• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Credits
 Letter of transmittal
 Acknowledgement
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00024
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1938
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00024
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
    Acknowledgement
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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    Index
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        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
Full Text










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT

STATION




Golden Anniversary Report
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
June 30, 1938











\^^3









EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of
the University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Asst. Dir., Research
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Adm.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist**
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate*
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman**
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman
L. M. Thurston, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husbandman
R. M. Crown, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Husbandman
L. L. Rusoff, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition

CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist**
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate
R. B. French, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Assistant

ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist**
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist**
Ruth Overstreet, R.N., Assistant
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist"
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist and
Head of Department
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Specialist, Fumigation
Research
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist**
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistant
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Assistant Botanist
SPECTROGRAPHIC LABORATORY
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist
L. H. Rogers, M.A., Spectroscopic Analyst
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist


BOARD OF CONTROL

R. P. Terry, Acting Chairman, Miami
Thomas W. Bryant, Lakeland
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
H. P. Adair, Jacksonville
Chas. P. Helfenstein, Live Oak
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
W. A. Kuntz, A.M.. Asso. Plant Pathologist
Michael Peech, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist

EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Associate Plant
Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asst. Animal Husbandman
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Engineer*

SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist

W. CENTRAL FLA. STA, BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charge*

FIELD STATIONS
Leesmbrg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Plant City

A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Associate Entomologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Monticello
Samuel O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist*
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist*
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist*
In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
** Head of Department.












LIST OF DEPARTMENT REPORTS


Report of Director .............................
Report of Business Manager ...........
Editorial and Mailing Department


Library ................................. ...... ...................... ........ ...
Agricultural Economics ........................................
Agronomy ............................ ... ..... .....................
Animal Husbandry ...................................... ............ .
-Chemistry and Soils ......................... ........................ ...
Entomology ......... ....................... .. ......................
Home Economics ......................................................................
H orticu ltu re ............... ................... ... .........................................
Plant Pathology ..................... ..... .......................................
Federal-State Horticultural Protection Service ...............
C itrus Station .......................... ....................................... ........
Everglades Station ........... ....... ...........................
North Florida Sta'ion ....................................................
Sub-Tropical Station ................................................ .................
West Central Florida Station ....................... ............................


.............................................. ........... 5
............................................................ 18
18
................................... ....................... 26
............................................................ 34
......................................... ........... 35
...................................... ..................... 39
.......................................... ................ 60
............................................. .............. 7 3
....... .................................................... 82
............................................... ....... 1 87
............................................................ 9 0
.............................................. ............. 109
..... ......................... ............................ 12 9
............................................................ 137
.............................................-. ............ 149.
............................................................ 175
39

60
S73
82


.90
109





.....-.......--........... .... ........... ......... 184
137

175

S194


Hon. Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1938.
Respectfully,

R. P. TERRY,
Chairman, Board of Control










Hon. R. P. Terry,

Chairman, Board of Control

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1938, and I request that you transmit
the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of
Florida.
Respectfully,

JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida


.....................
.....................
.....................












Serving Rural Florida


for a Half Century


*


The Contributions of the Florida Experi-

ment Station to the prosperity of Florida

agriculture have been numerous and valuable.

Scientific discoveries and technical procedures

developed here have contributed in an import-

ant way to the solution of problems elsewhere,

and have added to the general accumulation

of knowledge that science makes available for

all humanity.-M. L. Wilson, Undersecretary,

United States Department of Agriculture, on

the occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary Cele-

bration of the Experiment Station at the Uni-

versity of Florida.


41)I*~(UNOUUOIMU~(~OI(~)(~OI(UU(~(UNO


E~r~m~rw~Mlcrm~cm -~HUIU(IIUMMI










Golden Anniversary Report for the

Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1938






Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the work and
investigations of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tions, together with the reports of the heads of the several departments,
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1938.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director





A HALF CENTURY OF RESEARCH
The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station with this fiftieth annual
report completes a half century of research and service contributed to
the betterment of the State's agriculture.
Established in early 1888 under the Federal Hatch Act of 1887, which
authorized agricultural experiment stations at the land grant colleges
in each of the several states, the Florida station became a department of
the State Agricultural College at Lake City, where it remained until 1906
when transferred to its present location at Gainesville as a department
of the University of Florida. As now constituted, the station organization
is one of the three divisions of the University's College of Agriculture
and comprises, under unified administration, the main station at Gainesville,
four widely separated branch stations and eight field laboratories. It is
the State's only agricultural research institution and its major fields are
in agronomy, agricultural economics, animal husbandry and veterinary
medicine, chemistry and soils, entomology, horticulture, home economics
and plant pathology. Approximately 2,870 acres of land are now allocated
to its uses, 1,130 at the main station and the balance at the branch stations.
During its 50 years the station's administration has been under the leader-
ship of eight Directors:
J. Kost ........................................ 1888
Jas. P. DePass ............................ 1889-1893
0. Clute ........................................ 1893-1897
W F. Yocum .............................. 1897-1901
T. H. Taliaferro ........................ 1901-1904
Andrew Sledd ............................ 1904-1905
P. H. Rolfs .................................. 1906-1921
Wilmon Newell .......................... 1921-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Florida's diversity of soils, crops and climatic conditions has led to a
complex agriculture widely different in the several sections and distinctly
unlike that of most other states, a circumstance that has required inten-
sive experimentation for successful development and maintenance. Many
of the .State's major agricultural problems are exclusively its own and
it has been necessary to depend upon localized research because of lack
of application of experimental findings developed elsewhere. It is of
interest to note the foresight indicated in this connection in the opening
paragraph of Bulletin 1, issued in 1888 by the Director and constituting
the first official station publication, which reads: "The Director of the
Station is not without a deep sense that his work is, to a great degree,
a peculiar one, owing to the latitudinal and climatic characteristics of
Florida. Other stations have helps from correspondent and analagous
surroundings that afford mutual advantages in station work.. But the
Florida station, located on a peninsula between ocean and sea, alone, must
work out its own material."
The station's activities in its earlier years of necessity were confined
largely to the simpler types of experimentation because of insufficient
funds to provide other than meager and inadequate equipment and a most
limited personnel. Again, much of the later productive and involved
research had to await the development of techniques, apparatus, materials
and knowledge which were then non-existent. None other than Federal
funds were appropriated for its work and maintenance, except small sums
for buildings, during the period 1887-1914 and it was several years follow-
ing the latter date before substantial State aid was authorized.
Efforts were directed at the outset to securing information applicable
to different sections by the establishment of branch stations at DeFuniak
Springs and Fort Myers, but, due to inadequate financial support and
questionable legality of the use of federal funds for substation main-
tenance, these stations were abandoned in 1898. With the spread of agri-
cultural activities and the demand for aid with pressing problems, four
branch stations were later established through legislative enactment and
are actively functioning. Those stations, the time of their establishment
and fields of investigation are:
Citrus Station, Lake Alfred. 1920. All phases of citrus
production.
North Florida Station, Quincy. 1921. Tobacco and gen-
eral farm crops of the northern Florida area.
Everglades Station, Belle Glade. 1923. General agricul-
ture of the mucklands of the Florida Everglades.
Subtropical Station, Homestead. 1930. Subtropical fruits
and winter vegetable production.

The work of the Federal West Central Florida Experiment Station is
cooperative and closely correlated with that of the Florida stations.
Several local problems, chiefly with insects and diseases, have necessi-
tated the temporary establishment of field laboratories in the areas where
the affected crops are commercially grown. The location and lines of
research of those laboratories active at this time are as follows:
Watermelon Laboratory, Leesburg. Diseases and insects
of watermelons and grapes.
Strawberry Laboratory, Plant City. Diseases and insects
of strawberries.







Annual Report, 1938


Citrus Diseases Laboratory, Cocoa. Blight, gumming and
root diseases of citrus.
Potato Laboratory, Hastings. Diseases and culture of
potatoes.
Pecan Laboratory, Monticello. Insects and diseases affect-
ing pecans (Cooperative with USDA.).
Tomato Laboratory, Bradenton. Tomato diseases.
Celery Laboratory, Sanford. Diseases and culture of
celery.
Frost Forecasting Service, Lakeland. Frost forecasting.
(Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.)

Free and active cooperative relations with Federal and State agencies
have been maintained to mutual advantage for many years that duplica-
tion of effort be avoided and the sought objectives be attained more
efficiently and with a saving of time.
The station's experimental work and findings are fully recorded in
its publications. To date, in addition to reports issued annually, 321
bulletins, ranging in size from 10 to 214 pages, and 516 2-page press
bulletins have been published. The number and variety of these bulletins,
together with the numerous articles which have appeared in scientific and
other journals, indicate the scope and volume of factual information accru-
ing from the investigational work pursued. Parts of this material, because
of the widespread interest and application, have been reprinted by other
agencies, and some translated and reprinted in foreign countries. The
demand for bulletins now requires from 80,000 to 100,000 copies annually.
Since its establishment the experiment station has been an unbiased
agency in the development and dissemination of new and authentic informa-
tion. Charged with responsibility of conducting researches and experi-
ments leading to the solution of the many and complicated problems of
agriculture in Florida, it has neglected no phase of farming activity. An
appraisal of the results attained shows them to have been productive of
numerous widely varied practices, methods and materials now in everyday
use and established as essential in the production programs of the several
agricultural fields. These betterments are visible and concretely evidenced
in improved disease and insect pest control in both plants and animals,
soils improvement and conservation methods, the introduction and breeding
of new crops and superior varieties, better livestock and managerial
methods, the profitable utilization of the Everglades saw-grass lands,
the development of information on economic trends, cooperative effort
and farm management, higher quality in fruits and vegetables, lowered
production costs, advanced cultural practices, and in the more recently
applied trace element findings. The success attending these efforts is best
measured by the signal advancement made by Florida agriculture during
the past 50 years.
The high plane achieved by American agriculture has in no small
measure been through the intelligent use of facts continuously developed
by scientific investigation in the Nation's research agencies among which
are included the agricultural experiment stations. Further improvement
and progress in agriculture, aa-in industry, will be limited by the extent
and success of future researches, for without new knowledge and its
application advancement is impossible. Fully mindful of its sharing in







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


this responsibility, the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station enters its
second half century.
PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS
Construction work of the year consisted only of an implement storage
building in,the farm unit, a water tank and pump house in the plant
introduction gardens, a small addition to the workroom of the Chemistry-
Agronomy greenhouse and the completion of the cattle barn at the Ever-
glades Station.
CHANGES IN STAFF
Changes in the Station staff during the fiscal year were as follows:
A. Daane, Agronomist in Charge Everglades Experiment Station, died
July 1, 1937. J. R. Neller succeeding him in the position as Biochemist
in Charge.
R. W. Ruprecht was transferred from the Main Station to assume
charge of the Celery Investigations Laboratory at Sanford, July 1, 1937.
W. B. Shippy, Associate Plant Pathologist, was transferred from the
Watermelon Laboratory, Leesburg, to the Celery Laboratory, Sanford,
July 1, 1937.
J. W. Wilson, Associate Entomologist, was transferred from the Water-
melon Laboratory, Leesburg, to the Strawberry Investigations Laboratory,
Plant City, July 1, 1937.
Stacy Hawkins, Assistant Plant Pathologist, died July 10, 1937.
C. F. Ahmann, Physiologist, resigned July 15, 1937.
E. R. Purvis, Assistant Chemist Celery Investigations, resigned July
31, 1937.
J. R. Henderson was appointed Assistant Chemist August 1, 1937.
W. W. Henley, Assistant Animal Husbandman, resigned August 31, 1937.
R. E. Robertson, Assistant Chemist Everglades Station, resigned October
1, 1937.
Walter Reuther, Assistant Horticulturist Citrus Station, was granted
leave of absence for one year to pursue graduate studies November 1, 1937.
John A. Granger was appointed Assistant Horticulturist Citrus Station
November 1, 1937, and resigned February 28, 1938.
Jeanette Shaw, Laboratory Technician, resigned November 2, 1937.
J. R. Beckenbach was appointed Associate Horticulturist Everglades
Station December 1, 1937.
Ruth Overstreet was appointed Assistant in Home Economics Research
January 1, 1938.
Frederick Boyd was appointed Assistant Agronomist Everglades Sta-
tion February 14, 1938.
W. W. Lawless was appointed Assistant Horticulturist Citrus Station
March 1, 1938.
R. A. Carrigan was appointed Assistant Chemist March 1, 1938.
J. C. Cain was appointed Assistant Horticulturist March 1, 1938.








Annual Report, 1938


FINANCIAL RESOURCES
For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1938, the financial resources, from
Federal and State appropriations, of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations were as follows:
Federal Hatch and Adams funds ..........................................................$ 30,000.00
Federal Bankhead-Jones fund ............................................................... 23,101.23
State funds
M ain Station ........................................... ...................... ...... 257,282.00
Including laboratories as follows:
Strawberry Investigations, Plant City ..............$ 6,300.00
Truck Investigations ...................................... .. 15,000.00
Citrus Diseases, Cocoa ........................................ 3,500.00
Potato Investigations, Hastings .......................... 8,000.00
Pecan Investigations, Monticello ........................ 4,150.00
Fumigation Research ....................................... 3,062.50
Celery Investigations, Sanford ............................ 10,000.00
Grape Pest Investigations .................................... 3,500.00
Tobacco Blue Mold Investigations ..................... 5,000.00
Watermelon Laboratory, Leesburg .................... 7,000.00
Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred ........................................ 46,451.00
Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade ................................ 50,339.00
North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy .................................. 25,968.00
Subtropical Experiment Station, Homestead ................................ 21,000.00
Frost Forecasting Service (supplementing Federal funds) ...... 18,000.00
Other Federal funds, not included above ............................... ....... 60,000.00

RESEARCH PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS
During the year the chief item of expansion was in the frost forecasting
service. This enlargement made possible the complete coverage of the
citrus and trucking areas of the whole of the peninsular portion of the
State.
In the early spring an intensive demonstration program in the control
of the blue mold disease of tobacco in seedbeds was carried on over a
period of some six weeks in all tobacco growing counties, members of
the staffs of the State Plant Board, Agricultural Extension Service and
Experiment Station cooperating.
Active projects are listed on the following pages, and the work carried
under them briefly reviewed in the separate reports of the several depart-
ments and branch stations.







LIST OF PROJECTS UNDER INVESTIGATION DURING THE YEAR


Department
AGRICULTURAL
ECONOMICS




AGRONOMY


Number
73

154
186
317
325
20
27
27A

55
56
105
163
220
243

265

267
295

296
297
298
299

300
301
302

303
304
312


Title Page
Agricultural Survey of Some 500 Farms in the General Farming Region of
Northwest Florida ............ .......................... ...... ... ............ 35
Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida .................-.......-...-..........-----...----- 35
Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida Citrus .................... 36
Prices of Florida Farm Products .............-............ ......... ............ 38
Production Credit for Citrus and Vegetable Growers in Selected Areas of Florida 38
Peanut Im provem ent ................ ...... .............. .. .............................. 39
Pasture Experim ents ........... ..... .......... .... .......... .......... ............. 41
Value of Centipede Grass Pastures as Affected by Soil Characteristics and Other
F actors ............................ ... ........... ... ................................ ........... 43
Crop Rotation Studies with Corn, Cotton, Crotalaria and Austrian Peas ...............-. 43
Variety Test W ork with Field Crops .............................................. ... 44
Improvement of Corn by Selection and Breeding ........................................ 45
Corn Fertilizer Experiments ................................-- ................_ 46
A Study of "Chlorosis" in Corn and Other Field Crop Plants .................................... 46
A Study of the Development and Deterioration of Roots in Relation to the Growth
of Pasture Plants Under Different Fertilizer and Cutting Treatments ..........-... 46
Composition Factors Affecting the Value of Sugarcane for Forage and Other
Purposes ............................................ .. .... ............. 47
Pasture Studies ............... .............. .. ... ....... ............................................... 48
Effect of Fertilizers on the Yield, Grazing Value, Chemical Composition and
Botanical Make-up of Pastures .......... .............. ..... ................. 48
Eradication of Weeds in Tame Pastures .............................................. 49
Forage Nursery and Plant Adaptation Studies ..................................................... 51
Forage and Pasture Grass Improvement ................................................ 52
Growth Behavior and Relative Composition of Range Grasses as Affected by
Burning and the Effect of Burning on Maintenance of Natural Grass Stands
and Upon the Establishment of Improved Grasses ................................. 53
Methods of Ridding Land of Objectionable Growths and Obstacles .......................... 54
Pasture Legum es ............................................... .......... .............. ....... 54
A Study of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) for Pasture
P purposes ............................. .... ... ........ ............. .............. 56
Water Pasture Studies ........................57
Methods of Establishing Permanent Pastures Under Various Conditions ................ 57
Spacing and Plant Competition in Common Field Corn ......................................... 58








Department
ANIMAL
HUSBANDRY


Number
133
140

175
213
215
216
219
236
239

241

244

245

246

251
258
274
302
307


Title Page
Deficiencies in Feeds Used in Cattle Rations ... ................ ......... .......... ........... 62
Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to Her Milk and Butter-
fat P reduction ............................................... .......... ... ......... .................................. 63
A Study of the Feeding Value of Crotalarias ...................................................... 64
A Study of the Ensilability of Florida Forage Crops .............. ........................-.... 64
Beef Cattle Breeding Investigations .......................................... ................................ 64
Cooperative Field Studies with Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle ................................ 65
Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations --- ....................... .....6.......... G5
Investigations of Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Cattle and Swine ............................... 65
The Digestible Coefficients and Feeding Value of Dried Grapefruit Refuse and
D ried Orange Refuse ................................................................................................. 66
Efficiency of the Trench Silo for Preservation of Forage Crops as Measured by
Chemical Means and by the Utilization of the Nutrients of the Silage by Cattle 66
A Comparative Study of Corn and Liquid Milk Versus a Grain and Mash Ration
in Feeding for Egg Production ............................................ ......................... ... 67
A Comparative Study of the Value of Meat Scraps, Fish Meal, and Milk Solids as
Sources of Protein for Egg Production ................................. ............................. 67
Lights Versus No Lights for Egg Production on Single Comb White Leghorn
Pullets and H ens ...................................................................................................... 67
The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions in Animals .......... 67
A Study of Plants Poisonous to Livestock in Florida ............... ............................. 68
Studies in Fleece and Mutton Production ........................ .............. ......................... ...... 68
A Study of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureumn) for Pasture Purposes ........... 68
A Statistical Study of the Relationship Between Temperature and Egg Weight
(Size), Body Weight and Egg Weight, Body Weight and Production, Age and
Egg Weight of Single Comb White Leghorn Pullets .......................................... 69
Utilization of Citrus By-Products for Poultry ..................... .......................... 69
Poultry B reading ............................... ... ........... ................ ..................................... 70
Deficiencies of Peanuts When Used as a Feed for Swine ........................................ 70
Method of Handling Sows and Young Pigs .......................--....................................... 70
The Utilization of Citrus Meal as Swine Feed ................................................. 71
The Vitamin Content of Shark Liver Oil ................................ .......................... 71
Digestibility of Fresh Napier Grass ................ ............... ....................................... 71
The Comparative Value of Sugarcane Silage, Shocked Sugarcane and Pasture;
Supplemented with Cottonseed Meal, or Cake, in Wintering the Beef Herd .... 72








Department
CHEMISTRY
AND SOILS




















CELERY
LABORATORY
ENTOMOLOGY


Number
37
94
96
201
220
221
223
240
256
266
292
293
294
306
322
326
327
328
329
252
8
12
13
14
82
231


Title Page
Determination of the Effect of Various Potash Carriers on the Growth, Yield and
Composition of Crops ............................. .......................... .......................... 73
Effect of Various Fertilizer Formulas ................................... ........................ 73
Determination of the Effect of Green Manures on the Composition of the Soil ........ 73
A Study of the Chemical Composition of the Ash of Florida Fruits and Vegetables
with Reference to the More Unusual Constituents .......................... ... 74
A Study of "Chlorosis" in Corn Plants and Other Field Crop Plants .................... 74
A Study of the Chemical Properties of the Glucosides of Citrus Fruits .................. 75
Bronzing or Copper Leaf of Citrus ................................ ......... ...... ................................. 75
The Occurrence and Behavior of Less Abundant Elements in Soils .......................... 75
The Development of Quantitative Spectrographic Methods for Agricultural Re-
search ................................ .... ............... ........................................................ 75
Spectrographic Studies of the Composition of Tissues and Corresponding Soils of
Normal and Physiologically Diseased Horticultural Crops ................................ 76
The Investigation of Vitamin C Content of Florida Fruits and Vegetables ............ 76
Nutrient Salt Concentration in the Soil with Special Reference to the Trace
Elem ents ..... ............ ..................... ........................................ 76
Mineral Content of Vegetable Crops with Special Reference to Iron ...................... 76
A Study of the So-Called "Quick Methods" for Determining Soil Fertility .............. 77
Soil and Vegetation Surveys in Relation to Pasture Development in Florida ........ 77
Type and Distribution of Microorganisms in Florida Soils ...................................... 77
The Metabolism and Functional Relationships of Soil Microorganisms Under
Florida Conditions .... ...................................................... ........................ 78
The Interrelationship of Microbiological Action in Soils and Cropping Systems
in Florida ............................... .......... 78
Methods of Inoculating Legumes in Florida Soils .......................................... ..... 78
Soil and Fertilizer Studies with Celery ............................ ............................................. 80
The Florida Flower Thrips (Frankliniella cephalica bispinosa Morgan) ............. 83
Root-K not Investigations ............................... .......... ............................................... 83
Introduction and Propagation of Beneficial Insects ........................................... 84
The Larger Plant Bugs ................................................. ................................................... 84
Control of Fruit and Nut Crop Insects-Insects Affecting Pecan Trees ................ 84
The Onion Thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindin) ............................................................. 85







Department
ENTOMOLOGY
(Continued)



HOME ECONOMICS






HORTICULTURE


Number
232
234
263
333


Title P
The Gladiolus Thrips (Taeniothrips simplex Morrison) ..........................................
Biology and Control of Florida Aphids .................................................................
The Pepper Weevil (Anthonomus eugenii Cano) .................................................
Life History, Food Preferences, Ecological Distribution and Control of the Lub-
berly Locust, Romalea microptera (Beauvois) ......................................................


222 A Study of the Pathologic Changes in Tissues Affected by Deficiency Diseases
or by Toxic Substances .................................................. ... ............ .......
265 An Investigation of Human Dietary Deficiencies in Selected Counties in Florida,
with Special Reference to Nutritional Anemia in Relation to Home Grown
F oods ............................................................. ...............
270 The Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Several Florida Honeys ............
272 Standardization of Home Canned Tomatoes and Tomato Juice ...........................
47 Cooperative Fertilizer Tests in Pecan Orchards ................................. ....
48 Studies on Varieties of Pecans and Other Horticultural Nut-Bearing Species ........
50 Propagation, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with Tung Oil Trees ..........................
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and Methods for
Their Propagation ................................................
80 Cover-Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards ........................................ ... ....... ...
110 Phenological Studies on Truck Crops in Florida ................................. ........
165 Relation of Nitrogen Absorption to Food Storage, Growth and Reproduction in
P ecans ..................... ..... ................. .... ... ......... ...............
187 Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ........... .................................
189 Study on the Preservation of Citrus Juices and Pulps ...........................................
190 Cold Storage Studies of Citrus Fruits -........ .--...-......... ......
237 Maturity Studies of Citrus Fruits ............. ................... ... .....
268 A Study of the Relation of Soil Reaction to Growth and Yield of Vegetable Crops....
282 Selection and Development of Varieties and Strains of Vegetables Adapted to
Commercial Production in Florida ...................... .... .. ..........................
283 The Effects of Varibus Green Manure Crops on the Growth, Yield and Quality of
Certain Vegetable Crops ...................................... ... ......
314 Fumigation of Horticultural Products .............................................................................
315 Fumigation of Nursery Stock ..................................................
316 Fumigation of Seeds ...........................................................


age
85
85
86
86

87








Department
HORTICULTURE
(Continued)


PLANT PATHOLOGY


Page


319 The Effects of Mineral 'Deficiencies on the Adaptability of Certain Vegetable
Varieties to Florida .. ..................... ......................................
323 The Value of Certain Root-Inducing Substances in Rooting Cuttings of Various
Plants .. .............. ............... ..... .. ..... ..................................................

126 Investigations Relative to Certain Diseases of Strawberries of Importance in
F lorida .. ..................................... ...... ........................................................
130 Studies Relative to Disease Control of White (Irish) Potatoes ................
143 Investigations and Control of Brown Rot of Potatoes and Closely Related Crops
Caused by Bacterium solanacearum E.F.S ................... .....................................
146 A Comparative Study of Forms of Diplodia Resembling Diplodia frumenti ............
148 Investigations of Diseases of Ferns and Ornamentals .................................
150 Investigation of and Control of Fusarium Wilt, a Fungous Disease of Water-
melons Caused by Fusarium niveum ........................................ ............................
151 Investigation of and Control of Fungous Diseases of Watermelons .........................
167 A Study of the So-Called "Rust" of Asparagus Plumosus ....................................
180 Control of Wilt of Tomatoes (Fusarium lycopersici Sacc.) in Florida ....................
181 Clitocybe Mushroom Root Rot of Citrus and Other Woody Plants in Florida ..........
193 Studies of Factors That Affect Decay of Citrus Fruits ....................................
242 Investigations of a Bark Disease of Tahiti Lime Trees ........................................
253 A Study of Rose Diseases in Florida and Their Control .......................................
254 Investigations of Fruit Rots of Grapes ......................................................................
259 Collection and Preservation of Specimens of Florida Plants .-..............................
264 Virous Diseases of Pepper and Tomato .. ..................... ...................................
269 Host Relations and Factors Influencing the Growth and Parasitism of Sclerotium
rolfsii S acc ............ .................................. .....................................
273 The Investigation of a Hitherto-unreported Disease of Beans in Florida Caused
by an Aerial Species of Rhizoctonia .............................. ...... .......................
281 Treatment of Seeds and Soils for the Control of Seed-borne and Soil-borne
D diseases of Plants .. ... .. .. .. ... ............................ ..................
284 A Comparative Study of the Pathogenicity and Taxonomy of Species of Alternaria,
M acrosporium, and Stemphylium ..... ...............................................................
313 Control of Diseases of Potatoes and Vegetable Crops Caused by Rhizoctonia ........
324 Pink Rot of Celery Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) Massee ....................
- Celery Laboratory ........... .......... ....................................................


Titld


Number


0




-i



cc





0 /







Department


Number


PLANT PATHOLOGY
(Continued)





FEDERAL-STATE
HORTICULTURAL
PROTECTION SERVICE

CITRUS STATION










EVERGLADES
STATION


Title Page
Gummosis and Psorosis of Citrus Trees ........................... .......... ... ................ 125
Witches Broom Disease of Oleander .......................................................................... 126
Downy Mildew Resistant Cucumber and Cantaloupe for Florida ............................ 126
Palm D diseases on K ey W est .................. ......................................... ............................... 127
Microbiological Analyses of Orange Juice ......................... .............. 127
Failure of Centipede Grass ......................................................................... 127
Control Demonstrations-Tobacco Downy Mildew ................... ............................ 128

No outlined projects; report of progress ........................................................ .............. 129


21 D ieback of Citrus ................. .... ....... .......... ................................................... .. 137
24 Citrus Scab and Its Control ............... ....................................................................... 139
26 Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection ........ ................ .............. ..... ..................... 140
102 Variety Testing and Breeding ........................................................................ 140
- Citrus Soils Investigations ....... .................................................-...... 140
111 Fundamental Physiology of Fruit Production ......................................................... 142
185 Investigations of Melanose and Stem-end Rots of Citrus Fruits ............................. 145
233 Control of Purple Scale and Whiteflies with Lime-Sulfur ......................................... 146
238 Studies on the Effect of Zinc and Other Unusual Mineral Supplements on the
Growth of Horticultural Crops .......................................... ... .................................... 147
266 Spectrographic Studies of the Composition of Tissues and Corresponding Soils of
Normal and Physiologically Diseased Horticultural Crops ............................... 148

85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials and Other Introductory Plantings ............................. 151
86 Soil Fertility Investigations Under Field and Greenhouse Conditions ..................... 152
87 Insect Pests and Their Control ................. ........................................... ...................... 153
88 Soils Investigations ............................................................... ............................... 153
89 W after Control Investigations ................................. ......................-.... ... ...... 154
90 Studies in Crop Rotation .......... .... ........ ............... .... ........... ......................... 156
168 Studies Upon the Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the Peat
and M uck Soils of the Everglades ........................................................................ 156
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugarcane Moth Borer, Diatraea
saccharalis Fab., in South Florida ..................................................... ........ 157
CT








Department
EVERGLADES
STATION
(Continued)


NORTH FLORIDA
STATION


Ni


umber


Title


170 Studies of the Prevalence and Control of Rodents Under Field and Village Con-
ditions .................................................... ............................................................... .... 157
171 Cane Breeding Experiments .................................................................................-............-- 157
172 General Physiological Phases of Sugarcane Investigations ....-------.................................----... 158
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades .................... 158
202 Agronomic Studies with Sugarcane ................................................................................... 159
20 Forage Crop Investigations ................................................................................................. 160
204 Grain Crop Investigations ........................--.........-- ............................................................ 160
205 Seed Storage Investigations .................................................................................................. 161
206 Fiber Crop Investigations ............................................................................................. 161
207 Cover Crop Investigations ................................................................................................. 161
208 Agronomic Studies Upon the Growth of Syrup and Forage Cane in Florida ........ 161
209 Seed and Soil-borne Diseases of Vegetable Crops ........................................................... 163
210 Leaf Blights of Vegetable Crops ............................................... ............................... 167
211 Physiological Phases of Plant Nutrition ....................................................................... 169
212 Relation of Organic Composition of Crops to Growth and Maturity ........................ 170
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations .................................................................. 170
332 Varietal Comparisons with Various Species of Truck Crops at Different Fertility
L evels ........................................................... .......... .................................................... 172
- Miscellaneous Studies ............................................................................................................. 172
- Special Investigations in Animal Nutrition .................................................................... 173

26 Field and Laboratory Studies of Tobacco Diseases .................................................. 175
33 Disease-Resistant Varieties of Tobacco ............................................................................ 17
191 Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Florida Shade Tobacco Seeds and
Early Growth of Seedlings ......................................................................................... 176
219 Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle Investigations ................................................................ 176
241 The Efficiency of the Trench Silo for Preservation of Forage Crops as Measured by
Chemical Means and by Utilization of the Nutrients of Silage by Cattle ............ 177
257 Columbia Sheep Performance Investigations .................................................................. 177
260 Grain Crop Investigations .................................................................................................... 178
261 Forage Crop Investigations ............................................................................................... 180
301 Pasture Legumes .................................................................................................................... 180
305 Comparison of the Economic Value of Various Grazing Crops for Fattening
Feeder Pigs ........................................ ....................................................................... 181


I-P

Page (M









Department

NORTH FLORIDA
STATION
(Continued)

SUB-TROPICAL
STATION











WEST CENTRAL
FLORIDA STATION


321 Control of Downy Mildew of Tobacco ....--....-.. ---..............--------...---. 181
- Winter Legumes ........................-.....------ ------.--. ----- ------ 182
- Pasture Grass Fertilization .....................................-----------------------... 182
-- Sugarcane ..............................-.................. -.....--------...---- 183

275 Citrus Culture Studies ...................-.....--....--- .. ---------- -----------. 184
276 Avocado Culture Studies ...-........-...........--.--.---..... ------. ------.. 184
277 Forestation Studies ..-......-...--...--.......- ......-------- .--.----------- 185
278 Improvement of Tomatoes Through Selection of New Hybrids ............................... 185
279 Diseases of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals .................................................................... 185
280 Studies of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ...--..............................--........ ....--------- ... 186
285 Potato Culture Investigations .................... -------------- ---------- ...-- 186
286 Tomato Culture Investigations ................................ ............. 188
287 Cover Crop Studies .....-..-..--................-----........ ------ ---------- 189
288 Varietal Tests of Carrots, Corn and Other Vegetable Crops .............-.....--------- ..-- 190
289 Control of Potato Diseases in Dade County ..................................... 190
290 A Study of Diseases of the Avocado and Mango and Development of Control
M measures ...................................... ....... .... ... 191
291 Control of Tomato Diseases by Spraying ...................... ........................................ ..... 192
- Beef and Dual-Purpose Cattle ........................................... ........ 194
- Grasses and Forage Crops ................ ....................................................... 195
224 The Use of Peanuts and Peanut Products in Rearing Turkeys .................................... 196
225 Confinement Versus Range Rearing of Chicks ---........................ ............- 197
226 Importance of Range Rotation in Poultry Production ..----.....................- ....----. 197
227 Egg Production and Mortality from Pullets Reared Under Confinement Versus
Range Conditions .................................. ....................... 197
228 A Comparative Study of the Value of Milk Solids, Ground Peanut Kernels, Meat
Meal, and Fish Meal in Fattening Broilers and Fryers ..................................... 197
229 All Night Lights Versus No Lights on Single Comb White Leghorn Hens ............ 198
- Poultry Investigations-Miscellaneous .................................. ..... 198


C-
s.
o


Page


Number


Title








18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


REPORT OF BUSINESS MANAGER

Receipts and expenditures of state and federal (Hatch, Adams,
Bankhead-Jones) funds for the fiscal year, covering the Main and Branch
Stations and Field Laboratories, were as follows:


MAIN EXPERIMENT STATION

Receipts, 1937-38 ...............---...-.....-----...... .. $165,229.50
Expenditures
Salaries ................----------------------.................-------.........--.......$79,533.00
Labor .....................-----------...--......----- --.. ....... 32,242.62
Stationery and office supplies ..-..--......... ....--.. -- 810.00
Scientific supplies, consumable ............................... 2,419.68
Feeding stuffs ....-..........-....-...-.-----------. 8,417.13
Fertilizers .-------- .......................866.33
Sundry supplies ........... ......... ... ............ 4,016.02
Telegraph and telephone ....................................... 2,020.21
Travel ........................................ 4,919.56
Freight, express .......--.............---- -------------- 690.41
Publications .....---....-......-- .... ------ -------- 6,319.46
Heat, light, power --..----............. ....-- .... 6,361.05
Contingent expense ...--........................--..------. 1,314.46
Furniture ............ .............. ....... ..... 1,962.28
Library ............. -------... ---------- .....2,788.83
Scientific equipment .................................------ 2,333.47
Tools, machinery, appliances .................................. 3,316.34
Livestock .......------ --------...-------------- 44.89
Non-structural improvements .................................. 3,930.58
Repairs and alterations ..............................---- 600.99
Balance, 1937-38 ........- .--------.----------- 322.19
Total ................... .................----...- $165,229.50


TRUCK LABORATORY

Receipts, 1937-38 ......-......-------------- ----------- $ 15,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries ................--------------..----.......- 6,350.00
Labor ..................---...-- ------------....----. ............ 669.88
Scientific supplies, consumable ...----.........----................ 13.78
Feeding stuffs ..........-.................. ..------ ------ 52.40
Fertilizers ................................ ....... 132.25
Sundry supplies ---...........----..-.... --------- 248.62
Telephone and telegraph ....----.....-------.......... 58.81
Travel ..............-..........----..--- ------- 560.82
Freight, express ..--.........-........ ------------ 5.82
Heat, light, power ...--...............-..........-------- 110.81
Tools, machinery, appliances .................................... 45.16
Non-structural improvements .................----............... 41.00
Balance .........------.... ------- --------. 6,710.65
Total ...--...~...---...-.....-----.--------- $ 15,000.00








Annual Report, 1938 19

STRAWBERRY INVESTIGATIONS
Receipts, 1937-38 ....-..........--. ....... ......... $ 6,300.00
Expenditures
Salaries ......................................------- .... $ 5,300.00
Labor ........................---- ------------ ----- --- ---... 682.50
Stationery and office supplies ....................------- 3.25
Scientific supplies, consumable ..---.....------------ 14.55
Fertilizers .. .............................. 1.90
Sundry supplies ...............................------- 58.68
Telephone and telegraph ............................---------- 12.00
Travel ....................... ...... ......-------- 62.35
Freight, express ............... ........ ------ 23.60
Heat, light, power ............................ ------79.80
Tools, machinery, appliances ............-..------------ 40.15
Balance, 1937-38 .---- --..---.... ------------ 21.22
Total ..........-.........--- ...... ------- $ 6,300.00



CITRUS DISEASES

Receipts, 1937-38 .....---...---..-....------... --------- $ 3,500.00
Expenditures
Salaries ...................----- .....------ --- --------- ---- $ 3,060.00
Travel .......................--- -- --- -------------------------- 242.39
Furniture .........-.......----.---..... ------ -------------. 8.75
Rent of laboratory office ...............-...........-------- 180.00
Balance, 1937-38 --.............--------.----------- 8.86
Total .........---............ --------------. $ 3,500.00



POTATO DISEASES

Receipts, 1937-38 ......-......---- --------- -----.---- -. $ 6,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries ................--------------- ----.. -----..-----.. 4,300.00
Labor .................----------------- 208.70
Scientific supplies ....--........................ --- ---- 24.43
Fertilizers .........---------.......--------- 39.31
Sundry supplies .-....--- --.--..---. --- ------- 53.96
Telephone and telegraph ..................... .--------- 5.06
Travel .............. ---- --...----.-- -------- 276.80
Freight, express ......----------........ ---------- 7.06
Library ...............-......-- -- ..----- .- -- --2.00
Scientific equipment ....--... --..........----------- 49.75
Building repairs and alterations ...--........-------- 12.60
Balance, 1937-38 .....--..---.....--...----. ------ -- 1,020.33


T o ta l ----- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----------


$ 6,000.00







20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

LABORATORY AT HASTINGS
Receipts, 1937-38 ........-.................. .----.. ---- $ 2,000.00

Expenditures
Labor .............. ......................---- .......------...........$ 1,129.19
Stationery and office supplies .................................. 10.89
Scientific supplies ....................................... ......... 31.13
Fertilizers ............... ..... .................................... 83.55
Sundry supplies .......................................- .....-- 117.24
Telephone and telegraph ....--......... ......-------- 18.25
Freight, express ............................. ........ 15.79
Heat, light, power ................................................... 216.58
Contingent expense ............ .......... ................ 34.69
Scientific equipment .................................................... 6.00
Tools, machinery, appliances .................................. 220.38
Building repairs and alterations ............................ 41.57
Balance, 1937-38 ................................................. 74.74
Total ............................................................. $ 2,000.00


PECAN INVESTIGATIONS
Receipts, 1937-38 .........................................---------. $ 4,150.00
Expenditures
Salaries ...................................-...........-- ..----.--..$ 2,644.16
Labor .......................--.................----------..... ............ 332.50
Stationery and office supplies .................................. 3.80
Scientific supplies .......................-....-..-.... --- .95
Sundry supplies ....-...----- ........ --.--. .-- --.... 36.43
Telephone and telegraph ................-..................... .40
Travel ............................................................................ 18.50
Freight, express ........................... ........................ 2.00
Heat, light, power .........-......-............................ 26.51
Contingent expense .................................................... 2.25
Furniture ..............----......--.........-----...................... 2.00
Library .................. ............ ....... ..--............ 1.98
Tools ................................................--------- -... 60.89
Building repairs, alterations .................................... 11.10
Rent of laboratory office ....................... ................. 90.00
Balance, 1937-38 ..................................----- ....... 916.53

Total ................................................. $ 4,150.00


FUMIGATION RESEARCH
Receipts, 1937-38 ......................................--- -----------..- $ 3,062.50
Expenditures
Salaries ............--------..................--- ---- ...........- $ 2,700.00
Labor .............................-............- ........................... 246.70
Scientific supplies ....................................... 9.30
Sundry supplies ...........................-....----............ 38.71
Travel ..................--...--................---------- -----------..- 43.03
Heat, light, power ...........................-........--. ---. 6.14
Furniture .......................................---------------- -----. 9.00
Scientific equipment ...-....................... .............. 3.45
Tools ................................. ........ --............... ....... 6.17


..............................................................


$ 3,062.50


Total







Annual Report, 1938 21

CELERY INVESTIGATIONS

Receipts, 1937-38 ........................... ......... ....... $ 10,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries ........................................................................$ 7,125.00
Labor ............................................................................ 1,031.60
Stationery and office supplies ........... ..................... 0.50
Scientific supplies ................................................... 359.59
Feeding stuffs .............................................................. 5.15
Fertilizers .................................................................. 143.17
Sundry supplies .................................. ..... ... 113.83
Telephone and telegraph ........................................ 61.50
Travel ........................................................................... 240.15
Freight, express .......................................................... 89.31
Heat light, power ......... ....................... ......... 268.13
Contingent expense ....................................- ........ 19.00
Furniture ....................................................... 4.01
Scientific equipment .................................................. 386.45
Tools .......... ......................... ..... .................... 35.54
Non-structural improvements on buildings .......... 42.70
Repairs and alterations on buildings .................... 74.37
Total .............................................................. $ 10,000.00


GRAPE PEST

Receipts, 1937-38 ................................................................ $ 3,500.00
Expenditures
Salaries .................................................................$ 2,820.00
Labor ....................................... .................... ....... 237.10
Scientific supplies ........................................ 14.61
Sundry supplies ......................................................... 50.60
Telephone, telegraph .................................................. 72.56
Travel ..................................... .................................. 173.85
Heat, light, power .................................................. 65.63
Contingent expenses ....................................... ..... 1.40
Tools ...................................................... ............ 64.25
Total ...............-...........---..... -- -.......... $ 3,500.00


BLUE MOLD OF TOBACCO

Receipts, 1937-38 .........................................- ................... $ 5,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries ....................................................................$ 2,976.00
Labor ............. ........................................................ 1,140.74
Scientific supplies ..................................--- ........... 45.01
Sundry supplies ........... ...... ....... ............. ... 44.40
Telephone, telegraph ......................................-.. 0.56
Travel ........................ ................. ....................... 212.05
Furniture ..................... ..................................... 284.39
Tools ............................................ ......................... 296.85


...........................................................


Total


$ 5,000.00







22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION

Receipts, 1937-38 ..............................- -. $ 46,451.00
Expenditures
Salaries ............ ........................ .. $21,947.00
Labor .................. .................................. 10,887.47
Stationery and office supplies .................................. 64.54
Scientific supplies ...................................-- 2,311.16
Feeding stuffs .-..........-----... --.---.---.... 179.85
Fertilizers ............................ 2,647.05
Sundry supplies ....................................... 404.82
Telephone and telegraph ............---------....--- 228.18
Travel ................ .................... 1,989.96
Freight, express ................................-- ---... 96.54
Heat, light, power ..... --- ............ .....--.. 1,006.90
Contingent expense ...............---------.-----.. 146.15
Furniture .........................--------- -- 406.20
Library ...--------.......................... 49.67
Scientific equipment .............................-- 466.13
Tools, machinery ..................................-- -- 1,699.07
Non-structural improvements-buildings ....- 1,379.66
Repairs and alterations--buildings ....................... 539.36
Balance, 1937-38 ....................... 1.29
Total .........................--------- --- $ 46,451.00


EVERGLADES STATION

Receipts, 1937-38 ...........--- ----------------------- $ 45,339.00

Expenditures
Salaries ..................... ... .........$15,256.17
Labor ..----.................. ------------------- --6--.. 16,510.36
Stationery and office supplies .................................. 138.30
Scientific supplies ---- --------------. 327.27
Feeding stuffs ................... ..... 1,763.25
Fertilizers ---- ------------.--------- 741.82
Sundry supplies .........-------- -----------.. 1,227.43
Telephone and telegraph ........................................ 263.13
Travel ............................... --------- 644.02
Freight, express ..................... 243.16
Heat, light, power ----...------------ 2,607.89
Contingent expense .... .................................--- 298.85
Furniture ................---------- 254.47
Library .....---.---------------------- ---- 357.91
Scientific equipment ........................ --- ..- 901.35
Tools ............................. --1,981.04
Livestock :--..............--------------..-----.......--....... 301.00
Non-structural improvements-buildings ............ 458.55
Repairs, alterations-buildings ..-...............---. 775.75
Balance, 1937-38 ..........-------------------- --- 287.28
Total ..........-.... ---------- -------- .. $ 45,339.00

Everglades Continuing
Salaries .................--..--.. -------------...$ 5,000.00 $ 5,000.00








Annual Report, 1938 23

NORTH FLORIDA STATION

Receipts, 1937-38 ........---- ..-.... .......- -.-..---.....-- .. $ 25,968.00

Expenditures
Salaries .... ................. ........................ ...........$----- 9,960.00
Labor ........................- ................................-............. 6,379.27
Stationery and office supplies .........................---....... 11.15
Scientific supplies ....---............................-........... 219.37
Feeding stuffs ..................................................-. 1,120.77
Fertilizers ..................................................... ....... 1,359.00
Sundry supplies .................................................... 2,275.14
Telephone and telegraph ........................................ 123.94
Travel ............................ ....................... ............. . 150.75
Freight, express ............................................. ....- .. 82.17
Heat, light, power ......................................-........... 564.50
Contingent expense .....................................---........... 134.12
Library ...................-...--.............................-...-......... 23.47
Tools .............................. ............................. ......... 710.24
Livestock ..................................................................... 2,012.73
Repairs, alterations-buildings ............................. 841.38

Total ..................................................... $ 25,968.00



SUB-TROPICAL STATION

Receipts, 1937-38 ...................................... ................... $ 21,000.00

Expenditures
Salaries ................................................................. $ 9,996.00
Labor ...........................................................-------------------------------............... 4,526.29
Stationery and office supplies ..................-----........... 26.43
Scientific supplies ............................................-.... 367.46
Feeding stuffs ........................................... ........... 172.10
Fertilizers ................................-......................... -----894.22
Sundry supplies ........................................................ 451.09
Telephone and telegraph .......................................... 122.74
Travel .........-- .................................. .............................. 817.75
Freight, express .......................................................... 65.23
Heat, light, power ...................................................... 755.34
Contingent expense --...................--- -..................... 73.18
Furniture ...................................................................... 263.48
Library .......................................................................... 33.52
Scientific equipment ................................................. 264.20
T ools ............................................................ .............. 533.09
Repairs, alterations-buildings .......-........................ 378.25
Balance ........---.......--- ......--- ..-- .. ......--......--- ......... 1,268.63


T o ta l -- - - -- -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - --


$ 21,000.00








24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

SPECIAL DAIRY HUSBANDRY

Receipts, 1937-38 ............................................................... $ 15,540.00

Expenditures
Salaries ................................................. ... ............$ 6,714.50
Labor ........................................................................... 863.98
Scientific supplies ...................................................... 10.70
Sundry supplies .......................................................... 140.71
Freight, express ........................................................ 108.55
H eat, light, pow er ..................................................... 87.00
Furniture ...................................................................... 11.21
Library .......................................................................... 9.00
Tools .............................................................................. 112.13
Non-structural improvements-buildings ............ 6,991.00
Repairs and alterations-buildings ........................ 491.22

Total ....................................... .. ...... $ 15,540.00


WEATHER REPORTS

Receipts, 1937-38 .................................................. ........... $ 18,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries ....................................................................... $ 896.13
Labor ............................................................................ 60.00
Stationery and office supplies .................................. 66.81
Scientific supplies ........................................................ 93.96
Sundry supplies .......................................................... 41.19
Telephone and telegraph .......................................... 2,762.44
Travel ............................................................................ 7,723.45
Freight, express ........................................................ 136.29
Contingent expense .................................................. 49.04
Furniture ..................................................................... 474.65
Library .......................................................................... 6.00
Scientific equipm ent ........................................... ...... 5,519.75
Tools .............................................................................. 7.75
Repairs, alterations-buildings ............................... 53.04
Balance ...........-............................ .................... 109.50

Total .............................................................. $ 18,000.00


WATERMELON INVESTIGATIONS

Receipts, 1937-38 ............................................................... $ 7,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries ........................................................................$ 6,000.00
Labor ............................................................................ 362.65
Scientific supplies ...................................................... 3.08
Fertilizers ................................................. ............. 139.10
Sundry supplies .......................................................... 145.97
Telephone and telegraph ....................................... 41.39
Travel ............................................................................ 202.10
Freight, express ................................................. .74
H eat, light, pow er ................................... ............... 65.40
Library .................................................................... 3.37
Tools .......................................................... ........ ..... 36.20


Total


$ 7,000.00







Annual Report, 1938 25

SPECIAL, POULTRY INDUSTRY

Receipts, 1937-38 ................................................................ $ 11,000.00
Expenditures
Salaries ...................................................................... $ 7,018.33
Labor ............................................................................ 1,318.98
Scientific supplies ..................................------ ......... 76.63
Feeding stuffs .................................. ................. 819.50
Sundry supplies .......................................................... 406.92
Travel ......... ...................................................... 123.50
Freight, express ...................................... 1.11
Heat, light, power ...................................................... 118.23
Furniture .......................................... .... 16.22
Scientific equipment ...................................---- 16.14
Tools ..................................................... ..-------........ 235.39
Livestock ...................................................................... 43.75
Repairs, alterations-buildings .............................. 805.30

Total ..................................................- -. $ 11,000.00



FEDERAL HATCH AND ADAMS FUNDS

Receipts, 1937-38
Hatch fund ..........................................................$15,000.00
Adams fund .........................----.........-........... . 15,000.00 $ 30,000.00

Expenditures
Salaries ..........................--- -- .. ---............ $ 30,000.00



BANKHEAD-JONES FUND

Receipts, 1937-38 ...................-... ---...-------- $ 23,101.23
Expenditures
Salaries ........................................................................$ 5,383.34
Labor .......................................................................... 8,960.62
Supplies and materials ............................................ 2,840.16
Travel expenses .................................... 1,466.15
Transportation of things ........................................ 20.31
Heat, light, water and power .................................. 276.97
Equipment ............................................ ........ .. 1,833.36
Buildings and land ............................................................. 2,320.32


$ 23,101.23


Total .......................- ....---..-----.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


EDITORIAL AND MAILING DEPARTMENT

New knowledge gained by Experiment Station workers was made avail-
able as soon as possible to Florida farmers, growers and others interested,
that full and prompt advantage could be taken of it. Facts previously
proven were reviewed at frequent intervals also. Public acceptance of
Experiment Station findings is prompt and wholehearted, and information
secured is limited in application only until it is made public.
As in the past, the three principal methods of disseminating information
were through printing and distribution of bulletins and press bulletins,
releases to newspapers and farm magazines, and radio talks. In addition,
staff members appeared before civic groups, farmers' meetings and other
gatherings, prepared articles for scientific and technical journals, and wrote
thousands of letters in response to inquiries.
Printing and distribution of bulletins and other publications were
handled by this department, radio programs were directed from this
office, and news and farm paper releases were prepared. The three editors
and two mailing clerks devoted approximately one-half of their time to
work for the Station, the other half to duties of the Agricultural Extension
Service.
11 NEW BULLETINS PRINTED
Eleven new bulletins and a catalog of all publications issued since the
Station was established 49 years ago were printed during the year. Manu-
scripts for the bulletins, prepared by staff investigators, were approved
by department heads, the publications committee and the director and
his assistants before being turned over to this office for editing and printing.
Every precaution is taken to insure accuracy of statements contained in
all publications.
Of the 11 new bulletins, two were technical in nature and nine were
popular. They ranged in pages from 12 to 84 and totaled 368, in edition
from 6,000 to 20,000 copies and totaled 102,500. The catalog of publica-
tions was 104 pages in size, and 1,000 copies were printed.
Except to libraries and other workers in related fields, bulletins are
distributed only on request. A list of around 5,000 names is maintained
for sending notifications of new bulletins. Demand is heavy, however,
and it is difficult to maintain a supply of the more popular bulletins.
A list of the bulletins printed during the year, with pages and number
of copies, follows:
Bul. Title Pages Edition
311 The Control of Root-Knot in Florida ................................ 24 20,000
312 Factors Affecting Easter Lily Flower Production in
Florida --....--... ------.----- --.........---.---..--- 20 6,500
313 The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied
Conditions in Animals, IX and X .................................... 24 6,000
314 Inheritance of Rest Period of Seed and Certain Other
Characters in the Peanut ........ ................ ......... ..... 48 6,000
315 Florida Citrus Prices, I ..............----.......................---------------- 84 7,500
316 Relation of Storage Atmosphere to Keeping Quality of
Citrus Fruit in Cold Storage ----..........--... ..........-----. 44 7,500
317 Florida Citrus Prices, II ....-........-......--.--.........---- 32 7,500
318 A Preliminary Report on Frenching of Tung Trees ........ 24 12,000
319 Manganese Sulfate as a Corrective for a Chlorosis of
Certain Ornamental Plants ................ .......--....-----..--- 20 7,500
320 A Comparison of Sorghum Silage, Peanut Hay and
Cottonseed Hulls as Roughages for Fattening Steers 12 8,000
321 Selecting and Using Beef and Veal .---..............-...... --- 36 15,000
Catalog of Official Publications ...---...~........----.......--- 104 1,000








Annual Report, 1938 27

REVIEW OF NEW BULLETINS
Following is a brief review of the bulletins printed during the fiscal year.
311. Control of Root-Knot in Florida. (J. R. Watson and C. C. Goff,
24 pp., 0 figs.) Describes conditions of growth, distribution, methods of
spread, host plants and control of the root-knot nematode, probably the
worst single plant pest found in the State. Control by crop rotation,
summer fallow, drowning, heat, steaming, hot water and chemicals is
described.
312. Factors Affecting Easter Lily Flower Production in Florida.
(William B. Shippy, 20 pp., 3 figs.) Describes experiments which indicate
that cool storage of Easter lily bulbs at 400 F., if properly timed and of
sufficient duration, hastens bulb sprouting and results in early emergence
of the plants and early flowering. Advises placing bulbs in cool storage
about August 15 and removing them not later than October 1.
313. The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions
in Animals. (M. W. Emmel, 24 pp., 2 figs.) This is a fifth and final
bulletin in a series. Part IX discusses Salmonella enteritidis and Part X
Salmonella schottmillleri as causal micro-organisms for this group of dis-
eases in the chicken. Technical.
314. Inheritance of Rest Period of Seeds and Certain Other Characters
in the Peanut. (Fred H. Hull, 48 pp., 2 figs.) Peanut seeds planted soon
after maturity in conditions near optimum for germination frequently
required rest periods ranging up to two years before germinating. A
division of American varieties into three principal groups-runner, Spanish
and Valencia-was proposed. Technical.
315. Florida Citrus Prices, I. (A. H. Spurlock and Marvin A. Brooker,
84 pp., 29 figs.) Reports a study of citrus shipments from 31 Florida
packinghouses to principal auction markets and to three additional markets
for f.o.b. direct and broker sales for three seasons. Gives prices per box
on different auction markets, prices by varieties and grades, and costs
per box for shipping and selling.
316. Cold Storage Studies of Florida Citrus Fruits. (Arthur L. Stahl
and John C. Cain, 44 pp., 12 figs.) Third in a series, this bulletin dis-
cusses the relation of storage atmosphere to the keeping quality of citrus
fruit in cold storage, and includes a preliminary report on "A method for
measuring CO, respired by citrus fruits". Gaseous atmospheres and
humidity conditions were studied.
317. Florida Citrus Prices, II. (A. H. Spurlock and Marvin A. Brooker,
32 pp., 6 figs.) Shows average costs of marketing Florida citrus fruit
at auction according to method of preservation used in shipping to market,
and comparative auction prices received for fruit shipped under various
methods of preservation.
318. A Preliminary Report on Frenching of Tung Trees. (Walter
Reuther and R. D. Dickey, 24 pp., 9 figs.) With control of bronzing
developed through the use of zinc salts, the "frenching" type of chlorosis
became noticeable in certain instances. Foliage treatments with manganese
remedied the condition; tests with soil treatments are as yet inconclusive.
319. Manganese Sulfate as a Corrective for a Chlorosis of Certain
Ornamental Plants. (R. D. Dickey and Walter Reuther, 20 pp., 9 figs.)
Both spray and soil treatments with manganese sulfate were effective in
controlling a chlorosis of crape myrtle; spray treatments gave results
with buginvillea, allamanda, Cattley guava, flame vine, Thunbergia grandi-
flora and Agyneja impubes.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


320; A Comparison of Sorghum Silage, Peanut Hay and Cottonseed
Hulls as Roughages for Fattening Steers. (A. L. Shealy and L. O. Gratz,
12 pp., 0 figs.) All three of these feeds were found satisfactory as rough-
ages for steers, and peanut meal was practically equal to cottonseed meal.
321. Selecting and Using Beef and Veal. (W. G. Kirk and A. L.
Shealy, 36 pp., 30 figs.) An excellent, well illustrated popular work on
selection and cuts of beef and veal, methods of preserving beef, and prepara-
tion of meat for the table.

13 NEW PRESS BULLETINS PRINTED
Press bulletins, usually two pages in length, are used to supply informa-
tion on a large number of subjects which can be treated in that space.
Originally designed for distribution to newspapers, they are now used
mostly in answering inquiries and requests. Thirteen new ones were
printed during the year, and three old ones were reprinted to replenish
the supply. In most cases 3,000 copies constituted the order.
Following is a list of new press bulletins printed during the year,
with authors.
505. Blackhead in Turkeys, M. W. Emmel.
506. Chickenpox, M. W. Emmel.
507. The Place of Minerals in Swine Feeding, W. G. Kirk.
508. Controlling Mole-Crickets, J. R. Watson.
509. Witches Broom of Oleander, Erdman West.
510. Prussic Acid Poisoning of Livestock, R. B. Becker, R. B. French
and D. A. Sanders.
511. Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry, D. A. Sanders and M. W. Emmel.
512. Control of Internal Parasites in Sheep, M. W. Emmel and A. L.
Shealy.
513. Relation of Soil Reaction to Strawberry Production in Central
Florida, A. N. Brooks.
514. Importance of Bees in the Production of Watermelons, C. C. Goff.
515. Sulfur in the Control of External Parasites of Chickens, M. W.
Emmel.
516. Control of Fowl Paralysis, Leukemia and Allied Conditions, M. W.
Emmel.
List of Bulletins Available for Distribution.

THE PRINTED WORD
Frequent news releases to weekly and daily papers kept the public in-
formed of findings and recommendations made by Experiment Station
workers. The Associated Press wire service distributed the more import-
ant stories to its members papers numbering around 50 in Florida and
occasionally placed them on its national wires. Special releases to one
or more dailies were sent direct in numerous instances. The weekly clip-.
sheet of the Agricultural Extension Service carried Experiment Station
releases to weekly newspapers. The papers were generous in using Station
releases, evincing much interest in farm news.
Three dailies carried special questions and answers columns nearly
every week from copy supplied by this office and based on letters received
and answered in the various departments. In this way questions answered
for one person on request were made available to readers of the papers.
Farm journals continued to draw heavily on the Experiment Station
for material. Articles prepared by the Editors and printed by one such
publication, national in scope, numbered three and amounted to 44 column
inches of space. Another with Southern circulation printed 3 stories for







Annual Report, 1938


39 column inches. Three Florida farm papers printed 5 articles by Station
Editors for a total of 144 column inches of space.
In addition, dozens of articles by staff members forwarded by the Editors
and by the writers themselves were carried in Florida farm magazines.
Copies of more than half of the radio talks given by Station workers were
forwarded to farm papers on request.

ON THE AIR
Station workers played an important part in the Florida Farm Hour
programs over WRUF at noon daily, preparing and delivering 152 talks
during the year. These talks concerned timely information in practically
every field of farming. The Farm Hour has been established for nine
years, and enjoys a large and appreciative audience.
Fifty-seven of the talks made by Station workers were copied and
sent to five other radio stations at various points in the State for use in
the Farm Flash broadcasts, a daily feature supplied through the coopera-
tion of the Extension Service and the U. S. Department of Agriculture.

SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR JOURNAL ARTICLES
BY STAFF MEMBERS
Following is a list of articles by staff members printed in scientific
and popular journals during the year. Most of those appearing in Florida
farm papers were copies of radio talks which had been forwarded by this
office. Practically all of the others were prepared and submitted direct
to publications by the authors; only on special request were they edited
in this office.
Acceptable Criteria for a More Profitable Agriculture from the Stand-
point of the Farm Operator. C. V. Noble. Proc. Sou. Agr. Workers, 1938.
A Chat with Vegetable Growers. F. S. Jamison. Florida Grower 46:2,
Feb. 1938.
Additional Notes on Naupactus Leucoloma. J. R. Watson. Fla. Entomol.
20:2, Oct. 1937.
Advantages of Raisirig Replacements for Florida Dairy Herds. R. B.
Becker. Fla. Cattleman 2:7, April 1938.
A New Liothrips from Spanish Moss. J. R. Watson. Fla. Entomol.
21:1, March 1938.
A New Trichothrips (Haplothrips) from Alabama. J. R. Watson. Fla.
Entomal. 20:1, July 1937.
A Portable Instrument for the Analysis of Hydrocyanic Acid Gas-Air
Mixtures. R. J. Wilmot and T. N. Gautier. Jour. Agr. Res. 56:4, Feb. 1938.
A resume of the Work of the Horticultural Department. G. H. Black-
mon. Citrus Ind. 18:7, July 1937.
A Sericothrips with an Unusual Habitat. J. R. Watson. Fla. Entomol.
20:1, July 1937.
A Strain of Alternaria Citri Ellis and Piece Causing a Leafspot of
Rough Lemon in Florida. G. D. Ruehle. Phytopath. 27:8, Aug. 1937.
A Summary of the Agricultural Situation for 1937. C. V. Noble. Citrus
Ind. 19:2, Feb. 1938.
A Review of the Florida Citrus Season. C. V. Noble. Fico News 6:1,
June 1938.
Blue Mold Infests Tobacco Fields. R. R. Kincaid. Fla. Grower 45:11,
Nov. 1937.







30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Breeding to Improve Dairy Cattle. R. B. Becker. Fla. Grower 45:12,
Dec. 1937.
Brittle Bones and Stiffs Cows. R. B. Becker. Fla. Cattleman 1:2,
Sept. 1937.
Care of Sows Raises Pig Profits. W. G. Kirk. Fla. Grower 46:4,
April 1938.
Certain Points in the Physiological Processes of the Cow. a. The
Omasum as a Grinding Organ. b. The Flow of Venous Blood from the
Udder. R. B. Becker. Jour. Dairy Sci. 20:7:408. 1937.
Chemical Composition of Florida Citrus Soils. Michael Peech. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1938.
Cobalt as an Essential Element in Animal Nutrition. W. M. Neal and
C. F. Ahmann. Science 86:2227, Sept. 1937.
Cohering Keels in Amaryllids and Related Plants. H. H. Hume. Proc.
'' Fla. Acad. Sci., Vol. 1.
Colds and Roup in Poultry. M. W. Emmel. Standard Poult. Jour. 6:1,
1937.
Commercial Vegetable Growing in Florida. F. S. Jamison. Florida
Grower 45:8, Aug. 1937.
Control Measures for Citrus Insects. J. R. Watson. Citrus Ind., May
1938.
Control of Mole-Crickets. J. R. Watson. Citrus Ind., April 1938.
Control of Powdery Mildew on Crape Myrtle. Erdman West. Citrus
Ind. 19:3, March 1938.
Control of Thrips and Aphids in Citrus Groves. J. R. Watson. Citrus
Ind., Jan. 1938.
Cover Crops and Stink Bug Damage in Citrus Groves. J. R. Watson.
Citrus Ind., Oct. 1937.
Crop Pests in 1937. J. R. Watson. Fico News, March 1938.
Culling the Layers. N. R. Mehrhof. Dixie Poultry Jour. 17:6, June
1938.
Current Research Work in Animal Husbandry. A. L. Shealy. Fla.
Cattleman 2:9, June 1938.
Diseases of Potato and Tomato in Dade County During the 1937-1938
Season. G. D. Ruehle. Plant Disease Reporter 22:10, June 1938.
Doubling Amount of Phosphate Found Advisable on Pine Land Toma-
toes. W. M. Fifield. Homestead Leader-Ent. 25:40, Oct. 1937.
Effect of Avitaminosis A on the Blood Picture of Albino Rats. O. D.
Abbott and C. F. Ahmann. Jour. Phys. 133:3, June 1938.
Eye-Spot Disease of Napier Grass. R. K. Voorhees. Phytopath. 28:6,
June 1938.
Fifty Years of Tropical Fruit Culture. H. S. Wolfe. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc., 1937.
Florida Cooperatives. H. G. Hamilton. Proc. Sou. Agr. Workers, 1938.
Florida Hollies. H. H. Hume. Yrbk. Fla. Fed. Gdn. Clubs, 1937.
Florida Pecan Experiments. G. H. Blackmon. Proc. SE. Pecan Grs.
Assn., 1938.
Growth Behavior and Relative Composition of Pasture Grasses as
Affected by Agricultural Practices. W. A. Leukel. Proc. Fourth Int'l.
Grassland Conf., Grt. Brit., Dec. 1937.







Annual Report, 1938 31

Hints on Planting Fall Gardens. F. S. Jamison. Florida Grower
45:11, Nov. 1937.
Hybrid Corn Breeding at the Florida Experiment Station. Fred H.
Hull. Southern Seedsman, Feb. 1938.
Immaturity of the Organism as a Factor Determining the Favorable
Influence of Lactose on the Utilization of Calcium and Phosphorus. R. B.
French and G. R. Cowgill. Jour. Nutr. 14:4, Oct. 1937.
Importance of Bees in the Production of Watermelons. C. C. Goff. Fla.
Entomol. 20:2, Oct. 1937.
Important Pecan Insects of Northern Florida. S. 0. Hill. Fla. Entomol.
21:1, March 1938.
_-- Improving Cattle Through Breeding. R. B. Becker. Fla. Cattleman
2:4, Jan. 1938.
Intensity and Stability of Ferric Thiocyanate Color Developed in
2-Methoxyethanol. H. W. Winsor. Ind. and Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed.,
9:453, Oct. 1937.
Is Florida Overplanted to Citrus? C. V. Noble. Fla. Grower 45:9,
Sept. 1937.
Leukemia. M. W. Emmel. The Biologist 29:210, 1938.
Limitations of the Bark-Scraping Method in the Control of Gummosis
and Psorosis of Citrus. A. S. Rhoads. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1938.
Magnesium Deficiency in Relation to Yield and Chemical Composition
of Seedy and Commercially Seedless Varieties of Grapefruit. B. R. Fudge.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1938.
Meats and Their Food Qualities. L. L. Rusoff. Fla. Cattleman 2:2,
Nov. 1937.
Mid-Season Report on Florida Citrus. C. V. Noble. Citrus Ind. 19:3,
March 1938.
Mineral Supplements for Cattle. R. B. Becker. Proc. Asso. Sou. Agr.
Workers, 1938.
Miscellaneous Poultry Pointers. N. R. Mehrhof. Fla. Poultryman,
Jan. 1938.
Model Dairy Management. P. T. Dix Arnold. Fla. Cattleman 2:6,
March 1938.
Naupactus Leucoloma, a Pest New to the United States. J. R. Watson.
Fla. Entomol. 20:1, July 1937.
New Uses for Pecans. G. H. Blackmon. Peanut Jour. & Nut World
17:3, Jan. 1938.
Nutrition Studies with Corn: II. J. R. Beckenbach, et al. Soil Sci.
45:5, May 1938.
Observations of Diseases of Fruit Crops in Dade County, Florida, in
1937. G. D. Ruehle. Plant Dis. Rep. 22:1, Jan. 1938.
Pecan Yields as Affected by Legumes. G. H. Blackmon. Proc. Assn.
Sou. Agr. Workers, 1938.
Physiology of Reproduction; Propagation of Zephyranthes. H. Harold
Hume and J. V. Watkins. Herbertia, Vol. 4, 1937.
Plans for the Winter Egg and Poultry Season. N. R. Mehrhof. Fla.
Poultryman, Oct. 1937.
Poisonous Plants of Florida. Erdman West. Fla. Grower 46:6, June
1938.







32 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Poultry Sanitation Profitable. M. W. Emmel. Fla. Grower 46:6,
June 1938.
Quantitative Determination of Copper and Estimation of Other Trace
Elements by Spectrographic Methods in Wire Grasses from "Salt Sick"
and Healthy Areas. L. L. Rusoff, L. H. Rogers and L. W. Gaddum. Jour.
Agr. Res. 55:10, Nov. 1937.
Quick Soil Tests. R. V. Allison. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1938.
Reactions of Varieties of Snap Beans to Rust. G. R. Townsend. Plant
Disease Reporter 22:1, Jan. 1938.
Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Vitamins. L. L. Rusoff. Proc.
Fla. Acad. Sci., 1937.
Relation of Cover Crops to Citrus Insects. J. R. Watson. Citrus Ind.,
Aug. 1937.
Response of Certain Tropical and Subtropical Plants to Hormodin. J. V.
Watkins. So. Florist & Nurs., May 1938.
Results of Different Methods of Oil Application for the Control of
Scale Insects on Citrus. W. L. Thompson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.,
1938.
Results of Regional Pasture Fertilizer Experiments. G. E. Ritchey
and W. E. Stokes. Proc. Assoc. Sou. Agr. Workers, 1938.
Sanitation in the Poultry Yard. N. R. Mehrhof. Fla. Grower 45:7,
July 1937.
Science Seeks Nutrition Problems Solution. R. M. Barnette. Fla.
Grower, April 1938.
Shade Tree Insects. J. R. Watson. Citrus Ind., April 1938.
Some Plant Collecting Experiences. Erdman West. Citrus Ind. 18:10,
Oct. 1937.
Some Problems in Vegetable Marketing. F. S. Jamison. Fla. Grower
45:7, July 1937.
Some Recent Cattle Feeding Results. A. L. Shealy. Fla. Cattleman
2:6, March 1938.
Spraying-and Pruning for Melanose Control. W. A. Kuntz and G. D.
Ruehle. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1938.
Spraying Pecans in Florida. G. H. Blackmon. Am. Fruit Gro. 58:5,
May 1938.
Status of the Tung Oil Industry in Florida. R. D. Dickey. Fla. Grower
45:8, Aug. 1937.
Sugar Cane Mealy Bug Control on Seed Cane. J. D. Warner. Fla.
Entomol. 20:1, July 1937.
Suggestions for the Use of Meat. W. G. Kirk. Fla. Grower 45:7,
July 1937.
Sulphur Suggested for Control of External Parasites. M. W. Emmel.
Fla. Poultryman 4:1, 1938.
~"- Supplementing Pastures for Dairy Cows. R. B. Becker. Fla. Cattle-
man 1:2, Sept. 1937.
Symptomatology of Deficiencies and Toxicities of Citrus. A. F. Camp.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1938.
The Composition of Limonites Effective and Ineffective in Correcting
"Bush Sickness" in Cattle. R. B. Becker and L. W. Gaddum. Jour. Dairy
Sci. 20:12, Dec. 1937.







Annual Report, 1938 33

SThe Dam as a Transmitter. P. T. Dix Arnold and R. B. Becker. Suc-
cessful Dairying 2:4:2. 1937.
The Effect of Feeding Paradichlorobenzene-treated Corn to Swine.
M. W. Emmel and W. W. Henley. Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Asso., 1937.
The Essentiality of Cobalt in Bovine Nutrition. W. M. Neal and C. F.
Ahmann. Jour. Dairy Sci. 20:12, Dec. 1937.
The Florida Program for the Management of Pecan Soils. G. H.
Blackmon. Proc. Natl. Pecan Assn., 1937.
The Genus Cooperia. H. H. Hume. Bul. Torrey Bot. Club 65:79-97.
The History of Citrus Blight. A. S. Rhoads. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc., 1938.
The Influence of Certain Fertilizer Materials and Practices on the Yield
of Watermelons. F. S. Jamison. Proc. Amer. Soc. for Hort. Sci., (1937)
35:678, 1938.
The Infra-red Absorption Spectra of Vitamins C and D. L. H. Rogers.
Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci., 1937.
The Infra-red Absorption Spectrum of Vitamin C. D. Williams and
L. H. Rogers. Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. 59:1422, 1937.
The Toxicity of Orotalaria Retusa L. Seeds for the Domestic Fowl.
M. W. Emmel. Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Asso. 91:205, 1937.
-- The Trace Element Content of the New-born Rat (as Determined Spec-
trographically). L. L. Rusoff and L. W. Gaddum. Jour. Nutr. 15:2, Aug.
1937.
The Use of Sulphur in the Control of External Parasites of Chickens.
M. W. Emmel. Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Asso. 91:201, 1937.
The Value of Legumes in Pecan Production. G. H. Blackmon. Peanut
Jour. & Nut World 17:5, March 1938.
Thysanoptera of the Geenton, I. J. R. Watson. Fla. Entomol. 20:1,
July 1937.
Thysanoptera of the Geenton, II. J. R. Watson. Fla. Entomol. 20:2,
Oct. 1937.
Tips to Truck Growers. F. S. Jamison. Fla. Grower 45:9, Sept. 1937.
Tobacco Plant Bed Diseases in Florida, 1938. W. B. Tisdale and R. R.
Kincaid. Plant Disease Reporter 22:11, June 1938.
Tropical Sisters of the Tung Oil Tree. H. S. Wolfe. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc., 1937.
University Research Aids Poultry Producers. N. R. Mehrhof. Fla.
Grower, Aug. 1937.
Use of Early Pastures for Dairy Cattle. R. B. Becker. Fla. Cattleman
2:6, March 1938.
--- Utilization of Roughage-Dairy Cattle. R. B. Becker. Proc. Asso.
Sou. Agr. Workers, 1938.
Why Florida Beef Has Improved. A. L. Shealy. Fla. Grower 46:2,
Feb. 1938.
Winter Egg and Poultry Season. N. R. Mehrhof. Fla. Grower 46:2,
Feb. 1938.
Winter Feeding for Florida Beef Cattle. A. L. Shealy. Fla. Cattleman
2:2, Nov. 1937.
Winter Handling of Laying Flocks. N. R. Mehrhof. Fla. Grower
46:1, Jan. 1938.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


LIBRARY
The year has been one of unprecedented activity in the Library. Agri-
culture, research in agriculture and the teaching of agriculture are increas-
ing in importance each year. The Library activities increase accordingly.
There has been a noticeable increase in the interest manifested by under-
graduates in the literature of agriculture and the related sciences. The
Library has attempted to encourage this attitude by making available to
the students not only their required readings but arranging for them also
displays of notable books and periodicals. This partly overcomes the main
objectionable feature of closed stacks which prohibit the undergraduate
from browsing amongst the books. Staff, faculty and graduate students
have access to the stacks where a few tables for their use are arranged.
This makes it possible for the above three groups to use the Library a
little more effectively than where the stacks are open to everyone, although
the crowded condition of the room begins to be a serious problem.
New attitudes toward agriculture add to the increasing demand for
an up-to-date agriculture library. Research workers are insistent for all
literature relating to their projects. The teaching faculty stresses its
need for agricultural literature. The graduate student in agriculture can-
not complete his work effectively unless he has adequate library facilities.
College of Agriculture classes of undergraduates-sometimes as many as
50 in a class-have done their required reading in this Library.
During the year 13,228 publications were received; 890 volumes of
periodicals were bound. Only 171 new volumes were added, most of which
were secured through gift and exchange. This makes a total of 1,061
volumes accessioned, bringing the number of bound volumes in the Library
to 14,664.
The branch stations and field laboratories were lent 612 pieces of
literature. The Librarian borrowed 81 books from other out-of-state
libraries for the use of the research staff. The resident staff borrowed
2,568 volumes for use out of the Library. No record was kept of the
amount of material used in the Library by staff and faculty. The student
body used approximately 12,000 pieces of reserve material from Septem-
ber 1937 to May 30, 1938.
The Librarian, after 10 years' research, has completed the writing of
the history of the agriculture of Florida, entitled: "Four Centuries of
Florida Agriculture, 1539-1925". She has compiled a catalog of all the
official publications of the Station for the 50 years of its existence and
for the Agricultural Extension Service from its establishment in 1915,
with the title: "Catalog of the Official Publications of the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station and Florida Agricultural Extension Service,
1888-1937". She has also compiled the following mimeographed publica-
tion, which has been distributed to the various branch stations and field
laboratories for the use of research workers stationed there: "Catalog of
Periodicals in the Library, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station".
Briefly summarized statistics for the year are:
Volumes sent to the bindery ......................................-. 890
Volumes received by gift, purchase and exchange 171
Number volumes accessioned during year ................ 1,061
Total number bound volumes in Library .................... 14,664
Bulletins, journals, continuations received ................ 13,228
Number pieces lent to branch stations ...................... 612
Books borrowed from other libraries .......................... 81
Catalog cards prepared, typed and filed .................... 2,417
Circulated to resident staff-volumes ........................ 2,568
Reserve material for undergraduates from Sept.
1937 to M ay 30, 1938 .............................................. 12,000








Annual Report, 1938


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Work was continued on three projects, two of which deal with farm
and grove costs and management problems and one with farmers' co-
operative organizations.
Two new projects were started during the year; the one in Florida
farm price analysis, and the other in production credit needs and sources
for same for Florida citrus and vegetable growers.

AGRICULTURAL SURVEY OF SOME 500 FARMS IN THE GENERAL
FARMING REGION OF NORTHWEST FLORIDA
Purnell Project 73 C. V. Noble and Bruce McKinley
Analysis work on the economic survey of representative farms in Jackson
County has been in progress throughout the year. The manuscript has
been prepared covering the results of this four-year survey. Since many
of the outstanding results from this survey have been given in previous
annual reports, no further data will be presented here.

FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 154 H. G. Hamilton and C. V. Noble
Field work in unofficial cooperation with the Farm Credit Administration
of Columbia, South Carolina, resulted in a thorough check-up on all active
farmers' cooperative associations in the State as well as on those that had
ceased to operate. A supplement to Florida Bulletin 245 was prepared
and issued in mimeographed form in November 1937. This supplement
presents the complete list of active farmers' cooperative associations in
Florida, by counties, up to September 30, 1937. These associations were
classified as to type.


TABLE 1.-PRINCIPAL REASONS GIVEN FOR COOPERATIVE
CEASING TO OPERATE.


ASSOcIATIONS


Reasons


Lack of volume ...............................
Lack of cooperative spirit ............
Poor management .........................
Unsatisfactory price .............
Industry failed ............----------------
Financial difficulties .............---
Competition ...........-- -- ......
Insufficient capital ............ -.......
No need for cooperative ...........
O their ........................ .. ........- ......

Total ceased to operate ..........
Never operated ..-...................


Total ................. .........


Number


Percent


75 26.8
42 15.0
26 9.3
21 7.5
20 7.1
19 6.8
16 5.7
9 3.2
7 2.5
45 16.1


280 100.0
89


369








36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Records were obtained of 557 cooperatives that had been organized in
Florida up to September 1937. Of this number, only 188, or 30 percent,
were active. In the check-up of the 369 associations that were not operat-
ing in 1937, it was found that 89, or about one-fourth, were never operated,
and that an additional 176, or 48 percent, were operated less than six years.
The principal reasons for failure of these associations, as reported by
former officials, are shown in Table 1.
It will be noted that lack of volume was by far the leading principal
reason given for failure. This was also given as a contributing reason in
many other instances. The importance of volume for successful operation
of a cooperative association is borne out by the fact that of the citrus
associations in 1930 having sales of more than $300,000, 94 percent were
active in 1937. On the other hand, of the associations with less than
$50,000 in sales in 1930, only 12 percent were active in 1937.
The importance of marketing cooperatives in Florida can be measured
by the percent of the leading fruit and vegetable crops sold through these
organizations in the 1936-37 season (Table 2).

TABLE 2.-PROPORTION OF THE TOTAL STATE VOLUME OF LEADING FRUIT
AND VEGETABLE CROPS SOLD THROUGH COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN
1936-37.
Percent sold through
Crops Cooperatives in
I1936-37

Oranges ............................. .. ............... ........... 36
G rapefruit ......................................... ...................... 32
Tangerines ............................... ..... . 40
Potatoes .......................... -...................... 25
Tomatoes ..................---.......... .............. 23
C elery ............................................. .......... ........ 22


A business analysis has been made of the Florida Citrus Exchange,
similar to the one made of the Hastings Potato Growers' Association and
reported in Florida Bulletin 276. This analysis is in manuscript at the
present time.

COST OF PRODUCTION AND GROVE ORGANIZATION STUDIES
OF FLORIDA CITRUS
Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage and C. V. Noble
Cost accounts were closed on 1,145 acres of citrus for the fiscal year
1936-37. The summary reports for this year are for the fifth year of the
project and show comparisons of the various items for that period. The
tabulations are grouped according to kind of citrus, maturity season, and
the age of tree from time of setting. The ages are grouped in intervals
of three years. A copy of the summary sheet for late oranges 15 to 17
years of age is here shown as Table 3.









Annual Report, 1938 37


TABLE 3.-COSTS AND RETURNS FOR LATE ORANGES, 15 TO 17 YEARS OF AGE.
Average Averagel Average Average Average
all all all all all
Groves groves groves groves groves

Season ........................................................................... 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37
Number of accounts ............................ .............. 5 3 5 9 8
Age of grove (years) ................................ 15 to 17 15to 17 15 to 17 15 to 17 1 to 17
Acres per grove ......................................................... 9.51 13.73 8.65 31.56 35.62
Trees per acre ...................................... ............. .. 54 52 54 59 60
Grove value per acre ........................................ $847.85 $806.43 $785.69 $526.89 $534.71
Yield in boxes per acre ............................................ 184 126 127 112 168
Yield in boxes per tree .................................... 3.41 2.43 2.34 1.89 2.80


Costs per acre:
Labor .......................................... $ 5.63 $ 1.62 $ 2.64 $ 9.91 $11.46
Supervision ....... ................................................ .87 1.27 2.12 6.14 8.99
Power and equipment ..................................... 2.72 4.34 4.01 8.07 7.65
Labor, power and equipment not separated .... 1.25* 4.53* 5.06 .88t .68t
Fertilizer ................... .................................. 18.73 12.24 13.45 23.24 19.31
Soil amendments ............................................... 1.53 1.27
Spray and dust ........................................................ 1.76 1.67 1.65 3.62 5.21
Irrigation and drainage ............................... .. 2.53 .63 .89 .90 1.20
Taxes ................................ .. .................. 69 3.50 4.07 6.94 7.15
Interest on grove at 7% ................ .......... 35 56.45 55.00 36.88 37.43
A ll other costs ........................................................ 02 .45 .96 7.34 12.46


Total costs per acre ........................................ .. 98.55 86.70 89.85 105.45 112.81
Returns per acre .............................. ....... 94.14 109.46 119.93 150.36 316.30
Profit or loss per acre ........................................ -4.41 22.76 30.08 44.91 203.49

Costs per box .................................... $ .536 $ .688 $ .709 $ .939 $ .673
Returns per box ................................................... .512 .868 .946 1.338 1.886
Profit or loss per box ....... .................................. .024 .180 .237 .399 1.213

Pounds of fertilizer per acre .................................. 1,243 729 819 2,652 2,152
Pounds of fertilizer per tree ................................. 23.06 14.07 15.16 44.60 35.90
Pounds of amendments per acre ................... 555 431
Pounds of amendments per tree .... .............. -9.34 7.20


All averages in the above columns are based upon the totals for all groves. All groves
were not involved in every item. Where such was the case the following figures based
upon the actual acreage of the specific groves involved are given for comparison with
your particular grove.

1932-33 1933-34 | 1934-35 1935-36 I 1936-37


a& s ak s k 2 A&I sa
8 V
iZ Zo ZC zt t ;' "o Z3 g C

Costs per. acre:
Power and equipment ..... 2 $ 4.50 4 $ 4.27 7 $ 8.32
Labor, power and equip-
ment not separated ...... 6 15.36t 6 $ 9.43t
Soil amendments .............. 6 1.60 4 1.32
Spray and dust .................. 8 3.67
Irrigation and drainage .. 1 $34.06 1 7.32 2 12.78 3 4.68 4 5.40
All other costs ............... 2 .20 7 12.55
Returns per acre .................. 4 127.60 8 152.58
Profit per acre ..................... 4 37.46 8 46.52
Profit per box ........................ 4 .278 8 .408
Pounds of amendments per
acre .................................. 6 581 4 450
Pounds of amendments per
tree .................................. 6 0.83 4 7.57
Yield-boxes per acre .......... 4 135 8 114
Yield-boxes per tree .......... 4 2.54 8 1.92


*One grove had part of spray and dust material costs included in this figure.
tPart of spray and dust material costs included in this figure on two groves.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


PRICES OF FLORIDA FARM PRODUCTS
Purnell Project 317 A. H. Spurlock and C. V. Noble
This project was started in October 1937 to study the factors affecting
farm prices of certain crops, animals, and animal products in Florida, and
to compare, by appropriate indexes and price relatives, the prices received
by farmers with prices paid for various commodities.
Price data for most of the general crops, livestock, and livestock products
in Florida are complete by months from 1910 to the present time. Monthly
prices for the more important truck crops during their season are also
complete from 1928 to the present time.
Work is in progress to obtain truck crop prices from 1910 to 1928 from
old records of farmers, cooperative associations, dealers and newspapers.
Data on acreage, production and quantities marketed are also being
collected for certain crops. These data will be essential if a weighted
price index for Florida farm products is computed.

PRODUCTION CREDIT FOR CITRUS AND VEGETABLE GROWERS
IN SELECTED AREAS OF FLORIDA
Purnell Project 325 J. Wayne Reitz and C. V. Noble
This project is conducted in cooperation with the Farm Credit Adminis-
tration of Washington, D. C., and Columbia, South Carolina. Its purpose
is to make a thorough study of production credit for Florida citrus and
vegetable growers.
The field work was started in May 1938. Prior to that time schedules
were prepared for obtaining credit information from vegetable and citrus
growers who had borrowed for production operations during the 1937-38
season. Schedules were also prepared for obtaining data from various
types of lending agencies including cash lenders, and merchants who sold
supplies on a time basis.
As of June 30, 1938, approximately 180 records had been obtained from
growers in Hillsborough, Polk, Highlands, Orange, Lake, and St. Johns
counties, 130 of which were from citrus growers. Merchants and cash
lending agencies had given 80 records within the same areas, with the
exception of St. Johns. The field work is about half finished. The work
of summarizing the grower and lending agencies data for the citrus areas
will start about August 1, 1938.

FLORIDA TRUCK CROP COMPETITION
The regular annual summary was prepared for the 1936-37 season, of
the weekly car-lot shipments of the leading Florida truck crops and the
competitive shipments from other states and from importing countries.
This summary was mimeographed as a supplement to Florida Bulletin 224,
bringing this basic information up to date.







Annual Report, 1938


AGRONOMY

Agronomy research for the year has had to do with soil fertility and
field crops experiments in variety testing, crop breeding, crop rotation
and cropping systems and cover crop work, crop fertilizer requirement
studies and pasture and forage crop establishment, maintenance and
evaluation.
The following offices of the United States Department of Agriculture
have cooperated: Forage Crops Office on pasture and forage research;
Cereal Office on rust-resistant oat studies; Cotton and Other Fiber Crops
Office and Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine on Sea Island cotton
investigations. The Foremost Properties, Inc., have continued their co-
operation in connection with pasture and grazing studies on cut-over land
pastures, while many individual farmers have cooperated in conducting
pasture establishment tests and fertilizer experiments with Sea Island
cotton and peanuts.
Steady progress is being made toward the development of a satis-
factory yielding, rust-resistant oat; weevil-resistant and high yielding
field corn; and a satisfactory sweet corn for home use and for Northern
markets. Sugarcane studies have reached the point where one or more
very desirable syrup and forage canes will be released shortly. Types
of peanuts now being developed for market and hogging off purposes bid
fair to be superior in some respects to the varieties now in common use.
The selection work with Napier grass has progressed to the point where
planting material of several good yielding, eye-spot (leaf disease) resistant
strains is being made available.
Outstanding during the year was the finding that White Dutch and
other pasture type clovers can be grown on the more moist soils when
the proper quantity of lime, phosphate and potash is used and the seed
thoroughly inoculated. In this clover-for-pasture work there was grown
this season perhaps the largest single collection of true clovers (Trifoliums)
ever planted on the grounds of any Southern experiment station.
Considerable progress was made on methods of ridding land of objec-
tionable growths of wire and other inferior native grasses preparatory
to seeding to tame pasture grasses, by the use of controlled burning
of such grass areas.
PEANUT IMPROVEMENT
State Project 20 Fred H. Hull and W. A. Carver
Peanut breeding is being continued along the same lines as described
in previous reports except that the backcross method is being used to a
greater extent than formerly. The hybrids used are White Spanish by
Valencia, Florida Runner by Lovelace (a large seeded Virginia type
peanut), and Spanish by Virginia Bunch. A third variety is also being
crossed to hybrids, as (Spanish by Valencia) by Florida Runner, (Spanish
by Virginia Bunch) by Dixie Giant and Florida Runner. As a basis for
selecting a hay type peanut, Georgia Bunch is being crossed to two very
vigorous growing, late maturing types from South America. Further
efforts will be made at crossing several wild species of peanuts to culti-
vated varieties. In 1937, attempts were made to cross Rasteiro, Spanish
and Florida Runner to four different wild species. A total of 25 pods
were formed from these crosses. All the seed aborted when they were
about 1/16 inch long and the pods from % to % normal size. The wild
species were used as the male parent in each cross. A preliminary cyto-








40 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

logical study of one wild species, glabrata, shows about 20 pairs of
chromosomes. Cultivated varieties have 20 pairs.
The breeding plots in 1938 contain: (1) a total of 188 first genera-
tion plants of the crosses Florida Runner by Pearl (Spanish) and Love-
lace, and Valencia by Pearl and Spanish: (2) 3,600 second generation
plants from crosses of Florida Station hybrids by Pearl, Dixie Giant,
and Rasteiro, and also Florida hybrids intercrossed; (3) 2,800 third genera-
tion plants from crosses between Florida Station hybrids and Jumbo
and Pearl, also Pearl by Dixie Giant and Rasteiro; (4) 600 fourth genera-
tion plants from crosses between Florida hybrids and between McSpan
Spanish and Virginia Bunch, the latter cross being furnished by G. T.
McNess of the Texas Station; (5) 20,700 fifth generation plants of Spanish
by Dixie Giant, Virginia Jumbo, and a Florida hybrid; (6) 2,800 plants
in the ninth generation of crosses Spanish by Virginia Jumbo and Georgia
Bunch, and a three-way cross (Spanish by Virginia Bunch) by Rasteiro;
and (7) 1,100 plants in the eleventh generation of the cross Spanish by
Virginia Bunch. The second and third generation hybrids are planted
in mass from each individual cross. The fourth and the more advanced
generation hybrids are planted as plant selections or as mass selections.
Here mass selection is meant the massing of seed from several selected
plants which were harvested from the same progeny-row or mass-selection
row.
A peanut variety-strain test is being conducted that contains 61 Florida
Station hybrids, 40 introduced varieties from South America and other
foreign countries, and 15 standard varieties. In the 1937 test the 42
hybrid strains averaged 99 percent of five small runner varieties and
introductions in yield of nuts per acre. The small runner varieties pro-
duced higher yields of nuts than any of the standard varieties, as they
have in previous tests. Eighteen of the 43 hybrids excelled the small
runner varieties in yield of nuts per acre.
A peanut spacing test is being continued, using the same varieties
as in 1937. In the 1937 test, Spanish peanuts were planted in square areas
of 5 to 9.79 inches or with 25, 36, 49, 72, and 96 square inches per plant.
The yields of peanuts in pounds per acre in order beginning with the
closest spacing are: 582, 1,155, 975, 1,291, and 924. Plants in the closest
spacing were noticeably dwarfed and suffered greatly from lack of moisture
during dry periods. Spanish peanuts were also tested in rows 24 and
30 inches apart with 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 192 square inches per plant.
The closest spacing produced the highest yield of nuts per acre, and the
72 and 120 square inch-spacing yielded about equally and were second
in productiveness. Florida Runners were planted in row tests as for
Spanish and spaced at 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, and 360 square inches
per plant. The closest spacing yielded highest, followed by the second
closest spacing. The fourth spacing listed above was third, and the last
spacing was lowest in yield of nuts per acre. The hybrid strain was
planted in rows as for the other varieties, and spaced at 72, 96, 120,
144, 168, and 216 square inches per plant. The two closest spacings
yielded lowest, 144 square inches per plant produced the highest yield
of nuts per acre, and 168 square inches was second in yield.
Dry conditions during the seed formation period perhaps favored wider
spacings. There was a fairly consistent gain among the three varieties
in yield of nuts per plant with the increase in spacing area per plant.
The size of kernel was less influenced by spacing than in 1936. Only
the very close spacing used for Spanish seemed to reduce seed size. The
weight of Spanish seed in grams per kernel (sound and mature seed) for
the spacings 25 to 96 square inches per plant were as follows: .308, .311,







Annual Report, 1938


.324, .330, and .337. The shelling percentage and percent of sound and
mature kernels were influenced very little by spacing.

PASTURE EXPERIMENTS
Hatch Project 27 W. E. Stokes, Geo. E. Ritchey
and W. A. Leukel

II. Influence of Various Fertilizers on the
Yield of Pasture Grasses*
This experiment was closed out in the autumn of 1937, completing eight
years' data which are given in Table 4. A study of the data indicates the
following results:
1. All plots not having nitrogen in the fertilizer ranked lowest in yield.
2. Phosphorus and potash alone made little increase in yield.
3. Lime alone or in connection with any other single element tends to
depress yields.
4. This depressed yield due to lime seems to be partially corrected when
potash is added to the formula.
5. When formula 0-12-6 was used there was a noticeable increase in
the yield of limed plots, but no increase in the yield of unlimed plots over
plots treated with 0-0-0.
6. The addition of potash with nitrogen and phosphate giving the 6-12-6
formula increased the yield of the limed area materially but shows little
increase in yield of the unlimed area over the area receiving the 6-12-0
fertilizer.
7. The addition of nitrogen to the formula caused a marked increase
in yield for each addition of nitrogen in the formula when stepped up from
0 to a maximum of 8%.
8. Very little increase in yield was realized from the addition of phos-
phate in the fertilizer.
9. When 8% of potash was added to the formula, a marked increase
in yield of the unlimed plots is realized.
10. The application of lime reduced the acidity on all plots.
III. Comparison of Native and Improved Pastures, Comparison of Burned
and Unburned Native Pastures for Both Nine and Twelve Months'
Grazing and a Comparison of Methods of Land Preparation Previ-
ous to Seeding Improved Pastures
(Animal Husbandry Department, State Forest Service and
Foremost Properties, Inc., cooperating)
Improved pastures of carpet grass continued to give greater per acre
beef production (live weight) than native grass (wiregrass largely) pas-
tures. Native grass pastures burned annually under controlled conditions
continued to give greater beef production (live weight) than protected
(unburned) native pastures in both nine and 12 months' grazing tests.
The effect of good seedbed preparation is still evident in that nine
years afterward it is still readily apparent that the carpet grass sod is
much better where the land, then in wiregrass and other native pasture
plants, was double disked than where it was single disked previous to
seeding carpet and other tame pasture grass seed.
Work on this phase III of pasture project 27 has been brought to a
close with the ending of the grazing season of 1937. The data are now
being prepared for publication.
*In cooperation with USDA.






TABLE 4.-AVERAGE OF 8 YEARS' YIELDS OF PASTURE GRASS (BAHIA AND CENTIPEDE) CLIPPED WITH THE LAWN MOWER
FROM LIMED AND UNLIMED PLOTS ON ALACHUA FINE SANDY LOAM SOIL TREATED WITH 16 DIFFERENT FERTILIZER
TREATMENTS. ALL YIELDS ARE GIVEN IN POUNDS OF OVEN DRY GRASS WHICH WAS CLIPPED MONTHLY DURING THE >
GROWING SEASONS OF 1930-1937 INCLUSIVE.

_Not limed Limed Not limed Limed
Variation Variation
N-P205-KLO Average from un- Rank in Average from un- Rank in pH value of soil samples
acre yield fertilized yield acre yield fertilized yield 0 to 9 inches*
in pounds plots in pounds 'plots September, 1936

0-12-6 ...................... 734 4 20 852 285 18 5.85 6.15
4-12-6 ...................... 936 206 13 1,275 708 9 5.85 5.89
6-12-6 ............ ............ 1,210 480 11 1,521 954 2 5.91 5.93
8-12-6 ......................... 1,450 720 3 1,648 1,081 1
6- 0-6 ................................ 1,058 328 16 1,153 586 15 6.02 6.27
6- 8-6 ......... ............... 1,055 325 17 1,127 560 16 5.87 6.04
6-12-6 ..................... 1,344 614 7 1,389 822 6
6-16-6 ......................... 1,088 358 15 1,252 685 10 5.88 6.10
0-12-0 ......................... 809 79 18 672 105 19 5.79 v 6.15V
6-12-6B .............................. 1,257 527 10 1,154 587 14 5.73 6.20
6-12-6 .....- --....................... 1,384 654 6 1,189 622 11
0- 0-6 ......................... 755 25 19 608 41 20 5.64 6.18'
0- 0-0 ....................... .. 730 0 21 567 0 21 5.85 6.13/ .
6-12-0 ......................... 1,321 591 9 1,182 615 12 5.90 6.24
6-12-6 ............................... 1,488 758 2 1,404 837 4
6-12-4 ............................. 1,429 699 4 I 1,299 732 7 5.84 6.21
6-12-6A ........................ 1,131 401 14 1,283 716 8 5.91 6.32 14
6-12-6 ....................... 1,208 478 12 1,167 600 13
6-12-8 ............................. 1,638 908 1 1,398 831 5 5.85 6.13 /
6- 0-0 .........................- 1,327 597 8 1,091 524 17 5.96w 6.20V
6-12-6 ................................ 1,418 683 5 1,473 906 3 _

Ave. of all plots .............. 1,179 1_____ ___76
*pH determinations were made by C. E. Bell, Dept. of Chemistry and Soils.
6-12-6A-One half of nitrogen was applied in the spring and other half in July each year.
6-12-6B-Phosphate was applied every third year only.
6-12-6 -The standard or check treatment.
Fertilized at rate of 600 pounds per acre annually except as noted in above notes.
Lime-600 pounds per acre annually of hydrated lime.







Annual Report, 1938


Beginning with the 1938 grazing season the six pastures heretofore
used for this grazing experiment will be managed the same as in the past,
but the cattle grazing the native pastures 1, 2, 5 and 6 will receive
cottonseed cake, and the steers in the partially improved pasture No. 8
will receive cobalt in addition to the minerals which are regularly used.
For a more detailed account of these changes see report of the Animal
Husbandry Department.

VALUE OF CENTIPEDE GRASS PASTURES AS AFFECTED BY
SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AND OTHER FACTORS
G. E. Ritchey, W. E. Stokes,
Special Project 27-A L. W. Gaddum, W. A. Leukel
and R. M. Barnette
This project has been continued in cooperation with the Georgia Coastal
Plain Experiment Station at Tifton, Georgia, and the U. S. Bureau of Plant
Industry. The object is to determine why cattle do not thrive on centipede
grass pastures at Tifton, Georgia, whereas on like pastures at Gainesville,
Florida, they have done well.
Samples of the long leaf centipede grass (Eremockloa ophiuroides
F. P. I. No. 77260 have again been collected at Gainesville and Tifton
for chemical analysis. The analytical work has not yet been completed.

CROP ROTATION STUDIES WITH CORN, COTTON, CROTALARIA
AND AUSTRIAN PEAS
Hatch Project 55 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp
and Geo. E. Ritchey

I. Cotton-Corn Legume Rotation*
This experiment has been conducted as previously. The past season's
results complete 8 years of data and it is planned to continue the experi-
ment next year.
The use of summer and winter cover crops, either alone or in combina-
tion, in the corn and cotton rotation had less effect upon yield of either
corn or cotton than in previous years.
II. Corn and Runner Peanuts Rotating with Crotalaria
and with Native Cover Crops
This phase of crop rotation is now in its sixth year. Corn and peanuts
grown year after year on the same land have never yielded as well as
corn, peanuts and crotalaria planted in with these crops grown year after
year on the same land, the crotalaria being planted at the last cultivation
of corn and peanuts.
Yield of corn and peanuts following crotalaria and following native
cover crops of weeds are materially higher than yields of corn and peanuts
grown continuously, this being the case even where crotalaria is planted
in the corn and peanuts at the last cultivation.
The yield of corn and peanuts following two years' rest to weeds
apparently is improved by the two years of land rest to weeds, but it
remains to be determined as to whether two years' rest in three is a
sound and economical farm practice.
*In cooperation with USDA.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


III. Corn in a Two-Year Rotation with Crotalaria Species and
Weeds or Natural Land Cover*
In 1934 12 plots were laid out, as has been previously reported (A.R.
1936, p. 39), upon which triplicated plots of three crotalaria species were
planted. Three plots were allowed to grow native vegetation. The species
of Crotalaria used were C. intermedia, spectabilis, and striata. In 1935
these plots were planted to corn and yields taken. In 1936 and 1937
they were allowed to grow to the crotalaria species. These have been
turned under each year and used as a cover crop. The plan of the experi-
ment is to grow the plots to corn and the crotalaria species in alternate
years, thus determining the difference in the influence of the different
species in their effect upon corn yields when grown in a two-year rotation
of that type.
In the spring of 1937 another series of plots was laid out (Annual
Report for 1936, page 99). The same Crotalaria species were used in the
lay-out on duplicated plots. These were planted to Crotalaria in 1936
and in 1937 were planted to corn.
Crotalaria is being grown on the plots in 1938.

VARIETY TEST WORK WITH FIELD CROPS
Hatch Project 56 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp
and G. E. Ritchey
Eight of the most promising F.31 canes, originated at the Everglades
Station, were selected for planting in the spring of 1938 in a well repli-
cated variety test. Two of these, F.31-699 and F.31-762, are being increased
for possible release to growers, as are also two varieties of very high
chewing quality. All these canes along with a few others are being main-
tained in first and second stubble fields, in both of which F.31-762 is out-
standing in vigor. Compared with Co.290, the best cane now available
for the general farming area, F.31-762 is about equal in growth and sugar
content, and much superior in its ability to maintain stand and yield in
successive stubble crops, and to keep well in seed-cane banks.

OAT VARIETY TESTING AND BREEDING
The oat plantings of the fall of 1937 were considerably damaged by
cold, to which Coker's Fulgrain (Strains No. 1 and No. 2) were decidedly
resistant. Very little crown rust developed in the spring of 1938, even
on the most susceptible varieties.
Of approximately 100 rust-resistant hybrids selected last year all but
about 26 are being discarded because of susceptibility to cold, lateness
and other undesirable qualities. Nearly 400 new hybrids were received
from the USDA Cereal Office for observation, of which 33 were selected
for further testing. Nineteen strains from single plant selections of the
previous year, and 5 from the rust nursery will also be carried further.
A number of hand-pollinations were made, transferring pollen from
early high-quality varieties to several rust-resistant strains. The hand-
pollinated seed from the previous season was planted, and produced 205
plants, seed of which was saved.

RYE VARIETY TEST
Florida Black and Abruzzi rye, each from three widely separated
sources, were grown in a variety test. Florida Black yielded 50 percent
*In cooperation with USDA.







Annual Report, 1938 45

more grain than Abruzzi. Seed from all sources produced plants true
to type and of equal yields. Tennessee Black or Native and Balboa ryes
were almost complete failures.
For variety tests of corn and peanuts see Projects 105 and 20, respec-
tively.

IMPROVEMENT OF CORN BY SELECTION AND BREEDING
Purnell Project 105 Fred H. Hull and W. A. Carver
Field Corn.-Variety tests included a number of popular varieties, a
few new varieties, and some commercial hybrids from the corn belt and
from Virginia. These tests at Gainesville and Quincy served to emphasize
the fact that Northern hybrids are not suited to Florida conditions. No
change in varietal recommendations was indicated.
Breeding work was continued along the lines previously described with
both mass selection and selection within inbred lines for the development
of desirable hybrid corn. Mass selections were continued separately at
Gainesville and Quincy with the stock that is 75 percent Whatley Prolific
and 25 percent native, weevil resistant, yellow corn. Both selections were
tested at both locations with white and yellow sub-strains of each. Selec-
tion has improved the prolificacy and concurrently the yield of these strains
quite rapidly until they are now practically equal to Whatley Prolific in
both respects. Approximately 15 acres of the white selection at Quincy
is being grown in isolation for increase. The yellow character being dom-
inant is more difficult to fix. It seemed necessary to resort to hand pollina-
tion which was done with some 600 plants at Gainesville in 1938. From
the hand pollinated ears it should be possible to select at least a bushel
of pure yellow seed which will be planted in an increase block at Quincy
in 1939.
Testing of inbred strains in top crosses on Whatley Prolific and double
crosses of inbred strains was continued at Gainesville and Quincy. The
tests have included a large number of hybrids with so few tests of any
specific hybrid combination that no one combination has yet been selected
as the best. However, the general average of results indicates that hybrids
are available which will yield 15 percent or more above ordinary varieties
and possess very satisfactory resistance to weevil damage, ear rot, and
lodging.
Four yellow and four white inbred strains which make one yellow and
one white double cross combination have been released to seedsmen. The
purpose of this release is to provide an opportunity for them to become
familiar with inbred strains and the process of producing hybrid seed.
Sweet Corn.-Breeding work with sweet corn has been confined to
hybrids of Tuxpan and Golden Cross Bantam. The purpose is to combine
the best table quality available in sweet corn anywhere with a larger
and later plant type or more specifically with Southern plant type. This
work was carried through the fourth generation with the crop of 1938. The
planting included the first cross of the two varieties in the first four
generations and various backcrosses to Golden Cross Bantam. Continued
backcrossing to Golden Cross Bantam improves the table quality very
rapidly until the third backcross in which Golden Cross Bantam quality
is for all practical purposes completely recovered. It has not been deter-
mined just how much counter-selection will be necessary to obtain sufficient
recovery of the Southern type in combination with the best quality but-
indications are that satisfactory results should be obtained within a few
years with the intensity of selection now being practiced.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


CORN FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS
State Project 163 J. D. Warner, W. E. Stokes
and J. P. Camp
A corn fertilizer experiment in 1937 involved 15 fertilizer treatments
designed to measure the response to nitrogen, phosphate, potash and
magnesium. There were 10 plots of each treatment. The yields showed
a good response to nitrogen, but no benefit from either potash, magnesium
or phosphate. The work on sources of nitrogen for corn is being continued.
Averages of eight years' yields, with and without phosphate and potash,
are given in Table 5. In the spring of 1938 all plots were given an applica-
tion of dolomite at the rate of 500 pounds per acre.
TABLE 5.-EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF NITROGEN ON CORN YIELDS
PRODUCED ON NORFOLK FINE SANDY SOIL.


Sources of Nitrogen*


None .---...................-------- -----

Cottonseed meal .......... .............

Nitrate of soda ......-----......................
Sulfate of ammonia ...............-......

Leunasalpeter$ ....................-.....----

Calurea ......................----...-------....

Urea .............-.........-... ------------....

Calcium nitrate .............................-


Bushels of corn per acre
Without phosphate With phosphate
and potash and potasht

12.5 15.7

18.2 21.6

14.7 19.2

17.8 21.0
18.6 22.3

18.2 20.7

17.6 20.8

16.4 21.1


*32 pounds of nitrogen per acre.
t300 pounds 18% superphosphate and 100 pounds 50% muriate of potash per acre,
respectively.
$Calnitro substituted for leunasalpeter in 1936 and subsequent years.

A STUDY OF CHLOROSISS" IN CORN AND OTHER
FIELD CROP PLANTS


Adams Project 220


R. M. Barnette, J. P. Camp
and J. D. Warner


Field experimental work to determine the residual effect of zinc sulfate
on the yield of corn is being continued on an extended and more inclusive
scale. Considerable zinc sulfate residual effect has been noted. This
project which is in cooperation with the Department of Chemistry and
Soils is reported in detail by that department.

A STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND DETERIORATION OF ROOTS
IN RELATION TO THE GROWTH OF PASTURE PLANTS UNDER
DIFFERENT FERTILIZER AND CUTTING TREATMENTS
Adams Project 243 W. A. Leukel and J. P. Camp
The study of the relation of root growth and its relative composition
to that of top growth and its metabolism is proceeding. Variations in
nitrogen fractions from phosphorus and potassium deficient plants show







Annual Report, 1938


interesting correlations in regard to growth and plant metabolism. Plants
with complete nutrients in all instances show greater quantity production.
On the other hand, not only do plants deprived of phosphorus or potassium
show outward signs of deficiencies of these elements but the distribution
of various nitrogen fractions in the plant give likewise a different ex-
pression. Potassium-deficient plants were lowest in percentage of protein
nitrogen and higher in percentage of extracted and water soluble forms
of nitrogen, including the organic fractions such as proteose, humin, basic
and amino nitrogen. Phosphorus-deficient plants had a slightly lower
percentage of these nitrogen fractions but were higher than those for
normal plants. These higher levels of soluble forms of nitrogen in phos-
phorus and potassium-deficient plants and their retarded growth indicate
that these elements are concerned with the utilization of nitrogen by the
plant; i. e., the reduction and oxidation processes concerned with protein
synthesis and growth are retarded.
These elemental deficiencies are further concerned with the elaboration
and translocation of carbohydrates. Determinations for these fractions
and their relation to protein synthesis are being made.
Laboratory determinations were made for mineral constituents on 46
grass samples and 19 clover samples in connection with other projects.
Nitrogen determinations were made on various silage samples brought
to the laboratory during the season.

COMPOSITION FACTORS AFFECTING THE VALUE OF SUGARCANE
FOR FORAGE AND OTHER PURPOSES
State Project 265 W. A. Leukel
Carbohydrate and nitrogen fractionations of Cayana cane show similar
trends to those of samples taken during 1936. Slight changes occur in
these trends resulting from changed weather condition. Soluble forms
of nitrogen were as a whole lower when compared with similar fractions
of the season before, while the unextracted and protein nitrogen fractions
in these instances showed the opposite trend.
Since dextrins, soluble starches and true starches were present in such
small amounts and did not appear to play a very important role in the
plant makeup, the determination of these fractions was discontinued.
These fractions were included with hemicelluloses under the heading of
polysaccharides.
In the green leaves total nitrogen was high in June when the first
sample was taken. It decreased during July and August slightly but
showed a slight increase for the next three months. This higher nitrogen
in the green leaves was associated with a gradual increase in the number
of dry leaves on the lower part of the stalk. Water-extracted and water-
soluble nitrogen reached the highest percentage in the green leaves during
August, September and October. Protein nitrogen was high in June, but
lower in July. During the next three months the green leafage showed
a gradual increase in protein nitrogen.
The nitrogen fractions in the stalks were at a high level in and during
the middle of the growing season. Water-extracted and water-soluble
nitrogen maintained a uniform higher level after the decrease during July,
until late fall. Protein nitrogen in the stalks reached its highest levels
in June, September and October. Total nitrogen was highest in the stalks
in June and lowest in November and December.
Total nitrogen in the roots was high in percentage in June before
vigorous growth started and lower during the growing season. Late in
the season the total nitrogen in the roots again increased.







48 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The variation in the carbohydrate fractions and ether extract showed
an interesting trend at different periods throughout the season. The green
leaves showed a rather uniform percentage of ether extract during the
season. The dry leaves were somewhat lower in this compound during
the season but were higher in late fall and early winter. The stalks were
low in ether extract during September and October. Before this period
this compound was higher while after October it was exceedingly high
in percentage.
The roots of the plants were rather uniform in percentage of ether
extract throughout the entire season but showed an increase in early
winter.
Reducing sugars were high in the green leaves during July and August
but lower before and after this period. On the other hand, total sugars
were lower in the green leaves during the above period and high before
and thereafter. In the stalks reducing sugars showed an increase after
September, being rather uniform before this period. Total sugars in the
stalks were highest during October and November and lowest during July
and December.
In the green leaves polysaccharides were high when total sugars were
low and decreased with the increase in the sugar content of the leaves.
When total sugars reached their highest level in the stalks, polysaccharides
dropped to an exceedingly low level in this plant part. When sugars were
highest in the roots, polysaccharides were at a low level, but this trend
was not so striking for the other periods of the season.
The unhydrolyzed residues made up principally of lignin and cellulose
were highest in the roots and lowest in the stalks. This fraction was
rather uniform in the stalks throughout the season. In the other plant
parts this fraction gradually increased from spring to early winter.
Further work embodying optical analyses of the sap of the cane plant
at different growth periods is being contemplated which when correlated
with the above laboratory analyses should give a better expression of the
silage value of different crop plants or a combination of such plants and
their proper growth period for silage purposes.

PASTURE STUDIES
Bankhead-Jones Project 267 H. H. Hume
This is a master project dealing with comprehensive pasture investiga-
tions which are now being carried out under Bankhead-Jones projects 295
to 304, inclusive. During the year much work has been completed which
will enable the sub-projects 295 to 304, inclusive, to be more satisfactorily
pursued, as for example land clearing, fencing, drainage and planting of
additional areas to pastures of Napier grass, carpet grass and clovers
and other pasture plants for more detailed pasture studies.

THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS ON THE YIELD, GRAZING VALUE,
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BOTANICAL
MAKEUP OF PASTURES
Bankhead-Jones Project 295 R. E. Blaser and W. E. Stokes
Thirty-six different fertilizer treatments were laid out on established
pasture sods on five prominent soil types in March 1937. Each fertilizer
treatment was replicated four times in randomized blocks. These treat-
ments were designed in a manner to study (1) rate and dates of applying
nitrogen as associated with seasonal growth, (2) frequent light and in-
frequent heavy applications of plant nutrients as related to growth, (3)








Annual Report, 1938


study of various rates and combinations of lime, phosphate, potash, and
nitrogen as related to growth, and to determine whether minor elements
are essential and practical for pasture fertilization.
A summary of several important treatments for all soil types is given
in Table 6. This table indicates that minerals other than nitrogen in-
creased carpet grass yields 7%, nitrogen alone 41%, and minerals and
nitrogen 53% to 54%, when compared with unfertilized plots. It is evident
that nitrogen fertilization is of primary importance for increasing yields
of pasture grasses, but these results also show that additional growth
responses are obtained from plant nutrients other than nitrogen.
TABLE 6.-AVERAGE AND RELATIVE DRY YIELDS OF CARPET GRASS FROM
VARIOUS FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON LEON, BLADEN, PLUMMCR AND
FELLOWSHIP SOIL TYPES.
SAverage dry I
Fertilizer treatments yields* Dry yields
Lbs. per acre I Lbs. per acre Percent increase

No fertilizer ................................ 1304t 0

L-500, P-200, K-50, N-400 ........... 2016 53

L-2000, P-400, K-100, N-400 ....... 2060 54

L-2000, P-800, K-100, N-400 ...... 2068 54

P-800, K-100, N-400 ................... 2020 53

N-400 ............... .......................... 1845 41

P-800, K-100 ...................... .......... 1402 7

*All dry weights are expressed as oven-dry weights.
tYields are averages of 16 replications-four on each soil type.
Leon and Plummer soil types at Gainesville, Bladen at Jacksonville, and Fellowship
at Brooksville.
L-calcium limestone; P-superphosphate 18% P-Os; K-muriate of potash 50% K2O;
N-50/50 mixture of nitrate of soda and sulfate of ammonia.
Nitrogen was applied in two applications, 200 lbs. in March and 200 lbs. in June.

The 1937 seasonal clipping records indicate that the major portion
of the nitrogen fertilizer carriers (50/50 mixture of nitrate of soda and
sulfate of ammonia) applied in March were leached on several of the soil
types. The nitrogen losses were due to leaching caused by heavy March
rains and poor utilization at that time of the year because of the accom-
panying low temperatures and slow growth of carpet grass. Because of
these problems a nitrogen source experiment was inaugurated in March
1938, which included nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia, calcium cyanamid,
and urea. These sources of nitrogen were applied with all combinations
of lime, phosphate and potash.
The treatments were laid out in replicated plots. The plots are mowed
with a special power mower adapted with a grass catching apparatus
so that the grass mowings can be dried and weighed.

ERADICATION OF WEEDS IN TAME PASTURES
Bankhead-Jones Project 296 R. E. Blaser
Weeds occurring on improved permanent pasture sods diminish the
quantity of good palatable herbage of such pastures, sometimes 25% or
more. Use of the rolling cutter killed and reduced thistle size and increased







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the grazing furnished by grasses. Fig. 1 shows a good carpet grass sod
which is heavily infested with dog-fennel (Anthemus cotula). Ten to 25
percent of the ground cover area was consumed by weeds on this pasture.


Fig. 1.-Carpet grass pasture infested with dog-fennel. The dog-fennel may be mowed
closely to exterminate plants and prevent reseeding.


TABLE 7.-HEIGHT OF CUTTING FIELD THISTLES (Cirsium
RELATED TO ERADICATION*.


nuttallii) AS


Height of No. of Thistles No. of Thistles
Date of cutting cutting per plot on per plot remaining
(inches) cutting date July 8, 1937

5/31/37 2 359t 1

5/3/37 4 364 7

5/31/37 6-8 336 34

*Cut just previous to blooming growth period.
tResults are averages of two replications.

Weed eradication studies show that both thistle and dog-fennel may be
eradicated by close mowing or cutting. Thistle height of cutting studies
made just previous to the blooming period are given in Table 7. The plots
cut 2 inches and 6-8 inches from the ground on May 31, 1937, had 359 and
336 plants per plot, respectively. On July 8, 1937, one live plant remained
on the plots cut 2 inches from the ground and 34 plants were left on plots







Annual Report, 1938


cut 6-8 inches high. Similar results were obtained from the dog-fennel
cutting treatments, Table 8.
TABLE 8.-HEIGHT OF CUTTING DOG-FENNEL AS RELATED TO ERADICATION.
Height of I
Date of cutting cutting No. of Dog-Fennel plants per sq. meter
t_______ I (inches) July 7 I Sept. 10

7/7/38 1 82 1
7/7/38 3 75 4
7/7/38 6-8 68 18


Rolling cutters or mowing machines may be used for exterminating
these two weed types. Since a mower cuts weeds closer to the ground,
superior results may be anticipated with this machine. Fig. 2 shows
thistles which have been cut 3 times with a rolling cutter. They have been
reduced in number and size, but new shoots are developing from stubs
which escaped close cutting. These thistles escaped close cutting because
blades are too distantly segregated. If the cutting blades were spaced
3 inches instead of 9 inches at the cutting edge the job would be more
effective.


Fig. 2.-Thistles cut three times with rolling cutter with blades spaced 9 inches at
the cutting edge were only fairly well controlled. Blades 3 inches apart at the cutting
edge would do a more effective job.

FORAGE NURSERY AND PLANT ADAPTATION STUDIES
Bankhead-Jones Project 297* G. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes
An irrigation plant has been installed in the forage nursery to pump
water from an adjoining lake onto the plots whenever desired.
The nursery is used largely to grow and study the adaptation of newly
introduced foreign and native plants to possible use in the agriculture of
*In cooperation with USDA.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


this area. More than 380 plantings of introduced foreign materials were
made during the spring and summer of 1937 and during the autumn
and early winter 297 seedings were made of winter growing plants. Two
hundred and six of the winter plantings were winter clovers which had
recently been introduced from Turkey. Nine hundred twenty-seven native
plants have been under observation and study to determine their adapta-
tion for use as forage, grazing, or cover crops.
Twenty-seven of the most promising grasses and legumes were planted
in a pasture cafeteria which lies in proximity to the nursery where they
can be studied from the standpoint of their relative palatability and their
reaction to grazing conditions. More than 30 species have been planted
as companion crops in a carpet grass pasture.
Seed of the 206 clovers which had been introduced from Turkey were
planted in duplicate pots in the greenhouse. One planting of each sort
was transferred to the North Florida Station and transplanted into the
pasture while the other was retained at Gainesville for study and seed
selection. Several species appear to have value as pasture clovers.
Seven strains of centipede grass have been planted, using two planting
methods, to determine the relative difference in rapidity of growth, type,
and density of sod cover, and other characteristics which may develop as
the sodding progresses.

FORAGE AND PASTURE GRASS IMPROVEMENT
Bankhead-Jones Project 298* Geo. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes

Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) Improvement
As was reported in 1937, 11 selected strains of napier grass were
inoculated with the organism (Helminthosporium ocellum) causing eye-
spot in Napier grass, and 11 of the 12 original selections were declared
immune to the disease by the Department of Plant Pathology. In addi-
tion to these, 81 other selections were under observation during the
year 1937.
Four strains of the 12 original selections which represent the main
types found in the group, together with seven of the most promising
selected from the group of 81 other strains, have been planted in a strain
test to determine relative yielding value. Limited planting material of
several of these most desirable strains of Napier grass has been distributed.
More than 3,000 plants were grown in 1937 from seeds and planting
material collected from the Everglades. Seventy-one of these were selected
for further study. Each plant, root-clump, was divided and planted in
five replications for comparative yield and observational records.

The Result of Selfing in Napier Grass
In the autumn of 1936 a number of Napier grass heads were bagged
and self-fertilized. This self-fertilized seed was sown in greenhouse
plots in the 'winter of 1937 and 1938, and the plants transplanted to the
field in April. Although the parent plants from which each group of
seed heads were obtained were from the same root cutting the seedlings
from the self-fertilized seed showed variations from large, heavy-stemmed
plants to small fine-stemmed plants with other variations of growth
habits. This indicated that Napier grass is very widely cross fertilized
and that wide variations may be expected from seedlings, thus if it is
*In cooperation with USDA.







Annual Report, 1938


necessary to go into the improvement program further, fertilization of
the flower becomes an important factor to consider.

GROWTH BEHAVIOR AND RELATIVE COMPOSITION OF RANGE
GRASSES AS AFFECTED BY BURNING AND THE EFFECT OF
BURNING ON MAINTENANCE OF NATURAL GRASS STANDS
AND UPON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF IMPROVED GRASSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 299 W. A. Leukel and W. E. Stokes
The burning of range grasses was carried on as outlined in the last
annual report. Such burnings during 1937 at monthly intervals showed
worthwhile results thus far on the aftergrowth. Separate areas not
burned over in early fall or winter were burned at monthly intervals
beginning in February. After each monthly burning through May a
vigorous aftergrowth took place. All areas burned in June and each month
thereafter produced very little or no aftergrowth. These same areas
(burned in June and thereafter) produced only a very thin top growth
the following season. This aftergrowth the next season was too thin
or light to shade the ground surface, and also too sparse to burn. All
plots burned from February to May produced an aftergrowth dense enough
to burn at monthly intervals the following season. No seeding was done
on these areas during the burning season of 1936 with the exception of
four plots which were seeded to carpet grass in September. The seed
on these areas germinated and produced a fair cover the following season.
During the 1938 season five different plots are being again burned
each month. Grasses on these areas were protected from fire one year
longer than those burned over in 1937, which were protected from fire
since 1935-36. Different areas burned over at monthly intervals thus
far produced a heavy aftergrowth through the month of March. All areas
burned in April, May and June produced very little or no aftergrowth
thus far. All areas burned after March show bare ground space. Carpet
grass was sown on these areas after they were burned. The weather
during spring and early summer was exceedingly drought and moisture
conditions were very unfavorable for seed germination.
Best conditions for growth of carpet grass on unprepared land is to
have the seeded areas grazed or trampled by cattle. To accomplish this
some so-called bait grass should be sown with the carpet or other tame
grass used. This bait grass may be an annual like Sudan, millet or any
other annual upright growing grass that will germinate and grow rapidly.
This young growth will lure cattle over to these seeded areas. The young
bait grass will be rapidly grazed off and incidentally the permanent pasture
grass seed will be trampled in by the cattle and germinate and grow
more readily. This system will further aid in entirely eradicating the
native vegetation.
Laboratory analyses on the above range grasses subjected to the treat-
ments mentioned show a rather consistent trend. The aftergrowth pro-
duced after fall or winter burning is higher in minerals and nitrogen during
the early portion of the growing season. During the latter half of the
season these grasses are mature and low in the above mentioned con-
stituents. Such herbage has no feeding value and results in loss of gain
made by grazing animals during the early portion of the season. When
monthly burnings are made throughout the year, new vegetative growth
following each burning is higher in mineral elements and nitrogen.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


METHODS OF RIDDING LAND OF OBJECTIONABLE GROWTHS
AND OBSTACLES
Bankhead-Jones Project 300 R. E. Blaser and W. E. Stokes
It is necessary to find economical methods of eradicating saw palmetto
(Serenoa repens), gallberry (Ilex glabra), running oak (Quercus pumilla)
and other undesirable native growths in order to increase the rates of
establishing permanent pasture grasses.
Eradication methods under study and observation include mechanical
methods, weed herbicides, and use of cattle or other animals.
The mechanical methods are well adapted for extensive use as well
as being most economical. Burning should precede the cultural operations.
Three types of mechanical equipment have been used with satisfactory
results, namely, disc harrows, disc plows and rolling cutters.
Herbicide treatments included applications of sodium chloride, sodium
thiocyanate, and atlacide. Two rates of each of the three materials
were applied every month. January and February treatments seemed to
be more effective, but did not give complete control. The high cost of
these materials would inhibit their use.
The use of cattle for eradication of palmetto may be possible and
practical if the cattle are concentrated on palmetto areas to force grazing.

PASTURE LEGUMES
Bankhead-Jones Project 301 W. E. Stokes, G. E. Ritchey
and R. E. Blaser

I. WINTER PASTURE LEGUME INVESTIGATIONS
Twenty-one fertilizer and inoculation treatments were laid out in the
fall of 1937 on eight prominent soil types located in various parts of the
state and seeded with a mixture of clovers and grasses. The fertilizer
studies include different combinations and rates of lime, phosphate, potash,
nitrogen and minor elements. Inoculation studies include (1) soil method,
(2) commercial inoculants and (3) combinations of the two. Plantings
were made at three different dates to determine the best time to plant.
The clovers seeded in these experimental setups included White Dutch,
crimson, alsike, hop, California bur, black medic, and Persian clovers.
The grasses in the mixture were carpet, redtop, brome, rye grass, blue
grass, meadow fescue, orchard and wolf-tail grass.
Two clover strain tests on two soil types in different parts of the state
were established and seeded in November 1937. Eighteen strains of clove:
are being tested with 3 fertility levels.
Present results indicate that clover can be satisfactorily grown if
(1) the proper nutrient materials are supplied to the soil, (2) inoculation
is carefully and properly done, (3) seedings are made at the proper time
of the year, and (4) plantings are made on soil types with good winter
moisture relationships.
In general, good results were obtained when fertilized with a ton of lime,
600 pounds of superphosphate 18% P.Os and 100 pounds of muriate of potash
per acre. Inoculation studies demonstrate that either viable commercial
cultures, soil methods, or a combination of the two may be used if the
seed is lightly disked or rolled into the soil to prevent the sun's energy
from devitalizing the inoculating bacteria.
The best planting date for clovers for the 1937-38 season was during
the period of middle October to the latter part of November.








Annual Report, 1938


Fig. 3.-Clover growing with carpet grass (upper) adds nitrogen to the soil and in-
creases the growth of the grass. Carpet grass alone (lower) is dwarfed and yellowish
as a result of nitrogen starvation.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Preliminary yield records indicate that White Dutch, ladino, Louisiana
White and hop clover become quickly established and yield more feed
than other winter pasture legumes yet tried.
Refer to same project under report of North Florida Station.

A STUDY OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach)
FOR PASTURE PURPOSES
Bankhead-Jones Project 302 R. E. Blaser, W. E. Stokes,
A. L. Shealy and W. G. Kirk
The study of Napier grass for grazing purposes is a cooperative project
conducted by Animal Husbandry and Agronomy departments. Suitability
of Napier grass for supplementary and continuous pasturage for both
beef and milk production is to be determined.
Fifteen acres of Napier grass, divided into five three-acre blocks, was
planted in March 1937. The rows were spaced eight feet apart and the


Fig. 4.-Napier grass produces large quantities of grazing material. Upper: Field of
napier ready for grazing. Lower: Grazed napier grass, except that in center which was
enclosed with panels and protected. Unless grazed too close, the napier makes a quick
comeback after cattle are taken off of it.







Annual Report, 1938 57

divided root clumps (rhizomes) of Napier grass were spaced two feet
apart in the row.
The grass is being grown under a rather high fertility level. An initial
application of 400 pounds per acre of a 5-7-5 fertilizer was made in the
row at time of planting. Seventy-five pounds per acre of nitrate of soda
was applied as a side-dressing after the grass had been grazed by cattle.
Grazing is rotated on the five three-acre fields. Grazing is started
when the grass is about four feet high and continued till all the leafage
has been consumed (Fig. 4). Each field is stocked so the feed will be
consumed on one field in approximately seven days. This allows 28 days
between grazing periods.
Grazing with steers was started on July 28, 1937, and continued until
October 4, 1937. The carrying capacity was 1.6 steers per acre for each
growth day of Napier grass. The average gain was 1.45 pounds per
steer per day. An acre of Napier grass produced 2.32 pounds in terms of
beef per day for 1937 or 179 pounds of beef on foot per acre for the
grazing period of 69 days.
Two additional areas of Napier grass were planted in March 1938.
One of these areas is to be used to determine beef cattle gains when
supplemented with cottonseed cake. The other planting is to be utilized
by dairy cows to determine its suitability for milk production.
Refer also to Project 302 in Report of Animal Husbandry Department.

WATER PASTURE STUDIES
Bankhead-Jones Project 303* Geo. E. Ritchey and R. E. Blaser
A number of water plants are being collected and studied from the
standpoint of their adaptation to use as grazing and browsing crops. The
waters of Bivan's Arm of Paynes' Prairie and wet lands adjacent thereto
which are in part on Experiment Station property are being used for
water pasture plant study areas.
The four species of plants now under study which are of particular
promise are: Fort Thompson or Ditch grass, Paspalum distichum, Panicum
repens, Panicum paludivagum and a species of wild rice, Oryza barthii
(Chevalier).

METHODS OF ESTABLISHING PERMANENT PASTURES UNDER
VARIOUS CONDITIONS
Bankhead-Jones Project 304 R. E. Blaser
The nutritional requirements for establishing winter pasture legumes
are reported under Bankhead-Jones Project 301. The cultural practices
for establishing legumes were varied. Clovers were successfully established
on disked wiregrass land, after being packed by rains, on closely grazed
and mowed wiregrass sod and on carpet grass sod. Excellent clover stands
were obtained with all three methods when recommended fertilization and
inoculation practices were pursued. Good subsequent carpet grass stands
are also developing on these experimental plantings. The rapidity of
establishing pasture plants on disked and undisked closely grazed wire-
grass land has not yet been determined.
The relationship of fertilizer requirements to the establishing of carpet
grass is being determined on several important soil types. Present results
show that carpet grass is very slow to become established on some soil
*In cooperation with USDA.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


types, particularly Leon soils. A light application of superphosphate (300
lbs. per acre) has been very helpful in shortening the period for establish-
ment. When the superphosphate is not supplied on such a phosphate
deficient soil, the seedlings remain dwarfed in size and many die.
Seven strains of centipede were planted in a latin square with three
fertilizer levels in 1937. Two methods of planting, 4" x 4" sods spaced
2' x 2' and stolons spaced 6 inches apart in 1 foot rows, are under
observation. Indications are that with the sod method less time is re-
quired for planting and the sods are more apt to survive during dry periods.

SPACING AND PLANT COMPETITION IN COMMON FIELD CORN
State Project 312 J. P. Camp
Spacing experiments with corn involved four varieties. Whatley again
indicated that its optimum area per plant was around 9 or 10 square
feet per plant when planted in single plant hills in four foot rows.
Hastings' Prolific and a Dubose topcross behaved similarly. Cuban Flint,
however, yielded most with the closest spacing tried, approximately 7
square feet per plant. The ratio of grain to cob, and the volume-weight
did not vary as the area per plant varied from approximately 7 to 25
square feet.
MISCELLANEOUS
COMPARATIVE PRODUCTION OF SEVERAL SILAGE CROPS GROWN
AT RELATIVELY HIGH FERTILITY LEVELS
Napier grass, Cayana sugarcane, sorghum (Texas Seeded Ribbon Cane)
and corn followed by cat-tail millet as the corn is cut have been com-
pared for four years as crops for silage purposes. All were grown on
the same kind of soil (Norfolk fine sand) and with the exception of cat-
tail millet were given initially the same kind and amounts of complete
fertilizer, followed by side applications of fertilizer, particularly nitro-
genous fertilizer, as each crop indicated by its growth that fertilizer was
needed. Each crop, however, did not receive the same total quantity of
fertilizer because quick-maturing crops like corn and sorghum cannot
efficiently use as much nitrogen as long growing season crops like Napier
grass and sugarcane.
The four-year average yields in pounds per acre of green and dry
material respectively are as follows: corn 8,690-2,560, sorghum 20,330-
5,050, Cayana sugarcane 55,740-12,930, Napier grass 71,690-20,000.

SEA ISLAND COTTON
Cooperation has continued with the Office of Cotton and Other Fiber
Crops and Diseases of the USDA in growing and maintaining reserve
supplies of Sea Island cotton seed of the Seabrook variety and over 300
bushels were made available to growers this planting season.

Variety, Strain and Place Effect Study of Sea Island Cotton
The variety, strain and place effect study of Sea Island cotton is being
repeated this year with the addition of one more variety. Some characters
in some strains in last year's test were found superior to the Seabrook
variety now being grown in Florida, and Seabrook seed which was pro-
duced on an island off the coast of South Carolina did not produce cotton
superior to Seabrook seed which had been grown in Florida for three
years.








Annual Report, 1938 59

Sea Island Cotton Fertilizer Experiment
A fertilizer experiment with Sea Island cotton was conducted in which
treatments were designed to measure the effect of nitrogen, phosphoric
acid, potash and magnesium. There were very good increases in yield
from applications of nitrogen, potash and magnesium. Magnesium was
equally effective in the three sources, kainit, dolomite and magnesium
sulfate.
COLLOIDAL PHOSPHATE TEST ON SPANISH AND
RUNNER PEANUTS
Three rates of wastepond or colloidal phosphate with and without
kainit were compared as fertilizers for Spanish and Runner peanuts.
Each treatment was replicated 9 times. No increase in yields was obtained
from the use of this phosphate, and only a very slight increase was caused
by the kainit. Further tests with colloidal phosphate are under way.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY DEPARTMENT

The research of the Animal Husbandry Department is conducted in
the following four main divisions: (1) dairy husbandry and animal nutri-
tion, (2) beef cattle, sheep, and swine, (3) veterinary investigations, and
(4) poultry husbandry.
THE DAIRY HERD
Complete records of production and reproduction are being kept with
the herd of registered Jerseys for use in studies of management and
inheritance. The herd has provided cows for a double-reversal feeding
trial, and bull calves for a number of nutrition studies, as well as being
used for instructional purposes with classes in the College of Agriculture.
Two older cows, having passed their period of usefulness in the herd, were
assigned to the project entitled, "Relation of Conformation and Anatomy
of the Dairy Cow to Her Milk and Butterfat Production".
During the year 10 cows qualified for the Register of Merit on two
milkings daily, as follows:
Age Milk Test Fat
pounds pounds
Florida Victor Coomassie 1021786 .............. 2-5 7,229 4.66 336.62
Florida Victor Heiress 1060097 .................... 2-6 6,089 5.47 333.29
Sybil Eminent Fox Hilda 1038308 ................ 4-7 8,561 5.20 444.94
Florida Victor Lass 1060098 ................... 2-4 5,919 5.27 311.80
Florida Victor Winnie 1060099 ................... 2-3 6,773 4.92 333.17
Florida Victor Carrie 1060100 .................... 2-5 7,597 4.34 329.63
Florida Victor Beauty 1060102 .................. 2-4 8,042 4.98 400.56
Florida Victor Sue 1060105 ....................... 2-1 6,164 5.15 317.25
Florida Victor Jewel 1071683 .................... 2-0 5,972 5.04 301.19
Florida Victor Belle 1071686 .................... 2-2 5,784 5.53 319.62
Five of the oldest daughters of Floss Duke's Count 357288 are on
Register of Merit test in their first lactations.

BEEF CATTLE HERD
A herd of native cattle is maintained to determine the value of grading
up herds from native cattle by the use of purebred bulls. The native cows
are bred to purebred Hereford bulls.
In the purebred herds of Aberdeen-Angus and Herefords birth weights
and rate of growth are obtained on all offspring. The purebred cattle
are used for instructional purposes for students in the College of Agricul-
ture as well as for the 4-H club boys and Future Farmers of America.

SHEEP
The flock of sheep consists of purebred Hampshires, grade Hampshires
and native ewes in which comparisons are made in fleece and mutton
production. This flock is used also for instructional purposes in classes
in sheep production.
SWINE HERD
The swine breeding herd consists of purebred Poland China and Duroc-
Jersey breeds. In addition to furnishing experimental animals, the herd
is used in laboratory classes in swine production, livestock judging, and
meat products by students. Fifty-one purebred weanling pigs and 17
bred gilts were distributed to swine producers throughout Florida.








Annual Report, 1938 61

NUTRITION LABORATORY
Analytical studies of the department's investigations were continued.
Proximate and mineral analyses were made of routine samples from feed-
ing trials, and of forage and silage samples in studies of Florida forage
crops. Hydrogen-ion determinations were made of pressed juices from
corn and sorghum silages.
Tissue and organ samples from two calves were prepared for the
spectrographic determination of copper content, and the estimation of
other trace elements. One calf was out of a healthy dam in the station
dairy herd while the other was dropped by a "salt sick" range cow. Mois-
ture and ash analyses have been completed for over 60 organs and tissues.
Hemoglobin concentration, red cell volume, erythrocyte counts, and
total leucocyte counts were made from samples of blood of experimental
animals under several conditions. Calcium and phosphorus analyses were
made on blood from cattle and swine.
A limited number of rats were used in studies of the nutritive properties
of milk as affected by mineral supplementation, and in the study of a
rickets-like condition of calves.
The bio-assay for vitamin A content of one type of citrus pulp, using
U.S.P. XI technique, was completed by a graduate student. The results
were accepted as a Master's thesis, and showed that less than 0.5 unit
of vitamin A per gram was present.
The vitamin A content of commercial shark liver oil, a Florida product,
is being determined by the U.S.P. XI technique. Commercial shark liver
oil is being tested as a source of vitamin A in poultry rations, in the
nutrition of dogs, and in the rations of calves and pigs in cooperation with
other divisions of the department. Chemical analyses of shark by-products
other than shark liver oil are being conducted to determine the possibility
of a greater utilization of these products as supplementary feeds for
animals and poultry.
Assistance has been rendered the Florida Citrus Exchange in modifying
formulae and methods of manufacture of their new citrus breakfast food.
This is made from the whole orange (except seeds) supplemented with
various other ingredients. It proved to be an adequate diet for rats
during the growth period.

VETERINARY LABORATORY
Many specimens of pathological tissues from diseased animals and
poultry have been received for diagnostic purposes. As a result of this
service the prompt diagnosis, treatment and control of various diseases
of livestock and poultry have been made possible.
Abortion in cattle, due to infection by a protozoan, Trichomonas foetus,
has been encountered as was also paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease.
Studies have been continued in fowl paralysis, leukemia and allied
conditions in chickens, hemorrhagic septicemia of cattle, and enzootic
bronchopneumonia of calves.
Work was conducted on a few plants which are poisonous to livestock.

THE POULTRY LABORATORY AND FARM
The poultry flock consists of six breeds, namely: Single Comb Rhode
Island Reds, S. C. White Leghorns, Barred Plymouth Rocks, S. C. Buff
Leghorns, S. C. White Minocras, and Silver Laced Wyandottes. The entire
flock has been tested for pullorum disease and is now in the National
Poultry Improvement Program sponsored by the United States Depart-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ment of Agriculture and administered in this State by the State Livestock
Sanitary Board.
During the spring of 1938, pedigreed Single Comb White Leghorn
females were purchased, and pedigreed Single Comb White Leghorn males
were borrowed from the United States Department of Agriculture under
a cooperative arrangement. At present there are two strains of Single
Comb Rhode Island Reds and three strains of Single Comb White Leghorns.
Complete individual records of egg production, egg weight, hatchability,
and livability are kept on these birds.
Three new laying houses, each 16' x 25', were constructed during the
summer of 1937. Individual cage equipment was installed so that technical
studies in feeding could be conducted.
Experimental work including breeding, hatchability, feeding, vitamin A
content of shark liver oil, and flock management are being conducted.
Other experimental trials of the year were: holding and turning hatching
eggs, the effect of various levels of dried skimmilk on the rate of growth,
Ambrina in poultry feeding, and the rate of growth of cross-bred poultry.
Projects on feeding and management of chicks, laying birds, breeding,
turkeys, and brooder stove operation have been conducted cooperatively
during the past year at the West Central Florida Station. A new co-
operative breeding project was inaugurated during the spring of 1938,
including Red-Sussex cross; Rhode Island Reds; and White Leghorn, F.
Red-Sussex cross. The work of these projects is summarized under the
report of that station.
DAIRY PRODUCTS
The Dairy Products Laboratory has been completed and equipment has
been installed to the extent that research work on some of the important
problems in this field will be possible. It is planned to study (1) the
disposition of the summer surplus of milk, (2) the effect of certain rough-
ages on the flavor of milk, and (3) the use of certain citrus fruits as
flavoring for ice cream.

DEFICIENCIES IN FEEDS USED IN CATTLE RATIONS
Purnell Project 133 R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal, P. T. Dix Arnold
and L. L. Rusoff
Work in this project on nutrition of cattle has been divided into five
phases as follows: (1) field work, (2) controlled feeding trials, (3) spectro-
graphic and analytical studies, (4) pilot animal studies, and (5) mineral
intake of cattle.
Field Work.-Cobalt salts have been supplied to cattlemen and dairy-
men reporting cases of "salt sick" among their cattle. Several herds
have been visited and written reports have been secured from many others.
Improvement in appetite and general physical condition have been noted
within a few days of the initial dosing. A mimeographed pamphlet has
been prepared, giving directions for the use of cobalt. Mineral supple-
ment containing cobalt is now available commercially.
In cooperation with the Department of Chemistry and Soils, areas
are being surveyed where positive responses to the cobalt supplement
have been secured, the soil types identified, and soil samples collected
for analyses. Forage samples are being collected simultaneously at one
stage of maturity.
Controlled Feeding Trials.-The use of a basal ration for cattle of
Natal grass hay and shelled corn grown on Norfolk soil, plus skimmilk
powder, has been continued with the use of iron and copper; iron, copper
and cobalt; and cobalt supplements.







Annual Report, 1938


Cobalt has proven of value as a supplement to a ration of artificially-
dried Para grass and molasses. This grass was grown on a muck area
underlaid with sand.
Cobalt fed at the rate of 0.25 milligram of metal per pound live weight
per day, for seven months as a supplement to alfalfa hay and shelled
corn, has not proven toxic; nor has 0.5 milligram given daily for five
months produced symptoms of toxicity.
The addition of 1.5 milligrams of copper as copper sulfate per pound
live weight per day to a ration of alfalfa hay and shelled corn did not
hinder growth of an experimental animal taken from the Station dairy
herd and grown to a weight of 750 pounds, while 2.0 milligrams daily
proved toxic to another experimental animal receiving the same ration.
In all studies of mineral supplements, tissue samples are being ac-
cumulated for analyses as the experimental animals die, or when they
reach a weight of 700 pounds.
Chemical and morphological examinations of blood from experimental
animals on mineral nutrition projects were continued.
Spectrographic and Analytical Studies.-Samples of wire grass (Aristida
sp.) showed an average of 6.2 parts of copper per million in the dry matter
of grass from unburned 'salt sick" areas as compared with 6.8 parts on
the marginal burned area; 8.0 parts from "salt sick" burned areas; and
8.0 parts per million from the "healthy" unburned areas. Differences in
copper content are not significant statistically. The spectrographic estima-
tion of other trace elements also showed no significant differences. Alum-
inum, barium, boron, copper, lead, manganese, strontium, titanium and
zinc were present in all samples. Antimony, arsenic, beryllium, bismuth,
cadmium, cobalt, lanthanum, thallium, tin, vanadium, yttrium and zircon-
ium were not detected in any of the samples by spectrographic analysis.
Chromium, molybdenum, silver and nickel were detected in the samples
but not consistently.
Two young calves, one from a healthy dam in the Station dairy herd
and one from a "salt sick" range cow, were obtained for detailed mineral
analyses. Each animal was dissected quantitatively and samples for
analysis were taken of approximately 60 organs and tissues. Moisture
and ash analyses have been completed. Copper and other trace elements
are being estimated in the Spectrographic Laboratory.
Pilot Animal Studies.-Piebald rats are being used as pilot animals for
nutrition studies with minerals in relation to cattle problems. The initial
study dealt with trace elements of the new-born rat, paralleling the study
with calves.
Mineral Consumption.-The amount of bonemeal and iron-copper-salt
mixture consumed by the dairy herd was less during the pasture season
than during the winter when sorghum silage, cowpea hay, and a grain
mixture were fed.

RELATION OF CONFORMATION AND ANATOMY OF THE DAIRY
COW TO HER MILK AND BUTTERFAT PRODUCTION
State Project 140 R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal, P. T. Dix Arnold
and L. L. Rusoff
This project is in cooperation with the Bureau of Dairy Industry,
U. S. Department of Agriculture. During the year, measurements were
obtained on two cows in the dairy herd. These cows were:
Reproduction
Lactations records
Majesty's Sophy Queen 792762 ................ 7 7
Florida Fontaine Marie 839772 .................. 5 6







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The contributions of the station to this project now total records of
37 cows and 2 free-martin heifers.

A STUDY OF THE FEEDING VALUE OF CROTALARIAS
State Project 175 R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal
and P. T. Dix Arnold
Feed samples obtained during the final trials with Crotalaria intermedia
were analyzed during the year. Calculations were made and a compre-
hensive technical manuscript prepared summarizing all phases of the
investigation. It was found that C. intermedia could be used to make
silage or hay, if harvested not later than the bud stage of maturity.
The fiber content of this plant approached 45 percent of the total dry
matter as the plant came into bloom, decreasing its palatability and net
feeding value. C. intermedia should not replace such forage crops as
cowpeas, on lands adapted to the latter, but may be used on light grades
of sandy soil. C. spectabilis and C. retusa contain toxic compounds harm-
ful to livestock and poultry. Two alkaloids, differing in melting points
and solubilities, were isolated from seed of C. retusa.
Work on this project is concluded with this report.

A STUDY OF THE ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project 213 W. M. Neal, R. B. Becker
and P. T. Dix Arnold
Additional records were obtained with corn in a 20-foot upright con-
crete silo. One of the laboratory silos was filled with Napier grass,
cut in mid-summer at an early stage of maturity. Samples of fresh
forage and silage were obtained from one 14-foot sisalkraft silo filled
with sorghum. Hydrogen-ion determinations were made on juice pressed
from the silage samples.

BEEF CATTLE BREEDING INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 215 A. L. Shealy, W. G. Kirk
and R. M. Crown
Four herds of cattle are used in this experiment. These four herds
are headed by purebred bulls as follows: Lot 1, Hereford; Lot 2, Devon;
Lot 3, Brahman; and Lot 4, Red Polled. Originally there were 40 native
cows in each herd; however, the experiment has been in progress long
enough that there are sufficient grade offspring in the Hereford and Devon
herds to completely eliminate the native cows. In the Brahman herd,
10 native cows were retained while in the Red Polled herd 19 natives
are kept for breeding purposes.
All the native cows have been graded on a score-card especially de-
vised for the grading of range cattle. The grade offspring have been
graded on the same score-card as two- and three-year old breeding animals.
The grades are given below.
Average Grade of Native Cows and Grade Offspring
Beef Cattle Breeding Project
Av. grade of Av. grade of
Av. grade of three-year two-year
Lot No. native cows old heifers old heifers
1 Hereford ........ .................. 61.01 73.94 73.02
2 Devon .............. ................ 60.38 74.82 72.87
3 Brahman ..............-............... 62.44 72.77 70.85
4 Red Polled ......... ................ 60.75 69.17 64.45







Annual Report, 1938


There were from 8.42 to 14.44 points improvement recorded for the
grade cattle over their native dams. Since the numerical valuation of
the score-card begins at 50 and extends to 100, the above points could
be expressed in percentages as 16.84 to 28.88 percent improvement of the
three-year old grade cows over their native mothers.
There is a differential of from 25 to 33 percent between animals of
native breeding and first-cross grades when marketed as slaughter animals.
The numerical valuations given above bear out the market differential
for cattle sold in this State.
The average grades for calves in all four lots was from straight medium
to high medium. There was an occasional plain calf and a few calves
graded good as slaughter calves.
The following agencies are cooperating: Bureau of Animal Industry,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
and Foremost Properties, Incorporated. The work is conducted at Penney
Farms.
COOPERATIVE FIELD STUDIES WITH BEEF AND
DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE
State Project 216 A. L. Shealy, R. M.-Crown
and W. G. Kirk
This work is conducted under actual farm and range conditions in 15
counties extending from Jackson on the west to Lee and Okeechobee
counties in the southern part of the state. There are 19 cattlemen co-
operating. Purebred bulls of Red Polled, Devon, Aberdeen-Angus, Here-
ford, and Shorthorn breeds are used. Observations include: Grades of
cows composing breeding herds, percent of calf crop, grades of calves
as slaughter calves, grades of female offspring at three years old, types
of ranges, mineral requirements on ranges, and methods of wintering
breeding herds.
The Bureau of Animal Industry and the Station are cooperating with
cattlemen on this project.

BEEF AND DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE INVESTIGATIONS
State Project 219 A. L. Shealy, W. G. Kirk
and R. M. Crown
The herds consist of Herefords and natives at the Main Station; Devons
and natives at the Everglades Station; and Aberdeen-Angus and natives
at the North Florida Station. Refer also to this project number under
reports of Everglades and North Florida stations. All animals are weighed
every 28 days. Birth weights and growth rate are recorded on all calves,
which are graded as slaughter calves when three to six months of age.
The female offspring is kept as breeding stock while the grade males
are castrated and used in steer feeding trials. All females are graded
as two- and three-year olds by a scoring system especially devised for
grading native and grade cows.
The Bureau of Animal Industry is cooperating in this project.

INVESTIGATIONS OF HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA IN
CATTLE AND SWINE
Purnell Project 236 D. A. Sanders
Past work on hemorrhagic septicemia has shown very conclusively that
Pasteurella boviseptica may constitute part of the bacterial flora found
in the upper respiratory passages of healthy cattle. Florida cattle that
have died as a result of anaplasmosis, pseudorabies, plant poisoning or







Florida Agricult4ral Experiment Station


other conditions often reveal P. boviseptica in the blood or tissues. The
organism usually enters the blood stream of cattle shortly before or after
death and multiplies rapidly. The presence of P. boviseptica in carcass
material of cattle under these conditions often leads to an error in making
a diagnosis. In making a diagnosis of hemorrhagic septicemia, conclusions
are often drawn from clinical symptoms alone. In other instances, the
diagnosis is confirmed in the laboratory by demonstrating bipolar organ-
isms resembling Pasteurella in tissues of suspicious cases. The diagnosis
is often further confirmed by recovery of P. boviseptica from laboratory
animals which received injections of materials from suspicious hemorrhagic
septicemia tissues. In the light of present experimental evidence, P.
boviseptica occurring in suspicious hemorrhagic septicemia tissues cannot
be credited as having any special etiological significance in this State.
A manuscript has been prepared and with its publication work on this
project will be closed.
Observations on enzootic bronchopneumonia of dairy calves show that
the acute form is more prevalent during the warm moist seasons of the
year. Chronic cases of enzootic bronchopneumonia which have their in-
cipient stages during the warm rainy season often linger for weeks
without regard to seasonal or moisture conditions.

THE DIGESTIBLE COEFFICIENTS AND FEEDING VALUE OF DRIED
GRAPEFRUIT REFUSE AND DRIED ORANGE REFUSE
Purnell Project 239 W. M. Neal, R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold
and L. L. Rusoff
A bull calf from the Station dairy herd was fed a ration of sorghum
silage, dried citrus pulp and cottonseed meal until it attained a weight
of 400 pounds, after which additional pulp was substituted for the silage.
Avitaminosis A resulted and was corrected with cod liver oil. Later, part
of the pulp was replaced with molasses, which ration required a phos-
phorus supplement. When slaughtered, the fat of this animal, although
a Jersey, was white, and the beef of very good flavor.
A process of preparing citrus cannery refuse prior to drying was
developed previously in the Nutrition Laboratory. This process was used
in Florida and Texas in production of about 16,000 tons of dried citrus
pulp during the 1937-38 canning season. Six plants prepared dried citrus
pulp in Florida during that season.
The second 90-day feeding trial was conducted in which dried citrus
and dried beet pulps are being compared in value for milk production.
The vitamin A content of dried citrus pulp, obtained for the feeding
trial, was bioassayed as a graduate thesis problem by M. C. Futch, using
the standard U.S.P. XI technique. It was found to contain less than
one-half U.S.P. XI unit of vitamin A per gram, which classes it with
the majority of concentrates in this respect.

EFFICIENCY OF THE TRENCH SILO FOR PRESERVATION OF FOR-
AGE CROPS AS MEASURED BY CHEMICAL MEANS AND BY THE
UTILIZATION OF THE NUTRIENTS OF THE SILAGE BY CATTLE
State Project 241 A. L. Shealy, W. M. Neal, R. B. Becker
and W. G. Kirk
The third and final year of a three-year feeding trial was completed
in February 1938. The silages used were sorghum, sugarcane and Napier
grass. The results of the 1937-38 feeding trial showed that sorghum
silage was slightly more palatable and somewhat higher in feeding value







Annual Report, 1938


than either Napier grass silage or sugarcane silage. Sugarcane silage
ranked next to sorghum silage in feeding value.
Average daily gains for the different lots were: Sorghum silage, 2.06
pounds; sugarcane silage, 1.85 pounds, and Napier grass silage, 1.80 pounds.
Refer also to this project under report of North Florida Station.
The project is closed with this report.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CORN AND LIQUID MILK VERSUS A
GRAIN AND MASH RATION IN FEEDING FOR EGG PRODUCTION
State Project 244 N. R. Mehrhof and E. F. Stanton
The data obtained on this project are being summarized for publication.
This project closed with this report.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE VALUE OF MEAT SCRAPS, FISH
MEAL, AND MILK SOLIDS AS SOURCES OF PROTEIN
FOR EGG PRODUCTION
State Project 245 N. R. Mehrhof and E. F. Stanton
The data obtained on this project are being summarized for publication.
This project is closed with this report.

LIGHTS VERSUS NO LIGHTS FOR EGG PRODUCTION ON SINGLE
COMB WHITE LEGHORN PULLETS AND HENS
State Project 246 N. R. Mehrhof and E. F. Stanton
The data obtained on this project are being summarized for publication.
The project is closed with this report.

THE ETIOLOGY OF FOWL PARALYSIS, LEUKEMIA AND ALLIED
CONDITIONS IN ANIMALS
State Project 251 M. W. Emmel
The repeated intravenous injection of normal, freshly emulsified,
desiccated and autolyzed homologous tissues induces hemocytoblastosis in
the chicken. In instances in which the stimulus is sufficient, leukemia
results. When a sincere effort is made to induce leukemia this manifesta-
tion can be induced in 85 percent of the cases. The injection of heterologous
tissues induces hemocytoblastosis, but not sufficiently to induce leukemia.
Endotoxin of the paratyphoid species is neurotoxic; typical but transient
symptoms of fowl paralysis are induced by intravenous injection of endo-
toxin preparations in day-old chicks. Using this procedure as an endo-
toxin test in baby chicks, 86 percent of the endotoxin-positive chicks
developed fowl paralysis when injected with S. aertrycke at 8 to 12 weeks
of age. Thirty percent developed symptoms identical to those shown to
the endotoxin test. Endotoxin also tends to inhibit agglutination and.
phagocytosis and is destructive to blood cells. During infection by the
microorganism it was impossible to demonstrate foci of infection; there-
fore, it is concluded that major repeated infection most likely occurs from
the intestinal tract. The causal microorganism initiates hemocytoblastosis,
a basic condition leading to the development of fowl paralysis, leukemia
and allied conditions in chickens.
Self-perpetuating tissue autolysis is the basic principle concerned in
leukemia. Death results from an exhaustion of the hematopoietic system
and intoxication of the body by the products of the hosts' degenerated cells.







68 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Suboxidation, a failure to receive sufficient oxygen to complete the oxida-
tion processes of the body and brought about by poor ventilation, has been
found to be the cause of fowl paralysis, leukemia and chronic hemocyto-
blastosis under indoor hen-battery conditions and is also responsible for
the occurrence of a definite syndrome. Evidence is being accumulated
which shows that suboxidation is an important factor in incubation as
well as in all battery raised birds. Under indoor hen-battery conditions
there is a rather definite biologic saturation point. Above this point fowl
paralysis, leukemia, and chronic hemocytoblastosis is the major mortality
problem; below this point mortality occurs only to a minor extent.
Vitamin A deficiency induces hemocytoblastosis.

A STUDY OF PLANTS POISONOUS TO LIVESTOCK IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 258 D. A. Sanders, M. W. Emmel
and Erdman West
Ambrina ambrosioides (L.) Spach., a widely distributed plant of Flor-
ida, was suspected of being responsible for losses of yearling cattle on
several premises. In these instances, the plant had become established
in the permanent pastures and constituted a large portion of the available
forage during the early spring. Clinical symptoms of emaciation and
diarrhea developed several weeks after confinement on the plant. Post-
mortem examinations of affected yearlings showed the presence of chronic
gastroenteritis. Preliminary feeding tests indicate that leaves and stems
of the plant can be consumed over a considerable period without producing
noticeable clinical evidence of poisoning. Since this plant is widely dis-
tributed in the state, it seemed desirable to ascertain definite information
regarding its possible toxicity for livestock. Seed of A. ambrosioides were
secured and a plot of ground has been sown to secure a heavy growth of
the plant. Test calves will be confined thereon and more definite results
of the effects of grazing this plant will be obtained.
Seed of the legume, Lupinus angustifolius L., were unpalatable and
undesirable as feed for swine when used as a supplement to a basal ration.
Small amounts of ground seed used as supplement caused severe con-
stipation. Swine ordinarily consume large amounts of the ground seed
as supplement when it is first placed before them. This results in con-
stipation and refusal to eat further of the ground seed.

STUDIES IN FLEECE AND MUTTON PRODUCTION
State Project 274 C. H. Willoughby and A. L. Shealy
The fleeces of all sheep in this project were scored prior to shearing.
Records were obtained on length and fineness of wool fiber and char-
acter, density, condition, and color of fleece. Fleece weights of the native
sheep averaged 4.5 pounds; of the grade Hampshire yearling ewes, 5.08
pounds; and of the grade Hampshire lambs, 1.16 pounds. The sheep were
.scored for mutton production also.

A STUDY OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum) FOR PASTURE
PURPOSES-ANIMAL HUSBANDRY PHASE
Bankhead-Jones Project 302 W. G. Kirk
Grade yearling Hereford and Aberdeen-Angus steers were used to
measure the carrying capacity and nutritive value of five 3-acre lots of
Napier grass. Fifteen steers were started on test July 28, 1937. The
number of steers was increased to 30 by adding five animals at different







Annual Report, 1938


times throughout the 68-day test period. The steers had access to one
3-acre lot at a time. When the leaves and a considerable portion of the
stems were eaten the steers were moved to a second lot. By pasturing
each lot in rotation it took approximately 35 days to graze the 15 acres
of Napier grass. During this period the Napier grass in Lot 1, which
was pastured first in the rotation, had grown sufficiently to be grazed
a second time and Lot 2 was ready to be grazed when Lot 1 was finished.
Thus there was a continuous supply of succulent feed available.
The steers had access at all times to the following mineral supple-
ments, (1) common salt, (2) steamed bone meal, and (3) "salt sick"
mixture, which consists of 100 pounds common salt, 25 pounds red oxide
of iron and 1 pound copper sulfate.
The average daily gain per steer per day for all steers was 1.45 pounds.
Each acre of Napier grass provided feed for one steer on an average for
124 days and produced 179.7 pounds of gain.
Refer also to Project 302 in Report of Agronomy Department.

A STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEM-
PERATURE AND EGG WEIGHT (SIZE), BODY WEIGHT AND
EGG WEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT AND PRODUCTION, AGE AND
EGG WEIGHT OF SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORN PULLETS
State Project 307 0. W. Anderson, Jr. and N. R. Mehrhof
The records from the Florida National Egg Laying Contest at Chipley
are being used in this study. At present the records from Single Comb
White Leghorns that have completed their first year's production have
been tabulated.

UTILIZATION OF CITRUS BY-PRODUCTS FOR POULTRY
State Project 308 N. R. Mehrhof and L. L. Rusoff
Feeding trials to determine the value of citrus by-products for poultry
are being continued. Single Comb White Leghorn chicks of the same
breeding were brooded and reared in batteries, fed an all-mash ration,
and all management factors were kept uniform.
Citrus meal was used to replace yellow cornmeal in the chick ration
to the extent of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 percent of the total. All chicks were
weighed at weekly intervals. Feed consumption data were recorded each
week. Mortality and data on condition of birds were tabulated. Pullets
were raised to maturity and are now in individual laying cages.
Chicks on citrus meal (5-20%) showed a decrease in growth during
the first eight weeks, particularly during the first four weeks. Five per-
cent citrus meal gave good growth but still below the check ration. The
percentage of mortality increased as the percentage of citrus meal was
increased. Twenty percent citrus meal in the chick ration resulted in
total mortality. Pectin and naringin used at the levels found in the citrus
meal resulted in a decrease in rate of growth.
Cockerels six and eight weeks of age were fattened for five or four
weeks, respectively, and the growth curves of lots receiving 5 and 10
percent citrus meal were comparable to the check. No mortality resulted
and no detectable difference was noted in the quality of meat.
Pullets from 8 to 20 weeks of age appeared able to utilize citrus meal,
since the rate of gain compared favorably with the control group. There
was no relationship between percentage of citrus meal and pullet mortality.
Laying birds showed no significant difference in numbers of eggs pro-
duced, mortality, or quality of eggs when fed up to 15 percent citrus meal.







70 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

POULTRY BREEDING
State Project 309 N. R. Mehrhof
This project was inaugurated during the spring of 1936, using pedigreed
eggs from Single Comb White Leghorns and Single Comb Rhode Island
Reds. During the spring of 1938, additional Single Comb White Leghorns
were obtained from the Bureau of Animal Industry, USDA, as experi-
mental birds in a study of the effect of crossing this strain with the
strains of S. C. White Leghorns at the University. Factors studied include
egg production, egg size, longevity, livability of chicks, hatchability,
broodiness, and disease resistance. The first year of breeding revealed
a great variation in hatchability. Forty-eight percent of the original
number of Rhode Island Reds placed in the laying house during the fall
of 1936 produced 200 or more eggs during the first laying year. The
greatest production was 262 eggs. The highest egg production with the
S. C. White Leghorns was 285 eggs during the 365-day period.
Breeding flocks are maintained to supply eggs and chicks for other
experimental work.

DEFICIENCIES OF PEANUTS WHEN USED AS A FEED FOR SWINE
State Project 310 W. G. Kirk
Ten feeder pigs in each of two tests were divided into five lots of two
pigs each. Each pig was kept in an individual pen and fed separately.
The pigs were on test for 132 days.
The feeding of peanuts plus two grams of common salt per pig per
day to pigs in Lot 2 increased slightly the rate and economy of gains
over pigs fed peanuts alone in Lot 1. The addition of one part of calcium
carbonate to the peanut and salt ration for Lot 3 proved to be the most
beneficial in promoting rate and economy of gains. The pigs fed peanuts,
salt and" one part cod liver oil in Lot 4 responded somewhat better than
the pigs fed peanuts, Lot 1, or peanuts and salt, Lot 2. The addition of
calcium carbonate and cod liver oil to the peanut and salt ration for pigs
in Lot 5 was not as satisfactory as when only calcium carbonate and salt
were added in Lot 3.
The pigs fed peanuts alone, Lot 1; peanuts and salt, Lot 2; peanuts,
salt and cod liver oil, Lot 4; were in a very unthrifty condition during the
last few weeks of the experiment. Six of the pigs in these groups had
posterior paralysis, while the other six pigs were stiff and lame. Upon
postmortem examination, the pigs suffering from posterior paralysis were
found to have either a fractured lumbar vertebra or femur bone. The
humerus and scapula bones were deformed in several instances and all
12 pigs had fractured ribs. The pigs fed calcium carbonate, Lots 3 and 5,
had bones which were hard and strong with no indication of fractures.

METHOD OF HANDLING SOWS AND YOUNG PIGS
State Project 311 R. M. Crown
Two lots of brood sows, as uniform as possible in age, size and condi-
tion, were used in this experiment. Lot 1 received a grain ration consisting
of ground shelled corn, wheat shorts, and fishmeal. Lot 2 was kept on
grazing crops during the entire year, and received a supplemental grain
ration consisting of corn and fishmeal when the feed from grazing crops
was inadequate. Pigs in each lot were fed in creeps until weaned. The
pigs in Lot 2 received only ground corn and fishmeal, while those in
Lot 1 received the same grain ration as their dams. All animals received
a mineral mixture at all times.







Annual Report, 1938


The following data were recorded: Individual feed intake of sows in
Lot 1 by hand feeding; amount of feed consumed by pigs to the weaning
and feeder periods; yields of feeds in fields; birth weights and rate of
growth of pigs; weight of sows at 28-day intervals; and physical condition
of sows and pigs.

THE UTILIZATION OF CITRUS MEAL AS SWINE FEED
State Project 318 R. M. Crown, W. G. Kirk
and W. M. Neal
Work with single pigs fed citrus meal at 30, 60, and 85 percent levels
showed successive increments of meal to make the ration less desirable.
One possibility is that the citrus meal contributed bulk to the ration,
thereby limiting feed intake.
In 1937 this work was continued to determine whether or not lesser
percentages might be used to advantage, from both energy and condition-
ing standpoints.
The present trials consist of substituting corn with grapefruit meal
at 0, 5, 10, and 20 percent levels in the standard ration of corn, 90 parts,
and fishmeal, 10 parts; using weanling pigs fed individually.
Two pigs were fed at each of the above levels for a period of five
months. The pigs were weighed individually each week and feed intakes
for each were calculated. As the level of grapefruit meal increased, the
feed intake and rate of growth were decreased. The slaughter hog grades,
dressing percentages and carcass grades were lowered as the citrus meal
level was increased.

THE VITAMIN CONTENT OF SHARK LIVER OIL
State Project 320 L. L. Rusoff, N. R. Mehrhof
and R. B. Becker
A representative sample of shark liver oil is being assayed for vitamin
A using the U.S.P. XI technique. Preliminary experiments indicate that
this sample of oil has 10,000-20,000 units of vitamin A per gram.
Shark liver oil is being compared with U.S.P. XI "Reference cod liver
oil" (3,000 units of vitamin A per gram) as to its vitamin A value with
chicks. Eight lots of 25 chicks to the lot are being used. The check lot
receiving the basal (vitamin A deficient) ration, all died before reaching
six weeks of age. The shark liver oil groups show this product to be
two to three times as potent in vitamin A as "Reference cod liver oil",
as determined from growth records, feed consumption and mortality.
It is intended to continue the groups of birds on this experiment with
regard to broiler production, egg production, and hatchability of eggs.
Both phases of this investigation were initiated in April 1938.

THE DIGESTIBILITY OF FRESH NAPIER GRASS
Bankhead-Jones 330 W. M. Neal, P. T. Dix Arnold
and R. B. Becker
A planting of Napier grass was made in March 1938 on an area adja-
cent to the Nutrition Laboratory. It has been irrigated and fertilized and
is ready for a preliminary cutting, that forage of a uniform stage of growth
may be obtained for the digestion trial scheduled to start early in August.
Four steers will be used in the digestion trial, which will extend over
a 30-day period. The first 10 days will be preliminary and the last 20
days will be experimental. The grass will be cut twice daily in a manner








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


to simulate grazing and fed to the animals in the stalls. Manure collec-
tions will be manual. The standard methods for this type of trial will
be used.

THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF SUGARCANE SILAGE, SHOCKED
SUGARCANE AND PASTURE; SUPPLEMENTED WITH COTTON-
SEED MEAL, OR CAKE, IN WINTERING THE BEEF HERD
State Project 331 W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown
Due to the scarcity of feed on the ranges during the winter months
most cows are unable to maintain their body weight. Cows in an unthrifty
condition do not breed regularly, parturition is difficult, and milk produc-
tion is insufficient to nourish the young calf adequately.
Thirty native and grade Hereford cows were divided into three lots
on November 26, 1937. During the 105-day test period several cows in
each of the groups produced calves. The calves are considered in the
final weight for each group. Table 9 gives the rations fed and the gain
or loss for each lot.

TABLE 9.-FEED CONSUMED AND GAIN OR Loss PER LOT.
Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3
Dry Lot Dry Lot on Pasture*
S10 Cows 10 Cows 10 Cows

Average daily feed consumption
per cow in pounds
Sugarcane Silage .................. 33.62
Shocked Cut Sugarcane ........ 32.85
Cottonseed Meal .................... 2.42 2.42
Cottonseed Cake ..................... 2.42
Initial weight .................................. 6,687 6,632 6,552
Final weight
Cows ....................................... 6,080 6,585 5,662
Calves ...................................... 572 542 577
Total ........................................ 6,652 7,127 6,239
Gain or loss per lot ...................... -35 495 -313

*Pasture grasses consisted mainly of carpet, centipede and Bermuda.
tNumber of calves at end of test: Lot 1, six; Lot 2, six; Lot 8, five.

The animals which were fed cut sugarcane, Lot 2, gained 495 pounds
during the 105-day feeding period. Those fed sugarcane silage, Lot 2,
lost 35 pounds, while the animals on pasture, Lot 3, lost 313 pounds.







Annual Report, 1938


CHEMISTRY AND SOILS

Research activities of the department for the year have been affected
to a very appreciable extent by a reorganization of the work. The principal
objectives of this reorganization have been (1) a complete revision and
coordination of the research, teaching and extension activities of the Uni-
versity in the field of this department, and (2) an examination and thorough
understanding of the work of other departments having common fields of
interest, with the idea of so correlating both the research and teaching
programs as to avoid duplication of effort and misunderstandings as to
responsibility for subject matter.
Accordingly, it has been found desirable to set up reasonably well
defined divisions in the work of the department before the research pro-
jects could be recast or a satisfactory curriculum developed. As a definite
basis for the reorganization of the work, therefore, the subject matter of
the department has been divided into six units as follows: 1, Chemistry
and Biochemistry; 2, Physics and Biophysics; 3, Soil Microbiology; 4, Soil
Fertility; 5, Hydrology and Soil Mechanics; and 6, Land Use. A further
unit, Soil and Plant Relationships, has frequently suggested itself.
It has not been found possible, in the course of the year, to initiate
formal work, either in the Experiment Station or the Agricultural College
in Soil Physics or in Hydrology and Soil Mechanics. The latter field is
urgently in need of attention, especially in connection with such problems
as soil and water conservation in organic soils or the improvement of
knowledge of the soil-water cycle in mineral soils dealing, as they do,
with one of the most vital elements in Florida agriculture.
DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS POTASH CARRIERS
ON THE GROWTH, YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF CROPS
Hatch Project 37 C. E. Bell
Inasmuch as studies under this project during the past few years have
involved citrus exclusively on plots located at the Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion, this work, in the future, will be reported on by workers at that
Station.
THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS FERTILIZER FORMULAS
State Project 94 C. E. Bell
The work on nitrogen sources with citrus under this project has been
continued through the year at Lake Alfred with certain changes under
the immediate supervision of Dr. A. F. Camp, and reported under project
No. 21 of the Citrus Station. Likewise the study has been continued in
the Homestead area under the immediate supervision of Dr. H. S. Wolfe
under State Project No. 275 of the Subtropical Station. The experiment
in the neighborhood of Avon Park was discontinued during the year.
The potato work in the Hastings area that has been under this project
during the past several years was not continued through the year in the
interest of summarizing the results and making them available.

DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF GREEN MANURES ON THE
COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
Adams Project 96 R. M. Barnette
Effort is being made to complete the work that has been set up under
this project. To this end, a bulletin is in process of publication under the
title of "Lysimeter studies with the decomposition of summer cover crops"







74 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

and technical papers are in preparation on: (1) a five-year lysimeter study
with a Norfolk soil of cover crop relations with corn, (2) the rate of
decomposition of 0. striata, C. intermedia, and C. spectabilis and their
effect on the composition of the soil and the plant and (3) a final report
on the cooperative work with the U. S. Forest Service regarding the
effect of frequent fires on the soil under forest conditions.

A STUDY OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ASH OF
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES WITH REFERENCE
TO THE MORE UNUSUAL CONSTITUENTS
Purnell Project 201 L. W. Gaddum, L. H. Rogers
and R. A. Carrigan
In the course of the year analyses of several hundred samples of
virgin and cultivated (citrus) soils have been completed and the data
are being prepared for publication.
Additional samples of citrus juice, as supplied under cooperative ar-
rangements with the State Department of Agriculture, have been analyzed
spectrographically, as have also a number of ashes of seedlings grown
under carefully controlled conditions of solution culture by the Department
of Horticulture.
Several groups of materials arising out of cooperative projects with
the Animal Husbandry Department have been analyzed spectrographically.
They include: (1) More than two score of tissue, bone, blood and other
parts of the carcass of (a) a normal calf and (b) a "salt sick" calf; (2)
Various animal tissues and forage plants in connection with certain
animal deficiency symptoms that occur in the Everglades; (3) Further
samples of the ash of young rats; (4) The ash of milk from normal and
"salt sick" cows. Where these studies involve single samples of various
materials, as under (1), they are, of course, largely for exploratory
purposes.
The infrared absorption spectrum of several of the simpler sugars
and compounds containing a lactone linkage have been determined.
The constituent horizons of 11 standard soil profiles from widely dis-
tributed soil regions in the United States have been analyzed as back-
ground information and for comparison with the composition of Florida
soils.
Numerous miscellaneous samples have been analyzed for various de-
partments.

A STUDY OF CHLOROSISS" IN CORN PLANTS AND OTHER
FIELD CROP PLANTS
Adams Project 220 R. M. Barnette
Study of residual effects of soil treatments with zinc sulfate in the
prevention of "white bud" of corn has been continued in cooperation with
the Department of Agronomy. The second harvest from these tests (1937)
indicates that the original treatment is still producing just as good results
as where subsequent annual treatments have been given, thus showing
good residual effects.
Another experiment to study the residual effects of zinc sulfate treat-
ments in controlling "white bud" of corn was started during the year on
a "rested" Arredonda fine sand. "White bud" has not occurred in this
field to date and the zinc sulfate treatment has had no effect on corn
yields. The experiment will be continued.







Annual Report, 1938


Inasmuch as field work of this nature with zinc and other trace elements
is now regarded as a definite and regular part of soil fertility work, it
will be treated in this way and developed on an extended basis in the
future.

A STUDY OF THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GLUCOSIDES
OF CITRUS FRUITS
Purnell Project 221 L. W. Gaddum and L. H. Rogers
Due to the lack of chemical facilities, this project has been inactive
during the year. In view of the revision that has taken place in the
research program of the department as a whole, this project is being
dropped with the idea that the work contemplated under this title will
fall under Project 256 or 201 according as it has to do with the develop-
ment of satisfactory methods or studies involving their systematic ap-
plication.
BRONZING OR COPPER LEAF OF CITRUS
State Project 223 C. E. Bell
This study has been continued without change under the immediate
supervision of Dr. A. F. Camp and G. M. Bahrt and is reported on under
Project 110 of the Citrus Experiment Station.

THE OCCURRENCE AND BEHAVIOR OF LESS ABUNDANT
ELEMENTS IN SOILS
Adams Project 240 R. M. Barnette
The principal work under this project is being brought to a close.
The accrued data now in process of preparation for publication include:
(1) A study of the toxic limits of replaceable zinc in a Norfolk sand,
an Orangeburg fine sandy loam and a Greenville clay loam; (2) a study
of the effect of increasing applications of zinc sulfate on plant growth
and the fixation of zinc in an Arredonda fine sand; and (3) the distribu-
tion of some macro and micro-elements in soil samples from peninsular
Florida.

THE DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL AND
PHYSICAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS IN AGRICULTURAL
RESEARCH
Purnell Project 256 L. W. Gaddum, L. H. Rogers
and R. A. Carrigan
The quantitative spectrographic method for the determination of copper
has been extended to include proportions of copper from 0.0005 percent
to 2.0 percent and has been used for the analyses of the normal and
"salt sick" calf tissues referred to under Project 201. Details of the
method are to be published soon.
The procedure of Kidson, Askew and Dixon, New Zealand Jour. Sci.
and Tech., 18: 601 (1936), for cobalt is being examined for accuracy and
reproducibility.
A definite start has been made in the evaluation of the chemical back-
ground of the so-called "quick" soil tests. Here again the reproducibility
of results is being emphasized in the early studies involving certain of
the standard kits now on the market. The availability of an accurate
photoelectric colorimeter that is anticipated during the course of the year
will assist greatly in the development of this problem.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SPECTROGRAPHIC STUDIES OF THE COMPOSITION OF TISSUES
AND CORRESPONDING SOILS OF NORMAL AND PHYSIO-
LOGICALLY DISEASED HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Purnell Project 266 L. W. Gaddum and A. F. Camp
Work on this project has been held in abeyance in favor of placing
added emphasis on other projects.

THE INVESTIGATION OF VITAMIN C CONTENT OF
FLORIDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
State Project 292 R. B. French
In the course of the year the vitamin C content of numerous mis-
cellaneous fruits and vegetables has been determined. A number of
these with their vitamin content expressed in terms of milligrams vitamin
C per 100 grams of sample are listed as follows: tomatoes, 21 samples,
15-26 mg.; home canned tomato juice, 18 samples, 12-23 mg.; New Zealand
spinach, 20-37 mg.; watermelon, 7 mg.; peaches, 0-5 mg.; figs, 0 mg.;
grapes and grape juice, 0 mg.; mango, 40 mg.; papaya, 33 mg.; celery,
37 mg.; cucumbers, 10 mg.; pepper, 83 mg.; okra, 73 mg.; pineapple, 37 mg.
Several cooking tests have been run to study the effect of home cook-
ing on the vitamin C content of various materials. Thus cabbage cooked
for 9 minutes in a copper pot containing salty ham broth, or in an iron
pot with bacon broth, appeared to lose nearly 50 percent of its vitamin C,
while in a greased pot or in an enameled or aluminum pot it lost only
20-25 percent. However, it was found that cauliflower, boiled for 7
minutes in salted water, whether in aluminum, porcelain or iron pots,
did not lose any of its vitamin C.

NUTRIENT SALT CONCENTRATION IN THE SOIL WITH SPECIAL
REFERENCE TO THE TRACE ELEMENTS
State Project 293 R. B. French
Corn plants grown in sand culture were found to have an unusually
high iron requirement. Increments of iron added to the nutrient solution
at levels known to be toxic to other plants caused an increased growth
of corn. When iron was supplied in the ferrous state, it allowed better
growth than in the oxidized form.
Iron added to the nutrient solution as ferric nitrate, ferrous sulfate
and ferric citrate, at 0.5, 3, 10, 25, and 100 parts per million produced
increased growth with each increment. Examination of the iron content
of the stalks and leaves of the young, half-grown, and mature corn plants
fed the same basic, complete nutrient solution, except for the variations
in the kind and level of the iron supplied, reveals a very considerable
constancy of composition.

MINERAL CONTENT OF VEGETABLE CROPS WITH
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO IRON
State Project 294 H. W. Winsor
Wide variation in the iron content of vegetables from various loca-
tions in the State has been further confirmed. Details of theory in the
improved colorimetric method for iron, developed in connection with this
study, were published in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Analytical
Edition, 9: 453 (1937). Incidental advantages of this method which since
have become apparent are its complete freedom from pyrophosphate in-
terference, and an unusual sensitivity with minute amounts of iron. This







Annual Report, 1938


appears to be several times greater than that claimed for recently proposed
organic reagents.
As a check on the presence of undue amounts of sodium in plants grown
near salt water, several samples have been gathered from an area where
brackish water prevails. These samples have not as yet been analyzed
for this element.

A STUDY OF THE SO-CALLED "QUICK METHODS" FOR
DETERMINING SOIL FERTILITY
State Project 306 C. E. Bell
The work with "quick methods" during the year has consisted largely
of further comparative studies of the action of different extracting solu-
tions and procedures. This has been undertaken with the view of establish-
ing their final adaptability to the problem in hand by actual "calibration"
with the use of plant response under field and greenhouse conditions.
A large number of samples from formal fertilizer experiments under
field conditions has been examined during the year from a limited number
of soil types. The study has not gone far enough to make recommenda-
tions for practical use. Because of the complex nature of the methods
phase of this general problem this aspect of the work will be taken care
of in the future under Project 256.

SOIL AND VEGETATION SURVEYS IN RELATION TO
PASTURE DEVELOPMENT IN FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones Project 322 R. M. Barnette and J. R. Henderson
A generalized soil map of Florida based, in part, upon information
from a wide variety of sources, has been prepared that shows the distribu-
tion of 15 major soil groups. A general vegetation map also has been
prepared showing the distribution of 15 vegetation types. Both maps
are finding an important place in the preparation of a manuscript on
"The Soils of Florida", the preliminary draft of which has been completed
at the close of the year.
A preliminary rating of Florida soils as to value for native and
improved pastures has been prepared. In cooperation with the Animal
Husbandry Department, soil and vegetation samples have been collected
for study from areas where cattle showing "salt sick" symptoms have
responded to treatment with cobalt in a specific way.
Accurate maps showing soil boundaries and plot boundaries and treat-
ments have been made of all of the experimental pasture tracts of the
Agronomy Department and of several others for the Department of Horti-
culture. Likewise, the soils used in 41 cooperative field experiments with
field crops were classified for the North Florida Station. An accurate
soil map of the North Florida Experiment Station at Quincy also has
been prepared in cooperation with the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils.

TYPE AND DISTRIBUTION OF MICROORGANISMS IN
FLORIDA SOILS
State Project 326 F. B. Smith
The numbers of bacteria, molds and actinomycetes in the surface horizon
of the following soil types are being determined by the dilution plate
method: Blanton fine sand, Orlando loamy fine sand, Portsmouth fine sand,
peat, Hernando loamy fine sand, Norfolk fine sand, Gainesville loamy fine
sand, and Leon fine sand.
Virgin and cultivated areas of all types are being sampled at two
different locations within Alachua County. It is proposed to sample other







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


types in other parts of the State as well, at least once during each critical
season of the year.

THE METABOLISM AND FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS OF SOIL
MICROORGANISMS UNDER FLORIDA CONDITIONS
State Project 327 F. B. Smith
This project was initiated in March 1938. Preliminary work has been
started on a study of the effect of reaction (pH) of the culture medium
on the respiration and growth of Bacillus radiobacter. Equipment is being
assembled and organisms isolated from Florida soils for this purpose.

THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF MICROBIOLOGICAL ACTION IN
SOILS AND CROPPING SYSTEMS IN FLORIDA
State Project 328 F. B. Smith
The project was initiated in March 1938. To date work on two prob-
lems has been planned and preliminary work started. These include a
study of the effect of reaction (pH) on the decomposition of organic
matter in Florida soils, and of the effects of various nitrogen fertilizers
on the microbiological activities.

METHODS OF INOCULATING LEGUMES IN FLORIDA SOILS
Bankhead-Jones Project 329 F. B. Smith and R. E. Blaser
A preliminary experiment on methods of inoculation and the effect
of soil treatment on inoculation was started January 24, 1938, in coopera-
tion with the Department of Agronomy. Two blocks consisting of 42
plots each were planted to white clover. Seven soil treatments were
made and six methods of inoculation were compared on each block. The
plots were 10' x 20' and each plot was divided into four sections 10' x 5'
for a study of the effect of cultivation on inoculation and stand.
The pure culture method and the soil culture method of inoculating
the seeds before planting were used for comparison with a delayed (spray)
inoculation and the inoculation of the seeds and the soil at planting.
Ten plants were taken at random from each method of inoculation,
March 11, 1938, and the numbers of nodules per plant determined. There
were nodules on the plants from all plots but the average number of nodules
on the plants from the uninoculated plots were significantly smaller than
any from the inoculated plots, except the plot which received the delayed
application of the bacteria as a spray. The soil culture method of inoculat-
ing the seed was less effective for inoculation, as measured by the number
of nodules per plant, than either of the pure culture methods tried. The
application of 500 pounds per acre of soil from a field growing the inocu-
lated legume in addition to the inoculation of the seeds with the soil
brought about an increased number of nodules per plant over the inocula-
tion of the seed with soil alone.

EFFECT OF TYPE AND TREATMENT OF FLORIDA SOILS ON YIELD,
COMPOSITION AND QUALITY OF FARM CROPS
(In Cooperation with the Department of Agronomy)
R. V. Allison, R. M. Barnette
and C. E. Bell
During the year considerable progress has been made in surveying
the soils and mapping the experimental plots already established by the
Department of Agronomy for pasture grass and clover studies. Subse-







Annual Report, 1938 79

quently, soil samples involving several different types have been taken
from a number of these plots for laboratory study. Important among
these are Bayboro fine sandy loam, Portsmouth fine sand, Johnson loamy
fine sand, Fellowship fine sand, Leon fine sand and Alachua fine sand.
A number of preliminary studies have been made with some of these by
way of selecting a suitable extractant for routine use.
During the coming year it is planned that a considerable amount of
work will be done on these and other samples by way of studying the
reactivity of certain soil treatments both as to their effect on soil com-
position and the development and quality of the plant.
Furthermore, it is expected that these studies will be extended to
other farm crops and other soils; also that all experiments of this nature
will be planned cooperatively in the future and all necessary physical
data made a part of the progressive record of the experiment as it is
laid out and developed on carefully selected areas of soil that have been
mapped in advance for this purpose.

EFFECT OF TYPE AND TREATMENT OF FLORIDA SOILS ON YIELD,
COMPOSITION AND QUALITY OF TRUCK, BUSH AND
TREE CROPS (OTHER THAN CITRUS)
(In Cooperation with the Department of Horticulture)
R. V. Allison, R. M. Barnette
and H. W. Winsor
During the year a certain amount of soils work has been initiated in
cooperation with the Horticultural Department. This has consisted largely
of the preparation of detailed maps of the soils of seven pecan experi-
ments and the taking of soil samples from certain of them for laboratory
study. These experiments are located as follows: One each at Starke,
Tallahassee, DeFuniak Springs, and Paxton and three at Monticello.
Examinations of such samples as have been taken to date are proving
definitely helpful in deciding the future trends of these studies.
Special studies of nitrogen sources for potatoes have been carried
through the second year in the Hastings area and continue to indicate
that water soluble sources of organic nitrogen compare favorably with
natural organic sources at least through the early stages of the tests.

EFFECT OF TYPE AND TREATMENT OF FLORIDA SOILS ON THE
YIELD, COMPOSITION AND QUALITY OF CITRUS
R. V. Allison and R. M. Barnette
The general studies with citrus that have been reported on in the
past under Projects 37, 94, and 223 will be found in the future in the
reports of the Citrus and Sub-Tropical Stations. The work reported
under the above title will have to do largely with studies carried on by
graduate students in the College of Agriculture. This will be in coopera-
tion with the Department of Horticulture and the Citrus Station, or
others of the branch experiment stations according to the location of
the work.
The principal work under way with citrus at present is a comparison
of soluble organic nitrogen with natural organic sources and with in-
organic sources. This study is being carried out in 12 different groves
in four different counties. Seven grapefruit groves, two varieties on
three soil types and five orange groves, two varieties on two soil types,
are involved.







80 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Inasmuch as the work was started in the autumn of 1936 and the
drought of the past season worked so much hardship on all of the areas
in which these groves are located, the yield records to date have not been
of particular significance.

CLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING OF FLORIDA SOILS ACCORDING
TO MODERN SURVEY METHODS
R. M. Barnette and J. R. Henderson
The formal soil survey of Alachua County has been continued during
the year and work initiated in Collier County in cooperation with the
Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, USDA.
Prior to the time that formal soil survey work was initiated in Alachua
County late in 1936 and in Collier County late in 1937, nothing had been
done in the State since 1927 when the Lake County and Polk County
surveys became available. All soil survey work prior to that time was
done so early as to be of little value at the present. Thus, with Alachua
County completed next year and Collier County the following year, only
10 percent of the state, four counties out of 67, will be covered by a
modern soil survey.
The soil surveys in progress in Alachua and Collier counties have
been made possible by working agreements between the University and
the County, whereby the Boards of County Commissioners allot funds
to the University for the payment of field expenses of men furnished by
the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, under the provisions of a memorandum
of understanding between the University and the Bureau.

CELERY LABORATORY

SOIL FERTILIZER STUDIES WITH CELERY
State Project 252 R. W. Ruprecht
The work of the laboratory was divided into studies with diseases of
celery and soil and fertilizer studies.
The fertilizer experiments were conducted on approximately one acre
divided into 80th acre plots with each treatment duplicated. A comparison
was made of various sources of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash and
observations were made on the effect of minor elements on the growth
of celery. Of the nitrogen sources tested, nitrate of soda, either natural
or synthetic, and low grade potassium nitrate gave somewhat higher yields
than did the usual combination of organic and inorganic nitrogen. No other
source of nitrogen when used alone gave as large yields as did the check
plots which received nitrogen from both natural organic and inorganic
sources. The substitution of urea for the natural organic in the check
mixtures produced yields as good as the checks. Of the phosphoric acid
sources tested neither rock phosphate nor colloidal phosphate produced
as good yields as did superphosphate. Basic slag produced yields only
slightly lower than superphosphate. Of the potash sources used, muriate
of potash produced the best yields. In the minor element studies with
zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate and cobaltous sulfate combinations of any
two or of all three salts produced slightly increased yields. The general
use of these salts is not recommended as yet.
Blackheart studies were continued with pot and water cultures. While
the presence of nitrites in the soil is always associated with the develop-
ment of this disease, it has not been possible to prove that nitrites are
the cause.







Annual Report, 1938 81

Comparing the effectiveness of various liming materials in maintaining
the pH of the soil, 500 and 1,000 pound applications per acre of limestone
were compared with equivalent amounts of hydrated lime, dolomite and
hardwood ashes. Three months after the applications of liming materials
there was very little difference in the pH of the soil. All of the plots
had a slightly higher pH than at the start.
During the past year 1,958 samples of soil were tested for growers
for soil reaction and in many cases for salt concentration.
Analyses of well water from 12 different wells in Seminole County
show very little fluctuation in the salt content even during extreme drought.
While there is a wide difference in salt content between different wells,
the salt content of each well remains constant.
An experimental planting of bright tobacco, some 200 plants, was made
to determine the possibility of following celery with this crop. The crop
made a very good growth and is now being harvested and cured.
Refer to Report of Plant Pathology Department for reports on celery
disease investigations.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ENTOMOLOGY

Fear expressed in the last annual report that the white fringed beetle,
Naupactus leucoloma Boh., was likely to be a very severe threat to agri-
culture as now practiced in northern Florida and states north has been
fully borne out by observations during the past year. The peak of
emergence of the adult beetles was about July 10, and in some fields it
was estimated that there were fully 250,000 beetles per acre. The food
habits of the adults were observed to be somewhat different from those
of the larvae in that they do not care particularly for any members of
the grass family. They were unable to get out of a ditch the depth of
a few inches with straight, crumbly sides. This is the method now being
employed to limit their spread. As reported in the last annual report,
no males have been observed, although dissection in the laboratory by
Dr. A. N. Tissot showed well developed spermatheca, indicating that
parthenogenesis may not have been long maintained in this species. This
beetle has been found in five states and all control measures have been
undertaken by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S.
Department of Agriculture. Five articles have been published on the
food habits, geographical distribution and climatological requirements of
the insect.
A study of the geographical and ecological distribution of Florida
thysanoptera was continued. Several new species were discovered and
described, two on surprisingly unusual hosts. One was taken on pond
weed, Pontederia, and the other on water lilies, Nymphaea. The first
instance in Florida of commercial damage to a crop by the West Indian
flower thrips, Frankliniella insularis, was noted on beans in Pinellas
County.
Because of depredations of the lubberly locust in communities where
bulbs are grown in large quantities the department has begun a study
of this insect. This grasshopper increases markedly in communities
where bulbs, such as narcissus and gladiolus, are raised. It was found
that a trench a few inches deep and a foot wide was a very effective
barrier to the migrations of the nymphs. A study of the life history of
the insect has been started, with a view to securing information as to the
best means of control.
The heavy pinworm infestation of last year was not repeated, although
a few of the insects were found in Manatee County in the spring. This
verified the opinion expressed last year that the unseasonably warm
weather of January 1937 was responsible for the very unusual outbreak
of that time. Dr. J. W. Wilson took up the study of the pameras which
are spring pests of strawberry plants. He found that they had a very
large number of hosts, on which they were found the year around, includ-
ing grasses, and that they molested strawberries in the spring of the
year for two reasons. In the first place, strawberry plants were not
attractive to them until the leaves became mature and reclined on the
ground, giving the pameras shelter. In the second place, drying of the
native vegetation in the spring, particularly with a drouth, drove the
pameras to the more succulent strawberries.







Annual Report, 1938


THE FLORIDA FLOWER THRIPS
(Frankliniella cephalica bispinosa Morgan)
State Project 8 J. R. Watson
Flower thrips were not particularly abundant in citrus bloom, but as
the severe drouth of the spring progressed they became very abundant
on plants that bloomed later in the spring. Intensive study of the type
of injury they inflicted on young citrus was initiated as there is consider-
able confusion between this type of injury and that caused by chafing
in a heavy wind. To definitely determine the type of injury that they
produce on citrus, buds just about to open were enclosed in cellophane
bags and into these bags were placed about a hundred thrips taken from
roses. Similar buds were placed in other bags without any thrips as a
check. Characteristic thrips injury appeared in the shape of marks radiat-
ing out from the stem end of the fruit.

ROOT-KNOT INVESTIGATIONS
Adams Project 12 J. R. Watson, C. C. Goff
and H. E.-Bratley
A heavy mulch of leaves, dead grass or Spanish moss has long been
advocated for perennial plants infested with root-knot. Intensive study
has been inaugurated to determine the manner in which this mulch de-
creases root-knot injury, whether it is due to the exclusion of air from
the soil as previously supposed, or whether, it makes conditions more
favorable for certain fungous diseases that attack nematodes, as is main-
tained by a worker in Hawaii. Ten plots protected by partitions from
washing have been treated with varying amounts of dead grass, crotalaria,
and other materials.
Two strains of cowpeas quite resistant to root-knot are being grown.
One is the conch cowpea mentioned in last year's report. One-half acre
has been planted to this strain in hills four feet apart, a single plant
to each hill, so that individual plants even more resistant to root-knot
attack than the general run of the strain may be selected. To make sure
that root-knot is present in each hill an okra plant has been placed along-
side the cowpeas. Okra is very susceptible to root-knot and hence is a
good indicator as to whether or not the particular cowpea in question was
exposed to their attacks.
The other cowpea under observation that seems to be very resistant
to root-knot is of Aistralian origin. This variety makes an extremely
large vine, rivalling that of velvet beans. It seems to be very resistant
to root-knot but unfortunately has a very long season so that very little
seed is produced before the plant is cut down by frost in the fall.
Investigations of a possible strain of papayas resistant to root-knot
are being continued. Seeds of approximately a dozen varieties have been
obtained from some 40 papaya plantations.
In the control of root-knot, C. C. Goff at the Watermelon Laboratory
treated strips two feet wide with cyanamid, as reported last year. Results
of this work indicated that although all watermelon plants became infested
those planted in the treated strips had a lighter infestation or were in-
fested later in the season, due undoubtedly to the migration of the nema-
todes from the untreated soil. Previous experiments showed that the
nematodes will migrate about a foot a month, so it would be anticipated
that a strip of this size would be infested in the course of a month.
Apparently the treatment of the soil in this manner would have a very
limited application.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


INTRODUCTION AND PROPAGATION OF BENEFICIAL INSECTS
State Project 13 J. R. Watson and W. L. Thompson
As in previous years work on this project had to do mostly with the
propagation and spread of the Chinese ladybeetle, Leis dimidiata var.
15-spilota Hope. Investigations last spring showed that corn comprises
an even more important summer food than was indicated in observations
of last season when the beetle was found feeding on the honeydew given
off by the corn lantern fly, Peregrinus maidis. This year the beetles and
the lantern fly were found on Napier grass as well as corn. Since Napier
grass grows all summer it would be a more important means of carrying
the beetles through a summer than corn, which usually becomes too mature
for the lantern flies sometime in June or July. Among other foods of
the beetle in the summer time were leaves of Baccharis halimifolia, (pencil
bush). Attempts were made to introduce this beetle into several other
counties but whether these have been successful is not yet known. In
the three counties where it is well established it again gave commercial
control of the green citrus aphis.

THE LARGER PLANT BUGS
State Project 14 H. E. Bratley
Nezara viridula was again scarce in the peninsular part of Florida.
Very little injury was observed to oranges, but in the western part of
the state it was very abundant and destructive, being a severe pest of
corn. Young, developing ears were attacked and badly injured by the
insects.
The experience of last year lends further probability to the previously
expressed opinion that an outbreak of the bugs can be predicted a year
in advance by noting the percentage of parasitization the preceding fall.
Leptoglossus phyllopus, the leaf-footed plant bug, did about its usual
amount of damage. Experiments were carried on as to control on satsuma
oranges, which are always particularly liable to attack. Dusting with
pyrethrum and rotenone compounds was tried but it seemed that the
most feasible plan was to collect the bugs in a dish containing a pyrethrum
or rotenone solution. Dipping is rendered more feasible by the colonial
habits of the insects. They have a strong tendency to collect on certain
trees to the neglect of adjoining ones. It was found that collecting them
three or four times during a season was sufficient to stop their injury.

CONTROL OF FRUIT AND NUT CROP INSECTS-INSECTS
AFFECTING PECAN TREES
State Project 82 S. 0. Hill, J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
Pecan Insect Laboratory
This work is carried in cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, UISDA. The major insect under investigation was
the nut case-bearer.
Barco, previously recommended as one of the best winter washes tried,
was no longer obtainable in this country as its manufacture had been dis-
continued. A number of other winter washes were tested since it appears
that a winter wash will be the most economical method of dealing with
this insect.
Trees sprayed at the proper time with a nicotine-bordeaux solution
have shown good control. The spray must be repeated, making control
expensive. It would seem hardly feasible except on those varieties of
*1







Annual Report, 1938


pecans which on account of scab must necessarily be sprayed every year
with bordeaux.

THE ONION THRIPS (Thrips tabaci Lindin)
State Project 231 J. R. Watson
Further efforts were made to determine the source of the infestations
of this thrips in the fall, winter and spring. As previously reported, they
are very scarce in summer. A close examination of onion sets obtained
from seed dealers showed an average of over 60 thrips per quart of sets.
These thrips were in all stages of development from nymphs to adults.
It was thus seen that the sets brought into this State are an important
source of an infestation of this very serious thrips. Whether or not this
is the only source of the infestations in the fall is a point to be determined.
Very good control was secured by dipping the sets in a pyrethrum extract.
Since the dipping does not reach the eggs in the tissue of the sets it is
necessary to dip them twice at an interval of about 10 days. Onions so
treated when set out in a field developed an infestation of thrips decidedly
later than those from bulbs which were not dipped. It would seem that
dipping of onion sets in a pretty strong insecticide should be a regular
practice of growers.

THE GLADIOLUS THRIPS (Taeniothrips simplex Morrison)
State Project 232 J. R. Watson and J. W. Wilson
Since the gladiolus industry has largely moved to Manatee and other
counties farther south, monthly inspection trips were made to Manatee
County, in connection with the pepper weevil work also. Gladiolus thrips
were found to be very scarce in the fall. Frankliniella fusca, the tobacco
thrips, was much more abundant at that time on gladiolus than Taenio-
thrips simplex. What few thrips were found in the early fall were
invariably on volunteer gladioli which were left in the field over the
summer, verifying previous conclusions that this was the most important
source of the infestation of gladiolus. By April the gladiolus thrips
became very abundant in all fields, and those in which no control measures
had been taken were after that time a complete loss as far as blossoms
were concerned.
A large number of treatments were tested for the control of this
thrips. The best spray, all things considered, was a poison bait made
of brown sugar and tartar emetic. This spray was much better than
the paris green baits previously used because there was no burning of
the gladioli, as often occurred with the paris green bait.
The gladiolus thrips is gradually spreading to parts of the state which
heretofore have not been infested, heavy infestations being reported from
Tallahassee this year.

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF FLORIDA APHIDS
State Project 234 A. N. Tissot
The finding of three species of gall-forming aphids on elms at Gaines-
ville was one of the most interesting discoveries of the past year. Aphid
galls are found very commonly on elm leaves in northern states but this
appears to be the first Florida record, though aphids have been collected
here rather intensively for the past several years. Eriosoma americanum
Riley, Georgiaphis ulmi (Wilson), and Colopha graminis (Monell) are the
species involved.







86 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The corn leaf aphid, Aphis maidis Fitch, usually can be found in small
numbers in most corn fields. Ordinarily, however, the infestations will
consist of a few scattered infested plants. During the last half of June
there appeared in one of the Station corn fields an unusually general
infestation of this aphid. Nearly every stalk in several rather large
areas was infested and the aphids appeared to be doing some injury to
the tassels and upper leaves of the corn. By June 30 predators and
parasites together with some heavy rains had destroyed practically all
the aphids.
During the past year 94 collections of Florida aphids were made and
recorded. These collections included 68 different species of which 8 had
not before been known to occur in the state. These additions bring the
list of known Florida aphids to about 140 species. The list of known
hosts of aphids was increased by the addition of 16 species of plants.
Some new insecticide materials were tested against the grape aphid,
Aphis illinoisensis Shimer. Some of these gave very satisfactory control
of the aphids and give promise of becoming useful additions to the aphi-
cides now available.

THE PEPPER WEEVIL (Anthonomus eugenii Cano)
State Project 263 J. W. Wilson and J. R. Watson
Only two infestations of the pepper weevil were found in Manatee
County this year and none in Sarasota. One was extremely light but
in a locality where no weevils had been found the previous year, showing
that an area must be watched for two or three years before it is certain
the weevils have been exterminated. The other heavy infestation could
be traced back to a field in which the previous year the pepper plants
had not been entirely destroyed at the close of the picking season. The
weevils appeared first in the fall on a field of peppers within a quarter
of a mile of this neglected field. From this point they gradually spread
to three other fields within half a mile of the infestation. An infestation
on hot peppers which has persisted ever since the weevil was first dis-
covered apparently was cleaned up as no weevils were found on this
planting this year. It is very evident that a thorough clean-up of the
fields at the end of the picking season in the late spring is a very efficient
method of control. It would seem that with a 100 percent clean-up it
might be entirely feasible to exterminate this pest in a year or two.

LIFE HISTORY, FOOD PREFERENCES, ECOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION
AND CONTROL OF THE LUBBERLY LOCUST, Romalea
microptera (Beauvois)
Adams Project 333 J. R. Watson and H. E. Bratley
Because of the destructive nature of the lubberly locust, particularly
on flatwoods areas, investigations leading to its control have just been
undertaken. These will include studies of its life history, habits, and
other relationships as well as tests of chemical and other means of
control.







Annual Report, 1938


HOME ECONOMICS

Work for the year was concentrated on three projects dealing with
the chemical composition and vitamin content of fruits, vegetables, and
honeys and with the nutritional status and dietary habits of rural people.
Perhaps the most outstanding work for the year was the discovery
that the differential white blood cell count gives a convenient and reliable
method of diagnosing vitamin A deficiency in humans. From the study
of the blood picture of a large number of subjects it was found that
vitamin A deficiency is widespread and is not limited to any particular
group or class of people. Varying degrees of vitamin A deficiency have
been found in women on reducing or restricted diets, college students,
school children, business and laboring men and women. The symptoms
of an early or mild vitamin A deficiency are conjunctivitis, night blind-
ness, certain indefinite eye symptoms not cured by medication nor glasses,
dry hair and skin, general lack of vigor and susceptibility to skin infec-
tions. The daily administration of 51,000 U. S. P. units of vitamin A
restored the blood picture in three to five weeks. After that time the
dose was reduced about half and in six to eight weeks the gross symptoms
disappeared.

A STUDY OF THE PATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN TISSUES AFFECTED
BY DEFICIENCY DISEASES OR BY TOXIC SUBSTANCES
Purnell Project 222 C. F. Ahmann
This project was closed with the completion of studies of histological
sections of organs of animals on cobalt deficient rations.

AN INVESTIGATION OF HUMAN DIETARY DEFICIENCIES IN
SELECTED COUNTIES IN FLORIDA, WITH SPECIAL REFER-
ENCE TO NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA IN RELATION TO HOME-
GROWN FOODS
Purnell Project 255 0. D. Abbott, R. Overstreet
and C. F. Ahmann, Consulting Physician
'Nutritional studies for the year have been limited to investigations
of the nutritive status of children and women in Citrus County and 4-H
club girls in the West Coast district.
Four hundred children in grades 1 to 3 were examined. These children
were distributed among the 15 schools in the county. The hemoglobin
values of the children varied from 4.35 grams to 14.05 grams hemoglobin
per 100 cc of blood. In school districts on the coast where fishing and
general farming were the chief occupations less than 5 percent of the
children were anemic; in districts where general and truck farming were
the chief occupations 15 percent of the children were anemic; and in
other districts as high as 60 percent of the children were anemic. The
examination showed that conjunctivitis, dry skin and hair and minor skin
infections were present in approximately half of the children with very
low hemoglobin values. These symptoms indicated a lack of vitamin A.
A differential white blood cell count showed that these children were
deficient in vitamin A.
That the anemia so prevalent in certain sections of the county was
of nutritional origin and due to a deficiency in iron was proved by giving
ferric ammonium citrate to children with a severe degree of anemia. In
30 days the hemoglobin values of all the treated children increased to







88 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

values within the range considered normal. Haliver oil was also given
to those children diagnosed as deficient in vitamin A and in several weeks
their blood picture was much improved and the symptoms were alleviated.
Food Studies.-Samples of leafy vegetables have been collected for
mineral analyses from representative home gardens in each school district.
A study is being made of the food actually used by representative well
nourished and malnourished individuals. Food samples were collected from
80 families. Each sample consisted of an accurate duplication of all
foods used by the selected child in six consecutive meals. In collecting
the sample the collector served an extra plate at each of the six meals
with an amount of food equal to that eaten by the child. To this sample
were added foods eaten between meals. These samples are being collected
from each family during the spring, fall and winter. The foods are sep-
arated into those classed as predominantly protein, predominantly carbo-
hydrate, and predominantly fat. A representative sample of the food is
taken for mineral analysis. By this method of sampling definite informa-
tion is being secured on eating habits and on the mineral content of the
foods actually used.
4-H Club Girls.-Data are being collected on the physical condition
of 4-H club girls. A comparative study is being made of the hemoglobin
values of 4-H club girls and of rural girls of the same age who are not
club girls.
Malnourished Women.-Seventeen undernourished women, 8 showing
definite symptoms of pellagra, were brought into this study through the
cooperation of physicians. No changes were made in the living conditions
or diet of these women before treatment began. The corrective therapy
consisted of liver concentrate and vitamins B1 and B2. After a six weeks'
treatment all symptoms were removed. Each patient had gained from
4 to 28 pounds. A diet consisting of unpolished rice, eggs, whole grains,
milk and vegetables was advised. These women are still under observation.

THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF
SEVERAL FLORIDA HONEYS
Purnell Project 270 0. D. Abbott, R. Overstreet
and C. F. Ahmann, Consulting Physician
Additional samples of Florida honeys produced in different sections
of the state have been collected during the current season. These honeys
are now being analyzed. Again it has been found that tupelo and black
mangrove honeys contain the highest percentages of levulose, and have
an immediate direct polarization at 20* C. of approximately 25.8-26.6.
A study is being made of the nutritional status of infants when honey
or cane syrup replaces glucose in the evaporated milk-glucose formula.
The experimental group consisted of 12 babies fed on evaporated milk
and honey, 10 on evaporated milk and cane syrup, 10 on evaporated milk
and glucose and five breast fed. These babies were under observation
for only nine months as after that time milk constitutes only a small
part of the daily food. All of these babies were born of anemic mothers
and three of them were ill when taken into the project.
In all cases the babies are gaining in weight and are apparently healthy
and normal. The data indicate that honey or cane syrup can be sub-
stituted for glucose in infant feeding. The addition of honey or cane
syrup to the evaporated milk makes of it a more palatable food than
when glucose is used. Glucose is the laxative constituent in the formula,
and- the glucose requirement is determined largely by its laxative effect.
For this reason babies who suffer from constipation often take in rela-







Annual Report, 1938 89

tively large amounts of glucose and become overweight. Overweight is
avoided when honey or cane syrup is used, for both honey and cane syrup
have a greater laxative effect than glucose and are used in smaller
amounts.
A study of the chemical composition of royal jelly was continued.

STANDARDIZATION OF HOME CANNED TOMATOES AND
TOMATO JUICE
Purnell Project 272 0. D. Abbott
This investigation has continued along the lines reported in 1937.
It has been found that there is considerable variation in the vitamin C
content of different varieties of tomatoes, and in the same variety at
different seasons of the year. There are some indications that such factors
as temperature, maturity, soil, fertilizer treatment, as well as variety in-
fluence the vitamin C content of tomatoes.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HORTICULTURE

Research in horticulture has dealt with a wide range of problems
as related to growth, production and handling of numerous crops, includ-
ing citrus fruits, vegetables, deciduous fruits, tung, pecans, vine and bush
fruits, ornamentals and horticultural fumigation.
In citrus storage experiments, methods have been developed for the
determination of carbon dioxide in stored fruit and for the storing, handling
and utilization of fruit that has been frozen on the tree. Specific freezing
temperatures and the duration of exposure required to freeze the different
commercial varieties of citrus were determined for fruit in various con-
ditions.
In tung investigations it was found that a physiological disorder that
has been called "frenching" can be corrected with manganese applied either
to the soil or as a foliage spray. Data were obtained in relation to cold
damage with reference to air drainage and other contributing factors.
Vegetable experiments have included variety testing and the effects
on growth and production of cover crops, soil acidity, fertilizers and
methods of application, and soil amendments. One of the seedling potatoes
developed by the United States Department of Agriculture gave out-
standing yields. In the cover crop tests the plots in which mature
Crotalaria spectabilis had been returned to the soil ranked first in total
production of the four vegetable crops grown.
In work with ornamentals, it was found that a certain type of chlorosis,
which is frequently quite serious, can be corrected with manganese.

COOPERATIVE FERTILIZER TESTS IN PECAN ORCHARDS
State Project 47 G. H. Blackmon
In general, Moore trees continued to show greater response to fertiliza-
tion than those of other varieties included in the tests. The 1937 results,
as those of previous years, are indicative of the necessity of practicing
a suitable orchard management program and supplying adequate nutrients
to maintain tree growth and nut production.
Growth.-All trees, with few exceptions, made significantly larger
growth in the fertilized plots than where no plant foods have been applied.
In a large number of instances greater trunk increments were recorded
where sulfate of ammonia is being applied during the summer than for
comparably fertilized trees that have not received the additional applica-
tions of commercial nitrogen.
Yields.-The Moore trees in Jefferson County produced the heaviest
yields of all varieties in these experiments. This variety also generally
showed the largest increases, which were very substantial differences,
over the quantity of nuts produced by the unfertilized checks. Money-
maker trees were second to Moore in nut production but they did not
respond as well to fertilizer applications and consequently the increases
in yield over the checks were not so great. Moore and Stuart trees, in
all comparably fertilized plots except one, produced heavier crops of nuts
where sulfate of ammonia was applied during the summer, in addition to
the regular spring fertilizer applications. With the other varieties, how-
ever, there were variable responses to the summer applications of the
additional commercial nitrogen which were not entirely consistent in all
instances.







Annual Report, 1938 91

STUDIES ON VARIETIES OF PECANS AND OTHER
HORTICULTURAL NUT-BEARING SPECIES
State Project 48 G. H. Blackmon
The 1937 pecan yield in Florida varied in different parts of the state.
It was heavy in the central-western section, but light in the eastern and
extreme western areas. The type of orchard management was reflected
in the yields of prolific varieties.
Varieties.-Varieties continue to play an important part in annual
pecan production. Moore has continued to be one of the most prolific
and, under comparable orchard managements, it has generally produced
the most consistent yields. Stuart yields were somewhat better in some
orchards than in recent years, but this variety seems to do better in
extreme western Florida than in other parts of the state. Mahan and
Moneymaker produced good crops, as did Frotscher where legumes have
been grown and returned to the soil, but Curtis and Kennedy yields were
generally light.
Cover Crops.-Legumes have proven to be an important factor in the
maintenance of tree vigor and nut production and are being grown con-
tinuously in the best managed orchards. Various quantities of Augusta
vetch seed were planted by many growers during the fall of 1937, and
in most instances the plants made satisfactory growth and produced an
abundance of seed. In the variety orchard at Gainesville this vetch pro-
duced a heavy tonnage of green material and a good yield of seed from
a natural reseeding of the previous spring.
Soil Amendments.-Trees in plots where zinc sulfate had been applied
to the soil in all experiments generally showed marked improvement in
leaf and twig growth. With some of the treatments, severely rosetted
trees have recovered sufficiently to produce fairly good crops of nuts. In
most instances the Moore and Curtis trees have responded and made
better growth and yields than the other varieties.
Pecan Products.-Some additional studies were made on food products
which can be manufactured out of pecan kernels.
Three methods of handling the kernels just prior to subjecting them
to 12 tons pressure were tested. These were cold, heated in pecan oil,
and heated alone in an open pan, using Stuart, Frotscher, Moore and
Moneymaker nuts of the 1937 crop. Percentage of oil expressed was
highest for all varieties except Stuart when the kernels were heated in
pecan oil just prior to pressing.
Butter was made much more easily by using the pomace from the cold
press and then heating it before grinding. However, it was found that
the kernels which had been heated prior to pressing left a pomace that
was best for making pecan meal.

PROPAGATION, PLANTING AND FERTILIZING TESTS WITH
TUNG OIL TREES
Hatch Project 50 R. D. Dickey and G. H. Blackmon
The tung oil crop of 1937 was much less than that of 1936, due largely
to injury to bloom by late spring frosts in many areas. Trees of Aleurites
fordi react readily to warm periods of several weeks in January and
February. Early bloom results and spring frosts may cause severe losses.
Within a given area, it has been observed that some localities are
much more subject to cold damage than others, and that the amount of
injury is closely correlated with its temperature history. Records and
observations over several years show some groves to have been subjected







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


to cold damage by late spring frosts while other groves only a few miles
distant have received little or no injury. Where records have been kept
these show that the locality where the damage occurs is consistently colder,
during those periods when possible freezing temperatures may be experi-
enced, than the comparable area which experienced little, if any, injury.
Locations selected should be carefully considered on the basis of sus-
ceptibility to frosts, as this factor is of considerable importance from the
standpoint of profitable production.
An interesting development in connection with this project during the
past year has been the work establishing manganese sulfate as a corrective
for a second physiological disorder of tung trees which has been called
"frenching". Details have been published in Bulletin 318.
Breeding, selection and testing for high yielding strains, together with
other various phases of the project, are being continued.

TESTING OF NATIVE AND INTRODUCED SHRUBS AND ORNA-
MENTALS AND METHODS FOR THEIR PROPAGATION
Hatch Project 52 R. D. Dickey
Work on this project of outstanding interest has been the development
of manganese sulfate as a corrective for a chlorosis affecting some woody
ornamentals. Details have been published in Bulletin 319. Subsequent
work this summer has shown that a chlorosis of the camphor tree, Plum-
bago capensis, crape jasmine (Ervatamia coronaria) and Psidium sp. has
been found to respond to a 1 percent solution of a CP manganese sulfate
applied as a foliage spray. Chlorosis of the camphor tree is quite prevalent
in central and northern Florida and, when present, often severely affects
its ornamental value. This disorder has been observed as particularly
common where the tree is used in street plantings.

GLADIOLI
Variety Tests.-The following varieties have been under trial at Gaines-
ville for sufficient time to warrant conclusions as to their performance:
Mildred Louise, Pelegrina, Brightside, Lotus, Sweetheart, Golden Poppy
and Margaret Fulton. Of these, Mildred Louise and Pelegrina failed to
bloom and by the end of the second year all bulbs were lost. Brightside,
Lotus and Sweetheart flowered but are apparently unsuited to Florida
growing conditions. From a commercial standpoint, Golden Poppy is
unsatisfactory as a large percentage of the spikes are short-stemmed
and it "crooks" badly. Margaret Fulton warrants further trial, as its
performance was comparable in every way with that of some of the
standard commercial varieties.
Storage Studies.-The season for planting gladioli for commercial pro-
duction in Florida extends from late August until early March, therefore
Northern-grown corms are not available until the planting season is
practically over. Storage experiments have been conducted to determine
whether or not "Northern-grown" corms could be held over for early fall
planting in suitable condition to give satisfactory results.
One thousand No. 1 Northern-grown corms of each of five varieties-
Giant Nymph, Golden Measure, Mrs. Frank Pendleton, Picardy and Dr.
F. E. Bennett-were secured in June 1936. The corms of each variety
were divided into four equal lots and placed under conditions of storage
shown in Table 10. Two lots of each variety were held at approximately
the same temperatures, with the exception that one room was held at







Annual Report, 1988


a constant temperature of 42 F. and an average relative humidity of
88 percent, while the second room ranged from 40 to 42 F., with an
average relative humidity of 70 percent. The check lots were held at
room temperatures. These corms were planted at Sanford on November 2.

TABLE 10.-GROWTH RESPONSES OF GLADIOLUS AT VARIOUS STORAGE
TEMPERATURES.*





Variety 1 1 '1s I . .
0 *0 > 0
z z i: z zP0
U.S z 02 -3 Wz& a4 1 Q

Giant Nymph .... Check 231 131 22 10.0 73 110
Giant Nymph .... 32*F. 260 202 118 45.0 76 110
Giant Nymph .... 40-42F. 259 237 170 66.0 75 107
Giant Nymph .... 42*F. 259 241 170 66.0 77 120
Golden Measure.. Check 174 72 7 4.0 78 94
Golden Measure.. 32F. 249 101 3 1.0 84 101
Golden Measure.. 40-42F. 248 72 18 7.0 81 119
Golden Measure.. 42F. 244 186 29 12.0 80 114
Pendleton ............ Check 164 44 8 5.0 75 114
Pendleton ............ 32F. 245 173 80 33.0 77 114
Pendleton ........... 40-42F. 248 178 115 46.0 77 110
Pendleton ............ 42F. 241 186 138 57.0 77 114
Picardy .... ..- Check 248 193 94 38.0 72 91
Picardy ... .... 30-32F. 264 202 173 66.0 79 138
Picardy ............... 40-42*F. 261 236 233 89.0 78 114
Picardy ............ 42F. 258 228 250 97.0 79 123
Dr. F. E. Bennett Check 240 142 56 23.0 74 113
Dr. F. E. Bennett 30-32'F. 263 231 154 59.0 82 114
Dr. F. E. Bennett 40-42'F. 262 246 190 73.0 76 113
Dr. F. E. Bennett 42'F. 262 248 194 74.0 78 103

*All corms were stored at the specified temperatures from June 23 to November 2.

It is evident that corms kept in cold storage produced more bloom
spikes than those stored at room temperatures, and that the lots stored
at 42 F. were decidedly superior in this regard to the lots stored at
30-32 F. Of the two lots held at approximately the same temperature,
those held at 42 F., with an average relative humidity of 88 percent,
were slightly superior to those held at 40-42* F., with an average relative
humidity of 70 percent.
Poor results obtained with Golden Measure especially, Mrs. Frank
Pendleton and Giant Nymph were due, in part, to infection with Penicil-
lium gladioli. When such infection was present the temperature at which
the corms were stored had a decided effect upon the subsequent injury
produced by this disease. The results obtained here show the desirability
of employing control measures to prevent or reduce such disease attack.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


COVER CROP TESTS IN PECAN ORCHARDS
State Project 80 G. H. Blackmon
Three cover crop experiments are being conducted with pecans, as
follows: One at the North Florida Station in which the trees were set
in 1937, and the other two in commercial orchards in Jeffereson and
Walton counties. The oldest experiment, in Jefferson County, definitely
emphasized the value of leguminous cover crops in the orchard manage-
ment program.
A tropical storm on July 31, 1936, did severe damage in the Walton
County experiment and the trees were devitalized by late growth to such
an extent that they produced only a few nuts in 1937. High winds of
short duration on August 30, 1937, blew off 20 and 25 percent respectively
of the Stuart and Frotscher crops in Jefferson County and did consider-
able damage to the trees of all three varieties, especially in defoliation and
the breaking of small branches.
Green Material.-In both experiments located in commercial orchards,
winter legumes planted consisted of Augusta and hairy vetch seed mixed,
half and half. Best growth of these legumes and consequently most
organic material was produced in the Jefferson County experiments. In
Walton the stand of plants was not so good and the tonnage of green
manure was much less. However, in both experiments Augusta vetch
grew as well as hairy vetch and produced seed in sufficient quantities
to permit testing its reseeding ability.


Fig. 5.-Augusta vetch (Vicia angustifolia) in a Jefferson County pecan orchard.







Annual Report, 1938 95

Tree Growth.-Increments of tree trunks for the different varieties of
bearing age were greater where the winter legumes have been annually
grown. They were largest for the Frotscher, with the Stuart in Jefferson
County a close second, while the Moore and the other Stuart trees made
about the same amount of trunk growth.
There was considerable late growth in the Jefferson County experi-
ment due to the defoliation on August 30, 1937, which seriously weakened
the trees. As a result, a large percentage of the twigs was killed by cold,
the damage being much greater with Moore than with Frotscher and
Stuart.
Yields.-Nut production in 1937 was light in Walton but good for all
three varieties in Jefferson and here the Stuart yields were the largest
of record. Frotscher trees produced the heaviest crop, their sixth con-
secutive annual yield in the winter legume plots. The amount of nuts
produced by the several varieties in both experiments varied with the
treatments and was invariably higher in each instance where the winter
legumes had been grown annually.

PHENOLOGICAL STUDIES ON TRUCK CROPS IN FLORIDA
State Project 110 F. S. Jamison
Fertilizer studies with watermelons, peppers, tomatoes and other vege-
tables were continued. Best results were secured with watermelons where
part of the cottonseed meal was applied three weeks before planting. No
significant response was secured from the use of zinc sulfate. There was
a significant response to fertilizers containing magnesium sulfate when
organic matter was part of the mixture. No response was secured when
it was added to inorganic mixtures unless lime also was added. With
nitrate of soda and nitrate of potash as side-dressings best results were
secured from nitrate of soda applied early in the growing season but
nitrate of potash gave best results when applied after fruits had set.
Tests of nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia and cottonseed meal, by
themselves and in combination with each other, as the source of nitrogen
for various vegetable crops were continued. Potatoes, peppers, lima beans
and cucumbers were grown with each of the various fertilizer treatments
(1937 Annual Report). Weather conditions prevailing during the growing
season were distinctly different from those in 1937 and this may account
for the quite different results secured.
Fertilizer placement studies with beans, peppers, cucumbers and pota-
toes were continued as described in the 1937 Report. The yield of vege-
tables for 1937 and 1938, when fertilized by the different methods, is
given in Table 11.
Placing fertilizer in bands to the side of the seed gave outstanding
results with cucumbers. The "mixed with the soil in the row" method
gave higher yields with beans and peppers. Potatoes at LaCrosse yielded
high in one field with the fertilizer in bands to the side, in another field
with the fertilizer in the furrow row. Broadcasting gave lower yields
with all crops studied in 1938.
A study of root growth of beans, potatoes, cucumbers and lettuce,
when fertilized by the various methods, showed the position of the roots
in the soil to be in direct relation to the position of the fertilizer.
A diffusion study of nitrate nitrogen as affected by methods of applica-
tion showed lateral diffusion to be less than two inches from the bands
of fertilizer. The vertical diffusion was rapid, being controlled largely
by moisture conditions.







96 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Calcium nitrate, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, ammonium sulfate
and certain other materials were used as a side- or top-dressing for
tomatoes. The material was applied when the first cluster was well set.
One and two units of nitrogen per acre from each of the materials were
used. Only one treatment (potassium nitrate) showed as large yield
as those obtained on the check plots where no side-dressing of any kind
was applied.

TABLE 11.-YIELD IN BUSHEmS OF U. S. No. 1 GRADE VEGETABLES AS
AFFECTED BY FERTILIZER APPLICATION.
Method I
of Year Tomatoes Peppers Beans Cucum- Potatoes
Application__ bers
Bushels Bushels Bushels Bushels Bushels
In bands 1937 106 89 92 63 90
to
the side 1938 228 222 94 177*
135t
In the 1937 101 70 115 36 72
furrow
row 1938 264 228 82 173*
146t

1937 121 80 105 16 118
Broadcast
1938 229 183 66 148*
120t
*Experimental results from Blanton fine sand.
fFrom Orlando fine sand.


BROADCAST





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- , .4 i _- i- -.







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ROW
Horizontal View


MACHINE


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Verthc1n Vie.


1.


SScale IN INCIcS a
Fig. 6.-Effects of the position of fertilizer in the soil on the distribution of potato roots.

No response was secured from the use of copper sulfate, zinc sulfate
and certain other elements on cabbage grown near McIntosh. Cotton-
seed meal appeared to be superior to either nitrate of soda or sulfate of
ammonia as a source of nitrogen. In a lettuce fertilizer test, definite







Annual Report, 1938


injury to the plants resulted when small amounts of copper sulfate and
borax were added to the mixture. Of the various materials tested, nitrate
of soda proved to be the best source of nitrogen for lettuce.

bRORDCIST MOW Mli'HINE
". "1 '*. ).l


















Fig. 7.-Effects of the position of fertilizer in the soil on the distribution of bean roots.

RELATION OF NITROGEN ABSORPTION TO FOOD STORAGE,
GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION IN PECANS
J -T















Adams Project 165 G. H. Blackmon
Analyses were made to determine the nitrogen in dormant pecan twigs
of Frotscher, Stuart, Moore, Moneymaker, Curtis and Kennedy varieties.
Representative one-year-old twigs were cut in January, 1937 and 1938,
from bearing trees in commercial orchards under controlled fertilizer and
cultural practices.
Twigs of Frotscher in a cover crop experiment in Jefferson County
were most consistent in showing a direct correlation with nitrogenous
fertilizer applications. This variety, without exception, has produced twigs
that were highest in nitrogen percentage where legumes were grown and
complete fertilizers applied. Nut yields likewise were closely correlated
with the nitrogen content of dormant twigs, rising with each increase in
total nitrogen. Moore and Stuart trees growing under like conditions
of soil management produced yields that were in direct relationship to
the nitrogen content of the one-year wood except in one instance with
Stuart. However, the total nitrogen in the twigs of these two varieties
did not consistently follow the treatments as did Frotscher.
In fertilizer experiments results have been somewhat variable and
addition of commercial nitrogen did not increase the nitrogen in dormant
twigs in all instances. With complete fertilizer applications the effect of
sulfate of ammonia applied in July seems to be more positive in producing
nitrogen storage. With these treatments a small majority of the nut
yields varied directly with the percentage of nitrogen in the dormant twigs.
When all experiments are considered as a whole, yields in 69 percent
of the treatments varied directly with the nitrogen content of the dormant








98 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

twigs. The data indicate that pecan trees require an adequate amount
of plant food and organic matter in the soil at all times for the twigs
to store sufficient nitrogen to give maximum nut production.

VARIETY TESTS OF MINOR FRUITS AND ORNAMENTALS
State Project 187 G. H. Blackmon, R. D. Dickey
and R. J. Wilmot
Blackberries.-Of the several varieties of blackberries grown in Florida,
the Advance continues to prove its worth as it has shown its adaptability
to a wide range of growing conditions. In comparison with other varieties,
it has consistently been highest yielding. This is due, in part at least,
to its freedom from attack by the double blossom disease. This, in con-
junction with its earliness and productivity, make it a very desirable
variety.
This year Advance was the highest yielding variety, with Marvel second
and Youngberry third.
A test planting of "Boysenberry" was made in 1936. All of this stock
died during the year and new plants were set in 1937, and again in 1938.
At the end of the year there were 30 plants of the 1937 planting alive and,
of these, only a few bloomed in the spring of 1938 and set a few malformed
fruits.
Grapes.-Information obtained during past years relative to grape grow-
ing in Florida has been used in the preparation of a recently completed
manuscript on this subject. This work was done in collaboration with
Kenneth W. Loucks of the Watermelon Laboratory at Leesburg.
Mayhaws.-Work was started on the selection and testing of mayhaws
(Crataegus spp.) for desirable fruiting types. Several plants that pro-
duce fruit of sufficient size and quality to give promise were located and
propagation tests initiated.
Miscellaneous Deciduous Fruits.-Information covering climatic limita-
tions, varietal adaptability, cultivation, fertilization, rootstocks, pruning,
etc., is being accumulated on peaches, pears, plums, figs and persimmons.
Peach varieties planted at the North Florida Station for seed to be
used in the rootstock studies, made satisfactory growth.

STUDY ON THE PRESERVATION OF CITRUS JUICES AND PULPS
State Project 189 A. L. Stahl*
Experiments were conducted on the preservation and handling of citrus
juices, using various treatments and methods. The methods of storage
to which the treatments have been applied are:
1. Juice frozen under vacuum in glass and stored at 0 F.
2. Juice sealed under vacuum in glass and stored at 32 to 40* F.
3. Juice stored for relatively short periods in commercial milk bottles
at 32 to 400 F.
Satsuma Orange Juice.-Experiments were conducted to determine
which of several varieties of Satsumas and which of several rootstocks
on which they are grown produced the best quality fresh juice and which
would withstand deterioration best during storage at 37" F. with and with-
out treatment other than vacuumization previous to bottling. The results
obtained favored the juice of the Owari satsuma on trifoliata rootstock,
followed closely by the Owari on Rusk Citrange rootstock. Juice of good
quality of the Owari on the stocks named above was held without special
treatment for a period of three weeks at 37" F. Samples of the juices
*Valuable assistance in conducting this work was rendered by E. L. Wirt, a graduate
student.




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