of Agriculture,
the State Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Extension
Service, prepared a railroad train display of agricultural exhibits which
left Gainesville November 7 and showed through North and Central
Florida in several towns each week day through December 4, 1940.
The exhibits pertained especially to livestock, forage crops and forestry,
and were shown in 53 towns along the lines of the two railroads. A
total of 62,268 visitors observed this educational display.

Annual Report, 1941

Financial resources, from State and Federal appropriations, of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1941, were as follows:

Federal Hatch and Adams Funds ...... ------$ 30,000.00
Federal Bankhead-Jones Fund .---...-- -.....--- ...-- ..-- ... ..-- 30,801.64
State Funds
Main Station --.---- -------...------------.- 346,671.00

Including laboratories, special investigations, equip-
ment and building remodeling as follows:
Strawberry Investigations-Plant City .....-- $ 6,300.00
Vegetable Crops Laboratory-Bradenton ----- 15,000.00
Citrus Disease Laboratory-Cocoa ----- 3,500.00
Tobacco Disease-Blue Mold .....-------------- 5,000.00
Potato Disease Laboratory-Hastings.--------- 12,000.00
Remodeling Cattle Barn for laboratory
bienniumm) -------.. ----- 12,000.00
Pecan Laboratory-Monticello ------------------ 4,150.00
Fumigation Research --------- -- 3,062.00
Grape Pest Investigations --------- 3,500.00
Celery Investigations, Sanford ------------------ 15,000.00
Watermelon Investigations-Leesburg -------- 10,000.00
Special Pasture Research ------------------------ 20,000.00
Special Cotton & Peanut Investigations ------- 6,500.00
Equipment Soil Conservations Districts --------- 10,000.00
Special Tobacco Investigations- 10,000.00

Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred .--..... ..--------- .--- 71,451.00
Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade .........----------- 50,339.00
North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy .--------.----------- 25,968.00
Subtropical Experiment Station, Homestead ---... ..----------- 21,000.00
Range Cattle Station, Wauchula .. --..----------------------- 12,500.00
Weather Forecasting Service (Supplementing Federal Funds) 18,000.00
Other Federal Funds, not included above .- -.-..--.... .------- 60,000.00

Some of the above State items, wholly or in part,
and unexpended.

were unavailable

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The list of research projects for the year arranged by departments
Number Title Page
Agricultural Economics Department
154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida -- -- 35
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Flor-
ida Citrus ------------- 35
317 Prices of Florida Farm Products --------35
325 Production Credit for Citrus and Vegetable Growers in Selected
Areas of Florida -------------------------. -_ 37
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Flor-
ida Dairy Herds -_--------- -- -- ___ 37
349 Land-Use Planning.- _---------- 37
373 Agricultural Income and Land Utilization in a General Farming
Area of Northwest Florida .------------------- ----------- 38
Agronomy Department
20 Peanut Improvement-----------...... ...------ 39
27A Value of Centipede Grass Pastures as Affected by Soil Charac-
teristics and Other Factors ..-------- _--. 40
55 Crop Rotation Studies with Corn, Cotton, Crotalaria and Aus-
trian Peas ----- __.-- -.__ ------------ 40
56 Variety Test Work with Field Crops ---_ -- 42
105 Improvement of Corn by Selection and Breeding ___-- 43
163 Corn Fertilizer Experiments ---------------- 44
243 A Study of the Development and Deterioration of Roots in Re-
lation to the Growth of Pasture Plants Under Different Ferti-
lizer and Cutting Treatments .... ..... __ --------------_ 44
265 Composition Factors Affecting the Value of Sugarcane for
Forage and Other Purposes ...............__ ------------- 45
267 Pasture Studies ------------ --- 45
295 Effect of Fertilizers on the Yield, Grazing Value, Chemical Com-
position and Botanical Makeup of Pastures --_------------- --__ 45
296 Eradication of Weeds in Tame Pastures------- 47
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies --- 47
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement -------- 48
299 Growth Behavior and Relative Composition of Range Grasses
as Affected by Burning and the Effect of Burning on Mainte-
nance of Natural Grass Stands and Upon the Establishment of
Improved Grasses ------------- 49
301 Pasture Legumes------------- 50
302 A Study of Napier Grass for Pasture Purposes ---------------- 52
303 Water Pasture Studies----------- 53
304 Methods of Establishing Permanent Pastures Under Various
Conditions .------- -_~_. ------------------- 53
312 Spacing and Plant Competition in Common Field Corn --------- 55
363 Oats Improvement --_---.------_ -----------.- 55
378 Flue-cured Tobacco Fertilizer and Varieties --------------- 55

Animal Industry Department
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle .-------- 59
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to
Her Milk and Butterfat Production_--- ----- 60
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops--------- 60

Annual Report, 1941

Number Title Page
215 Beef Cattle Breeding Investigations------------ 61
216 Cooperative Field Studies with Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle-.. 61
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations _-------- 61
251 The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Con-
ditions in Animals --.------------------------------- 61
258 Plants Poisonous to Livestock in Florida .. ...........-----. 61
267 Pasture Studies .. ......------------ ------------ 62
274 Studies in Fleece and Mutton Production ---------- 62
302 Napier Grass for Pasture Purposes ........__ --------- 62
307 A Statistical Study of the Relationship Between Temperature
and Egg Weight (size), Body Weight and Egg Weight, Body
Weight and Production, Age and Egg Weight of Single Comb
White Leghorn Pullets .....----------- -___-.-- 63
309 Poultry Breeding --- ___ _------------ - ..... 63
310 Deficiencies of Peanuts When Used as a Feed for Swine ---------- 63
311 Method of Handling Sows and Young Pigs --...-_- ___- .....- 64
320 The Vitamin Content of Shark Liver Oil ---....... .....--- ------ 64
331 Comparative Value of Sugarcane Silage, Shocked Sugarcane
and Pasture; Supplemented with Cottonseed Meal or Cake in
Wintering the Beef Herd -------------- 65
337 Different Methods of Feeding Grain to Layers ------ 66
339 The Use of Molasses for Fattening Steers -------- 66
343 The Influence of Sulfur on the Body Populations and Various
Stages of the Life Cycle of Ectoparasites, on the Intermediate
Hosts of Helminths and on the Incubation of Roundworm Eggs
of Chickens --------- _________ -----------_ 67
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in
Florida Dairy Herds .---------------------------- 67
346 Investigation with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition
Problems of Livestock------------------------- 68
350 Rotational Grazing and Internal Parasites in Sheep Production_ 68
351 Feed Requirements for the Production of Hogs of Various
Market Grades -- ----------- 68
352 Calcareous Mineral Supplements for Poultry Feeding- ------_ 68
353 Infectious Bovine Mastitis ---------- 69
356 Biological Analysis of Pasture Herbage ------- 69
360 Storage of Dairy Products--------- 70
Entomology Department
8 The Florida Flower Thrips---------- 71
12 Root-Knot Investigations ---__-- ------ 71
13 Introduction and Propagation of Beneficial Insects___--- 72
14 The Larger Plant Bugs ...........----------------- 72
82 Control of Fruit and Nut Crop Insects ------ 73
231 The Onion Thrips-- 73
232 The Gladiolus Thrips 73
234 Biology and Control of Florida Aphids ------- 73
263 The Pepper Weevil -__ ..--------------------- .. 74
333 Life History, Food Preferences, Ecological Distribution and
Control of the Lubberly Locust------------------- 74
Home Economics Department
255 An Investigation of Human Dietary Deficiencies in Selected
Counties in Florida, with Special Reference to Nutritional
Anemia in Relation to Composition of Home Grown Foods-...-. 76

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Number Title Page
270 The Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Several
Florida Honeys ........---__ -- --.... ......------------- ---. 77
358 Vitamin A Activity of Foods __--.. __--- ----- 77
359 Vitamin C in Florida Fruits and Vegetables __ ------ 78
Horticultural Department
47 Cooperative Fertilizer Tests in Pecan Orchards.--..--.. --. 79
48 Varieties of Pecans and Other Horticultural Nut-Bearing
Species ------..--...-..... .......... -------------- ---------------- ------ 79
50 Propagation, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with Tung Oil
Trees .-......-----.....------------------------------- ------------------- 80
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and
Methods for Their Propagation ......----______. ----- 80
80 Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards .... ................--- -- 81
110 Phenological Studies on Truck Crops in Florida...-----.... -- -- 82
165 Relation of Nitrogen Absorption and Storage to Growth and
Reproduction in Pecans ...----.......--------. ...-------------- 83
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals- ..------- 83
189 Study on the Preservation of Citrus Juices and Pulps----- 84
.-- Storage and Preservation of Miscellaneous Fruits and Vege-
tables -......------------------------------- ------------------ --- 84
190 Cold Storage Studies of Citrus Fruits .-__ ----- 85
237 Maturity Studies of Citrus Fruits ---__------------------.. 86
268 A Study of the Relation of Soil Reaction to Growth and Yield
of Vegetable Crops..____...---------------------. 86
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vege-
tables Adapted to Commercial Production in Florida...------ 86
283 Effects of Green Manure Crops on Growth, Yield and Quality
of Certain Vegetable Crops ---..--........--------------- ---- 87
314 Fumigation of Horticultural Products ----... .--..-------.-- 88
315 Fumigation of Nursery Stock __.-------- .------ ------- 88
319 Effects of Mineral Deficiencies on the Adaptability of Certain
Vegetable Varieties to Florida--... __----- .. .--- ..-------------- 88
348 Effects of Certain Mineral Elements on Plant Growth, Repro-
duction and Composition_ .----- ----.... .---------------- -------- 89
365 Investigation of the Cultural Requirements of the Mu-Oil Tree
(Aleurites montana) -------------- 89
--- Tung Investigations-U. S. Field Laboratory....... ------------ .90
Celery Laboratory
252 Soil and Fertilizer Studies With Celery .---------------------- 92
--.- Celery Variety Tests -__-- ------ -__-_ .----- 93
Lettuce Variety and Fertilizer Tests ----------------------- 93
324 Pink Rot of Celery __ __ -..--...- -- ---------- 93
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot --- 93
336 Early Blight of Celery (Cercospora apii) ._____... ..........---------- 95
Vegetable Crops Laboratory
.-- Rapid Soil Tests in Relation to Response of Truck Crops and
Fertilizer Recommendations ------ --- -------------------- 97
-- Selection of a Suitable Rapid Soil Testing Method for Use in
Making Fertilizer Recommendations ___-- --..... ----- --- 98
---. Secondary Element Requirements and Deficiency Symptoms
of Vegetable Crops ---......------------- ----------- 98

Annual Report, 1941

Number Title Page
SComparative Efficiency and Economy of Different Nitrogenous
Fertilizer Materials on Sandy Soils ----------.. .....__-_.__ .. 99
--- Relation of Temperature and Time of Planting to Strains of
Crisp-Head Lettuce ____ ............................................................ _ 100
.-- Cultural Experiments with Crisp-Head Lettuce ----........---. .... 100
SBreeding and Selection of Varieties and Species of Truck Crops- 101
---- Control of Vegetable Crop Diseases --.. -.---- .............. ---......-- 101
SThe Suitability of Various Summer Cover Crops for Vegetable
Crop Sandy Soils ........--------------................ ..................... 101
180 Control of Wilt of Tomatoes in Florida ----_ ------.........- 101

Plant Pathology Department
126 Investigations Relative to Certain Diseases of Strawberries of
Importance in Florida ___ ..... ------------_ .......... 103
146 A Comparative Study of Forms of Diplodia Resembling Diplodia
frumenti ___._.----------------------------- .... 103
150 Investigations of and Control of Fusarium Wilt of Watermelons 104
151 Investigation of and Control of Fungous Diseases of Water-
melons __________ -------------------------- 105
180 Control of Wilt of Tomatoes in Florida ---- 106
242 Investigations of a Bark Disease of Tahiti Lime Trees ....-----. 107
254 Investigations of Fruit Rots of Grapes _________ ------------ 108
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants..... 108
269 Host Relations and Factors Influencing the Growth and Para-
sitism of Sclerotium rolfsii Sace. ------- --- ---- ------- 109
281 Causes of Failure of Seed and Seedlings in Various Florida Soils
and Development of Methods for Prevention ---- 110
284 A Comparative Study of the Pathogenicity and Taxonomy of
Species of Alternaria, Macrosporium, and Stemphylium.. -------- 113
344 Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Eggplant ----. ------ 114
357 Azalea Flower Spot -------- -------- 114

Potato Disease Laboratory
130 Studies Relative to Disease Control of White (Irish) Potatoes- 116
143 Investigations and Control of Brown Rot of Potatoes and Re-
lated Crops Caused by Bacterium solanacearum E.F.S. ------- 117
313 Control of Diseases of Potatoes and Vegetable Crops Caused by
Rhizoctonia --- _...--------------- ------------- 117
SDowny Mildew of Cabbage ____. ..--------------- -------- 117
- Potato Culture Investigations --------------------- 118
- Cabbage Production and Variety Studies ------- 118
- Varietal and Cultural Studies With Other Vegetable Crops----- 121
Soils Department
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle.--------- 122
201 Composition of Plant Materials with Particular Reference to
the More Unusual Constituents _.... --------------..-------------.. 123
256 The Development and Evaluation of Physical and Chemical
Methods of Complete and Partial Analysis for Soils and Re-
lated Materials .----_.... .... ----- ------------------ 123
306 A Study of the So-Called "Quick Methods" for Determining
Soil Fertility _- .... . . ..----------------------------- --------- 124
322 Soil and Vegetation Surveys in Relation to Pasture Develop-
ment in Florida -- ------ -------------------- 126

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Number Title Page
326 Types and Distribution of Microorganisms in Florida Soils ..-..-. 126
327 Metabolism and Functional Relationships of Soil Microorgan-
isms Under Florida Conditions ...------..-------- --._ _- .... 126
328 Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and Crop-
ping Systems in Florida_----------- ---_______ 127
329 Methods of Inoculating Legumes in Florida Soils_____ 128
347 Composition of Florida Soils and of Associated Native Vege-
tation ___ ..__---------- --_. --- .--------.._- 128
348 Effects of Certain Mineral Elements on Plant Growth, Repro-
duction and Composition -___- --___ -----------.- 129
361 Adjustment of Reaction of Florida Soils --..-- _. __-----_- __-.. 130
SClassification and Mapping of Florida Soils According to Mod-
ern Survey Methods .--_.... ----------.-- -- --.. 130
-- Effect of Type and Treatment of Florida Soils on Yield, Com-
position, and Quality of Farm Crops .. --...--- _-- -- __... 131
- Effect of Type and Treatment of Florida Soils on Yield, Com-
position and Quality of Horticultural Crops ----.____ _ 132
SEffect of Type and Treatment of Florida Soils on Yield, Compo-
sition and Quality of Citrus .... --------_.--------- 133
Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service
No outlined projects; report of progress ..----__-----.__-_ --. 135
Citrus Station
24 Citrus Scab and Its Control -.------------- --------- 138
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection .--.__ --------------. 138
102 Variety Testing and Breeding .-- -----------.-- 139
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rots of Citrus Fruits- 139
340 Citrus Nutrition Studies ------- ----- 141
341 Combined Control of Scale-Insects and Mites on Citrus ------.... 151
SPackinghouse Research ----------------------------- --. 153
SColor Added Research .......... .__. ....---------.- --- 155
Everglades Station
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings- 159
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Con-
ditions _--_- ------ ----------160
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ------------------------------ 161
88 Soils Investigations -------------------------------. 162
89 Water Control Investigations -------- 163
90 Crop Rotation Studies ----------164
168 Studies Upon the Role of Special Elements in Plant Develop-
ment Upon the Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades __....-- 164
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugarcane
Moth Borer ------ ------------------------. 165
171 Cane Breeding Experiments -------- 166
172 Physiology of Blooming of Sugarcane ---- ---. 166
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the
Everglades ---- -----------------------..----- 167
202 Agronomic Studies with Sugarcane ...------------------ 167
203 Forage Crop Investigations ------------------------------ 168
204 Grain Crop Investigations ---------------------- 169
205 Seed Storage Investigations ------------ --- 169
206 Fiber Crop Investigations -----...--------- -- 169
208 Agronomic Studies Upon the Growth of Sirup and Forage Cane
in Florida -. --....- .... .....- ------ -- 169

Annual Report, 1941

Number Title Page
209 Seed and Soil-Borne Diseases of Vegetable Crops --------------- 170
210 Leaf Blights of Vegetable Crops ----------------. 171
211 Physiological Phases of Plant Nutrition ... ------- 172
212 Relation of Organic Composition of Crops to Growth and Ma-
turity ___---------___ ______ __ ----------- 173
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations --_ --------- 173
232 The Gladiolus Thrips --- ------- ------ 174
332 Varietal Comparisons with Various Species of Truck Crops at
Different Fertility Levels ------------ 174
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot----- 175
336 Early Blight of Celery---------------------- 176
364 Fattening Steers on Winter Pastures with Ground Snapped
Corn, Ground Shallu Heads, Molasses and Cottonseed Meal----- 176
North Florida Station
25 Field and Laboratory Studies of Tobacco Diseases --------------- 179
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco. ------ 180
191 Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Florida Shade To-
bacco Seeds and Early Growth of Seedlings ------ 180
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations-__--- 180
257 Columbia Sheep Performance Investigations ------ 181
260 Grain Crop Investigations ----------------------- 182
261 Forage Crop Investigations ---------------------- 183
301 Pasture Legumes ... --------- ---- -------- --------- 183
305 Comparison of the Economic Value of Various Grazing Crops
for Fattening Feeder Pigs ......-------- --------------- 184
321 Control of Downy Mildew of Tobacco.... _.. .............-------- 184
354 Cultural Practices for the Control of Root-Knot of Tobacco.-- 185
355 Feed Crop Production and Utilization with Beef Cattle ..------ 185
362 Kudzu and Peanut Hays as Roughages for Fattening Steers--.-- 186
366 Oats Pasture as a Supplement to Corn for Fattening Hogs --- 187
367 Tankage and Mineral Supplements in Rations for Fattening
Hogs .....------..... -- ------------------------------- 187
Range Cattle Station
First Year's Progress in Establishing the Station_---- 190
Sub-Tropical Station
275 Citrus Culture Studies ......--------------------- ------ 192
276 Avocado Culture Studies ...------------------ ---------- 193
277 Forestation Studies ---- ----------------------- -- --------- 194
278 Improvement of Tomatoes Through Selection of New Hybrids- 195
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ------------------- 195
280 Studies of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals...------------- 197
285 Potato Culture Investigations -- .. --.. -------- -- 1- 198
286 Tomato Culture Investigations ........ ------------- 199
287 Cover Crop Studies----------- 199
288 Varietal Tests of Carrots, Corn and Other Vegetable Crops.---- 200
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County ......------------- - 200
290 A Study of the Diseases of the Avocado and Mango and Develop-
ment of Control Measures ------. ----- ------------ 202
291 Control of Tomato Diseases by Spraying _------------------------------- 204
West Central Florida Station
SCattle Breeding and Feeding .----------------------------- 205
SGrasses and Legumes _--------------------------------- 206
-- Poultry Breeding and Feeding -..--------------- -- 206

14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Balance, 1939-40 -.....--__. .------.......--...-- $ 17,152,28
Receipts, 1940-41 ------ __-- ......- 182,619.00

Salaries --...-.........--- ....__._.__._
Labor ----..--.....
Stationary and office supplies -----

$ 89,135.56

Scientific supplies _--------___.-_..... ------- 3,725.96
Feeding stuffs -.-.------.-----.--.-----..- 10,402.53
Fertilizers -- --------..- ... 1,834.82
Other supplies ...---------__- ----....----.. 3,616.55
Communication service ------.....----------._ 1,252.40
Travel expenses ----------7,626.27
Transportation of things ---- 878.29
Publications -------- 5,570.89
Heat, light, water, power ....-.. .....-.-................. 6,709.50
Contingent expense __- -- 1,211.39
Furniture, fixtures ----.........----..----. 989.65
Library ------.. --....... ... --------.-.. 2,303.72
Scientific equipment _~------_ 1,221.43
Livestock --------_.-__-- ..- 66.90
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc.- ....--_-..__ 1,513.03
Structures other than buildings, rent..._--_.-- 630.52
Buildings _-.. --------___---- 2,596.90
Improvements to land .-...__...------.- --_ 30.00
Unexpended balance -------.. 25,584.04
Total ...-------.... -- ----....-----
Balance, 1939-40 .--..--- ---------.-..--...--- $ 1,735.90
Receipts, 1940-41 ---- ------ 15,000.00
Salaries $----------- $ 2,400.00
Labor _..........------------------- 0 6,508.03
Stationary and office supplies -- 424.42
Scientific supplies ..------------__...-.--. ..... .---- 530.34
Feeding stuffs .---- ---------------- 242.50
Fertilizers -------.... -------------------- 672.36
Other supplies -.-----------------------.-- 890.59
Communication service --154.85
Travel expenses ----- 381.55
Transportation of things ---- 67.42
Heat, light, water, power ----- 847.89
Contingent expenses -----------.--------------.. 3.00
Furniture, fixtures ---_ --... ..---- 417.40
Library ...-----.------ ----- -- 80.93
Scientific equipment --_ ----- 937.98
Livestock --..... --------.--- ----- 2.25
Machinery, trucks, tractors ,etc. .---..---- 1,105.49
Structures other than buildings _..- -- 232.85
Buildings .----------------------- 634.89
Improvements to land- --- 35.50
SUnexpended balance ----- -- 165.66
Total ---..-. --------- ----------- ------




$ 16,735.90

Annual Report, 1941

Balance, 1939-40 -----------..-.--------...------$. 841.00
Receipts, 1940-41 ------......-. ------ ....-....---- 6,300.00

Salaries ---....--------..---- .---.....-- ..- $ 3,675.00
Labor _-----_. ......... ..-------.. ----- 1,559.85
Stationary and office supplies --- ...- 24.95
Scientific supplies -------------_-..... ......---- 12.18
Fertilizers -.......----------_.--------.- 79.81
Other supplies .......----.... --- .----- ...... 246.05
Communication service .------- --... .....-....--- -.. 16.25
Travel expense ------......---........ ---- 250.45
Transportation of things -------.55
Heat, light, power, water ----------------......--- 77.08
Contingent expense ------- ------.. 2.55
Furniture, fixtures -----------80.07
Scientific equipment ---------------------- ... -.... 206.58
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. --------- 138.98
Buildings -----..-------- --- -- -- ... ...- 55.89
Unexpended balance -------- 714.76

Total --... ....-----------. -..------- ....-...$.......


Balance, 1939-40 .---.....---. -
Receipts, 1940-41 ----------

Salaries ----- --
Travel expense -.. --.--
Land purchase or rent
Unexpended balance
Total ------- ---

--..$--.... $ 3.19
.. ---- 3,500.00

----- $ 510.00
----... 79.45
---- 45.00
--- 2,868.74


Balance, 1939-40 ........------------
Receipts, 1940-41 ...---------------

Salaries --------
Scientific supplies --
Fertilizers ------------ ----
Other supplies -------...... ----
Travel expense -----------
Heat, light, water, power .---
Buildings -..-----------.------..--- .
Unexpended balance ..........
Total .-....-............------

......---------- -.. $ 1,196.98
------ 5,000.00

---------$ 2,976.00
.---- .... 50.75
..--- -....... 18.30
----- 141.85
--.--. ...... 177.00
-------. 6.49
....-- 2,026.27

...---- .......--------- .... .. $ 6,196.98

*Laboratory (at Cocoa) closed August 31, 1940.



$ 3,503.19

.$ 3,503.19

$ 6,196.98

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


----.. -- -- $... ...$ 2,661.91
---- ------- -- -10,000.00

Salaries -
Labor ..-._- __. ..- .. .....--____...--.
Stationary and other supplies -_----------
Scientific supplies --_------------_ ----.---
Fertilizers __ ---__.-__--- --.
Other supplies -..-
Communication service ------
Travel expense --- _----
Transportation of things ___ --
Heat, light, water, power
Contingent expense --____ ----
Furniture, fixtures -_- ---
Library- -
Scientific equipment ---
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ---
Land purchase or rent - ---
Structures other than buildings --
Buildings ..b------ ------ -----
Unexpended balance ___--

Total ....----.... -----

$ 12,661.91

$ 7,134.19

$ 12,661.91


Balance, 1939-40-- --- -
Receipts, 1940-41 ----..-----

$-- 740.00
---- 2,000.00

$ 2,740.00
Labor _.- -. --. - ----- $ 1,337.37
Stationary and office supplies --- 47.52
Scientific supplies ----------- 35.75
Other supplies .------.. --.------------ 79.33
Communication service ~_ -- 19.53
Transportation of things ----- ---- 3.81
Heat, light, power, water -----149.77
Contingent expense --__-------- --_------ 31.87
Furniture, fixtures -. ......- 62.75
Library ---_ -- -- ------ 2.00
Scientific equipment -- 163.29
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ..-------------- 61.50
Buildings ...-------.. ...-- --- --- ..---- 24.65
Unexpended balance .. --- --.. --- 720.86

Total --............ .-_... --- -- ---...... $ 2,740.00

Balance, 1939-40
Receipts, 1940-41

Annual Report, 1941


Balance, 1939-40 -- -- --
Receipts, 1940-41

Labor ----------------
Stationary and office supplies
Scientific supplies ----
Fertilizers ... ------.
Other supplies --- .----
Travel expense -----
Heat, light, power, water ---
Contingent expenses ----
Furniture, fixtures
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc.
Unexpended balance ---
Total .- -----

-- $ 2,649.64

$ 1,083.33
--- 130.82
-. -- 41.23
....-- 4,733.99

Balance, 1939-40 -------$ 257.06
Receipts, 1940-41 ---- ------ 3,062.00

Salaries ...-- .. ..------- $ 2,400.00
Labor -.----------. ..--- -.. --------- 257.70
Other supplies ----------------------- -- 66.89
Travel expense .----. ---------- 171.15
Transportation of things ---- 18.78
Heat, light, power, water -------------------- 8.25
Furniture, fixtures ------ ----- 93.50
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ---- 45.65
Unexpended balance ------ ------- 257.14
Total --------------------

Balance, 1939-40
Receipts, 1940-41

--- $ None
..--------- 3,500.00

Salaries -------
Labor ------ ------
Stationary and office supplies -_
Scientific supplies -----
Other supplies ....------ ---
Communication service -----..
Travel expense -------- -
Transportation of things ----..
Heat, light, water, power ------
Furniture, fixtures .--------
Library .----------------------- ----
Scientific equipment .-----------
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc.
Total ------- -------- ---

$ 6,799.64

$ 6,799.64

$ 3,319.06

$ 3,319.06

.. .. $ 2,520.00
----- 365.60
------- .10
----- 44.39
----- 19.95
----- 20.26
.------ 356.65
---- 26.60
----- 70.74
..------ 3.50
----- 3.75
....-- 48.00
_.. 20.46

$ 3,500.00

$ 3,500.00

18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Balance, 1939-40 --..-....-.---..---------...----------- $ 3,820.10
Receipts, 1940-41 ......-._--------................-- 15,000.00

Salaries --.......... ------------ .--..
Labor --..-......-...........--- --------------..--.----
Scientific supplies ---- ....-- ...----...------------------
Feeding stuffs ...-----. --.-----------------------
Fertilizers .............-------------------------
Other supplies ...........--- -------------------
Communication service ------.... ---................-- --
Travel expense -__-.....---... ............ -----
Transportation of things _-....--..... .--------
Heat, light, water, power -----.......-....-- .------
Contingent expenses -...- .......-..---------- ---
Furniture, fixtures --_._-----..--.......-----------
Library ------. --- ---- ----
Scientific equipment ..----------.. ----
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc ......... ---.-----
Structures other than buildings .....- -------...
Buildings _..--.------------- .-----...-
Unexpended balance -------------_.......--

$ 18,820.10


Total --......-....... ------- --- -- ----- ------- $ 18,820.10


Balance, 1939-40 ........-------
Receipts, 1940-41 .....------

$ 15,154.26
---------- 71,477.33


Salaries ....---------$ --- -------- $ 31,439.00
Labor ...........------- ----- ----- 13,011.47
Stationary and office supplies .--------__.. -------- 226.24
Scientific supplies ...------ ------.. -------------. 1,185.99
Feeding stuffs -.--------------- 229.72
Fertilizers --------- ------- 2,408.36
Other supplies ----..........------------------- 721.20
Communication service ------------------------ --- 332.62
Travel expense ..------------------ 2,319.80
Transportation of things ---------------------- --- 102.33
Heat, light, water, power -------- 2,084.73
Contingent expenses --__-.......---------- 174.76
Furniture, fixtures _... ....-------- ------ 872.59
Library .------- --- ------- 87.62
Scientific equipment __--. ....--- ------- 381.08
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ----...- ---- 624.86
Structures other than buildings ........---- 909.06
Buildings -...------ ----- ----. ----- 2,570.87
Unexpended balance .---------------------- 26,949.29

Total ---- -------------------------


....-- $ 86,631.59

Annual Report, 1941


----_ $ 8,766.37
--.--- 45,339.00

Salaries ........---...------
Labor -.. .....--------..-----.....
Stationary and office supplies -
Scientific supplies --- .----
Feeding stuffs ------ ..---
Fertilizers ........----_
Other supplies ------.............--
Communication service -..------
Travel expenses -....---------------
Transportation of things --
Heat, light, power, water----
Contingent expense ---
Furniture, fixtures
Library --------_-_-___.....
Scientific equipment ---
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc.
Structures other than buildings
Buildings -.-__.. ------
Improvement to land ------_-
Unexpended balance ------
Total -


$ 54,105.37

-.----- $ 18,052.00
--- -. 15,105.22
----- 1,327.60
....-...- 380.63
-----... 1,190.70
----- 288.93
-..-..- ..- 608.13
--------- 165.60
-- 5,105.47

$ 54,105.37

-----------------..- $ 5,000.00

Balance, 1939-40 .- ---------..--------......--
Receipts, 1940-41

Labor .----------
Stationary and other supplies ----
Scientific supplies --------
Feeding stuffs
Other supplies
Communication service .... ----
Travel expense ----------
Transportation of things -------
Heat, light, power, water
Contingent expense -
Furniture, fixtures
Library -----------------
Scientific equipment --------------
Livestock ----------
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ---
Structures other than buildings ----
Buildings ------------------
Unexpended balance ..---- ----
Total ....------ -- ---

_$ 2,272.45
$ 9,820.00
--------........------. $ 28,240.45

Balance, 1939-40
Receipts, 1940-41

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


...------- _-----..- $ 1,397.10
.--- -- .. ---.. 21,000.00

Salaries ----. ---------
Labor __.------..--..__-----_..
Stationary and office supplies
Scientific supplies ----..-..--.----
Fertilizers ...--_... ---. -...--.-.-._-
Other supplies ----------
Communication service ---
Travel expense --.... -----
Transportation of things ----
Heat, light, power, water ---
Contingent expense .------
Furniture, fixtures ---------
Library _--._----_--- ----..--- ..-_.._. ....
Scientific equipment -...--------.
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc.-
Structures other than buildings -
Buildings --_-----------------------..
Unexpended balance ..----


$ 22,397.10

-.$--- $ 9,994.81
-- 3,982.75
--- 432.90
-- 839.35
-- 1,247.77

$ 22,397.10


Balance, 1939-40 ----------
Receipts, 1940-41

Labor ------- -
Stationary and office supplies -
Scientific supplies ---
Feeding stuffs
Other supplies ----
Communication service ---
Travel expense
Transportation of things --
Heat, light, water, power --
Contingent expense ---
Furniture, fixtures ----
Scientific equipment ----
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc.
Structures other than buildings
Buildings --------------
Unexpended balance -..---

Total ...------------------ --

$ 3,000.10


$ 4,200.00

--- ----.. $ 13,000.10

Balance, 1939-40
Receipts, 1940-41


Annual Report, 1941

Balance, 1939-40 ---- ---.. -- .. ..... $ 1,655.81
Receipts, 1940-41 --------------... .. 5415,540.00

$ 17,195.81
Salaries _.$------------------ ----..... ..... . .. $ 7,170.67
Labor ------ ----.... --.. .. .... 4,013.49
Stationary and office supplies -----------------... 29.75
Scientific supplies -----------------------.....__ 272.45
Other supplies ------------------------... ..._ 2,352.85
Travel expense ...... ----------- .. .. 206.40
Transportation of things ----------------..-----....... 133.36
Heat, light, power, water --.-------------------.. 1,158.08
Contingent expense..-- ------....-----.--.-.----...-__-_ 93.34
Furniture, fixtures -- --------...........------------- 559.91
Library -------------------___....-- .... ... 8.00
Scientific equipment -- ---.. -. --.-- ... 181.09
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. --- 378.90
Structures other than buildings ----11.67
Buildings ---------......... ..... 123.66
Unexpended balance ----.. --------- ------..._ 502.19

Total -------.. ------------....................... .$ 17,195.81

Balance, 1939-40 ---.-------- -.. -....... $ 1,504.79
Receipts, 1940-41 12,500.00

$ 14,004.79
Salaries $---- ------- $ 6,099.00
Labor -- ......---------------- 1,926.60
Stationary and office supplies ----- __ 13.50
Scientific supplies ---------218.22
Feeding stuffs 2,042.10
Other supplies -116.52
Travel expense ------------- 171.40
Transportation of things ---- 25.06
Heat, light, power, water ---.-- 226.13
Furniture, fixtures 48.11
Scientific equipment ------- 56.84
Livestock -- 41.50
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ---- 29.69
Unexpended balance ------ 2,990.12

Total -------------------- ---- --...$ 14,004.79

Balance, 1939-40 ----------- $ 785.32
Receipts, 1940-41 .....----.--. ----- -..--. 18,000.00

$ 18,785.32

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Salaries ----------.----- ... ..------- $ 960.00
Labor ____- -------------___ 580.69
Stationary and office supplies .-..--.---.--__._---. 105.52
Scientific supplies ...-- -- -- --------- --.. .._ ____ 2.96
Communication service ..........----..-..._~.--.._.-_. 3,144.13
Travel expense _--........---------- ----- --. . 8,917.17
Transportation of things -....---. .-------.____._--_ 6.05
Heat, light, power, water -------- __ 27.00
Furniture, fixtures --.--------.-----.--- .--_ 304.86
Scientific equipment .....-------... --.... ---. .. 3,927.18
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. --- 16.29
Buildings ----.-------... ---.----....----------- 41.40
Unexpended balance ...---....--.---.---- --.-- 752.07
Total ...--............--------.- -..-........ ..$ -18,785.32

Balance, 1939-40 ----..-------.. ... --.. -----.. ----- $ 3,192.51
Receipts, 1940-41 ---..---..-.._..--. ._-------------------- 6,500.00

Labor .-.--..-----....-..-.- ..----..------------..
Stationary and office supplies --_
Scientific supplies ------- -------
Fertilizers .-...-.-..--.-.-- ----
Other supplies ....----.---.... ----------.-
Travel expense -... -----------------_-...
Transportation of things ------
Heat, light, power, water ..--.-----.--...
Contingent expense .--.-----------.-.-------
Furniture, fixtures -----..-------
Scientific equipment -- ...--.---...-----.-
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. ---
Structures other than buildings --
Buildings --....---.--- ....------....-------
Unexpended balance --.....------.---------.
Total ..----....-.------------..--..

. .--.--.. $ 2,216.14
-.--. 227.43
---- 107.13
-.-- 152.76
-- 249.95
--- 52.00
-.--. 5.80
S 80.00
-- 75.00
--. 79.54
-- 6,390.63

$ 9,692.51

$ 9,692.51

Balance, 1939-40 _.-.... - - -------------- --- $ 20,000.00
Receipts, 1940-41 .-.....- .- - ---. -.-- 20,000.00

Salaries ----. ------------
Labor ...-------------
Stationary and office supplies -
Scientific supplies ....-- -------.
Other supplies --------
Travel expense -------
Transportation of things --------
Heat, light, water, power --
Furniture, fixtures ..------------
Scientific equipment ---
Buildings ----------------- -----
Unexpended balance .----------..
Total--- ...-... ....------------.

$ 666.67

$ 40,000.00

-$ 40,000.00

Annual Report, 1941


Balance, 1939-40
Receipts, 1940-41

..- $ 5,165.16

Salaries ----.--------------------- $ 1,800.00
Labor .......--------....------ 3,410.03
Stationary and office supplies ---......- .---_---- 5.50
Scientific supplies _------- 100.09
Fertilizers --...-.......------------- 135.87
Other supplies --------- 99.81
Travel expense .----_-.. -----....-.---------..- 41.80
Transportation of things --. -----. 68.97
Heat, light, power, water-- 65.52
Contingent expense 42.00
Furniture, fixtures .....--------------- 36.09
Scientific equipment --....-----.- ----- .93
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. --- 5.26
Structures other than buildings --------------- 104.72
Buildings -----........------------- 53.75
Unexpended balance .... ----------- 9,194.82

$ 15,165.16

$ 15,165.16


Balance, 1939-40 -
Receipts, 1940-41

Salaries -------
Labor ----------------.........
Scientific supplies -_---..........--.---
Other supplies ---- --------
Travel expense -----------
Transportation of things --------------
Heat, light, water, power --
Contingent expense ---------.--------
Furniture, fixtures --------
Machinery, trucks, tractors, etc. _-
Structures other than buildings _-
Buildings ---------------- --
Improvement to land -------------------
Unexpended balance ---------.........

Total -- ---- -

_$ 12,477.40


$ 900.00

-----------------------$ 24,977.40


Receipts from the T
appropriations i

Personal services
Supplies and mater
Communication ser
Travel expenses -
Transportation of t]
Heat, light, water,
Structures and nons






treasury of the United States, as per
for fiscal year ended June 30, 1941 .- $15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000

- -. $14,992.25 $15,000.00 $51,01
rials 3,827
vice 7.75 19
things 2C
and power (service); and fuel----- 29
--- --------- 2,00(
tructural improvements -----------------.-- 42

-$15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000


.00 $30,801.64

.43 $20,840.41
.78 2,427.25
.40 1.43
.47 1,117.75
).73 252.01
).07 240.73
).93 5,181.71
.19 740.35

).00 $30,801.64

Annual Report, 1941

The ultimate value of research work lies in making its findings avail-
able to the people who need and can use them. The Editorial Depart-
ment has attempted to carry to the public both new information as it was
developed and verified by the research staff and most essential and de-
sirable of that contained in the vast storehouse of already accumulated
knowledge. Principal media used were newspapers, farm papers and
related journals, radio broadcasts, and bulletins.
Around 100,000 copies of Station bulletins leave the Mailing Room
annually, most of them on special request. Copies of each new bulletin
are sent to libraries and technical workers throughout the country,
numbering usually less than 2,000. Copies are sent also to county agents,
who request as many as they think will be in demand in their offices
during the next few weeks. Around 5,000 people on a special "Bulletin
Notify" mailing list are informed of the publication of each new bulletin,
and can order it if desired.
As in the past, the staff of three editors and three mailing clerks
devoted slightly more than half of its time to work for the Extension
Service under its cooperative employment.

With the culmination of research on various projects, 13 new bulle-
tins were issued during the year. They ranged from 16 to 64 pages in
length, totaling 502 pages, and from 4,000 to 20,000 in quantity, totaling
136,000 copies.
Manuscripts were prepared by the workers, approved by depart-
ment heads, and given a thorough examination for accuracy of content
by the publication committee. After passing the committee, they were
finally approved by the Director and his staff before being submitted to
the Editor for publication. The Editor checked the copy, marked it for
the printer, read proofs, and supervised the printing.
Following were the new bulletins issued during the year:



347 Propagation of Ornamental Plants -------
348 Bacterial Soft Rot of Potatoes in Southern Florida -
349 Melanose of Citrus and Its Commercial Control--
350 Papaya Culture in Florida ----.-------
351 Winter Clover Pastures for Peninsular Florida--
352 Fertilizer Experiments with Potatoes on the Marl
Soils of Dade County ---------------
363 Paperwhite Narcissus, I and II ....------------
354 Feeding Value and Nutritive Properties of Citrus
By-Products, II.. ___ ...-------------- -------------
355 Corn Varieties and Hybrids and Corn Improvement -.
356 Distribution and Concentration of Copper in the New-
born Calf as Influenced by the Nutrition of the Dam .--
357 The Gladiolus Thrips in Florida ....--_- ...-----------
358 The Comparative Feeding Value of Silages __-------
359 Distribution of "Trace Elements" in the Newborn Calf
as Influenced by the Nutrition of the Dam-------

ages Edition
54 20,000
36 8,000
56 20,000
36 8,000
32 12,000

40 7,500
24 5,000

16 15,000
52 15,000

64 4,000
24 10,000
20 7,500

48 4,000


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

A very brief summary of each bulletin issued during the year fol-
347. Propagation of Ornamental Plants. (John V. Watkins, 54 pp., 21
figs.) Discusses propagation by cuttage, division, layering, budding,
grafting and seeds and presents suggestions on the management of grow-
ing plants and recommendations for the propagation of Florida orna-
mentals. Contains list of common and scientific names of plants for
easy reference to the propagation table.
348. Bacterial Soft Rot of Potatoes in Southern Florida. (Geo. D. Ruehle,
36 pp., 6 figs.) This technical bulletin describes soft rot and its economic
importance, discusses the causal organism, and reports results of experi-
ments with washed and unwashed potatoes, commercial drying of washed
potatoes, pre-cooling, and presents conclusions and control recommen-
349. Melanose of Citrus and Its Commercial Control. (Geo. D. Ruehle and
Wm. A. Kuntz, 56 pp., 7 figs.) The most practical program for melanose
control may be the one which falls somewhat short of complete com-
mercial control, but does not make the subsequent control of insects
excessive. Most melanose infection of fruit may be prevented by the
application of an efficient copper fungicide two or three weeks after the
petals are off in trees which have set a normal bloom.
350. Papaya Culture in Florida. (H. S. Wolfe and S. J. Lynch, 36 pp.,
16 figs.) Contains information as to climate and soils best suited to
papayas, propagation, planting, fertilization, mulching and irrigation,
thinning fruit, picking, packing and shipping, seed selection, and dis-
eases and insects.
351. Winter Clover Pastures for Peninsular Florida. (R. E. Blaser and F.
T. Boyd, 32 pp., 13 figs.) Reports results of cooperative experiments in
which clovers were tested on livestock farms over a large part of the
peninsula, presenting suggestions on adapted soils, fertilizer require-
ments on both acid and alkaline soils, and seeding and management of
pastures. Lists practical pointers for establishing and managing clover
352. Fertilizer Experiments with Potatoes on the Marl Soils of Dade County.
(W. M. Fifield and H. S. Wolfe, 40 pp., 5 figs.) Fertilizer experiments
conducted at the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station over a period of 10
years are reported in which analyses, amounts, sources of nitrogen and
potash, and applications of manganese and other soil amendments were
studied as affecting yields of Bliss Triumph potatoes grown on the marl
soils of Dade County, Florida.
353. Paperwhite Narcissus: I. The Growth Cycle; II. Some Factors Affecting
Bulb and Flower Production. (R. D. Dickey, 24 pp., 8 figs.) Slabs, round
bulbs and mother bulbs produced round and mother bulbs. Larger bulbs
planted yielded more salable bulbs than smaller ones. Bulb size and
category exert a marked effect upon flower production.
354. Feeding Value and Nutritive Properties of Citrus By-Products: II. Dried
Grapefruit Pulp for Milk Production. (P. T. Dix Arnold, R. B. Becker and
W. M. Neal, 16 pp., 3 figs.) Tests showed dried grapefruit pulp to be
palatable to dairy cows, even after they had received their full regular
feed. That used in these trials yielded 1.2 percent of digestible crude
protein and 76.0 percent of digestible nutrients. Cows receiving dried

Annual Report, 1941

grapefruit pulp produced slightly more milk and butterfat than those
receiving beet pulp, but the latter gained more weight.
355. Corn Varieties and Hybrids and Corn Improvement. (Fred H. Hull, J.
D. Warner and W. A. Carver, 52 pp., 25 figs.) Yield tests with corn
varieties and hybrids have shown Fla. W-l to be a good hybrid strain
and Florident White to be an adapted white variety. Describes methods
of corn improvement.
356. Distribution and Concentration of Copper in the Newborn Calf as In-
fluenced by the Nutrition of the Dam. (L. L. Rusoff, 64 pp., 2 figs.) A com-
parison of the copper content of the tissues of four newborn calves,
made by the quantitative spectrographic method, showed that copper
was present in every tissue analyzed. Calves from "salt sick" dams
are not necessarily "salt sick" themselves. Technical.
357. The Gladiolus Thrips in Florida. (J. W. Wilson, 24 pp., 6 figs.)
The gladiolus thrips, present in Florida since 1932, injures growing
plants, florets and corms. A few varieties of gladiolus have been found
resistant to thrips attack. Some parasites have been observed, but they
are of small importance. Control recommendations are made. Notes
on other thrips found on gladiolus, by J. R. Watson, are included.
358. Comparative Feeding Value of Silages Made from Napier Grass, Sorghum
and Sugarcane. (A. L. Shealy, W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown, 20 pp., 0
figs.) This is the first report in which Napier grass silage has been
compared with. sorghum. It was found that when sorghum silage is
given a feeding value of 100, Napier grass silage is valued at 75 and
sugarcane silage at 70. Technical.
359. Distribution of "Trace Elements" in the Newborn Calf as Influenced by
the Nutrition of the Dam. (L. L. Rusoff, 48 pp., 0 figs.) Of the 27 trace
elements for which various organs and tissues of three newborn calves
from normal dams and one from a "salt sick" dam were analyzed, 15
elements were detected, zinc being found in all. No significant differ-
ences were found between tissues and organs of calves from normal and
those from "salt sick" dams.

Fourteen new press bulletins were issued and nine were reprinted
during the year, total copies being 115,000 of which 83,000 new and
32,000 were reprints. Of the new press bulletins, seven were four pages
and seven two pages in length. Only one of the reprints exceeded two
pages. Quantities run on each ranged from 2,000 to 30,000 copies, but
were mostly 3,000 to 5,000.
The following press bulletins were printed during the year, with
authors listed after the titles of new bulletins.
548. Brown Rot of Solanceous Plants, by A. H. Eddins.
551. Thread Blight of Woody Plants, by George F. Weber.
552. Chickenpox, by M. W. Emmel.
553. A Soil Treatment for the Control of Brown Rot of Potatoes,
by A. H. Eddins.
554. The Cause and Control of Citrus Scab, by Arthur S. Rhoads,
George D. Ruehle and W. L. Thompson.
555. Control of the Citron Plant Bug on Citrus, by W. L. Thompson.
556. An Adequate Diet, by Ouida D. Abbott and R. B. French.
557. Cowpea Scab, by George F. Weber.
558. Leaf Blister of Oaks, by George F. Weber.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

559. Garden Chrysanthemums for Florida, by John V. Watkins.
560. Nursery Propagation and Topworking of Mangos, by S. J.
561. Fertilizing Avocado Trees on the Redland Soils (Rockdale
Series) of Dade County, Florida, by S. J. Lynch and H. S. Wolfe.
562. The Redland Guava, by S. J. Lynch and H. S. Wolfe.
Bulletin List
425. Mushrooms and Their Culture (reprint).
468. Durable Whitewashes (reprint).
473. The Destructor Scale (reprint).
476. Infectious Laryngotracheitis (Infectious Bronchitis) in Poultry
495. Black Rot of Cabbage (reprint).
505. Blackhead in Turkeys (reprint).
507. The Place of Minerals in Swine Feeding (reprint).
526. Transplanting Peach Trees (reprint).
527. Peach Varieties for Florida (reprint).

Experiment Station staff members (other than the Editors) con-
tinued to play an important part in radio broadcasting activities directed
by the Extension Service, and radio continued to be a useful means of
disseminating research results. On the Florida Farm Hour over WRUF,
University of Florida radio station, Station workers presented 150 talks
during the year.
Fifty different farm flashes, embodying an equal number of these
talks, were prepared and sent to seven other radio stations throughout
the state, thus giving added distribution to the materials they contained.
Four special broadcasts-two from Gainesville and one each from
Orlando and Tampa-were staged from livestock, forage crops and
forestry special exhibit train which toured 53 Florida counties between
November 7 and December 4, 1940. Experiment Station workers par-
ticipated in each of the broadcasts.

Both newspapers and farm journals continued to use generously of
Experiment Station news, even in the face of multiplied demands on
their space for national defense materials. It is realized that agriculture
has an important role to play in national defense, and continues basic to
the life of both town and country.
Releases to weekly papers and farm journals were made through the
medium of the Agricultural News Service, weekly clipsheet issued by
the Extension Service. Important and timely news was released to
daily papers through the wire service of the Associated Press and
through special stories to one or more papers.
Of articles relating to Experiment Station work prepared by the
Editors, three Florida farm publications printed six which totaled 216
column inches, one Southern farm paper printed six which occupied 82
column inches, and three national farm journals printed one article each
for a total of 144 column inches.
A special project in which the Experiment Station was interested,
and through which it received invaluable and almost unlimited publicity,
was the livestock, forage crops and forestry special train which was
operated through 53 Florida counties in cooperation with two railroads
between November 7 and December 4, 1940. Special stories and pictures

Annual Report, 1941

were supplied to both weekly and daily papers all along the route, the
exhibits attracted 68,000 people, and motion pictures helped further to
spread the lessons of the exhibits.

As fast as research information was gained by the staff, it was made
available to the scientific world through the means of articles in scien-
tific journals. Very few of these papers were edited by the Editors
before being submitted direct to the journals.
Articles by Station staff members featured nearly every issue of
every Florida farm publication. Most of these were copies of radio
talks, which had been forwarded to the farm papers by the Station
Following is a list of articles by staff members, except the Editors,
in popular and scientific journals and yearbooks during the period
covered by this report.
About This New Alyce Clover. W. E. Stokes. Sou. Seedsman, 3:11,
Nov. 1940.
A Copper-Soap Spray For Control of Tobacco Downy Mildew. R. R.
Kincaid. Phytopath. 31:3, Mar. 1941.
Advantages of Grow Healthy Chick Campaign. N. R. Mehrhof. Fla.
Poult. and Stockman. Mar. 1941.
Algal Leaf and Fruit Spot of Guava. G. D. Ruehle. Phytopath. 31:1.
Jan. 1941.
Alyce Clover-A New Hay and Pasture Crop For the Southeast. R. E.
Blaser and G. E. Ritchey. Proc. Asso. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 1941.
Animal Industry Popular at State University. R. B. Becker. Fla. Cat-
tleman, Apr. 1941.
A Review of the 1939-40 Florida Citrus Season. C. V. Noble. Citrus
Grower, 31:2, July 5, 1940.
A Rust of Florida Pines Caused by Cronartium Quercum (Berk.) Miya.
G. F. Weber. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci., 5, 1941.
Availability of Ions in Light Sandy Soils as Affected by Soil Reaction.
Michael Peech. Soil Science 51 (In Press) 1941.
Blue Lupine-A Seed-Producing Winter Legume. J. D. Warner. Sou.
Seedsman. June, 1941.
Boron in Pecan Nutrition. G. H. Blackmon. Proc. Amer. Soc. for Hort.
Sci., 38. 1941.
Casuarinas, or So-Called Australian Pines, in Florida. A. S. Rhoads.
Subtrop. Gdng., 2:9. Aug. 1940.
Camellia Research at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. R.
J. Wilmot. Bul. Gdn. Club of Amer., 14. 1941.
Camellia Testing Project in Florida. R. J. Wilmot. Florists Rev., 88:20.
Combatting Pecan Insects. J. R. Watson. Fla. Grower. Oct. 1940.
Common Diseases of Poultry During the Summer Months. M. W.
Emmel. Fla. Grower. Sept. 1940.
Comparative Feeding Values of Sorghum Silage, Sugarcane Silage, and
Napier Grass for Fattening Steers. A. L. Shealy, W. G. Kirk and
R. M. Crown. Proc. Asso. Sou. Agr. Wkrs., 1941.
Comparison of Silages for Fattening Steers. A. L. Shealy. Fla. Grower.
Apr. 1941.
Controlling the San Jose Scale. J. R. Watson. Fla. Grower. Oct. 1940.
Control of Citrus Aphids. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry. Mar. 1941.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Control of Termites in Citrus Groves. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry.
Dec. 1940.
Cover Crops. F. S. Jamison. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 1941.
Cows Are What Feed Makes Them. P. T. Dix Arnold. Fla. Grower.
Jan. 1941.
Dairy Management Suggestions. L. M. Thurston. Fla. Grower. Dec.
Dairymen Plan for Profit Season. P. T. D. Arnold. Fla. Grower. Oct.
Effect of Freeze Damage on Citrus Trees and Fruit in Relation to Grove
Practices. W. W. Lawless. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 54. 1941.
Effect of Periodic Burning on the Growth Behavior and Relative Com-
position of Florida Range Grasses and Establishment of Improved
Pasture Grasses. W. A. Leukel and W. E. Stokes. Proc. Amer. Soc.
Agron. Dec. 1940.
Entomological Problems in the Everglades. J. W. Wilson. Fla. En-
tomologist, 24:1. Jan. 1941.
Essentials for Profitable Livestock Production. A. L. Shealy. Fla. Cat-
tleman. Nov. 1940.
Experimental Data on the Freezing of Plants at the Lakeland Meteoro-
logical Laboratory. L. G. Pardue, Jr. Proc. Amer. Meteor. Soc.
May, 1941.
Experiments for Control of Potato Late Blight in an Epidemic Year.
G. D. Ruehle. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 1941.
Factors Affecting Soil Sampling Procedure in Citrus Groves. Michael
Peech. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla., 2. 1940.
Factors Affecting the Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soils Under
Florida Conditions. F. B. Smith. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla., 2.
Factors in Dairying Success. P. T. D. Arnold. Fla. Grower. June, 1941.
Factors that Influence Quality Fruit. B. R. Fudge. Citrus Grower,
2(41):3. Sept. 1940.
Feeding and Managing Baby Chicks. N. R. Mehrhof. Fla. Grower. Jan.
Fertilization of Trees and Shrubs. R. D. Dickey. Citrus Industry, 21:6.
Fertilizer Experiments in an Orange Grove in the Eastern Everglades.
J. R. Neller. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 1941.
Fertilizer Placement Studies with Vegetables Other than Potatoes. F. S.
Jamison. Proc. Asso. Sou. Agr. Workers, 1941.
Florida Cover Crops Effective. W. E. Stokes. Fla. Grower. June, 1941.
Florida Everglades Grow Cane. F. D. Stevens. Better Crops with
Plant Food, 25:5. May, 1941.
Florida Field Crop Outlook. W. E. Stokes. Fla. Grower, 49:1. Jan.,
Florida's Need for a Soil Survey Explained. R. V. Allison and J. R.
Henderson. Fla. Grower. March, 1941.
Florida Tests Camellia Varieties. R. J. Wilmot. Am. Nysmn., 73:9.
Fruit and Nut Crops Varied. G. H. Blackmon. Fla. Grower, 49:5.
May, 1941.
Further Study in Relationship Between Fruit and Air Temperatures.
P. J. Powell. Proc. Amer. Meteor. Soc. May, 1941.
Grape Varieties and Their Culture. R. D. Dickey. Subtrop. Gdng., 2:11.
Green Corn for Shipping. F. H. Hull. Fla. Grower, 49:2. Feb., 1941.

Annual Report, 1941

Higher Prices for Quality Produce. F. S. Jamison. Fla. Grower, 48:12.
Dec., 1940.
Hippelates Flies as Vectors of Bovine Mastitis. D. A. Sanders. Jour.
Amer. Vet. Med. Asso. 97:763. Oct., 1940.
Homogenized Milk. E. L. Fouts. Proc. Fla. Dairy Prod. Assn. 1941.
Horticultural Research in Florida. G. H. Blackmon. Citrus Ind., 21:9.
Sept., 1940.
How Long Do Good Bulls Live? R. B. Becker and P. T. D. Arnold.
Aryshire Digest. May 15, 1941.
Influence of Starter Solutions on Lettuce and Celery Seedlings on the
Everglades Muck. F. S. Andrews. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1941.
Irrigation for Vegetable Crops. F. S. Jamison. Fla. Grower, 49:1.
Jan. 1941.
Key to Successful Truck Farming. F. S. Jamison. Fla. Grower, 48:9.
Sept. 1940.
Lessen Livestock Shipping Losses. A. L. Shealy. Fla. Grower. July,
Lettuce as a Money Crop. V. F. Nettles. Fla. Grower, 48:11. Nov.
Management of Napier Grass for Grazing. R. E. Blaser, W. G. Kirk and
W. E. Stokes. Proc. Asso. Sou. Agr. Wkrs., 1941.
Marketing Thanksgiving Poultry. O. W. Anderson, Jr. Fla. Grower,
Nov. 1940.
Mathematical Analysis of the Significant Factors in the Hygrometric
Forecasting Eauation. J. W. Milligan. Proc. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,
May 1941.
Musca Domestica and Hippelates Flies-Vectors of Bovine Mastitis.
D. A. Sanders. Science, 92:2387. Sept. 27, 1940.
Musca Domestica a Vector of Bovine Mastitis. D. A. Sanders. Jour.
Amer. Vet. Med. Assn. 97:761. Aug. 1940.
New Avocado Varieties. S. J. Lynch. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 1941.
Nitrogen Content of Dormant Pecan Twigs. G. H. Blackmon. Proc.
Amer. Soc. for Hort. Sci., 38. 1941.
Notes on Florida Fungi. II. Erdman West. Mycologia, 33:1. Jan. 1941.
Notes on the Dictyospermum Scale Infesting Citrus. W. L. Thompson.
Citrus Ind. 21(11):5. 1940.
Notes on the Soil Clinic. G. M. Volk and R. A. Carrigan. Proc. Fla.
State Florists Assn. 1940.
Pasture Development Progress. W. E. Stokes. Fla. Grower, 48:12.
Dec. 1940.
Pecan Seedlings Growth Response to Boron. G. H. Blackmon. Proc.
Asso. Sou. Agr. Workers, 1941.
Permanent Pastures in Florida. W. E. Stokes. Proc. Railway Devel.
Asso. of Southeast. Jan. 1941.
Plant Bugs in Citrus Groves. W. L. Thompson. Citrus Ind., 21(10):16.
Oct. 1940.
Points in Wise Feed Selection. O. W. Anderson, Jr. Fla. Grower, Apr.
Potato Crops of World Importance. Erdman West. Fla. Grower, 49:2.
Feb. 1941.
Potato Rotation Studies. O. Smith and E. N. McCubbin. Amer. Potato
Jour. 17:9. Sept. 1940.
Potato Strain Tests and Seed Treatments. G. R. Townsend. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 1941.
Potato Variety Studies in the Homestead Area. W. M. Fifield. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 1941.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Potted and Tubbed Plants. R. J. Wilmot. Subtrop. Gdng., 2:10. July
Practical Spray Programs for Producing Bright Fruit. W. L. Thompson.
Citrus Grower 2(42):7. Sept. 1940.
Preliminary List of Myxomycetes from Alachua County. Erdman West.
Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci., 4. 1939.
Preventing Poultry Diseases. M. W. Emmel. Fla. Grower. Sept. 1940.
Progress Report on Investigations in the Production of Iceberg Lettuce.
J. R. Beckenbach. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 1941.
SProgress Report on Investigations in the Production of Iceberg Lettuce.
Pecan Grs. Assn. 1941.
Prospects of a Citrus Aphid Infestation this Spring. W. L. Thompson.
Citrus. Ind. 22(3):6. 1941. Citrus Grower 2(13):3. 1941. Citrus
3(10):10-11. 1941.
Rapid Micromethods in the Determination of Exchangeable Bases in
Soils. Michael Peech. Jour. Ind. and Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. (in
press). 1941.
Recent Observations on Cream Used for Making Butter in the South.
E. L. Fouts. Proc. Sou. Agr. Workers. 1941.
Sausage and Other Pork Products. W. G. Kirk. Fla. Grower. Nov.
Scale Infestations on Citrus During 1940. W. L. Thompson. Citrus Ind.
22(2):5. 1941.
Sectional Note on Florida Potatoes. G. D. Ruehle. Amer. Potato Jour.
18:5. May 1941.
Soil Reaction as a Factor in Fertilizer Economy. Michael Peech. Citrus
Grower 2(41):3. Sept. 1940.
Some Factors Affecting Potato Yields at Hastings, Florida. A. H. Eddins.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 1941.
Some Handy Insecticides. A. N. Tissot. Citrus Industry. Mar. 1941.
Some Interesting Insects. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry. Jan. 1941.
Some Physical and Chemical Methods Used in Determining the Trace
Element Content of Soils, Plant and Animal Materials. L. H. Rogers
and R. C. Hughes. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla., 2. 1940.
Some Practical Applications of Psychological Principles in Weather
Forecasting. A. L. Lorenz. Proc. Amer. Meteor. Soc. May 1941.
Spectrochemical Research in Agricultural Research. L. H. Rogers.
Jour. Optical Soc. of Amer., 31:3. Mar. 1941.
Story of the Tomato-An Outstanding Florida Crop. Erdman West.
Fla. Grower, 48:12. Dec. 1940.
Studies with Rooting Media for Florida Ornamentals. J. V. Watkins
and G. H. Blackmon. Proc. Amer. Soc. for Hort. Sci.,48. 1941.
Suggestions for Summer Pest Control. W. L. Thompson. Fla. Grower,
48:9. 1940.
Tests and Standards for Shark Liver Oil. L. L. Rusoff and R. M.
French. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci. 1940.
The Ascorbic Acid Content of Milk as Affected by Varying Amounts of
Shark Liver Oil in the Ration. H. E. Skipper, L. L. Rusoff and L.
W. Thurston. Proc. Asso. Sou. Agr. Wkrs., 1941.
The Cover Crop as a Factor in Pecan Production. G. H. Blackmon. Pe-
can Jour., 1:2. Sept. 1940.
The Effect of Certain Fertilizer Practices on the Time of Maturity and
Composition of Grapefruit and Oranges. F. F. Cowart and C. R.
Stearns, Jr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 54. 1941.

Annual Report, 1941

The Effect of Substituted Cations in the Soil Complex on the Decomposi-
tion of Natal Grass. Thomas Whitehead, Jr. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc.
of Fla., 3. 1941.
The Effect of Substituted Cations in the Soil Complex on the Decomposi-
tion of Organic Matter. F. B. Smith and Thomas Whitehead, Jr.
Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer., 5. 1941.
The Life Span of Guernsey Bulls. R. B. Becker and P. T. D. Arnold.
Guernsey Breed. Jour. May 1, 1941.
The Mineral Composition of Citrus Juice as Influenced by Soil Treat-
ment. B. R. Fudge. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 54. 1941.
The Pasture Cafeteria as a Means of Evaluating New Pasture Plants.
G. E. Ritchey. Proc. Asso. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 1941.
The Physical Action of Organic Matter in Fixing Plant Foods in the Soil.
G. M. Volk. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla., 2. 1940.
The Present Status of Rough Lemon Rootstock. A. F. Camp. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc., 54. 1941.
The Present Status of Scale Insects Infesting Citrus. W. L. Thompson.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 54. 1941.
The Principle of Tissue Autolysis and its Possible Application in Canine
Therapy. M. W. Emmel. Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Assn., 98. 1941.
The Relationship of Soil Science to Land Use Planning. R. V. Allison.
Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. 1940.
The Violets of Alachua County, Florida. W. A. Murrill. Jour. Elisha
Mitchell Sci. Soc., 56:2. Dec. 1940.
360,000 Acres of Pasture Made in Florida in 4 Years. W. E. Stokes. Fla.
Cattleman. Mar. 1941.
Transplanting and Growing Roses. G. H. Blackmon. Fla. Grower, 48:10.
Oct. 1940.
Transportation of Florida Citrus. C. V. Noble. The Citrus Grower.
September 27, 1940.
Truck Crops Show Changes. F. S. Jamison. Florida Grower, 48:8.
August, 1940.
Unscrambling the Vitamins. L. L. Rusoff. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci. 1940.
Unusual Facts About Insects. A. N. Tissot. Citrus Industry. Nov. 1940.
Useful Life Span of Holstein Bulls. R. B. Becker and P. T. D. Arnold.
Holstein-Friesian World. Mar. 15, 1941.
Useful Life Span of Jersey Bulls. R. B. Becker and P. T. D. Arnold.
Jersey Bul. Feb. 12, 1941.
War on Rose Insects. A. N. Tissot. Proc. Fla. Rose Soc. 1941.
What Do We Want in a Watermelon? M. N. Walker. Sou. Seedsman.
April 1940.
What Honey Contributes to the Diet. O. D. Abbott. Honey Institute Ink-
lings, 5:1. 1941.
What is an Ideal Watermelon? M. N. Walker. Sou. Seedsman. May
What the Experiment Station is Doing to Help the Farmer Solve Prob-
lems. W. E. Stokes. Proc. Sou. Seedsmen's Asso. June, 1941. Seed
Trade News, 1941. Seed World, 1941. Sou. Seedsman, 1941.
Why Dairy Feeds Need Minerals. R. B. Becker. Fla. Grower. May.
Wintering Beef Cattle in the Southeast. W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown.
Proc. Asso. Sou. Agr. Wkrs. 1941.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The most notable addition to the Library is a 33,000 card catalog to
botanical literature, published by the New York Botanical Garden. Be-
cause of the splendid holding in botanical literature, the catalog will be
of invaluable assistance to individuals working in botany.
The Librarian has written to every state horticultural society and to
every state department of agriculture in an effort to secure complete
files of all the publications issued by them.
The branch stations were lent 448 volumes; 80 articles were secured
through microfilming, in addition to 50 volumes borrowed for the use of
the research staff.
The year established a record in cataloging; 12,563 catalog cards
were prepared and typed in the Library while 3,203 cards were pur-
chased from Library of Congress, making a total of 15,766 cards filed
in the alphabet-dictionary catalog. These are exclusive of the 33,000
cards referred to above.
In addition to the staff, faculty and others who use the library
1,523 students used 9,484 books on reserve.
Statistics briefly summarized are:
Volumes sent to the bindery_______- .........-------- 224
Volumes received by gift, purchase or exchange- 279
Total number of volumes added-- --- 503
Total number bound volumes in library -------15,851
Pamphlets, bulletins, serials received -- 14,839
Books lent to branch stations ---_-- 448
Books borrowed from other libraries--- 50
Catalog cards prepared, typed and filed ...---- 12,563
Catalog cards from Library of Congress---- 3,203
Cards for botanical literature catalog ----- 33,000
Students using reserve books ...---.------.........------- 1,523
Reserve books used -..______.. .- ----- ---------- 9,484
Microfilms of articles received __- __.... .....---------- 80

Annual Report, 1941

The work of the Department was continued under the seven projects
outlined in the previous year's report, with the exception that one project
was revised to include a study of land utilization.

Purnell Project 154 H. G. Hamilton, A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble
Data have been compiled during the year on a large number of citrus
cooperative associations showing prices paid members for their fruit and
cost of handling fruit for the seasons 1925-26 to 1933-34, inclusive. A
series of prices paid grower members for fruit and the cost of handling
fruit for most of the cooperative citrus associations in Florida for the
seasons 1925-26 to 1939-40, inclusive, is now available. From these data
it has been found that a high positive correlation exists between prices
paid members and continuity of operation.
During the year data showing membership, volume of business,
financial status, and cost of operations have been obtained on all farmer
cooperatives operating in Florida for the 1939-40 season. These data
are comparable to those obtained in the two previous surveys which were
made for the season 1936-37 and for the seasons 1925-26 to 1929-30, in-

Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage and C. V. Noble
The eighth annual summary of cost accounts kept in cooperation
with Florida citrus growers was made and returned to cooperating grow-
ers. These summaries were prepared to include costs, returns, and other
pertinent data by kinds of fruit, ripening season of fruit, and age of
trees in groupings of three-year intervals. A copy of the summary for
midseason oranges 18 to 20 years of age is here shown as Table 1. This
represents the type of information being furnished each cooperator for
his use in comparing his costs with those from groves constituted

Purnell Project 317 A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble
The Florida farm price index numbers were completed, using the
six-season period September, 1924, to August, 1930, as a base, and sub-
mitted to the Agricultural Statistics Division of the Agricultural Market-
ing Service, United States Department of Agriculture, for criticism.
At their request, the five-season base period August, 1909, to July, 1914,
will be used in order to bring about greater uniformity in the index
numbers for different states. Florida crops for which no prices are
available in the 1909-1914 base period are being introduced into the index
beginning in 1924 at the level of all other commodities during the
calendar years 1924 to 1929, inclusive.
Many Florida crops are seasonal; therefore, prices for these crops
are not available for every month of the year. In cooperation with the

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


i l l


Average Average Your
allay all I our

IGroves Groves Groves Groves
Seasons 1932-37 1937-38 1938-391 1939-40 1939-40
Number of accounts 13 3 4 6 1
Age of grove (years) 18 to 20 18 to 20 18 to 20 18 to 20 19
Acres per grove 3.42 8.70 21.50 15.16 45.53
Trees per acre 65 55 61 63 62
Grove value per acre $797.67 $825.13 $656.34 $682.88 $800.00
Yield in boxes per acre 176 172 324 378 506
Yield in boxes per tree 2.73 3.15 5.27 6.00 8.22
Costs per acre:
Labor $13.75 $ 9.22 $ 20.00 $ 22.45 $ 21.69
Supervision 2.49 4.17 10.23 11.05 13.27
Power and equipment 6.77 4.74 6.70 6.33 5.08
Labor, power and equip-
ment not separated 2.65a 3.25 .97 .56 -
Fertilizer 24.46 13.61 22.68 20.57 20.82
Soil amendments 2.85 3.46 .07 2.33 2.60
Spray and dust 3.27 10.36 6.81 6.14 6.43
Irrigation and drainage .53 1.51 6.56 7.68 5.59
Taxes 7.15 4.25 4.70 4.41 2.22
Interest on grove at 7% 55.84 57.76 45.94 47.80 56.00
All other costs .38 1.45 7.31 17.49 23.85
Total costs per acre 120.14 113.78 131.97 146.81 157.55
Returns per acre 125.41 101.60 166.59 196.66 230.56
Profit or loss per acre 5.27 12.18 34.62 49.85 73.01
Costs per box $ .682 $ .660 $ .407 $ .389 $ .312
Returns per box .712 .589 .514 .521 .456
Profit or loss per box .030 .071 .107 .132 .144
Pounds of fertilizer per acre 1420 629 1408 1242 881
Pounds of fertilizer per tree 21.97 11.49 21.92 19.74 14.33
Pounds of soil amendments
per acre 1202 1039 15 886 888
Pounds of soil amendments
per tree 18.59 18.97 .25 14.07 14.44
All averages in the above columns are based upon the totals for all groves. All groves
were not involved in every item. Where such was the case the following figures based
upon the actual acreage of the specific groves involved are given for comparison with
your particular grove.
| 1932-37 1937-38 I 1938-39 | 1939-40
0 > se o~ &o 2

Costs per acre:
Power and equipment 12 $6.90 2 $4.89 3 $6.77 1$
Labor, power and equip-
ment not separated 9 5.83a 2 25.78 3 2.05 3 6.53
Soil amendments 7 3.76 2 3.96 1 2.22 4 2.46
Spray and dust 12 3.29
Irrigation and drainage 5 4.16 1 15.88 3 6.63 4 8.09
All other costs 10 .83 1 1.66 4 18.87
Pounds of soil amend-
ments per acre 7 1,570 1 1,189 1 535 4 933
Pounds of soil amend-
ments per tree 7 23.06 1 23.021 1 7.35 4 I 15.22
a Part of the cost of spray and dust materials included in this item on three groves.

Annual Report, 1941

Agricultural Statistics Division, U. S. D. A., a new scheme of weighting
is being used for these discontinuous price series.
The combined Florida price index includes 37 farm products and it
is now nearing completion as revised. The price series for oranges,
grapefruit and tangerines are being revised somewhat by the United
States Department of Agriculture. As soon as these have been released,
the combined index will be completed.

Purnell Project 325 J. Wayne Reitz and C. V. Noble
The analysis of 389 citrus and truck grower production records, as
well as the tabulation and analysis of 151 lending agency schedules,
was completed. A preliminary manuscript was completed on December
15, 1940. This manuscript was submitted to officials of the cooperating
agency, Farm Credit Administration, for their criticism and approval,
and is now being edited for publication.
The results of this study will make available for the first time com-
prehensive information concerning the extent of short-term borrowing
of Florida citrus and vegetable growers, as well as the source of this
borrowing. Furthermore, the cost of credit from various sources is
shown, together with other advantages or disadvantages of obtaining
credit from a particular source. In addition to furnishing borrowers
with information to guide them in procuring short-term credit, the
analysis of lending agency problems provides pertinent information to
assist these agencies in the formation of better credit policies. Thus is
furnished a basis for the improvement of the credit system which should
be mutually beneficial to borrowers and lenders.

Purnell Project 345 A. H. Spurlock
This work is being conducted in cooperation with the Department of
Animal Industry. During the past year 10 dairy herds, including the
Experiment Station herd, have been visited and a system of herd and
breeding records opened for each. Inventories were made of each
animal in the herd covering sex, age, breed, weight, and value.

Purnell Project 349 C. M. Hampson and Max E. Brunk
This project is of the service research type, resulting from the re-
quests from the land-use planning committee of Columbia County,
Florida, and the leaders of the State land-use planning project. The work
was closely coordinated with studies being made simultaneously by home
economists and rural sociologists.
Farm management survey records were secured from 187 farmers,
and home management and social survey records were secured from 144
farm women. The data have been compiled into tables and various sum-
maries and at present all materials are in the hands of the Extension
Farm Management Cooperator and the leader of the home economics

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

project, both of whom are giving all available time to analysis and
preparation of outlines preceding the writing of manuscripts.
Preliminary leaflets, containing pertinent farm management data,
have been prepared and used in Extension meetings in Columbia
County, Florida.

Purnell Project 373 Max E. Brunk and C. V. Noble
This project is a revision of Project 73 under which work was re-
sumed after the appointment of Max E. Brunk on February 1, 1941,
succeeding Bruce McKinley, deceased. The study is being confined, for
the most part, to the northwestern portion of Jackson County, Florida.
Farm management data have been obtained from the Soil Conservation
Service and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. Tax maps
showing ownership parcels, assessed valuations, delinquency, and state-
owned lands have been completed from public records. The above data
are being related, on an area basis, to farm income and practices as ob-
tained from the survey records secured under this project during pre-
vious years.

The regular annual summary of the weekly car-lot shipments of
Florida commercial truck crops and the competitive shipments from
other states and from importing countries was made. This summary,
which covers the season ending August 31, 1940, was mimeographed and
issued as a supplement to Florida Bulletin 224.

Annual Report, 1941

Agronomy research during the year was conducted under 19 projects
involving crop variety testing, breeding, rotation, fertilization, cropping
systems, cover and green manure crop studies and forage and pasture
crop testing, establishment maintenance and evaluation. Active coopera-
tion was had with the U.S.D.A. Forage Crops Office, Cereal Office,
Cotton Office, and Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine on for-
age, pasture, oats, and Sea Island cotton.
Outstanding agronomic accomplishments of the year at the Main
and Branch Stations included the distribution of seeds and planting
material to farmers as a result of findings and developments in crop va-
riety testing and breeding involving 2,000 bushels of certified Seabrook
Sea Island cotton, 700 bushels of Florident Yellow corn, 80 bushels of
Florida W-l hybrid corn, 5 tons of blue lupine seed, 50,000 canes and
divided root-clumps of improved Napier grass, 90,000 bright tobacco
plants and production of 1,500 bushels of rust-immune oats seed to be
distributed through the Agricultural Extension Service in the fall of
1941. Higher potash in tobacco fertilizers and higher rates of 3-8-6
tobacco fertilizer per acre gave outstanding profits. Sulfur dusting of
peanuts for disease and insect control, and lime, phosphate and potash
for lespedeza, Alyce clover and White Dutch and other clovers gave
profitable returns.

State Project 20 W. A. Carver and Fred H. Hull
Peanut breeding for the objectives previously noted is being con-
tinued. Pedigreed selection is made within hybrid lines. Most of the
crosses made recently have been between the more promising hybrid
and standard varieties. Several backcrosses also have been made.
During the last three seasons several attempts were made to cross
Arachis hypogaea to wild peanut species. In the 1940 crosses Tennessee Red
was used as the female parent and A. glabrata as the pollen parent. Pollen
from the wild species was applied to the previously emasculated flower,
then within 30 minutes to an hour the pollen of cultivated peanuts was
applied to the same flower. If crossed and selfed seed should start de-
veloping in the same pod, the chances would be greatly increased of
getting crossed seed to fully mature. In this trial seven normal kernels
were formed in five pods. The pods contained five empty cells. Plants
arising from the seven normal kernels appear to be pure Tennessee Red
rather than hybrid.
Peanut variety tests are being conducted on the Station farms at
Gainesville and Quincy. Each test contains 22 hybrid lines and 10
Spanish and Small Runner varieties and introductions. In the 1940
variety test several hybrid lines produced a higher yield of peanuts per
acre and per plant than Florida Runner. Several of the leading Florida
Station hybrid lines and Small Runner introductions are being tested
by four experiment stations in neighboring states.
The 1940 spacing test of Florida Runner and Florida Hybrid 118
showed as in previous tests that new types of intermediate plant habit
require for optimum yields a spacing intermediate to those used for
Spanish and Florida Runner.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Special Project 27-A Geo. E. Ritchey, W. E. Stokes, W. A. Leukel and
J. L. Stephens

This project is closed with this report, the work under it having been
transferred to other pasture projects.

Hatch Project 55 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp and Geo. E. Ritchey
I. Cotton-Corn-Legume Rotation*
The season of 1940-41 completes 11 years of data on this experiment.
Five series of plots have been managed during the 11 years, as was
planned at the beginning of the project. They were outlined as follows:
1. Corn and cotton rotating with no cover crop except natural
2. Corn and cotton rotating with a summer legume crotalariaa) as
a cover crop.
3. Corn and cotton rotating with a winter legume as a cover crop.
4. Corn and cotton rotating with both a summer and a winter
legume cover crop.
5. Plots growing corn and other plots growing cotton annually,
with no cover crop except natural vegetation.
Much higher yields of both corn and cotton were obtained from the
plots which had been rotated.
The yield of corn for 1940 on the rotated plots averages 20.8 bushels
ear corn per acre as compared to 15.1 bushels on the plots which have
grown corn continuously. The variations in yield on the plots receiving
different cover crop treatment are not wide enough to be significant.
The average yield of seed cotton for 1940 on all plots which had been
rotated with corn was 586 pounds per acre as compared to 350 pounds
per acre on those plots which had grown cotton continuously. There was
no significant increase in yields due to cover crop management, although
the plots growing crotalaria yielded slightly higher than those growing
only natural vegetation during the summer.
Yield of legumes (including crotalaria and beggarweed) on the ro-
tated plots in 1940 ranged from 5,532 to 9,998 pounds per acre. Yields
of beggarweed on the plots not rotated ranged from 1,231 to 1,781 pounds
per acre. The total yields of all vegetation-including corn stalks, grasses,
and legumes-on rotated and non-rotated plots did not vary significantly.
It is evident that the increased yield of corn and cotton on the rotated
plots over the non-rotated plots is due to the higher yield of legumes on
the rotated plots. All rotated plots grew a good growth of beggarweed,
or in the case of plots planted to crotalaria, of crotalaria and beggarweed,
which will account for the fact that the difference in yields due to cover
crop management is not significant.

*In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Annual Report, 1941

II. Corn and Runner Peanuts Rotating with Crotalaria and with
Native Cover Crops
This rotation experiment is constantly showing the value of cro-
talaria as a soil-improving crop. Table 2 gives the yields of corn and in-
terplanted runner peanuts in 1940, the eighth year of the experiment.
No fertilizer has been used during this entire period.


Rotation System Yields per Acre 1940
Bu. Corn Lb. Peanuts
Corn and peanuts every year. 8.86 860
Same, with crotalaria after last
cultivation 11.56 970
1 yr. corn and peanuts alternating
with 1 year of weeds. 13.09 1083
1 yr. corn and peanuts alternating
with 1 year of crotalaria. 17.62 1128

III. Corn in a Two-Year Rotation with Crotalarias and Weeds or
Natural Land Cover
Four species of crotalaria in two separate fields are being studied as
cover crops in this project. Three species, C. intermedia, C. spectabilis, and
C. striata, are grown in Field I and the same three with C. lanceolata in
Field II. Corn is grown in alternate years with crotalaria.
Field No. I.-These plots were laid out in 1934 using the three species
of crotalaria and natural vegetation in triplicated plots, thus records of
seven years have been obtained from the plots. No fertilizer has been
applied to the plots since they were laid out in 1934. The largest yields
of cover crop were obtained from the Crotalaria spectabilis plots. These plots
also produced about 100 pounds more ear corn per acre than any of the
other series of plots. This area will grow crotalaria in 1941.


Yield of Cover Crop and Corn 1940

aa C o
dM a (C > 0
o hf +I> 14 0
o m o oo* 6 a
C. intermedia 3,739 273 1,223 9,787 15,121 754 15,917
C. spectabilis 8,840 172 1,027 7,642 17,680 852 19,201
C. striata 2,904 443 889 7,407 11,776 646 11,889
Natural grasses 595 1,352 7,552 9,499 681 12,068

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Field No. H.-This field was laid out in 1936 and includes four large
duplicated plots of Crotalaria species and natural vegetation. No corn
was grown in 1940. The plots growing C. intermedia produced by far
the highest yields of crotalaria and the highest yields of total cover crops.
C. spectabilis and C. striata produced a poor stand (Table 4).


Other Total
Crotalaria Beggarweed Organic Cover
Materials Crop, 1940
C. intermedia 27,800 1,048 6,475 35,323
C. lancelata 9,056 2,224 10,781 22,061
C. spectabilis 2,246 8,303 14,157 24,706
C. striata 1,259 7,401 11,779 20,439
Natural vegetation 8,158 12,116 20,274

IV. Weed Burning-Fertilizer Experiment
This experiment, initiated in February, 1938, was designed primarily
to furnish data on the effect of burning off weeds before spring plowing
upon yield of succeeding crops. This practice is frequently resorted to
by farmers without tractor plowing equipment for the purpose of making
easier the plowing-under of heavy weed growth. Corn and interplanted
peanuts are grown on one field each year while another field rests.
Each February the field which was not cropped in the preceding year is
plowed after the weeds on half of the plots are burned. Because of the
large number of plots needed for accurate comparisons, a fertilizer ex-
periment is combined with the burning experiment in such a way that the
effects of nitrate of soda, superphosphate and muriate of potash upon
the results of the burning can be learned.
Up to the present the burning has not greatly affected yields of
either crop. Of the fertilizer materials, nitrate of soda has increased corn
yields and decreased peanut yields. The latter effect seems to be whol-
ly due to injury to germination in spite of the fact that the fertilizer is ap-
plied in the drill and covered two weeks before planting. Muriate of
potash (but not superphosphate) has also reduced the germination of pea-
nuts, but less seriously than nitrate of soda. These difficulties can prob-
ably be eliminated by side-band application, or mixing in the drill.

Hatch Project 56 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp and Geo. E. Ritchey
In the spring of 1941 plots were planted to seven strains of cattail
millet. Yield records are being taken and observations made during the
The forage breeding programs by various agricultural experiment
stations over the country have been responsible for the production of
new improved strains of several forage crops. The U. S. Department of
Agriculture has been responsible for organizing "uniform nurseries" in
which improved strains from the various stations may be tested at var-

*Cooperative with USDA.

Annual Report, 1941

ious points in cooperation with agricultural experiment stations. Three
of these nurseries have been established in Florida: one at the Main
Station in Gainesville; one at the North Florida Station at Quincy; and
one at the West Central Florida Station near Brooksville.
These nurseries include improved strains of Bahia grass, Pearl mil-
let, Napier grass and a number of Western selections of various grasses,
all of which are being grown in adjacent plots with a U. S. standard
variety and a local commercial type where seed could be obtained on the
local market. Inasmuch as these nurseries were not planted until the
spring of 1941, no data have yet been secured.

There being no immediate prospects of finding a better variety of
sugarcane for syrup or forage than F31-762, elaborate variety testing is
suspended for the present. Chiefly because of a need for better chewing
types, however, a number of new hybrids produced at the Everglades
Station are being planted at Gainesville for observation.

Castor Beans
Because imports of castor beans, the oil of which has important in-
dustrial uses, are greatly hampered by the present international situa-
tion, a number of varieties of castor beans are being grown in variety
trials, some as a source of seed for commercial planting.
Upland Cotton
In a one-year test of 13 varieties of upland cotton, Stoneville 2B was
highest in value of lint and seed, followed closely by Stoneville 5A.

Purnell Project 105 Fred H. Hull and W. A. Carver
Field Corn.-Yield and performance tests at Gainesville and Quincy
have continued to show the superiority of the two varieties Florident
White and Florident Yellow and of the white hybrid Florida W-l. Re-
sults of such tests for the past five years, which include the first three
years' testing of the above-named new varieties, have been summarized
and published in Bulletin 355.
Florident White was released and distributed in 1939. Florident
Yellow was released in 1941 with the sale of 700 bushels of seed to farm-
ers and seedsmen.
Release and distribution of hybrid corn must necessarily follow a dif-
ferent plan from that employed with open-pollinated varieties such as
Florident White and Florident Yellow. Fla. W-1 is a double-cross hybrid
of four inbred lines. Production of seed of the two single crosses is be-
ing done by the Experiment Station. Production of double-crossed seed
by crossing the two single crosses is being done by commercial growers.
Approximately 80 bushels of double-crossed seed was sold to farmers
in 1941 from eight acres of commercial double crossing grown in 1940.
Fifty acres or more of commercial double crossing is being grown in 1941
in the state.
Breeding work is being continued with inbred lines at Gainesville.
New inbred lines are being tested in single crosses with the four lines of
Fla. W-l. Duplicate plats of 550 single crosses at both Gainesville and
Quincy are to be harvested for yield and performance records.
Mass selection of Florident White and Florident Yellow is being con-
tinued at Quincy.

44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Yield tests of commercial varieties and hybrids of field corn at
Gainesville and Quincy include 32 entries in 1941.
Sweet Corn.-Records on yield and marketability of 45 varieties and
hybrids of sweet and roasting ear corn were taken in 1940 and made
available in mimeographed form. The number of entries for the 1941
test was cut to 23.
Breeding for high table quality sweet corn with the larger ear and
plant type comparable to common roasting ear varieties was continued
with selection of inbred lines from the 15/16 Bantam : 1/16 Tuxpan
State Project 163 J. D. Warner, W. E. Stokes and J. P. Camp
This project has been inactive during the year.

Adams Project 243 W. A. Leukel
Work on the physiological response of Sudan and Bahia grasses to
different forms of nitrogen has produced results this season that appear
to be of economic value. In addition to the variation in yields and or-
ganic composition of these plants when using nitrate and ammonia forms
of nitrogen with normal, high and low levels of phosphorus and potas-
sium, the effect of these different treatments on the inorganic composi-
tion of the plants is of vital interest.
The vegetative and more mature top growth from Sudan grass
plants grown with one-half ammonia and one-half nitrate nitrogen and
with normal, low and high levels of phosphorus and potassium contained
approximately twice the percentage of phosphorus as was found in the
top growth of plants grown with nitrate nitrogen with similar levels of
phosphorus and potassium. On the other hand, the nitrate-treated plants
showed somewhat higher percentage levels of calcium and magnesium in
their top growth than was found in the top growth of plants treated with
the ammonia and nitrate mixture. Potassium showed less variation in
the top growth of the plants treated with nitrate nitrogen on the one
hand and with a combination of nitrate and ammonia nitrogen on the
In the case of Bahia grass grown with nitrate nitrogen in one instance
and ammonia nitrogen in another and with normal, high and low levels of
phosphorus and potassium, somewhat similar variations are shown for
the percentage levels of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium.
In the top growth of these plants in both the vegetative and more mature
growth conditions, phosphorus'showed a two-fold increase in percentage
for ammonia-treated plants over that of plants grown with nitrate
nitrogen. On the other hand, calcium and magnesium showed a some-
what higher percentage level in the top growth of plants treated with
nitrate nitrogen. Little variation in the percentage of potassium was
evident in the top growth of the plants as a result of the different nitro-
gen treatments.
In the crowns of the Sudan grass and the stolons of the Bahia, simi-
lar trends occurred in regard to the inorganic elements. In general, phos-
phorus was found to be higher in those plant parts where the nitrogen
was obtained in whole or in part from ammonium sulfate. Calcium and

Annual Report, 1941

magnesium were found to be higher in similar plant parts where nitro-
gen was supplied in the form of nitrates.
In the roots, phosphorus and calcium were higher for Sudan grass,
while potassium and magnesium showed little variation for ammonia-
treated plants. In case of Bahia grass, phosphorus showed a higher per-
centage level in the roots of the plants receiving ammonia nitrogen,
while calcium, magnesium and potassium were generally higher in
these parts of the plants treated with nitrate nitrogen.
In addition to the variation in the organic and inorganic composi-
tion of these pasture plants grown with different sources of nitrogen,
the vitamin A content appears to be considerably enhanced in some in-
stances where ammonia is used as a source of nitrogen (see report of
Department of Home Economics). Further work, using different forms
and ratios of nitrogen and organic and inorganic forms of calcium and
phosphorus, is in progress.

State Project 265 W. A. Leukel
Different silage crops have been ensiled in barrel silos to determine
their comparative composition value with sugarcane. These crops in-
clude corn, sugarcane, sorghum, Napier grass and cowpeas. In addition,
combinations of sorghum and Napier grass and similar combinations of
sugarcane and cowpeas have been ensiled in a similar manner.
Samples of these silages are being frozen for nitrogen fractionations
and others are being prepared for carbohydrate analysis. Similar labor-
tory analyses are being conducted on samples from the different silage
crops before they are placed in the silos. Results of these studies will
be available when all the laboratory determinations are completed.
Over 400 samples of grasses and clover have been analyzed for nitro-
gen and mineral elements for other Agronomy projects during the year.
Results of these laboratory determinations will be found in reports on
other projects of the department.

Bankhead-Jones Project 267 Harold Mowry
The function of this project has been mainly of an auxiliary nature
in the initiation, maintenance and supplementing of those stages of de-
velopment not otherwise covered in the several pasture projects. The
whole of the pasture research, as discussed under other project num-
bers, has thus been built into a well rounded program rather than con-
sisting of a group of loosely correlated and insufficiently financed pro-
jects. Throughout the year the several phases have been augmented by
the addition of further cleared lands, equipment, technical services, la-
bor and planting materials.

Bankhead-Jones Project 295 R. E. Blaser and W. E. Stokes
I. Combinations and Rates of Fertilizers on Carpet Grass Growth
and Composition
Four fertilizer experiments to study soil type, fertilizer and carpet
grass interactions were started in March, 1937. Clippings of grass were

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

obtained during the growth seasons of four years for yields and chemical
composition of grass as changed by fertilization and/or soil types.
These experiments have rendered excellent information on practical
fertilization of carpet grass. Research results are in the process of being
summarized for publication.
H. Sources of Nitrogen
Three years' results show that four sources of nitrogen (nitrate of
soda, sulfate of ammonia, uramon, and calcium cyanamide) alone or in
combination with other minerals, greatly increased the early season and
total yields of carpet grass. In general, all four sources of nitrogen have
produced much higher yields when used with a fertilizer mixture of
lime, superphosphate and potash, than when used alone. Nitrate of
soda and sulfate of ammonia produced highest yields; uramon produced
slightly inferior yields, while calcium cyanamide was an inferior
source of nitrogen. Clippings from some of the fertilizer treat-
ments are to be analyzed to determine the effect of nitrogen source and
fertilizer mixtures on chemical composition.

III. Carpet Grass Grazing Experiment with Cattle on Fertilized and
Unfertilized Grass
This experiment was started in 1939 but was discontinued this sea-
son because internal parasite infestation interfered with the health and
growth of test animals. These pastures are to be maintained for parasite
control investigations by the Animal Industry Department.

IV. Carpet Grass Vs. Carpet Grass and Clover for Grazing
A 10-acre area of established carpet grass pasture was divided into
four pastures of 2.5 acres each. Two of the pastures were fertilized and
seeded with a winter clover mixture in the fall of 1940. These two pas-
tures are being grazed rotationally with heifers during 1941. The re-
maining two pastures were fertilized with 400 pounds per acre of an
8-8-5 fertilizer in March, 1941, and are being grazed rotationally by an-
other group of heifers. This experiment will be continued for 3 to 5
years in cooperation with the Animal Industry Department.
V. Effect of Fertilizer Treatments Used for Clover on Subsequent
Carpet Grass Growth and Composition
Winter clovers and carpet or other summer grasses produce an ideal
plant association for pastures. Yield records have been obtained and
the effect of clover on the productivity and chemical composition of
carpet grass determined. Carpet grass averaged 9.2 to 9.9% crude pro-
tein when sampled in August as compared to 7.2% crude protein when
clover was absent (Table 5.) Most of the clovers died in June, thus the
residual effect of clover on the nitrogen content of the soil and concur-
rent increase in yield of carpet grass is a significant fact.
The increased yield of carpet grass as affected by clover is describ-
ed in Bulletin 351.
VI. Experiments to Study Grass Variety, Fertilizer and Soil Type
An experiment was established on a Leon soil at the Farm Colony,
Gainesville, to study the effect of nine fertilizer treatments on nine
grass varieties. The fertilizer formulas were designed to study the ef-
fects of rates and mixtures of the elements calcium, phosphorus, potas-
sium, and nitrogen on establishment and growth of nine grasses. In-

Annual Report, 1941

eluded in the experiment were carpet, Bermuda, Dallis, common Bahia,
Paraguay Bahia, St. Augustine, Digitaria spp., Para and Vasey grasses.
This experiment was designed so that each grass occurs separately
with each one of the nine fertilizer treatments. The grass plots are
randomized in three randomized blocks, making a total of 27 grass plots.
All of the nine fertilizer treatments are randomized on each of the grass
plots, making a total of 243 sub-plots.
The residual effect of fertilizer treatment on soil will be studied by
the Soils Department.
A similar experiment with six grasses was established on a Plum-
mer soil type near Orlando.

Bankhead-Jones Project 296. R. E. Blaser and F. T. Boyd
During recent years the encroachment of matchweed (Phyla nodiflora)
has brought about the destruction of large areas of permanent pastures
in South Florida. Investigation of possible methods of eliminating this
weed was initiated this season. When infested areas were grazed close-
ly a good stand of St. Augustine grass proved highly effective in crowd-
ing out this pest. Bermuda and clover were found ineffective. The use
of methods requiring fallow treatment were found impractical in this

Bankhead-Jones Project 297 Geo. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
The search has continued for new winter clovers adapted to the
pasture conditions of this section. Three strains which promise to be
of value on sandy types of soils have been studied in advanced plots. A
total of more than 175 strains were grown in the nursery during the last
season. Other winter legumes included in the nursery were Medicago,
Melilotus, Lupinus and several other genera of lesser importance.
One strain of medicago, Sp. No. P.E.I., made an excellent flush
growth early in the spring and continued to remain green and free from
diseases after most of the other species had died. This strain produced
a good crop of seed in the spring of 1941.
One strain of Melilotus alba (white sweet clover) has made excellent
growth on a sandy soil and promises to be of value on the sandy loam
None of the lupines have made especially good growth on the sandy
soils of this section.
Several promising summer legumes have been under observation
in the nursery. Alysicarpus rugosus, another species of the Alyce clover
group, may have a place in the cover crop and forage crop program of
the state.
None of the Desmodiums have shown as much promise as the com-
mon Florida beggarweed. Indigofera continues to make good growth and
volunteer annually when allowed to produce seed.
A large number of grasses have been under observation in the
nursery. Several of the Digitarias, commonly known as woolly-finger
grasses, have continued to show promise. Digitaria marginata still stands
out as a palatable and high-yielding grazing grass. Another species of
the South African woolly-finger grass (Digitaria serrota) seems to be equal-
ly promising and is included in the pasture cafeteria studies in 1941. In

*In cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

1940 Digitaria marginata furnished more than twice as much grazing as any
other grass used in the cafeteria trials. The seasonal grazing on this
grass was satisfactorily distributed throughout the year.
The Paraguay Bahia grass continues to make a good showing and
furnished over 60% more grazing than the commonly grown strain
furnished in 1940 as calculated on the basis of the cafeteria data. Bahia
grass was less palatable and furnished less grazing in 1940 than did the
Water Pastures.-Water pasture plants are still under test. Panicum
paludivagum (water grass) shows some promise.

Bankhead-Jones Project 298 Geo. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
Woolly-Finger Grass (Digitaria sp.)
Strains of several species of Digitaria have been propagated and are
being grown for seed in the effort to find a strain that will produce a
viable seed crop. Several selections are being made in the season of
Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum)
The Napier grass improvement program has been concluded, except
that three strains have been planted to increase plots preparatory to dis-
tributing further planting material to growers.

Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum)
Several strains of Pearl millet have been isolated from introduc-
tions of seed from Russia. These strains show indications of being super-
ior to the locally grown varieties in producing growth later in the aut-
umn. Six of the selections are under test.

Three hundred and twenty strains of sorghum were grown in a
nursery in 1940 for studying the disease resistance of each. None of the
320 strains was found to be entirely resistant to the leaf diseases. A
similar planting has been made in the spring of 1941.

Pigeon Pea (Cajanus)
Three strains of pigeon peas which yield well, mature before frost
and are relatively free from root-knot are being increased for seed.
Further selections were made with a view to obtaining a strain
having the qualities of these three strains, but which has a white instead
of a red seed. These selections are being grown during the season of
The narrow-leaf lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) is being grown for a
winter cover crop in the Southeast. The crop is sometimes badly damaged
by diseases. In the autumn of 1940 a field was planted to approximately
1,000 plant rows of the narrow-leaf lupine. The seed in each row had
been selected from healthy plants in a field containing a high percent
of diseased plants in 1940.
The results in 1940-1941 indicate that it will be possible to isolate by
selection strains which will be resistant to disease.

*Cooperation USDA.


Fig 1.-Cattle grazing Indigofera hirsuta, Experiment Station farm. Left, full
season's growth; right, third grazing for the season.
Indigofera Hirsuta
Indigofera hirsuta, a new crop which promises to make a useful forage
(Fig. 1) and cover crop legume, is under study. The use of the crop is
limited by lateness of maturity. An abundance of seed is set but only a
small percentage ripens before frost. An attempt is being made to
obtain a strain which will ripen seed two or three weeks earlier and thus
complete maturity before frost. Several hundred strains are being ob-
served under plot and field conditions. A few early seeding strains have
been isolated which may be of value in Florida.

Bankhead-Jones Project 299 W. A. Leukel and W. E. Stokes
Separate areas of range grasses have been burned over at monthly
intervals and seeded to carpet grass shortly after burning. Native grasses
are greatly retarded in producing growth after burning as the period
of protection from fire increases. After a four-year period of no-burn-
ing native grasses burned over in January failed to produce any after-
growth until June. Then only a very sparse growth appeared. Native
grasses burned over during May and thereafter to December again had
their aftergrowth retarded for over a year. Carpet grass seeded on
these burned-over areas again produced the best growth on areas burned
over during the rainy season-May, June and July. To further deter-
mine to what extent burning is instrumental in killing the native after-
growth on areas burned over during the latter half of the year, cutting
experiments were started on several areas during the rainy season. Re-
sults of these cuttings on aftergrowth can be compared with results on
aftergrowth as affected by burning to determine further the cause for
the retarded growth of the native grasses after the latter treatment.
More information on the fundamental cause for the retarded growth

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

after burning in the latter part of the year will help greatly in the
establishment of improved grasses.
Chemical laboratory studies of these native grasses show results sim-
ilar to those previously reported. Unburned areas show a rather low
constant percentage of nitrogen and mineral elements throughout the
entire season. New growth in the plants appears to be retarded through
obstruction by old top growth since no reversion to vegetative growth
appears to take place as it does after cutting or burning.
Seeding trials with carpet grass on the burned-over areas without
soil covering have given good results during the rainy season on most
flatwood areas. Some areas seeded during other periods of the year
have produced stands of carpet, but only when rainfall and moisture
conditions were favorable. Wherever cattle grazed these new carpet
stands, good sod formation took place.

Bankhead-Jones Project 301 W. E. Stokes, G. E. Ritchey and R. E. Blaser
I. Clover Experiments
Experiments started in 1937 were continued through the past season
for making perpetuation studies of clover. The perpetuation of clover
has been found to depend largely on the maintenance of proper fertility
and management practices. Results to date have been published in
Bulletins 325 and 351.

I. Sources of Phosphate and Lime with Combinations of Other
Fertilizer Materials as Related to Clover Growth
The nutritive values of four sources of phosphate (superphosphate,
basic slag, colloidal phosphate, and rock phosphate) and two sources of
lime dolomiticc and calcic limestone) on different soil types are being
studied. Details of experiments with rates, sources and combinations of
phosphate and lime with other fertilizer materials were published in the
1939 report. The fertilizer treatments have been enlarged and several
additional experiments set up.
Initial experiments with rock and colloidal phosphates indicated that
these materials would supply all the calcium and phosphorus needed for
clovers when applied at rates of 3,000 pounds per acre. Modifications
of the initial experiments show that best growth results when some lime
is supplied with the rock of colloidal phosphates. The amount of lime
required depends on the soil type, soil reaction and variety of clover.
When rock or colloidal phosphates are used the lime requirement for
good clover growth varies from 500 to 2,000 pounds per acre. High rates
of rock and colloidal phosphates (6,000 pounds per acre) have not pro-
duced as good clover growth as 3,000 pounds of rock or colloidal phos-
phate plus 500 to 750 pounds of lime per acre on some soil types and with
some clover varieties.
Fertilizer experiments were designed to compare the value of one ton
per acre of dolomite with calcium limestone, applied with 600 pounds of
18% superphosphate and 100 pounds of 50% muriate of potash per acre.
California Bur, Black Medic, and Sweet clovers (Melilotus indica, Meliotus
alba annual) produce much better growth with ground limestone than with
dolomite, when both are applied at the rate of one ton per acre. The
growth of White Dutch, Persian and Hop clovers is generally similar or
slightly superior when ground limestone is used. Ground limestone ap-
pears especially desirable on very acid soils. The fertilizer treatment of

Annual Report, 1941

2,000 pounds ground limestone, 600 pounds 18% superphosphate and 100
pounds of 50% muriate of potash per acre has generally produced good
clover growth in all experiments, and has been a well balanced fertilizer
from the standpoint of satisfactory rates of calcium to phosphorus sup-
plied for growth of various clover varieties. In after years annual ap-
plications of one-fourth the original lime, phosphate and potash seem
advisable for best results.
Basic slag at the rate of 1,500 pounds, 2,000 pounds and 3,000 pounds
per acre with 100 pounds of potash produced good clover growth; but
the most practical treatment when utilizing basic slag appears to be 2,000
pounds lime, 750 pounds basic slag, and 100 pounds muriate of potash
per acre.
III. Clover Strain Tests
Two experiments on different soil types with three fertilizer levels
were established in 1937. On a well drained phase of Leon soil Califor-
nia Bur, Black Medic and Sweet clovers produced best yields. On a low
phase of Johnson fine sand, White Dutch (Louisiana variety), Persian,
Hop and Red clovers produced highest yields.
In October, 1940, eight clover variety and fertilizer experiments
were established at different locations on various soil types to study
soil, fertilizer and clover variety interaction. The clover varieties which
produced best growth were Louisiana White Dutch, Louisiana Red, Cali-
fornia Bur, Sweet, Hop, Black Medic and Persian. These varieties must
be tested over a longer period before their relative values will be known.
The clover variety-fertilizer interaction was significant on all soils stud-
ied. Nodule counts were made of all clovers on each of the eight fer-
tilizer treatments on the Farm Colony and Largo clover tests and re-
ported in Project 368 (Soils Department).
IV. Lespedeza Strain and Fertilizer Tests
Two factorial fertilizer and lespedeza variety experiments were es-
tablished on two sandy soil types in 1937. The fertilizer treatments in-
cluded combinations and levels of lime, superphosphate, and potash, and
four sources of phosphate. These experiments were re-fertilized in the
spring of 1941 and two additional experiments were established, one near
Orlando and the other near Largo.

Fig. 2.-Lespedeza response to fertilizer and inoculation. Left to right: No
fertilizer; lime and potash; lime and superphosphate; superphosphate and potash;
lime, superphosphate and potash; properly fertilized but not inoculated.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

These show that lespedeza can be grown on moist sandy soil types.
Kobe, Common and Tennessee No. 76 varieties are the best for sandy
soils. The seed should be inoculated and the soil should be fertilized
with calcium, phosphorus and potassium (Fig. 2). The slowly available
sources of phosphates appear promising. One-half to one ton of lime,
450 pounds superphosphate and 50 pounds per acre of muriate of potash
has produced good growth on the soils tested. When phosphate or
potash fertilizers were omitted the lespedeza developed phosphorus or
potassium deficiency symptoms. These symptoms of deficiency have
been substantiated by chemical analysis of plant materials.

Bankhead-Jones Project 302 R. E. Blaser and W. E. Stokes
I. 15-Acre Planting
A 15-acre area of Napier grass was divided into five lots grazed
rotationally for three years. The fertilizer practice consisted of apply-
ing 400 pounds of a 5-7-5 complete fertilizer in March, plus three to five
additional applications of 75 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre during
the growing season.
In 1940 this area was fenced into 10 lots of equal size by splitting
the five initial lots. The reason for increasing the number of lots was
to study more economical fertilizer practices. Four different fertilizer
treatments were used. The first year's results showed no significant
differences between fertilizer treatments. The data showed that the
differential fertility level of the soil influenced the productivity of
Napier grass more than fertilizer treatment. This phase of research was
therefore discontinued and grazing intensity studies are to be sub-
A technical paper, "The Effect of Grazing Management Practices of
Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) on Chemical Composition and Graz-
ing Value," has been prepared for publication.
II. 7.5 Acres of Napier Grass
Since 1939 this Napier planting has been used for management and
fertilizer studies. Data show that the test animals have averaged 1.42
pounds gain daily on the lightly fertilized grass (400 pounds of a 5-7-5
complete fertilizer) and 1.59 pounds gain daily for heavily fertilized grass.
In 1940 test animals were rotated on three fields instead of five, and the
growth of grass was satisfactory.
While three lots were rotated, the forage in the remaining two lots
was accumulated for fall and winter feed in an endeavor to lengthen the
growing season. An early frost in November made it possible to study
the value of frosted grass.
Chemical analyses were made of mature Napier grass and frosted
ungrazed residue. The composition of frosted Napier grass in protein,
ash, calcium and phosphorus appears favorable for beef production.
The value of frosted Napier grass in carbohydrates, fats and crude fiber
awaits completion of analyses.
III. Napier Grass for Dairy Cows
Eight acres of Napier grass were established in 1938 to determine
its value for milk production. The grass has been managed and fertil-
ized like the 15-acre planting for the last three years. In the spring of

Annual Report, 1941

1941 the fertilizer program was altered to increase the amount of nitro-
gen applied in early season. The grass has been sampled after each
grazing for yield and chemical composition. The dairy phase is reported
under Project 302, Animal Industry Department.

IV. Napier Grass Management and Fertilizer Studies
In 1940 a factorial experiment was set up to determine Napier grass
variety, fertilizer and management interactions. Three grass varieties
(selections by Geo. E. Ritchey), seven management practices, and eight
fertilizer treatments are included. All plots were harvested twice in 1940
to permit uniform establishment of grass.
An additional plot experiment with 12 fertilizer treatments and four
replications was established in March, 1941. The object of this experi-
ment is to study rates and dates of applying nitrogen, and the effect of
sources of phosphates and sources of nitrogen on yields and composition
of grass.
Bankhead-Jones Project 303 Geo. E. Ritchey and R. E. Blaser
Work on this project has been transferred to Projects 304 and 297,
Project 303 being closed with this report.

Bankhead-Jones Project 304 R. E. Blaser
Studies of nutritional requirements for establishing pasture grasses
and legumes are being carried on in connection with Projects 295 and
301. Experiments show that Dallis grass cannot be established on
virgin soils of the sandy flat pine lands unless calcium, phosphorus,
potassium and high rates of nitrogen are supplied. This grass is es-
pecially desirable for planting with clovers because the nutritional re-
quirements are similar and clovers supply ample quantities of nitrogen.
Carpet grass frequently develops sod slowly because phosphorus
limits growth. Tests on several soils showed that three years are re-
quired for carpet grass to sod over without fertilizer. Phosphate fertili-
zers encouraged rapid sodding. Chemical analysis also shows that the
phosphorus content of carpet grass is increased greatly by phosphate
Experiments conducted with lespedeza on soils of peninsular Florida
show that moist soils high in organic matter are desirable. Lespedezas
generally fail on flatwoods soils not fertilized, while good growth re-
sults when the nutrients calcium, phosphorus and potassium have been
supplied. The seed should be inoculated and planted after the last
heavy frosts in early spring. The seedbed should be a closely grazed
sod or a newly prepared seedbed with packed soil.
Three Alyce clover (Alysicarpus vaginalis) experiments to study fer-
tilizer treatment, soil type relationships and the possibility of establish-
ing Alyce clover in a carpet grass sod were started in June, 1940. These
experiments show that well drained soils are required for Alyce clover.
Failure resulted on a Leon soil type when the water table was near the
surface, while good growth resulted on a well drained Norfolk soil.
Fertilizer results show that the fertilizer mixture of 500 pounds of lime,
200 pounds of 18% superphosphate and 50 pounds of muriate of potash
produced approximately 1% ton of hay per acre compared to % ton
for the average of no-fertilizer plots. Without potash a leafspot
identified as potassium deficiency occurred (Fig. 3). The leafspot has

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 3.-Leaves of Alyce clover, all of which show potassium deficiency induced
with a fertilizer mixture of lime and phosphate, except that the leaf on extreme right
is normal. Normal leaves were produced when about 50 pounds of muriate of potash
was added to the fertilizer.

r- *-- :-

Fig. 4.-Alyce clover response to fertilizer. Left to right: No fertilizer; lime
and superphosphate; lime, superphosphate and 50 pounds of potash per acre; and
1,500 pounds lime, 450 pounds superphosphate and 100 pounds muriate of potash
per acre.

Annual Report, 1941

been reported by growers, but the reason for its occurrence was hereto-
fore unknown.
Results with establishing clovers on various soil environments were
published in Bulletin 351. Anthracnose (Colletotricum trifolii) was a se-
rious disease in 1941, affecting California Bur, Giant Southern Bur and
Manganese clovers. The clovers were killed in numerous tests when a
height of 6 to 12 inches was reached. Clover variety experiments, in-
cluding their moisture and nutritional requirements, have been enlarged
and extended to more soils.
Preliminary Bermuda grass establishment studies with five varieties
indicate that some varieties of this grass may be adapted to soils of the
flat pine lands, if proper fertilizer and management practices are used.

State Project 312 J. P. Camp
This project has been inactive during the year.
Hatch Project 363 J. P. Camp
This work, previously done under Hatch Project 56, has been given
the status of a separate project because of the large amount of breeding
work required.
Over 100 U.S.D.A. hybrid selections having Bond or Victoria parent-
age are being tested, in addition to a much larger number of hybrids
produced at this Station. The latter are mostly of Bond parentage, and
head selections are to be obtained from them in the F3 or later genera-
tions, mostly in the quest for rust resistance.
One selection from a cross between Bond and Fulghum, known as
Florida No. 167, appears to be immune to rust and is being increased.
Hatch Project 378 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp and Fred Clark
The experimental work has been continued on a Norfolk medium
sand soil along the following lines: (1) trials of 12 varieties, one of which
is reported to be root-knot resistant, and 18 hybrids and selections, some
of which are resistant to root-knot but need further improvement before
being ready for commercial use, (2) rates of fertilizer, (3) source and
combination of sources of nitrogen, (4) 38 different formulas or analyses
of fertilizer, (5) comparison of acid, basic and neutral fertilizer of same
analysis, (6) trace element trials involving zinc, iron, copper, manganese,
boron and cobalt, (7) flat vs. high bed culture, (8) high vs. low topping,
(9) withholding part of the nitrogen for side-dressing 20 days after
setting, (10) and the use of paradichorobenzene (PDB) for blue mold
control in plant beds (in cooperation with Plant Pathology Department).
Yellow Mammoth, Mammoth Gold and Bonanza were the high
yielding varieties in order named. In the rates of fertilizer test 1,600
pounds of a 3-8-6 with plants 22 inches in 4 foot rows gave the greatest
gross return. Sulfate of ammonia, urea and cottonseed meal (1/3 each)
and nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia and urea (/3 each) were the
mixtures giving highest gross returns.
In the analysis or formula test greatest yield combined with quality
came from a fertilizer high in potash and sulfur with normal nitrogen
and phosphate. An acid 3-8-6 was superior to the neutral and the basic
3-8-6. Trace elements added to a chemically pure 4-8-8 increased the
gross returns but slightly. Fairly flat bed culture was superior to very

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

high bed culture. High topping was superior to low topping. With-
holding two-thirds of the nitrogen and applying it as side-dressing 20
days after planting gave good results, since heavy rains occurred soon
after setting. Paradichlorobenzene again gave excellent blue mold con-
trol in plant beds.
Preliminary work was undertaken this year toward development of
a root-knot resistant flue-cured tobacco variety.

Inoculation of Peanut Seed
J. P. Camp
In tests on the Station farm during the past three seasons, inoculation
of peanut seed with legume bacteria has not proven effective in increas-
ing yields. Near Chiefland, however, on land which had recently been
cleared and which had been cropped only one year, runner peanuts on
inoculated plots yielded 125 pounds more cured nuts per acre than on
plots not inoculated.
Dusting Peanut Plants with Sulfur
J. P. Camp
Dusting peanut plants with sulfur has proven effective in greatly
reducing the amount of Cercospora leaf spot which almost always causes
heavy defoliation of peanut vines in Florida and other states. In tests
during the past three years, peanuts on dusted plots have yielded 178
pounds more peanuts per acre, on the average, than those on plots not
dusted. There has also been considerable increase in hay yields.
Dusting the vines three times at two-weeks intervals, starting about
8 weeks after planting and using about 20 pounds of sulfur per acre at
each application, seems to be the proper procedure.

W. E. Stokes. M. N. Walker, M. N. Gist,* C. S. Rude*
Sea Island cotton boll weevil control experiments were continued
in cooperation with the U.S.D.A. Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine with C. S. Rude in charge of the work in Florida. Dusting
with calcium arsenate at 5 to 7-day intervals after infestation reached
10% has been most effective.
The Sea Island cotton variety, strain and place effect test was con-
tinued at Leesburg and this season an additional test was placed on
heavier soil in the McIntosh area. Seabrook Sea Island, seed of which
was grown in Florida two years, led in yield. Tests conducted since
1937 using seed of Seabrook cotton grown in Florida as compared to
Seabrook seed grown in South Carolina indicate that yield and quality
of cotton from Florida-grown seed is equal to that from South Carolina-
grown seed.
The Experiment Station and U.S.D.A. Cotton Office continue to
grow about 10 acres of pure Seabrook Sea Island cotton each year in
order to furnish growers pure seed for their use and increase. Under
this program last season the Station and 11 cooperative growers grew
289 acres of pure Sea Island cotton. The 289 acres were rogued, the
cotton was ginned by M. N. Gist of the U.S.D.A. and the seed was
cleaned, treated for disease and sold to farmers as certified seed under
the Florida seed certification law.

*U.S.D.A. Cotton Office and Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quar-
antine, respectively.

Annual Report, 1941

The research of the Animal Industry Department is conducted in
seven main divisions: (1) dairy husbandry, (2) animal nutrition, (3) beef
cattle, sheep, and swine, (4) veterinary science, (5) poultry husbandry,
(6) dairy manufactures, and (7) parasitology.

The registered Jersey bull Bet's Volunteer Observer 384533 was
purchased as a junior herd sire to replace Florida Jubilant Fox 366051.
The new bull has a 4-Star rating and is from an excellent family in pro-
duction, type, and popular breeding.
Cows were assigned to the grazing trial with Napier grass and the
one with clover pasture. Three cows were slaughtered for the study of
relation of conformation to production, in cooperation with the U.S.D.A.
Bureau of Dairy Industry. Certain cows were used in the investigation
of infectious bovine mastitis. Jersey bull calves were provided for ex-
perimental studies of mineral nutrition and for classroom use in the Col-
lege of Agriculture.
Nine cows qualified for the Register of Merit on two milkings daily,
in measuring the transmitting ability of sires, as follows:

Age Milk Fat Fat
yrs. mos. pounds percent pounds
Florida Pearl 1083833 5 6 8,701 5.19 451.93
Florida Victor Beauty 1060102 4 7 8,532 5.10 435.47
Florida Victor Sue 1060105 4 7 7,498 5.37 402.61
Florida Victor Golden 1181909 2 7 5,815 5.48 318.93
Florida Victor Bellas 1157363 2 7 6,248 5.08 317.48
Florida Victor Purple 1157360 2 1 6,105 5.04 307.53
Florida Victor Wonder Heart 1157361 2 11 7,755 5.07 393.40
Florida Countess Lassie 1157356 2 4 5,963 5.32 317.22
Florida Countess Sue 1181930 2 0 6,189 5.04 311.75

Each heifer in the Experiment Station dairy herd is tested during her
first lactation and again at approximately mature age, for use in studies
of the inheritance of dairy ability.

Proximate and mineral analyses were made of feed samples sub-
mitted by the various divisions of the department. Blood calcium de-
terminations were made from birds used in the comparison of oyster
and clam shells for poultry. Hemoglobin and copper determines
were made on the blood of cattle on mineral experiments, as well as on
numerous samples collected in the field. Acquisition of a spectro-
photolometer permitted much impetus in the study of copper in bovine
The rat colony was used in the study of peanut deficiencies, and in
the bio-assay of milk samples from cows receiving various levels of
shark liver oil as vitamin A supplement. The data from this latter
study were presented to the Graduate Council as a Doctorate Thesis by
Howard E. Skipper, the first candidate for this degree in the field of
Agriculture at the University of Florida. A guinea pig colony was es-
tablished for the study of the nutritive value of pasture herbage.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The analytical phases of the investigation of shark liver oil as a
vitamin D source for poultry were conducted in the Laboratory. Co-
operation was rendered the Poultry Division in trials testing the pos-
sible toxicity and nutritive value of solvent-extracted tung oil meal.

Purebred herds of Aberdeen-Angus, Devons and Herefords, and a
grade herd of Herefords, were maintained for experimental and in-
structional purposes. Females in all herds were kept for replacements
while the bull calves, except those showing superior conformation,
were castrated and used in experiments in grazing and fattening. A
few purebred bulls were sold to cattlemen as herd sires.

Purebred Duroc-Jerseys and Poland Chinas comprised the swine
herds. These animals were used for instructional purposes with Uni-
versity students, 4-H Club boys and Future Farmers of America. Ex-
perimental animals for projects on swine production were obtained from
these purebred herds.
The flock of sheep was composed of purebred Columbias, grade
Hampshires and natives. These sheep were used in a project on fleece
and mutton production and for instructional purposes.

Numerous specimens of diseased chickens and animal tissues were
sent to the Veterinary Laboratory for diagnosis.
"Wet wings," a new disease of chickens in Florida, and "sod disease,"
a disease involving the feet of chickens, have been found to be caused by
a fungus infection.

Three breeds of chickens were kept at the poultry farm, namely:
Single Comb Rhode Island Reds and Single Comb White Leghorns, both
American breeds, and Light Sussex, an English breed.
Pedigreed Light Sussex hatching eggs were purchased during the
spring of 1941. These eggs were hatched to furnish stock to continue
the breeding program with this breed and also for cross-breeding work.
The breeding birds were tested for pullorum disease and no reactors
were found at the last test. The flock was included in the National
Poultry Improvement Plan, which is sponsored by the U. S. Department
of Agriculture and was under the supervision of the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board.
In the fall of 1940, 904 pullets and hens were placed in the laying
houses. These birds were used in experimental trials in feeding and
breeding. Four hatches were made during the spring of 1941 to supply
chicks for experimental feeding trials and to raise pullets for the 1941
nutrition experiments with layers. All chicks from the special breeding
pens were pedigreed individually.
Cooperative experimental work at the West Central Florida Experi-
ment Station studied rate of growth, livability, maturity, egg size, and
egg production, using a Rhode Island Red-Light Sussex cross, Rhode
Island Red, Light Sussex, and White Leghorn-Red Sussex cross. The
grading of live and dressed birds from these matings was continued.

Annual Report, 1941

Feeding trials were continued at the Florida National Egg Laying
Test at Chipley, studying the effect of different methods of feeding grain
on production, costs and returns. In the fall of 1940 additional feeding
trials were started using different levels of protein in the mash. All of
these trials were in addition to the regular Egg-Laying Test.
Preliminary feeding trials in cooperation with the Bureau of Chem-
istry and Engineering, U. S. Department of Agriculture, and the Nutrition
Laboratory, using solvent-extracted tung oil meal, were conducted dur-
ing the spring of 1941. The material used in these trials did not appear
to be toxic to young chicks. The growth response for each group showed
a corresponding decrease in weight as the percentage of tung oil meal
was increased.
A preliminary trial was started to determine the value of Napier
meal, a Florida product, for feeding layers. Napier meal replaced alfalfa
leaf meal. This work was in cooperation with the Nutrition Laboratory.

This laboratory was maintained to furnish facilities for teaching
and research in dairy manufactures. Many samples of dairy products
have been examined, scored and analyzed for dairy plants within the
state. On a number of occasions staff members have made trips to dairy
plants to aid in solving some of the problems encountered in the handling
and processing of market milk and ice cream.
Trials are under way to determine the most effective methods in the
preparation of cream for extended storage for later use in ice cream
manufacture. Problems involved in the storage of cottage cheese are
being studied.
The homogenization of milk is becoming an important process in
Florida dairy plants. A project concerning some of the factors involved
in the homogenization of milk has been initiated. A study of processes
commonly employed involving the use of different types of homogenizers
is being made in cooperation with several dairy plants throughout the
Preliminary studies of internal parasites of cattle were begun. Post
mortem examinations were conducted on 49 experimental sheep in de-
termining the effectiveness of phenothiazine as an anthelmintic for this
class of farm animals. A barn has been constructed in which parasite-
free calves can be raised for use in studies on the life history of internal
parasites of cattle.

A. Animal Biochemistry and Beef Cattle Phase
Purnell Project 133 W. M. Neal and L. L. Rusoff
Controlled feeding trials were continued, using 16 animals on rations
deficient in various minerals. Symptoms of cobalt deficiency have not
been so severe in trials where Alyce clover (Alysicarpus vaginalis) hay has
been substituted for Natal grass (Tricholena rose) hay in the grass hay
ration, even though the hays were both produced on deficient areas. A
healthy calf was dropped by a 2/2 year old heifer maintained on the
deficient ration. The dam weighed 320 pounds and the calf 35 pounds.
The calf is the fourth generation of animals used in the cobalt studies.
Cobalt deficiency does not prevent reproduction in all cases.
Field trials showed aluminum salts to have beneficial effects on
cattle showing symptoms of an arthritic nature. Whether or not the

60 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

element was acting as a nutrient or was exhibiting antidotal properties
has not been determined.
Analyses of over 300 forage samples indicated that the copper con-
tent of such samples could not be used to predict whether or not copper
deficiency would occur among cattle on the range. Analyses of blood
samples have shown a range of 0.1 to 1.6 parts per million of copper with
a high degree of correlation between the amount of copper and the con-
dition of the animal.
During the investigation of field cases of mineral deficiency, two
cases of poisoning by castor bean (Ricinus communis) were observed. These
animals showed the typical symptoms reported in the literature.

B. Dairy Phase
R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, and D. A. Sanders
The adequacy of calcium and phosphorus supply in the feed received
by the Experiment Station dairy herd was checked by a measure of bone
strengths. Two cows averaging 13 years of age had average breaking
strengths of 2,800 and 3,015 pounds for the 12 long leg bones. This con-
trasts with a low breaking strength of 335 pounds for the humeri and
femurs of a cow in extreme calcium depletion. The concentrate feeds
received by them have contained either 2% of bonemeal or 1% of bone-
meal and 1% of marble dust since 1929. Roughage feeds were largely
locally grown.
Further studies of bone composition are being made in cooperation
with the Spectrographic Laboratory.
Adequacy of the "salt sick" mineral (100 lbs. salt, 25 lbs. red oxide
of iron, 1 lb. copper sulfate, and 1 oz. of cobalt sulfate) is being checked
with dairy cattle on several soil types. This formula has proved ade-
quate in all but a limited soil area observed to date.
This project is in cooperation with the Soils Department.

State Project 140 R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal, P. T. Dix Arnold,
L. L. Rusoff and D. J. Smith
Three dairy cows no longer needed in the dairy herd were measured
for body conformation and slaughtered. These animals supplied lacta-
tion and reproduction records in addition to the ante- and post-mortem
measurements of the cows. Records of 48 cows have been contributed
to this project by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. There
are 24 states cooperating in this program under the leadership of W. W.
Swett, Bureau of Dairy Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

State Project 213 W. M. Neal, R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold
and L. L. Rusoff
Records taken during the year extended the data relative to the
density of corn silage in upright silos.
Clippings from a carpet grass pasture, much of which was in the seed
stage of growth, were treated with molasses and packed in one of the
laboratory silos. Satisfactory packing of the uncut material was not

Annual Report, 1941

State Project 215 A. L. Shealy, W. G. Kirk and D. J. Smith
This project was conducted at Penney Farms. Four experimental
herds of cows were maintained, including grade animals of the following
breeds: Devons, Herefords, Brahmans and Red Polled cows. The cows,
heifers, and calves were weighed at 90-day intervals to determine the
loss of weight in range cattle during the fall and winter months when
the animals are not fed and to study the maximum gain on grass during
the spring and summer months. All calves were graded according to
standard grades devised by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Fifty-
two calves were dropped during the year and were graded as follows:
High Medium, 63 percent; Medium, 37 percent.
This work is in cooperation with Foremost Properties, Incorporated,
and the U. S. Department of Agriculture.

State Project 216 A. L. Shealy, D. J. Smith and W. G. Kirk
The object of this project is to determine the improvement obtained
by use of purebred bulls on native and grade cows. Work was con-
ducted with nine cattlemen whose ranches are located in the central and
southern sections of the state.
This project is conducted in cooperation with the U. S. Department
of Agriculture.

State Project 219 A. L. Shealy, W. G. Kirk and D. J. Smith
Purebred herds of beef cattle were maintained at the stations as
follows: Herefords and Aberdeen-Angus at the Main Station; Devons at
Everglades Station; and Aberdeen-Angus at the North Florida Station.
Grade herds of these breeds also were kept at the respective stations.
Birth weight and growth rate were obtained on all calves. All calves
were graded as vealers and slaughter calves according to official
This work is in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agri-

State Project 251 M. W. Emmel
Four fractions, which apparently are significant in the mechanism of
tissue autolysis and thus leukemia, have been isolated from chicken liver.
The action of these fractions when injected intravenously is: (1) one
fraction stimulates the total blood cell count; (2) another depresses the
local count; (3) another induces lymphocytosis; (4) while the fourth
induces granulocytosis.

State Project 258 D. A. Sanders and Erdman West
Deaths continue to occur among livestock, especially cattle, due to
poisoning by Crotalaria spectablis and other unifoliate species of crotalaria.
The losses usually begin after the first heavy frost in the fall and may
continue throughout the winter months. Deaths among cattle in the

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

spring and early summer months were encountered following ingestion
of the plant in the pre-bloom stage. Scarcity of available green forage
as a result of the drouth accounted for the losses during the spring and
early summer of 1941. A description of the symptoms and lesions of C.
spectabalis poisoning occurring under natural conditions is being assembled
from clinical observations and autopsies made in the field.
One herd of pigs died in the Gainesville area during the spring of
1941 as a result of eating seedlings of cocklebur (Xanthium sp.).

Animal Husbandry Phase
Bankhead-Jones Project 267 W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown
Grade yearling Hereford heifers and steers were used to measure the
carrying capacity and nutritive value of fertilized and unfertilized
carpet grass pasture. Eight pasture areas of 0.7 acre each were used in
this trial. Four of these areas were fertilized and four were not.
Rotational grazing was practiced in each instance.
Due to heavy infestation of internal parasites in the experimental
animals, work on this phase of the project was suspended.

State Project 274 D. J. Smith, C. H. Willoughby and A. L. Shealy
The foundation flock of sheep consisted of purebred Columbias,
grade Hampshires and natives. Average weights of fleeces for the 1941
shearing period were as follows: Purebred Columbias, 12.72 pounds;
grade Hampshires, 7.83 pounds; and natives, 3.38 pounds. The fleeces
were scored for length and fineness of fiber, character, density, color and
condition prior to the shearing of the animals.
All yearling sheep were graded as to breeding and mutton type and
all lambs as slaughter lambs after they were shorn.
This project is in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agri-

A. Animal Husbandry Phase
Bankhead-Jones Project 302 W. G. Kirk, D. J. Smith and A. L. Shealy
Grazing tests with Napier grass were continued. Steers averaging
450 to 800 pounds in weight have gained more than one and one-half
pounds daily. Beef yields varied from 200 to 450 pounds per acre per
grazing season, depending on soil type and fertilizer practices. Results
with beef cattle during the 1940 winter grazing period indicate that
Napier grass when cured in the field may be used as a winter feed.
B. Dairy Phase
P. T. Dix Arnold and R. B. Becker
Napier grass was planted in 1938 on an eight-acre area divided into
five lots for rotational grazing studies with dairy cattle. The third grazing
season began on April 29, 1940. By inverse calculation it was estimated
that for cows producing up to 40 pounds of milk daily and receiving one
pound of concentrates for approximately three pounds of milk produced
57% of the total digestible nutrient requirements was supplied by the
grass. A total of 1,647 cow days' grazing was supplied by the grass for
161 consecutive days.

Annual Report, 1941

The fourth grazing season began on May 19, 1941, with six cows
managed as in preceding years. It was necessary to delay pasturing the
grass until this date on account of late frost followed by unseasonably
dry weather. When growing conditions became favorable the number
of cows was doubled. Satisfactory milk yields are being obtained.
Work on this project is conducted in cooperation with the Agronomy

State Project 307 0. W. Anderson, Jr., and N. R. Mehrhof
Data have been tabulated on temperature, body weight, egg pro-
duction, and egg weight for the years 1931-35 of Single Comb White
Leghorn pullets from the Florida National Egg-Laying Test. Prelimin-
ary studies, using the records from 50 Rhode Island Reds, show a high
degree of correlation between "first winter" and total egg production,
and between "fall" and total egg production.

State Project 309 N. R. Mehrhof and 0. W. Anderson, Jr.
The breeding program included a study of egg production, egg size,
longevity, livability, fertility, hatchability, broodiness, and disease re-
sistance with Single Comb White Leghorns and Single Comb Rhode
Island Reds.
Artificial insemination trials to study fertility indicated considerable
variation in the percentage of fertility obtained from different males.
Sperm held over 60 minutes in a centrifuge tube at room temperature de-
creased in fertilizing capacity. Fertility was obtained from sperm held
23 hours and 25 minutes at 130 centigrade.
Fertility and hatchability varied considerably with hens in the
same breeding pens. Breeding birds showing a low percentage of fer-
tility and hatchability were eliminated from the breeding pens.
The "Sanborn" strain of Single Comb Rhode Island Reds is line
bred, using different families of this strain for the several pens; males
and females from the same family were placed in the same breeding pen
each year.
In mating the remaining Single Comb Rhode Island Reds and the
Single Comb White Leghorns the females of the various lines were
placed in the same breeding pens each year while the males were rotated.

State Project 310 W. G. Kirk and D. J. Smith
Six dry lot feeding trials in which peanuts formed the basal ration
have been completed. In the sixth trial 10 purebred Duroc-Jersey feed-
er pigs were divided into five lots of two pigs each. Each pig, however,
was kept in an individual pen and fed separately. The trial was started
on January 16, 1940, and continued for 16 weeks. The results are sum-
marized in Table 5.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Av. Daily Peanuts Required
Lot No. Rations Gain per Pound of Gain
1* Peanuts and salt** 0.69 2.26
2 Peanuts, salt** and 1 part CaCO, 1.21 1.69
3 Peanuts, salt** and 2 parts
alfalfa leaf meal 1.18 1.73
4 Peanuts, 2 parts of mineral
supplement*** 1.18 1.71
5 Peanuts, 2 parts of mineral
supplement*** and 2 parts
alfalfa leaf meal 1.19 1.72
*Pigs died 98 and 110 days after the start of the feeding trial.
**Salt fed at the following levels: up to 100 pounds, 2 grams per day;
from 100 to 150 pounds, 3 grams; above 150 pounds, 4 grams.
***Kalsite (CaCO,), 50 pounds; steamed bone meal, 50 pounds; salt
25 pounds; red oxide of iron, 25 pounds; copper sulfate, 1 pound;
cobalt chloride, 1 ounce.

Field Trial.-Purebred Poland China and Duroc-Jersey pigs were
used to hog-off three 2-acre lots of Florida Runner peanuts. From Octo-
ber 22, 1940, to January 6, 1941, the pigs on peanuts without any mineral
supplement made an average daily gain of 0.54 pound. The pigs on pea-
nuts and having free access to common salt or a mixture of equal parts
of common salt and lime made an average daily gain of 1.43 and 1.48
pounds, respectively.
During the last four weeks of the grazing test the pigs on peanuts
alone were unthrifty, and in the last two weeks they lost considerable
weight. Those having free access to salt or a mixture of salt and lime
were maintained in a healthy condition throughout the test.

State Project 311 D. J. Smith
Records were taken of the grazing period and carrying capacity of
sweet potatoes in the field, used with protein and mineral supplements,
for wintering mature breeding stock.
Records are being taken on the grazing period, carrying capacity and
amount of pork produced on various grazing crops utilized by sows with
litters, weanling pigs, and fattening hogs.
Additional data were collected on the growth rates of spring and fall
pigs from birth to three months of age.

State Project 320 L. L. Rusoff and N. R. Mehrhof
A. Poultry Phase
The vitamin D content of shark liver oil was determined by the
method of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. Ninety S. C.
White Leghorn chicks were divided into six groups. These chicks were
fed the basal vitamin D-free ration supplemented with varying levels
of shark liver oil as compared with rations containing definite amounts
of U. S. P. XI reference cod liver oil.
The results indicate approximately 30 units of vitamin D per gram
of shark liver oil.

Annual Report, 1941

B. Dairy Phase
L. L. Rusoff, R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold
Four groups of dairy cows from the Station Jersey herd were used
in this experiment. The basal group of four animals received the regu-
lar dairy herd ration and groups 1, 2 and 3, of two animals each, received
the basal ration plus 2.5, 5 and 10 pounds of shark liver oil (9,000 I. U. per
gram) per ton of grain rations, respectively.
The experimental animals were subjected to three distinct feeding
periods; (1) a preperiod, before the addition of shark liver oil; (2) a dry
lot period; and (3) a period on pasture, with supplementation of oil in
the last two periods.
The vitamin A potency of the milk from the experimental animals
ranged from 1,660 to 1,150 international units per litter.
The feeding of approximately 784,700 I. U. of vitamin A per cow per
day resulted in the production of milk of maximum vitamin A potency.
The feeding of vitamin A above this level (2.5 pounds of shark liver oil
per ton of rations) did not increase the vitamin A content of the milk.
Shark liver oil can be used to good advantage in Florida during the
winter period when no feeds high in vitamin A are available to keep the
vitamin A potency of winter milk at a maximum.
The ascorbic acid content of the fresh milks was determined also.
Contrary to reports in the literature concerning the addition of cod liver
oil to the ration, no increase in ascorbic acid content of milk was observ-
ed when shark liver oil was used either mixed in the ration or as a

State Project 331 W. G. Kirk and D. J. Smith
Thirty native and grade Hereford cows were divided into two lots
and placed on test on November 15, 1940. During the 106-day period
Date of test: November 15, 1940, to March 2, 1941.
Length of test: 106 days.
Lot I Lot II
Roughage used Shocked Cut Sugarcane Improved Pasture
Number of cows 12 18
Pounds Pounds
Average amount of feed consumed
daily per cow:
Shocked cut sugarcane 43.38
Improved pasture* -- ad libitum
Peanut meal, 45% protein 2.00 2.61
Initial weight** 10,085 14,245
Final weight 9,500 11,843
Weight of calves*** 603 995
Total weight of cows and calves 10,103 12,838
Gain or loss in weight 18 -1,407
*Improved pasture consisted mostly of carpet grass.
**Initial and final weights consisted of total weight of all cows in lot.
***Number of calves: Lot 1, six; Lot II, 10.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

several cows in each lot gave birth to calves. These calves were con-
sidered in the final weight for their respective lots. The average feed
consumption per cow and gain or loss in weight per lot are given in
Table 6.
The improved pasture was stocked at the rate of approximately one
animal to 1.5 acres of pasture. The rate of stocking was evidently too
high, since the cattle in that lot lost approximately 78 pounds each dur-
ing the winter period even when the pasture was supplemented with 2.61
pounds of peanut meal per cow daily.

State Project 337 N. R. Mehrhof, E. F. Stanton, D. F. Sowell
and 0. W. Anderson, Jr.
Feeding trials for the past two years have been completed compar-
ing different methods of feeding grain to S. C. Rhode Island Red pullets.
These experiments were conducted at the Florida National Egg-Laying
Test at Chipley and at the Main Station at Gainesville.
All management factors were kept as uniform as possible except
the method of feeding grain, which was as follows: Lot 1, floor feeding
of grain mixture once nightly; Lot 2, hopper feeding of grain mixture
once nightly; Lot 3, hopper feeding of grain mixture ad libitum; and Lot
4, hopper feeding of oats, corn, and wheat ad libitum. The mash feeding
was uniform for all lots.
No significant differences were noted in egg production, egg weight,
body weight, and pounds of feed to produce a dozen eggs in the trials
at the Main Station. However, at Florida National Egg-Laying Test egg
production was lower in the lot fed corn, wheat, and oats ad libitum
than in the other three lots.
Results obtained at both the Main Station and the Florida National
Egg-Laying Test show that there was considerable variation in the ratio
of mash to grain consumption by the birds in the four different lots.
Consumption records for Lot 4 showed that there was much variation
in the ratio of corn, wheat and oats in the ration when the birds were
allowed these feeds free choice.
These data have been prepared for publication.
During the fall of 1940 additional trials were started comparing 20%,
26%, and 32% protein mash and ad libitum feeding of corn, oats, and
wheat with 20% protein mash and hopper feeding of grain mixture once

State Project 339 W. G. Kirk, A. L. Shealy and D. J. Smith
Seventy-five grade Hereford, Aberdeen-Angus and Shorthorn steers
were divided into three lots of 25 animals each and placed on test No-
vember 26, 1940. A preliminary period of 12 days permitted the steers
to become accustomed to their respective rations. The following rations
were fed for 120 days:
Lot 1. Alyce clover hay (limited), sorghum silage, ground snapped
corn and peanut meal.
Lot 2. The same ration as Lot 1 except one-half of the ground snap-
ped corn was replaced by an equal weight of blackstrap
Lot 3. The same ration as Lot 2, except the steers had free access
to the blackstrap molasses at all times. The amount of corn
was the same as in ration for Lot 2.

Annual Report, 1941

All lots had access to a complete mineral.
Final records show that the average daily gain per steer was 2.08
pounds, Lot 1; 2.04, Lot 2; and 2.13 pounds for Lot 3. Results of this
trial show that it is entirely satisfactory to replace one-half of the
ground snapped corn with blackstrap molasses in the rations of fattening

State Project 343 John T. Creighton and M. W. Emmel
Birds fed 5 percent of sulfur in the mash for a period of 3 weeks
showed a marked reduction in lice populations. Birds fed similar amounts
of sulfur, in capsules as above, failed to show reduction in infestations.
Field experiments are in progress in which the value of sulfur for the
treatment of birds for lice, fleas and mites under practical conditions will
be determined.

Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and A. H. Spurlock
Inventories and breeding records were started with 10 selected dairy
herds during the year, on the study of breeding efficiency among dairy
cattle under Florida conditions.
Preliminary reports were published by the project leaders in the re-
spective breed journals concerning the average useful life span of a lim-
ited number of bulls of the four dairy breeds, as shown in Table 7. This
information is desired by persons considering the purchase of proved
bulls, and by owners of such animals looking forward to replacements.


Number of Average Useful Maximum Useful
Breeds Animals Lifetime (Years) Life (Years)
Ayrshire 100 11.1 19.13
Guernsey 172 10.4 19.71*
Holstein 272 10.5 17.81
Jersey 196 11.1 18.58
*One bull older than this is still in service.

Causes of losses were tabulated on 1,097 dairy bulls of four breds
that died of natural causes, or were slaughtered after their usefulness
was over in the dairy herd.
Died of old age __--- ----------10.3 percent
Sterility ________ __-----------_-----27.6 percent
Died, cause not diagnosed ...-----...23.3 percent
Accidents and injuries ---.----- 6.8 percent
Foreign bodies (wire, etc.)-..-..-.---- 5.4 percent
Lameness, bad feet and legs ...-----. 4.4 percent
Infectious diseases, total___ ------12.9 percent
Miscellaneous causes __----- ------- 9.3 percent

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Good management and veterinary care can reduce or delay losses
from certain of the causes enumerated.
A much larger number of records is needed to secure reliable aver-
age age value. These are being sought with cooperation of the dairy
breed associations.

Purnell Project 346 W. M. Neal and L. L. Rusoff
A total of 75 rats were fed rations of peanuts plus various supple-
ments in an effort to determine the required supplements to a basal
ration of peanuts. No system of supplementation has been developed
that permits growth to maturity or reproduction. The most satisfactory
ration consisted of peanuts, salt, calcium carbonate, methionine and a
small amount of whole milk. Osborne and Mendel's salt mixture gave no
better results than salt and calcium carbonate. Cottonseed meal and
skimmilk powder were without supplemental effect. Methionine alone
of the amino-acids was beneficial.

State Project 350 A. L. Shealy and D. J. Smith
Maximum use has been made of annual grazing crops in an effort to
reduce internal parasites. It has not been necessary to medicate the
sheep for internal parasites as frequently as in past years when no
definite system of pasture rotation was practiced. Annual pastures of
oats, millet, and cowpeas were used. Napier grass last year was found
not palatable for sheep, hence it was eliminated from the system of
grazing crops.

State Project 351 R. M. Crown, W. G. Kirk and A. L. Shealy
Individual feed intakes were obtained on 12 "feeder" pigs to deter-
mine the amount of feed required to produce slaughter hogs of the
standard weight grades for the Southeast. These pigs were fed rations
containing corn, fish meal and alfalfa leaf meal. The pigs receiving a
ration of 82% corn, 10% fish meal, and 8% alfalfa leaf meal made the
most economical gains. The average daily gain for this lot was 1.53
This project is closed with this report.

State Project 352 N. R. Mehrhof, L. L. Rusoff,
W. M. Neal and J .C. Driggers
Quadruplicate feeding trials were started with day-old sexed S. C.
Rhode Island Red chicks. An all-mash basal ration supplemented with
clam shell or oyster shell flour was fed ad libitum. At the end of 24
weeks very little difference was noted in feed consumption, mortality,
chick weight and bone development.
The birds were then divided into 8 groups and double reversal trials
were conducted.
Data on egg production, mortality, body weight, blood calcium analyses,

Annual Report, 1941

egg shell strength, and feed consumption indicate no significant differ-
ence in the two sources of calcium for egg production.
Chicks from the different groups have been hatched and are being
fed an all-mash ration with and without either of the two calcium sup-
Purnell Project 353 D. A. Sanders
The possible relation of insects to transmission of infectious bovine
mastitis has been investigated. The common housefly, Musca domestic,
and frit flies or eye gnats, Hippelates spp., have been found capable of
transmitting the mastitis organisms mechanically from infected to
healthy udders. Structural characters, breeding habits and feeding ac-
tivities of these insects enable them to act as vectors of udder infections.
M. domestic breed in excrement, feed on waste milk spilled on floors
during the milking operation and crawl over the surface of teats and
feed at the teat orifice of lactating cows. Hippelates feed around the
natural body openings of cattle, on wounds, sores and abrasions of teats
and on milk secretions at the tip of the teats. Infections of the udder
enter through the teat canal. Exposures may occur each day during
the insect season throughout the life of the animal.
Search has been made for a practical effective germicidal treatment
for bacterial infections of the bovine udder caused by mastitis strepto-
cocci, staphylococci and micrococci. A preparation was desired which
would be effective in few applications, relatively non-toxic to the
epithelial cells, non-coagulant for udder secretions and applicable with-
out elaborate laboratory procedures. Critical tests at this Station have
shown that a 1:1,000 solution of U.S.P. resumblimed iodine crystals in
U.S.P. liquid petrolatum (heavy medicinal mineral oil) has valuable
therapeutic properties as a treatment for chronic udder infections when
injected into the diseased lactating quarter via the teat duct. A number
of infected quarters given a single injection ranging from 100 to 300
cubic centimeters of iodized oil solution ceased to shed mastitis micro-
organisms following the treatment. The injection of iodized mineral oil
initiated a temporary inflammatory reaction of the udder tissues which
was associated with the presence of erythrocytes in the fore milk and
caused a diminished milk flow in some instances. The inflammatory re-
action which occurred as a result of the treatment subsided, the appear-
ance of the milk returned to normal and the milk flow was restored
within 10 days. Beneficial results of the treatment appear to depend
upon the germicidal effect of the iodized mineral oil on the foci of infec-
tion and to bactericidal substances which accompany the inflammation.

Bankhead-Jones Project 356 W. M. Neal, L. L. Rusoff and R. E. Blaser
Forage samples from carpet grass plots established under other
Bankhead-Jones projects were collected and analyzed for copper. Sam-
ples from Leon soil types had a higher copper content than others from
Bladen soil types, contrary to reported copper content of the respective
soils. Samples from copper-fertilized plots had the highest copper con-
Neither carpet grass cut in the stage of most rapid growth nor
Napier grass blades collected comparably were adequate for the nutri-
tion of either guinea pigs or rabbits.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Bankhead-Jones Project 360 T. R. Freeman and E. L. Fouts
The production of fluid milk in Florida during the winter months
(the tourist season) approximately equals the demand for that commod-
ity, but is inadequate to meet the requirements for manufactured pro-
ducts. Consequently, large quantities of butter, cream, and cottage
cheese are imported from other states during the winter months.
Throughout the summer, however, there is a surplus of milk. This pro-
ject has been undertaken with the intent of developing satisfactory
methods for concentrating and storing milk solids, so that the dairy
industry in Florida may operate on a more stable year-round basis.
Since this project did not become active until February, 1941, there
are not sufficient data available at this time to warrant definite state-
ments as to results obtained. Two phases of work on this project have
been started. One phase dealt with the stability of Florida milk toward
the development of oxidized flavor, and work on this phase was begun
in March, 1941. Samples of milk from the Experiment Station dairy
herd and from the herd of a local dairyman were collected and examined
at two-weeks intervals to determine their susceptibility to the develop-
ment of oxidized flavor. This study will be continued for at least a
year. Results thus far obtained seem to indicate that market milk pro-
duced in Florida is somewhat less susceptible to the development of
oxidized flavor than is true in other parts of the United States.
The second phase of this project included investigations of the stor-
age of frozen cream. Work on this phase was begun in June, 1941.
Twelve lots of cream, processed or "treated" by various methods, were
placed in low-temperature storage (-10*F.). Samples of each of these
lots will be withdrawn at monthly intervals over a period of six months
and examined for indication of deterioration. At the end of the six-
months' storage period an experimental batch of ice cream will be pre-
pared from each lot of cream, so that the best method of storing cream
for subsequent use in ice cream manufacture may be determined.

Annual Report, 1941

The research activities of this department have centered largely
around the more important insect pests of Florida crop plants. The ef-
fectiveness of a heavy mulch in suppressing root-knot nematodes was
further demonstrated and an investigation of weeds as carry-over hosts
of nematodes in tobacco land was begun. Observations and studies on
the biology of aphids, thrips, case-bearers, grasshoppers and other in-
sect pests have furnished information helpful in developing more effec-
tive control measures.

State Project 8 J. R. Watson
Due doubtless to the severe freezes of the winter in November and
less severe ones in February and March, which cut down tender vegeta-
tion, there was not a heavy infestation of thrips on citrus or other plants
in the spring. The only attempt at control measures was in conjunction
with the control of gladiolus thrips. The flower thrips was comparative-
ly scarce on gladiolus where the poison bait had been applied for glad-
iolus thrips, indicating that this poison bait is also effective against the
Florida flower thrips.
A survey of the Thysanopterous fauna of Florida was continued and
several species new to science were discovered.
This project is closed with this report.

Adams Project 12 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
Root-knot investigations were conducted through selection of resist-
ant strains, mulching and rotational tests.
Ten 0.01-acre plots, each protected from washing and drifting ma-
terial by a board partition about one foot high, were used in the mulch
treatments. Eight of these were mulched with various materials in-
cluding dried grass, crotalaria stems, leaf mold, and water hyacinths.
In four of these plots this material was incorporated with the soil; in
the other four it was simply piled on top. Lettuce was grown on these
plots during the winter and okra and tobacco in the summer. The un-
mulched plots were used as checks. Otherwise the plants in the mulched
plots and the checks received the same treatment. All plants in mulched
plots showed much better growth and a lighter infestation of root-knot
than those in check plots.
A double row of roses was kept mulched. Except for frost damage
in November, 1940, they produced good growth and many flowers.
This is the sixth year that these mulched roses have produced satisfact-
The mulching tests with papaya yielded no significant results be-
cause of severe cold injury to the trees during the season.
The growing and selection of a resistant strain of Conch cowpea was
continued and the seed of this strain was produced and distributed to
15 experiment stations in the Southeastern states and to even a larger
number of growers in Florida. A large proportion of these cowpeas
grown in 1940 were entirely free of root-knot. In addition to the root-
knot resistant strains of Big Boston lettuce previously developed, the at-
tempt to produce a resistant strain of Iceberg was continued with some
indications of promise. The nematode-resistant strain of Kentucky Won-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

der beans first obtained from the Alabama Station was subjected to
further selection. This bean does much better than ordinary Kentucky
Wonders in infested soil but further selection is being made for a higher
degree of resistance.
A study of the relation of root-knot to tobacco grown in a three-
year rotation was started in cooperation with the Agronomy Depart-
ment. During the summer of 1940 a large number of weeds were exam-
ined for root-knot infestation in a fallow field which produced a crop of
tobacco in 1939. The weeds were identified by botanists of the Depart-
ment of Plant Pathology. This field will be re-examined for root-knot as
soon as the tobacco is harvested.
This project is closed with this report, the work henceforth to be
carried under Projects 382, 383 and 385.

State Project 13 J. R. Watson
Efforts were again unsuccessful in the attempt to obtain a large
population of the Chinese ladybeetle, Leis dimidiata 15-spilota Hope, in cit-
rus groves. Several severe droughts and a freeze destroyed young, ten-
der growth on the trees, with the result that there was insufficient feed
for aphids until late spring, when a heavy infestation occurred. By this
time, however, the Chinese ladybeetle had become quite scarce, and was
unable to breed up to sufficient numbers to effect control. The lady-
beetles were not completely starved out, however, and with more fav-
orable weather conditions might prove more efficient. It is evident,
though, that they cannot multiply as rapidly as can the aphids.
Borreria verticillata and Hyptus atrorubens, both host plants of the wasps
Larra analis and Larra americana, which are parasitic upon mole-crickets,
were successfully grown and produced abundant bloom. It was not
possible to secure the wasps last summer, however, and the work will be
continued, with a definite promise having been secured of the insects
being furnished this summer.
A comparison of poison baits for control of mole-crickets was con-
ducted .at the State Prison Farm at Raiford, the results indicating
that a mixture in which dried beans were substituted for the usual
bran gave much better control. The dried bean bait was mixed in the
proportion of 2 pounds of calcium arsenate, 2 quarts syrup and 25
pounds ground beans. Beans which were too spoiled for human con-
sumption proved satisfactory for this bait.
This project has been revised and will be reported hereafter as
Project 381.
State Project 14 H. E. Bratley
Observations on the density of population of these insects and the
percentage of parasitization was continued. The freeze of 1940 reduced
the population of Nezara viriduta to about 50 percent of that of an average
year. Bugs parasitized by Trichopoda pennies suffered an especially heavy
mortality from the cold. The numbers of Leptoglossus phyllopus were also
greatly reduced by the cold. Only about one-fourth as many as usual
were noticed on the thistle, a favorable host in the early spring. The
percentage of parasitization by Trichopoda pennipes continued to increase.
This project is closed with this report.

Annual Report, 1941

State Project 82 J. R. Watson, S. O. Hill and H. E. Bratley
This project has been confined to the control of the pecan nut case-
bearer and the leaf case-bearer, with the work being carried out at the
Pecan Laboratory, in cooperation with the USDA. Winter washes and
insecticide sprays were used.
Various rosins and creosote mixtures and common lye were used in
winter washes. Some showed promise as a killing agent for both the
nut case-bearer and the leaf case-bearer in their hibernacula. The tests
are being continued.
Several insecticides were used against summer broods of the case-
bearers. Both arsenic and nicotine compounds were applied at different
times during the summer. The insecticides were applied with bordeaux
mixture in an attempt also to control leaf diseases as well as the case-
bearers, and such other caterpillars as the webworm and the walnut de-
foliator. Results thus far have not yielded conclusive data, and the ex-
periments are being continued.
This project will hereafter be reported as No. 379.

THE ONION THRIPS (Thrips tabaci Linden)
State Project 231 J. R. Watson
Work on this project was confined to a survey of the presence of
onion thrips in Florida. Attempts to find any thrips out of doors were
unsuccessful during the summer of 1940, but a few were found on col-
lards in 1941. As during previous years, onion sets purchased in the
market in the. fall were found to be heavily infested with both adults
and nymphs. A heavy infestation of this thrips on beans developed in
the Sanford area during the fall of 1940. Onions grown from seed well
separated from any onion sets purchased on the market were found to
develop onion thrips later than those grown from sets.

THE GLADIOLUS THRIPS (Taeniothrips simplex Morison)
State Project 232 J. R. Watson and J. W. Wilson
Several factors seemed to be responsible for the unsatisfactory re-
sults of tarter emetic bait in controlling gladiolus thrips in the Ft. Myers
area. One grower was using a spreader with the water which caused the
material to form a film instead of a large number of minute drops over
the foliage, with the result that the poison dried promptly and was not
available for the thrips. Others had too long delayed the application of
the poison or had not put it on thoroughly. Where the bait was applied
promptly in well distributed droplets and applied at the first appear-
ance of thrips in injurious numbers, which was about the first of Janu-
ary, good control was obtained. A proprietary dust with pyrethrum as
the active agent seemed to give about as good control as the tarter
emetic spray.
The project is closed with this report.
State Project 234 A. N. Tissot
In March, 1941, many potato growers in Manatee County were fight-
ing the earliest heavy infestation of aphids experienced in many years.
An examination of several fields showed the potato aphid, Macrosiphum gel
(Koch), to be the principal species present. Some growers, using
pyrethrum-rotenone sprays at rather high concentrations and spraying

74 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

at two-day intervals, had nearly as many aphids on their plants two
days after the third spraying as were present before the first spray was
applied. Observation of some of the spraying operations indicated that
lack of adequate coverage probably was principally responsible for the
ineffectiveness of the sprays. This was substantiated by tests in which
similar sprays were used at comparable dilutions but in which the ap-
plications were much more thorough. Using in one application approxi-
mately the same amount of spray as was used by the growers in three
applications a very good kill of aphids was obtained. A week after the
more thorough sprays were applied the plants were free of aphids ex-
cept for a few winged individuals of another species which probably flew
in subsequent to spraying.
Three species of aphids which had not been known previously to
occur in Florida were found during the past year. Tuberolachnus saligna
(Gmelin), which feeds on the bark of willows, was first taken at St.
Petersburg. It has since been found near Bradenton and at three sta-
tions near Gainesville. Sanbornia juniperi Pergande, a peculiar aphid of
red cedar, was found at Monticello. At Plymouth an aphid was found
in numbers on the roots of potted gardenias. This one seems to belong
to the genus Yamataphis, an Asiatic group which appears never to have
been recorded from the Western Hemisphere. Eighteen new host plants
were added to the list of known hosts of Florida aphids during the past
Several species of hymenopterous parasites have been reared from
Florida aphids. These were sent for determination to Dr. C. F. Smith,
assistant entomologist at North Carolina State College, an authority on
these insects. He found four species of these parasites to be new to
This project is closed with this report.
State Project 263 J. R. Watson
This project was inactive during the year. Thus far the pepper
weevil has been found only in the southern parts of the state on crops
grown in the winter and spring months. Control measures already
worked out have proved satisfactory for controlling the insect at that
time of year.
Romalea microptera (Beauvois)
Adams Project 333 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
Burning over the breeding grounds during the period of maximum
emergence of the young nymphs from eggs very materially reduced the
infestation of this insect. As during last year, the migration from the
breeding ground was directly to a narcissus field. A large colony of
the locust was found near Cedar Keys. In this case the breeding ground
was largely on the shoulders of the highway through the marshes, al-
though there was some hatching on high, dry, sandy lands relatively free
from shrubbery growth and adjacent to the marsh.
The lubbers hatching in this colony quickly migrated to the lower
parts of the road shoulders, and to the neighboring marsh. On the lower
shoulders they fed mostly on two grasses of the genus Paspalum. In the
marsh their favorite food early in the season was Crinum, but later the
Crinum was deserted for arrowhead (Sagittaria). However, they also were
observed on over 50 other host plants.

Annual Report, 1941

Small scattered colonies were found in the longleaf pine-turkey oak
woods about Gainesville, but in no case did these colonies become large
and in many cases they died out. Here the main food plant seemed to
be tread softly, and there was not enough of this plant to supply the
hoppers with an abundant supply of food. This evidently was the limit-
ing factor.
Depredations of these insects were observed at Homasassa, where
citrus was the main food.
At Doctors Inlet, as in previous years, cowpeas and cabbage suffered
severely from attacks, as did the young ears of corn in silk. The lub-
bers fed greedily on the silk and on the tip of the young ears, but did
not seem to care much for the leaves.
Conditions necessary for the development of a large colony are now
clear. Well drained and comparatively loose soil, such as that found in
the higher portions of the flatwoods where the longleaf pine is being
invaded by live oaks, is a suitable soil. Adjacent to these breeding
grounds there must be an abundance of some favorable food plants. In
uncultivated areas this will usually be a marsh, but around fields where
bulbs are grown, narcissus, amaryllis, and other members of the lily fam-
ily supply the necessary food. In a region where there is only a limited
supply of such hosts as tread softly and pokeberry they seem unable
to build up a heavy infestation.
Control.-Burning over the breeding ground at the time of maximum
hatching is effective. Even more effective is treating the colonies of
young locusts with a spray of pyrethrum oil extract. A habit of the
lubbers to remain in a dense, close colony for a day or two after hatch-
ing simplifies this procedure. Even so the breeding grounds should be
gone over every day or two during the time of active emergence and all
the colonies of young lubbers sprayed. Migrations from the breeding
grounds to their favorite feeding areas, such as narcissus fields, can be
prevented by digging a ditch between them, a foot or so deep, with per-
pendicular sides. The lubbers cannot cross such a ditch. This same
ditch would be effective in preventing the migration of the mature lub-
bers back to the breeding grounds.
A bulletin manuscript is being prepared covering the results obtained
from this project, which is being closed with this report.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The experimental work of the Department has centered on studies
of human nutrition and the chemical composition and vitamin content of
Florida fruits and vegetables.
The assistance of the American Dry Milk Institute and other co-
operating agencies made possible the study of the relation of diet to
health and progress in a school of 204 rural white children.
The results of this and earlier studies lead to the conclusion that
malnourishment of rural people due to misfeeding and underfeeding is
one of the state's greatest agricultural problems.
Purnell Project 255 0. D. Abbott, M. R. Overstreet and R. B. French
A. Human Nutrition.-Two hundred four children in one rural
school were given a complete physical examination. Arrangements were
made for surgery and corrective treatments when the need was indicated.
Studies were 'made of the food habits of each family. Records show that
in this school more than 51 percent of the children fail to complete the
grammar school and only one-eighth of them complete the 10th grade.
Mental placement tests were made on all children in the 4th to 10th
grades inclusive.
At the initial physical examination 92 percent of the children showed
symptoms of gross malnutrition. The most prevalent defects were as
follows: anemia 56%, borderline anemia 19%, gingivitis 91%, infected
tonsils 48%, carious teeth 90%, conjunctivitis 59%, hookworm 85%, un-
derweight 90%. During the school year more than two-thirds of the
children were absent from 10 to 30 days because of colds and the result-
ing throat, sinus and ear infections. The family diets were deficient in
animal protein, vitamins A, the B complex, and C, in calcium and in
iron. In many homes citrus fruits and milk were used sparingly or not
at all. As there appeared to be a relation between the defects of these
children and the food they were eating, all children were provided with
a noon meal calculated to furnish a fair diet. In cases of severe malnu-
trition vitamins and minerals supplemented the meal. At the beginning
of the experiment many foods in common use elsewhere would not be
eaten by the children.
After feeding the children an adequate meal at noon for seven
months, a final physical examination showed that nearly all the children
had improved in general appearance as shown by the condition of the
skin and hair, and increases in both height and weight. Nutritional
gingivitis is a disease of the gums and is due for the most part to a de-
ficiency of vitamin C. When each child was given daily sufficient
orange or grapefruit juice to furnish 75 milligrams of ascorbic acid,
the improvement in the gums was outstanding. At the initial examin-
ation more than 91 percent of the children had some degree of gingivitis
and only 9 percent had healthy gums. Seven months later 62 percent
had healthy gums and less than 4 percent continued to have symptoms
of an advanced gum deterioration. Dietary habits of the community
have been greatly improved, in fact the entire community appears to be
interested in food and its preparation.
Considerable progress in school was noted. From the data collected
it now appears as if there is a definite correlation between retardation
in school and nutritional status.

Annual Report, 1941

B. Hemoglobin Regeneration.-Several tests for hemoglobin regen-
eration efficiency have been performed.
Groups of rats after having been made anemic by feeding them dry
whole milk were given individually 0.25 milligrams of iron daily either
as ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, iron humate, or ferrous sulfate to which
had been added a molecular equivalent of sodium-hexameta-phosphate..
The results of this study show that (1) this particular iron humate is not
efficient as a source of iron for hemoglobin regeneration; (2) the hex-
ameta-phosphate influences favorably the rate of hemoglobin regenera-
tion. Since all the rats were showing a greying of fur, some were given
per day a milligram of either choline or para-aminobenzoic acid.
The latter had no effect upon the greying of hair but on the other hand
choline quite definitely tended to restore hair to its original color after
a month's feeding.
C. Mineral Analyses.-In continuation of the study of the iron con-
tent of Florida fruits and vegetables it was found that the iron content
of turnip greens from home gardens located in the district in which the
nutritional study was made varied from 133 p.p.m. to 280 p.p.m., while
the calcium in the same samples varied from 1.92 percent to 2.96 percent.
Purnell Project 270 0. D. Abbott and R. B. French
A. Honey
During the year material was made available for further analytical
work on honeys. These analyses show that the composition of ripe
honeys of a particular kind may vary slightly. In years when there is
excessive rainfall during blossoming there is considerable variation in
the percentage of water in fresh honey.
The use of honey as a substitute for glucose in infant feeding con-
tinued during the year and the results confirm earlier findings, i. e.,
honey can be used in smaller quantities than glucose; (2) it is more
laxative; (3) it appears to have a quieting action, as the babies are less
Some preliminary studies were made on the effects of honey in the
treatment of individuals who were allergic or hypersensitive to pollens
from certain fall flowers. The results indicate that honey made from
nectar from these flowers may be of value in desensitizing these individ-
uals. In desensitizing the patient it is advisable that the initial dose be
small. In several cases only one drop of honey was given for three or
four days. After that the dose was increased as rapidly as it could be
B. Royal Jelly
The protein of royal jelly has been fractionated into two major
components, one evidently a globulin and the other albumin. These
are present in the proportion of 1:2. Further work on the ether soluble
acid has indicated that its empirical formula is CloH1803 (instead of
H20). Such a formula indicates the presence of a saturated ring struc-
ture. Attempted identification is proceeding through partial oxidative
processes and the attempt to identify breakdown products.
Purnell Project 358 R. B. French and 0. D. Abbott
No definite effect was noted with either Sudan or Bahia grass on
carotene synthesis through varying the quantities of either potassium or
phosphorus supplied to the plant. But when the source of nitrogen was

78 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

ammonia rather than nitrate, carotene synthesis was increased. Bahia
contains little, while Sudan contains much, carotene. The effect of
ammonia in increasing the carotene content of Sudan was great while
the effect on Bahia was small but definite. This work was done in co-
operation with the Agronomy Department.
The following fruits have been analyzed for carotene and the results
are expressed in terms of micrograms of carotene per gram of fresh ma-
terials. Avocados furnished by the Sub-Tropical Station at Homestead:
Pollock 5.1, Trapp 1.4, Walden 4.1, Booth "8" 2.4, Collinson 2.8, Lula 1.3;
cantaloupes: Hale's Best from near Tallahassee 196.0. The following
fruits were grown in Alachua County; peaches: Florida Honey 2.8; plums:
Wild Goose 3.66, American 158.0; strawberries: Missionary 7.3; huckle-
berries (wild) 11.0.
The chemical determination of carotene and vitamin A in clover and
milk has been checked with the biological determination, with essential
agreement. Preliminary observations on the effect of feeding several
levels of vitamin A on the differential white cell count of rats have been
Purnell Project 359 R. B. French and 0. D. Abbott
The effect of fertilization with rare elements on field-grown lettuce
has been examined. Rather extensive trials with various mixtures of
minor elements produced lettuce that varied in vitamin C concentration
only slightly. Evidently minor element supplementation of fertilizer has
no effect on production of vitamin C by the lettuce leaf. These samples
were obtained through the courtesy of the Horticultural Department.
The concentration of vitamin C in the leaves of greenhouse-grown
tobacco, tomato and Sudan grass is very high, while in Bahia grass it is
comparatively low. In the presence of ample nitrogen, either nitrate or
ammonia, little if any effect of high or low levels of either potassium or
phosphorus on the concentration of vitamin C could be observed. The
effect of maturity on the level of vitamin C was pronounced. Vege-
tative Bahia plants contained approximately twice the vitamin C con-
centration of the mature plants. This work was in cooperation with the
Agronomy Department.
Analyses of several varieties of avocados gave the following figures
expressed in milligrams of vitamin C per 100 grams of fruit. Pollock 37,
Trapp 31, Walden 28, Booth "8" 10, Collinson 7, and Lula 13. Apparently
the earlier varieties of avocado analyzed are better sources of vitamin
C than are the later ones. These fruit were shipped from the Sub-
Tropical Station at Homestead.
Little or no vitamin C was found in the following fruits: Grapes of
the following varieties obtained from the Field Station at Leesburg:
Munson, Bailey, and Beacon, the latter either before or after cold stor-
age, nor in juice made from these grapes; plums: Wild Goose (red) or
American (yellow) (Alachua County); peaches: Honey (Island Grove);
watermelons: Leesburg and Tom Watson (Agricultural Experiment
Station); cucumbers: Colorado (Alachua County); Celeste figs (Alachua
Good sources of C were strawberries: Missionary 30 (Starke), and
papayas: seedling 35 (Bradenton). Papaya seeds contained both ascorbic
and dehydroascorbic acid (both act as vitamin C) to a total of 144
Large variations were noted in cantaloupes: Alachua County Honey
Rock 15, and Honey Rock from near Tallahassee 108 milligrams.

Annual Report, 1941

Research has been conducted with numerous horticultural crops in
several phases of production, storage and maturity. The program com-
prised 20 projects.
Storage experiments have yielded some valuable results with both
fruits and vegetables. Of particular interest were several experimental
carloads of citrus fruits wrapped in pliofilm which were shipped to com-
mercial markets.
Experiments in methods of extracting pecan oil from pecan kernels
were reported in Annual Reports for 1936, 1937 and 1938. Considerable
interest was then manifested in them, and now pecan oil is being ex-
pressed from pecan kernels in commercial quantities.
The production of tung oil in Florida has continued to increase and
in 1940 it was the largest of record. Cooperation was continued during
the year with the Tung Investigations Laboratory, Bureau of Plant In-
dustry, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

State Project 47 G. H. Blackmon
Nutritional studies have been continued with prolific varieties. Ap-
parently emphasis should be placed on fertilizer mixtures containing
nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash in approximately 1-2-1 or 3-4-2
ratio, supplemented with applications of nitrogenous materials during
years of heavy production.
Growth.-With all varieties in the various experiments, except
Curtis and Kennedy, the most growth increment was made by trees in
the plots where nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash were applied in the
spring and sulfate of ammonia in summer. Trees of the Moore variety
again made the most growth.
Yields.-When all varieties in all experiments are considered for
1940, the heaviest production was made by Curtis trees in the Bradford
County experiment where the fertilizer contained nitrogen only, derived
from nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia and cottonseed meal. This was
supplemented with a mixture containing nitrogen, phosphoric acid and
potash applied to the intercrop of corn and velvet beans grown for graz-
ing. Moore trees set in 1912 in an experiment in Jefferson County were
second highest in yield for this one year but highest in total yields to
date. These were in plots which received nitrogen, phosphoric acid and
potash in spring and nitrogen in summer. Annual applications of 89%
zinc sulfate are made at the rate of two pounds per tree in all treatments
to control rosette, which is common in this orchard. Zinc sulfate is also
applied in the other experiments when rosette symptoms are noted.

State Project 48 G. H. Blackmon
The severe cold in November, 1940, caused considerable injury to
many pecan trees which had produced heavy crops of nuts that year.
However, this injury was confined mostly to the eastern part of the pecan
belt. Trees which produced a light yield in 1940 showed little injury and
forced a fairly good bloom in the spring of 1941.
Work with zinc and magnesium has been continued. Moore trees
showing rosette symptoms seem to respond more quickly, generally, to

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

soil applications of zinc than the other varieties. With foliage applica-
tions the response seems to be somewhat faster but not so pronounced.
An experiment has been initiated testing the effects of magnesium
on the physiological disorder of pecans reported last year. Nitrogen,
magnesium, manganese and potash are applied separately and together
in various combinations. Phosphoric acid is applied uniformly in all
This project is closed with this report, but the tests with zinc and
magnesium will be continued under another project.

Hatch Project 50 R. D. Dickey and G. H. Blackmon
An undertermined physiological disorder of tung was first noted on
a few trees during the summers of 1939 and 1940 in two tung orchards
near LaCrosse. Foliage treatments with iron sulfate, manganese sul-
fate, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, and borax, alone and in various com-
binations, and soil applications of magnesium sulfate, iron sulfate, man-
ganese sulfate, copper sulfate and borax, alone and in combination, were
made in the summer of 1940. Foliage and soil treatments with iron sul-
fate on additional trees were made early in May, 1941. Satisfactory
response was obtained from both foliage and soil applications of iron
sulfate, the results indicating quite definitely that the disorder is due
to an iron deficiency.
The 1940 yield of tung oil in Florida was the largest yet produced and
was estimated to be approximately 10,000,000 pounds of air-dried tung
fruit from which was expressed approximately 1,600,000 pounds of oil.
Freezing temperature about the middle of November, following pre-
viously mild weather, caused considerable cold damage. The amount of
damage varied considerably by areas and within a given area the amount
of injury varied greatly with different orchards. Unthrifty trees, those
which had carried heavy crops of fruit, and trees which matured their
fruit late seemed predisposed to injury. Also very young trees were
much more subject to injury than were older trees. Injury to individual
trees varied from a few dead buds to the death of the entire tree. Two
orchards in which the trees were 15 and 18 years old had trees killed.
Also tree No. 5 of the original 10 trees on the Station grounds was
killed. This tree was 29 years old.
Previously, most crop reduction from cold damage had been due to
freezing temperatures in the early spring during the blossoming season.
However, this year (1941) crop reduction was caused by damage to the
buds and wood by freezing temperatures in mid-November, 1940.

Hatch Project 52 R. D. Dickey and R. J. Wilmot
During the year certain phases of experimental work with Paper-
white narcissus were reported in Bulletin 353.
Most of the ornamental species of Ficus in the Miami area, under
certain conditions, show chlorosis in some degree. This condition is
particularly common and persistent on Ficus rubiginosa. Foliage treat-
ments with several of the minor elements were made in July, 1940. Re-
sults of these treatments indicate that the chlorosis of the plants of this
species is a manganese deficiency.

Annual Report, 1941

Gladiolus.-A trouble called "blight" or "rust" has been present
for some time and is common in gladiolus in Florida, particularly on the
east and west coasts. It varies in amount and severity from year to year.
Symptoms of the disorder appear first on the leaves as small yellow-
ish spots, few or many in number, scattered over the leaves without re-
gard to the veins. Most of the spots attain /8 inch in diameter and the
older spots show a brown center in most cases. In many instances they
are more abundant toward the tips of the leaves and in severe cases the
dead areas may merge to produce a typical blight condition. This con-
dition greatly reduces the functional foliage area with subsequent reduc-
tion in the size of the new bulb. The scape surrounding the flower may
develop the spots, which may necessitate the culling of severely affected
spikes. Since pathologists have been unsuccessful in attempts to isolate
pathogenic organisms from these spots, it would seem that this trouble is
purely physiological.
An experiment to determine if the disorder is due to a deficiency of
one or more elements necessary for plant growth was started early in
December, 1940, on a bulb farm near Fort Pierce where the trouble had
developed the previous season. None of 13 treatments in six replica-
tions, each of which was randomized throughout the block, lessened the
trouble on Picardy gladiolus.
Growth was considerably retarded, however, in the minor element
treatments in which copper was included and was reflected in a decided
reduction in number and length of spikes produced and number of
florets per spike.
Camellia Variety Plantings.-More than 1,000 plants have been
received from areas over the United States. A bibliography, by varietal
names, of more than 2,000 items has been compiled, although only part of
the literature has been available thus far.
Holly Plantings.-Additional plants have been procured and some re-
placements made in the holly plantings.
Iris.-A collection of native species of Iris and their color variations
has been made, and a number of species was also procured from
Plant Tests.-Seventy-two species, including herbaceous perennials,
succulents, bamboos, and woody plants, were procured from the Division
of Plant Exploration and Introduction, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Eight species of bamboo of possible economic importance were included.

State Project 80 G. H. Blackmon
Augusta vetch made satisfactory growth in the Jefferson County
experiment but not in the Walton County plots. The heaviest tonnage
of green material was produced by lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) in the
winter legume plots of the pecan experiment at the North Florida Station.
Tree growth in 1940 varied somewhat. In Jefferson County the
Frotscher and Stuart showed the largest average increments in area of
trunk cross-section where complete fertilizers were applied and the
cover crop consisted of natural vegetation. In the legume cover crop
plots the Moore trees grew best. In Walton County the tree trunk in-
crements averaged greater in the vetch plots than they did with natural
vegetation returned to the soil. At the North Florida Station the most
growth again was made by the trees in the plot with farm crops followed
by Crotalaria spectabilis.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

In both experiments with bearing trees, one with Frotscher, Stuart
and Moore in Jefferson County and another with Stuart in Walton
County, yields were light in 1940. In the latter experiment the nut pro-
duction was consistently better in the vetch plots. In Jefferson County
the trees in the natural vegetation plots produced the highest yield in
1940, but their total yield to date has been less.

State Project 110 F. S. Jamison and Victor F. Nettles
Emphasis was placed on the amount, kind and time of application
of fertilizer in relation to its placement effect. The position of the fer-
tilizer in the soil had a definite effect upon the yields of U. S. No. 1
peppers. Broadcasting the fertilizer gave lowest yields, placing the fer-
tilizer in bands two inches on each side of the plant highest yields.
Greater differences in yield were secured from varying the placement
of the fertilizer than from varying amounts of fertilizer between 800 and
1,600 pounds per acre, or from varying the organic content of the mixture
from 20 to 40 percent, or from differences in the time of application..
However, the response secured when fertilizer was placed at different
positions was influenced by the amount applied and by the percent of
organic nitrogen in the mixture.
Potatoes were grown at Hastings under low, medium and high phos-
phorus levels. The level of phosphorus did not affect the texture of
the potato as measured by specific gravity (Table 8). However, the
percentage of potatoes showing breakdown in storage was much higher
from the low phosphorus plots.
Dixie Queen and Tom Watson watermelons were pruned to one
and two fruits and the number and size of fruit produced were compared
with those produced by plants on which no pruning was practiced.
Pruning did not affect the number or size of U. S. No. 1 melons produced.
Lima beans were fertilized with mixtures in which the source of
nitrogen was varied, and to which soluble and insoluble magnesium ma-
terials were added. There apparently was some visible response to both
soluble and insoluble magnesium. Increasing the percentage of nitrogen
derived from organic to more than 33 percent tended to decrease the
yield of beans.
Lettuce fertilizer tests conducted on muck soils at Weirsdale showed
clearly the need of phosphorus and potash for commercial production of

Fig. 5.-Celery growing on the muck lands of Alachua County, June 3, 1941.

Annual Report, 1941


Condition After Four Weeks' Storage at 420 F.
Phosphorus Average
Level Specific
Gravity Good (Percent) Medium (Percent) Poor (Percent)

Low 1.075 53 26 21
Medium 1.075 48 27 25
High 1.074 70 19 11

this crop. Lettuce fertilized with phosphorus and potash produced
marketable lettuce three weeks earlier than where these materials were
not added.

Adams Project 165 G. H. Blackmon
Experiments were continued during the year to determine the
effects of nitrogen, applied with and without phosphoric acid and potash,
on growth and yield of pecan trees.
Where nitrogen has been adequately supplied, other factors being
favorable, trees have made greatest growth increments and produced
heavier yields. An adequate supply of nitrogen has also reduced ten-
dency toward alternate bearing in pecans Best response to nitrogen
applications generally was obtained where phosphoric acid and potash
were supplied in sufficient quantities to meet the requirements of the
tree, and where leguminous cover crops were returned to the soil. This
project is closed with this report.

State Project 187 G. H. Blackmon, R. D. Dickey and R. J. Wilmot

Several deciduous fruits in the north central part of the state suf-
fered severe cold damage during the freeze of November, 1940. Those
injured most were peaches, plums, persimmons and figs, while pears and
grapes were damaged very little. In the commercial area in Pasco
County peach trees were not injured.
Peaches.-A small orchard on the University grounds in which the
trees had previously developed little leaf received a zinc spray in the
spring of 1940 with excellent control of the deficiency. The zinc spray
was not applied in the spring of 1941 and little leaf again developed, be-
coming acute on several trees in the planting. This indicated that the
effects of zinc spray will not carry over from one year to the next, and
that it will be necessary to spray each year to correct little leaf, at least
if spray treatments alone are used.
Mayhaws.-Several hundred Crataegus spp. seedlings,' including two
of the common mayhaws, are being grown in the nursery for further

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Plums.-Wild plums that produce fruit which seem to have merit
have been selected for progeny studies. Seedlings have been selected
and are now being grown in the nursery.
Satsumas.-A planting of Satsuma trees was made on the Station
grounds in 1925 to determine the effects of different rootstocks on growth
and development of the tree. Included were improved Owari Satsuma
trees grown on Poncirus trifoliata, Citrangequat, Rusk citrange and Cleo-
patra mandarin rootstocks; and Wase Satsumas on Cleopatra mandarin.
The size of the trees varied on the four rootstocks used. However, all of
the trees were killed by the temperatures 30*, 24, and 26, respec-
tively, on November 15, 16 and 17, 1940. The trees were taken up and
examined for type and character of bud unions, and comparative root
systems of the different stocks. In every case except Cleopatra the
rootstock had overgrown the scion, and the root system had formed
a definite taproot.

State Project 189 A. L. Stahl'
Both round and mandarin oranges were peeled and stretch-wrapped
either whole or in halves with pliofilm and stored at frozen and cool
storage temperatures. Those stored at cool temperatures, 330 to 380 F.,
kept in splendid edible condition for two weeks. The moisture loss was
1% during that time and no loss in flavor and freshness occurred. Those
frozen could be kept indefinitely. No contamination in handling is
possible. This method of sale is being commercially tried by display-
ing these ready-to-eat citrus fruits in cooled glass cabinets, which are
placed at gas stations, fairs and resort places. It has proven popular
also at ball games, where the fruit is sold from an iced tray. Here the
whole fruit can be cut through with a knife at the time of purchase, or
sold as two stretch-wrapped halves. These halves have proven to be the
most popular as they display the good texture, color and freshness of the
orange. Frozen fruit is sold just before it is completely thawed.
Orange or grapefruit pulp, diced or sliced and frozen in pliofilm
bags, was found to have the freshness and flavor of fresh fruit even after
one year's storage. It is used as a breakfast fruit, salad or dessert, either
partially frozen or thawed.
Various methods of frozen storage were compared and it was found
that storage in the closed steel locker was superior to that on shelves.
The poorest frozen storage was that held on the shelves :in rooms with
continuous and forced ventilation, which allows for excessive moisture

A. L. Stahl'
Emphasis was placed on the preservation and storage of Florida
fruits and vegetables during the past year.
Equipment was reorganized to provide new methods of freezing and
frozen storage. Several commercial concerns cooperated in donating
steel lockers for storage investigations as well as for display. The solid
steel locker storage was far superior to the open-shelf storage. Also for
'Assisted by E. L. Wirt, Jr., and P. J. Vaughn.

Annual Report, 1941

frozen products still-air storage was superior to forced air circulation.
The product which reacted best of all in stretch-wrapped pliofilm
was sweet corn. The corn was husked, silked and wrapped at once. It
could be held without loss of moisture or taste quality for two weeks at
370 F. This method of wrapping would cut down cost of shipping, allow
customer to see the product readily and prevent contamination in
handling on the market. The corn can be boiled with the film on and,
therefore, it retains its flavor and quality, along with its full food value.
Several Florida fruits and vegetables were stretch-wrapped with
pliofilm for storage. It was found that the film had to be thinner than
50 gauge to allow free passage of the CO2 given off by the produce.
Mangos, avocados, peaches, lychees, persimmons, watermelons, musk-
melons and grapes, when stretch-wrapped in film of less than 40-gauge,
kept from one to four weeks longer in storage than the unwrapped fruit.
Tomatoes, onions, eggplants, cucumbers, lettuce, celery, cabbage and
peppers also kept well when stretch-wrapped in less than 40-gauge plio-
film. The storage period of these was increased from two to five weeks
and a much firmer, fresher and cleaner product resulted.
Experiments with ultraviolet light for surface sterilization of toma-
toes were continued. Shorter periods of exposure were used and it was
found that the rot was reduced almost 100% with 5-minute exposure.
Even this exposure physiologically affected the fruits, the skin having
a burned appearance after several days in storage. Shorter exposures
did not produce detrimental physiological results but had very little
effect on reducing the rot.
The stage of maturity of fruits and vegetables was found to affect
the quality of the frozen product and cooked preparations. Comparisons
of parallel packs with and without brine showed somewhat better pres-
ervation in the brine packs of peas, beans, lima beans, corn, field peas
and mushrooms.

Purnell Project 190 A. L. Stahl and J. C. Cain'
Exposure of fruit to ultraviolet light for surface sterilization before
packing or storing resulted in blue and green mold being almost entirely
killed with a 5-minute exposure on each end of the fruit. A reduction
in the amount of stem-end rot was obtained only when the fruits were
placed under the rays directly upon clipping, and were exposed for 10
minutes or longer. There was a direct relation in the amount of stem-
end rot in the stored fruit with the time between picking and exposure
to the rays; the shorter the time, the less stem-end rot developed in the
stored fruit.
Pure cultures of the citrus disease organisms were exposed to ultra-
violet rays to find the necessary lethal dosage. It was found that a 5-
minute exposure to a battery of 12 sterilamps at a 12-inch distance was
lethal to Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum, Diplodia natelensis and
Phomopsis citri.
Additional investigation in the use of pliofilm, a rubber hydro-
chloride product, as a wrapper for citrus fruits was conducted. Better
results were obtained on all types of citrus with 20-gauge pliofilm than
with the 40-gauge used previously. Moisture loss was less than 1 per-
cent after 2 months storage at 370 F. Seven carloads of fruit were
packed in 20-gauge pliofilm by various concerns in the state in order

'Assisted by E. L. Wirt, Jr., and P. J. Vaughn.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

to test the method on a commercial scale. In each case the fruit kept
from 2 to 4 months in excellent condition and was reported to have been
sold at a profit above that of the paper-wrapped fruit packed and stored
at the same time, which showed much more shrinkage and breakdown.
Many types and varieties of citrus were stretch-wrapped with plio-
film of several gauges and stored at various temperatures.
Purnell Project 237 A. L. Stahl and J. C. Cain
Methods for determining the volatile aldehydes and volatile organic
matter in citrus juices were developed. Determinations were made
throughout the season for these substances on three orange varieties.
No definite correlation was found to exist between the amount present
and the state of maturity of the fruit. However, when very green fruit
was compared with full mature fruit the aldehydes and volatile organic
matter content were found to be much higher in the latter. The decided
increase seems to occur long before the fruit is mature, or in other words,
while in the very green stage.
The specific conductivity of the juice of three varieties of oranges
increased throughout the maturing season and the rate of increase was
found to remain fairly constant over the entire period. This substan-
tiates the preliminary results reported last year.
The analytical determinations on quality and grades have been con-
tinued. Fruit of the best quality and grades was compared with that of
the poorest quality and grades as to chemical and physical constituents.
The data have been tabulated and a bulletin manuscript prepared.

Adams Project 268 F. S. Jamison
Additional adjustment was made of the pH values of the soil in this
experiment. A range of hydrogen-ion concentrations of pH 3.75 to pH
7.57 was present in the series of plots where beans, tomatoes and peppers
were planted. There was a large variation in the yield of all crops
from the various plots but there was apparently little or no correlation
between the soil reaction as measured by pH units and yield. However,
where the pH of the soil was higher than approximately pH 5.5, the
yield of beans was always low, while both high and low yielding plots
occurred where the plots had pH 5.5 or lower.
Foliage and fruit samples were taken of tomatoes, peppers and beans
from 14 of the 42 plots. The range of reaction of the plots sampled was
pH 3:89 to 7.57. Analysis of this material for nitrogen, manganese and
iron is being made. Calcium, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium
will also be determined.

State Project 282 F. S. Jamison and Victor F. Nettles
Tests at Bradenton, Belle Glade, Sanford, Gainesville, and other
points show Imperial 44 to be the most suitable strain of crisp-heading
lettuce available for general planting in Florida. Imperial 847 is an
excellent strain for mineral soils during the cooler periods and will
produce slightly larger heads than Imperial 44. However, it will "bolt" or
seed prematurely at decidedly lower temperatures than will Imperial 44.

Annual Report, 1941

Mass selection from a number of segregating lines of lettuce was
continued. Some lines have a larger number of individual plants re-
sistant to seeding at relatively high temperatures that head quite high
above the soil level. This last feature may be desirable in preventing
certain diseases.
Seed from self-fertilized fruits were saved last season from 12 lines
of cucumbers that showed resistance to downy mildew. No additional
selection for mildew resistance was made this season, but seed from selfed
fruits that showed some commercial promise were secured in sufficient
quantity for adequate testing during the coming season.
In cooperation with Dr. Marion Walker, 12 lines of wilt-resistant
watermelons were grown to secure information as to the variation in size
and number of marketable melons produced by the various lines. Certain
lines produced No. 1 grade melons that averaged 15 pounds while the
melons from other lines averaged 25 pounds. The number produced
varied from 16 to as high as 72 per plot. The total weight of U. S. No. 1
melons from the different lines varied from 407 to 1,355 pounds per plot.
Important commercial varieties of peas and a number of new varieties
developed by the U. S. Regional Vegetable Breeding Laboratory and by
seed companies were planted in a seed test. Little Marvel produced the
largest yield of well filled pods but Hundredfold and Laxton's Progress
produced larger yields of shelled peas.
More than 100 lines of bush lima beans were planted in an attempt
to find a thick-seeded bean superior to the Fordhook, the variety now
planted. Certain selections showed desirable characteristics but con-
siderable breeding work will be necessary to develop a superior strain.
The cooperative study with the U. S. Department of Agriculture of
commercial eggplant and pepper varieties has been completed. The re-
sults will be published by the U. S. D. A. as one of a series of Type Books
of American Varieties of Vegetables.

State Project 283 F. S. Jamison
Results this season continue to show that the yield of certain vege-
tables is influenced by the green manure or cover crop treatment the soil
receives preceding the vegetable crop. Tomatoes, beans and potatoes
were grown following 11 green manure cover crop treatments. Yields
of all crops were low due to drought and the yield of tomatoes was re-
duced seriously by the prevalence of wilt.
The plots where native weeds were grown as a green manure crop
produced the lowest yield of beans and potatoes, while only one other
treatment (soybeans) produced a lower yield of tomatoes. The yield of
vegetables was increased where 10 tons per acre of stable manure was
plowed into the soil, along with the weeds. Soybeans proved to be an
unsatisfactory cover crop to use for green manuring purposes because of
the very scanty growth made during the late summer. Crotalaria specta-
bilis proved the most satisfactory crop to plant for green manure on crop
land which is used for spring vegetable production. Adding stable
manure to plots of mature crotalaria before turning the latter under in-
creased the yields of early maturing crops which followed, as did turning
crotalaria under while still in the full bloom stage. The turning under
of the mature crotalaria without stable manure proved unsatisfactory.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

State Project 314 R. J. Wilmot
Angel and Luttichau peaches, Excelsior plums and Pineapple pears
were fumigated with normal (2% lbs. to 1,000 cu. ft.) and twice normal
dosages of methyl bromide without injury.The peaches and plums held
at room temperature attained an unusually good color and softened
within 24 hours after fumigation without injury. This experiment was
conducted to furnish data on the effects of methyl bromide on these
fruits, should fumigation to control insects be necessary at a future date.

State Project 315 R. J. Wilmot
Narcissus bulbs were fumigated with normal dosages of hydro-
cyanic gas and methyl bromide and were planted in separate plots with
appropriate checks. The bulbs were selected from those produced the
previous year from similarly fumigated lots.
With methyl bromide there were more flowers produced on Grand
Monarque and Gloriosa and less on Soleil d'Or. Hydrocyanic acid fumi-
gated bulbs showed an increase in flower production on Grand Monarque
and Soleil d'Or. Neither treatment caused any effect on White Pearl
or Paper White.
Planting stock fumigated with methyl bromide produced more slabs
in Gloriosa, Soleil d'Or and Paper White, but Grand Monarque yielded
less than the check lot.
Hydrocyanic acid fumigated bulbs produced more slabs on Gloriosa,
White Pearl, Soleil d'Or and Paper White than the checks produced.
The portable gas analyzer was found to be adaptable for ethylene
gas and this phase of its use is being studied at the Citrus Station.

Bankhead-Jones Project 319 L. B. Nash, F. S. Jamison and Victor F. Nettles
Effort was continued to find.conditions under which plants will show
symptoms of deficiencies of certain minor elements. Plots were set up in
cooperation with the Department of Soils for observing crop response to
a number of these elements. The plots are located on a soil analyzing
as high as 500 p.p.m. of phosphorus. This season lettuce, peas and
cabbage were grown on the plots. Although the data have not been
critically analyzed there apparently was a yield response to certain of
the elements used, but no deficiency symptoms were noted on any of the
In a field of cabbage at Sanford very definite malnutrition symptoms
were found. Manganese sulfate, ferrous sulfate, zinc sulfate and sodium
nitrate were applied in spray form. The treatments were applied after
the plants began to head. It appeared that there was a limited response
to both sodium nitrate and borax. In the same field sweet corn foliage
showing yellowish-white stripes also was sprayed with the same ma-
terials. The corn was approximately 18 inches high at the time of spray-
ing. The chlorosis was largely corrected by zinc sulfate and the stalks
grew six to nine inches higher on this plot than on any of the others.

Annual Report, 1941

Purnell Project 348-A A. L. Stahl and L. H. Rogers
Barium and strontium were substituted in equal amounts for calcium
in solution and sand cultures with tomatoes and soybeans, as well as
being used in equal amounts with calcium to determine whether either
of these elements could take the place of calcium or were necessary in
major amounts for normal plant growth. It was found that barium and
strontium were severely toxic to the plants when substituted in equiva-
lent amounts for calcium in a complete solution. When either barium or
strontium was superimposed into the complete solution in equal amounts
to calcium, no toxicity resulted.
After much experimentation, a satisfactory light or combination of
lights was found which can be used in controlled nutrition investigations.
A combination of a mazda daylight lamp, with tungsten and carbon fila-
ment bulbs, for 10 hours a day with additions of ultraviolet from a mer-
cury vapor lamp for a few minutes a day, gave plant growth most com-
parable to that of sunlight, and allowed for the production of viable seed
heretofore not obtained with artificially controlled light.
Methods for the preparation of highly purified compounds have
been developed. (See report on Project 348B, Dept. of Soils.)

MU-OIL TREE (Aleurites montana)x
State Project 365 R. D. Dickey, Walter Reuther and F. S. Lagasse
A survey of previous seed and tree distributions revealed that in
addition to trees of bearing age mentioned in the 1940 Annual Report
(Project 50), there are three trees at Seffner which have flowered. Also
there is one tree at Plant City (planted 1938), one at Bradenton (planted
1940), and two at Homestead which may flower within the next year or
two. The trees at Seffner were planted in 1935 and are seedlings of the
female type A. montana tree on the Station grounds at Gainesville. Two
of these trees have inflorescences of the male type similar to that de-
scribed in last year's report and are essentially male trees, while another
has inflorescences of the female type. This segregation of the character
for sex in the progeny is further evidence of the tendency toward
dioeciousness in this species.
Five nurseries were established at various locations in central and
southern Florida. Survival of young seedlings was very poor. A dis-
ease or injury resembling Rhizoctonia injury to cotton, beans, etc., was
apparently responsible. It is similar also to an injury known as sand
burn in pecan seedlings, produced by excessive heat of the soil during
hot dry weather.
During the recent flowering period numerous crosses involving the
female A. montana trees and selected A. fordi parents were made. In ad-
dition, a number of reciprocal crosses were made using selected fordi
trees as female parents and the available male montana trees.
During the past flowering season three female type montana trees
produced a few staminate flowers intermingled with pistillate flowers,
typical female type inflorescenses, or small staminate type inflorescences.
However, no male flowers opened until quite late in the flowering period
when the vast majority of female flowers had apparently lost their re-
ceptivity. The number of inflorescences on the female type trees having
1In cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry, U.S.D.A.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

staminate flowers was very low in proportion to the total number of
inflorescences produced.
There was comparatively little cold damage in the montana trees at
Gainesville by the freezing temperatures in mid-November. Injury to
the female trees was very slight, since only a few buds and one-year
old branches were killed. The two male trees had some injury to the
buds and young wood on the lower half of the trees. The two trees at
Orlando had only a few buds killed. At Seffner cold damage was quite
severe and many of the larger branches of the trees were killed back
to the trunk.

Felix S. Lagasse and Harold M. Sell
In the early morning of December 27, 1940, a fire of unknown origin
destroyed the combined garage and storage building. This unit has
since been rebuilt at a much safer distance from the main laboratory
buildings. The value of the new building has also been increased by
the addition of a sample preparation and stock room.
Work has been continued on all projects reported on last year
and three important additional ones were started, namely, (1) a study
of the soils in the Gainesville area to determine those most suitable for
the growing of tung trees, (2) a study in cooperation with the Florida
Experiment Station concerning the hybridization of A. fordi and A. montana
and the possibility of the successful culture of some of the resulting
hybrids in the more southern parts of the state, as well as possibly
developing a hybrid that would have the cold resistance of A. fordi and
the late blooming habit of A. montana, and (3) a study of oil synthesis
in the tung fruit as related to the photosynthetic activity of the leaves.
The results of this study give a better understanding as to how, when
and under what conditions the tung tree functions best.
Evidence was obtained indicating that a high percentage of the
trees that bore a crop in 1939 (when most trees failed to bear as a re-
sult of late spring frost injury) are inherently comparatively late in
their blooming habit. This information will prove of much value in
the breeding of tung trees resistant to frost injury.
It was found that during the 1940 season the percentage of oil in
kernels expressed on a dry basis increased most rapidly during the
period July 12 to September 6, after which there was only a slight up-
ward trend. The increase in dry weight of tung kernels was found to
follow an almost straight line trend from late July to early October, after
which there was a slight increase. The trend in actual weight of oil
per fruit is almost identical with that for dry weight of kernels. Of the
total amount of oil, 45% was formed after Sept. 6 and this constitutes
a heavy drain on the food reserves of the tree and emphasizes the need
of good growing conditions at that season.
The amount of oil in immature tung fruits decreased slightly during
storage and therefore premature harvesting appears undesirable. Studies
made on fruits that matured and dropped naturally from the tree showed
that, except for the few fruits that fell early, the time of dropping had
no effect on their oil content. These findings are only tentative, since
they are based on material from single seedling trees in each instance.
'Work conducted by the Bureau of Plant Industry in cooperation
with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

Annual Report, 1941 91

Significant retardation of the development of tung buds in the
spring was obtained through the use of lanolin emulsion containing
0.3% of alpha naphthalene acetamide or indole-3-acetic acid applied to
the buds. The effectiveness of the treatment can best be summarized
by stating that in prolonging dormancy for a period of about a week
the treated buds would have been injured 60% less than untreated buds
by a temperature of about 28* F. This protective action of the treat-
ments decreased to 15 to 30 percent during the following week. Al-
though practical application may at some future date result from these
studies, at present none are implied or suggested.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The work has followed the same general lines as in previous years.
Facilities were greatly improved by the addition of a wing 20 x 50 feet
to the garage. This included a fungicide and insecticide room, imple-
ment room and work shop, and garage space for the tractor.
The past season was characterized by rather unusual weather which
materially affected the early and late plantings of celery and all of
the lettuce plantings. An early freeze on November 17 when a low
of 27 degrees was registered was followed by a warm December with
excessive rainfall during the last 11 days, when 6.50 inches fell. Jan-
uary and February were below normal in temperature and above nor-
mal in rainfall. January had a total of only 189 hours when the thermo-
meter registered above 60 degrees, while in February there were only
155 hours above 60 degrees. March was normal both in temperature
and rainfall but April and May were both warm and dry. While the
total rainfall for April was normal most of the rain fell on two suc-
cessive days, April 3 and 4, when 2.56 inches fell, leaving a balance of
only 0.26 inches for the rest of the month. In May the only rainfall oc-
curred on one day, May 7, when 1.67 inches fell. As a result of this
unusual weather the early planted celery was considerably delayed in
maturing and had considerable pithiness, which cut down the yields,
while the late celery had a large percentage of seeders. Much of the
lettuce rotted in the field due to excess moisture.
In addition to the work reported on in the projects an attempt was
made to grow spinach for seed. The experiment was only partially
successful; some seed was produced but the yield was very light.
The usual number of soil samples submitted by growers were
tested for pH, and samples of irrigation water were analyzed for salt
The Laboratory collaborated with the Plant Pathology Department
of the Main Station in carrying on a seed treatment experiment, and
with the local U. S. Department of Agriculture laboratory in raising
plants for their use.

State Project 252 R. W. Ruprecht
Fertilizer experiments were conducted on the same area and with
the same treatments as in the previous year, with the exception of num-
ber 19, where Ammophos, a material containing 13% nitrogen and 48%
phosphoric acid, was used as a source of phosphoric acid and part of the
nitrogen. While yields this year were low due to the abnormal weather,
responses to the fertilizer treatments were, in a large measure, the
same as last year. In the source of nitrogen tests the plots with all
inorganic nitrogen were again the highest yielders. Plots receiving all
nitrogen from low grade nitrate of potash were highest, nitrate of soda
plots seconds. Frequent rains and cold weather, both unfavorable for
nitrification, probably accounted for the poor yields from the organic
nitrogen source plots. In the phosphoric acid series the injury on those
plots where all of the phosphoric acid was applied in the form of super-
phosphate previous to setting was not as severe as in previous years,
probably due to the longer interval between applying the superphos-
phate and setting the crop. The use of basic slag in mixed goods did
not produce as good yields as when superphosphate was used. Basic
slag applied previous to setting produced yields almost as high as when

Annual Report, 1941

superphosphate was used in mixed fertilizer. In the source of potash
tests all of the potash salts tested except the sulfate of potash gave
higher yields than the muriate form.
Pot tests in the greenhouse comparing high with low water levels
in the growth of celery gave largest yields in the pots with the high
water table and no black heart injury regardless of whether the
nitrogen source was ammonia or nitrate. No accumulations of nitrates
were found in any of the pots.

R. W. Ruprecht
Twenty-five varieties of celery, most of them new to this section,
were tested in several plantings during the season. While the unfav-
orable weather cut down the yields of the first and second planting and
caused most of the muck planting to bolt, the results gave an indication
as to what these varieties will do in this section. Of the golden varieties
tested best results were obtained from No. 49 and New Southern.
Supreme Golden probably would have been as good except for the cold
weather which caused it to become more pithy than the two foregoing
varieties. Of the pascal types Florida Golden was by far the best. The
Utah types, when blanched, all produced a yellowish green celery diffi-
cult to distinguished from poorly blanched golden. If this type is grown
it would probably be best not to blanch it. Most of the Utah types
produced very short plants, many being not over 16 inches tall. This
was especially true of Utah No. 10, Utah Green, and Utah Golden
Crisp. Most of them were of small sizes. On the sand this type was
more susceptible to early blight than any of the others.
R. W. Ruprecht
Four plantings of Iceberg lettuce included fertilizer experiments
and variety tests. The varieties tested were No. 44, 847, 850 and 339.
Due to the unfavorable weather none of the plantings produced a normal
crop and no data were obtained. It was noted that in sections of the
field where moisture was excessive many more plants bolted than in
the drier areas, thus indicating that too much moisture is quite as in-
fluential as excessive temperatures in producing a tendency to bolt.
PINK ROT OF CELERY (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)
State Project 324 W. B. Shippy
This project was inactive during the year, and is closed with this
State Project 335 W. B. Shippy
Experiments were conducted on the value of seed and seedbed
treatments for celery and other vegetable crops. In one experiment soil
badly infested with root-knot nematodes the previous season was given
five different chemical treatments as follows:
1. Chlorpicrin, 2 cc, injections 10 in. apart (460 lbs. per acre).
2. Sodium cyanide + sulfate of ammonia (1,200 + 1,800 lbs. per acre).
3. Formaldehyde (40%) 1-50, 2 quarts per square foot.
4. Cuprous oxide solution 1/2-50, 1 pint per square foot.
5. Organic mercury (hydroxymercurichlorophenol) 1-50, 3 ounces per
square foot.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Chlorpicrin, cyanide and formaldehyde treatments were made from
15 to 18 days prior to sowing beds with celery seed on October 18.
Cuprous oxide and organic mercury were applied immediately after
sowing; later applications of these materials were made at average in-
tervals of 8.5 days. All treatments were replicated four times. In all
cases treated plots, measuring 3% x 10 feet, were alternated with un-
treated, and a staggered arrangement of plots was followed.
Seed germination was prompt and satisfactory in most cases. How-
ever, injury in cyanide and cuprous oxide plots was quite marked 11
days after planting. These injuries were followed a week later by an
outbreak of damping-off in various areas distributed throughout the
planting as a whole. Damping-off was least destructive in chlorpicrin
and formaldehyde plots, and measures taken to combat the diseases
caused it to disappear within a few days.
Final results of treatments on December 20 are summarized in
Table 9.


Treatment 'd 0
Ct CIS co m ) CM

None 818 83 535 47
Chlorpicrin 1879 97 1145 13
Formaldehyde 1160 72 940 33
Cyanide 626 53 407 2
Organic mercury 416 57 370 42
Cuprous oxide 85 70 55 61
'Plants lifted, washed, drained and weighed.
'Total weight divided by weight of 50 plants, the quotient multiplied
by 50.
The table shows that only celery plants grown on chlorpicrin-treated
soil weighed more than those on untreated soils, that both chlorpicrin
and formaldehyde-treated plots produced more plants than check plots,
and that plants from cyanide and chlorpicrin plots had much less root-
knot. Growth and appearance of plants grown on chlorpicrin-treated
soil were exceptionally good.
Part of the celery seed used in this experiment was treated with
cuprous oxide powder, part with organic mercury and part left un-
treated, but no important benefits from seed treatment were noted.
A one-inch layer of peat humus uniformly worked into the top
eight inches of soil produced 13 percent more plants having 41 percent
greater weight, though the amount of root-knot was 19 percent greater.
In another experiment chlorpicrin-treated plots were alternated with
untreated plots. This included 10 plots in all, each measuring 3 x 10
feet. Seed planted in addition to celery included tomato, beans, okra
and celeriac. On November 16 and 17 six rows of plants from each plot
of okra, beans and tomatoes were carefully lifted and examined. It was

Annual Report, 1941

found that chlorpicrin soil treatment increased the stand of plants 86,
6 and 45 percent, respectively; the height of plants 34, 4 and 47 percent;
reduced the amount of root-knot 70, 2 and 19 percent, and Rhizoctoniose
of beans was reduced 40 percent. Final examination of all plots on De-
cember 20 showed root-knot reductions as follows: Okra 56%, beans 26%
tomatoes 42%, celery 42% and celeriac 36%.

EARLY BLIGHT OF CELERY (Cercospora apii)
State Project 336 W. B. Shippy
Comparison of fungicides for early blight control was continued.
In one experiment 27 treatments were applied, each being replicated
four times. The experimental period was from December 20 to April 23,
with 14 applications made during the course of the experiment at an
average interval of 6.9 days. While rainfall was greater than usual,
mean temperature ranged from 3.4 to 8.0 F. below normal during most
of the time. Thus, despite late planting, high temperatures favorable for
blighting did not materialize. Untreated plots became only moderately
blighted, and the differences between treatments were not as great as
would be expected when blight is severe.
Blight severity was scored according to a scale ranging from 0 (no
blight) to 5 (foliage almost completely destroyed). Average blight scoring
for the various classes of materials applied was as follows: Basic copper
chloride 2.2; bordeaux mixture 2.4; basic copper sulfate, cuprous oxide and
flordo 2.5; copper sulphite 2.9; untreated 4.0. All of the fungicides re-
duced blight, the amount of reduction, with a 5.0 score representing 100
percent, ranging from 20 to 38 percent. This year basic copper chloride
sprays performed exceptionally well and improved performance was
noted for cuprous oxide as well as for flordo solutions of greater copper
strength than used heretofore. Bordeaux solutions of high copper/lime
ratio were superior, and again this year the various fungicides applied
with albuminized wettable sulfur generally gave better results.
All sprayed celery outyielded the unsprayed, with increased yields
ranging from 6 to 55 percent. Plots treated with flordo solutions of high
copper content gave outstanding yields. Those treated with bordeaux
5-2-50 and basic copper sulfate also yielded well.
In another experiment 24 fungicide treatments were applied in du-
plicate with a household sprayer on celery growing in a bed. Rows
here were spaced a foot apart with treated rows alternated with un-
treated. The experiment covered the period January 23 to April 25
and was discontinued prior to full maturity of the celery, at which time
eight applications had been made at an average interval of 6.9 days.
Again in this experiment cool temperatures apparently restricted the
amount of blight so that the differences between treatments were not
especially marked. Average blight for the various classes of materials
applied was as follows: Bordeaux 2.0, cuprous oxide 2.2, flordo 2.4, cop-
per sulphite 2.7, silver nitrate 3.3, untreated 3.1. Average yields were
increased in the case of most treatments, the amount of increase rang-
ing up to 21 percent.
Improved early blight control and greater yields resulted in plots
treated with flordo sprays having more than the usual amount of cop-
per. Since mixtures of customary strength, having 2.5 pounds copper
sulfate per 100 gallons, have given only fair early blight control in sev-
eral years' trials, it has seemed likely the addition of more copper would
prove beneficial in combatting this as well as other persistent diseases.
Increasing the amount of copper sulfate has necessitated further addi-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

tions of alkali'. At the same time it has been considered essential to re-
tain the physical properties of flordo spray, represented by homogeneity,
low surface tension and a high degree of suspension. Results to date
suggest further trials with two types of sprays, in each of which the
amount of ingredients may be varied proportionately.
Flordo C 1 includes soap, and is being considered as a general pur-
pose spray; flordo D 1 has no soap and since it deposits no conspicuous
residue it gives promise for use on ornamentals and other plants where
a visible deposit is objectionable. It is suggested with flordo C 1 that
the sodium silicate be mixed with the dilute soap solution before com-
bining with the bluestone solution; with flordo D 1 that the sodium
silicate be diluted in half the total volume of water before combining
with the dilute bluestone solution, after which the dissolved Syntex T
gel may be added.

Flordo C 1 Flordo D 1
Bluestone __ --___ -- 8 pounds Bluestone ___ 8 pounds
Neutral soap ---- 5 pounds Sodium silicate, 40Be.- 3 gallons
Sodium silicate 40Be.____ 3 gallons Syntex T gel____ -- -- 1 pound
Water .....-......-. .------- ------ 100 gallons Water ...--------- .100 gallons

1Several alkalis tested. Sodium silicate suggested by L. L. Dettelbach.

Annual Report, 1941

The research program of the Laboratory has been formulated with
the aspects of national defense in mind, chiefly as they pertain to the
production of vegetable crops in this area. Some fertilizer materials al-
ready are becoming scarce and it is essential that maximum results be
obtained from all materials used. Much emphasis is being placed on
secondary element nutrition of vegetable crops, upon the efficient use
of fertilizers in general, and upon the development and testing of better
Only one frost was recorded this year, on the morning of Novem-
ber 17. On the low fields of the farm a light frost occurred on the
morning of March 2. November, January, February, March and April
were all about 20 below normal, with December 6 above normal. No-
vember and most of December were dry months but rainfall was con-
siderably above normal from late December through April. April, May
and early June was a period of drouth again.
The railway right-of-way through the farm was fenced this year,
the entire farm now being protected by a permanent fence, topped by
barbed wire.
Following the heavy rains, spring tomatoes over much of the sand
land of the state rapidly developed a trouble which became known as
"galloping rust." Damage varied from complete loss in some fields to
much less real damage in most. This has been identified as zinc defic-
iency, heretofore not having been reported in commercial fields any-
where in the country. Zinc sulfate sprays were found to be a satisfactory
Two new Fusarium wilt-resistant tomato varieties were released this
year; Ruby Queen, a pink, and Cardinal King, a red. Both are heavy-
vined varieties for spring planting.
A field day for growers was held on May 15, 1941, attended by about
100 growers, seedmen and others.

J. R. Beckenbach and D. G. A. Kelbert
Work begun a year ago was continued this season. Three fertilizer
ratio blocks, two with eggplant and one with lettuce, were located on
Bradenton fine sandy loam, Manatee fine sandy loam (heavy phase), and
another Parkwood series soil at Ruskin, respectively. Preliminary soil
samples were taken from each area and rapid tests were run. All three
areas tested very low in both nitrate and ammonia nitrogen, and very
high in phosphates. The Bradenton fine sandy loam tested between very
low and low in potash; the other two soils both tested between medium
high and high. The analysis of yield responses to applied fertilizers on
all three areas agreed in every way with the information obtained from
the soils kit. Since a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial design with three complete
replications was used in each of these three areas, it was possible to
analyze the yield data very thoroughly by statistical means.
Eggplant on the Bradenton fine sandy loam which was supposedly
deficient in both nitrogen and potash showed yield responses to appli-
cations of either nitrogen or potash alone, and maximum yields where
these nutrients were applied together. The optimum formula was found
to be one ton per acre of a 4-0-8, followed by side-dressings of nitrogen.
Complete agreement between soil tests and yields were also found

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

on the other two areas, where nitrogen alone was found deficient. Both
lettuce and eggplant showed response to applications of nitrogen on these
areas, but no response to applications of either phosphates or potash.
All of the above soils have been farmed intensively before, and un-
doubtedly heavily fertilized in previous years.

J. R. Beckenbach
Perhaps one of the most urgent needs in the field of horticultural
research is that for some kind of yardstick by which the real utility of
rapid soil testing methods can be determined. The purpose of this
work was definitely not that of developing rapid soil testing methods,
but rather the testing of methods already developed by soils chemists,
on a definite soil and with a definite crop.
The method used consisted of three main phases: (1) adequate pre-
liminary soil sampling of the experimental field, (2) the laying out of
a suitable fertilizer ratio test, with randomization and adequate replica-
tion, and the taking of yield data from these plots, and (3) the taking of
soil samples from each plot in the test after the crop is finished for
further rapid soil test analyses.
Yield data and rapid soil test data from the plots may be analyzed
separately by recognized statistical methods, or a co-variance analysis can
be run on the two sets of data. It is felt that the former method is
probably preferable, and it was used in this experiment. This method
possesses the advantage that it permits an accurate estimation of the
sensitivity of the rapid soil testing method outside the range of yield
response, although, of course, such a measure can be of little help in the
actual recommendation of fertilizer under such conditions.
This method has been followed, using the Hellige-Truog soil-testing
kit and crisp-head lettuce and eggplant as test crops. In each of six
separate experiments on four different soils, a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial design
was used in the field plot work, each experiment consisting of three
complete replications of 27 plots each. The fertilizer variables were
nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, each at three levels, and the rapid
soil test methods employed were for nitrate and ammonia nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium. The results were positive and conclusive on
four different phases of Parkwood series soils in this area.
A paper has been prepared describing the method, using one of the
crops of lettuce mentioned above as the test crop, for submission to one
of the technical journals.

J. R. Beckenbach and D. G. A. Kelbert
It was reported a year ago that potatoes produced a yield response
to manganese sulfate sprays and that potatoes on a Parkwood series soil
showed manganese deficiency symptoms. Also cracked-stem of celery
occurs on such soils.
This year, for the first time ever reported under field conditions,
symptoms diagnosed as due to zinc deficiency appeared in this area on
tomatoes, grown on similar Parkwood series soils, and were corrected with
zinc sulfate sprays, one pound to 50 gallons of spray solution. In the
secondary element spray plots the symptoms appeared on plots which

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