• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Credits
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00019
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1933
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00019
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 2
    Credits
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
    Index
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
Full Text






- -


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT
STATION







ANNUAL REPORT
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1933












/It






LIST OF DEPARTMENT REPORTS
Page
Report of the Director ............................... ....... .............. .. 5
R tof Business Manag ... ......................................... 13
Publicatiwns'aa Information ................ ... ................................ 17
The Library ...................................................... ........... 23
Agricultural Economics ................................................ 25
Agronom y .............................................................. 28
Animal Husbandry ............................................................. 56
Chemistry and Soils ....................... ........ ...................... 66
Entomology ...................................................................... 75
Home Economics ....................................................... 81
H orticulture ........................... ......................... .............. 86
Plant Pathology ........................................ .... .............. 110
North Florida Experiment Station .......................................... .... 127
Citrus Experiment Statin .......................................................... 137
Everglades Experiment Station .................. .............................. 152
Sub-Tropical Station .............. ....... .............. ................... .....197
West Central Florida Station .................................. ................... 209




Hon. Dave Sholtz,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of
the Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1933.
Respectfully,

RAYMER F. MAGUIRE,
Chairman, Board of Control.




Hon. Raymer F. Maguire,
Chairman, Board of Control.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of
the Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1933, and I request
that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to His
Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,

JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida.








EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
H. Harold Hume, M.S., Asst. Dir., Research
Harold Mowry, B.S.A., Asst. Dir., Adm.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A.. Editor
R. M. Fulghum, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant



MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronbmist**
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agondmist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S.A., Associate*
Fred H. Hull. M.S.. Associate
J. D. Warner, M.S., AssocTate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman**
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Specialist in Dairy Hus-
bandry
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Associate in Animal Nutri-
tion
E. F. Thomas, D.V.M., Assistant Veterinarian
W. W. Henley, B.S.A., Assistant Animal Hus-
bandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, B.S.A., Assistant in Dairy In-
vestigations

CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist**
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate
J. M. Coleman, M.S., Assistant
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
H. W. Jones, M.S., Assistant

ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist"*
Bruce McKinley. A.B., B.S.A., Associate
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Assistant

ECONOMICS, HOME
Oulda Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist**
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. F. Ahmann, Ph.D., Physiologist

ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist**
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley. M.S.A. Assistant
P. W. Calhoun, Assistant, Cotton Insects

HORTICULTURE
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist**
M. R. Ensign, M.S., Associate
A. L. Stahl. Ph.D., Associate
G. H. Blackmon. M.S.A., Pecan Culturist
C. B. Van Cleef, M.S.A., Greenhouse Foreman

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist"
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistant
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
*In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
*Head of Department.


BOARD OF CONTROL

Raymer F. Maguire, Chairman, Orlando
A. H. Blanding. Bartow
A. H. Waee. West Palm Beach
Geo. H. Baldwin, Jacksonville
J. T. Diamond. Secretary, Tallahassee


BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, M.S.. Asst. Plant Pathologist
W. A. Carver, P.H.D., Associate Agronomist
R. M. Crown, B.S.A., Assistant Agronomist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
Geo. D. Ruehle,,Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathol-
ogist
W. A. Kuntz, A.M., Associate Plant Pathologist
B. R. Fudge. Ph.D.. Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Assistant Entomologist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
R. V. Allison, P.H.D., Soils Specialist in Charge
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
B. A. Bourne, M.S., Sugarcane Physiologist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist
A. Daane, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asst. Animal Husbandman.
Ross E. Robertson, B.S., Assistant Chemist
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
Stacy -O. Hawkins, M.A., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, Asst. Animal Husbandman in
Charge*




FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
J. W. Wilson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks. Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. E. Nolen, M.S.A., Asst. Plant Pathologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
West Palm Beach
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
Monticello
Fred W. Walker, Assistant Entomologist
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert. Asst. Plant Pathologist











































SAMUEL TODD FLEMING, 1883-1932
Assistant Director, Agricultural Exper-
iment Station, March 1, 1926-
July 31, 1932.









Report for the Fiscal Year Ending

June 30, 1933


Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the
work and investigations of the University of Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations, together with the reports of the heads of
the several departments, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1933.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.
INTRODUCTION
Activities of the several departments in the Experiment
Station and its Branch Stations, together with progress reports
of the projects under investigation, are summarized in the fol-
lowing pages.
Research work has been conducted as heretofore by the fol-
lowing eight departments of the Main Station: Agronomy, Ani-
mal Husbandry, Chemistry, Agricultural Economics, Home Eco-
nomics, Entomology, Horticulture, and Plant Pathology. The
workers of these departments also have supervised the several
lines of investigation carried on at the field laboratories and in
cooperative farm and grove experiments throughout the state.
Several cooperative projects were carried with various agencies
of the United States Department of Agriculture.
The four Branch Stations and seven Field Laboratories have
been maintained. The Branch Stations include the Citrus Station
at Lake Alfred, Everglades Station at Belle Glade, North Florida
Station at Quincy, and Sub-Tropical Station at Homestead. Field
Laboratories are located at Bradenton, Cocoa, Hastings, Lees-
burg, Monticello, Plant City, and West Palm Beach. During
the year several cooperative projects have been inaugurated with
the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of
Agriculture, at the newly established federal West Central Flor-
ida Station at Brooksville.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HOLDINGS OF THE EXPERIMENT STATIONS
As indicated above, the investigational work of the Agricultural
Experiment Station is not confined solely to the site of the Main
Station at Gainesville but, because of conditions peculiar to dif-
ferent localities, is divided among four branch stations and seven
field laboratories. As investigational work has progressed, addi-
tional lands have been required to take care adequately of press-
ing projects involved in the solution of the many agricultural
problems. The acreage, including uncleared and waste lands,
now owned by the State and devoted to experimental work under
control of the Experiment Stations is as follows:
Main Station, Gainesville....................... 878 acres
Everglades Substation, Belle Glade............... 825.42 "
North Florida Substation, Quincy ................ 658.25 "
Sub-Tropical Substation, Homestead.............. 110
Citrus Substation, Lake Alfred................... 103.5
Watermelon Laboratory, Leesburg. ............... .63
Total holdings ............................2,575.8 acres

FINANCIAL RESOURCES
The financial resources of the Experiment Stations for the
fiscal year 1932-1933 just closed, including balances carried for-
ward from the previous year, were as follows:
Federal Adams Fund ............................$ 15,000.00
Federal Hatch Fund ............................ 15,000.00
State Funds, Main Station, Gainesville............. 218,384.00
State Funds, Citrus Station, Lake Alfred............ 13,102.00
State Funds, Everglades Station, Belle Glade........ 57,036.00
State Funds, North Florida Station, Quincy......... 20,995.00
State Funds, Sub-Tropical Station, Homestead...... 12,158.00
State Funds, Watermelon Investigations, Leesburg.. 8,558.00
Incidental Funds, Sales, etc. ..................... 25,053.62
$385,286.62
Federal Purnell Funds, not included above..........$ 60,000.00

CHANGES IN STAFF
W. M. Fifield was appointed Assistant Horticulturist, Sub-Trop-
ical Station, July 1, 1932.
M. R. Bedsole resigned as Assistant Chemist, Everglades Sta-
tion, July 15, 1932.
Ross E. Robertson was appointed Assistant Chemist, Ever-
glades Station, July 16, 1932.
Sam T. Fleming, Assistant Director, Administration, died
July 31, 1932.
H. H. Wedgeworth, Associate Plant Pathologist, Everglades
Station, resigned August 31, 1932.






Annual Report, 1933 7

Geo. R. Townsend was appointed Assistant Plant Pathologist,
Everglades Station, September 1, 1932.
Harold Mowry was appointed Assistant Director, Administra-
tion, by transfer from the position of Horticulturist, March 1,
1933.
Edgar F. Grossman, Associate Entomologist, died May 11, 1933.
The positions of Assistant Entomologist-Cotton Insects and
Greenhouse Foreman, held by P. W. Calhoun and C. B. Van Cleef,
respectively, were abolished June 30, 1933, as was also that of
Associate Entomologist-Cotton Insects, previously vacated by the
death of E. F. Grossman.
E. F. Thomas, Assistant Veterinarian, resigned June 30, 1933.








SCOPE OF THE STATION'S WORK,
July 1, 1932, to June 30, 1933.

A list of the principal projects carried on during the year is given below, arranged according to
departments. Page reference is given to a brief discussion of the work under each project.

Department Project
Number Title Page
AGRICULTURAL 73 Agricultural Survey of Some 500 Farms in the General Farming Region of Northwest Florida 26
ECONOMICS 154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida........................................... 26
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida Citrus....................... 26
197 Cost of Handling Citrus Fruit from the Tree to the Car ................................. 27


Peanut and Corn Fertilizer Experiments..................................................
Plant Breeding-Peanuts ............................................................
Pasture Experiments ................................................................
Winter Legume Studies ......................................... ..... ............
Variety Test Work with Field Crops.............................................
Sources of Nitrogen and Rates of Application of Nitrogen as Top-dressing for Oats.........
Green Manure Studies ..................................... ...........................
Growth Behavior of Pasture Grasses...................................................
Improvement of Corn Through Selection and Breeding ..................................
Effect of Time of Planting of Corn on Forage and Grain Yields.........................
Crop Adaptation Studies ........................................ ....................
Fertilization of Pasture Grasses and Forage Crops ...............' .....................
The Effect of Potash on the Yield and Quality of Peanuts .............................
Date of Seeding and Phosphate Requirements of Winter Legumes and Their Effect Upon Sub-
sequent Crops ................................... .............................
Lysimeter Studies on Pasture Grasses ............ ............................. ....
Ratio of Organic to Inorganic Nitrogen in Mixed Fertilizers for Cotton....................
Corn Fertilizer Experiments ...........................................................
A Study of Crotalaria as a Forage Crop............................................
Mutations Induced by Heating Seeding Corn...........................................
A Study of Crotalaria as a Forage Crop for Rabbits ....................................
Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades ......................


AGRONOMY





Department

ANIMAL
HUSBANDRY












CHEMISTRY










ENTOMOLOGY


Project
Number
119
133
135
136
137
140
149
160
175
178
179
188
192
194
213
21
22

36
37

67
94
95
96
166

8
12
13
14
28
60
75
82
157
162
X


r


Title


P1


Paralysis of the Donmestic Fowl .........................................................
Deficiencies in Feeds Used in Cattle Rations...........................................................
Soybean Silage for Dairy Cows .........................................................
Comparison of Various Grazing Crops with Dry Lot Feeding for Pork Production ..........
The Value of Grazing for Fattening Cattle in Beef Production ............................
Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to Her Milk and Butterfat Production
Anaplasmosis in Cattle ................. ...............................................
Fattening Fall Pigs for Spring Market.................................................
A Study of the Feeding Value of Crotalaria .........................................
Comparisons of Various Poultry Vermifuges for Their Efficacy and Effect on Egg Production.
Swine Field Experiments ................ ......................................
The Determination of Digestibility Coefficients for Crotalaria Hay ........................
The Effect of Feeding Crotalaria Seed to Chickens and Other Birds ........................
Improving the Size and Quality of Native Cattle by Use of Purebred Bulls of Various Breeds
A Study of the Ensilability of IFlorida Forage Crops .....................................
Dieback of Citrus...... .......................................................... 67,
Determination of the Effect of Varying Amounts of Potash on the Composition and Yield
and Quality of the Crop ............................. ...............................
Determination of the Fertilizer Requirements of Satsuma Oranges.........................
Determination of the Effect of Various Potash Carriers on Growth, Yield, and Composition
of Crops ............................................... .................. ........
Composition of Crops as Influenced by Fertilization and Soil Types-Pecans.. ............
Effect of Various Fertilizer Formulas.....................................................
Concentrated Fertilizer Studies ................................................
Determination of the Effect of Green Manures on the Composition of the Soil ................
A Study of the Decomposition of Forest, Range and Pasture Growth to Form Soil Organic
Matter ..............................................................
Florida Flower Thrips ............................... ..........................
Root-Knot Investigations ..............................................................
Introduction and Study of Beneficial Insects ..........................................
Larger Plant Bugs on Citrus, Pecans, and Truck Crops ..................................
Studies of the Bean Jassid ..............................................................
The Green Citrus Aphid .......................................................- ....
Control of Cotton Insects ................. ................................. ....
Control of Deciduous Fruit and Nut Crop Insects ..................................
Insects of Ornam entals .................................................... ..... .....
Insects and Other Animal Pests of Watermelons .....................................
Insects of Citrus .......................................................... ...........


age
58
58
60
60
61
61
62
63
63
63
64
64
64
65
65
137

67
68
68
69
69
71
71

73
75
76
76
77
78
79
79
79
79
80
78






Department Project
Number


HOME
ECONOMICS










HORTICULTURE















PLANT
PATHOLOGY


70 Determination of Whether Chlorophyll, Chlorophyll Alpha and Beta, and the Petroleum Ether
Extracts of the Yellow Pigments of Alfalfa Can Be Used as a Source of Vitamin A in Animal
Nutrition ....... ................................................................... 82
71 A Study of Some of the Constituents of Citrus Fruits, Loquats, Roselle, and Guava: Pectin,
Oils and Glucocides ............................................................... 83
142 The Relation of Growth to Phosphorus, Calcium and Lipin Metabolism as Influenced by
the Thymus ..................................................................... 83
198 A Study of Lecithin Synthesis in Hens on a Vitamin A and Lipoid Free Diet............... 84
199 A Study of the Changes Which Occur in the Hemapotietic Tissues of Rats on a Vitamin A
Free Diet .................. .......................................... .... ..... 84
201 A Study of the Chemical Composition of the Ash of Florida Fruits and Vegetables with Ref-
erence to the More Unusual Constituents............................................ 85
Cooperative and Minor Projects ...................................................... 81
46 Variety Response of Pecans to Different Soil Types, Localities, Etc ....................... 88
47 Cooperative Fertilizer Tests in Pecan Orchards ...................................... 89
48 Variety and Stock Tests of Pecan and Walnut Trees .................................. 89
49 Variety Tests of Grapes.......... ................................................ 91
50 Propagation, Planting, and Fertilizing Tests with Tung-oil Trees.......................... 91
52 Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and Methods of Their Propagation 95
57 Observation and Testing of Various Citrus Hybrids ........... ................. 96
58 Variety, Propagation, and Planting Tests of Pear, Avocado, Japanese Persimmon, Fig, and
Other Fruits ..................................................................... 96
59 Variety Tests of Berries (Rubus spp.) ......... .......... ......................... .... 96
80 Cooperative Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards ..................................... 96
81 Tests of Different Stocks as Rootstocks for Satsuma Oranges ............................ 97
110 Phenological Studies on Truck Crops in Florida ....................................... 97
111 Fundamental Physiology of Fruit Production.......................................... 100
139 Avocado Maturity Studies ............................................... ............ 100
165 Relation of Nitrogen Absorption to Food Storage and Growth.......................... 100
189 Study on the Preservation of Citrus Juices and Pulps ................................ 102
190 Cold Storage Studies on Citrus Fruits................................................. 104
1 Gumming of Citrus ........... ..................................................... 112
3 Melanose and Stem-End Rot of Citrus................................................ 139
19 Downy Mildew of Cucurbits .......................................................... 113
24 Citrus Scab and Its Control........................................................... 140
114 Diseases of Citrus Aphids .................. ........................................ 149
116 Nailhead Spot of Tomatoes ............................................ .............. 113


Title


Page




Department


PLANT
PATHOLOGY
(Continued)

















NORTH FLORIDA
EXPERIMENT
STATION





CITRUS
EXPERIMENT
STATION


Project
Numbe
126
130
143

145
146
147
148
150
151
167
180
181
182
184
185
193
196




25
33

57
74
101
191

200
26
34
35
83
102


r Title P
Investigations Relative to Certain Diseases of Strawberries of Importance to Florida......
Investigations of Diseases of White Potatoes.................................... .....
Investigations of Brown Rot of Potatoes and Related Plants Caused by Bacterium solana-
cearum EFS ........................... .................... .................
Investigation and Control of a Disease of Corn Caused by Bacterium zeae-maydis..........
Investigation of Seedling, Stalk, and Ear Rot Diseases of Corn Caused by Diplodia spp......
Investigation of Seedling, Stalk, and Ear Rot Diseases of Corn Caused by Fusarium spp....
Investigation of Diseases of Ferns and Ornamental Plants ..............................
Fusarium Wilt of Watermelons.................................................
Investigation and Control of Diseases of Watermelons ...................................
A Study of the So-called "Rust" of Asparagus plumosus ................................
Control of Wilt of Tomatoes (Fusarium lycospersici Sacc.) in Florida.....................
Clitocybe Mushroom Root Rot of Citrus Trees and Other Woody Plants in Florida.........
Control of Blackspot (Phoma destructive Plowr.) of Tomatoes in Florida and in Transit....
A Study of Strawberry Wilt or Crown Rot.........................................
Investigation of Stem-End Rot of Citrus Caused by Phomopsis citri Fawcett..............
Certain Studies of Decays of Citrus Fruits in Storage .............. ................
A Study of the Spraying Requirements Necessary to Control Grape Diseases in Florida....
A Trunk Girdling Disease of Lime Trees...............................................
Studies of Fungi Attacking Scale Insects...............................................
Occurrence and Pathogenicity of Nematospora spp. in Florida ..........................
Stem Canker of Crotalaria spectabilis Caused by Diaporthe crotalariae ....................
Field and Laboratory Studies of Tobacco Diseases ......................................
Variety Tests of Cigar Wrapper Tobacco for Resistance to Blackshank (Phytophthora nico-
tianae Breda de Haan) ...................... .................................
Variety Tests and Breeding Experiments of Cotton ....................................
Field Tests with Cotton-Spacing and Time of Planting Tests ...........................
Studies in Inheritance of Cotton.....................................................
Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Florida Shade Tobacco Seed and Early Growth
of the Seedlings ..............................-...............................
Cotton Nutrition Studies ............................................................
Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection .......................... .........................
Propagation Experiments with Citrus Plants of Various Kinds..........................
Tests of Introduced and New Varieties and Hybrids of Citrus and Near-Citrus..........
Cover Crops and Green Manure Studies in Citrus Groves ...............................
Citrus Variety Tests, Including Rootstocks.............................. ......... ..
Insects of Citrus ...........................................................


age
113
113
114
114
115
115
116
117
118
118
119
120
121
122
149
122
123
124
125
125
125
134

133
129
131
131

131
132
141
142
144
146
147
150








Department

EVERGLADES
EXPERIMENT
STATION




















SUB-TROPICAL
EXPERIMENT
STATION


WEST CENTRAL
FLORIDA
EXPERIMENT
STATION


Project
Number Title Page
B Livestock Investigations ............................................................. 188
84 Forage and Field Crop Trials..................................................... 162
85 Fruit and Forest Tree Trials ......................... ......... ........ ........... .... 164
86 Soil Fertility Investigations .................................................. ............. 165
87 Insect Pests and Their Control................................ .............................. 169
88 Soils Investigations ........................................ ........................ 171
89 W ater Control Investigations ....................... .................. .............. ..... 172
90 Soils and Crop Studies, Including Rotation, Fertilizer and Cultural Practice Experiments... 173
124 Studies Relative to Plant Pathological Problems of the Everglades........................ 173
125 Investigations Relative to the So-Called "Yellows" of Beans ............................ 177
168 The Role of Special Elements in Plant Development Upon the Peat and Muck Soils of the
Everglades ................................................................... .. 177
169 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugarcane Moth Stalk Borer (Diatraea
saccharalis) in South Florida....................................................... 177
170 Studies Upon the Prevalence and Control of Rodents Under Field and Village Conditions... 178
171 Cane Breeding Experiments ......................................................... 180
172 General Physiological Phases of Sugarcane Investigations .............................. 181
173 Agronomic Phases of Sugarcane Investigations ...................................... 183
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades.................... 187
249 Nematode Control in the Everglades.................................................. 190
204 Grain Crop Investigations............................................................. 191
205 Seed Storage Investigations ............................................... .... 193
206 Fiber Crop Investigations ........................................................... 193
207 Cover Crop Investigations .......................................................... 193
211 Physiological Phases of Plant Nutrition.....-........................................... 194
212 Relation of Organic Composition of Plants to Growth and Maturity...................... 195
Avocado Culture Studies ................... .................................... 197
Citrus Studies ..................................................... .......... 200
Variety Tests of Minor Fruits and Ornamentals ............................ ........ 201
Truck Crop Studies ......... ..................................... ................ 201
Tomato Variety Tests .................. .............................................. 208
224 Use of Peanuts and Peanut Products in Rearing Turkeys .............................. 209
226 Importance of Range Rotation in Poultry Production .................................. 209
227 Confinement versus Range Rearing of Chicks......................................... 210
228 A Comparative Study of the Value of Milk Solids, Peanut Meal, Meat Meal and Fish Meal in
Fattening Broilers and Friers..................................................... 210
229 All-Night Lights versus No Lights on Single Comb White Leghorn Pullets.................. 211






Annual Report, 1933 16


REPORT OF BUSINESS MANAGER

Credits received and expenditures vouchered out of the various
Experiment Station funds for the fiscal year ending June 30,
1933, were as follows:
MAIN STATION
Receipts
Receipts, 1932-1933 ...................................... .$218,296.61
Disbursements
Salaries .................... ................ $123,712.11
Labor ................... ..................... 27,290.23
Stationery and Office Supplies .................. 1,453.66
Scientific Supplies ............................. 4,135.79
Feeds ..... ................................... 3,266.61
Fertilizers ..................................... 3,629.01
Sundry Supplies ............................... 4,269.50
Telegraph and Telephone ........................ 2,316.69
Travel .......... ........................... 8,649.30
Freight and Express ................... ......... 1,121.02
Publications ................................ 5,930.63
Heat, Light, Power .......... ............. .... 5,414.97
Contingent .................................... 1,077.03
Furniture and Fixtures .......................... 852.63
Library ....................................... 1,701.11
Scientific Equipment ............................ 1,525.15
Tools, Machinery, Appliances .................... 3,363.77
Livestock ...................................... 129.95
Buildings and Lands ............................ 4,392.47
Balance ..................................... 14,064.98
$218,296.61
STATION INCIDENTAL FUND
Receipts
Balance, 1931-32 ...............................$ 10,144.59
Receipts ............................. ........ 14,909.03
$ 25,053.62
Disbursements
Salaries ..................... ................. $ 489.25
Labor ............................. ............. 3,471.79
Stationery and Office Supplies ................. 29.59
Scientific Supplies .............................. 133.36
Feeds .................................... .... 2,680.92
Fertilizers ....... ... ............... .... ..... 5.45
Sundry Supplies ................................ 887.44
Telephone, Telegraph ........................... 20.65
Travel ......................................... 400.81
Freight, Express ............................... 459.82
Publications .................................. 148.51
Heat, Light, Power ..................... ....... 1,014.24
Contingent ..................................... 420.00
Furniture, Fixtures ............................. 20.00
Library ........................................ 14.30
Scientific Equipment ........................... 12.71
Tools, Machinery, Etc. .......................... 733.90
Livestock ..................................... 1,607.83
Buildings, Lands ............................... 1,967.10
Balance ..................................... 10,535.95
$ 25,053.62






14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION
Receipts
Receipts, 1932-1933 ........................................ $ 13,102.00
Disbursements
Salaries ....................................... $ 5,452.00
Labor ......................................... 2,631.38
Stationery and Office Supplies .................... 28.15
Scientific Supplies .............................. 287.30
Feeds ......................................... 306.82
Fertilizers ........................... .......... 844.05
Sundry Supplies ................................ 425.83
Telephone and Telegraph ........................ 122.35
Travel ........................................ 215.30
Freight and Express .............................. 43.12
Publications ................................... .....
Heat, Light, Power ............................. 230.52
Contingent ..................................... 32.72
Furniture and Fixtures .......................... 84.88
Library .................................... ... 17.46
Scientific Equipment ........................... 14.32
Tools, Machinery ............................... 275.21
Livestock ................................... .......
Buildings and Lands ............................ 612.45
Balance ............ .......................... 1,478.14
$ 13,102.00
EVERGLADES EXPERIMENT STATION
Receipts
Receipts, 1932-1933 .......................... ...............$ 57,036.00
Disbursements
Salaries .................... ...... .......... $ 24,747.97
Labor ....................................... 14,756.72
Stationery and Office Supplies ................... 202.78
Scientific Supplies ............................. 1,044.95
Feeds ........................................ 469.15
Fertilizers ..................................... 237.71
Sundry Supplies ............................... 1,772.82
Telephone and Telegraph ........................ 346.14
Travel .................. ..................... 1,339.40
Freight, Express ............................... 499.73
Publications ..................... .......... . .....
Heat, Light, Power ........................... 3,032.26
Contingent ................................ . 70.42
Furniture and Fixtures ......................... 252.29
Library ....................................... 260.14
Scientific Equipment ............................ 101.85
Tools, Machinery ............................. 3,295.98
Livestock .......................................
Buildings, Lands ............................. 2,963.18
Balance ..................................... 1,642.51
$ 57,036.00
EVERGLADES STATION INCIDENTAL
Receipts
Balance, 1931-1932 ........................................ $ 3,455.60
Disbursements
Scientific Supplies ...........................$ 127.50
Contingent ............... ..... 40.00
Tools ............... ......................... 125.00
Buildings .................. ................... 256.39
Balance ....................................... 2,906.71
$ 3,455.60






Annual Report, 1938 15

NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Receipts
Receipts, 1932-1933 ............................. ...... .$ 20,995.00
Disbursements
Salaries ........................................ 11,045.00
Labor ........................................ 3,376.60
Stationery and Office Supplies .................... 12.37
Scientific Supplies .............................. 149.08
Feeds ......................................... 114.53
Fertilizers ..................................... 158.80
Sundry Supplies .............................. 685.08
Telephone and Telegraph ........................ 68.51
Travel .................................... 115.47
Freight and Express ............................ 83.22
Publications ................................... ..
Heat, Light, Power ............................ 776.68
Contingent ..................................... 92.37
Furniture and Fixtures .......................... 26.14
Library ................................. ...... 43.50
Scientific Equipment ............................ 12.88
Tools, Machinery .............................. 1,175.16
Livestock ................................. .... 521.65
Buildings, Lands .............................. 2,327.86
Balance .. .................................. 210.10
$ 20,995.00
SUB-TROPICAL EXPERIMENT STATION
Receipts
Receipts, 1932-1933 ....................................... $ 12,158.00
Disbursements
Salaries .......................................$ 5,358.00
Labor ...................................... . 3,364.11
Stationery and Office Supplies ................... 14.47
Scientific Supplies .............................. 26.63
Feeds .........................................
Fertilizers ................................... 506.43
Sundry Supplies ............................... 518.36
Telephone and Telegraph .................... 71.86
Travel ................ ........................ 308.95
Freight and Express ............................ 32.51
Publications ................................. .. .....
Heat, Light, Power ............................ 265.24
Contingent ................................ ..... 21.65
Furniture and Fixtures .......................... ......
Library ............ ... ...................... 59.57
Scientific Equipment ......................... ...
Tools and Machinery ................... ........ 440.40
Livestock ................................... .. .....
Buildings and Lands ........................... 316.59
Balance ........................................ 853.23

$ 12,158.00






16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

WATERMELON DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS
Receipts
Receipts, 1932-1933 ........................................$ 8,558.00
Disbursements
Salaries ....................................... $ 5,358.00
Labor ..................................... ... 1,187.27
Stationery and Office Supplies .................... 21.79
Scientific Supplies .............................. 96.02
Feeds ......................................... 3.15
Fertilizers ..................................... 224.20
Sundry Supplies ............. .............. ..... 181.62
Telegraph and Telephone ....................... 75.04
Travel ........................................ 376.35
Freight and Express ........................... 53.84
Publications .................................... ... ....
Heat, Light, Power ........................... 150.13
Contingent ....................... ...............
Furniture and Fixtures .......................... 11.98
Library ........................................ 22.20
Scientific Equipment ............................ 124.13
Tools, Machinery, Appliances .................... 133.41
Livestock ................................. ......
Buildings and Lands ........................... 412.65
Balance ....................................... 126.22
$ 8,558.00.






Annual Report, 1988


PUBLICATIONS AND INFORMATION

Editorial work of the Experiment Station continued unabated
during the fiscal year, with information gained by its workers
being carried to the people of Florida by means of newspaper
stories, farm paper stories, technical articles, radio talks, and
bulletins and press bulletins. It is realized that the institution is
justified only if and as the knowledge gained by its workers is
made available and adopted by the public. Approximately 75 to
100 thousand copies of Station bulletins were distributed during
the year.
The two editors and two mailing clerks devote approximately
one-half of their time to work for the Experiment Station and
the other half to work for the Agricultural Extension Service.
BULLETINS
During the fiscal year the Experiment Station published 13
new bulletins concerning the results of its investigational activi-
ties. One of these was technical and the others were semi-tech-
nical or popular in nature. The 13 bulletins consisted of 672
pages, and 103,000 copies were printed. The Station has now
printed a total of 263 bulletins since its establishment.
Following is a list of the bulletins printed during the year, with
title, size and edition of each:
Bul. Title Pages Edition
251 Control of the Celery Leaf-Tier in Florida........ 24 8,000
252 The Melon Aphid, Aphis Gossypii Glover......... 24 8,000
253 Studies on Cover Crops in a Pineapple Orange
Grove ...................................... 20 10,000
254 Grading, Packing and Stowing Florida Produce... 64 10,000
255 Soybeans for Silage .......................... 24 7,000
256 Some Diseases of Cabbage and Other Crucifers in
Florida ..................................... 64 10,000
257 Pollination of Avocados ........................ 44 4,000
258 The Pecan Shuckworm ......................... 20 7,000
259 Changes in the Composition of Florida Avocados
in Relation to Maturity ...................... 64 5,000
260 Beef Production in Florida ..................... 56 12,000
261 Ornamental [Trees ........................... 136 12,000
262 Effect of Calcium-Deficient Roughages Upon Milk
Production and Welfare of Dairy Cows......... 28 5,000
263 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida-
II. Organization and Management............. 104 5,000

SUMMARIES OF BULLETINS
Brief summaries of the principal points covered in each bulletin
follow:
251. Control of the Celery Leaf-Tier in Florida. (W. E. Stone,
B. L. Boyden, C. B. Wisecup and E. C. Tatman, of Bureau of





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Entomology, U.S.D.A., pp. 24, Figs. 10.) Describes damage
inflicted by the leaf-tier, and suggests methods of control. Cul-
tural methods and spraying with pyrethrum dust recommended.
252. The Melon Aphid. (C. C. Goff and A. N. Tissot, pp. 24,
Figs. 14.) Gives results of life history studies of the melon aphid,
Aphis gossypii Glover, the most serious insect pest of melons in
Florida. Lists control measures as nicotine dust or liquids con-
taining nicotine.
253. Studies on Summer Cover Crops in a Pineapple Orange
Grove. (W. E. Stokes, R. M. Barnette, H. W. Jones and J. H.
Jefferies, pp. 20, Figs. 4.) Reports results of tests with crota-
laria, velvet beans, beggarweed, cowpeas and natal grass as sum-
mer cover crops in a citrus grove at the Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred. One other plot was rotated to these cover crops
and one was given clean culture. Crotalaria ranked first and
natal grass second.
254. Grading, Packing and Stowing Florida Produce. (M. R.
Ensign, pp. 64, Figs. 29.) A study of Florida produce at shipping
points and at the New York terminal showed that Florida pro-
ducers are being penalized for poor grading, ill-adapted containers,
and improper stowing which allows the containers to be broken
in transit.
255. Soybeans for Silage. (R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal, C. R.
Dawson and P. T. Dix Arnold, pp. 24, Figs. 3.) Soybeans were
found to produce silage of good quality, and to yield more protein
and mineral matter and less total digestible nutrients than corn.
Soybean silage proved to be less palatable than corn silage.
256. Some Diseases of Cabbage and Other Crucifers in
Florida. (George F. Weber, pp. 64, Figs. 47.) Describes the
principal diseases of these plants in Florida, and lists control
measures, where known. Gives directions for seed treatment
and for the application of sprays and dusts.
257. The Pollination of Avocados. (A. B. Stout (of the New
York Botanical Garden), pp. 48, Figs. 12.) The flowering habit
of avocados is most peculiar, in that the flowers of a single clon
are not ordinarily self-pollinating and cannot pollinate each other.
Each flower normally opens twice, once as a male and once as a
female. Fortunately, flowers of some varieties open as females
while flowers of other varieties are open as males, making cross-
pollination possible and interplanting of varieties necessary.
258. The Pecan Shuckworm. (Fred W. Walker, pp. 20, Figs.
4.) The shuckworm has proven to be one of the major insect






Annual Report, 1983


pests of pecans in Florida. This bulletin describes it, gives its
life history, the character of its injury, lists its natural enemies,
and suggests control measures.
259. Changes in Composition of Florida Avocados in Relation
to Maturity. (Arthur L. Stahl, pp. 64, Figs. 13.) A satisfactory
maturity test for avocados is difficult, due to the fact that it is
necessary to pick the fruit before the peel shows signs of. ma-
turity to place it on the market in good condition. Pressure
testers were found to be impracticable, as were certain other
tests. Oil and fat content of avocados increases with maturity,
and specific gravity decreases. The specific gravity test for
maturity seems to have possibilities of development.
260. Beef Production in Florida. (A. L. Shealy, pp. 56, Figs.
26.) Describes the different breeds of beef cattle, gives pointers
on herd management, feeds, silos, feeding, marketing, and some
common diseases of cattle.
261. Ornamental Trees. (Harold Mowry, pp. 136, Figs. 97.)
Lists and describes the ornamental trees native and introduced,
of which there are a large number. Contains an appendix listing
all Florida native trees.
262. Effect of Calcium-Deficient Roughages Upon Milk Pro-
duction and Welfare of Dairy Cows. (R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal
and A. L. Shealy, pp. 28, Figs. 6.) Forages produced on the
sandy soils of the Experiment Station farm proved deficient in
calcium, and it was necessary to supplement the ration of dairy
cows with bone meal. Shortage of calcium caused the cows to
draw on that contained in their bones until these became quite
easily broken. With supplemented rations, the bones regained
their breaking strength.
263. Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida: II-
Organization and Management. (M. A. Brooker and H. G. Ham-
ilton, pp. 104, Figs. 22.) Discusses the set-up and management
of various types of cooperative associations in Florida.
PRESS BULLETINS
Fourteen press bulletins were issued during the year, relating
principally to diseases of various plants. On all except the bul-
letin list, 3,000 copies were printed; 2,000 copies of the list were
issued.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Following is a list of the press bulletins issued during the year:
No. Title Author
445 Easter Lily Mosaic .................................. Erdman West
446 Mosaic Diseases of Vegetable Plants................George F. Weber
447 Rose Canker .................................... William B. Shippy
448 Black Spot of Roses.............................William B. Shippy
449 Powdery Mildew of Roses ......................William B. Shippy
450 Yellowing of Centipede Grass and Its Control.............O. C. Bryan
451 Crotalaria ...........................W. E. Stokes and W. A. Leukel
452 Preparation of Lime-Sulphur Spray ...............George F. Weber
453 Methods of Preparing Bordeaux Mixture........... George F. Weber
454 Clitocybe Mushroom Root Rot of Woody Plants...... Arthur S. Rhoads
455 Selection and Shipment of Plant Specimens
for Diagnosis or Identification.................. George F. Weber
456 Rhizoctoniose, a Common Disease of Plants.......... George F. Weber
457 Importance of Calcium in Dairy Rations ......R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal
and A. L. Shealy
458 Some Poisonous Plants of Florida ....................Erdman West
Bulletin List.
NEWS STORIES AND ARTICLES
During the year newspapers and farm papers of Florida and
some farm papers of southern and national scope continued to
use freely of material and information supplied by the Florida
Experiment Station. Results of new research and suggestions
by workers based on former research are favorably received by
the press.
Most of the material for the newspapers was furnished through
the medium of the Agricultural News Service, weekly clipsheet
printed and distributed by the Agricultural Extension Service.
This clipsheet carried from two to five or six stories each week
based on Experiment Station information. These stories were
widely clipped and reprinted. Occasionally, special stories were
sent to Florida newspapers, particularly to one or more dailies.
One daily carried a weekly column of questions and answers on
farming subjects, most of the copy for which was based on let-
ters written by Station workers, and furnished by this office. A
Florida farm paper carried two columns of similar questions and
answers each month.
Articles about the Station and its work were accorded ready
reception by state and Southern farm papers. Two Florida farm
papers carried 467 column inches of material supplied by the
Editors, and many, many column inches of articles by other staff
members. Two Southern farm papers carried stories from this
office amounting to 52 column inches, and one national magazine
printed a 22-inch story about some accomplishments of the
Station.
Another Florida farm paper printed monthly articles on farm






Annual Report, 1933


work suggestions, supplied by this office, and many of the sug-
gestions quoted experimental workers.
RADIO TALKS
The Florida Farm Hour, conducted over WRUF for 45 minutes
each week day during the year by the Agricultural Extension
Service, used largely of Experiment Station speakers. During
the year its workers made 168 talks over the local station, or an
average of 14 a month.
A series of talks on gardening and ornamentals was presented
weekly over WRUF and four other Florida stations for 40 weeks,
beginning September 14, 1932, and closing June 14, 1933. Twenty-
seven of these talks were prepared by Station workers.
Beginning on March 1, 1933, the Agricultural Extension Service
furnished a daily period of farm flashes to four Florida radio
stations other than WRUF. Until the end of June, 27 of these
flash periods had been supplied by Experiment Station workers.
SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR ARTICLES IN JOURNALS
In addition to the bulletins previously listed, members of the
Station staff have published articles in popular and scientific
periodicals as follows:
A Chemical Study of Ensiling Soy Beans. W. M. Neal and R. B. Becker.
Jour. Agr. Res., 46:669-673. 1933.
A Preliminary Report on the Study of Poultry Vermifuges. E. F. Thomas.
Amer. Vet. Med. Assn. In press.
A Wilt of Strawberry caused by Colletotrichum fragariae. (Abst.) A. N.
Brooks.
Phytopath. 23:6. 1933.
An Outbreak of Mocis repanda. J. R. Watson.
Fla. Ent. 17:15. Mar. 1933.
Bean Leafhopper Situation. A. N. Tissot.
Fla. Ent. 16:45-46. Sept. 1932.
Biology of Parasites and Predators of Laphygma exigua Reared During the
Season of 1932. J. W. Wilson.
Fla. Ent. 17:1-15. Mar. 1933.
Blight of Peppers in Florida Caused by Phytophthora capsici. G. F. Weber.
Phytopath. 22:775-780. 1932.
Citrus Insect Control. J. R. Watson.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 1932.
Cold Storage Experiments with Pecans. G. H. Blackmon.
Proc. Natl. Pecan Assn. Sept. 1932.
Cold Storage Experiments with Pecans. G. H. Blackmon.
The Pecan Grower (Brownwood, Tex.), June 1933.
Day Length in Potato Growth. M. R. Ensign.
Fla. Grower. Sept. 1932.
Effect of Calcium Deficient Roughages Upon Milk Yield and Bone Strength.
R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal and A. L. Shealy.
Jour. Dairy Sci. In press.
Effects of Cover Crops on Growth and Yield of Pecan Trees. G. H. Blackmon.
The Pecan Grower (Brownwood, Tex.).' June 1933.
Five New Species of Anuraphis and Aphis. A. N. Tissot.
Fla. Ent. 16:49-60. Jan. 1933.






22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Function of Minerals in Nutrition. R. B. Becker.
Proc. Amer. Soc. Animal Prod. 1932.
Gibberella moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland on Corn. R. K. Voorhees.
Phytopath. 23:368-378. 1933.
Infection of Corn Plants by Physoderma zea-maydis Shaw. A. H. Eddins.
Jour. Agr. Res. 46:241-253. 1933.
Influence of Arsenical Dipping on Yield of Milk by Dairy Cows. P. T. Dix
Arnold, W. M. Neal and R. B. Becker.
Jour. Dairy Sci. 15:407-412. 1932.
Life History and Control Studies for Melanose and Scab Control of Citrus.
G. D. Ruehle.
Citrus Industry 13:8, 27, 34. 1932.
Maturity Studies on Florida Avocados. A. L. Stahl.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. April 1932.
Non-Arsenical Stomach Poisons for Grasshopper and Beetle Control. W. L.
Thompson.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. April 1932.
Notes on Biology of Laphygma exigua. J. W. Wilson.
Fla. Ent. 16:33-39. Sept. 1932.
Occurrence and Pathogenicity of Nematospora spp. in Florida. G. F. Weber.
Phytopath. 23:384-388. 1933.
Ornamental Trees for Florida. Harold Mowry.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soe. April 1933.
Pecan Cold Storage Experiments. G. H. Blackmon.
Proc. Ga.-Fla. Pecan Grs. Assn. May 1933.
Pecan Kernel Cold Storage Experiments. G. H. Blackmon.
Proc. Ga.-Fla. Pecan Grs. Assn. May 1933.
Physalospora zeicola on Corn and its Taxonomic Host. Relationships. A. H.
Eddins and R. K. Voorhees.
Phytopath. 23:63-72. 1933.
Pin Worm on Tomatoes. J. R. Watson and W. L. Thompson.
Fla. Ent. 17:14. July 1932.
Planting Table for Florida Truck Crops. M. R. Ensign.
Fla. Grower. Sept. 1932.
Six New Aphids from Florida. A. N. Tissot.
Fla. Ent. 17:1-13. July 1932.
Some Thysanoptera of the Great Smoky Mountains. J. R. Watson.
Fla. Ent. 16:61-62. Jan. 1933.
The Bulge Pack and Poor Containers as They Affect the Marketing of
Florida Produce. M. R. Ensign.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. April 1933.
The Composition of Feedstuffs in Relation to Nutritional Anemia in Cattle.
W. M. Neal and R. B. Becker.
Jour. Agr. Res. In Press.
The Effect of Soil Temperature on the Germination of Citrus Seeds. A. F.
Camp, Harold Mowry and K. W. Loucks.
Amer. Jour. Bot. 20:348-357. 1933.
The Effects of Cover Crops on Growth and Yield of Pecan Trees. G. H.
Blackmon.
Proc. Ga.-Fla. Pecan Grs. Assn. May 1933.
The Hemoglobin Content of the Blood of Healthy and Anemic "Salt Sick"
Cattle. W. M. Neal and R. B. Becker.
Jour. Agr. Res. 46:557-563. 1933.
The Production of Limes in Florida. A. F. Camp.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. April 1933.
Tung Oil-Florida's New Horticultural Crop. Harold Mowry.
Farm and Livestock Record. Oct. 1932.
Two New Species of Plectothrips. J. R. Watson.
Fla. Ent. 17:16-18. June 1933.
Unmasking New Citrus Root Disease. A. S. Rhoads.
Florida Grower 40:8. Aug. 1932.






Annual Report, 1933


THE LIBRARY

A brief summary of the more important statistics of the
Library is given below:
Books prepared and sent to the bindery............................ 209
Books received by purchase, gift or exchange....................... 823
Total books accessioned for year.................................. 1,032
Total bound volumes in Library ................................. 9,654.
Bulletins received from other Stations and cataloged................ 1,429
Serials, periodicals, continuations (exclusive of bulletins) .......... 9,324
Catalog cards prepared and typed in Library....................... 8,219
Catalog cards bought from Library of Congress................... 1,759
Books borrowed from other libraries............................ 260
Books and periodicals lent to branch stations ..................... 608
Books and periodicals lent to local staff............................ 2,514
For the fiscal year 1,032 books and 1,429 bulletins were cata-
loged. Owing to a reduction in the budget, less student assis-
tance has been available for routine and clerical work, so that a
considerable part of the cataloger's time has been taken up with
work other than cataloging. However, 8,219 catalog cards were
made and added to the dictionary card catalog. Library of Con-
gress prepares the cards for all publications of the United States
Department of Agriculture. The Library subscribes to the
service and this year received 1,759 catalog cards which were
duly entered in the catalog.
The system of circulating material to the staff located at the
branch stations in the State continues to work splendidly. For
the present year 608 books and journals were sent to the per-
sonnel located away from the main station, and 2,514 volumes
were lent to the local staff and faculty. It is impossible to keep
a record of the amount of material used in the Library.
The Library received 10,753 serials, bulletins, continuations,
etc., which are 223 less than for the previous year.
A total of 1,032 new volumes have been added to the shelves.
Of this number 823 were secured by purchase, transfer or gift
from other departments. The Agricultural Economics Depart-
ment of the teaching division of the College of Agriculture pre-
sented the Library with 206 volumes of agricultural economics
literature. This material was not bound when received but it
has now been placed in binders by an assistant in the Library
and has been cataloged. The collection is constantly in use.
The Department of Plant Pathology transferred 480 bound
volumes to the Library. This is a most valuable group of publi-
cations containing a number of rare books and complete runs of
periodicals. Of particular importance are: Sitzungberichte der






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


kaiserlichen akademie der wissenschaften, Band 92-135; Zeit-
schrift fur pflanzenkrankheiten, Band 1-39; Centralblatt fur
bakteriologie, etc., Band 1-85; Hedwegia, vol. 51-65; Addisonia,
vol. 1-16, and Bulletin des societies mycologique de France, vol.
1-43.
Funds did not permit of sending but 209 volumes to the bindery
for binding. This is far short of the material that requires
binding.
Several notable gifts were received during the year. Carnegie
Institution of Washington, among other contributions, presented
the Library with: Paullin, Charles O., Atlas of the historical
geography of the United States; Reichert, Edward Tyson, The
differentiation and specificity of starches in relation to genera,
species, etc., parts 1 and 2; the Library of United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture contributed: Digest of Federal appropria-
tions, 1921-1930 inclusive; E. S. Hubbard of Federal Point, Fla.,
through H. H. Hume, presented several copies of The Florida
Agriculturist and The Florida Dispatch for 1888 and 1889; W. J.
Ellsworth, of Blanton, Fla., also through H. H. Hume, presented
a copy of Webb's Historical, Industrial and Biographical Florida,
1885. The last two contributions are welcome additions to the
Library's collection of Floridana.
The librarian attended the annual meeting of the Florida State
Library Association at Clearwater in March. She was on the
program for a paper. She has also given a monthly radio talk
through the year on Reading for Florida homes.
Many people other than those connected with this institution
come to the Library for assistance. A number of men and women
living in Alachua and other Florida counties, have visited the
Library seeking information concerning publications that will
be of assistance to them in farm, grove or home.





Annual Report, 1 99 25

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Although the progress made is given by projects in this report,
some of the results of our work which have been noted during
the year may be mentioned.
COST OF HANDLING CITRUS FRUIT FROM THE TREE TO THE CAR
IN FLORIDA
Because of the demand for the results of a two-season study
made of citrus packinghouse costs in Florida and reported in
Bulletin 202, this bulletin is being revised to include results of
the 1931-32 season, also. It was found that the cost per box for
picking, hauling and packing citrus fruit had been reduced from
93 cents in 1924-25 to 76 cents in 1931-32, or 18 percent.
Although this reduction in cost may be partly explained by the
reduction in the price level of labor and materials during the
period, it was found that more than 10 percent of the total costs
for the two periods remained the same. These constant costs
included taxes, interest on investment, depreciation, insurance,
telephone and telegraph, and water, light and power. Therefore,
the 18 percent reduction in cost was principally in labor and
materials.
It was further found that the reduction in the cost of day labor
per box was far greater than for piece labor, such as packing and
box making, thus indicating that much progress has been made
since 1924-25 in the arrangement of packinghouses as recom-
mended in Bulletin 202. The principal improvements noted were
that many houses had been rearranged in order that the fruit
would move through the packinghouse from the receiving plat-
form to the car with a minimum of back tracking. Secondly, an
increase in the installation of conveyor service to carry fruit to
the washer, cull fruit to the dump, and empty field boxes from the
packinghouse, thus saving much labor and confusion. A third
improvement noted was the fact that fewer two-story packing-
houses are being built than formerly. Our studies have shown
that normally the packing costs are higher in the two-story houses
than in the one-story houses.
CITRUS FREIGHT RATES
It is believed that a study of citrus freight rates, made some
years ago and reported in Bulletin 217, has played an important
part in bringing about the reduction in rates to Florida growers
during the past two seasons. In 1932 the citrus rate reductions
from January through June created a saving of approximately





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


one million dollars to the Florida growers. The reduced rates
in effect in 1933 will not aggregate so large a total saving, but
will be considerable.

AGRICULTURAL SURVEY OF SOME 500 FARMS IN THE GENERAL
FARMING REGION OF NORTHWEST FLORIDA
Purnell Project No. 73 C. V. Noble and
Bruce McKinley, Leaders
Considerable progress was made during the year in re-working
much of the data of the 1925 and 1928 surveys in order that they
would be directly comparable. The repeat survey planned was
not made at the end of 1932 for two reasons. First, the year
1932 was so abnormal due to the general decline in the price level
of agricultural products, that results would not be comparable
with the previous surveys made. The second reason was that
more time and funds were necessary to adequately set up the
cost of citrus project No. 186 than was estimated in advance.
Under the circumstances, it seemed best to postpone the re-survey
under this project until the end of 1933.
FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project No. 154 Marvin A. Brooker and
H. G. Hamilton, Leaders
Tabulation and interpretation of the results of the survey of
374 cooperative associations organized in Florida prior to the
1929-30 marketing season have been carried forward and the
second portion of the study has been submitted for publication.
This phase of the study deals with the organization and manage-
ment problems of cooperative associations in Florida.
This project is being kept open and it is planned to present
monographs including detailed studies of the methods of opera-
tion of certain outstanding cooperative organizations.
COST OF PRODUCTION AND GROVE ORGANIZATION STUDIES OF
FLORIDA CITRUS
Purnell Project No. 186 C. V. Noble, Zach Savage
and Bruce McKinley, Leaders
Some of the preliminary work of locating satisfactory co-
operators who were fairly representative of the important citrus
areas of the state was done during the fiscal year 1931-32. This
work was completed early in the fiscal year 1932-33. There
are 45 grove owners in six counties with a total of 1,898.1 acres,
as inventoried by the cooperators, included in this study. The





Annual Report, 1933


number of grove owners and the acreage in groves are given by
counties in Table I.
TABLE I.-THE NUMBER OF GROVE OWNERS COOPERATING AND THE NUMBER
OF ACRES IN GROVES AS INVENTORIED BY THE COOPERATORS.
County Grove owners Acres
Highlands ...................... 9 398.0
Indian River ................... 8 155.6
Lake ........................... 8 229.0
Orange ........................ 7 174.5
Polk ........................... 10 758.0
Saint Lucie ..................... 4 183.0
Total ...................... 45* 1,898.1
*One owner had groves in two counties.

The field work of making maps of each grove was done on
specially prepared cross-section paper and the permanent maps
are being made on larger sheets of the same paper. Two copies
of each map are being made of each grove showing acreage, dis-
tance set, each kind of citrus by variety, age and rootstock, and
some of the surroundings of the grove.
COST OF HANDLING CITRUS FRUIT FROM THE TREE TO THE CAR
Purnell Project No. 197 H. G. Hamilton and
Marvin A. Brooker, Leaders
During the summer and fall of 1932 records were secured from
125 packinghouses covering the cost of packing citrus fruit during
the 1931-32 season. The detailed cost figures were transferred
to special office work sheets which were so designed as to facilitate
the analysis of the individual packinghouses. Items of cost were
allocated to packed fruit and bulk fruit on the basis of the purpose
for the expenditures, except in the case of joint costs, such as
overhead, which were divided in proportion to the volume of
packed fruit and bulk fruit.
After the work sheets had been completed and various factors
computed, a number of comprehensive tabulations were made to
find the actual cost of handling citrus fruit in 125 packinghouses,
and to determine as far as possible the important factors affecting
the cost of handling citrus fruit. A large number of these tabu-
lations have been completed and the task for the future is to
organize and prepare this work for publication. Free use will
be made of the data presented in Bulletin 202 to show the trend
of costs since 1924-25 and to point out some of the important
developments in the packing industry, such as the installation
of pre-cooling plants, improvement of arrangement and instal-
lation of labor-saving devices in packinghouses.





Plorida Agricultural Experiment Station


AGRONOMY

During the year all agronomy experimental work progressed
satisfactorily.
The Forage Crops Office of the United States Department of
Agriculture continued active cooperation and much progress has
been made in the study of new forage crop material as a result
of the establishment last year of plant introduction gardens at
the branch experiment stations at Quincy, Belle Glade and Home-
stead and as a result of cooperative arrangements between this
department and the Departments of Animal Husbandry and Home
Economics for the study of crotalaria as a forage crop.
A bulletin dealing with citrus grove cover crops was published.
In this bulletin the outline of the cover crop experiment in citrus
groves together with the first seven years' observations on cover
crop yields, tree growth, fruit yields and soil changes are given.
Considerable progress has been made toward finding a remedy
for the trouble known as chlorosis, frenching, white bud or white
heart in corn. Much work remains to be done to determine the
real cause of the trouble and the reason why certain treatments
relieve it and best methods for using remedial treatments.
Much information has been obtained on the artificial drying of
hay plants and both naturally dried and artificially dried hay has
been furnished the Animal Husbandry Department for digestion
trials.
Some preliminary work on the use of stack silos and semi-
trench silos as a means of cheap storage of ensilage made from
Napier grass and sugarcane has been done.
Of the 379 plantings of grasses, legumes and miscellaneous
material in the forage plant introduction gardens, one new grass
Digitaria eriantha var. stolonifera S.P.I. 77998, is showing some
promise as a pasture plant. This grass comes from Africa and
is known locally as wooly finger grass.
A study of the composition of composite samples of native
range grasses taken at monthly intervals from like soil areas
representing native ranges burned over annually and protected
native ranges grazed alike as to number of cattle per acre and
length of grazing period is showing some interesting compari-
sons with improved pasture plants.
The work on growth behavior of pasture and forage plants in
relation to maintenance of organic foods has shown very clearly
the necessity for a thorough understanding of the fundamental






Annual Report, 1988


principles involved before very reliable recommendations can be
made as to proper management of perennial upright and pros-
trate grasses.
Breeding operations with both field and sweet varieties of corn
and with both runner and bunch types of peanuts has progressed
very satisfactorily and improved types of these crops should
finally result.
Oats and rye variety and strain tests show promise of giving
types freer from rust damage and better yielding from-the stand-
point of grain, hay or grazing than varieties now in use.
Cover crop and fertilizer studies are indicating the soil types
best suited to the use of cover crops, the value of cover crops in
a rotation and the need for a thorough study of the fertilizer re-
quirements of field crops in relation to soil types and cropping
systems.
Cooperative projects between this department and that of
Chemistry and Soils have progressed very satisfactorily in the
matter of the study of soil organic matter in cover crop experi-
ments and soils studies in connection with pasture grass and
general field crop fertilizer experiments.
Work on Agronomy experimental projects at the branch ex-
periment stations at Quincy, Belle Glade, Lake Alfred and Home-
stead has progressed in a very satisfactory manner and a detailed
report of this work will be found under the report of the respec-
tive branch experiment stations.
SPANISH PEANUT FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTAL WORK
Hatch Project No. 16 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp
and J. D. Warner, Leaders
All of the fertilizer experimental work on peanuts has now
been brought to a close except some special studies on the effect
of certain soil amendments or rare elements on peanut growth.
The elements used are ferrous sulfate, copper sulfate, zinc sulfate,
manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate and boric acid singly and
in combination. Treatments are usually at the rate of 50 pounds
of each material per acre and plots are replicated nine times with
check plots on both sides of each treated plot. Thus far no great
response has been noted from any treatment either in top growth
or seed production.
The fertilizer experimental work with corn heretofore reported
under this project has been transferred to project 163 where a
complete report of all corn fertilizer work now in progress is
found.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


PLANT BREEDING-PEANUTS
Hatch Project No. 20 F. H. Hull, Leader
The principal aim in the peanut breeding work is to produce
a variety of Jumbo size with the high market quality of Spanish
peanuts and the seed dormancy of the runner varieties.
A number of variety crosses have been made in the past few
years and the hybrids grown to select for the desired type. Best
success has been found in hybrids between some of our selected
strains of Spanish peanuts and one of our strains of Jumbo
Runner. The.third generation of these hybrids was grown in
1932. A few plants were found which produced well-filled plump
seed, nearly as large as the Jumbo parent and apparently of good
quality otherwise. A few seeds from each of these plants were
planted in the greenhouse as soon as mature to test for dormancy.
The results indicate that each selection possesses the character
in some degree, but that it has not become fixed in any of them
and that further selection will be necessary. A plant-row was
planted of each of these selections in 1933.
A few plants with heavy top growth and very small seeds were
also selected from the hybrid progenies with the idea that they
might be suitable for hay production primarily.
Improvement of Spanish peanuts by selection alone without
hybridization was continued with greater emphasis being given
to seed dormancy and resistance to seed and peg rots.
The breeding plot in 1933 includes 167 hybrid selections and 18
selections from varieties under observation. A yield test of the
oldest Spanish selections in comparison with commercial lots is
also being conducted.

PASTURE EXPERIMENTS
Hatch Project No. 27 G. E. Ritchey and
W. E. Stokes, Leaders
The pasture experimental work has progressed well during
the year. That phase of the work on the "Influence of Fertilizers
on Yield and Composition of Grasses" has been completed. The
Grass Competition Studies and the Phase on the Influence of the
"Frequency of Mowing and Nitrogen Fertilization on the Yield
and Composition of Grasses" were completed with the data of
1932. These phases of the work are being prepared for pub-
lication.
Those phases of the pasture experimental work which are
active at present are: I. The Carrying Capacity and Forage





Annual Report, 1933


Value of Pasture Grasses; II. The Influence of Various Fertilizer
Formulas on the Yield of Pasture; and III. Comparison of Native
and Improved Pastures, Comparison of Burned and Unburned
Native Pastures for Both Nine and 12 Months' Grazing, and
Comparison of Methods of Land Preparation Previous to Seeding
Improved Pastures. Phases I and III are in cooperation with
the Animal Husbandry Department.

I. CARRYING CAPACITY AND FORAGE VALUE OF PASTURE
GRASSES
The end of this season will complete the fifth year of this ex-
periment.
In 1932 four steers were placed on each of the 31/2 acre pastures
on March 12 and removed on November 14, giving a total of 247
days grazing.
The gains were as follows:
Total gains Gains per Gain per Yield of dry grass
Pasture of cattle acre steer in lbs. per acre
Bahia ................. 767 219 192 2,204
Bermuda .............. 678 194 170 2,136
Carpet ................ 528 151 132 1,598
Centipede ............. 878 251 220 1,594
Mixture ............... 862 246 216 2,224

The best gains were made on the centipede and mixture of
grasses. The centipede pasture produced a slightly greater gain
than the mixture but so slight that it was not significant. This
is the third year that the best gains have been made on the centi-
pede pasture.
Triplicated quadrats were fenced off in each pasture and divided
into three equal parts, one part receiving 100 pounds of sodium
nitrate per acre the same as the pasture, one part receiving a
complete fertilizer furnishing nitrogen equivalent to the 100
pounds of sodium nitrate, and the third part (check) receiving no
fertilizer. The grass yield records given above were taken from
the quadrats fertilized with sodium nitrate.
There has been a decided increase in yield due to the use of
100 pounds of sodium nitrate. There is very little difference
between the yield of the plots fertilized with a complete fertilizer
and those treated with the sodium nitrate. The highest yields
were obtained from the pasture containing the mixture of grasses.
A survey of the plant population of each pasture was made in
the spring of 1933. The approximate percentage of each grass
was determined. The results are as follows: Bahia pasture con-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tains approximately 90% bahia. grass, bermuda pasture 63%
bermuda grass, carpet grass pasture 58% carpet grass, centipede
pasture 87% centipede grass and in the mixed pasture was nearly
an even distribution of bahia, bermuda and carpet grasses.
II. THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS FERTILIZER FORMULAS ON THE
YIELDS OF PASTURE GRASSES
This is the third year of this experiment. Seventy-six plots
of bahia grass are fertilized with 21 different formulas and yields
of lawn mower clippings are measured monthly. The results are
much the same as those of 1931. The application of nitrogen
seems to have stimulated growth and therefore the yield has
increased as the nitrogen content of the fertilizer was increased.
There seems to be very little if any increase in yield due to the
addition of phosphate or potash. There is a slight indication of
a decreased yield resulting from the addition of lime, although
this is so slight that it may not be significant. This experiment
is being continued in 1933.

III. COMPARISON OF NATIVE AND IMPROVED PASTURES, COM-
PARISON OF BURNED AND UNBURNED NATIVE PASTURES
FOR BOTH NINE AND TWELVE MONTHS' GRAZING, AND COM-
PARISON OF METHODS OF LAND PREPARATION PREVIOUS TO
SEEDING IMPROVED PASTURES.
This phase.of pasture experimental work is in cooperation with
the J. C. Penney Gwinn Corporation on some 770 acres of their
cutover, flatwoods lands in Clay County and the State Forest
Service is cooperating in the matter of reforestation studies on
this pasture area which is covered with a scattering growth of
pines. This work has been carried out according to schedule.
Native pastures have been found to be of less forage value per
acre than improved pastures, although the native grasses will
produce quite as satisfactory gains as improved grasses if cattle
have access to sufficient acreage of the native grasses.
As to burned and unburned native grass pastures, where cattle
are taken up in the spring off of free range and placed on pastures
of native grass until November, thus far they have made better
gains on the burned pasture.
The records on year round grazing of native pastures burned
and unburned are too few yet to be at all conclusive. Thus far
the burned pastures show best gains. Comparison of this nature
would of necessity have to be of a number of years' duration to
mean anything.
It has been very definitely demonstrated that some preparation





Annual Report, 1933


of the land as found in the wild state, is necessary before actual
grass seeding operations should begin. Where carpet grass was
seeded on land which was double disked sufficiently to destroy
nearly all native vegetation (mostly wiregrass, Aristida strict
Michx.), a very satisfactory stand and growth were obtained.
Where the land was single disked sufficiently to destroy the
greater part of the native vegetation a fairly satisfactory stand
of carpet grass has been obtained but the native vegetation left
has still persisted to shade and compete with the carpet grass.
Where the native vegetation was simply burned over and carpet
grass seeded, immediately behind this burn, a fair stand of plants
was obtained but these have, after nearly four growth seasons,
been largely eliminated by shading and competition from the native
vegetation which has not since been burned over. Where carpet
grass seed were planted right in the native vegetation with no
previous land treatment and no burning over of the native vege-
tation preceding the planting, very few seed germinated and
what did germinate produced plants which were weak and soon
died. Where the native vegetation was very heavy many carpet
grass seed never reached the ground at all. Where land was
disked and left unseeded but was adjacent to disked and seeded
areas, carpet grass is gradually being naturally seeded. Wire-
grass once destroyed by disking has not come back.

WINTER LEGUME STUDIES
Hatch Project No. 53 G. E. Ritchey and
W. E. Stokes, Leaders
This project consists of five separate lines of investigation.
All five projects were completed with the 1932 data except the
studies of Crop Rotation Systems Using Winter Legumes, and
this will be reported on hereafter as a crop rotation project.
I. Date of Turning of Austrian Peas and Vetch
This experiment has been run three years. The yields of cover
crops when they were turned under the middle of February were
about one-fourth of the yields when turned under about two
weeks later and about one-sixth of the yield made when plowed
under March 21. The yields of corn are consistently higher when
following the cover crop but there is very little if any difference
in the yields of corn following the cover crop turned at the dif-
ferent dates. The results of all three years are similar to the
1932 data.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


II. The Date of Planting of Winter Legumes Followed by Corn
This experiment has been run three years. Slightly higher
yields of cover crops were made in the plots sown October 15
and November 15. This is the same in general as has been
obtained during the other two years. The average yield of cover
crops for the three-year period indicates a slight advantage in
seeding the crops between the middle and last of October. Slightly
higher yields of corn have been obtained from the plats which
have been plowed and sowed to the winter cover crop in November.
III. Crop Rotation Systems Using Summer and Winter Legumes
This experiment has been run three years and is being con-
tinued. The season has been exceptionally poor for cotton pro-
duction. The yield of cotton on the plots which were rotated
with corn has been more than twice as much as on those not
rotated. There is not a marked difference between the yields
of corn. The yields of the cover crops have been too low to have
much influence on the corn or cotton yields.
IV. Rate of Seeding of Austrian Peas and Hairy Vetch
Austrian peas seeded at the rate of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and
50 pounds per acre increased consistently with each increment
in the seeding rate up to and including 40 pounds per acre. Seed-
ing rates of 45 or 50 pounds per acre did not show any increase
in yield of top growth over the 40 pounds per acre seedings.
Hairy vetch seeded at the rate of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 50
pounds of seed per acre showed consistent increases in yield of
top growth per acre with each increase in seeding rate up to and
including 40 pounds per acre.
V. Superphosphate Requirements of Austrian Peas and Vetch
During the three years of this experiment, the yields of cover
crops have been consistently low-so low that they have been
almost negligible-and it has seemed wise to terminate the ex-
periment. In every case where superphosphate was used on the
plots there was a consistent increase in the yield over the check
plot. No consistent higher yield however was realized from the
use of 800 pounds per acre of superphosphate over the use of
400 pounds.
SUMMER COVER CROP STUDIES
Hatch Project No. 54 Geo. E. Ritchey and
W. E. Stokes, Leaders
This project has been brought to a close and the data are being
prepared for publication. A companion project, No. 83, "Sum-






Annual Report, 1933


mer Cover Crops in Citrus Groves," carried at the Citrus Experi-
ment Station at Lake Alfred, was active and a report on that
project will be found under the report of that branch experiment
station.
VARIETY TEST WORK WITH FIELD CROPS
Hatch Project No. 56 G. E. Ritchey, J. D. Warner
and F. H. Hull, Leaders.
In 1932 Black Amber, Shallu (Egyptian wheat), Pearl Millet,
Sudan grass and annual teosinte were used in this test. These
crops were planted in duplicated plots and one portion of each
plot was cut when 10 to 14 inches tall, another portion when about
two-thirds headed and the remaining portion when ripe. Three
hundred pounds of sodium nitrate was applied in three equal appli-
cations during the growing season.
The highest yields were obtained from Pearl Millet which was
cut when about one-half headed. In all cases the Pearl Millet
produced more than double the yield of any other crop used in the
test; Black Amber stood second in yield. The crops ranked in
total dry weight yields are as follows:
Cut when Cut when Cut when
10 to 14 inches tall about half headed ripe
Pearl Millet Pearl Millet Pearl Millet
Black Amber Black Amber Black Amber
Sudan grass Shallu Sundan grass
Shallu Sudan grass Teosinte
Teosinte Teosinte Shallu
This experiment has been discontinued during the year 1933.

Oats and Rye Varieties-at Gainesville
Fulghum, Burt and Appler oats were in the variety tests this
year and Appler proved the most rust resistant and the highest
yielder. In former years Fulghum has led in yield.
Florida Black rye and Abruzzi rye were compared in several
tests, with Abruzzi leading in grain yield.
A small planting of 34 varieties and strains of oats, supplied
by the U. S. Cereal Office for study for rust resistance, was made
in the fall of 1932. Several of the oats in this planting appeared
sufficiently promising to warrant further study.
Oats and Rye Varieties-In Gadsden and Washington Counties
Here again Appler oats and Abruzzi rye were the two leading
varieties of small grains. (See Table II, Project 97.) The Florida
Black rye is an early variety and was in the bloom stage when all






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


culms were killed by freezing temperatures on the night of Feb-
ruary 8. After this date additional stooling enabled the variety
to make a partial crop.
Corn Variety Tests
Tests on Mineral Soils: The corn variety tests at Gainesville
were continued with a number of varieties that have done well
in former seasons. Six new varieties were included. Twelve of
the most promising varieties were selected for the cooperative
tests and the tests at the North Florida Experiment Station. A
summary of corn variety tests was published in the 1932 annual
report. The results for the past season do not materially change
the standing of the varieties.
Tests on Acid Peat and Muck Soils of Central Florida: See
cooperative test report below.
Tests on Everglades Alkaline Peat and Muck Soils: See Ever-
glades Experiment Station report.
Cooperative Corn Variety Tests: Those varieties selected at
the Main Station at Gainesville as having the most promise for
Florida conditions are placed in comparative tests in cooperation
with farmers over the state. Twelve such varieties are in one
to three comparative tests on mineral soils in Washington, Jack-
son, Calhoun, Liberty, Jefferson, Taylor, and Suwannee counties,
on acid peat and muck soils in Marion and Polk counties and on
marl soil in Dade County. It is intended that the yield of corn
shall be taken on all tests supplemented by the yield of ensilage
for the tests on acid peat and muck soils in Marion and Polk
counties.
SOURCES OF NITROGEN AND RATES OF APPLICATION OF
NITROGEN AS TOP-DRESSING FOR OATS AND RYE
State Project No. 97 W. E. Stokes, J. D. Warner
and J. P. Camp, Leaders
Oats and rye top-dressing experiments at Gainesville were very
unsatisfactory on account of serious rust damage to both crops.
An experiment conducted at the North Florida Experiment
Station and another with T. E. Gainer in Washington County were
completed during the past season. The results are reported in
Table II.
An examination of Table II shows that the most efficient rate
of application of nitrate of soda was about 100 pounds per acre.
Higher rates usually have given an increase in yield but the
increase has not always been an economical one. These results
confirm those previously reported.






Annual Report, 1933


TABLE II.-RESULTS OF TOP DRESSING SMALL GRAINS WITH NITRATE OF
SODA ON NORFOLK SANDY LOAM SOIL IN GADSDEN AND WASHINGTON
COUNTIES, 1933.
Fulghum oats Appler oats Abruzzi rye IFla. Blk. rye
TREATMENT Wt. in Bush- Wt. in Bush. Wt. in Bush- Wt. in Bush-
sheaf els sheaf els sheaf els sheaf els
per per per per per per per per
acre acre acre acre acre acre acre acre
No top dressing 1 1,063 8.2 |1 1,193 10.1 1 1,417 4.4 || 831 2.4
50 lbs. nitrate of_
soda ....... 1,573 11.5 1,923 17.6 2,181 6.6 1,310 3.8
100 lbs. nitrate of
soda ....... .. 1,954 13.4 2,503 20.8 2,423 7.6 1,506 4.6
150 lbs. nitrate of
soda ......... 2,026 14.7 2,823 22.0 2,581 8.3 1,640 5.0
200 lbs. nitrate of I
soda ......... 2,409 18.4 3,039 24.3 2,340 8.8 1,864 6.2
Average ....... 1,805 | 13.2 i| 2,296 19.0 11 2,188 7.1 || 1,430 | 4.4
1Killed by freezing temperatures in bloom stage on February 8.

GREEN MANURE STUDIES
Hatch Project No. 98 W. A. Leukel, Leader
This project is in cooperation with the Department of Chem-
istry and Soils and involves field experiments with different green
manure crops and accompanying greenhouse and phytometer
experiments with the green manure crops used in actual field
trials.
The purpose of the experiment is to compare the effects of the
growing and incorporation of certain green manure crops on plant
growth under comparable soil conditions. In the field, corn and
oats are used as the indicator crops while in the greenhouse and
phytometer studies smaller growing annual crops such as Sudan
grass, oats and cattail millet are used.
The comparison of the green manure crops is being made on
the following basis: (a) Same quantity of dry material, (b) same
quantity of nitrogen, (c) actual field yield.
GROWTH BEHAVIOR OF PASTURE GRASSES
Hatch Project No. 100 W. A. Leukel, Leader
Observations on the root and stolon growth of pasture grasses
are being continued. Results obtained from plants grown in soil
containers where the entire root and stolon growth can be obtained
showed consistent results over a period of three years. Plants
cut frequently generally showed a lower weight of roots and
stolons in the spring and fall. The increase in weight of these
plant parts is generally greater for plants grown to maturity,
although a greater decrease in the weight of such plant parts






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


from fall to spring is found from plants grown to this stage.
The weight of these plant parts from one season to another is
rather uniform, indicating a gradual deterioration of the older
plant parts as the new plant system develops. A more vegetative
condition of the roots from frequently cut plants is evident from
their greater succulence and less woody or fibrous condition.
To observe further the growth cycle of those lower plant or-
gans, root growth studies are being made in a glass sided soil
container divided into different sections for different cutting
treatments. Observations made on the root development of
pasture plants substantiate results stated above. The growth
progress of grass roots appears to be very rapid from newly
transplanted plants, these roots growing to a depth of five feet in
five weeks, depending upon soil and other environmental condi-
tions. In spring new rootlets appear from the lower part of the
old root system. These rootlets provide the plant system with
mineral nutrients from the soil while the new plant growth de-
velops. The new stolon and top growth draw upon the previously
stored organic foods in the old stolon. After a sufficient root
system is developed from the new stolon, and the new top growth
appears sufficient for the elaboration of organic foods for plant
growth,-the stored organic foods in the old stolon appear to be
exhausted. As the old stolon deteriorates, the old root system
gradually dies and the new plant system obtains its nutrients
through its own plant organs.
The seasonal changes in the development of the underground
plant system are being further studied from a macrochemical and
microchemical standpoint. Samples of these underground plant
parts are being dug from a similar soil container at monthly or
bi-monthly periods. The development of the new and the deteri-
oration of the old plant parts are being studied from the stand-
point of variation in composition as new growth develops and as
old plant parts deteriorate. Since a more vegetative root system
has apparently a greater absorbing capacity for soil nutrients, a
knowledge as to what time of the growing season or at what
growth stage pasture plants are most efficient in this respect is
worth while in relation to pasture management. The retention of
a vegetative root system through proper grazing or cutting should
go far in insuring proper utilization of fertilizing materials for
pasture grasses as well as the production of more succulent top
growth.






Annual Report, 1993


IMPROVEMENT OF CORN THROUGH SELECTION AND BREEDING
Purnell Project No. 105 F. H. Hull, Leader
SELECTION WITHIN INBRED LINES AND THEIR RECOMBINATION
Since this work was started in 1927 approximately 15,000 in-
bred lines of corn have been started. Most of these were dis-
carded very soon because of defects brought to light by the pow-
erful effects of self-fertilization. The breeding plot of 1933
contains seven lines that have been self-fertilized six generations,
45 five generations, 237 four generations, 118 three generations,
and 82 two generations; a total of 490 lines. All of these lines
originated from varieties that have done well under local con-
ditions-some are from hybrids between such varieties. Every
line was planted in duplicate in 1933 in an ear row of 16 hills
with a check hill of Whatley Prolific at the end. Usually at
least two ears of each line were included in each planting. The
two plantings were made 25 days apart. Each planting of the
inbreds includes 1,290 ear rows-a total of 2,580 inbred ear rows
in the breeding plot. All of the lines that have been self-ferti-
lized four or more generations were sib-pollinated in 1933, the
others were self-pollinated as before. The purpose of sib-polli-
nating is to moderate the powerful inbreeding effect and slow
the fixation of characters which seems to be occurring more
rapidly in some cases than we can direct it by selection.
Some of the inbred lines are very promising in appearance and
behavior. It has been particularly gratifying to note that many
of them show very marked resistance to chlorosis.
Approximately 300 of the inbred lines were hand crossed with
Whatley Prolific in 1932 to test their behavior in hybrid combi-
nation, especially their prepotency for vigor and long heavy
husk. These hybrids are being grown in 1933 in comparison
with Whatley Prolific. All of the lines that have been self-polli-
nated three or more generations are being crossed with Whatley
Prolific in 1933 in an isolated crossing block. The time required
to detassel the crossing block is being recorded to determine the
cost of producing hybrid seed corn.
IMPROVEMENT OF WHATLEY PROLIFIC
Yield tests have shown the superiority of Whatley Prolific
in most parts of Florida north and west of Ocala. It is a variety
with a very wide adaptation range. Its principal faults are grain
that is too soft and husk covering not adequate for the best pro-
tection from insects. It would seem that the best progress in






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


corn improvement for the immediate future might be gained by
improving Whatley Prolific in these characters without narrowing
its adaptation range. Three plans have been adopted with the
hope that at least one might accomplish this difficult task.
The first plan is by ear-row selection and subsequent mass
selection. The ear row test was made in 1931 at Quincy, Belle
Glade and Gainesville with ears selected at Gainesville in 1930
and the superior strains were recombined in 1932 by hand polli-
nation since no isolated plot was available. The recombined
material is included in the variety test of 1933 in direct compari-
son with Whatley Prolific from the originator of the variety. In
addition approximately 3 acres are being grown for mass selection
of seed in the field at harvest time.
A second plan for the improvement of Whatley Prolific is to
recombine superior inbred lines from this variety into a recon-
stituted Whatley. Approximately 800 self-fertilized lines of
Whatley have been started in past seasons. Eighty-eight of
these remained for planting in 1933, and were further inbred by
hand pollination. It is intended that the prepotency of each of
these lines shall be tested in a cross with the mother variety be-
fore selection is made of the lines that are to be recombined.
A third plan for improving Whatley Prolific is to introduce a
small percent of blood from some of our native strains which
possess a longer, heavier husk and a more flinty type of grain.
The general plan is to cross the native strain with Whatley Pro-
lific and then back cross the hybrid to Whatley again so as to
secure 75% of Whatley blood. It is hoped that in this way the
complex which gives Whatley the wide adaptation range may
be retained and at the same time desirable characteristics of the
native corns will be added.
As noted above, 300 inbred lines were crossed with Whatley
Prolific in 1932 and the hybrids planted in 1933. Seven native
varieties were also crossed wifh Whatley. Two plantings of
these hybrids were made 25 days apart. Ears were well formed
on the first planting when the second planting reached the polli-
nation stage. At that time four of the best hybrids were back
crossed to Whatley Prolific. These lots are to be planted next
season at Quincy, at Belle Glade on alkaline peat soil, in central
Florida on acid peat, as well as at Gainesville. In each location
mass selection of vigorous plants of the desired type will be
practiced.





Annual Report, 1933


SWEET CORN IMPROVEMENT
The principal roasting ear varieties of corn have been tested
during the past five seasons. Records have been taken of the
total yield of roasting ears, the yield of marketable corn, the aver-
age weight of ears, the percent of corn unmarketable because of
worm damage or lack of fill, the percent of ears wormy, and the
number of days from planting until 50% of the plants had silked.
The purpose of these tests has been not only to secure information
for the grower but also to select foundation stocks for breeding
work. The results are summarized in Table III.
The first 12 varieties have starchy or field type kernels. They
are dent corns. The lower 12 are true sweet corns. Of the first
group Snowflake and White Dent are the principal varieties used
in the main roasting ear producing sections. The data indicate
that Oklahoma Silvermine, Dubose, and Mizelle should be tried
in those areas. Trucker Favorite is a quick maturing variety
used principally to follow winter truck crops. No variety better
suited to that use has been found. It averages about 10 days
earlier than Snowflake. Tuxpan is a very late Mexican variety
that is widely used in Southern Texas. It is worthless in Central
Florida but seems to be gaining favor in the Everglades for
winter growing.
Long Island Beauty is the highest yielding of the commercial
sweet corns, probably for all parts of the state. Florida 191 is a
synthetic variety developed by the Office of Cereal Crops, Bureau
of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, by
combining Southern field corn with long tight husks and North-
ern sweet corn of superior table quality. This material was given
to the Florida Experiment Station in 1930 and has been selected
for longer husks, greater vigor, and better seed quality since that
time. When this strain was first obtained about 50% of the
plants produced a great deal of red pigment on the stalks, leaves
and husks. This pigment changed to an unsightly brown on cut
roasting ears. It has been entirely eliminated by selection. Flor-
ida 191 appears to be markedly superior to any of the commercial
sweet varieties. It is of very good table quality. Trial plantings
of this strain with a number of growers over the state have
brought favorable reports in every case.
The long period of warm, damp weather that follows the
maturity of corn in Florida makes the curing of good quality
sweet corn seed almost impossible. No sweet corn seed is pro-
duced commercially in the state. For that reason it has not






TABLE III.-SUMMARY OF VARIETY TESTS WITH ROASTING EAR CORN FOR THE YEARS 1929 TO 1933, INCLUSIVE.

Roasting Ears Average Percent of Corn Percent Number L
Number Acre Yield Weight of not Marketable because of of Days
Variety Years Tested Martekable Ears Planting
Total Marketable Ears Wormy Not Filled Wormy to Silking
Years Pounds Pounds Pounds Percent | Percent Percent Days
Snowflake.................. 5 2,934 2,181 0.84 16.6 24.7 90.4 91.8
White Dent............... 3 2,244 1,376 .83 23.9 26.7 86.4 | 92.4
Oklahoma Silvermine...... 1 2,676 1,962 .95 11.4 35.6 97.4 93.7 S
Silvermine (K)............ 3 1,819 1,114 .68 37.2 | 48.1 92.5 | 83.5 .
Silvermine (S)............ 2 1,631 860 .75 34.9 39.1 93.3 84.6
Dubose .................. 4 3,067 2,251 .94 12.9 29.6 73.8 93.0
Mizelle .................. 4 3,131 2,262 .96 16.3 | 28.6 78.1 92.0
Trucker Favorite.......... 4 1,840 1,054 .68 42.2 38.8 96.6 82.1 ~ "
Tuxpan.................. 3 2,443 1,082 1.06 25.2 55.0 83.1 107.3
Adams Early............. 1 854 .... .89 .... .... 96.3 73.6
Norfolk Market......... 1 1,417 .... .81 .... .... 87.4 | 80.9
Hickory King........... 1 1,913 1,492 .63 15.2 21.5 100.0 86.8


Florida 191............... 4 1,393 657 .53 42.9 I 66.2 90.3 [ 81.3
Long Island Beauty ....... 5 1,393 367 .60 61.7 63.6 91.7 80.9
Vanguard ................ 3 982 196 .52 90.0 59.6 99.8 71.7
Stowell Evergreen......... 1 1,138 .... .45 .... .... 89.4 76.0
Golden Bantam......... 1 933 .... .23 ........ 80.5 73.6
Country Gentleman....... 1 640 .... .33 .... .... 92.2 85.7
Black Mexican............ 1 874 I .... .28 .... .... 82.4 73.6 g.
Yexo Sugar............. 1 663 .... .34 ...... 80.5 74.8
Golden Bantam Evergreen.. 1 742 .... .38 .... .... 80.5 76.0
Gold Bond............... 1 1,027 .... .25 .... .... 82.4 73.6
Golden Evergreen....... 1 No yield .... ....... .... .. .. ...
Bantam Evergreen........ 1 No yield .... .... .... .... .... ...
NOTE: (a) The first 12 varieties are dent corns of good shipping type; the last 12 are true sweet corn.
(b) These data have been corrected for discrepancies caused by some varieties not being in all tests; all of the
figures for different vari"tie may h! cnmn..-.r. dir--th.v





Annual Report, 1983


seemed advisable to distribute seed of Florida 191 sweet corn
directly to the growers in the state except by small trial samples.
In the spring of 1933 seed was supplied to a number of seed com-
panies with a record of the performance of this variety and the
expressed hope that they would see fit to supply seed to the
Florida trade.
The main effort in sweet corn improvement has been directed
towards converting the best roasting ear varieties of the field
corns to sweet type. It has been demonstrated that any variety
of corn can be converted to sweet type with five to seven controlled
pollinations. In other words, it is possible to build a new variety
that is practically identical with the original except that it is
sugary instead of starchy or dent type. This work is in progress
with Snowflake, White Dent, Dubose, Mizelle, Tuxpan, Oklahoma
Silvermine, Trucker Favorite and Hickory King. A further
pollination was gained during the season of 1933 in the process
of converting each of these varieties to sweet type. One more
pollination will probably suffice to secure seed of Sweet Snow-
flake. The work on the other varieties was begun later.
Earliness in roasting ear corns is usually very desirable, since
the price declines rather rapidly during the season. For the
past three seasons the roasting ear varieties were planted at five
different dates beginning February 4, and at intervals of 15 days.
One purpose was to determine if any of the varieties were adapted
to extreme early planting. No difference in this respect was
observed. Another purpose was to study the effect of date of
planting upon yield, ear size, worm damage, fill, and length of
growing season. In Table IV the averages are given for five
dent varieties, and two sweet varieties separately. The first two
plantings were killed by frost in 1932 so the results for that year
are not averaged with the results for 1931 and 1933. These tests
were made on rather light land that could hardly be considered
suitable for green corn production. The yields for the different
dates cannot therefore be considered very dependable. Moreover
not enough seasons have been included to give definite results. No
important differences in ear size, worm damage and fill can be
noted. The growing season is 42 days longer for February 4
plantings than for April 5 plantings with both the dent and sweet
corns. In other words, 60 days earlier planting gives only 18
days earlier harvest. February 4 plantings have survived two
of the three years at Gainesville. In an earlier test with field
corns (1927-1930), made by the Agronomy Department, Febru-







TABLE IV.-SUMMARY OF DATE OF PLANTING TESTS WITH ROASTING EAR CORN FOR THE YEARS 1931, 1932 AND 1933.

Roasting Ears Average Percent of Ears Percent Number
Date of Acre Yield Weight not Marketable because of Days Date of
Planting Marketable Ears Planting Silking
Total Marketable Ears Wormy I Not Filled Wormy to Silking

Five dent varieties: Snowflake, White Dent, Dubose, Mizelle and Trucker Favorite
Average of 1931 and 1933 tests
Date Pounds I Pounds Pounds Percent Percent Percent Days | Date
February 4............... 1,765 1,148 0.84 18 30 78 122 June 6
February 19 .............. 2,484 1,925 0.84 17 21 75 109 June 8
March 6.................. 2,490 1,895 0.89 18 20 74 96 June 10
March21................. 2,659 1,911 0.87 15 27 83 86 June 15
April 5................... 2,194 1,530 0.76 15 34 84 : 80 June24

Average of 1932 test
February 4............... Killed by frost
February 19.............. Killed by frost .
March 6.................. 1,577 817 0.72 30 46 95 102 June 16
March21................. 2,127 1,154 0.76 28 85 93 87 June 16
April5................... 2,323 1,478 0.83 30 27 97 77 June 21

Two sweet varieties: Long Island Beauty and Florida 191
Average of 1931 and 1933 tests
February 4.............. 601 64 0.56 59 76 94 115 May30
February 19............... 905 278 0.44 51 63 94 101 t May 31
March 6................. 1,417 475 0.47 34 64 80 88 June 2
March 21................. 1,390 470 0.45 41 47 86 85 June 14;
April5................ 2,014 1,047 0.52 34 40 89 73 June17'

Average of 1932 test
February 4. .............. Killed by frost .
February 19 ............. Killed by frost
March6................. 568 63 0.72 53 88 97 92 June 6
March21................. 1,207 355 0.68 47 78 97 78 June 7
April 5 ................... 688 91 0.52 51 74 94 72 June 16






Annual Report, 1933


ary 15 plantings survived every year. It may be said then that
February 19 plantings of corn have survived six years out of
seven at Gainesville. I

EFFECT OF TIME OF PLANTING CORN ON FORAGE AND
GRAIN YIELDS
State Project No. 106 W. E. Stokes and
F. H. Hull, Leaders
This work is being continued at Gainesville and Quincy by
planting the corn variety tests at different dates. The Gaines-
ville test includes eight varieties planted on five different dates.
The Quincy test is planted at three different dates and includes
all of the varieties of corn under test at that station. Records
are taken of grain and silage yields, percent weevily ears, sound-
ness, lodging, ear worm damage, length of growing season and
various other characters to study their relation to planting date.
The results usually show higher yields for the earlier plantings.
Planting corn as soon as frost danger is past is recommended for
the upper part of the state. For date of planting tests at the
Everglades Experiment Station, see the report of that station.
CROP ADAPTATION STUDIES
Hatch Project No. 107 G. E. Ritchey and
W. E. Stokes, Leaders
INTRODUCTION GARDEN
The forage crop introduction gardens have been conducted as
in past years. The season of 1932 has been disappointing, owing
to the extreme drought in the spring. A large proportion of the
seeds planted did not germinate and many that did produce plants
died because of the hot dry weather, therefore leaving no records
behind them.
The plantings in the nursery were as follows:
Crotalaria ............. ..................... 60 plantings
Grasses ..................................... 88 plantings
Miscellaneous, old plantings................... 29 plantings
Miscellaneous, new plantings ................. 63 plantings
Pigeon peas ................................ 26 plantings
Winter Legumes, 1931-1932...... ............. 93 plantings
S1932-fall .................... 20 plantings
Total plantings ......................... 379

The winter of 1932 and 1933 was mild and it was possible to
carry several plantings through the winter months. A new grass
known as wooly finger grass (Digitaria eriantha var. stolonifera





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


S.P.I. 77998) is showing special promise for a pasture grass.
Several other plantings show indications of value as forage.
These are being propagated and given trials on a larger scale.
Inasmuch as the palatability trials have indicated that the
rabbit is a close indicator of the taste of cattle, rabbits are being
used in the garden to obtain indications of the possible palata-
bility and toxicity of the plants grown in the garden.
Similar crop introduction gardens have been planted at the
Quincy, Belle Glade and Homestead substations.

FERTILIZATION OF PASTURE GRASSES AND FORAGE CROPS
Hatch Project No. 120 W. A. Leukel and
J. P. Camp, Leaders
A complete tabulation of data in regard to the different phases
of nitrate fertilization of bahia, carpet and centipede grasses
when cut frequently and when grown to maturity substantiates
all facts stated in previous annual reports. As previously stated,
nitrate fertilization does not retard reproduction or seed produc-
tion in plants or affect the length of the vegetative period; neither
does it increase the percentage of nitrogen in the plant for any
particular growth stage.
On a whole, the chief effect of nitrate fertilization appears to
be reflected in the increased production of vegetative top growth
in both the frequently cut grasses and that of those grown to
maturity.
In frequently cut grasses the various mineral compounds of
phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium remained
higher in percentage, and more constant in the top growth of
the plants throughout the growing season. Total nitrogen was
higher and more constant in percentage throughout the season,
while the crude fibrous materials or unhydrolyzed residue was
lower but also more uniform in this respect.
Plants grown to maturity showed a gradual decrease in per-
centage of most mineral compounds as they approached the seed
stage of growth. The crude fibrous material or unhydrolyzed
residue gradually increased to a high percentage as the plants
approached the seed stage of growth. In percentage of nitrogen,
a gradual decrease was shown through the different growth
stages to maturity. Regardless of nitrate fertilization, the dif-
ferently treated plants grown to maturity were very similar in
percentage of nitrogen in the late seed stage of growth.
On a quantity basis, the total nitrogen and also the compounds





Annual Report, 1933


of phosphorus and potassium were greater for the frequently
cut plants than from plants grown to maturity.
The yield of top growth produced was in the order of treat-
ments offered, namely: nitrate of soda and water, nitrate of soda,
water and no treatment. The results of this work are ready to
be written off in manuscript form for publication.
NITRATE ACCUMULATION IN PASTURE GRASSES
A completed tabulation of determinations made on the accumu-
lation of nitrate and other forms of nitrogen in bahia and sudan
grasses was made. Heavy fertilization of these grasses with
nitrate of soda in no instance brought about any excessive accu-
mulations of nitrate nitrogen in the plants. Although the per-
centage of this form of nitrogen in the fertilized plants is slightly
higher, it is far from sufficient to produce any detrimental results
to grazing cattle even when applied at the rate of 2,800 pounds per
acre. A fractionation of the nitrogen constituents indicates a
rapid transformation of absorbed nitrogen to the higher forms
of organic nitrogen and to protein. The apparent efficiency of
the absorbing organs of the plant and the resulting increased
vegetative top production indicates an augmentation of nitrogen
transformation in the plant.
The rapid transformation of nitrogen and the non-accumula-
tion of excessive nitrates in the plant under heavy nitrate ferti-
lizations are worthwhile facts in connection with pasture fer-
tilization and rotation. Accumulation of excessive nitrates in
pasture grasses under heavy nitrate fertilization would be a
hindrance to the above system of pasture management.
FERTILIZATION OF NAPIER GRASS
The fertilization of napier grass is being continued, using
commercial fertilizers in place of the sewage effluent applied in
former work on this plant (Bul. 215). Results thus far indicate
possibilities of producing similar marked after effects after the
discontinuation of fertilization. A 21/ acre area was divided in
July, 1931, into separate plots of five rows each extending across
the entire area for different fertilizer treatments triplicated as
in fertilization with sewage effluent in previous work. One series
of plots is fertilized with a complete fertilizer, another with barn-
yard manure and a third is receiving no treatment (check). The
napier grass plants were established in these plots during and
after July, 1931, and permitted to grow until late fall when the
top growth was removed. No record was taken of this growth.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


In the spring of 1932 a complete fertilizer and barnyard manure
were applied to the respective areas previously mentioned. Plants
were permitted to grow to a stage of growth appropriate for
silage purposes. The differently treated plots were cut for silage
Aug. 24, 1932, and yields were calculated on basis of tons per
acre. The following notations show the details in regard to
arrangement of plots and fertilizer treatments. Silage yields
for 1933 are not available at present but will be reported later.

TABLE V.-YIELD OF NAPIER GRASS SILAGE-AUGUST 24, 1931.
Green Dry Weight
weight weight Dry 'silage
TREATMENT per per matter per
acre acre acre
(pounds) (pounds) (percent) (tons)

Check ...................... ..... 21,010 5,390 25.63 10.5
Commercial Fertilizer .............. | 54,600 1 15,830 I 29.00 27.3
Manure ........... ............. 32,800 8,775 26.75 16.4


The fertilizer program has been as follows (9 plots):
August, 1931. All except check plots received 150 Ibs. each of a 6-6-6
(N-P205-K20) mixture made up of sulphate of ammonia,
superphosphate and muriate of potash.
April, 1932. Plots 3, 6 and 9 eachlreceived approximately 4,000 pounds of
cow manure.
Plots 2, 5 and 8 each received 100 pounds nitrate of soda, 100
pounds superphosphate and 33 pounds muriate of potash.
March, 1933. Plots 3, 6 and 9 received about 4,000 pounds of cow manure
each.
Plots 2, 5 and 8 each received 100 pounds nitrate of soda.
In addition, the manure plots (3, 6 and 9) were subdivided into four equal
parts and half of each 4 plot was fertilized with 6% pounds of nitrate of
soda.

The application of commercial fertilizers apparently brought
about a larger yield of silage than that of barnyard manure.
This may be due partly to the fact that the manure was not
sufficiently incorporated with the soil. Both manure and ferti-
lizer showed a marked increase over the check plats.
When the plats were fertilized in 1933 the manure was thor-
oughly incorporated with the soil. The appearance of the grass
at the present writing shows a marked increase in growth through
the use of barnyard manure. Samples of the lower plant parts
are being collected each season in orderto establish a relation
between the lower plant system and its stored organic foods and
the variation in the top growth production of the differently
treated plants. Observations are being made on the growth and





Annual Report, 1938


extent of the roots of the plants in a specially constructed soil
container for such studies.
If a proper fertilizer mixture of organic and inorganic materials
can be formulated to produce after effects similar to those pro-
duced by sewage effluent, silage yields of napier grass can be
very economically produced.

COMPOSITION OF BURNED AND UNBURNED RANGE PASTURE
GRASSES
Native range pasture grasses were collected at 30-day inter-
vals the past year from areas treated as follows: burned and
grazed; burned and ungrazed; unburned and grazed; unburned
and ungrazed. Although analyses thus far are not complete,
some variations as a result of different treatments are evident.

EFFECT OF POTASH ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF SPANISH
PEANUTS
State Project No. 138 W. E. Stokes, W. A. Leukel,
J. D. Warner and J. P. Camp, Leaders

This project has now been completed in both field and labora-
tory phases and the data are being prepared for publication.

DATE OF SEEDING AND PHOSPHATE REQUIREMENTS OF WINTER
LEGUMES AND THEIR EFFECT UPON SUBSEQUENT CROPS
State Project No. 153 J. D. Warner, Leader
During October and November of 1932 cooperative winter
legume cover crop experiments were located on predominating
soil types with 15 farmers scattered through nine counties in
Central and Northwest Florida. In each experiment there are
36 to 48 one-fifteenth acre plots. Treatments consist of Austrian
peas, monantha vetch, hairy vetch and no cover crop to which
superphosphate was applied at the rate of none, 300, and 600
pounds per acre. Each treatment is repeated three to four times.
The green weight per acre of each crop was calculated from
the weight of material cut from two 8'x8' squares in each plot.
The results thus secured show that these three crops respond
markedly to applications of superphosphate, particularly on the
heavier types of soil in the northwestern part of the state. In
certain experiments muriate of potash was applied at the rate
of 75 pounds per acre which likewise stimulated growth per-
ceptibly.
It was also noted that hairy vetch and monantha vetch sur-
passed Austrian peas in growth. As in 1932, these results would





50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

again suggest that the vetches are better adapted to mild winters,
apparently by virtue of more resistance to diseases and insects,
than are Austrian peas. During the preceding two seasons of
lower average temperatures Austrian peas made the most satis-
factory growth.
Where these crops are turned under and the land planted to
corn two weeks after turning the effect of each crop has been
noted in increased yields of corn. The increase varies widely
from farm to farm and is apparently governed largely by stand
and moisture conditions rather than an insufficient supply of
necessary plant foods, particularly nitrogen.
The effect of turning under winter legume cover crops upon
the yield of subsequent crops of Spanish peanuts is indicated
in Table VI.
TABLE VI.-AVERAGE RESULTS OF THREE WINTER LEGUME COVER CROP EX-
PERIMENTS FOLLOWED BY SPANISH PEANUTS ON NORFOLK SANDY LOAM
SOIL IN JACKSON COUNTY, 1931-1932. SINGLE ONE-HALF ACRE PLOTS
FOR EACH TREATMENT WERE USED ON THREE FARMS.
*400 Superphosphate
No Phosphate per acre Average
Cover Cover
COVER CROP crop Spanish cro Spanish
green peanuts green peanuts Cover eanuts
wt. per bu. per wt. per bu. per crops
acre acre acre acre

No cover crop............. 32.2 ..... 35.0 ..... 33.6
Austrian winter peas..| 3,766 1 36.2 7,529 | 38.7 | 5,647 1 37.4
Monantha vetch ...... 3,620 | 34.8 8,621 | 36.4 6,120 35.6
Hairy vetch .......... 3,754 36.4 7,903 38.7 5,828 37.5
*All superphosphate applied broadcast at planting of cover crop.

It will be noted that the yield of peanuts was but slightly in-
creased as a result of the incorporation of any of these winter
legumes into the soil prior to planting.
LYSIMETER STUDIES ON PASTURE GRASSES
Hatch Project No. 158 W. A. Leukel, Leader
The experimental work on this project was brought to a close
during August, 1932. At this time all plant materials were
removed from the lysimeters and separated into tops, stolons,
roots and plant residues. These different plant parts were
weighed and prepared for analysis.
As reported in former publications, the frequently cut grasses
showed a more vegetative top growth and horizontal extension
of stolons forming better.sod. Plants cut in the seed or mature
growth stages or not cut during the season produced an upright





Annual Report, 1933


growth of stolons in the form of seed stems and showed a poor
sod formation.
The quantity of green top growth produced over the three year
period varied directly with the frequency of cutting. In weight
of dry top growth the area cut in the seed stage was slightly.
greater than that from plants from the more frequently cut areas.
Plants not cut during the season showed the lowest weight of
top growth when removed in the late fall. The percentage of
dry matter in the top growth varied inversely with the frequency
of cutting.
The dry weight of stolons from the differently treated plants
was greatest for the plants cut less frequently. Plants cut very
frequently were lowest in stolon weight. The weight of stolons
from plants cut in the seed stage and those from plants not cut
during the growing season were somewhat similar in weight but
lower than the weight of stolons from the less frequently cut
plants.
The dry weight of roots from the plants varied inversely with
the frequency of cutting with the exception of those from the
less frequently cut plants, which were slightly greater in weight
than the roots of the plants cut in the seed stage of growth.
On a percentage basis, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potas,
sium in the top growth of the plants varied directly with the fre-
quency of cutting. On a quantity basis, a similar trend is shown for
total nitrogen and potassium. A general downward trend is shown
in quantity of phosphorus in the top growth of the plants with
the frequency of cutting up to plants cut in the seed stage of
growth. After this the quantity of phosphorus produced in the
total top growth again increases until equal to that of plants cut
very frequently.
The stolons of the differently treated plants when dug-August
19, 1932-show interesting correlations. Stolons of plants cut.
very frequently are very low in nitrogen on a percentage basis.
Those of plants cut less frequently are highest in nitrogen per-
centage. A gradual decrease is again shown for stolons of plants.
cut in the seed stage and those of plants not cut during the season,-
The percentage of phosphorus in the stolons varies directly with
the frequency of cutting. The stolons of plants not cut during
the season carry slightly higher percentages of phosphorus than
those from the frequently cut plants.
The percentage of potassium is rather uniform in the stolons
of the differently treated plants, but stolons of plants not cut
during the growing season carry the highest percentage.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


In quantity, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the
stolons of the differently treated plants varies inversely with the
frequency of cutting.
On a percentage basis the total nitrogen and phosphorus in the
roots of the plants varies inversely with the frequency of cutting.
The roots of plants not cut during the growing season carry a
higher percentage of these elements.
The percentage of potassium in the roots of the differently
treated plants is somewhat uniform. On a quantity basis-
nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium vary inversely with the
frequency of top growth cutting.
The fertilization and leaching studies made on these differently
treated plants in cooperation with the Chemistry Department
appear to be closely correlated with their growth behavior and
utilization of nutrient materials.
Soil nitrates collected in the leachings from the differently
treated plants varied inversely with the frequency of cutting,
indicating a more efficient use of the same from the soil by the
more vegetative subterranean plant parts.
The quantity of calcium collected in the leachings from the
differently treated plants followed a similar trend as that of the
soil nitrates. The quantity of phosphorus and potassium col-
lected in the leachings was greatest from the plants not cut
throughout the growing season and least for the very frequently
cut plants-for plants cut less frequently and those cut in the
seed stage the phosphorus and potassium collected in the leach-
ings showed some variations.
These results conform with former work published on the
growth behavior and utilization of organic foods by differently
treated pasture plants. They indicate that the frequent cutting
or grazing of prostrate growing pasture grasses augments: (1)
an increased production of vegetative top growth, (2) greater
production of nitrogen or protein, (3) a better mineral compo-
sition as regards phosphorus and potassium, (4) a better utili-
zation of mineral soil nutrients, and (5) a more economic use of
mineral fertilizers for pasture purposes.

CORN FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS
State Project No. 163 J. D. Warner, W. E. Stokes
and J. P. Camp, Leaders
Results of corn fertilizer experiments conducted in cooperation
with farmers on predominating soil types in Central and North-






Annual Report, 1988


west Florida give further evidence of the influence of phosphate,
nitrogen and potash, singly and in combination, on the yield of
corn. The data secured during the past three years show con-
clusively that the efficiency of any given fertilizer combination
varies with soil type and cropping system. As these factors are
covered through additional experiments it seems probable that
a grouping of soils and general cropping systems may be made
based upon the response in yield of corn to each element in a
complete fertilizer.
SOURCES OF NITROGEN FOR SIDE-DRESSING CORN
A comparison of the efficiency of urea, calurea, Ammo Phos B,
calcium nitrate, leunasalpeter, sulfate of ammonia and nitrate of
soda as side-dressing for corn was made on Norfolk medium
sandy loam in Gadsden County and on Tifton sandy loam in
Washington County. The yield of corn in these tests failed to
show any marked superiority of any one source of nitrogen
except in the case of Ammo Phos B in Gadsden County. A ferti-
lizer formula test on this field the same year shows the soil to
be very deficient in phosphate. Since this carrier of nitrogen
contains a considerable quantity of phosphorus the increased
yield of corn may be attributed largely to the effect of phosphate.
These sources of nitrogen are again in comparative tests where
liberal applications of superphosphate and muriate of potash were
made before planting.
SOURCES OF NITROGEN TEST-AT GAINESVILLE
This test on Norfolk sandy land is now in its fifth and probably
its last year. The sources of nitrogen used are cottonseed meal,
nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia, leunasalpeter, calurea, urea
and calcium nitrate with and without phosphate and potash.
The cottonseed meal goes under the corn before planting and the
other sources of nitrogen are applied as side-dressings when the
corn is about 45 days old. Where phosphate and potash are used
these materials are put out in the furrow ahead of planting.
Each year the cottonseed meal plots, especially where phosphate
and potash are used, have given better growth of corn plants
early in the season than plots where nitrogen was applied as a
side-dressing but the final yields of corn on the cottonseed meal
plots has not averaged as good as on some of the others.
Greater yields of corn have, on the average, been obtained on
this soil from a complete fertilizer than from nitrogen alone but
it is questionable as to whether increased yields have been profit-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


able; in fact, it is quite frequently impossible to show profits from
the use of any kind of fertilizer on corn on this type of soil due
absolutely to the lack of moisture at the proper time in the
development of the corn plant.
RATES OF NITROGEN ON CORN-AT GAINESVILLE
The rates of nitrogen tests on corn at Gainesville have not been
,at all conclusive, apparently due in part to lack of soil uniformity
and to insufficient replication of treatments. As a result this
test has been transferred to another part of the Experiment Sta-
tion farm where soil conditions are more uniform and where the
area is large enough to permit the treatments to be sufficiently
replicated to insure accurate results.
Urea is the source of nitrogen used in this test and it is being
applied in amounts to give 15, 30, 45 and 60 pounds of nitrogen
per acre.
A STUDY OF CROTALARIA AS A FORAGE CROP
State Project No. 174 W. E. Stokes and
G. E. Ritchey, Leaders
This experiment, in cooperation with the Animal Husbandry
Department, is now in its third year.
Eight species of crotalaria, namely, C. anagyroides, C. granti-
ana, C. incana, C. intermedia, C. lanceolata, C. spectabilis, C.
striata, and C. usaramoensis were seeded in rows 4 feet apart and
were cultivated during the summer.
One acre of fenced land was planted to duplicated plots of eight
different species of crotalaria to be used in palatability trials
during the summer months. Cattle were turned into the area
and allowed to graze at will, thus selecting the species of their
choice. Certain species were palatable to cattle while others
were not. One acre of Crotalaria anagyroides was pastured with
3 cattle. They grazed it successfully except for a certain strain
which was mixed in the planting and which the cattle refused
wherever it was growing. Also 13,175 pounds of crotalaria hay
were artificially dried with the Ardrier (Arnold Hay Drier).
This hay was used for hay palatability tests, maintenance tests
and digestibility trials by the Animal Husbandry Department.
About one ton each of green material of Crotalaria incana, C.
intermedia, C. spectabilis and C. striata was used to fill four
experimental silos. : The silage obtained from the silos was used
in palatability studies.
A total of 15,630 pounds of crotalaria, napier grass and sugar-






Annual Report, 1933 55

cane hay was successfully dried with the artificial drier during
the season of 1932.
MUTATIONS INDUCED BY HEATING SEED CORN
State Project No. 176 F. H. Hull, Leader
This project has been inactive during the year.
A STUDY OF CROTALARIA AS A FORAGE CROP FOR RABBITS
State Project No. 177 G. E. Ritchey, Leader
Artificially cured hay from the various Crotalaria species which
were used in the Crotalaria forage tests was furnished the Depart-
ment of Home Economics for the purpose of running feeding tests
with rabbits. A report of these tests will be found in the report
of the Department of Home Economics.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Considerable progress has been made in the research work of
this department during the past year. Progress is outlined under
each separate project.
The conduct of research work with livestock requires that
herds be maintained in such manner that similar groups of ani-
mals may be obtained that have been handled under uniform
known methods of feeding and management. Such herds are
maintained by the Station. Valuable information is obtained
from the records of these herds, in addition to that from animals
assigned to the separate projects. These herds include dairy
cattle, beef cattle and swine. A limited number of poultry and
laboratory animals are maintained for veterinary studies.
DAIRY HERD MANAGEMENT
During the past fiscal year, 11 registered Jersey cows in the
Station dairy herd have qualified for the Register of Merit of the
American Jersey Cattle Club. All were milked twice daily under
uniform practices of feeding and management. These cows in-
clude a sufficient number of daughters to qualify two former herd
sires as Register of Merit bulls. Two cows became state cham-
pions for butterfat production in their respective age classes in
the 305-day division.
The 11 cows produced an average of 7,643 pounds of milk with
an average test of 5.53 percent, containing 407.69 pounds of but-
terfat.
The herd records accumulated during the past 20 years are
being analyzed in making detailed studies of management of
dairy cattle under Florida conditions. Birth weights and color
markings of all calves are recorded. These, together with com-
plete milk and butterfat records, have value in studies of heredity
in dairy cattle.
BEEF HERD MANAGEMENT
The breeding herd of native cows at the Main Station at Gaines-
ville is headed by a registered Hereford bull. Other breeds are
being used in studies conducted at the various branch stations in
the state. The native cattle are used as a foundation herd to
show the improvement in beef qualities through the use of a good
purebred beef bull. Photographic record of the original native
cows, their weights at regular intervals during the year, and
birth weights and rates of growth of their grade offspring are
being obtained. This herd is kept on native and improved grass






Annual Report, 1988


pastures during the grazing season. In the winter months they
are used in practical studies to determine the most economical
feeds for wintering a breeding herd.
Cooperative beef cattle breeding experiments are being con-
ducted under range conditions in nine counties in the state. Data
are being obtained on 12 ranges in these counties. Important
problems of herd management under range conditions, determin-
ing the importance of purebred bulls when bred to native cows
in improving range herds, kinds of ranges and marketing of off-
spring at various ages are being studied. At this time Red
Polled and Devon bulls are being used in these studies. In all
of this work the Animal Husbandry Division of the Bureau of
Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, is cooperating,
and many of the animals belong to them.
SWINE HERD MANAGEMENT
This department maintains a herd of purebred swine to pro-
duce offspring for use in research problems in swine production.
Studies are being made to determine the feeding value of certain
field crops in pork production when "hogged off" in the field.
This herd is being used in demonstrating that it is both prac-
tical and profitable to maintain the herd free from parasites.
This is accomplished by use of various field crops, practicing a
systematic rotation of various forage crops for grazing under
Florida farm conditions.
By selection, a desirable market type of hog is being produced.
The breeding and selection carried out with this herd is based
upon the type of hog in greatest demand by the packers as
butcher hogs.
POULTRY INVESTIGATIONS
Several investigations with chicks, laying hens and turkeys are
being conducted cooperatively at the West Central Florida Experi-
ment Station (Chinsegut Hill) together with the Animal Hus-
bandry Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department
of Agriculture. N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman, is asso-
ciated with these projects.
VETERINARY SERVICE AND DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORY
Veterinarians in this department devoted part of their time
to diagnosis and treatment of injuries and diseases which oc-
curred among the horses of the University Field Artillery Unit,
R.O.T.C., and among the livestock belonging to the College Farm,
the Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Everglades Experi-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ment Station. Diagnoses were made on diseased animals and
specimens received at the laboratory as follows: 391 chickens,
27 turkeys, 19 pigeons, ducks, guinea fowls and geese, 50 dogs,
30 cows and 3 rabbits, a total of 522 diagnoses.
RADIO AND TECHNICAL TALKS
A number of popular reports of experimental work in dairy
cattle feeding and management, beef production and manage-
ment, swine production and management, value of meats, diseases
of livestock and poultry were broadcasted over WRUF during the
year. Five technical talks on experiments in progress were
presented before national organizations in the fields of animal
production, dairy science and veterinary medicine.
PARALYSIS OF DOMESTIC FOWL
State Project No. 119 E. F. Thomas, Leader
Studies for the past year have been the continuation of trans-
mission experiments with different tissues from paralyzed birds,
observationss and post-mortem examinations of affected birds
from infected flocks. Nothing definite has been determined.
THE COST OF WINTERING STEERS PREPARATORY TO SUMMER
FATTENING ON PASTURE
State Project No. 122 A. L. Shealy, Leader
This project was discontinued with the 1932 report.
DEFICIENCIES IN FEEDS USED IN CATTLE RATIONS
Purnell Project No. 133 R. B. Becker and W. M. Neal, Leaders
The major portion of the time has been devoted to the investi-
gations in nutrition.
Analyses of blood samples from healthy and anemic cattle in
the investigation of salt sick as observed during the field survey
and the cooperative feeding trials on this condition, were
assembled and published as a special technical article entitled
"The Hemoglobin Content of the Blood of Healthy and Anemic
'Salt Sick' Cattle." It supplies proof from the plane of nutrition
of the animals as to the definite value of the salt sick lick (100,
pounds common salt, 25 pounds ferric oxide, and 1 pound of pul-
verized copper sulfate) in correcting this condition.
Another phase of the field work involved a study of the com-
position of forages from healthy and "salt sick" areas. A sig-
nificantly lower iron content was found in the latter. The manu-
script "The Composition of Feedstuffs in Relation to Nutritional






Annual Report, 1933


Anemia in Cattle" on this subject is in press as a technical paper
for research workers.
Earlier work furnished definite proof that salt sick is a con-
dition entirely independent of internal parasites, except that the
latter can be an additional drain upon the animals. The sand
lot in which calves on controlled feeding investigations exercised
became parasite-infested. Three calves died and this part of
the work was rendered nearly inactive for the remainder of the
year. This controlled feeding work will be repeated.
Other phases of the salt sick investigation are being continued,
which include: (1) a correlation of the composition of soils and
forages as related to health of cattle; (2) the effect of this defi-
ciency upon the reproductive functions, and upon the chemical
and histological changes in the body. The latter is important in
relation to medicine and human welfare. The relative efficacy
of various forms of iron supplement is under observation.
Wide and gratifying application of the earlier findings on cause
and prevention of salt sick have been made, so that the state is
deriving benefits from it over a wide area. It has been recognized
by research workers in several foreign countries. This work is
cooperative with Doctors E. F. Thomas, C. F. Ahmann, O. C.
Bryan and others to whom much credit is due in their special
fields.
Another phase of the nutritional work dealt with a detailed
study of feeding practices in the Station dairy herd over an ex-
tended period. The milk yield was shown to have been fully
one-third less under long continued feeding of rations deficient
in calcium (lime). Under these conditions the cows withdrew
mineral matter from their skeletons to such an extent that they
were weakened, and an unusual proportion of them suffered one
or more broken bones. After the rations were made adequate
in calcium by the addition of a suitable amount of bonemeal to
the concentrates, milk yields were increased significantly. As a
more definite check on the state of mineral storage in the skeleton,
bone strengths were determined on a large number of cattle
under different calcium intakes and levels of milk production. It
was observed that leg bones of Jersey cows should have a strength
of at least 3,000 pounds, but that on low calcium rations, these
reserves were depleted seriously. Reproduction is shown to be
but a small drain on calcium and phosphorus in the bodies of
dairy cows, as compared to the demands of lactation.
"Sweeny" or "stiffs" in cattle was found to be due to a shortage





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of phosphorus in the forages growing on certain types of soils.
It was found that less than one pound of bonemeal per head per
month (or 7 to 9 pounds per year) was sufficient to correct the
condition.
SOYBEAN SILAGE FOR DAIRY COWS
Hatch Project 135 R. B. Becker and
W. M. Neal, Leaders
This project was completed in 1932 with preparation and publi-
cation of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 255,
"Soybeans for Silage." A paper of interest to technical workers
entitled "A Chemical Study of Ensiling Soybeans" appeared in
the Journal of Agricultural Research 46; 669-673. 1933. The
silage dry matter was found to be equivalent to alfalfa hay dry
matter in feeding value. Losses due to the ensiling process were
comparable to those encountered in the ensiling of corn.

COMPARISONS OF VARIOUS GRAZING CROPS WITH DRY LOT
FEEDING FOR PORK PRODUCTION
Hatch Project No. 136 A. L. Shealy, Leader
Six two-acre areas were planted to the following crops: Lot I,
Spanish peanuts and corn (one acre each); Lot II, Spanish pea-
nuts; Lot III, corn alone; Lot IV, chufas; Lot V, Spainsh peanuts
and sweet potatoes (one acre each) ; Lot VII, chufas to be supple-
mented with fish meal. Lots I, II and III were ready for grazing
July 14, 1932, while grazing on Lots IV, V and VII was deferred
until September 2, 1932.
On July 14, 1932, 32 shotes averaging 103.9 pounds were divided
into four lots of eight shotes each, designated as Lots I, II, III
and VI. Lot I was grazed on Spanish peanuts and corn; Lot II
on Spanish peanuts alone; Lot III on corn alone while Lot VI was
fed a ration of 10 parts corn and one part fish meal ad libitum in
a dry lot.
September 2, 1932, 32 shotes averaging 118.1 pounds were
divided into four lots of eight shotes each designated as Lots IV,
V, VII and VIII. Lot IV was grazed on chufas alone; Lot V on
Spanish peanuts and sweet potatoes; Lot VII on chufas supple-
mented with fish meal; and Lot VIII was fed a ration of 10 parts
corn and one part fish meal ad libitum in a dry lot. The shots
on the crops were of uniform type and breeding.
The gains made by the shotes on the various crops during the
grazing season rank as follows: 1st, Spanish peanuts; 2nd, corn
alone; 3rd, sweet potatoes and Spanish peanuts; 4th, corn and





Annual Report, 1933


Spanish peanuts. The yield of chufas on Lots IV and VII was
so low that very poor gains were made on these lots.
The same setup of crops has been planted for this season and
the indications are that the yield will be much better.

THE VALUE OF GRAZING FOR FATTENING CATTLE IN BEEF
PRODUCTION
Hatch Project No. 137 A. L. Shealy, Leader
For the grazing season beginning March 12, 1932, and ending
November 11, 1933, 10 grade Hereford and 10 native steers were
used. These steers were divided into five lots of four each, two
grade Hereford and two native steers being placed in each lot.
These steers were grazed on five 3.5 acre pasture as follows: Lot I,
mixture of carpet, bermuda, bahia, and dallis grasses; Lot II,
bahia grass; Lot III, centipede grass; Lot IV, bermuda grass;
and Lot V, carpet grass.
The steers received no supplemental feed during the grazing
season. Salt and steamed bonemeal were provided in mineral
boxes, the steers having access to these minerals at all times.
During the grazing season the gains made by the steers on the
different lots were as follows: 1st, centipede; 2nd, mixture; 3rd,
bahia; 4th, bermuda; 5th, carpet.
For the grazing season beginning March 22, 1933, 10 grade
Aberdeen-Angus and 10 native steers are being used. The work
on this project is being conducted in cooperation with the Agron-
omy Department.

RELATION OF CONFORMATION AND ANATOMY OF THE DAIRY
COW TO HER MILK AND BUTTERFAT PRODUCTION
State Project No. 140 R. B. Becker, Leader
This project is one in which many states are cooperating ac-
tively with the Bureau of Dairy Industry, U. S. Department of
Agriculture. During the past fiscal year seven cows were dis-
carded as past their usefulness in the Station dairy herd. The
body measurements in life, as well as weights and measurements
of internal organs and carcasses and life histories of production
and reproduction, were obtained. A total of 21 such records
have originated at the Florida Station to date.
In addition, photographs and measurements were obtained on
one young free-martin heifer, and the reproductive organs sub-
mitted to the Bureau of Dairy Industry for study.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ANAPLASMOSIS IN CATTLE
Purnell Project 149 D. A. Sanders, Leader
The experimental transmission of anaplasmosis from affected
to susceptible animals was accomplished under controlled condi-
tions by means of the horsefly, Tabanus fumipennis Wied., and
the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans Linn. Large numbers of these
flies were allowed to partially engorge upon an animal suffering
froth an acute attack of the disease after which they were imme-
diately transferred to susceptible animals where they were per-
mitted to complete their engorgement. In the case of the horse-
fly 64 days and of the stable fly 43 days following the first feeding,
plasmoid bodies were observed by microscopic examination of the
red blood cells. The infection thus transmitted by these flies
resulted in a mild parasitic invasion of the erythrocytes by the
plasmoid bodies and was without definite clinical symptoms of
the disease. The animals which were infected in this manner
were given an intravenous inoculation of virulent blood from
which they suffered no reaction, showing the development of a
relative immunity (premunition) known to occur following an
attack of the disease. It is evident in these cases that no definite
biological relationship existed between the blood-sucking insects
and the parasite, Anaplasma marginale, but that a mechanical
transmission occurred wherein the parasites were transferred in
a purely mechanical manner from the sick to the susceptible
animals as the causative organism adhered to the soiled proboscis
of the insects.
Typical acute anaplasmosis followed by death was produced
in a young bull and a nine-year-old cow by means of the eastern
wood tick, Dermacentor variabilis. The incubation period for
the parasite was 51 and 39 days respectively after the ticks were
placed on the animals. The ticks were allowed to feed as larvae
and nymphs on a diseased animal and they produced the infection
in a fatal form after engorging as adults on the susceptible
animals. This shows the existence of a definite biological rela-
tionship between these ticks and the organism Anaplasma mar-
ginale.
Attempts to transmit anaplasmosis by means of larvae, nymphs
and adults of the black-legged tick, Ixodes ricinus var. scapularis,
have been unsuccessful to date.
The horseflies were identified by Dr. Jos. Bequaert of the Har-
vard Medical School and the ticks were identified by Dr. F. C.
Bishopp of the Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of
Agriculture.





Annual Report, 1933


FATTENING FALL PIGS FOR SPRING MARKET
State Project No. 160 w: A. L. Shealy, Leader
In the spring of 1932 three two-acre areas were planted to the
following crops: Lot I, runner peanuts; Lot II, sweet potatoes
(substituted for chufas); Lot III, sweet potatoes and runner
peanuts (one acre each). Lot III was an additional area added
to the project in 1932.
On December 15, 1932, 24 fall farrowed pigs of uniform type
and breeding, averaging 77.5 pounds each, were divided into
three lots of eight pigs each and turned on the crops mentioned
above.
The yield of runner peanuts was fair, but the yield of sweet
potatoes was low due to dry weather during the summer and
fall months.
The gains made by the shotes on the various crops rank as
follows: 1st, runner peanuts; 2nd, sweet potatoes and runner
peanuts; and 3rd, sweet potatoes.

A STUDY OF FEEDING VALUE OF CROTALARIA
Hatch Project No. 175 R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal
and A. L. Shealy, Leaders
For the second year, the relative palatability of several of the
new species of crotalaria has been observed with use of dairy
cows. From these studies, some species were definitely discarded
as forages, although they are of great economic importance as
cover crops and mulches, and to fix atmospheric nitrogen for
soil enrichment. The same species were used as artificially dried
hays in studies of palatability. Four cows were used in a short
maintenance trial, from which it was concluded that this forage,
grown on light sandy soil, was not desirable as a sole source of
nutrients for maintenance.
The Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, Bureau of Plant
Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, and the Agronomy
Department, Agricultural Experiment Station, are cooperating
in growing and harvesting the crops. Success of this work is
largely due to G. E. Ritchey of the Departments just mentioned.
COMPARISON OF VARIOUS POULTRY VERMIFUGES FOR THEIR
EFFICACY AND EFFECT ON EGG PRODUCTION
State Project No. 178 E. F. Thomas, Leader
Studies of poultry vermifuges have been continued. A method
of flock management where hens were given treatment and moved





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


into clean houses and yards with the treatment repeated in 20
days gave indications of having advantages over methods pre-
viously used.
SWINE FIELD EXPERIMENT
State Project No. 179 W. W. Henley, Leader
The swine herd at the Experiment Station is located on only
one type of soil. In order to obtain comparable information on
swine production more nearly representative of the entire State,
a study was begun in 1932 to obtain information concerning the
yield of pork per acre of different field crops; and on other im-
portant phases of swine management on different types of soil.
To date 12 bred gilts have been placed with selected coopera-
tors. Records are being obtained of the amounts of supple-
mentary feeds used as well as the production of grazing and fat-
tening crops. Birth weights and growth rates of pigs are being
recorded.
We have to date secured satisfactory records on eight litters
of pigs from the sows placed on this test last year. Several pure-
bred gilts from these sows have been retained in the herds of the
various cooperators for breeding purposes.
THE DETERMINATION OF DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENTS FOR
CROTALARIA HAY
State Project No. 188 W. M. Neal and
R. B. Becker, Leaders
Digestibility trials with both naturally cured and artificially
dried Crotalaria intermedia were conducted at the close of the
maintenance trial, using the same four animals. Analysis of the
materials and tabulations of the results are in progress.
The crotalaria hay was provided under the cooperative agree-
ment by the Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, Bureau of
Plant Industry, U. S. D. A., and the Agronomy Department of the
Station. G. E. Ritchey was responsible for agronomic phases of
this study.
THE EFFECT OF FEEDING CROTALARIA SEED TO CHICKENS AND
OTHER BIRDS
State Project No. 192 E. F. Thomas, Leader
The studies which were started in 1932 have been completed
and the following conclusions reached: Crotalaria spectabilis seed
are toxic for chickens, quails and doves when fed or eaten in
considerable numbers. Chickens will eat C. spectabilis seed
under natural conditions and sickness and death may be pro-
duced. Quail did not eat C. spectabilis seed placed before them,





Annual Report, 1933


neither did they eat them in the field. Turkeys were not poisoned
by as many as 1,000 C. spectabilis seed. C. striata, C. grantiana,
C. incana and C. intermedia seed were not toxic when force fed
in five and 10 gram doses to chickens and quail.
IMPROVING THE SIZE AND QUALITY OF NATIVE CATTLE BY USE
OF PUREBRED BULLS OF VARIOUS BREEDS
State Project No. 194 A. L. Shealy, Leader
Three lots of 40 native cows each were bred to Hereford, Devon
and Brahman bulls, respectively, during the past year and the
first calves from cows on this project were dropped during the
spring months of 1933. All cows and calves are weighed at reg-
ular intervals during the year.
The average weight of the cows which were bred to the Here-
ford bull was 690 pounds; to the Devon bull, 660 pounds; to the
Brahman bull, 603 pounds. The first cross male calves will be
graded according to the standard market grades for calves when
sold. Weights will be obtained when calves are marketed. The
female offspring will be kept for breeding purposes.
Two additional lots of 40 native cows each were added to the
experiment beginning with the breeding season of 1933, these
cows being bred to a purebred Red Polled and a native bull.
Offspring sired by the native bull will be used as a check lot for
comparing grade offspring of the various breeds used in the
experiment.
This project is conducted in cooperation with the Foremost
Properties, Inc., and the Animal Husbandry Division, Bureau of
Animal Industry, U. S. D. A.
A STUDY OF THE ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project No. 213 W. M. Neal and
R. B. Becker, Leaders
A new type of laboratory silo was designed and four of them
were constructed during the year. These were filled with four
species of crotalaria to begin a study of the preservation and
utilization of the forage as silage. It was found more palatable
to cattle than were the same four species as either green forage
or hay. However, the amounts available were too small to draw
any conclusions as to digestibility or relative feeding value, or
possible toxicity of any of them. This work will be repeated
and extended.
The Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, Bureau of Plant
Industry, U. S. D. A., and the Agronomy Department of this
Station are cooperating in the studies with crotalarias.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


CHEMISTRY AND SOILS

During the year a new citrus trouble developed which, for
want of a better name, has been called "bronzing" or "copper leaf."
As the name signifies, it is characterized by a bronzing or copper
coloring of the leaves followed in some cases by loss of leaves and
fruit and dying back of the branches. A survey of several
counties showed that it was most severe in sections where the
drought had been most prolonged. Examinations of the root
systems of the affected trees showed a lack of feeder roots in the
middles or beyond the edge of the branches near the surface of
the ground. In some cases no live roots were found until a
depth of three feet had been reached. Under the branches of
the trees live feeder roots were found near the surface in most
instances. In cooperation with the U. S. D. A., a cooperative
project to study this condition was outlined and some prelim-
inary work begun. Under the terms of the agreement all work
in Polk, Lake and Hillsborough counties is to be under the direc-
tion and supervision of this department. One experiment in
Polk County was initiated and further experiments in Lake and
Hillsborough counties will be undertaken in the near future.
As in the past a large number of soil samples sent in, or brought
in by farmers, were tested for acidity both at the Main Station
and at the Citrus Experiment Station. Analyses of various
materials also were made for the other departments of the Ex-
periment Station.
TUNG OIL SOIL STUDIES
During the year a survey of 40 different tung oil properties
in the State was completed. The major soil types on the prop-
erties were determined and samples of soil collected for acidity
tests. This survey was made in cooperation with the Horticul-
tural Department (see report of Hatch Project No. 50).
SOIL REACTION STUDIES
The growth reaction of azalea and iris plants to different de-
grees of acidity and alkalinity is being studied in cooperation
with the Horticultural Department and with H. Harold Hume.
MISCELLANEOUS SOIL STUDIES
CHLOROSISS" OR "WHITE BUD" OF CORN
"Chlorosis" or "white bud" of corn is a physiological disturb-
ance of the corn plant which is widely distributed in the State
and which occurs in very severe form on the continuously cropped
soils of the Experiment Station farm. Due to the importance of






Annual Report, 1938


the problem in the State and to the severity of the disturbance
on the Station farm as well as to a failure to adequately overcome
the trouble by ordinary cultural methods, the Agronomy Depart-
ment requested the Chemistry and Soils Department to outline
and cooperatively conduct an experiment with soil amendments,
which might possibly overcome the trouble. After due consul-
tation with the other members of the Station Staff, such an
experiment was outlined and initiated in small wooden frames
on the Station farm.
Further detailed work on the project is planned.
DIEBACK OF CITRUS
State Project No. 21 B. R. Fudge, Leader
Report on this project will be found under the Report of the
Citrus Experiment Station.
DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF VARYING AMOUNTS OF
POTASH ON THE COMPOSITION AND YIELD AND
QUALITY OF THE CROP
Hatch Project No. 22 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The citrus experiment at the Citrus Station was continued.
The continued drought kept the trees, especially the grapefruit,
in poor condition and caused a heavy drop of fruit. With better
rainfall the last part of the fiscal year the trees have improved.
The entire crop of grapefruit and oranges was run through
the sizer. The 3 percent potash plots, 1 and 3, had a much
heavier yield than the 10 percent plots, 2 and 4. Plot 5, receiving
5% potash three times a year, had a slightly lower yield than the
3 percent plots, while plot 6, receiving 3% potash in the spring,
5% in the summer and 10% in the fall, had a still lower yield,
though higher than the 10% plots. As is to be expected, the
lower yielding plots had a higher percentage of large sized fruit.
Due to a misunderstanding no grade records were taken, but it
was noted that the fruit from plot 6 was much superior in quality
to that from any of the other plots. The Tardiff oranges had
only a light crop. However, the 10% plots had a lower yield than
the 3% plots although the differences were not so great as in
the case of the grapefruit. Most of the fruit was large and not
of a very good quality.
It is interesting to note that in grading this fruit a larger
percentage of No. 3 grade and culls was found in the 3% potash
plots than in those plots receiving higher amounts of potash.
The experiment with Irish potatoes was enlarged. Three dif-
erent amounts of potash were tested, namely, 6%, 8% and 10%,






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


combined in one series with 4% ammonia and 4% phosphoric
acid, and in the second series with 6% of ammonia and 4% of
phosphoric acid. Fair yields were obtained. In the first series
no differences were noted. In the second series the 8% and 10%
potash fertilizer slightly increased the yield over the 6%.
DETERMINATION OF THE FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS OF
SATSUMA ORANGES
Hatch Project No. 36 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The experiment at Marianna was continued. The grove made
a good growth and produced a fair crop. No cold injury was
noted. Crop yields continue to show a correlation between
growth increases and yield; the largest crops being borne by the
plots making the most growth. The drought this spring caused
considerable dying back of the new growth throughout the grove.
It was most severe on plots 10 and 5 and least on plot 1. The
fruit set as a result of the drought is much smaller than last year
on all of the plots.
The experiment at Penney Farms was discontinued.
DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS POTASH CARRIERS
ON GROWTH, YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF CROPS
Hatch Project No. 37 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The experiment with citrus at the Citrus Station comparing
three sources of potash, muriate and high and low grade sulfate,
were continued. The trees suffered severely from the drought.
There was no crop of tangerines or oranges. A fair crop of
grapefruit harvested from some of the plots was sized and graded.
Plot 3, receiving sulfate of potash magnesium three time a year,
had the largest yield, with plot 6, receiving muriate of potash
twice a year and sulfate of potash magnesium once, was next
highest in yield. Plot 2, receiving muriate of potash, had the
smallest yield.
Most of the fruit was about evenly divided between sizes 36
to 64 with the exception of plot 4 (muriate once, sulfate of potash
twice a year) which had a high percentage of size 64 and only a
small percentage of 54's. In grading all of the plots except 5
and 6 had a higher percentage of No. 2 than No. 1 quality fruit.
Chemical analyses of the fruit did not show any outstanding
differences.
No other sources of potash experiments were conducted.





Annual Report, 1933


STUDY OF FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS OF CITRUS TREES WHEN
GROWN ON MUCK SOIL
State Project No. 66 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
At the request of the cooperator, this experiment was discon-
tinued.
COMPOSITION OF CROPS AS INFLUENCED BY FERTILIZATION AND
SOIL TYPES-PECANS
State Project No. 67 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The fertilizer experiments as outlined in previous annual re-
ports were discontinued and new experiments begun. A report
on the discontinued experiments has been written up for publi-
cation as a Station bulletin.
Analyses of the nuts showed that neither the source of fertilizer
materials nor the amounts greatly influenced the composition of
the nuts.
EFFECT OF VARIOUS FERTILIZER FORMULAS
State Project No. 94 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The source of nitrogen experiment at Lake Alfred was con-
tinued. All of the trees suffered from the prolonged drought,
though apparently there was no great difference between the
plots in this respect.
For the first time it was possible to size and grade all of the
fruit. The grading was performed by regular graders from the
packing house. Due to the fact that the fruit was unwashed,
the grading was more difficult and probably not as close as it
would have been at the packinghouse.
The differences in yield between the plots were much greater
than heretofore. The nitrate of soda plot (Plot 1) far out-
yielded all of the other plots in tangerines, Marsh seedless and
Silver Cluster grapefruit, and had a somewhat larger yield of
Pineapple oranges. The sizing record of Pineapple oranges
showed that plots 9, 5 and 7 had a high percentage of large sized
fruit, while plot 1 had the smallest percentage followed by plots
3 and 6. In the case of the Silver Cluster grapefruit plots 2 and
4 had a much higher percentage of large fruit than any of the
other plots. Plot 1 again had the smallest percentage. In the
case of Marsh seedless grapefruit no outstanding differences in
sizes were found. .The,grade record of Pineapple oranges showed
that plot 2 (sulfate of ammonia) produced a larger percentage
of 1st grade fruit than plot 1 (nitrate of soda). However, when
bone meal was substituted for superphosphate as the source of





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


phosphoric acid plot 6 (nitrate of soda) produced a larger per-
centage of 1st grade fruit than did plot 7 (sulfate of ammonia).
With the exception of plot 7 all of the plots receiving bone meal
produced a higher percentage of 1st grade fruit than did the
corresponding plots receiving superphosphate. With Marsh
seedless grapefruit, plot 2 (sulfate of ammonia) and plot 4 (com-
bination N) produced a much higher percentage of 1st grade
fruit than the other plots. Due to a misunderstanding no grade
records of tangerines and Silver Cluster grapefruit were ob-
tained.
Soil samples collected in the spring of 1932 from all the plots
were analyzed. Plot 2 (sulfate of ammonia) has become very
acid, having a pH reading of 4.35 as compared with a reading of
pH 4.88 for plot 1 (nitrate of soda), and a reading of pH 4.97
for a virgin soil adjacent to these plots. It may be that the
decreased yields on the sulfate of ammonia plot are in part at
least due to this acid condition. The soil analysis showed no
other outstanding differences between the different sources of
nitrogen. The use of bone meal as a source of phosphoric acid
in place of superphosphate has had a tendency to increase the
amount of replaceable calcium in these plots.
The four cooperative citrus experiments testing sources of
nitrogen were continued. No visible differences have as yet
shown themselves. All except the experiment at Mayaca which
was irrigated suffered from the drought.
The plan and outlay of the potato experiment at Hastings was
changed. The following nitrogen sources were compared,
cyanamid, cal-nitro, calcium nitrate and calurea. A good crop
of potatoes was harvested. All of the materials produced yields
as good as or better than the check plots.
A study also was made on the effect of using smaller amounts
of phosphoric acid, 2, 4, and 7% being used. While the 2% phos-
phoric acid formula had the lowest yield the difference amounted
to only 8 bushels per acre. The use of rare elements also was
tried, using zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, iron sulfate and mag-
nesium sulfate. The yields on the plots receiving zinc, iron and
magnesium were greater than the check plots, while the yield on
the plot receiving copper was less than the check. Increasing
the amount of fertilizer from 2,000 to 3,000 lbs. per acre increased
the yield by about 19 bushels. This would hardly pay for the
increased amount of fertilizer.
An experiment with tomatoes comparing nitrate of soda, sul-






Annual Report, 1988


fate of ammonia, nitrate of lime, cal-nitro and cyanamid as sources
of nitrogen was conducted at Bradenton. In another series the
phosphoric acid content in the fertilizer was reduced. The sea-
son was extremely unfavorable and only a small crop was har-
vested. Due to the fact that some plots were injured more than
others by the high water, it was difficult to judge the effect of
the fertilizer. Reducing the phosphate content apparently had
no effect on either growth or yield.
CONCENTRATED FERTILIZER STUDIES
State Project No. 95 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The experiment with citrus at Lake Alfred in cooperation with
the U. S. D. A. was continued. The amount of fertilizer was
materially reduced and despite the droughts the trees have largely
recovered from the poor condition they were in last year.
Due to lack of funds no active cooperation was taken with the
U. S. D. A. in the truck crop experiment.
In the experiment with citrus at Lake Harris, cal-nitro was
substituted for leunasalpeter as the latter material was no longer
on the market. Up to the present the results with the concen-
trated materials have been just as good as with the usual ferti-
lizer materials.
DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF GREEN MANURES ON THE
COMPOSITION OF SOIL
Adams Project No. 96 R. M. Barnette, Leader
The rotation experiment carried on in the eight large lysimeters
filled with a deep phase of Norfolk medium fine sand was discon-
tinued in August. Of the eight rotations tested the ones with
corn planted each year with a leguminous cover crop planted in
the corn, and followed with a winter cover crop, gave the best
results as measured by yield of corn, utilization of added plant
food, and conservation of fertilizer. A detailed report of this
experiment is in preparation.
The small tank experiment comparing various cover crops and
methods of using the same also was discontinued.
Table VII shows the amount of decomposition as well as the
percentage of the original constituents of the cover crops lost in
the decomposition processes.
Analysis of the water leached from these tanks showed that
the use of cover crops increases the loss of potassium. Lime was
lost in greatest amount from the crotalaria treated soils and the
least from the natal grass treated soils. The incorporation of






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE VII.-PERCENTAGES OF DECOMPOSITION OF COVER CROPS AND LOSS
OF CONSTITUENTS FROM COVER CROPS MULCHED AND INCORPORATED WITH
THE SOIL.
% of Total loss of constituents from cover crops as
Decom- percentages of amounts applied.
position N C CaO K20 P20z

Mulched Crotalaria ...... 72.2 63.1 72.4 51.2 90.8 88.6
Incorporated Crotalaria.. 87.6 82.5 87.5 75.4 96.5 93.5
Mulched Natal .......... 74.9 36.6 73.9 96.1 47.5
Incorporated Natal ...... 95.9 91.6 96.3 not enough sample

*Slight gain.

Crotalaria striata and natal grass with the soil gave a greater
loss of N and CaO, and in the case of natal grass of KzO from the
soil than when using these materials as a mulch. The crotalaria
mulched soil showed a greater loss of potash than where this
material was incorporated with the soil. The analysis of the
leaves, stems and roots of the rough lemon seedlings growing
hi one series of the plots showed in most instances a slight in-
crease in N and P205 where the cover crops had been used. Seed-
lings grown in the presence of Crotalaria striata and natal grass
either used as a mulch or incorporated with the surface soil
showed a lower percentage of lime in the leaves and stems than
did seedlings grown without cover crop additions. In the roots
the differences in the percentages of lime were not so definite.
The percentage of lime in the leaves and stems was lowest when
grown in the presence of natal grass, either incorporated with
the surface soil or used as a mulch. The presence of the natal
grass evidently definitely lowered the availability of the lime to
the seedlings during the period of decomposition studied.
The potash content of the leaves, stems and roots of the rough
lemon seedlings was increased by the presence of the decompos-
ing cover crops, especially by the natal grass. From the analyses
of the original Crotalaria striata and natal grass used as cover
crops in this experiment, it is observed that the Crotalaria striata
has a high percentage of lime and a lower percentage of potash
than the natal grass. It appears from these data that the min-
eral composition of the cover crops coupled with the decompo-
sition processes which they undergo when incorporated with the
surface soil or used as a mulch may be reflected in the mineral
composition of the citrus seedlings feeding upon their decom-
position products.
Small Concrete Plot Studies: This experiment was continued.






Annual Report, 1933


The yields of corn have not shown any significant differences with
the different rotations or fertilizers.
Small Soil Tanks: A new experiment using small galvanized
iron tanks 171/2 inches in diameter and 2 feet deep filled with a
Norfolk medium fine sand was begun.
The manurial value of Crotalaria striata, Crotalaria spectabilis
and Crotalaria intermedia are being compared in these phyto-
meters. The top growth of these three plants is incorporated
with the surface soil and non-leguminous plants are grown in the
soil. Oats are used as a winter crop and millet as a spring and
summer crop. No supplemental fertilizer is applied. The non-
leguminous plants are harvested from the phytometers and their
dry weights and nitrogen content are determined.
The manurial value of fhe top growth of Crotalaria striata,
Crotalaria spectabilis and Crotalaria intermedia are being com-
pared on three bases:
1. Equal quantities of dry top.
2. Equal quantities of nitrogen.
3. On the basis of the yearly yield of top at Gainesville.
EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS AND SOILS ON COMPOSITION OF
TRUCK CROPS
State Project No. 141 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
This project was temporarily suspended.
A STUDY OF THE DECOMPOSITION OF FOREST, RANGE AND
PASTURE GROWTHS TO FORM SOIL ORGANIC MATTER
Adams Project No. 166 R. M. Barnette, Leader
SThe major work on the project, which is carried out in coopera-
tion with the Southern Forest Experiment Station, has been a
further study of the soils of burned and unburned cut-over lands
and forest stands. The soils of the burned and unburned areas
have been multiple sampled in order to study the variations in
the soil and to establish differences in the organic matter and
nitrogen contents of the soils which are statistically significant.
Five comparable burned and unburned areas have been sampled.
The analytical work on these samples will be completed at an early
date. With the completion of the analyses of these samples this
phase of the project will be discontinued for the present and a
final report of the studies prepared.
LYSIMETER EXPERIMENTS WITH FOREST SOILS
The lysimeter experiments started in 1932 and involving a
study of the decomposition of pine forest litter are being con-





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tinued. The soil in both the artificially established lysimeters
and that where the funnel type is installed under natural soil
conditions is a Blanton fine sand. Both types are placed under
forest conditions on the experimental forest of the Southern
Forest Experiment Station at Olustee. The artificially estab-
lished lysimeters are the ordinary closed type and should give
valuable information regarding the decomposition and leaching
of decomposition products of pine litters under the temperature
and rainfall conditions of a natural forest. Two leachings have
been collected up to the present from these lysimeters. The
leachings are being analyzed for the different compounds of nitro-
gen, for potassium and for calcium. The experiment has not
progressed far enough to report results.
No progress has been made on the survey of the soils on which
slash and longleaf pine plantations have been established by the
State Forestry Department.
LYSIMETER STUDIES WITH BAHIA GRASS
The lysimeter experiment with bahia grass was started in
1928 in cooperation with the Agronomy Department. (Hatch
Project No. 158.) The purpose of the experiment was to study
the effect of the frequency of cutting bahia grass on the absorp-
tion and utilization of nitrogen by this plant. The cutting of
the grass and the plant analyses were done by the Agronomy
Department while the fertilization, collection of leachings and
the analyses of the leachings and soils were carried out in this
laboratory. The experiment was discontinued in August, 1932.
The analyses of the leachings showed an inverse correlation
between the frequency of cutting the bahia grass and the leach-
ing of nitrogen as nitrate. The more frequently cut grass evi-
dently utilized more of the nitrate nitrogen than the less fre-
quently cut grass. The total amount of water leaching through
the soil was evidently not affected by the frequency of cutting
of the bahia grass growing in the soil.
The analyses of the composite samples of the leachings showed
no correlation between the frequency of cutting of the bahia grass
and the leaching of lime and potash from the soil. The data are
being prepared in detail as a final report on this phase of the
project.





Annual Report, 1933


ENTOMOLOGY
FLORIDA FLOWER THRIPS
Adams Project No. 8 J. R. Watson, Leader
During late April and May there was a heavy infestation of
the Florida flower thrips, but the infestation came too late to
damage citrus bloom. Further studies of the food habits of this
thrips show that it feeds on many tender leaves and even such
dry material as woody fungi, but is always most abundant in
flowers.
The West Indian flower thrips, Frankliniella insularis, was
found as far north as Winter Haven and Tampa, in the latter
place on gladiolus. Heretofore this thrips had been known only
from the extreme southern counties.
The gladiolus thrips, Taeniothrips gladioli, was kept under
observation throughout the year. It did not breed rapidly until
about the middle of March when the weather became warmer.
It went through the summer in very small numbers. Evidently,
like our native thrips, heavy rains of summer are very hard on
it. They decreased very rapidly after May 20, many dead ones
being found under the bracts at the bases of the flowers. The life
history and breeding work was started on this insect. The max-
imum number of days an adult lived during March and April
was 30, but the average was about 13. The average length of
the nymphal stage in March was approximately 12 to 14 days; in
April, 8 to 11 days; and in May, 7 to 9 days. The egg stage
varied from 2 to 3 days. Not enough tests were made to deter-
mine accurately the average number of eggs deposited by one
female. One had 16 progeny in 17 days, and another, 26 in 17
days. The eggs, however, were deposited within a period of 6
days in both cases. Three or four sprayings at 48 hour intervals
were found to give fair, though temporary, control of these in-
sects.
The red-banded thrips was found to be responsible for certain
dwarfed and russeted guavas.
The Onion Thrips: Summer hosts of this thrips were investi-
gated with the idea of avoiding or delaying the infestation of
onions in the fall. That this thrips spreads from other vegeta-
tion to onions was apparent from the fact that onion plantings
surrounded by fields in which there was very little vegetation
were less apt to be infested.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ROOT-KNOT INVESTIGATIONS
Adams Project No. 12 J. R. Watson, Leader
The use of cyanamid as a means of controlling nematodes was
again investigated. Numbers of plots were treated on the Sta-
tion grounds. Observations were extended over many planta-
tions in many parts of the State. In no case was any severe
injury noted to crops following treatment where as much as a
month was allowed to elapse between the application of the
cyanamid and the planting of the crop. On the Station grounds
the control was not as thorough as where the double treatment
of sodium cyanide and ammonium sulfate was used. However,
cyanamid is cheap, and since it is a good source of nitrogen, its
use as a means of reducing the nematode population in the soil
should be profitable.
Studies of the susceptibility of different species of crotalaria
to nematodes were continued. Seventeen species were planted
on Station plots, heavily infested with nematodes. No nematodes
were found on the roots of any of the crotalarias.
A number of ornamental plants were planted on infested soil
with the view of determining their comparative susceptibility
and resistance to root-knot. To get data from a more southern
locality where the nematodes are more active during the winter,
some 30 ornamentals were planted on infested soil at Leesburg.
C. C. Goff also made a thorough search for root-knot on the weeds
and native plants usually found in watermelon fields.
INTRODUCTION AND STUDY OF BENEFICIAL INSECTS
Hatch Project No. 13 J. R. Watson and
W. L. Thompson, Leaders
The colony of Leis dimidiata 15-spilota Hope thoroughly
established in the northern part of Orange County was kept
under close observation throughout the year to determine why
this ladybeetle should have become established and increased to
such numbers in this region and nowhere else. The chief factor
involved was found to be the summer food for the beetles. In
addition to aphids on citrus and cover crops, they were found
feeding on the pollen of the saw palmetto, on sap and gum issuing
from wounds in citrus trees, on very tender oak sprouts, on the
pollen of fire weed (Erechtites hieracifolia), but the chief sum-
mer food was found to be the honey given off by the extra-floral
nectaries of Crotalaria striata.
Observations were made on the effectiveness of this beetle in





Annual Report, 1988


the control of the citrus aphid. These were very striking. The
ladybeetles effected good commercial control against aphids.
No further information since 1931 has been obtained in regard
to the mealybug ladybeetle, Cryptolaemus montrousieri. Last
year the beetles were released in a block of 275 trees where there
had been an attempt to control the ants, which are enemies of
them. The mealybug infestation was very light and they never
did increase to any extent in that block of trees, or the trees that
were to be used as a check.
This year, the ladybeetles have been liberated in two different
groves where mealybugs are present. The mealybugs are on trees
that are not in the grove of the Citrus Experiment Station, and
no attempt was made to control the ants. Mealybugs have not
appeared in the block where ant poison was used.
LARGER PLANT BUGS ON CITRUS AND TRUCK CROPS
State Project No. 14 H. E. Bratley, Leader
Studies were continued of the life history of Utethesia bella,
which is proving quite a serious pest to those trying to raise
crotalaria seed. The life history of this insect and its food habits
have been studied intensively. It has been found that the young
feed on the leaves, but the older larvae prefer to mine the pods.
They are found to be quite commonly parasitized, not only by
several Tachina flies but by a fungous disease as well, Empusa sp.
A study of the larger plant bugs was also continued, with par-
ticular attention to their succession of host plants. Any spray
which will kill these larger bugs, such as Nezara viridula, was
found to be unsafe to apply to plants. 'It was found that a frost
early in the fall killed a large proportion of parasitized pumpkin
bugs. This seemed to have a very serious effect on the number
of parasites (Trichopoda pennipes) which went through the
winter. The adult flies were very scarce during the spring of
the year.
The second most important of these plant bugs is Leptoglossus
phyllopus, the leaf-footed plant bug. It is especially injurious to
satsumas. It hibernates rather more completely than does
Nezara viridula. Thistles were found to be a favorite host in
the spring. The species of Acanthocephala, the big-thighed plant
bugs, were found to be particularly fond of wild honeysuckle
(Lonicera).







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


INSECTS OF CITRUS
State Project X W. L. Thompson, Leader
Lime-sulfur as a Control for Scale, Rust Mite, Purple Mite, Six-
spotted Mite and Whitefly: The lime-sulfur experiments were
continued in 1932. Trees receiving three applications of lime-
sulfur had from 5 to 18 percent less scale than the check. A
fourth spray did not materially reduce the scale infestation but
it was of benefit in checking the last brood of whitefly. There
was an average of 66 percent less scaly leaves of the current year's
growth on the sprayed trees than on the check.
Trees sprayed for the final time on August 4 did not require
an application of sulfur dust for rust mite control until December
1; those receiving the final application of spray on September 30
did not require any further control measures. The fruit was
picked the first part of April. The unsprayed plot received three
applications of sulfur dust for rust mite control. Purple mite
and six-spotted mite were not present to any extent in the sprayed
plots or check.
The lime-sulfur experiments are being continued this year.
Different stickers and spreaders are being tested with lime-sulfur.
Tests are being made for control of scale with lime-sulfur follow-
ing a bordeaux mixture compared with oil emulsion following
bordeaux mixture. Dry lime-sulfur and wettable sulfurs are
also being tested for combination scale and rust mite control.
Dry wood termites, Neotermes castaneus Burn.: More citrus
trees infested with the dry wood termites were discovered. Thor-
ough dusting of the interior of the tree with paris green proved
to be an effective control, but seemed to affect the acid content
of the fruit.
STUDIES OF THE BEAN JASSID
Adams Project No. 28 A. N. Tissot, Leader
The bean jassid, Empoasca fabae (Harris), was extremely
abundant in the central and northern portions of Florida during
the fall of 1932. Field observations again showed the value of
early plowing and clean cultivation as a means of preventing or
reducing jassid infestations. Control experiments again dem-
onstrated that sprays containing extracts of pyrethrum were
superior to all others for controlling this bean pest.





Annual Report, 1933


THE GREEN CITRUS APHID (Aphis spiraecola)
Adams Project No. 60 J. R. Watson, W. L. Thompson
and A. N. Tissot, Leaders

Citrus aphids did not cause so much damage in 1933 during
the spring flush of growth as they did in 1932. Although the
average temperature was above normal in December, January,
and February, there was probably not enough moisture in the
ground during December to start growth, as was the case in
December, 1931.
Aphid predators were present in normal numbers, Baccha
clavata, a syrphus fly, being more abundant than the blood red
ladybeetle. Syrphus wiedemanni was not so common as it was
last year. During April, the fungus, Empusa fresenii, was a
means of controlling aphids in several groves where the growth
was very late in coming out and aphids were becoming abundant.
Dr. A. N. Tissot added two plants, Photinia serrulata and
quince, to the known hosts of this aphid.
BOLL WEEVIL INVESTIGATIONS
State Project No. 75 P. W. Calhoun, Leader
The boll weevil studies were dropped with the end of the fiscal
year.
CONTROL OF DECIDUOUS FRUIT AND NUT CROP INSECTS
State Project No. 82 Fred W. Walker, Leader
For the past two years the entomologist in charge of the field
laboratory for the study of pecan insects at Monticello has been ex-
perimenting with a strong dormant spray as a means of controll-
ing the cigar case-bearer. Preliminary work in the laboratory
indicated that this material would penetrate the hibernacula and
kill the caterpillars. It remained to be seen what harmful effects
the material might have on the trees. It has now been used on some
trees for three years in succession without any apparent inju-
rious results. In view of this experience, this method of controll-
ing this pest has been made available to the public.
INSECTS OF ORNAMENTALS
State Project No. 157 J. W. Wilson, Leader
The beet army worm was found to be the chief caterpillar
involved in injury to the tips of Asparagus plumosus in the north
and central parts of the State. In the more southern counties it
would seem to be absent and other worms would take its place






80 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Sulfur dust was found to be very effective in killing the very
young caterpillars.
INSECT AND OTHER ANIMAL PESTS OF WATERMELONS
State Project No. 162 C. C. Goff, Leader
At the Watermelon Laboratory work was continued on aphids,
root-knot, mice and other animal pests of watermelons. Aphids
were very scarce during the commercial season so that nothing
particularly new and striking was developed along this line. In
poisoning mice it was found that rolled oats poisoned with alka-
loid strychnine were more satisfactory than the poisoned scratch
feed recommended in the last report because it was less attractive
to birds. A very extensive study of the habits and distribution
of the white-footed deer mice which were responsible for the
damage was made. A considerable study was made of the host
plants of root-knot.





Annual Report, 1988


HOME ECONOMICS

The investigations of the Department of Home Economics have
been directed especially towards the field of human nutrition.
Some of the phases upon which work has been centered are the
food values of Florida products, which include chemical, pharma-
cological, pathological, and physiological studies, home methods
for the preservation of foods, and observations on parasitic and
fungous infestation of children.
During the year work was begun on the chemical composition
of the ash of Florida fruits and vegetables with reference to the
more unusual constituents. The department now has five Pur-
nell projects and three projects for which no special allotment
of state funds has been made. A project has been submitted
for approval on the pathological changes in tissues and organs
of animals affected by deficiency diseases and toxic substances.
This study has been under way for some time in cooperation with
the Department of Animal Husbandry, Purnell Project No. 133.
Cooperative investigations have been continued with the Office
of Forage Crops and Diseases and the Agronomy Department on
crotalaria as a forage crop, and with the Department of Animal
Husbandry on mineral deficiencies and plant toxins. In coopera-
tion with the Department of Pathology, University of Tennessee
School of Medicine, studies of anemia are being carried on.
A room for operating on small animals and a physiology labora-
tory, which includes an apparatus for measuring basal metab-
olism, have been added to the general equipment during the year.
MISCELLANEOUS STUDIES
A study of the pathology resulting from deficiencies in feeds
used in cattle rations was made in cooperation with the Animal
Husbandry Department. Gross and microscopic studies are being
continued on tissues from animals in various states of nutrition
as produced by deficiencies in rations. A permanent photographic
record of typical findings is being prepared.
Palatability and feeding tests on nine species of crotalaria hay
as furnished by the Office of Forage Crops are being continued in
cooperation with the Office of Forage Crops and Diseases and the
Department of Agronomy (State Project No. 177). Two of
these species have been found to serve very well as roughage
when given with a grain mixture. When these species were fed
alone they did not maintain growing rabbits.
A study of the effect of diet on the worm burden of children





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


infected with Necator americanus and Ascaris lumbricoides was
continued. The method of Stoll for making ova counts has been
found accurate to within less than 5%, and has been shown to be
a satisfactory method for determining the worm burden of in-
fected individuals.
The reduction in incidence was 100% for ascaris and the trend
was towards reduction for hookworm.
When children heavily infested with hookworm over a long
period were fed a well balanced diet the following improvements
were noted: Increase in height and weight, disappearance of
hemic murmur, increase in hemoglobin and in red cells, a slight
decrease in eosinophils, and a decided increase in activity. For
the first time both children did satisfactory work in school. This
study indicates that many defects associated with hookworm may
in part be due to poor nutrition.
In a study of ways of preventing the development of rancidity
in pecans, it has been found that rancidity in shelled pecans was
inhibited by evacuating the jars in which they were packed, or
by replacing the air by nitrogen or hydrogen. When the air was
replaced by carbon dioxide the nuts became slightly rancid. A
satisfactory vacuum was obtained by using a vacuum desiccator,
vacuum oven, and pressure cooker. The samples were stored at
room temperature and at 11C. Those samples stored at 11C.
were in good condition at the end of 18 months, whereas some of
the nuts -stored at room temperature were rancid. It was found
that both the treated and untreated nuts when stored in brown
or blue-green glass bottles were in better condition than those
stored in clear glass.
Pecan oil which had been stored in brown and blue-green glass
bottles for two years did not show rancidity of a degree sufficient
to be detected by the Kreis test, but oil stored in clear glass be-
came rancid in four to six months when stored at room tem-
perature.

DETERMINATION OF WHETHER CHLOROPHYLL, CHLOROPHYLL
ALPHA AND BETA, THE PETROLEUM ETHER EXTRACTS OF
THE YELLOW PIGMENTS OF ALFALFA CAN BE USED AS
A SOURCE OF VITAMIN A IN ANIMAL NUTRITION
Purnell Project No. 70 0. D. Abbott, Leader
This project which dealt with the relationship of pigments to
vitamin A activity was concluded in 1932. It was found that
carotin was the only pigment that could be used as a source of
vitamin A in animal feeding. When carotin was fed at the rate





Annual Report, 1988


of .03 mg. per day to rats depleted of vitamin A, it checked loss
of weight, cured xerophthalmia, and brought about a slight in-
crease in growth.
During the year Dr. M. B. Matlack of the Bureau of Chemistry
and Soils sent to the department a sample of lycopene. The
lycopene was prepared from tomatoes and is an isomer of carotin.
When this pigment was fed in olive oil to rats depleted of their
vitamin A reserves, it was found to be-inactive. It showed a
slight activity when it was fed in sodium choleate in which it was
sparingly soluble. No satisfactory solvent was found as the
compounds in which it Was most soluble could not be used in
feeding tests. The lycopene showed a good spectrum with no
indications of carotin. The combustion analysis was correct
within the usual experimental error. It was very unstable and
oxidized readily.
A STUDY OF SOME CONSTITUENTS OF CITRUS FRUITS, LOQUATS,
ROSELLE, AND GUAVA: PECTINS, OILS AND GLUCOSIDES
Purnell Project No. 71 Leonard W. Gaddum, Leader
The work on the pectic constituents has been completed and a
report submitted for publication in bulletin form. The report
summarizes the experimental data on the effect of maturity and
method of extraction on the yield and quality of citrus pectins,
with reference to their commercial use.
In the course of the study on citrus glucosides during the past
year, two apparently new glucosides have been isolated from the
kumquat and from Citrus trifoliata. The hydrolytic products of
these glucosides are being investigated to shed some light on the
nature of these compounds.
THE RELATION OF GROWTH TO PHOSPHORUS, CALCIUM AND
LIPIN METABOLISM AS INFLUENCED BY THE THYMUS
Purnell Project No. 142 C. F. Ahmann, Leader
Experiments are being continued to determine the effect of
the removal of the thymus of female rabbits on the size of the
litter and the development of the young.
Determinations on the cholesterol and lecithin content of the
blood and organs following the removal of the thymus and after
injections of thymus extracts are being continued.
The determinations of the effect of injecting thymus extracts
upon the organic phosphorus content of the blood has been started
this year.
Bones from thymectomized animals are being preserved for
calcium and phosphorus determination.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


A STUDY OF LECITHIN SYNTHESIS IN HENS ON A VITAMIN A AND
LIPOID FREE DIET
Purnell Project No. 198 0. D. Abbott, Leader
A study of lecithin synthesis in hens on a lipoid free diet shows
that when hens are confined to cages and fed a diet consisting of
30% dried skimmilk powder and 70% ground polished rice which
had been extracted for two 30 minute periods with boiling alcohol,
played about one-half as many eggs as hens on a well-balanced diet.
On this diet the hens showed signs of malnutrition after a short
time, and if they were not given a complete diet they soon died.
When given the complete diet the hens recuperated and soon
began laying.
When three-month-old pullets were fed the experimental diet,
they died without laying.
Hens fed the experimental diet of rice and skimmilk powder
supplemented with cod liver oil kept in good condition and con-
tinued to lay through the season. However, the number of eggs
played by these hens was much less than the number played by hens
on a complete diet. The experimental hens began to molt in
August and before the molt was complete, they began to molt
again. Since completing the molt they have played only a few
eggs.
Considerable time has been spent in the comparison of methods
of lecithin determinations in an attempt to find a method suitable
for the analysis of egg yolks. Preliminary analyses showed that
eggs collected at the beginning of the laying period from the
experimental hens contain approximately the same amount of
lecithin as eggs from control hens.
A STUDY OF THE CHANGES WHICH OCCUR IN THE HEMATOPOIETIC
TISSUES OF RATS ON A DIET LOW OR LACKING IN VITAMIN A
Purnell Project No. 199 0. D. Abbott, Leader
As a phase of the vitamin A studies which have been one of
the major problems of the department, work was begun August
1, 1932, on the changes in the hematopoietic tissues of rats on a
vitamin A free diet. During the year an investigation has been
made of the influence of uncomplicated vitamin A deficiency on
the percentage of hemoglobin and the number of leucocytes and
erythrocytes in the blood of albino rats. It was found that there
is a hematopoietic disturbance characterized by changes in con-
centration of either hemoglobin or erythrocytes or both. No
significant changes were found in the number of leucocytes,
erythrocytes and the percentage of hemoglobin of rats in the






Annual Report, 1933


early stages of vitamin A deficiency when compared to those con-
stituents of rats on stock food. It appears that there is a pro-
gressive reduction in blood volume in rats on a deficient vitamin
A diet, which would explain the above findings. However, in the
later stages of xerophthalmia, inanition complicates the picture.
A study has been made of leucocyte changes in the blood of rats.
When rats had been on a low vitamin A diet over a long period
many immature cells were found. The significance of these
forms has not yet been determined.
A STUDY OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ASH OF FLOR-
IDA FRUITS AND VEGETABLES WITH REFERENCE TO THE
MORE UNUSUAL CONSTITUENTS
Purnell Project No. 201 L. W. Gaddum, Leader
During the study of the less common constituents of the ash
of citrus fruits, traces of nickel, manganese, zinc, copper, tin and
chromium were found in some of the samples. Some progress
was made also (in cooperation with the Animal Husbandry De-
partment) in developing an accurate routine for the quantitative
determination of copper in small amounts.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HORTICULTURE
Work in this department has shown excellent progress during
the past year and a number of interesting and valuable lines of
work have been developed. The physical equipment has been
materially improved by addition and rearrangement so as to
facilitate the work. The staff has been reduced by the transfer
of Harold Mowry and his work has had to be taken over for the
time being by other members of the department staff. Approx-
imately 3,600 letters have been written covering all kinds of
inquiries concerning horticultural crops. The work of collecting
and correlating information on Florida horticultural crops has
been continued and a mimeographed circular on limes was put
out which has had a wide distribution.
Among the outstanding results obtained has been the develop-
ment of zinc sulfate as a corrective for bronzing.of tung trees.
This trouble has developed with increasing severity during the
last two years and work started in June of 1932 has shown that
zinc sulfate applied to the soil or a zinc spray made from zinc
sulfate and lime applied to the tree itself will start the trees into
normal growth again. Trees that were in a bad condition due
to bronzing have shown astonishing recoveries when treated with
zinc sulfate and while it is too soon to determine the extent of the
value of the treatment it has been carried far enough to show
that such treatment will give immediate results except upon
trees that are so severely injured as to defy recovery.
/ Work on the cool storage of orange juice without sterilization
was continued and the process perfected to the point where it is
now ready for commercial use. Properly extracted orange juice,
immediately vacuumized and then treated with carbon dioxide
and stored at 32F. kept for 12 days in excellent condition and
without change in taste or increase in microorganisms. Juice
extracted by pressure from peeled fruit kept longer without
change in taste than juice extracted in any other way. Juice
kept best at 32 F. but satisfactory keeping was obtained for
shorter periods at temperatures as high as 420F. When equip-
ment was carefully sterilized before use (particularly the milk
bottles) the initial microorganism counts were very low and
either fell off or remained the same when the juice was stored
at 420 or below, while check juice kept at room temperature fer-
mented rapidly. This work will make possible the extraction of
orange juice on a large scale in specially equipped plants and its






Annual Report, 1933


delivery to the consumer in the ordinary milk bottle. The basic
conditions required for the storage of juice are no different from
those required for milk and this method offers great commercial
possibilities.
Work on wrappers for cold storage of oranges and grapefruit
was continued and the great advantage of moisture retentive
wrappers such as aluminum foil, moisture proof cellophane and
S.S.T. cellophane was shown. Fruit in these wrappers was kept
for five months at the most favorable temperatures and the fruit
at the end of the period was firm and unshriveled while fruit
wrapped in the ordinary tissue wrap shriveled badly withiri two
months even with a humidity as high as 90%. Properly wrapped
Valencia oranges put in storage at 37 and 42F. ori April 6 were
in excellent condition in July and August as to flavor, appearance
and marketability." The losses from decay at 37F. were particu-
larly low. A large scale semi-commercial experiment is now
being carried on and at its conclusion this work Will be prepared
for publication.
Soggy breakdown of citrus fruits in ,storage was found to be
due to an excess of carbon dioxide in the"atmosplhere and it was
shown that it was possible to prevent it by constant removal of
the carbon dioxide accumulating from the respiration of the
fruit. Grapefruit kept on a small scale in an atmosphere of
nitrogen and with the respiratory C02 removed by absorption
kept in excellent condition for five months without deterioration
in flavor or appearance.
The data accumulated during eight years on pecan fertilizer
experiments has been carefully studied and correlated and shows
that with the higher yielding varieties the use of a complete fer-
tilizer is economically sound. This work has covered a wide list
of varieties, soils and fertilizer analyses and sources. This work
has been prepared for publication.
In cover crop tests with pecans, using Frotscher and Stuart
varieties, plots on which leguminous cover crops were grown
both summer and winter showed better than a 100% increase in
yield as compared with plots on which no cover crop was grown.
The cold storage of pecans was studied in the interests of
more intelligent control of storage conditions. Curtis pecans
stored at 32F. on Dec. 5, 1931, were in a fresh condition 18
months after storage, while nuts of the same variety held at room
temperature until March 1 following harvest and then stored
showed varying degrees of rancidity. With the Stuart variety






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


better results were obtained from delayed storage than was the
case with Curtis but the work shows the great importance of
moving nuts to storage as soon after harvest as possible. The
weight of the nuts changed only slightly while in storage. In
tests with kernels sealed in glass, the use of nitrogen proved to
be somewhat better than other gases or vacuum.
The maturity studies on avocados initiated in 1929 nave been
completed and the bulletin covering the results is now in press.
These studies are very complete, covering a large number of
varieties from the three principal avocado growing areas of the
state. The relationship between maturity and the various con-
stituents is shown and a valuable correlation between specific
gravity of the fruit and its maturity has been established.
Fixation of nitrogen in the nodules found on the roots of the
various Casuarina species growing in the State has been estab-
lished. While the definite organism involved has not yet been
established, the evidence on the fixation of nitrogen has been
clear and a paper covering this work has been prepared and
accepted for publication in Soil Science. This work together
with field observations establish the Casuarina species as out-
standing windbreak trees in that they do not rob the soil of nitro-
gen so severely as is the case with many trees commonly used
for this purpose.

VARIETY RESPONSE OF PECANS TO DIFFERENT SOIL TYPES,
LOCALITIES, ETC.
State Project No. 46 G. I. Blackmon, Leader
Conditions anticipated at the time of the last annual report
reduced pecan production in Florida for the 1932-33 season to
the lowest level since 1920. Importance of adequate soil mois-
ture and the passing of the trees into proper dormant state again
clearly was demonstrated, in growth and in nut output.
West Florida areas yielding best had sufficient rains during
the critical period of tree growth, nut development and filling,
followed by enough cold to force the trees into normal dormancy.
Varieties producing most nuts, aside from seedling trees
around homes, were Moore, Success, Frotscher, Curtis, Stuart,
Kennedy, Bradley and Moneymaker.
Trees of Bass and Elliott, in Okaloosa and Walton counties,
were damaged severely by a March freeze. Mahans in Jefferson
county suffered less.
In orchards receiving reasonable care trees of most varieties






Annual Report, 1933


recovered in a marked degree and forced a good bloom in 1933,
resulting in a heavy set of nuts.
Cover crops increasingly were planted in pecan orchards, and
have begun to show their value, in better tree growth and larger
crops of nuts.
Crotalaria spectabilis was liberally sown, giving satisfactory
growth, normal reseeding having been lessened, however, by a
killing frost over North Florida in November.
Austrian peas, hairy and monantha vetch continued to be
favorite winter legumes, oats and rye serving as the winter non-
legumes.
Cultivation to an extent during the spring and in the late
summer seemed preferable to leaving trees in sod, lessening the
effects of drought.
Zinc sulfate applications for rosetted pecan trees were made in
the soil surrounding them, in six counties. Results cannot yet
be reported.
COOPERATIVE FERTILIZER TESTS IN PECAN ORCHARDS
State Project No. 47 G. H. Blackmon, Leader
Results of the experiments under this project have been com-
piled in a manuscript to be submitted for publication as a Station
bulletin.
Prospects are good for the 1933 crop of nuts except from the
Stuarts in Jefferson and Holmes counties, which had only a
moderate set.
All experiments except two were rearranged to show the effect
of one formula, giving good results when applied alone, in com-
parison with ammonia only, and with mixtures of high concen-
tration.
VARIETY AND STOCK TESTS OF PECANS AND WALNUTS
State Project No. 48 G. H. Blackmon, Leader
Trees in the variety orchard mostly showed marked recovery
in vigor. Nut set is light to heavy on all old enough to bear.
Sovereign and Sims varieties have been eliminated, having
proved too susceptible to pecan scab. for profitable growing under
Florida conditions.
Growth of Crotalaria spectabilis was very light in 1932. Aus-
trian peas and monantha vetch were planted as a winter cover
crop, averaging 8,900 pounds of green material to the acre.
A dozen Mahan trees donated by the Monticello Nursery Com-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


pany were planted in February, 1933; also 1,860 seedlings of
Moore, grown from selected nuts, and 432 of Moneymaker.
Black walnut plantings of 227 seedlings are intended to assist
in developing a variety better adapted to the needs of the home
and affording nuts more nearly meeting the requirements of
cracking.plants.
COLD STORAGE OF PECANS
The Curtis nuts stored December 5, 1931, and held at 370F.
.and lower were of gpod quality and flavor and remained so for
three weeks or more after removal during 1932; the time required
to become rancid depended somewhat on the atmosphere tempera-
ture at the time of removal. Those held at 42 F. showed varying
degrees of rancidity except in July, October, and November when
the samples examined were in good condition. Nuts held at all
higher temperatures, except with some individual samples,
showed varying degrees of rancidity from slight to moderate, but
several lots could have been used by the less exacting trade as
the rancidity was not always sufficient to be very objectionable.
In May and June, 1933, nuts held at 42F. and higher were mod-
erately rancid to rancid, while those held at 0*, 32, and 37*F.
were in fair, good, and fair condition, respectively.
The Curtis nuts which were held at room temperature and
placed in storage March 1, 1932, did not keep as fresh as those
stored December 5, 1931. Slight traces of rancidity could be
detected in some of the kernels at the time they were placed in
cold storage.
When the Stuart nuts, held at room temperatures, were stored
March 1, 1932, a few showed traces of rancidity, but they were
mostly in fairly good condition. The nuts held in temperatures
of 37"F. and lower were of good quality on most of the removal
dates and the 1932 samples remained suitable for consumption
for three weeks or more at room temperatures.
Nuts of both Curtis and Stuart were kept in room tempera-
ture as checks, which were examined at the time samples were
removed from cold storage. Rancidity could be detected in the
checks when they were examined in May, 1932.
PECAN KERNEL STORAGE
Types of packing described in 1932 annual report seem in-
capable of carrying pecan kernels in fresh condition for long
periods during the warm months without holding in cold storage.
The nitrogen pack gave somewhat the best results.
Vacuum packed kernels kept better than air packed. Cello-
phane results indicated possibilities.






Annual Report, 1933


VARIETY TESTS OF GRAPES
Hatch Project No. 49 Harold Mowry, Leader
(to March 1, 1933)
In the winter of 1923-24, plantings were made of 63 varieties
of bunch grapes. Plants of only 11 are still alive.
Seven of the 11 show in their parentage the Lincecumii or
Bourquiniana blood, some having both strains.
PROPAGATION, PLANTING AND FERTILIZING TESTS WITH TUNG
OIL TREES
Hatch Project No. 50 Harold Mowry, Leader
(to March 1, 1933)
Work on this project was given outstanding interest by the
apparent development of zinc sulfate as a corrective for
"bronzing." Affected trees are subject to excessive winter dam-
age and the trouble has been found throughout the tung oil area,
seeming to be worst on old and wornout lands.
The experimental planting started on the new farm in 1930
developed this trouble to an exceptionally severe extent and in
June, 1932, a decision was reached to try out a series of chemical
treatments on the assumption that the trouble might be due to
a soil deficiency. Trees were selected 'that were in an advanced
stage of bronzing (Fig. 1) and in the initial treatments the fol-
lowing chemicals were used.
Date Chemical Grade Amount No. trees treated
6-11-32 ZnSO4.7 H20 C.P. 220 gms. 3
6-11-32 Borax Commercial 220 gms. 4
6-11-32 CuSO4.7 H20 Commercial 220 gms. 4
6-11-32 MnS04.4 H20 Commercial 4 lbs. 4
6-16-32 Muriate of Potash Commercial 3 lbs. 3
The materials were broadcast over the soil around the tree. Later
treatments included salts of calcium, magnesium, and nickel.
By the end of July the trees treated with zinc sulfate had
started a new and healthy growth which they continued until
fall. The wood was heavy and sound and the leaves properly
shaped and without signs of bronzing. The typical condition
of the trees at the time of treatment is shown in Fig. 1 and the
condition on August 29, 1932, approximately 10 weeks after
treating, of one of the trees treated with zinc sulfate is shown
in Fig. 2. In this tree much of the old framework had died back
and heavy new growth had developed rapidly. The three treated
trees went through the winter in splendid shape and without
winter killing and started into growth normally in the spring.
Untreated trees affected with bronzing were severely winterkilled





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


#KE


Fig. 1.-Typical badly bronzed tung tree such as was treated in June, 1932.
and this was accentuated by the fact that they came out too early
in the spring and were severely injured by a late frost while the
treated trees came out much more slowly. Other treatments
either caused damage or gave no visible effects.
By July 28, 1932, the improvement in the condition of the
trees treated with ZnS04 was so apparent that two additional
trees were treated with 200 gms. each of ZnSO4.7 H20 and an
examination on September 9 showed that new and apparently
normal growth had started and that some normal leaves had
come out on old twigs affected with bronzing when the treatment
was made. Subsequent treatments on August 5 and August 10
showed only an indication of improvement by fall, there being no
flush of growth after the time of application.






Annual Report, 1933


u.'<


Fig. 2.-Tung-oil tree treated with 220 gms. of ZnS04.7 H20 on June
11, 1932, when tree was in condition similar to that shown in Fig. 1. This
picture taken August 29, 1932.

In March, 1933, a considerable series of zinc sulfate treatments
were laid out on the experimental grove and also on other groves
and for most of these a commercial grade of powdered zinc sul-
fate was used which contained only one water of crystallization
(ZnS04.1 H20). This product contained approximately 89%
ZnSO4 as compared with 56% for ZnS04.7 H20, so that treat-
ments of the same weight actually contained more ZnSO4 than
had been formerly applied. One of the groves showed the most
severe case of bronzing yet seen and most of the trees had to be
cut back to within 6 or 8 inches of the ground one year after
planting. By the middle of May symptoms of bronzing on the
new growth were showing up in many of the plots and almost





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


without exception the beneficial results of the addition of ZnS04
were readily apparent. The treatment put on in August and
September of 1932 showed considerable improvement in growth
in this year but there seemed to be some reduction in the response,
possibly due to the leaching of the zinc sulfate during the winter
or due to its being made unavailable by the soil. The applica-
tions made during March, 1933, have shown a marked response
and the best results so far obtained are from an application of


Fig. 3.-Same tung tree as shown in Fig. 2. Photographed June 25, 1933,
after having been treated on June 11, 1932, with 200 gms. of ZnSO4.7 H0O.


I "ji~~i,;f





Annual Report, 1933


1 pound per tree of the 89% salt (ZnSO4.1 H20). The trees
treated in June of 1932 have continued their excellent growth
and Fig. 3 shows the tree shown in Fig. 2, this picture being
taken 1 year after treatment. Applications as high as 5 pounds
per tree on small trees did not produce injury but so far larger
amounts have not shown a marked improvement over 1 and 2
pound applications. One of the marked results was obtained in
connection with the planting of trees that had been severely
injured by bronzing while still in the nursery. These trees were
planted during the winter of 1932-33 and were treated with vary-
ing amounts of zinc sulfate during March of 1933. The treated
trees have come out strongly and started a good growth while
untreated trees are showing a stunted growth and typical
bronzing.
To gain some knowledge concerning the role of zinc sulfate,
trees were sprayed with a Bordeauxx" made with zinc sulfate
instead of copper sulfate. The sprayed trees have shown a
marked improvement and this would indicate that the trouble is
probably one of a deficiency while, if beneficial results were
obtained only when the zinc sulfate was added to the soil, it might
indicate the release of some other compound in the soil through
an inter-action with the zinc sulfate.
Plots treated with chicken manure showed decidedly the best
response, and when it was analyzed appreciable amounts of zinc
were found. Remedial effects, somewhat less pronounced than
from zinc sulfate, were obtained with tung oil fruit hulls used
for fertilizer. The zinc sulfate on other plants and Satsuma
orange trees, also has been distinctly beneficial. Pecan trees
that were rosetting badly, and variety of fruits receiving appli-
cations are showing signs of recovery.,

TESTING OF NATIVE OR INTRODUCED SHRUBS AND ORNA-
MENTALS, AND METHODS OF PROPAGATION
Hatch Project No. 52 Harold Mowry, Leader
(to March 1, 1933)

Narcissus bulbs stored at temperatures below 50F. gave
poorer growth and bloom than when in common storage-with
poorest results from 320F. The longer the period of storage,
the less satisfactory the results.
Experiments on the cold storage of gladiolus bulbs have given
irregular results and must be continued further before conclu-
sions may be drawn.






96 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Data on ornamental trees were compiled and published as
Bulletin 261.
OBSERVATION AND TESTING OF VARIOUS CITRUS HYBRIDS
Hatch Project No. 57 Harold Mowry, Leader
(to March 1, 1933)
Nagami kumquats budded on citrangequat, with one year in
the nursery and one in the field, are showing excellent growth
and all are fruiting.
Kumquats of the same age budded on Rusk citrange are giving
good growth and bearing fruit while specimens on Morton
citrange are growing well but are without fruit. In the nursery,
Nagami on both Rusk and Morton gives indication that these
may be satisfactory rootstocks for kumquats.
VARIETY, PROPAGATION AND PLANTING TESTS OF PEAR, AVO-
CADO, JAPANESE PERSIMMON, FIG AND OTHER FRUITS
Hatch Project No. 58 Harold Mowry, Leader
(to March 1, 1933)
Pears of Chinese origin again failed to produce satisfactory
growth or fruit.
Avocado strains planted in 1926 did extremely well, owing to
the warm winter, and a number of them fruited.
VARIETY TESTS OF BERRIES
Hatch Project No. 59 Harold Mowry, Leader
(to March 1, 1933)
Blackberry from California, the Advance, introduced by the
Station two years ago, has shown itself adapted over a wide
area. Commercial plantings apparently have begun.
Susceptibility to leaf spotting has been noticed but control was
afforded by an application, or two applications, of bordeaux spray.
COOPERATIVE COVER CROP TESTS ON PECANS
State Project No. 80 G. H. Blackmon, Leader
Tonnage of Crotalaria spectabilis in the Jefferson County ex-
periment was reduced by excessive shade from large trees. Aus-
trian peas, hairy vetch and oats produced more green material
than the year before.
Growth increment and yield per tree since 1928 are given in
Table VIII below. Trees in the cover crop plots have renewed
vigor, especially if only legumes have been grown, bloomed freely
and set a heavy crop of nuts.





Annual Report, 1933


TABLE VIII.-GROWTH INCREMENT AND YIELD OF TREES IN PECAN COVER
CROP EXPERIMENT LOCATED IN JEFFERSON COUNTY ON NORFOLK FINE
SANDY LOAM SOIL.
Total Growth Increment per
Tree Trunk Cross Section Total Yield per Tree
Variety Plot Fertilizer Fertilizer
PK NPK PK NPK

Frotscher 1 33.8 48.4 58.3 65.5
2 36.9 49.0 56.0 64.5
3 18.6 26.1 24.7 30.4
4 31.9 23.6 24.7 28.9
Stuart 1 32.5 45.6 34.0 32.8
2 32.0 32.3 31.5 31.5
3 12.8 27.2 13.2 1 13.6
4 22.1 28.7 23.3 23.8


SInoculation of Austrian peas and monantha vetch at Gainesville
increased output more than 25 percent.
Additional experiments were started during the year.

TESTS OF DIFFERENT STOCKS AS ROOTSTOCKS FOR SATSUMA
ORANGES
Hatch Project No. 81 Harold Mowry, Leader
(to March 1, 1933)
Land on the new farm apparently lacking in adaptability to
citrus, rootstock experiments have been changed into tests with
zinc sulfate and other soil amendments. Satsuma orange trees
treated with zinc sulfate in the spring of 1933 responded with
vigorous growth and excellent green color while trees not treated
were yellow and had poor growth.
Satsumas on citrange continued to give fine growth when
planted on proper soils.

PHENOLOGICAL STUDIES ON TRUCK CROPS
State Project No. 110 M. R. Ensign, Leader

PHOTOPERIODISM WITH IRISH POTATOES
Three potato varieties, namely U. S. D. A. seedlings S41914,
S44073, and Katahdin, were planted in each of the three plots
representing the day lengths common to Maine, Florida and Cuba
during the potato producing season in each. These seedlings were
provided through the courtesy of William Stuart of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture.
The plantings were made January 11 and harvested the first
week in May-a period of 115 days. Varieties S41914 and






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


S44073 (U.S.D.A.) in the Cuban and Florida plots were matured
and dug one week earlier than the remaining plots. Katahdin was
the latest to mature, while S41914 was the earliest. This variety
showed exceptional vigor.
The performance of these varieties is shown in Table IX.

TABLE IX.-THE AVERAGE SIZE AND NUMBER OF PRIME TUBERS: YIELD OF
PRIMES AND NO. 2's; STOLON LENGTH, AND MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF VINES
UNDER DAY LENGTHS COMMON TO MAINE, FLORIDA, AND CUBA, RESPEC-
TIVELY.
Yield per Acre Maximum
Variety and Yie_____ Av. Weight Tubers Length Height
Light Plot Primes Each per Hill Stolon of Vines
No. l's No. 2's (grams) No. l's Inches Inches
(barrels) (barrels)
K I 166.5 7.2 190.5 4.83 2.98 27.7
II* 149.1 4.5 181.5 4.54 2.05 23.1
III 200.3 9.1 173.6 6.38 4.90 23.6
I -- -- I -
Mean 172.0 6.9 181.9 5.25 3.31 24.8
A I 164.8 13.9 172.0 5.29 3.15 27.5
II* 120.4 3.4 177.5 3.75 1.94 18.5
III 174.5 5.3 201.2 4.79 2.88 17.6
Mean 153.2 7.5 183.6 4.61 2.66 21.2
B I 143.5 16.2 168.4 4.71 2.40 18.0
II* 97.0 4.2 156.0 3.22 0.90 13.5
III I 108.3 4.5 173.1 3.77 1.18 10.9
I I- -- I I I- r-
Mean 116.3 8.3 165.8 3.90 1.49 14.1

K-Katahdin; A-S41914, and B-S44073.
I-Maine; II-Florida, and III-Cuban day.
*The low yields in the Florida plots cannot be accounted for. Some of the
plants, especially the Katahdins and S41914, showed a peculiar tendency to
a wilting and a curling of the leaves.

The larger yields of primes secured from the Cuban or short
day plots for Katahdin and S41914 in contrast to S44073 arrest
the attention. The latter variety performed in every way similar
to Spaulding Rose in the photoperiodism test in 1932. This fur-
nishes very good evidence regarding the tolerance of Katahdin
and S41914 to short day length. The adaptation of Spaulding
Rose and S44073 to a long day common to the latitude of Maine
is no less clearly indicated.

IRISH POTATO VARIETY TESTS
The Spaulding Rose is the chief variety grown in north central
Florida. It is undesirable chiefly because of the high percentage
of No. 2's produced at the expense of No. l's. Photoperiodism




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs