Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Changes in staff

Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00026
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1940
Frequency: annual
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00026
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
    Changes in staff
        Page 4
        Page 5
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Agricultural Experiment


JUNE 30, 1940

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of
the University3
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Directors
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir.,
V. V. Bowman, M.S.A., Asst. to the
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor3
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager3
K. H. Graham, Business Managers
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountants
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist3
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate'
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husband-
man1 3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman3
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarians
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Hus-
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husband-
R. M. Crown, M.S.A., Asst. in An. Husb.3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Assistant Dairy
L. L. Rusoff, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition3
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist 83
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologists
G. M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Associate3
L. H. Rogers, M.S., Asso. Biochemist
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist'
Ruth Overstreet, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturistx
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison,Ph.D.,Truck Horticulturists
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Specialist, Fumiga-
tion Research
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticul-
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Horticul-
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist1
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist3
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Assistant Botanist

H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
R. H. Gore, Ft. Lauderdale
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist Acting in
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path-
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent
V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. An.
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in
John H. Jeffries, Superintendent
Michael Peech, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asso. Entomologist
F. F. Cowart, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Frederick Boyd, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Husband-
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Horticulturist Acting
in Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path-
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charges
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Patholo-
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Samuel O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2
Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Truck
Horticulturist in Charge
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in
Charge, Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist2
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologists
1Head of Department
21n cooperation with U.S.D.A.
sCooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
'On leave.


Report of Director ... ....------ ---------
Report of Business Manager ----__....----------
Editorial and Mailing Department ------------
Library -----------
Agricultural Economics ------------------ -.------
Agronomy ..--- --------------------------
Animal Husbandry -------- -------- ---
Entomology -----------------
Home Economics -- ----------------
Horticulture ------------------...
Celery Laboratory -----------------
Vegetable Crops Laboratory .-----------------...
Plant Pathology .-------------- ---
Soils ------- ---------
Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service
Citrus Station .--------------- -----
Everglades Station ------------------
North Florida Station ------
Sub-Tropical Station -------
West Central Florida Station ----

---- ------ 5
........ .. 33
-..-- 59
-- -. 72
-. -.--.----.-- --- 80
--...--.. -- -- 98
-- -.... ----- 101
-------- -- 105
--- -- 121
.....----------.-------- 132
..-- ---------- 145
.-------- 167
..-.------ 189
. ... 198
-- 211

Hon. Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the Director
of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1940.
Chairman, Board of Control.

Hon. H. P. Adair,
Chairman, Board of Control
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the Director of
the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1940, and I request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law,
to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
President, University of Florida.

Staff changes during the fiscal year were as follows:
L. W. Gaddum, Biochemist, resigned July 1, 1939.
L. O. Gratz, Plant Pathologist, was transferred from the North Flor-
ida Station to the Main Station, July 1, 1939.
J. D. Warner was appointed Agronomist Acting in Charge, North
Florida Experiment Station, July 1, 1939.
R. K. Voorhees was appointed Associate Plant Pathologist, Citrus
Experiment Station, July 1, 1939.
J. R. Beckenbach was transferred from the Everglades Experiment
Station and appointed Truck Horticulturist in Charge, Vegetable Crops
Laboratory, Bradenton, July 1, 1939.
O. W. Anderson, Jr., was granted one year's leave of absence to pur-
sue graduate study July 19, 1939.
R. N. Lobdell, Assistant Entomologist, resigned September 30, 1939.
G. M. Volk was appointed Chemist October 23, 1939.
V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., was appointed Assistant Animal Husbandman,
North Florida Station, October 16, 1939.
L. H. Greathouse was appointed Chemist, Citrus Station, December
1, 1939.
F. S. Lagasse was appointed Horticulturist, Tung Investigations, De-
cember 11, 1939, (Cooperative U. S. D. A.).
H. M. Sell was appointed Associate Horticulturist, Tung Investiga-
tions, December 11, 1939. (Cooperative U. S. D. A.)
F. F. Cowart was appointed Associate Horticulturist, Citrus Station,
February 1, 1940.
F. S. Andrews was appointed Truck Horticulturist, Everglades Sta-
tion, February 15, 1940.
L. M. Thurston, Dairy Technologist, died February 29, 1940.
E. N. McCubbin was appointed Associate Truck Horticulturist, May
15, 1940.

Report for the Fiscal Year Ending

June 30, 1940

Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the work and
investigations of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, together
with the reports of the heads of the several departments and branch sta-
tions, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1940.

Since its establishment, the whole of the effort of the Agricultural
Experiment Station has been directed to the best development and
utilization of the state's agricultural resources. This objective has been
complicated by soils and climatic conditions which to a large degree
have made impractical the adoption of the common varietal, manage-
ment and cropping systems and practices of other regions. Within the
state itself the numerous and varied agricultural activities resulting
from local differences in crop adaptation and cultural needs have re-
quired a widely diverse and decentralized program of research.
The station's organization, in consequence, has been designed to
meet efficiently statewide, regional and local problems affecting all
phases of plant and animal production. At present it consists of eight
specialized departments in the Main Station, four branch stations and
eight field laboratories. The branch stations carry a broad research
program dealing with the types of agriculture of the region in which
they are situated while the field laboratories are restricted to specific
functions within an area and generally are not considered as permanently
established. Active cooperation also is maintained with several bureaus
and divisions of the State and Federal governments and with other or-
ganizations on special investigations.
The work of the fiscal year covered by this report has been marked
not only by a normal rate of advancement and productivity in the many
lines of research but also by several achievements of outstanding
merit. Some of the longer time types of investigation are now reaching
fruition and many of the resulting findings are of wide application and
fast becoming integral parts of management systems in crop and live-
stock production. Brief summaries of the progress made on each of the
189 projects will be found under the departmental, branch station and
field laboratory headings that follow.

6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Buildings constructed at the Main Station included a tobacco grad-
ing warehouse, farm crops laboratory, plant introduction service building
and a slaughterhouse.
Through Works Projects Administration aid, eight acres were top-
soiled and planted to grasses at the Subtropical Station, and 47 acres of
lands cleared, together with construction of roads and digging of drain-
age ditches, at the North Florida Station.
Sixty acres of rockland adjoining present properties were deeded to
the Subtropical Station by the Board of County Commissioners of Dade
Through the County Commissioners of Hardee County a tract of land
comprising 1,000 acres was donated as a site for the Range Cattle
Branch Station. These lands are situated some 14 miles southwest of
Wauchula and are considered typical of the range areas of the peninsula.
Exchange of title was not completed until late June and no improvements
could be initiated within the fiscal year.
A registered Jersey heifer was donated for the dairy herd by the
Milam Farm Dairy and V. T. Oxer. Another like animal was donated by
Walter Welkener.
Financial resources, from State and Federal appropriations, of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1940, were as follows:
Federal Hatch and Adams Funds -------------------- $ 30,000.00
Federal Bankhead-Jones Fund.- ---... ....----__ -.-. ..------ ----30,801.64
State Funds
Main Station --....--.-----..- ....... ----- ----..------ --346,671.00
Including laboratories, special investigations, equip-
ment and building remodeling as follows:
Strawberry Investigations-Plant City........ $ 6,300.00
Vegetable Crops Laboratory-Bradenton ------ 15,000.00
Citrus Disease Laboratory-Cocoa -- 3,500.00
Tobacco Disease-Blue Mold __--_____ .. 5,000.00
Potato Disease Laboratory-Hastings--- 12,000.00
Remodeling Cattle Barn for laboratory
bienniumm) 12,000.00
Pecan Laboratory-Monticello ---.--- ---. 4,150.00
Fumigation Research.____----- 3,062.00
Grape Pest Investigations ... ..--.-- .---..-. 3,500.00
Celery Investigations, Sanford -__-_-_. 15,000.00
Watermelon Investigations-Leesburg __.--. 10,000.00
Special Pasture Research ..-___-_ ...-__. ___.- 20,000.00
Special Cotton & Peanut Investigations .-------- 6,500.00
Equipment Soil Conservations Districts_-__.. 10,000.00
Special Tobacco Investigations .- __-........... 10,000.00
Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred __._ _.----- -....__... __ 71,451.00
Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade ---- ___- 50,339.00
North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy__ .. -___-.....---- 25,968.00
Subtropical Experiment Station, Homestead--- ------- 21,000.00
Range Cattle Station, Wauchula --_--_-___.__ ..... ___ 12,500.00
Weather Forecasting Service (Supplementing Federal Funds) 18,000.00
Other Federal Funds, not included above _.... ____-.... __. 60,000.00
Some of the above State items, wholly or in part, were unavailable
and unexpended.


Annual Report, 1940

The list of research projects for the year arranged by departments
Agricultural Economics Department
Number Title Page
73 Agricultural Survey of Some 500 Farms in the General Farm-
ing Region of Northwest Florida ... --------- ---.... .-------- 33
154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida------ --- 33
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
Citrus .---- ________ .....__ --.. ----------.- -.. .----- 34
317 Prices of Florida Farm Products ------------ 34
325 Production Credit for Citrus and Vegetable Growers in Selected
Areas of Florida -..---_---.--------.------------ 34
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Flor-
ida Dairy Herds .------------ ------ 36
349 Land-Use Planning ... ------------------------- 36
Agronomy Department
20 Peanut Improvement _-----------------.............-------------- 38
27A Value of Centipede Grass Pastures as Affected by Soil Charac-
teristics and Other Factors .------------------- 39
55 Crop Rotation Studies with Corn, Cotton, Crotalaria and Aus-
trian Peas _------------------ 39
56 Variety Test Work with Field Crops ------- 41
105 Improvement of Corn by Selection and Breeding---- 43
163 Corn Fertilizer Experiments _----------- 44
243 A Study of the Development and Deterioration of Roots in Re-
lation to the Growth of Pasture Plants Under Different Ferti-
lizer and Cutting Treatments _-... ..---------------- .--- -- 44
265 Composition Factors Affecting the Value of Sugarcane for For-
age and Other Purposes -..- -- ------ --- 46
267 Pasture Studies --------------- 47
295 Effect of Fertilizers on the Yield, Grazing Value, Chemical Com-
position and Botanical Make-Up of Pastures------ 47
296 Eradication of Weeds in Tame Pastures._ ------- 48
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies ......--------- 48
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement ------ 49
299 Growth Behavior and Relative Composition of Range Grasses
as Affected by Burning and the Effect of Burning on Mainten-
ance of Natural Grass Stands and Upon the Establishment of
Improved Grasses 50
301 Pasture Legumes ------52
302 A Study of Napier Grass for Pasture Purposes -------- 53
303 Water Pasture Studies ---...---- __ -_----- 54
304 Methods of Establishing Permanent Pastures Under Various
Conditions .------...--.. -----------...------ -----...---.... --- 54
312 Spacing and Plant Competition in Common Field Corn ._----.... 55
Effect of Fertilizers, Varieties and other Factors in the Produc-
tion of Flue-cured Tobacco -.......--- --. ---.....---- ......... 55

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Animal Industry Department
Number Title Page
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle ---.._.-............. ..-- _____._ 61
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to
Her Milk and Butterfat Production------------ 62
213 Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops -.----__-..-------- --- 62
215 Beef Cattle Breeding Investigations .----- ~_--.------_.____--- 62
216 Cooperative Field Studies with Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle- 63
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations ......----------- 63
239 The Digestibility Coefficients and Feeding Value of Dried
Grapefruit Refuse and Dried Orange Refuse ..---.... --....----- 63
251 The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Condi-
tions in Animals .---_ -..----.______- .. ----------. 63
258 Plants Poisonous to Livestock in Florida.--..._........---------. 64
267 Pasture Investigations -------------------.-- ....---..--- 6 64
274 Studies in Fleece and Mutton Production --__-. ......----------.-- 64
302 Napier Grass for Pasture Purposes ---------------.-----._--- ------ 65
307 A Statistical Study of the Relationship Between Temperature
and Egg Weight (Size), Body Weight and Egg Weight, Body
Weight and Production, Age and Egg Weight of Single Comb
White Leghorn Pullets .------ -- -__-___- .--------. 65
308 Utilization of Citrus By-Products for Poultry--... ---------- 65
309 Poultry Breeding _----.__. _ ------.... -.. ..-- 66
310 Deficiencies of Peanuts When Used as a Feed for Swine-------- 66
311 Method of Handling Sows and Young Pigs ............_. 67
320 The Vitamin Content of Shark Liver Oil ---------------------- .. 67
331 The Comparative Value of Sugarcane Silage, Shocked Sugar-
cane and Pasture; Supplemented with Cottonseed Meal, or Cake,
in Wintering the Beef Herd .----------- ------ -------- 68
334 Enzootic Bronchopneumonia (Pneumoenteritis) of Dairy Calves 69
337 Different Methods of Feeding Grain to Layers -- -- 69
339 The Use of Molasses for Fattening Steers---------------- 70
342 Digestibility of Sugarcane Forage--- -------------------- 70
343 The Influence of Sulfur on the Body Populations and Various
Stages of the Life Cycle of Ectoparasites, on the Intermediate
Hosts of Helminths and on the Incubation of Roundworm Eggs
of Chickens ----------------- 70
345 Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency and Depreciation in Flor-
ida Dairy Herds .------.. __------- --------------- 70
346 Investigation with Laboratory Animals of Mineral Nutrition
Problems of Livestock ...- .. ___------------------- - 70
350 Rotational Grazing and Internal Parasites in Sheep Production 71
351 Feed Requirements for the Production of Hogs of Various Mar-
ket Grades ... .----------------.-.._ ._-._.._ --------__ 71
352 Calcareous Mineral Supplements for Poultry Feeding -...--- 71
353 Infectious Bovine Mastitis ...... ----------- 71

Annual Report, 1940 9

Number Title Page
Entomology Department
8 The Florida Flower Thrips --.. .... --- --- -.. .. --... ----- 72
12 Root-Knot Investigations .....-------------------------- 72
13 Introduction and Propagation of Beneficial Insects _--- 73
14 The Larger Plant Bugs -------------------- 73
82 Control of Fruit and Nut Crop Insects-Insects Affecting Pecan
Trees -___--.---------------...------ -- 74
231 The Onion Thrips ----------74
232 The Gladiolus Thrips .-------------- 74
234 Biology and Control of Florida Aphids ------ 74
263 The Pepper Weevil ----_ ---------------------------- 75
333 Life History, Food Preferences, Ecological Distribution and Con-
trol of the Lubberly Locust -------------------------------- 75
Home Economics Department
255 An Investigation of Human Dietary Deficiencies in Selected
Counties in Florida, with Special Reference to Nutritional Ane-
mia in Relation to Composition of Home Grown Foods --- 76
270 The Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Several
Florida Honeys -- ---------- ------ --- --- ------ 78
Horticulture Department
47 Cooperative Fertilizer Tests in Pecan Orchards 81
48 Studies on Varieties of Pecans and Other Horticultural Nut-
Bearing Species ------------------ 81
50 Propagation, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with Tung Oil Trees 82
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and
Methods for their Propagation ------------ 84
80 Cover-Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards---- 85
110 Phenological Studies on Truck Crops in Florida --- 86
165 Relation of Nitrogen Absorption to Food Storage, Growth and
Reproduction in Pecans ----------------- 87
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals 87
189 Study on the Preservation of Citrus Juices and Pulps 88
---- Storage and Preservation of Miscellaneous Fruits and Vegeta-
bles __--------------------- 88
190 Cold Storage Studies of Citrus Fruits ------- 90
237 Maturity Studies of Citrus Fruits ---------- 92
268 A Study of the Relation of Soil Reaction to Growth and Yield
of Vegetable Crops ..------------------------ 93
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vegeta-
bles Adapted to Commercial Production in Florida ....------- 93
283 Effects of Green Manure Crops on Growth, Yield and Quality
of Certain Vegetable Crops -------- 94
314 Fumigation of Horticultural Products ------- 94
315 Fumigation of Nursery Stock ----------95
316 Fumigation of Seeds -........ -----------------.-.--.. 95
319 Effects of Mineral Deficiencies on the Adaptability of Certain
Vegetable Varieties to Florida ----------- ----------------- 95
323 Value of Certain Root-Inducing Substances in Rooting Cuttings
of Various Plants ---_ ------------------------------ 96
348 Effect of Certain Mineral Elements on Plant Growth, Reproduc-
tion and Composition ..---- ----------------------.- 96
--- Tung Investigations-U. S. Field Laboratory --_..---------.------ 97

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Number Title Page
Celery Laboratory
252 Soil and Fertilizer Studies with Celery .._------ 98
324 Pink Rot of Celery _----_-------- ---_----_.- 100
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot ..-- 99
336 Early Blight of Celery (Cercospora apii) _-------- --..-__._ ........ 99
Lettuce Variety and Fertilizer Tests ---- ------ -----_ 98
Vegetable Crops Laboratory
Relation of Temperature and Time of Planting to Strains of
Crisp-Head Lettuce ._ ---- ---- ... ......101
--- Rapid Soil Tests in Relation to Response of Truck Crops and
Fertilizer Recommendations -- --__. 102
SComparative Efficiency and Economy of Different Nitrogenous
Fertilizer Materials on Sandy Soils -- ---- . 103
STrace Element Requirements and Deficiency Symptoms of
Vegetable Crops ...------ -....---.--_----. .. ----- -.- __ ... 103
Breeding and Selection of Varieties and Species of Truck Crops 103
Control of Vegetable Crop Diseases .-. -- 104
Plant Pathology Department
126 Investigations Relative to Certain Diseases of Strawberries of
Importance in Florida ---------- -......_.._ ---- ____.... ..... 105
130 Studies Relative to Disease Control of White (Irish) Potatoes 105
143 Investigation and Control of Brown Rot of Potatoes and Close-
ly Related Crops ._- ----- --__..... ..-......__-....____ __-- ..... 106
146 A comparative Study of Forms of Diplodia Resembling Diplo-
dia frumenti ---..... ---------- ----.....----------..----. ...... 106
150 Investigations of and Control of Fusarium Wilt of Watermelons 107
151 Investigation of and Control of Fungous Diseases of Watermel-
ons ------------ -------------------.. _----------------- 107
180 Control of Wilt of Tomatoes in Florida ---- ..- .108
181 Clitocybe Mushroom Root Rot of Citrus and Other Woody
Plants in Florida ----- --.... .. ---------- 108
242 Investigations of a Bark Disease of Tahiti Lime Trees -- 109
254 Investigations of Fruit Rots of Grapes ----- ----_ 111
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants 112
269 Host Relations and Factors Influencing the Growth and Para-
sitism of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. ... ....------- -----------... -- - ..... 113
281 Causes of Failure of Seed and Seedlings in Various Florida Soils
and Development of Methods for Prevention -- 113
284 A Comparative Study of the Pathogenicity and Texonomy of
Species of Alternaria, Macrosporium, and Stemphylium _. ---- -........_ 115
313 Control of Diseases of Potatoes and Vegetable Crops Caused
by Rhizoctonia -----... ----------- __........------- 115
324 Pink Rot of Celery ___----...---- ... -......______ -- 115
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot___ 116
336 Early Blight of Celery (Cercospora apii) .. .....__ .......-__ 117
344 Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot of Eggplant ---_ --- .-______ 117

Annual Report, 1940

Soils Department
Number Title Page
133 Mineral Requirements of Cattle--------- 122
201 A Study of the Chemical Composition of the Ash of Florida
Fruits and Vegetables with Reference to the More Unusual
Constituents ._____--------------------------.-_ ____. 122
256 The Development and Evaluation of Physical and Chemical
Methods of Complete and Partial Analysis for Soils and Related
Materials .....------------------_ 122
306 A Study of the So-Called "Quick Methods" for Determining
Soil Fertility --------- .. ......-------------------------- 123
322 Soil and Vegetation Surveys in Relation to Pasture Development
in Florida -----....----------- ..------------ 123
326 Types and Distribution of Microorganisms in Florida Soils------ 124
327 The Metabolism and Functional Relationships of Soil Microor-
ganisms Under Florida Conditions .-... ......._------.-----_-- 124
328 The Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and
Cropping Systems in Florida- 124
329 Methods of Inoculating Legumes in Florida Soils --- 125
347 Composition of Florida Soils and of Associated Native Vegeta-
tion ---------------- -- ---- -- ------ 126
348 Effects of Certain Mineral Elements on Plant Growth, Repro-
duction and Composition ------------------------------ 126
Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service
No outlined projects; report of progress. ....----------- ---_ 132
Citrus Station
24 Citrus Scab and Its Control ------------- ----- 145
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection ........-------------- 145
102 Variety Testing and Breeding ------- 146
111 Fundamental Physiology of Fruit Production ---- 146
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rots of Citrus Fruits 146
340 Citrus Nutrition Studies ----- ......- ... -----.-- 148
341 Combined Control of Scale-Insects and Mites on Citrus .---- 161
Everglades Station
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings. 169
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Con-
ditions 170
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ------- 171
88 Soils Investigations ------------------- .. 172
89 Water Control Investigations --------------------.-----.-- 173
90 Crop Rotation Studies _----- --- --------- 174
168 Studies Upon the Role of Special Elements in Plant Develop-
ment Upon the Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades.--------- 175
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugarcane Moth
Borer .. ... .... ..........---------------- 176
171 Cane Breeding Experiments ___ ----------177
172 Physiology of Blooming of Sugarcane __------ 179
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
glades --- ----....------------- -- ------- -- ............. 179
202 Agronomic Studies with Sugarcane -....--.--..--. ---.......... 180
203 Forage Crop Investigations .......... ...._ ------------. 181


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Number Title Page
204 Grain Crop Investigations --_-_ -- -__ 182
205 Seed Storage Investigations ---.- -- -- --___ _-_ 183
206 Fiber Crop Investigations -- --------_ 183
208 Agronomic Studies Upon the Growth of Syrup and Forage Cane
in Florida ..-- -__---- -___-- .-.. .- -- 183
209 Seed and Soil-Borne Diseases of Vegetable Crops ---- 184
210 Leaf Blights of Vegetable Crops --~__ ____ 185
211 Physiological Phases of Plant Nutrition---- ----_ 185
212 Relation of Organic Composition of Crops to Growth and Ma-
turity --------___ _........-__ _--. __-___..._ 186
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations --.----._____ ___ 186
232 The Gladiolus Thrips ---- _---__....- 187
332 Varietal Comparisons with Various Species of Truck Crops at
Different Fertility Levels ------- --- -- 188
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot--.-- 188
336 Early Blight of Celery _.-- __-------- .. --- ------- -- 188
North Florida Station
25 Field and Laboratory Studies of Tobacco Diseases ----- 191
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco ----- 191
191 Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Florida Shade To-
bacco Seeds and Early Growth of Seedlings --- 191
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations ---_.. _---------___- 191
257 Columbia Sheep Performance Investigations ------__- 192
260 Grain Crop Investigations .---------------_.--....- 193
261 Forage Crop Investigations .--------------_..---------- 193
301 Pasture Legumes ------- --_ 194
305 Comparison of the Economic Value of Various Grazing Crops
for Fattening Feeder Pigs ----.. ------- 194
321 Control of Downy Mildew of Tobacco .----- ----- 195
354 Cultural Practices for the Control of Root-Knot of Tobacco ..-- 196
355 Feed Crop Production and Utilization with Beef Cattle -------- 196
Sub-Tropical Station
275 Citrus Culture Studies _-- ---- --- ---- 198
276 Avocado Culture Studies v--___ __...... -.__----- .-- 199
277 Forestation Studies --_ ------- 200
278 Improvement of Tomatoes Through Selection of New Hybrids-- 200
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals --___--___- 201
280 Studies of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ---------------_---. 201
285 Potato Culture Investigations -- --...---.---...----.---.- 203
286 Tomato Culture Investigations ------ --- -- 204
287 Cover Crop Studies --------__ -___---- ----. ----- 204
288 Varietal Tests of Carrots, Corn and Other Vegetable Crops----- 204
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County _- ....--..._.._- ..__ 205
290 /A study of the Diseases of the Avocado and Mango and de-
velopment of Control Measures .--------___.__.- -------__.- 206
291 Control of Tomato Diseases by Spraying-.~- --- 209
West Central Florida Station
SBeef and Dual-Purpose Cattle ------ -------- -------- 211
- Grasses and Forage Crops _----_. ------------- _---- 212
SPoultry Investigations _------- ------- 212

Annual Report, 1940


Receipts ----- ---------
Salaries ------------....
Labor .----- ........----------.----........
Stationery & office supplies.
Scientific supplies -------------
Feeds _---.-_.........------------
Fertilizers ----
Other supplies --------------
Communication service -----. -
Travel ..........-------------
Transportation of things .....--..
Printing -..----..........---------
Heat, light, water, power -
Contingent expense ----------
Furniture & fixtures -----------
Library -------------_--___ -_
Scientific equipment ... ---------
Livestock -- .- ----
Machinery, tools, appliances-
Non-structural improvements.
Buildings ------
Improvements to land ----
Balance ------------------_ -------

Total -------

Receipts -
Salaries --------------------------
Labor --- ---
Stationery & office supplies-
Scientific supplies __---
Feeds --------
Fertilizers .--- ..-- -------------
Other supplies --_---.......------
Communication service -
Travel -- ----..-...-----... --
Transportation of things--
Heat, light, power, water-
Contingent expense --------.---
Furniture & fixtures ---
Library ------------... ......
Scientific equipment -----.--.
Machinery, tools, appliances
Non-structural improvements.
Buildings -----
Improvements to land -.--
Balance .---- -----._

...---- --------------- $182,619.00

---- -------- 88,393.24
..---. ------ .. 28,911.30
----. 3,740.18
--......... .-----------. 11,971.24
------- 1,500.52
-.............--------- 3,452.01
-- -- 1,784.94
-- -- -- 5,559.01
---- .-- 781.88
------- 3,133.13
----- 1,281.33
------ 624.25
------- 2,192.36
----- 958.71
----.- 318.50
----.-------....--------- 449.92
-.. --. 1,124.60
--- 324.85
---.......... .--- --_ --. 17,152.28



------ 390.98
----- 830.09
- ---- 392.25
---- 11.70
- --- 161.91
----- 24.41
----- 555.45
------ 393.94
----. -- 600.71
---.- 424.74
-.------ 104.58
..- ---. 1,735.90




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Receipts .....--....----------
Salaries -------
Labor -_ ------
Stationery & office supplies-
Scientific supplies_--- --_
Fertilizers ___ -__
Other supplies .-------- --____
Communication service -----
Travel --
Transportation of things .----
Heat, light, water, power
Furniture & fixtures .. ----
Scientific equipment ---.--...
Machinery, tools, appliances-
Buildings ------
Improvements ------
Balance ---------------_-----.. ....


Receipts -- ----
Salaries -------.
Scientific supplies ---__
Travel ------ --
Non-structural improvements -
Balance ---- ---

Total-- .. ---.

Receipts ----- ----
Salaries -------
Labor --- ---------__ -- .
Stationery & office supplies-
Scientific supplies ----__-._.
Fertilizers ...-----------.. --------
Other supplies --------..--------
Communication service-
Travel -------
Transportation of things -------
Contingent expense ---
Furniture & fixtures ---_----
Library ------
Scientific equipment --
Machinery, tools, appliances
Non-structural improvements_
Improvements to land---
Balance ----

.____.... $6,300.00

-- -- 5.90
-- --.--___ 72.71
.------ -----_---__.-- 13.80
S 78.20
---- -- 17.50
-- ----81.41
---- 48.15
.--__------. 841.00





-.----------$ 4,947.09
--- 753.01
---- 91.62
---- 191.34
--- 242.84
---- 560.15
---- 85.07
---- 2.25
---- 172.30
-- 2.00
.--. 20.65
---- 43.35
---- 26.50
-- 2,661.91

--- 3,060.00
S 3.65





Annual Report, 1940


Receipts ------ ------------------
Stationery & office supplies-
Scientific supplies-
Other supplies -----_
Communication service
Heat, light, water, power
Contingent expense.---
Scientific equipment -- --
Machinery, tools, appliances-
Structures other than buildings
Buildings -



Receipts ------------- .---
Salaries ---------------- $ 1,
Labor --------
Stationery and office supplies-----
Scientific supplies
Other supplies ---------
Travel .
Heat, light, power, water --------..........
Contingent expense --------- .
Machinery, tools, appliances --
Structures other than buildings ----
Balance ----------- 2,

Total ------....

Receipts --------------
Salaries ----------$ 2
Stationery and office supplies-----
Scientific supplies --------
Fertilizers . . .
Other supplies ---------
Communication service ...
Transportation of things ------
Heat, light, water, power ---
Furniture and fixtures
Scientific equipment ---------
Machinery, tools, appliances ------
Structures other than buildings. --------------

Total -----


--- $ 629.20
---- 23.78









Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Receipts .------------- -- -----------..----
Salaries .------------ -------------
Labor ....--------------------- --------
Stationery and office supplies ---_---
Scientific supplies ------------ -
Feeds ....-----------------
Fertilizers ...-_---.......--- -----
Others supplies ....---- ..------
Communication service .----_- ----
Travel expense ......--- -- .
Transportation of things -------------
Heat, lights, water, power ------------
Contingent expense -------- ----.---
Furniture and fixtures. ----
Library .------- -------
Machinery, tools, appliances _--------
Structures other than buildings --
Buildings ----- -
Improvements to land ---._____...
Balance --_---- -------


-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --- -- -----

S----.... 6,946.45
-- ----- 2,059.11
------ 4.75
-- --- 2.05
...- 366.04
... 85.90
.__. 10.00
..- --- 162.09
.. ...... 282.16
.___. 35.00
.. . 3,820.10



Receipts ------.. -------. -- ---------------.
Salaries .----- ---- --- --- $29,854.59
Labor .-- -----------____- 10,172.69
Stationery and office supplies-__ -__ 168.92
Scientific supplies -_--------- -----. 1,701.17
Feeds ...------------------------- ... 296.82
Fertilizers -_------------ __. -------. 2,660.35
Other supplies ----.. ------- __-__--- 1,540.32
Communication service ---_~_ ___--- 291.49
Travel ---_... ------_---------. 2,472.37
Transportation of things ------184.81
Heat, light, water, power ---------- -- 1,291.18
Contingent expense _------- 112.13
Furniture and fixtures--- ~_--- 118.47
Library -__ 140.73
Scientific equipment- -__---- 1,973.45
Livestock -__ __---- 2.50
Machinery, tools, appliances ------_-____--- 1,985.68
Structures other than buildings-----____ 283.53
Buildings -------- --_ 1,045.54
Balance -------------__-------------- 15,154.26





Annual Report, 1940 17


Receipts ------------------------------ -------- $3,062.00
Salaries ....------------. -----------$ 2,400.00
Labor ------------- --- 98.75
Other supplies -----..--. ------ 31.76
Travel ..---------.---- 264.85
Transportation of things --------------- 9.58
Balance ..---------------------------_------ 257.06

Total ------------ $3,062.00


Receipts -----..---... ------------------------$45,339.00
Salaries .-------..------ --$16,524.50
Labor .---------------...-------..------ ---10,712.11
Stationery and office supplies ... ---_ 81.46
Scientific supplies --_-___-_---------- --- 499.82
Feeds -----... __----...... 1,934.10
Fertilizers --___-.- ___ ---- ...- .. 273.01
Other supplies ---- ----- - ---- 1,016.04
Communication service ..----_ ---- 232.89
Travel _.--- -- ..--- .... ....._---_ 503.75
Transportation of things--------- 74.67
Heat, lights, power, water _____ 2,666.57
Contingent --__..... --.....--... 232.98
Furniture and fixtures... --------- _ ------- 172.40
Library ---_...-._ ____ 249.68
Scientific equipment_--------- -_._ 7.12
Machinery, tools, appliances -~_ -____- 1,060.13
Structures other than buildings...____........ 50.87
Buildings -_-------- _____ 246.93
Improvements to land--_ ------ --_ 33.60
Balance -_-_ __ --___ 8,766.37

Total ---------__-- $45,339.00

Receipts ----. ...... _-_____ --.. .....$5,000.00
Salaries ___-_---$5,000.00
Total ------- .____.__----- $5,000.00

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Receipts --- -------- -- ------- --
Salaries .----- --------- ---------
Labor -.------ -------- ------- ----
Stationery and office supplies ---._...---- ----
Scientific supplies ----------
Feeds --..._--- ------------ -
Fertilizers -----------__ ---------- ------
Other supplies ---- -- ---
Communication service-_-------- -
Travel .---- ------------

Transportation of things -----
Heat, light, water, power -___-
Contingent expense _---- -------
Furniture and fixtures--
Library ----_----------------------
Scientific equipment --
Machinery, tools, appliances -
Structures other than buildings
Buildings ------------ --
Improvements to land-__-
Balance ------


.---. 90.73
-.---- 106.73
S 49.80
S 306.74


Receipts -----------------
Salaries ------------- ----------- $11,166.00
Labor ----------- 3,625.10
Stationery and office supplies --------------- 56.70
Scientific supplies ---------- 350.43
Fertilizers ....---__ ------------------. 1,056.88
Other supplies --------------_-------. 480.31
Communication expense _-_____ -_ 118.75
Travel _----------- -- -------- --..-.- 984.10
Transportation of things.-------__--- -- ---- 90.69
Heat, light, water, power --_----------------___ 761.33
Contingent expense --------.._- --- --_ 102.25
Furniture and fixtures --._.........----------- 49.27
Library ---------------__------------- 51.57
Scientific equipment -------- 37.96
Machinery, tools, appliances ------------------- 555.10
Structures other than buildings ------------- 69.09
Buildings ----------------------------- 47.37
Balance -------------- --------------- 1,397.10

Total ...--__ --------___ --





Annual Report, 1940


Receipts ....- ......----------------
Salaries ------------
Labor -...--- ........ ----------
Stationery and office supplies-
Scientific supplies -------------
Feeds .....-------
Fertilizers ------
Other supplies ----_- __ -------
Communication service .------
Travel -------
Transportation of things ------
Heat, lights, water, service-
Contingent expense--....--
Furniture and fixtures ---------
Library _.---------------------.
Scientific equipment---
Machinery, tools, appliances --
Buildings -____--...----.._------
Improvements to land ---------
Balance .---- -----. -------


...-------------..-- $10,000.00

.----- $ 4,200.00
----- 36.94
---- 54.12
--- 1.40
S 63.24
-- 98.33
--... 229.97
-- .-- 14.31
.--. 23.64
--- 15.00
-.-- - 6.15
----- 123.87
....... -. 367.50
----- 40.00
------- 3,000.10



Receipts -------------------_-_..__...
Salaries -----------__.. _. ...-------
Labor -.--------------------_ -----.
Stationery & office supplies--
Scientific supplies-----
Feeds ---------
Other supplies ------
Travel -
Transportation of things --------
Heat, light, water, power--
Contingent expense_---
Furniture and fixtures .---
Library ---------
Scientific equipment ---
Machinery, tools, appliances --
Structures other than buildings-
Balance -------


.---..- ---------- --.--- --.$15,540.00

----------.. $ 5,446.19
---. 2,476.39
---- 365.94
----- 130.22
-- - 16.17

---- $15,540.00

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Receipts ---- ..--- ----...--- ---- --------- $12,500.00
Salaries ............... $-------- -. .....--- $ 6,405.71

Labor ----_-... ------ --_____--
Stationery and office supplies -------
Scientific supplies -----
Other supplies .---.--_---_____...
Travel ---- --.. -
Transportation of things ---___-----
Heat, light, power, water ----------
Scientiifc equipment -__..-
Livestock -_ -----
Machinery, tools, appliances --_---..
Structures other than buildings-
Buildings -- -
Balance ----------





Receipts -------
Salaries ----- __ --
Labor ----------
Stationery and office supplies--
Scientific supplies ..-- __---- -- ..
Feeds ----------
Other supplies --- --
Furniture and fixtures -___-__...
Structures other than buildings ---.
Balance ---------_




$ 2,976.00

Total ----------


Salaries ---------
Labor -------
Scientific supplies ----
Fertilizers -_-----
Other supplies -----
Heat, light, power, water -------
Machinery, tools, appliances --
Structures other than buildings-
Buildings ...........---------------
Balance .--- __ __ ... --_.--------



$-- 1,260.00
--- 49.25
-.-- 30.34
-- 3,192.51



- ------ ---


- ---------

- - ~-~~ ~~~~~~~-----------------


Annual Report, 1940


Receipts --.. ----------------------------- --.
Salaries .----------------------- ------ --$ 960.00
Labor --....--...... ----- ----- ----- 265.80
Stationery and office supplies ......----------- ---- 324.16
Scientific supplies ---------------------- 18.45
Other supplies .__- ---- -- -- -------- 121.32
Communication service .---------- --- 3,172.10
Travel -------------------------- ---------- 83 6 8,305.36
Transportation of things-------... ---------------. 2.78
Contingent expense -....---------------------- 11.30
Furniture and fixtures -..--- -----.. -- 267.08
Library ---------- ------ 24.93
Scientific equipment .. ... ----------.--.- 3,477.70
Machinery, tools, appliances ---------_------------- 31.35
Structures other than buildings 9._. ...-------- 9.80
Buildings ---- -- ---------- ----- ------ 222.55
Balance .. --.--- ---------- ------------ 785.32

Total .- ..------- - --------------- -- ---



Receipts -------.....------....------------ ----- $10,000.00
Labor _...--- --------------------- $ 2,867.30
Stationery and office supplies ......----.. .----------. 8.80
Scientific supplies ------- ---- 186.33
Feeds ..--------------- __.-_-..-- 7.40
Fertilizers ----__.. ------..-- ........... 108.95
Other supplies ------ 145.12
Travel -- 19.55
Transportation of things ----- 39.53
Heat, light, power, water- -- ___ 31.55
Contingent expense -------39.00
Furniture and fixtures-._--- -------- 90.53
Machinery, tools, appliances ---------- 110.95
Structures other than buildings----- 71.85
Buildings ---------------- -------- 1,107.98
Balance ---------- 5,165.16

Total ---__..--------- -- ----- $10,000.00


Receipts -


.--------.. .__- ... $ 22.60
-..-.------.-----------. 12,477.40



Hatch Adams Purnell Bankhead-Jones
I 1 I
Receipts from the Treasury of the United States, as per ap- |
propriations for fiscal year ending June 30, 1940.---------- $15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000.00 $30,801.64

Personal services ------ ---------__-__-___ $13,916.98 $15,000.00 $51,549.00 $20,174.19
Supplies and materials -.....- ----------- ......_.._ 2,500.52 4,064.78
Communication service. ------------.. ------- - I .54
Travel expenses ... |-----------.-... --- - ......---. .| 2,294.87 944.68
Transportation of things -----..... ------...... ----.. 2.42 33.95
Printing or duplicating and illustrating publications .................. 998.10 19.32 457.11
Heat, light, water and power (service); and fuel .-----.-...... 2,027.44 C
Equipment .------------. --_ 82.50 3,635.75 2
Structures and nontructural improvements.. 3,099.49 "

TOTAL -------------. $15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000.00 [ $30,801.64

Annual Report, 1940

The three principal means of disseminating information from the
Experiment Station continued to be publication and distribution of
bulletins, preparation of articles for daily and weekly newspapers, farm
papers and scientific journals, and delivery of radio talks. Additional
outlets included talks at meetings of farmers and others, tours and field
days, letters to correspondents, and similar devices. The public was
kept informed as to both current research and established facts, and
every member of the staff participated in the dissemination of knowledge.
Copies of each new bulletin and press bulletin were sent to libraries
and technical workers throughout this country and to a few in foreign
lands. All other Station bulletins were distributed through county
agents or in response to specific requests. Around 5,000 people who had
asked to be notified when a new publication was available were so
The three Editors and three Mailing Clerks devoted more than 50
percent of their time to work for the Agricultural Extension Service.
Because manuscripts did not clear through departments and the
publications committee quite as rapidly this year, only 11 new bulletins
were printed-a total slightly less than the preceding year. These
ranged in size from 12 to 80 pages, and amounted to a total of 416
pages. From 5,000 to 10,000 copies constituted the run on each bulletin,
the total copies printed having been 66,500. Three of the bulletins were
technical, eight popular in nature.
The following new bulletins were issued during the year:
Bul Title Pages Edition
336 Diseases of Beans in Southern Florida ------- 60 6,000
337 Commercial Control of Citrus Scab in Florida..--- 48 10,000
338 Yield and Composition of Everglades Grass Crons

in Relation to Fertilizer Treatment ----
339 The Florida Citrus Exchange System ...--......-...
340 Chemical Studies on Soils from Florida Citrus
G roves ------------------------- -- --------....
341 Distribution of Macro and Micro Elements in Some
Soils of Peninsular Florida----------------------
342 Controlling Tobacco Downy Mildew (Blue Mold)
with Paradichlorobenzene --- ---------
343 Flowering, Fruiting, Yield and Growth Habits of
Tung Trees ---- -----------__ -----------
344 A Preliminary Report on Little Leaf of the Peach
in Florida----.
345 Seasonal Occurrence of Tomato Diseases in Florida
246 Enzootic Bronchopneumonia of Dairy Calves..........-







Following is a very brief summary of each bulletin published during
the year.
336. Diseases of Beans in Southern Florida. (G. R. Townsend, 60 pp.,
13 figs.) Discusses diseases of beans caused by nutritional disorders,
bacteria, fungi, and other agent. Presents pointers on control by ex-
clusion, eradication, immunization and protection.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

337. Commercial Control of Citrus Scab in Florida. (Geo. D. Ruehle and
W. L. Thompson, 48 pp., 5 figs.) Dormant or pregrowth sprays of 6-6-
100 bordeaux mixture, if necessary, followed by bloom or post-bloom
spray of 3-3-100 bordeaux, gave good control of scab in field trials cov-
ering six years. Other sprays with equal amounts of metallic copper
were satisfactory. Compatible insecticides should be combined with the
scab sprays when necessary.
338. Yield and Composition of Everglades Grass Crops in Relation to Fertilizer
Treatment. (J. R. Neller and A. Daane, 32 pp., 6 figs.) Analyses of grasses
plucked from Everglades pastures indicated that the grasses contained
ample amounts of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron. Fertiliza-
tion materially increased yields.
339. Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida. IV. The Florida Citrus
Exchange System. (H. G. Hamilton and Marvin A. Brooker, 80 pp., 15 figs.)
The Florida Citrus Exchange System is composed of 16 sub-exchanges,
and has two auxiliary corporations for extending credit and purchasing
supplies. It has field, sales, accounting, statistical, traffic, advertising, and
legal departments. Principal business of the member organizations is
packing fruit, while principal business of the Exchange headquarters is
selling fruit.
340. Chemical Studies on Soils from Florida Citrus Groves. (Michael Peech,
52 pp., 3 figs.) Reports results of a chemical study of 100 soils from
groves in important citrus areas, and compares some grove soils with
adjoining virgin soils. (Technical.)
341. Distribution of Macro and Micro Elements in Some Soils of Peninsular
Florida. (L. H. Rogers, O. E. Gall, L. W. Gaddum and R. M. Barnette, 32
pp., 1 fig.) Chemical and spectrographic analyses for 7 macro and 27
micro elements as well as pH, loss on ignition, and insoluble matter are
reported for 89 cultivated and 43 virgin soils representing 8 different
series occurring in central Florida. The subsoils of a large proportion are
included. (Technical.)
342. Controlling Tobacco Downy Mildew (Blue Mold) with Paradichloroben-
zene. (W. B. Tisdale and Randall R. Kincaid, 16 pp., 6 figs.) PDB vapor
treatment-simple and inexpensive, has proven highly effective in con-
trolling tobacco downy mildew, and can be used during rainy weather
when treatment is most needed.
343. Flowering, Fruiting, Yield and Growth Habits of Tung Trees. (R. D.
Dickey and Walter Reuther, 28 pp., 16 figs.) Consistent differences in
bearing ability of seedling tung trees are due to differences in genetical
constitution. No particular correlation was found between high yielding
ability and tree size, conformation, or volume of bloom produced. The
cluster type is the best index to yielding ability, although some individual
trees of the single type produce well.
344. A Preliminary Report on Little-Leaf of the Peach in Florida-a Zinc
Deficiency. (R. D. Dickey and G. H. Blackmon, 20 pp., 8 figs.) Zinc de-
ficiency in peaches occurs over a wide area in Florida, causing the trou-
ble known as little-leaf. Applications of zinc sulfate to the tree or the
soil have corrected the trouble.
345. Seasonal Occurrence of Tomato Diseases in Florida. (George F. Weber
and David G. A. Kelbert, 36 pp., 22 figs.) Environmental factors exert
considerable influence upon the seasonal occurrence of tomato diseases
in Florida. This bulletin discusses seasonal development of diseases as
influenced by seed selection and disinfection, preparation of seedbed and

Annual Report, 1940

soil disinfection, soil preparation and plant setting, fungicides and their
application, rotation, fertilizers and their application, cultivation, har-
vesting, packing and transportation.
346. Enzootic Bronchopneumonia of Dairy Calves. (D. A. Sanders, 12 pp.,
0 figs.) Discusses symptoms, postmortem lesions, batcteriological find-
ings, parasitological findings, materials and methods, and exposure of
calves to Pasteurella bovisepitca, to diseased tissues, to blood inoculations,
by contact in isolation pens, and by contact with contaminated soil.
Nearly 90,000 copies of press bulletins were printed, 14 new ones
having a total run of 77,500 and four reprints accounting for an addi-
tional 12,000 copies. Ten of the new press bulletins were two pages,
four were four pages in size, and one of the reprints was a four-page
publication. One, the bulletin list, was printed in the quantity of 2,500
copies. Of the other new ones, five had editions of 3,000, one 4,000, one
5,000, four 6,000, one 12,000 and one 15,000.
The following lists the press bulletins printed during the year and
their authors:
538. Clitocybe Mushroom Root Rot of Woody Plants, Arthur S. Rhoads.
539. Control of External Parasites of Chickens, M. W. Emmel.
540. Nature and Cause of Psorosis of Citrus Trees, Arthur S. Rhoads.
541. Lupine, a Seed-Producing Winter Legume, J. D. Warner.
542. Indoor-Battery Mortality of Chickens as Related to Population and
Ventilation, M. W. Emmel.
543. Vitamins in Poultry Feeding, L. L. Rusoff.
544. The Control of Internal Parasites as Related to the Occurrence of
Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions, M. W. Emmel.
545. Bacterial Ring Rot of Potatoes, A. H. Eddins.
546. Care of Citrus Groves Injured by Cold.
547. Flordo Spray, William B. Shippy.
548. Brown Rot of Solanaceous Plants, A. H. Eddins.
549. Bacterial Spot of Peppers, George F. Weber.
550. Web Blight of Beans, George F. Weber.
Bulletin list.
528. Pumpkin Bugs in Citrus Groves (revision).
453. Methods for Preparing Bordeaux Mixture (revision).
501. Collecting Deer Tongue Leaves (revision).
513. Relation of Soil Reaction to Strawberry Production in Central
Florida (revision).
Both newspapers and farm publications continued to use freely the
releases concerning research by Experiment Station workers and con-
taining suggestions to farmers and growers from these staff members.
The weekly clipsheet distributed by the Agricultural Extension Ser-
vice carried from one to several items relating to the Experiment Station
and its workers each week, and the papers used these items generously.
Special releases to dailies were made also through the Associated Press
wire service and through direct mailings. No attempt was made to keep
a measured record of the material used, but it certainly amounted to
hundreds of column inches.
The year's output of Experiment Station material prepared by the
Editors and printed in farm journals includes the following: Four arti-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

cles amounting to 36 column inches in one Southern publication; two
articles amounting to 75 column inches in two national journals; eight
articles amounting to 211 column inches in four Florida papers. This gives
a total of 14 articles, 322 inches and seven different publications.
In addition, other members of the staff had articles printed in papers
throughout the country. Most of the material carried by Florida farm
papers was forwarded from this office in the form of copies of radio
talks delivered by staff members. The appended list of articles by staff
members shows that non-editorial workers on the staff had 59 articles
printed in eight Florida papers, one in a Southern journal, and 13 in
eight national publications. This does not include articles in scientific and
technical journals nor in published proceedings of associations.
Experiment Station staff members (other than Editors) appeared on
the Florida Farm Hour, noon-day broadcast over WRUF in Gainesville,
an average of every other week day during the year. This program
reaches a large number of rural people throughout a good portion of
Florida, and is the most popular program of its kind in the state. Station
workers presented 158 talks, with every department being represented.
Many of the talks presented on the Florida Farm Hour are forwarded
to seven other radio stations in Florida as Farm Flashes. While not ev-
ery flash is used on every one of the seven stations, most of them are
read. Fifty-eight, or more than one-third of the talks delivered last year
over WRUF by station staff members were forwarded to other stations as
Dozens of articles by Station staff workers appeared in popular and
scientific journals and in proceedings of various association meetings
throughout the country. Most of these were submitted direct by the staff
member, but many were read by the Editors and still others were for-
warded by them. Florida papers, in particular, are supplied with copies
of radio talks of general interest. Following is a list of articles by staff
members (other than Editors) appearing in popular and scientific
journals during the year.
A Brief History of Tomato Production in Florida. G. F. Weber, Proc.
Fla. Acad. Sci., 1940.
Advertise Your Products. O. D. Abbott, Sou. Dairy Prod. Jour., Apr.
An Annotated List of the Orthropods Found in the Burrows of the
Florida Gopher Tortoise. F. N. Young and C. C. Goff, Fla. Entomologist
22:4, Dec. 1939.
A Note on the Status of the Generic Name Urocystis. G. L. Zundel,
C. M. Tucker, D. S. Welch and Erdman West, Phytopathology 30:5, May
Aphids on Citrus. J. R. Watson, Citrus Industry, Mar. 1940.
A Resume of Research on Gummosis in Florida. A. S. Rhoads, Citrus
Industry 20:10, Oct. 1939.
Assay of Vitamin A With the Photoelectric Colorimeter. R. B.
French, Ind. and Eng. Chem. (Anal. Ed.) 12:6, June 1940.
Benefits Derived from Cooperation Between Florida Cooperative
Associations and the State University. C. V. Noble, Proc. Columbia Land
Bank for Cooperatives, No. 10, 1939.

Annual Report, 1940

Choline in the Diet of Chickens. O. D. Abbott and C. U. DeMasters,
Jour. Nutrition 19:1, Jan. 1940.
Citrus Aphids. J. R. Watson, Citrus Industry, Jan. 1940.
Citrus Melanose and Its Control. R. K. Voorhees, Citrus 2:10, March
Citrus Scab-Its Cause and Control. A. S. Rhoads, Citrus 2:9, Feb.
Clover Improves Florida Pastures. R. E. Blaser, Better Crops with
Plant Food 23 (7):6-9, 46, 1939
Clovers Survive Adversity. R. E. Blaser, Fla. Grower, April 1940.
Cobalt Necessary for Livestock. W. M. Neal, Fla. Grower, Aug. 1939.
Combating Aphids on Citrus. J. R. Watson, Fla. Grower, Jan. 1940.
Combined Control of Scales, Whiteflies and Rust Mites. W. L. Thomp-
son, Proc. Sixth Annual Citrus Grs. Inst., 1939.
Controlling Summer Citrus Pests. W. L. Thompson, Fla. Grower 48:6,
June 1940.
Control of Bean Jassids. A. N. Tissot, Fla. Grower, Sept. 1939.
Control of Common External Parasites of Chickens. M. W. Emmel,
Vet. Med. 34:766, 1939.
Control of Red Spiders and Rust Mites. J. R. Watson, Citrus Industry,
Sept. 1939.
Control of Termites in Citrus Groves. J. R. Watson, Citrus Industry,
Jan. 1940.
Copper Sulfate as a Corrective for Dieback, a New Disease of the
Avocado. G. D. Ruehle and S. J. Lynch, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1940.
Correlation of Fruit Characteristics to Total Yield of Oil of Industrial
Tung Trees. F. S. Lagasse and Elwood G. Fisher, Proc. Amer. Tung Oil
Assn., April 1940.
Courses for Training in Agricultural Economics. C. V. Noble, Proc.
Conf. on Agri. Economics, Chattanooga, July 1939.
Cover Crops and Their Relation to Citrus Insects. J. R. Watson,
Citrus Industry, July 1939.
Cover Crops for Tung Orchards. G. H. Blackmon, Proc. Amer. Tung
Oil Assn., Apr. 1940.
Cultural Practices and Their Influence Upon Citrus Pests. W. L.
Thompson, Jour. Eco. Ent. 32:6, Dec. 1939.
Dairy Cattle Need Cobalt and Other Mineral Elements. W. M. Neal,
Florida Poultryman & Stockman, Feb. 1940.
Deficiency Problems of Tung Oil. R. D. Dickey, Proc. Amer. Tung Oil
Ass'n., 1940.
Effects of Maturation and of Cold Storage on the Vitamin C Potency
of Oranges and Grapefruit. R. B. French and O. D. Abbott, Jour. Nu-
trition 19:3, Mar. 1940.
Elements of Plant Pathology-Book Review. Geo. F. Weber, Phyto-
path. 30:1, Jan. 1940.
Entomological Conditions in 1939. J. R. Watson, Citrus Industry, Feb.
Exchangeable Magnesium in Relation to Magnesium Deficiency in
Citrus in Florida. Michael Peech, Proc. Soil Sci. Soc., New Orleans,
Nov. 1939.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Experiments With Cover Crops for Pecans. G. H. Blackmon, Peanut
Jour. and Nut World, 19:3, Jan. 1940.
Factors Affecting the Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soils Un-
der Florida Conditions. F. B. Smith, Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla., 1940.
Fertilizer Studies with Avocados. H. S. Wolfe and S. J. Lynch, Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1940.
Finding What Suits Florida Conditions Best. W. M. Fifield, Mkt. Grs.
Jour. 65, Nov. 15, 1939.
Fowl Leukosis and Its Relation to the Mortality Problem. M. W.
Emmel, Fla. Poultryman & Stockman 5:7 & 8, 19.
Gummosis-A Resume of Research. A. S. Rhoads, Citrus 2:6, Nov.
Halo Blight of Beans in Florida. L. O. Gratz, Plant Dis. Reptr. 24
(11):227, 1940.
Hemocytoblastosis in the Chicken. M. W. Emmel, Proc. 7th World's
Poultry Cong. & Expo., 1939.
Hen Battery Losses. M. W. Emmel, Nat'l. Poult. Digest, Feb. 1940.
Hints on Livestock Feed Economy. P. T. D. Arnold, Fla. Grower,
Nov. 1939.
Hot Weather Poultry Care. N. R. Mehrhof, Fla. Grower, June 1940.
How Many Cattle Will Improved Pasture Carry? W. E. Stokes, Fla.
Cattleman 4:9, June 1940.
How the Poultry Department of the University of Florida Tries to
Serve the Industry. N. R. Mehrhof, Fla. Poultryman & Stockman, July
How to Control Pepper Weevils. J. R. Watson, Fla. Grower, Mar. 1940.
Improving Spring Vegetables. F. S. Jamison, Fla. Grower 48:5, May
Indoor-Hen-Battery Mortality. M. W. Emmel, Jour. Am. Vet. Med.
Asso. 46:756. 19.
Inspection and Treatment of Injured Livestock. A. L. Shealy, Fla.
Cattleman & Dairy Jour. 4:9, June 1940.
Interpretation of Research Results. A. F. Camp, Proc. Sixth Annual
Citrus Grs. Inst., 1939.
Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children. O. D. Abbott and C. F. Ahmann,
Amer. Jour. of Diseases of Children 58, Oct. 1939.
Kill Nematodes on Truck Farms. J. R. Watson, Fla. Grower, July
Leaf-Bud Cuttings for Multiplying Tropical Shrubs. J. V. Watkins
and G. H. Blackmon, Proc. Amer. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 37:1109-1111, 1939.
Lesions on Quercus Larifolia Similar to Leprosis on Citrus. H. S. Faw-
cett and A. S. Rhoads, Phytopathology 29:10, Oct. 1939.
Little Leaf of Mangos: A Zinz Deficiency. S. J. Lynch and G. D.
Ruehle, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1940.
Mango Yields Increased by Cross-Pollination. G. D. Ruehle and S. J.
Lynch, Fla. Grower, July 1939.
Methods and Limitations of Soil Analysis. R. A. Carrigan, Proc. Soil
Sci. Soc. of Fla., 1939.
Methods of Propagating Tung Trees. G. H. Blackmon, Proc. Assoc.
Sou. Agr. Workers, 1940.

Annual Report, 1940

Methods of Storing Silage Crops. W. M. Neal, Fla. Grower, May 1940.
Mineral Matter in Mixed Dairy Feeds. P. T. D. Arnold and R. B.
Becker, Proc. Asso. Sou. Agri. Workers, 1940.
Minor Element Deficiency Symptoms of Tung Trees. R. D. Dickey,
Proc. Asso. Sou. Agri. Workers, 1940.
Minor Element Fertilization of Horticultural Crops. F. S. Jamison,
Better Crops with Plant Food 22:7, Aug. 1939.
Natural Christmas Decorations. Erdman West, Fla. Grower, Dec.
Natural Control of Citrus Insects. J. R. Watson, Citrus, Jan. 1940.
Northern Redtop Grass for Florida. R. E. Blaser, Fla. Cattleman 3:12,
.Sept. 1939.
Notes on Chaetoanaphotrips orchidii Found Attacking Citrus Fruit in
Florida. W. L. Thompson, Fla. Entomologist 22:4, Dec. 1939.
Notes on Florida Fungi. Erdman West, Mycologia 31:4, July 1939.
Notes on the Lachnini of Florida. A. N. Tissot, Fla. Entomologist 22:3,
Aug. 1939.
Nut Hulls Aid in the Rooting of Tropical Cuttings. G. H. Blackmon
and J. V. Watkins, Peanut Jour. and Nut World 19:1, Nov. 1939.
Nutritional Anemia in Florida. O. D. Abbot, Eighteenth Conf. Mil.
bank Mem., N. Y. C., Apr. 1940.
Observations on the January 1940 Cold Injury to Tropical and Sub-
tropical Plants. S. J. Lynch, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1940.
Parasite to Control Mealy Bugs. J. R. Watson, Citrus Industry, Aug.
Pecan Foliage as Food for the Pecan Nut Casebearer. S. O. Hill, Fla.
Entomologist 23:2, June 1940.
Pink Eye, or Infectious Keratitis. A. L. Shealy, 'Fla. Cattleman &
Dairy Jour. 4:1. Oct. 1939.
Pointers on Swine Production. R. M. Crown, Fla. Grower, Mar. 1940.
Potato Seed-Piece Rot Caused by Fusarium Oxysporum. A. H. Eddins,
Phytopath. 30:2, Feb. 1940.
Poultry Diseases in the Southern States. M. W. Emmel, Jour. Am.
Vet. Med. Asso. 46:758. 19
Poultry Research. N. R. Mehrhof, Fla. Poultryman & Stockman, Feb.,
March and June, 1940.
Preliminary Report on Lubberly Locust Control. J. R. Watson and
H. E. Bratley, Fla. Entomologist 23:1, Feb. 1940.
Preliminary Reports on Varieties, Fertilizers, and Other Factors as
Influencing Cold Resistance in Citrus. W. W. Lawless and A .F. Camp,
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1940.
Preliminary Report on Wireworm Investigations in the Everglades.
J. W. Wilson, Fla. Entomologist 23:1, Feb. 1940.
Progress Report on Cold Injured Citrus Groves. A. F. Camp, W. L.
Thompson, R. K. Voorhees, and W. W. Lawless, Citrus Industry, 21:3,
Mar. 1940.
Propagating Tropical Shrubs by Leaf-Bud Cuttings. J. V. Watkins,
Jour. New York Bot. Gdn. 40:478, Oct. 1939.
Proper Handling of Florida Bright Tobacco. W. E. Stokes, Fla. Grow-
.er, June 1940.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Psorosis in the Light of Research. A. S. Rhoads, Citrus 2:7, Dec. 1939.
Report on Watermelon Diseases in Florida, 1939. M. N. Walker, Plant
Dis. Reporter 23:16, 1939.
Root-Knot Nematodes and How They Work. J. R. Watson, Citrus In-
dustry, April 1940.
Rose Culture in Florida. G. H. Blackmon, Proc. Fla. Rose Soc., 1940.
Shark Liver Oil-A Potent Source of Vitamin A for Poultry. L. L.
Rusoff and N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry Sci. 18:5, Sept. 1939.
Shark Liver Oil Tests. L. L. Rusoff, Flour & Feed, Feb. 1940.
Some Characteristics of Bacterial Ring Spot of Potatoes. A. H. Eddins,
Amer. Potato Jour. 16:12, Dec. 1939.
Some Chemical Constituents of Papaya and Their Relation to Flavor.
S. J. Lynch and W. M. Fifield, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1940.
Some Effective Methods of Applying Fertilizers. Victor F. Nettles,
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1940.
Some Effects of Soils and Fertilizers on Fruit Composition. B. R.
Fudge and G. B. Fehmerling, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1940.
Some Factors Affecting Pecan Yields. G. H. Blackmon, Peanut Jour.
and Nut World, 19:2, Dec. 1939.
Some Friends of Florida Farmers. J. R. Watson, Fla. Grower, May
Some Notes on the Citrus Situation. C. V. Noble, Fla. Farm & Grove,
Sept. 17, 1939.
Some Notes on the Food Value of Liver, Heart and Other Minor Parts
of Beef. W. G. Kirk, Fla. Cattleman & Dairy Jour. 4:6, March 1940.
Some Practical Suggestions for the Florida Cattleman. A. L. Shealy,
Fla. Cattleman & Dairy Jour. 4:8, May 1940.
Some Problems in Pecan Production. G. H. Blackmon, Proc. SE. Pe-
can Grs. Assn., Feb. 1940.
Spraying Experiments for Control of Mango Anthracnose. G. D.
Ruehle, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1940.
The Agricultural Outlook for 1940. C. V. Noble, Fla. Grower 47:12,
Dec. 1939.
The Cause and Control of Melanose. A. S. Rhoads, Citrus Industry
21:6, June 1940.
The Control of Sclerotiniose of Celery on Florida Muck Soil. A. N.
Brooks, Proc. Asso. Sou. Agr. Workers, 1940.
The Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soils at Different Initial pH.
R. S. Dyal, F. B. Smith and R. V. Allison, Jour. Amer. Soc. Agronomy
31:10, Oct. 1939.
The Deficiencies of Peanuts as Feed for Swine. W. G. Kirk, Proc.
Am. Soc. for Animal Prod., 1939.
The Livestock Industry of the South. A. L. Shealy, Jour. Am. Vet.
Med. Asso. 46:758. 19
The Nutritional Value of Eggs. L. L. Rusoff, Fla. Poultryman &
Stockman, Mar. 1940.
The Melanose Situation. R. K. Voorhees, Citrus Grower 2:19, Apr.
The Papaya in Florida. S. J. Lynch, Amer. Fruit Grower, Dec. 1939.
The Selection and Feeding of Cattle. W. G. Kirk, Fla. Cattleman &
Dairy Jour. 4:8, May 1940.

Annual Report, 1940

The Shark Fishing Industry in Florida. L. L. Rusoff, Proc. Fla. Acad.
Sci., 1940.
The Soil and Water Conservation Problem in the Everglades. R. V.
Allison, Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla., 1939.
The Soils of Florida. J. R. Henderson, Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla.,
The Status of Citrus Pests Following the Recent Cold. W. L. Thomp-
son, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1940.
The Status of the Melanose Fungus in Cold Injured Citrus Wood.
R. K. Voorhees, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1940.
The Welfare of Cattle on Florida Pastures. R. B. Becker and J. R.
Henderson, Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 32:3, Mar. 1940.
Thrips Attacking Citrus Fruits in Florida. W. L. Thompson, Citrus
2:11 & 12. Apr. & May 1940.
Timely Poultry Pointers. N. R. Mehrhof, Fla. Poultryman & Stock-
man, Feb. 1940.
Tobacco Bed Blue Mold Control. W. B. Tisdale, Fla. Grower 48:2,
Feb. 1940.
Tobacco Field Diseases in Florida, 1939. R. R. Kincaid and W. B.
Tisdale, Plant Dis. Reptr. 23:23, Dec. 1939.
Toxic Limits of Replaceable Zinc to Corn and Cowpeas on Three
Florida Soils. O. E. Gall and R. M. Barnette, Jour. Am. Soc. Agron.
32:23:31, 1940.
Urea as a Source of Nitrogen for Potatoes in the Hastings Area.
B. W. Hundertmark and R. V. Allison, Amer. Potato Jour. 16:12, 1939.
Utilization of Citrus Meal for Poultry. N. R. Mehrhof and L. L.
Rusoff, Proc. Seventh World's Poultry Congress, 1939.
Vitamin A Content of the Liver Oil of the Florida Lemon Shark
(Hypoprion brevirostris). L. L. Rusoff, Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci., 1940.
Web-Blight, a Disease of Beans Caused by Corticium microsclerotia.
Geo. F. Weber, Phytopath. 29:7, July 1939.
Wintering the Breeding Herd. W. G. Kirk, Am. Hereford Jour.
30:22. 1940.
Ylang-Ylang, a Scented-Flower Tree for South Florida. S. J. Lynch,
Fla. Grower, Jan. 1940.
Zinc as a Corrective for Little-Leaf of Peach in Florida. R. D.
Dickey, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1940.
Zinc Deficiency of the Avocado. G. D. Ruehle, Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc., 1940.

32 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The library added 326 bound volumes to its shelves during the year.
Of this number 168 books were added by purchase, gift or exchange and
158 as newly-bound periodicals. Of the latter 51 volumes were prepared
and sent to the bindery for other departments. This brings the total
number of bound volumes up to 15,348.
The library received 11,903 bulletins, pamphlets and serials.
The branch stations were lent 495 volumes. Only 59 volumes were
borrowed through inter-library loan. The use of microfilms and micro-
prints, available at a minimum cost from Bibliofilm Service, Washington,
D. C., is rapidly replacing the lending of heavy, rare or much-used
publications in that city. This accounts for the reduction in books
borrowed elsewhere.
A total of 13,031 catalog cards were filed during the year, 8,401 being
prepared, typed and filed in the office and 4,630 purchased from Library
of Congress and added to the catalog.
A record attendance, with an all-time record use of the library, was
made during this period. An accurate check made for February and
March revealed that 3,963 persons used it during those months.
Briefly summarized statistics follow:
Volumes sent to the bindery .-----.------ .......-- 158
Volumes received by gift, purchase or exchange -- 168
Total number volumes added ---........-- ._---.____ 326
Total number bound volumes in library -----.---._----- 15,348
Pamphlets, bulletins, serials received ------------....___ 11,903
Books lent to branch stations --------..---. --..- 495
Books borrowed from other libraries....---------- -._ .. 59
Catalog cards prepared, typed and filed ----. --- 8,401
Catalog cards from Library of Congress --..-..--... ..-..- 4,630
Total number of cards added to card catalog ..-_......... 13,031

Annual Report, 1940

In addition to the continuation of work on the five projects previously
reported, two new lines of work have been inaugurated during the year.
One of the new projects deals with factors affecting breeding efficiency
and depreciation in Florida dairy herds, and is being conducted in
cooperation with the Department of Animal Industry. The other is
entitled "Land-Use Planning" and is a research phase of the County
Land-Use Planning Project which is in progress under the direction of
the Agricultural Extension Service.

Purnell Project 73 C. V. Noble and Bruce McKinley
After devoting much time to the prepared manuscript covering the
work performed under this project, it has been decided that the sampling
methods used in the three repeat surveys were not adequate to analyze
fully the farm management problems involved. Further field work is
planned as soon as special work on two other projects has been com-

Purnell Project 154 H. G. Hamilton and C. V. Noble
During the past year a monograph of the Florida Citrus Exchange
system was published as Florida Experiment Station Bulletin 339. The
organization set-up of the Exchange system is shown. The variation in
operating efficiency of the local units is analyzed. Comparative balance
sheets and profit and loss statements for the years 1910, 1920, 1930 and
1937 are given for the Florida Citrus Exchange. Details of the operation
of the various departments of the Exchange are analyzed. The func-
tions of the two auxiliary corporations of the Exchange, namely, The
Growers' Loan and Guaranty Company and the Exchange Supply Com-
pany, are described.
Many failures of farmers' cooperatives in Florida have been revealed
by this study to date. In studying the causes for these failures, it has
been necessary during the past year to secure data covering the cost of
handling fruit and the price paid the grower for fruit on about 40 citrus
cooperatives for each year from 1935 to 1939, inclusive.
This project is being kept current. Data from all charters granted
to cooperatives, since the last checkup in 1937, have been obtained from
the office of the Secretary of State. In addition, data comparable to
former years on the organization and management of cooperatives have
been obtained from all cooperatives in West Florida. The securing of
similar data for cooperatives located in North and South Florida is now
in progress. When the data for 1939 are compiled, it will be possible to
show changes that have taken place in farmers' cooperatives operating
in Florida since 1925.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Purnell Project 325 J. Wayne Reitz and C. V. Noble
This project is being conducted in cooperation with the Farm Credit
Administration of Washington, D. C., and Columbia, South Carolina.
Representatives of these organizations assisted in obtaining the 389
detailed schedules from citrus and vegetable growers who had borrowed
for production purposes. Also, 175 detailed records were obtained from
all known types of agencies who were making production loans to
Florida citrus and vegetable growers.
The work in summarizing and analyzing the results from these field
studies was interrupted on August 1, 1939, due to the project leader
being on leave of absence for graduate study at the University of Wis-
consin. This work was resumed on June 1, 1940. The summarization
and analysis of the 389 grower records is practically completed. Work
is now progressing with the lending agency schedules.

Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage and C. V. Noble
The work of closing the citrus cost accounts for the fiscal year 1937-38
was completed, the summaries made and returned to grower cooperators
in the usual manner in the summer of 1939.
The field work involved in closing the 1938-39 accounts was done at
the end of the accounting year in the fall of 1939, at which time the
1939-40 accounts were opened. The office work in closing and sum-
marizing the 1938-39 accounts has been completed and the results
returned to cooperating growers. A sample copy of the mimeographed
summaries for mid-season oranges 15 to 17 years of age is here shown
as Table 1. Similar summaries have been made for each kind of citrus
and ripening season, by ages grouped into periods of three years as
per sample.

Purnell Project 317 A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble
Monthly farm price data which were lacking on Florida truck crops
prior to 1928 have been completed back to the beginning of the 1923-24
season. These data have been reviewed and adjusted by federal-state
statisticians and approved by the Agricultural Marketing Service of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture.
The following computations have been made from the farm prices
of each of 37 Florida farm products:
1. Monthly price relatives (Sept. 1924 to Aug. 1930 = 100).
2. Annual index of purchasing power.
3. Index of seasonal variation.
Annual group index numbers have been constructed for each import-
ant group of products with a combined index of the weighted aggrega-
tive type from 1923-24 through 1937-38. This tentative index is shown
in Table 2.

Annual Report, 1940


all groves

Average Average
all groves all groves


Seasons 1932-37 1937-38 1938-39 1938-39
Number of accounts 24 11 9 1
Age of groves (years) 15 to 17 15 to 17 15 to 17 16
Acres per grove 6.47 9.72 2.51 4.71
Trees per acre 64 65 81 70
Grove value per acre $ 710.03 $ 620.84 $ 681.86 $ 349.89
Yield in boxes per acre 200 218 176 245
Yield in boxes per tree 3.15 3.34 2.18 3.52
Costs per acre:
Labor $ 8.63 $ 14.00 $ 9.22 $ 3.89
Supervision 5.89 7.98 2.46 .50
Power and equipment 7.75 6.62 5.11 2.30
Labor, power and equip-
ment not separated 3.19a 3.86b 5.39 .05
Fertilizer 21.70 25.25 29.93 34.96
Soil amendments .90 2.01 2.92
Spray and dust 3.16 7.31 5.69 5.81
Irrigation and drainage 3.68 2.65 2.36 -
Taxes 7.07 4.60 5.05 3.21
Interest on grove at 7% 49.70 43.46 47.73 24.49
All other costs 4.44 11.39 3.49 .06
Total costs per acre 116.11 129.13 119.35 75.27
Returns per acre 171.98 152.29 90.14 126.04
Profit or loss per acre 55.87 23.16 -29.21 1 50.77
Costs per box $ .580 $ .591 $ .677 $ .307
Returns per box .859 .697 .511 .514
Profit or loss per box .279f .1061 -.1661 .207
Pounds of fertilizer per acre 1502 1651 2010 2816
Pounds of fertilizer per tree 23.59 25.26 24.79 40.44
Pounds of soil amendments
per acre 301 173 256 -_.
Pounds of soil amendments
per tree 4.73 2.65 3.16 --
All averages in the above columns are based upon the totals for all groves. All
groves were not involved in every item. Where such was the case the following
figures based upon the actual acreage of the specific groves involved are given for
comparison with your particular grove.
1932-37 [ 1937-38 1938-39
No. of Aver- No. of I Aver- No. of Aver-
grovesj age Igrovesl age groves age
Costs per acre: $ $
Power and equipment 23 $8.11
Labor, power and equip-
ment not separated 19 6.56a 6 7.89b
Soil amendments 10 2.41 5 2.34 4 7.26
Irrigation and drainage 11 12.37 5 5.28 4 5.69
All other costs 20 4.58 8 12.49 7 4.36
Pounds of soil amendments
per acre 10 802. 5 201 4 635
Pounds of soil amendments
per tree 10 12.84 5 3.13 4 7.76
(a) Part of the cost of spray and dust materials included in this item on five groves.
(b) Part of the cost of spray and dust materials included in this item on two groves.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

(Sept. 1924 to Aug. 1930 = 100)

0a $- -i 0i i i i l
^ 0 co W (.
W~ Q En .
Cd E :': E 4)
$ u W ::s 00 :t: c UA 0o




The construction of monthly group and combined index numbers,
using both fixed and variable weights, is in progress.
Purnell Project 345 Bruce McKinley
This project, which is being conducted in cooperation with the Depart-
ment of Animal Industry, was approved on January 15, 1940. The work
to date has been mostly exploratory in order to locate satisfactory dairy
farmer cooperators located on varying types of soil.
Purnell Project 349 Bruce McKinley
This project is the result of a call made upon the Research Depart-
ment for specific work in Columbia County, Florida, to furnish more
adequate background for the County Land-Use Planning Project which

Annual Report, 1940

is being conducted by the Agricultural Extension Service. The project
was approved on April 9, 1940, and the farm management survey was
started immediately in Columbia County. Records have been obtained
from 187 farmers and the summarization and analysis of these records
is in progress to obtain the essential information desired. This work is
being closely coordinated with studies being made in the same area by
home economists and rural sociologists.
Basic information concerning the weekly car-lot shipments of Florida
commercial truck crops and the competitive shipments from other states
and from importing countries was brought up to date. A summary of
this information for the season ending August 31, 1939, was mimeo-
graphed and issued as a supplement to Florida Bulletin 224.
The manuscript covering an economic study of commercial poultry
farming in Florida was revised and published in May, 1940, as Florida
Extension Bulletin 105. This study is based upon detailed records kept
by Florida commercial poultrymen for five years.
The costs and returns involved in producing eggs, raising pullets,
and incubating chicks, respectively, are fully analyzed to bring out the
reasons for success or for failure of these poultrymen. In addition to
the study of the poultry enterprises for the five-year period, complete
information was obtained from these poultrymen for three years of this
period to bring out the advantages or disadvantages of combining poultry
raising with other types of farming. It was found, however, that com-
mercial poultry production in Florida is seldom conducted in combination
with other types of farming.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Agronomy research work during the year was done under 21 projects
involving crop variety testing, breeding, rotation, fertilization, cropping
systems, cover and green manure crops studies and forage and pasture
crop testing, establishment, maintenance and evaluation. Cooperation
was had with the U. S. D. A. Offices of Forage Crops, Cereals and Cotton,
and the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine on forage and
pastures, oats and Sea Island cotton. Foremost Properties, Inc., and
many farmers continued their excellent cooperation on pasture and other
field crop experiments. The departments of Animal Industry and Soils
gave excellent cooperation on animal and soils phases respectively of
agronomic experiments.
Outstanding accomplishments of the year are as follows: the finding of
a perennial peanut having pasture possibilities, getting of definite
knowledge of the cold resistance of F31-762 sugarcane, learning of the
need for some nitrate nitrogen in bright tobacco fertilizers to overcome
the possibility of plants being injured by intake of toxic amounts of
chlorine from a 2 percent chlorine fertilizer in the absence of nitrate
nitrogen, the development and testing of Fla. W-l hybrid corn showing
yields far above other corns, the finding of strains of Indigofera hirsuta,
three new clovers (Trifoliums) and three selections of pigeon peas that
appear promising for forage, experiments showing a need for phosphate
and potash on peanuts on certain soils in Levy and Columbia counties,
and experiments showing good results with clovers in Osceola and other
South Florida counties.
State Project 20 W. A. Carver and Fred H. Hull
Special attention is being given to the improvement of runner peanuts
with respect to appearance, eating quality, and soundness of kernel.
Florida Runner is subject to hidden damage, a seed disease or rot in
which affected seed are practically indistinguishable externally from
sound ones. Florida Runner has been crossed to Small Spanish and to
hybrid lines, and also backcrossed with Spanish. Other objectives in
the peanut improvement work are: (1) improved types for hay produc-
tion; (2) superior eating quality as Valencia combined with Spanish
yielding ability; (3) dual-purpose for digging or hogging off; and (4)
larger pods, and seed approaching Virginia peanuts combined with high
yield and shelling percentage.
The different parents used in the crossing work are Virginia Bunch,
Virginia Jumbo, Dixie Giant, Small White Spanish, Pearl Spanish,
McSpan Spanish, Georgia Bunch, Florida Runner, Rasteiro, and several
superior hybrid lines. First and second backcrosses also have been made
in some cases. It appears that superior hybrid lines intercrossed or
hybrids crossed to standard varieties may produce the best material
within which to select desired forms. The offspring of such crosses have
shown less offtype pods, kernels, and plants.
Efforts at crossing cultivated peanuts to a wild species, Arachis
glabrata, are being continued. The variety Tennessee Red which carries
several seed to the pod is used as the female parent. Pollen from the
wild species is first applied to the previously emasculated flower, then
within 30 minutes to an hour the pollen of cultivated peanuts is applied
to the same flower. If by this procedure selfed and crossed seed should
start developing within the same pod, the chances are greatly increased
of getting crossed seed to fully mature.

Annual Report, 1940

The variety test of 1939 showed the persistent superiority in yield of
Florida Runner or small runner over other varieties and the hybrid
A peanut variety test is being conducted that contains 60 hybrid
strains and several standard varieties and plant introductions of small
runner, Spanish, and Valencia types. A smaller test is being made at
the North Florida Station. It contains seven hybrid strains along with
Small White Spanish and Florida Runner. Two of the most promising
Florida Station hybrids, Numbers 76 and 118, are being grown in variety
tests by the five Southeastern state experiment stations.
The 1939 results of a spacing test of peanuts including Small White
Spanish, Florida Runner, and a hybrid of intermediate plant size and
growth habit, Number 76, agreed in general with tests of previous years.
During the period of tests (1936-1939) the optimum spacings were as
follows: for Spanish 3 to 5 inches, hybrid 4 and 5 inches and Florida
Runner 5 and 6 inches. These hill spacings are based on 30-inch rows.
A spacing test of Florida Runner and Hybrid Number 118 is under
Special Project No. 27A Geo. E. Ritchey, W. E. Stokes,
W. A. Leukel and J. L. Stephens
Investigations of the nutritive value of centipede grass when grown
at Tifton, Georgia, and Gainesville, Florida, have been continued in co-
operation with the Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station and the
U.S.D.A. Bureau of Plant Industry.
Pluckings were made of the long leaf centipede grass strain at
Gainesville and at Tifton, the samples dried and sent to the U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture at Washington for analysis. The procedure was
the same as that recorded in the 1939 report. Complete reports of the
analysis of the grasses have not yet been received.
Hatch Project 55 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp and Geo. E. Ritchey
Corn and cotton have been grown in a two-year rotation system in
combination with different legume cover crops. Check plots which
have grown corn and cotton continuously have been included. The
experiment is now in its eleventh year, therefore 10 years of data are
The yields of corn have been consistently higher on the plots which
were rotated with cotton than on the plots which were planted con-
tinuously to corn. The increase in yield of cotton on the rotated plots
over the plots growing cotton continuously has not been consistent, but
little increase has attended the rotation.
In 1939 yields of the summer cover crops on the various plots are
recorded in Table 3. It will be noted that the total amount of organic
matter on each plot did not vary materially. The Florida beggarweed
comprised a large portion of the vegetation from the rotated plots. In
each case the checks which were not rotated produced a much lower
yield of beggarweed, but did produce a higher yield of organic material
other than Crotalaria, beggarweed and corn stalks.

* In cooperation with U.S.D.A.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


o n co
Treatment .r o t a

SI 2 10 05

Corn and cotton
Natural vegetation 0 7,623 1,089 6,933 15,645 1,350
Checks not rotated
Natural vegetation 0 1,841 1,125 12,904 15,871 1,208
Corn and cotton
with winter legume 0 6,752 833 8,748 16,334 1,094
Checks not rotated
Natural vegetation 0 2,214 925 12,215 15,355 1,055
Corn and cotton
with summer legume 1,658 6,280 1,634 8,131 17,704 1,565
Checks not rotated
Natural vegetation 0 2,741 1,016 13,667 17,424 1,215
Corn and cotton
with both winter
and summer legumes 1,307 8,457 1,089 8,639 19,493 1,314
Checks not rotated
Natural vegetation 0 2,051 1,034 14,411 17,496 1,111
In this experiment, which has passed its seventh year, corn and
interplanted runner peanuts (without fertilizer or zinc) have yielded
an average of 6.30 bushels of corn and 523 pounds of peanuts per acre
per year when grown in the same plots every year, but 11.55 bushels of
corn and 894 pounds of peanuts when the land is rested every other
year. These figures are averages of plots half of which are populated
with volunteer crotalaria (especially when rested). Resting has given
yearly increases of 5.25 bushels of corn and 371 pounds of peanuts per
acre; and these increases have been very little affected by the crota-
laria. But the presence of crotalaria has increased the corn yields by an
average of 1.35 bushels per year, though the peanut yields were de-
creased by 97 pounds. The reduction in peanut yields may be explained
by the competition of the crotalaria as a weed, which is probably more
serious with a crop as difficult to clean-cultivate as peanuts.
This study is conducted on two different fields; each field grows corn
in alternate years with crotalaria.
Field No. 1.-Three species of Crotalaria striataa, intermedia and spectabilis)
and check plots growing native vegetation are included. The field was
allowed to grow the cover crop only in 1939 and is growing a crop of
corn in 1940.

Annual Report, 1940

Table 4 records the yields of cover crop produced in 1939 and the
average yield of corn obtained from the same plots on the previous
year (1938). In 1939 the highest yield of organic material was harvested
from the Crotalaria spectabilis plots and the lowest yields from the plots
growing natural vegetation only.
Species Crotalaria Organic Total Pounds Ear
Materials Corn in 1938
C. intermedia 6,207 9,709 15,917 1,312
C. spectabilis 7,839 11,362 19,201 1,367
C. striata 1,346 10,543 11,889 1,226
Natural grasses, etc. 0 12,068 12,068 1,251
Field No. 2.-This field grows corn on years alternating with Field
No. 1. Thus, Field No. 2 grew corn in 1939 and cover crop only in 1938.
The cover crop was allowed to grow in the corn after the last cultivation
and was harvested for yields records on Oct. 28 to Nov. 3, 1939. The
crop was returned to the plot and disked into the soil. Table 5 records
the acre yield of ear corn and the cover crop in 1939 and the ear corn
yields for 1938 in terms of pounds per acre. Crotalaria lanceolata was added
to the test in 1939. The highest yield of Crotalaria was obtained on the
C. lanceolata plots.

0 (S -
Species 0

C. intermedia 8,837 1,795 797 14,518 25,948 1,144 6,234
C. laceolata 3,141 4,572 852 10,200 18,763 1,233 __
C. spectabilis 4,372 2,668 621 10,526 18,186 1,118 7,133
C. striata 1,706 3,228 975 11,524 17,477 1,162 8,895
Natural vegetation 0 6,018 774 11,366 18,406 977 0

Hatch Project 56 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp
and Geo. E. Ritchey
In the 1939 Annual Report it was noted that a strain test was being
run comparing some newly introduced strains of Pearl Millet from
Russia with a common commercial strain. When the crops were cut
twice during the season, Selection No. 115,058-3 nearly tripled the yield

*Cooperative with U.S.D.A.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

of the commercial strain, but when cut six times during the season it
was exceeded materially by some of the other strains. Most of the other
strains yielded higher when cut oftener. The new strains continued to
grow and produce abundant forage after the commercial strain had
nearly ceased growth.
Three of the best yielding strains are being grown for seed increase
in 1940.
A yield test of 11 strains of Napier grass was continued. Results are
reported under Project 298.
After several years of selection of Pigeon peas (Cajamus indicus) for
earliness, and high yielding qualities, several strains have been isolated
which show these desirable characteristics. The results of tests with
these strains are recorded in Project 298.
The two new syrup canes F31-762 and Co. 290 (F31-951 is quite similar
in growth habits and outward appearance to the older cane Co. 290),
were again distributed to farmers to the amount of about 15,000 stalks,
and the high yielding ability, especially of the former, is beginning to
be appreciated. F31-762 is also being commended for its greater turn-
out of syrup per barrel of juice-an outstanding characteristic of this
cane. This newest veriety was almost wholly undamaged in unprotected
stubble on the Station farm by the severe late January 1940 freeze,
while Co. 290 and most other varieties were almost completely killed,
and even the hardy Cayana was considerably damaged.
Analysis to date indicate that F31-762 as grown in North Florida
gives a juice of relatively high total solids, the sucrose percentage of
which is such that little or no "sugaring" should take place in con-
centrating to 39 Baume sirup. In Central Florida the percentage of
sucrose of the total solids increases to such an extent that "sugaring"
may be expected in many cases. Several methods of preventing sugaring
or crystallization are available if they become necessary.
The primary object is to introduce or develop dependable oats for
grain or hay production in Central Florida. The chief hazards seem
to be leaf rust (crown rust), April drouth and February freezes. Crown
or leaf rust is severe in perhaps half of the years and attacks all other-
wise well adapted varieties. April rainfall is probably insufficient in
most years for the proper filling of oats which head during that month,
so that the early maturing varieties such as Fulghum are preferable.
But such early varieties should probably not be planted (for grain)
earlier than November 15, for when planted earlier they may start to
head sufficiently early to be badly damaged in a late February freeze.
Many hundreds of introduced hybrid oats of various degrees of rust-
resistance, including near-immunity, have been grown. None has yet
been found that is better for central Florida than Fulghum in the
average of years. Many more introduced hybrids (obtained from
the U.S.D.A. Division of Cereal Crops and Diseases) are being tested. A
large number of hybrids bred at this Station from introduced strains
are beginning to show some promise.

Annual Report, 1940 43

Purnell Project 105 Fred H. Hull and W. A. Carver
Field Corn.-Variety testing was continued on the same plan as in
previous years. Seed for tests at the Main and North Florida Stations is
obtained each year from various seedsmen and the tests are planted at
both locations from the same lots of seed to eliminate seed quality
factors in the study of varietal adaptations to the two locations.
Table 6 summarizes yield and weevil infestation for the past two
Percent Farmer Percent
Variety Bu. per Acre Composite Yield Weevilly Ears
G'ville Quincy G'ville Quincy G'ville Quincy
Florident White $ 22.6 34.9 116 127 74 24
Whatley Prolific 21.0 35.1 108 128 82 30
McIntosh V 21.4 29.6 110 108 62 17
Munroe Little CobX 21.5 30.5 111 111 69 25
Gilleon Special 21.0 33.2 108 121 72 23
Kilgore Improved Fla. Fl. 18.1 27.5 93 100 56 18
Florident Yellow C 22.2 35.5 114 129 66 24
Good Golden Prolific 22.4 33.4 115 122 74 30
Erck Yellow Flint 19.6 25.1 101 92 46 14
Cuban Yellow Flint \X 16.9 24.4 87 89 42 9
Wood Hybrid Gold. Prolific d 19.6 31.6 101 112 90 64
Florida W-1 J 27.6 40.7 142 148 69 14
Farmer Composite 19.4 27.4 100 100 62 18

Many of the varieties, and Whatley Prolific in particular, produce
greater gains over the Farmer Composite at Quincy than at Gainesville.
After five years of mass selection at Quincy the Florident varieties are
yielding about the same as Whatley Prolific and show some reduction in
weevil damage. Yields of the White and yellow varieties of Florident are
approximately equal. These varieties are open or naturally pollinated
the same as all common varieties of corn and their propagation is the
Fla. W-1 (Florida White Hybrid No. 1) is a first generation hybrid or
double cross of four inbred lines developed here. Seed of Fla. W-1 is
produced in crossing blocks where tassels are pulled from one line
which bears the seed and allowed to remain on the other line which
furnishes the pollen. Fla. W-1 has been tested only the two years re-
corded in Table 6, but that record indicates that it will yield considerably
more than the highest yielding prolific varieties and that it suffers no
more weevil damage than the Farmer Composite. All of the high yielding
varieties including the Floridents do suffer more weevil damage than
the Farmer Composite.
The greater amount of weevil damage in the Gainesville tests is
probably due to those tests being harvested much later than the Quincy
tests and to the fact that old weevily corn has been scattered in the
Gainesville fields each year in August.
Selection of inbred lines for use in hybrid combinations is the only
breeding method in active operation the past year at Gainesville. Mass
field selection is being continued with the Florident varieties at Quincy.
Some information relative to effect of planting date on yield and
weevil infestation is furnished by the Gainesville variety test which con-
sists of early March and early April plantings each year (Table 7).

44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Bushels per Acre Percent Weevilly Ears
March April March April
Planting Planting Planting Planting
25.1 18.8 53.8 67.0

Weevil infestation has been slightly higher on corn spaced 18 inches
in the drill than it has where the spacing was 36 inches.
Sweet Corn.-Records on yield and marketability have been taken on
45 varieties and hybrids of sweet and roasting ear corn.
Breeding along the lines noted previously is being continued.
State Project 163 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp and J. D. Warner
The only corn fertilizer experiment is that reported in connection
with the burning experiment under Hatch Project 55.

Adams Project 243 W. A. Leukel
Analytical work is under way on Sudan grass plants grown in sand
cultures in the greenhouse last season with normal, high and low levels
of phosphorus and potassium and using nitrogen in the form of nitrates
and ammonia.
Although a complete analysis is essential for the presentation of com-
prehensive results, some variations in composition relations and yields
of herbage produced are of interest. Sudan grass plants harvested
while vegetative showed some variations in yield. Where ammonia with
some nitrate was used as a source of nitrogen, the lowest yield was ob-
tained from low potassium plants followed in rising order by the con-
trol, high potassium, low phosphorus and high phosphorus.
With nitrate alone as a source of nitrogen, low potassium gave the
lowest yield, high potassium the highest. The control and high and
low phosphorus showed small yield variations. In the nitrate series
high phosphorus and potassium showed a 25 percent decrease in dry
matter in the top growth of plants in the vegetative growth condition
when compared with the other treatments.
Plants harvested when more mature showed the lowest top growth
production for the low potassium and low phosphorus treatments. Total
weight of root growth produced from the plants harvested in the mature
growth condition and receiving ammonia and nitrate nitrogen varied in
the ascending order thus: high phosphorus, low phosphorus, control.
low potassium, high potassium. For plants receiving nitrate nitrogen
oply, root weights in the ascending order varied thus: low potassium,
low phosphorus, high phosphorus, high potassium, control. Roots of
plants from the second cutting in the vegetative condition showed a
different trend for root weight. For nitrate treated plants, roots in the
ascending order were thus: high potassium, low potassium, low phos-
phorus, high phosphorus, control. For ammonia treated plants plus ni-
trate, root weights showed the following ascending order: low potassium,
low phosphorus, control, high potassium, high phosphorus.

Annual Report, 1940

Nitrogen fractionations were made on plants harvested in the vege-
tative growth condition. Carbohydrate fractionations were made on the
top growth of vegetative and mature plants. Variations in total nitrogen
on a percentage basis were not very marked. In general, nitrate treated
plants showed a higher percentage of nitrate nitrogen while ammonia
nitrogen was higher in the ammonia and nitrate treated plants. Among
the various carbohydrate fractions, the principal variation was found
in the sugars. The ammonia and nitrate treated plants showed a high
percentage of sugars in their vegetative top growth for the balanced
nutrient treatment and for the low potassium treatment. For the top
growth of plants cut in the more mature condition, the ammonia and
nitrate treated plants showed a high percentage of sugar for the top
growth of plants grown in a balanced solution while those receiving high
and low potassium were low in sugar. For plants treated with nitrate
only and cut in the more mature growth stage, a more normal trend in
sugar for the different treatments was shown with the exception of the
series receiving high potassium, which was considerably lower in total
sugar. Very little dextrin or starch was found in the top growth of these
grass plants. Most of the higher polysaccharides appeared to be in the
form of hemicelluloses. Mineral elements in the tops, roots and crowns
of these differently treated plants are yet to be determined.
Sudan grass failed to utilize ammonia nitrogen supplied in the form
of sulfates. When supplemented partly with nitrogen in the form of
nitrates, it produced better growth. To get a better reaction from the
utilization of ammonia nitrogen for the plant growth, another series of
treatments was set up using Bahia grass in place of Sudan grass. A sim-
ilar series of 6ff soil containers was transplanted to Bahia grass stolons
in acid-washed white sand. These plants were watered daily until they

Fig. 1.-Bahia grass growing in sand cultures in greenhouse.
were supplied with nutrients by the drip method.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

produced a vegetative top growth. They were then divided into two
series of 30 pots each. One series received nitrogen in the form of ni-
trates while the other received ammonia nitrogen in the form of sulfates.
Each series was again divided into five treatments-i.e., control, high
phosphorus, low phosphorus, high potassium and low potassium. The
initial vegetative top growth was removed from all plants before apply-
ing the various nutrient treatments on May 3, 1940.
On June 14, 1940, when vigorously vegetative, the top growth of the
plants was harvested and prepared for laboratory analysis. Separate
aliquots were dried for carbohydrate fractionation. A 100 gram sample
of fresh green material from each treatment was frozen for nitrogen
fractionation. Yields of green and dry top growth produced from the
different treatments were recorded. The plants were again treated and
permitted to produce a second top growth which is to be harvested
when more mature. At that time all plant parts will be taken up and pre-
pared for laboratory analysis.
Bahia grass thus far appears to utilize ammonia nitrogen quite effi-
ciently. No retardation in growth was noted with plants receiving nitro-
gen in the form of ammonia.
Plants receiving nitrogen in the form of nitrates showed a lighter
green color than those using ammonia nitrogen. This was found to be
due to iron deficiency. The nitrate treated plants were given twice as
much iron in their nutrient solution as the ammonia treated plants. This
still failed to produce as green a color on the nitrate treated plants.
The nutrient solutions using ammonia and those using nitrate nitro-
gen as a source of nitrogen were almost neutral in their reaction with the
exception of the solution with high phosphorus, which showed a lower pH.
Leachings from plants receiving nitrate nitrogen were higher in pH
than were the nutrient solutions applied in each instance, while leach-
ings from plants using ammonia nitrogen were lower in pH than the
nutrient solutions applied.
Although the nitrate treated plants received twice as much iron as
the plants receiving ammonia, leachings from the latter contained far
more iron than those from the former.
Yields of green top growth from the nitrate and ammonia treated
plants show striking differences in favor of the latter. Ammonia nitro-
gen in a balanced solution produced twice the weight of green top growth
as that of nitrate nitrogen in the control solution. With low phosphorus a
50 percent increase in yield was shown for ammonia, 40 percent for high
potassium and 13 percent for low potassium. Where high phosphorus
was used in the nutrient solution the nitrate treated plants yielded
slightly higher in green top growth than the ammonia treated plants.
The various factors concerned in bringing about variations in yield and
composition of these differently treated plants will be brought out when
laboratory determinations and related procedures are completed.

State Project 265 W. A. Leukel
Fractionation of Napier grass samples for different forms of nitrogen
and carbohydrates for comparison with sugarcane is in progress.
Fifty samples of Napier grass consisting of the entire plant at different
heights and of the leaves stripped from the stalks were taken during
the growing season for analysis. Sample were taken from fertilized and
unfertilized areas.

Annual Report, 1940 47

One hundred sixty-four samples of grasses and clovers have been
preserved for mineral and nitrogen analysis. The majority of these
have been analyzed and the others are being. Results are reported in
other projects for which the laboratory determinations were made.
Bankhead-Jones Project 267 Harold Mowry
Further exploratory work, not specifically projected, and aid with the
maintenance of pasture projects under way, together with land clear-
ing, fencing and addition of physical equipment for pasture development,
have been the chief objectives. During the year two service buildings
were constructed, further lands cleared and clover experimental work
extended to the extreme southern part of the state.
Bankhead-Jones Project 295 R. E. Blaser and W. E. Stokes
A detailed report on some of the 36 fertilizer treatments which were
laid out on established grass sods on five soil types in March of 1937
was given in the Annual Report for 1939. Results continue to be similar
to those reported. Data obtained thus far indicate that carpet grass re-
sponds primarily to nitrogenous fertilizers. Lime, superphosphate and
potash when supplied in conjunction with nitrogen increase growth over
nitrogen alone; but light rates have been as effective as heavy rates.
Carpet grass plants receiving lime, potash and nitrogen or nitrogen
alone developed a dull green color with purple leaves and leaf tips on
a Bladen soil type. This was identified as phosphorus deficiency.
On this same soil the carpet grass on plots that received lime, super-
phosphate and nitrogen developed yellowish leaf tips which died sub-
sequently and turned brown. This is caused by insufficient potassium.
Soil and grass samples have been taken to correlate these deficiency
symptoms with soil and plant analysis. Other grass samples are also be-
ing analyzed to determine the effects of several nutritive elements on
chemical composition.
Two years' results show that all four sources of nitrogen (nitrate of
soda, sulfate of ammonia, uramon, and calcium cyanamide) in this ex-
periment increased the early season and total yields of carpet grass. The
nitrogen composition also was augmented by all nitrogen sources. Yields
of different nitrogen sources varied greatly with different combinations
of lime, superphosphate and potash. However, the highest yields were
generally obtained in combination with lime, superphosphate and potash,
or with superphosphate and potash for all nitrogen sources.
A 5.6 acre field of a well established carpet grass sod was divided into
eight lots in the spring of 1939. Four fields were fertilized with 200
pounds of superphosphate (18% P205), 50 pounds of muriate of potash
and 40 pounds (N) nitrogen per acre. The nitrogen was supplied in two
applications. The four remaining lots were not fertilized. The fertilized
and unfertilized lots were grazed rotationally with two groups of heifers

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

so that one group of animals remained on the fertilized and the other
on the unfertilized carpet grass.
Dry Yield Protein
Treatment per Acre Protein per Acre
(Lbs.) (%) (Lbs.)
No fertilizer ------- 1 377 9.8 36.9
Ca P K 461 10.1 46.6
Nitrate of soda (16% N) 1,298 11.7 151.9
Nitrate of soda and Ca P K .--- 1,172 11.1 130.1
Sulfate of ammonia (20% N)__ 859 12.1 103.9
Sulfate of ammonia and Ca P K 1,382 11.5 158.9
Calcium cyanamide (22% N)-.-- 734 11.3 82.9
Calcium cyanamide and Ca P K 816 10.7 87.3
Uramon (42% N) 1,005 12.5 125.6
Uramon and Ca P K ----- 1,172 10.8 126.6
Yields taken April 13, May 24, and June 12, 1939.
Protein analysis from composite of three yields.
Ca-Ground limestone applied 500 lbs. per acre, March 1938.
P-Superphosphate (18% P,0,) applied 125 lbs. per acre, March 1938.
K-Muriate of Potash (50% KO0) applied 30 lbs. per acre, March 1938.
N-48 lbs. N applied in 1938 and 24 lbs. N applied March 1939.
Bankhead-Jones Project 296 Frederick Boyd and R. E. Blaser
Erect weeds such as dog fennel (Anthemus cotula) and field thistles
can be exterminated in pastures by close mowing in the full bloom
stage, or by preventing seeding. Rotary cutters are helpful for weed
control, but many weeds escape close cutting and reseed.
Bankhead-Jones Project 297 Geo. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
More than 100 of the 160 original introductions of Trifoliums
cloverss) were planted in the nursery and were under observation du-
ring the winter and spring months. Sixty-eight were planted on pasture
plots to determine their ability to withstand pasture conditions and to
produce seed in the spring. Three strains show indications of persisting
under sandy soil conditions.
Several species of Lupines were grown in the nursery. The most
promising are Lupinus angustifolius, alba and luteus. The three species will
be planted under field conditions for comparative trials.
During the winter of 1939-1940 more than 150 separate plantings
representing about 75 species of forage plants were grown in the nursery
for observational studies. More than 300 individual plantings were made
in the spring. Thus during the winter and summer of 1940 more than
450 different species are under study in the nursery.
Digitaria marginata, one of the African woolly-finger grasses, is still
showing considerable promise as a grazing grass. Several other strains
under test also may be of value. A new strain of Paspalunm notatum (Bahia
grass) from Paraguay has shown superiority over the common strains
which have been grown heretofore. The new strain shows higher pala-
tability, more rapid growth and good seed habits.
Several of the more promising species and strains are now being
grown under pasture conditions.

* In cooperation with U.S.D.A.

Annual Report, 1940

Bankhead-Jones Project 298 Geo. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
This season has, with the exception of some minor studies, closed
the work with the Napier grass improvement. Two years' tests were
made of the nine outstanding strains and are recorded in Table 9.


Yields When Cut Twice per Yields When cut at Height % of Leaf
Season of 4' to 5' to Plant
% In- % In-
crease crease One De-
Plot 1938 1939 Avg. 1939- 1938 1939 Avg. 1939- termination
No. 1938 1938
4 40,315 70,267 55,291 74.3 23,685 48,262 35,974 103.8 65.1
6 44,509 71,068 57,789 59.7 37,972 50,257 44,114 32.4 63.9
7 42,875 62,576 52,726 45.9 44.225 53.384 48,804 20.7 54.6
15 25,183 45,479 35,331 80.6 27,433 58,145 42,789 112.0 47.3
113 58,852 68,387 63,620 16.2 46,786 53,286 50,032 13.9 59.6
140 59,455 75,867 67,661 27.6 46,863 54,068 50,466 15.4 59.0
150 58,005 67,019 62,512 15.5 53,746 56,288 55,019 4.7 56.8
160 68,882 70,470 69,676 2.3 57,288 60,665 58,976 5.9 53.6
162 61,548 69,696 65,622 13.2 1 44,596 48,490 46,543 8.7 60.1
167 62,392 73,508 67,950 17.8 50.919 50,764 50,841 .03 60.5
178 51,103 59,755 55,429 16.9 46,486 46,486 46.486 0 57.9
*Four cuttings in 1938, five cuttings in 1939.

Strain No. 160 has yielded highest in each test, although the per-
centage of leaf to plant is comparatively low. No. 4 E.S. yields low, but
produces an extremely high percent of leaf. Inasmuch as the leaf is the
valuable portion of the plant for feed, this strain has been selected as
one superior for grazing. Palatability tests with cattle show that No. 4 is
preferred to the other strains. For this reason, No. 160 and No. 4 have
been selected for increase and distribution. No. 140 is another fine-
stemmed, leafy strain which produces good yields and is also included in
the increase plots.
Digitaria marginata continues to show promise as a pasture grass al-
though it has the disadvantage of not producing an abundance of viable
seed. Efforts are being made to obtain a strain which can readily be
propagated by seed.
Three strains of pigeon peas have been isolated which produce good
yields of mature seed. In a strain yield test in 1939, four strains yielded
over 1,200 pounds per acre. Three of these are planted in increase plots.
In the spring of 1940 over 300 strains of sorghum were planted for the
purpose of selecting disease-resistant material.

* In cooperation U.S.D.A.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Bankhead-Jones Project 299 W. A. Leukel and W. E. Stokes
The burning of native range grasses at monthly intervals is being
continued on the Austin Cary Memorial Forest with interesting and
worthwhile results. Areas burned over during 1939 after three years of
rest (no burning) showed very little aftergrowth during the remainder
of the season. After some rain later, limited new growth appeared. All
areas were seeded to carpet grass shortly after burning and produced a
good stand whenever soil moisture was favorable for growth and ger-
mination. Under ungrazed conditions the carpet grass appears to persist
even after the native grass again forms a cover over the burned-over
area. When these areas were again burned over the following season,
the carpet grass again produced good growth. Areas seeded in the fall
during dry weather produced good growth later in the season when
moisture conditions were more favorable. Some areas seeded in Oc-
tober 1939 showed a good cover of carpet grass the following June.
Areas of native grass burned over and seeded at monthly intervals
after four years of rest (no burning) have failed thus far to produce any
aftergrowth. Carpet grass is beginning to produce growth on these areas
since soil moisture conditions became more favorable.

Fig. 2.-Good stand and spread of carpet grass on open range area
seeded to carpet grass shortly after the wiregrass was burned in June
1939. Photograph taken July 5, 1940.

Annual Report, 1940

Areas of native grass burned over on the range pasture at the
Florida Farm Colony near Gainesville produced more marked results
in the establishment of carpet grass. These areas were burned over after
a rest period of one growing season, and were available for grazing by
cattle. Different areas burned over and seeded at monthly intervals from
January to April produced sparse growth of carpet grass and very little
aftergrowth of native wiregrass. Similar areas burned over from May
to July, inclusive, produced good stands of carpet grass and practically
no aftergrowth of native wiregrass. Different areas similarly treated
from August to December, inclusive, produced very little carpet grass and
no aftergrowth of native wiregrass thus far. Rains during the present
season may cause some carpet grass to become established on these areas
near the close of the growing season.
Burning these native grasses during May and each month of the year
thereafter thus far appears to retard the aftergrowth of native range
grasses during the remainder of the year, and often over most of the
next growing season. The best stands of carpet grass have been obtained
on areas seeded during the rainy season, from May to July, inclusive.
Areas seeded later produce stands of carpet the early part of the suc-
ceding growing season in many instances.
Where these treated areas were available to grazing cattle, carpet
stands were produced more readily and spread more rapidly. The native
wiregrass in this instance was more readily eradicated through grazing
and through the rapid spread of the carpet grass.
These grasses follow a similar trend each season in regard to relative
composition. New growth appearing after burning off the old growth
of the previous season is vegetative and succulent. At this growth stage
the grass is higher in phosphorus and potassium. As the herbage be-
comes more mature these elements gradually decrease in percentage
to a low level. Calcium and magnesium follow a more uniform trend
in percentage, but do decrease to some extent. Total nitrogen in these
grasses is likewise higher in early spring and gradually decreases as the
plants approach maturity. The higher nitrogen in these plants in spring
creates a low ratio with carbohydrates and crude residue which are low-
er at this early growth period. Since the percentage of nitrogen decreases
and carbohydrates and crude residue increase as the plants approach
maturity, a wide relation occurs between nitrogen and the latter two
compounds in the more mature growth period.
The composition of the roots and crowns of these range grasses shows
interesting correlations with that of the top growth throughout the grow-
ing season. Grasses from the unburned areas decrease very little in per-
centages of nitrogen or carbohydrates in these plant parts throughout
the growing season. Similar parts of plants from areas burned the pre-
vious season significantly decrease in percentage of nitrogen during the
middle of the growing season. This percentage again increases to its
higher level in the fall.
The inorganic elements phosphorus, calcium and magnesium marked-
ly decrease in percentage in the roots and crowns of the plants from the
burned areas during mid-summer. A similar trend in percentage of
these elements is shown for these parts of plants from the unburned
areas. The trend of potassium on a percentage basis in the lower organs
of these plants in both instances is variable.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Bankhead-Jones Project 301, W. E. Stokes, G. E. Ritchey and R. E. Blaser
The 1937-38 clover results with 21 fertilizer and inoculation experi-
ments on several soil types were given in Bulletin 325. The following
recommendations were made: (1) fertilize with one ton of lime, 600
pounds of superphosphate (18% P205), and 100 pounds muriate of potash
per acre; (2) apply commercial legume seed inoculants at three to five
times the recommended rate; (3) plant in October; (4) plant on moist
to wet soils; (5) cover seed lightly or plant before a rain. On the basis
of these recommendations, several thousand acres of successful clover
plantings were made in 1938 and 1939.
The original experimental plots have been maintained for perpetua-
tion studies, particularly fertilizer requirements. Good clover growth
has been obtained for three successive seasons without refertilizing on
Bayboro, Portsmouth and Alachua soil types. The latter two were not
virgin soils and were probably fertilized when previously farmed. The
Bayboro is a lake bottom soil and possesses more natural fertility than
average soils. Data from the virgin Leon soil may be taken as typical
of a large portion of flatwood soils. Clovers on plots fertilized with one
ton of lime, 600 pounds of superphosphate and 100 pounds of muriate
of potash in 1937 gave low yield returns in the spring of 1940. Refer-
tilization with one-fourth of the original fertilizer in the fall of 1939
greatly increased the yield of clover for 1940, and a refertilization of
one-half the original rate gave an additional growth response.
The nutritive value of phosphates and lime from different sources for
pasture purposes is being tested. Four sources of phosphate including
superphosphate, basic slag, colloidal and rock phosphate and two kinds
of lime, namely dolomitic and calcic limestone, have been chosen for
these experiments. Details on the combinations of fertilizer materials
used and yield data of experiments located on three soil types were
given in the previous annual report. Two additional experiments with
several rates of colloidal and rock phosphate and several rates of lime
and superphosphate were started in the fall of 1939.
These experiments indicate that rock and colloidal phosphates may
supply the calcium and phosphorus entirely, or in part, for clover. Their
value is dependent on soil reaction, phosphorus and calcium level of the
soil, and on the variety of clover to be grown. Three thousand to 4,500
pounds of colloidal or rock phosphate and 100 ponuds of muriate of
potash per acre produced satisfactory White Dutch clover growth on
several flatwood soil types. To grow Black Medic, Sweet or California
Bur clover, 500 to 2,000 pounds of lime per acre should be added to 3,000
pounds of colloidal or rock phosphate, dependent on calcium level of the
soil and soil reaction. A combination of 200 pounds superphosphate,
3,000 pounds rock or colloidal phosphate, 500 pounds of lime and 100
pounds of muriate of potash per acre has given excellent results for one
year on a Portsmouth soil.
Basic slag at the rate of 750 pounds per acre with one ton lime and
100 pounds muriate of potash has generally been a good clover fertilizer
for two years. Basic slag at a rate of 1,500 pounds per acre with potash
also gave good growth, but higher rates of basic slag should be used in
the absence of lime.

Annual Report, 1940

In tests of sources of lime, calcic limetone has given results as good
as or better than dolomite for two years. On soils very acid and low in
calcium, superior results may be anticipated from calcium limestone. The
value of these two sources of lime must also be interpreted in terms of
the clover variety to be grown. California Bur, Black Medic and Sweet
clover make best growth with a high calcium ground limestone; White
Dutch responds similarly to the two sources of lime.
Experiments show that variations in fertilizer combinations and rates
will retard some clover varieties and stimulate others. The Medicago-
Melilotus clovers are stimulated by a high calcium to phosphorus fer-
tilizer balance, while the Trifolium clovers are stimulated by a high
phosphate balance. It therefore appears necessary to study the fertilizer
requirements of individual varieties of clovers to evaluate properly the
clover-fertilizer interaction.
A detailed report of clover variety tests established in 1937 was given
in the 1939 annual report. On the Johnson fine sand experiment (a low
wet soil), White Dutch (Louisiana variety), Little Hop and Persian were
the highest yielding varieties. California Bur yields were low because
the wet soil inhibited its growth. The Dinsmore experiment located on a
drained Leon fine sandy soil showed that Black Medic, California Bur,
and Sweet clovers were best adapted to this soil type; White Dutch clover
produced good growth but yields were low.
California Bur is ready for grazing three weeks to a month earlier
than White Dutch. This clover also has given good results in southern
Florida. Sweet Clover also appears to have promise because of its drought
Two additional clover strain tests, one at Gainesville and the other
at Brooksville, to test adaptability of varieties to drier soil conditions
were started in October. In these tests California Bur, Black Medic,
Sweet clover, Manganese, and Giant Southern Bur appear promising.
Four strains of Lespedeza-Common, Korean, Kobe, and Tenn. 76-
are included with 18 fertilizer treatments on Bayboro fine sand and Leon
fine sand. The fertilizer treatments consist of combinations and levels
of lime, superphosphate, and potash; and four sources of phosphates.
Preliminary results indicate that lespedezas should be inoculated and
fertilized similarly to clovers, but at lighter rates. Very good growth
has been obtained for the first year from the following per acre fertilizer
treatments: (1) one-half to a ton of lime, 450 pounds superphosphate
(18% PO,) and 50 pounds muriate of potash; (2) basic slag substituted
for the superphosphate in the previous treatment; (3) 3,000 pounds rock
or colloidal phosphate and 50 pounds muriate of potash. Common, Tenn.
76 and Kobe varieties of lespedeza grew well, but the Korean variety
Bankhead-Jones Project 302, R. E. Blaser, W. E. Stokes and W. A. Leukel
Fifteen acres of Napier grass planted in 1937 has been grazed two
complete seasons and part of the 1937 season. The planting was divided
into five fields of three acres each and grazed rotationally. The lots were
stocked so that the leafage was consumed in five to eight days in a field.
All lots were fertilized with 400 pounds per acre of a 5-7-5 fertilizer in
the spring, and four or five applications of nitrate of soda at the rate of
75 pounds per acre.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

To study a more economical fertilizer practice, the five lots have been
divided into two each so that 10 lots are now available to study two or
more fertilizer practices. (Refer to this project under Animal Industry
Seven and one-half acres of Napier grass were planted in 1938 for
beef production studies for animals supplemented with cottonseed cake.
It seemed impractical to supplement cake, so studies on this planting
with lighter fertilizer applications were inaugurated.
An eight-acre planting of Napier grass was made in March 1938 to
determine its value for milk production. The grass was managed and
fertilized as the 15-acre planting for beef cattle. (Milk production is re-
ported under Project 302 of Animal Industry Department.)
An experiment to determine how Napier grass might be managed for
grazing, silage and hay production, and what fertilizer practices should
be pursued was started in the spring of 1939. Methods of harvesting in-
fluenced the grass yields and quality greatly. Harvesting twice annually
as is commonly pursued for silage produced a total yield of 60,052 pounds,
of which 15,192 pounds were leaves. Cutting the grass back to five inches
from the ground after a height of 5 feet was reached gave a total yield
of 33,189 pounds, of which 13,208 pounds were leaves. Grass that was
stripped to resemble grazing by cattle, after a height of 5 feet was reach-
ed, produced 21,772 pounds of leaves which was the highest of seven
management factors studied. All yields given are green weights per
Data presented in the 1938 annual report showed that the protein an-
alyses of leaves and stems when hand separated are 1.46% and 4.98%
respectively. Because frequent cutting of Napier grass would increase
the percentage of leaves in vegetation, it would appear desirable to cut
frequently to improve the feeding quality of silage or hay.
Bankhead-Jones Project 303 Geo. E. Ritchey and R. E. Blaser
Studies reported in 1939 have been continued. Portions of pastures
located on low, wet land and on borders of Bivan's Arm of Payne's
Prairie have been planted to grasses adapted to growing in water or on
marshy lands. Grasses which have been planted in the advanced plots
are Fort Thompson (Paspalum distichum), Panicum paludivagum and Oryta
barthii. Oryza barthii partially winter-killed in 1939-40.
Bankhead-Jones Project 304 R. E. Blaser
Nutritional experiments show that flatwoods soils generally should
be fertilized before planting Dallis grass. Calcium, phosphorus, potas-
sium and nitrogen should be supplied. Dallis grass seedlings on a Ports-
mouth soil near Samsula grew to a two-inch height with two leaves per
plant during a six months period without soil amendment. On plots re-
ceiving lime, phosphate, potash and nitrogen, the seedlings were four
to six inches high and plants spread 5-10 inches.
Other experiments indicate that high rates of nitrogen in conjunction
with other elements are essential for getting good stands of Dallis grass.
Because of the high nitrogen costs, it is more practical to plant this grass
with clover and let the clover furnish the nitrogen.

Annual Report, 1940

Three commercial lots of Bahia grass seed were treated for varying
intervals with sulfuric acid. Germination results of acid scarified and
non-scarified seed gave a maximum of 3 to 6 percent germination. The
seedlings were weak. Bahia grass seed from the Coastal Plain Station,
Tifton, Georgia, germinated 40 to 60%. These results indicate that poor
stands often obtained are caused by seed of low viability and possibly
seed-borne diseases.
In an experiment to determine what rate and depth Bahia grass should
be planted, two lots of seed were used, each with scarified and unscarified
seed. Results indicate that planting technique influences the stands
The establishing of clovers as related to soil treatments is reported
on in project 301. To get clovers to subsist in carpet or other grass pas-
tures, it is necessary to graze grasses closely before clover seeds germi-
nate in the fall.
Experiments indicate that good stands of clover can be obtained with-
out working fertilizer into the soil. On wet soils seedings may be sur-
face broadcast, but on most soils the seeds should be covered lightly and
packed into the soil.
State Project 312 J. P. Camp
Spacing of peanuts and tobacco are being studied under other projects.
Work under this specific project has been temporarily suspended, but
will be resumed when time and facilities permit.
W. E. Stokes and J. P. Camp, Assisted by Fred Clark
Flue-cured or bright tobacco experiments initiated in 1939 as a result
of a grant from the Florida Agricultural Research Institute available for
the year 1939 only were continued in 1940 under a special Bright To-
bacco appropriation.
One 18'x20'x20' frame construction curing barn equipped with six 5-
burner oil-heating units and one 25'x25' two-story pack-house with dou-
ble floor, walls and roof for maintaining proper humidity and tempera-
ture for effective storage of cured tobacco have been fully completed. In
addition, 17 acres of land has been cleared for tobacco and one deep
well drilled for supplying water for use in connection with all phases of
the tobacco work.
The experimental work this year involved: (1) trials of 12 varieties,
one of which is supposed to be root-knot resistant, (2) rates of fertilizer,
(3) source and combination of sources of nitrogen, (4) 36 different for-
mulas or analyses of fertilizer, (5), comparison of acid, basic and neutral
fertilizer of the same analysis, (6) trace element trials involving zinc,
iron, copper, manganese, boron, and cobalt, (7) and the use of paradi-
chlorobenzene (PDB) for blue mold control in plant beds.
The 1939 crop of tobacco resulting from the several foregoing treat-
ments averaged slightly over 1,100 pounds per acre over all treatments.
A complete fertilizer proved best with 1,000 pounds per acre of a 3-8-6
being generally quite good, but there was some indication that a 3-8-11
and a 3-8-16 might be needed.
The 1,000 pound per acre rate of a 3-8-6 was generally good, but when
this fertilizer was increased to 1,200 to 1,400 and even to 1,600 pounds
per acre, increases in gross returns were secured. A basic 3-8-6 was
.superior to a neutral 3-8-6 at 1,000 pounds per acre under the seasonal

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

conditions that existed during the year. The gross returns from the
varieties ranked as follows: Gold Dollar, Mammoth Gold, Cash,
Virginia Bright Leaf, Yellow Pryor, Hester, Yellow Mammoth, Bonanza,
Gold Leaf, Adcock, and Warne in the order named. In the forms of nit-
rogen test, the greatest gross return was from 1,000 pounds per acre of
a 3-8-6 fertilizer deriving its nitrogen % from nitrate of soda /3 from
sulfate of ammonia and /3 from urea. There appeared to be no out-
standing response to trace elements except noticeable toxicity from 3
pounds per acre of boron.
J. P. Camp and W. E. Stokes
The structure of field experiments is undergoing revolutionary
changes as one of the many results of the studies of the R. A. Fisher
School of English Mathematical Statisticians. These changes, initiated
about 15 years ago, are still increasing in acceleration. This department
has attempted to keep abreast of this movement by becoming familiar,
by actual application, with the new methods being proposed. Two sets
of unreplicated multi-factorial experiments, one set with Sea Island Cot-
ton and one with peanuts, are parts of this program. Properly handled,
such methods show great promise of facilitating the solution of many
practical fertilizer problems for which the usual methods have long
been inadequate.
During the 1939 season, 14 fertilizer tests with Sea Island cotton were
conducted on private farms within a radius of 80 miles of Gainesville
and at the main station and Leesburg laboratories.
The soils and the skill of the growers ranged nearly from the best to
the poorest. Damage by weevils and other insects and by diseases varied
from field to field, and very little attempt was made to influence in any
unusual degree the steps taken by the growers to combat those forces,
and the data on the injury suffered by the crops in these fields are in-
complete. Obviously, all these factors will affect the measured results
of fertilizer or other practices. The data of practical interest are con-
densed in the following statements:
1. With the fertilizer corresponding approximately to 300 pounds per
acre of 4-4-8 analysis the yields ranged from 695 pounds seed cotton
per acre to 30 pounds, and averaged 214.6 pounds over the 14 fields.
2. Without fertilizer the average yield of all fields was 123.1 pounds.
3. With 20% kainit alone, at 200 pounds per acre in the drill, the
yields averaged 148.5 pounds.
4. A fertilizer containing chiefly high grade organic nitrogen sources,
raw and steamed bone, kainit and sulfate of potash (a rather expensive
mixture) analyzing 4-8-6 produced an average of 232.0 pounds seed-cot-
5. A mixture made from some of the cheapest materials (sulfate of
ammonia, 18% superphosphate, muriate of potash, and dolomite) but
analyzing also 4-8-6 produced an average of 236.9 pounds seed cotton.
6. When mixtures of various analyses (made from sulfate of am-
monia, superphosphate, muriate of potash and dolomite) were applied
at the rate of 300 pounds per acre:
(a) 4% nitrogen in the drill yielded 16.8 pounds more seed cotton
than 2% over an average of all tests.
(b) An equivalent increase in nitrogen when applied as a side-dress-
ing produced 8.0 pounds more seed-cotton.

Annual Report, 1940 57

(c) Mixtures containing 8% PO, yielded 23.7 pounds more than
those without phosphoric acid.
(d) 8% potash in the drill mixture yielded 4.5 pounds more seed cot-
ton than 4% potash.
(e) An equivalent increase in potash when applied as a side-dressing
produced 10.9 pounds more cotton.
(f) The use of dolomite at the rate of 87.8 pounds per acre (to neu-
tralize the acidity developed by the sulfate of ammonia, and to supply
magnesium) produced 7.5 pounds more cotton.
M. N. Gist, M. N. Walker and W. E. Stokes
The Sea Island cotton experimental work, Florida Experiment Station
and U. S. Department of Agriculture cooperating, consists of the fol-
lowing: A Sea Island cotton strain or variety and place effect test to
study yield and quality of Sea Island cottons and the effect of place of
growth of the seed on yield and quality of the cotton. Seed of Seabrook
Sea Island cotton produced in Florida year after year, and South Caro-
lina produced seed of this variety, have been planted in comparative
tests now for several years. The yield and quality of the resultant cotton
have been studied and, thus far, seed produced in Florida has given as
good yield and quality of cotton as seed of the same variety produced
in South Carolina. In other words, when the seed of Sea Island cotton
produced in Florida is kept pure, the cotton produced from such seed
is as good as cotton from South Carolina grown pure seed of the same
The second phase of the Sea Island cotton experimental work is that
of producing each year a small supply of pure seed of Seabrook Sea Is-
land cotton to furnish to a group of selected growers who grow this cot-
ton the following year under supervision in order to make available to
other growers a large quantity of pure seed for general planting. The
Experiment Station and U. S. D. A. each year gin the cooperating grow-
ers' cotton and retain all seed and supervise its sale.
The third phase of the Sea Island cotton experimental work (under
direction of C. S. Rude of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quar-
antine) is that of determining the most satisfactory methods for control
of boll weevils on Sea Island cotton. Thus far, dusting with calcium
arsenate has given the most satisfactory weevil control. Spraying with
calcium arsenate and water, or mopping with a calcium arsenate, water
and syrup mixture, likewise give fairly good control.
The work with Sea Island cotton during the 1940 crop year is virtually
the same as that of 1939.
W. E. Stokes and J. P. Camp
Of eight peanut fertilizer tests conducted on private farms, two were
not harvested because of unprofitable yields. The following five treat-
ments were used singly and in all combinations of 2, 3, 4 and all 5: (1)
Dolomite at 300 pounds per acre; (2) calcic limestone at 300 pounds; (3)
18% superphosphate at 150 pounds; (4) 50% muriate of potash at 30
pounds, and (5) landplaster at 200 pounds. The results of practical in-
terest follow:
The six fields gave average yields varying from 50.9 to 4.4 bushels
per acre and averaged 22.9.
The two limestones, dolomitic and calcic, were ineffective.

58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Superphosphate gave very good yield increases in two fields, one of
virgin soil and one uncropped for about 30 years, although it was without
effect in one of these unless combined with potash.
The potash gave excellent results in the above-mentioned field when
accompanied by superphosphate, but not otherwise. All fields gave at
least slight apparent responses to potash.
Landplaster gave moderate but fairly consistent yield increases, which
were highly significant statistically in the average of all fields but only
in the absence of superphosphate.
Wastepond (or colloidal) phosphate used alone was ineffective in all
fields except the one where superphosphate was effective in the absence
of potash.
At least three of the harvested fields, and one of the unharvested
ones, suffered severely from weed competition. This seems to have been
due largely to unusually frequent rains during the first half of the grow-
ing period which made clean cultivation more difficult than usual.

Annual Report, 1940

The research work of the Animal Industry Department is conducted
in six main divisions: (1) dairy husbandry, (2) animal nutrition, (3) beef
cattle, sheep and swine, (4) veterinary science, (5) poultry husbandry,
and (6) dairy manufactures.
The herd of registered Jerseys provided animals for completion of
the second and the beginning of the third grazing trial with Napier grass,
also for grazing clover pasture during the spring and early summer
months. Four cows were assigned to the study of relation of conforma-
tion to production, cooperative with the Bureau of Dairy Industry,
United States Department of Agriculture. Certain cows have been used
in a project on infectious bovine mastitis. Jersey calves were provided for
experimental studies of mineral nutrition, and for pathological investi-
gations. The cows are included in a project to determine the relation of
levels of shark liver oil supplementation to vitamin A content of milk.
African squashes were fed to two cows, and the milk examined carefully
to detect any off-flavor.
One well bred registered Jersey heifer was given to the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station by the Milam Farm Dairy and Mr. V.
T. Oxer of Miami, and one by Mr. Walter Welkener of Jacksonville. One
heifer was obtained from Wheeler Brothers of Saluda, South Carolina.
Seven cows qualified for the Register of Merit, on two milkings daily,
in the study of measurement of transmitting ability of sires, as follows:
Age Milk Test Butterfat
Yrs. Mos. Pounds Percent Pounds
Florida Victor Fancy 1021792 -..-.. 5 4 11,602 5.34 619.12
Florida Countess Agnes 1107882 -. 2 11 5,618 5,83 327.62
Florida Victor U. Belle 1124775 -- 2 0 6,059 4.98 301.46
Florida Victor Jean 1124779 -...-- 2 0 6,634 4.82 319.87
Florida Victor Play Girl 1138675-_ 2 3 6,809 4.89 333.08
Florida Victor Creole Sue 1137612 2 0 5,970 5.27 314.44
Florida Countess Heiress 1137618-- 2 1 6,289 5.26 330.52
Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and carbon dioxide were determined
on 108 bone samples from swine maintained on peanut rations. Napier
grass was analyzed for proximate and mineral composition in con-
junction with grazing studies and feed samples from beef cattle winter-
ing experiments were analyzed similarly.
Digestion trials with fresh and shocked sugarcane were completed.
Controlled feeding experiments with mineral deficient rations for cat-
tle are in their ninth year. Analytical results from the spectrographic
laboratory are being used in their interpretation. The rat colony has
been used for the assay of milk samples from the study of shark liver
oil supplementation of dairy rations, and the study of deficiencies of
the peanut.
Purebred Devons, Aberdeen-Angus and Herefords, and grade and
native cattle, are maintained for experimental, instructional and demon-
strational purposes.
Twelve Devon cattle, owned by the Bureau of Animal Industry,
United States Department of Agriculture, were loaned to the Station in

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The herds of purebred Duroc-Jersey and Poland China swine are
used for classwork and demonstration purposes and to furnish animals
for various experimental tests. The surplus pigs are sold to farmers
throughout the state.
Twenty-two purebred Columbia sheep, including four rams and
18 ewes, were transferred from the North Florida Experiment Station
to the Main Station in October 1939. The Columbia, grade Hampshire
and native sheep are maintained for experimental purposes and to
furnish various types of animals for the classes in judging, grading and
meat products.
A small slaughter house has been constructed and will be used in
slaughtering animals included in various projects of the Station and in
the instructional work of the College of Agriculture.
Numerous specimens of diseased animal tissues were sent to the
veterinary laboratory by farmers, poultrymen, cattlemen, county agents
and veterinarians for diagnosis.
During the past year a condition to which the poultrymen refer as
"wet wings" has been encountered. The disease has not been studied
sufficiently to warrant statements as to its significance.
The following breeds of chickens are kept at the poultry farm:
Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, Single Comb White Leghorns, and
Light Sussex.
During the fall of 1939 the Light Sussex breed was added. Sixteen
pedigreed Sussex hens and two males were secured from the West
Central Florida Experiment Station. The record of these females during
the pullet year ranged from 181 to 243 eggs, with egg size ranging from
51.1 grams to 64 grams.
The University flock is included in the National Poultry Improve-
ment Plan which is sponsored by the United States Department of Ag-
riculture and administered in Florida by the State Live Stock Sanitary
In the fall of 1939, 850 pullets and hens were placed in the laying
houses. These birds were used for experimental feeding trials, breed-
ing experiments and student laboratory assignments.
During the spring of 1940 eggs were set each week for 12 consecu-
tive weeks to supply chicks for experimental feeding trials and to pro-
duce pullets for the 1940 feeding trials with layers.
All breeding birds are trapnested. Records are kept on production,
egg weight, fertility, hatchability and livability of the chicks. The breed-
ing program with Single Comb Rhode Island Reds continues with the
crossing of two distinct strains known as the "Sanborn" and "Brooks-
ville" strains.
Eight additional range shelters were constructed during the year
for experimental feeding trials.
The poultry plant at present consists of one main laboratory build-
ing, five 16'x25' laying houses, 13 21'x16' breeding houses, four brooder
houses, 17 summer shelters, and five small miscellaneous buildings.
Additional cooperative experimental work was continued at the
West Central Florida Experiment Station, studying the rate of growth,

Annual Report, 1940 1il

livability, rate of maturity and egg production using a Rhode Lsland
Red-Light Sussex cross, Rhode Island Reds, Light Sussex, and White
Leghorn F1 Red--Sussex cross. Fattening trials at that Station, and
grading of live and dressed birds at Gainesville, were conducted this
year from these matings.
At the Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley, feeding trials
were conducted with layers using different methods of feeding grain.
These trials were in addition to the regular Egg-Laying Test.
Preliminary studies of cream storing were begun. Cream from a
single source was divided into lots and each lot treated by different
methods. These samples are being examined for oxidation at regular in-
Milk samples from cows in the Station herd, fed African squash,
were obtained and checked for their carotene content.
Florida pecans and certain Florida fruits were tested in a prelim-
inary way for use in flavoring ice cream.
From cows in the Station herd, receiving levels of shark liver oil
in their rations, milk samples were homogenized and stored in refrig-
eration, pending use in biological assays. These samples were also
analyzed for vitamin C.
Purnell Project 133 W. M. Neal and L. L. Rusoff
Work under this phase has been concerned primarily with copper,
cobalt and iron.
Two additional normal newborn calves making a total of three
normal and one "salt sick" were secured, and certain tissues were pro-
pared and submitted to the Spectrographic Laboratory for the quan-
titative determination of copper. No significant differences could be
noted in the copper storage levels in the normal and "salt sick" calves.
Estimation of many of the other elements did not show any consistent
differences. The data were accepted by the Graduate School of the
University of Minnesota as the doctorate thesis of L. L. Rusoff.
Controlled feeding trials were continued with the original cobalt
deficient ration of Natal grass hay, shelled corn and skimmilk powder.
The use of ferrous sulfate supplement with four animals on this ration
did not retard growth in a manner comparable to that obtained with
a previous lot of this salt. However, the material used supplied ap-
proximately 0.2 mg. cobalt per head per day. The use of a heavy copper
supplement resulted in the death of one animal. The rate of feeding
was two-thirds of that which had no apparent harmful effects when
fed with a ration of alfalfa hay and shelled corn, rather than the co-
balt deficient ration.
A calf, from a five-year-old cow maintained on the cobalt-deficient
ration with 7.5 mg. cobalt per day without other mineral supplement
for the past four years, showed symptoms of copper deficiency while
nursing and before it was old enough to consume roughage. Symp-
toms were alleviated by the consumption of Alyce clover hay grown
on a cobalt-deficient soil type.
Results from the use of cobalt as a supplement for "salt sick" cattle
on the range indicate that this element is sufficient to correct the symp-
toms of the condition.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The anemia occurring in conjunction with the malnutrition found
on many of the mucklands may be either macrocytic or microcytic. The
use of 30 supplemental minerals has not resulted in the correction
of the condition, other than the correction of the anemia in most in-
stances by the use of copper.
R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold and D. A. Sanders
Observations of dairy cattle on "salt sick" areas were made in three
parts of the state. Cooperating with the Soils Department, soil and for-
age samples were collected simultaneously for studies of the soil-plant-
animal relationships.
The relation of mineral consumption to the breeding efficiency of
open and pregnant Jersey heifers is being studied further. Records were
obtained on strengths of heavy leg bones of two dairy cows as related
to character of the feed, cattle welfare, and milk production. Samples
of selected bones were obtained from certain cows taken from the Sta-
tion herd, for anaylsis in the Spectrographic Laboratory.
R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal, P. T. Dix
State Project 140 Arnold and L. L. Rusoff
Four dairy cows, past their period of usefulness in the dairy
herd, were measured and slaughtered during the year. These supplied
eight lactation, nine calving, and two foetus records in addition to
the ante- and post-mortem measurements of the cows. A slaughter house
was constructed in May 1940, which will facilitate the work of this
project in the future. Records of 45 cows have been contributed by
the Florida Station to this project.
Work on this project is in cooperation with the Bureau of Dairy
Industry, United States Department of Agriculture.
W. M. Neal, R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix
State Project 213 Arnold and L. L. Rusoff
Cowpeas were ensiled in the laboratory silos as follows: (1) alone,
(2) with citrus pulp, and (3) with three levels of molasses. The use of
molasses improved odor, increased acidity, and made the silage more
palatable for cattle. Silage from citrus pulp and cowpeas in combina-
tion was more palatable and only slightly more acid than the plain
cowpea silage. Soil contamination prevented the determination of the
losses of the constituents of this crop caused by the fermentations of
the ensiling process.
An additional record was obtained during the year of the density of
corn silage based on total amounts of corn ensiled, and silage removed
from an upright silo.
State Project 215 A. L. Shealy, W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown
An effort is being made to determine by means of weights and
grades the improvement in beef cattle production by use of purebred
sires on native and grade cows. Purebred sires of the Brahman, Devon,
Hereford, and Red Polled breeds were used in this project. All calves
were graded as vealers or slaughter calves. During the past year 46

Annual Report, 1940

calves were graded according to United States standard grades, and
the grades as slaughter calves were as follows: Good, 45 percent; me-
dium, 55 percent.
All females were graded as breeding animals at three years of
age. Data obtained during the past year show that the grade cows, on
an average, scored one full grade higher than the native cows which
comprised the original foundation breeding animals.
Work on this project is conducted at Penney Farms, in cooperation
with Foremost Properties, Incorporated, and the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture.
State Project 216 A. L. Shealy, R. M. Crown and W. G. Kirk
Work on this project was conducted with 14 cattlemen on ranges and
farms in widely separated sections of this state. The size and grade as
slaughter calves were noted for all calves within each herd. It has been
determined from this study that purebred bulls have increased the
quality of calves by more than one full market grade.
Work on this project is in cooperation with the U.S.D.A.
State Project 219 A. L. Shealy, W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown
Birth weight and growth rate were obtained on calves at the Main
Station, the Everglades Station, and the North Florida Station. All
calves were graded as vealers and slaughter calves. The average grades
of 68 calves for 1940 were as follows:
Purebred calves-Choice, 36 percent; good, 48 percent; medium, 12
percent; common, 4 percent
Grade calves-Choice, 8 percent; good 60 percent; medium, 26 per-
cent; common, 6 percent.
Weight records were kept for all animals within the herds. All grade
bull calves were castrated and will be used in grazing and feeding
trials in other projects.
This work is in cooperation with the U.S.D.A.
Purnell Project 239 W. M. Neal, P. T. Dix Arnold and R. B. Becker
Dried grapefruit pulp, or dried beet pulp, were fed in amounts to
supply 40 percent of the total digestible nutrients in experimental ra-
tions of 24 dairy cows during three 90-day standard double-reversal feed-
ing trials within a three-year period. Slightly more milk was produced
while the cows received dried grapefruit pulp, but more feed was con-
sumed and more weight gained while the dried beet pulp was fed. These
feeds are considered practically equal insofar as their value as sources
of total digestible nutrients is concerned.
A brief report of these feeding trials was given before the American
Dairy Science Association. Work on this project is completed with this
State Project 251 M. W. Emmel
Previous experimental investigations indicate that fowl leukemia can
be induced by a number of widely diversified agents, among which is

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

freshly emulsified, desiccated or autolyzed homologous (species) tissues.
During the past year work has been continued on the fractionation of tis-
sues and the subsequent injection of these fractions into animals to study
their effect on blood cells. The effect of the injection of certain organic
compounds associated with metabolism also have been studied. The
amino-acids can be grouped according to their ability to stimulate the
total blood cell count of chickens and rabbits. The injection of glycine,
1-histidine monohydrochloride and dl-threonine resulted in practically
no stimulation while 1-tyrosine, dl-phenylalanine and dl-lysine dihydro-
chloride often resulted in an increase in total blood cell count of from
200 to 300 percent. The remaining amino-acids injected gave an inter-
mediate stimulatory effect and could be classified into three rather dis-
tinct groups. Amino-acids appear to have a constant stimulatory effect
in normal metabolism and it is suggested that this action possibly is
associated with the specific dynamic action of proteins.

Purnell Project 258 D. A. Sanders and E. West
Feeding trials with water hemlock, Cicuta curtissii, have been carried
on through several seasons. Indications are that this plant is non-toxic
for cattle. Test calves receiving up to four pounds of fresh ground roots
and stems developed no symptoms of illness. This is in contrast with
results obtained with C. maculata, which occurs in other parts of the
country, where quantities as small as a walnut produce serious symp-
toms of illness or death. Feeding trials also have been carried out with
rosemary, Ceratiola ericoides. This plant does not appear to be toxic for
Some losses occurred during the winter in cattle and goats from yel-
low jessamine, Gelsemium sempervirens, poisoning. Poisoning from this
plant was not reported from farms where provisions were made for win-
ter grazing crops. Studies on the possible toxicity of chenapodium, Am-
bryna ambrysiodes, are still under way. One case, diagnosed as plant
poisoning, resulted in death of a cow that had eaten wild cherry leaves.

Bankhead-Jones Project 267 W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown
Cooperating with the Agronomy Department, grade yearling Here-
ford heifers were used to measure the carrying capacity and nutritive
value of fertilized and unfertilized carpet grass pasture. Eight 0.7-acre
pasture areas were used in this trial. Four of these areas were fertilized
while four were left unfertilized. Rotational grazing was practiced in
each instance. The cattle were placed on test June 20 and removed on
October 31, 1939.

State Project 274 C. H. Willoughby and A. L. Shealy
Purebred Columbia, grade Hampshire, and native sheep comprised
the foundation flock of sheep during the past year. These sheep were
bred to purebred Columbia rams.
Fleeces were scored as to length and fineness of fiber, character,
density, condition and color of fleece. All lambs were graded as slaugh-
ter lambs.
This project is in cooperation with the U. S. D. A.

Annual Report, 1940

Bankhead-Jones Project 302 W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown
Grade yearling Hereford steers were used to measure the carrying
capacity and nutritive qualities of two areas of Napier grass. Rotational
grazing was practiced in both of these trials.
Five three-acre areas were given a complete fertilizer treatment in
March and an application of sodium nitrate after each grazing period.
The steers were started on test April 29 and removed on October 11,
1939. The average daily gain per steer for all steers was 1.7 pounds.
Each acre of Napier grass provided feed for one steer on an average of
227 days and produced 386 pounds gain.
Five one and one-half acre areas were given a complete fertilizer
treatment in March, but no other treatment was given during the graz-
ing season. The steers were started on test April 20 and removed on
October 11, 1939. The average daily gain per steer for all steers was
1.56 pounds. Each acre of Napier grass provided feed for one steer on
an average of 170 days and produced 263 pounds of gain.
R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold
Napier grass was planted in 1938 on an eight-acre area, divided into
five lots for rotational grazing. The second grazing season began on
April 17, 1939, and ended on November 7, 1939, providing pasturage for
205 consecutive days. Jersey cows, in milk, grazed these five pastures
in rotation, for a total of 2062 cow-days. Total milk production by the
cows while grazing Napier grass was 57907 pounds of milk, or an average
of 28 pounds of milk per cow per day. It was calculated that the pasture
provided 54 percent of the nutrients needed for the requirements of the
cows for maintenance and milk production.
The third grazing season began April 29, 1940, with six cows. Other
cows are being added as the growth of forage increases. Detailed re-
cords are being kept as in previous years.
The project is cooperative with the Agronomy Department.
State Project 307 0. W. Anderson, Jr., and N .R. Mehrhof
This project was inactive during the year, since O. W. Anderson was
on a year's leave of absence.
State Project 308 N. R. Mehrhof and L. L. Rusoff
Additional feeding trials were conducted with citrus meal for poultry.
Straight citrus meal fed to birds five and six weeks of age resulted in
heavy mortality within three days. Citrus oil was fed but no mortality
The results of all feeding trials with citrus meal as reported at the
7th World's Poultry Congress, Cleveland, Ohio, are summarized as fol-
Feeding trials were made with growing chicks, fattening cockerels,
growing pullets, and laying birds, which were fed 0 to 20 percent of

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

citrus meal (ground dried cannery refuse) as a substitute for yellow
corn meal in the ration. These trials were conducted to study the effect
of the citrus meal on growth, feed consumption, mortality, quality of
eggs and meat, and egg production. All trials were conducted in batter-
ies, and a total of 625 Single Comb White Leghorns were fed all-mash
Chicks fed citrus meal showed decreased growth rate, compared with
the controls, during the first eight weeks, particularly during the first
four weeks, the decrease being greater at the higher levels than at lower
levels. Twenty percent of citrus meal in the chick ration resulted in the
death of almost all the birds. Pectin and naringin, at the levels found
in the citrus meal, gave decreased growth rates.
Two lots of cockerels six and eight weeks of age were fattened for
five and four weeks respectively. Growth curves of birds receiving 5
and 10 percent of citrus meal were comparable with those of the control
group, although more feed was required per unit of gain when citrus
meal was fed. No mortality resulted and no detectable difference was
noted in the quality of the meat.
Pullets from eight to 20 weeks of age appeared to be able to utilize
citrus meal, as the rate of gain compared favorably with that of the
control group. There was no relationship between percentages of citrus
meal and pullet mortality.
Laying birds fed as much as 15 percent of citrus meal showed no
significant difference in numbers of eggs produced, mortality, or quality
of eggs. However, production was unsatisfactory in all groups.
This project is closed with this report.
State Project 309 N. R. Mehrhof and 0. W. Anderson, Jr.
The poultry breeding program started in 1936 was continued, and
included the study of egg production, egg size, longevity, livability, hatch-
ability, broodiness, and disease resistance.
The Single Comb White Leghorns placed in the breeding pens this
.season were hens from one to seven years of age. Considerable paralysis
has occurred in the White Leghorns in the past, but indications point
toward the desirability of breeding from birds that have been able to
withstand this disease.
The "Sanborn" strain of Rhode Island Reds is bred by families in-
stead of individuals, taking into consideration the inherited characters
mentioned above. Both hens and pullets are in these breeding pens.
Approximately 3,500 chicks were hatched during the spring of 1940,
of which 85 percent were pedigreed. There were 1,539 pedigreed Single
Comb Rhode Island Reds, 1,162 pedigreed Single Comb White Leghorns,
and 259 pedigreed Light Sussex hatched.
Hatchability averaged for the season 57.9 percent of all eggs set. Fer-
tility and hatchability varied considerably from bird to bird, and pen to
pen. The hens with the highest infertility and lowest hatchability will
be eliminated from the breeding flock. Higher hatchability was secured
from the Single Comb Rhode Island Red pullets than from the hens of
the same breed.
State Project 310 W. G. Kirk
Ten purebred Duroc-Jersey feeder pigs, with which No. 1 Florida
runner shelled peanuts and common salt formed the basal ration, were
fed in dry lot. The pigs were divided into five lots of two pigs each.

Annual Report, 1940

Each pig, however, was kept in an individual pen and fed separately.
The trial was started on January 16, 1940, and lasted for 16 weeks. The
rations fed, average daily gains, and peanuts consumed per pound of
gain for each lot of two pigs are given below.
Av. Daily Peanuts Required
Gain per Pound Gain
Lot Rations Pounds Pounds
11 Peanuts and NaCP 0.69 2.26
2 Peanuts, NaC1 and 1 part CaCo3 1.21 1.69
3 Peanuts, NaC1, 1 part CaCo3, and
2 parts alfalfa-leaf meal 1.18 1.73
4 Peanuts and 2 parts mineral
supplement" 1.18 1.71
5 Peanuts, 2 parts mineral supplement
and 2 parts alfalfa-leaf meal 1.19 1.72
'Pigs in Lot 1 died 98 and 110 days after the start of the feeding trial.
'Common salt, NaC1, was fed to each pig in Lots 1, 2 and 3 at the follow-
ing levels: up to 100 pounds weight, 2 grams per day; from 100 to
150 pounds, 3 grams; above 150 pounds, 4 grams.
3Kalsite (CaCo3) 50 pounds; steamed bone meal, 50 pounds; NaC1, 25
pounds; ferric oxide, Fe203, 25 pounds; copper sulfate, CuSo4, 1
pound; cobalt chloride CoC12, 1 ounce.

State Project 311 R. M. Crown
The object of this experiment is to determine the practicability of
maintaining the breeding herd of swine on field crops, thereby using a
minimum amount of purchased feeds. Records are being taken to de-
termine the carrying capacity and the amount of pork produced on var-
ious grazing crops.
Data collected on growth rates of pigs from birth to three months
of age show that the rate of growth of spring farrowed pigs has exceeded
that of fall farrowed pigs by 25 to 100 percent. Work is being conducted
to determine the reason for this marked difference.
State Project 320 L. L. Rusoff
A bioassay of the vitamin A content of the liver oil of the Florida
lemon shark (Hypoprion brevirostris Poey) shows over 15,000 U. S. P. XI
units per gram.
N. R. Mehrhof and L. L. Rusoff
Tests with shark liver oil as a source of vitamin A for growing birds
showed that it was 2 to 3 times as potent in vitamin A as U. S. P. XI
Reference cod liver oil, which contained 3,000 units per gram. This
work was published in Poultry Science.
In another experiment 13 groups of 25 Single Comb White Leghorn
chicks each was fed a vitamin A-deficient ration supplemented with var-
ious levels of shark liver oil, cod liver oil, and a combination of both.
Growth rates, feed consumption and mortality records were kept through-
out the experiment. Twelve-weeks-old pullets from 6 groups were reared
to maturity and held on experiment till 52 weeks of age. Apparently
there was no significant difference in egg production between the cod

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

liver oil groups and the shark liver oil groups fed equal units of vitamin
A for approximately 24 weeks. A mixture of cod liver oil and shark
liver oil seemed to be more effective for egg production than either oil
when fed separately.
The assay of vitamin D in shark liver oil by the A. O. A. C.* method
was initiated. Preliminary results indicate that shark liver oil contained
approximately 20 to 30 units of vitamin D per gram.
P. T. Dix Arnold, R. B. Becker, L. M. Thurston and L. L. Rusoff
An experiment to determine the influence of the addition of varying
levels of shark liver oil to dairy rations on the vitamin A content of the
milk was initiated in February.
Howard Skipper, a graduate student in this department, is using these
data as a doctor's thesis. Shark liver oil was used as the source of
vitamin A. Four groups of dairy cows selected from the University herd
were included. One group was fed the basal ration and the other groups
were given varying levels of shark liver oil.
The experiment was carried out in three periods: (1) control, (2) dry
lot with supplementation; and (3) on pasture with supplementation.
Milk samples for each group were taken at the end of each period and
assayed for vitamin A by the U. S. P. XI technique.
Records of the butterfat content, milk production, vitamin C content
and susceptibility to development of oxidized flavor were kept.
State Project 331 W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown
Thirty native and grade Hereford cows were divided into three lots
and placed on test on November 17, 1939. During the 98-day test period
.several cows in each lot gave birth to calves. These calves are consid-
ered in the final weight for their respective lots. Table 10 gives the feed
consumed and gain or loss for each lot.
TABLE 10.-Feed Consumed and Gain or Loss per Lot on Wintering
Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3
Dry Lot Dry Lot On Pasture
9 Cows' 10 Cows 10 Cows'
Average daily feed consumption
per cow in pounds
Sugarcane silage 46.34 -...
Shocked cut sugarcane 37.92
Improved pasture --Ad lib.
Cottonseed meal 2.0 2.0 2.11
Initial weight 7248 7810 7917
Final weight Cows 7083 8200 6817
Calves' 517 262 713
Total 7600 8462 7530
Gain or loss per lot 352 652 -387
'One cow removed from test
'One calf included in initial weight
'No. of calves: Lot 1, four; Lot 2, three; Lot 3, six

* Association of Official Agricultural Chemists.

Annual Report, 1940

Purnell Project 334 D. A. Sanders
Manuscript entitled 'Enzootic Bronchopneumonia (Pneumoenteri-
tis) of Dairy Calves" has been published during the fiscal year. Publica-
tion of this bulletin (346) has completed the work on this project.
Enzootic bronchopneumonia caused heavy loss among dairy calves
confined in crowded, insanitary, permanent lots. These conditions were
favorable to development of various bacterial infections of the gastro-
intestinal tract and the umbilicus, and to infestations with external and
internal parasites. Escherichia coli, Pasteurella boviseptica, and species of
Penicillium were found to be associated with the diseased lung tissue.
Calves affected with bronchopneumonia were infested with various
species of internal parasites, including: coccidia, Eimeria sp; hookworm,
Bunostonmum phlebotomum; whipworm, Trichuris ovis; tapeworm, Moniezia
benedeni; nodular worm, Oesophagostomunm radiatum; lungworm, Dictyocaulus
viviparus; stomach worm, Haemonchus contortus; filaria, Setaria labiato-papil-
losa; and the external blood sucking louse, Linognathus vituli. These weak-
ening influences lowered the body resistance of calves sufficiently to
permit the microorganisms to colonize in the respiratory passage, there-
by inducing the pathogenic action which results in the development of
bronchopneumonia. Since Pasteurella boviseptica is a normal inhabitant of
the upper respiratory passage of cattle, it is readily understood why this
organism constitutes the predominating species encountered in diseased
lung tissue.
Enzootic bronchopneumonia has not been found to exist on premises
where strict sanitary methods of rearing calves were practiced. Incidence
of the disease on affected premises has been reduced in proportion to the
employment of hygienic methods in rearing calves.
This project is closed with this report.

State Project 337 N. R. Mehrhof, E. F. Stanton
D. F. Sowell and 0. W. Anderson, Jr.
The first test in feeding grain to Single Comb Rhode Island Red
pullets at Chipley and Gainesville was completed in the fall of 1939.
The second test was started at both places in October 1939.
All management factors were kept as constant as possible except the
method of feeding grain, which was as follows: Lot 1, floor feeding of
grain mixture once nightly; Lot 2, hopper feeding of grain mixture once
nightly; Lot 3, hopper feeding of grain mixture ad libitum; and Lot 4,
hopper feeding of oats, corn, and wheat ad libitum.
The egg production per bird for 12 28-day periods at Gainesville was
as follows: Lot 1, 142.49 eggs; Lot 2, 141.02 eggs; Lot 3, 139.79 eggs; and
Lot 4, 145.58 eggs. At Chipley egg production was as follows: Lot 1, 131.36
eggs; Lot 2, 123.43 eggs; Lot 3, 111.59 eggs, and Lot 4, 117.09 eggs.
Considerable variation occurred in the proportion of mash to grain
consumption in the four lots. At Gainesville the ratio was as follows:
Lot 1, 1 to 1.91; Lot 2, 1 to 1.81; Lot 3, 1 to 2.85; Lot 4, 1 to 3.77, while
at Chipley the ratio for Lot 1 was 1 to 1.84; Lot 2, 1 to 1.52; Lot 3, 1 to
1.81; and Lot 4, 1 to 2.12.
The result for the first eight 28-day periods in the second trial
indicate very little difference in egg production per bird.
The proportion of mash to grain for the second trial (eight 28-day
periods) appears to be wider at Gainesville than at Chipley.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

State Project 339 W. G. Kirk, A. L. Shealy, and R. M. Crown
This project was inactive during the year 1939-40.

Bankhead-Jones Project 342 W. M. Neal
Immense yields and diverse adaptability recommend sugarcane as a
forage crop for the lower coastal plains. Three methods of feeding are:
as a soiling crop, as shocked fodder, and as silage. Digestion coefficients
for sugarcane in the three forms were found to be: For crude protein,
20, 00 and 00; for crude fiber 55, 50 and 53; for nitrogen-free extract;
69, 65, and 45; and, for crude fat, 56, 46, and 41. (These values for silage
were determined in project 338 and are repeated here for comparison.)
This project is closed with this report.

State Project 343 John T. Creighton and M. W. Emmel
During the past year investigations concerning the use of elemental
sulfur in the control of lice have been conducted. Sulfur was included
in the rations of birds at 3 and 5 percent levels and like amounts in
capsules. These investigations have formed the basis for a new series of
experiments which will be conducted in the future.

Purnell Project 345 R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold
Cooperative records were initiated in selected herds which have
maintained breeding records for a number of years.
Reproduction precedes milk production. The demand for milk is
seasonal in many parts of Florida. With poor breeding efficiency among
dairy cattle, the peak milk supply may not coincide with the seasonal
demands. Because of these conditions, it is desirable to obtain facts con-
cerning breeding efficiency among dairy cattle on typical areas in this
The phase of this project dealing with depreciation in Florida dairy
herds is in cooperation with the Department of Agricultural Economics.

Purnell 346 W. M. Neal and L. L. Rusoff
The identification of the various deficiencies of peanuts for swine
nutrition has been undertaken, using the rat as the test animal. Sufficient
progress has not been made to allow specific statements, other than that
the rat is even more susceptible to such deficiencies than swine.

*Freeport Sulfur fellowship.

Annual Report, 1940

State Project 350 A. L. Shealy and A. W. Leland
In an effort to control parasites and to determine a system of feeding
that is economical and practical, the Station flock of sheep has been
kept on such grazing crops as oats, cat-tail millet, Napier grass and cow-
peas since January 1, 1940. It is planned to make maximum use of annual
crops in a system of pasture rotation.
The sheep are weighed every 28 days and examined for indications
of internal parasites.
Before the sheep were placed on these grazing crops they were
medicated according to the method recommended by Cornell University,
which consists of treating with the usual dose of copper sulfate solution
every other day until four doses have been given. It appears that this
method of treatment is very effective.
State Project 351 R. M. Crown, W. G. Kirk and A. L. Shealy
Hogs are now being sold on a quality basis in Florida. When hogs
are fattened on forage crops in fields or fed in dry lot certain supple-
ments are necessary for the economical production of quality hogs.
It was found in previous trials that if corn was replaced by 5 parts
of alfalfa leaf meal in a ration consisting of 90 parts yellow corn meal
and 10 parts fish meal, increased rates of gains were obtained with
market hogs fed in dry lot. In the present trials the object is to determine
the desirable level at which alfalfa leaf meal should be fed.
Data from two trials completed indicate that the desirable level for
feeding leaf meal is from 4 to 6 percent.
Records are being taken to determine the amount of feed and the
time required to produce hogs of the various market grades.
State Project 352 N. R. Mehrhof, L. L. Rusoff, W. M. Neal and
J. C. Driggers
Experimental work to ascertain the relative value of different
Florida calcareous materials for poultry feeding has been in progress for
the past two years.
The materials used were oyster shells and clam shells.
Both sources of calcium appeared to be satisfactory for egg produc-
tion in the first two feeding trials with Single Comb White Leghorn
pullets. During the past year preliminary work was started supplement-
ing the oyster shell ration with manganese sulfate.
During the spring of 1940 pedigreed sexed Single Comb Rhode Island
Red chicks were fed clam shells and oyster shells as sources of calcium
in the University of Florida chick ration. These birds will be reared to
maturity, bred, and then pedigreed chicks will be hatched from these
birds for further work. Calcium intake will be determined and bone
analyses made.
Purnell 353 D. A. Sanders
This project was initiated in April. A study will be made of the
species of microorganisms responsible for naturally occurring cases of
mastitis, factors affecting their pathogenicity, immunological responses
of the animal body to invasions of the microorganisms, and means of
spread of the disease.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

In addition to the research conducted by this department, approxi-
mately 1,500 inquiries concerning insects were answered by letter during
the past year. A large number of insect identifications were made for
other departments, county agents, and farmers, and particularly identifi-
cations of thysanoptera and aphids for other workers in this field all
over the United States. Monthly reports were made to the Insect Pest
Survey on the abundance and occurrence of Florida insects.

State Project 8 J. R. Watson
Abnormally cold weather and drouth killed practically all flowers
this winter and the Florida flower thrips (Frankliniella cephalica bispinosa
Morgan) were very scarce during the spring months when citrus and
other plants were in bloom. By the last of May they had built up consid-
erable numbers, but little commercial damage was done in the Gaines-
ville section. On the Lower East Coast where the cold was not severe
and the rainfall more abundant, they were very destructive to beans,
attacking not only the blossoms but the leaves as well.
Among new control measures, a bait of tartar emetic, successfully
used for the gladiolus thrips, gives some promise, but as yet is only in
the experimental stage.
In connection with this project a survey of the thysanoptera of
Florida, with host plants and ecological distribution, was continued.
Several new species were discovered and considerable data gathered on
the seasonal and ecological distribution of these thrips.
Adams Project 12 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
The study of root-knot was continued along practically the same
lines as in previous years. Varieties of lettuce, cowpeas, and Kentucky
Wonder beans which previously had given indications of considerable
resistance to root-knot were planted with the object of building up strains
still more resistant than those available. The strains of lettuce previously
worked with were of the Big Boston type. Since there is a strong tend-
ency in the state towards Iceberg types of lettuce, experiments were
started in selecting resistant strains of this type, if possible. The strain
of conch cowpea, which was found to be decidedly resistant to root-knot
for the past two or three seasons, is this year being raised on a consider-
ably larger scale for possible seed distribution. Selection experiments of
resistant Kentucky Wonder beans first obtained from the Alabama
Station are being continued.
Attempts to find a resistant strain of tomatoes have as yet met with
little success. A strain of tobacco reported to be resistant to root-knot is
being tested, as is also a strain of vetch which for other reasons is con-
sidered desirable. The Table Queen or Acorn squashes are becoming
very popular in Florida and half a dozen strains and hybrids are being
tested for susceptibility to root-knot; also their susceptibility or resistance
to melon worms and pickle worms. It is evident that some of these
strains having a much thinner skin than the dark green Table Queen
will be more susceptible to borers.
Experiments in the control of root-knot by mulching plants heavily,
initiated last year on a considerable scale, are being continued. Again

Annual Report, 1940

no significant differences could be seen between plots mulched with
various materials. Any mulching material that will decay in the soil or
on top of it has given good control of root-knot nematodes. This gives
promise of being the most satisfactory way of dealing with susceptible
perennial plants, particularly long-lived perennials.

State Project 13 J. R. Watson and W. L. Thompson
The past winter was an even more severe test on the Chinese lady-
beetle, Leis dimidiata var. 15-spilota Hope, than was the previous one. The
drouth and severe cold prevented any new growth on citrus, with the
result that the green citrus aphid has been scarcer than at any time
since its appearance in Florida in 1924. The scarcity of aphids resulted
in a great reduction in numbers not only of the Chinese ladybeetle but
of all native ladybeetles as well. Very few Chinese ladybeetles have been
seen in Orange County, but it is felt that enough of them have survived
to insure the continuation of the species in that section.
An attempt is being made to import from Puerto Rico a hymenop-
terous parasite of the West Indian mole-cricket, Changa, which is
reported to be a very efficient check on the Changa in that island.
In Puerto Rico there are two species of plants (Hyptis atrorubens and
Borreria verticillata) that are largely responsible for furnishing food for
for the adult wasps. Preparatory to introducing these wasps, both plants
are being grown in several sections where the Changa is particularly
destructive. When the blossoms appear on these plants the effort will be
made to import the wasps.
A most efficient bait for the control of mole-crickets was developed.
This bait is made by mixing paris green with one of the commercial
dog foods containing more or less meat. The proportions used were 1
ounce of paris green to a pound can of dog food. If the bait is put out in
very small pellets it is believed that there is no danger to dogs or cats,
but where the owners were apprehensive the bait was put under a
board or other heavy object that the pets could not move.
A parasite of mealybug, Leptomastix dactylopii, reported as doing
excellent work in California, was obtained from the Citrus Experiment
Station at Riverside. A colony was liberated in Sarasota County in
cooperation with County Agent W. E. Evans. Whether or not this parasite
has become permanently established in Sarasota has not yet been
State Project 14 H. E. Bratley and J. R. Watson
Trials were made of a commercial pyrethrum-oil mixture in the
control of Leptoglossus phyllopus on satsumas. When this spray was applied
during hot weather fair kills were obtained, but it is necessary to give
the bugs a thorough spraying so as to wet the sides of the body where
the main spiracles are located, after the insect had raised its wings for
flight. In the early morning or on cold days when the insects do not fly
readily, collecting them in a dish containing kerosene is still the most
practical method. Collecting is not practical in warm weather as most of
the plant bugs will fly before they can be collected, so the best control
is obtained by a combination of the two methods-collecting them in
cold weather and spraying them with a pyrethrum-oil spray during
warm weather.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

State Project 31 J. R. Watson
S. O. Hill, J. R. Watson, and H. E. Bratley
An important discovery of the past year was that in the absence of a
good crop of pecans, the nut case-bearer will feed on pecan leaves. This
discovery explains the discrepancy in the findings of different workers.
Some workers have reported that a summer spray of bordeaux and lead
arsenate decreases the number of leaf case-bearers the following year,
while the work of the late Fred Walker at Monticello showed that dipping
nuts in lead arsenate had no effect on the nut case-bearer. This indicates
that the favorable results obtained by other workers were due to the
killing off of the case-bearers that fed on the leaves. The nut case-bearer
is so scarce in the Monticello section this year that it was not advisable
to try any control measures on a commercial scale. Studies of the life
history and parasites of the insect, together with the comparative sus-
ceptibility of different varieties, are being continued.
A surprising finding was that on different varieties of pecans there
will be as much as a month's difference in the time of emergence of nut-
case-bearers from their winter hibernaculi. On varieties of pecans that
put out their foliage early in the season the larvae will emerge early from
the hibernaculi, while on varieties like the Moore that are late in putting
out foliage the nut case-bearer will also be late in emerging.
Experiments at Gainesville with solutions of common lye were
continued. A 10 percent solution of lye continued to give a fair kill with
only slight injury to the pecans. A 15 percent solution appears to be
State Project 231 J. R. Watson
A further survey of the thysanopteron fauna in the summer time
failed to reveal any onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindm.) on native vegetation
but, as during previous years, onion sets purchased from the market
in the fall showed from 50 to 100 thrips per quart of sets. This number
is amply sufficient to start an infestation of the onion thrips.
Dipping the sets in a pyrethrum extract before they are put out
results in the death of these thrips.
State Project 232 J. R. Watson and J. W. Wilson
No better method was found of controlling this species of thrips
(Taeniothrips simplex Morison) than the tarter emetic bait used during
previous years. The infestation on gladiolus was very light in the fall
and gradually built up during the winter. About April the infestation in
the southwestern counties, where the commercial production of gladiolus
is now largely centered, was very heavy. It is evident that once a heavy
infestation is allowed to develop in the planting, control will be difficult.
(Refer also to Everglades Station Project 232.)
State Project 234 A. N. Tissot
The past year has furnished an excellent opportunity for observing
the effects of continued cool weather on Florida aphids. January 1940
was the coldest month in the history of the Weather Bureau in this state
and the average temperature for January and February was nearly 8


Annual Report, 1940

degrees below the normal for the two months. The minimum temperature
was 170 F. and there were 20 days with a minimum of 32 or lower.
Living aphids were found on loquat in the afternoon following 17
minimum, indicating that the cold does not kill the aphids outright.
During this period there was almost no tender plant growth and it was
practically impossible to find any aphids. However, with the advent of
warm weather and the appearance of succulent plant growth aphids
began to appear in nearly normal numbers.
With the exception of the citrus aphid which has been notably scarce
everywhere, the aphids of cultivated crops have been about as trouble-
some as usual. These observations indicate that the coldest winters that
are likely to occur in Florida will have no permanent effect on the aphid
fauna of the state.
Three species of aphids were found in the state for the first time.
One of these, Macrosiphum lutea (Buckton) is a pest of orchids in tropical
America, but had never been recorded in Florida. Rhapalosiphum rufomacu-
latum (Wilson), a rather severe pest of chrysanthemums in the North,
was extremely numerous on some plants in Gainesville. The third species,
apparently undescribed, feeds on the leaves of oaks. The host plant list
of Florida aphids was enlarged by the addition of nine new host plants,
two of which are orchids.
State Project 263 J. R. Watson
The chief work on this weevil (Anihonomus eugenii Cano) was the scout-
ing in infested counties to determine the spread of the insect. About half
the pepper fields in the Plant City area were found to be infested. In
Manatee County the infestation was confined to two or three localities
where a thorough clean-up of the peppers at the end of the marketing
season in 1938 was not obtained.
A survey of the injury caused by the pepper stem weevil, Callobis-
modes cubae Boh., and the range of this pest was conducted through the
southeastern counties, partly in cooperation with the State Plant Board.
It was found in small numbers in the Everglades about Belle Glade and
from there southward, becoming quite numerous in Dade County in the
latter part of the season. They were more numerous and more destructive
to tomatoes than to peppers. The only feasible method of control would
seem to be the destruction of both pepper and tomato plants at the end
of the shipping season.

Adams Project 333 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
The study of the life history, ecological distribution, food habits and
control of this severe pest of bulbs was continued. The breeding grounds
of this insect (Romalea microptera (Beauvois)) are ecologically restricted.
Eggs are not laid in the wetter, flatter type of flatwoods where slash
pines and grass are the dominant vegetation, but rather in the higher,
drier flatwoods where live oaks and other xerophytic plants are found.
Knowledge as to the restricted breeding grounds should make control
much easier. Two such areas were responsible for most of the breeding
in the Doctor's Inlet section. One of these breeding areas was burnt over
during the time of the maximum emergence of the nymphs. It is evident
that this burning had a very marked effect on the number of grass-
hoppers in that section. At Penney Farms where continual, persistent

76 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

efforts were made to kill the lubbers last year, very few appeared on
one bulb farm this year. In the Doctor's Inlet section partial cooperation
between the bulb growers and surrounding farmers has resulted in a
decided improvement in the situation there. It seems that the control of
this insect is not difficult if the farmers and growers in a community
will cooperate consistently.
It was mentioned in last year's report that there was a remarkable
migration northward to a narcissus field from one of the main breeding
grounds, indicating that the young hoppers could smell narcissus. This
year narcissus was not planted north of the breeding grounds, but to the
west. There was again heavy migration this year, but to the west and not
to the north, again directly to the narcissus field.
In the Gainesville section results of feeding the hoppers different
plants are being investigated. Those fed on narcissus plants made a more
uniform growth with a higher rate of survival than those fed other
plants. Those fed on tread-softly and pokeweed also made good growth
It would seem that narcissus and amaryllis are particularly favorable
foods for the development of this pest.

Annual Report, 1940 77

The experimental work of the Department has covered a wide range
of studies on food and nutrition. As a result of these investigations five
journal articles have been published and papers presented at national
and international meetings of biological and nutritional societies.
Recently work has been resumed on vitamin C in fruits and vege-
tables. A grant from the Dried Milk Association has made possible a
study of the relation of milk to growth and health of Florida children.
Purnell Project 255 0. D. Abbott, M. R. Overstreet and R. B. French
These studies have been limited to investigations of the nutritional
status of rural school children in Levy, Sarasota, Polk and Lafayette
counties and to 4-H club girls attending camp on the West Coast. The
nutritional status was based on the physical examination of the child,
dietary and chemical studies of the family's food supply.
The data show that as in other sections anemia, vitamin A deficiency,
carious teeth, and infected tonsils were the most common defects. In a
recent grouping of 4,335 rural children according to hemoglobin values it
was shown that 53% of them were anemic, 23% had borderline anemia,
while only 24% had normal values. Hookworm infection is a factor which
in the past has been held to account for the high incidence of anemia in
the South. From the data collected in this laboratory this infection could
not account for the observed variation. Hookworm was wide-spread and
should have contributed uniformly to the occurrence of anemia; yet in
certain sections where a large number of the children were infected
there was no more anemia than in schools where a lower percentage of
infections occurred. Apparently most of the general symptoms considered
indicative of hookworm infection were due to anemia for when iron
was given, the pallor, marked weakness, excessive fatigue, loss of
appetite and edema gradually disappeared.
The diets as a whole were very poor. None of the children had food
that provided a wide margin of safety. About 25% had diets rated as
fair-not good but passable. The remainder of the group had diets
deficient in one or more nutrients. Among the entire group milk was
used in 25% of the menus, butter and eggs in 30%, leafy, vegetables in
27% and fruit in only 20%.
The people of the counties were divided into rather distinct groups
according to food source and food habits. First, those families producing
70% of their food which was fairly adequate both as to quantity and
quality; second, those producing 70% of their food but which was low in
iron and perhaps other essential elements; and third, those producing
food inadequate in both quantity and quality and because of economic
conditions, ignorance or habit are subsisting on diets below the physio-
logical danger line.
M. R. Overstreet
In co-operation with two grade school teachers, a study was made
to determine the effect of improved nutrition on progress in school.
With the help of the county health doctor and nurse, complete physical

78 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

and nutritional examinations were given 70 children. The examinations
showed that 54% of the children were anemic; 15% had borderline
anemia, while only 31% had normal values. Blood studies and eye
defects indicated that 28% of the group had some degree of vitamin A
deficiency. These conditions indicative of dietary deficiencies were cor-
rected by the administration of concentrates. Several weeks after begin-
ning treatment with the concentrates, great improvement was noted in
all the children; the hemoglobin was well within the normal range, the
eye condition improved, and there was an increase in both physical and
mental energy.
At the end of the semester the progress in school as shown by reading
tests was as follows:
Reading Tests October January
Median 52 59
Grade Placement 5.7 7.1
Improvement was noted to a marked degree, but a year would give
more definite results, and statistics gathered would be more reliable.
R. B. French
In the study of the vitamin A content of foods, a procedure for the
chemical determination of this vitamin using Cenco photolometer has
been worked out. The procedure has been published in the Analytical
Edition of the Journal of Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, and may
be summarized by indicating that:
1. The photoelectric colorimeter gives consistent and reproducible
results with the SbC13 reaction.
2. The color produced in the reaction fades rapidly, yet with
accurate timing it is possible to make replicate determinations check.
3. Results obtained using several products containing widely differ-
ent amounts of vitamin A as determined biologically show that: (a) With
a given sample the vitamin A content is proportional to the density of
color developed but that the density of color may vary between different
samples containing equivalent quantities of vitamin A. Such variation
may be explained in at least two ways:
First, materials other than vitamin A develop color with the reagent
and unless one were employing a definite absorption band-such as can
be obtained in a spectrophotometer-only summation of all color de-
veloped is read.
Second, comparisons are made between the quantity of vitamin A
or its precursors in the food and the quantity as determined in a biologi-
cal standardization which is based upon the amount of vitamin A actually
absorbed and utilized by the animal.
The first difficulty can be circumvented by the use of a spectrophoto-
meter, the second indicates studies upon the digestibility of vitamin A
in various forms.
Some carotene determinations made upon Sudan grass suggest that
ammonia fertilization increased the carotene content of the grass as
much as two, three or even four times.
Purnell Project 270 0. D. Abbott and R. B. French
The work on honey has been completed.

Annual Report, 1940

Continuation of work on royal jelly has been confined largely to
examination of the protein of royal jelly, and the constitution of the
purified ether-soluble acid.
Protein.-The major protein present in royal jelly is of globulin-like
nature. Purification through dialysis reduced its ash content from 4.5%
to 1.4%. Of this 0.62% was sulfur, 0.05% was iron, and phosphorus was
Ether-Soluble Acid.-About one-half of the ether-soluble matter of
royal jelly consists of a fatty acid not previously reported in the litera-
ture. The properties and reactions of this acid indicate that it is an open
chain 10 carbon acid containing a primary alcohol group. This hydroxy
decanoic acid CHOHCsHoCOOH may be responsible for the gonado-
tropic qualities of royal jelly and has a marked fungicidal action when
present in only slight concentration.
R. B. French and 0. D. Abbott
The result of this investigation dealing with the effects of maturation
and cold storage on the vitamin C potency of oranges and grapefruit has
been published and may be summarized as follows:
Differences in vitamin C content both of samples of one variety and
among different varieties of citrus fruit may be very large. Individual
trees tend to produce fruit the vitamin content of which varies only
within narrow limits, but these small variations are sufficient to mask
any changes occurring during maturation of the fruit. Changes in vitamin
C content of oranges during maturation are not large.
Variations in vitamin C content among oranges did not correlate with
the different geographical locations in which they were grown.
The vitamin C concentration of oranges and grapefruit may increase
during the first few weeks of cold storage; after this, the concentration
of vitamin C drops.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The commercial adaptation of numerous findings is demonstrating
the worth of horticultural research in testing varieties, plant nutrition,
storage of fruits and other investigations. Notable examples are the
Katahdin potato, crisp-heading lettuce (Imperial 847 and 44), the tung
industry; fertilizer and minor element practices, cover crops, fruit wrap-
pers and many others.
The Katahdin potato, developed by the United States Department of
Agriculture and introduced by this department in 1933, is now definitely
established as the leading variety in the Hastings and LaCrosse sections.
Expansion of the commercial acreage planted to this variety began in
1935 as a result of the production obtained in the test plots and has con-
tinued until now the Katahdin variety has replaced more than 80% of
the acreage formerly planted to Spaulding Rose in the foregoing areas.
More than 100 strains of crisp-heading lettuce have been tested
during the past decade. From these, Imperial 847 and 44, developed by
the United States Department of Agriculture, are now being grown
commercially on a considerable and expanding acreage.
Investigations with fertilizers, cover crops and soil reaction best
for vegetables have yielded important results. These have shown that
the kind, amount and method of applying fertilizer, type of cover crop
grown and soil reaction have a definite effect upon the yield of quality
Augusta vetch (Vicia angustifolia), introduced by the department as an
orchard cover crop in northern Florida in 1934, has met with ready
acceptance and, in the last two years, has become an important winter
legume for the maintenance of soil fertility in both pecan and tung
Investigations with minor elements have shown that little-leaf of
the peach in Florida is a zinc deficiency which can be controlled with
zinc sulfate applied either to the soil or as a foliage spray. This informa-
tion is now being utilized by commercial peach growers.
Since workers in the department determined that frenching in tung
trees is due to a shortage of manganese, manganese sulfate is now being
used in commercial tung orchards to prevent the disorder, where it is
known that a manganese deficiency exists. The material is applied on
the soil around the trees, but experiments have shown that a foliage
spray also is effective.
Work with ornamental plants has been expanded considerably. A
planting of the horticultural varieties of American holly and other
species has been made in the Test Grounds. The collection of the varieties
of Camellia japonica now numbers some 600 plants comprising over 300
varieties. Most of this extensive planting was made possible through
cooperation of various nurserymen.
In fruit storage investigations the best storage atmospheres for citrus
and avocado fruits have been determined. Aluminum foil wrappers
previously tested by the Department are now being used in commercial
citrus packs. Recent results point to great possibilities for pliofilm, a
rubber hydrochloride product, as wrappers for citrus fruits and avo-
cados, both in cold storage and at room temperatures.
Maturity studies with oranges showed that taste and quality are not
a function of any one characteristic but a combination of several. De-
crease in acid concentration is primarily due to dilution with increased
juice content of the fruit; secondarily, to neutralization and decom-

Annual Report, 1940

The U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations of the Bureau
of Plant Industry, located on the Experiment Station Horticultural
Grounds, has vigorously attacked problems in tung production. This
work is being conducted cooperatively with the Experiment Station
and a resume of the work of that Laboratory is included with this
State Project 47 G. H. Blackmon
That prolific pecan varieties require adequate plant foods to pro-
duce nuts in profitable quantities has been greatly emphasized in fer-
tilizer tests during the past year. However, in these experiments the
trees have responded better to fertilizer where cover crops of legumes are
being grown than with only a volunteer growth of natural vegetation.
Zinc, manganese, magnesium, iron and copper are being tested for their
value in connection with regular fertilizers.
Growth.-The increment in trunk cross-section was generally great-
est for the trees in the fertilized plots of the Moore variety set in 1912.
The check trees in this experiment produced only about half as much
wood growth as did those receiving fertilizers annually.
Yields.-When all tests are considered, yields were heaviest in the
experimental plots with Moore trees in which zinc sulfate (89%) has
been applied along with the fertilizers. Trees receiving NPK* plus zinc
annually have produced a much greater total yield than those where po-
tassium was omitted but the same amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and
zinc were applied.

State Project 48 G. H. Blackmon
Varieties.-Prolific varieties continue to play an important role in
pecan production. Some varieties have shown remarkable increase in
yields when sprayed with a bordeaux-zinc to control foliage diseases
and to improve the general physical condition of the trees. Moneymaker
and Stuart have been two outstanding examples in this respect.
Cover Crops.-Augusta vetch (Vicia angustifolia), introduced by the
Department in 1934 as an orchard cover crop in northern Florida, has
met with ready acceptance and in the last two years has become an
important winter legume for the maintenance of soil fertility in pecan
orchards. It continues to produce an effective tonnage of green material
and also seed in sufficient quantity for an adequate stand of volunteer
plants the next fall. An inadequate seed supply has been the principal
limiting factor since the commercial adaptation of Augusta vetch and
has prevented a larger acreage being planted.
Minor Elements.-Bordeaux-zinc sprays have improved general tree
vigor, although no rosette symptoms could be detected in the foliage of
pecans. Zinc applied in this manner has also given a quicker response
in normal growth where rosette was present in the pecan trees than
where the zinc was applied to the soil.
A frenching type of chlorosis in pecan leaves has been noted on
an occasional tree in scattered orchards. Late in 1938 a grower in Duval
County reported the trouble and, upon examination, it was found that

* Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

in one block in the orchard, all trees showed the symptoms to some
degree with about 75 percent severely affected. In August of 1938 and in
June of 1939 and 1940 affected leaves on different shoots were sprayed
with manganese sulfate, iron sulfate, zinc sulfate and some other ma-
terials. No significant response was obtained with any of the materials
sprayed on the foliage.
In the spring of 1940 soil applications were made consisting of
ammonium sulfate and magnesium sulfate, separately and together. For
these tests trees were selected which, in 1939, showed the disorder in
25 to 100 percent of the leaves. Results of the tests with soil applications
in 1940 were as follows: The check trees showed about the same per-
centage of frenched leaves as they did in 1939; where the ammonium sul-
fate was applied there was very little improvement in the foliage con-
dition; in the plots where the magnesium sulfate was applied either
alone or with ammonium sulfate, there was a significant recovery and
only a very small percentage of the leaves showed symptoms of frenching.
These experiments indicate definitely that frenching of pecan leaves is
caused by a deficiency of an available supply of magnesium in the soil.
Several pecan spraying experiments with a number of minor ele-
ments are being conducted in cooperation with the Pecan Laboratory
(cooperative U.S.D.A.) at Monticello. In these tests the effects on
growth of different elements applied to the foliage are being compared
with soil applications. The effects of minor elements and arsenicals on
pecan insects are being studied-by S. O. Hill, Assistant Entomologist.
Hatch Project 50 R. D. Dickey and G. H. Blackmon
For some time work has been in progress relative to flowering,
fruiting, yield and growth habits of tung trees. The information ob-
tained to date has been published in Station Bulletin 343.
During the past winter tung trees were subjected to low tempera-
tures over extended periods. Considering the severity of the tempera-
ture and the duration of the periods during which freezing temperatures
were experienced, there was comparatively little damage. As observed
previously, there is a direct correlation between the relative dormancy,
growth and vigor of the tree and cold damage. Though in general it can
be said that, when tung trees are completely dormant, they are but
little injured by low temperatures, it is apparent that there is a variation
between individual trees in their ability to withstand such injury.
Cold damage to tung trees caused by freezing temperatures after
the trees have started into growth in the spring is a very important
factor in crop reduction. It is further apparent that tung is subject
to certain types of cold injury such as bark splitting, trunk and limb
splitting, crotch and crown injury, sun scald, killing of the entire tree
and killing of swollen buds such as have been reported for many other
deciduous trees. Undoubtedly much of this type of injury is produced
by freezing temperatures occurring in the fall before the trees have
hardened up (ripened their wood) or in the early spring after growth
has started. Orchards and nurseries in cold localities have suffered
much more in this respect than others in areas known to be less sub-
ject to temperature extremes so that the amount and severity of this
type of cold damage is, in a given orchard, closely correlated with its
temperature history. Also, low places within an orchard show more in-
jury than the better protected areas on higher elevations.

Annual Report, 1940

The continued cold weather of late winter and early spring delayed
blossoming considerably and tung trees in Florida were in full bloom in
late March and early April. On April 12 temperatures of freezing or slight-
ly below were recorded at various localities in northwestern Florida. A
subsequent examination revealed little if any damage to the newly set
fruit; however, in certain orchards foliage injury occurred. Within a
few weeks the trees had to a great extent grown out of any signs of the
Usually the early flowering trees suffer the greatest crop reduc-
tions; this year it was the other way around. The reason is that tung
blossoms and young leaves are more susceptible to cold injury than are
the newly set fruit. Length of exposure and temperatures necessary to
produce injury to the different parts are yet to be determined.
Two trees of Aleurites montana coming from seed imported by the
U. S. Department of Agriculture (FPI No. 56676) were planted on the
Experiment Station grounds in February 1924. These trees have grown
vigorously (45 to 50 feet high) but have produced very little fruit
(Table 11).
The third A. montana tree is a bud taken from another seedling tree of
the same lot of seed as above. This bud was inserted in the trunk of a
young fordi tree on the Station grounds in the spring of 1925. It is consid-
erably dwarfed (approximately 23 feet high); however, it has yielded well
(Table 11). For all practical purposes it may be considered as a female
tree for no staminate (male) flowers were found during periodic ex-
aminations of the tree while it was in bloom in 1936, 1937, 1939 and
1940, although there must have been a few produced.
Year Female tree Two male trees
1934 --- 18.0 0.3
1935* 0.0 0.0
1936 ------ 23.8 2.1
1937 3.1 0.5
1938* 0.1 0.3
1939 20.5 0.4
*Low yield due to frost or freezing temperatures.

Fig. 3-Inflorescence of female (left) and male (right) types of
Aleurites montana.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

When the two large montana trees were examined it was noted that
they are essentially male trees, for all flowers on many inflorescenses
were staminate while on other inflorescences were a few pistillate
(female) flowers. These trees produce a tremendous mass of bloom, yet
their yields were low (Table 11).
The inflorescences produced on two kinds of montana trees (male
and female) are noticeably different as to size and type. Inflorescences
produced by the female tree are racemose, relatively few-flowered and
small as compared with those on the male trees which are corymbose,
many flowered and large (Fig. 3).
Evidence is as yet limited but it is certainly suggested by the segre-
gation of the character determining sex in the progeny that the ten-
dency toward dioeciousness as has been suggested for A. fordi is strongly
apparent in this species. However, in all probability all forms interme-
diate between the two types described here exist in this species and
certain trees may have both types of inflorescence on the same tree. In
this connection, in 1939 one of the male trees on the Station ground;
produced on a single branch a typical female type of inflorescence. It
was characteristic in every way in that it was racemose, comparatively
small and all of the flowers, 30 in number, were pistillate.
There are two montana trees on the grounds of the U. S. Department
of Agriculture Horticultural Field Laboratory at Orlando which are
approximately 17 years old. One is a seedling and has grown very
vigorously (it is larger than the male trees on the Station grounds)
while the other is budded or grafted on a fordi rootstock and is consid-
erably dwarfed. Both trees have the same type of inflorescence as the
female montana tree at Gainesville. No accurate yield records are avail-
able but both have a high "ability to yield" due to their size and type of
Hatch Project 52 R. D. Dickey and R. J. Wilmot
Investigations as to the cause and control of chlorosis of woody
ornamental plants are being continued.
Roses.-Some of the problems of Florida nurserymen who propa-
gate roses were outlined in the 1939 report. Of particular importance is
an abnormal dying back of the plant in the nursery during the growing
season and after it has been set out by the grower.
During the summer of 1939 treatments were made in a nursery
near Monticello and on the Experiment Station grounds.. They con-
sisted of soil applications of zinc, manganese, magnesium, iron and cop-
per sulfates and boron separately and together and foliage applications
of zinc, manganese and iron sulfates separately and in combination. No
beneficial or detrimental effects were obtained from any of the treat-
ments; however, the amounts applied and time of treatment may have
affected the results and this phase of the problem is being investigated
Iris.-A few varieties of bulbous iris are grown commercially in
Florida in a limited way. Several problems confront growers of this
plant and, of these, length of flower stem as it is affected by environ-
mental conditions and subsequent opening of the flowers after they
have reached the florist or the ultimate buyer are of particular im-
Some preliminary experiments were conducted in an attempt to
obtain information relative to possible factors affecting the opening of

Annual Report, 1940

the flowers. The iris varieties used in these tests were Yellow Queen
and Imperator and were grown near Terra Ceia by a commercial grow-
er. They were packed dry according to standard methods for this flower
and shipped to Gainesville. After the flowers were received the stems
were recut and they were stored in water for 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 14 days
at 32, 42, 50 and 65 F., and a check lot was placed in water at room
temperature. Upon removal from storage these blooms were held in
water at room temperature until they deteriorated.
From these tests it is apparent that there is a decided difference
in the ability of the two varieties, Yellow Queen and Imperator, to open
their flowers under exactly the same conditions. However, further
varietal tests are necessary to determine those which will best meet
the commercial standard required.
Cold Damage.-The winter just past was one of the most severe yet
recorded in Florida, particularly in regard to the duration of the freez-
ing temperatures experienced. A minimum of 17 F. (official) was twice
recorded at Gainesville during January 1940. Injury to ornamental
trees, shrubs and vines was quite severe throughout the state; how-
ever in north central, northern and northwestern areas there was com-
paratively less damage to ornamental plants usually considered as semi-
hardy than was experienced in the freeze of early December 1934,
which followed a period of mild temperatures.
It is apparent that previous weather conditions as they affect the
growth and dormancy of a plant are very important in determining
amount and severity of cold damage.
Plant Tests.-During the past year 70 species of plants were re-
ceived from the Bureau of Plant Industry, Division of Foreign Plant
Introduction. Included are woody ornamentals, herbaceous perennials
and succulents. These are being tested for their ability to survive under
Florida conditions and their value as ornamentals. Of this number an
Abelia, "Edward Goucher," flowered precociously and is a pleasing
new variation, adding a purplish shade to an almost white grandiflora
Camellia Variety Planting.-The Camellia variety test garden in
which the first plants were set last November now numbers approxi-
mately 600 plants of over 300 varietal names.
State Project 80 G. H. Blackmon
The Stuart trees in the Jefferson County experiment were sprayed
in 1938 with a bordeaux-zinc spray to control foliage diseases and cor-
rect rosette and in 1939 both Frotscher and Stuart were sprayed with the
same mixture. As a result, the trees held their foliage until time for nat-
ural defoliation and normal dormancy.
Green Material.-In the Jefferson and Walton County experiments
Augusta vetch (Vicia angustifolia) made good growth and returned a satis-
factory tonnage of organic matter to the soil in the spring of 1940. How-
ever, at the North Florida Experiment Station the vetch made light
growth but the lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) did well and averaged 33,021
pounds of green material per acre.
Tree Growth.-In the Walton County experiment the trunk growth
increments of the trees was consistently greater in the vetch plots.
However, at the North Florida Experiment Station most growth was
made by the young Moneymaker trees in the plot in which farm crops
are being grown annually.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Yield.-Nut production in 1939 was good in the Jefferson County
experiment and followed closely the relationship to the beneficial ef-
fects of cover crops and fertilizers as reported in previous annual reports,
with one exception. The Moore trees in the plot where cultivated farm
crops are annual grown produced more nuts than the vetch plots in
1939 but for the period of the experiment their yields have been less.
The severe drought in western Florida during the summer and fall
of 1938 caused premature defoliation of the trees. As a result of this
adverse condition, there was a crop failure in the Walton County experi-
ment in 1939.

State Project 110 F. S. Jamison and V. F. Nettles
In addition to the fertilizer placement studies as conducted in pre-
vious years, studies of amounts, kinds and time of application were
An average yield of 226 bushels per acre of U. S. No. 1 peppers
was harvested from the plots where the fertilizer was applied in bands
two inches on each side of the plant at time of planting. Where the fer-
tilizer was placed in the furrow row two weeks previous to planting a
yield of 213 bushels was obtained, while the broadcast method of ap-
plication gave a yield of 193 bushels per acre.
Where all of the fertilizer material was applied in one application
yields were 239 bushels per acre of U. S. No. 1 peppers from the 1600
pound plots and 177 bushels from the 800 pound plots. Where 20 percent
of the nitrogen in the fertilizer was withheld and applied five weeks
after transplanting, yields were depressed on the plots receiving 1,600
pounds and slightly increased on plots receiving 800 pounds of fertilizer.
The fertilizer tests with watermelons were continued. Results were
in very close agreement with those obtained last season. Soluble mag-
nesium added to fertilizers containing no organic nitrogen increased
the yield of watermelons, but when the fertilizer mixture contained or-
ganic nitrogen the yield was not increased. Top-dressing treatments
with- nitrate of soda and nitrate of potash indicated that the size of
the individual melons may be increased by such treatment but the
number of fruits is not increased and may actually be decreased if too
early application is made.
Tomatoes, lima beans, potatoes and cucumbers were grown on a
series of plots to which soluble and insoluble magnesium in combination
with nitrate of soda, ammonium sulfate and cottonseed meal were added.
Where as much as one-third of the nitrogen in the fertilizer was de-
rived from cottonseed meal no beneficial results could be secured
from the use of soluble or insoluble magnesium. When ammonium
sulfate or nitrate of soda was the source of nitrogen the addition of
soluble magnesium gave increased yields of cucumbers, potatoes and
lima beans.
In cooperation with the Agronomy Department a cloth shade house
was erected on the Station farm. A number of vegetables were grown
in the house. Tomatoes and cucumbers produced fruit of quality su-
perior to that grown in the open.
The following fertilizer mixtures-1-7-5, 5-7-5 and 9-7-5-were
applied to a number of lettuce varieties at the rate of 1,000 pounds per
acre. Due to unfavorable growing conditions, none of the varieties per-
formed exceptionally well. The nitrogen had a very definite effect on
the size of the heads produced. Where the lettuce was fertilized with the

Annual Report, 1940

mixture containing 5% nitrogen the heads were approximately twice
the size of those fertilized with a 1 percent mixture. The amount of
nitrogen had no effect on the initiation of seed stalks but it apparently
did increase the rate of growth of seed stalks after they once appeared.
Adams Project 165 G. H. Blackmon
The percent of total nitrogen in dormant one-year pecan twigs
in January 1939 and 1940 was determined for Curtis, Frotscher, Kennedy,
Moneymaker, Moore and Stuart varieties. The soil treatments consisted
of leguminous cover crops with and without application of commercial
nitrogen compared with trees where no planted cover crops were
grown but which received soil applications of NPK fertilizers annually;
and nitrogen sources singly compared with NPK mixtures applied alone
and with additional applications of commercial nitrogen.
Tree growth and yields were highest for most of the soil treat-
ments which have been made in an effort to determine the effects that
nitrogen applications would have on these. Mixtures containing nitro-
gen, phosphoric acid and potash, with additional commercial nitrogen
applied in the summer, and the leguminous cover crops where nitrogen,
phosphoric acid and potash were applied annually, were generally su-
perior to other treatments in producing tree growth and yields.
When total nitrogen content of the dormant twigs in January 1939
is considered there was no difference in tree growth during 1939.
However, in a majority of the comparisons made in 1939 average nut
yields varied directly with the nitrogen content of the twigs cut in
January 1939.
State Project 187 G. H. Blackmon, R. D. Dickey and R. J. Wilmot
Peaches.-Experiments showing that little-leaf of the peach in
Florida is a zinc deficiency were reported in 1939. Results of these
tests were published in Bulletin 344. As a result of these findings com-
mercial peach growers this year applied zinc to the soil and as a foliage
spray for the control of this disorder. In the foliage application zinc
was combined with the spray used for curculio control.
Trees severely affected with little-leaf in 1939 and treated with
zinc in the spring of 1940 showed severe little-leaf symptoms in the
initial leaves forced, but subsequent twig growth and leaves were nor-
mal and appeared to be in a healthy condition.
In the orchard in which the experiment was conducted the trees
which received zinc applications either to the soil or as a foliage spray
in 1939 produced a uniformly heavier bloom in the spring of 1940 than
did the untreated trees or those receiving magnesium and manganese.
Beginning with the initial growth the foliage and uniform forcing of
the vegetative buds was likewise in evidence and showed much greater
vigor than with the trees that did not receive any of the zinc appli-
cations. The fruit yield was rather good in this particular orchard in
the spring of 1940 but there was noticeably a heavier production on the
trees receiving zinc applications than on the check trees, or those re-
ceiving manganese and magnesium.
Grapes.-The experiment to determine the effects of fertilizers and
minor elements on the production of bunch grapes is being continued
as previously reported.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Mayhaws.-Although the winter and spring were very cold, there
was a good crop of Mayhaws in different parts of the state. It was found
that the fruit was produced by four species, namely: Crataegus lucduenta,
from the Ochlockonee River to Jacksonville south to the Ocklawaha
River; C. aestivalis from the Apalachicola River west; and C. maloides
and C. monantha in Volusia and Flagler counties east of Seville. C. monantha
may be very desirable to propagate because it is a shrub about three
feet high and bears quite heavy crops of fruit. It was also found that
certain types of C. floridana in parts of Lake County were called mayhaws
and were gathered for making jelly and jam.
State Project 189 Arthur L. Stahl*
Several varieties of citrus fruits were tested as to their suitability
for preservation by freezing. Comparison was made of the various
containers, freezing temperatures, methods of handling, types of pre-
paration and packaging.
Glass, tin, and paper board containers provided with moisture
proof linings of cellophane, pliofilm or parchment, were all good. The
dry air of the storage room will extract moisture through paper and
other materials which are ordinarily moistureproof. Air-tight contain-
ers gave the best results in every case.
Various types of freezing were compared and in most cases where
the pulp was frozen the quick-freezing (-40" F.) was superior to sharp
freezing (-20" F.) and slow freezing (00 F.). In the case of fruit juices
no difference could be detected between slow and quick freezing except
that slow freezing induced the formation of larger crystals. All types
and varieties of citrus pulp, as well as citrus juices of the Florida com-
mercial varieties, were found to be excellent for preservation by freez-
It was found that as long as 25 hours may be allowed after thaw-
ing if the product is kept refrigerated, but it should be consumed im-
mediately after thawing if not refrigerated.
A. L. Stahl and J. C. Cain*
A number of Florida fruits and vegetables were included in the
storage and preservation studies during the year. The investigations
were concerned principally with controlled atmosphere, wrappers,
surface sterilization by irradition, and preservation by freezing.
In controlled atmosphere experiments it was found that avocados
kept best when the storage atmosphere contained less than 3% CO2 gas
and not more than 10% 02 gas. Fruit stored in nitrogen alone and in
combination with carbon dioxide kept unsatisfactorily, which shows that
the storage atmosphere must have some oxygen present for good
avocado storage.
Storage studies with fruit of Jewel, Waldo, Luttichau and Angel
peaches showed that temperatures lower than 40 F. are not conducive
to good storage. The flesh darkens at the lower temperatures, especi-
ally that of the Waldo variety. The best temperature was found to be
42* F., and the best variety for storing was Luttichau. The fruit of all
varieties except the Angel kept in good condition for a month at 42 F.

*Assisted by E. L. Wirt, Jr.

Annual Report, 1940

with about 5% rotting during this time. It was impossible to keep the
Angel variety longer than two weeks at 42 F. All fruit of the different
peach varieties were stored at various temperatures and in various
Pliofilm was tested as a wrapper for avocados, peaches and to-
matoes. It proved to be an excellent wrapper for avocados, both in
cold storage and at ordinary room temperatures. Four varieties of
peaches-Jewel, Waldo, Luttichau and Angel-were used in testing
wrappers. The fruit of all kept well under pliofilm wrappers, moisture-
proof cellophane, and aluminum foil. However, the fruit of the Angel
variety could be kept for but two weeks under any condition. Pliofilm
proved to be a good wrapper for tomatoes in these experiments. Wrap-
ped fruit held at room temperature (70 to 800 F.) kept 10 days longer
than those not wrapped, and they also kept longer at cold storage tem-
peratures. The best temperatures for holding tomatoes were found to
be from 37 to 42 F.
Tomatoes were used in preliminary experiments with ultraviolet
light for surface sterilization. It was found that the fruits were physi-
ologically affected by the sterilamps in that the skin was scorched and
had a burned appearance with as short a treatment as one-half hour.
There was a reduction in the amount of rot, but the detrimental effect
of the rays on the fruit itself was too great to warrant its use on to-
matoes under existing conditions. Shorter periods of exposure may prove
Freezing experiments were conducted with many Florida-grown
fruits and vegetables. These tests were made so as to compare various
containers, freezing temperatures, methods of handling, types of pre-
paration, blanching and packaging.
Paper board containers lined with cellophane, pliofilm or parch-
ment, and glass and tin, all proved to be good for keeping the frozen
product. In every case air-tight containers gave best results.

Fig. 4.-Lula avocados after four months' storage at 42 F. Fruit on
left wrapped in pliofilm (40 P. O.), that on right unwrapped.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

In most cases quick-freezing (-40 F.) proved superior to sharp-
freezing (-20O F.) and slow freezing (00 F.). With vegetable juices no
difference could be detected between slow and quick freezing except
that slow freezing induced the formation of larger crystals.
The food product was found to be good for as long as 25 hours after
thawing if kept refrigerated, but it should be consumed immediate-
ly after thawing if not refrigerated. It was found that cooking periods
for the frozen products are shorter than for fresh vegetables by ap-
proximately one-half, starting from the time the thawed mass begins
to boil.
Of those tested the best varieties of sweet corn for preserving by
freezing were found to be Golden Cross Bantam and Florida Bantam.
Freezing, however, was beneficial to all varieties, exerting a tenderizing
effect on the texture. No differences were found between blanching
by scalding and blanching by steaming, in either the cut corn or corn on
the cob. It kept best in the moisture-proof air-tight containers. Dry
pack was superior to the 2% brine pack when held in air-tight pack-
ages. Quick freezing was found to be best for sweet corn.,,
Fordhook, Early Baby and Burpee Bush lima beans all reacted well
to freezing. There was no difference detected between the dry pack
and 2% brine. Beans that were blanched by scalding for 3 minutes were
superior to those scalded 6 minutes or more. Quick freezing gave the
best product, most like the fresh beans.
Four varieties of peaches were compared. The order of their suita-
bility for freezing was found to be as follows: Luttichau, Waldo, Jewel
and Angel. It was found that rapid preparation is essential to prevent
browning. A 50 percent syrup plus 10% vinegar solution covering the
peaches gave a much better product than the syrup alone, dry sugar
pack or dry pack.
In addition to the above, the Florida commercial varieties of the
following fruits and vegetables were found to be excellent for pres-
ervation by freezing: Figs, blueberries, Youngberries, strawberries,
cantaloupes, watermelons, mangos, avocados, persimmons, pears, guavas,
loquats, papayas, Litchi, okra, peppers, green beans, wax beans, and
all types and varieties of citrus pulp, as well as citrus juices.

Purnell Project 190 A. L. Stahl and J. C. Cain
Cold storage studies with citrus included controlled atmospheres,
new wrappers, surface sterilization by irradiation and specific freez-
ing points of citrus blossoms, young fruit and new growth.
Additional studies on controlled atmospheres for citrus showed
that the best storage atmosphere contained less than 6% CO2 gas and
less than 10% 02 gas. Results showed that citrus must have some oxygen
present for good storage, as storage in nitrogen alone or in combination
with carbon dioxide was unsatisfactory.
Pliofilm, a rubber hydrochloride product, proved to be the best
wrapper yet tried for citrus fruits, both in cold storage and at ordinary
room temperature. Valencia oranges kept four and five months in
splendid condition at 370 F. with only 5% decay, while Marsh Seedless
grapefruit kept three months with only 10% decay when wrapped in
pliofilm. The loss in weight was negligible. Pliofilm bags containing a
dozen fruit preserved the fruit just as well as individual wraps, if not

Annual Report, 1940

Fig. 5-Pineapple oranges after four months' storage at room tem-
perature (70 F.). Fruit on left wrapped in pliofilm, that on right

sealed air-tight but just twisted. If sealed tightly, the bags would burst
or the fruit would break down rapidly.
Ultraviolet light is being tried for surface sterilization of fruits
before packing or storing. In preliminary experiments, fruits of various
citrus types were subjected to various intensities and lengths of time to
the lethal light rays and then wrapped in sterile wrappers under the
light. The work so far has indicated a marked reduction in the blue and
green molds in citrus but very little effect on the stem-end rot organ-
isms. No detrimental effects to citrus rind were caused by as long as 24
hours' treatment.
The storage reaction of naturally bright colored Valencia oranges
was compared with that of Valencia oranges from the same trees that
had turned green. No difference was found in their keeping quality.
Untreated, unwashed citrus fruit packed loosely in field crates kept
much better than treated, washed and packed oranges at all tempera-
It was found that citrus blossoms, young growth and young fruits
(up to the size of a pea) could stand a temperature of 300 F. for one
hour without injury, no matter what the conditions were before or after
the freezing temperature was reached. However, if they were precooled
to the low thirties and held there for several hours and then subjected
to freezing temperatures, after which the temperature was slowly
raised as is the case many times in the field, the blossoms, young fruit
and growth withstood 290 F. for one hour without apparent injury.
Most injury was obtained when they were subjected to the sun's rays


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

immediately after the cold temperature. The young growth of tanger-
ines and grapefruit withstood lower temperatures for a longer period
than any of the sweet orange varieties.

Purnell Project 237 A. L. Stahl and J. C. Cain
Since citric acid has been found to be such an important factor
in the taste and quality of orange juice, a more thorough study than
has previously been attempted was begun on the changes in citric acid
and its salts during maturation of the fruit.
A satisfactory method was devised for the determination of the
salts of citric acid present in the juice in conjunction with the free acid.
This consisted of plotting a conductivity titration curve when the juice
is tritrated with HC1. Values obtained from pure solutions of citric
acid and sodium citrate conformed very closely to those of orange juice.
The following generalizations are made concerning changes in
Parson Brown, Pineapple and Hamlin oranges from Citra, Florida,
during the period August 1937 to February 1940.
1. The total amount of citrate (acid and salt) remained fairly con-
stant throughout the maturing season. There is some indication that this
value reaches its maximum in the early stages of development of the
fruit and declines with senescence.
2. There was a gradual decrease in the total amount of acid and
a gradual increase in the total amount of salt (of citric acid) during the
sampling period, indicating that at least part of the decrease in acid is
due to neutralization by basic ions.
3. The acid concentration decreased by a ratio of 5 to 1 during
the sampling period and the juice volume increased by a ratio of 3
to 1 during the same period. This indicates that a considerable portion
of the decline in acid concentration is due to dilution by growth of the
4. If a theoretical pH is calculated from the measured amounts of
citric acid and citric acid salt, a variation from 2.44 to 3.17 is found
during the sampling period. The variation in the pH, as actually mea-
sured, is from 3.16 to 4.22 over the same period. These differences in-
dicate the presence of some substance in the juice, increasing in amount
during the maturing season, that suppresses ionization of the citric acid.
5. When the ratio pH/mole fraction of salt is plotted against time,
there is a sharp change in the slope of the curve within one week of the
time when the fruit was declared mature and of good taste by personal
judgment. This was three to four weeks after the fruit passed the pres-
ent legal standards for maturity.
6. The specific conductivity of the juice remains fairly constant
over the entire sampling period.
7. The amount of juice per box of fruit reached a maximum
about two weeks after the fruit were personally judged mature.
Attempts by very careful technique to measure fruity esters believed
to be present in the ripe juice revealed no more than a trace of any
ester reaction from a large quantity of juice.
Tests were made for other aromatic substances. It was found that
a very significant measure of aldehydes (including other volatile sub-
stances oxidizable by ceric sulfate) could be obtained from a distillate
from orange juice when distilled under vacuum at low temperatures.
As much as tenfold differences were obtained between juices from ripe
and green fruit.

Annual Report, 1940

Adams Project 268 F. S. Jamison
Additional lime or sulfur was applied to certain of the 42 plots in
an effort to have a wide variation of pH values. During the growing
season the range of values of the soils was pH 5.18 to pH 6.85.
Beans, eggplants, tomatoes and peppers were planted on each plot.
Yield by grades of all crops was secured. The highest yield of beans
occurred on plots having a reaction of pH 5.34 to 5.63. There was a de-
cided decrease in yield when sufficient lime was added to raise the pH
to 5.9 or above, or where sulfur was added in large enough quantities
to lower the acidity to pH 5.3 or lower. Peppers responded to changes
in soil reaction in a manner quite similar to beans. The highest yields
occurred at pH 5.3 to 5.6, while plots having higher or lower pH values
gave decidedly lower yeilds.
The other two crops responded in a somewhat different manner.
Although tomatoes gave the highest yields at pH 5.3 to 5.6, the yields
were exceedingly low at pH 5.6 to 5.9, while above 5.9 the yields were
only silghtly lower than at pH 5.3 to 5.6. The best yield of eggplant
was from plots showing a range of pH values from 5 to 5.3 and from
5.6 to 5.9. The series of plots having a reaction of 5.3 to 5.6, which pro-
duced the highest yield of the other three crops, gave exceedingly
low yields of eggplants; plots having a higher or lower reaction pro-
ducing decidedly better yields. It is believed that the hydrogen-ion con-
centration in the soil had a decided effect upon the development of
certain diseases, although no specific record was taken on this par-
ticular point.
Soil from the various plots were placed in pots during the winter
months. The pots were placed in the greenhouse where beans were
grown in them. The plants and soil were then treated with magnesium,
copper, manganese and certain other minor elements. No differences in
growth response could be observed from the treatments.
State Project 282 F. S. Jamison and Victor F. Nettles
Fifty-one lines of cucumbers were planted. Many plants were killed
and all were damaged by cold. However seed from self-pollinated fruits
were saved from those plants which produced desirable fruit and ex-
hibited considerable resistance to mildew. Seed were saved from 12 of
the most resistant lines that produced good marketable fruits. Seed of
the parent stock also was saved.
In a lettuce variety test, Imperial 847 and Imperial 44 continued
to be outstanding. Imperial 44 apparently will withstand a higher tem-
perature without bolting than will Imperial 847. A number of segre-
gating lines were grown in cooperation with the U.S.D.A. From this ma-
terial seeds of the more desirable strains were saved for additional
Sufficient planting stock of one outstanding variety of pea secured
from the U.S.D.A. Regional Vegetable Breeding Laboratory is now
available, so that it may be evaluated with available commercial va-
rieties. Six additional strains of peas from the same source also were

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The study of pepper and eggplant varieties conducted in cooperation
with the U. S. Department of Agriculture and reported in 1939 was
continued. One variety of pepper was added to the collection. The va-
riety is known as paprika for lack of a better name. It is one of the
varieties grown in Jugoslavia for the production of paprika. The plants
grew and produced an excellent crop of fruit.
Observations were made of a planting of Early Grano onions. This
variety did exceedingly well in comparison with Sweet Spanish or any of
the Bermudas. Spinach, carrots, beets, broccoli and onions were not se-
verely injured by the low temperature that prevailed during January.
State Project 283 F. S. Jamison
The work on this project followed the plan given in previous re-
ports. Various cover crops were planted during the latter half of June
and disked under in early December. All cover crops produced heavy
yields of green material. Potatoes, tomatoes and beans were planted on
the plots during the spring months. Plots on which the cover crop
treatment consisted of allowing the native vegetation to grow produced
the lowest yields of potatoes and beans, while only two other treatments,
Crotalaria intermedia and soybeans, produced lower yields of tomatoes.
The yield of all crops was good on those plots where the crotalaria
was burned. Where mature crotalaria was disked under the yields were
relatively lower than they have been jn the preceding year. This may
be due to the slower rate of decomposition that probably occurred during
the relatively cold winter.
Crotalaria disked under while in full bloom produced the largest
total yield and also the most U. S. No. 1 potatoes. Total yields varied
from 326 bushels per acre where crotalaria in the blossom stage was
the cover crop treatment to 226 bushels where native vegetation was
allowed to grow as a cover crop. Yield of U. S. No. 1 potatoes varied less
widely, from 243 to 152 bushels. Best yield of beans (288 bushels per
acre) was produced following 10 tons of manure applied after mature
crotalaria was disked into the soil. The lowest yield (222 bushels per
acre) was produced following native vegetation. Two hundred sixty-
seven bushels of tomatoes were produced following the mature crota-
laria plus manure treatment, while only 165 bushels were produced
following soybeans.
State Project 314 R. J. Wilmot
Paper White, Grand Monarque, Gloriosa, White Pearl, Soleil d'Or,
and Constantinople narcissus bulbs were divided into lots and fumi-
gated with double the normal dosages of hydrocyanic acid gas or
methyl bromide for the usual exposure of one hour for HCN and 11.
hours for CH3Br. A third lot was held as a check.
These were planted in the field, and harvested under standard
conditions and dried, and counts of the round and mother bulbs and
slabs were made to determine the quantity produced in comparison with
the numbers planted in the different lots treated. Significant increases
were harvested in the following: White Pearl fumigated with HCN,
Gloriosa and Paper White fumigated with HCN and CH3Br. Numbers
harvested of Grand Monarque and Constantinople following either
treatment were the same as the number planted in the different cate-

Annual Report, 1940

gories, but Soleil d'Or fumigated with HCN showed a significant de-
crease in the production of slabs. Apparently none of the bulbs were
damaged by the fumigation treatments, except possibly that the Soleil
d'Or may have been injured to some extent by the HCN. This and the
other phases will be investigated further.
Flowering records were not analyzed because the extreme cold of
January killed the flower spikes in most cases and the bloom was
very erratic.
In cooperation with the Agronomy Department, freshly harvested
leaves of tobacco were treated in the fumigatorium with different con-
centrations of ethylene gas to determine its effect on curing. Ethylene
gas at the rates of 600 cc., 1,200 cc. and 1,800 cc. per 20 cu. ft. did not have
any effect.
State Project 315 R. J. Wilmot
Work on this project has continued and the results indicate that
general statements as to the susceptibility to damage by fumigants
cannot be made but that the injury is specific; that one plant may be
severely burned while a plant of another species is uninjured.
Plants of many varieties representing 38 species were fumigated in
these experiments to determine the effects exerted on them by the
different fumigants.
State Project 316 R. J. Wilmot
This project has been inactive during the year. It is being discon-
tinued and fumigation of seeds in the future will be carried under
Project 314.
Bankhead-Jones Project 319 F. S. Jamison and V. F. Nettles
Vegetables grown in experimental plots at Gainesville did not
produce visible symptoms of secondary element deficiency. Therefore,
soils were collected from nine distinct areas throughout the state where
growing crops exhibited signs of malnutrition. Sample of these soils
were placed in glazed crocks and planted to vegetable crops to de-
termine if the disorders as shown in the field could be reproduced.
Vegetables planted on five of the soils exhibited symptoms of mal-
nutrition. No treatments with the secondary elements were made until
definite malnutrition symptoms occurred. The chlorosis of cabbage, as
shown in Figure 7, occurred when this vegetable was planted on a
soil from the central portion of the state. This condition appeared to
be corrected when manganese as manganese sulfate was added to the
Crops which exhibited visible symptoms were treated with the
secondary elements in the field. Cabbage and sweet potato plantings
were treated by the addition of zinc, magnesium, manganese, boron,
copper and iron to the fertilizer mixture and as a spray application.
In addition, secondary elements have been applied to crops in the
field where no visible symptoms occurred. This was done both at
Gainesville and in growers' fields. No benefits were secured when such
fields were treated by the addition of zinc, boron, copper, manganese and

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Fig. 6.-Chlorosis in the two cabbage plants (right and left) was
corrected by the addition of manganese sulfate under greenhouse con-
ditions. A normal cabbage plant is shown in the center.

State Project 323 J. V. Watkins*
'Complete results of the research with root-inducing substances have
been compiled in manuscript form for publication. The project is being
discontinued with this report. These investigations were made possible
through the assistance and cooperation of the Boyce-Thompson Insti-
Purnell Project 348-A A. L. Stahl and L. H. Rogers
The work so far has been establishing of controlled conditions which
would permit the normal growth of plants. Various processes for the
growing of plants from seed to seed have been studied, in both arti-
ficial light and greenhouse.
Several check lots of soybean plants have been grown in a solu-
tion culture made from Baker's C. P. chemicals from seed to seed,
using the following procedure:
1. Analyses (chemical and spectrographic) of elements in seeds from
which plants are grown.
2. Preparation, purification and spectrographic analyses of nutri-
ents (see 348-B, Soils Department report).
3. Growth of plants in nutrient solutions prepared under (2) and
under controlled conditions, using seeds of known composition (1).
4. Measurement of the amount of nutrients absorbed by the plants
during various intervals of the life cycle.
5. Determination of the amounts, locations and translocations of
the absorbed nutrients in the plants.
These check lots of soybeans are to be compared with similar lots
grown in the same chemicals except that they will have been further
purified (see report on 348-B) or made spectrographically pure with

* Assistant Horticulturist, College of Agriculture.

Annual Report, 1940

respect to the element in question. Barium and strontium are now
being considered.
Light, temperature, humidity, solution cultures and environmental
contaminations are all being controlled.

F. S. Lagasse and Harold M. Sell
The two laboratories and garage, which are the buildings com-
prising the U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations on the
University of Florida campus, were completed during the year.
Some of the tung problems being attacked concern systems of cul-
ture, fertilization, pollination, breeding and selection, relations of growth
and yield, filling of the nuts, as well as hardiness and frost resistance.
The possibilities of using chemicals to retard blossom development in
the spring, in order to reduce frost injury, are also being studied. Du-
ring the first year in the physiological laboratory considerable em-
phasis has been placed on methods of sampling and adapting standard
methods of analysis to tung material.
Great variations exist among even selected tung trees with respect
to total amount of fruit produced, percentage of kernels, percentage of
filling of the kernels, percentage of oil in the kernels and total number
of pounds of oil produced per tree. The means of these various char-
acteristics for the fruit produced in the season of 1938 by 78 selected
trees ranging in age from 7 to 12 years, were found to be as presented
below. It should be pointed out that these data are based upon tung
trees that had been selected from thousands of others as being superior
in one or more respects. Accordingly, the means presented in the follow-
ing tabulations should be considered as above the normal.
1. Yield of air-dry fruit per tree_- -------- ... 62.7 pounds
2. Percentage of oil in the kernel on a dry weight basis --60.8%
3. Percentage of oil in the whole air-dry fruit ..--------- 19.4%
4. Percentage of kernels in the whole fruit -----------..31.8%
5. Percentage of filling in the kernels --_----_..___ 86.4%
6. Total weight of kernels per tree ----- ---- 20.0 pounds
7. Total weight of oil per tree -----------.- 12.2 pounds
The total pounds of whole fruit per tree was found to be significant-
ly correlated (at the 5% value) only with the percentage of filling of the
kernels. The percentage of kernels by weight of the whole fruit was
found to be highly and very significantly correlated (1% value) with the
percentage of oil in the whole fruit. The number of pounds of oil pro-
duced per tree is largely determined by the total number of pounds of
fruit produced per tree. The productivity of a tree should then be given
first consideration in the selection of individuals as parents for possible
varieties for commercial planting.

* Work conducted by the Bureau of Plant Industry, U.S.D.A. in coopera-
tion with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

98 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Celery growers are ever on the alert for better types or varieties,
and the last two years have seen increasing interest in the growing of
green or Pascal type of celery. Seventeen varieties, eight green, seven
golden and two special, were planted at the laboratory and in part on
the properties of two cooperating growers. Most of the varieties were
new to this section. Of the green varieties, Pascal No. 18 produced the
best quality of this type, having well rounded solid ribs of good length
and a good heart. In the golden varieties Supreme Golden was the best,
with excellent long ribs, upright compact growth and very uniform
plants. In considering these results it must be borne in mind that they
cover only one season's plantings.
Cultural work with lettuce has been continued. Test plantings of
spinach, beets, carrots and beans were made to determine whether such
crops suitable for canning purposes could be grown in this section. Very
good results were obtained, especially with spinach as a canning crop
and also for fresh sale.
The usual large number of soil samples were tested for acidity for
growers as well as a considerable number of samples of irrigation water
for salt content and muck or peat samples for organic matter content,
reaction and moisture. To date no increase in salt content of any irri-
gation well tested has been found.
Further attention was given to fern blight and the preparation of
new fungicidal sprays. The work on spray solutions resulted in two
promising formulae, with which first trials were made this past season
on celery.
State Project 252 R. W. Ruprecht
Fertilizer tests were continued. In the source of nitrogen tests fer-
tilizers with 100% inorganic nitrogen, nitrate of soda again produced
the largest yield. Second and third largest yields were obtained from
plots also receiving all their nitrogen from inorganic sources. The chem-
ical organic nitrogen compound uramon when substituted for the natural
organic nitrogen materials in fertilizer mixtures produced just as good
yields. In the phosphoric acid tests basic slag when applied previous
to setting at the rate of two tons per acre produced slightly higher yields
than superphosphate. Colloidal phosphate did not produce as large a
yield as superphosphate. In the source of potash tests muriate of potash
again produced the highest yield. With fertilizer applications made
every two weeks or oftener during a period of low rainfall it can readily
be understood why fertilizers with quickly available inorganic nitrogen
produce best results.

R. W. Ruprecht
Twelve varieties of Iceberg lettuce were tested. Due to the freeze
of January 27 and 28, 1940, which severely injured all those heads near-
ing maturity, it was difficult to draw definite conclusions from the tests.
Two new U. S. D. A. varieties, Numbers 931 and 5, produced the highest
percentage of solid heads and also the largest heads. However both of
these varieties have a tendency to produce seed stalks and it is possible
that with a normal season they would not have produced as large a
percentage of marketable heads as Imperial 847 and 44, which do not


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