• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Credits
 Letter of transmittal
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00025
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1939
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00025
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
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    Index
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        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
Full Text











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT

STATION





Annual Report
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
June 30, 1939









EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of
the Universitys
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director'
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Research
V. V. Bowman, M.S.A., Asst. to the Director
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor'
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor'
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers
K. H. Graham, Business Manager'
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountants

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist'
G. E. Ritehey, M.S., Assoicate2
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman1 '
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandmans
L. M. Thurston, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist'
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarians
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandmans
0. W. Anderson, M.S., Asst. Poultry Husb.s 4
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husbandman'
R. M. Crown, B.S.A., Asst. in An. Husb.3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Husbandman'
L. L. Rusoff, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition*
CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist' a
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologists
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Associates
L. H. Rogers, M.A., Asso. Biochemist
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economisti
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist1
Ruth Overstreet, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist'
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Specialist, Fumigation
Research
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist'
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologists
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistant4
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Assistant Botanist


BOARD OF CONTROL
R. P. Terry, Chairman, Miami
Thomas W. Bryant, Lakeland
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
H. P. Adair, Jacksonville
Chas. P. Helfenstein, Live Oak
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
Michael Peech, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asso. Entomologist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Horticul.
Frederick Boyd, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Engineer2
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Horticulturist Acting in
Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charge2

FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Monticello
Samuel O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist'
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge,
Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist2
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist2
'Head of Department.
21n cooperation with U.S.D.A.
'Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
'On leave.










LIST OF DEPARTMENT REPORTS


Report of Director ...... ... ...............- ......
Report of Business Manager .............-........-.- -...-......
Editorial and Mailing Department -..................---------....-...--
Library .................... ---------.----..- .....-- -- ----..........
Agricultural Economics .......... -.......- .........-..----.--..
Agronomy ................... ................- -- --- -
Animal Husbandry ..............--... ......- ........................
Chem istry and Soils -................ .....- .....- -
Entom ology -................. ..........
Home Economics .... ..... ................... ... -. . -
H horticulture ................ ..... .. ...- ---
Plant Pathology ............ ............. ........................
Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service .......................
Citrus Station ................... ....-. .....- ....-...- ...
Everglades Station .................. --.. ..-. ..- -- --- -- -
North Florida Station ............................ --- ...... .
Sub-Tropical Station ...-...........---- ..-........---------------------- -
West Central Florida Station .............


Page
5
.---------- 5
....... 15
.... . 25
35
... 36
S39
... . 64
81
93
............. 93
.---.-...- 100
S102
117
--- ..... 135
.. 139
.......... 149
-......... 173
S181
...-...-.-.. 194
.. ... 194


Hon. Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1939.
Respectfully,
R. P. TERRY,
Chairman, Board of Control.








Hon. R. P. Terry,
Chairman, Board of Control

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1939, and I request that you transmit
the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of
Florida.
Respectfully,
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida.








-35


- - - Mean (White Dutch, Little Bap and Persian clovers) and Carpet grass (for moist to wet soils)

-30 Mean (California Bur and Little Hop) and Carpet grass (for well rained moist soils)
Carpet grase


I \


-20


/5 /


-15 /


--


- 10


5




2/11 2/20 3/6 3521 3/30 4/13 5/2 5/19 5/30
Fig. 1.- Mean growth curves for clovers adapted to moist to wet soils and to well drained moist soils, as compared with carpet grass. See page 59.


\-_ __ _-










Report for the Fiscal Year Ending

June 30, 1939







Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the work and
investigations of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, together
with the reports of the heads of the several departments and branch sta-
tions, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1939.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.






INTRODUCTION
The scope and character of the activities of the Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations for the fiscal year were not materially changed from the
broad program in effect during the first year of the biennium. Acquisition
of suitable lands permitted initiation of new phases of vegetable research
at the Vegetable Crops Laboratory and rather extensive cultural tests were
inaugurated with flue-cured types of tobacco.
Investigational work was carried on ISg'formal projects which included
several of a cooperative nature with different divisions of the United
States Department of Agriculture and other agencies. As previously, the
fields of work at the Main Station included agricultural economics, animal
husbandry and veterinary medicine, agronomy, chemistry and soils, ento-
mology, home economics, horticulture, and plant pathology. At the branch
stations and field laboratories specialized research was as follows:
Everglades Station, Belle Glade. Problems relating to the
agriculture of the peat and muck soils of the Ever-
glades.
North Florida Station, Quincy. Shade tobacco culture
and diseases, livestock and field crops of northwest
Florida.
Citrus Station, Lake Alfred. Citrus production, including
horticulture, entomology, plant pathology and soils
investigations.
Subtropical Station, Homestead. Subtropical fruits and
crops and winter vegetable production.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


West Central Florida Station (Federal), Brooksville. Live-
stock, pasture and forage crops. (In Cooperation
with U. S. Department of Agriculture.)
Watermelon Laboratory, Leesburg. Watermelon and grape
diseases.
Strawberry Laboratory, Plant City. Strawberry diseases
and insects.
Citrus Disease Laboratory, Cocoa. Root and gumming dis-
eases of citrus.
Potato Laboratory, Hastings. Diseases and culture of po-
tatoes.
Pecan Laboratory, -Monticello. Insects of pecans (Co-
operative with U. S. Department of Agriculture.)
Vegetable Crops Laboratory, Bradenton. Vegetable pro-
duction.
Celery Laboratory, Sanford. Culture and diseases of
celery.
In addition to the above, the Federal-State Horticultural Protection
Service, with headquarters at Lakeland and maintained jointly with the
U. S. Weather Bureau, issued frost forecasts covering all citrus and truck
areas.
Brief reports of progress, reviewing the work and accomplishments of
each for the year, of the several departments and branch stations will be
found under their respective headings.

IMPROVEMENTS AND LAND ADDITIONS
Cooperative projects with the Works Progress Administration have
made possible the construction of much needed farm buildings. At the
Main Station a centrally located farm building unit was constructed con-
sisting of a mule barn, implement shed, fertilizer mixing and storage
building, storage warehouse, farm shop and maintenance buildings. These
modern buildings of brick construction are a great improvement over the
old facilities, now razed, and greatly increase farm management efficiency.
Thirty-five acres of land were cleared under this project. At the North
Florida Station a Works Progress Administration project included the
construction of a farm crops building, an extension to an implement shed,
and three laborers' cottages.
Other construction during the year included a tobacco barn at the
Main Station, a combined insectary and garage at the Pecan Investigations
Laboratory and a caretaker's cottage at the Sub-Tropical Station.
At the Main Station 40 acres of farm land adjoining University proper-
ties were purchased.
DONATIONS

In August 1938 the Board of County Commissioners of Manatee County
donated 80 percent of the purchase price of an excellent tract of vegetable
land consisting of 106 acres at Bradenton. This makes possible a very
material expansion in the work there and the establishment of the Vegeta-
ble Crops Laboratory at that place.
Marcus A. Milam, Sr., of Miami donated three registered Jersey heifer
calves of good breeding.







Annual Report, 1939 7

Mrs. Alfred J. M. Lasch6 of Bunnell made a donation of chemical
equipment and supplies from the laboratory of Dr. Lasche, deceased.
With the aid of donations made by the Florida Agricultural Research
Institute, comprehensive cultural experiments were undertaken with flue-
cured tobacco.
CHANGES IN STAFF

Changes in the Station Staff during the fiscal year were as follows:
0. W. Anderson was appointed Assistant Poultry Husbandman July
1, 1938.
J. W. Wilson was transferred from the Strawberry Laboratory, Plant
City, to the Everglades Station, Belle Glade, as Entomologist, July 1, 1938.
R. 'N. Lobdell was transferred from the Everglades Station, Belle Glade,
to the Strawberry Laboratory, Plant City, as Assistant Entomologist,
July 1, 1938.
F. B. Smith was appointed Microbiologist July 1, 1938.
S. J. Lynch was appointed Assistant Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Sta-
tion, July 1, 1938.
H. Harold Hume, Assistant Director, Research, was appointed Dean
of the College of Agriculture September 1, 1938.
Harold Mowry was appointed Assistant Director, Research, September
1, 1938.
H. S. Wolfe, Horticulturist in Charge, Sub-Tropical Station, Home-
stead, resigned to become Head Professor of Horticulture, College of
Agriculture, September 1, 1938.
Victor F. Nettles was appointed Assistant Horticulturist October 1, 1938.
L. L. Rusoff, Assistant in Animal Nutrition, was granted leave of ab-
sence to pursue graduate studies, October 1, 1938, to June 30, 1939.
R. M. Barnette, Chemist, died October 31, 1938.
V. V. Bowman was appointed Assistant to the Director November 1,
1938.
R. K. Voorhees was granted leave of absence to pursue graduate studies,
November 1, 1938, to May 31, 1939.
L. H. Rogers was granted leave of absence to pursue graduate studies,
November 1, 1938, to June 15, 1939.
Walter Reuther, Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, was granted
further leave of absence November 1, 1938, to July 1, 1939, to pursue
graduate studies.
C. C. Goff, Assistant Entomologist, died January 13, 1939.

FINANCIAL RESOURCES

For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1939, the financial resources, from
State and Federal appropriations, of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations were as follows:







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Federal Hatch and Adams funds ............................................ .$ 30,000.00
Federal Bankhead-Jones fund ............................. ...-- ....- ..... 26,951.00
State funds
Main Station ............................................ 266,356.52
Including laboratories as follows:
Strawberry Investigations, Plant City ............$ 6,321.22
Truck Investigations, Bradenton ................ 21,710.65
Citrus Diseases, Cocoa ................. ................ 3,508.86
Potato Investigations, Hastings ....................... 9,095.07
Pecan Investigations, Monticello .................. 5,066.53
Fumigation Research ........................ ............... 3,062.50
Celery Investigations, Sanford ....................... 10,000.00
Grape Pest Investigations ............................... 3,500.00
Blue Mold Investigations ................ ..... ........... 5,000.00
Watermelon Investigations, Leesburg .......... 7,000.00
Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred ..... ... ........ ........ 46,452.29
Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade ............ ......... 50,626.28
North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy .................. ...... 25,968.00
Subtropical Experiment Station, Homestead ........................... 22,268.63
Frost Forecasting Service (supplementing Federal funds ........ 18,109.50
Other Federal funds, not included above ............................ ... 60,000.00

SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES
An intensive demonstration program on control methods of blue mold
of tobacco seedlings was again conducted this year in the several tobacco
growing counties. Cooperating agencies were the State Plant Board and
the Agricultural Extension Service.
The list of research projects for the year arranged by departments
follows:

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
Project
Number Title Page
73 Agricultural Survey of Some 500 Farms in the General Farming
Region of Northwest Florida ...... ....... ....... ..... ... .................. 36
154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida ................................ 36
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida
C itrus ..................................................................................... 36
317 Prices of Florida Farm Products .................................. ........- .... 37
325 Production Credit for Citrus and Vegetable Growers in Selected
Areas of Florida ........................ ................. .............- .......... .. 37

AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT
20 Peanut Improvement ........................... .............. ................ ....... 39
27A Value of Centipede Grass Pastures as Affected by Soil Character-
istics and Other Factors .......................- ...... .............................. 40
55 Crop Rotation Studies with Corn, Cotton, Crotalaria and Austrian
P eas ...........-..-. .......... ........................ .. .. .... .... ..... ....... 40
56 Variety Test Work with Field Crops ...................... ........ .... 42
105 Improvement of Corn by Selection and Breeding ... ....... 42
163 Corn Fertilizer Experim ents ....................................... ............ .... 43
220 A Study of "Chlorosis" in Corn and Other Field Crop Plants ........ 43
243 A Study of the Development and Deterioration of Roots in Rela-
tion to the Growth of Pasture Plants Under Different Fertilizer
and Cutting Treatments ........................... ................. 44








Annual Report, 1939


Project
Number Title Page
265 Composition Factors Affecting the Value of Sugarcane for Forage
and Other Purposes ................................. ....... -- ----. .... 46
267 Pasture Studies ................ .. ......... -.... --.-------------- ----------------------. 47
295 Effect of Fertilizers on the Yield, Grazing Value, Chemical Com-
position and Botanical Make-Up of Pastures ...................... 47
296 Eradication of Weeds in Tame Pastures ........................-----------... 52
297 Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies ............................. 52
298 Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement ...................................- 53'
299 Growth Behavior and Relative Composition of Range Grasses as
Affected by Burning and the Effect of Burning on Maintenance
of Natural Grass Stands and Upon the Establishment of Im-
proved Grasses ............-.... ................... .-- ...- .. 54
300 Methods of Ridding Land of Objectionable Growths and Obstacles 55
301 Pasture Legumes ...................---.........------ ------ -.. 55
302 A Study of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.)
for Pasture Purposes ..................... .- ........ .........................- 60
303 W after Pasture Studies .... ... ............. ....- ......------- -- -.--- --- ---... ....---- 60
304 Methods of Establishing Permanent Pastures Under Various Con-
ditions ............ ... ... ......................... ....... ...... 62
312 Spacing and Plant Competition in Common Field Corn ................ 62

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY DEPARTMENT

133 Deficiencies in Feeds Used in Cattle Rations ...................-.......... 68
140 Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to Her
Milk and Butterfat Production ..............................---- ...-- .-- .... 69
213 A Study of the Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops .................... 69
215 Beef Cattle Breeding Investigations ...................................... ..- . 70
216 Cooperative Field Studies with Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle .... 70
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations ...............-----.------------- 71
239 The Digestible Coefficients and Feeding Value of Dried Grape-
fruit Refuse and Dried Orange Refuse ...................................... 71
251 The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions
in A nim als .................................................. 72
258 A Study of Plants Poisonous to Livestock in Florida ..................... 72
274 Studies in Fleece and Mutton Production .................. ...... .............. 73
302 A Study of Napier Grass (Pennisetum prprpureum) for Pasture
Purposes ........---.........---...---- ..... .................... 73
307 A Statistical Study of the Relationship Between Temperature and
Egg Weight (Size), Body Weight and Egg Weight, Body
Weight and Production, Age and Egg Weight of Single Comb
W white Leghorn Pullets ................................ ............ .... 74
308 Utilization of Citrus By-Products for Poultry ................................. 74
309 Poultry Breeding ........................ ............ ................................... 75
310 Deficiencies of Peanuts When Used as a Feed for Swine ................ 75
311 Method of Handling Sows and Young Pigs ............... --............. 75
318 The Utilization of Citrus Meal as Swine Feed ............................... 77
320 The Vitamin Content of Shark Liver Oil ..............- ....------------ 77
330 Digestibility of Fresh Napier Grass .................-.--.---------- --------- 77
331 The Comparative Value of Sugarcane Silage, Shocked Sugarcane
and Pasture; Supplemented with Cottonseed Meal, or Cake, in
W entering the Beef Herd ..........-.....................-...- ---- 78
334 Enzootic Bronchopneumonia (Pneumoentiritis) of Dairy Calves.... 78
337 Different Methods of Feeding Grain to Layers ............-............ 79








10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project
Number Title Page
338 Digestibility of Sugarcane Silage .........................................---........ 79
339 The Use of Molasses for Fattening Steers ...................................... 80

CHEMISTRY AND SOILS DEPARTMENT
94 The Effect of Various Fertilizer Formulas ....................................... 82
96 Determination of the Effect of Green Manures on the Composition
of the Soil .......................... ............ ..................... ...........- .........-. 82
201 A Study of the Chemical Composition of the Ash of Florida Fruits
and Vegetables with Reference to the More Unusual Constit-
u en ts ........................................ .......... ...................................... 83
220 A Study of Chlorosis in Corn Plants and Other Field Crops ........ 83
240 The Occurrence and Behavior of Less Abundant Elements in Soils 83
256 The Development of Quantitative Spectrographic Methods for
Agricultural Research .......................... .......... 84
266 Spectrographic Studies of the Composition of Tissues and Corre-
sponding Soils of Normal and Physiologically Diseased Horti-
cultural Crops .......................... ....85
292 The Investigation of Vitamin C Content of Florida Fruits and
V vegetables ................................... ............ ............ .. .......... 85
293 Nutrient Salt Concentration in the Soil with Special Reference to
the Trace Elements ..................................................................... 85
294 Mineral Content of Vegetable Crops with Special Reference to
Iron ..........................-.-- .....-......... ......... ... .........-_..---- --..... 85
306 A Study of the So-Called "Quick Methods" for Determining Soil
Fertility .... ........... ........ ..... ... ...... ........ ... 86
322 Soil and Vegetation Surveys in Relation to Pasture Development
in F lorida .............. .................... .... ................. ....... 86
326 Types and Distribution of Microorganisms in Florida Soils ....... 87
327 The Metabolism and Functional Relationships of Soil Micro-
organisms Under Florida Conditions ............. .......................... 87
328 The Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and
Cropping Systems in Florida ............................ ................... .... 88
329 Methods of Inoculating Legumes in Florida Soils ........................ 88
A The Effect of Type and Treatment of Florida Soils on Yield and
Composition of Farm Crops ............................... .... .... 88
B Effect of Type and Treatment of Florida Soils on Yield and Com-
position of Truck, Bush and Tree Crops (Other Than Citrus) 89
C Effect of Type and Treatment of Florida Soils on Yield and Com-
position of Citrus Fruits ............................... ................ 90
D Classification and Mapping of Florida Soils According to Modern
Survey M ethods .................................................................................. 91

CELERY LABORATORY
252 Soil and Fertilizer Studies with Celery .......................................... 92
324 Pink Rot of Celery .......................... .............. 128
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot ............ 129
336 Early Blight of Celery (Cercospora apii) ....................................... 130

ENTOMOLOGY DEPARTMENT
8 The Florida Flow er Thrips ............................................. ..................... 93
12 Root-Knot Investigations ........................................ .............. .. 94
13 Introduction and Propagation of Beneficial Insects ......................... 94
14 The Larger Plant Bugs ............................... .......... ... ..... 95







Annual Report, 1939 11

Project
Number Title Page
82 Control of Fruit and Nut Crop Insects-Insects Affecting Pecan
T rees ................... ....... ..... ... ... ... .. ....................................... 95
231 The Onion Thrips ...... ...................... ... ...................................... ... 96
232 The Gladiolus Thrips ......... ..... ..... .............. ...... ..................... 96
234 Biology and Control of Florida Aphids ...................................... 96
263 The Pepper W eevil .......... ......... ..............9............ ................... 97
333 Life History, Food Preferences, Ecological Distribution and Con-
trol of the Lubberly Locust .............................................. ............ .. 97

HOME ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
255 An Investigation of Human Dietary Deficiencies in Selected Coun-
ties in Florida, with Special Reference to Nutritional Anemia
in Relation to Composition of Home Grown Foods ..................... 100
270 The Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Several Florida
Honeys .......................................... 101
272 Standardization of Home Canned Tomatoes and Tomato Juice ...... 101

HORTICULTURE DEPARTMENT
47 Cooperative Fertilizer Tests in Pecan Orchards .............................. 102
48 Studies on Varieties of Pecans and Other Horticultural Nut-
Bearing Species ........................ ....................... ............ 103
50 Propagation, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with Tung Oil Trees 104
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and
Methods for Their Propagation .................................. ................ 105
80 Cover-Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards ..................... .................. ... 107
110 Phenological Studies on Truck Crops in Florida ................................ 107
165 Relation of Nitrogen Absorption to Food Storage, Growth and
Reproduction in Pecans ................................................................ 108
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ............................. 108
189 Study on the Preservation of Citrus Juices and Pulps .................. 109
190 Cold Storage Studies of Citrus Fruits .......................................... 110
237 Maturity Studies of Citrus Fruits ......................................... .......... ... 111
268 A Study of the Relation of Soil Reaction to Growth and Yield of
V vegetable Crops ........................................................................ 111
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vegetables
Adapted to Commercial Production in Florida ................................ 112
283 Effects of Green Manure Crops on Growth, Yield and Quality of
Certain Vegetable Crops ..................................... --. ............ 112
314 Fumigation of Horticultural Products ........................................ 113
315 Fumigation of Nursery Stock ...... ......... .....-.........- ............ 113
316 Fumigation of Seeds ..................... ............. ..... -....-.......... 114
319 Effects of Mineral Deficiencies on the Adaptability of Certain
Vegetable Varieties to Florida ........................................................ 114
323 Value of Certain Root-Inducing Substances in Rooting Cuttings
of V various Plants ........................................... .... ......................... 114
Vegetable Crops Laboratory Report ....................... .................. 115

PLANT PATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT
130 Studies Relative to Disease Control of White (Irish) Potatoes .... 117
143 Investigation and Control of Brown Rot of Potatoes and Closely
Related Plants Caused by Bacterium solanacearum E. F. S....... 118
146 A Comparative Study of Forms of Diplodia Resembling Diplodia
frum enti ........-........... ....... ........ .............. ................... 119







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Project
Number Title Page
150 Investigations of and Control of Fusarium Wilt, a Fungous Dis-
ease of Watermelons Caused by Fusarium niveum ........................ 119
151 Investigation of and Control of Fungous Diseases of Watermelons 119
180 Control of Wilt of Tomatoes (Fusarium lycopersici Sacc.) in
Florida ............... ------......--......-...- --.....-... --................ ........-....-- -- 120
181 Clitocybe Mushroom Root Rot of Citrus and Other Woody Plants
in F lorida ... -........................... .. .............................. .................... 121
242 Investigations of a Bark Disease of Tahiti Lime Trees .................. 121
254 Investigations of Fruit Rots of Grapes ...................... ---................. ..... 122
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants ............ 123
269 Host Relations and Factors Influencing the Growth and Para-
sitism of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. ................................................. 123
273 Investigation of a Hitherto-unreported Disease of Beans in Flor-
ida Caused by an Aerial Species of Rhizoctonia ........................... 124
281 Causes of Failure of Seed and Seedlings in Various Florida Soils
and Development of Methods for Prevention ................................ 125
284 A Comparative Study of the Pathogenicity and Taxonomy of
Species of Alternaria, Macrosporium, and Stemphylium ............ 126
313 Control of Diseases of Potatoes and Vegetable Crops Caused by
R hizoctonia ................................................... .................................. 126
324 Pink Rot of Celery Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.)
M assee ....-..........................................----.. ..-- .......-....... ....... -- .....-- 127
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot ............ 128
336 Early Blight of Celery (Cercospora apii) ............................................ 129

FEDERAL-STATE HORTICULTURAL PROTECTION SERVICE

No outlined projects; report of progress ........................................... 135

CITRUS STATION
21 Dieback of Citrus ................ ........-- -_ .... .....-...........-- ................. 139
24 Citrus Scab and Its Control ..........- ......... .......-.... .......... ... 141
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection ....- ........ ..............- 141
102 Variety Testing and Breeding .... .. -- -... ...................... ........ 141
- Citrus Soils Investigations .................................... .....- ........------......... 142
111 Fundamental Physiology of Fruit Production ....... .......................... 143
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-End Rots of Citrus Fruits.... 144
233 Control of Purple Scale and Whiteflies with Lime-Sulfur ................ 145
238 Studies on the Effect of Zinc and Other Unusual Mineral Supple-
ments on the Growth of Horticultural Crops .................................. 147
266 Spectrographic Studies of the Composition of Tissues and Corre-
sponding Soils of Normal and Physiologically Diseased Horti-
cultural Crops .................... .........-.............. ....- ....-- ......- ...--- 148

EVERGLADES STATION
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings .... 152
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Con-
dition s .............-.......................... ... ... ...... .. ........ ........................ 153
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ...... .................. .................. ......... 154
88 Soils Investigations ................ ..-- ................ ..... ......... ............ 155
89 W ater Control Investigations ..... ...... ......... ......... 156
90 Crop Rotation Studies .................... ...... ....... ...-.. ...-.. .... ...- 157








Annual Report, 1939


Project
Number Title Page
168 Studies Upon the Role of Special Elements in Plant Develop-
ment Upon the Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades .............. 157
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugarcane Moth
Borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fab. ................................................... 158
170 Studies of the Prevalence and Control of Rodents Under Field
and Village Conditions ........ ......... ........................... 159
171 Cane Breeding Experiments ........... ................. .... ... ........... 159
172 Physiology of Blooming of Sugarcane ............................................. 160
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Ever-
g lades .............................................. ...... ........ .............. ............ 160
202 Agronomic Studies with Sugarcane .................. ..-...--- .............. 162
203 Forage Crop Investigations .................-........ .-------------........... 163
204 Grain Crop Investigations ..................... ...-....-.. .................- 163
205 Seed Storage Investigations ............................-...-.........--...-. 164
206 Fiber Crop Investigations ........ ................. ............... .......... 164
208 Agronomic Studies Upon the Growth of Syrup and Forage Cane
in F lorida ........... ................... ............................. ................ 164
209 Seed and Soil-Borne Diseases of Vegetable Crops ............................ 165
210 Leaf Blights of Vegetable Crops ....................... ............... 167
211 Physiological Phases of Plant Nutrition .......................................... 168
212 Relation of Organic Composition of Crops to Growth and Maturity 169
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations ................................. 169
332 Varietal Comparisons with Various Species of Truck Crops at
D different Fertility Levels ................................................ ............... 170
335 Diseases of Celery Other Than Early Blight and Pink Rot ............ 171
336 Early Blight of Celery (Cercospora apii) ......................................... 171

NORTH FLORIDA STATION

25 Field and Laboratory Studies of Tobacco Diseases ......................... 173
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco ....................................... 173
191 Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Florida Shade Tobacco
Seeds and Early Growth of Seedlings .............................. ............. 175
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations .................................. 175
241 Efficiency of the Trench Silo for Preservation of Forage Crops
as Measured by Chemical Means and by Utilization of the
Nutrients of Silage by Cattle .................. .................................. ... 176
257 Columbia Sheep Performance Investigations ................................. 176
260 Grain Crop Investigations ... ......... .................................. ............... 177
261 Forage Crop Investigations .......... ........................ ................ 178
301 Pasture Legumes ..................................... ..................... 179
305 Comparison of the Economic Value of Various Grazing Crops for
Fattening Feeder Pigs .... .................... .. ......................- .. 179
321 Control of Downy Mildew of Tobacco .......................................... 180

SUB-TROPICAL STATION

275 Citrus Culture Studies ... .......................................... 181
276 Avocado Culture Studies ..-......... .- .. .. ............................. ............. 182
277 Forestation Studies ............ .... ............... .. ..... ... .. ... .... ... 183
278 Improvement of Tomatoes Through Selection of New Hybrids ...... 183
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals .................................... 184
280 Studies of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ................................... 185







14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Project
Number Title Page
285 Potato Culture Investigations ................................... ............ .... 187
286 Tomato Culture Investigations .................................... ... ..---- 188
287 Cover Crop Studies .......................................... .......... ...... ........-- 188
288 Varietal Tests of Carrots, Corn and Other Vegetable Crops ......... 189
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County .................................... 190
290 A Study of Diseases of the Avocado and Mango and Development
of Control M measures ........ ............................... .... .. ...... .. 191
291 Control of Tomato Diseases by Spraying ..................-............. 193

WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION
- Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle ............................ ................. 194
- Grasses and Forage Crops ........................ ....................... ........ 194
224 The Use of Peanuts and Peanut Products in Rearing Turkeys .... 195
227 Egg Production and Mortality from Pullets Reared Under Con-
finement Versus Range Conditions ............................ -............-. .. 195







Annual Report, 1939 15



REPORT OF BUSINESS MANAGER


MAIN EXPERIMENT STATION
Balance, 1937-38 ............................. ....................... $ 322.19
Receipts, 1938-39 .................................... ...................... 165,229.50

Total ...................... .... .. $165,551.69

Expenditures:
Salaries ..................... ............... ................. $ 78,702.85
Labor ...................................... ............ 36,007.50
Stationery and office supplies .............................. 720.42
Scientific supplies ....................... .........-..... 2,430.89
Feeding stuffs ....................... ........ 8,947.12
Fertilizers ...................................... 697.45
Sundry supplies ........................... .............. 2,766.66
Telephone and telegraph ................................ ..... 1,073.62
Travel ................................. ........ ...... .... ..- 5,810.58
Freight, express, parcel post .............................. 1,312.20
Publications .................................... 7,423.57
Heat, light, water, power ............................ 6,725.21
Contingent expense .. ..................................... 1,258.03
Furniture, fixtures ........ ............ ........ ........... 1,019.99
Library ....................................... 2,174.74
Scientific equipment ......................................... 2,003.21
Tools, machinery, appliances ................................ 2,875.78
Livestock .................. ---.............. .. ... ...... 61.86
New buildings and structures .............................. 1,973.35
Non-structural improvements .............................. 50.28
Repairs and alterations ......................................... 1,516.38

Total .............................................. $165,551.69


STRAWBERRY INVESTIGATIONS
Balance, 1937-38 .................................. .................. $ 21.22
Receipts, 1938-39 ........ ......................... ........... 6,300.00

$ 6,321.22
Expenditures: $ 6,321.22
Salaries ........ ..........5...... ........... ........ $ 5,300.00
Labor .............. ......... ....... ..... 655.00
Scientific supplies ...--........-- ......... ...... .. 61.98
Sundry supplies ................... ............... .. ......... 146.37
Telephone and telegraph .................................. 15.08
Travel ........- ........... ...... ..... ....... .. .. ...... 18.15
Freight, express, parcel post ......................-....- 1.55
Heat, light, water, power ............................. 67.69
Library ......... . ............................... 4.05
Scientific equipment .................... ....- ..... ..... 10.00
Tools, machinery, appliances .......................... 37.50
Repairs and alterations .......... ....... ............. 3.85

Total ......................... ........................ $ 6,321.22










16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TRUCK LABORATORY
Balance, 1937-38 ............................... ........ 6,710.65
Receipts, 1938-39 ........................................ ........... 15,000.00
$ 21,710.65
Expenditures:
Salaries .............. ---. ...................$ 6,183.50
Labor ......... ............... ............... .......-- .......... 3,490.36
Stationery and office supplies ................. .. 41.61
Scientific supplies ..................................... 80.87
Feeding stuffs .. ........- -----...---...... 127.25
Fertilizers .............-- .. ...... . ... -...... .. 259.46
Sundry supplies ...... ................ .... .. ...........- .. 309.79
Telephone and telegraph ........... ......... ...........- 74.34
Travel ...........................----.. ..... ... .. .......... 757.45
Freight, express, parcel post .................-....... 27.06
Heat, light, water, power ........ ..............- ........... 114.66
Contingent expense .................................... -.. ... 8.30
Furniture, fixtures ..........-....... ...... ...... ....... 654.16
Scientific equipment .................... ......................... 998.50
Tools, machinery, appliances ................................ 1,331.03
Livestock ..................... ..... ..................... .... 150.00
New buildings and structures ............................... 604.44
Non-structural improvements ........................... 1,025.01
Repairs and alterations ................... ...........- 472.86
Purchase of land ............. ............. 5,000.00

Total ..... .. ... ..................... .. $ 21,710.65


CITRUS DISEASES
Balance, 1937-38 ................................. ........$ 8.86
Receipts, 1938-39 ..... ........ ........... .......... 3,500.00
$ 3,508.86
Expenditures:
Salaries ----...........-.. .......... .....----..........$ 3,060.00
Scientific supplies .. .............. ..- ....... ........ 6.64
Telephone and telegraph ..................................... 3.16
Travel ...................... .................. 255.01
L library ............................................ ........................ 4.05
Rent of laboratory, office, garage ..................... 180.00


Total ....


$ 3,508.86








Annual Report, 1939

POTATO DISEASES


Balance, 1937-38 .....
Receipts, 1938-39 ...


Expenditures:
Salaries ..-........ ....-.. ...............-
Labor .............. ............... ................. .........
Stationery and office supplies .........-..-..-
Scientific supplies .................................
F ertilizers ............. ... . ........ ........- ....
Sundry supplies ........................................
Telephone and telegraph ...........................
Travel ........................... ............ ... ..
Freight, express, parcel post ....................
Heat, light, water, power .......................
Contingent expense ..................... ..........
Furniture, fixtures ......... ..........................
Library ........................................
Scientific equipment ..............................
Tools, machinery, appliances .....................
Non-structural improvements .................

T otal ............. -.....- .......


LABORATORY AT HASTINGS
- --...-- - -- --........ ... ..... ........ ... $ 74.74
................................ ........... 2,000.00


Expenditures:
Labor ........................-....... ..... ..-........ ..
Stationery and office supplies .................
Scientific supplies ...........................
Fertilizers .................. .... ........................
Sundry supplies ......................................
Telephone and telegraph ......................
Heat, light, water, power ..........................
Contingent expense _...............................
Tools, machinery, appliances ..........-....
Repairs and alterations .....................

T otal ............... ...... .


$ 2,074.74


.........$ 1,215.30
.....-... 33.69
.......... 117.39
.....-.- .. 7.75
.......... 112.50
.-.. .... .78
. -....... 161.00
...- ... 23.57
........ 77.31
........ 325.45


$ 2,074.74


..-.$ 1,020.33
6,000.00



.- $ 4,100.00
903.38
1.50
... 108.05
120.18
204.87
37.90
..... 684.50
.... 58.42
... 14.75
2.50
.. 109.12
. 2.00
.. 276.77
84.25
.. 312.14


$ 7,020.33

















$ 7,020.33


Balance, 1937-38 ...
Receipts, 1938-39 ..







18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

PECAN INVESTIGATIONS
Balance, 1937-38 .............. .......................................$ 916.53
Receipts, 1938-39 ......... ................................. ... ... 4,150.00

$ 5,066.53
Expenditures:
Salaries ................................... .- .. ... ...... $.......$ 2,800.00
Labor .................... ........................ ..... ...... 323.00
Stationery and office supplies .................-....... 59.00
Scientific supplies ................................ ....... 120.34
Feeding stuffs ........ .... ......... .................... ..... 30.00
Fertilizers ................................... .... ... ....... 276.20
Sundry supplies ................ .......... ............ 141.72
Travel .................... ............. ........... 62.95
Heat, light, water, power ................................. 26.48
Contingent expense ....... .......................... .. .. ... 25.38
Furniture, fixtures .............................. ......... 77.06
Tools, machinery, appliances .................................. 147.80
New buildings and structures ............................... 848.41
Repairs and alterations ......................................... 45.69
Rent of laboratory, office, garage ........................ 82.50 -

Total ................... ............... ...... $ 5,066.53



CELERY INVESTIGATIONS
B balance, 1937-38 ............................. ................... ..$ .00
Receipts, 1938-39 ..................................... .... ........ 10,000.00

$ 10,000.00
Expenditures: $ 10,000.00
Salaries ..................... .................................... $ 6,900.00
Labor ................ ........................ ...................... 1,520.12
Stationery and office supplies ........................... 16.58
Scientific supplies ...................................... .... .... 296.43
Feeding stuffs .................................. ...... 1.60
F ertilizers ..... ... .................. ..................... 235.09
Sundry supplies .................................. .. ....... 190.53
Telephone and telegraph ................................. 86.58
Travel ......................................... ............ 232.55
Freight, express, parcel post ................................. 12.22
Heat, light, water, power ........................................ 274.39
Contingent expense ....................... ............... 24.00
Furniture, fixtures ............................................ 39.50
Scientific equipment ........ ................. ............. 82.50
Tools, machinery, appliances ...................-........... 86.11
Repairs and alterations ......................... ............ 1.80


Total .............................................


$ 10,000.00








Annual Report, 1939


GRAPE PEST INVESTIGATIONS

Balance, 1937-38 ................ ............... $ .00
Receipts, 1938-39 ......... ............. ........ 3,500.00


Expenditures:
Salaries ..................... .................
Labor ....................................... .. -
Scientific supplies ......................... .....
F ertilizers .......... .........................
Sundry supplies ..... ..... ... ......................
Telephone and telegraph .........................
Travel ................................ ...... ..............
Heat, light, water, power .......................
Tools, machinery, appliances .................
Repairs and alterations ..........................

T otal ........... ........ ..............


........$ 2,820.00
--.-.... 312.14
.. 22.02
... 20.25
........ 15.86
-....... 33.65
........ 231.25
........ 17.08
.- --... 9.00
........ 18.75


WATERMELON INVESTIGATIONS

Balance, 1937-38 ................................... ........................$ .00
Receipts, 1938-39 .............. ................... 7,000.00


Expenditures:
Salaries ................ .. ........... ............... 5,017.74
L ab or .................................................................. .... 702.54
Stationery and office supplies ........-............. .40
Scientific equipment ......................................... 138.37
Fertilizers ................ .. ..... ................... .. ...... 174.60
Sundry supplies ................................... ....... 51.04
Telephone and telegraph .....................-......... 83.32
Travel ........................................ ............... ....... 346.95
Freight, express, parcel post .............................. 11.66
Heat, light, water, power ................................... 148.52
L library ........................................ .. ............. .. 3.50
Scientific equipment ................................ 111.47
Tools, machinery, appliances ............................ 128.29
Repairs and alterations ................................... 78.60
Rent of land ......................... ......... .. 3.00

Total ...... ..... --- ........ .


$ 3,500.00












$ 3,500.00


$ 7,000.00


$ 7,000.00


....



....
....







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HORTICULTURAL PROTECTION SERVICE
Balance, 1937-38 ........................... ...- .--. ...... $ 109.50
Receipts, 1938-39 ........................ ...... .......... .... ....... 18,000.00


Expenditures:


Salaries .................--........ ............. .
Stationery and office supplies ...........- .
Scientific supplies .................................
Sundry supplies ..........................-..
Telephone and telegraph ......................
T ravel ............... --......... .. ...............
Freight, express, parcel post ..............-
Contingent expense ..................................
Furniture, fixtures ..............................
Scientific equipment .............................
Tools, machinery, appliances ...............
Repairs and alterations ..........................

T otal ............ ... ... .- ..........


.......$ 1,380.00
......... 80.53
........ 10.25
....... 44.95
.-..-.. 3,039.48
....... 8,116.50
.. 77.88
.... 3.50
.. 357.53
....... 4,948.03
...-... 48.50
...--.. 2.35


CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION


Balance, 1937-38 ..........
Receipts, 1938-39 .........


Expenditures:
Salaries ............ ...... ............... ..
Labor ...... -..................... .................
Stationery and office supplies ...............
Scientific supplies ..............................--
Feeding stuffs .....................................
Fertilizers ....... -- ............................
Sundry supplies .................................
Telephone and telegraph ..........................
Travel ...................................... ......
Freight, express, parcel post...................
Heat, light, water, power ............-.........
Contingent expense ................... ........
Furniture, fixtures ................................
Library ...................... ..-.... ..........
Scientific equipment ................... ..........-
Tools, machinery, appliances .................
Repairs and alterations ..............-........
Non-structural improvements .................

Total .......... .......-


...........$ 1.29
S.......... 46,451.00



..........$ 20,292.00
............. 13,066.53
......... 122.96
.......... 2,203.13
............ 226.46
............ 1,366.87
.-........ 317.60
- ....- .... 255.07
........... 2,508.55
............ 104.98
............. 1,262.52
-.....-.. 173.06
-..... ... 241.79
-..-..- .. 207.60
.......- ... 1,051.70
.. 1,057.99
... 1,518.48
....- ...- 475.00


$ 18,109.50













$ 18,109.50


$ 46,452.29


$ 46,452.29







Annual Report, 1939

EVERGLADES STATION


Balance, 1937-38 ..................... ........
Receipts, 1938-39 ............... ............


.$ 287.28
. 45,339.00


Expenditures:
Salaries ............................. .....................---$----- 18,167.49
L abor ...................................... ......... ...... .. 16,375.68
Stationery and office supplies ............................... 198.53
Scientific supplies ................. ..... ............. 898.78
Feeding stuffs ............-..-..... ............ .... ........... 428.80
F ertilizers ........................ .......... ..... ..... ........ 351.17
Sundry supplies ..............-.... ....... ...... ........ 1,025.01
Telephone and telegraph ......................-....-... 187.80
Travel .................................... 593.98
Freight, express, parcel post ........................... 117.49
Heat, light, water, power ..... ........................ 2,658.05
Contingent expense .-.... ........ ..... -.........-.. 251.34
Furniture, fixtures ..... .......... ......... ....- 32.78
Library ................. ... ....- .. ...- ... 157.53
Scientific equipment ...........--........................ 278.20
Tools, machinery, appliances ................ ..........- 2,854.55
Repairs and alterations .............. ...... ..- 989.10
R ent ................................. ..- .......... 60.00
T otal .... ...... ... .... ..


NORTH FLORIDA STATION

Balance, 1937-38 .......................... ....- ..$ .00
Receipts, 1938-39 ........ .............................. ............. 25,968.00

Expenditures:
Salaries .........--....... ....-.. ......- ....... -.......... $ 9,690.00
L abor ........... ................... .. ....... ......... ......... .. 8,381.13
Stationery ....... ............ ....-..... ............ .........-.. 18.00
Scientific supplies ............. ............... .......... 210.95
Feeding stuffs ....... ..-.......... ................... 1,246.55
F ertilizers ............................ ............ ......- 1,176.15
Sundry supplies ...... ...... ............... ... 875.40
Telephone and telegraph ........... ........ .... 125.83
Travel ................... .......... ...- .......- 240.45
Freight, express, parcel post ................ ...-.. 243.99
Heat, light, water, power ............................. 749.30
Contingent expense .......................................... ... 108.29
Library ......................... ... .......... ... ..-.... 17.20
Scientific equipment ..........................-........... 13.55
Tools, machinery, appliances .............. .......... 2,023.47
Repairs and alterations --................................ 847.74

Total ......... -


$ 45,626.28


$ 45,626.28


$ 25,968.00


$ 25,968.00







22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

SUB-TROPICAL STATION
Balance, 1937-38 ............ .... ............................$ 1,268.63
Receipts, 1938-39 .............................. ......... ...... ...... 21,000.00

$ 22,268.63
Expenditures:
Salaries .................. ............................................. $ 8,796.00
Labor .................................... ............................... 5,191.75
Stationery and office supplies ................... ...... 77.36
Scientific supplies ................. .............................. 223.07
Feeding stuffs .............. .............. .......... ............... 28.80
F ertilizers .......... ............... ....... ............ ........ 971.68
Sundry supplies ...................................... ....... 560.29
Telephone and telegraph ............................. 128.83
T ravel .......................... ......................... 935.00
Freight, express, parcel post ................. ...... ... 77.62
Heat, water, light, power ............................... 753.05
Contingent expense .......................... .............. 186.41
Furniture, fixtures .......................................... 163.05
L library ....... ..................................................... 29.58
Scientific equipment ........................................ 98.24
Tools, machinery, appliances ................................. 1,386.53
New buildings and structures ............................ 1,562.76
Non-structural improvements .............................. 960.00
Repairs and alterations ....................................... 138.61

Total ..--....-...................... ...... ........ $ 22,268.63


SPECIAL DAIRY INVESTIGATIONS
Balance, 1937-38 .............. ...........................$ .00
Receipts, 1938-39 ............................ ................... 15,540.00

$ 15,540.00
Expenditures:
Salaries ....................................................$ 5,227.00
Labor .................... ........................................ 3,879.61
Stationery and ottice supplies ......................... 84.30
Scientific supplies ...... ............... .... ...... 231.79
Feeding stuffs ......................... ............... 43.50
Sundry supplies ................... .............................. 2,037.11
Telephone and telegraph .................................. 8.18
Travel ..................... ..... ....... ........ 71.25
Freight, express, parcel post ................................ 116.85
Heat, water, light, power ............................. 1,508.56
Contingent expense .............................................. 207.11
Furniture, fixtures ............................................... 79.86
Library ...................................... .......................... 25.44
Scientific equipment ........................................... 70.17
Tools, machinery, appliances ................................. 1,183.47
Repairs and alterations ................................. 765.80


Total ....


$ 15,540.00








Annual Report, 1939 23

SPECIAL POULTRY INVESTIGATIONS
Balance, 1937-38 ...........................- .............. $ .00
Receipts, 1938-39 ........................................ ... ...... 11,000.00
$ 11,000.00
Expenditures:
Salary ..... ....... ..........$. 6,760.00
Labor ........ ...................................... 1,504.98
Scientific supplies ....- ............................... .. 353.40
Feeding stuffs ............. ........................... ..-. 1,569.52
Sundry supplies ............................................. 160.96
Telephone and telegraph .................................. 9.46
Travel ............................................ ........................... 159.25
Heat, light, water, power ................................... 130.42
Scientific equipment .................................- .. 90.99
Tools, machinery, appliances ................ ....... 156.80
Livestock ........................................ ............... ... 28.45
Repairs and alterations .............. ................... 75.77

T otal ................................................................... $ 11,000.00

FUMIGATION RESEARCH
Balance, 1937-38 $........... ............. ....... ........ $ .00
Receipts, 1938-39 ................... ...... .... ..........-- ..- 3,062.50
$ 3,062.50
Expenditures:
Salaries ......... ... ......................................... $ 3,062.50

T otal .................. ... ... ............................... $ 3,062.50

EVERGLADES CONTINUING-CHAPTER 8442
Balance, 1937-38 ............... ..................................$ .00
Receipts, 1938-39 ...............-.... ................. ................ 5,000.00
$ 5,000.00
Expenditures:
Salaries .................... ........$....... ........................... .$ 4,997.00
L ab or .......................................................... ............ 3.00
T otal .......................... ...................................... $ 5,000.00

BLUE MOLD OF TOBACCO
Balance, 1937-38 ............... .............. .....................$ .00
Receipts, 1938-39 .................................... .... .............. 5,000.00
$ 5,000.00
Expenditures:
Salaries .................... ................................................. $ 2,976.00
Labor ........................................ 1,790.64
Stationery and office supplies ................ ........ 13.33
Scientific supplies .............................................. 51.67
Telephone and telegraph ........................................ 20.69
Travel ...................................................... ...... ... 51.80
Heat, light, water, power ................... ............ 54.11
Scientific equipment ................................ ..... 31.76
Tools, machinery, appliances ............................. 10.00


T otal ........ .. ........ ... ...... ........ .......


$ 5,000.00















FEDERAL HATCH, ADAMS, PURNELL AND BANKHEAD-JONES FUNDS


Hatch


Receipts from the Treasury of the United States, as
per appropriations for fiscal year ended June 30, 1939

Expenditures:
Personal services .............................
Supplies and materials ..................................
Communication service .............. ............
Travel expenses ...... ......... ......... ......
Transportation of things ..............................
Heat, light, water, and power ................
Contingent expenses ................... .......
Equipm ent ....................... ........... ........
Buildings and land ............... .. ........

TOTA L ...... ...................................... .......


$15,000.00


15,000.00

|I


Adams



$15,000.00

13,350.00
79.89

11.51


1,558.60


Purnell



$60,000.00

52,534.95
3,385.84
3.75
2,509.79
28.95
37.07

1,496.41
3.24


$15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000.00


Bankhead
Jones


$26,951.43


17,623.21
2,558.60
5.42
1,269.42
48.66
S565.78
8.20
3,475.20
1,396.94

$26,951.43







Annual Report, 1939


EDITORIAL AND MAILING DEPARTMENT

There has been an increase during the year both in the amount of in-
formation available as a result of research at this Station and in demand
for information of this type. Experiment Station findings with positive
value to the State's farmers and growers are accepted and adopted as soon
as the results are available, sometimes even before final conclusions have
been drawn and announced.
Every effort is made to keep the public informed of research results,
both new and old, having direct application and value to farming operations.
Bulletins, newspapers, farm journals, radio, and related media are widely
used in disseminating recently acquired facts and in reviewing previously
gained information of current interest.
The three Editors and three Mailing Clerks devote approximately one-
half of their time to work for the Experiment Station, the other half being
given to Agricultural Extension Service duties.

PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLICATIONS
There was a noticeable increase in number of both bulletins and press
bulletins over the preceding year, the total pages of bulletins rose 34 percent
while total number of copies of bulletins increased 30 percent. Of the 14
new bulletins printed during the year, 11 were popular and three technical
in nature. They amounted to 492 pages, and a total of 133,500 copies was
printed. Bulletins ranged in size from 12 to 68 pages, editions varied from
4,000 to 25,000 copies.
Distribution of both bulletins and press bulletins is handled in the Mail-
ing Room, and close to 100,000 copies of the former and an equal or larger
number of the latter leave the shelves annually. The great majority go to
residents of Florida who are directly interested in farm and grove opera-
tions, although from 1,500 to 2,000 copies of each new bulletin are mailed
to libraries and scientific workers throughout the world. Requests in con-
siderable number for some of this Station's bulletins are received from out-
side of Florida.
Except to libraries and scientific workers, bulletins are mailed only on
request. A mailing list of approximately 5,000 names is maintained to give
notice of the appearance of new bulletins. The Station's bulletins also are
distributed through county agents to people who request them.
The new bulletins printed during the year, with pages and number of
copies of each, are listed below.
Bul. Title Pages Edition
322 Hemorrhagic Septicemia: The Significance of Pasteur-
ella boviseptica Encountered in the Blood of Som3
Florida Cattle ......-........... .......... .... .... ... ................... 24 6,000
323 Ornamental Hedges for Florida .... ........................ 32 12,000
324 Grape Growing in Florida .............. ..... .............. 36 10,000
325 Preliminary Pasture Clover Studies ................................ 24 10,000
326 Tests of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco Varieties Resistant
to Blackshank ............................................ .............. 20 7,500
327 Lysimeter Studies with the Decomposition of Summer
Cover Crops ...........................---- ..--- ... ----- -............. 44 6,000
328 Nutritional Anemia and Its Prevention ............... ....... 12 6,000
329 Utilization and Storage of Florida Grapes ............... 16 6,000
330 Downy Mildew (Blue Mold) of Tobacco ........................ 28 7,500
331 Relation of Magnesium Deficiency in Grapefruit Leaves
to Yield and Chemical Composition ............................... 36 7,500







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


332 Nailhead Spot of Tomato Caused by Alternaria tomato
(Cke.) N Comb .......................................................... 56 4,000
333 A Fertility Program for Celery Production on Ever-
glades Organic Soils ................................... ...... ....- .... 40 6,000
334 The Soils of Florida ................. .................. ................. ... 68 20,000
335 Some Symptoms of Citrus Malnutrition in Florida ........ 56 25,000

REVIEW OF NEW BULLETINS
322. Hemorrhagic Septicemia: The Significance of Pasteurella bovi-
septica Encountered in the Blood of Some Florida Cattle. (D. A. Sanders,
24 pp., 1 fig.) Although P. boviseptica is frequently encountered in the blood
and internal organs of Florida cattle, in the light of present experimental
evidence it cannot be credited as having any special etiological significance
in this section.
323. Ornamental Hedges for Florida. (Harold Mowry and R. D.
Dickey, 32 pp., 23 figs.) Presents suggestions on selection of plants, time
of planting, preparation of soil, handling and setting, pruning or shearing,
kinds of outline, and species and varieties adapted to hedges.
324. Grape Growing in Florida. (R. D. Dickey and Kenneth W.
Loucks, 36 pp., 14 figs.) Only a few varieties of the American bunch type,
mostly Florida Beacon, Carman and Niagara, are now grown in Florida,
and none of the vinifera varieties is satisfactory. Of the muscadine type,
Scuppernong, James, Thomas and Flowers are the principal ones grown.
Hints are given on selection of vineyards, propagation and planting of
grapes, disease and insect control.
325. Preliminary Pasture Clover Studies. (Roy E. Blaser, 24 pp., 12
figs.) Reports on preliminary tests which indicate that clovers, particularly
White Dutch, can be grown in Florida if conditions for success are met.
The soil must be supplied with lime, phosphorus and potash, it must be moist
in winter, and the seeds must be carefully inoculated.
326. Tests of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco Varieties Resistant to Blackshank.
(L. O. Gratz and Randall R. Kincaid, 20 pp., 1 fig.) Four new varieties of
shade tobacco are resistant to blackshank disease, and yield well. Of these,
at least Rg and 301 produce leaf that is acceptable to the trade. Others
of merit are 94-2 and 94-4.
327. Lysimeter Studies with the Decomposition of Summer Cover Crops.
(R. M. Barnette, H. W. Jones and J. B. Hester, 44 pp., 3 figs.) Crotalaria
incorporated with the soil in lysimeter produced slightly better growth of
rough lemon seedlings than did that used as a mulch. However, when
Natal grass was incorporated with the soil or used as a mulch it reduced
the growth of rough lemon seedlings below that of the check plot. Crota-
laria, both as a mulch and incorporated, decomposed more rapidly than did
Natal grass.
328. Nutritional Anemia and Its Prevention. (Ouida Davis Abbott
and Chester F. Ahmann, 12 pp., 0 figs.) Most outstanding cause of anemia
among school children and pregnant women in Florida is lack of iron in the
diet. The trouble is prevented by use of foods high in iron. But when
blood hemoglobin falls to anemic levels the administration of iron salts,
under a doctor's prescription, becomes necessary.
329. Utilization and Storage of Florida Grapes. (Ouida Davis Abbott
and K. W. Loucks, 16 pp., 0 figs.) Best use found for Florida grapes, in
addition to those served fresh, was in preparation of sweet juices. Those
tested did not contain sufficient pectin for commercial jelly making, but
could be used for home jellies. Storage of grapes in commercial ice storage







Annual Report, 1939


rooms seems economically possible, if the fruits can be used soon after re-
moval from storage.
330. Downy Mildew (Blue Mold) of Tobacco. Randall R. Kincaid and
W. B. Tisdale, 28 pp., 12 figs.) Vapor treatments with benzol or paradi-
chlorobenzene are highly effective in controlling downy mildew in tobacco
seedbeds. Spraying with red copper oxide-oil emulsion are inexpensive and
fairly effective.
331. Relation of Magnesium Deficiency in Grapefruit Leaves to Yield
and Chemical Composition of Fruit. (B. R. Fudge, 36 pp., 5 figs.) Mag-
nesium is removed in larger quantities by seedy than by seedless varieties
of grapefruit. Bronzing and loss of foliage follow magnesium removal in
fruit production, and result in a tendency towards lighter crops in alter-
nate years.
332. Nailhead Spot of Tomato Caused by Alternaria tomato (Cke.) N.
Comb. (George F. Weber, 56 pp., 16 figs.) Nailhead spot of tomatoes,
known in Florida for 25 years, has caused millions of dollars worth of dam-
age to the crop in Southern states and other countries. The causal fungus
has been transferred from the binomial Macrosporium tomato Cke. to Alter-
naria tomato (Cke.) n. comb.
333. A Fertility Program for Celery Production on Everglades Organic
Soils. (J. R. Beckenbach. 40 pp., 9 figs.) Virgin sawgrass peat soils
should not be planted to celery. Heavy fertilization with nitrogen, phos-
phorus and potash, together with manganese, copper and zinc sulfates, is
necessary for the second year on virgin land. Methods of handling the crop
on previously cropped lands are presented.
334. The Soils of Florida. (J. R. Henderson, 68 pp., 9 figs). Outlines
characteristics, distribution and utilization of Florida soils and presents
some notes on their management and conservation, together with a key for
their identification. In addition to the 9 black and white illustrations, the
bulletin carries two lithographed maps.
335. Some Symptoms of Citrus Malnutrition in Florida. (A. F. Camp
and B. R. Fudge, 56 pp., 11 figs.) Describes and illustrates symptoms of
deficiencies of copper, manganese, zinc, magnesium, nitrogen, iron, and boron,
together with those caused by boron toxicity. Contains eight color plates in
addition to the 11 black and white illustrations.

PRESS BULLETINS
Mostly two pages in length, press bulletins present brief information
relative to subjects which can be treated in that scope, and are now used
largely in answering inquiries on different subjects. They are not sent to
the press, as was their original purpose years ago.
During this year 21 new subject-matter press bulletins and two copies
of the bulletin list were printed, while 18 old ones of which the supply had
become exhausted were revised and reprinted. Total printed since the be-
ginning of the series now is 537. In most cases 3,000 copies of each press
bulletin constituted the run, but the number varied from 2,500 to 14,000 and
totaled 176,000.
Following is a list of press 'bulletins printed during the fiscal year, with
authors:
517. The Production of Artificial Manure on the Farm, by F. B. Smith.
518. Raising Pigs in Florida, by R. M. Crown.
519. The Chinch Bug on St. Augustine Grass, by J. R. Watson.
520. Leaf Spot of Pittosporum, by Erdman West.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


521. Dried Citrus Pulp in Dairy Rations, by R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal
and P. T. Dix Arnold.
522. Phomopsis Blight of Eggplants, by George F. Weber.
523. Mistletoe in Crop and Shade Trees, by George F. Weber.
524. Blossom-End Rot of Tomatoes, by George F. Weber.
525. Yellow Pine Blister Rust, by George F. Weber.
526. Transplanting Peach Trees, by G. H. Blackmon.
527. Peach Varieties for Florida, by G. H. Blackmon.
528. Control of Internal Roundworms and Tapeworms in Poultry, by
M. W. Emmel.
529. Colds and Roup in Poultry, by M. W. Emmel.
530. Cold Storage Prolongs Marketing Period for Grapes, by K. W.
Loucks.
531. Bitter and Rancid Milk, Cream and Butter, by L. M. Thurston.
532. Control of Houseflies and Stable Flies, by J. R. Watson.
533. Building and Fumigating a Corn Crib, by J. R. Watson.
534. Rose Canker, by William B. Shippy.
535. Black Spot of Roses, by William B. Shippy.
536. Control of Four Household Pests, by J. R. Watson.
537. Gas the Ants, by J. R. Watson.
Bulletin list (printed twice).
324. Gassing the Corn Weevil (reprint).
327. How to Poison Ants (reprint).
346. Entomogenous Fungi on Citrus (reprint).
423. Soil Sterilization (reprint).
424. Dry Rot of Lumber in Storage and in Buildings (reprint).
437. Brown Patch of Lawns and Golf Greens (reprint).
440. Formaldehyde Seed Treatment for Loose and Covered Smuts of
Oats (reprint).
445. Easter Lily Mosaic (reprint).
449. Powdery Mildew of Roses (reprint).
455. Selection and Shipment of Plant Specimens for Diagnosis or Iden-
tification (reprint).
456. Rhizoctoniose, a Common Disease of Plants (reprint).
458. Some Poisonous Plants in Florida (reprint).
463. Anthracnose of Mango (reprint).
477. Coccidiosis in Chickens (reprint).
494. Seed Disinfection (reprint).
496. Soils for Azaleas (reprint).
502. Papaya Culture (reprint).
503. Wintering Beef Cattle in Florida (reprint).

NEWSPAPER AND FARM JOURNAL COOPERATION
Both newspapers and farm journals continued to render excellent co-
operation in printing news and suggestions from the Experiment Station
and making them available to the reading public. Agricultural News
Service, the weekly clipsheet printed and distributed by the Agricultural
Extension Service, was utilized for disseminating Station information to
weekly papers and a few dailies. Station articles carried varied in number
from one to five or six per issue and were widely reprinted in the press.
Two daily papers for a greater part of the year printed questions and
answers on agricultural subjects once each week. Practically all of this
material came from letters received and answered by Experiment Station
workers, transmitted by the Editors. One of the papers discontinued the
material near the close of the fiscal year.







Annual Report, 1939


Florida, Southern and national farm journals carried more material
supplied by the Experiment Station Editors than in any other recent year.
Of material written by the Editors, three Florida agricultural magazines
printed 10 articles totaling 450 column inches; one Southern farm journal
printed five articles which occupied 108 column inches of space; and two
national farm journals printed four articles concerning work of the Florida
Station, for a total of 104 column inches.
In addition, the Editors forwarded to Florida farm journals copies of
scores of radio talks which had been made by Experiment Station workers,
and many of these were printed, thus giving them a permanence which the
radio could not, and also contributing to wider dissemination of the informa-
tion they contained.
BROADCASTING ACTIVITIES
Experiment Station workers appeared frequently on the Florida Farm
Hour, daily radio program over WRUF conducted by the Extension Service.
Every department in the Experiment Station made valuable contributions
to the program. A recapitulation shows that staff members made a total
of 142 talks on the Farm Hour. Of these, 37 were rewritten into Farm
Flashes and sent to five other Florida radio stations.

ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION
The year 1938 was the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the
Florida Experiment Station at Lake City. A golden anniversary celebration
of this event was planned for the latter half of that calendar year, or the
first half of the present fiscal year. This consisted largely of news stories,
radio talks, and talks before civic and other groups. However a campus
celebration was held in the University auditorium, at which Undersecretary
of Agriculture M. L. Wilson was the principal speaker. Installation of a
Florida chapter of Sigma Xi was a joint feature of the event.
Clippings from less than half of the state's newspapers received at our
exchange desk show a total of 1,193 column inches in 39 newspapers devoted
to the Station's accomplishments and its anniversary celebration. Material
for these was supplied almost entirely by the Editors. In addition, clippings
were made from seven newspapers which had carried editorials prepared by
their editors concerning the event.
Tributes to the work by farmers, growers and others, as well as reviews
of accomplishments, were carried by four Florida and two Southern maga-
zines. This material amounted to 729 column inches in the Florida and 78
in the Southern publications. In addition, Sigma Xi Quarterly, circulated
nationally, printed the talk made by Undersecretary Wilson, which amounted
to nine bulletin-size pages.
A dramatization of the Station's research activities of the half century
was presented over WRUF on October 17. Transcriptions of this 30 minute
program were made and sent to four other stations, which used them. Other
programs between October 15 and November 15 were devoted to talks and
flashes concerning the anniversary.
Experiment Station staff members and others appeared before civic
clubs throughout the state, under arrangements made by the Editors, and
their talks revolved around base material prepared in this office.

TECHNICAL PAPERS AND JOURNAL ARTICLES BY THE STAFF
Scores of articles prepared by staff members other than the Editors were
printed in scientific and technical journals and farm papers. Only a few
of those submitted to journals were handled by the Editors, but most of







30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

those carried in farm papers were forwarded from this office. Following is a
list of technical and popular articles by the staff published during the year.
A New Frankliniella (Thysanoptera) from Florida. J. R. Watson and
J. R. Freer. Florida Ento. 21:2, July 1938.
A Rapid Laboratory Method for the Determination of Exchangeable
Magnesium in Soils. Michael Peech, C. M. Tidwell and M. L. Brown. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1939.
Acceptable Criteria for a More Profitable Agriculture from the Stand-
point of the Farm Operator. C. V. Noble. Proc. Sou. Agr. Workers, 1938.
Adjusting pH Reactions of Soils with Sulfur and Limestone to Control
Brown Rot of Potatoes. A. H. Eddins. Amer. Potato Jour., 16:1, Jan. 1939.
An Important Factor Influencing the Development of Fowl Paralysis,
Leukemia and Chronic Hemocytoblastosis in the Indoor-Hen-Battery Plant.
M. W. Emmel. Proc. Poultry Sci. Assn., Aug. 1938.
Banana Water Lilies. Erdman West. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci. 1938.
Boron in Citrus Nutrition in Florida. A. F. Camp. Citrus Industry,
20:2, Feb. 1939.
Breeding Improves Dairy Cattle. R. B. Becker. Fla. Grower, Nov. 1938.
Canine Distemper and Vitamin A of Shark Liver Oil. D. A. Sanders
and L. L. Rusoff. Vet. Med. 34:4, Mar. 1939.
Check List of Native and Naturalized Trees in Florida. Lillian E.
Arnold. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci. Vol. 2, 1937.
Citrus Enterprise-Efficiency Studies in Southern California. By Arthur
Shultis; Reviewed by C. V. Noble. Jour. Farm Economics, 20:4, Nov. 1938.
Control Measures for Mealybugs. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry, June
1939.
Control Measures for Rust Mites. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry, July
1938.
Control of Mole-Crickets. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry, May 1939.
Control of Plant Bugs in Citrus Groves. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry,
Oct. 1938.
Control of Strawberry Insects. J. R. Watson. Fla. Grower, Jan. 1939.
Control of Thrips on Florida Gladioli. J. W. Wilson. Florists Review,
82:2119, July 7, 1938.
Controlling Root-Knot in Seedbeds. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry,
Oct. 1938.
Crushed Pecan Shells Used in Bench Cutting Mixture. G. H. Blackmon
and J. V. Watkins. Sou. Florist & Nurseryman, June 2, 1939.
Determination of Sugars in Plant Material-A Photo-Electric Method.
W. T. Forsee, Jr. Ind. & Eng. Chem. (Analyt. Ed.), 10:411, Aug. 15, 1938.
Development of a Dairy Calf. P. T. Dix Arnold. Fla. Cattleman and
Dairy Journ., Aug. 1938.
Dried Beet Pulp in Dairy Rations. R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal and P. T.
Dix Arnold. Fla. Cattleman and Dairy Journ., Dec. 1938.
Effect of Avitaminosis on the Human Blood Picture. O. D. Abbott, C. F.
Ahmann and M. R. Overstreet. Amer. Jour. Physiology, 126:2, June 1939.
Effect of Rainfall and of Substrata Upon Composition and Reaction of
the Soil Waters of Everglades Peat Land. J. R. Neller. Trans. 6th. Comm.
Int. Soc. of Soil Sci., Zurich, 1937.
Essentials of a Successful Dairy Industry. R. B. Becker. Fla. Cattle-
man and Dairy Journ., Sept. 1938.







Annual Report, 1939 31

Experiments for the Control of Fruit Spots of the Avocado. Geo. D.
Ruehle. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1939.
Experiments in Tung Tree Culture. R. D. Dickey. Sou. Conservationist
& Amer. Tung Oil, 5:10, 1939.
Factors in Diagnosing Grove Conditions. A. F. Camp. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc., 1939.
Factors Influencing the Development and Control of Scale-Insects on
Citrus. W. L. Thompson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1939.
Fall Cleanup Measures. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry, Oct. 1938.
Fasciation in the Sporophores of Clitocybe Tabescens. A. S. Rhoads.
Mycologia 30, Nov. 1938.
Fifty Years of Entomology Research. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry,
Nov. 1938.
Fifty Years of Horticultural Research. G. H. Blackmon. Citrus In-
dustry, 19:10, Oct. 1938.
Florida Entomological Conditions in 1938. J. R. Watson. Citrus In-
dustry, Feb. 1939.
Florida Pasture Clovers for Winter Feeding. R. E. Blaser. Fla. Cattle-
man, 3:1, Oct. 1938.
Fowl Leukemia Induced by Adverse Atmospheric Conditions. M. W.
Emmel. Journ. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 93:387, 1938.
Further Data on Response of Cutting to Hormodin A. J. V. Watkins.
Sou. Florist, 45:25, Sept. 1938.
Further Light on the Nature and Cause of Psorosis of Citrus Trees. A.
S. Rhoads. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1938.
Getting Rid of Termites in Banked Citrus Trees. J. R. Watson. Citrus
Industry, Dec. 1938,
Grape and Berry Production in Florida. R. D. Dickey. Fla. Grower,
47:5, May 1939.
Grass Seed and Cattle Show Profits. W. E. Stokes. Sou. Seedsman,
July 1938.
Help Make Your Market Prices. F. S. Jamison. Fla. Grower, 47:3,
Mar. 1939.
How to Raise Healthy Chicks. N. R. Mehrhof. Fla. Poultryman,
March 1939.
Improving Your Cabbage Crops (Control of Cabbage Worms). J. R.
Watson. Fla. Grower, Dec. 1938.
Indoor-Hen-Battery Mortality and Related Problems. M. W. Emmel.
Poultry Item, Feb. 1939.
Keeping the Dairy Herd in Line with Records. R. B. Becker. Fla. Cattle-
man and Dairy Journ., Oct. 1938.
Leaching Studies with Various Sources of Nitrogen. Nels Benson and
R. M. Barnette. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron., 31:1, Jan. 1939.
Losses Caused by Potato Diseases in the Hastings Section, Florida, in
1938. A. H. Eddins. Plant Dis. Reporter, 22:13, 1938.
Manganese Deficiency in Citrus in Florida. A. F. Camp and Michael
Peech. Proc. Amer. Soc. for Hort. Sci., 1938.
Minor Element Fertilization of Horticultural Crops. F. S. Jamison.
Proc. Asso. Sou. Agr. Workers, 1939.
Nature Supplies Holiday Beauty. Erdman West. Florida Grower, Dec.
1938.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Need of Cobalt in Mineral Mixtures. W. M. Neal. Fla. Cattleman and
Dairy Journ., Dec. 1938.
"New Leaf" for Egg Producers. O. W. Anderson, Jr. Fla. Grower,
Jan. 1939.
Notes on Fruit Diseases in Dade County, 1938. Geo. D. Ruehle. Plant
Disease Reporter, 23:3, Feb. 15, 1939.
Nutritional Sprays for Citrus. A. F. Camp. Fla. Grower, 27:3, Mar.
1939.
Observations on an Ictero-Hemoglobinuria-Like Disease in Florida. M.
W. Emmel and D. A. Sanders. Journ. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 94:543, 1939.
Observations on Capillaria Contorta in Turkeys. M. W. Emmel. Amer.
Vet. Med. Assoc., 44:6, June 1939.
Pasture Improvement. R. E. Blaser. Florida Grower, July 1938.
Peanuts. W. G. Kirk. Proc. Assoc. Sou. Agr. Workers, 1939.
Peanut Hull Bran Used in the Cutting Bench. J. V. Watkins. Sou.
Florist and Nurseryman, Dec. 1938.
Plant Breeders and Truck Farmers. F. S. Jamison. Fla. Grower, 47:2,
Feb. 1939.
Poultry Pointers. N. R. Mehrhof. Fla. Poultryman, Nov. 1938.
Promising Holly for Deep South. J. V. Watkins. Sou. Florist and
Nurseryman, Mar. 17, 1939.
Propagation of Azalea Canescens. J. V. Watkins. Florists Exchange,
Dec. 3, 1938.
Reasons for Hen-Battery Losses. M. W. Emmel. Poultry Item, Feb.
1939.
Results from Three Methods of Applying Fertilizer to Certain Vegetables.
V. F. Nettles. Proc. Amer. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 36, 1938.
Results of Different Methods of Oil Application for the Control of Scale-
Insects on Citrus. W. L. Thompson. Citrus Ind. 19:7, July 1938.
Review of Florida Citrus Season. C. V. Noble. Citrus Industry 19:10,
Oct. 1939.
Rose Culture. G. H. Blackmon. Subtrop. Gdning., 1:1, Oct. 1938.
Rotation of Poultry Yards Aids in Disease Control. M. W. Emmel.
Florida Poultryman & Stockman, June 1939.
Seasonal Variation in the Juice and Acid Content of Persian Limes. S. J.
Lynch. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1939.
Shark Liver Oil for Poultry. L. L. Rusoff. Fla. Poultryman, Nov. 1938.
Some Deficiencies in Beef Cattle and Their Correction. W. M. Neal.
Fla. Cattleman and Dairy Journ., Aug. 1938.
Some Ecological Notes on the Lubberly Locust. J. R. Watson and H. E.
Bratley. Fla. Ento. 22:2, Mar. 1939.
Some Effects of Maturity on the Marketability of Florida Tomatoes.
W. M. Fifield. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1939.
Some Factors Affecting Pecan Yields. G. H. Blackmon. Proc. SE. Pecan
Grs. Ass'n. 1939.
Some Livestock Losses Resulting from Lack of Sanitation on the Farm.
A. L. Shealy. Fla. Cattleman and Dairy Journ., June 1939.
Some Observations on the Nature and Transmission of Enzootic Broncho-
Pneumonia (Pneumoenteritis) of Dairy Calves. D. A. Sanders. Journ.
Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 94:28, Jan. 1939.








Annual Report, 1939 33

Some Possible Reasons for the Increase of Purple Scale Infestations.
W. L. Thompson. Citrus Industry, 19:12, Nov. 1938.
Spectrographic Microdetermination of Copper. L. H. Rogers. Ind. &
Eng. Chem. (Anal. Ed.) 11:47. Jan. 1939.
Studies in the Cold Storage of Avocados. S. J. Lynch and A. L. Stahl.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1939.
Suggestions for Pecan Orchard Care. G. H. Blackmon. Fla. Grower,
Jan. 1939.
Sulfured Soil for Poultry Yards. M. W. Emmel. Journ. Amer. Vet. Med.
Assoc., 94:409, 1939.
Summer Valuable to Truckers. F. S. Jamison. Fla. Grower, 46:7, July
1938.
Tasty Farm Meat Products. W. G. Kirk. Fla. Grower, Jan. 1939.
The Adaptability of Rapid Laboratory Methods to the Study of Highly
Organic Soils. W. T. Forsee, Jr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Sci., 1939.
The Cycle of Organic Matter in Soils. F. B. Smith. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc., 1939.
The Economic Status of Combination Sprays. A. F. Camp. Citrus
Grower, 1:8, Mar. 1939.
The Effect of Root-Knot Upon the Subsequent Growth of Tung-Oil
(Aleurites fordi) Seedlings. R. D. Dickey and Harold Mowry. Proc. Amer.
Soc. for Hort. Sci. 36, 1938.
The Experiment Station Dairy Herd. R. B. Becker. Fla. Cattleman and
Dairy Journ., March 1939.
The Feather-Legged Fly. H. E. Bratley. Citrus Industry, Sept. 1938.
The Gross Anatomy of the Digestive and Reproductive Systems of
Naupactus leucoloma Boh. A. N. Tissot. Florida Ento. 21:2, July 1938.
The Infrared Absorption Spectra of Some Sugars and Furans. L. H.
Rogers and Dudley Williams. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc., 60:2619-21. 1938.
The Management of Our Soil. R. V. Allison. Seventh International
Management Congress, Washington, D. C. (Agr. Sect.), 1938.
The Nature of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions in the
Chicken. M. W. Emmel. Proc. Poultry Sci. Assn., Aug. 1938.
The Nature of Leukemia. M. W. Emmel. Journ. Amer. Vet. Med.
Assoc. 94:409. 1939.
The Occurrence of Papillomatous Growths on the Feet and Legs of Pre-
sumably Iron-Deficient Turkeys. M. W. Emmel. Journ. Amer. Vet. Med.
Assoc., 94:234, 1939.
The Rose in Florida. G. H. Blackmon. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1939.
The Use of Sulfoleum in the Treatment of Non-Parasitic Skin Diseases.
M. W. Emmel. Nor. Amer. Vet., 20:34, June 1939.
The Vegetable Industry in Florida. F. S. Jamison. Fla. Grower, 47:5,
May 1939.
The Vitamin A Content of Dried Citrus Pulp. M. C. Futch, L. L. Rusoff
and R. B. Becker. Journ. Dairy Sci., 22:2, Feb. 1939.
The Winter Clean-Up of Citrus Aphids. J. R. Watson. Citrus Industry,
Jan. 1939.
The Winter Meat Supply. A. L. Shealy. Proc. Assoc. Sou. Agr. Work-
ers, 1939.
The Zinc Content of Weeds and Volunteer Grasses and Planted Land








34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Covers. L. H. Rogers, O. E. Gall and R. M. Barnette. Soil Sci., 47:3, Mar.
1939.
Tobacco Downy Mildew Situation in Florida. W. B. Tisdale and R. R.
Kincaid. Plant Dis. Reporter, 23:5, Mar. 1939.
Two New Thysanoptera from Florida. J. R. Watson and J. R. Preer.
Florida Ento. 22:1, Feb. 1939.
Two New Thysanoptera from Mexico. J. R. Watson and J. R. Preer.
Florida Ento. 22:3, April 1939.
Utilization of Outlook Material in Considering the Needs for a Citrus
Fruit Marketing Program. C. V. Noble. Mimeo. Outlook Conference,
Washington, D. C., Oct. 1938.
Vaccination for Chickenpox Control. M. W. Emmel. Fla. Poultryman,
Oct. 1938.
What Experiment Station Workers Are Doing for the Beef Cattle In-
dustry. A. L. Shealy. Fla. Cattleman and Dairy Journ., Sept. 1938.
Winter Egg and Poultry Season. N. R. Mehrhof. Fla. Grower, Feb.
1939.
Wintering Beef Cattle. A. L. Shealy. Fla. Grower, Oct. 1938.








Annual Report, 1939


LIBRARY

Each succeeding year records a greater growth in the use of the Library,
the present one emphasizing that fact. As never before the agricultural
students have used it, so much so that for long periods it has required the
entire time of the small staff to take care of their demands. Limited space
in the reading room has also complicated the problems of seating those who
come to the Library to use its agricultural collections.
With the hundreds of students and the more than 100 members of the
Agricultural Experiment Station staff and Agricultural College faculty,
it is readily seen that the routine work of the Library has had to suffer.
It has been necessary to utilize the corridor for additional shelf room.
This is far from satisfactory but offered the only solution for more room.
There is now not an available foot of space for more shelf-room. Unfortun-
ately even the floor is now being used to hold books.
During the year 13,533 publications were received. This is the largest
number ever to be received in one year.
Briefly summarized statistics for the year follow:
Volumes sent to bindery ........................................... 241
Volumes received by gift, purchase and exchange.... 117
Total number bound volumes added ........................ 358
Total number bound volumes in Library ................ 15,022
Pamphlets, bulletins, journals, etc., received............ 13,533
Books lent to Branch Stations .................................... 510
Books borrowed from other libraries .........-............. 93
Catalog cards prepared here ...........-........................ 3,288
Catalog cards Library of Congress ............................ 3,060
Books circulated ................................ ................... 13,500
Students using Library ........................... ............ 1,383
Staff and others using Library ................................ 150








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

No new projects were introduced during the year, the work continuing
on the five projects already under way. The analysis of the Florida Citrus
Exchange System was completed and a manuscript covering it has been
approved for publication. The manuscript covering the four-year analysis
of the farm management study made in Northwest Florida has been under
revision during the entire year.

AGRICULTURAL SURVEY OF SOME 500 FARMS IN THE GENERAL
FARMING REGION OF NORTHWEST FLORIDA
Purnell Project 73 C. V. Noble and Bruce McKinley
Revision of the manuscript covering an analysis of the four-year farm
management study made in Jackson County, Florida, has been under way.
Further field check-up work was found essential in this revision. The com-
pletion of this manuscript and the termination of this project are planned
for 1939-40.

FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 154 H. G. Hamilton and C. V. Noble
The manuscript on a business analysis of the Florida Citrus Exchange
System has been approved for publication. This manuscript shows varia-
tion in volume of business handled, variation in cost of doing business, and
variation in financial status of the local cooperatives affiliated with the
Florida Citrus Exchange. The balance sheet and the profit and loss state-
ment for the Florida Citrus Exchange and for each of the auxiliary corpora-
tions are shown for a period of years. Services rendered by the Florida
Citrus Exchange are dealt with in detail.
During the past year data on the cost of handling citrus fruit through
35 citrus cooperatives for the 1936-37 and the 1937-38 seasons have been
obtained.
An analysis of production credit extended to grower members by co-
operative marketing associations has been made.

COST OF PRODUCTION AND GROVE ORGANIZATION
STUDIES OF FLORIDA CITRUS
Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage and C. V. Noble
The sixth consecutive fiscal year (1937-38) of the cooperative citrus
cost of production study was completed. Data for the first five fiscal years
of the study, 1932-33 to 1936-37, inclusive, were averaged for comparison
with similar data for the 1937-38 season, as well as data from the individ-
ual's grove. A copy of the summary sheet for late oranges 12 to 14 years
of age is shown as Table 1. Similar summaries are being made for each
kind of citrus and ripening season by ages grouped into periods of three
years.
If the entire acreage of the cooperator was of only one variety and
age it was tabulated as a unit in the particular group concerned. But in
most instances the groves are mixed as to kinds of citrus, varieties, and
ages. The difference in the average acreage per grove for 1932-37 and for
1937-38 shown in Table 1 is due to this fact and to the increase in age dur-
ing the five-year period which caused the large acreage groves of this
variety and age to advance to older groups.








Annual Report, 1939


PRICES OF FLORIDA FARM PRODUCTS
Purnell Project 317 A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble
In this price analysis of Florida farm products the attempt is being made
to obtain reliable monthly price data for each important Florida farm
product from 1910 to date. Data for important Florida truck crops are
unavailable from Federal sources prior to 1928. Most of the work on this
project during the past year has been to obtain reliable truck crop price
data for the 1910 to 1928 period. These data have been obtained from old
records of 43 different sources, such as cooperative associations, farmers,
shippers, buyers, and newspapers.
Work of compiling the information from the various sources in order
to obtain monthly average prices for each important commodity is now
complete. Prices thus obtained are to be submitted to the Crop Estimates
Division of the Federal Agricultural Marketing Service for examination and
approval, after which price relatives are to be computed for each commodity
and the factors affecting price movements studied.

PRODUCTION CREDIT FOR CITRUS AND VEGETABLE GROWERS
IN SELECTED AREAS IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 325 J. Wayne Reitz and C. V. Noble
The field work to obtain foundation data for this project was completed
in November 1938. A total of 389 records was obtained from growers who
borrowed for production purposes. There were 1,000 growers contacted,
but only 389 of that number reported borrowing for production purposes
during the 1937-38 season. Of that number of borrowers, 176 are classified
as truck, 165 as citrus and 48 as combination citrus and truck growers. From
lending agencies including commercial banks, production credit associations,
cooperative associations, shippers and commission firms, government agen-
cies, fertilizer companies and other merchants, 175 records were obtained.
The grower schedules have been summarized and a considerable amount
of the analytical work has been completed. The work of summarizing the
lending agency schedules is yet to be done. Approximately two-thirds of
the clerical work on the study has been completed.

FLORIDA TRUCK CROP COMPETITION
The regular annual summary was prepared for the 1937-38 season of the
weekly car-lot shipments of the leading Florida truck crops and the com-
petitive shipments from other states and from importing countries. This
summary was mimeographed as a supplement to Florida Bulletin 224, bring-
ing this basic information up to date.

FREIGHT RATES ON CITRUS FRUITS
This department has cooperated during the year with Dr. Marvin A.
Brooker, vice-president and secretary of the Bank for Cooperatives, Farm
Credit Administration of Columbia, South Carolina, in bringing the index
numbers of freight rates on citrus fruits from Florida and California to nine
common destinations up to date. This supplements the work reported in
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 217, bringing the citrus
freight rate data up to October 1938. These supplementary data have not
been published but are available at either the Farm Credit Administration
of Columbia or this Station.








38 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE 1.-CosTs AND RETURNS FOR LATE ORANGES, 12 TO 14 YEARS OF AGE.


Seasons ......... ........ --------.........
Number of accounts ................................
Age of groves (years) ..........................
Acres per grove ..................... ------------
Trees per acre .................... ...... --......-
Grove value per acre .......... ..........
Yield in boxes per acre ............ .......
Yield in boxes per tree .........................
Costs per acre:
L abor .- ....... ......... .... ..
Supervision ................................ ..---
Power and equipment ......................
Labor, power and equipment not
separated ... ...........----- ----------.......-
F ertilizer .........................-
Soil amendments ......-...- ---------.-----
Spray and dust ................ -- --------.. ---.
Irrigation and drainage .............
Taxes ............ ......-
Interest on grove at 7% .......................
All other costs ....................... ......--
Total costs per acre ....................... .... --
Returns per acre ..............--- ----..-.... -
Profit or loss per acre ................ ...........
Costs per box ..... .......--....... .-------.... .....
Returns per box ............................. .... ...-
Profit or loss per box ..........................
Pounds of fertilizer per acre ................
Pounds of fertilizer per tree .......
Pounds of soil amendments per acre ....
Pounds of soil amendments per tree ....


Average Average Your
all groves all groves grove
1932-37 1937-38 1937-38
41 9 1
12 to 14 12 to 14 13.
23.18 3.56 4.03
66 76 72
$590.91 $644.16 $949.88
104 202 351
. 1.56 2.66 4.85

$ 9.05 $ 17.33 $ 32.73
S 5.42 10.96 29.73
S 5.79 6.88 25.54

2.11* 7.35t 30.35
17.53 19.57 16.78
1.15 2.25
3.15 8.06 21.55
1.27 3.52 15.83
5.68 5.38 8.42
S 41.36 45.09 66.49
2.89 I 10.73
S 95.40 137.12 247.42
. 118.28 125.81 292.88
.1 22.88 -11.31 45.46
$ .919 $ .680 $ .704
1.139 .624 .833
S .220 .056 .129
.I 1507 1516 977
22.71 19.98 13.48
S 263 242 --
3.97 3.19


All averages in the above columns are based upon the totals for all groves. All groves
were not involved in every item. Where such was the case the following figures based upon
the actual acreage of the specific groves involved are given for comparison with your partic-
ular grove.


Costs per acre:
Power and equipment .................
Labor, power and equipment not
separated ................................. ---.--I
Soil amendments .......................
Spray and dust ............................. ...
Irrigation and drainage ....................
A ll other costs ................. ..............-
Returns per acre ..................
Profit or loss peir acre .................. .....
Profit or loss per box ........................
Pounds of soil amendments per acre
Pounds of soil amendments per tree
Yield in boxes per acre ......................
Yield in boxes per tree ......................


19
No. of
grovesl


37

28
16
37
17
27
40
40
40
16
16
40
40


32-37 1937-38
SNo. of
Average Igroves, Average


$ 5.97

5.98*
1.77
3.26
5.27
3.76
118.52
23.05
.221
388
5.59
104
1.58


$ 6.96

14.37t
6.34
8.72
13.56
14.49
135.80
2.29
.011
681
7.75
218
2.85


*Part of the cost of spray and dust materials included in this item on six groves.
fPart of the cost of spray and dust materials included in this item on one grove.


(








Annual Report, 1939


AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

Agronomy research for the year had to do with crop variety testing,
breeding, rotation, fertilization, cropping systems, cover and green manure
crop studies and forage and pasture crop testing, establishment, mainten-
ance and evaluation.
Cooperation was had with the USDA Offices of Forage Crops, Cereals
and Cotton and Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine on forage and
pastures, oats, and Sea Island cotton. The Foremost Properties, Inc.,
continued cooperation in connection with pasture and grazing studies on
cut-over land, and many farmers have cooperated with us in pasture and
farm crops experiments. Excellent cooperation was had with the Depart-
ments of Chemistry and Soils and Animal Husbandry of the Experiment
Station on soils and livestock phases of Agronomy experiments.
Seed of improved field corn and peanuts and planting material of im-
proved sugarcanes and Napier grass were released during the year as a re-
sult of the Agronomy crop improvement program. Rust-resistant oats and
a specially developed hay-type peanut suited to Florida are about ready for
distribution.
Two especially outstanding results of the year are the continued good
showing made in developing winter pastures of clovers and grasses on prop-
erly limed and fertilized moist soil and the use of controlled burning in
ridding land of wiregrass and other undesirable grasses and the establish-
ment of carpet and other improved pasture grasses following controlled
burning.

PEANUT IMPROVEMENT

State Project 20 W. A. Carver and Fred H. Hull
Peanut improvement by hybridization is being continued along about the
same lines as described in the previous report. Crosses and backcrosses
have been made involving Florida hybrid strains, Valencia, Spanish, small
runner, and Jumbo peanuts. A second backcross also has been made. In
1939 289 crossed seed producing first generation hybrid plants were planted
in the breeding plot. Several thousand seeds of advanced generation, up
to the twelfth, of various crosses, have been planted.
A peanut variety test is being conducted that contains 56 Florida Station
hybrids and several standard small runner, small bunch and Spanish varie-
ties. In the 1938 test of 59 hybrid strains, the 11 best hybrids produced
an average of 1,156 pounds of unhulled peanuts per acre compared to 1,244
pounds for the 11 small runner varieties and introductions. The average
yields of peanuts per acre for 1937 and 1938 show that one hybrid, Strain
118, excelled the small runners and that four other hybrids yielded within
10 percent of the small runners.
A peanut spacing test is being continued using the same varieties as
in 1938. The spacing test for 1938 showed for Spanish the optimum yields
of peanuts from the 4" to 8" spacing. Florida Runner produced highest
from 6" to 10", and the Florida Station hybrid produced highest from hills
spaced 4" to 10" in the drill. The tests covering a period of three years
indicate that highest yields of peanuts may be secured from 3" spacing for
Spanish peanuts, 5" for Florida Runner, and 4" or 5" for the intermediate
hybrid strain. The influence of spacing on the measured characters of seed
was not appreciable. In general, the yield of nuts per plant increased with
the wider spacing distances.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


VALUE OF CENTIPEDE GRASS PASTURES AS AFFECTED BY SOIL
CHARACTERISTICS AND OTHER FACTORS
Special Proj. 27-A* Geo. E. Ritchey, W. E. Stokes,
W. A. Leukel, and J. L. Stevens
Investigations of the nutritive value of centipede grass when grown at
Tifton, Georgia, and at Gainesville, Florida, have been continued in coopera-
tion with the Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station at Tifton and the
Bureau of Plant Industry, U.S.D.A.
During the seasons 1937 and 1938 three pluckings of the strain of centi-
pede grass known as S.P.I. No. 72260 were made at both Gainesville and
Tifton. The samples were dried and forwarded to the Division of Forage
Crops and Diseases for chemical analysis.
The analyses show that the grasses grown in the two places differ little
in content of essential food compounds.
In 1939 pluckings are being made from plots of centipede grass S.P.I.
No. 72260 which have been fertilized with sodium nitrate and from other
plots which have not been fertilized. Pluckings are also being made at the
West Central Florida Experiment Station. All samples are forwarded to
the Division of Forage Crops and Diseases for analysis as in 1937 and 1938.

CROP ROTATION STUDIES WITH CORN, COTTON, CROTALARIA
AND AUSTRIAN PEAS
Hatch Project 55 W. E. Stokes. J. P. Camp and Geo. E. Ritchey
I. COTTON-CORN-LEGUME ROTATION*
Nine years of data have been obtained on this experiment. Lupinus
angustifolius was seeded as the winter legume in the autumn of 1938. A
good stand of small plants was obtained. During the winter and spring al-
most all of the plants were killed by disease, of which Rhizoctonia, rootknot
and Botrytis were the most common.
A slight increase in yield was realized on all plots rotated with corn
and cotton as compared with plots which grew the crops continuously.
Slightly higher yields of corn were obtained on those plots growing Cro-
talaria spectabilis with the corn. A considerably higher yield of seed cotton
was obtained on those plots following crotalaria grown in the corn.
II. CORN AND RUNNER PEANUTS ROTATING WITH
CROTALARIA AND WITH NATIVE COVER CROPS
This rotation experiment has now gone through two complete cycles, and
the yields of corn and runner peanuts are given in Table 2. The plots
where corn and peanuts have been grown every year without interruption
have produced cumulative total yields only slightly greater than plots where
corn and peanuts were grown only three years out of six, the plots being
rested in alternate years with a cover of crotalaria or native weeds. Annual
acre yields, in other words, have been nearly doubled by resting in alternate
years. Cropping every third year, with two years of rest intervening, has
not materially increased the yields in cropped years.

*In cooperation with USDA.







Annual Report, 1939


TABLE 2.-LAND RESTING EXPERIMENT, FLORIDA STATION FARM-YIELDS
OF CORN AND RUNNER PEANUTS, 1933-38 INCLUSIVE.

Bu. Corn Per Acre


System


1 1933 19 1935 19


(1) Cont. corn and peanuts 4.43 4.03 2.68 12.

(2) Same, with crotalaria,
last cult., oats between c.
and p. in fall .................. 4.66 4.65 2.82 14.1
(3) C. and p. altern. with
year of crotalaria ............ 7.11 18.:

(4) C. and p. altern. with 1 i
year rest ............................. 8.82 14.

(5) C. and p. altern. with 2
year rest ............................ 10.44
Lbs. Nuts Per Acre


(1) Cont. corn and peanuts 1123

(2) Same, with crotalaria,
last cult., oats between c.
and p. in fall .................. 962

(3) C. and p. altern. with
year of crotalaria .............

(4) C. and p. altern. with 1
year rest ...........................

(5) C. and p. altern. with 2
year rest ..........................


I Aver-
36 1937 1938 Total I age
6 Yr. Yields

27 6.51 6.21 36.13 6.02


58 8.53 7.971 43.21 7.20


11.381

8.97

10.68


557 504 50 456i


485 583 50 550

716 808

964 9211

869 1175


36.78 12.26

32.54 10.85

21.12 10.56


3417


3217

2468

2894

2044 I


569


536

823

965

1022


III. CORN IN A TWO-YEAR ROTATION WITH CROTALARIA SPECIES
AND WEEDS OR NATURAL LAND COVER*
As was stated in the 1938 Report (p. 44), two fields are used in this
experiment. Each field grows corn and crotalaria in alternate seasons.
Field No. 1 produced crops of three crotalaria species in 1937 and a crop
of corn in 1938.

TABLE 3.-YIELDS OF CROTALARIA SPECIES IN POUNDS OF OVEN-DRY WEIGHT
PER ACRE IN 1937 AND OF EAR CORN GROWN ON THE SAME PLOTS WITH-
OUT FERTILIZER IN 1938.


Crotalaria species


C. intermedia .........................
C. spectacbilis ...........................
C. striata -.........................


Lbs. oven-dry cover
crop per acre 1937

6,234
7,133
8,895


*In cooperation with USDA.


Yield of corn
Lbs. per acre
1938

1,312
1,367
1,226







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


One year's results only have been recorded on the plots of field No. 2,
therefore no yields indicating the true effect of the crotalaria species upon
corn yields have been obtained.

VARIETY TEST WORK WITH FIELD CROPS
Hatch Project 56 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp and G. E. Ritchey
The cane known as F31-762 continued to be outstanding in yields of cane
and syrup. It is remarkably vigorous and hardy. From the standpoint of
the general farming area, however, it has two defects; it is not suitable for
chewing and the upper joints are sufficiently brittle to cause some trouble
in handling at the mill.
Because syrup producers in Central Florida are still relying on Cayana
and P.O.J.213 to a large extent, and even on the old "noble" canes, a group
of 5 new canes originating at the Everglades Station and Co. 290 were re-
leased for trial by growers. These are designated by the numbers F31-540,
F31-563, F31-699, F31-762, and F31-1026. Although these do not yield as
well as F31-762, they are free of the above-mentioned defects, and each has
certain qualities of color, chewing texture, or high juice density, that may
interest many growers. F31-563 is especially good for chewing and has
given high yields where soil fertility is above average.
Seed of these canes was placed with 41 different growers. In addition, an
undetermined number of growers secured seed of F31-762 and the so-called
F31-951 (apparently identical with Co. 290) through the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service.
OATS VARIETY TESTING AND BREEDING
The main variety test consisted of 216 plots involving five varieties and
26 hybrid selections of Bond or Victoria. A total of 158 strains and hybrids
in various stages of selection were grown in comparison with Blackhull
checks. In addition, 204 F2 rows and 45 F, plants were grown.
Severe.cold and heavy crown rust infection permitted the taking of de-
tailed notes on the resistance of the various strains to these two important
factors, and the selection work will therefore be greatly advanced by this
season's work. A considerable amount of hand-pollination was again ac-
complished.
MILLET STRAIN TEST*
In 1937 five strains of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) which had
been introduced from Russia were planted in the Forage Crop Nursery.
Eight selections were made from these strains and these selections are this
year being compared with common Pearl millet grown from commercial
seed in a comparative yield trial.
NAPIER GRASS STRAIN TEST*
A yield test of 11 strains of Napier grass which resulted from a Napier
grass breeding program was planted in March of 1938 and yields of all
strains taken. This experiment is reported in Project 298.
PEANUTS AND CORN VARIETY TESTS
(See Projects 20 and 105)
IMPROVEMENT OF CORN BY SELECTION AND BREEDING
Purnell Project 105 Fred H. Hull and W. A. Carver
Field Corn-Variety testing was continued with a few new additions and
some of the more inferior ones discontinued. The only change in recommen-
dations is the substitution of Florident White for Whatley Prolific as a
high yielding variety with sufficient weevil resistance for general purposes.
*In cooperation with USDA.







Annual Report, 1939


Florident White was bred by mass field selection at the North Florida Ex-
periment Station.
Hand pollination was continued at Gainesville with the yellow strain to
intensify the yellow color and enough hand pollinated seed was produced
to plant several acres at Quincy in isolation.
Testing of hybrid combinations of inbred lines was continued and some
new lines were started from Florident Yellow and combinations of older
lines.
Four white lines combined in a double cross (B1-18 X B5-11) X (11-129
X 4-32) is known as Florida W1 (Florida white hybrid No. 1). This double
cross is believed to be sufficiently superior to justify the extra expense of
producing hybrid seed for general use.
The four inbred lines of Florida W1 have been tested for several years
with many other lines in various hybrid combinations at Gainesville and at
Quincy. They were chosen because of consistently good performance in
their hybrids. Florida W1 was included in the regular variety test of 1939
of six plots each at Gainesville and Quincy. The test also included a com-
posite sample of some 200 lots of farmers' corn collected over the northern
half of Florida. Florida W1 produced a gain over the farmer composite in
yield of sound, shelled corn of 40 percent at Quincy and 50 percent at Gaines-
ville. Florida W1 has weevil resistance equal to that of the better native
strains.
Sweet Corn.-Breeding work, previously noted, which is designed to com-
bine the high table quality of Golden Cross Bantam with Southern type
from Tuxpan was continued with indications of good results. The second
generation of the third backcross to Golden Cross Bantam has very nearly
Bantam quality and is markedly larger and more vigorous than Bantam.
Breeding with this stock was continued with inter-pollination by hand of a
small number of the better plants and by self-pollination of about 50 plants
to begin inbred lines.
A limited test of two plots to each strain included six roasting ear varie-
ties, seven sweet varieties, and nine sweet hybrids. Most of the hybrids
and some of the varieties have not been tested previously at this station.
Some of the new hybrid sweet corns such as Golden Cross Bantam and
Aristogold appear quite promising for home garden or local market pur-
poses, although none of them would compete with the regular roasting ear
varieties for shipping.
Several new Southern sweet varieties, all of which have a large propor-
tion of Southern field corn ancestry, were observed to be of very little better
quality than the regular roasting ear varieties and inferior in yield and
earliness.
CORN FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS
State Project 163 J. D. Warner, W. E. Stokes and J. P. Camp
In a fertilizer experiment designed to measure the response of corn to
urea, superphosphate, muriate of potash and magnesium sulfate, and the
effect of each material on the response to each of the others, the only meas-
urable differences were due to urea. The urea was slightly more effective
when divided into drill and side-dressing applications than when all was
applied in the drill.

A STUDY OF CHLOROSISS" IN CORN AND OTHER FIELD CROPS
Adams Project 220 R. M. Barnette, J. P. Camp and J. D. Warner
In 1935, when it had become apparent that the effects of zinc in preventing
"white bud" of corn were not confined to the year of application, a field







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


experiment was designed to measure the duration and magnitude of the
residual effect. Five different treatments described in Table 4 were dis-
tributed in two Latin squares, making 10 replications. The plots, and rows
within the plots, were maintained in exactly the same position each year
during four successive crops. As shown in the table, the plots which re-
ceived zinc only in the initial year remained as productive to the end of
the experiment as those which received zinc annually. The yields on the
plots which had never received zinc show the level to which the yields would
have declined had the initial zinc application become exhausted. All plots
received annual applications of 100 pounds of nitrate of soda, 100 pounds
of 18% superphosphate, and 32 pounds of 50% muriate of potash per acre.
The relatively high yield of the no-zinc plots in 1938 is probably largely
due to the change to the Florident variety, which, though selected from 82%
Whatley stock, seems to be less susceptible to white bud.

TABLE 4.-RESIDUAL EFFECT OF ZINC SULFATE ON NORFOLK LOAMY FINE
SAND. YIELDS OF CORN IN BUSHELS PER ACRE ON SOME PLOTS IN
SUCCESSIVE YEARS.
Treatment-
Lbs. Zinc Sulfate Year and Variety
(ZnSO, 40) 1935 1936 1937 1938
per acre Whatley Whatley Whatley Florident

12 lbs. 1935 only .... 23.56 20.28 13.46 25.05
12 lbs. Annually .. 23.91 21.79 13.76 25.25

36 lbs. 1935 only .... 24.47 22.52 14.65 25.88
36 lbs. Annually .... 24.15 23.22 14.30 25.93

None .......... ..... 12.70 9.52 8.71 18.93


A STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND DETERIORATION OF ROOTS
IN RELATION TO THE GROWTH OF PASTURE PLANTS UNDER
DIFFERENT FERTILIZER AND CUTTING TREATMENTS
Adams Project 243 W. A. Leukel
The study of root and top growth of pasture plants as affected by a
variation in the balance of nutrient materials is being continued. Sudan
grass plants grown in soil pots the previous season with normal and low
levels of phosphorus and potassium showed varying percentages of some
of the soluble forms of nitrogen where these elements were at a lower level.
Further work on these nitrogen and also carbohydrate fractions shows the
trend of metabolism in the plants as affected by these elements. The plants
low in phosphorus were high in dry matter and in a mature condition and
not easily compared with the other two differently treated plant groups.
Plants with a balanced fertilizer and those low in potassium were in a more
active growth condition and more comparable. The former were slightly
higher in dry matter.
The potassium-low plants were lower in amino acid, basic, humin, pro-
teose, amide, and nitrate nitrogen. They were lower in coagulated protein
and ammonia nitrogen, higher in extracted and water soluble nitrogen.
These higher percentages of soluble forms of nitrogen indicate that low
potassium is a factor in the retarding of protein synthesis. The low po-







Annual Report, 1939


tassium plants show a similar retardation in the elaboration of carbohy-
drate fractions.
Plants treated with a balanced fertilizer produced 1.4 times as much
green weight as those with low potassium and 2.5 times as much as plants
treated with low phosphorus. Plants with a balanced fertilizer produced
approximately twice the dry weight of top growth as did plants treated with
low potassium or phosphorus. Phosphorus usually is found in the embryonic
cells and associated with growth extension. Its very low content here may
account for the lack of growth because it retards the transformation of
fats into lecithin, and the formation of nucleo-proteins and nucleic acids
which are essential for cell formation. The elaboration of carbohydrates
shows a marked retardation, being almost half as much in the low phos-
phorus and low potassium plants as in plants receiving a balanced fertilizer.
Such retardation eventually results in abnormal growth and lower plant pro-
duction.
To investigate further the effect of low phosphorus and potassium on
growth and metabolism of pasture plants under more controlled conditions
another series of plants was grown under greenhouse conditions in sand
cultures. Sixty soil pots were prepared with acid washed white sand and
seeded to Sudan grass on January 18, 1939. A nutrient solution with a mole-
cular ratio 8:4:4 was prepared and adjusted so that the osmotic pressure
in each instance approached 1. Low levels of phosphorus and potassium
were set at one-fourth of the control solution and high levels at four times
that of the control. In one series of 30 soil containers, nitrates were used
as a source of nitrogen and in a similar series sulfates of ammonia were
used to provide nitrogen for the plants. While in a vegetative condition the
plants were harvested on March 14, 1939, and prepared for laboratory
analysis.
Two series of soil pots of 30 each were again set up in the greenhouse
with acid washed sand and again planted to Sudan grass, April 11, 1939.
All pots were first treated with nitrates as a source of nitrogen until they
showed a vigorous vegetative growth condition. After this stage was
reached, one series of 30 pots was given ammonia as a source of nitrogen.
Both series of plants were again divided into sections of six each. Each
section of plants then was treated with a different level of phosphorus and
potassium. In this setup, high phosphorus and potassium was four times
that of the control and low phosphorus and potassium was one-tenth that
of the control.
When these plants were still in a vegetative growth condition, on May
4, 1939, the plants from three pots in each treatment were harvested and
prepared for analysis. A second growth was permitted from the pots from
which the plants were harvested. When in a more mature growth condi-
tion on May 23 the plants from the remaining three pots in each treatment
were taken up, divided into tops and roots, and prepared for analysis. The
aftergrowth from the first set of plants in the series harvested was taken
up and likewise prepared for analysis on June 14, 1939.
Tomato plants were grown in the greenhouse using nitrate nitrogen as
a source of nitrogen and with high and low levels of potassium. Tobacco
plants were likewise grown in sand cultures with treatments similar to those
used on Sudan grass. These two series of plants were grown for compara-
tive purposes.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


COMPOSITION FACTORS AFFECTING THE VALUE OF SUGARCANE
FOR FORAGE AND OTHER PURPOSES
State Project 265 W. A. Leukel

Laboratory determinations on the sugarcane plant and its different parts
from samples taken the previous two seasons have been completed during
the current year and the data are in such form that they can be tabulated
for further correlations. Percentage relationships were reported in previous
annual reports. A completed tabulation of results shows interesting quan-
tity relationships between yields of different plant parts throughout the
growing season and also variations in carbohydrate and nitrogen fractions.
Green leaf weight gradually increases from June to October, then in
November is almost half that of the previous month. On a dry weight basis
the green leafage shows a similar trend, but the drop in weight in late fall
is not so abrupt. The weight of dry leaves on the plants shows a gradual
increase throughout the season with a sudden 10-fold increase between
October and November when the green leafage shows the sudden decline
mentioned above.
Stalks increase practically two-fold in fresh weight from June through
September. The October cutting showed an increase of four-fifths over
that of the previous month while in November the fresh stalk weight was
one-third more than that of the previous month. Samples taken in December
presented a marked (about 30%) decrease in fresh stalk weight.
Roots to a depth of eight inches showed a two-fold increase in fresh
weight each month from June to August, a four-fold increase from August
to September, a two-fold increase from September to October, and a gradual
decline through November and December. Roots showed a gradual increase
in dry weight from June to December.
Although the cane plant as a whole gradually decreases in percentage
of nitrogen as the season advances, the quantity of nitrogen increases.
During November and December there is a slight decrease in quantity of
nitrogen. The soluble forms of nitrogen show a gradual increase in weight
in the total top growth up to November, after which a slight decrease oc-
curs. Protein nitrogen shows a similar increase in weight throughout the
season, but reaches its maximum in October before it decreases in quantity.
Total sugars attain their greatest increase in weight between August
and November. Polysaccharides increased up to 2,157.8 grams in September.
A slight decrease was shown for October and November when sugars in-
creased. In late fall, with a decrease in quantity of sugars, polysaccharides
increased to 2,908.1 grams on a basis of 10 plants.
The unhydrolyzed residue, composed mostly of cellulose and lignin,
showed over a three-fold increase in weight between August and September.
It increased at a slightly slower rate after September. Its greater weight
was evident in November. After the loss of leafage in December a 20
percent decrease in weight was noted.
To get a comparative value of sugarcane in relation to other silage crops,
samples of Napier grass were taken at different growth periods during the
current growing season. Separate samples were frozen and preserved for
nitrogen fractionation. Additional samples were dried and preserved for
carbohydrate fractionation. Similar samples of sugarcane are being taken
at a growth stage when cut for silage and preserved for nitrogen and car-
bohydrate fractionation. These fractionations are to be compared later
with similar determinations on the silage from this crop when taken from
the silo for feeding purposes.








Annual Report, 1939


PASTURE STUDIES
Bankhead-Jones Project 267


Harold Mowry


This project has been designed and carried to cover and aid as far as
possible exploratory phases of pasture research not otherwise specifically
projected and to provide needed facilities for carrying and expansion of
companion projects. To this end, physical facilities of various kinds have
been furnished and experimental work, especially with clovers, extended in
the peninsular sections. Additional areas have been cleared, fenced, drained
and planted to allow for wider testing and concurrent grazing tests. Further
clearing of lands set aside for pasture investigations is now in progress.

EFFECT OF FERTILIZER ON YIELD, GRAZING VALUE, CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION AND BOTANICAL MAKEUP OF PASTURES
Bankhead-Jones Project 295 R. E. Blaser and
W. E. Stokes
I. FERTILIZER STUDIES STARTED IN MARCH 1937
Thirty-six fertilizer treatments were laid out on established grass sods
on five common soil types in March 1937. Four of the tests are on carpet
grass sod, the other on centipede grass. Each fertilizer treatment is replicated
four times in plots 7x20 feet in randomized blocks.





'Leen Fine Sfldv S.ll, l-.7
--- f-- irtlll.r Ga.o iceivvlllt l lorida
---- -- P X N 200# Har., II POO J-e
-..... ........... ...p K 00O*M arch
.......- ........P N 100# Mo.. 100# ay. 200# Sept.

32- .- .P K 200o ar.. 200 August
Px

P Suerposnhate /
24 iX MYriata of Potash
F 50/50 lixtlr of ulfate of
asonia & nitrate of soda

16


.9^ 3 \_



-119 -- 79... 7/6 7/2b S/13 8/?7 9/15 9/28 10io/

2.-Effect of several fertilizer treatments with particular reference to nitrogen on the
growth curve of carpet grass, 1937.

"he fertilizer treatments were designed to obtain information on the
wing: (1) Rates and dates of applying nitrogen as associated with sea-
and total growth; (2) effect of secondary elements in combination
a complete fertilizer; (3) effect of rates and combinations of lime,
late, and potash with constant quantities of nitrogen.
es and dates of nitrogen applications alter the total yield and the
curve of grass significantly, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. A corm-






48 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

prison of these figures shows a pronounced increase of early grass yields in
1938. Very slight early yield increases resulted in 1937, because heavy
March rains caused leaching of nitrogen. The accompanying cool weather
inhibited grass growth which also caused inferior utilization of nitrogen
fertilizers. The early season yield increases of carpet grass by nitrogen
fertilization are thus dependent on climatic factors. These figures also
demonstrate that September nitrogen applications are not generally prac-
tical.


P Suerp~oohate
K Muriate of Pota*
N 50/50 tur oaf lf. ol f oan~a
Mi altra of lod.


---------P K N 200 lbs. Mar., N 200 lbs. June
..................P K N 100 lbs. Mar., N 100 lbs. May, N 200 lbs. Sept.
S.. ....P 5 Wo M arch
-K Leon Fine Sad y Sol. 1935
P P GaAio-evlle. norida




P /. .. /. .
I I /I I









4/4 5/9 6/7 7/5 ?720 /1 8/19 8/31 912 11/7 11/29
Cnret Gra.s Clippne P1t$. 1938.
Fig. 3.-Effect of several fertilizer treatments with particular reference to nitrogen on the
growth curve of carpet grass, 1938.

The yields of several fertilizer treatments on different soil types are
given in Table 5. Yield data demonstrate that carpet grass responds pri-
marily to nitrogen fertilizers, with lime, phosphate and potash being of
secondary importance. Light rates of lime, phosphate and potash are as
desirable as heavy 'ates.
II. FOUR SOURCES OF NITROGEN--SODIUM NITRATE. SULFATE OF AMMONIA
CALCIUM CYANAMIDE AND URAMON-WITH ALL COMBINATIONS OF LIME,
SUPERPHOSPHATE AND POTASH ON CARPET GRASS GROWTH
Because carpet grass responds significantly to nitrogen fertilizers an
experiment was started in March 1937 to determine the relative values of
four nitrogen sources. These sources of nitrogen occur with all combina-
tions of lime, superphosphate and potash in a factorial experiment on a Leon
fine sandy soil, Gainesville. The grass is clipped to keep it in a vegetative
growth condition. The first year's results are self-explanatory in Table 6.
III. CARPET GRASS MANAGEMENT
Since carpet grass yields from different fertilizer treatments are meas-
ured by clippings gathered with a mower, a management and method study
to determine how carpet grass yields should be taken was started in 1938.
The treatments in Table 7 were arranged in a Latin square. The results
based on 11 replications are self-explanatory. Clipping treatment 1 has
been used for obtaining yields from the variously fertilized plots.





TABLE 5.-EFFECT OF


SEVERAL FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON YIELDS OF CARPET AND CENTIPEDE GRASSES ON SEVERAL SOIL
TYPES. (DRY YIELDS IN CWT. PER ACRE)


Gainesville,
Fla.
Fertilizer Treatment Plummer
Fine Sand
1937 1938
SCwt. Cwt.

No fertilizer ...................... 14.3 14.5

L500, P200, K50, N400....... 23.3 29.4
(LPK applied 1937)
L500, P200, K50, N400 .... 25.4 32.1
(LPK applied 1937 & '38)
L1000, P400, K100, N400 .22.5 25.9
(LPK applied 1937)
L2000, P800, K100, N400 .25.5 27.8
(LPK applied 1937)
P400, K50, N400 .............. 24.1 26.4
(PK applied 1937)
P800, K100, N400 .......... 25.5 28.6
(PK applied 1937)
P800,. K100 .................. .. 15.6 15.6
(PK applied 1937)
N 400 ...................................... 27.4 26.9


Gainesville, Dinsmore, Brooks
Fla. Fla.


Fellowship
Fine Sand


|I


I


Leon
Fine Sand
1937 1938
Cwt. Cwt.

13.7 11.8

22.5 27.0

20.9 28.0

23.5 29.4

23.0 30.0

24.3 27.5

22.6 30.0

17.6 16.4

20.0 23.3


ville


i, Fla.

Norfolk
Fine Sand


Bladen
Fine Sand
1937 1938
Cwt. Cwt.

13.1 18.2

19.0 41.5

22.1 47.6

16.8 37.0

16.0 38.3

16.1 35.8

20.1 44.3

12.9 19.4

16.2 31.6


(All yields are from carpet grass except those on Norfolk fine sand, which is centipede.)
L-ordinary ground limestone; P--superphosphate (18% P.Os); K--muriate of potash; N--50/50 mixture of nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia,
of which % was applied in March and /2 in August.


1937
Cwt.

13.6

18.2

15.3

16.9

20.8

17.2

16.3

13.0


I


1938
Cwt.

17.9

31.6

26.8

30.4

30.4

25.9

29.0

17.2


1937
,wt.


15.6 | 26.2


1938
Cwt.

6.0

11.9

12.0

12.2

13.9

15.5

14.4

5.9


Mean for
Carpet Grass

1937 1938 Mean
Cwt. Cwt. Cwt.

13.7 15.6 14.7

20.8 32.4 26.6

20.9 33.6 27.3

19.9 30.7 25.3

21.3 31.6 26.5

20.4 28.9 24.7

21.1 33.0 27.1

14.8 17.2 16.0

19.8 27.0 23.4








6.-1938 YIELD


Fertilizer
Lbs. per Acre
Super-
Sphosphate

0

0

125

0

125

0

125

125


1,918

1,919

2,087

1,845

1,773


14,678

1,834


2,930

2,888

2,493

2,910

3,099


22,666

2,833


2,401

2,614

3,079

2,994

2,509


21,718

2,715


1,836

2,449

2,171

2,213

2,701


18,242

2,280


2,246

2,299

2,097

2,656

2,539


19,030

2,378


0

30

30

0

30


i,-hi calcium); superphosphate-18% POs; potash-muriate of potash (50% KO); nitrate of soda-16% N; sulfate of
-' 'n cyanamide--22% N.
-March 1938. Nitrogen sources were applied at the rate of 48 pounds (N), % applied in March


SUMMARIES OF CARPET GRASS WHEN FERTILIZED WITH FOUR SOURCES
COMBINATIONS OF LIME, SUPERPHOSPHATE AND POTASH.

No Nitrate Sulfate of Calcium Uramon
Nitrogen of Soda Ammonia Cyanamide I
SDry Weight Dry Weight Dry Weight Dry Weight Dry Weight I
Potash Lb. per AcrelLb.per Acre Lb.per Acre Lb.per Acre Lb.per Acre|

0 1,425 3,014 2,239 1,811 2,487

30 1,920 2,762 2,824 2,805 2,656

0 1,791 2,570 3,058 2,256 2,050


Total



10,976

12,967

11,725

11,331

12,169

11,927

12,618

12,621


I


OF NITROGEN AND


Mean



2,195

2,593

2,345

2,266

2,433

2,385

2,523

2,524


19,264

2,408


J










TABLE 7.-EFFECT OF Two TYPES OF MOWERS, CUTTING HEIGHTS AND FREQUENCIES AND TWO MECHANICAL SOD TREATMENTS
ON YIELD AND PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF FERTILIZED AND UNFERTILIZED CARPET GRASS.


ng Mechanical
Method of Cutting Treatment Fertilizer'
Period


Treat-
ment


1
2

3
4

5
6
7

8
9

10
11


None
None

Mech. cow'
Cutter'

None
None
Mech. cow

None
None

None
None


Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes

No
No


Clippi


'Fertilizer includes 500 Ibs. dolomite, 200 Ibs. superphosphate (18/o P.Os), 50 Ibs. muriate of potash, and two
acre of a 50/50 mixture of nitrate of soda and sulfate of ammonia applied in March and June.
2Veg.---Clipped to avoid seed head development.
'Power Mower--A heavy mower approximately 450 Ibs. with cutting blades as for ordinary lawn mower.
'Mech. cow-500 lb. steel roller with mounted hoofs for treading action.
GCutter-Rotary cutter of the type used for cutting palmetto.


Protein
%


11.2
10.5


Protein
Yield
Lb./A

256
192

230
238


Total
Yield
Lb./A

2286
1826

2147
2091

2128
1352
1366

1910
2007

1129
910


Height I
I (Inches)|

0.5
1.25

0.5
0.5

0.5
0.5
0.5

0.5
0.5

0.5
0.5


Power Mower"
Power Mower

Power Mower
Power Mower

Power Mower
Lawn Mower
Lawn Mower

Power Mower
Power Mower

Power Mower
Power Mower


10.7 145
9.7 133

12.4 237
12.1 243

8.8 99
8.8 80

applications each of 150 lbs. per


Veg.-
Veg.

Veg.
Veg.

Monthly
Veg.
Veg.

Weekly
Bi-weekly

Veg.
Monthly







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


IV. CARPET GRASS GRAZING EXPERIMENT WITH CATTLE
A 5.6 acre field of carpet grass was divided into 8 fields of 0.7 acres
each, in the spring of 1939. Four fields were fertilized with 200 pounds
superphosphate (18% P20.), 50 pounds muriate of potash and 40 pounds
nitrogen (N) per acre. The remaining four fields were not fertilized.
Records on cattle gains are to be taken every time the cattle are moved
to a different field under a rotational grazing system. One group of animals
will always graze fertilized grass and the other unfertilized grass.

ERADICATION OF WEEDS IN TAME PASTURES
Bankhead-Jones Project 296 R. E. Blaser
From the standpoint of pastures, weeds are generally considered as
those plants which are not readily eaten by livestock. Because of this fact,
desirable pasture plants are crowded and exterminated by weeds. Fortun-
ately Florida prostrate grasses must be grazed closely and few weeds sub-
sist after a good sod has been encouraged by proper pasture management.
During the first few years it is necessary to mow the pasture frequently
to prevent weeds from reseeding. After a good sod has been formed, weeds
seldom become a problem under close grazing management.
Dog fennel (Anthemus cotula) and field thistles (Cirsium nuttallii), two
erect weeds, are common on areas in the process of being sodded with grass.
These two plants are easily eradicated by preventing seed development.
Close mowing is a very effective control measure. Rotary cutters are help-
ful, but many weeds escape close cutting and reseed.

FORAGE NURSERY AND PLANT ADAPTATION STUDIES
Bankhead-Jones Project 297* Geo. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
During the winter of 1938-1939, 185 separate plantings were under
observation in the nursery for possible winter grazing or cover crops. In
addition 145 introductions of Trifoliums and other clovers which had been
planted in the autumn of 1937 were being observed. In the spring of 1939
over 480 plantings of spring and summer crops were made in the nursery.
Thus a total of more than 650 individual plantings were under test during
the season of 1938-1939.
Two strains of Woolly-Finger grass (Digitaria sp.) are showing con-
siderable promise as pasture grasses. Both strains have been planted in
the pasture cafeteria and have later been placed in pastures, where they
will be observed under grazing. Sufficient time has not elapsed to determine
how they will react to pasture conditions. Several other grasses and legumes
which have been under observation are planted in advanced test plots in the
hope that they will have a place in the agricultural program of Florida.
The pasture cafeteria is being used to determine the relative palatability
of promising plants and their ability to stand the conditions necessary when
being grazed.
Twenty-seven grasses and legumes were used in the cafeteria tests in
1937. Three grasses, Dallis (Paspalum dilatatum), Woolly-Finger (Digi-
taria eriantha), and Chloris distichaphylla produced heaviest early grazing
while two species of Brachiaria, both from Africa, and Digitaria eriantha
made heavy grazing in the late autumn months. Heaviest grazing through-
out the entire summer was obtained on the Dallis and Woolly-Finger plots.
Other grasses showing up well in the cafeteria were Paspalum malacophyl-
lum and Chloris petraea, a native grass.
*In cooperation with USDA.







Annual Report, 1939


Three selected strains of Napier grass were grazed in the cafeteria dur-
ing the season of 1937. No. 4 E.S., a fine-stemmed, leafy type, was pre-
ferred by the cattle, indicating that it is more palatable than either of the
other two.
A second cafeteria in which other strains of Napier grass have been
planted is under test in 1939.
In 1938 more than 30 species of grasses and legumes were planted in
pasture plots with carpet grass. These have been grazed during the summer
of 1939. Digitaria marginata, a member of the Woolly-Finger group, has
shown exceptional promise as a pasture grass. Two legumes, a creeping
beggarweed and an imported wild peanut, are both demonstrating their
ability to grow and persist in competition with grasses under grazing condi-
tions.
Seventeen larger plots have been planted to other grasses and legumes
in the late spring of 1939. These will be a portion of a larger pasture and
will therefore be subjected to grazing conditions.
Indigofera hirsuta, a legume which bids fair to fit into the cover crop
program, is under trial, as a companion to corn and also as a possible graz-
ing plant.

FORAGE AND PASTURE GRASS IMPROVEMENT
NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum) IMPROVEMENT
Bankhead-Jones Project 298* Geo. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
Eleven selected strains of Napier grass were included in a yield test.
Two methods of cutting were used. One half of each plot was cut when
the plants had reached a height of between four and five feet and the other
half was cut at full growth. Four cuttings were obtained from the portion
of the plot cut at a height of four to five feet and two cuttings from the
portion cut when full grown. Yields of each strain are given in Table 8.
TABLE 8.-YIELDS OF NAPIER GRASS STRAINS IN POUNDS OF GREEN WEIGHT
PER ACRE WHEN CUT AT Two STAGES OF GROWTH-NAMELY, FULL
GROWN (TWO CUTTINGS) AND AT A HEIGHT OF FOUR TO FIVE FEET
(FOUR CUTTINGS), 1938.
Total Yield of Four I
ITotal Yield of Two Rank Cuttings June 14, July Rank
Strain I Cuttings July 19 and I in I 27, August 29 and in
October 8 Yield I September 22 Yield

No. 4 E. S. 40,315 10 23,685 11
No. 6 E. S. 44,509 8 37,972 9
No. 7 E. S. 1 42,875 9 44,225 8
No. 15 E. S. 25,183 11 27,433 10
No. 113 .......... 58,825 5 46,786 5
No. 140 ........-. 59,455 4 46,863 4
No. 150 .......... 58,005 6 53,746 2
No. 160 ....... .. 68,882 1 57,288 1
No. 162 .......... 61,548 3 44,596 7
No. 167 .......... 62,329 2 50,919 3
No. 178 ........ 51,103 7 46,486 | 6

In the spring of 1939 a second field was planted to five strains of Napier
grass selected from the large group of plants collected in the Everglades.
More than 100 strains of Napier grass are still under observation at the
Main Station. The most promising strains are also being grown for ob-
*In cooperation with USDA.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


servation at the North Florida and West Central Florida Stations and on
the muck areas of the Everglades and on several farms in the State.
Planting material of strain number 7 E.S. has been distributed for
planting as a feed for dairy and beef cattle.
WOOLLY-FINGER GRASS (Digitaria sp.) IMPROVEMENT
A large number of strains of Digitaria species have been under observa-
tion in the forage nursery for several years. The majority have been in-
troduced into America from southern Africa. The Digitarias as a group
are palatable and are grazed readily by cattle. A number of problems need
to be solved, however, before they will become practicable as pasture grasses.
Two problems which confront the cattlemen are: (1) seed production-the
perennial types introduced produce an abundance of seed heads but very
little viable seed which can be used in seeding new pastures; (2) most of
the introduced strains do not seem to be adapted to conditions to which
a grazing crop must be subjected.
In 1938 several hundred seedlings from 1937 seed were grown and ob-
served throughout the season. Three or four of these show signs of especi-
ally rapid growth when transplanted and one strain exhibits characters
which may make a good grazing grass.
In 1939 a large number of seedbeds were seeded from the 1938 strains.
Seed from two strains produced a good supply of plants. One strain gave
nearly 100 percent germination and produced a heavy stand of good grass.
The new strains which are showing especial promise have been planted
in pastures where they will be subjected to grazing.
PIGEON PEA IMPROVEMENT
Inasmuch as considerable interest has been shown in the pigeon pea as a
possible crop, work was begun three years ago with the object of obtaining
a variety of peas which can be used in Florida to best advantage. Con-
siderable progress has been made.

GROWTH BEHAVIOR AND RELATIVE COMPOSITION OF RANGE
GRASSES AS AFFECTED BY BURNING AND THE EFFECT OF
BURNING ON NATURAL GRASS STANDS AND UPON THE
ESTABLISHMENT OF IMPROVED GRASSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 299 W. A. Leukel and W. E. Stokes
Burning of range grass areas at monthly intervals is being continued
with interesting results. As previously reported, areas burned after one
year's rest (no burning) produced a heavy aftergrowth up through May.
After this very little or no native aftergrowth was produced on any of the
areas for almost a year after burning.
Areas of range grasses burned over after a rest period of two years pro-
duced very little or no aftergrowth following burning in March. All the
different areas burned over during the remaining months of 1938 are still
quite devoid of native growth. Different areas of native grass burned at
monthly intervals in 1939 show little or no growth of native grass up to
the present.
Several days after each monthly burning in 1938 the burned areas were
seeded to carpet grass. These seeds were not covered but were broadcasted
over the burned areas.
Little carpet grass growth was observed on most of the burned areas,
due to moisture conditions unfavorable to germination. In 1939 during a
period of abundant rainfall early in the season many of the plots seeded
to carpet in 1938 showed a worthwhile stand of that grass. Plots seeded







Annual Report, 1939


early in 1939 are at present showing a worthwhile growth of carpet grass
where satisfactory moisture conditions were maintained.
Another area of range grass was laid out at the Farm Colony near
Gainesville and divided into 12 areas separated by plowed firelines. This
area was not burned over in 1938. Each month, beginning in January 1939,
one of these areas is being burned over and seeded to carpet grass several
days later. The area is accessible to cattle but they are not concentrated
on it. Some carpet grass growth is appearing on some of the early sown
areas, but enough time has not elapsed for definite information on the
probable results obtainable.
COMPOSITION RELATIONS
Laboratory analyses of samples from mature native grasses and the
growth after burning show interesting results. Mature grasses are low
in nitrogen, higher in crude fibrous materials and narrow in carbohydrate-
nitrogen relation. In this growth period they are also low in phosphorus
and potassium. Calcium and magnesium show a rather uniform trend on
a percentage basis in the mature and vegetative plants.
The native grasses produced after each monthly burning are more vege-
tative, succulent and palatable than those unburned. They are higher in
nitrogen, lower in crude fibrous materials and narrow in carbohydrate-
nitrogen relation. In this growth period phosphorus and potassium are at
a higher percentage level, while calcium and magnesium show again a
rather uniform trend on a percentage basis.
Since some form of grazing and tramping is essential for the production
of a satisfactory sod of improved pasture grasses, work of this kind should
be tried where the grazing is held under more controlled conditions. From
results obtained thus far it appears very likely that under proper moisture
conditions improved pasture can be established very economically through
proper burning, seeding and grazing.
METHODS OF RIDDING LAND OF OBJECTIONABLE GROWTHS
AND OBSTACLES
Bankhead-Jones Project 300 R. E. Blaser and W. E. Stokes
Eradication of palmetto (Serenoa repens), gallberry (Ilex glabra), run-
ning oak (Quercus pumilla), and other undesirable native growths is most
economically accomplished with cultural operation. Three types of equip-
ment are used with satisfactory results, namely, disc harrows, disc plows
and rotary cutters.
Because new types of machines are being designed by various machinery
companies and also because pasture establishing is progressing satisfac-
torily, extensive research on this project has been discontinued. Research
is being confined largely to nutritional requirements of various pasture
plants.
PASTURE LEGUMES
Bankhead-Jones Project 301* W. E. Stokes, G. E. Ritchey
and R. E. Blaser
I. EXPERIMENTS ESTABLISHED IN FALL, 1937
Results with 21 fertilizer and inoculation experiments on different soil
types were given in Bulletin 325. Fertilizer treatments with one ton of
lime, 600 pounds superphosphate (18% P2OS), and 100 pounds muriate of
potash per acre have produced excellent clover growth for two successive
years without additional fertilization on Bladen, Portsmouth and Bayboro
soils, Fig. 4.
*In cooperation with USDA.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 4.-Clover on a Bayboro fine sandy soil, Gainesville, Fla. This soil was fertilized
with lime, phosphate and potash in 1937. This is the second year's clover growth without
additional fertilizer.

Clover growth on relatively high phases of Leon fine sandy soils at
Penney Farms and Dinsmore was good in 1937 but poor in the fall and
spring of 1938-39. Most growth in 1937 was furnished by White Dutch,
in 1938-39 by Hop. This inferior clover growth during the 1938-39 season
on these two soils apparently was caused by the extremely dry fall.
As a result of experimental work 3,000 acres of clover, mostly as small
trial plantings, have been planted in various parts of the state. Good results
were obtained where rainfall was ample and the recommendations in Bul-
letin 325 were followed.
II. SOURCES OF PHOPHATE AND LIME WITH COMBINATIONS OF
OTHER FERTILIZER MATERIALS AS RELATED TO CLOVER GROWTH
Four sources of phosphates including superphosphate (18% P2Os), basic
slag, colloidal phosphate, and raw rock phosphate; and two kinds of lime-
stone-dolomitic and ordinary high-calcium ground limestone-have been
chosen for these experiments. These two kinds of limestone were also
mixed at a ratio of 3 parts calcium limestone to 1 part dolomite to de-
termine the value of these materials alone and in mixture.
The treatments shown in Table 9 were replicated twice in randomized
blocks. Ten identical setups were placed on several soil types located in
various parts of the central to southern section of the state. The areas
were fenced to obtain growth indices. Clovers on all but three of these
setups failed because of dry conditions. The growth indices for both clover
and grasses on three soil types is given in Table 9. Redtop grass produced
exceptionally good growth on acid muck soil at Davenport.
III. CLOVER STRAIN TEST
Two factorial-designed experiments to determine seasonal growth
curves, nutritional requirements, and soil moisture requirements of 17
strains or varieties of winter legumes were laid out in the fall of 1937.
One test was located on a Leon fine sandy soil at Dinsmore, the other on a
Johnson fine sandy soil at Gainesville.
The fertilizer treatments, clovers tested and yield summaries at Gaines-
ville for 1938 and 1939 are given in Table 10. The growth behavior of








Annual Report, 1939


TABLE 9.-RELATIONSHIP OF FOUR SOURCES OF PHOSPHATE, Two SOURCES
OF LIME AND COMBINATIONS OF LIME, PHOSPHATE AND POTASH ON
GROWTH OF CLOVER AND NORTHERN REDTOP GRASS AS SHOWN BY YIELD
INDEX.*
Fertilizers Per Acre
'0
C Acid Muck
w >







3:1 1000300 100 2.4 4.0 3.4 3.5 3.3


3:1 4000o 600 100 5.7 5.1 3.9 5.9 5.6
0:1 2000 600 100 2.2 3.7 3.2 3.5 3.1

3:1 2000 0 100 1000 0.6 2.1 2.0 3.7 2.1
3:1 2000 0 100 3000 1.8 3.0 2.4 4.8 3.2

0 0 0 100 3000 2.2 3.5 3.3 4.2 3.3
3:1 2000 0 100 1000 0.2 1.9 1.8 2.8 1.6
3:1 2000 0 100 3000 1.7 3.3 2.9 4.7 3.2

0 0 0 100 3000 3.1 4.7 4.6 4.9 4.2
3:1 2000 0 100 750 4.9 4.0 3.5 3.3 4.1
3:1 2000 0 100 1500 4.4 4.4 3.7 5.5 4.8
0 0 0 100 1500 1.8 3.8 3.4 3.9 3.2
0 0 0 0 .003 .1 .1 .03 .04
(Parts) (Lb.).(Lb.) (Lb.) (Lb.) (Lb.) (Lb.) 44









3:1 1000 600 100 2.4 4.0 3.9 1.3 2.0
3:1 2000 600 100 2.93 1.3 1.3 .6 1.0
3:1 4000 600 100 5.7 5.1 3.9 5.9 5.6
1:0 2000 600 100 2.5 4.4 3.5 5.9 4.3
0:1 2000 600 100 2.2 3.7 3.2 3.5 3.1







3:1 2000 0 100 1000 .004 .3 2.0 3.7 2.1
3:1 2000 0 0 3000.004 .8 3 .0 2.4 4.8 .5

*Yield inde-height of vegetation in inches with a 100% stand or ground cover. The
3:1 2000 0 100 1000 0.2 1.9 1.8 2.8 1.6
















yield index is calculated by the following formula: (% ground cover) x (% clover or grass)
x (height of clover or grass).
Portmouth fine sand-Experiment at Samsula, F3000a. Yield index taken 3/3/9.
0 0 0 100 3000 3.1 4.7 4.6 4.9 4.2
3:1 2000 0 100 750 4.9 4.0 3.5 3.3 4.1
3:1 2000 0 100 1500 4.4 4.4 3.7 5.5 4.8














Acid muck-Experiment at Davenport, Fla. Yield index taken 3/2/39.
Plummer fine sand-Experiment at Penney Farms, Fla. Yield index taken 5/10/39.
These experiments were seeded Oct. 1938 with mixture of 8 3.8lover and 4 winter grasses.
White Dutch, hop, Persian and California Bur furnish the clover growth White Dutch
furnishing 7 to 90 percent of the growth. edtop grass furnished most of winter grass
0 0 600 100 .7 4.0 3.9 1.3 2.0
3:1 2000 600 0 .3 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.0
3:1 2000 0 100 .004 .3 2.3 2.3 .9
3:1 2000 0 0 .004 .8 .8 .8 .5











growth.
The yield indexheight of the two mineral soils inches with made up primarily of lover, while on the
yieldmuck the growth was primarily redtop grass (Agrostiowing formula: albaa). ground cover) x ( clover or ss)
x (height of clover or grass).
Portsmouth fine sand-Experiment at Samsula, Pla. Yield index taken 1/3/19.
Acid muck-Experiment at Davenport, Fla. Yield index taken 3/2/39.
Plummer fine sand-Experiment at Penney Farms, Fla. Yield Index taken 5/10/39.
These experiments were seeded Oct 1938 with mixture of 8 clovers and 4 winter grasses.
White Dutch, hop, Persian and California Bur furnish the clover growth. White Dutch
furnishing 75 to 90 percent of the growth. Redtep grass furnished most of winter grass
growth.
The yield index of the two mineral soils is made up primarily of clover, while on the
muck the growth was primarily redtop grass (Agrostis alto).







TABLE 10.-YIELD* SUMMARIES IN POUNDS DRY WEIGHT PER ACRE FOR WINTER CLOVER STRAINS ON JOHNSON FINE SANDY
SOIL WITH THREE FERTILIZER LEVELS AT GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA.


Variety of Clover


Little Hop (Trifolium dubium) ....................
Hop (Trifolium procumbens) ........ ...........
White Dutch (Louisiana strain) .......
White Dutch (Kent Wild) .......... .............
White Dutch (Oregon strain) .................
White Dutch (Dixie strain) ............. ..

Ladino clover ... ................................
Persian (Trifolium resupinatum) ........
Subterranean (Trifolium subterranean) .
Cluster clover (Trifolium glomeratum) ...
Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum) ........
Crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) ....

Black Medic (Medicago lupulina) ............
California Bur (Medicago hispida) .........
Carolina clover (Trifolium carolinianum)
Sweet clover (Melilotus mixture) ................
Augusta vetch (Vicia angustifolia) ... .....
No clover (check) ............................ ..

Average Yield for Fertilizer Treatment ......


T-lt
1938


964
1401
2347
1199
1486
2220

1905
1842
733
566
1445
817

712
838
1089
1047
1043
775

1246


T-1 T-2t T-2 T-3t
1939 1938 1939 1938

2179 1299 2072 785
1613 734 1174 1026
2659 1884 2973 1885
2679 1005 1927 964
1802 1006 1633 1277
2282 2828 2303 1863

1884 2156 2198 1487
2553 1402 2367 1237
1445 649 651 775
838 858 775 586
1591 1738 1967 964
588 691 629 586

1069 838 1048 837
1571 1006 1632 754
1571 712 1235 608
1612 1043 1676 775
503 1131 796 671
315 691 483 733

1597 1204 1530 990


1 1323 1147 1483


T-3
1939

1947
1218
1863
1739
2156
2051

1780
2429
1172
754
1569
379

672
1048
1174
984
482
399


*Dry yields include total dry weights of clover and carpet grass. Clovers were seeded on carpet grass sod.
tTreatments: T-l T-2 T-3
Lime, lbs. per acre ...................................... ............. 3000 1500 750
Superphosphate (18% P 5Os), lbs. per acre ...... 800 400 200
Muriate of potash, lbs. per acre ................ 200 100 50
All fertilizers were applied in October, 1938.
1938 yields from February to June 14.
1939 yields from February to May 19.
:Average of T-1, T-2 and T-3.


Ave.t
1938

1016
1053
2038
1056
1256
2303

1849
1493
719
670
1382
698

795
866
803
955
948
733


Ave.$t
1939

2066
1355
2498
2115
1863
2212

1954
2449
1089
789
1709
532

929
1417
1326
1424
593
399


Rank Rank
1938 1939

9 5
8 11
2 1
7 4
6 7
1 3

3 6
4 2
16 13
18 15
5 8
17 17

14 14
12 10
13 12
10 9
11 16
15 18


.








Annual Report, 1939


TABLE 11.-1938 YIELD* SUMMARIES OF CLOVERS IN POUNDS DRY WEIGHT
PER ACRE FOR WINTER CLOVER STRAINS ON LEON FINE SANDY SOIL
WITH THREE FERTILIZER LEVELS AT DINSMORE, FLORIDA.

Variety of Clover T-1t T-2t T-3t Mean Rank


Little Hop (Trifolium dubium) ........ 1130 901 650 893 5
Hop (Trifolium procumbens) ........... 1529 1026 630 1061 4
White Dutch (Louisiana strain) 1068 859 1278 1068 3
White Dutch (Kent Wild) ................. 819 651 714 728 10
White Dutch (Oregon strain) ........ 1215 672 420 769 9
White Dutch (Dixie strain) ............ 1696 1069 817 1194 2

Ladino clover ................................. ..... 1235 1696 1214 1381 1
Persian (Trifolium resupinatum) .. 1549 462 588 866 7
Subterranean (T. subterranean) ... ... 483 671 651 601 14
Cluster clover (T. glomeratun) .... 357 546 357 420 20
Alsike clover (T. hybridum) .............. 1152 860 630 880 6
Crimson clover (T. incarnatum) ...... 798 609 546 651 13

Black Medic (Medicago lupulina) ...... 588 441 713 580 15
California Bur (Medicago hispida) .... 546 462 671 559 17
Carolina (T. carolinianum) ............... 901 399 420 573 16
Sweet (Melilotus mixture) .......... 136 1296 1006 812 8
Augusta vetch (Vicia angustifolia) ... 797 776 609 727 11
No clover (check) ....................-......... 504 714 357 525 19

Mean of Each Treatment .................. 917 784 682 794

*Dry weights include total dry weights of clover and redtop grass. Clovers were seeded
on newly tilled land.
tTreatments: T-1 T-2 T-3
Lime, lbs. per acre ............................. ........... 3000 1500 750
Superphosphate (18% P20s), lbs. per acre ........ 800 400 200
Muriate of potash, lbs. per acre .............................. 200 100 50
All fertilizers were applied in November 1938. Yields were taken from February to
July 15, 1938.

these clovers was similar for the two years. In general, clovers belonging
to the Medicago and Melilotus groups made poor growth on this soil type,
because they are better adapted to well drained soils and especially loamy
soils. The 1938 yields from a Leon soil are given in Table 11. No yields
were obtained in 1939 because of dry weather.
Little Hop clover produces more feed in early season than other clovers.
White Dutch produces considerable early feed and yields high in late season
because of its tendency to a perennial growth habit. Persian clover is slow
to start in early season, but yields very high in March and April. This
plant seeds heavily in May, matures seed and dies. California Bur clover
has a desirable early growth curve, but very poor growth resulted in late
season because of wet soil conditions which this plant does not tolerate.
White Dutch, Little Hop and Persian clover make an excellent combi-
nation for moist to wet soils because a desirable growth curve is produced,
as shown in Fig. 1, page 4. A combination of Little Hop and California
Bur clover makes a good mixture for moist to well drained soils. Other
clovers also possess good growth curves and yield capacities, but are in-
ferior because they are not propagated as easily by seed.
IV. LESPEDEZA STRAIN TEST
Four strains of lespedeza-Common, Korean, Kobe and Tenn. 76-are
included in this test. The experiment is factorial-designed so the lespedeza







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


strains occur with different levels of lime, superphosphate, potash, nitrogen
and four sources of phosphates. The experiment has been established on
Leon and Bayboro soils.
Nodule counts of plants from the fertilizer treatments are reported in
Bankhead-Jones Project 329 of the Chemistry and Soils Department.

A STUDY OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum Purpureum) FOR
PASTURE PURPOSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 302 R. E. Blaser and W. E. Stokes
The study of Napier grass for grazing purposes is cooperative with the
Animal Husbandry Department. The suitability of Napier grass for sup-
plementary and continuous pasture for beef and milk production is to be
determined.
A 15-acre planting of Napier grass made in March 1937 is under grazing
for the third successive year. It was divided into five fields of three acres
each and grazed rotationally. Napier grass is a tall, erect grass and con-
tinuous grazing will keep plants defoliated and eventually deplete root re-
serves and exterminate the plants. A field is stocked so the steers consume
the leafage in five to eight days. After all the leafage is consumed, the
steers are rotated to the next field. This grazing practice allows 20 to 32
days for the grass to develop new leafage before it is again grazed.
Four hundred pounds per acre of a 5-7-5 fertilizer is applied in March
of each year and subsequent applications of 75 pounds of nitrate of soda per
acre are made each time a field has been grazed.
It is apparent that Napier grass is a palatable and valuable feed for
both beef and dairy cattle. (Refer to this project under Animal Hus-
bandry for beef and milk yields.)
Table 12 shows that Napier grass remains in a highly palatable condition
during the entire season from the standpoint of protein composition. This
table also shows that Napier grass must be managed to produce the great-
est quantity of leafage because of the high protein content of leaves.
The protein analyses of leaves and stems when hand separated are
11.46% and 4.98%, respectively. The defoliated stems left in the field by
cattle analyzed an average of 5.60% crude protein.
When Napier grass is used for silage it is cut in a more mature state
than if it is grazed. The protein composition of stems varied from 2.38%
to 3.62% and of leaves from 8.4% to 13.67%. Data also show that the
leaf to stem ratio decreases as the maturity of plants increases. Prelim-
inary results also indicate that grazing management produces more leafage
per acre than silage management. It is apparent that Napier grass plants
with a high leaf to stem ratio should be selected in breeding program.
A management and fertilizer study to learn more about fertilizing and
handling Napier grass has been started.
Refer to Animal Husbandry phase under Project 302.

WATER PASTURE STUDIES
Bankhead-Jones Project 303* Geo. E. Ritchey and
R. E. Blaser
Studies reported in 1938 have been continued. Portions of pastures
located on low, wet land and on borders of Bivan's Arm of Payne's Prairie
have been planted to grasses adapted to growing in water or on marshy
lands. Grasses which have been planted in the advanced plots are Fort
Thompson (Paspalum distichum), Panicum paludivagum and Oryza barthii.
*In cooperation with USDA.




TABLE 12.-PROTEIN COMPOSITION AND OTHER DATA FOR NAPIER GRASS UNDER GRAZING AND SILAGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.

Grazing Napier Grass Before Grazing_ Napier Grass After Grazing
Sequence Dates* Plant Dry I I Dry Stem
of Fields Height Matter Leaves I Protein Matter Height Protein
Inches % i ILeaves %I Stems %o % Inches %_
A. Managed as for Grazing

I 1 & 2 5/10,5/16 38 16.9 45 10.36 5.07 14.5 16 5.87
3 & 4 5/21,5/27 38 19.1 33 9.15 5.04 17.5 14 5.27

II 1 & 2 6/13, 6/24 42 10.2 35 11.76 6.23 10.4 19 8.46
3 & 4 7/1, 7/9 51 13.2 33 11.72 5.00 13.8 20 7.33

1 7/20 52 18.4 30 11.39 4.51 16.0 19 5.25
III 2 7/26 48 13.7 30 11.68 5.22 12.5 17 5.25
3 8/1 54 14.8 30 10.79 3.94 16.0 19 4.65
4 8/8 47 17.8 34 10.00 4.13 16.6 20 4.65

IV 1 & 2 8/15,8/22 40 17.2 35 11.61 3.96 15.3 19 4.57
3 & 4 8/29, 9/3 42 19.9 28 10.61 4.89 19.8 23 5.63

V 1 & 2 9/14,9/21 37 16.2 33 12.22 5.41 19.8 20 4.17
3 & 4 9/27,10/4 36 17.6 25 14.41 6.15 18.9 19 5.82

VI 1 & 2 10/15,10/18 34 22.6 34 11.63 4.75 23.1 22 5.42
3 & 4 10/25,10/26 28 22.6 30 13.16 6.46 23.2 20 6.16

Average __ 41.9 11.46 4.98 19 5.60
B. Cut Twice a Year as for Silage

1 & 2 8/7/38 86 30.2 23 9.51 2.73
3 & 4 i 8/5/38 87 26.1 25 8.40 2.38

1 & 2 10/25/38 76 24.6 30 12.32 3.53
3 & 4 10/25/38 | 74 28.4 30 13.67 3.62
*Dates when cattle grazed grass down, grazing was rotated.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


METHODS OF ESTABLISHING PASTURES UNDER VARIOUS
CONDITIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 304 R. E. Blaser
The establishing of clover or carpet grass on soils possessing a wire-
grass vegetation without tilling has been accomplished. Dairy animals were
concentrated in a 10-acre wiregrass area for short intervals during the
1937 season. Carpet grass was seeded in the summer and fertilizer and
inoculated clover seeds were broadcasted in the fall of 1937. Cattle were
concentrated in this area to cover the clover seed by trampling.
Excellent clover growth was obtained the first year on plots properly
fertilized with lime, phosphate and potash. This pasture was mowed twice
during the summer of 1938. Clover seeds again germinated in the fall of
1938, producing a good clover and grass sward. At present the vegetation
consists primarily of carpet grass and White Dutch clover, the wiregrass
being almost completely exterminated.
The fact that clovers and carpet grass do best on well firmed soils has
again been substantiated. Disked soils should be packed with a roller or
heavy rains before seeding either clover or carpet grass. Several clover
plantings made in 1938 by farmers failed solely because of a loose soil, caus-
ing root desiccation.
For best results clover should be seeded on an established carpet grass
or other grass sod. The grass should be grazed close before seeding with
clover to avoid light competition to the small clover seedlings. In two lo-
cations clover furnished grazing where the carpet grass was grazed close,
but failed in the same two pastures where carpet grass growth was tall.
The management system of clover will greatly alter the yield and growth
curves. Clovers which are grazed when a height of 4 to 5 inches is reached,
recover rapidly after the animals are removed, furnish grazing for a long
time, and make good lateral spread. If not grazed before maturing seed
they grow upright and develop new vegetative growth slowly.
The failure of seedings of Dallis grass is common, probably due to im-
proper soil nutrition. An experiment to determine the effects of rates and
combinations of lime, phosphate, potash, nitrogen and sources of phophates
was arranged. This study was combined with the lespedeza strain test in
Project 301. The four lespedeza strains occur separately with each ferti-
lizer treatment. Dallis grass was seeded on all plots, hence the fertilizer
treatments with Dallis grass were replicated four times.
Dr. Glen W. Burton at Tifton, Georgia, found that Bahia grass seed
scarification with sulfuric acid stimulated immediate germination. Studies
to determine the effects of Bahia grass seed scarification and depths of
planting on the rapidity of sod formation are under way.
Northern redtop grass (Agrostis alba) appears to have a place in
Florida. This plant has made excellent growth when planted with clover
because of its cold resistance. It has also made very good growth on acid
muck soils when seeded at the rate of 6 pounds per acre and fertilized with
lime, phosphate and potash or phosphate and potash.

SPACING AND PLANT COMPETITION IN COMMON FIELD CROPS
State Project 312 J. P. Camp
Preliminary work on the spacing of sugarcane is reported under Project
56. Some assistance has been given to the work on spacing of peanuts.







Annual Report, 1939


MISCELLANEOUS
I. SEA ISLAND COTTON FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS
In a field experiment on the Station farm in which the average yield
was 286 pounds of seed cotton per acre the following yield increases per
acre were obtained for various fertilizer factors:
1. The first 18 pounds of nitrogen ............................ 80 pounds seed cotton
2. The second 18 pounds of nitrogen ...................... 2 pounds seed cotton
3. Applying half the nitrogen as side-dressing ...... 34 pounds seed cotton
4. Urea instead of nitrate of soda ............................ 4 pounds seed cotton
5. 18 pounds of phosphoric acid (superphosphate) 35 pounds seed cotton
6. The first 18 pounds of potash (muriate) ............ 69 pounds seed cotton
7. The second 18 pounds of potash (muriate) ........ 12 pounds seed cotton
8. Applying half the potash as side-dressing ........ 20 pounds seed cotton
9. The first 9 pounds of magnesia .............................. 17 pounds seed cotton
10. The second 9 pounds of magnesia ....-................. 19 pounds seed cotton
In a series of five cooperative field tests on private farms, in which
the results were of low precision, 24 pounds of nitrogen per acre produced
no more cotton than half that amount. Only small responses were obtained
for superphosphate and magnesium sulfate, and 24 pounds of potash was
only slightly more effective than 12 pounds. The poor responses are to
some extent attributable to the inefficient control of boll weevils which
caused severe damage in all tests.
II. FIELD TESTS ON EFFECTS OF PRECEDING CROPS, WASTEPOND PHOSPHATE,
LEGUME INOCULATION, SEED TREATMENT, AND SULFUR
DUSTING ON RUNNER PEANUTS
Soil on which Cayana cane and Napier grass had grown for four suc-
cessive seasons was remarkably fertile for peanuts. The peanut yields
following these crops, which had been cut annually for silage (twice a
year in the case of Napier), were, in fact, the highest ever measured by
this department under any conditions. Acre yields of cured nuts were:
Following Cayana cane four years, 1,699 pounds; following Napier grass
four years, 1,897 pounds; following corn and sorghum two years each,
772 pounds. If the effect is found to occur consistently it may be a matter
of some economic importance.
Wastepond phosphate at rates ranging from 1,000 to 3,000 pounds per
acre failed to affect yields materially on the Station farm and in two
cooperative tests with growers. Inoculation of seed with legume bacteria
did not appreciably affect yields. Where deteriorated machine-shelled seed
was used, mercury dust seed treatment increased yields 11 percent. Dust-
ing the foliage with sulfur five times at two-weeks intervals also increased
yields about 11 percent, and greatly reduced Cercospora leaf-spotting and
consequent shedding of leaves; but the gain was not sufficient to cover
the cost of material and labor.
III. BRIGHT TOBACCO EXPERIMENTS
Under a grant from the Florida Agricultural Research Institute, avail-
able for the crop year 1939 only, tentative experiments with bright tobacco
involving (1) trials of 11 of the principal varieties and fertilizer experi-
ments involving (2) rates of fertilizer, (3) sources and combinations of
sources of nitrogen and (4) 32 different fertilizer formulas for tobacco as
well as (5) a comparison of acid, basic and neutral fertilizers of the same
analysis and (6) preliminary trace element trials involving zinc, iron,
copper, manganese, boron and cobalt and (7) the use of paradichloro-
benzene (PDB) for blue mold control were inaugurated in the spring of
1939 on Norfolk fine sandy soil of the Main Experiment Station farm.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

The research of the Animal Husbandry Department is conducted in
the following six main divisions: (1) dairy husbandry, (2) animal nutri-
tion, (3) beef cattle, sheep and swine, (4) veterinary science, (5) poultry
husbandry, and (6) dairy manufactures.

THE DAIRY HERD
The herd of registered Jerseys provided animals for the third double-
reversal feeding trial in which dried citrus pulp (grapefruit) was compared
with dried beet pulp for milk production. Cows also were available for two
grazing trials, one with clover starting in the early spring and one with
Napier grass. Four cows past their period of usefulness were assigned to
the project on relation of conformation to production, cooperative with
the Bureau of Dairy Industry, USDA. Calves were provided for experi-
mental studies of mineral nutrition, for biological effect of shark liver oil,
and for classroom demonstration of the digestive organs.
A gift of three very well bred registered Jersey heifers was received
from Marcus A. Milam, Sr., and V. T. Oxer, of the Milam Farm Dairy,
Miami. A junior herd sire was purchased from Randleigh Farm, Lockport,
New York. The first calves by this sire were dropped during May 1939.
Two registered Jersey heifers, as foundation animals, were obtained at
the Florida Jersey Cattle Club sale.
During the year 15 cows qualified for the Register of Merit on two milk-
ings daily in the study of measurement of transmitting ability of sires.
The list follows:


Age
yrs. mos.
Florida Victor Hope 1006294 .................... 4 5
Florida Victor Queen 1094190 .................. 2 2
Florida Victor May 1094191 ............... 2 0
Florida Victor Creole 1107877 ............. 1 11
Florida Victor Fancy 1021792 ................ 4 2
Florida Victor Fairy 1006290 ................. 5 6
Florida Victor Pogis Fairy 1071689 ........ 3 0
Florida Victor Maria 1109197 .................. 2 0
Florida Victor Heart 1109198 (305 days) 1 10
Florida Countess Fairy 1071688 ............ 2 3
Florida Countess Fancy 1107881 ............ 1 11
Florida Countess Buttercup 1107879 ...... 2 1
Florida Countess Coomassie 1107880 .... 2 0
Florida Pearl 1083833 .............................. 2 2
Jubilant Little Ruby 1038309 .................... 5 2


Milk
pounds
9,488
5,736
7,076
7,788
8,198
9,301
7,051
5,869
5,412
6,284
6,322
7,285
6,298
6,910
8,491


Test Butterfat
percent pounds
5.28 501.43
5.33 305.64
5.57 394.40
5.00 389.53
5.24 429.68
4.41 410.41
5.39 380.11
5.34 313.31
4.72 255.23
4.91 308.81
5.68 359.05
5.44 396.14
5.73 360.84
5.34 369.27
5.40 458.61


A further analysis was made of the transmitting ability of the present
senior herd sire, Sophie 19th's Victor 81st 331031, based on the record of
every one of his daughters, compared with those of their dams at corre-
sponding age. The records are as follows:


Yearly production
Daughter-dam pairs Milk Test Fat
Daughters 30 .......... 6,445 5.07 327
Dams 30 ................ 5,403 5.42 293


Percentage of daughters
that increased in
Milk Test Fat
73 23 60


Seventy-six purebred heifers are credited to this sire and 23 registered
sons out of cows with Register of Merit records have been sold to head
dairy herds in Florida.







Annual Report, 1939


Floss Duke's Count 357288 has five daughter-dam pairs with production
records which indicate that he may possibly increase the butterfat yield
of his daughters over their dams. This number of progeny is too few to
be considered a fully representative sample. Four other daughters are
on test, and 10 younger heifers are in the herd.

NUTRITION LABORATORY
Analytical studies of the department's investigations were continued.
Proximate and mineral analyses are completed on samples from the feeding
trial comparing citrus pulp and beet pulp, comparison of silages for steer
feeding, native cow wintering studies, silage studies, and the biological
feeding value studies with citrus pulp. Miscellaneous samples analyzed
include African squash, peanut chit, various samples of bamboo, various
citrus by-products, dried celery packinghouse waste and Alyce clover hay.
These analyses are tabulated in Table 13.
Digestion trials were completed on Napier grass leaves harvested in
a manner to simulate grazing, and on sugarcane silage.
Hemoglobin concentration, red cell volume, erythrocyte counts and total
leucocyte counts were made from samples of cattle blood in an effort to
develop diagnostic procedures for certain nutritional conditions. Rat studies
were made on the nutritive properties of milk as affected by mineral supple-
mentation. Mineral analyses were made of bone samples from animals
used in the study of the deficiencies of peanuts in the nutrition of swine.
A method was developed by Irving I. Rusoff for the quantitative determina-
tion of molybdenum in feeds and animal tissues.
Preliminary observations and tests were made with gurrie, the residue
from the separation of oil from shark livers, with regard to possible nutri-
tional value and modes of handling. This industry is becoming increasingly
important.
The use of shark liver oil as a source of vitamin A in skimmilk rations
for calves was investigated, and results were presented as a Master's thesis
to the Graduate School by H. E. Skipper.
Assistance to the Florida Citrus Exchange has been continued in modify-
ing formulae and methods of manufacture of their new citrus breakfast
food.
BEEF CATTLE HERD
The purebred herds of Hereford and Aberdeen-Angus cattle are main-
tained for experimental and instructional purposes. In August 1938 the
following purebred Polled Herefords were purchased: Choice Domino 112th
(115598) 2655544; Mischievous Domino 23rd (110723) 2624076; Princess
Domino 41st 2621122; Victoria Russell 36th (108664) 2570764; Eloise June
Bullion 1st (117103) 2702267; Bullione Domino 24th (115634) 2686239; and
Sprr. Princess Domino 93rd (112906) 2630380.
Native cows are used as foundation animals in a grade breeding project.
At present the breeding herd consists of native cows and first- and second-
cross Hereford cows. The heifers are retained in the herd as breeding
animals while the steers are used in experimental grazing and fattening
trials.
SWINE HERD
Small herds of purebred Poland China and Duroc-Jersey swine are main-
tained on the Experiment Station farm. These herds furnish animals for
various experimental trials and are available to students in judging, grad-
ing, and in meat products classes. A number of breeding animals were sold
during the year to farmers throughout Florida.











TABLE 13.-ANALYSES OF MISCELLANEOUS SAMPLES.
Crude Crude N-free Crude
Description of Sample Water Protein Fiber Extract Fat
percent percent percent percent percent
Peanut chit .................. ............ 7.91 27.55 8.15 27.65 33.37
Citrus pulp (drum-dried) .................. 16.96 5.68 11.03 72.83 5.50
Citrus pulp (fire-dried) ................................. 13.57 7.05 12.91 72.12 2.22
Citrus pulp (Neal-process) ..................... 5.25 5.27 14.27 72.64 2.36
Citrus pulp (Neal-process) ......................I 11.16 5.94 16.97 60.48 7.77
Citrus cannery waste silage ............... 82.26 13.52 8.64 47.19 25.32
Grapefruit seed oilmeal ........ ................. 6.48 23.16 9.73 29.04 33.79
I 7.26 26.61 11.31 32.58 24.60
7.00 23.19 8.90 28.73 35.18

African squash ........................ ... ..... - 15.33 16.04 50.73 4.19
Dried celery packinghouse waste .... 2.63 15.29 13.54 46.58 1.64
Bamboo leaf sheaths ............... .............. 8.38 3.25 42.32 48.52 1.09
Bamboo leaves and branches ............. 6.86 6.89 31.18 46.59 2.98
Bamboo stems .. ... ... ......................... 6.35 2.06 47.73 46.92 1.26
Bamboo stem s ...................................... . 2.35 1.50 49.37 46.70 .08
Canned bamboo shoots ... ... ....................... .. ..i 92.33 25.68 8.57 55.47 2.77
Alyce clover (Alysicarpus vaginalis L.) hay 9.51 15.75 31.90 43.58 3.39


Ash Ca Mg P
percent percent percent percent
3.28 0.11 0.28 0.38 3.
4.96 .70 .09 .11
5.70 .68 .09 .15
5.46 1.63 .08 .11 "
8.84 4.40 .13 .12
5.33 .76 .13 .24
4.28 .36 .19 .41
4.90 .41 .22 .46
4.00 .35 .18 .41
13.71 .20 .17 .57
22.95 1.47 .16 .49
4.82 .17 .05 .03
12.36 .53 .17 .10
2.03 .04 .03 .05
1.68 .03 .02 .15
7.51 .24 .07 .40
5.38 1.19 .20 .32








Annual Report, 1939


SHEEP
The flock of sheep consisting of purebred Hampshires, grade Hamp-
shires, and native ewes is maintained for comparisons of fleece and mutton
production. Classes in grading and judging livestock use this flock of
sheep for instructional purposes.

VETERINARY LABORATORY
During the past year many specimens of diseased animal tissues were
submitted to the veterinary laboratory for diagnosis. In some instances
field trips were made to investigate the nature of livestock diseases. Losses
in cattle were due to blackleg, botulism, hypocalcaemia, aphosphorosis,
ictero-hemoglobinuria, necrotic laryngitis, and keratitis. Infectious anemia
and Crotalaria spectabilis poisoning were diagnosed in horses. Heavy
losses in turkeys due to erysipelas infection, Erysipelothix rhusiopathiae,
was observed on one farm.
According to available records, ictero-hemoglobinuria (red water dis-
ease), which is a common disease among cattle in the Rocky Mountain
areas, was observed for the first time in cattle in Florida. This disease
appears to be of considerable significance, since the topography and climatic
conditions of the state create favorable environment for the maintenance
of the causative organism.

POULTRY LABORATORY AND FARM
Six breeds of chickens are kept at the University poultry farm, in-
cluding Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, S. C. White Leghorns, Barred
Plymouth Rocks, S. C. Buff Leghorns, S. C. White Minorcas and Silver
Laced Wyandottes. During the year the Single Comb White Minorcas
were discarded.
The larger proportion of the flock is composed of S. C. White Leghorns
and S. C. Rhode Island Reds. These two breeds are used primarily for
research, while the other breeds are used for teaching purposes.
The flock was increased to 964 pullets and hens during the fall of 1938.
The entire flock has been tested for pullorum disease and no reactors were
found when tested during the past year. The Poultry Division cooperated
in the National Poultry Improvement Plan which is sponsored by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture under the supervision of the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board at Tallahassee. The University poultry flock is listed as
"clean" according to the official list published by the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board.
There were 2,900 chicks hatched during the spring of 1939.
In the breeding flock there are two strains of S. C. Rhode Island Reds,
known as the Sanborn strain and the Brooksville strain. During the year
these two strains were crossed to study the effect of crossing on livability,
egg production and other inheritable characters. The White Leghorn breed-
ing flock is composed mostly of birds known as the University strain with
a few selected individuals introduced from the flocks of the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture.
Two additional laying houses 16 feet by 25 feet were constructed during
the summer of 1938. The plant now consists of five uniform 16 x 25 ft.
houses which are used for experimental feeding and management trials.
Eight small laying houses are used for breeding investigations and five
to house the different breeds and varieties for teaching purposes.








68 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Experimental work including breeding, hatchability, feeding trials with
citrus meal, vitamin A content of shark liver oil, and methods of feeding
grain were conducted during the year.
Preliminary feeding trials began during the year using clam shells as
a source of calcium for egg production. The trials for the first nine 28-day
periods indicate that clam shell is a desirable source of calcium. Feeding
trials with coquina shell as a source of calcium are under consideration.
Shark oil was added to the regular University laying ration to study
its value for egg production and health.
Trials are being conducted to study perosis in cooperation with the
Nutrition Division.
Additional experimental work was conducted at the West Central Flor-
ida Experiment Station, Brooksville, in cooperation with the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, to determine the rate of growth, livability, rate of
maturity, and egg production using a Rhode Island Red-Light Sussex
cross, Rhode Island Reds, and White Leghorn-F, Red-Sussex cross. The
results are summarized under the report of that station.
At the Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley, experimental houses
were constructed to conduct feeding and management trials. The experi-
ment started last fall was to study the effect on egg production, feed
consumption, mortality and cost of production of different methods of
feeding grain to layers. This work is reported under Project 337.
The disease phase of Poultry Husbandry is administered by the Veteri-
nary Division.
DAIRY PRODUCTS LABORATORY
A survey has been made to determine the problems in dairy manu-
factures most in need of study. Indications are that the principal problem
in the satisfactory storage of cream for use in ice cream under present
prevailing conditions is the prevention of oxidation. For this reason it
is proposed to study oxidation in stored cream, stored condensed milks,
dry milks and market milk as soon as possible. Other contemplated pro-
jects are: (1) effects of certain forages on the flavor of milk; (2) the
use of Florida pecans for making butter-pecan ice cream; and (3) the use
of certain Florida fruits as flavoring for ice cream.

DEFICIENCIES IN FEEDS USED IN CATTLE RATIONS
Purnell Project 133 R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal, P. T. Dix Arnold
and L. L. Rusoff
Investigations of mineral nutrition during the year dealt largely with
controlled feeding in the Nutrition Laboratory, and with the dairy herd.
Calcium.-All cows in the dairy herd have been involved in the study
of calcium supply in relation to milk production and welfare of the cows.
Through the cooperation of Professor W. L. Sawyer, College of Engineer-
ing, breaking strengths of 16 shaft bones were determined. Normal com-
position of the shaft of certain long bones is being obtained in cooperation
with the Spectrographic Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Soils.
Cobalt-Cobalt supplement has been sent to a number of cattlemen
over the state. A treatment which has been outlined in a mimeographed
pamphlet has been consistently successful in those areas studied in over-
coming certain symptoms of "salt sick". Continued controlled feeding
trials indicate that the mode of administration of cobalt may be important
physiologically, and that foetal storage may be affected by the amount
of cobalt supplied to the dam. Attempts to develop methods of diagnosis
before the onset of physical symptoms of cobalt deficiency have been un-








Annual Report, 1939 69

successful. The administration of 0.5 milligrams of cobalt per pound live
weight per day for a 12-months period did not induce any gross symptoms
of toxicity or affect growth rate.
Contacts are being continued with cattlemen in an effort to determine
whether or not there may be secondary deficiencies which will become
evident after the use .of recommended mineral supplements.
Copper.-Studies have been conducted with cattle under controlled con-
ditions using hay produced on one of the muck areas of the state. Acute
anemia has been overcome in several cases by use of copper sulfate or
copper chloride. Failure of growth of the animals concerned indicates
that the ration, even with copper supplement, is not nutritionally adequate.
Amounts of copper necessary to secure responses have been greater than
anticipated from analyses of "healthy" and "affected" feeds. Morpho-
logical effects of these feeds and supplements on the red blood cells are
being studied. Other elements are being tested as additional supplements
to these rations.
Molybdenum.-Molybdenum additions to the copper-deficient ration have
aggravated the nutritional disorders accompanying the use of the ration.
The ration has an unusual amount of molybdenum present. The use of
molybdenum (as sodium molybdate) at the rate of 50 parts per million
with a ration of alfalfa hay and skimmilk has not induced any symptoms
of toxicity in a calf over a 12-months period. Since this is a greater
amount of molybdenum than occurred in the copper-deficient ration, it is
probable that excess molybdenum is not the sole cause of lack of success
of the copper-deficient ration plus copper supplement.

RELATION OF CONFORMATION AND ANATOMY OF THE DAIRY
COW TO HER MILK AND BUTTERFAT PRODUCTION
State Project 140 R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal, P. T. Dix Arnold
and L. L. Rusoff
This project is cooperative with the Bureau of Dairy Industry, USDA.
Four cows that had completed their period of usefulness in the Station
dairy herd were assigned to this investigation. Besides the ante-mortem
and post-mortem weights and measurements, these four cows contributed
a total of 23 lactation records, 25 calving records, and one foetal record
to the data.
Lactations Calves Foetus
Florida Countess Fairy 1071688 ........................ 1 1
Wexford Majesty Heiress 768054 ........................ 8 8
Wexford's F. University Belle 697005 ................ 9 10 1
Florida Fontaine Buttercup 950798 .................... 5 6

A STUDY OF THE ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project 213 W. M. Neal, R. B. Becker
and P. T. Dix Arnold
During the year an additional upright silo of corn silage was under
investigation, the samples being obtained from five bags each containing
10-kilogram samples. The bags had been placed at various levels at the
time of filling the silo. Capacity of the silo has been measured each year,
based on total weights of ensiled forage and of sound silage removed.
A total of 155 samples of fresh forage, and of the corresponding silage,
have been studied since the beginning of this project. They include six
crops in five types of silos. It appears that in the case of "grasses" the
sugars ferment most easily, followed by starch, and lastly by the polysac-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


charides. Losses of dry matter of Napier grass, sugarcane and sorghum
in sample bags in trench silos for a three-year average amounted to 9.3
percent, 15.8 percent, and 18.5 percent, respectively.
The addition of molasses to Napier grass did not reduce the losses
from fermentation but did increase the palatability of the silage.

BEEF CATTLE BREEDING INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 215 A. L. Shealy, W. G. Kirk
and R. M. Crown
The four herds used in this project have been headed by purebred Here-
ford, Devon, Brahman and Red Polled bulls. The original herds of native
cows have been eliminated, since there have been sufficient grade offspring
to replace them.
The ability of the grade cattle, sired by purebred bulls of the breeds
mentioned above, to maintain themselves in a thrifty condition must be
determined if such a range cattle breeding program is to be encouraged.
These herds have been kept on a flatwoods range throughout the entire
year. There was an abundance of feed during the spring and summer
seasons but a scarcity of nutritious feed at other periods of the year.
These herds are weighed every three months. The average gain or
loss per animal for a two-year period for the grade cows which were born
in 1934 is as follows:
Period Gain or loss
pounds
1936-December to March -............-.........-.. -42
1937- March to June ....................... .............. 64
June to September .....- ................ ........ 13
September to December ................ -30
December to March ......................... -56
1938- March to June ...................- .............- ..- 144
June to September .............................. -27

The cattle made considerable gains from March to September when the
feed was plentiful and nutritious, but much of these gains were lost during
the fall and winter months.
Calves on this project are graded as slaughter calves or vealers.
Work on this project is conducted at Penney Farms in cooperation with
the Bureau of Animal Industry, USDA, and Foremost Properties, Incor-
porated.

COOPERATIVE FIELD STUDIES WITH BEEF AND
DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE
State Project 216 A. L. Shealy, R. M. Crown
and W. G. Kirk

Work on this project has been conducted on 16 farms and ranges in
11 counties located in widely separated sections of Florida. Purebred bulls
of Red Polled, Devon, Aberdeen-Angus, Hereford and Shorthorn breeds were
used in these studies. These bulls were bred to native cows and grade
offspring. The object of the experiment is to measure, as accurately as
possible, the improvement made in grade offspring when native cows are
bred to purebred bulls. The calves were graded according to the standard
grades devised by the U. S. Department of Agriculture for slaughter calves
and vealers. The grade heifers were scored as breeding animals at three
years of age.







Annual Report, 1939 71

During the summer of 1938 and late spring of 1939 a total of 206 calves
were graded as slaughter calves and vealers. The average grades were:
Good, 28 percent; Low Good, 8 percent; High Medium, 29 percent; Medium,
20 percent; and Low Medium, 15 percent.
When first-cross females are scored as breeding animals, it has been
shown that from 16 to 28 percent improvement has been made over the
native females in the original foundation breeding herds.
This experiment is in cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry,
USDA.

BEEF AND DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 219 A. L. Shealy, W. G. Kirk
and R. M. Crown
Work on this project has been conducted with Herefords at the Main
Station, Devons at the Everglades Station, and Aberdeen-Angus at the
North Florida Station. Natives also were used at each place.
Birth weights and growth rates of calves were determined. The calves
were graded as slaughter calves or vealers when three weeks to eight
months of age. During the summer of 1938 and late spring of 1939, 126
calves were graded according to standard USDA grades. Average grades
were: Good, 22 percent; Low Good, 32 percent; High Medium, 22 percent;
Medium, 16 percent; and Low Medium, 8 percent.
The grade females were graded on the same scorecard as were the
native cows in the foundation herd. Bull calves were castrated and used
in grazing studies and feeding trials.

THE DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENTS AND FEEDING VALUE OF
DRIED GRAPEFRUIT AND DRIED ORANGE REFUSE
Purnell Project 239 W. M. Neal, R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold
and L. L. Rusoff
The final double-reversal feeding trial was completed, comparing dried
grapefruit pulp with dried beet pulp with Jersey cows in the Station dairy
herd. The two pulps were fed in alternate 30-day periods, at a level
calculated to provide 40 percent of the total digestible nutrient require-
ments of the cows. The basal ration consisted of a good grade of corn
silage and No. 1 green Federal grade alfalfa hay offered at two-thirds of
the usual rates, supplemented with equal parts of corn feed meal and
cottonseed meal (41% total crude protein).
During the feeding trials over the past three years slightly more milk
was obtained while the cows received dried grapefruit pulp than while
they received dried beet pulp. However, the cows gained more weight on
the dried beet pulp than on the dried grapefruit pulp. These results in-
dicate that these two by-products are of practically equal value when
supplied as bulky carbohydrate feeds to dairy cows.
No deleterious effects were observed on the flavor of the milk, in studies
conducted in the Dairy Products Laboratory.
At the suggestion of Station workers, experiments were conducted by
a citrus-drying plant on the incorporation of cane molasses with the citrus
press-cake, prior to drying. Dried molasses-citrus pulp is available on the
market as the result. In a bio-assay at the Nutrition Laboratory this
molasses-citrus pulp was found to contain a maximum of less than 0.5
U.S.P. XI units of vitamin A per gram, a content comparable to that of
plain citrus pulp.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


THE ETIOLOGY OF FOWL PARALYSIS, LEUKEMIA AND ALLIED
CONDITIONS IN ANIMALS
State Project 251 M. W. Emmel
Since self-perpetuating tissue autolysis has been found to be a funda-
mental process which can be stimulated by a number of varied agents and
which is vitally concerned in the production and progress of leukemia,
"light" and anemia, its mechanism has been under study during the past
year. Self-perpetuating tissue autolysis of the blood is dependent upon
two factors: (1) cell stimulation, and (2) intoxication and destruction of
cells. Thus, the progress of self-perpetuating tissue autolysis concerns
the vicious cycle of tissue destruction on one hand and cell stimulation or.
the other. The fractionation of various tissues of the chicken has yielded
a cell-stimulating and an intoxicating factor. A factor which is stimulat-
ing to the hematopoietic tissue of the chicken has been fractionated from
the tissues of the monkey, sheep, rabbit and cow. This cell-stimulating
factor was present in all tissues of a species but in varying concentrations.
It was more abundant in the liver than in other tissues of the species used.
The tissues of the rabbit yielded a lower concentration of the cell-stimulat-
ing factor than did those of other species used.
Hemocytoblastosis which is considered to be tissue autolysis involving
blood cells of the chicken but which has not attained a self-perpetuating
basis, has been found to be prevalent in incubator-hatched and hen-hatched
day old chicks. Its presence in hen-hatched chicks is considered to be a
genetic and nutritional problem. Since the degree of hemocytoblastosis
was more intense in incubator-hatched chicks than in hen-hatched chicks,
a study of hemocytoblastosis as it relates to artificial incubation should be
a basis for artificial-incubation improvement.
Studies in cooperation with the Animal Nutrition Division showed that
vitamin K deficiency induces hemocytoblastosis.

A STUDY OF PLANTS POISONOUS TO LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 258 D. A. Sanders and Erdman West
Observations have been made on the nature of a paralysis in cattle which
occurs frequently during the winter months when green forage is scarce.
Poisonous plants were suspected as causing the condition. The first cases
cccur shortly after frost. Affected cattle became paralyzed and were unable
to gain a standing position. Observations indicated that this condition was
due to atony of the rumen, reticulum and possibly omasum. Postmortem
findings showed the rumen contents consisted of large quantities of coarse
fibrous materials including dead leaves, soggy swamp grasses, dead Spanish
moss and other heavy indigestible materials. The nature of the ingested
material rendered medication of little or no value. The heavy indigestible
material caused overloading of the rumen with subsequent inactivity of this
organ. Atony of the rumen was followed by weakness of the hindlegs,
the animal going down and paralytic symptoms becoming pronounced.
Affected animals lived for several weeks. Animals in this condition fre-
quently died from bloat. It has been demonstrated by studies in the field
that losses from this condition may be avoided by proper care and feeding
of the animals during the winter months.
Severe losses occurred during the past year among cattle on two ranges
in southern Florida. The animals died suddenly without evidence of strug-
gling. Poisonous plants were suspected as the cause. Close inspection of
the premises did not reveal the presence of poisonous plants. It was de-
termined that these deaths were due to botulism. The cattle were con-
suming incompletely bleached bones and decomposed portions of carcasses







Annual Report, 1939


of animals that died on the range. All losses ceased when recommended
preventive measures were employed on the range. These recommenda-
tions consisted of collecting and burning all portions of decomposing animal
carcass material and supplying the cattle with mineral supplements as
recommended by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Experiments are being conducted to determine whether the native
chenapodium plant, Ambrina ambrosioides (L) Spoch. is poisonous to live-
stock and whether the grazed plant can be utilized for purposes of expelling
gastro-intestinal parasites. Dry weather during the spring and summer
of 1938 resulted in a poor stand of the plant on the plot of ground seeded
for purposes of grazing. The plot was reseeded in November 1938.
A number of seed collections have been added to the Herbarium this
year. These included such poisonous seeds as Erythrina herbacea, Abnrs
spp., Jatropha curcas and others.

STUDIES IN FLEECE AND MUTTON PRODUCTION
State Project 274 C. H. Willoughby and A. L. Shealy
Purebred and grade Hampshires and native sheep comprised the flock
used in these studies. The following data were obtained: length and fine-
ness of wool fiber, character, density, condition, and color of fleece. All
sheep used in this project were scored for mutton production. Lambs were
graded according to standard grades employed by the USDA in grading
slaughter lambs.

A STUDY OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach)
FOR PASTURE PURPOSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 302 W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown
This project is carried cooperatively with the Department of Agronomy.
BEEF CATTLE PHASE
Grade yearling Hereford steers were used to measure the carrying
capacity and nutritive value of Napier grass alone and when supplemented
with cottonseed meal. Rotation grazing was practiced in both trials.
Napier Grass Alone.-Five three-acre lots were used to measure the
carrying capacity of Napier grass alone. Ten steers were started on trial
on May 3 and the number was increased to 30 at the peak of the growing
season from July 15 to August 15, 1938. The trial ended on October
18, 1938.
Gains of the individual steers kept on the Napier grass throughout
the 168-day period ranged from 205 to 310 pounds. The steers grazed a
total of 3,723 steer-days and made a total gain of 6,445 pounds. The
average daily gain per steer was 1.73 pounds. Each acre of Napier grass,
on the average, provided grazing for 248.2 steer-days and produced a total
gain of 429.7 pounds.
Napier Grass Supplemented with Cottonseed Meal.-In the preliminary
trial five 11/2 acre lots were used to measure the carrying capacity of
Napier grass when supplemented with cottonseed meal. The steers were
placed on trial June 29, 1938, and removed October 29, 1938. From 10 to
15 steers were kept on the Napier grass throughout the grazing period.
Cottonseed meal was fed at the rate of one to three pounds per animal
per day.
The total gains of the individual steers kept on the Napier grass through-
out the 117-day period ranged from 175 to 240 pounds. The average con-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


sumption of cottonseed meal was 2.27 pounds per steer per day. The steers
grazed a total of 1,440 days, and made a total gain of 2,470 pounds. The
average daily gain was 1.72 pounds per steer. Each acre provided grazing
for 192 steer-days, and produced a total gain of 329 pounds.
It should be noted that the lots in which the Napier grass was grazed
alone were planted in the spring of 1937, whereas the lots in which the
grass was supplemented with cottonseed meal were planted in 1938. For
this reason, the 1937 planting furnished more forage per acre than the
1938 planting.
DAIRY PHASE
P. T. Dix Arnold and R. B. Becker
Napier grass was planted in March 1938 on an eight-acre area, divided
into five lots for rotational grazing. The 1938 grazing season was used
for preliminary observations of the nutrient value of Napier grass when
grazed by dairy cows. By inverse calculation, it was estimated that 50
to 60 percent of the total digestible nutrient requirements were supplied
by the grass, for cows producing 25 to 30 pounds of milk daily, when they
received one pound of concentrates for each 2.5 to 3.0 pounds of milk
produced.
The second grazing season began on April 17, 1939, with six cows. The
number was increased to 15 head as more forage became available. The
cows are obtaining over 50 percent of their total digestible nutrient re-
quirements from the grass, while producing from 20 to 40 pounds of milk
daily, with concentrate supplement as fed during 1938.
Refer to Project 302, Dept. of Agronomy.

A STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEM-
PERATURE AND EGG WEIGHT (SIZE), BODY WEIGHT AND
EGG WEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT AND PRODUCTION, AGE AND
EGG WEIGHT OF SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORN PULLETS
State Project 307 0. W. Anderson, Jr., and N. R. Mehrhof
The data for this study are contained in the yearly egg records from
the Florida National Egg-Laying Test at Chipley for the years 1931-34.
The data have been tabulated and are to be subjected to statistical analysis
according to accepted poultry science procedure.

UTILIZATION OF CITRUS BY-PRODUCTS FOR POULTRY
State Project 308 N. R. Mehrhof and L. L. Rusoff
Feeding trials to determine the value of citrus by-products for poultry
were continued. Single Comb White Leghorn pullets reared under uniform
conditions were divided into four equal lots and placed in the laying houses
in the fall.
Citrus meal was used to replace yellow cornmeal in the laying ration
to the extent of 0, 10, 15, and 20 percent of the total. All birds were
weighed at the start and at the end of each 28-day period. Feed consump-
tion data were recorded for each period. Mortality and data on condition
of birds were tabulated.
Data for each of the first nine 28-day periods showed a decrease in egg
production per bird as the percentage of citrus meal was increased.







Annual Report, 1939


State Project 309


POULTRY BREEDING
N. R. Mehrhof and O. W. Anderson, Jr.


During the spring of 1936 this breeding program was started with S. C.
White Leghorns and S. C. Rhode Island Reds from the University farm
and the West Central Florida Station flocks. Since that time, new blood
has been added from the S. C. White Leghorns stock of the Bureau of
Animal Industry, USDA.
The factors considered have been: egg production, egg size, longevity,
livability, hatchability, broodiness and disease resistance.
Nearly all the birds used in this project were pedigreed hens. About
25 percent of the chicks hatched during the year were pedigreed. About
1,400 White Leghorn chicks and 1,400 Rhode Island Red chicks were
hatched.
The general system of breeding has been based on a line breeding pro-
gram. One strain of Rhode Island Reds, the Sanborn strain, has been
bred by families entirely, with due regard to the factors previously men-
tioned. Available data indicate that the individual hen or cock bird is not
as important a breeding unit as the family from which that individual
comes.
In addition to the line breeding program, breeding flocks have been
maintained to supply eggs and for chicks for other experimental work.

DEFICIENCIES OF PEANUTS WHEN USED AS A FEED FOR SWINE
State Project 310 W. G. Kirk
Three separate dry lot tests with feeder pigs in which No. 1 shelled
peanuts formed the basal ration have been completed. In each test the
10 pigs were divided into five groups of two pigs each. Each pig, however,
was kept in an individual pen and fed separately. The data reported are
the averages for the six pigs of each lot. The initial weight of the pigs
in Test No. 1 was 57.8 pounds; Test No. 2, 49.2 pounds; and Test No. 3,
46 pounds. Tests Nos. 1 and 2 lasted 132 days each while Test No. 3 was
for 117 days. The rations fed, average gains, and peanuts required per
pound of gain for the three tests are as follows:


Ave.
daily gain
Lot per pig
pounds
1 Peanuts ................-------- .. ------. ----------- 0.43
2 Peanuts* ......................-------....... --. .........--- .. 0.47
3 Peanuts, 99 parts; calcium carbonate, 1 part* 1.00
4 Peanuts, 99 parts; cod liver oil, 1 part* .......... 0.53
5 Peanuts, 98 parts; cod liver oil, 1 part;
calcium carbonate, 1 part* ....................... 0.81
*Fed two grams of common salt per pig per day.


Peanuts required
per pound of gain
pounds
3.13
2.87
2.03
3.09
2.18


METHOD OF HANDLING SOWS AND YOUNG PIGS
State Project 311 R. M. Crown
Records were kept of birth weights, and weekly weights were taken of
individual pigs until they reached the feeder stage. There was found to
be a significant difference in the rate of growth of spring and fall-farrowed
pigs. Table 14 gives pertinent data concerning pigs farrowed in spring
and fall from the same sire and dam.
The work is being continued to determine the reason for the great
difference in the rate of growth of pigs farrowed in the spring and fall
of the year.












TABLE 14.-A COMPARISON OF SPRING AND FALL LITTERS.


Mature Sows
Duroc-Jersey ..........
Poland China .........
Poland China .........
Poland China .........


Average .........................


Gilts (first litter in spring,
second litter in fall
Duroc-Jersey ..............
Poland China ..............
Poland China ..................
Poland China .................
Poland China ....................
Poland China ...... .......... ..


Average


Spring
No. Pigs Raised Ave. Weight
in Litter at Birth
pounds

10 3.80
3 4.17
8 3.19
8 3.01


7.25 3.45




9 2.61
8 3.75
7 2.40
8 3.13
6 3.00
8 2.70


7.67 2.93


Ave. Weight No. Pigs Raised
at 8 Weeks I in Litter
pounds

44.40 10
52.27 5
32.30 10
29.81 7


40.61 8




30.97 10
35.45 8
25.00 8
25.80 7
28.60 7
27.43 7


29.02 7.83


pounds

3.08
3.22
2.77
2.81


2.95


2.78


Ave. Weight
at 8 Weeks
pounds

20.70
29.72
19.60
25.57


22.83




27.61
20.63
19.40
21.60
24.40
21.80


22.79







Annual Report, 1939


THE UTILIZATION OF CITRUS MEAL AS SWINE FEED
State Project 318 R. M. Crown, W. G. Kirk and W. M. Neal
Three feeding trials have been completed which consisted of substitut-
ing grapefruit meal for cornmeal at 0, 5, 10 and 20 percent levels in the
standard ration of 90 parts of cornmeal and 10 parts of fishmeal. These
rations were fed to weanling pigs handled individually. The different lots
were fed until the largest pigs weighed 200 to 225 pounds.
As dried grapefruit meal increased in the ration from 0 to 20 percent,
the daily feed intake decreased from 3.4 pounds to 2.9 pounds, the average
daily gains from 1.07 to 0.90 pounds, and the total amount of feed to pro-
duce 100 pounds gain increased from 319 to 342 pounds. The net yield of
dressed pork decreased from 80.2 percent to 75.3 percent as the grapefruit
meal was increased. Carcass grades decreased in proportion.
Palatability tests showed that the inclusion of grapefruit meal in the
ration did not affect the flavor of the meat.
Free-choice feeding of the components of the ration resulted in the
refusal of the grapefruit meal. However, other pigs being hand-fed a
balanced ration consumed 2.5 pounds of grapefruit meal per head per day
when it was offered in a self-feeder.
The results of these feeding trials were presented by R. M. Crown in
a thesis accepted by the Graduate School in partial fulfillment for the
degree of Master of Science in Agriculture.
Work on this project is concluded with this report.

THE VITAMIN CONTENT OF SHARK LIVER OIL
State Project 320 L. L. Rusoff and N. R. Mehrhof
Shark liver oil was compared with U.S.P. XI "reference cod liver oil"
(3,000 units of vitamin A per gram) as to its vitamin A value with chicks.
This study included eight lots of 25 S. C. White Leghorn chicks to the lot
and the results indicated that the shark liver oil used in these trials con-
tained at least 6,000 units and may contain 9,000 units of vitamin A per
gram.
Trials with Barred Plymouth Rocks, using as a basal ration the regular
University chick ration to which was added irradiated yeast to supply
vitamin D, were started in the fall of 1938. The chicks were divided into
three lots: Lot 1, basal ration; Lot 2, basal ration plus /Vs of 1 percent
cod liver oil; and Lot 3, basal ration plus A- of 1 percent shark liver oil.
The intent was to supply equivalent amounts of vitamin A to Lots 2 and 3.
The average weight of the cockerels and pullets increased from Lot 1 to
Lot 3, and data on feed consumption showed less feed required per unit
of gain with shark liver oil than with either the check or cod liver oil
groups.
Additional studies using various levels of reference cod liver oil and
shark liver oil are being conducted at present.

THE DIGESTIBILITY OF FRESH NAPIER GRASS
Bankhead-Jones 330 W. M. Neal, P. T. Dix Arnold, R. B. Becker
and R. W. Kidder
iNapier grass leaves were harvested in a manner simulating grazing
and fed to four Jersey steers during a preliminary period and four five-day
experimental periods. The determination of the coefficients of digestibility
of the nutrients by the standard methods of procedure gave the following







78 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

values: dry matter, 66.0 percent; organic matter, 68.3 percent; crude pro-
tein, 64.9 percent; crude fiber, 68.2 percent; nitrogen-free extract, 69.5
percent; and crude fat, 57.6 percent.
The grass was of approximately 20 percent dry matter content. The
above coefficients give it a total digestible nutrient content of 13.0 percent
on the fresh basis or of 65.0 percent on the dry basis.
This project is completed except for publication of results.

THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF SUGARCANE SILAGE, SHOCKED
SUGARCANE AND PASTURE, SUPPLEMENTED WITH CO'TTON-
SEED MEAL OR CAKE, IN WINTERING THE BEEF HERD
State Project 331 W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown
Twenty-eight native and grade Hereford cows were divided into three
lots on November 18, 1938. During the 113-day test period several cows
in each lot had calves. The calves are considered in the final weight of
each group. The following table gives the ration fed and the gain per lot:

FEED CONSUMED AND GAIN OR LOSS PER LOT
Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3
dry lot dry lot on pasture*
9 cows 9 cows 10 cows
Average daily ration per cow in pounds:
Sugarcane silage ................................-..... 34.45 ....
Shocked cut sugarcane .............................. .--..... 30.64 ........
Cottonseed meal or cake .......................... 2.26 2.26 2.31
Initial weight in pounds .................................... 6,640 6,710 7,282
Final weight in pounds:
Cow s .............................. ..... ....... ..... 6,175 6,240 6,840
Calves** .............---..............-..---... 615 740 765
Total .........................---- ...--- -....--- 6,790 6,980 7,605
Gain per lot in pounds .--..-..-.....-...............---- 150 270 223
*Pasture grasses consisted mainly of carpet, Bermuda and centipede.
**Number of calves at end of test: Lot 1, five; Lot 2, six; and Lot 3, six.

ENZOOTIC BRONCHOPNEUMONIA (PNEUMOENTERITIS) OF
DAIRY CALVES
Purnell Project 334 D. A. Sanders
During the past 12 months exposure tests were conducted to determine
the relationship which exists between Pasteurella boviseptica and enzootic
bronchopneumonia of dairy calves. The pasteurella strains used in these
exposure tests were isolated from affected lung tissues of calves that died
during chronic stages of the disease. Care was taken to maintain the
virulency of the organisms on culture media as regarding their patho-
genicity for small laboratory animals. Results of these tests led to the
belief that P. boviseptica, although readily isolated from diseased lung
tissue, is not the primary etiological agent of enzootic bronchopneumonia.
No difference was found as to the type or character of the media used
in isolating, growing or maintaining pasteurella as influencing its patho-
genicity for young healthy calves. Colon type organisms were isolated
readily from the intestinal tract during early stages of the disease. These
organisms are pathogenic for young calves and are contributing factors
which predispose young animals to this type of pneumonia. Field and
experimental observations indicate that the development of enzootic bron-







Annual Report, 1939


chopneumonia depends upon a number of predisposing factors. The dis-
ease has been reproduced by employing insanitary methods of rearing
calves similar to those observed under field conditions. This consists of
crowding the calves together in permanent calf lots. These conditions
are favorable to development of bacterial and coccidial infections of the
gastro-intestinal tract, to umbilical infections, and to infestations with
external and internal parasites. Calves kept under these conditions often
are undernourished. These weakening influences lower the body resistance
sufficiently to permit development of pneumonia.

DIFFERENT METHODS OF FEEDING GRAIN TO LAYERS
State Project 337 N. R. Mehrhof, E. F. Stanton, D. F. Sowell
and O. W. Anderson, Jr.

Four lots of S. C. Rhode Island Red pullets were selected for this experi-
ment from the flocks at Chipley and Gainesville. Forty pullets as uniform
as possible in age, sexual maturity, and health were selected for each lot
at Chipley, 48 for each lot at Gainesville. All management factors were
kept as constant as possible except the method of feeding grain. Lot 1
had floor feeding of grain mixture once a day at night; Lot 2, hopper feed-
ing of grain mixture once a day at night; Lot 3, hopper feeding of grain
mixture ad libitum; and Lot 4, free choice hopper feeding of oats, corn and
wheat ad libitum.
Records were kept on weight of birds and feed consumption for each
28-day period. All birds were trapnested, eggs were weighed daily and
data on mortality and condition of birds were recorded.
During the first eight 28-day periods the average egg production per
bird at Chipley was: Lot 1, 103.22 eggs; Lot 2, 92.52 eggs; Lot 3, 84.67
eggs; and Lot 4, 86.11 eggs. At the Main Station average egg production
per bird for the same length of time was: Lot 1, 95.64 eggs; Lot 2, 96.78
eggs; Lot 3, 102.02 eggs; and Lot 4, 101.44 eggs.

DIGESTIBILITY OF SUGARCANE SILAGE
Bankhead-Jones Project 338 W. M. Neal
Four mature Jersey steers were fed a ration of one pound of cotton-
seed meal (41 percent total crude protein) and sugarcane silage to the
limit of appetite during digestion trials of a preliminary period and four
five-day experimental periods. Coefficients of digestibility of the nutrients
of the sugarcane silage were calculated, making allowances for the cotton-
seed meal intake on the basis of coefficients of digestibility of the cotton-
seed meal as given by Morrison's "Feeds and Feeding". The low protein
content of the silage necessitated the feeding of the cottonseed meal, and
even so, a negative coefficient was found for crude protein.
The coefficients found were: crude protein, -1.2 percent; crude fiber,
52.6 percent; nitrogen-free extract, 45.3 percent; and crude fat, 41.0 percent.
Applying these coefficients to analyses of sugarcane silage accumulated
over a six-year period, the following total digestible nutrient values were
found:
On fresh basis: 8.3 to 11.0 percent; average, 9.8 percent.
On dry basis: 43.5 to 46.0 percent; average, 45.3 percent.

This small variation indicates that a determination of the dry matter con-
tent is a good measure of the nutrient content of this silage.
This report terminates this project.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


THE USE OF MOLASSES FOR FATTENING STEERS
State Project 339 W. G. Kirk, A. L. Shealy
and R. M. Crown
The objects of this experiment are to determine the desirable level of
molasses feeding (1) when mixed with the other ingredients of the ration,
and (2) when fed free-choice for the economical production of gains with
fattening steers.
In a preliminary trial three lots of 12 steers each were kept on feed
for 120 days. All lots were fed the same amount of sugarcane silage. The
check lot received ground snapped corn and cottonseed meal as concen-
trates, while molasses replaced part of the ground snapped corn in the
rations for Lots 2 and 3. Each lot received the same amount of cottonseed
meal. The following results were obtained:
Ground snapped Cane Ave. daily gain
corn molasses per steer
pounds pounds pounds
Lot 1- check ..................................... ....12.1 .... 1.75
Lot 2-molasses poured over other feed .... 4.6 7.7 1.66
Lot 3-molasses, free-choice ...................... 4.0 7.6 1.62







Annual Report, 1939


CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
A certain amount of progress has been made during the year in bring-
ing together the soil and plant phases of the work into an effective, unified
study of soil and plant relationships as a whole through the active coopera-
tion of other departments having a common interest in this field of study.
An appreciable delay in getting on with some of the analytical phases
of the work, which are quite urgently needed, has been experienced during
this time from the fact that it has been found necessary, in a number
of cases, deliberately to set about developing methods which will satis-
factorily serve the purpose in hand. All too frequently the adaptability
of a routine of analysis is not sufficiently examined before it is placed
in use.
It is with this thought in mind that considerable time has been spent
during the year in the development of "rapid laboratory methods" of
analysis. These are especially designed to expedite, without undue sacrifice
of accuracy, analytical work on the great number of samples that literally
"well out" of an energetic soil fertility program in Florida. Such methods
are in contrast with the tedious, time consuming standard methods of
analysis on the one hand and those involving the "field kit" on the other.
They represent something of a middle ground which will be used as a yard-
stick of "availability", once they are calibrated against standard methods
of analysis on the one hand and plant growth on the other. They can then
be used, furthermore, in more definitely establishing the value of the "field
kit" approach to soil fertility questions under Florida conditions. In order
that this whole field may be examined and developed in a systematic way,
a committee of State workers on methods has been organized.
SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
In Florida, as in most states, there is a broadly important soil and
water conservation problem. In South Florida, however, there is to be
found a soil and water conservation problem of the first magnitude that
is exceeded in real importance by few in any part of the country.
Reference is to the steady and relentless manner in which the organic
soils of the Everglades are being progressively destroyed as a result of
exposure due to over-drainage of practically all parts of the undeveloped
sections of that great area. Destruction is by fire on the one hand and
by shrinkage and natural ,oxidation on the other. The end result is the
same. Inasmuch as this condition of over-drainage has been in effect for
nearly a quarter of a century the progress of destruction has been greater
than most people seem to realize.
In a statement before a Senate Sub-committee of the Appropriations
Committee of the Federal Congress on April 24, it was pointed out that
the soil conservation problem in the Everglades is essentially a water con-
servation problem; also that a great many other benefits would accrue as
a result of rewatering the undeveloped sections of the Everglades, which
is the only possible way of economically protecting the soils of that area.
Among them are:
1. Reestablishment of soil forming processes in rewatered areas.
2. Protection and development of the Everglades National Tropic Park
area which is being in large part steadily destroyed as a wild life refuge
by its present exposure.
3. Protection of domestic water supplies of the municipal centers along
the East Coast.
4. Protection of agricultural water supplies in adjacent areas, especially
including the Homestead area and "Ridge" country to the north.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


5. Development of drainage and irrigation reserves.
6. Prospective amelioration of "winter" temperatures in the lower
peninsula.
As the result of a Congressional appropriation for the purpose, the
close of the fiscal year finds the Soil Conservation Service of the Depart-
ment of Agriculture in a position to set up a definite project for soil and
water conservation in the Everglades. It is hoped that the program which
is developed iv cooperation with State and Federal workers can be made
broad enough to encompass all three important parts of the greater Ever-
glades problem area, namely, the Kissimmee Valley (the watershed), Lake
Okeechobee (the basin) and the Everglades proper (the overflow area) for
whatever each of them has to contribute to the planning of the program
as a whole; also that the over-all objective in the work will be the develop-
ment of a plan of soil and water conservation and land use for the Ever-
glades that will envision the planning requirements of the area as a whole
right up to the development of the last unit that is contemplated for agri-
cultural use. Such a plan, properly conceived and developed, will neces-
sarily yield most of the collateral benefits referred to above.

THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS FERTILIZER FORMULAS
State Project 94 C. E. Bell
Work under this project title was discontinued during the past year
with the idea of developing general soil fertility investigations more fully
on a plant type basis and so coordinating them more closely with the plant
research groups.

DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF GREEN MANURES ON THE
COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
Adams Project 96 F. B. Smith
Soils treated with Natal grass, corn, crabgrass, crotalaria, velvet beans,
Spanish needles, Indigofera hirsuta, beggarweed, cowpea, Para grass, ses-
bania and mixed grasses were sampled after 35, 63, 121, 190, 279 and 374
days for a determination of the amount of decomposition of the various
materials and of the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and mag-
nesium contents of the undecomposed residues. The mineral analyses of
the plant materials have not been completed. Preliminary data indicate
a more rapid decomposition and a resultant higher fixation of carbon in the
soils treated with the leguminous plants than in those treated with the
non-leguminous materials. After 35 days, 56.8 percent of the velvet bean
material was decomposed; whereas, only 28.8 percent of the crabgrass was
decomposed. However, after 374 days there was 20.2 percent of the velvet
bean material still available as humus but all of the crabgrass had dis-
appeared by this time.
Soil samples were taken from the plots of the land resting experiment
(Agronomy Section of the Station) when the experiment was established
in 1933. The plots were again sampled in 1938. The organic matter and
nitrogen contents of both samplings of these soils have been determined.
The results indicate a loss of nitrogen and organic matter in the soils of
Plots 1 and 2, and a gain of both of these constituents in Plots 3, 4 and 5.
Plots 1 and 2 have been in continuous corn and peanuts. Plots 3 and 4
have been cropped to corn and peanuts in alternate years and rested one
year. Plot 5 has been planted to corn one year and rested two years. The
undecomposed (rough) organic matter in these soils sampled in 1938 was
as follows: Plot 1, 0.23%; Plot 2, 0.20%; Plot 3, 0.55%; Plot 4, 0.40%;
Plot 5, 0.55%. This increase in organic matter is regarded as significant







Annual Report, 1939


in view of the important role this component of the soil is known to play
in soil fertility relationships.

A STUDY OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ASH OF
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES WITH REFERENCE
TO THE MORE UNUSUAL CONSTITUENTS
Purnell Project 201 L. W. Gaddum and L. H. Rogers
A number of selected seed samples have been prepared for analysis for
their macro and micro constituents as basic information for nutrient studies.
These analyses are now in progress.
The zinc content of 10 species of weeds and grasses as compared with
that of 3 species of crotalaria has been determined and the two types of
cover compared in this respect. Significantly larger proportions of zinc
were found in the weeds and volunteer grasses than in the planted land
covers. These data seem to indicate that the weeds and volunteer grasses
are able to absorb much larger proportions of zinc than are certain cul-
tivated cover crops and apparently make available sufficient zinc to prevent
the development of "white bud" of corn. Results of this study were pub-
lished in Soil Science 47: 237. 1939.
The infrared absorption spectra for four furan derivatives, four pentoses
and four hexoses between 2 and 12 microns have been mapped and the
results of this study published in Jr. Am. Chem. Soc. 60: 2619, 1938, in
cooperation with the Physics Department of the University.
Numerous samples of various' materials have been analyzed in coopera-
tion with other divisions and departments. R. A. Carrigan assisted in the
work of this project.

A STUDY OF CHLOROSIS IN CORN PLANTS AND OTHER
FIELD CROPS
Adams Project 220 R. M. Barnette
The work on this project (in cooperation with the Agronomy Depart-
ment) in the past has involved two principal phases, namely, (1) residual
effect of soil treatments, (2) sources of the element.
The yield values of the former study on a Norfolk fine sand are reported
in brief detail by the Agronomy Department. Definite residual effects were
found to occur after three years, at which time those particular plots were
discontinued. The latter studies on a "rested" Arredondo fine sand are
still in progress though no response to zinc has been observed to date.
Publication of both phases of the work is contemplated as soon as the
laboratory studies now under way on the soils phase of the problem are
completed.
In view of the desire to bring studies of this nature within the purview
of regular soil fertility investigations this project has been discontinued
with the idea that the work will be extended in the future as a definite
part of regular soil fertility projects wherever zinc or any other necessary
element is known to be or may be thought a limiting factor.

THE OCCURRENCE AND BEHAVIOR OF LESS ABUNDANT
ELEMENTS IN SOILS
Adams Project 240 R. M. Barnette
Two manuscripts have been prepared for publication covering the toxic
limit of zinc sulfate in a Norfolk sand, an Orangeburg fine sandy loam and
a Greenville clay loam; and the effect of increasing applications of zinc
sulfate on plant growth and the fixation of zinc in an Arredondo fine sand.
Work under this project has been discontinued.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


THE DEVELOPMENT OF QUANTITATIVE SPECTROGRAPHIC
METHODS FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
Purnell Project 256 L. W. Gaddum, L. H. Rogers
and R. A. Carrigan
A paper entitled "Methods and Limitations of Soil Analysis" was de-
livered at the organization meeting of the Soil Science Society of Florida
at Hollywood, April 18, and is to be published in the forthcoming pro-
ceedings of the Society.
The report on the quantitative spectrographic method for the determina-
tion of copper appeared in Ind. & Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 11: 47. 1939.
The study of the determination of cobalt in agricultural materials has
been continued. Several recognized cobalt reagents have been tested for
sensitivity in comparison with nitroso-R-salt, the reagent now in use by
investigators in this field. None of those tested have been found sub-
stantially more sensitive than nitroso-R-salt. Indications have been ob-
tained that it may be possible to concentrate small quantities of cobalt by
a coprecipitation process. The applicability of a spectrographic procedure
for the determination of cobalt in these concentrates is to be investigated.
A new rapid laboratory method for the determination of magnesium
in soils developed at the Citrus Experiment Station is being studied in
cooperation with workers of that Station.
The applicability of "molybdenum blue" colorimetric method for the
determination of phosphorus has been verified for several types of soil
extractants. A chart has been prepared which facilitates the design of
buffer solutions from sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate for use in phos-
phorus availability studies.
Studies of methods for the determination of potassium are in progress
with the end in view of establishing an improved technique for the rapid
laboratory determination of this element.
Since absorption spectrophotometry has assumed considerable import-
ance in recent years, particularly in the study of vitamins, plant pigments,
and other organic constituents of animal and plant tissues, work has been
initiated in this field. The recently acquired Spekker Minor Ultra-violet
photometer has been adjusted and standardized for ultra-violet absorption
spectra measurements. Using purified potassium nitrate, extinction co-
efficients were obtained which agree within 5 percent of published values.
The proper development of spectrographic analytical procedures and
also any critical study of the trace element requirements of plants by the
solution culture method must await the preparation of highly purified chem-
icals. Hence a study of existing methods and the development of improved
techniques of purification has been undertaken. The following procedures
have been tried on several calcium, magnesium and potassium salts: (1)
recrystallization, (2) a basic magnesium carbonate coprecipitation pro-
cedure, (3) precipitation with dithizone and (4) extraction with organic
solvents. Each of these has its usefulness for reducing the concentration
of certain impurities, but no single one appears to be a universally ap-
plicable procedure for complete purification. A combination of two or more
of these procedures may be pertinent.
A study of the applicability of the 8-hydroxyquinoline method to the
determination of magnesium in seeds also has been made and this pro-
cedure compared with the official A. O. A. C. method. The evidence accum-
ulated thus far indicates that the 8-hydroxyquinoline procedure is prefer-
able for the determination of magnesium in seeds.
The aid of R. C. Hughes on some phases of this project is acknowledged.







Annual Report, 1939


SPECTROGRAPHIC STUDIES OF THE COMPOSITION OF TISSUES
AND CORRESPONDING SOILS OF NORMAL AND PHYSIO-
LOGICALLY DISEASED HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Purnell Project 266 L. W. Gaddum and A. F. Camp
Work contemplated under the above title will fall under Project 201
in the future. Accordingly Project 266 has been discontinued.

THE INVESTIGATION OF VITAMIN C CONTENT OF FLORIDA
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
State Project 292 R. B. French
Samples of peel of early market grapefruit were found to contain
20-30 mg. of vitamin C per 100 grams of fresh peel. Since this is only
one-tenth of the usual concentration, and since arsenic sprays are known
to contribute to a destruction of vitamin C, samples of the peel which
showed low vitamin C content and samples which showed normal vitamin C
content were analyzed for arsenic, but no significant differences in the
proportion of this element were found.
A study of the effect of home canning of tomatoes on the vitamin C
concentration showed that no major destruction occurred during the usual
procedure.
The juice of red and pink varieties of tomatoes grown under the same
conditions showed practically the same concentration of vitamin C.
No differences were observed in the vitamin C concentration of bleached
as compared with unbleached celery, either in the heart, stalk or leaves.
The results of vitamin C analyses of Sudan grass, tobacco and tomato
plants which were grown in sand culture at varying levels of potassium
and phosphorus fertilization with a constant high level of nitrogen, whether
used in the nitrate or ammonia form, suggest that differences in either the
phosphorus or potassium supply are without major effect upon the vitamin
C concentration under these conditions.
Using a modification of published procedures, several concentrates of
vitamin C have been prepared from grapefruit refuse.
In view of personnel changes and basic readjustment of subject matter,
this project has been discontinued.

NUTRIENT SALT CONCENTRATION IN THE SOIL WITH SPECIAL
REFERENCE TO TRACE ELEMENTS
State Project 293 R. B. French
No further work has been done on this project following the rather
complete summarization of data last year and it is being discontinued.

MINERAL CONTENT OF VEGETABLE CROPS WITH SPECIAL
REFERENCE TO IRON
State Project 294 H. W. Winsor
The results of analyses for calcium and iron of soil, water, vegetable
and complete diet samples taken in the course of a survey of Citrus County
conducted by the Home Economics Department in a comprehensive study
of the relation of rural diets to human health will be reported on under
Project 255 of that department.
Through cooperation with workers at the various branch stations,
turnip greens from a uniform seed source were grown at the same time
on four diverse Florida soils as a part of a regional (Southern) study
sponsored jointly by the Home Economics and Horticultural Departments







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of the various states. The greens thus produced at Belle Glade, on well
decomposed sawgrass peat, at Bradenton on Manatee loamy fine sand, at
Gainesville on Arredondo fine sand, and at Quincy on Orangeburg fine
sandy loam were found to be quite dissimilar in form, succulence and
mineral content. The average iron content from the above locations was
found to be 115, 84, 190 and 238 ppm., respectively, expressed as Fe. on a
dry weight basis. The calcium content of the same samples was 4.35,
3.43, 3.03 and 1.93 percent, respectively, expressed as CaO on the same
basis. The reaction levels of these soils were pH 4.98, 6.51, 5.44 and 5.62.
The turnip greens grown by the Horticultural Department at Gainesville
were seeded as a special series with pH levels artificially produced by
means of sulfur or lime. Their ash content was low at both the highest
and lowest pH levels, the maximum being reached at pH 5.12 to 5.45. The
percent calcium was distinctly low, also, at both the high pH and low pH
levels, reaching its maximum at pH 5.45. The iron content of these greens
varied from 148 to 258 ppm., being influenced by soil reaction as well as
unavoidable soil differences.
A rapid laboratory method for determination of "available" iron in
soils was developed in connection with these studies. The procedure is
colorimetric, requiring about 3 hours to run. It shows the "available"
iron content of average soils to be from 1 to 30 pounds Fe. per acre.
While the procedure is regarded as tentative, it has shown quite a close
correlation with plant response.
In view of the systematic truck crop experiments that are being de-
veloped under other projects for studies of this nature, the above project
has been discontinued.

A STUDY OF THE SO-CALLED "QUICK METHODS" FOR
DETERMINING SOIL FERTILITY
State Project 306 R. V. Allison and C. E. Bell
The LaMotte, Hellige, Purdue and Spurway methods have been com-
pared with standard laboratory methods for phosphorus, potassium, cal-
cium and magnesium on a series of 25 soils taken from citrus groves.
A series of 556 soil samples taken in conjunction with the Citrus Ex-
periment Station's study of "bronzing" of citrus in relation to magnesium
deficiency is being tested for pH, calcium and magnesium by the LaMotte
method. The results are to be compared with results obtained by accredited
laboratory procedures.
Some preliminary experiments have been made to examine the effect
of different soils on the reaction (pH) of different extractants; also the
effect of duration of contact. These have shown results of significance in
connection with the development and interpretation of partial analysis
methods based upon extraction procedures of this nature.
A rather complete key to the methods and reagents used in "quick
soil tests" has been prepared; also a compilation of lime requirement
methods to be found in the literature.

SOIL AND VEGETATION SURVEYS IN RELATION TO PASTURE
DEVELOPMENT IN FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones 322 J. R. Henderson
Large samples of different types of soil, some of them including sub-
soils, were collected and homogenized during the year for use in the de-
velopment of basic methods of analysis. These samples represent the four
broadly different groups into which the soils of Florida have been divided
for studies of this nature, namely, (a) heavy mineral types (as exemplified







Annual Report, 1939


by certain of the soils of northern Florida); (b) light mineral types
(notably the soils of the rolling sandy lands and of the flatwoods in part);
(c) high lime soils (the Parkwoods and marls) and (d) high organic soils,
including peats and mucks.
Accurate soil maps were made of the Hastings tracts used by this
department for experimental work with potatoes and of the areas at Monti-
cello used by the Department of Horticulture for research with pecans.
Areas were selected on the basis of soil types for seven experimental
pasture tracts which are to be developed cooperatively with the Agronomy
Department.
The farm of the Vegetable Crops Laboratory at Bradenton was surveyed
in minute detail.
A preliminary inspection of the area proposed as a site for the Range
Cattle Substation was made in cooperation with the Department of Animal
Husbandry.

TYPES AND DISTRIBUTION OF MICROORGANISMS IN
FLORIDA SOILS
State Project 326 F. B. Smith
The numbers of molds, bacteria and actinomycetes in the surface horizon
of the following soil types have been determined at monthly intervals by
the dilution plate method; Blanton fine sand, Orlando loamy fine sand,
Portsmouth fine sand, Hernando loamy fine sand, Norfolk fine sand, Gaines-
ville loamy fine sand, Leon fine sand and peat. Virgin and cultivated areas
of all types have been sampled at two different locations in Alachua County.
In addition to these soils, samples have been taken of peat soils at the
Everglades Station and marl soils at the Sub-Tropical Station at different
seasons of the year. These studies indicate a difference in the occurrence
of microorganisms in Florida soils from that recorded in the soils of
northern latitudes. In general, the Florida soils that have been investi-
gated contain relatively large numbers of actinomycetes. During the Sum-
mer and early Autumn, the actinomycetes constituted 56 to 67 percent of
the total soil population. The molds constituted from 2 to 5 percent of
the total population. The number of molds and actinomycetes appears
to be rather constant, especially during the Winter months. The numbers
of bacteria were considerably higher during Winter months than during
Summer. Average numbers of molds, bacteria and actinomycetes were
larger in cultivated soils of all types than in corresponding virgin soils,
except in the case of Blanton fine sand where the numbers of molds in the
virgin soils were slightly greater than in the cultivated. A mixed culture
of bacteria was observed on plates of the acid fungi medium poured from
certain strongly acid soils. These bacteria did not grow on the neutral
egg-albumin agar medium.

THE METABOLISM AND FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS OF
SOIL MICROORGANISMS
State Project 327 F. B. Smith
Cultures of B. radiobacter have been isolated from different Florida
soils by enrichment on a selective medium. A study of their cultural
characteristics has been made preparatory to a determination of the effect
of reaction of medium on respiration and growth.
The respiration of mixed cultures of bacteria from several soil types
has been studied. The bacteria from the Leon, Norfolk and Hernando
soils had a low initial oxygen consumption, whereas bacteria from Gaines-
ville and Orlando soils and from peat had a relatively high initial oxygen
consumption. In general, bacteria having a high initial oxygen consump-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tion were from soils containing large numbers of bacteria and the bacteria
having a low initial oxygen consumption were from soils containing rela-
tively small numbers of bacteria.

THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF MICROBIOLOGICAL ACTION IN
SOILS AND CROPPING SYSTEMS IN FLORIDA
State Project 328 F. B. Smith
The rate of decomposition of crotalaria and Natal grass in Norfolk
loamy fine sand varying in reaction from pH 3.71 to 7.05 was determined
in a series of laboratory experiments by measuring the evolution of carbon
dioxide and the production of nitrates. The crotalaria decomposed almost
as rapidly at low (3.71) pH as at high (7.05) pH. However, the pro-
duction of carbon dioxide was slightly greater in soils treated with crota-
laria at pH 6.35 or above than at a lower pH. The pH of the soils treated
with crotalaria increased considerably during the first four days of the
experiment where the initial pH of the soil was low (3.71-5.94). Nitrifica-
tion in soils of low (3.71-5.94) pH was decreased considerably below that
obtained in soils of higher (6.33-7.05) pH. There was an increased decom-
position of Natal grass with an increase in pH of soils from 3.71 to 7.05.
Analyses showed that Natal grass contained larger percentages of cellulose
and lignin and lower percentages of protein and moisture than the cro-
talaria.

METHODS OF INOCULATING LEGUMES IN FLORIDA SOILS
Bankhead-Jones Project 329 F. B. Smith and R. E. Blaser
A 72-plot experiment on inoculation, strains and fertilizer treatment of
Lespedeza was planted on Leon fine sand at the Florida Farm Colony,
April 4, 1939. Ten plants from each plot were taken May 26, 1939, for
counts of nodules. No significant difference in nodulation of the different
strains of Lespedeza was observed. The average number of nodules per
plant on the plots planted with uninoculated seed was significantly smaller
than the average number of nodules per plant from all plots. The number
of nodules per plant on the unlimed soils was considerably lower than the
number on plants from the limed soils and only slightly lower than the
number on plants from the inoculated soils. The effect of phosphate fertil-
izers on nodulation was almost as pronounced as that of lime. Potash and
nitrogen fertilizers exerted a less pronounced effect on nodulation.
It has been rather definitely established that lime, phosphate and potash
are essential on most Florida soils for success with clovers, and that inocu-
lation is necessary. However, inoculation has not always been successful.
For reasons that have not been definitely determined it appears that larger
amounts of inoculum must be used under Florida conditions than is or-
dinarily recommended.
This work is cooperative with the Department of Agronomy.

THE EFFECT OF TYPE AND TREATMENT OF FLORIDA SOILS ON
THE YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF FARM CROPS
Project A R. V. Allison and C. E. Bell
The work of the past year (in cooperation with the Department of
Agronomy) has continued in the direction of a closer coordination of soils
and crops studies on a unified basis. The soils of a large number of experi-
mental pasture series, that seasonally involve both clovers and grasses,
have been sampled during the year. Other studies in this same field have
involved tobacco, corn and peanuts.







Annual Report, 1939


Pastures.-An examination of preliminary results indicates not only a
rather wide variation in the original composition of such soils as Johnston
loamy fine sand, Bayboro fine sandy loam, Leon fine sand, Fellowship fine
sand, Portsmouth fine sand and others in terms of certain essential elements
of fertility but also in their ability to take up and retain such elements
as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potash under different conditions
of treatment. This, of course, is an important item in determining the
character of pasture growth that can be established on those soils and the
cost of its maintenance. Thus, in the instance of the four soils mentioned
above, the acid soluble phosphorus found in the untreated plots varied from
250 parts per million in the case of the Johnston loamy fine sand to 6 parts
per million in the Fellowship fine sand. Several months following treat-
ment of these soils with 600 pounds of superphosphate per acre, together
with two tons of lime and 100 pounds of muriate of potash, the amount of
phosphorus was found to be 303 parts per million in the one and 12 parts
per million in the other, respectively.
Field studies with insoluble sources of phosphoric acid, such as colloidal
phosphate and finely ground rock phosphate, are showing results of un-
usual interest on certain soils in comparison with regular sources of the
element, including superphosphate and basic slag.
Tobacco.-An intensive study was made of the reaction of the soils of
an extensive bright tobacco experiment established on a virgin Norfolk
fine sand on the local experimental farm. Certain soil samplings were also
made through the growing period of the crop to correlate fertility level in
the soil with the rate and character of growth. Particular attention has
been given in these studies and others on shade tobacco in the Quincy
area to a typical dwarfing of the plants, frequently with peculiar effects
on the form and color of the leaves, that seems to be associated with the
occurrence of excessive ammonia in the soil, especially under conditions of
moderately severe drought.

EFFECT OF TYPE AND TREATMENT OF FLORIDA SOILS ON THE
YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF TRUCK, BUSH AND TREE
CROPS (OTHER THAN CITRUS)
(In cooperation with the Department of Horticulture)
Project B R. V. Allison and H. W. Winsor
Pecans.-The plan of seven pecan experiments located at Starke, Talla-
hassee, DeFuniak Springs, Paxton and Monticello (3) have been drawn
to scale and three of them have been used as base maps for a detailed
soil survey of the area occupied by the experiments. The soils of the other
four experiments have not been examined. The soils of certain of the
tests have been sampled but, as yet, they have been examined only for
reaction (pH).
Tung.-Some progress has been made in getting plans of established
tung experiments outlined and drawn to scale in such form that they can
be used as base maps for detailed soil surveys and as reference for future
plans and records in the work.
Potatoes.-These tests, in the Hastings area, concern nitrogen sources
and methods and rate of irrigation.
Nitrogen Sources: The nitrogen sources studies with potatoes in the
Hastings area, particularly involving a comparison of soluble and insoluble
sources of organic nitrogen, were concluded during the year. From the
results of these tests extending over a period of three years it would appear
that soluble organic nitrogen in the form of urea can be used successfully
up to at least 50 percent of the total niLrogen supply when the balance






90 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

is supplied either as a combination of equal parts of nitrate of soda and
sulfate of ammonia, or as sulfate of ammonia alone. The introduction of
20 percent of the nitrogen as natural organic did not influence the yield
of potatoes though it did improve materially the mechanical condition of
the fertilizer mixture.
Methods and Rate of Irrigation: A preliminary study of methods and
rates of irrigation for potatoes in relation to the rate of fertilizer treat-
ment was not conclusive in all points studied but was extremely informa-
tive in indicating the importance of water control at the proper time for
the most satisfactory development of the crop. Spray irrigation was com-
pared with regular furrow irrigation at two different rates of application,
both being checked under three rates of fertilizer treatment against a
check on an irrigated series. Striking yield differences developed between
the irrigated and unirrigated areas. Future studies should involve careful
checks on the amount of water actually applied by the overhead method
as treatments by this means during these tests probably were too light,
even on the "heavy"-treatment plots, and in no sense comparable to the
amount of water applied by the furrow method. While portable overhead
equipment may be the answer to irrigation in fields with irregular topog-
raphy, which makes the handling of water in furrows difficult, its wide-
spread installation should be preceded by careful study.
Soil Reaction Studies.-A new planting plan for the soil reaction plots
(Norfolk loamy fine sand) located on the grounds of the Experiment Sta-
tion was drawn and put into effect during the year. These plots have been
running for a number of years and now seem to have quite a definite
reaction range that has been effected with the use of sulfur on the one
hand and lime on the other. The entire series involves various amounts
of the above materials in duplicate. These treatments have produced the
following average reactions which vary seasonally within certain limits:
(1) pH 4.0; 1(2) pH 4.5; (3) pH 5.4; (4) pH 6.0; (5) pH 6.5; (6) pH 7.1.
The new planting plan has substituted perennial lawn and pasture
grasses and ornamental shrubs for vegetables and field crops that had
been largely used earlier. Tung trees are also included. The response of
certain plants to these treatments are quite definite and the plots are
furnishing good plant and soil materials for studies of soil reaction rela-
tionships. Thus an examination of these soils for "available" iron and
manganese by provisional methods that have been developed in connection
with another project, reveal the following values:
"Available" "Available"
Iron Manganese
Treatment pH lbs. Fe. per acre lbs. Mn. per acre
1 ................................. .. 4.0 18.0 1.0
2 ............ ...... ... .. ... 4.5 8.2 5.9
3 .................... ....... .... 5.4 3.5 8.4
4 ............ .. .. ...... 6.0 2.1 5.7
5 ..................... ............ 6.5 1.3 2.4
6 ........ ........... ............ 7.1 1.1 0.4

EFFECT OF TYPE AND TREATMENT OF FLORIDA SOILS ON
YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF CITRUS FRUITS
Project C R. V. Allison
The study of nitrogen sources reported last year has been continued,
though again, a highly drought season has made the yield results very
difficult of interpretation. It was found necessary to drop one of the
groves in the course of the year. This leaves 11 sets of plots, six of







Annual Report, 1939


grapefruit and five of orange. The tree measurements have been con-
tinued.
Soil samples were taken from two sets of plots in November to check
for reaction with those taken a year earlier when all groves were sampled.
No very significant changes were observed. A full set of soil, fruit and
foliage samples is contemplated for the coming year for intensive examina-
tion. Microbiological studies also are planned of these soils.
An excellent planting of Pineapple oranges was established during the
year on the Clermont area contributed by Charles R. Short for special soil
and plant studies in connection with citrus production. About 18 acres
are involved in the setup. All young trees have received uniform fertil-
izer treatment that will continue until they are well established, when the
plots will be located and a wide variety of treatments emphasizing soil
reaction and trace element relationships set up. A full scope of soil and
plant studies-physical, chemical and microbiological-is contemplated
cooperatively with the Citrus Experiment Station. H. C. Brown of Cler-
mont, a member of the supervisory committee and representing the Lake
County Horticultural Society, has immediate supervision over the details
of the work for the present.

CLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING OF FLORIDA SOILS ACCORDING
TO MODERN SURVEY METHODS
Project D R. V. Allison and J. R. Henderson
Soil surveys of Alachua and Collier counties have been continued dur-
ing the year in cooperation with the boards of county commissioners and
the Division of Soil Survey of the USDA.
Through the use of aerial photographs the survey of Alachua County
has been speeded up considerably with the result that more than three-
fourths of the county has been covered. This survey should be completed
during the next season.

CELERY LABORATORY
R. W. Ruprecht and W. B. Shippy
The past celery season was characterized by extremely dry and warm
weather, especially during the second half. During the eight months
period August 1 to April 1 only 12.03 inches of rain fell, a deficiency of
17.37 inches from the normal. Of this amount almost 65% fell during
the first three months. February had an average temperature almost
4 degrees above normal with 17 days of temperatures of 80 degrees or
above, while March had an average temperature of 3 degrees above normal
with 20 days of temperatures of 80 degrees or above.
During the first half of the season a considerable part of Dr. Shippy's
time was taken up with grower seedbed troubles which were unusually
prevalent and destructive. These mainly included damping off (Rhizoc-
tonia), root-knot, and such insects as flea-hoppers and thrips. In some
instances large seedbeds were almost completely destroyed. No formal
experiments were conducted, the work being entirely diagnostic and ad-
visory.
In addition to the work on the regular projects 1,785 soils were tested
for pH for growers and a considerable number for salt concentration.
A number of well waters were tested for salt content and as in the past
no increase in salt content was found over previous tests, even though the
flow of the wells had lessened.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


With the development of Iceberg types of lettuce adaptable to this
climate increased interest has been evinced in its production. Through
E. B. O'Kelly of the ACL Railway, seeds of nine varieties of lettuce were
obtained. A fall planting produced excellent heads of firm lettuce from
three of the varieties, namely, Kilgore's No. 847, Ferry & Morse No. 847
and Dr. Knott's Improved No. 44. The first two produced practically
100% hard heads. A spring planting, due to adverse weather conditions,
produced no marketable lettuce. Further tests will be carried.

SOIL AND FERTILIZER STUDIES WITH CELERY
State Project 252 R. W. Ruprecht
Fertilizer tests were conducted on approximately one acre divided into
84 plots of approximately 1/80 acre each. Each treatment was repeated
four times and the check 12 times. Sources of nitrogen, phosphoric acid,
and potash were studied. In the nitrogen source tests low grade nitrate
of potash with superphosphate as the source of phosphoric acid again pro-
duced the highest yields with sulfate of ammonia again producing the
lowest yields. Substituting uramon, a synthetic organic source of nitrogen,
for the usual natural organic produced just as good yields. Two tons
of peat applied just previous to setting with the balance of the nitrogen
% from sulfate of ammonia and %4 from nitrate of soda produced slightly
higher yields than the checks. In the source of phosphoric acid tests
colloidal phosphate applied at the rate of 2% tons per acre previous to
setting with nitrogen and potash from nitrate of soda and H. G. nitrate
of potash produced the highest yields. In the source of potash tests kainit
and H. G. sulfate of potash produced lower yields than the check receiving
muriate of potash. The addition of magnesium sulfate to muriate of
potash or the use of potassium magnesium sulfate did not increase the
yields over the checks.
Due to excessively dry and hot weather and heavy insect damage the
rare element tests comparing manganous sulfate, zinc sulfate, and cobaltous
sulfate were a failure. Likewise test plantings of 15 varieties of celery
were a failure.
Black heart was very severe throughout the Sanford area. Apparently
there are three different types of this disease, all are characterized by the
dying of the heart leaves in the final stages. One type was found largely
on young celery and was associated with the presence of large numbers
of thrips. The other two were found only on practically full grown celery.
In the second type the dying or blackening of the heart leaves is preceded
by a mottling of the outer leaves, while in the third type no symptoms are
noticeable before the heart leaves turn black. Attempts to produce black
heart in soil and sand cultures were again unsuccessful. Analyses of soil
samples taken from a number of fields of normal celery and from fields
of black hearted celery showed no differences. (See also Project 335.)








Annual Report, 1939


ENTOMOLOGY

The work in this department covered 10 formal projects. In addition
to these, a great deal of time, as usual, has been spent in identifying
insects sent in and in giving advice on the control of a very large range
of insects and some animals which are not insects, namely nematodes and
Arachnidae. Several hundred inquiries per month are handled by corre-
spondence.
Control of the pinworm, though not on a formal project, received some
attention. The damage was rather heavy in the southwestern part of the
state but not nearly as heavy as two years ago.
Some attention was given to the pepper stem weevil, Collabismodes
cubae Boh. This insect was found severely damaging tomatoes in the
latter part of the season in Dade County, but it is still believed to be
primarily a pepper inhabiting species and because tomatoes are much
more commonly grown than peppers in that section the amount of damage
to tomatoes was heavier. It would seem that this pest has potentialities
of becoming quite a severe pest of tomatoes. The only means of control
that appear feasible at present is a thorough cleanup of fields after the
crop is harvested, involving the destruction of all vines.
Some observations on the strawberry pamera in Alachua County showed
that the observations on this pest by Dr. J. W. Wilson in Polk County
apply here also. As the rainy season comes on and the native vegetation,
including grasses, becomes succulent the pameras largely desert the straw-
berries.
THE FLORIDA FLOWER THRIPS
State Project 8 J. R. Watson
The infestation of thrips (Frankliniella cephalica bispinosa Morgan)
on citrus this year was not heavy. As during previous years, some un-
opened blooms of oranges were enclosed in celophane sacks tied over
unopened buds and protected from the sun. In some of these sacks thrips
were placed, 24 per sack, and other enclosed blooms were protected from
thrips. In most cases those in which thrips were placed dropped without
setting fruit. Those blooms in which no thrips were placed set about 50
percent of the fruit, which is about what was set on the blossoms of the
trees not enclosed in containers, giving further proof of past experience
that about 24 thrips per bloom often results in the bloom being cast with-
out setting fruit.
The Florida flower thrips was first described from Mexico and to secure
specimens in the type locality a vacation trip to Mexico was planned.
The species was found not to be at all abundant in blossoms in the sections
of Mexico visited, namely Laredo, Monterey, Mexico City, Puebla, and
Taxco. Indeed other species, including the West Indian flower thrips
(Frankliniella insularis) and the California blossom thrips (Frankliniella
moultoni), were much more abundant. Still a considerable number of
F. cephalica were collected. No structural differences could be seen be-
tween this one and the Florida flower thrips, but they seemed light in
color.
With W. L. Thompson of the Citrus Station, a species of Chaetoanapho-
thrips orchidii was found to be causing discoloration to citrus, particularly
grapefruit on the East Coast. This seems to be a species which has been
found on several other plants besides citrus.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


A survey of the ecological and host plant distribution of the Thysanop-
tera in Florida was continued. Several new species were discovered, and
much information secured on their comparative abundance, distribution
and host plants in the state.

ROOT-KNOT INVESTIGATIONS
Adams Project 12 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
The use of mulch to control root-knot mentioned in the last report was
continued with very gratifying results. On plots known to be heavily
infested with root-knot nematodes but treated with a heavy mulch, control
was sufficient to enable one to grow even such a very susceptible crop as
okra, whereas on check plots having no mulch the okra promptly died.
To study the possible effect of mulch from different sources, one plot
was mulched with crotalaria stems, one with grass, and one with leaves,
and this year two plots were mulched with water hyacinths taken from
a nearby lake. No significant difference could be detected between these
different mulches. Whether this mulch was piled on top of the soil or
was incorporated in the soil, the effectiveness was not significantly different.
This method of treating root-knot on susceptible plants by mulching
them heavily will be particularly valuable for long-lived perennials, such
as trees and shrubs.
The selection of resistant plants of several different vegetables in an
attempt to find a nematode-resistant strain was continued. Conch cowpeas
mentioned in the last report again showed considerable toleration to root-
knot injury, but were not entirely immune. The Australian cowpea men-
tioned in the last report is being grown this year in the attempt to secure
a strain that will mature earlier.
Attempts to obtain a resistant strain of Big Boston lettuce are meeting
with encouraging success. Some selections have over a series of three
years shown constant resistance to root-knot.
A resistant strain of Kentucky Wonder beans, first obtained from the
Alabama Station, is being raised and further selection made to increase
resistance.
Attempts to find a resistant strain of commercial tomatoes have not
met with marked success. Some strains of cherry tomatoes have been
found quite resistant, but these are of little commercial value.

INTRODUCTION AND PROPAGATION OF BENEFICIAL INSECTS
State Project 13 J. R. Watson and W. L. Thompson
The past winter has been a very severe test on the Chinese ladybeetle,
Leis dimidiata var. 15-spilota Hope. Due largely to drouth, citrus aphids
have been very scarce, with the result that there was very little food for
the ladybeetles in the early spring. This raised some fear that the colonies
now spread over practically all of Orange County might perish, but the
diminution in numbers of this ladybeetle was no greater than that of the
native species. Its cannibalistic habit, an unfortunate check on multiplica-
tion, enabled it to tide over a period of food scarcity.
This year for the first time we were able to locate colonies of hibernat-
ing beetles. They were most abundant in masses of old seedpods clinging
to the pencil bush, Baccharis halimifolia. In some clumps as many as 20
were found. During extremely cold weather some colonies were found in
the curled leaves of citrus, but this seemed to be only a temporary refuge
during inclement weather, whereas those on the pencil bush seemed to be
more or less hibernating for the duration of the winter.







Annual Report, 1939


Because of the scarcity of these ladybeetles, and also aphids, no at-
tempts were made to introduce this very useful insect into other sections
of the state.
Mealybugs have always been difficult to control by means of insecticides
because of their habit of getting into sheltered places like those where a
number of grapefruit are bunched, and particularly under the calyx of
the fruit. The situation suggested the desirability of the introduction of
parasites. A colony of Leptomastix dactylopii, a parasite which has been
reported to be very successful in California, was obtained through the co-
operation of the California Experiment Station. This parasite is now
being raised in the laboratory.
Through the Puerto Rico Experiment Station a parasite of thrips,
Dasyscapus parvipennis, has been secured. Unfortunately the shipment
arrived at the time of year when thrips were scarce here. Whether it will
be possible to increase the colony to a point where the insects can be intro-
duced into the field is not yet determined. The insect in Puerto Rico is a
parasite largely of the red banded thrips, Heliothrips rubrocinctus. Be-
cause of the scarcity of the red banded thrips here the attempt is being
made to raise them on the closely related Hercothrips femoralis.

THE LARGER PLANT BUGS
State Project 14 H. E. Bratley
The pumpkin bug, Nezara viridula, was again comparatively scarce
in the peninsular part of the state as compared with most seasons, although
slightly more abundant than the previous year. It caused no notable
damage to citrus. This increase in population continues to add weight to
the evidence previously put forward that the percentage of bugs parasitized
in the fall constitutes a reliable index to the degree of infestation to be
expected the next season.
The parasitization by Trichopoda pennipes, the feather-legged fly, and
other Tachinids, during the fall of 1937 averaged about 40 percent and
during the fall of 1938 about 45 percent. Accordingly, a still heavier per-
centage of parasitization may be expected this year.
Hard, beating rains this spring and summer were responsible for killing
Nezara viridula, especially the ones weakened by parasites.
Leptoglossus phyllopus was quite injurious in occasional satsuma groves.
Due to the habit of congregating on certain trees, the bugs inflicted con-
siderable local damage. The parasitization of this bug was reduced 5 to
10 percent so that a heavier infestation of Leptoglossus may be expected
this summer and fall. Certain pyrethrum sprays and dusts were found
to be very effective against these insects and, because of the gregarious
habits of the bugs, easily applied.

CONTROL OF FRUIT AND NUT CROP INSECTS-INSECTS
AFFECTING PECAN TREES
State Project 82 S. 0. Hill, J. R. Watson
Pecan Insect Laboratory and H. E. Bratley
This project is carried in cooperation with the USDA Bureau of En-
tomology, with S. O. Hill in charge of the laboratory at Monticello.
Various creosote compounds have been tested for control of the case-
bearers as the main project of this laboratory. Some of these creosote
compounds give promise of being effective and safe, but the scarcity of
case-bearers during the current year has curtailed these experiments.
At Gainesville different solutions of common lye have been tested as
a winter wash for the control of case-bearers. A 10 percent solution of







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


lye seems to hold some promise and apparently causes little, if any, damage
to the trees.
THE ONION THRIPS
State Project 231 J. R. Watson
Work on the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindin) consisted chiefly of
a survey in the summer months to determine the source of infestation
that invariably appears on onions during the fall, winter and spring.
As during previous years, this species was not found in the open during
the summer time, but onion sets purchased from seed houses were found
to be heavily infested with these thrips. Whether this is the only source
of infestation during the fall or whether they do go through on some other
host is not known.
This thrips became quite abundant and did considerable damage to
celery at Sanford during the past year. The pyrethrum sprays were found
to give the best control, although nicotine sulfate was fairly effective.

THE GLADIOLUS THRIPS
State Project 232 J. R. Watson and J. W. Wilson
Work on this thrips (Taeniothrips simplex Morrison) was continued.
Dr. Wilson placed some bulbs in cold storage at a temperature of about
40 degrees F. and dipped them in a mercuric chloride solution, 1 to 1,000.
This double treatment apparently gave complete control of the thrips, as
none appeared on plants coming from these bulbs.
As during previous years, thrips did not become injuriously abundant
until spring, and in some cases, as at the Everglades Station, not until
quite late in the spring.
The tartar emetic spray used last year has come into general use
wherever this thrips is troublesome in Florida and all growers who have
used it report satisfactory results with no commercial damage to the
gladioli.
The gladiolus thrips has gradually spread to other communities where
it has not been found heretofore.
Observations during the past year were that the gladiolus thrips goes
through the summer almost, if not entirely, on volunteer plants which
come up from bulbs left in the ground at digging time. The small number
of thrips that go through the summer in this manner are responsible for
light infestations in the fall. During the winter and spring the thrips
gradually build up heavy infestations until they usually become very
troublesome by spring unless control measures are taken.
In the fall the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca, is more common on
gladioli than is the gladiolus thrips. Failure of the growers to distinguish
between these two thrips is responsible for needless alarm and useless
spraying, as the tobacco thrips never gets sufficiently abundant on gladi-
olus to be a serious pest.

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF FLORIDA APHIDS
State Project 234 A. N. Tissot
Six species of aphids were added to the list of those known to occur
in Florida. Four of these previously have been reported from other states
but the other two apparently are undescribed species. Two of the species
are pests of cultivated plants in other regions. Aphis tulipae Fonsc., a
rather severe pest of bulbs in storage, was found on growing bulbs of
Iris tingitana at Penney Farms. Aphis nociadae Cockerell, a pest of
larkspur and delphinium, was taken on delphinium at Miami.







Annual Report, 1939


During the year 157 collections, comprising 70 different species of
aphids, were made and specimens were added to the department collection.
Knowledge of the host plant relationships of Florida aphids was widened
with the addition of 26 species of plants to the list of known hosts. Para-
sites were obtained from a number of different species of aphids. These
have been sent to a specialist for identification. Whenever ants were
found attending aphid colonies, specimens were taken and these likewise
have been submitted to an ant specialist for determination.

THE PEPPER WEEVIL
State Project 263 J. R. Watson and R. N. Lobdel!
The pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii Cano) has done more damage
this year than for several years past in Manatee County and has spread
to Hillsborough and Charlotte counties. Inspection of 54 plantings in
Hillsborough County revealed infestations on 26 farms, most of which
were either east or south of Plant City. The infestation in Hillsborough
County undoubtedly has come from peppers carried in from Manatee
County. The same is true of the infestation in Charlotte County. No
further infestations have been found in Sarasota County, demonstrating
that a thorough and prompt destruction of host plants in an infested field
will usually result in control of this pest if not the entire eradication of it.
This year for the first time the weevil has inflicted commercial damage
upon eggplant, so that a cleanup campaign will have to take eggplant into
consideration. Although the marketing period for eggplant extends later
in the summer than that for peppers, it should still be possible to control
this insect by a thorough cleanup of the eggplant at the end of the shipping
season.

LIFE HISTORY, FOOD PREFERENCES, ECOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION
AND CONTROL OF THE LUBBERLY LOCUST
Adams Project 333 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
This project was taken up last year at the urgent request of the farmers
in the neighborhood of bulb plantations, particularly near Penney Farms
and Doctor's Inlet. Careful observations were made on the places of
oviposition, food, and migrations of these locusts (Romalea microptera
(Beauvois)).
Egg laying in 1938 began on June 28 and reached its climax early in
July. This year egg laying was observed June 30. The lubberly locust
seems to be rather particular as to the character of the soil in which the
eggs are laid. No eggs were found in the hard, more compact lower parts
of the flatwoods, but in the higher, drier parts where pine trees began to
be mixed with oaks, oviposition was heavy, as it was also along ditchbanks
and roadsides. Some fields of early corn where cultivation ceased about
the first of June received rather heavy oviposition, but in the bulb fields
themselves where cultivation extended throughout the spring and digging
progressed during June, very few eggs were deposited. It is evident that
this locust wants comparatively solid, undisturbed soil for oviposition but
not the more hard, grassy flatwoods. Neither were any eggs observed on
the extremely dry, sandy, turkey oak ridges.
These young grasshoppers after hatching remain together in clusters
for a few days before they scatter and this habit gives an excellent oppor-
tunity to observe the situation where oviposition has taken place.
The heavy infestation in narcissus fields particularly was due to migra-
tion into them from surrounding areas favorable to oviposition. In one
case this migration to bulb fields was from hatching grounds fully a quarter







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of a mile away. It would seem as if the young lubbers could smell the
narcissus fields. They travelled in definite trails and ranks toward the
fields. One day 11 of these migrating ranks were counted crossing a road
over a space of 0.2 of a mile. The migration from a piece of high flat-
woods to the fields was practically complete. Very few of the nymphs
remained in the field where they hatched.
Narcissus seems to be a particularly favorable host plant. A larger
number of nymphs apparently reached maturity on this food than on
others. After the narcissus was dug there was a scattering of these
nymphs, and especially the adults, in all directions from the bulb fields.
This migration took place in the latter part of June.
Besides narcissus, the grasshoppers were destructive to gladioli, cow-
peas, collards and corn. They were particularly destructive to corn just
hearing out as they ate off the silk and the end of the ear, thus preventing
pollination or doing much injury to the ear if the attack occurred after
pollination. Of the wild plants, they were particularly fond of some
grasses and of pokeweed.
During the middle of the day the grasshoppers have a tendency to
climb some tall plant or fence, apparently to escape the heat near the
ground. They will be commonly seen in large numbers on dog-fennel,
but there was no evidence that they fed on this plant. They did not seri-
ously damage dry narcissus bulbs kept in an open shed. They were ap-
parently unable to eat their way through the dry husk around these bulbs,
but any bulbs left out in the field where they were softened by rain were
eagerly eaten by the pest.
As for control measures, it was found that a pyrethrum spray was
very effective on the young hoppers. The gregarious habit of these young
hoppers makes the application of a spray very practical. Being unable
to fly, ditches a foot deep and a foot wide make an effective barrier to
prevent their migrations.
In one isolated bulb farm where the owner carefully carried out these
suggestions for control, the grasshoppers have been reduced to such num-
bers as to inflict no commercial damage. The control of this pest then
calls for community action. Growers of narcissus and other bulbs can
protect their fields by a ditch a foot wide and a foot deep around the fields,
particularly on the side from which the grasshoppers seem to be migrating.
They should cooperate with their neighbors in destroying the young hoppers
as fast as they hatch. These same ditches can be used to catch the adults
when the bulbs are dug and migration towards the breeding grounds begins.
The fields observed to be full of young hoppers in April were again full
of hoppers the latter part of June, showing that breeding would again take
place there. A thorough cleanup of the grasshoppers during one season
would undoubtedly reduce the numbers to a point where they would not
be a menace for several years thereafter.
The life history of this insect was worked out. No predators or para-
sites were observed. Birds would not eat them, and no parasites emerged
from grasshoppers kept in cages.

MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS
R. N. Lobdell
Pameras.-Of the three species found in the Plant City area, Orthaea
longulus occurs most generally. A study of the life history of this straw-
berry pest indicates that it prefers to feed during the summer on Mexican
clover (Richardia scabra). Other host plants were found to include beggar-
weed, bermuda grass, crotalaria, Jew grass, maiden cane, St. Augustine
grass, Lilium longiflorum, amaryllis and gladiolus. Distinct migrations




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