• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Credits
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00018
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Series Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th.
Alternate Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations annual report
Physical Description: 23 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1932
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00018
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AMF8114
oclc - 12029671
alephbibnum - 002452809
lccn - sf 91090332
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th ...
Succeeded by: Annual research report of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 2
    Credits
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
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    Index
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        Page viii
Full Text










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT
STATION







ANNUAL REPORT
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1932







LIST OF DEPARTMENT REPORTS
Page
Business Manager .......................................... ........... ........ 12
Publications and Information .................... .............................. 16
The Library .......................... ... . ................................ 22
Agricultural Economics ............................. .................. 24
Agronomy ......................... ... ... .. ......................... .... ....... 28
Animal Husbandry ............................................................... 51
Chem istry .................................. ............... ..... ................... 58
Entomology .................................... .............................. 69
Home Economics ...................................... ....... ............. 92
Horticulture ........................... ........ ..... ...... ............ ....... 96
Plant Pathology ........................... .... ............... 128
North Florida Experiment Station.................................................... 149
Citrus Experiment Station ......................................................... 167
Everglades Experiment Station ......................... ...................... 164
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station ..................................................... 213




Hon. Doyle E. Carlton,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of
the Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932.

Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman, Board of Control.


Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report
of the Director of the University of Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932, and I
request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to
His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.

Respectfully,
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida.









EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
H. Harold Hume, M.S., Asst. Dir., Research
Sam T. Fleming, A.B.. Asst Dir., Administration
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
R. M. Fulghum, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Secretary
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Associate
G. E. Ritchey, M.S.A., Assistant*
Fred H. Hull, M.S., Assistant
J. D. Warner, M.S., Assistant
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Veterinarian in Charge
E. F. Thomas, D.V.M., Assistant Veterinarian
W. W. Henley, B.S.A., Assistant Veterinarian
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Associate in Dairy Inves-
tigations
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asst. in Animal Nutrition
P. T. Dix Arnold, B.S., Assistant in Dairy In-
vestigations

CHEMISTRY
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Associate
C. E. Bell, M.S., Assistant
J. M. Coleman, B.S., Assistant
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
H. W. Jones, M.S., Assistant

ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Assistant

ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Head
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. F. Ahmann, Ph.D., Physiologist

ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., "Assistant
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
E. F. Grossman, M.A., Asso., Cotton Insects
P. W. Calhoun, Assistant, Cotton Insects

HORTICULTURE
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Harold Mowry, B.S.A., Associate
M. R. Ensign, M.S., Associate
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Assistant
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Pecan Culturist
C. B. Van Cleef, M.S.A., Greenhouse Foreman

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Associate
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistant
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist

*In cooperation with U.S.D.A.


BOARD OF CONTROL

P. K. Yonge, Chairman, Pensacola
A. H. Blanding, Bartow
Raymer F. Maguire, Orlando
Frank J. Wideman, West Palm Beach
Geo. H. Baldwin, Jacksonville
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee



BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
in Charge.
R. R. Kincaid, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Asso. Cotton Specialist
R. M. Crown, B.S.A., Asst. Agronomist, Cotton
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
W. A. Kuntz, A.M., Asst. Plant Pathologist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Assistant Entomologist

EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Soils Specialist in Charge
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Farm Foreman
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Associate Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
H. H. Wedgeworth, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
B. A. Bourne, M.S., Associate Sugarcane Physi-
ologist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
A. Daane, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
M. R. Bedsole, M.S.A., Assistant Chemist
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist in Chg.
Stacy 0. Hawkins, M.A., Assistant Plant
Pathologist



FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
J. W. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
R. E. Nolen, M.S.A., Lab. Asst. in Plant Path.

Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist

Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist

West Palm Beach
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Associate Veterinarian

Monticello
Fred W. Walker, Assistant Entomologist

Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist








THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION is a
part of the University of Florida College of Agriculture-it
is the research division of the College, which consists also
of the divisions of resident teaching and agricultural exten-
sion (including county and home demonstration agent work).
The Station works in cooperation with the office of Experi-
ment Stations, United States Department of Agriculture.

The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station was estab-
lished in the fall and winter of 1887 as a part of the old
Florida College of Agriculture which was then located at
Lake City. Its establishment followed the passage by Con-
gress on March 2, 1887, of the Hatch Act making funds
available to each state agricultural college for the establish-
ment of an agricultural experiment station. These funds
became available on October 1, 1887. On March 16, 1906,
Congress passed the Adams Act, which appropriated still
more moneys for state agricultural experiment stations.
With the passage of the Purnell Act, February 24, 1925,
federal funds for state experiment stations were further
increased. The State of Florida appropriates thousands of
dollars annually for the operation of the Experiment Station.

The name College of Agriculture was changed to Univer-
sity of Florida in 1903. The Buckman Act, passed by the
State Legislature in 1905, abolished all existing state insti-
tutions of learning, and established in their stead the Univer-
sity of the State of Florida at Gainesville and the Florida
Female College at Tallahassee. In 1909 the names of the
institutions were changed to University of Florida and Flor-
ida State College for Women.

With the establishment of the University of the State of
Florida at Gainesville, the College of Agriculture became a
part of it. As a consequence, the Agricultural Experiment
Station was transferred to Gainesville during December,
1906, and the first three months of 1907.

The Station now has four branch stations and seven field
laboratories, as shown on the preceding page.








Report for the Fiscal Year Ending
June 30, 1932


Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the
work and investigations of the University of Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations, together with the reports of the heads of
the several departments, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.

INTRODUCTION
A summary of the activities of the various departments in the
Experiment Station and Branch Stations, and reports of the
progress that has been made with the projects under investigation
are given in the following pages.
During the year research work was conducted by the following
eight departments of the Main Station: Agronomy, Animal Hus-
bandry, Chemistry, Agricultural Economics, Home Economics,
Entomology, Horticulture and Plant Pathology. In addition to
the work at Gainesville, workers in these departments supervised
work along their lines at many of the field laboratories and in
cooperative farm tests throughout the State.
No change occurred in the list of Branch Stations during the
year, these being as follows: North Florida Station at Quincy,
Citrus Station at Lake Alfred, Everglades Station at Belle Glade,
and Sub-Tropical Station at Homestead.,
The Fie!d Laboratory at Pierson was discontinued during July,
1931, and Dr. J. W. Wilson, assistant entomologist, who had been
working there, transferred his work to the Field Laboratory at
Leesburg in September, 1931. Other Field Laboratories in exist-
ence during the year, and the lines of work being pursued at them,
included:
Leesburg-For the investigation of diseases and insect pests
of watermelons and of ferns and other ornamentals.
Cocoa-Certain diseases of citrus.
Hastings-Diseases of Irish potatoes.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Plant City-Diseases of strawberries.
Bradenton-Tomato diseases.
Monticello-Insect pests of pecans.
West Palm Beach-Certain diseases of livestock.

FINANCIAL RESOURCES
The financial resources of the Experiment Stations for the fiscal
year just closed, including balances carried forward from the pre-
vious year, have been as follows:
Federal Adams Fund .............................. $ 15,000.00
Federal Hatch Fund ................ ............... 15,000.00
State Funds, Main Station, Gainesville................ 227,469.00
State Funds, Citrus Station, Lake Alfred.............. 13,102.00
State Funds, Everglades Station, Belle Glade.......... 57,036.00
State Funds, North Florida Station, Quincy............. 18,410.00
State Funds, Sub-Tropical Station, Homestead.......... 12,158.00
State Funds, Watermelon Investigations, Leesburg...... 8,558.00
Incidental Funds, Sales, Etc. ......................... 10,144.59
$376,877.59
Federal Purnell Funds, not included above............. 60,000.00

CHANGES IN STAFF
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932, the following
changes took place in the Station staff:
P. T. Dix Arnold was appointed Assistant in Dairy Investiga-
tions, September 1, 1931.
C. R. Dawson resigned as Assistant in Dairy Investigations,
July 13, 1931.
A. H. Eddins was transferred from the position of Assistant
Plant Pathologist, Corn Disease Project, Gainesville, to the posi-
tion of Assistant Plant Pathologist, Irish Potato Disease Project,
Hastings, Florida, October 15, 1931.
E. F. Grossman, Associate Entomologist, was granted leave
without pay from October 21, 1931, to October 21, 1932, to pursue
studies at Columbia University toward his Doctor's Degree.
W. W. Henley was appointed Assistant Veterinarian, March
1, 1932.
J. B. Hester resigned as Assistant Chemist, February 1, 1932.
C. M. Tucker resigned as Associate Plant Pathologist, Irish
Potato Diseases, Hastings, Florida, July 31, 1931.
R. K. Voorhees was appointed Assistant Plant Pathologist
(Corn Diseases), October 15, 1931.







SCOPE OF THE STATION'S WORK, July 1, 1931, to JUNE 30, 1932

A list of the principal projects carried on during the year is given below, arranged according to depart-
ments. Page reference is given to a brief discussion of the work under each project.
Department Project
Number Title Page
AGRICULTURAL 73 Agricultural Survey of Some 500 Farms in the General Farming Region of Northwest Florida 24
ECONOMICS 104 An Economic Study of Dairy Farming in Florida ....................................... 24
123 A Study of Florida Truck Crop Competition............................................ 25
154 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida........................................ 25
186 Cost of Production and Grove Organization Studies of Florida Citrus....................... 27
AGRONOMY 16 Peanut and Corn Fertilizer Experiments................................................ 28
20 Plant Breeding-Peanuts .......................................................... 30
27 Pasture Experiments ................................................... ............. 31
53 Winter Legume Studies ............................................................. 35
54 Summer Cover Crop Studies......................................................... 37 -a
56 Variety Test Work with Farm Crops................................................. 37
97 Sources of Nitrogen and Rates of Applicaticn of Nitrogen as Top-Dressing for Oats........ 41 ,1*
100 Growth Behavior of Bahia Grass...................................................... 42 *
105 Improvement of Corn Through Selection and Breeding .............................. 43 o
106 Effect of Time of Planting of Corn on Forage and Grain Yields.......................... 44
107 Crop Adaptation Studies ......................................... ........ 45
120 Fertilization of Pasture Grasses................ ....................................... 45
138 The Effect of Potash on the Yield and Quality of Peanuts ............................. 45
153 Date of Seeding and Phosphate Requirements of Winter Legumes and Their Effect upon Sub-
sequent Crops ......................................................... ............. 46
158 Lysimeter Studies on Pasture Grasses................................................ 47
159 Ratio of Organic to Inorganic Nitrogen in Mixed Fertilizers for Cotton................... 47
163 Corn Fertilizer Experiments .......................................................... 47
174 A Study of Crotolaria as a Forage Crop..................................... ....... 48
176 Mutations Induced by Heating Seed Corn............................................ 49
177 A Study of Crotolaria as a Forage Crop for Rabbits ...................................: 49
195 Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades. .................... 50







Department

ANIMAL
HUSBANDRY












CHEMISTRY












ENTOMOLOGY


Project
Numbl
119
122
133
135
136
137
140

149
160
175
178
179
192
194
21
22

36
37

66
67
94
.95
96
141
166

8
12
13
14
28


t
er


Title


I


Paralysis of the Domestic Fowl........................................................
The Cost of Wintering Steers Preparatory to Summer Fattening on Pasture ..........:....
Deficiencies in Feeds Used in Cattle Rations..................................... .......
Soybean Silage for Dairy Cows....................................................
Comparison of Various Grazing Crops with Dry Lot Feeding for Pork Production.........
The Value of Grazing for Fattening Cattle in Beef Production..........................
Relation of Conformation and Anatomy of the Dairy Cow to Her Milk and Butterfat
Production ...... ...............................................................
Anaplasm osis in Cattle ................................................................
Fattening Fall Pigs for Spring Market.................... .. ..........................
A Study of the Feeding Value of Crotolaria.........................................
Comparisons of Various Poultry Vermifuges for Their Efficacy and Effect on Egg Production
Swine Field Experiments ....... ....................................................
The Effect of Feeding Crotolaria Seed to Chickens and Other Birds......................
Improving the Size and Quality of Native Cattle by Use of Purebred Bulls of Various Breeds
Dieback of Citrus ........................... ...... ..............................
Determination of the Effect of Varying Amounts of Potash on the Composition and Yield
and Quality of the Crop.................................................
Determination of the Fertilizer Requirements of Satsuma Oranges......................
Determination of the Effect of Various Potash Carriers on Growth, Yield and Composition
of Crops .. ................................ ...........................
Study of Fertilizer Requirements of Citrus Trees When Grown on Muck Soils.............
Composition of Crops as Influenced by Fertilization and Soil Types-Pecans...............
Effect of Various Fertilizer Formulas...............................................
Concentrated Fertilizer Studies .......................... ... ...... .... ....... ....... ..
Determination of the Effect of Green Manrres on the Composition of the Soil.............
Effect of Fertilizers and Soils on Composition of Truck Crops...........................
A Study of the Decomposition of Forest, Range and Pasture Growth to Form Soil Organic
Matter ........................ ............. ................................ .
Florida Flower Thrips .......................................................
Root-Knot Investigations ...................... ....................................
Introduction and Study of Beneficial Insects .......................................
Larger Plant Bugs on Citrus, Pecans, and Truck Crops .................................
Studies of the Bean Jassid.............................


page
51
51
52
52
53
54

54
54
55
55
56
56
57
57
58

59
59

60
60
61
61
63
64
66

67








EN'


HO:


Department Project
Numbi
TOMOLOGY 60
(Continued) 75
82
157
162
X
ME 70


ECONOMICS


HORTICULTURE


Title


P


The Green Citrus Aphid .............................................................
Control of Cotton Insects ..................... ......... .... ... ...... .......... ......
Control of Deciduous Fruit and Nut Crop Insects ..................................
Insects of Ornamentals ..............................................................
Insects and Other Animal Pests of Watermelons ........................................
Insects of Citrus ................. ........... ........ ................. . ...........
Determination of Whether Chlorophyll, Chloiophyll Alpha and Beta, and the Petroleum Ether
Extracts of the Yellow Pigments of Alfalfa Can Be Used as a Source of Vitamin A in
Animal Nutrition .................... .........................................
A Study of Some of the Constituents of Citrus Fruits, Loquats, Roselle, and Guava: Pectin,
Oils and Glucosides .........................................................
The Relation of Growth to Phosphorus, Ca'cium and Lipin Metabolism as Influenced by the
Thymus ..................................................................
Cooperative Projects ..................................................
Minor Projects ...............................................................
Variety Response of Pecans to Different Stil Types, Localities, Etc. ...................
Cooperative Fertilizer Tests in Pecan Orclards ......................................
Variety and Stock Tests of Pecan and Walnut Trees ..................................
Variety Tests of Grapes ..............................................................
Propagation, Planting and Fertilizing Tests with Tung Oil Trees .........................
Observation and Testing of Various Citrus Hybrids ....................................
Testing of Native and Introduced Shrubs and Ornamentals and Methods of Their Propa-
gation ........................................................................
Variety, Propagation, and Planting Tests of Pear, Avocado, Japanese Persimmons, Fig and
Other Fruits ...... .............................................................
Variety Tests of Berries (Rubus spp.) ...............................................
Cooperative Cover Crop Tests in Pecan Orchards .......................................
Tests of Different Stocks as Rootstocks for Satsuma Oranges ..........................
Phenological Studies on Truck Crops in Florida ......................................
Fundamental Physiology of Fruit Production .......................................
Avocado M aturity Studies .........................................................
Relation of Nitrogen Absorption to Food Storage and Growth ..........................
Study on the Preservation of Citrus Juices and Pulps .................................
Cold Storage Studies ...............................................................


t-
er


'age
75
90
76
87
88
71









PLA
P.


Department Project
Numbe
LNT 1
ATHOLOGY 3
11
19
24
114
116
126
130
143

145
146
147
148
150
151
167
180
181
182
183

184
185
193
196
RTH FLORIDA 25
EXPERIMENT 33
STATION
57
74
101


r Title Page
Gumming of Citrus .............................................. .................. 129
Melanose and Stem-End Rot of Citrus............................... .................. 129
Citrus Canker ................................ ............ ... ... .............. . 130
Downy Mildew of Cucurbits ......................................................... 131
Citrus Scab and Its Control ........................................................... 131
Diseases of Citrus Aphids ........................................................... 132
Nailhead Spot of Tomatoes .......................................................... 132
Investigations Relative to Certain Diseases of Strawberries of Importance to Florida..... 132
Investigations of Diseases of White Potatoes.......................................... 133
Investigation of Brown Rot of Potatoes and Related Plants Caused by Bacterium solana-
cearum EFS ................................................................... 134
Investigation and Control of a Disease of Corn Caused by Physoderma zeae-maydis....... 134
Investigation of Seedling, Stalk and Ear Rot Diseases of Corn Caused by Diplodia spp..... 135
Investigation of Seedling, Stalk and Ear Rot Diseases of Corn Caused by Fusarium spp..... 136
Investigation of Diseases of Ferns and Ornamental Plants ............................ 137
Fusarium Wilt of Watermelons..................................................... 138
Investigation and Control of Diseases of Watermelons .................................. 140
A Study of the So-called "Rust" of Asparagus plumosus ............... ................ 141
Control of Wilt of Tomatoes (Fusarium lycopersici Sace.) in Florida.......... ........142
Clitocybe Mushroom Root Rot of Citrus Trees and Other Woody Plants in Florida........ 142
Control of Blackspot (Phoma destructive Plowr.) of Tomatoes in Florida and in Transit.... 143
A Study of an Undescribed Disease of Heading Cabbage Caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn
and Its Relation to Other Cabbage Diseases Caused by the Same Fungus............... 144
A Study of Strawberry Wilt or Crown Rot........................................... 144
Investigation of Stem-End Rot of Citrus Caused by Phomopsis citri Fawcett................ 145
Certain Studies of Decays of Citrus Fruits in Storage ................................. 146
A Study of the Spraying Requirements Necessary to Control Grape Diseases in Florida.... 147
Field and Laboratory Studies of Tobacco Diseases ..................................... 151
Variety Tests of Cigar Wrapper Tobacco for Resistance to Black Shank (Phytophthora
nicotianae Breda de Haan) ......................................................... 152
Variety Tests and Breeding Experiments of Cotton ................................... 152
Field Tests with Cotton-Spacing and Time of Planting Tests ......................... 153
Studies in Inheritance of Cotton ..................................................... 153


NO:
E
S






Department Project
Number


NORTH FLORIDA
EXPERIMENT
STATION
(Continued)
CITRUS
EXPERIMENT
STATION



EVERGLADES
EXPERIMENT
STATION


Fertilizer Experiments with Shade Tobacco................... ........ ....... ..... 153
Some Factors Affecting the Germination of Florida Shade Tobacco Seed and Early Growth
of the Seedlings ................................................................. 156
Cotton Nutrition Studies .................................... ....................... 156
Citrus Progeny and Bud Selection.................................................... 158
Propagation Experiments with Citrus Plants of Various Kinds.......................... 159
Tests of Introduced and New Varieties and Hybrids of Citrus and Near-Citrus............ 159
Cover Crops and Green Manure Studies in Citrus Groves ............................... 160
Citrus Variety Tests, Including Rootstocks ............................................. 161
Grove Cultivation Experiments ........................................................ 162
Biochemical Investigations ................................................... ..... 176
Livestock Investigations ...................... ... ... .............................. 178
Forage and Field Crop Trials....................................................... 180
Fruit and Forest Tree Trials. .......................................... ....... .... 184
Soil Fertility Investigations .......................................................... 187
Insect Pests and Their Control ....................................................... 191
Soil Investigations .................................................................. 195
Water Control Investigations .............................................. .... 196
Soils and Crop Studies, Including Rotation, Fertilizer and Cultural Practice Experiments.. 198
Studies Relative to Plant Pathological Problems of the Everglades ...................... 199
Investigations Relative to the So-called "Yellows" of Beans ............................ 201
The Role of Special Elements in Plant Development upon the Peat and Muck Soils of the
Everglades ................. .................................................. 203
Studies upon the Prevalence and Control of the Sugar Cane Moth Stalk Borer (Diatraea
saccharalis) in South Florida .................................................... 203
Studies upon the Prevalence and Control of Rodents under Field and Village Conditions.... 204
Cane Breeding Experiments ........................................................ 205
General Physiological Phases of Sugarcane Investigations ............................ 207
Agronomic Phases of Sugarcane Investigations ....................... 208
Pasture Investigations on the Peat and Muck Soils of the Everglades .................... 211
No approved research projects at close of fiscal year.
Report of Progress ................................................................. 213


SUB-TROPICAL
EXPERIMENT
STATION


Page


Cb
0



ce
o


Title






12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


REPORT OF BUSINESS MANAGER

Following is a report of the credits received and expenditures
vouchered out of various Experiment Station funds for the year
ending June 30, 1932:

MAIN STATION
Receipts
Receipts 1931-32 ................................ $218,384.00

Expenditures
Salaries ...................................... $123,943.55
Labor ........................................ 26,710.89
Stationery and office supplies .................... 2,863.01
Scientific supplies ................................... 4,265.78
Feeds ....................................... 3,763.78
Sundry supplies ............................... 5,463.21
Fertilizers .............. ....................... 2,962.88
Communication service ...... ........ .......... 2,445.52
Travel ........................................ 8,634.17
Transportation of things ......................... 1,328.17
Publications ................. .................. 5,002.33
Heat, light and power .......................... 5,556.37
Furniture and fixtures ......................... 2,020.96
Library ................................ ..... 2,508.04
Scientific equipment ................ ............ 944.09
Livestock ...................................... 268.45
Tools, implements .............................. 7,087.61
Buildings, repairs, etc ........................... 3,077.92
Contingent .................................... 596.35
Balance ...................................... 9,040.92

$218,384.00

WATERMELON DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS

Receipts
Receipts 1931-32 ................................ $ 8,558.00

Expenditures
Salaries ....................................... $ 5,358.00
Labor ........................................ 1,21066
Stationery and office supplies .................... 30.46
Scientific supplies ............................... 130.94
Sundry supplies ................................ 298.27
Fertilizer ...................................... 220.57
Communication service .......................... 57.12
Travel .................. ...................... 438.82
Transportation of things ......................... 52.60
Heat, light, power ............................. 159.33
Furniture and fixtures .......................... 140.90
Library ........................................ 10.50
Scientific equipment ............................ 3.96
Tools, implements .............................. 57.87
Buildings, repairs .............................. 119.90
Balance ....................................... 268.10

$ 8,558.09







Annual Report, 1982 13

STATION INCIDENTAL FUND
Receipts
Balance 1930-31 ......................... ..... $ 12,564.95
Receipts July 1, 1931-June 30, 1932 ................ 14,244.11
$ 26,809.06
Expenditures
Salaries ............... ....................... $ 00.00
Labor ................ ...................... 4,464.16
Stationery ................................... 173.10
Scientific supplies ............................... 302.40
Feeds ................ ....................... 3,048.89
Sundry supplies ............................ . 1,244.16
Fertilizers ..................................... 109.89
Communication service .......................... 32 30
Travel .................. .................... 598.07
Transportation of things ........................ 245 03
Publications ................................ ... 22.50
Heat, light and power .......................... 1,761.99
Furniture and fixtures ........................... 45.46
Library .................. .................... 6.00
Scientific equipment ............................ 120.61
Livestock ..................................... 564.90
Tools ................. ........................ 304.75
Buildings ................... ............... 3,095.34
Contingent ........................... ....... 524.92
Unexpended balance .......................... 10,144.59
$ 26,809.06

CITRUS STATION
Receipts
Receipts 1931-32 ............. .......... ......... $ 13,102.00
Expenditures
Salaries ........................ ............. $ 5,243.33
Labor ........................................ 3,199.22
Stationery and office supplies ..................... 43.07
Scientific supplies ............................. 220.75
Feeds ..................... .................... 350.48
Sundry supplies ................................ 392.86
Fertilizers .................................. 949.20
Communication service .......................... 109.69
Travel ........................................ 272.73
Transportation of things ......................... 31.99
Publications ....................................
Heat, light, power ............................... 560.48
Furniture and fixtures ........................... 72.10
Library ........... ... ................. ...... 38.38
Scientific equipment ............... ............. 24.50
Livestock .........................................
Tools ............... ........................... 93.28
Buildings, repairs ............................... 21.36
Contingent .................................... 22.24
Balance ................. ..................... 1,456.34
$ 13,102.00






14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

EVERGLADES STATION

Receipts
Receipts 1931-32 ............................. .... $ 57,036.00

Expenditures
Salaries ........................................$ 24,655.33
Labor ...................................... 15,264.39
Stationery and office supplies .................... 452.19
Scientific supplies ............................... 899.02
Feeds .................. ................... ..... 28.40
Sundry supplies ................................ 1,924.50
Fertilizers ..................................... 25.35
Communication service .......................... 206.02
Travel ......................................... 1,229.65
Transportation of things ......................... 219.72
Publications .................................... 1.92
Heat, light and power .......................... 3,490.97
Furniture and fixtures ........................... 334.22
Library ........................................ 234.65
Scientific equipment ............................. 368.37
Livestock ..........................................
Tools, implements ............................... 3,158.63
Buildings, repairs ............................... 2,725.61
Contingent ...... .............................. 35.59
Balance ........................................ 1,781.47

$ 57,036.00

EVERGLADES STATION INCIDENTAL

Receipts
Balance, 1930-31 ................................ $ 3,455.60

Expenditures
Balance, 1931-32 ............................................ $ 3,455.60







Annual Report, 1982 15

NORTH FLORIDA STATION

Receipts
Receipts, 1931-32 ............................... $ 20,995.00

Expenditures
Salaries .....................................$ 10,896.19
Labor ........................................ 3,433.26
Stationery and office supplies ..................... 22.59
Scientific supplies ............................... 113.72
Feeds .................. ................... ..... 48.91
Sundry supplies ............................ .. 440.52
Fertilizers ..................................... 151.95
Communication service .......................... 91.92
Travel ........................................ 376.25
Transportation of things ............... ....... 101.14
Publications ............................................
Heat, light, power .............................. 498.24
Furniture and fixtures ........................... 156.28
Library ........................................ 74.86
Scientific equipment ................. .......... 1,187.12
Livestock ...................................... 175.50
Tools ..................................... ..... 728.01
Buildings, repairs .............................. 1,854.91
Contingent ..................................... 16.90
Balance ........................................ 626.73
$ 20,995.00

SUB-TROPICAL STATION

Receipts
Receipts 1931-32 .............................. $ 12,158.00

Expenditures
Salaries ......................................$ 5,383.00
Labor ........................................ 2,631.59
Stationery and office supplies ..................... 14.09
Scientific supplies ............................... 97.38
Feeds .......................................... ....
Sundry supplies ............................... 690.33
Fertilizers ...................................... 290.10
Communication service .......................... 83.15
Travel ........................................ 491.59
Transportation of things ......................... 28.83
Publications .................................... ....
Heat, light, power .............................. 346.28
Furniture and fixtures ........................... 64.29
Library .................................. ...... 21.83
Scientific equipment ............................. 253.00
Livestock ....................................... 6.34
Tools, implements ............................. 1,187.19
Buildings, repairs .............................. 12.60
Contingent ..................................... 28.80
Balance .................. ...................... 527.61
$ 12,158.00






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


PUBLICATIONS AND INFORMATION

The work of this department continued heavy during the year
ending June 30, 1932. The work of editing bulletin manuscripts,
reading proofs and disseminating information through farm
papers and newspapers and over the radio consumed about one-
half of the time of the two editors, while distribution of bulletins
occupied about half the time of the two mailing clerks. Both
editors and clerks devote approximately half time to work for
the Agricultural Extension Service.

BULLETINS
During the year the Experiment Station published 13 new bul-
letins covering the results of various investigational activities.
These amounted to 584 pages of printed matter. A total of 85,000
copies of all bulletins were printed. In the 45 years of its exist-
ence the Station now has published a total of 250 bulletins.
Following is a list of bulletins issued during the fiscal year,
showing titles, pages and number of copies of each:

Bul. Title Pages Edition
238 Florida Truck Crop Competition-II, Intra-State.. 88 8,000
239 Heat Treatment for Control of the Insect Pests of
Stored Corn ............................... 24 5,000
240 Hibernation of the Cotton Boll Weevil Under Con-
trolled Temperature and Humidity............ 20 4,000
241 Methods for Making Counts of Boll Weevil Infes-
tations .. ............................ .... 24 4,000
242 Bottom Rot and Related Diseases of Cabbage
Caused by Corticium Vagum B. & C. .......... 32 5,000
243 Type, Variety, Maturity, and Physiological An-
atomy of Citrus Fruits as Affecting Quality of
Prepared Citrus Juices ...................... 56 6,000
244 Diseases of Peppers in Florida .................. 48 10,000
245 Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida-
I, Status and Legal Phases..................... 48 8,000
246 An Economic Study of 249 Dairy Farms in Florida 120 5,000
247 Variation in the Tung-Oil Tree.................. 32 6,000
248 A Study of Range Cattle Management in Alachua
County, Florida ............................ 32 10,000
249 Gray Leafspot, a New Disease of Tomatoes...... 36 6,000
250 Some Major Celery Insects in Florida............ 24 8,000

SUMMARY OF BULLETINS
Brief summaries of the principal points covered in the different
bulletins are given here:
238. Florida Truck Crop Competition-II, Intra-State. (John
L. Wann, pp. 88, Figs. 20.) Presents the results of a study of






Annual Report, 1982


competition between different areas of Florida in the marketing
of such crops as watermelons, celery, tomatoes, green beans,
early white potatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, peppers, strawberries,
lettuce, escarole, eggplants, romaine, green corn, squashes, okra,
green peas, cauliflower, avocadoes, cantaloupes, grapes, pine-
apples, blueberries, mixed greens, collards and sorrel.
239. Heat Treatment for Control of the Insect Pests of Stored
Corn. (Edgar F. Grossman, pp. 24, Figs. 11.) Outlines results
of experiments which showed that practically all insects of stored
corn can be controlled by heating to 600C. (1220F.) for one hour.
Such heat exposure does not injure the germinating qualities of
the seed corn.
240. Hibernation of the Cotton Boll Weevil Under Controlled
Temperature and Humidity. (Edgar F. Grossman, pp. 20, Figs.
4.) Boll weevils maintained under controlled conditions of tem-
perature and humidity were studied as to length of time they
hibernated and length of life in hibernation.
241. Methods for Making Counts of Boll Weevil Infestations.
(Edgar F. Grossman, pp. 24, Figs. 0.) Various recommended
methods of obtaining infestation counts were compared with
numbers of boll weevils in the field by actual count of every weevil.
Results showed that all methods are fairly reliable, and therefore
the method involving least amount of labor should be used.
242. Bottom Rot and Related Diseases of Cabbage Caused by
Corticium Vagum B. & C. (George F. Weber, pp. 32, Figs. 15.)
Describes this new disease of cabbage and gives methods of
control.
243. Type, Variety, Maturity and Physiological Anatomy of
Citrus Fruits as Affecting Quality of Prepared Citrus Juices.
(A. F. Camp, Hamilton P. Traub, Leonard W. Gaddum and
Arthur L. Stahl, pp. 56, Figs. 1.) Reports results of studies
which show that the bitter taste developed in extracted citrus
juices on standing is due to the presence of certain compounds
called glucosides. It was determined that these are present in
the inner peel, veins and locular walls of the fruit, and get into
the juice in ordinary extraction processes. Changes in color
were found to be due to the presence of citrus peel oil. Stability
of the suspension was found to be greater when the solid particles
were smaller, and also when certain amounts of citrus peel oil
were added.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


244. Diseases of Peppers in Florida. (George F. Weber, pp.
48, Figs. 38.) Lists the principal diseases of this crop, giving
symptoms and control measures.
245. Farmers' Cooperative Associations in Florida-I, Status
and Legal Phases. (Marvin A. Brooker and H. G. Hamilton,
pp. 48, Figs. 0.) Lists the farmers' Cooperative associations
organized in Florida, and cites laws under which such associations
may be organized.
246. An Economic Study of 249 Dairy Farms in Florida.
(Bruce McKinley, pp. 120, Figs. 1.) Reports results of an eco-
nomic study of dairy farms in Tampa, Jacksonville, Miami, St.
Petersburg, Orlando and Ocala districts.
247. Variation in the Tung-Oil Tree. (Harold Mowry, pp. 32,
Figs. 23.) Describes variation in growth and fruiting habits of
tung-oil trees and names varieties. The cluster variety is named
the Florida variety.
248. A Study of Range Cattle Management inAlachua County,
Florida. (Paul D. Camp, pp. 32, Figs. 7.) Gives history of cattle
in the area, describes four types of ranges (flatwoods, prairies or
savannas, hardwood hammocks, and black-jack), forages found
on these ranges and various factors of cattle management on them.
249. Gray Leafspot, a New Disease of Tomatoes. (George F.
Weber, pp. 36, Figs. 14.) Lists a new disease of tomatoes, caused
by a species of Stemphylium fungus, describes the fungus and
suggests sanitary measures of control.
250. Some Major Celery Insects in Florida. (E. D. Ball, B.
L. Boyden and W. E. Stone, pp. 24, Figs. 10.) Discusses the celery
leaf-tier, celery looper, cutworms, semitropical army worms and
red spiders as affecting celery, giving notes on life history, dis-
tribution and harmfulness of these pests. Contains some sug-
gestions on artificial and natural control.

PRESS BULLETINS
Six new press bulletins were printed during the year, and four
old ones were reprinted. Each consisted of two pages, except the
bulletin lists, which were three pages in length. Three thousand
copies of each bulletin were printed. Following is a list of the
press bulletins printed and reprinted during the year:
No. Title Author
441 Insect Pests of Cotton .......................... Edgar F. Grossman
442 Colds, Roup and Chickenpox in Poultry..................E. F. Thomas
443 Growing Annual Flowering Plants ......................W. L. Floyd






Annual Report, 1932


444 Cottony Cushion Scale .............. ............. J. R. Watson
Bulletin List (two different ones printed)
326 Spraying for Citrus Whitefly (Reprint) .................J. R. Watson
377 Disinfecting Truck Crop Seed with Corrosive
Sublimate (Reprint) ..........................George F. Weber
423 Soil Sterilization (Reprint) .........................George F. Weber
425 Mushrooms and Their Culture (Reprint) ............ George F. Weber

BULLETIN DISTRIBUTION
The demand for Experiment Station bulletins continues heavy
as farmers, growers and others in the state are becoming more
largely acquainted with their value. Between 75,000 and 100,000
copies were distributed to farmers, growers, libraries and scien-
tific workers during the year. Copies of each new bulletin are
sent to libraries and scientific workers throughout the country.
Other bulletins are sent only through the offices of county agents
and on special request. Notification of the publication of new
bulletins is sent to a regular mailing list.

NEWS STORIES AND ARTICLES
Information about the Experiment Station and its work was
widely distributed in Florida and the South and to a certain extent
in other parts of the United States by means of popular articles in
newspapers and farm papers. Five separate articles relating
exclusively to the Station or its work were furnished by the editors
and printed in two different Florida farm papers. They amounted
to 107 column inches of printed matter. Other members of the
staff furnished material which was printed in five different state
farm papers.
Six articles were furnished to four Southern farm papers during
the fiscal year, and they amounted to 87 inches of printed matter.
One story was used by a paper in Michigan. Stories on Crotalaria
and detailing some of the Station's work in introducing this plant,
were sent to newspapers in Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina,
North Carolina and Pennsylvania.
Regular articles on farm work for the month were furnished
to two Florida farm papers each month. Many of the suggestions
contained in them were based on Experiment Station recommen-
dations and credited to Station workers.
State newspapers were liberal with space for stories about the
Station's work. Such stories were distributed direct and through
the Associated Press to dailies, and through the Agricultural
News Service to weeklies. This service is a weekly clipsheet
printed and distributed by the Agricultural Extension Service and






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


contains from three to six stories from the Experiment Station
each week.
Questions and answers, with a majority of the answers fur-
nished by Station workers, were used weekly by two large state
dailies and monthly by one farm paper.

RADIO
Radio programs were put on the air over WRUF each week day
during the year by the Agricultural Extension Service. These
consisted of 45 minutes and came at noon. Experiment Station
workers prepared and gave 149 talks, or an average of over 12 a
month. A few of these were prepared by the editors, but most
of them by other members of the staff.
A weekly feature of these programs consisted of the reading
of questions and answers on farming subjects, most of the answers
being furnished by Station workers.

SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR ARTICLES
Station workers during the year contributed a large number
of articles to scientific and popular journals. Copy of these was
not handled by the Editors. Among the articles printed by such
journals during the year were the following:
A Natural Copper Deficiency in Cattle Rations.-W. M. Neal, R. B. Becker,
A. L. Shealy.
Science 74: 418-419. 1931.
Nutritional Anemia in Ruminants and Swine.-R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal,
A. L. Shealy.
Proc., Amer. Soc. Animal Prod., 1931: 48-51.
Nutritional Anemia in Livestock-Its Economic Importance.-R. B. Becker,
A. L. Shealy.
An. Husb. Sect., Assn. So. Agrl. Workers. 1932.
Calcium in the Rations of Dairy Cows.-R. B. Becker, W. M. Neal.
Dairy Husb. Sect., Assn. So. Agrl. Workers. 1932.
Watch for Leaks in the Citrus Marketing Machinery.-C. V. Noble.
Citrus Industry 13: 1: 14. 1932.
Florida Truck Crop Competition.-C. V. Noble.
An. Rept., Vegetable Growers Assn. of America, 1931.
Economic Factors of Importance in the Citrus Industry, With Particular
Reference to Cost of Production.-C. V. Noble.
Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1932.
The Role of the Less Common Elements in Plant Life.-R. V. Allison.
Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1932.
Recent Results of Fertilizer Experiments with Citrus.-R. W. Ruprecht.
Citrus Industry 12: 9. 1931.
Pecan Fertilizer Experiments Being Conducted by the Florida Experiment
Station.-G. H. Blackmon and R. W. Ruprecht.
Proc., Ga.-Fla. Pecan Growers Assn., 26: 14-23. 1932.
Anthracnose of Strawberry Caused by Colletotrichum fragariae n. sp.-
A. N. Brooks.
Phytopath. 21: 739-744. 1931.







Annual Report, 1932 21

Gibberella moniliformis on Corn Plants in the Field.-R. K. Voorhees and
A. H. Eddins.
Abst. Phytopath. 22: 29. 1932.
Clitocybe Mushroom Root Rot of Citrus Trees and Other Woody Trees in
]lorida.-A. S. Rhoads.
Citrus Industry 12: 9: 5-9 and 38-40. 1931.
Clitocybe Mushroom Root Rot-A New Disease of Citrus Trees.-A. S.
Rhoads.
Abst. Phytopath. 22: 23. 1932.
Clitocybe Mushroom Root Rot-A New Disease of Bananas.-A. S. Rhoads.
Abst. Phytopath. 22: 23. 1932.
Clitocybe Mushroom Root Rot of Woody Plants in Florida.-A. S. Rhoads.
Citrus Industry 13: 5: 11 and 14. 1932.
Clitocybe Mushroom Root Rot-A New Citrus Root Disease Unmasked.-
A. S. Rhoads.
Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1932.
New Apple Rot Fungi from Washington.-G. D. Ruehle.
Phytopath 21: 1141-1152. 1931.
Blight of Carrots Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii, with Geographical Distribu-
tion and Host Range of the Fungus.-G. F. Weber.
Phytopath 21: 1129-1139. 1931.
Occurrence and Habitat of Cordyceps agariciformia (Bolt.) Seaver in Flor-
ida.-G. F. Weber.
Jour. Elisha Mitchell Soc. 46: 221-224. 1931.
The Relation of Hydrocyanic Acid Gas Concentration to the Kill of Various
Stages of the Blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi (Ashby).-A. F. Camp
and R. J. Wilmot.
Jour. Econo. Ent. 25: 475-483. 1932.
The Relation of Hydrocyanic Acid Gas Concentration to the Kill of Various
Stages of the Green Scale (Coccus viridis (Green)).-A. F. Camp and
R. J. Wilmot.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 25: 483-486. 1932.
How to Cultivate a Florida Pecan Orchard.-G. H. Blackmon.
Am. Nut Jour. 35: 4: 47. 1931.
Some Problems of the Pecan Grower.-G. H. Blackmon.
Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1932.
Winter Cover Crops for Pecans.-G. H. Blackmon.
Natl. Nut News. 15: 1: 44-45. 1932.
The Weather: Is It Caused or Does It Happen?-M. R. Ensign.
Proc., Ga.-Fla. Pecan Growers Assn., 1932.
Some Climatic Factors as They Affect Potato Production in Florida.-
M. R. Ensign.
Proc., Pdtato Assn. of America, 1932.
Citrus Fruit Juices.-A. F. Camp.
Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc., 1932.
Two New Thysanoptera from Colorado.-J. R. Watson.
Fla. Entomologist 15: 4: 57-64. 1932.
The Oleander Caterpillar.-H. E. Bratley.
Fla. Entomologist 15: 4: 57-64. 1932.
Insects of the Winter of 1931-1932.--J. R. Watson.
Fla. Entomologist 15: 4: 71-73. 1932.
Citrus Insects and Their Control.-J. R. Watson and E. W. Berger.
Bul. 67, Fla. Agr. Extension Service. 1932.
Preliminary Report on Chlorophyll Deficiencies Induced by Heating Dormant
Seeds.-Fred H. Hull and E. F. Grossman.
Jour. Hered. 23: 123-127. 1932.
Biology of the Mexican Cotton Boll Weevil-VII: The Boll Weevil in Arti-
ficial Hibernation Quarters.-E. F. Grossman.
Fla. Ent. 15: 2: 21-27. 1931.
A Correlation of the Date of Emergence and Percentage of Survival of the
Cotton Boll Weevil with the Date of Their Installation in Hibernation
Cages.-P. W. Calhoun.
Fla. Ent. 15: 3: 41-48. 1931.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


THE LIBRARY

The following statistics will partly explain the work of the
Library for the past fiscal year:
Books prepared for the bindery ................................. 259
Books received through purchase, gift or exchange ................ 263
Total number bound volumes accessioned for year ................. 522
Total number bound volumes in Library.......................... 8,624
Bulletins received from other stations ............................ 1,110
Serials, periodicals, continuations (includes buls.)................. 10,986
Catalog cards made and typed in Library .......................... 8,456
Books borrowed from other libraries .............................. 232
Books and periodicals lent to branch stations...................... 593
Books and periodicals lent to local staff ........................... 2,463
Newspapers currently received .................................. 90

Not so many serials, periodicals, continuations and bulletins
were received this year as were the year before. This was because
of the reduced number of bulletins printed by some institutions
owing to the reduction of the budgets; some of the other publica-
tions that were formerly printed weekly or semi-monthly became
monthlies; and some other publications were discontinued. The
receipt of 10,986 publications requires much attention, as most
of them must have the same attention that bound volumes require.
The 522 new volumes were accessioned and painted for protec-
tion from insect pests.
It is not possible with the limited assistance available to check
the amount of material used within the Library. However, all
records that were kept established the fact that the use of the
Library for the past 12 months was unprecedented. In addition
to the use of material in the Library, staff, faculty members and
graduate students borrowed 2,463 volumes. The circulation of
material to the members of the staff stationed at the four branch
stations and the seven field laboratories has been most success-
fully carried out this year. This service includes the regular
circulation of scientific journals that are received by the Library
as well as lending material on specific requests, and 593 volumes
were lent in this way.
As usual the system of inter-library loans has made it possible
to supply to our research workers the material that was not
available in this Library. The number of volumes borrowed
from other libraries was 232.
The most important piece of new work undertaken this year
was the assembling of a fine collection covering the field of agri-






Annual Report, 1932 23

cultural economics. This consists mostly of publications on the
subject issued by the Federal Government and private corpora-
tions. The most of it is in mimeographed form but it has been
arranged in binders and will form the nucleus of a fine collection
for the use of persons engaged in research in agricultural eco-
nomics.
The librarian has prepared for publication a catalogue of the
official publications of the Agricultural Experiment Station from
its establishment in 1887, and the Agricultural Extension Service
since 1915, the date of its establishment.
It is regretted that owing to the great amount of routine work,
the cataloging of material fell below its usual figure for the year.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

AGRICULTURAL SURVEY OF SOME 500 FARMS IN THE GENERAL
FARMING REGION OF NORTHWEST FLORIDA
Purnell Project No. 73 C. V. Noble, Leader
Comparative summaries for the 110 farm surveys made for the
two years 1925 and 1928 were personally returned to the cooper-
ators and fully explained. At the same visit, each cooperator was
urged to keep a record of cash receipts and cash expenses for the
year 1932, using a specially prepared cash book. In many in-
stances a complete farm inventory was taken, also. The purpose
of the record keeping is twofold. First, it appears to be one of
the real needs of most of these farmers in order for them to
clearly see the status of their farm business. Second, the accounts
will furnish a much better background for the repeat survey which
is planned for the year 1932 as early as practicable after the
close of the year.

AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF DAIRY FARMING IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project No. 104 Bruce McKinley, Leader
This survey has been completed and the results published as
Bulletin 246.
One criticism of economic surveys is that the data obtained
covering a given period pertain only to that period and may not
represent a true picture of conditions at another time. This may
be true insofar as the data are expressed in monetary figures only.
However, quantative data such as acres of land, number of ani-
mals, hours of labor and pounds of feed change less rapidly than
dollar figures.
In the Jacksonville district, 38 dairy farmers who were operat-
ing the same dairies as in 1927 were re-visited about the first of
November, 1931. The current prices being paid for the feed
making up their dairy ration, the labor employed and the price
they were receiving for their milk were obtained. Applying the
prices to the pounds of the different types of feed and the hours
of labor necessary to produce 100 pounds of milk on the 38 farms
gave the comparative feed and labor costs. In 1927 the feed and
labor costs on the 38 farms represented 68.1 percent of the cost
of producing milk. Assuming that the same percentage held true
in 1931, the total cost per hundred pounds of milk was reduced
32 percent.






Annual Report, 1932


The price of milk on these same farms was 33 percent less in
November, 1931, than for the same month in 1927. That is, the
price of milk was reduced in a slightly greater proportion than
the costs. Consequently, the profits on these farms were reduced
about 43 percent. On the other hand, retail prices paid by
farmers for commodities used in living declined only 18 percent
between June, 1927, and June, 1931.

A STUDY OF FLORIDA TRUCK CROP COMPETITION
Purnell Project No. 123 C. V. Noble, Marvin A. Brooker
and J. L. Wann, Leaders
This project has been completed and closed with the publication
of bulletins 224 and 238, covering inter-state and intra-state truck
crop competition, respectively. Tables of inter-state and foreign
competition with Florida will be prepared in mimeograph form
at the end of each season as a continuation of data given in Bulle-
tin 224.
The following brief summary may be of interest to show the
trend of Florida truck crop competition with other areas from the
standpoint of car-lot movement during the seven seasons ending
with 1930-31: Shipments of Florida peppers and cabbage have
made rapid increases, though total competition has slightly de-
creased. Florida strawberries and green beans have also in-
creased very rapidly, and the total competition has increased less
rapidly. Florida watermelon shipments have increased slowly
and at about the same rate as the total competition. Florida
celery, white potatoes and eggplants have also made slow gains,
but the gains of total competition have been much more rapid.
Shipments of Florida tomatoes have decreased slightly in the face
of appreciable gains from competing areas. Florida cucumbers
and lettuce shipments have decreased more rapidly, whereas com-
peting areas have made substantial gains.

FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project No. 154 H. G. Hamilton and Marvin A.
Brooker, Leaders
At the beginning of the fiscal year 1931-32 complete data had
been obtained on 374 cooperative associations that had been or-
ganized in Florida prior to the 1929-30 marketing season. Both
active and inactive associations were included in the survey, and






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the data secured on each association included details of the admin-
istration and management set-up, charter law, method of control,
membership, volume, methods of sale, pooling practices, balance
sheets and profit and loss statements, credit operation, difficulties
and in the case of inactive associations, reasons for ceasing to
operate.
Of the 374 cooperative associations studied that were organized
prior to the 1929-30 marketing season, 50.8 percent were active
during 1929-30; 34.5 percent had ceased to operate by that time;
and 14.7 percent had never operated. This information, for the
various groups of associations, is given in Table I.

TABLE I.-DEGREE OF ACTIVITY OF COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS ORGANIZED
IN FLORIDA PRIOR TO THE 1929-30 MARKETING SEASON.
Number
Number once
Active active Number
Type of Association in but never Total
1929-30 inactive active
in 1929-30
Citrus ..................... 91 70 34 195
Truck Crops ................ 52 38 7 97
Livestock and Livestock
Products ................. 17 11 1 29
Subsidiary Organizations .... 13 1 0 14
Miscellaneous .............. 17 9 13 39
Total .................. 190 129 55 374
Percent ................ 50.8 34.5 14.7 100


In the case of the inactive associations the opinion of the for-
mer manager or some former official was secured as to why the
association was not active. In the opinion of the informants,
lack of volume was the outstanding cause of failure, being given
as the principal cause 28 times and a contributing cause in 15
other cases. Poor management, no need for cooperative, lack of
cooperative spirit, insufficient capital, competition, and unsatis-
factory prices followed in order as principal reasons for ceasing
to operate. In addition, 42 other reasons were given from one to
several times each for a total of 82 times as principal causes of
failure, and 26 similar reasons were given a total of 31 times as
contributing causes. Among these miscellaneous reasons were
organization difficulties, consolidations, membership dissatisfac-
tion, lack of credit, crop failure, boom, dishonesty, too much
credit, too strict grading, salaries too high, inadequate account-






Annual Report, 1932


ing, and others. A tabulation of the reasons given is included
in Table II.

TABLE II.-REASONS GIVEN BY INFORMANTS FOR 129 COOPERATIVE ASSOCIA-
TIONS CEASING TO OPERATE.
Times Given
Reasons given Times Given
Principal Contributing

Lack of volume ......................... 28 15
Poor management ....................... 12 5
No need for cooperative .................. 8 5
Lack of cooperative spirit ................ I 6 4
Insufficient capital ....................... 5 6
Competition ............................ 5 2
Unsatisfactory prices .................... 4 8
42 other reasons ......................... 82
26 other reasons ................... ..... .. 31
Unknown ........................ ..... 2 2


A complete classified list of all the cooperative associations
included in the survey, supplemented by additional associations
organized up to, and including, the summer of 1931, and a dis-
cussion of the important Federal and State laws affecting coopera-
tive associations in Florida was prepared and published during
the year in Bulletin 245.
Tabulation and interpretation of the main body of the material
obtained in the survey have been carried forward and should be
ready for publication at an early date.

COST OF PRODUCTION AND GROVE ORGANIZATION STUDIES OF
FLORIDA CITRUS
Purnell Project No. 186 C. V. Noble and Zach Savage, Leaders

The work thus far has been of a preliminary nature in locating
satisfactory cooperators who are fairly representative of the
important citrus areas of the state. The accounts will be opened
in time to record all transactions of the 1932-33 citrus crop on
the groves studied.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


AGRONOMY

During the year all Agronomy experimental work has pro-
gressed satisfactorily.
The Forage Crops Office of the United States Department of
Agriculture continued active cooperation and much progress has
been made in enlarging plant introduction plantings at the branch
experiment stations at Quincy, Belle Glade and Homestead.
We again had the use of a tractor and combine from the Cater-
pillar Tractor Company for continuing the experiments in har-
vesting Crotalaria seed by machinery.
Agronomy phases of cotton investigations were continued at
Quincy with satisfactory results and preliminary work looking
toward pasture and forage crop investigations has been started.
A report of that work will be found in the report for the North
Florida Experiment Station.
General agronomy investigations as well as sugarcane agro-
nomic investigations under way at the Everglades Experiment
Station have progressed and reports on this work will be found
under the report of the Everglades Experiment Station.
Cover crop experimental work in citrus groves has progressed
and been somewhat enlarged. This work is being conducted by
this department in cooperation with the Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion and a report on the work will be found under the report of
the Citrus Experiment Station.
In cooperation with the Homestead Experiment Station, some
special work with leguminous plants and grasses with a view to
determining adaptability and fertilizer requirements and their
value for cover, weed smothering, soil improvement and forage
purposes is being determined. A report on this work will be
found under the Homestead Experiment Station report.

PEANUT AND CORN FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS
Hatch Project No. 16 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp and
J. D. Warner, Leaders

SPANISH PEANUT FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTAL WORK
A phase of this project was conducted in the commercial Spanish
peanut growing area of Jackson County, Florida, on the Norfolk
sandy loam soil on the farm of C. W. Williams, north of Marianna.
There were five treatments in the experiment and each treatment






Annual Report, 1932


was replicated seven times, using 1/10 acre plots. The treat-
ments, the yield of nuts and hay from the various treatments and
the grade of the nuts as reported by officials of the Alabama-
Florida Cooperative Peanut Association are given in Table III.

TABLE III.-RESULTS OF FERTILIZER EXPERIMENT WITH SPANISH PEANUTS,
JACKSON COUNTY, FLA., 1931.
Bu. Acre Increase
Treatments* Yield increase Grade yields due to
(N-P-K) bu.per due to U. S. hay fertz.
acre fertilizers Standard lbs. lbs.

No Fertilizer.... 31.3 ... No.1 945
3-10-0 ........... 38.3 7.0 No. 1 1,032 87
3-10-4 ........... 40.8 9.5 No. 1 1,181 236
3-10-8 ........... 40.2 8.9 No. 1 1,224 I 279
3-10-12 .......... 39.5 8.2 ] No. 2 1,271 32.6-
I Il I
*Fertilizer used at the rate of 400 pounds per acre.

SOIL AMENDMENT STUDIES WITH SPANISH PEANUTS
Spanish peanuts grown in the same field of deep Norfolk sand
at Gainesville for several consecutive seasons have gradually de-
clined to a very small yield. While this may be due to a depletion
of the organic matter, it was thought possible that the primary
cause was some mineral deficiency, as appears to be true with
certain other crops on similar soils. Consequently, an experiment
was started in the spring of 1932 treating Spanish peanuts in this
field with certain materials that have stimulated plant growth
under some conditions. The treatments were: ferrous sulfate,
cupric sulfate, manganous sulfate, magnesium sulfate and boric
acid, singly and in all possible combinations of pairs; each material
at the rate of 50 pounds per acre. Each treatment was replicated
10 times and check or no-treatment plots were located on both sides
of each treatment. Results of these studies will be reported later.

CORN FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS-SOURCES OF NITROGEN
The corn sources-of-nitrogen fertilizer experimental work being
conducted on deep phase Norfolk sandy land at Gainesville using
cottonseed meal, nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia, leunasal-
peter, calurea, urea, compohumus and calcium nitrate as sources
of nitrogen with and without phosphate and potash shows that,
on this type of soil under the climatic conditions existing at Gaines-
ville, nitrogen alone usually pays more profit than does a complete






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


fertilizer. Phosphate and potash in combination with the various
sources of nitrogen in some instances gave slightly higher yields
than where nitrogen alone was used, but in most instances this
increase was not enough to be profitable.
Organic sources of nitrogen gave no higher yields than certain
inorganic sources of nitrogen, even though the corn grew off faster
where organic sources of nitrogen were used under the corn pre-
vious to planting.
In tests thus far, sulfate of ammonia and leunasalpeter have
shown up slightly better than other sources of nitrogen. Accurate
counts are being kept as to the effect of the various sources of
nitrogen on silking date, as this will possibly have a bearing on
early formation of roasting ears and the time of arrival on the
market of course may have a bearing on the price received.

RATES OF NITROGEN
A rate-of-nitrogen test is also being conducted adjacent to the
sources-of-nitrogen test. In the rates test, urea is used. The
rates of nitrogen applied per acre as side-dressing are as follows:
0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 pounds.

PLANT BREEDING-PEANUTS
Hatch Project No. 20 F. H. Hull, Leader

BREEDING BY SELECTION
The several selected strains of Spanish peanuts developed at
this station are being tested in comparison with commercial lots
of seed from various sources. The test in 1931 was very unsatis-
-factory because of dry weather. Germination was delayed and
very uneven, giving a thin stand of plants of different ages which
did not mature at the same time. The plants were completely
defoliated by diseases and worms before the nuts were completely
filled, causing low yields of poor quality. Samples of all of the
strains were sent to the Alabama-Florida Cooperative Peanut
Association for grading. Two of them graded No. 2, three graded
No. 3, and seven graded Sample. The test for 1932 came up to a
full and uniform stand and is growing nicely at the time of this
report.
The tendency of Spanish peanuts to sprout as soon as mature
is a rather serious weakness of the variety. It has been thought
that it would be possible to correct the weakness only by hybridi-






Annual Report, 1932


zation with one of the runner varieties whose seed will remain
sound in the soil all winter and not sprout. However, tests made
in the fall of 1931 indicate that it may be possible to discover
strains of Spanish peanuts that do not sprout so soon after ma-
turity. Eighty Spanish peanut plants were harvested in the fall
of 1931 and plump, fully mature seeds from each plant were
planted in the greenhouse and kept under good conditions for
germination. Most of the seed, including some from every plant,
germinated immediately. There were a few plants, however, of
which most of their seeds did not germinate for at least 60 days.
The possibility is thus indicated of discovering, by more extensive
tests, plants the seeds of which will all remain dormant for some
time after maturity. Such plants might be used as progenitors
of strains that breed true for this desirable character. It is
planned to make such tests with some of the higher yielding types
in the fall of 1932.

BREEDING BY HYBRIDIZATION AND SELECTION
A considerable number of peanut hybrids are being grown under
observation. The oldest are in the fifth generation after crossing
and are not yet advanced far enough for selections to be made with
any certainty that they will breed true. Several introductions
have been received from Brazil, the native home of the peanut,
and are being observed for any unusual desirable characters not
possessed by our varieties.

PASTURE EXPERIMENTS
Hatch Project No. 27 G. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes, Leaders
The following pasture studies have been active: I. Grass com-
petition studies. II. The influence of fertilizers on yield and
composition of grasses. III. The influence of frequency of mow-
ing and nitrogen fertilization on yield and composition of grasses.
IV. The carrying capacity and forage value of pasture grasses.
V. The influence of various fertilizer formulas on the yield of
pasture. VI. Comparison of native and improved pastures, com-
parison of burned and unburned native pastures for both nine
and 12 months grazing and comparison of methods of land prepa-
ration previous to seeding improved pasture plants. This last
phase (No. VI) is in cooperation with the Animal Husbandry
Department and the J. C. Penney-Gwinn Corporation on 770 acres






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of the corporation's land under lease to the State Board of Edu-
cation.
I. GRASS COMPETITION STUDIES
The grass in this experiment was planted in 1922. Eleven dif-
ferent grasses have been arranged in 86 different plots for com-
petition and subjected to continuous pasture thereafter. No fer-
tilizers have been applied. The centipede grass has overrun nearly
the entire field of grasses with a few areas having still a little of
the other original grasses that were planted.

II. THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZERS ON YIELD AND
COMPOSITION OF GRASSES
This has been the fourth year that data have been taken on
this experiment. Bahia grass, carpet grass and centipede grass
plots were treated with ammonium sulphate at the rate of 250
pounds per acre and others with a 9-7-5 fertilizer at the rate
which furnished an equivalent amount of nitrogen. Each plot is
adjacent to a check plot which received no treatment. The experi-
ment was duplicated on two types of soil, namely fine Norfolk
sandy soil and a gravelly phase of Norfolk soil. The grass was
mowed and yields taken once each month.
The results of 1931 were similar to those of previous years.
There was not a marked difference in yield on the different types
of soil, except that there was a tendency toward a higher yield
of the carpet and centipede on the Norfolk fine sandy loam. The
fertilizer plots gave an increase of from 15% in the case of carpet
grass to 115% in the case of centipede grass on the gravelly phase
of the Norfolk soil. With one exception the grass contained a
higher percentage of nitrogen when grown on the fertilized plots.
The experiment is being continued during the year 1932.

III. THE INFLUENCE OF FREQUENCY OF MOWING AND NITROGEN
FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF GRASSES
Duplicated plots fertilized with ammonium sulphate at the rate
of 250 pounds per acre applied in five monthly applications of 50
pounds each were mowed at 10-, 20-, and 30-day intervals. Each
plot was accompanied by a check which was mowed at the same
interval but was given no further treatment. The results.were
very similar to those of other years. An examination of Table
IV shows that considerably higher yields were obtained from the
fertilized plots than from the checks. The higher total yields of
Bahia and carpet grass were obtained from those plots mowed






Annual Report, 1932


TABLE IV.-GRASS CUTTINGS FROM NORFOLK MEDIUM SANDY SOIL. AVERAGE
OF TWO PLOTS FOR SEASON 1931. FERTILIZED WITH AMMONIUM SULFATE
AT RATE OF 250 POUNDS PER ACRE IN FIVE APPLICATIONS OF 50 POUNDS EACH.
CHECKS WERE NOT FERTILIZED.

Interval Dry weight % Nitrogen *Nitrogen-
Grass -of pounds average of pounds Gain over check
cutting per acre all cuttings per acre
Pounds Average Pounds
(days) fert. check fert. check fert. check per acre percent Nitrogen
dry wt. Nitrogen
Bahia.... 10 1,469 1,058 2.25 2.10 33.0 22.2 411 .15 10.8
Bahia.... 20 1,342 840 2.02 2.09 27.1 17.6 502 -.07 9.5
Bahia.... 30 1,438 958 1.82 1.85 26.2 17.7 480 -.03 8.5
Carpet... 10 924 650 2.22 1.99 20.5 12.9 274 .23 7.6
Carpet... 20 859 666 2.15 1.92 18.5 12.8 193 .23 5.7
Carpet... 30 843 565 1.73 1.68 14.6 9.5 278 .05 5.1
Centipede 10 458 293 1.54 1.48 7.1 4.3 165 .06 2.8
Centipede 20 536 220 1.39 1.32 7.5 2.9 316 .07 4.6
Centipede 30 723 392 1.40 1.30 10.1 5.1 331 .10 5.0

*Calculated from the average nitrogen percentages, of all cuttings during
the season and total yield of dry matter.

every 10 days but the higher yield was obtained from the plots
of centipede mowed every 30 days. As in 1930, the data indicate
that those plots mowed at 10-day intervals produce a higher per-
centage of nitrogen than those mowed less frequently, except in
the case of the centipede grass, which indicates that the higher
total yields of nitrogen are obtained from the grass mowed at
30-day intervals. Except in the case of Bahia grass, the data
indicate a slightly higher percentage of nitrogen in the grass
from fertilized plots.

IV. CARRYING CAPACITY AND FORAGE VALUE OF PASTURE
GRASSES
This completes the fourth year of this experiment. Five pas-
tures of 31/ acres each have been pastured to four steers. The
five pastures were planted to Bahia, Bermuda, carpet, centipede
and a mixture of Bahia, Bermuda and carpet, respectively. The
steers were weighed every four weeks and yields of grass taken
from fenced quadrats within each pasture on the same dates.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


As in 1930, the highest gains were made on the centipede pas-
ture, which may be seen by an examination of Table V. The
cattle were placed on the pasture March 28 and removed November
12, after 232 days of grazing on each of the pastures.
This test is in cooperation with the Animal Husbandry Depart-
ment.

TABLE V.-RESULTS OF STEER GRAZING TEST FOR SEASON OF 1931 (232
DAYS.)
Average Average Pounds Average Total gain
Pasture initial daily of beef live wt. of four
(kind of wts. of gain per produced gain per steers on
grass) steers steer per steer for pasture
pounds pounds acre season 232 days
Bahia ........ 574.0 .530 140.6 123.0 492.0
Bermuda ...... 586.5 .540 143.2 125.2 501.0
Carpet ........ 531.0 .247 65.4 57.2 229.0
Centipede..... 554.0 .813 215.7 188.7 755.0
Mixture ....... 516.5 .608 161.2 141.0 564.0
II
Pastures 3.5 acres each, grazed 4 steers per pasture. Each pasture fer-
tilized twice, with sodium nitrate, 50 pounds per acre each .time.

This experiment is being continued in 1932. The cattle on the
Bahia grass have made the highest gains to June 30, 1932, with
those on the pasture of mixed grasses and centipede following
very closely.

V. THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS FERTILIZER FORMULAS ON THE
YIELDS OF PASTURE
A pasture of Bahia grass was laid out in 76 plots. These were
fertilized with 21 fertilizer formulas varying in plant food con-
stituents. One-half of the plots were limed and the other half
left unlimed. The plots were mowed at monthly periods and yield
records were taken. There seems to be a slight increase in yields
of grasses due to the use of lime. The only decided increase in
yields, however, was on those plots fertilized with a formula
containing nitrogen.

VI. COMPARISON OF NATIVE AND IMPROVED PASTURES, COM-
PARISON OF BURNED AND UNBURNED NATIVE PASTURES
FOR BOTH NINE AND 12 MONTHS GRAZING AND COMPARI-
SON OF METHODS OF LAND PREPARATION PREVIOUS TO
SEEDING IMPROVED PASTURE PLANTS
This work is progressing in a very satisfactory manner and as
time goes on should yield results of wide interest to landowners
and cattlemen.






Annual Report, 1932


THE EFFECT OF LANDPLASTER OR GYPSUM ON HAY AND SEED
PRODUCTION OF PEANUT VARIETIES
Hatch Project No. 43 W. E. Stokes and J. P. Camp, Leaders
This project has been inactive during the year, and work on it
will not be resumed until some later date when funds can be made
available.
WINTER LEGUME STUDIES
Hatch Project No. 53 G. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes, Leaders
This project includes the following lines of studies: I. Date of
turning of Austrian peas and vetch. II. Date of planting Aus-
trian peas and vetch. III. Crop rotation systems using winter
legumes. IV. Rate of seeding Austrian peas and vetch. V. Su-
perphosphate requirements of Austrian peas and vetch. VI. Pre-
liminary winter cover crop field plot tests.

I. DATE OF TURNING OF AUSTRIAN PEAS AND VETCH
Austrian peas and hairy vetch were grown on plots and turned
under at two different dates, February 18 and March 18. Corn
was planted 10 days after turning in each case. Each plot is
adjacent to a check which is not planted to a cover crop.
A light cover crop was realized on those plots turned in Febru-
ary and two to three times as much was obtained when turned
March 18. The yield of corn, however, seems to favor early turn-
ing. This may be due to early planting of the corn.
In all cases there was a very decided increase in yields of corn
on those plots where the corn followed a cover crop. The greater
increase was on plots following Austrian peas.
This experiment is being continued in 1932.

II. DATE OF PLANTING OF WINTER LEGUMES FOLLOWED BY
CORN
Plots of hairy vetch, monantha vetch, Austrian peas and a
mixture of Austrian peas and hairy vetch were planted. Yields
of the cover crops were taken. Corn was planted on the plots
in the spring. Each plot was bordered by its check which grew
no cover crop.
The cover crops were planted September 15, October 15, Novem-
ber 3 and November 15. There was little difference in the yields
of corn obtained from the plots which had grown a cover crop and
its check which had not grown the cover crop. The September






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


planting produced very little cover crop but the later seedlings
did not differ materially in the amount of dry matter produced.
The corn yields do not show a material difference from the dif-
ferent plots.

III. CROP ROTATION SYSTEMS USING WINTER LEGUMES
Four rotations are under test alternating corn and cotton, this
being the second year of the test. Corn is rotated with cotton
without a cover crop. Corn with crotalaria is rotated with cotton.
Corn with crotalaria is rotated with cotton, followed by vetch.
Corn alone is rotated with cotton followed by vetch. All rotations
are grown in proximity to corn and cotton grown continuously on
the same land. In all rotations where corn and cotton have
alternated there has been a marked increase in yield over the
check plot. The cotton has shown a very decided reaction to the
rotation. In all cases the cotton following corn yielded about
double its check plot which was growing cotton continuously.
The greater increases in cotton yields were obtained on plots on
which crotalaria and vetch were both used in the system. A
corresponding but much less increase was obtained from the corn
yields when rotated with cotton as compared to the yields of corn
when grown continuously on the same land.

IV. RATE OF SEEDING AUSTRIAN PEAS AND VETCH
In this test the results showed a gradual increase in the dry
material produced by the Austrian peas as the rate of seeding
was increased from 20 pounds to 45 pounds per acre. There was
no increase in yield, however, on those plots sown to 50 pounds over
those sown to 45 pounds per acre. Likewise there was a gradual
increase in the yield of dry matter of hairy vetch as the rate of
seeding increased from 15 to 50 pounds per acre. The yield from
the Austrian pea plots was two to three times that of the hairy
vetch plots. The yield of corn following vetch however was about
the same as that following Austrian peas.

V. SUPERPHOSPHATE REQUIREMENTS OF AUSTRIAN PEAS
AND VETCH
Plots of monantha vetch, hairy vetch and Austrian peas were
fertilized with 400 pounds and 800 pounds of superphosphate per
acre. Each plot was grown adjacent to a check plot on which no
superphosphate was used. Records of yields of Austrian peas






Annual Report, 1932


and vetches were taken, the crops were turned under, and corn
was planted on the plots. In all plots treated with superphos-
phate the yields of the winter legumes more than doubled the
check plots on which no phosphate was applied. No appreciable
difference, however, was noticed between the plots treated with
400 pounds and those treated with 800 pounds of phosphate.

VI. PRELIMINARY WINTER COVER CROP FIELD PLOT TESTS
Nine sorts of winter legumes were planted in small areas in
the field. The monantha vetch gave the highest yields. The
Tangier pea gave good yields and shows special promise as a
winter cover crop.

SUMMER COVER CROP STUDIES
Hatch Project No. 54 G. E. Ritchey and W. E. Stokes, Leaders

This project was inactive during the year, due to lack of funds
and land. A companion project carried at the Citrus Experiment
Station as No. 83 was active and a report on that project will be
found under the report of that station.

VARIETY TEST WORK WITH FIELD CROPS
Hatch Project No. 56 G. E. Ritchey, J. D. Warner and
F. H. Hull, Leaders

COWPEA DATE OF PLANTING AND VARIETY TEST
Fourteen varieties of cowpeas were planted on each of the fol-
lowing dates: March 1, April 1, and May 1. Five varieties were
planted June 1, and the Brabham and Iron were planted June 18
and July 1.
A variety known as the Manaka, bearing the serial number
F. C. 04589, gave by far the highest forage yields. Others pro-
ducing good yields were the Iron, Brabham, Conch and Unknown.
With most varieties the highest yields were produced when the
seed was planted April 1. Good yields were obtained from the
Brabham and Iron when planted June 18 and July 1.
Green pods of the cowpeas were picked and yield records taken.
The highest yields of pods were obtained from the Florida Clay,
Unknown and Small Crowder in the March 1 planting, and from
the Florida Clay in the April planting. The largest average num-
ber of green pods was obtained from the March 1 plantings.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SOYBEAN DATE-OF-PLANTING AND VARIETY TEST
The varieties Biloxi, Laredo, Mammoth Yellow, Otootan and an
unnamed variety No. 72049 were planted on March 1, April 1 and
May 1. As in the case of the cowpeas, the best forage fields
Were obtained when the plantings were made April 1. The Otootan
and Laredo gave the highest yields. The Biloxi yielded consid-
erably less than either the Otootan or Laredo.
SORGHUM AND MILLET TEST
Black Amber sorghum, Egyptian wheat, German millet, Kaffir
corn, Pearl millet, Sudan grass and two varieties of Proso millet
were used in this test.
Plots of each were cut when only a few inches tall, other plots
when about 2/3 headed and still other plots when ripe. The
highest yields were obtained when the plants were partially
headed, except in the case of Sudan grass and Black Amber.
These gave the heaviest yields when ripe. The lowest total yield
was obtained in all cases when the plants were cut in a young
succulent stage. The largest number of cuttings were obtained
from Pearl millet with Sudan grass second in number of cuttings.
Pearl millet gave by far the largest yields.

CORN VARIETY TESTS
A. Tests on mineral soils:-The tests for 1931 included nine
varieties of field corn. These nine varieties have been selected
as the more promising of 60 or more that have been tested in
previous years. Plantings were made at five different dates on
the farm at Gainesville and three different dates on the farm at
Quincy. In addition, cooperative tests consisting of single plant-
ings were made with nine different farmers in the central and
northwestern parts of the state. Yield records were taken on
all of these tests. Detailed notes were taken on the tests at
Gainesville and Quincy on many characteristics of the varieties
such as length of growing period, ability to stand erect, quality
of crop, and resistance to insects and diseases. The yields in the
Gainesville tests were very low, due to extreme drought. The
Quincy test was also hurt by dry weather. Yields in the cooper-
ative tests averaged 31 bushels per acre for the best varieties.
The 1932 plantings are essentially duplicates of those of 1931,
except that one cooperative test has been located near Plant City
which is considerably farther south than any previous test for
grain yield on mineral soils.






Annual Report, 1932 39

Corn variety testing has progressed to the point where a pre-
liminary summary of results and tentative recommendations
seem justified. The plan has been to test every popular strain
and variety from Florida and neighboring states. More than 60
such varieties have been included. Most of these were discarded
after one or two seasons because they lacked resistance to weevils
or otherwise were not adapted.
The varieties of corn are of three types: white prolific, white
single ear, and yellow single ear. No satisfactory yellow prolific
varieties have been found. The data on the two leading varieties
of each type are presented in Table VI. The yield of grain in
bushels per acre is the average of 26 tests conducted in Central
and Northwest Florida. The yield of silage is based on four
years' tests at Gainesville, two at Vero Beach and one at Quincy.
The data on percent of weevily ears at harvest, percent sound
ears, percent of husks, percent lodging, number of ears per plant,
shelling percent, and number of days from planting to silking are
the averages of three years' records at Gainesville.
The data in this table show first the outstanding yield of pro-
lific varieties in comparison with single-eared types. They show
also that the best varieties of yellow corn are rather unproductive.
The ideal general purpose variety of corn must be not only high
yielding but also resistant to weevils. It must also be resistant to
lodging to keep the crop off the ground for at least 30 days after
maturity, during which time the stalks may also have to carry the
weight of velvet beans or other vines. The ideal variety must pro-
duce a minimum of unsound or rotten corn and probably a good
yield of silage. Taking all characters into consideration it seems
that Whatley Prolific meets the requirements more nearly than
any of the others. The data show a somewhat higher weevil infes-
tation in Whatley than the other varieties. However, a good
number of farmers in Northwest Florida have been growing
Whatley Prolific and report that it keeps satisfactorily.
Two comparisons of the leading varieties of each type of corn
with the average native Florida corn are available. During the
past seven seasons 14 native Florida strains have been included
in the yield tests at Gainesville. These strains have been good
enough to achieve some popularity at least locally and must be
at least as high yielding as the average of Florida corn. Rating
the average of the Florida strains at 100%, the rating of Whatley
Prolific is 125%, of Tisdale 117% and of Wilson Yellow Dent 101%.






TABLE VI.-SUMMARY OF CORN VARIETY TESTS IN 1929, 1930, AND 1931 CONDUCTED BY THE AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT OF THE
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION IN COOPERATION WITH FARMERS AND COUNTY AGENTS.

Green Weevily Husks Number Number
Bushels Green Weevily Sound prent Lodged Number days
Bushels silage ears at Sound percent Lodged Ners days
Varieties according to type per tons harvest ears by weight plants Shelling planting Source of seed
acre percent in slip- percent per percent to
acre per acre percent shucked rcent plant r siking
corn
White Prolific:
Whatley Prolific......... 27.8 8.27 6.4 98 12 7 1.60 81 96 Whatley Bros., Helena, Ga.
Kilgore Red Cob Prolific. 27.4 6.94 2.0 94 11 17 1.42 82 94 Kilgore Seed Co., Plant City, Fla.
Average.............. 27.6



White single ear:
Tisdale................. 24.5 8.50 1.7 94 12 2 0.91 80 96 W.R. Tisdale, Bluff Springs, Fla.
Dubose................ 22.6 6.41 3.1 95 14 18 0.96 82 90 W. R. Dubose, Lake Butler, Fla.
Average.............. 23.5



Yellow single ear:
Wilson Yellow Dent..... 21.2 7.21 1.3 95 13 7 0.94 82 95 J. R. Wilson, Madison, Fla.
Cuban Yellow Flint...... 20.5 6.90 0.0 96 19 14 1.13 81 92 Kilgore Seed Co., Plant City, Fla.
Average.............. 20.8






Annual Report, 1932


In twelve cooperative tests the home strain of the farm on which
the test was grown was included. Rating the average of these
home strains at 100%, the yield of Whatley Prolific rates 132%,
Tisdale 115%, and Wilson 95%. From these comparisons it seems
safe to conclude that the average Florida farmer can increase his
corn yield about 25% by growing Whatley Prolific, or about 15%
by growing Tisdale, the leading white single-eared variety. If a
yellow corn is desired, Wilson Yellow Dent is recommended but
no increase in yield can be expected.
Early varieties for hogging off have been tested to a limited
extent at Gainesville only. None of these varieties are resistant
to weevils or high yielding. The acreage devoted to an early
variety should be no more than sufficient to furnish feed for a
period of 10 to 14 days before the later variety is ready. Lowman
Yellow Dent and Wood's Early Yellow Dent are equally satisfac-
tory and definitely superior to the Golden Dent types. They have
yielded 25% to 30% less than Whatley Prolific in two years tests
at Gainesville.
B. Test on Muck and Peat Soil:--See Everglades Experiment
Station Report.

SOURCES OF NITROGEN AND RATES OF APPLICATION OF
NITROGEN AS TOP-DRESSING FOR OATS
State Project No. 97 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp and
J. D. Warner, Leaders

Work on this project was hampered by a fall drought interfer-
ing with the normal fall planting date, delaying planting until late
in January. The spring growing season was very dry, with rather
frequent and heavy dew. Such a season resulted in poor growth
of oats, severe rust infection and low efficiency of fertilizers.
The following rather interesting results were noted following
the dry fall, the late winter planting and the dry spring weather
with accompanying high rust infection: All varieties of oats
and rye had rust; however, the early maturing variety of rye,
Florida Black, and the early maturing oats, Burt, yielded bet-
ter than Abruzzi rye and Fulghum oats which usually have
been the high yielders when planted in October or November.
There was also some indication that thin planting of oats might
better withstand rust and yield better than two bushels per acre
planting on thin land under drought conditions.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The dry weather during the growing season prevented all
sources of nitrogen and rates of nitrogen applications from acting
favorably on growth and yield.
Sources of nitrogen and rates of nitrogen tests were conducted
also in Leon and Washington counties. Very poor yields were
secured due to the extremely dry fall that delayed planting until
December and to excessive damage by orange leaf rust the follow-
ing spring. The tests emphasize the necessity of rust resistant
varieties adapted to the soils and climate of Florida.

GROWTH BEHAVIOR OF PASTURE GRASSES
Hatch Project No. 100 W. A. Leukel, Leader
Root growth studies of pasture grasses previously reported are
being continued. A more vigorous root growth was again pro-
duced by plants during the more mature growth stages. Plants
grown to maturity and not cut showed a greater decrease in root
weight during the winter months. Plants cut frequently retained
a more constant root weight from fall to spring, but some decrease
in weight was evident.
A large glass-sided soil container 30x11/x5 feet was constructed
for root growth observations. To obtain material for study on
such root growth developments, another container 70x11/2x8 feet
was constructed. These containers were divided into sections
filled with soil and pasture plants planted uniformly in each sec-
tion. Soil temperatures taken. from the upper and lower soil
areas of these containers showed little variations from tempera-
tures taken at similar depths under field conditions. As develop-
ments in root growth are observed in the glass-sided container,
samples are taken from the larger container and prepared for
study. Observations and studies made on top and root growth
of the plants thus far show interesting developments.
After transplanting, the plants in the glass-sided container
showed root growth to a depth of five feet in five weeks. Plants
taken from the larger container in early spring showed a root
growth depth of eight feet. Roots from plants cut frequently
appeared to be more fibrous and less woody in appearance. After
winter dormancy, .the old roots of the previous season produced
a new fibrous growth at their lower extremities. New stolon
growth appeared from the old stolons, which when favorable soil
moisture conditions prevailed, produced new roots at their nodes






Annual Report, 1932


below and leaf growth above. Organic foods for the maintenance
of these new stolons during early growth apparently was derived
from the stored foods in the old stolons. When the root growth
of these new stolons appeared ample to furnish mineral nutrients
for vegetative growth and the stored organic foods of the old
plant became exhausted, the old stolon and its root system de-
teriorated.
The above growth behavior of stoloniferous pasture plants is
being further substantiated by macrochemical and microchemical
analyses. Histological studies of the different plant parts are
being made.

IMPROVEMENT OF CORN THROUGH SELECTION AND BREEDING
Purnell Project No. 105 F. H. Hull, Leader
Selection Within Self-fertilized Lines and Their Recombination:
-This work is being continued largely with lines from the vari-
eties that have been superior in yield tests. The 1931 crop was
seriously damaged by drought but enough seed was produced to
continue most of the lines. The 1932 breeding plot contains dupli-
cate plantings of seven lines of self-fertilized five generations, 69
selfed four generations, and 342 lines selfed three generations.
Approximately 300 of the best appearing of these lines were
crossed with Whatley Prolific. The hybrids will be planted next
season as a preliminary test of the behavior of these lines in
hybrid combination. There are also 625 lines in the 1932 breeding
plot that have been selfed one or two generations. All of the
better self-fertilized lines were again artificially self-pollinated.
The value of self-fertilized lines cannot be determined until they
are tested in hybrid combinations. The appearance of the lines at
the present stage of inbreeding, however, is quite satisfactory
with respect to general vigor and resistance to pests or unfavor-
able growing conditions.
Breeding by the Ear-Row Method:-The combination from the
Tisdale and Wilson ear-row tests are included in the yield tests
of 1931 and 1932. Yields in the 1931 test were very low but
these ear-row selections made some gain over the parent varieties.
Yield records and notes on various desirable characteristics were
completed in 1931 with 187 selections of Whatley Prolific in ear-
row tests at Quincy, Belle Glade and Gainesville. Twenty-five
of the best of these selections at the three locations were planted






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


back in 1932 for recombination. The recombinations will be in-
cluded in yield tests in 1933. Selection for long, tight husks and
more flinty grain is being emphasized in this project to produce
a more weevil resistant strain of Whatley Prolific which has been
the highest yielding variety on mineral soils in the state. Since
Whatley Prolific does not seem to be well adapted to muck soils,
this project will very probably be abandoned at the Belle Glade
Station.
Sweet Corn Breeding:-A system of back-crossing is being used
to build sweet strains of the more popular white dent varieties
that are shipped as green corn. Another cross of the hybrid
stock with the type variety was successfully made in each
case. Records of the production of roasting ears and the amount
of worm damage were taken on the more popular green corn
varieties of dent corn and on five of the best sweet corn varieties.

EFFECT OF TIME OF PLANTING CORN.ON FORAGE AND GRAIN
YIELD
State Project No. 106 W. E. Stokes and J. P. Camp, Leaders

The past four years' work on this project indicates that Febru-
ary and March plantings of Florida Flint and Early Yellow Dent
corn on Norfolk sandy soil in the Gainesville area will give much
better results than later planting, as is clearly indicated by
Table VII.

TABLE VII.-AVERAGE YIELD OF CORN IN DATE OF PLANTING TEST FOR THE
YEARS 1927 TO 1930, INCLUSIVE.*

Month planted and bushels yield
per acre.
I Feb. | Mar. April I May | June
Variety of Corn:
Early Yellow Dent .............. 5.95 6.56 2.61 1.08 0.10
Florida Flint (white) ........... 17.40 I 13.73 4.35 1.39 0.27

*Monthly plantings each year were between the 15th and 20th.

In view of the facts indicated by the above table, a larger
number ofvarieties of corn have been included in the 1931 and
1932 tests and the planting dates are as follows: first planting
February 2 and then four other plantings at 15-day intervals.






Annual Report, 1932


CROP ADAPTATION STUDIES
Hatch Project No. 107 G. E. Ritchey, Leader

INTRODUCTION GARDEN
During the year 1931-1932, 447 lots of different sorts of plants
have been growing in the introduction garden. They may be
classified as follows: pigeon peas (Cajanus indicus) 49, crotalaria
85, grasses 99, miscellaneous material 147, winter legumes 67.
The 30 sorts of pigeon pea plantings made last year were left
to study the nature of the second year's growth. At least a por-
tion of the plants of all but one planting have survived the winter.
Some promising pasture grasses are growing in the garden.
Wherever possible, these plantings have been increased to test
them out on a larger scale.
A number of sorts that have shown promise in the garden have
been planted to field plots to determine how they will react under
field conditions. One of these, the Tangier pea (Lathyrus tingi-
tanus) is showing considerable promise as a winter cover crop.

FERTILIZATION OF PASTURE GRASSES
Hatch Project No. 120 W. A. Leukel and J. P. Camp, Leaders
The higher ash and mineral content of grasses cut frequently
as previously reported was confirmed by additional analyses of
such plants. The decrease in the percentage of these compounds
in grasses as they approached the mature growth stages, even
when fertilized, was further substantiated. The above phase on
the fertilization of pasture grasses and that on the accumulation
of nitrates in grasses has been completed and is to be put in man-
uscript form for publication.

EFFECT OF POTASH ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF SPANISH
PEANUTS
State Project No. 138 W. E. Stokes, J. P. Camp, W. A. Leukel
and J. D. Warner, Leaders

The project is in cooperation with the N. V. Potash Export My.
of Amsterdam, Holland, Dr. J. N. Harper, American Director.
The crop of 1931 wound up the field work on this experiment
which by agreement was to be conducted for three years. Thirty-
five fertilizer formulas with phosphoric acid constant at 10 per-
cent and varying in percentage of potassium (K20) from 0 to 16






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


and percentage of nitrogen from 3 to 6 have been tested with
Spanish peanuts on Norfolk sandy soil. Briefly stated 3-10-2 and
3-10-4 (N-P-K) fertilizers at the rate of 400 to 600 pounds per acre
have given greatest increases in yield but the increase in yield
has hardly been sufficient to pay for the fertilizer. Some labora-
tory work in connection with this project has been done and will be
reported in detail when the results on all phases of the project
have been tabulated, checked and prepared for publication.

DATE OF SEEDING AND PHOSPHATE REQUIREMENTS OF WINTER
LEGUMES AND THEIR EFFECT UPON SUBSEQUENT CROPS
State Project No. 153 J. D. Warner, Leader
During the past season records were obtained on 13 widely
separated experiments which were divided into 410 plots covering
33 acres. The extremely dry fall of 1931 delayed all plantings
until the 10th to 20th of December, which is considered an ex-
tremely late date for seeding. Despite this fact, however, in most
cases the legumes made very satisfactory growth by April 15,
when they were turned under preparatory to planting corn. In
contrast to previous years, the vetches made better growth than
Austrian peas. Insects, particularly aphids, and diseases were
much more severe on Austrian peas than on Monantha vetch or
hairy vetch. An unusually mild winter apparently provided no
check on the activities of the various insects or diseases.
As in previous seasons, Austrian peas, Monantha vetch and
hairy vetch showed marked response to applications of super-
phosphate. Three hundred pounds per acre of superphosphate
produced practically as much increase in growth as did 600 pounds
per acre, and apparently represents the maximum that can be
economically used on most soils of the state for winter cover
crop production.
The increase in the yield of corn due to the turning under of
the three legumes being studied ranked from 5.2 bushels per acre
to 22.4 bushels per acre-an average increase of 10.5 bushels
ner acre. This amounted to slightly more than a 50% increase
the first year. Residual effects have been noted the second and
third years: however, no results are available to show the increase
after the first year.
The marked response of winter legume cover crops to applica-
tions of superDhosphate which carries not only phosphorus but
calcium and sulfur in appreciable quantities suggests the theory






Annual Report, 1932


that these crops may derive some benefit from the impurities
carried in superphosphate. This phase of the problem is being
investigated under controlled conditions in pot cultures at the
Main Station at Gainesville.

LYSIMETER STUDIES ON PASTURE GRASSES
Hatch Project No. 158 W. A. Leukel, Leader
Grasses grown in lysimeters as formerly reported showed a
downward trend in percentage of nitrogen, phosphorous and
potash in the following order: cut frequently, less frequently, cut
in seed stage, and not cut.
The quantity of nitrates in the leachings collected from these
lysimeters was in the reverse order. This phase of the work is
being conducted in cooperation with the Chemistry Department.
This work will be completed at the end of this season and the
findings prepared for publication.

RATIO OF ORGANIC TO INORGANIC NITROGEN IN MIXED
FERTILIZER FOR COTTON
State Project No. 159 J. D. Warner, Leader
The results of an experiment in Gadsden County and one in Wal-
ton County failed to show any definite trend in yield resulting
from the various ratios of organic to inorganic nitrogen in the fer-
tilizer. The data secured during the past two years is not suffi-
cient to establish a rating of these two forms of nitrogen. Work
on this project is being continued at the Main Station at Gaines-
ville and at the North Florida Experiment Station at Quincy.

CORN FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS
State Project No. 163 J. D. Warner, Leader
During the season 1930-1931, results were secured on 14 experi-
ments located on representative soil types in Central and North-
west Florida. At present, eight additional experiments are in
progress. There are 20 to 22 treatments in each experiment and
each treatment is repeated three to four times on 1/20-acre plots.
The results show a wide range of response in yield to the various
fertilizer treatments. Apparently the response depends largely
upon soil type and moisture conditions. On a flat phase Norfolk
sandy loam soil in Central Florida, nitrogen alone has stimulated
yield to a marked degree. The same treatment on a Tifton sandy






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


loam soil in Northwest Florida produced but slight increase in
yield. In this instance, however, nitrogen proved very effective
in promoting growth and yield when used in connection with
phosphate and potash. The results of certain other experiments
show but little or no increase in yield due to fertilizer in any form
or combination.
On many fields throughout Central Florida corn plants, while
very young, develop a yellow chlorotic condition, which results in
stunted growth, a dying away of the tissue on the margin of the
leaves and the death of many plants. This is thought to be a
nutritional problem and is being studied on the Experiment Sta-
tion farm at Gainesville. The effect of a number of amendments
on growth and yield is being recorded. There are some indica-
tions that applications of manganese sulphate may aid materially
in overcoming the chlorotic condition of the plants; however, it
seems doubtful whether the use of this material can be relied
upon entirely to produce normal plants. The trouble is overcome
completely when stable manure is used.

SOURCES OF NITROGEN FOR SIDE-DRESSING CORN
Three experiments conducted in cooperation with farmers in
Leon, Gadsden and Washington counties were completed in 1931.
Five sources of nitrogen were compared in each experiment. None
of the carriers of nitrogen showed any marked superiority in
efficiency as indicated by the yield of corn. It is possible, however,
that the extremely dry season masked any differences that might
have occurred under more favorable moisture conditions. Addi-
tional experiments are in progress in Gadsden and Washington
counties.

A STUDY OF CROTALARIA AS A FORAGE CROP
State Project No. 174 G. E. Ritchey, Leader
This project is in cooperation with the Animal Husbandry
Department.
About 15 acres were sown to the different species of crotalaria
to be used in the crotalaria forage tests. One acre was planted
to nine different species and pastured with cattle. The cattle
grazed several different species. This test is being continued
in 1932.
About three tons of hay was cured from six species of crota-
laria. The species cured were C. grantiana, C..incana, C. inter-






Annual Report, 1932


media, C. lanceolata, C. spectabilis and C. striata. The hay pro-
duced was turned over to the Department of Animal Husbandry
for palatability trials. A report of the feeding tests may be
found in the Animal Husbandry report.
The highest acre yields of hay were produced by the Crotalaria
spectabilis. There was considerable difference in the readiness
with which the different species were dried with the artificial
drier.
Chemical analysis shows the hay from the various crotalaria
species to be higher in protein than alfalfa hay.

MUTATIONS INDUCED BY HEATING SEED CORN
State Project No. 176 F. H. Hull, Leader
The work in this project has been continued to study the pos-
sible inheritance of heat-induced mutations. Seventeen of the
93 striped corn plants reported last year from heated seeds pro-
duced ears by self-pollination. Later generations from these
plants are being grown to observe the occurrence of chlorophyll
deficiencies or other abnormalities which may be due to the severe
heating of the parent seed.
No heritable abnormalities induced by heating would be ex-
pected to show in the first generation after treatment and none
appeared. The second generation will be grown to the seedling
stage in greenhouse flats in the autumn of 1932 to observe the
occurrence of abnormal or mutant types.
CROTALARIA AS A FORAGE CROP FOR RABBITS
State Project No. 177 G. E. Ritchey, Leader
This project is being conducted in cooperation with the Depart-
ment of Home Economics.
Rabbits were fed small bundles of green material of following
species of crotalaria: C. usaramoensis, maxillaris, spectabilis,
striata, grantiana, intermedia, lanceolata, anagyroides, and in-
cana. Daily records were made of the quantities of each species
eaten.
The rabbits showed preference for Crotalaria incana, C. anagy-
roides and C. intermedia in the early part of the season but ate
C. spectabilis later in the season.
Hay of C. usaramoensis, maxillaris, spectabilis, striata, gran-
tiana, intermedia, lanceolata and incana was fed to the rabbits in
separate compartments so that they could select those they pre-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ferred. There seemed to be considerable difference in the palat-
ability of the different species; the choices made being about the
same as those made by the cattle.
Gains of young rabbits which were fed crotalaria hay were
about the same as those fed alfalfa hay.
This project is being continued in 1932.

PASTURE INVESTIGATIONS ON THE PEAT AND MUCK SOILS OF
THE EVERGLADES
State Project No. 195 A. Daane and R. W. Kidder, Leaders
This is a cooperative project between Agronomy and Animal
Husbandry. Some preliminary work was started on this project
prior to June 1, 1932, when the project was formally drawn up
and approved. The object of this project is to study pasture
plants, their adaptability, palatability, carrying capacity, forage
value and their competitive tendencies in pure and mixed covers
under open pasture conditions as well as pasture fertilization
and management, including the effect of varying water tables on
pasture establishment, maintenance and value.
Many pasture plants, including grasses and legumes, are now
under observation. Many fertilizer treatments using carpet
grass and dallis grass in pure stands have been gotten under
way. Five one-acre pastures of the following grasses have been
established: Carpet, dallis, centipede, carpet-dallis and centipede-
dallis. A dallis grass pasture established in January, 1929, has
been in continuous use with good results since its establishment.
Para grass and Bermuda grass (the St. Lucie strain) have been
established with ease by vegetative planting and these pastures
have thus far stood up well under grazing and given good results.
The general layout of a water table experimental area provides
for pasture plantings within the area.
An additional area is now available for enlarging on the vari-
ous phases of pasture experimental work as soon as funds are
available to adequately care for some of the problems that will
arise in the course of such enlargement.






Annual Report, 1932


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

PARALYSIS OF DOMESTIC FOWL
State Project No. 119 E. F. Thomas, Leader
During the past year questionnaires have been collected from
12 farms in different sections of the state on which paralysis was
present. Post-mortem examinations were made on paralyzed
birds from each farm and laboratory studies were made. Noth-
ing definite has been determined and these studies are to be
continued.
Studies made to determine the length of life of the coccidia
oocysts in Florida soil under natural conditions have been con-
tinued and are to be repeated in different seasons of the year
before arriving at any definite conclusions. The data from ex-
periments to date show that during the winter months oocysts
on the top surface were dead at the end of 125 days after being
placed in the soil. Oocysts six inches below the surface were
still alive at the end of the 125 days. The length of life of the
oocysts six inches below the surface was not determined in this
test, due to insufficient material.
Oocysts placed in the soil during the summer and fall months
(May through November) were found to be dead at the end of
74 days on the top surface and 184 days six inches below the
surface. The weather was very dry during most of the summer
and fall of this year. Life of the oocysts in all cases was deter-
mined by feeding susceptible birds.

THE COST OF WINTERING STEERS PREPARATORY TO SUMMER
FATTENING ON PASTURE
State Project No. 122 A. L. Shealy, Leader
Twenty (20) steers were put on test December 30, 1931, and
fed for 62 days. The steers received peanut hay alone while on
the test, and were fed all the hay they would clean up twice daily.
They were weighed each week during the feeding period. The
following data show the results of the test:
Number of steers on test............................ 20
Amount of hay eaten per day per steer.................. 14.9 pounds
Cost of peanut hay ................................... $12.00 per ton
Cost of hay per steer per day.......................... 0.0924
Initial weight of entire lot of 20 steers.................. 10,435 pounds
Weight at close of test ............................... 11,045 pounds
Gain during feeding period............................ 610 pounds
Average gain per steer for entire feeding period......... 30.5 pounds






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


DEFICIENCIES IN FEEDS USED IN CATTLE RATIONS
Purnell Project No. 133 R. B. Becker, Leader
As a result of the first three years' investigation, the condition
known locally as "salt sick" was corrected in over 300 head of
affected cattle, as well as in swine, by use of an iron-copper-salt
supplement made up of 100 lbs. of common salt, 25 lbs. red oxide
of iron, and one pound of pulverized copper sulfate. On certain
soil areas where lime and phosphorus also were known to be
deficient, the cattle were given, in addition, finely ground feeding
bonemeal. A popular bulletin was published during the year,
making early results available for immediate use.
In connection with the cooperative feeding work, a series of
wiregrass samples were collected during the spring and summer.
Analyses of these are being tabulated to show effects of soil and
stage of growth upon mineral and organic constituents. A more
extensive series of soil and native forage samples were secured
from typically affected and protective range areas, from which
to correlate by chemical analysis, the soils and forages with the
condition of the cattle. Dr. 0. C. Bryan is cooperating in the soil
studies, and Erdman West in identification of the native forage
crops. Further studies are being made with regard to repro-
duction in cattle.
A total of 32 calves have been used to date in controlled feeding
trials, comparing various forms of iron and copper as supple-
ments to experimental rations known to produce the condition.
Upon final disposition after the condition has been developed,
developed and cured, or prevented, samples of selected organs and
tissues from these calves are taken for chemical analysis and his-
tological examination. Dr. C. F. Ahmann is continuing the histo-
logical phase and is preparing a permanent photographic record
of typical findings.

SOYBEAN SILAGE FOR DAIRY COWS
Hatch Project No. 135 R. B. Becker, Leader
Biloxi soybeans were drilled in rows at the rate of 54.3 pounds
per acre on April 6, 1931. These yielded 4.57 tons of green soy-
beans per acre when ensiled 149 days after planting. Further
observations were made on silo capacity and upon changes in the
soybeans during the ensiling process, as outlined in the 1939
annual report.






Annual Report, 1932


Ten cows were used in the third feeding trial, comparing soy-
bean silage with No. 1 federal graded alfalfa hay. Computation
of results of the three feeding trials completed, showed that 2.93
pounds of soybean silage were equivalent to one pound of alfalfa
hay (about equal pound for pound on the dry basis). During the
spring and summer of 1931, the local rainfall was sub-normal,
decreasing the mineral content of the pastures as well as of the
experimental feeds. Consequently, the cows consumed more
mineral matter than in two previous feeding trials, this amount-
ing to 3.73 pounds of common salt and 1.89 pounds of feeding
bonemeal per cow per month. Additional data will be obtained
as to a larger replacement of roughage with soybean silage, and
as to silo capacity. A publication is in preparation embodying
the results of the three years' investigation of soybeans as silage.

COMPARISONS OF VARIOUS GRAZING CROPS WITH DRY-LOT
FEEDING FOR PORK PRODUCTION
Hatch Project No. 136 A. L. Shealy, Leader

Five fields of two acre areas each were planted to the following
crops to be used in finishing hogs for markets: (I) Spanish pea-
nuts and corn; (II) Spanish peanuts alone; (III) corn alone;
(IV) chufas; (V) Spanish peanuts and sweet potatoes. The crops
in Lots I, II, III and V were ready for grazing August 19, while
grazing on Lot IV was deferred until September 9. On August
19, 40 shotes were divided into five lots of eight each and desig-
nated as Lots I, II, III, V, and VI. The shotes were grazed as
follows: Lot I, Spanish peanuts and corn; Lot II, Spanish peanuts
alone; Lot III, corn alone; Lot V, Spanish peanuts and sweet
potatoes; Lot VI, fed a fattening ration consisting of corn, 10
parts and fish meal, 1 part; this ration being fed in a dry lot.
The shotes used on the experiment averaged 151 pounds each and
were of uniform size and breeding.
On September 9, 24 shotes were divided into two lots, one of 16
and one of eight shotes. The 16 shotes designated as Lot IV
were grazed on a two-acre area of chufas. The eight shotes desig-
nated as Lot VII were fed a fattening ration of corn, 10 parts
and fish meal, 1 part; the feed being fed in a dry lot.
Data secured from chufas last year led to the supplementing
of all lots except Lot II, Spanish peanuts alone, with fish meal
ad libitum.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The gains made by the shotes on the various lots during this
grazing season rank as follows: 1st, chufas; 2nd, Spanish peanuts
and sweet potatoes; 3rd, Spanish peanuts and corn; 4th, corn
alone; 5th, Spanish peanuts alone.
The pigs were slaughtered at the Swift and Company packing
plant at Moultrie, Georgia, at the conclusion of the test. Records
were secured of the market grades, dressing percentage, and
parasitic infestations.
THE VALUE OF GRAZING FOR FATTENING CATTLE IN BEEF
PRODUCTION
Hatch Project No. 137 A. L. Shealy, Leader
During the grazing season of 1931 10 grade Aberdeen Angus
and 10 native steers were divided into five lots of four steers each
and grazed on five 3.5-acre pastures as follows: Lot I, mixture
of carpet, Bermuda, Bahia, and dallis grasses; Lot II, Bahia grass;
Lot III, centipede grass; Lot IV, Bermuda grass; Lot V, carpet
grass. Two grade Aberdeen Angus and two native steers were
placed in each pasture.
For this particular grazing season the gains made by the steers
on the different lots were as follows: 1st, centipede; 2nd, mix-
ture; 3rd, Bermuda; 4th, Bahia; 5th, carpet. The grazing season
began March 28, and ended November 12, 1931. The 1932 graz-
ing season began March 10. Ten grade Herefords and 10 native
steers are being used for this year's studies. The work on this
project is being conducted in cooperation with the Agronomy
Department.
RELATION OF CONFORMATION AND ANATOMY OF THE DAIRY
COW TO HER MILK AND BUTTERFAT PRODUCTION
State Project No. 140 R. B. Becker, Leader
Measurements and records were obtained during the year of
three mature Jersey cows, No. 195, No. 258 and No. 318, past
usefulness in the Station dairy herd. To date, this Station has
contributed a total of 14 such records to W. W. Swett, leader of
the cooperative project, Bureau of Dairy Industry, Washington,
D. C. Others will be added during the coming year.
ANAPLASMOSIS IN CATTLE
Purnell Project No. 149 D. A. Sanders, Leader
During the past year opportunity was afforded to study several
additional outbreaks of anaplasmosis as it occurred under natural






Annual Report, 1932


conditions in cattle which had been shipped to the locality and
introduced into infected herds. Additional work in connection
with studying the natural means of transmission of anaplasmosis
from affected to healthy cattle has followed mostly the lines of
collecting and rearing certain species of external blood sucking
parasites that frequently have been observed to feed on infected
cattle. It has been determined by field observations and experi-
mental rearing that the suspected vectors have a seasonal occur-
rence, completing only one generation per year. This factor
necessitates that these parasites be collected at the time of the
year when they are prevalent. Large numbers for experimental
purposes have been reared in the laboratory by keeping those
collected under favorable conditions for further development, and
tests are now under way to determine their possible relationship
and importance in the transmission of the disease.

A STUDY OF THE FEEDING VALUE OF CROTALARIA
Hatch Project No. 175 R. B. Becker, Leader
In cooperation with the Agronomy Department and the Office
of Forage Crops and Diseases, U. S. D. A., a study is being made of
several species of crotalaria in efforts to find a desirable legume
for use in feeding livestock under Florida conditions. During the
first year, nine species of crotalaria were compared under field
conditions as to palatability to cattle both as pasture and as
artificially dried hay. Additional varieties are under observation
during the present summer. From the first year's results, the
species most popular as green manure crops showed little promise
either as pasture or as artificially dried hays. Other species are
being continued in these studies, which will include their digesti-
bility and comparative feeding trials according to standard
methods.

FATTENING FALL PIGS FOR SPRING MARKET
State Project No. 160 A. L. Shealy, Leader
Two fields of two acres each were planted to the following
crops: (1) runner peanuts; (2) runner peanuts and oats. On
December 16, 24 pigs were divided into three lots of eight each,
and fed as follows: Lot I, runner peanuts; Lot II, runner peanuts
and oats; Lot III, was fed corn, 10 parts, fish meal, 1 part; the
feed being fed in a dry lot. The pigs fattened on peanuts alone






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


made the greatest gains during this particular grazing period.
This project calls for the utilization of a two-acre area of chufas,
but the yield was so low that it was decided to eliminate the area
from the test for this grazing season. The experiment will ex-
tend over a period of five years.

COMPARISON OF VARIOUS POULTRY VERMIFUGES FOR THEIR
EFFICACY AND EFFECT ON EGG PRODUCTION
State Project No. 178 E. F. Thomas, Leader
The efficacy and effect on egg production of various poultry
vermifuges has been studied on pullets and hens in small experi-
mental pens with trap-nest records, and under poultry farm con-
ditions (a total of 1,629 hens). The results have been virtually
the same under both conditions and with different age birds. The
birds which did not receive any treatment showed the greatest
egg production, which indicated that treating for worms as prac-
ticed by poultrymen is not only worthless but also causes a loss
in egg production.
The data from these studies have been compiled and will be
presented as a preliminary report on August 25, 1932, at the
American Veterinary Medical Association meeting in Atlanta,
Georgia. The paper will appear later in the Journal of the Amer-
ican Veterinary Medical Association.
These studies will be continued with different methods of man-
agement before and after treatment being used.

SWINE FIELD EXPERIMENT
State Project No. 179 W. W. Henley, Leader
The swine herd at the Experiment Station is located on one soil
type. To obtain comparable information on swine production
more nearly representative of the entire state, a study was begun
to obtain information concerning the yield of pork per acre of
different field crops; and on important phases of swine manage-
ment on different soil types.
To date eight bred gilts have been placed with selected coop-
erators.
Records are being obtained of the amounts of supplementary
feeds used, as well as of the production of grazing and fattening
crops. Birth weights and growth rates of pigs are being re-
corded. The first litters are now ready to be placed on fattening
crops. The sows have been bred for the fall litter of pigs.






Annual Report, 1932


THE EFFECT OF FEEDING CROTALARIA SEED TO CHICKENS
AND OTHER BIRDS
State Project No. 192 E. F. Thomas, Leader
Studies were started to determine if crotalaria seed were toxic
and if palatable for chickens and quail. Crotalaria spectabilis,
striata, incana and grantiana are being tested.
The data collected to date show Crotalaria spectabilis to be
toxic to chickens and quail when 80 seed or more were force fed
at one feeding.
Indications are that none of the crotalaria seed are relished by
chickens or quail, except under unnatural conditions such as
close confinement with constant access to the seed.

IMPROVING THE SIZE AND QUALITY OF NATIVE CATTLE BY USE
OF PUREBRED BULLS OF VARIOUS BREEDS
State Project No. 194 A. L. Shealy, Leader
Work was begun this year to measure the influence of pure-
bred bulls and native cows upon grade offspring as to size and
growth rate of calves, and quality of beef.
This work is being conducted in cooperation with the J. C.
Penney-Gwinn Corporation and the Animal Husbandry Division,
Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agri-
culture.
Three lots of 40 cows each are being bred to Devon, Hereford
and Brahman bulls respectively. The first crop of calves is ex-
pected in 1933.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


CHEMISTRY
DIEBACK OF CITRUS
State Project No. 21 B. R. Fudge, Leader
During the past year the spring and summer flushes of growth
on about 40 dieback and 40 normal trees in Snell's Valencia grove
have been analyzed for simple nitrogen fractions. About 8,000
twigs were tagged while quite young and the leaves and respec-
tive stems were subsequently harvested and analyzed for various
nitrogen fractions. Ten different harvests were made upon the
spring and summer growth flushes-seven on the spring growth
and three on the summer growth. The harvests were made at
14 to 21 day intervals. The entire data of the 10 harvests show
that the total nitrogen content when expressed on either dry
weight or green weight basis is much higher in the abnormal
leaf and stem tissue than in the respective normal leaf and stem
tissue. This is also true when considering the individual nitrogen
fractions. The abnormal tissue contains a greater total concentra-
tion of nitrogen than respective normal tissue of the same age.
The water soluble or non-protein nitrogen content is greater
in the dieback-affected tissue. The concentration of water
soluble nitrogen in the leaves is higher than in the respective
stems from which the leaves were removed. (The graphs for
soluble nitrogen in the leaves and respective stems bear a distinct
relationship to each other).
The protein nitrogen which was calculated as the sum of the
non-extractable nitrogen plus the coagulable or soluble nitrogen,
of the abnormal tissue is higher than that of the normal tissue
of the same age.
There was practically no difference in the water content of
respective tissues at any of the 10 harvests. The concentration
of water decreased rapidly until maturity was reached, after
which it remained more or less constant. Leaves possessed from
5 to 10 percent more water than did the stems from which they
were removed.
Ratios of leaf to respective stem green weights show that there
is a proportionately greater growth of stem tissue on dieback-
affected than on analogous normal tissue of the same age.
Hydrogen-ion determinations on the expressed sap of frozen
tissue do not show any significant difference between respective
tissues of normal and dieback-affected growth. However, the






Annual Report, 1932


reaction of the leaf sap is slightly less acid than the respective
stem sap.
The nitrogen dissection studies on the non-protein nitrogen
are not completed at this time.
The studies on the simple carbohydrates are being completed
now. However, the starch determinations are yet to be made.
Thus these studies are not being submitted in this report.
DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF VARYING AMOUNTS OF
POTASH ON THE COMPOSITION AND YIELD AND THE
QUALITY OF THE CROP
Hatch Project No. 22 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The experiments with citrus at the Citrus Experiment Station
were continued as outlined in previous annual reports. All of
the trees suffered severely from the prolonged drought but the
trees in the plots receiving 10% potash three times a year suf-
fered most. In many instances the trees in these plots were prac-
tically entirely defoliated while the 3% plots showed much
smaller amounts of defoliation.
The yield records for the grapefruit showed an average yield
of 5.8 boxes per tree on the plots receiving 3% of potash three
times a year, an average of 5.7 boxes per tree on the plot receiv-
ing 5% potash three times a year, 5.6 boxes per tree on the plot
receiving 3% potash in the spring, 5% in summer and 10% in
the fall, and 4.9 boxes per tree for the plots receiving 10% potash
three times a year.
For the first time since the experiment began it was possible
to get some idea as to the size and quality of the fruit from the
different plots through the use of a hand sizer. However, the
sizer was not completed in time to size the grapefruit, only the
oranges being sized. Approximately 500 fruit from each plot
were sized. No outstanding differences in size of fruits or grade
due to the amount of potash were found.
In the Irish potato experiment, increasing the amount of potash
to double the normal had no effect on the yield nor on the size of
the potatoes.
DETERMINATION OF THE FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS OF
SATSUMA ORANGES
Hatch Project No. 36 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The experiment at Marianna was continued as outlined in the
1929 Annual Report. The trees made a normal growth and pro-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


duced a fair crop of fruit. To date no outstanding differences in
the growth or yield have been found. As is to be expected, there
appears to be a correlation between the growth and yield, as the
plots showing the smallest increase in growth also had the
smallest yield.
The experiment at Penney Farms also was continued. As yet
no fruit has been harvested from these trees.

DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS POTASH CARRIERS
ON GROWTH, YIELD, AND COMPOSITION OF CROP
Hatch Project No. 37 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The experiment with citrus at the Citrus Experiment Station
was continued. The grove produced a good crop of fruit. The
plot receiving sulfate of potash and magnesia as the only source
of potash had the heaviest yield of tangerines, oranges and grape-
fruit. No difference in quality as determined by chemical analysis
could be detected. One thousand tangerines and 500 grapefruit
from each plot were sized and graded. No outstanding differences
were found either in the sizes or grades attributable to the source
of potash. Based on increase in circumference of the trunk, the
trees receiving the sulfate of potash-magnesia have made the
largest growth since they were planted.
In the Irish potato experiment the muriate of potash gave just
as high a yield as the sulfate.

STUDY OF FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS OF CITRUS TREES WHEN
GROWN ON MUCK SOIL
State Project No. 66 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The experiment.west of Davie was continued, though several
changes were made in the fertilizer treatments. It was quite
evident that citrus trees growing on muck which is rich in nitro-
gen still require nitrogenous fertilizers to make satisfactory
growth. The trees on the plots receiving only phosphoric acid
and potash were much smaller, though in an apparently healthy
condition, than those receiving a complete fertilizer. Those trees
receiving only potash had made a slightly larger growth than
those receiving only phosphoric acid. Bluestone applied at regu-
lar intervals apparently is necessary for the successful growth of
citrus on this type of soil. No data are as yet available as to
how much or how often bluestone should be applied, but appar-
ently once a year is sufficient.






Annual Report, 1982


As it was evident that nitrogen fertilizers were essential, the
changes made in the fertilizer treatments involve different
amounts of nitrogen and different amounts of phosphoric acid,
Peruvian guano and tankage as sources of nitrogen are also being
compared with the inorganic carriers of nitrogen.

COMPOSITION OF CROPS AS INFLUENCED BY FERTILIZATION
AND SOIL TYPES-PECANS
State Project No. 67 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The work on this project was somewhat curtailed due to lack
of funds. Three experiments were discontinued. A report on
the progress of these experiments to date was made before the
Georgia-Florida Pecan Growers Association at their meeting in
May, 1932, in a paper by G. H. Blackmon and the writer. The
data presented in the above paper may be briefly summarized as
follows:
1. All complete fertilizers increased tree growth and except
in two cases increased the yield over unfertilized trees.
2. The source of nitrogen in the fertilizer did not influence
either growth or yield.
3. Fertilizer does not influence the size of the pecan nut or
the percentage of kernel in the nut.
Samples of nuts from most of the experiments were analyzed
but no outstanding differences were found.

EFFECT OF VARIOUS FERTILIZER FORMULAS
State Project No. 94 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The citrus experiment at Lake Harris studying the amounts
and time of application of phosphoric acid was continued. To
date no differences are apparent, regardless of whether all of the
phosphoric acid is applied in one application or two or three appli-
cations, nor is there any evidence of insufficient phosphoric acid
in the plots which receive only 2% phosphoric acid three times a
year. Yield records for the oranges were obtained for the first
time. The yield, except in three cases, was rather uniform. As
we have only one year's figures, no conclusions can be drawn.
Due to the prolonged and extreme drought, several grapefruit
trees were killed or severely injured. As other grapefruit trees
in immediately adjacent areas not in the experiment suffered
similarly, the loss cannot be attributed to the fertilizer used.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


At the Citrus Experiment Station the source-of-nitrogen tests
were continued. A good crop of tangerines and a fair crop of
pineapple oranges were harvested. Due to the prolonged drought,
almost half of the Marsh Seedless grapefruit crop dropped before
harvest time. All of the trees suffered severely, many losing a
large percentage of their leaves. For the first time since the
start of the experiment it was possible to get some idea of the
size and quality of the fruit from the different plots. Five hun-
dred grapefruit and 1,000 oranges picked at random from the
center row of each plot were sized and graded with a hand sizer.
As a result of this sizing and grading it was found that both
oranges and grapefruit on the sulfate of ammonia plot had a
larger proportion of small sizes than those on the nitrate of soda
plot. In the case of pineapple oranges, this proportion was not
as great as was found on plots receiving ammonia half and half
from nitrate of soda and sulfate of ammonia. In the latter case
the preponderance of small sizes is probably in a large measure
due to the large amount of fruit, as these plots had an average
of over four boxes per tree; whereas, the nitrate of soda plot only
averaged a little better than two boxes per tree and the sulfate
.of ammonia plot two and one-half boxes per tree. The quality
of the oranges, judged by external appearance, was best on the
plot receiving its nitrogen in the form of dried blood, and the
second best on plots receiving nitrogen as nitrate of soda and
sulfate of ammonia. The larger sizes on the sulfate of ammonia
and steamed bone meal plot were very coarse and thick skinned.
The fruit on the plot receiving a combination of nitrogen from
dried blood, nitrate of soda and sulfate of ammonia, was off color
and of rather coarse texture.
By far the greatest percentage of the oranges graded were as
number Is and 2s. In the case of Marsh Seedless grapefruit,
over 75 percent of the fruit from all plots except one was graded
as number Is and 2s. In the case of the exception, the largest
percentage was found in grade 3 with slightly above 50 percent
in grades 1 and 2.
The plot receiving its nitrogen one-half from nitrate of soda
and one-half from sulfate of ammonia had the highest yield of
pineapple oranges, Marsh Seedless grapefruit and Silver Cluster
grapefruit. The plot receiving nitrogen as sulfate of ammonia
had the second highest yield in, pineapple oranges followed in the
order named by the nitrate of soda plot, the combination of organic
and inorganic nitrogen sources, and the dried blood plots, the last






Annual Report, 1932


two having the same yield. Plots receiving steamed bone meal
as a source of phosphoric acid returned higher yields than those
receiving superphosphate except in the case of two plots.
Samples of soil were taken from all plots and are being analyzed
to determine if the different fertilizers used have produced any
change of the pH of the soil or the replaceable bases.
As stated in last year's report, five new experiments comparing
organic and inorganic nitrogen sources were started. Of these,
the one at Ft. Pierce was discontinued due to the lack of interest
on the part of the cooperator. Due to the financial situation all
but one of the firms supplying the nitrogen had to discontinue
their gifts. As the Experiment Station had insufficient funds
with which to purchase these materials the cooperators were
requested to contribute a small -sum to cover this cost. All the
cooperators responded and we were able to continue the experi-
ments. Excellent yield records were obtained through the co-
operation of the county agents on two of the experiments, while
no record was obtained in one case, and in the fourth the crop
harvest has not yet been completed.
The Irish potato experiment at Hastings was continued. In
spite of a very dry spring and a late cold snap a good yield was
obtained. Urea, which has been giving the highest yields in the
past, did not do as well this year. The highest yield was obtained
on the plots receiving nitrogen one-half from fish scrap and one-
half from leunasalpeter, while the second highest was from the
plots receiving urea plus a top-dressing of nitrate of soda. The
plot receiving all nitrogen from urea was eighth. In general, top-
dressing with nitrate of soda has not paid for itself. Reducing
the phosphoric acid to 4% in the fertilizer did not materially
affect the yield.
Due to curtailment of funds the tomato experiments at Braden-
ton were discontinued.

CONCENTRATED FERTILIZER STUDIES
State Project No. 95 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The concentrated fertilizer experiment at Lake Alfred, con-
ducted in cooperation with the U. S. D. A., was continued. The
grove suffered severely from the drought, and also apparently
from the fertilizer. No one mixture seemed to be worse than
any other and we believe the real cause of the poor condition is
due to too much fertilizer. The application of fertilizer had been






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


greatly increased at the insistence of the cooperator. A small
crop of fruit was harvested and samples for analyses were taken
by the U. S. D. A. No report on these analyses is as yet available.
Due to lack of funds no active cooperation was taken with.the
U. S. D. A. in the truck crop experiments.
The citrus experiment at Lake Harris comparing leunasalpeter,
urea and sulfate of ammonia was continued. A fair crop of
oranges was harvested but no outstanding differences due to the
source of nitrogen used were apparent.

DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF GREEN MANURES ON THE
COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
Adams Project No. 96 R. M. Barnette, Leader
The main studies of the project include:
1. A study of the organic matter content of the soils of the
cover crop experiments of the Agronomy and Horticultural De-
partments.
2. Lysimeter experiments with crop rotations.
3. Small tank studies on the methods of handling cover crops.
4. Small concrete plot studies with crop rotations.
5. Moisture content studies with mulched and unmulched soils
(in cooperation with the Horticultural Department).
6. Rate of decomposition of green manures.

1. Soil Studies in the Cover Crop Experiments of the Agronomy
and Horticultural Departments:-Soil samples were taken from
each of the plots this spring prior to changes in the handling of
the plots. The soil samples were handled and analyzed as were
the samples taken in 1925 and 1929 from the same plots in the
same manner. Analyses included the determination of the loss
on ignition and the nitrogen content of the soil samples.
The analyses of the samples taken in 1925, 1929 and 1932 show
a distinct and progressive decrease in the organic matter and
nitrogen content of the surface soil of the clean culture plots.
The soils of the plots grown to the various cover crops show a
decrease in organic matter content from 1925 to 1929 and a bare
maintenance of the organic matter content from 1929 to 1932.
The nitrogen content of the soils of the differently cropped
plots is being maintained by cover-cropping and fertilization.
The rate at which rough or decomposing organic matter, such as






Annual Report, 1982


incorporated cover crops, disappears from the soil appears to be of
great importance.
The arbitrary method of separation of the different forms of
organic matter sievingg through a 2 mm. sieve) does not appear
adequate for determining the effect of incorporated cover crops
on the soil organic matter. Methods of studying the progressive
rotting of the cover crop in the soil will be attempted on these
cover crop plot soils another year. The results of the first seven
years of the cover crop experiments at Lake Alfred have been
compiled and will shortly be published as a Station bulletin.
Five years have elapsed since the initial sampling of the soils
of two of the pecan cover crop experiments. The areas will be
resampled this year before the growth of the summer cover crops
reaches its maximum.
2. Lysimeter Experiments:-The rotation experiments have
been continued on the soils of the large lysimeters. Crotalaria
striata was a failure during the past season due to the prolonged
drought. The smallest leaching of any year of the experiment
was obtained during the past year. The rotation experiment in
the lysimeters has been carried out for five years. Continuous
corn with a late summer cover crop in the corn followed by a
winter cover crop (either legume or non-legume) continues to
give the best growth of corn.
3. Small Soil Tank Studies:-The small tank studies described
in the last annual report (Ann. Report 1931, p. 63) have been
continued during the past year. The leachings from these tanks
have been extremely small due to the dry weather during the
year. Where organic matter in the form of Crotalaria striata
or natal grass (either incorporated with the soil or used as
mulch) has been added to the soil of the tanks without trees,
there has been a greater concentration and total amount of
potash leached than where no organic matter has been added.
Where small rough lemon trees have been growing in the soil of
the tanks, large quantities of potash set free from the organic
matter have been taken up by the trees.
Mulching as compared to incorporation with the soil has ex-
tended the period of the mineralization of the organic constitu-
ents of the cover crops as reflected in the leaching of nitrates
and potash.
This experiment will be discontinued in the fall. A thorough
check will be made on the organic matter content of the soil at
that time. This check will include not only the so-called soil






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


"humus" but also the rough or decomposing organic matter left
in the soil.
4. Small Concrete Frame Rotation Studies:-This experiment
has been continued with the same crops and fertilizer treatments.
Crotalaria spectabilis, when allowed to remain on top of the
soil from November to April, lost about 40% of its dry weight.
The winter cover crop of vetch following Crotalaria spectabilis
was a failure due to the prolonged drought during the fall months.
5. Moisture Content of Mulched and Unmulched Soils:-This
experiment was started June, 1931, in cooperation with the Hor-
ticultural Department. Two satsuma orange trees are being
used. One tree is heavily mulched with a litter composed of
grass, pine needles, etc. The other tree is left unmulched. The
Horticultural Department is keeping a record of the temperatures
of the soils at two depths under the mulched and unmulched
conditions. The moisture content of the soil samples taken
within the root zone of the two trees is determined weekly. The
results of the moisture determinations (made at 105C.) indicate
a distinctly higher average moisture content in the first depth
(0-2 inches) of the soil under the mulched tree. The soil of the
unmulched tree showed a higher moisture content after a light
rain following a long dry spell than the soil of the mulched tree.
Evidently under these conditions, the light rain was not able to
penetrate the mulch.
Pot experiments to determine the relative rate of decompo-
sition of legumes and non-legumes when used as green manures
were carried out, both under greenhouse conditions and out-doors.
As determined by evolution of carbon dioxide and formation of
nitrate nitrogen, the legume decomposed more rapidly than the
non-legume represented by natal grass.

EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS AND SOILS ON THE COMPOSITION OF
TRUCK CROPS
State Project No. 141 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
The work on this project was partially completed and the re-
sults were presented as a thesis for the Master of Science degree
by J. M. Coleman. From the analyses made to date, the amount
of fertilizer used did not materially increase the ash or mineral
content of the plants. The soil type appears to have a greater
influence on the composition of the crop than the fertilizers used.
The amount of copper and manganese in the crops could be in-
creased by the addition of salts of these elements in the fertilizers.






Annual Report, 1932


STUDY OF THE IODINE CONTENT OF FLORIDA GROWN CROPS
State Project No. 161 R. W. Ruprecht, Leader
This project was discontinued due to lack of funds.

A STUDY OF THE DECOMPOSITION OF FOREST, RANGE AND PAS-
TURE GROWTHS TO FORM SOIL ORGANIC MATTER
Adams Project No. 166 R. M. Barnette, Leader

Soil samples from additional burned and unburned areas of
"cut-over" and forest lands have been collected and analyzed for
their nitrogen, carbon, organic matter, replaceable calcium and
magnesium content and their hydrogen-ion concentration. To
date about 20 comparable areas of annually burned and unburned
"cut-over" and forest lands have been sampled intensively.
Twelve soil samples were taken from both the burned and un-
burned parts of one area. Thirty soil samples were taken from
both the burned and the unburned parts of the other three areas.
The soil samples were analyzed separately in order to determine
statistically the limits of error of the sampling and to attempt to
fix differences in the analyses of the soils from the burned and
unburned areas which are statistically significant. The analytical
work on these intensively taken samples involved some 1,500
individual determinations. The results of the analyses are being
statistically examined and will be included in a joint report of
the survey work of burned and unburned "cut-over" and forest
soils to be made in the near future by the Southern Forest Experi-
ment Station and this Station.
Soil samples at permanently marked places have been collected
from the burned and unburned, grazed and ungrazed tracts of the
Penney Farms grazing experiment. Soil samples from the sarhe
location will be taken as the experiment progresses.
Lysimeter experiments in cooperation with the Southern
Forest Experiment Station involving a study of the decompo-
sition of forest litter are under way at their experimental tract
near Lake City. These studies include not only artificially estab-
lished lysimeters but also the funnel type of lysimeters which
are placed under the natural forest soils. The experiment includes
a series where the forest litter is burned as well as the study of
the decomposition of natural forest litter without burning. The
analytical work will be carried out in this laboratory. The leach-
ings of the lysimeters, both under controlled conditions (without






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


pine trees) and under natural conditions (with pine trees) will
be analyzed for the different forms of nitrogen and for the various
mineral constituents. It is hoped by this means to determine
whether or not nitrogen is lost during the decomposition of the
forest litter under sub-tropical climatic conditions.
An agreement has been made with the Florida Forest Service
by which it is possible to cooperate in making a survey of the
soil types of the slash and long-leaf pine plantations in the State.
These plantations are for experimental and demonstrational pur-
poses. Growth rate records as well as other records are being
kept on these plantations, by the Florida Forest Service. A
survey of the soil types on which the plantations are placed will
permit a study of the possible correlation of the soil types with
the growth rate of the predominant pines in the State.
A study of the leaching of nitrogen from the large grass lysime-
ters has been continued in cooperation with the Agronomy Depart-
ment. As a rule, the leachings show that monthly applications
of nitrogen as sodium nitrate are more effectively utilized by
the more frequently cut bahia grass.






Annual Report, 1932


ENTOMOLOGY

FLORIDA FLOWER THRIPS
Adams Project No. 8 J. R. Watson, Leader
No heavy infestation of the Florida flower thrips occurred in
citrus bloom. The winter and early spring were so dry that
there was not a sufficient number of blooms to breed up a heavy
infestation of thrips; consequently, no opportunity was afforded
to study control measures on citrus.
Thrips did considerable damage to beans, particularly in the
Everglades section.
The survey of Thysanoptera of Florida was continued, embrac-
ing a study of their ecological distribution, habits, host plants,
seasonal abundance, characteristics and extent of damage to the
plants, and geographical distribution of each species. The Flor-
ida list now contains over 130 species of Thysanoptera. All
insects of this group taken by the P. Q. & C. A. of the United
States Department of Agriculture were identified in the labora-
tory.
The gladiolus thrips was found in Florida for the first time.
It was found in a half dozen properties all of which had recently
received gladiolus bulbs from the North. Many plantings were
inspected and were found to be free of this species. In one plan-
tation alone the thrips did damage to the extent of several thou-
sand dollars. It is very desirable that a thorough study be made
of this thrips under Florida conditions, as it has proven to be a
very serious pest of gladiolus. It is particularly important that
its summer hosts, if any, should be determined.

ROOT-KNOT INVESTIGATIONS
Adams Project No. 12 J. R. Watson, Leader
The study of the relation of root-knot to the crotalarias was
continued. All species of crotalaria readily obtainable (17) were
grown on heavily infested soil at the main station. No root-knot
was observed on any of these, but a considerable infestation was
found in one planting of Crotalaria striata in an orange grove. A
cooperative experiment with a cucumber grower-the growing of
Crotalaria spectabilis in rows under constant cultivation after the
crop of 1931 was harvested-apparently resulted in the complete
elimination of root-knot from the field. No root-knot was ob-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


served on the 1932 crop of cucumbers, whereas with the 1931
crop the loss had been heavy on the same ground.
No more thorough way of eradicating root-knot than the
double treatment of sodium cyanide and ammonium sulfate was
found. Considering the fertilizer value of this treatment, it is
very practical for seedbeds but too expensive for an acreage
basis, except on especially valuable lands.
Treating the soil with formalin was found to be fairly effective
and had the added advantage that it will at the same time control
diseases caused by soil fungi.
Calcium cyanamide, which was found several years ago to give
good control of nematodes but the use of which was abandoned
because of occasional injurious effects on the soil, is again being
tried. The injurious effects were due to the reversion of cyana-
mide to di-cyanamide, a tendency which it is now claimed is
largely eliminated. Cyanamide is much cheaper than the sodium
cyanide and ammonium sulfate treatment, and also adds much
fertility to the soil.
The cyanamide tests will be continued. Many of the orna-
mental plants commonly grown in Florida will be tested for sus-
ceptibility or resistance to nematodes. Search will be made for
resistant strains of all vegetable crops. Other promising soil
fumigants will be tried out. The studies of the relation of cro-
talaria to nematodes will be continued with especial emphasis
on the time necessary for control.
INTRODUCTION AND STUDY OF BENEFICIAL INSECTS
Hatch Project No. 13 J. R. Watson and
W. L. Thompson, Leaders
Some 12,000 Cryptolaemus montrousieri ladybeetles were
raised both at Lake Alfred and the main station at Gainesville
and liberated in 90 groves in 16 counties.
In groves under observation where beetles had been liberated,
a control was not obtained by the beetles, since the fungus which
attacks mealybugs made its appearance in July and killed off the
mealybugs before the beetles had time to increase sufficiently to
obtain a control. In every case, the beetles were not liberated in
the groves until the mealybugs had increased to such proportions
that a fair trial of the beetles was not possible before the fungus
had made its appearance. This past spring the beetles were
liberated in the Station grove in May, just as a few mealybugs






Annual Report, 1932


made their appearance, but the infestation to date is very light
in the grove as a whole. The mealybugs are appearing about
five weeks later than last year. April is probably the time to
liberate the beetles in the average year.
Two colonies of Cryptolaemus ladybeetle larvae were observed
in April on two small grapefruit trees in the Station grove. It
is not certain that these beetles went through the winter in the
grove, since there is a possibility that some adults escaped from
the insectary. No beetles have been observed this year in six
groves in the Lake Alfred section where beetles were liberated
last summer.
The larvae will thrive on the false Cochineal scale so common
on prickly pear cacti, but when the adults are confined on this
plant they become entangled in the cottony threads of the insect
and perish. Nothing better than potatoes was found on which
to raise mealybugs for feeding these ladybeetles. Sprouts of
coleus were tried but were not satisfactory.
With the establishment of a commercial concern to raise Cryp-
tolaemus beetles during the past year, the Experiment Station
discontinued raising them on a large scale, but enough were raised
for experimental purposes.
The Chinese ladybeetle, Leis conformis, introduced in the sea-
son of 1925-26 for the control of aphids, was found in two groves
near Orlando. In one grove they were very abundant, and it
was very evident that this grove had been less troubled with
aphids than the average citrus grove of Florida. Since ants
have been observed to combat this ladybeetle, some experiments
were started looking toward reducing the number of ants in a
block of citrus. This was done by means of poison in cups; also
by treating nests with carbon bisulphide and monochloronaptha-
lene. The poison distributed in cups seemed to be very effective
and much less laborious than attempts to treat the nests. After
reducing the ant population to a minimum, attempts will be made
to colonize both Leis and Cryptolaemus.

INSECTS OF CITRUS
State Project No. X. W. L. Thompson, Leader
Lime-sulfur as a Control for Purple Scale:-Experiments car-
ried on during the past year indicate that purple scale may be
controlled or kept in check by applications of liquid lime-sulfur
at certain times of the year. In controlling scale, the lime-sulfur






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


is also effective against rust mites, purple mites and six-spotted
mites. Citrus trees sprayed four times at intervals of four weeks
show no better results than those sprayed three times. The
sprayed plots showed from 4 to 19 percent less live scale than
the checks. A 1-40 lime-sulphur solution was used. There was
a decrease of only 3 percent of scale fungus in the sprayed plots
over the check plots. Trees sprayed with 10 pounds and 20
pounds of hydrated lime, respectively, at intervals of four weeks,
showed a very marked increase of scale.
Non-Arsenical Stomach Poisons:-The "bird" grasshopper,
Schistocerca americana, was very plentiful in citrus groves in
certain sections of the State during the late fall and early winter
of 1931. A number of tests were made to control them with
silicofluorides and sodium fluoride. A 98 percent silicofluoride,
used at the rate of 3 pounds to 50 pounds of bran, 1 gallon of
syrup and approximately 10 grapefruit, gave a 100 percent kill
in three days with caged grasshoppers and an approximate kill
of 84 percent in four days in a field test. Sodium fluoride at the
rate of 2 pounds to 50 pounds of bran, 1 gallon of syrup, and
approximately 15 grapefruit, gave a 100 percent kill in three days.
Copper carbonate gave only fair results in a bran mash, except
when used in rather large amounts. Neither bichloride of mer-
cury nor strychnine gave any control with a bran mash. A dust
containing 18 percent sodium silicofluoride gave a 100 percent
kill in six days when both the plants and grasshoppers were
dusted; but when the plants only were dusted the kill was only
55 percent in six and one-half days. It did not stick well to the
citrus leaves. A 94 percent sodium aluminum fluoride did not
give satisfactory results when applied as a spray at the rate of
4 pounds per 100 gallons of water. Copper carbonate was not
effective at the rate of 16 pounds per 200 gallons of water, 50
pounds of sugar and 10 gallons of syrup. All the above tests,
except those with the 98 percent silicofluoride, were carried on
with caged grasshoppers.
Rose Chafers:-These beetles, Macrodactylus angustatus, were
attacking the orange buds in one grove. The 18% sodium silico-
fluoride dust, when mixed with a small amount of a sulfonated
oil derivative as a spreader and dusted on the rose chafers and
blossoms, gave a 100 percent kill in two days with caged rose
chafers. The small amount of this spreader, mixed with the
18% sodium silicofluoride dust, increased the sticking qualities
of this dust and also appeared to act as a repellent. With this






Annual Report, 1932


type of poison, better results have been obtained when it comes
in contact with the beetles.
Dry Wood Termites:-On April 22 the writer was called to a
grove in Lake Alfred to inspect some trees that were being hol-
lowed out by insects. The insects were found to be termites that
were eating the live wood of the roots, trunk and limbs of the
trees. This species of termite was identified by Dr. T. E. Snyder,
of the United States Department of Agriculture, as Neotermes
castaneus, a dry wood termite. This termite is much larger than
the common termites that infest houses and eat the bark of
banked trees. The winged adults are five-eights of an inch from
the tip of the head to the tip of the wings and of a light brown
color. The workers are about seven-sixteenths of an inch long
when full grown and of a dirty white color. Up to the present
time these termites have been found working in grapefruit,
orange, lime and tangerine trees. Limbs eight feet from the
ground and roots nine feet long have been found hollowed out.
In all cases the trunks of the trees have been infested. Only
three trees have been dug up but in each case all of the main
roots were infested. At the present time, approximately 22
trees have been found infested on 12 different properties within
a radius of four miles of Lake Alfred. Various experiments are
being carried on at the present time to find a satisfactory control
for these insects.

STUDIES OF THE BEAN JASSID
Adams Project No. 28 A. N. Tissot, Leader
During the past year the investigations of the bean jassid,
Empoasca fabae (Harris), have been carried on along lines sim-
ilar to those followed during the preceding two seasons except
that a new method of checking results was devised. The fall
(1931) crop of beans was rather severely injured by this insect
in all of the bean-growing sections of the state. The spring
(1932) crop was very severely injured in the southern part of
the state and especially so in the Everglades, while the central
and northern portions escaped with very little injury. At Gaines-
ville small numbers of jassids were found on snap beans during
early spring. During late spring and early summer they were
found breeding in small numbers on lima beans and cowpeas.
Varieties Tested:-The following four varieties of snap beans
were planted: Bountiful, Black Valentine, Refugee 1000-1, and






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Giant Stringless Green Pod. The Bountiful variety seemed to
withstand the attacks of the jassids better and showed less injury
than the other three varieties, though there was no apparent
difference in the number of insects present on the different
varieties.
Artificial Control:-A number of different materials were ap-
plied to the beans to determine their effectiveness in destroying
the leaf hoppers and keeping down the infestation. The pyrethrum
sprays again proved to be most efficient in killing the jassids.
These were followed rather closely by 40 percent nicotine sulfate
with the newer spreaders such as a sulfonated oil product and a
sodium oleate soap. Bordeaux mixture caused a very appre-
ciable reduction in the number of jassids and caused the death of
some as well as having a repellent effect. Flowers of sulfur dusted
on the beans caused a slight decrease in the jassid population.
Reinfestation of the treated plots by adult jassids from untreated
beans and surrounding vegetation took place rather quickly and
after six days all treated plots were nearly as heavily infested
as the untreated checks. This shows the importance of a fallow
or burned-over area around the bean field as a preventive against
infestation from surrounding areas.
Method of Sampling:-That the jassids on the treated plots
and the checks could be accurately counted, a device was prepared
for capturing all insects on a three-foot length of bean row. This
consisted essentially of a cloth-covered wooden frame three feet
high, three feet long and three feet wide. The top and three
sides were covered with black cloth. The upper half of the fourth
side was made of bleached muslin while the lower portion was black
cloth. The bottom was left open. Opposite the white side was
made an opening large enough to admit the head and shoulders
of the person making the counts. Around this opening was fitted
a sleeve of the same black cloth which drapes around the body
of the worker and prevents the escape of the jassids. When this
frame is placed over a section of the bean row the adult jassids
quickly fly to the white muslin where they are easily captured.
The nymphs remain on the plants where they can be counted.
Other Insects:-Adults of the corn lantern fly Peregrinus
maidis (Ashmead) were nearly as numerous as the adults of
Empoasca fabae. These insects do not breed on the beans but
the adults come to the beans from grasses and other surrounding
vegetation. The feeding of these insects is apparently much
less injurious to the beans than that of E. fabae.






Annw-'' report 1932


THE GnsEN CITRUS APHID (Aphis spiraecola)
Adams Project No. 60 '. Watson, W. L. Thompson
and A. N. Tissot, Leaders
During the past spring citrus aphids caused considerable dam-
age to orange, tangerine and to a lesser extent to grapefruit trees.
The infestation followed a fall and winter of abnormally dry
weather and high temperatures. The spring flush of growth
was very slow and irregular in coming out, enabling the aphid
population to increase to such proportions that by the second
week in April a large percentage of the new growth was attacked
and continued to be damaged until the second week in May. Due
to the dry weather, the growth hardened very quickly, which
resulted in many more winged aphids than is common when the
trees are just starting to grow. They were so numerous that
they attacked the young buds, either killing or stunting them to
such an extent that neither leaves nor fruit matured.
Excellent results were obtained by dusting on calm nights with
a 2 percent nicotine-lime dust, mixed either in the duster or in
a barrel and applied at once. An oil emulsion and pyrethrum
mixture, supplied by a commercial company, gave a 97 to 98
percent kill when applied with a small compressed air sprayer.
No burning was observed when this oil emulsion was applied at
1 percent strength.
Although aphid predators were rather active during the win-
ter, they were not plentiful during the heavy aphid infestation.
The larvae of the blood-red ladybeetle were observed in December
and January, which was rather unusual. The syrphus fly,
Syrphus wiedemanni, was as common as Baccha clavata until the
middle of April. The fungus disease Empusa fresenii was not
abundant during the aphid season, which was very dry.
Work with the citrus aphid carried on at Gainesville during
the past year consisted mainly of a study of its food plants. To
the host plants already known should be added the following
unrecorded list of 16 species of Florida plants on which the aphid
has been found:
Amygdalus persica L................... Peach
Aralia sp.
Cestrum diurnum L ........ ......... Day Jessamine
Chrysanthemum sp .................. Cultivated chrysanthemum
Cotoneaster pannosa Franch.
Crataegus uniflora Moench ..............Haw
Eupatorium serotinum Michx.
Euphorbia splendens Bojer ............. Crown of Thorns
Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaertn ..........Wild Lettuce





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Padus serotina (Ehrl.) Agardh..........Wild Black Cherry
Pittosporum tobira Ait................. Pittosporum
Pyracantha angustifolia Schneid.
Sonchus, asper (L.) All ................ Sow-thistle
Verbena sp ......................... Verbena
Viburnum suspensum Lindl.
Willugbaeya scandens (L.) Kuntze.

The study of the general aphid fauna of Florida was continued
during the past year. A number of species were taken which
were not heretofore known for the state and additional species
of host plants were added to those already known as hosts of
aphids. About 110 species of aphids are now known for the
state and 19 of these are apparently new to science. Descriptions
of these new species will be published in the near future.

CONTROL OF FRUIT AND NUT CROP INSECTS
State Project No. 82 Fred W. Walker, Leader
Nut Case-Bearer:-Experiments with dormant sprays for the
control of this insect (Acrobasis caryae Grote) were continued,
both in the laboratory and in the field. The field experiments
were conducted more to determine the strength sprays that could
be used on pecan trees than as a check on the actual control of
the insect. No apparent injury was noticeable from even the
strongest solutions used, even though in some cases the formula
used was twice as strong as that required in the laboratory to
kill the hibernating larvae. It was at first thought that the frost
during March might have injured some of the trees so that cold
injury would be confused with spray damage. There was, how-
ever, no apparent injury from cold other than a slowing up of
the growth of both sprayed and unsprayed trees.

TABLE VIII.-LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS WITH DORMANT SPRAYS FOR
CONTROL OF THE NUT CASE-BEARER.
Number Formula Applied Twigs Checked Living Dead % Dead
1 1/8 B1 2/24 19 3/7 0 389 100.0
2 1/10 B1 2/24 28 3/8 0 516 100.0
3 1/12 B1 2/27 36 3/9 0 369 100.0
4 1/15 B1 2/27 33 3/11 0 508 100.0
5 1/20 B1 2/29 30 3/10 0 481 100.0


6 1/15 B1
4% P2 2/29 30 3/11 0 412 100.0
7 1/20 B1
4% P2 2/29 20 3/12 0 582 100.0
X Check 2/24 25 3/12 355 70 16.6
B1-a rosin emulsion.
P2-a sulfonated oil derivative-a commercial spreader.






Annual Report, 1932


In laboratory experiments twigs were dipped in the solution
held one minute and the excess liquid shaken off. Twigs were
then placed in the sun to dry, then placed in the insectary until
time to check the percentage of kill.
In the field experiments the spray was applied to all limbs thor-
oughly. In selecting material to check percentage of kill, the
twigs were taken from the lower branches so as to be certain
they had been thoroughly sprayed. The check made on May 2

TABLE IX.-FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH DORMANT SPRAYS FOR CONTROL OF
THE NUT CASE-BEARER.

Number Formula Applied Trees Checked Living Dead % Dead
3/7 0 52 100%
1 1/8 B1 2/24 3 5/2
3/8 0 65 100%
2 1/10 B1 2/24 3 5/2
3/9 0 34 100%
3 1/12 B1 2/27 3 5/2
3/11 0 47 100%
4 1/15 B1 2/27 3 5/2
3/10 0 43 100%
5 1/20 B1 2/29 3 5/2
6 1/15 B1 3/11 0 42 100%
Y% P2 2/29 3 5/2
7 1/20 B1 3/12 0 79 100%
k% P2 2/29 3 5/2
3/12 34 8 19.0%
X Check 2/24 3 5/2
B1-a rosin emulsion.
P2-a sulfocated oil derivative-a commercial spreader.

was to determine whether there was any foliage injury on the
sprayed trees and whether any of the larvae emerged from the
hibernacula left on the trees. There was no apparent foliage
injury and no signs of any larvae having emerged on the sprayed
trees.
During 1931 experiments were conducted in the field with the
same formula as number 5 and the percentage of dead larvae was
only 87.6%. In 1932 this formula gave a kill of 100%. In the
laboratory this formula gave a percentage of 95.1% in 1931 and
100 in 1932. Whether this increase in the percentage of dead is
due to the larvae being slightly more active on account of the
warmer weather is not known, although it seems to be the most
probable explanation. Fumigation experiments have shown that
the higher the temperature the greater the percentage of kill.




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Twigs that were fumigated at low temperatures showed a low
percentage of kill.
Laboratory experiments with stomach poisons for the control
of the nut case-bearer were continued without any favorable
results being obtained. Observations on this as well as other
insects feeding on the internal parts of fruits and nuts, show that
they invariably discard the first few mouthfuls from the outer
portion without swallowing any of it. Even though the outer
covering of the nut were swallowed, so little of the poison would
get into the digestive canal that it is doubtful whether death
would result.
Parasites:-The parasites of the nut case-bearer are not as
numerous as they have been in former years. Out of 50 infested
nuts collected from a grove near Jacksonville, 32 adults emerged,
four of the pupae were dead from some undetermined cause, four
were parasitized by Hymenoptera, four by Diptera and six were
killed by mites.
The nut case-bearer was late in emerging during the spring of
1931 and while almost as numerous as it was the year before, the
percentage of damage done was considerably less, due to a heavier
set of nuts. The second brood was scarce, due probably to un-
favorable weather conditions. The third brood was still scarcer
and very few larvae went into the winter hibernacula. The spring
brood of 1932 was about two weeks late in emerging and not
nearly as numerous as in 1931. The percentage of damage this
year, however, will be almost as much as last year, due to a very
light setting of nuts.
Specimens of the nut case-bearer were obtained from Brown-
wood, Texas, for comparison with Florida specimens. Genitalia
slides have been made and compared. The Texas specimens are
evidently of the same species as the Florida form, but slightly
larger.
The Leaf Case-Bearer:-The leaf case-bearer, Mineola jug-
landis (LeBaron), was so scarce during the summer of 1931
that most of the experiments planned had to be postponed until
another year when the insects probably will be more abundant.
There were not enough insects in many of the groves to warrant
the expense of spraying and in most cases the growers were
advised not to spray.
Observations have shown that the leaf case-bearer shows a
decided preference for certain varieties. It was planned to make
a survey as far as possible on as many varieties as could be






Annual Report, 1932


found in Florida to determine just which varieties are preferred
by these insects. Due to scarcity of the insects in most of the
groves throughout the state, this survey was postponed until a
more favorable time.
There are two other species of so-called leaf case-bearers on
the pecan in Florida. These are Acrobasis cunulae Dyar and
another species which is probably an Acrobasis but possibly un-
described. There is a new revision of this group in preparation.
however, and these names may possibly be changed to Mineola.
These two species have been very scarce this year, however.
In numbers 16 and 17 (Table X) there was a severe burning
of the foliage. In 18 there was a slight burning. Some of the

TABLE X.-SUMMER SPRAYS FOR CONTROL OF LEAF CASE-BEARER.
Number Formula Living Dead % Dead
1 Oleated lead arsenate... 3 lbs. 50 gals. .... 31 317 91.0
Oleated lead arsenate... 3 lbs. 50 gals.
2 P2 % ................................ 51 280 84.8
Oleated lead arsenate... 3 lbs. 50 gals.
3 Bordeaux ............ 4-5-50 .......... 46 267 88.4
4 Oleated lead arsenate... 4 lbs. 50 gals .... 0 473 100.0
Oleated lead arsenate... 4 lbs. 50 gals.
5 P2 4% ........ ....................... 0 456 100.0
Oleated lead arsenate.. 4 lbs. 50 gals.
6 Bordeaux ............. 4-5-50 .......... 0 520 100.0
7 K3 ................... 1 lb. 50 gals. .....250 160 38.0
K3 ................... 1 lb. 50 gals.
8 P2 Y4 % ...........................261 132 33.8
K3 ................... 1 lb. 50 gals.
9 Bordeaux ............ 4-5-50 ..........180 130 419
10 K3 ................... 11/ lbs. 50 gals...230 168 42.2
K3 ................... 1% lbs. 50 gals.
11 P2 Y4% ................ ................220 196 47.1
K3 ................... 1 2 lbs. 50 gals.
12 Bordeaux ............. 4-5-50 ..........243 179 42.4
13 K3 ................... 2 lbs. 50 gals.....242 279 53.4
K3 ................... 2 lbs. 50 gals.
14 P2 1% % ...............................168 151 46.3
K3 ................... 2 lbs. 50 gals.
15 Bordeaux ............. 4-5-50 .......... .191 133 41.0
16 Paris green ........... 1/ lb. 50 gals .... 89 223 71.4
Paris green ........... % lb. 50 gals.
17 P2 M% .................................... 65 296 81.9
Paris green ........... % lb. 50 gals.
18 Hydrated lime ......... 6 lbs. 50 gals .... 68 319 82.4
Paris green ........... % lb. 50 gals.
19 Bordeaux ............. 4-5-50 ........... 58 306 84.0
X Check ............................... 301 115 27.6
P2-a sulfonated oil derivative-a commercial spreader.
K3-a silicofluoride.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


trees were so badly infested with black aphids that it was hard
to distinguish burning from aphid injury. Many of the larvae
were killed by two species of mites.
Shuckworm:-Observations on the shuckworm, Laspeyresia
caryana (Fitch), were continued throughout the year. The work
is now completed and a manuscript for a bulletin is being pre-
pared.
There was not a very high percentage of parasitism on the
shuckworm during the past winter and spring. Some of the
larvae on the surface of the ground were destroyed by the mite
Pediculoides ventricosus Newport.

TABLE XI.-SHUCKWORM INFESTATION, HARVEST 1931.
Number Non % In-
Place of Nuts Infested Infested fested
*T. B. Bird,
Monticello ........... 100 22 78 22
B. W. Johnson,
Monticello ........... 100 69 31 69
F. A. Mahan,
Monticello ........... 100 64 36 64
Keasch Place,
Monticello ............ 100 58 42 58
C. A. Simpson,
Monticello ........... 100 47 53 47
H. K. Miller,
Monticello ........... 100 60 40 60
J. D. Goldberg,
Monticello ........... 100 62 38 62
D. D. Morris,
Monticello ............ 100 49 51 49
F. A. Mahan,
Drifton .............. 100 56 44 58
S. H. Kidder,
Monticello ........... 100 63 37 63
Tallahassee Pecan Co., green
Tallahassee .......... 120 nuts 83 37 69.1
J. H. Wells, green
Baldwin ............. 779 nuts 412 367 52.9
*In the T. B. Bird grove the husks have been plowed under each year
for the past few years. This year the method of harvesting was changed
to the use of sheets and the husks were piled and burned. This grove is
located very close to two groves that are not well cared for and maximum
control is therefore impossible.

Black Hickory Aphid:-During the summer of 1931, this insect
(Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis)) was one of the major insects
of the pecan, many trees being completely defoliated by it. Even







Annual Report, 1932


in groves where spray was applied to control it some serious
defoliation occurred. This was due not so much to the failure
of the spray to kill the aphids as it was to the fact that the spray
was applied too late and the leaves had already become weakened
from the toxic substance secreted by the aphids. The abundance
of the aphids the past season was probably due to the dry weather.
Rains seem to act as a natural check to the increase of these
insects. -
Experiments with various contact insecticides for the control
of the black aphid were continued. The object of most of these
experiments this year was to find the lowest price spray that
would give a satisfactory percentage of control. Before trying
out any formula in the field, it was first tried out in the laboratory
and the percentage of kill determined by actual count. In the
field it is hard to determine the actual percentage of the aphids


TABLE XII.-BURYING EXPERIMENTS WITH SHUCKWORMS, 1932.


Contents
100 Larvae
100 Larvae
100 Larvae
100 Larvae
100 Larvae
100 Larvae
100 Larvae
100 Larvae
100 Larvae
200 Pupae
100 Pupae
100 Pupae
100 Pupae
100 Pupae
100 Pupae
100 Pupae
100 Pupae
100 Pupae


Depth
Surface
1 inch
2 inches
3 inches
4 inches
1 inch
2 inches
3 inches
4 inches
Surface
1 inch
2 inches
3 inches
4 inches
1 inch
2 inches
3 inches
4 inches


Type Soil Emerging
72
Light 68
Light 51
Light 29
Light 35
Heavy 34
Heavy 27
Heavy 17
Heavy 19
166
Light 12
Light 2
Light 0
Light 0
Heavy 2
Heavy 0
Heavy 0
Heavy 0


%
72
68
51
29
35
34
27
17
19
83
12
2
0
0
2
0
0
0


killed, as some may come in from unsprayed trees or from parts
of the sprayed tree that were not thoroughly covered. In spray-
ing for the control of the black aphid, the percentage of control is
due as much to method of application as it is to the kind of
spray used.
In the field sprays (Table XIII) the solution was applied to
grove trees with a power sprayer. The checks were made 24
and 48 hours after the sprays were applied.


Cage No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18


~







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE XIII.-FIELD SPRAYS FOR CONTROL OF BLACK APHID, SUMMER 1931.
Weather Conditions Estimated Percent-
Formula Following 24 Hours age of Kill
1/60 Lime-sulfur Fair 85- 90%
1/600 Pyrethrum Shower after 5 hours 95- %


slightly cooler


1/4000 Nicotine sulfate 40% Fair 99-100%
%% Penetrol
1/5000 Nicotine sulfate 40% Fair 97-100%
%% Penetrol
1/6000 Nicotine sulfate 40% Fair 92- 95%
% % Penetrol
4-5-50 Bordeaux
Lead arsenate 1 lb. 50 gals.
Nicotine sulfate 40% 1/4000 Fair 99-100%
Penetrol / %

In the laboratory tests the sprays (Table XIV) were applied
with an atomizer and care was taken to thoroughly wet each
leaflet. The check was sprayed with plain water. The dead
aphids that fell off were collected on sheets of white paper and
counted.
TABLE XIV.-LABORATORY TESTS OF SPRAYS ON BLACK APHID,
SUMMER 1931.
Formula Living Dead Percent Kill
1/2000 Black Leaf 40 .............. 0 343 100%
%% Penetrol
1/3000 Black Leaf 40 .............. 0 389 100%
S% Penetrol
1/4000 Black Leaf 40 .............. 0 352 100%
2% Penetrol
1/5000 Black Leaf 40 .............. 0 332 100%
S% Penetrol
1/6000 Black Leaf 40 .............. 8 328 97.5%
/%% Penetrol
1/7000 Black Leaf 40 .............. 30 272 90.0%
%% Penetrol
1/8000 Black Leaf 40 .............. 42 311 88.1%
%% Penetrol
1/9000 Black Leaf 40 .............. 82 283 77.5%
%1% Penetrol
1/10,000 Black Leaf 40 ............. 152 143 48.4%
% % Penetrol
%% Penetrol ................... 227 91 28.6%
Check ......................... 389 4 01.0%

Bark Aphid:-This insect, (Longistigma caryae (Harris)),
while not usually a pest of importance on pecans, was very
abundant during the past winter and early spring. Whether this
abundance was due to the very mild winter is not known. The


~T~





Annual Report, 1932


Saphid, while present to some extent during the summer, is
usually one of the early spring insects.
Observations made on bearing trees that were heavily infested
-with these aphids show that twigs that were heavily infested
made a veryFik growth .wbhenthe-buds opened and that no nuts__
were set on these twigs. Of course this f tilure and weakened
Condition could be due to the weakened ition of most of the
trees due to the dry weather of the past.summer. However,
uninfested twigs on the same trees made better growth and some
set nuts.
Mites:-A heavy infestation of one of the mites (Tetranychus
sp.?) was found on several trees in Monticello. These mites were
similar in form to the red spider of citrus but were of a yellowish
green color. The infested trees were badly defoliated. A spray
of 1/4000 Black Leaf 40 and 1/2% Penetrol failed to check them,
although many were killed.
Cigar Case-Bearer:-The cigar case-bearer (Coleophora
caryaefoliella Clem.) is of little importance as a pecan pest in
the eastern portion of Florida but in the extreme western portion
it is a pest of major importance. No field experiments were con-
ducted this year with these insects, although a number of labora-
tory experiments were conducted both with contact sprays and
stomach poisons. The results so far have been very unsatisfac-
tory but this was to be expected since the habits of the insects
make it difficult to control by ordinary means.

TABLE XV.-LABORATORY TESTS WITH STOMACH POISON FOR CIGAR CASE-
BEARER, SPRING 1932.
Winter
Formula Cases Recovered Parasites Moths Percent
Used Emerging Emerging
1% lbs. lead arsenate
4 lbs. lime 300 258 12 236 82.2%
%% Penetrol 86.0% 4.0%
50 gals. water
2 lbs. lead arsenate
4 Ibs. lime 300 272 8 254 87.3%
1%% Penetrol 90.6% 2.6% 81.3%
50 gals. water

In the tests with stomach poisons (Table XV), the winter cases
were placed on nursery trees on the laboratory grounds before
the buds opened. When the larvae in the cases became active
after the buds opened, the trees were sprayd with the formula to
be tested. When the larvae had finished their growth and pu-





84 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

pated the cases were collected and counted. There were orig
300 liberated in each experiment, all of which could not be reco
ered.. Most of this loss was due to larvae already dead in the
winter cases. The cigar case-bearer is a leaf mining insec t -
--_cafoL t be controlled by the ueaof stqnnm.za poisons.

TABLE XVI.-LABI _iy TESTS WITH DORMANT SPRAYS FOR CIGAR
CASE-BEARER, WINTER 1932.
--- Winter
Formula Twigs Cases Living Dead % Dead
1/8 Barko 6 348 325 23 6.2%
1/10 Barko 7 304 288 16 5.2%
1/12 Barko 8 328 315 13 3.9%
1/15 Barko 5 288 271 17 5.9%
1/20 Barko 9 295 287 8 2.7%
1/15 Barko 6 336 301 35 10.4%
k % Penetrol
Check 8 287 269 18 6.2%

In the experiments with dormant sprays (Table XVI) the twigs
were dipped in the spray solution and the spray allowed to dry
in the shade, then the twigs were placed in the insectary until
time to make the checks on kill. The twigs used in all of the
cigar case-bearer experiments were collected in West Florida
and shipped to the laboratory at Monticello.
The probable reason for the failure of contact sprays to kill
the larvae of the cigar case-bearer, is due to the type of case.
These cases are made from elliptical pieces cut from the upper
and lower surfaces of the leaves, sewed together and heavily
lined with silk. The contact spray does not penetrate this case
very readily.
The Twig Girdler:-This insect (Oncideres cingulatus (Say))
was very abundant in some of the groves around Monticello the
past season. In the groves where the severed twigs have been
destroyed, the infestation was considerably less.
Life history studies and observations on this insect are being
continued.
The Walnut Caterpillar:-This insect (Datana integerrima
G&R.) was not so abundant last season but the first brood emerged
early this year and some trees were partly defoliated by it.
The Fall Webworm:-This insect (Hyphantria cunea Drury)
was not so abundant last fall as it has been. Large numbers of
these insects are destroyed each year by wasps, Polistes and
Vespa spp.






Annual Report, 1932


The Grape Colaspis:-This insect (Colaspis brunnea (Fab.)),
which is ordinarily a pest of grapes, is beginning to take to the
young tender foliage of the pecan. Only in a few groves, how-
ever, has it become numerous enough to do much damage but it
is more abundant this year than last.
The Blueberry Fruit Worm:-Life history studies of this insect
(Acrobasis caccinii (Riley)) were continued during the spring.
The insect is single brooded and can be controlled by destroying
the overwintering larvae in the pre-pupa cases. A species of
entomogenous fungus belonging to the genus Isaria was found on
some of the pre-pupa cases from Milton. So far, attempts to
raise this fungus on artificial media have not proven successful.
The adults of the blueberry fruit worm started emerging on
March 27, and continued till April 23. The peak of the emergence
this year was on April 3. Eggs deposited on April 11 hatched
on the 18th, 19th and 20th, making a 7- to 9-day incubation period.
The larva when first hatched crawls around for a few minutes and
then starts entering the fruit close to the stem. The first few
mouthfuls are rejected and nothing is swallowed until the head
is well inside the fruit.

THE LARGER PLANT BUGS ON CITRUS, PECAN AND TRUCX CROPS
State Project No. 14 H. E. Bratley, Leader
During the past year the survey of plant bugs was continued'
although over a smaller territory. The bugs were exceedingly
numerous in all of the sections observed, the Southern green stink
bug, Nezara viridula, being most plentiful with the leaf-footed
plant bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus, second. Due to the mildness
of the 1931-32 winter season, these bugs, especially the latter,
were observed feeding throughout practically the entire winter.
Leptoglossus phyllopus was especially injurious in this section
on Satsumas. In the earlier part of the season their feeding was
on the fruit and later on the twigs where they fed until the thistles
commenced shooting their bloom stalks.
A few sprays were tried on Nezara, but with little effect. Last
fall dry weather prevented a normal vegetative growth. This
had a two-fold bearing on the plant bug situation. First, the
lack of vegetation upon which the nymphs could feed; second,
many wild and cultivated plants did not blossom, thereby cutting
off the food supply of the parasites of the adult flies, the feather-
legged fly (Trichopoda pennipes) and other Tachina flies.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Considerable attention was given to the determination of the
percentage of parasitization of these plant bugs. A wide varia-
tion was found even in the vicinity of Gainesville. Bugs observed
in several different patches of crotalaria in early fall produced
from 10 to 60 percent of parasitized insects. Later in the fall
and early winter the percentages ranged from 45 to 75 in the
same patches of crotalaria. In spring and early summer the
percentages increased greatly. Nearly every bug noted was
parasitized, and as high as four parasite eggs were found on some
individuals.
Leptoglossus was so numerous as to cause serious injury first
to the fruit and later to the twigs of Satsuma oranges. The mild
winter prevented the trees from going into complete dormancy;
consequently they put out new growth which provided food for
the bugs. The mild winter gave these bugs the added advantage
of not having to seek hibernating quarters. Hence they caused
damage during the greater portion of the winter. No nymphs
were noted during the winter.
The same parasites were noted on Leptoglossus as on Nezara.
The percentages were lower, however, by 10 to 40 percent. No
adult parasites were noted during the winter, but eggs on the
bugs' bodies were in evidence.
Three or four hundred of these bugs were caught and placed in
large cages with the idea of obtaining some hibernating data.
The winter was so mild that they did not hibernate but fed freely
except on the two or three of the coldest days. Parasites were
responsible for the death of many, diseases carried off many
more. Only a few lived on for a time, and they did not live until
spring. It is thought that their activity during the time when
they should have been hibernating was responsible for their
death.
Life history work was attempted with both insects, but no defi-
nite data as to their life cycle were established. Diseases seem
to be fatal to these bugs when confined so that accurate checks
could not be made.
Chrysopsis sp., or golden aster, was found to be a late fall and
early winter host for Leptoglossus. As in the case of the thistles
in the early spring, the insects seem to prefer this when it shoots
its bloom stalk. This spring the infestation on thistles was
heavier than usual. They were found to congregate and feed on
the flowering stems of the Amazon lily, and they also caused
considerable damage to strawflowers.






Annual Report, 1932


GREEN SPIDER ON Asparagus plumosus
State P. .ject No. 156 J. W. Wilson, Leader
With the publication of Bulletin 234 in June, 1931, work on
this project was discontinued.

INSECTS OF ORNAMENTALS
State Project No. 157 J. W. Wilson, Leader
Life history studies of the beet army worm (Laphygma exigua
Hbn.) were started in the fall and continued to the latter part of
October when a fungus disease destroyed the larvae. These life
history studies have been started again this spring.
Since commercial light traps have been introduced for the.
control of the fall army worm a typical light trap with a cyanide
jar for catching the moths was operated in conjunction with one
of the commercial traps which kills the moths by electrocution.
Eighteen species of moths were captured in this trap. The moths
of the fall army worm were by far the most numerous of the
moths captured. Of the total number of moths collected by the
trap, 67.27% were males and females which had already finished
laying their eggs.
During September and October when the army worm larvae
were abundant, four parasites were collected. The parasite most
frequently collected belonged to the hymenopterous genus Euplec-
trus. The females of this parasite lay an average of 77.5 eggs
per female during a period averaging 14.5 days in length. Notes
on the length of the larval and pupal stage were also obtained.
Another parasite belonging to the genus Apanteles was collected
and two individuals were reared in the insectary. These two
individuals required 12 and 13 days, respectively, to complete
their life cycles. A single specimen of the spined soldier bug was
captured and fed larvae for 16 days during which time 34 larvae
were consumed. Larvae and egg masses of the army worm are
being collected to determine the extent of parasitism and to find
other parasites which have not yet been collected.
Experiments to determine the effect of oil emulsions on turk's
cap, hibiscus, and oleander were conducted during May. A
miscible oil, a red oil emulsion and a white oil emulsion were
applied to the three above named plants at strengths of 1%, 11/%
and 2% of oil. The sprayed plants were examined one and two
weeks after the spray was applied to determine the amount of
injury. The average temperature for the two weeks period fol-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


lowing the application of the spray was 74.80 F. While the aver-
age maximum temperature was 870 F. There was no rainfall
during this period. The oleander was the least susceptible of
the three plants showing injury only from the 2% oil solution.
The injury resulting from the 2% oil solution consisted of black
spots about a centimeter-in diameter scattered over the young
leaves. Unsprayed leaves did not show these spots.
The turk's cap was the most easily injured. All of the solu-
tions except the 1% and 11/2% white oil solution caused more or
less injury. The 1% miscible oil and red oil emulsion solutions
caused about 50% of the leaves to drop off, and the 2% solutions
of all three oils caused the young branches to die back.
The hibiscus was only slightly injured by the 2% miscible oil,
while the 11/% and 2% red oil emulsion solutions caused an esti-
mated 20% and:50% loss of leaves. The hibiscus plants sprayed
with the white oil emulsion showed no signs of injury.

INSECT AND OTHER ANIMAL PESTS OF WATERMELONS
State Project No. 162 C. C. Goff, Leader
In the event of a wilt resistant melon being developed, making
possible the planting of'melons on old ground, the root-knot nema-
tode promises to be a serious pest of melons. For this reason
experimental work for its control is being carried on.
This season a number of varieties and strains of melons and
citrus were planted on root-knot infested soil. Also, in each hill
a handful of soil from a heavily nematode-infested greenhouse
bench was placed before the seeds were dropped. These plants
are to be taken up and examined for indication of resistance to
root-knot.
Two acres of infested ground were planted to Whip-poor-will
cowpeas, March 16. The furrows were first opened and heavily
infested soil placed in the bottom of the furrow with a fertilizer
distributer. However, the infestation was somewhat spotted,
small areas of peas being completely killed out over the field
while other areas were very lightly infested. This crop was
taken off and the field replanted on June 23. The disturbance
and distribution of soil with a second planting should result in
a rather uniform infestation in all parts of the field.
The object of building up a heavily and evenly distributed infes-
tation in this area is to develop a plot for control experiments.
When replanted on June 23 a small area of the most heavily in-






Annual Report, 1932


fested part was planted to Crotalaria spectabilis, half in rows to
be cultivated and half broadcast. Observations on these plots
will be made to determine the effectiveness of crotalaria in re-
ducing the infestation in a period of one season.
Another- phase of the work being carried on is the finding of
resistant cultivated plants and determining which are the most
susceptible. A number of wild host plants have been gathered
recently, some of which have not yet been identified. Those
identified are Solanum nigrum, Urena lobata, Froelichia flori-
dana, Phytolacca rigida, Richardia scabra and Tricholaena rosea.
The last four are not included in U. S. D. A. host list obtained
last year.
In a small ornamental garden heavily infested the following
record was obtained:


Salpiglossis sinuata.........................
Antirrhinum majus.......................
Calendula oficinalis .....................
Verbena sp..............................
Nigella damascena........................
Gypsophila paniculata......................
Centaurea cyanus ........................
Delphinum sp. ............. ............
Petunia hybrida..........................
Scabiosa sp. .............................
Trachymene caerulea .....................
Cynoglossum nervosum.....................
Coreopsis sp .............................
Eschscholtzia californica .................
Phlox drummondi ........................
Arctotis grandis .........................


Very heavy infestation
Heavy infestation
Heavy infestation
Heavy infestation
Heavy infestation
Moderate infestation
Moderate infestation
Light infestation
Light infestation
Light infestation
Very light infestation
Very light infestation
No infestation
No infestation
No infestation
No infestation


FIELD MICE

One grower who had a large acreage of watermelons had
poisoned his fields with wheat and corn soaked in water with
strychnine sulfate. Some of this grain was eaten, though no
dead mice could be found and considerable damage still was being
done. The fields were repoisoned with the alkaloid strychnine
in a starch solution with soda and saccharin. Poisoned scratch
feed was used and a small amount was placed at every hill in
every third row. Careful counts were made over certain areas.
On January 14 a 17-acre field was poisoned. The next day the
field was examined by walking down each poisoned row and
picking up all the dead mice, of which 23 were found. The fol-
lowing day the field was again examined''and 20 mice were
picked up. Crows were seen carrying away two others. On the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


4th day 14 more mice were found, bringing the total for the 17
acres to 59 mice. Even though careful counts were made no
doubt some escaped finding and probably a number were carried
away by crows, which flocked about the field.
The number found gives an average of only 3.5 mice per acre.
However, one mouse can eat more than 20 seeds a night, thus
destroying four hills. Since the seeds are in danger for about
a week, one-fourth of the crop could be destroyed in that time.
There seems to be some tendency to store food. In one burrow,
43 grains of corn, 18 watermelon seeds and 12 grains of wheat
were found. The corn and wheat were from the grain poisoned
with strychnine sulfate and the melon seeds were from the plant-
ing. Another burrow, also, contained melon seeds.
In two acres in a heavily infested field 18 dead mice were found.
One grower stated that he saw more dead mice killed by the
alkaloid strychnine this year than he had seen in 10 years of
poisoning mice in melon fields.
Work is now being carried out to learn something of the life
history and habits of these mice and economic importance out-
side of the melon fields as well as in them.

CONTROL OF COTTON INSECTS
State Project No. 75 E. F. Grossman and
P. W. Calhoun, Leaders
E. F. Grossman, in charge of these investigations, has been on
leave of absence since October, 1931.
Much of the work on cotton insects consisted in completing
projects started several years previously and getting the data
ready for publication. Several bulletins and papers were pub-
lished covering experiments of several years' duration.
Studies of the hibernation of the boll weevil under artificially
controlled temperature and humidity conditions were completed
and published in Bulletin 240.
A study of the geotropic tendencies of the weevil in hibernation
was completed and published (Fla. Entomologist 15:2. 1931).
A study to determine the most satisfactory method for deter-
mining the percentage of squares infested by the boll weevil in
a cotton field was made, and the results published in Bulletin 241.
The degree of correlation between the date of installing boll
weevils in hibernation cages and the date of their emergence from
hibernation the following spring was calculated for 12 groups of






Annual Report, 1932


hibernation cages. The results were published (Fla. Entomol-
ogist 15:3. 1931).
Press Bulletin 441 was published, treating briefly the insect
pests of cotton, other than the boll weevil, found in Florida.
Experiments to determine if heat treatment is a satisfactory
method for protecting stored corn from insect pests were con-
ducted, and the results published in Bulletin 239.
A total of 3,440 weevils were captured from three cotton fields
in October, 1931, and stored in a refrigerated room maintained
at 42 F., to determine: (1) If fall applications of poison would
increase the mortality of the weevils during the winter, and (2):
If weevils captured from cotton growing luxuriantly would sur-
vive longer during the winter than would weevils captured from
cotton which had ceased to grow luxuriantly in the fall.
The experiments were not extensive enough to be conclusive,
but the indications were that the poison applications made little
difference, and that the weevils captured from the luxuriant cot-
ton lived appreciably longer, on the average, than the weevils
captured from the cotton which had ceased to grow in late fall.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HOME ECONOMICS

DETERMINATION OF WHETHER CHLOROPHYLL, CHLOROPHYLL
ALPHA AND BETA, THE PETROLEUM ETHER EXTRACTS OF
THE YELLOW PIGMENTS OF ALFALFA, CAN BE USED AS
A SOURCE OF VITAMIN A IN ANIMAL NUTRITION
Purnell Project No. 70 0. D. Abbott, Leader
This study was completed during the year and the results are to
be incorporated in a bulletin. It was found that carotin was the
precursor of vitamin A and that the other pigments were inactive
as a source of this vitamin. When carotin was fed at the rate
of 0.03 to 0.05 mg. per rat per day, it promoted growth and
prevented xerophthalmia. Two new projects which are phases
of this project have been submitted. They are as follows: (1)
The changes in the hematopoietic tissues of rats on a vitamin
A-free diet. (2) A study of lecithin synthesis in hens on a
vitamin A- and lipoid-free diet.

A STUDY OF SOME OF THE CONSTITUENTS OF CITRUS FRUITS,
LOQUATS, ROSELLE, AND GUAVA: PECTIN, OILS AND
GLUCOSIDES
Purnell Project No. 71 L. W. Gaddum, Leader
Another phase of the pectin portion of Project No. 71, the
effect of maturity on the pectin and the moisture content of the
tissues of certain citrus fruits, was studied throughout the past
year and will be continued through the coming year.
The portion of Project No. 71 dealing with glucosides has been
carried forward during the past year. Naringin and hesperidin
have been prepared and purified; their properties and chemical
relations are now being investigated. Some application of these
studies has been made in the work on frozen orange juice. (For
a fuller report, see Project No. 189, Department of Horticulture.)

THE RELATION OF GROWTH TO PHOSPHORUS, CALCIUM AND
LIPIN METABOLISM AS INFLUENCED BY THE THYMUS
Purnell Project No. 142 C. F. Ahmann, Leader
Observations on the effect of thymectomy on growth of rabbits
are being continued. In addition, experiments are now in prog-
ress to determine the age of sexual maturity, number, size and
rate of growth of the young of thymectomized animals.






Annual Report, 1932


Experiments have been started to determine the cholesterol
and lecithin content of the blood and various tissues of thymec-
tomized animals and also on animals injected with different
thymus extracts.
The effects of several extracts of thymus were compared with
the effects of extracts of muscle and other organs on the calcium,
phosphorus and lecithin content of the blood of rabbits.

OTHER STUDIES

In addition to Purnell Projects 70, 71 and 142, the Department
of Home Economics has three cooperative projects and three
minor projects ;for two of these minor projects no state funds
have been allotted, while the third is being financed by funds
from the Evaporated Milk Association. Progress reports are as
follows:

COOPERATIVE PROJECTS
S 1'. C. F. Ahmann, Leader

1. Histologic Studies of Salt Sick Cattle.
Histologic studies are being continued on tissues from salt sick
animals. Tissues from animals on preventive rations and tissues
from animals which have been cured are being compared. Photo-
micrographs have been made of typical findings.

2. A Study of Crotalaria as a Forage Crop for Rabbits.
(Office of Forage Crops and Diseases and Department of Agron-
omy cooperating).
Palatability and feeding tests with rabbits have been made on
nine species of crotalaria, both green and artificially dried. Two
of the common cover crop species did not prove satisfactory in
the tests. Other species are being added to the tests now in
progress.

3. Studies on Frozen Orange Juice. L. W. Gaddum, Leader
(Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. D. A., and Department of
Horticulture cooperating).
The results of this work have been published as Bulletin 243.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


MINOR PROJECTS
1. To Determine an Effective Way to Prevent the Development
of Rancidity in Pecans. 0 O. D. Abbott, Leader
It has been found that rancidity in shelled pecans can be
arrested or partially prevented by replacing the air in the jars
in which they are packed by nitrogen, hydrogen, or by evacuating
the jars (minimum vacuum 25 mm.). When the air was replaced
by carbon dioxide the nuts became rancid. The unshelled nuts
became rancid when coated with water glass or collodion as soon
as the untreated nuts.
The oxygen in the shells of pecans makes the prevention of
rancidity more difficult in unshelled than in shelled nuts. In
evacuating the unshelled nuts it is necessary to'evacuate several
times in order to remove all the oxygen from the spaces in the
shells. In those varieties where the ratio of air space to kernel
was large, rancidity developed more quickly than in varieties
where the reverse was true.
Pecan oil does not become rancid as quickly as do the nuts.
Some nuts stored at 450 F. developed a sweet taste in seven
months.

2. Hookworm Studies.

A. Intestinal Parasites: The Effect of Diet on the Worm Bur-
den of Children Infected with Necator americanus and Ascaris
lumbricoides. C. F. Ahmann, Leader
In this study three subjects were available. One was observed
over a period of four months and two were observed over a period
of nine months. The average ova count of three specimens per
week was used in following the change in worm burden. The
Ascaris infection was lost two months after the children were
given the improved diet. The hookworm infection maintained
a fairly constant level for five months and in one case a marked
reduction then occurred. In the other case no marked change
occurred.

B. The Effect of An Improved Diet on Children with a Moderate
Degree of Hookworm Infection. 0. D. Abbott, Leader
When children with a moderate degree of hookworm infection
were fed a well-balanced diet the following improvements were
noted: increase in hemoglobin and in the number of red blood






Annual Report, 1932 95

cells, a slight decrease in eosinophils, and a decided increase in
activity. For the first time in their history both children did
satisfactory work in school. This study indicated that many
defects associated with hookworm infection may in part be due
to poor nutrition.

3. Jellying Properties of Certain Varieties of Grapes and Black-
berries Grown at the Experiment Station. 0. D. Abbott, Leader
Experiments have been repeated on the varieties of grapes and
blackberries previously used. In all respects the results are com-
parable to the results of the first year. The Marvel blackberry
made a less desirable jelly than either the Haupt or Oregon and
the Husman grape was the least desirable of all grapes tested
for jelly making.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HORTICULTURE

PECAN VARIETY RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT SOIL TYPES,
LOCALITIES, ETC.

State Project No. 46 G. H. Blackmon, Leader

There was a satisfactory yield of nuts on trees of most vari-
eties in orchards that received reasonably good care during the
past several years. However, the nut development and the quality
of the kernel were poor in much of north and west Florida, due to a
great rainfall deficiency. Trees in the northeastern part of the
state, located on soils that are retentive of moisture, produced
nuts with a well-developed kernel of good quality, as did those
in the extreme western part of Florida, where there was a timely
rain during the critical period of nut filling.
Young trees of the Bass, Elliott, and Mahan varieties showed
up well and gave satisfactory production in orchards located in
Okaloosa, Walton and Jefferson counties, respectively. The 91
Mahan trees in Jefferson County, set in 1927, yielded an average
of 3.3 pounds of nuts per tree in 1931.
The forcing into growth of the buds in the spring of 1932 was
very irregular within the range of a given variety and the dif-
ferences between varieties in time of growth forcing seemed to
be more pronounced than during the normal seasons. Trees of
Curtis, Kennedy, Randall, Bradley, and kindred varieties in the
breaking of the dormant period seemed to be more nearly normal
in showing growth than those of Stuart, Schley, Success, and
similar ones; with the other ones showing an equally erratic
behavior. There were noticeable differences also in trees of the
same variety in different locations of the pecan area. On May
12, 1932, most of the Stuart trees growing in the area from about
Madison to Crestview, with some exceptions, showed a decided
twig growth, while most of those in the northeastern part of the
state were dormant, so far as outward appearances were con-
cerned, and those in the Pensacola area were just beginning to
show signs of growth.
With some exceptions there has been a light pistillate and
staminate bloom in 1932 which forced very late and irregularly.
For example, Stuarts in the Gainesville area were blooming and
shedding pollen as late as June 15. A very small percentage of
the twigs forcing into growth at a late date have produced pis-






Annual Report, 1932


tillate flowers, although in many instances they have given a
good staminate bloom.
Drouth, warm weather, and a freeze during the first half of
March seem to be the main contributing factors causing the late
irregular growth this season, with the high temperature prevail-
ing during November, December, January, and February probably
being the most important of those mentioned.
Crotalaria spectabilis did not produce a very heavy tonnage of
green material in some of the orchards where planted, due to
lack of sufficient rainfall. The dry weather in many sections
and relatively high temperatures during the fall and winter
months were not conducive to the growth of Austrian winter peas
and hairy vetch as a winter cover crop, consequently there was a
comparatively light tonnage of green material produced by these
crops in most orchards.

COOPERATIVE FERTILIZER TESTS IN PECAN ORCHARDS
State Project No. 47 G. H. Blackmon, Leader
In 1931 there was a fair to heavy nut yield in all orchards where
fertilizer experiments are being conducted. One Moore experi-
ment in Jefferson County and the Curtis, Success, Stuart, and
Schley experiments in Bradford, Duval, Holmes, and Escambia
counties, respectively, produced nuts with well-developed kernels;
while the other varieties were light, as a result of the extensive
drouth during 1931. While there has been some variation in
the yields, 77.3 percent of the fertilized plots have materially out-
yielded those unfertilized. The Schley trees set in 1912 and the
Stuarts have not responded to fertilizer applications to the extent
of increasing nut production, as have other varieties and other
Schley experiments. However, the average yields per tree for
the duration of the experiments have been greater in all orchards
for the fertilized trees than for those unfertilized, except the
Schleys and Stuarts mentioned. Copper sulfate and manganese
sulfate added to fertilizers separately and in combination appar-
ently have not affected the yield of nuts on Moore trees.
There has been a decided difference in tree growth as deter-
mined by the area of the trunk cross-section in favor of the fer-
tilized trees, except with one Moneymaker and two Schley experi-
ments, trees of which were set in 1913, 1910, and 1912, respec-
tively, these showing a greater growth for the unfertilized over
the fertilized.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The total growth and yield per tree, varieties, year trees were
set, the number of years each experiment has been conducted, loca-
tion, and soil type are shown in Table XVII.

TABLE XVII.-TOTAL GROWTH AND YIELD PER TREE OF FERTILIZED AND UNFERTILIZE
PECAN TREES.


Soil Type Variety


Location
(County)


Bradford

Duval

Columbia

Bradford
Jefferson
Leon

Jefferson
Jefferson

Jefferson
Jefferson
Jefferson
Escambia
Walton

Holmes
Duval


Total Growth
Year No. Years per Tree;
Trees Expt. Area Trunk
Were has been Cross-section
Set Conducted (Sq. In.)
Fert. Unfert.


Curtis 1919
Curtis 1920

Frotscher 1912

Kennedy 1920

Moneymaker 1912
Moneymaker 1913
Moneymaker 1919
Moore 1912
Moore 1919

Schley 1910
Schley 1912

Schley 1917
Schley 1919
Stuart 1916
Success 1920


Total
Yield
per Tree
(lbs.)
Fert. Unferi


67.4
44.7

18.8

37.7
314.3

111.3
83.9
179.2
113.2

81.1

62.1
9.6
18.6
52.0

32.7


35.8
3.3

13.1

0.8

181.8
97.8
45.7
108:2
51.8

70.3
99.2

52
14 2
57.3
13.1


There seemed to have been no difference in the growth behavior
in the spring of 1932 of fertilized and unfertilized trees, all of them
being very erratic in forcing bud growth, but those receiving a
fertilizer containing sufficient nitrogen have made the most rapid
recovery.

VARIETY AND STOCK TESTS OF PECAN AND WALNUT TREES
State Project No. 48 G. H. Blackmon, Leader

The trees in the variety orchard went into dormancy very late
in 1931. Seemingly as a result of this condition, together with


Coxville fine
sandy loam
Bladen fine
sandy loam
Norfolk
sandy loam
Coxville fine
sandy loam
Norfolk fine
sand
Orangeburg
sand
Norfolk fine
sandy loam
Norfolk fine
sandy loam
Norfolk fine
sandy loam
Norfolk fine
sandy loam
Norfolk fine
sand
Norfolk sand
Norfolk fine
sand
Norfolk fine
sand
Bladen fine
sandy loam




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