• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Agricultural experiment stations...
 Report of the dean for researc...
 Report of the administrative...
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering
 Agronomy
 Animal science
 Botany
 Dairy science
 Editorial
 Entomology and nematology
 Food science
 Forestry
 Fruit crops
 Ornamental horticulture
 Plant pathology
 Poultry science
 Soils
 Statistics
 Vegetable crops
 Veterinary science
 Brooksville beef cattle research...
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Everglades station
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Range cattle station
 Sub-tropical station
 Suwannee Valley station
 West Florida station
 Big Bend horticultural laborat...
 Potato investigations laborato...
 Watermelon and grape investigations...
 Federal-state weather forecasting...
 Index
 Historic note






Group Title: Annual report, University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00016
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027385
Volume ID: VID00016
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Agricultural experiment stations staff
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Report of the dean for research
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Agricultural economics
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Agronomy
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Animal science
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Botany
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Dairy science
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Editorial
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Entomology and nematology
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Food science
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Forestry
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Fruit crops
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Ornamental horticulture
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Plant pathology
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Poultry science
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Soils
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Statistics
        Page 104
    Vegetable crops
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Veterinary science
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Brooksville beef cattle research station
        Page 111
    Central Florida station
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Citrus station
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 130
            Page 131
    Everglades station
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 140
            Page 141
        Plantation field laboratory
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        South Florida field laboratory
            Page 150
            Page 151
        Strawberry and vegetable field laboratory
            Page 152
            Page 153
    North Florida station
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Marianna unit
            Page 160
    Range cattle station
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    Sub-tropical station
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
    Suwannee Valley station
        Page 170
        Page 171
    West Florida station
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Big Bend horticultural laboratory
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Potato investigations laboratory
        Page 178
        Page 179
    Watermelon and grape investigations laboratory
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Federal-state weather forecasting service
        Page 183
        Page 184
    Index
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
    Historic note
        Page 188
Full Text



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
w INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA









AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT STATIONS




HUME LIBRARY

JUL 3 1969

I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida

ANNUAL REPORT


FOR JULY 1 TO DECEMBER 31, 1967





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA










AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT STATIONS











ANNUAL REPORT

FOR JULY 1 TO DECEMBER 31, 1967




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CONTENTS

Page
Agricultural Experiment Stations Staff ............................ 4
Report of the Dean for Research ......... ................... ..... 14
Report of the Administrative Manager .............................. 23

MAIN STATION
Agricultural Economics .......................................... 25
Agricultural Engineering .......................................... 31
Agronomy ......................................................... 34
Animal Science ............................................ ....... 42
Botany ........................................ ..................... 50
Dairy Science ....................................... ......... 53
Editorial ....................................... .................. 57
Entomology and Nematology ......................................... 67
Food Science ............................. ............. .......... 74
Forestry ....................................... ................... 79
Fruit Crops .............................................. ........ 82
Ornamental Horticulture ........................................... 84
Plant Pathology ............................ ......... ............ .. 88
Poultry Science ................................... ...... ....... 92
Soils .............................. ...................... ........ 95
Statistics ........................................................ 104
Vegetable Crops .................................................. 105
Veterinary Science ................................................ 108

BRANCH STATIONS
Brooksville Beef Cattle Research Station .......................... 111
Central Florida Station .......................................... 112
Citrus Station .................................................... 117
Indian River Field Laboratory .................................. 130
Everglades Station ........... ..................................... 132
fIndian River Field Laboratory .................................. 140
jPlantation Field Laboratory .................................... 142
Gulf Coast Station ................................................ 145
South Florida Field Laboratory ................................. 150
Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory ...................... 152
North Florida Station ..................................................... 154
Marianna Unit .................. ................................ 160
JRange Cattle Station .............................................. 161
Sub-Tropical Station ................. ............................. 164
Suwannee Valley Station .......................... ........* ..* ......170
West Florida Station ................... ......................... 172

FIELD LABORATORIES
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory ................................. 176
Potato Investigations Laboratory ........ .......................... 178
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory ................... 180
Federal-State Weather Forecasting Service ......................... 183







The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion
of others of suitable composition.







December 31, 1967

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS STAFF

July to December 1967

BOARD OF REGENTS

Chester Howell Ferguson, Tampa, Chairman
Wayne McCall, Ocala, Vice Chairman
John C. Pace, Pensacola
Louis C. Murray, Orlando
Henry Kramer, Jacksonville
Clarence L. Menser, Vero Beach
Mrs. Margaret Behringer, Fort Lauderdale
Mrs. L. C. (Carolyn) Pearce, Coral Gables
Burke ribler, Lakeland

ADMINISTRATION

Telephone University of Florida, 376-3261

Stephen C. O'Connell, President of University, Ext. 2311
E. T. York, Jr., Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture, Ext. 2711
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Dean for Research, Ext. 2753
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assistant Director, Ext. 2754
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Assistant Director, Ext. 2810
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Assistant, Ext. 2865
W. H. Jones, Jr., M. Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Services,
Ext. 3230

ACADEMIC STAFF

The following abbreviations after name and title of experiment Station
Staff indicate cooperation with other organizations:
Coll.--University of Florida College of Agriculture
Ext.--University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service
USDA--United States Department of Agriculture
USWB--United States Weather Bureau, Department of Commerce
FCC--Florida Citrus Commission
FAMU--Florida A&M University, Tallahassee

NOTE: Liaison appointments, as indicated following certain named individuals,
represent responsibility for coordination, planning and conduct of
cooperative research witn the department indicated.

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE (Zip Code 32601)
Telephone University of Florida 376-3261, Area Code 904

Agricultural Economics Department, 162 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext 2153

K. R. Tefertiller, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and Chairman; also Coll.
and Ext.
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate Agricultural Economist
H. D. Brodnax, M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Veg. Crops
T. L. Brooks, Jr., B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
H. B. Clark, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist, Coll.
B. R. Eddleman, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
W. F. Edwards, M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Ani. Sci.;
also Coll.
J. R. Greenman, B.S.A., LLB., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
G. C. Jones, M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
W. B. Lester, Ph.D., Research Economist, FCC
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Ani. Sci.;
also Coll.
W. T. Manley, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, USDA
L. H. Myers, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, FCC
J. E. Mullin, B.S., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
C. E. Murphree, D.P.A., Associate Agricultural Economist and liaison with
Forestry; also Coll.
J. L. Pearson, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA
L. Polopolus, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, FCC
J. E. Reynolds, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
G. N. Rose, B.S., Associate Agricultural Economist, Orlando






B. J. Smith, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist and liaison with Dairy
Sci.
C. N. Smith, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Orn. Hort.;
also Coll.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Fruit Crops
F. W. Williams, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, FCC

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Forestry,
Ornamental Horticulture)

Agricultural Engineering Department, 7 Frazier Rogers Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2848

D. T. Kinard, Ph.D., Agricultural Engineer and Chairman; also Coll. and
Ext.
C. D. Baird, M.S.E., Int. Research Associate
E. K. Bowman, B.S., Associate Industrial Engineer, USDA
R. E. Choate, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer, and liaison with Forestry; Coll.
R. C. Fluck, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer and liaison with Animal
Science
J. J. Gaffney, M.S.A.E., Assistant in Agricultural Engineering, USDA
F. E. Henry, B.I.E., Assistant Industrial Engineer, USDA
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer and liaison with Agron.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Animal
Science, Soils)

Agronomy Department, 304 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2181

D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Agronomist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
Fred Clark, M.S.A., Agronomist and liaison with Ag. Eng.
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Agronomist and liaison with Plant Path.
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
Kuell Hinson, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist, USDA
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Agronomist and liaison with Ent.
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist and liaison with Ag. Econ.
J. E. Mickelson, A.B., Assistant Climatologist, USDA
A. J. Norden, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
C. B. Owens, Ph.D., Agronomist, FAMU
P. L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
G. M. Prine, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist and liaison with Soils
A. O. Rillo, Ph.D., Research Associate
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Agronomist, Coll.
O. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist and liaison with Ani. Sci.; Coll.
S. C. Schank, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist; also Coll.
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist and liaison with Forestry
Aziz Shiralipour, Ph.D., Research Associate
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist; also Plant Science
H. E. Warmke, Ph.D., Geneticist, USDA; liaison with Plant Path.
T. E. Webb, M.S., Assistant Agronomist and Manager of Seed Foundation
S. H. West, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist, USDA
Merrill Wilcox, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Engineering,
Dairy Science, Entomology, Forestry, Plant Pathology, Soils)

Animal Science Department, 253 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2613

T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist and liaison with
Poultry; also Coll.
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. W. Carpenter, Ph.D., Associate Meat Scientist; also Coll.
G. E. Combs, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and liaison with Ag. Eng.; also Coll.
J. R. Crockett, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Geneticist; also Coll.
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Director, Division of
Biological Sciences
J. F. Easley, M.S., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and liaison with Vet. Sci.;
also Coll.
Marvin Koger, Ph.D., Animal Geneticist and liaison with Soils; also Coll.
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Associate Animal Husbandman and liaison with Vet.
Sci.; also Coll.
J. E. Moore, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.






A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Meat Scientist and liaison with Food Science; also Coll.
R. L. bsirley, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
D. L. Wakeman, M.S.A., Associate Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and liaison with Vet. Sci.; also
Coll.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Animal Physiologist and liaison with Poultry; also
Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Food Science, Forestry, Soils,
Veterinary Science)

Botany Department, 318 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2441

Leland Shanor, Ph.D., Botanist and Chairman; also Coll.
D. S. Anthony, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
J. Beckner, B.S.A., Research Associate
J. H. Davis, Ph.D., Botanist; Coll.
J. S. Davis, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist; also Coll.
E. S. Ford, Ph.D., Botanist; also Coll.
G. J. Fritz, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist; also Coll.
L. A. Garrard, Ph.D., Research Associate
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
J. W. Kimbrough, Ph.D., Assistant Mycologist; also Coll.
J. T. Mullins, Ph.D., Associate Botanist; also Coll.
R. C. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist; also Coll.
D. B. Ward, Ph.D., Associate Botanist; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in department of Plant Pathology)

Dairy Science Department, Dairy Science Building, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2861

C. B. Browning, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Chairman; also Coll. and
Ext.
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman Emeritus
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist
H. H. Head, Ph.D., Assistant Physiologist; also Coll.
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Associate Dairy Technologist and liaison with Food
Science; also Coll.
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Nutritionist and liaison with Agron.; also Coll.
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Microbiologist; also Coll.
G. W. Powell, Ph.D., Interim Research Associate
K. L. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Microbiologist; also Coll.
C. J. Wilcox, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist; also Coll.
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agronomy, Food Science, Veterinary Science)

Dairy Research Unit, Hague Phone 904, 462-1016

West Florida Dairy Unit, Chipley Phone 904, 638-0544

J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Dairy Husbandman

Editorial Department, 215 Rolfs Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2818

Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Editor and Chairman; also Ext.
E. P. Fisher, M.Ed., Assistant Editor
K. B. Meurlott, M.A., Assistant Editor; also Ext.
Mary C. Williams, M.A., Assistant Editor

Entomology and Nematology Department, 344-B, McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2737

W. G. Eden, Ph.D., Entomologist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
F. S. Blanton, Ph.D., Entomologist; Coll.
W. T. Calaway, M.S., Assistant Nematologist; Coll.
D. H. Habeck, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist and liaison with Veg. Crops;
also Coll.
L. A. Hetrick, Ph.D., Entomologist; Coll.
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist and liaison with Orn. Hort.;
also Coll.
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist and liaison with Agronomy; also Coll.
J. E. Lloyd, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist; Coll.; Biological Sciences






Milledge Murphey, Ph.D., Entomologist; Coll.
J. H. O'Bannon, Ph.D., Assistant Hematologist, USDA, Orlando
V. G. Perry, Ph.D., Nematologist and liaison with Fruit Crops; also Coll.
W. L. Peters, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist, FAMU
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Associate Apiculturist
G. C. Smart, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Nematologist and liaison with Soils; also
Coll.
W. W. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist; Coll.
K. J. Stone, M.S., Research Associate
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist Emeritus
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
T. J. Walker, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist; Coll.
R. C. Wilkinson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist and liaison with Forestry

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Soils)

Food Science Department, Food Technology Laboratory, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2991

R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biohemist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
E. M. Ahmed, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist; also Coll.
R. P. Bates, Ph.D., Assistant Food Technologist
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Horticulturist and liaison with Fruit Crops
J. H. Johnson, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist and liaison with Dairy Sci.
F. W. Knapp, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist and liaison with Ani. Sci.; also
Coll.
Margaret E. Merkeley, M.S., Assistant in Food Technology
H. A. Moye, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist and liaison with Poultry Sci.
R. C. Robbins, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
R. K. Showalter, A.S., Horticulturist and liaison with Veg. Crops
d. P. Thompson, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
Ruth 0. Townsend, R.A., Senior Research Assistant in Nutrition and
liaison with Veg. Crops
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Biochemist
W. B. Wheeler, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Engineering,
Animal Science, Dairy)

Forestry Department, 305 Rolfs Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2878

J. L. Gray, M.F., Associate Forester and Chairman; also Coll.
S. L. Beckwith, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
G. W. Cornwell, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
P. W. Frazer, M.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
R. E. Goddard, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist; also Coll.
J. B. Huffman, D.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
C. M. Kaufman, Ph.D., Forester and liaison with Ani. Sci., also Coll.
J. W. Miller, Jr., M.S.F., Forester; also Coll.
F. L. Newby, M.S., Research Associate
D. M. Post, M.S.F., Assistant Forester; also Coll.
H. P. Roggen, Ph.D., Research Associate
R. A. Schmidt, Ph.D., Assistant Forester and liaison with Plant Pathology;
also Coll.
W. H. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Forester and liaison with Soils; also Coll.
A. E. Squillace, Ph.D., Forester, USDA, Olustee
R. G. Stanley, Ph.D., Forest Physiologist; also Coll.
R. K. Strickland, M.S.F., Int. Research Associate; also Coll.
E. T. Sullivan, D.F., Associate Forester and liaison with Ag. Econ.; also
Coll.
K. R. Swinford, Ph.D., Forester; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Entomology, Soils)

Fruit Crops Department, 108-A McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2593

A. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. H. diggs, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
D. W. Buchanan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.
J. F. Gerber, Ph.D., Associate Climatologist; also Coll.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S. Horticulturist
W. 3. Sherman, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.
J. Soule, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,






Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Food Science, Plant Pathology,
Soils)

Ornamental Horticulture Department, 406 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2821

E. C. Roberts, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist and Chairman; also Coll.
and Ext.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Ornamental Horticulturist
G. C. Horn, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist and liaison with Soils; also
Coll.
J. A. Joiner, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist; also Coll.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist and liaison
with Plant Path.
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist
C. E. Whitcomb, M.S., Research Associate

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Entomology, Plant Pathology, Soils)

Plant Pathology Department, Building 833, Radio Road, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2371

L. H. Purdy, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and liaison with Veg. Crops
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist and liaison with Orn.
Short.
a. H. Luke, Ph.D.; Plant Pathologist and liaison with Agronomy, USDA
C. a. Miller, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Patnologist and liaison with Agron.
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and liaison with Orn. ;ort.
D. E. Purcifull, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
D. A. Roberts, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist; Coll.
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist and liaison with Veg. Crops;
Coll.
F. W. Zettler, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Virologist

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Forestry,
Ornamental Horticulture)

Plant Science Section, 202 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2851

A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist and Head

Poultry Science Department, Archer Road, 32601
Pnone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 3221

R. H. harms, Ph.D., Poultry Nutritionist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
B. L. Damron, Ph.D., Assistant Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. L. Fry, Ph.D., Associate Poultry Products Technologist; also Coll.
H. R. Wilson, Ph.D., Associate Poultry Physiologist; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Animal Science, Food
Science, Soils, Veterinary Science)

Soils Department, 106 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2363

C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Soil Microbiologist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Biochemist and liaison with Ani. Sci.; also Coll.
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist; also Coll.
V. W. Carlisle, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist; also Coll.
C. L. Coultas, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Chemist, FAMU
J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Biochemist and liaison with Veg. Crops; also Coll.
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Fruit Crops
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Soil Physicist and liaison with Ag. Eng.; also Coll.
C. C. Hortenstine, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Associate Soil Surveyor
T. C. Mathews, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Forestry
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Agron.
D. F. Rothwell, Ph.D., Associate Soil Microbiologist and liaison with
Poultry; also Coll.
D. O. Spinks, Ph.D., Soil Chemist; Coll.
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soil Chemist
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Orn. Hort.





H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Associate Chemist

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Animal
Science, Entomology, Forestry, Ornamental Horticulture)

Statistics Department, 9 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2687

William Mendenhall, Ph.D., Statistician and Chairman; Coll.
F. C. Barnett, Ph.D., Assistant Statistician; also Coll.
R. P. Gupta, Ph.D., Int. Assistant Statistician; Coll.
F. G. Martin, Ph.D., Associate Statistician; also Coll.

Vegetable Crops Department, 305 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2578

F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
D. D. Gull, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
S. J. Locascio, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; also Coll.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Food Science, Plant Pathology,
Soils)

Veterinary Science Department, Archer Road, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2568

G. T. Edds, D.V.M., Ph.D., Veterinarian and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. E. Bradley, D.V.M., Ph.D., Assistant Parasitologist and liaison with
Animal Sci.; also Coll.
J. A. Himes, V.M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Pharmacologist and liaison with Food
Sci.; also Coll.
C. A. Holden, M.S., Assistant in Microbiology
W. W. Kirkham, D.V.M., Ph.D., Associate Virologist and liaison with
Dairy Sci.
F. C. Neal, D.V.M., M.S., Associate Veterinarian and liaison with Dairy
Sci.; also Coll.
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian and liaison with Dairy Sci.
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Ph.D., Pathologist and liaison with Poultry Sci.;
also Coll.
W. M. Taylor, Jr., D.V.M., M.S., Assistant Microbiologist, Fort Lauderdale
F. H. White, Ph.D., Bacteriologist and liaison with Dairy Sci.

(See also liaison appointments in department of Animal Science)


BRANCH STATIONS

BROOKSVILLE BEEF CATTLE RESEARCH STATION, Brooksville 33512
Phone 904, 796-3385

W. C. Burns, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman and Head, USDA

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, Box 909, Sanford 32771
Phone 305, 322-4134

J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
G. L. Greene, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
H. L. Rhoades, Ph.D., Associate Nematologist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
J. O. Strandberg, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Horticulturist

CITRUS STATION, P.O. Box 1088, Lake Alfred 33850
Phone 813, 372,1151

H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head
C. A. Anderson, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Chemist
L. B. Anderson, Jr., B.S.A., Research Asst. in Entomology-Pathology
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Chemist, FCC
J. A. Attaway, Ph.D., Associate Chemist, FCC
R. W. Barron, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC






J. G. Blair, B.S.M.E., Associate Mechanical Engineer, FCC
R. F. Brooks, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
G. E. Brown, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist, FCC
B. S. Buslig, M.S., Research Associate, FCC
G. E. Coppock, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, FCC
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Research Assistant
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Assistant Chemical Engineer, FCC
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Research Associate
A. W. Feldman, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
P. J. Fellers, Ph.D., Assistant Food Technologist, FCC
Francine E. Fisher, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. B. Graves, Jr., Ph.D., Research Associate
William Grierson, Ph.D., Horticulturist
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Research Assistant
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
Pamela K. Hearon, B.S., Assistant Librarian
S. L. Hedden, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
Rudolph Hendrickson, B.S., Associate Chemist
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Associate Bacteriologist, FCC
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Research Assistant
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Associate Chemist, FCC
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Entomologist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Chemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
D. H. Lenker, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Horticulturist
S. K. Long, Ph.D., Assistant Industrial Bacteriologist
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC
M. D. Maraulja, B.S., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Chemist, FCC
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Biochemist
M. F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
Roger Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
R. L. Phillips, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. L. Reese, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Pectin Chemist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Nematologist
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist, FCC
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Research Assistant
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
T. Adair Wheaton, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
J. O. Whiteside, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
J. D. Whitney, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
W. C. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Associate Chemist, FCC

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce 33451
Phone 305, 461-4371

Mortimer Cohen, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. C. Bullock, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
D. V. Calvert, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Chemist

EVERGLADES STATION, P. O. Drawer A, Belle Glade 33430
Phone 305, 996-3063

W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist and Head
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
D. W. Beardsley, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
R. D. Berger, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
T. W. Casselman, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
J. E. Clayton, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
W. W. Deen, Jr., M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
W. G. Genung, M.S., Associate Entomologist
V. E. Green, Jr., Agronomist (on Iv.)
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Horticulturist
B. W. Hayes, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist






M. J. Janes, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Animal Husbandman
F. leGrand, M.S., Assistant Agronomist
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Horticulturist
G. H. Snyder, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
H. D. Whittemore, B.S.A.E., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
J. A. Winchester, Ph.D., Associate Nematologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Horticulturist

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce 33450
Phone 305, 461-6193

N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Entomologist
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Agronomist

Plantation Field Laboratory, 5305 S. W. 12th. St., Fort Lauderdale 33314
Phone 305, 583-5353

F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. D. Blackburn, M.S., Associate Agronomist,USDA
H. I. Borders, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Associate Turf Technologist
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
W. H. Speir, Assistant Hydraulic Engineer, USDA
K. K. Stewart, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist, USDA
E. H. Stewart, M.S., Associate Soil Physicist, USDA
I. L. Stringfellow, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
L. W. Weldon, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist, USDA

GULF COAST STATION, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Bradenton 33505
Phone 813, 755-1568

E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist and Head
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
A. W. Engelhard, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
F. J. Marousky, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist, USDA
Amegda J. Overman, M.S., Assistant Soils Microbiologist
W. E. Waters, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist

South Florida Field Laboratory, Box 973, Immokalee 33934
Phone 813, 657-2835

P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
C. H. Blazquez, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist

Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory, Route 2, Box 629, Dover 33527
Phone 813, 752-7649

E. E. Albregts, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
C. M. Howard, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, P. O. Box 470, Quincy 32351
Phone 904, 627-6847; Tobacco Section, 627-6691

W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist and Head
J. B. Aitken, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
F. S. Baker, Jr., M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
D. R. Davis, A.B., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
C. E. Dean, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
F. M. Rhoads, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Associate Entomologist

Marianna Unit, Box 504, Marianna 32446
Phone 904, 482-8061

R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

RANGE CATTLE STATION, Ona 33865
Phone 813, 735-3121

H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Head






C. L. Dantzman, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
E. M. hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Animal Scientist
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Associate Animal Husbandman

SUB-TROPICAL STATION, 18905 S. W. 280th Street, Homestead 33030
Phone 305, 247-4624

R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Entomologist
H. H. Bryan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
C. W. Campbell, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
S. E. Malo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. B. Marlatt, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. T. McMillan, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
P. G. Orth, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. W. Strobel, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Horticulturist

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION, Box 657, Live Oak 32060
Phone 904, 362-1725

H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist and Head
G. R. Hollis, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist

WEST FLORIDA STATION, Route 3, Jay 32565
Phone 904, 994-5215

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Soils Chemist and Head
J. E. Bertrand, Ph.D., Associate Animal Scientist
L. S. Dunavin, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist


FIELD LABORATORIES

Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, Box 539, Monticello 32344
Phone 904, 997-2597

H. W. Young, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist and Head
W. J. French, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
W. H. Whitcomb, Ph.D., Entomologist

Potato Investigations Laboratory, Box 728, Hastings 32045
Phone 904, 692-1792

D. R. Hensel, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist and Head
R. B. Workman, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
J. R. Schumaker, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Box 388, Leesburg 32748
Phone 904, 787-3423

J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head
W. C. Adlerz, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
Carlos Balerdi, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
C. H. Curran, D.Sc., Entomologist
J. A. Mortensen, Ph.D., Assistant Geneticist
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist

Weather Forecasting Service, Box 1068, Lakeland 33802
Phone 813, 686-3998 and 682-4221

W. O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist and Head, USWB
J. G. Georg, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
L. L. Benson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
G. R. Davis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. M. Hinson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
G. W. Leber, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. F. Mincey, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
O. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. T. Sherouse, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB







W. R. Wallis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB





REPORT OF DEAN FOR RESEARCH

For those who regularly read the Annual Report of the Florida Agricultur-
al Experiment Stations, it will be obvious that certain changes have been made
this year. Several circumstances have contributed to this. Following a study
of the use of funds for publication, a decision was made to complete this re-
port by photo-offset reproduction of computer print-outs.
In reviewing the audience which this publication serves, it is apparent
that although numerous agricultural producers do acquire and read this report,
its chief benefit is to professional workers in the field of agricultural re-
search. We feel it is important to be able to continue to make this infor-
mation available and we intend to try to do so without any appreciable reduc-
tion in the quality or coverage of material.
The Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations have, for many years, cooper-
ated closely with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Approximately a year ago,
we elected to become a participating member in a national information retrieval
service known as the Current' Research Information System and more popularly
known as the "CRIS" Repdrting System. Cooperation with this program will
mean that all Florida research projects will be reported and become a part of
this system, available to any of the states in the United States and to agri-
cultural workers throughout the world. We have felt it would improve the
efficiency of the preparation of our Annual Report to use the information which
is reported on an annual basis as a part of the CRIS System. The present
document, therefore, is largely a computerized type-out of the Annual Progress
Report which each research worker prepares for inclusion into this national
information retrieval system.
In making the change-over, it has been necessary for us to change the
time period which the report will cover. Formerly, our reports have been made
on a fiscal year basis. The CRIS System has called for a calendar year report
and in adjusting to this system, therefore, this first report covers the period
from July 1, 1967 through December 31, 1967. Subsequent reports will cover a
full calendar year.
The resignation and retirement of Dr. J. R. Beckenbach was effective
December 1, 1967. Dr. Beckenbach served the Agricultural Experiment Stations,
its employees and the people of Florida in a most exemplary way and it is with
extreme regret and a great awareness of the contribution which he has made,
that we acknowledge his retirement.
A major change has since taken place in the administration of agricultur-
al research by combining the duties of the Director of the Florida Agricultur-
al Experiment Stations with the responsibility of coordinating the entire re-
search program for the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. In
assuming these duties it shall be in my intend to try to develop the best
possible research program with resources made available so that agriculture
in the state of Florida may continue to occupy its leading role in the develop-
ment of the state's economy.



/ohn W. Sites
Dean for Research

RESEARCH PROGRAM

A major contributing factor in the rapid and continuing economic growth
and development of Florida is agricultural research. Florida has made even more
progress in recent years than the national averages in terms or percentage
gains in cash farm income. But Florida still has many opportunities for even
further growth and development of the agricultural enterprises, even though
income is now well over one billion dollars annual cash farm income. This
is made possible by research on many crops and commodities as Florida's agri-
culture continues to become more diversified.
The entire research program of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
is planned and conducted by use of formal written and approved projects which
document all research. This system provides a great deal of flexibility which
is highly desirable in a research program. This provides the opportunities
needed to work on new problems as they occur. The research program is prima-
rily a mission-oriented effort aimed at solving the problems of agriculture.
As problems arise new projects are initiated. When problems are solved projects
are terminated. Some are revised periodically and continue as long as there
is a need. At the present time there is a continuing trend toward greater
team effort than in the past. Problems are more difficult and require the
interdisciplinary approach for best results. As new problems arise and new
projects are planned they are carefully screened and reviewed before activation.
Maximum coordination now is achieved by close working relations within the
entire system of main station departments and numerous branch stations located
throughout the state. Following is the status of the projects of the entire
program for the period July 1, 1967 to December 31, 1967:





PROJECTS STATE HATCH REGIONAL McINTIRE-STENNIS TOTAL

Initiated 7/1/67-12/31/67 10 4 1 0 24
Closed 25 4 2 1 32
Revised 2 1 1 0 4
Total 298 109 7 7 421


A major effort is now underway to adopt a new form of research documenta-
tion known as the Current Research Information Service (CRIS). This system
is one developed within the USDA and will include all state research work as
well as all federal agricultural research. As this system is adopted the
program will become more computerized and will provide current information
for both the management of research as well as current information of value
to research personnel. In the changeover, all projects at all locations will
become separately identified projects and in future years the actual numbers
of projects will become somewhat larger than those reported here. Projects
however will be coordinated with even greater effectiveness and it is hoped
the research program will improve accordingly.
Current research is reported to the public in many ways, primarily through
published articles, bulletins, books, conferences, and meetings. Within
the organization many field days, short courses and conferences are held, to
which the public is invited. These are held throughout the year at various
departments, branch stations and field laboratories.
Since projects reported here are arranged by departments and stations,
the reader is referred to the index in order to obtain complete and detailed
information on a given question, topic, commodity or process.


CA

As of December 31, 1967 the
or under contract:

Citrus Station,
Lake Alfred

Plantation Field Laboratory,
Fort Lauderdale

Central Florida Station,
Sanford

Ridge Ornamental Horticulture
Laboratory,
Apopka

North Florida Station,
Quincy

Marianna Unit,
Marianna

Indian River Field Laboratory,
Ft. Pierce

Range Cattle Experiment Station,
Ona

Sub-Tropical Station,
Homestead


IPITAL IMPROVEMENTS

following major buildings were either complete


Office and Laboratory Bldg. 80% complete


Offices and Laboratories 90% complete


Offices and Laboratories 90% complete


Office and Laboratories


Tobacco Processing Laboratory


Swine Laboratory and Office


Library and Conference Room


Library, Conference Room,
Offices

Entomology and Pathology Bldg.


Complete


90% complete


85% complete


Complete



85% complete

50% complete


An additional $334,576.00 interest earnings was released and architects
were assigned. Preliminary work was begun on the following projects with
bidding and construction to be in 1968:


1. Service Building Plantation Field Laboratory, Fort Lauderdale.
2. Water Tank Citrus Station, Lake Alfred.
3. Greenhouse-Headhouse, Plantation Field Laboratory, Fort Lauderdale.
4. Library Conference Building Everglades Station, Belle Glade.
5. Equipment Storage Building Everglades Station, Belle Glade
6. Greenhouse-Headhouse Central Florida Station, Sanford.
7. Headhouse-Farm Equipment Building Everglades Station, Belle Glade.







STAFF CHANGES

Appointments

William Roberts Latham III, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., July 1,
1967
Robert Parker Bates, Asst. Food Technologist, Food Sci. Dept., July 1, 1967
Charles Everett Powe, Int. Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., July 1,
1967
Willard Hall Whitcomb, Entomologist, Big Bend Hort. Lab., July 1, 1967
Jerry Mack Baskin, Int. Research Associate, Agronomy Dept., July 1, 1967
W. Bernard Lester, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., July 1, 1967, FCC
David Woodrow Parvin, Jr., Int. Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., July 1,
1967
Claire Ann Holden, Asst. in Microbiology, Vet. Sci. Dept., July 1, 1967
Carl Direlle Baird, Int. Research Associate, Ag. Eng. Dept., July 1, 1967
James Oliver Strandberg, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Central Fla. Station, July 1,
1967
George Wythe Powell, Int. Research Associate, Dairy Sci. Dept., July 17, 1967
Carl Erwin Whitcomb, Int. Research Associate, Orn. Hort. Dept., July 24, 1967
Laurence Henry Purdy, Plant Pathologist and Chairman, Plant Path. Dept.,
Aug. 1, 1967
James Bruce Aitken, Asst. Horticulturist, North Fla. Station, Aug. 1, 1967
Daniel Hoover Willits, Asst. in Ag. Engineering, Ag. Eng. Dept., Aug. 16,
1967
Earl Eugene Albregts, Asst. Horticulturist, Strawberry E Vegetable Lab.,
Sept 1, 1967
Bela Stepehn Buslig, Research Associate, Citrus Station, Sept. 1, 1967
Robert Allen Schmidt, Asst. Forester, Forestry Dept., Sept. 1, 1967
James Thomas McClave, Research Associate, Statistics Dept., Sept. 15, 1967
Gladstone Alva Solomon, Asst. in Ag. Econ., Ag. Econ. Dept., Sept 22, 1967
Jack Oliver Whiteside, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Citrus Station, Oct. 1, 1967
Alfredo Ochoa Rillo, Int. Research Associate, Agron. Dept., Oct. 1, 1967
Robert Thomas McMillen, Jr., Asst. Plant Pathologist, Sub-Tropical Sta., Oct. 1,
1967
Jack Edward Mickelson, Asst. Climatologist, Agron. Dept., Oct. 15, 1967, USDA
Henricus Patrus Roggen, Research Associate, Forestry, Oct. 16, 1967
William Murry Taylor, Jr., Asst. Microbiologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Nov. 1, 1967
Francis John Marousky, Asst. Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station, Nov. 1, 1967
Charles Marion Howard, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Strawberry & Vegetable Lab.,
Nov. 1, 1967



Promotions

L. R. Arrington, Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Dept., July 1, 1967
D. L. Wakeman, Associate Animal Husbandman, Animal Sci. Dept., July 1, 1967
G. E. Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Animal Sci. Dept., July 1, 1967
D. B. Ward, Associate Botanist, Botany Dept., July 1, 1967
G. C. Smart, Jr., Associate Nematologist, Ent. Dept., July 1, 1967
D. H. Habeck, Associate Entomologist, Ent. Dept., July 1, 1967
F. W. Knapp, Associate Biochemist, Food Sci. Dept., July 1, 1967
James Soule, Horticulturist, Fruit Crops Dept., July 1, 1967
G. C. Horn, Turf Technologist, Orn. Hort. Dept., July 1, 1967
A. A. Cook, Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology Dept., July 1, 1967
H. R. Wilson, Associate Poultry Physiologist, Poultry Sci. Dept., July 1,
1967
V. W. Carlisle, Associate Soil Chemist, Soils Dept., July 1, 1967
S. E. Leland, Jr., Parasitologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., July 1, 1967
F. H. White, Bacteriologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., July 1, 1967
D. D. Gull, Associate Horticulturist, Vegetable Crops Dept., July 1, 1967
T. J. Sheehan, Ornamental Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., July 1, 1967
H. L. Rhoades, Associate Nematologist, Central Florida Station, July 1, 1967
R. B. Forbes, Associate Soil Chemist, Central Florida Station, July 1, 1967
W. F. Newhall, Biochemist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1967
W. W. Deen, Jr., Assistant Agricultural Engineering, Everglades Station,
July 1, 1967
J. A. Winchester, Associate Nematologist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1967
L. W. Weldon, Associate Agronomist, Plantation Field Lab., July 1, 1967
R. D. Blackburn, Associate Agronomist, Plantation Field Lab., July 1, 1967
J. R. Orsenigo, Horticulturist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1967
J. P. Jones, Associate Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Station, July 1, 1967
M. C. Lutrick, Associate Soil Chemist, West Florida Station, July 1, 1967
George Roland Freeman, Assistant Director, Agricultural Experiment Station,
July 1, 1967
Richard Matthew Baranowski, Entomologist, Sub-Tropical Station, July 1, 1967






Leonard Sypret Dunavin, Jr., Associate Agronomist, West Fla. Station, July 1,
1967
Ralph Burnes Workman, Associate Entomologist, Potato Lab., July 1, 1967
William Burgess Tappan, Associate Entomologist, North Fla. Station, July 1,
1967
Charles C. Hortenstine, Associate Soil Chemist, Soils Dept., July 1, 1967
John Wilbur Sites, Dean for Research, Administration, Dec. 1, 1967





Resignations

Dale Truman Sechler, Associate Agronomist, North Florida Station, July 15, 1967
Willard Osborne Ash, Statistician, Statistics Dept., July 31, 1967
George Frisbie Ryan, Asst. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, July 31, 1967
Arlo James Minden, Asst. Agricultural Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., July 31,
1967
Robert Cleon Nims, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Strawberry Lab., August 31, 1967
Walter Gerald Fletcher, Int. Asst. in Pharmacology, Vet. Sci. Dept., Aug. 27,
1967
Stanley Edward Leland, Jr., Parasitologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Sept. 13, 1967
James Richard Collins, Asst. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, Sept. 18, 1967
Thomas Cochis, Asst. Ornamental Horticulturist, Everglades Station, Sept. 27,
1967
Donald Karl Rudser, Int. Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., Oct. 16,
1967, Orlando
Herbert Max Vines, Associatp Biochemist, Citrus Station, Nov. 20, 1967, FCC
Rishi Muni Singh, Int. Res. Assoc., Agronomy Dept., Dec. 31, 1967





Leave of Absence

James Marvin Wing, Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Dept., to Bogota, Colombia for FAO
United Nations Mission, Aug. 1, 1967





Transfers

Edgar Warren McElwee, Ornamental Horticulturist, to Extension Service, July 1,
1967





Retirements

Leonard Erwin Swanson, Parasitologist, Veterinary Sci. Dept., Aug. 31, 1967
Joseph Piley Deckenbach, Director, Agricultural Experiment Station, Nov. 30,
1967




Deaths

James 'undav Walter, Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Experiment Station, Nov. 12,
1967





Retirements Prior to 1967-68
(Continued on Emeritus Status)

Gulie Iargrove Blackmon, Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., 1954
Arthur Forrest Camp, Vice-Director in Charge, Citrus Station, 1956
Ouida Davis Abbott, Home Economist, Food Tech. and Nutr., 1958






Lillian E. Arnold, Associate Botanist, Plant Pathology Dept., 1958
P. T. Dix Arnold, Associate Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Dept., 1959
Jesse Roy Christie, Nematologist, Ent. Dept., 1960
Mark W. Emmel, Veterinarian, Vet. Sci. Dept., 1961
J. Francis Cooper, Editor and Head, Editorial Dept., 1961
Joseph Robert Neller, Soils Chemist, Soils, Dept., 1962
Willard M. Fifield, Provost for Agriculture, 1962
William L. Thompson, Entomologist, Citrus Station, 1962
Ida K. Cresap, Librarian, Agricultural Library, 1963
Norman R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman and Head, Poultry Sci. Dept., 1963
Arther H. Eddins, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Pot. Inv. Lab., 1963
Raymond B. Becker, Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Sci. Dept., 1963
William Angus Carver, Agronomist, Agronomy, Jan. 31, 1964
Archie Newton Tissot, Entomologist, Ent. Dept., June 30, 1964
Henry Glenn Hamilton, Economist and Head of Dept., Ag. Econ. Dept., June 30,
1965
Robert Verrill Allison, Fiber Technologist, Everglades Station, June 30, 1965
David Gustaf Alfred Kelbert, Assoc. Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station, June 3C
1965
Loren Haight Stover, Asst. in Horticulture, Watermelon & Grape Lab., June 30,
1965
John Wallace Wilson, Entomologist and Head, Central Fla. Station, June 30,
1966
James Sheldon Shoemaker, Horticulturist, Fruit Crops Dept., June 30, 1966
Arthur Minis Phillips, Assoc. Entomologist, Ent. Dept., June 30, 1966
Russell Willis Wallace, Assoc. Agronomist, North Fla. Station, Sept. 30, 1966
Earl Noel McCubbin, Horticulturist, Potato Lab., Oct. 31, 1966
William Conway Price, Virologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Dec. 31, 1966
Frederick Burean Smith, Soil Microbiologist, Soils Dept., June 30, 1967
Rowland Barnes French, Biochemist, Food Sci. Dept., June 30, 1967
Benjamin Franklin Whitner, Jr., Asst. Horticulturist, Central Fla. Station,
June 30, 1967
John Runyon Large, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Big Bend Lab., June 30, 1967
Leonard Erwin Swanson, Parasitologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Aug. 31, 1967
Joseph Riley Beckenbach, Director, Ag. Exp. Station, Nov. 30, 1967


GRANTS AND GIFTS

Commercial grants and gifts accepted as support for existing programs during
the six-month period ending December 31, 1967. Financial assistance is hereby
gratefully acknowledged.

Abbott Laboratories
Fruit Crops Department--$500
Allies Chemical Corporation
Vegetable Crops e Soils Department--$4,250
Amchem Products, Inc.
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
American Chemical Society
Bacteriology Department--$24,003
American Cyanamid Company
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$1,000
Veterinary Science Department--$7,000
Animal Science Department--$2,500
American Oil Company
Soils Department--$7,000
American Orchid Society
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$6,000
American Potash Institute, Inc.
Suwannee Valley Station--$500
American Poultry and Hatchery Federation
Poultry Science Department--$1,000
Atlas Chemical Industries, Inc.
Everglades Experiment Station--$500

H. J. Baker & Brothers, Inc.
Poultry Science Department--$2,000
Basic Incorporated
Citrus Experiment Station--$4,000
Berkshire Chemical, Inc.
Citrus Experiment Station--$15,000
Borden Chemical Company
Range Cattle Experiment Station--$1,425
Range Cattle Experiment Station--$1,735
Poultry Science Department--$3,000
Brevard Country
Soils Department--$4,250






Brunswick Pulp & Paper Co.
Forestry Department--$1,500
Forestry Department--$2,000
Soils Department--$4,000
Buckeye Cellulose Corp.
Forestry Department--$2,000

Canadian Johns-Manville Abestos Limited
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$500
(So. Fla. Field Lab.)
Chase and Company
Central Florida Station--$500
Chemagro Corporation
Everglades Experiment Station--$500
Everglades Experiment Station--$700
(Plantation Field Lab.)
Central Florida Station--$1,000
Everglades Experiment Station--$500
Chevron Chemical Company
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$1,000
(So. Fla. Field Lab.)
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$1,500
Plant Pathology Department--$500
Watermelon & Grape Investigations Laboratory--$500
Ciba Pharmaceutical Co.
Veterinary Science Department--$2,000
0. H. Clapp & Company
Fruit Crops Department and
Agricultural Engineering Department--$7,800
Commercial Solvents Corp.
West Florida Station--$1,000
Container Corp. of America
Forestry Department--$2,00
William Copper & Nephews, Inc.
Veterinary Science Department--$6,780

Diamond Alkali Company
Sub-Tropical Experimental Station--$500
Plant Pathology Department--$900
Vegetable Crops Department--$500
Plant Pathology Department--$500
Diamond Crystal Salt Company
Botany Department--$8,024
Distillers Feed Research Council
Poultry Science Department--$2,000
Dow Chemical Company
Animal Science Department--$3,000
Agronomy Department--$500
L. I. du Pont de Nemours Co.
Citrus Station--$750

Eastman Chemical Products
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
Esso Research & Engineering Co.
Citrus Experiment Station--$5,000
Central Florida Station--$1,000

Florida Citrus Commission
Animal Science Department--$3,000
Florida Citrus Mutual
Agricultural Economics Department--$4,000
Florida Foundation Seed Producer, Inc.
Administration--S11,500
Florida LP Gas Association
Citrus Experiment Station--$3,000
Florida State Road Dept.
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$35,000
Florida Veg. Canners Assoc.
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$2,500
Food, Machinery, and Chemical Corporation
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$500
North Florida Experiment Station--$1,200
Everglades Experiment Station--$750

Geigy Agricultural Chemical Co.
Citrus Experiment Station--$750
(Indian River Field Lat.)
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$500







Everglades Experiment Station--$2,000
Everglades Experiment Station--$800
W. R. Grace & Co.
Citrus Experiment Station--$4,000

Harbor View Farms
Veterinary Science Department--$75,000
Hercules Powder Company
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
Hoffman-La Roche, Inc.
Everglades Experiment Station--$2,000

International Atomic Energy Agency and Food and
Agricultural Organization of the U. N.
Entomology 6 Nematology Department--$15,000
International Copper Research Assn., Inc.
Animal Science Department--$5,000
International Minerals and Chemical Corporation
Animal Science Department--S4,000
Central Florida Station--$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-S500
International Paper Co.
Forestry Department--$2,000

Kennecott Copper Corporation
Everglades Experiment Station--$1,500
(Plantation Field Lab.)
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$1,500

Eli Lilly and Company
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,300
Everglades Station--S500
(Plantation Field Lab.)

Merck and Company, Inc.
Citrus Experiment Station--$3,100
Miller Chemical & Fertilizer Corporation
Gulf Coast Station--$1,000
(So. Fla. Field Lab.)
Mobil Chemical Company
Central Florida and
Everglades Experiment Station--$1,000
Monsanto Company
Everglades Experiment Station--$1,000
Everglades Experiment Station--$1,000
(Plantation Field Lab.)
Morton Chemical Co.
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$2,000
Agronomy Department--$250

National Association of Animal Breeders
Dairy Science Department--$1,200
National Feed Ingredients Association
Animal Science Department--$3,000
National Pest Control Assn.
Entomology s Nematology Department--$8,000
NOPCO Chemical Company
Animal Science Department--$4,500

Peavey Company
Dairy Science Department--$2,500
Pennsalt Chemical Corp.
Suwannee Valley Station--$250
Charles Pfizer and Company
Veterinary Science Department--$2,000
Animal Science Department--$2,000
Proctor and Gamble Company
Agronomy Department--$1,000
Rayonier, Inc.
Forestry Department--$2,000
Citrus Experiment Station--S500
PFsources for the Future, Inc.
Agricultural Economics Department--$70,528
Rohm and Haas Company
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,200
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$500





St. Regis Paper Company
Forestry Department--$2,000
Schering Corporation
Poultry Science Department--$2,500
Scott Paper Company
Forestry Department--$2,000
Shell Chemical Company
Citrus Experiment Station--$500
Citrus Experiment Station--$1,650
Food Science Department--$5,000
Sub-Tropical, Citrus, Everglades and
Central Florida Stations--$4,500
Shell Development Company
Agronomy Department--$500
Agronomy Department--$500
Central Florida Station--$800
Sinclair Refining Company
Fruit Crops Department--$2,000
Smith Kline 6 French Lab.
Veterinary Science Department--$3,000
Southwest Potash Corp.
Agronomy Department--$600
Stauffer Chemical Company
Everglades Experiment Station--$250
Sterling Drug Company
Everglades Experiment Station--$1,250
Sucrest Corporation
Entomology Department--$1,100
Sun Oil Company
Everglades Experiment Station--$1,000
Ornamental Horticulture--$1,000

Union Camp Corporation
Forestry Department--$2,000
Union Carbide Corporation
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station--$1,500
Central Florida Station--$500

Frank E. Williams
Gulf Coast Experiment Station--$600
(So. Fla. Field Lab.)


Grants for basic research were accepted from national agencies as
follows:

U.S. Air Force:


Eglin Air Force Base
(Botany Department)

U.S. Army:
Medical R&D Command
(Entomology Department)

U.S. Atomic Energy Commission:
Food Science Department
Veterinary Science Department
Agronomy Department
Botany Department
Basic Plant Science Department

U.S. Department of Agriculture:
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
Forestry Department
No. Florida Experiment Station
Veterinary Science Department
Veterinary Science Department
Entomology Department
Animal Science Department
Entomology and Everglades Sta.
Agricultural Economics Dept.
Agricultural Engineering Dept.
Entomology Department
Agricultural Economics Dept.
Animal Science Department
Entomology & Soils Department


$ 46,632



27,662



74,687
20,017
10,500
8,100
20,538


$ 31,020
3,500
40,000
20,000
59,910
20,000
89,155
20,000
11,000
3,000
57,210
90,000
10,000
57,971





Soils Department
Forestry Department
Forestry Department
Agricultural Economics Department
Entomology Department
Entomology Department
Citrus Experiment Station
Entomology Department

U.S. Department of Commerce:
Fruit Crops Department

U.S. Department of the Interior:
Entomology Department
Bacteriology Department
Bureau of Disease Prevention 6 Environmental
Animal Science Department

National Institutes of Health:
Animal Science Department
Animal Science Department
Poultry Science Department
Soils Department
Botany Department
Citrus Experiment Station
Citrus Experiment Station
Bacteriology Department
Veterinary Science and
Poultry Science Department
Veterinary Science Department
Food Science Department
Veterinary Science Department
Veterinary Science Department

National Science Foundation:
Entomology Department


3,000
89,600
62,594
2,000
39,865
15,350
39,860
25,000


$ 4,752


38,872
31,998
Control:
9,210


11,880
36,559
20,997
19,945
14,740
59,372
25,523
21,165

25,770
25,753
124,267
20,322
16,039


28,200










REPORT OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGER

Summary of Expenditures of Federal Funds July 1, 1966 through June 30, 1967


Regional
Hatch Research
Funds Funds


McIntire Total
Stennis Federal Funds


Salaries and Wages

Travel

Transportation and Communication

Utilities

Printing

Repairs and Maintenance

Contractual Services

Rentals

Other Current Charges and
Obligations

Materials and Supplies

Equipment

Land and Buildings

Total Federal Expenditures


$528,156.40

913.25

316.99



185.04

20.32

300.63

470.00


-0-

8,364.62

69,863.32

14,361.69

$622,952.26


$82,756.36

3,527.01

4,668.21

5,317.54

174.96

480.97

1,219.94




50.50

15,196.88

8,422.55

880.00

$122,694.92


$43,201.46

684.89

731.58

4,294.36

40.35

306.69

554.87

7.50


-0-

8,824.50

19,579.16

5,499.88

$83,725.24


$654,114.22

5,125.15

5,716.78

9,611.90

400.35

807.98

2,075.44

477.50


50.50

32,386.00

97,865.03

20,741.57

$829,372.42


I
















REPORT OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGER

Summary of Expenditures of State Funds July 1, 1966 through June 30, 1967


Fla. Agricultural
Experiment Station
General Revenue
Funds


Grants and Total
Incidental Donations State
Funds Funds Funds


Salaries and Wages

Travel

Transportation and
Communication

Utilities

Printing

Repairs and Haintenance

Contractual Services

Rentals

Other Current Charges and
Obligations

Materials and Supplies

Equipment

Land and Buildings

Special Appropriation-
Building Fund

Total State Funds


$5,352,251.75

164,426.14


77,628.10

121,483.04

54,721.83

41,673.64

18,523.88

29,535.21


19,458.34

500,535.86

150,890.89

25,572.42


161,486.94

$6,718,188.04


$121,238.94

13,749.15


7,759.05

13,743.06

487.82

14,094.82

4,967.84

18,538.38


13,294.40

449,255.21

64,629.04

51,175.40


$526,905.95

39,031.62


3,293.47

3,297.16

3,426.90

11,817.90

8,468.45

1,101.50


15,543.39

158,179.50

142,172.73

24,130.32


$6,000,396.64

217,206.91


88,680.62

138,523.26

58,636.55

67,586.36

31,960.17

49,175.09


48,296.13

1,107,970.57

357,692.66

100,878.14


161,486.94

$772,933.11 $937,368.89 $8,428,490.04


-------------






AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Research was conducted under 29 projects. The department continued its
arrangement of coordinating its research program with the Florida Citrus
Commission in the area of marketing economics. During the year two bulletins,
one circular and three Agricultural Economics Mimeo Reports were published.
Personnel changes were the appointments of W. F. Edwards and L. A. Reuss for
contract research; L. H. Myers with the Florida Citrus Commission Research
Department located in Gainesville; and C. N. Smith with IFAS. Mr. D. K.
Rudser resigned

PLA-AS-00186 SAVAGE F

FACTORS AFFECTING COSTS AND RETURNS IN FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Operating costs per acre on bearing groves in 1965-66 at $241.76 were up 2
percent from the previous season. This was the highest cost of these accounts
by a small margin. A 6 percent increase in average yield over the previous
season lowered the per-box cost to 85 cents from 89 cents. Per-box cost was
lowest since 1961-62. Labor, power and equipment costs per acre at $111.27 were
up slightly from the previous season but down 11 percent from the all-time high
in 1963-64. Money spent for fertilizer materials at $54.27 per acre were
highest since 1961-62 but at 19 cents per box was lowest since 1958-59. Money
spent for spray and dust materials at $34.55 per acre were down slightly from
the previous season. State and county taxes at $19.44 per acre were tied for
the highest point with 1961-62. Returns from fruit at $401-22 per acre were the
lowest since 1956-57 and at $1.41 per box the lowest since 1956-57. Returns
above operating costs at $159.46 per acre and 56 cents per box were the lowest
in each case since 195F6-' Fruit yield at 284 boxes per acre was the highest
since 1961-62-

FLA-AS-00615 GREENE R E L

INFLUENCE OF BREED COMPOSITION AND LEVEL OF NUTRITION ON ADAPTABILITY OF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
This experiment is designed to determine the relative profitableness of cows of
different proportions of English and Brahman blood when run on pasture designed
to supply low, medium and high levels of nutrition. A low level of nutrition
was supplied by all native pasture, a medium level by a combination of native
and improved pasture and a high level of nutrition by all improved pasture,
about one-fourth of which was irrigated clover-grass pasture. The capital
outlay per cow was estimated to be $577 for the program with a low level of
nutrition, $505 for a medium level of nutrition and $471 for a high level of
nutrition. Te annual cost per cow per program varied from $80.61 for the low
nutrition program to $93.40 for the high nutrition program. The value of beef
per cow in the low nutrition program was only $50.61. Thus cost exceeded the
value of beef by $30 per cow. The high nutrition was the only program on which
the value of beef exceeded costs. This difference was $7.12 per cow. Cost per
pound of beef produced was 33.45 cents on the low nutrition program, 24.99 cents
on the medium nutrition program and 23.12 cents on the high nutrition program.

rLA-AS-00701 GREENE R E L SMITH B J

ECONOMICS OF FLORIDA DAIRY FARMING

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The computer programming for the dynamic programming formulation of the dairy
cow replacement problem was completed, and five numerical analytical runs of the
model were carried out for five different sets of variable inputs. The
value-iterative method was used for the solution algorithm. Production in each
of the two prior lactations was divided into 29 intervals of 250 pounds each
over the range 5,000 to 12,000 pounds of milk. There were also six possible
lactations and three possible lengths of calving intervals by which the state of
the process could be characterized. Neither twenty percent decreases in feed or
milk prices, nor similar increases in beef and veal prices, from the
"representative" price situation, altered the optimal replacement policy to an
economically significant degree. The optimal policy when production was the
object of maximization differed, but not to a great extent, from the net returns
maximization. Programming for the forward, total enumeration formulation of the
dairy cow replacement problem was continued, but had not been completed by the
end of the year. The analysis of data from lifetime histories of 369 Jersey
cows in the University of Florida herd, and information from a number of other
sources, which was conducted forpurposes of explaining or predicting the
production of milk, was completed. That phase of the study has been reduced to
manuscript form.








LABOR, MATERIALS, COSTS, AND RETURNS IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida were obtained from growers of
15 different vegetables in nine of the major producing areas of the state.
These data will be summarized by crops and areas for release in mimeographed
form.


FLA-AS-00995 GREENE B E L

AGE OF HEIFERS AT FIRST BREEDING AS RELATED TO BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The objective of this study is to compare beef production and income from
heifers bred first at one versus two years of age. Selected replacement heifers
from the Beef Research herd are randomized each year into two groups. Group I
is bred as yearlings and Group II at two years of age. In Phase I of the
experiment, at the beginning of the second breeding season for Group I heifers,
when the calves were about two months old they were taken from their mothers and
sold as veal calves. The net cost to raise a heifer to about 27 months of age
was about the same for each group when the value of veal calves was credited to
the Group I heifers. The experiment is now in Phase II in which the calves are
being left on Group I heifers to the normal weaning period. Various physical
production data are being collected for Phase II of the experiment. Sufficient
data are not yet available for an economic analysis.


FLA-AS-01027 GREENE R E L

SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING OF STEERS ON PASTURE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The objective of this study is to determine the relative economic returns for
several methods of handling stocker steers in growing them to market weight.
Four lots of 20 steers each were confined to ten acre lots of St. Augustine
pasture. They were fed supplemental feeds at the rate of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and
1.5% of body weight. Each lot was carried on pasture until the steers reached
850 pounds. They were then placed in the feedlot and finished to 1,050 pounds.
At the end of the year the trials were not complete so the results of the study
for the past year are not available.


FLA-AS-01078 SMITH C N

MARKET DEVELOPMENT FOR HORTICULTURAL SPECIALTY PRODUCTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Preliminary analyses have been made of a study of the opinions and practices
of (1) a mail sample of savings and loan executives and (2) 50 real estate
agencies in Tampa and 43 in Orlando about nursery landscaping. Further
analysis is being made of the data from a sample of 196 Gainesville consumers
concerning their knowledge and opinions about cut flowers and potted
plants; a preliminary tabulation shows much variation in beliefs and practices
about the care and handling of cut flowers. For example, it is recognized
as good practice to place wilted flowers initially in warm water, but only
5% identified this as a practice that prolongs cut flower life. More than half
preferred potted plants to cut flowers. A complete analysis of consumer
responses is now underway.


FLA-AS-01127 SPURLOCK A H

HANDLING FRESH CITRUS FRUIT IN PALLET BOXES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
A manuscript was prepared comparing four systems of handling oranges from the
tree to the packing line using economic-engineering techniques. Capital
required was determined for each system and fixed and direct operating costs
calculated. There was some difference in the flexibility of the bulk handling
methods over the field box system and in the adaptability of each to the present
harvesting and packinghouse systems. However the three bulk-handling systems
were close in total costs and at the larger volumes each was 8 to 10 cents per
box less than the field box system.


BROOKE D L


LA-AS-00970








MARKET ANALYSIS OF THE FOLIAGE PLANT INDUSTRY
PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Several discussions on marketing problems in the foliage plant industry have
been held with key growers. There is a tendency toward centralized marketing
and to more concentration of the industry in the Apopka area. The data on
industry development in 1965 which were collected by mail were partially
analyzed. More complete comparisons will be made with data on hand and a
follow-up survey will be made to determine any recent significant trends in
marketing practices.


FLA-AS-01133 ROSE G N

FORECASTING FLORIDA VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN SPECIFIED PERIODS AND AREAS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
This is a cooperative project with the Florida office ot the Statistical
Reporting Service, USDA. Its objective is the collection and analysis ot basic
statistics for the important vegetable crops of Florida as a marketing service
and for economic research. Recurring reports containing current data are
published on weekly and monthly schedules as part ot the marketing service
phase. Florida vegetable production contributes over $250 million annually to
the state's farm income. The highly competitive nature of this industry and the
important influence of short-range weather and supply factors make current
information on supply prospects essential. Collection, analysis, and
publication of vegetable production statistics by county are emphasized.
Research phases are to improve the quality of basic statistics and to develop
mathematical models to forecast harvest. Field observations to perfect the
development of a mathematical model for celery yields were completed and are
being analyzed. Sample designs to determine average rail car loadings are being
developed. Statistics to determine supply and price relationships tor tomatoes
by sizes on a weekly basis for the 1966-67 season were collected and supplied to
Agricultural Experiment Station economists.



FLA-AS-01171 SMITH C N

MARKETING FLORIDA TURF

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
A manuscript reporting results of a survey of marketing practices and other
economic aspects of Florida sod growers has been prepared. Basic findings and
conclusions are unchanged from those previously reported. Visits will be made
to key sod growers to obtain information on industry developments during the
past three years.


FLA-AS-01187 ALLEGED D E

ECONOMIC PROVISIONS FOR OLD AGE MADE BY RURAL FAMILIES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The study revealed that, whatever the age of the male family head, rural
southerners do not seriously plan for retirement. However, they do have income
expectations which are circumscribed by race, education, occupation, annual
family income, accumulated assets, Social Security coverage and state of health.
Low-income families tend to remain low-income throughout life, and families
which anticipate superior incomes during retirement enjoy relatively high levels
of education and prestige occupations., In general, the outlook is that most
low-income rural southerners will remain in a disadvantaged income status both
before and after retirement, a situation of vast social and political
significance.


FLA-AS-01190 MCPHERSON W K

OPTIMUM LOCATION OF LIVESTOCK AND MEAT MARKETING FACILITIES IN THE SOUTH

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The analysis of prices paid for livestock in the Southeast during 1962 shows
that the price of comparable classes and grades of slaughter cattle in deficit
beef producing areas are generally lower than in surplus beef producing areas.
This is contrary to the economic theory which postulates that the price of a
commodity in areas not producing all of that commodity consumed there should be


FLA-AS-01129


SMITH C N







higher than its price in surplus producing areas by the cost of shipping the
product from one area to the other. The extent to which cattle prices in the
Southeast fall below the expected level varies from class to class, grade to
grade among locations throughout time and with weight. A statistical analysis
of the impact of these and other possible factors affecting the cattle prices
in 34 sub-areas of the South is now being made.


FLA-AS-01204 MCPHERSON W K

ThE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF THE BEEF PRODUCED FROM YOUNG BULLS, STEERS AND
HEIFERS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
The data has been coded and a computer program for making the analysis is being
rewritten for the IBM 360-50.


FLA-AS-01234 SPURLOCK A H

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND LIFESPAN OF
FLORIDA DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Records of births, disposals, replacements and causes of losses were continued
on tour dairy herds and combined with results previously obtained. The life
span of 5,399 replaced cows averaged 6.4 years or about 4.4 years in the milking
herd. The disposal rate increased rapidly after the first year in the herd, and
after three years only 63 percent of the original animals remained. After five
years only 36 percent were still in the herd. Cows reaching age b (4 years in
the herd) had a life expectancy of 2.6 additional years and averaged 9.b years
of life; cows reaching age 10 had 1.7 years of life expectancy and averaged 11.7
years of life. Live disposals from the herd were principally for low
production, 33.3%; mastitis or some form of udder trouble, 24.2%; and
reproductive troubles 18.3%. These three reasons, or combinations ot them were
responsible for 80.9% of live disposals. About 7% of the live aisposals were
for unstated reasons. Deaths from all causes accounted for 12.b% of all
disposals.


FLA-AS-01243 SPURLOCK A H BROOKE D L

GUIDES FOR ADJUSTMENTS IN MARKETING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES IN SOUTHERN REGION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Additional observations were made in 1967 on input-output relationships in
machine harvesting of celery, sweet corn and snap beans for fresh market.
Snap bean harvesting with 2-row machines as studied in two areas of Florida
showed substantial savings in labor as compared with hand harvesting and total
costs were also less. Celery harvesting machines which cut the stalks in the
field for transporting to the packing area, when combined with packinghouse
grading, was the most efficient harvesting and packing method found for use of
labor, and utilized 173 hours of labor per 1000 crates or 25 percent more.
These are preliminary results but a large labor saving in cutting seems certain.
When 2-row machines were used in harvesting and packing sweet corn, tentative
summaries showed little difference in the labor requirement by method of grading
and packing. Total resources required for different systems of harvesting and
packing each crop are quite different. House-packing for corn or celery appears
to require more in physical facilities than field packing, but machines can
assist in some otherwise manual operations, and workers have more space, better
working conditions and supplies are more readily accessible. Harvesting and
packing systems are in a state of rapid change and operators need comparative
requirements of each method.


FLA-AS-01244 ALLEGER D E

HUMAN HESOURCF DEVELOPMENT AND MOBILITY

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
This study is currently in a preliminary stage, but data secured in FlorLda lead
to the conclusion that area rural poverty is characteristically associated with
widowhood, retirement and physical disability. Moreover, employed individuals
in low-income rural areas were found to be using the occupational skills they
possessed to their own best advantage, and few in the active lanor force were
unemployed. This leads to a suggestion that programs designed to eliminate
poverty should he based on occupational as well as income profiles.






FLA-AS-01326


MARKET STRUCTURE AND THE COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE DAIRY INDUSTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Work related to SM-28 consisted of the development, by six designated sub-state
areas, of refined estimates of the 1965 price of one-halt gallons of whole,
homogenized milk in cartons, of the production of milk for the years 1954
through 1965, and of the number of Florida dairy farms for the same years. For
the state as a whole, production increased in each year, going from 745 million
pounds in 1954 to 1,368 in 1965. All areas showed substantial increases except
the one comprised of the westernmost counties. The numbers of farms decreased
in each year, going from 1,046 in 1954 to 581 in 1965. All areas showed
significant reductions in numbers of farms over the eleven year period. The two
westernmost areas showed the greatest declines in numbers, the southernmost the
least. These data are to be used by the SM-28 Technical Ccmmittee, along with
those supplied by the other cooperating states, to determine the economically
optimum movement of raw and packaged fluid milk products between all designated
sub-state production and consumption areas of the South.


FLA-AS-01330 MYERS L H

ALLOCATION OF CITRUS SUPPLIES TO MAXIMIZE RETURNS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Basic data were collected for estimating demand functions for four citrus
products at the retail, institutional, and export levels. These data involved
monthly observations on prices and quantities of frozen concentrated orange
juice, chilled orange juice, canned single strength orange juice, and fresh
oranges. In addition, data on certain non-citrus related products, consumer
incomes, and population were assembled. Preliminary demand elasticity and
cross-elasticity estimates were obtained using the single-equation least squares
technique. Continued work will include final estimates of the demand functions,
development of cost estimates, incorporation of the demand and cost estimates
into the previously developed market allocation model, and evaluation of the
optimal allocation results.


FLA-AS-01340 'PURLOCK A H

COSTS OF HANDLING( FLORIDA CITRUS FRIITS IN FRESH AND PROCESSED FOPM

PRPOGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Data on 1966-67 citrus handling costs were obtained from 24 Lirms on picking and
hauling, 34 firms on fresh fruit packing and 10 firms on processing. A
preliminary summary of 24 packinghouses was made by computer in Novemlbr and
distributed to all fresh fruit packers. Packing costs varied with the cost of
the containers used and with the ditticulty of packing. Thf 1-3/5 bushel
wirehound box was the least expensive to pack with costs ranging upward to the
5-pound mesh bag in master container as the most expensive. Packing and selling
costs per 1-3/5 bushel equivalent were 10 to 20 cents lower for grapefruit than
for oranges and 15 and 20 cents higher for tangerines.


FLA-AS-01351 LANGHAN R

DYNAMO SIMULATION FROZEN CONCENTRATED IoRANGE JUICF MARKETING FOOL

PROGRESS REPORT: b7/07 67/12
the problem of fluctuating orange supplies and grower profits in the trozen
concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) industry was investigated with a DYNAMO
simulation model which extended an earlier model by W. F. Jarmain (Dynamics ot
the Florida Frozen Orange Concentrate Industry, unpublished Master's thesis,
MIT, Camhridqe, Mass). The model was used to compare the effectiveness of six
policies in stabilizing orange supplies and grower profits at an acceptable
levol. The policies were: free market policy; allocation of FCOJ to two markets
(primary and secondary) with different demand elasticities; removal ot fully
productive trees at a specific level of growet profits: curtailment of new trF-
plantings at i specified level of grower profits; allocation of FC:iJ to two
markets plu removal of tully productive treos; and allocation of F'OJ to two
markets plus curtailment ot new tree plantings. The tree market policy wis
.;imulateQ for 20 years uncir six ssets ot randomly selectol weather conditions.
Thi other policies were simulated under two seta ot weather conditions. Thi
re-sults of the secondary market policy were used to evaluate the feasibility of
i marketing pool. Those policies which control supply by limiting the number of
orange trees appeiir to have the most potential for success..


SMITH B J





FLA-AS-01371t


GREENE R E L


DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES OF FARMING IN FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Physical factors in combination with economic, biological and social factors
determine the use of land in any region. Data pertaining to soils, climate and
other physical factors are being assembled from Experiment Station publications,
Weather Bureau reports, agricultural workers and others as background
information for the location of crop and livestock production. Data are also
being assembled from the U.S. Census, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service and other sources on major use of land in Florida by geographical areas.
Maps of various types are being prepared to show the geographic distribution of
important crops and livestock. Based on the foregoing information, the state
will be divided into major areas within each of which the agricultural resources
are similar and certain types of farming predominate. These will be referred to
as type of farming areas.


FLA-AS-01386 GREENE R E L

POST-WEANING MANAGEMENT FOR BEE? CALVES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
This experiment is designed to develop economical programs for producing feeder
and slaughter steers from weaned calves Produced in Florida. The experiment has
just been initiated.






AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Research was continued on eight projects relating to subjects such as
irrigation and drainage of pastures, bulk curing of bright leaf tobacco, handling
of citrus pulp, the mechanical harvesting of cabbage and the mechanical harvest-
ing of fresh market tomatoes. An experimental facility for measuring evaporation
losses from irrigation sprinklers was essentially completed. An experimental
prototype harvester for tea was completed and tests on the mechanical harvest-
ing of tea were continued. Miscellaneous research equipment valued at approx-
imately $6,000 was added to the research facilities of the department. There
were no changes in personnel.


FLA-AG-01034 MYERS J BROSS I J

CONTINUOUS HARVESTIEG-CURIRG SYSTEM FOR BRIGHT-LEAF TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
The duration of the coloring time for tobacco influences the market weight and
buyer demand for the cured leaf. A replicated study to evaluate these
influences gave results which indicate that when compared to a normal 2-day
coloring time, net weight losses of 3.5 and 7.0 percent occur when the coloring
time is extended to 3 and 4 days respectively. The color of the cured leaf
changed from lemon to varigated lemon as the coloring time was increased from 2
to 4 days. Based on 1966 price averages, the value of tobacco colored for 2 and
3 days was about equal, while the 4-day coloring time suppressed the leaf value
by 3 to 4 percent. The petiole of the tobacco leaf consists primarily of stem.
The stem is difficult and costly to cure and is of little value to cigarette
manufacturers. The bulk system for curing tobacco lends itself to simplified
techniques for removing the leaf petiole prior to curing. An experiment was
conducted to evaluate the effect on yield and quality of tobacco as a result of
removing 2-1/2 and 5-inch segments from the petiole end of the leaf prior to
curing. The uncured weight of the leaf was reduced by 14.2 and 25.5 percent and
the cured weight by 11.4 and 19.7 percent for the 2-1/2 and 5-inch treatments
respectively. Only 2.0 percent of the cured weight loss was due to losses of
the lamina portion of the leaf when 2-1/2 inches of the petiole was removed.
Depending on market reaction, it appears that removal of the petiole prior to
curing may be feasible.


FLA-AG-01082 ROSS I J

EQUIPMENT FOR REMOVING NON-FREE-FLOWING GRANULAR MATERIALS FROM BULK STORAGE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Laboratory tests dealing with the storage of dried citrus pulp have been
completed. Two bins 3.5 feet in diameter and 16 feet high were filled with 3000
pounds of dried citrus pulp at an average moisture content of 8.8 percent (wet
basis). One bin was aerated conventionally with ambient air and the other by
recirculation. Through the use of automatic controls, aeration on the
conventional bin was accomplished only when the ambient temperature, in
connection with a relative humidity of less than 70 percent, fell below the
expected average monthly temperature. Aeration in the other bin was controlled
by a time clock which turned the fan on for two hours each morning and
afternoon. After 15 months of storage, the pulp that was conventionally aerated
was found to have a wider range of moisture content throughout the bin but none
of the pulp in either bin had moisture contents above the safe storage level.
The tests indicated that dried citrus pulp can be successfully stored in bulk
under Florida conditions. work has been completed on a continuous system for
producing pelleted citrus pulp using the wet pelleting technique. A screw auger
was used to force the mixture of molasses and ground pulp through an extrusion
die one half inch in diameter. The pellets were then dried to 20 percent (dry
basis) and cut to length before testing. The effects of variations in auger
speed, auger pitch, and die length upon the system were studied. The results
indicated that a system using a low pitched auger, a short die, and an auger
speed greater than 300 rpm would be the most promising.


FLA-AG-01203 FLOCK R C

A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO VEGETABLE HARVESTING

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Studies were continued to determine the physical properties of cabbage as they
influence harvester design. These were expanded to include the effects of seed
size on transplant size. Redesign of the 1967 experimental cabbage harvester
has been completed and construction has begun. Plans have been made to field
test the 1968 model in the Hastings area in early March.






IMERS J M CHOATE R E


TEMPORARY LIVINGS FOR WATERWAYS AND EMBANKMENTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Several improvements have been made in experimental techniques and facilities to
overcome the difficulties encountered in standardizing tests with respect to
texture and plane of soil surface and compaction. These improvements have
served to reduce the uncontrolled variability for the tests to a satisfactory
level. Tests to determine the permissible tractive force for soil surfaces
covered with several different erosion retarding cover materials have been
completed. There appearsto be considerable differences in the stabilization
qualities of commonly used cover materials. The permissive tractive force for
unlined channel bed constructed with tine sandy soil is 0.006 pounds per square
foot. The permissive tractive force for a channel bed constructed of similar
soil but covered with a knitted fabric material made of small paper cords is
0.032 pounds per square foot. When the channel bed was covered with a coarse
mesh fabric made of Hemp fiber cords, the permissible tractive force was 0.160
pounds per square foot. For retarding erosion, the heavier weight cover
material gave approximately five times more protection than the lighter cover
material, and the lighter material was about five times more effective than the
uncovered channel bed. These values illustrate the importance of giving proper
consideration to the hydraulic characteristics of the different lining materials
when they are included in the specifications of water control facilities.

FLA-AG-01250 CHOATE R E

WATER CONTROL FOR FORESTRY PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Land clearing, site preparation, plot location, and installation of a system of
open drainage ditches has been completed. The system of ditches provides for
three drainage treatments: 2 feet, 5 feet, and no artificial drainage. Tree
plantings for the study will be made in the winter 1967-68. After planting is
completed, a system of piezometers will be installed in the plots to evaluate
the influence of the drainage system upon the water table patterns.

FLA-AG-01296 MYERS J M CHOATE R E ROSS I J

IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Work has continued in developing and constructing the laboratory facility to be
used for conducting irrigation evaporation studies. The test facility, a low
velocity environmental control wind tunnel, has been completed and mechanical
equipment and instrumentation is being installed. It is expected that
evaporation studies will begin in 1968. A companion investigation to develop a
highly sensitive hygrometer for use in the wind tunnel has been completed. An
electrolytic condensation hygrometer utilizing a single ionic crystal as the
condensing surface has been constructed and tested. It has the sensitivity to
detect changes in the dew point of air as small as 0.01F. This hygrometer when
used as a component of the irrigation efficiency facility will enable the
measurement of evaporation losses to an accuracy of 5 percent.

FLA-AG-01406 FLUCK R C

VARIETY DEVELOPMENT, CULTURAL PRACTICES AND MECHANICAL HARVESTING SYSTEMS FOR
FRESH MARKET TOMATOES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Work was initiated in several areas. An experimental shaker was designed,
constructed, and field tested at Homestead. It functions in comparing fruit
removal characteristics of breeding lines and in determining optimum
stroke-frequency combinations for fruit removal. Another shaker, differing from
the latter in that vibration is induced in the grasped main stem in a vertical
plane, was designed, constructed, then given preliminary testing. Water
handling tests indicated that mature green tomatoes can be handled in water;
submersion time and the presence of chlorine are important factors in the
resultant quality. A creep tester for determining the deformation, with time,
ot fruit under load was built, and limits for the depth and time of fruit
loading for dry handling are being established. An impact tester has been
designed and constructed. Preliminary tests indicate distinct advantages and
capabilities for this dynamic technique for determining impact damage. An
Instron testing machine was acquired and used for measuring the force to
separate fruit from vine and for slow compression loading by flat plate and
plunger. Significant differences have been found among varieties and levels of
maturity.


FLA-AG-01212







FLA-AG-01411


MTERS J M


MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF TEA

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
A full-sized experimental model of a mechanical tea harvester has been
developed. The machine operates on the principle developed by S. I.
Kereselidge, a Russian scientist. The prinicple is achieved by sliding a
number of rubber covered fingers between several sets of immobile pins. As the
rubber fingers strike the tea, it is bent between the immobile pins. If che
flush is immature, the stem will bend without breaking. If the flush is too
coarse, the rubber cover will flex preventing the stem from bending to the
breaking point. However, if the flush is ripe, the stem will bend to the proper
angle and break off. Once the tea has been plucked, an air suction duct picks
up the flush and deposits it in a tea collector. The tea is then removed
manually and inspected for damage at the end of each plucking. The machine is
powered by an 18 horsepower internal combustion engine and power is transmitted
to the plucking head, height adjustment, and ground speed drive through a
hydraulic system. Field tests are in progress to determine optimum operating
conditions for the machine. Initial testing indicates satisfactory performance
of the machine.



























































.3







AGRONOMY

Agronomic research was conducted on 24 projects. New projects include
cultural-management studies relative to blackshank of tobacco, quantitative
genetic studies of crop plants, and small grain improvement.
Grants totaling almost $150,000 were received from twenty sources provid-
ing additional support for research on basic and applied crop production
problems.
Drs. J. M. Baskin, A. 0. Rillo, and Aziz Shiralipour were appointed
interim research associates in Agronomy.
A few research highlights from Agronomy include:
Dr. V. N. Schroder has shown that oats and sunflowers can replace a large
portion of potassium with sodium, sunflowers with high sodium have shorter
internodes. He has also found two mechanisms for salt tolerance in forage
grasses; bermudagrass excludes salts by selective absorption while St. Augustine-
grass tolerates high levels of salt within plant tissues.
Dr. J. R. Edwardson and co-workers at Tifton, Georgia, have shown that a new
sweet blue lupine has cold resistance; a new cold-hardy variety will soon be
released.
Dr. P. L. Pfahler has shown that substantial improvement in forage produc-
tion of rye could be obtained using intervarietal hybrids; a practical method
using self-incompatibility was developed to produce hybrid rye.
Dr. E. S. Horner has developed a new alfalfa variety, which is being
released as Florida 66. This new variety is higher yielding and more persistent,
maintaining stands for two to three years.
Dr. H. C. Harris and co-workers have found that after plants have been
grown under boron stress and the boron stress is corrected unusual character-
istics develop in the new growth. This suggests that the altered metabolism
had a genetic effect.





FLA-AY-00374 HORNEh R S

CORN BREEDING

PROGRESS PErOfT: 67/01 67/12
Florida 200A, a hybrid developed by five cycles of selection for combining
ability with F44XF6, was the highest yielding hybrid in the North Florida
commercial variety tests and was among the best for grain quality and lodging
resistance. This hybrid hasbeen a leader in these tests each year since it was
released in 1964, which indicates that the breeding method (recurrent selection
for specific combining ability) is effective in producing hybrids that perform
well in a wide range of environments. Several experimental hybrids produced
higher grain yields than Florida 200A and were satisfactory in most of the other
important traits. One of these hybrids has averaged 11 percent more grain per
acre than Florida 200A tor three years. Its only apparent defect is slightly
taller plant height than Florida 200A, which in turn is taller than most of the
new commercial hybrids on the market. Because of faults such as this, most of
the parental lines of these high yielding hybrids will be useful only as sources
for developing improved lines. However, this availability indicates that higher
yielding commercial hybrids can be developed by continued breeding. Several
selection experiments designed to compare different breeding methods were
continued, but to new data on progress were obtained in 1967.




FLA-AY-00627 KILLINGER G B

PASTURE'PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION ON FLATWOODS
SOIL

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
At the conclusion of three years on phase 3 of this project, program 2, a renova-
tion program has responded from the sod being turned seven inches deep, seeded
to oats, ryegrass and red clover in the fall. The sod (Pensacola bahiagrass) has
recovered by mid-summer with a near full stand of grass and white clover which
was originally in the sod recovered to about 50 percent stand by April. Yield
of the grass which is turned in the fall is cut to about half for the year,
however, the annual crops added to the bahiagrass yield totals more dry forage
than has been harvested from the bahiagrass alone. Bermudagrass population
continues to decline due to the wet condition of the Beef Research Unit soils
during the summer months. Oats-ryegrass-clover from two harvests in February
and March 1967 yielded from 321 to 770 pounds per acre of crude protein.









INTERRELATION OF ENVIPONMFNT TO PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
It was found that oats and sunflowers could be grown to maturity with sodium
replacing a large part of the potassium requirement, however, the plants were
somewhat shorter, especially sunflower which had shorter internodes. Variation
in the organic acid pattern due to substitution of sodium for potassium was in
general not very great although amounts varied somewhat. Lack of potassium
restricted movement of organic acids within the plant indicating the importance
of potassium for transport ot organic acid anions. When sorghum was grown with
the ammonium ion in the nutrient the amount of organic acids in the leaves was
always greatly reduced. Shaded sunflower leaves were found to contain a smaller
amount of organic acids than unshaded leaves. Organic acid analyses ot dried
grass tissue were unique enough tor each of several species to form a basis for
separation of Pensacola bahiagrass, St. Augustinegrass, Coastal bermudagrass,
and Pangolagrass.





FLA-AY-00783 PFAHLER P L

SMALL GRAIN IMPROVEMENT BY BREEDING AND SELECTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Many aspects of small grain improvement are included in this project with the
ultimate objective being the release of improved varieties of Avena, Hordeum,
Secale and Tricitum. The primary selection criterion for Avena and Secale
varieties is forage production while for Hordeum and Triticum, grain production
is emphasized. Studies in disease resistance have indicated that the incorpora-
tion of genetic resistance factors may not be entirely effective in this
geographical area since the total physiology of the plant is apparently an
important controlling factor. Progress is being made in the development of a
laboratory method for tne measurement of cold tolerance in all genera. Intensive
studies on heterosis in Secale have indicated that substantial improvement in
forage production could be obtained if methods to produce intervarietal hybrids
could be developed. The forage production of composite populations containing
50% intervarietal hybrids and 50% intravarietal hybrids was approximately
equal to populations containing 100% intervarietal hybrids. A practical method
to produce these composite populations was proposed using the self-incompatibility
factors present in s. cereale. Interspecific hybrids between S montanum and
S.cereale show considerable promise in increasing forage production. The
reproductive ability of these hybrids and the maintenance of the heterotic
response in subsequent generations are being intensively studied. Preliminary
results indicate that the heterotic response of the F2 populations was almost
equal to that of the corresponding F1 populations. The Fi and F2 populations
also produce substantial numbers of seeds in relation to the S. cereale parent.




FLA-AY-00950 HARRIS H C

THE INTERRELATED EFFECTS OF MINERAL NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES, ENVIRONMENT, AND
HEREDITY ON THE NITROGEN

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
It has been shown recently (Harris, H. C. 1966. Effect of micronutrient and
other deficiencies on yield and mineral composition of forage crops. Proc. X
International Grassland Congress, Sec. 1:175-178.), that micronutrient
deficiency affects the percentage nitrogen content of crops. This year emphasis
has been on the effect of boron deficiency. Boron deficient peanuts have the
appearance of virus infection, but four varieties grown without boron in
nutrient solution were free of "stunt virus" (however, some other virus could
be involved). Analysis of the plants indicate that the percentage of
amino-acids, RNA, and total nitrogen was altered by the deficiency. How
nitrogen metabolism was changed is not clear. Plants grown under boron
deficiency stress for some time and then the stress corrected often developed
unusual characteristics in the new growth. This suggests that the altered
metabolism had a genetic effect. If proven true, the finding would be of major
importance.


FLA-AY-00766


SCHRODER V N









THE EFFECT OF AGE OF SOD ON YIELD OF BAHIA GRASS AND SUBSEQUENT FIELD CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Field samples were obtained to determine the plant nutrientand nematode status
of the experimental plots. Bahiagrass samples were obtained as well as corn and
peanut yield samples following 0 to 6 years of sod. These data are currently
being analyzed and evaluated.




FLA-AY-00998 PRINE G M RUELKE 0 C SCHRODER V N

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF FORAGE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Daily microclimate and macroclimate measurements were continued at Gainesville
3 WSW Agriclimatological station. Ten years data from potential evapotrans-
pirometers were completed and summarization of these data on weekly basis
initiated. Row direction had no effect on yield of Floranna sweetclover but
forage yield was higher in 10 inch wide rows compared to 20 inch wide rows.
Potassium gibberellate foliar sprays had no effect on sweetclover forage yields
in winter of 1966-1967. Two mechanisms for salt tolerance by grasses were found.
Bermudagrass was salt tolerant due to the ability of excluding salt absorption
into tissues while St. Augustinegrass was tolerant due to the ability of
tolerating higher salt levels within plant tissues.




FLA-AY-01087 WILCOX M

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN FIELD CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Peanuts: Pre-emergence applications of 2 pounds GS14260, 4 pounds C6313, or 4
pounds C6989, per acre gave excellent control of weeds and yields at least as
great as hand cultivated control plots. Applications at cracking time of 0.5
pound pyrichlor plus 1.5 pounds DNBP, 6 pounds DNBP or 2 pounds diphenamid plus
1.5 pounds DNBP per acre gave similar results. Field Corn: Pre-emergence
applications of 4 pounds C6313 or C6989 per acre gave excellent weed control
without affecting yields. Nutsedge: A chemical fallow treatment of 10
pounds dichlobenil incorporated 6 inches into the soil has eliminated nutsedge
from heavily infested areas.




FLA-AY-01134 EDWARDSON J R WARMKE H E

THE ROLE OF THE CYTOPLASM IN HEREDITY OF HIGHER PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Fertility restoration in cytoplasmic male sterile petunia has been found to be
controlled by a single dominant gene. Fertility restoration in cytoplasmic
male sterile Crotalaria mucronata has been found to be controlled by either or
botn dominant alleles Ms Ms in the homozygous or heterozygous condition.
Cytoplasmic inclusions induce by 700-800 mu flexuous rod viruses are not
composed of aggregated virus particles as has been generally assumed, but are
composed of striated plates. Aqueous potassium permanganate used for short
periods and dilute osmium tetroxide solutions have greatly improved preserva-
tion of intracellular inclusions of tobacco mosaic virus. A new type of viral
inclusion ("angled layer" aggregate) has been demonstrated for the aucuba strain
of tobacco mosaic virus.




FLA-AY-01135 EDWARDSON J R

BREEDING DISEASE RESISTANT LUPINES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
'ith the important exception of cold resistant lines all blue lupine lines and


FLA-AY-00971


NORDEN A J






selections were killed by a severe freeze in the 1966-b7 growing season. Since
it is apparent that cold resistance is a valuable agronomic character for the
lupine growing regions of Florida selections from cold resistant lines will be
increased for release as forage varieties. The possibility that insect
pollination in blue lupines might be a source of contamination in forage lines
and varieties is being studied. Honey bees and bumble bees are the most
abundant insects visiting blue lupine flowers.




FLA-AY-01154 HORNER E S

WHITE CLOVER AND ALFALFA BREEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
White Clover: Thirty clones having good spring vigor, summer persistence, and
capacity to set seed at Gainesville were selected from clonal and seedling
nurseries. These were planted in a polycross nursery and in a new clonal test.
A new spaced-plant nursery of 1700 seedlings was established from seed produced
by intercrossing selected clones in 1966. Alfalfa: Experimental variety "G66"
was approved for release to seedsmen under the name "Florida 66." This variety
is a product of 6 generations of selection for persistence at Gainesville and
has proved superior in this respect to all other varieties tested. Use of this
variety vill enable farmers to maintain stands over a longer period than has
been possible with presently available varieties. Selection for persistence is
being continued.




FLA-AY-01166 KILLINGER G B

EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED PLANT SPECIES AND VARIETIES FOR ECONOMIC USES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Sunflower (Hellanthus annus) will produce a satisfactory seed crop in the
Gainesville area when planted between August 1 and 15 with a minimum of disease,
whereas April and May plantings are extremely susceptible to disease. In a
replicated regional test cooperative with USDA, 17 varieties and breeding lines
produced from 945 to 1826 pounds per acre of mature seed. Manchurian and
Vostok were highest yielding of commercial varieties. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus
L.) grown in a cooperative regional variety test with USDA (10 varieties) as a
paper-pulp crop, yielded from 5919 to 21399 pounds of oven-dry stem grown in
19 inch rows. The same test grown on 10 inch beds in 39 inch rows yielded
8160 to 19913 pounds of oven-dry stem. Both tests were planted April 27 and
harvested November 17. Another kenaf planting of 7 varieties planted April 5,
yielded from 17428 to 33973 pounds of oven-dry stem. Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)
P.1.218066 introduced from Pakistan produced 1600 pounds of peas on one and a half
acres. This is the first pigeonpea introduction tested which would yield
enough seed at any one time to harvest. Brassica carinata P.1.243913 a rape
like crop from Ethopia continues to show promise as an oil seed crop. Some
progress has been made by selection in growing seed with a light seed coat.
Samples of kenaf which had been chopped and weathered for six months was furnished
the Northern Utilization Lab at Peoria and they report satisfactory paper-pulp
quality. The same laboratory was furnished samples of Hemarthria altissima
P.1.299995 a grass from Africa for special tea like properties evaluation.




FLA-AY-01167 KILLINGER G B PRINE G M BOYD F T

EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED AND NATIVE PLANT SPECIES FOR PASTURE, FORAGE AND OTHER
USES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Five superior forage producing perennial peanuts (Arachis), ranked from highest
to lowest in hay yields, were Gainesville Selection No. 1, Arb (P.1. 118457),
P.I. 262832, P.I.262819, and P.I.262794. The oven-dry hay yield of Gainesville
Selection No. 1 cut twice during this third season after planting was 6100
pounds per acre. Pangolagrass (Digitaria decumbens) treated with 17,000 r of
gamma radiation in 1963, selected and new plantings in 1967 has survived
repeated periods of frost. Hemarthria altissima P.I.299995 has frost tolerance
and plant extracts fed to rats indicate no toxicity and possible desirable
nutrients for animal weight gains. Stylosanthes humilis, a summer annual legumn
for Australia makes excellent late summer growth and selections have produced







viable seed making it a possible self reseeding legume for pastures.
Bungomagrass (Entolasia imbricata) P.I.318669 failed to produce viable seed the
first season and some winter killing of mature plants is noted.




FLA-AY-01227 SCHANK S C

IMPROVEEMET BY INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION WITHIN THE GENUS DIGITARIA

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Hybridization work continued in the genus Digitaria with 228 crosses
accomplished during the 1967 season. Approximately 1500 spaced plants were
established in April and May of 1967 representing hybridizations of the
previous year. Selections were made from these and increase plots established.
Particular attention has been focused on F(1) hybrids from virus resistant
parentage. Hybrids are being evaluated in Surinam. Pangolagrass, from
Surinam, infected with stunt virus was examined by electron microscope
(cooperative with J. R. Edwardson). Particles observed in leaf parenchemya
cells were 70 mny in diameter and resembled rice dwarf particles in size, shape,
and morphology. Mode of reproduction and extent of apomixis in the genus
Digitaria has continued to be investigated. There was no evidence of apomixis
in the spaced plants of open pollinated progeny of Digitaria. Analysis of
embryo sacs and megasporogenesis has shown only single embryo sacs -- another
indication that apomixis is not present. Two USDA plant introductions of
Digitaria, 299694 and 299800, classified as D. milanjiana Rendle Stapf, were
used in intraspecific hybridizations. The relationship between seed set and
temperature was studied using growth chambers and modified field environments.
An inverse relationship was found in the temperature ranges studied (750 98).




FLA-AY-01237 WALLACE A T

INDUCED MUTATIONS AT SPECIFIC LOCI IN HIGHER PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
F(2) progeny from 103 crosses of full toxin resistant (FR) mutants at the hv
locus indicated that less than one-third involve chromosome aberrations.
Allelic complementation studies from 750 crosses between pairs of FR mutants
indicate that none complement. Whereas, 56 from 300 combinations between
partially resistant (PR) mutants indicate allelic complementation. None of the
FR mutants gave a necrotic response to crown rust at 220 and 1500 fc, while 85%
gave necrotic responses at both temperatures. Results from a root bioassay test
at 180, 220, 26 and 300 clearly indicate that each mutant allele has its own
temperature response to toxin. Some are more sensitive at 220, others at 26,
others at 30 and still others at 18I. We thus presume that the partial
resistance results from different degrees of binding of the toxin to coded gene
products and the binding of the different products is influenced differentially
by temperature. Preliminary rust tests also indicate a differential response to
temperature by the various mutants. 130 DDT resistant mutants have been
induced, purified and classified and crossed to the parent variety.
Classification by measuring chlorophyll contents of DDT treated leaves indicate
that many are partially resistant. Other results indicate that these mutants
are also differentially temperature sensitive. A technique for artificially
germinating oat pollen has been developed.




FLA-AY-01260 CLARK F

GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Sixty-three selections, which were developed by the pedigree, backcross and from
interspecific and F(1) hybrids techniques of breeding, were tested on a heavily
infested blackshank soil. Lines derived from Florida 301 have, in general, a
higher level of resistance than the resistant parent in the original cross.
This is due in part to the accumulation of more favorable modifying genes
resulting from selections under extreme blackshank conditions. Lines originally
deriving resistance from nicotiana plumbaginifolia may be subject to some
variation in degree of resistance in advanced stages of development. This
source of resistance has been described as a simple dominant factor, resistant
to race 0 of the pathogen, which is the only race so far identified in Florida.





Blackshank is an increasing problem in Florida and the development of highly
resistant varieties which also have the necessary elements of quality would be
of great value to Florida growers as well as those of other areas where
blackshank is a problem. Four new varieties were released by the Flue-Cured
variety Quality standards Committee for planting in 1963; only one variety is
listed as having high resistance to blackshank. Florida submitted one selection
for testing in 1967 regional test program. It rated a high resistance,
however, was too low in alpha amino acids and in petroleum ether extract which
influences aroma to qualify for further testing.




FLA-AY-01262 PRINE G M

PLANTING AND FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON THE YIELD OF CORN, SOYBEANS, SORGHUM,
AND SMALL GRAINS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The average grain yields of Savanna and AKS 614 grain sorghums planted in rows
19, 28.5, and 38 inches apart were 3,650, 3,270, and 2,850 pounds per acre,
respectively. There was no significant differences in grain yields among plant
populations of 43,560, 87,120, 130,680, and 174,240 plants per acre.
Thirty-three grain sorghum hybrids were evaluated for grain yield and other
agronomic characteristics. Yields of stalks, leaves and heads or ears were
determined on 22 varieties of silage (forage) sorghum, Florida 200A corn and
Guatamala 4 kenaf. Furage yields were determined on 22 sorghum-sudangrass
hybrids and 3 pearlmillet hybrids cut 5 times during season when plant heights
were approximately 30 inches. Excellent yields by the various sorghum types
suggest their increased use in subtropical USA.




FLA-AY-01286 PRINE G M SCHRODER V N RUELKE 0 C

MICROCLIMATIC INFLUENCES ON FIELD CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Orientation of kernels at seeding so leaves of Florida 200 corn plants were
arranged across middles, gave significant increases in grain yield of 370 and
730 pounds per acre for populations of 9,000 and 18,000 plants per acre,
respectively, when compared to random seeding. In previous seasons no advantage
had been seed for kernel orientation at the high population. Light enrichment,
consisting of removing every other equispaced plants, continued to show a
critical period for light environment during the 10 or more day silking period
on the ear development of several ear types of corn. The critical period was
not as apparent as in other seasons probably due to a reduction in number of
ears developing per plant caused by a long, early-season drought.
Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) was found to be of negative value in increasing
yields of 2 indeterminate varieties of Florida grown soybeans. Plant height was
effectively reduced in sunflowers by applying cycocel (CCC) as a seed soaking
treatment prior to planting.




FLA-AY-01302

A BIOCHEMICAL STODY OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE GROWTH OF HIGHER
PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Two plant types, peas (Pisum sativum) and corn (Zea mays), with dissimilar
temperature adaptations were grown at 220 and 26.50 C to determine the treatment
effects on growth, ribonuclease (RNase) activity and resistance of BNA to
degradation. In the two temperatures used, peas grew best at 220 and corn at
26.50 C. The quantity of total RNA was lower in both plant types at the 26.50 C
treatment than at 220. RNase activity was greater in both plant types in
temperature treatments that promoted the greater amount of growth for that plant
type. The RNA from plants in both plant types was less resistant to degradation
by RNase when the plants were grown at 220 than at 26.5 C. A temperature
gradient was provided by bathing one end of an alloy bar in chilled ethylene
glyco and the other in hot water. A linear range of temperatures from 90 to 42
C. was maintained in nutrient solution containers placed upon the bar. Stem
sections of pangolagrass, Digitaria decumbens stent, were rooted and grown for a
period of 14 days in the range of temperatures provided by the bar. Root





initiation, root length, and root weights were reduced by low and high
temperature treatments. The reduction in root growth at low temperatures was
similar to the reduced top growth in plants grown at low night temperatures.



FLA-AY-01303 NORDEN A J

VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT OF PEANUTS (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.)

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
A new runner line, F439, outyielded Early Runner at all locations in USDA
Regional tests in 1967 and also rated superior to Early Runner in peanut butter
flavor and as roasted peanuts. For the 3-year period (1965-67) the average
yield of F439 from two Florida locations is 19% higher than that of Early
Runner. A study of the effects ol blending peanut genotypes on oil composition,
market grade and yield indicated that, although blends offer little yield
advantage when compared to the mean yield of the lines when grown alone, they do
effect significant changes in critical market grade components and in the
production of oil for specific purposes. The results also show that genotypic
blends could be used to obtain market acceptability of breeding lines that,
because of certain chemical or physical factors, are marginal or unacceptable
when grown alone. A highly significant plant type X genetic background
interaction was obtained in regard to yield from a 2-year study (1966-1967) of
peanuts in close row spacings. These results indicate that the genetic make-up
of the line, irregardless of row spacing, can overshadow whether or not a line
is upright or prostrate in plant growth habit.


FLA-AY-01358 KILLINGER G B RUELKE 0 C

PASTURE AND LEGUME VARIETY EVALUATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/04 67/12
Replaces Project 295 and involves annual and perennial grass and legume
varieties under several fertility or minor element regimes. Southern white
clover and ladino types yield more forage than Idaho, New Zealand and Northern
types. Ladino types fail to reseed due to short photoperiod in the Gainesville
area. La S-1 and Nolin's improved white continue to reseed or live over and
produce most forage year after year. Kenland, Pennscott, Chesapeake and
Louisiana red clovers are superior to other red clovers as to yield. Fritted
Trace Elements (FTE) 503 applied with the fertilizer for both white and red
clover at a 15 to 20 pound per acre rate increased yields from 15 to 30 percent
the first season, 10 to 20 percent the second and 5 to 10 percent the third
year. One application appears satisfactory for a two year period. Ryegrass
varieties, Fla. Rust Resistant and Gulf produce more forage than common,
Italian, Perennial and other varieties tested. FTE 503 also accounted for
substantial yield increases when applied with ryegrass fertilizer. Trenton and
Flagler fescue grasses produce more forage in late winter, spring and summer
than ryegrass.



FLA-AY-01359 HINSON K

SOYBEAN BREEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Breeding lines in advanced stages of evaluation yielded more than currently
grown varieties, are resistant to prevalent diseases, and have acceptable
chemical composition. Other breeding lines selected for high protein contain as
much as 26% more protein than the average for the three leading varieties in the
same maturity range, but are lower in oil content and in yield. They are not
acceptable as varieties at present prices for protein and oil, but are valuable
as parents in further high protein breeding work. Breeding lines selected for
late maturity have responses to photoperiod that make them potentially better
adapted to tropical latitudes than any varieties now grown in continental USA.
Many have equalled the yield of the best late maturing named varieties in
Florida tests.


FLA-AY-01375 CLARK F MILLER C R

EFFECT OF CULTURAL MANAGEMENT ON BLACK SHANK AND ON QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF
FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Crop rotation systems are recognized as cultural aids, however, soil infected






with the disease organism blackshank comingled with nematodes presents a serious
problem to all tobacco growers, particularly the growers who have permanent
irrigation systems. Agronomic practices such as crop sequence, lime vs. no
lime, fumigants for control of nematodes and varieties of tobacco susceptible or
resistant to the disease are important to every tobacco grower; success may be
dependent upon the interaction of these numerous practices. These tests were
begun in 1967 and the following results were obtained. Disease resistant
varieties, regardless of soil treatment, when grown in an infested soil had a
disease index average of 8.5 percent loss, as compared to 84.9 percent loss for
Hicks, the susceptible variety. The resistant varieties, regardless of
treatment, produced an average yield of 1105 pounds as compared to 125 pounds
per acre for the susceptible variety. The average acre value for the resistant
varieties was 761 dollars, and 85 dollars for the susceptible variety. The
susceptible variety had a slightly higher per hundred weight value than the
resistant varieties, 69.66 as compared to 69.29.


FLA-AY-01376 CLARK F

PRODUCTION OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO AS INFLUENCED BY PESTICIDES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Fumigation: Nine experimental chemicals were tested in a soil heavily infested
with nematodes and none proved equal to ethylene dibromide or dichloropropene-
dichloropropane, the two leading commercially available fumigants. Fungicides:
Polyram was tested both as a spray and as a dust in comparison with ferbam and
zineb for the control of blue mold. Blue mold did not occur during the 1967
plantbed season; consequently, control ratings could not be made. There was
no phytotoxic effects noted on any of the plants from its use. Chemical Test
for Control of Suckers: Seven chemicals were compared with a topped and hand
suckered treatment on a regional basis at 6 locations from Florida to Virginia.
These chemicals were classified as contact vs. systemic. None proved equal to
MH30 for the control of suckers. A combination of Penar applied early followed
with MH30 proved equal to MH30 alone. The percent control of suckers ranged
from 73 to 43.7% control in 1967. Further testing is planned in 1968.
Herbicides for Weed Control: Seven herbicides were tested, singular or in
combination for the control of weeds. Diphenamid, 4 Ibs. active per acre,
and Tillam, 3 lbs. active per acre, were included because they are two
chemicals presently being used on tobacco. They did not perform as well as a
combination of .75 lbs. benefin plus 1.5 Ibs. active vernolate.



FLA-AY-01377 PFAHLER P L

QUANTITATIVE GENETIC STUDIES IN HIGHER PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Male gametes serve a vital function in transmitting genetic material. In
developing statistical models for quantitative genetic studies, the ability of
pollen grains to fertilize is generally assumed to be independent of their
genetic constitution. However, if pollen transmission and pollen genotype are
related, a selective mechanism would be present that could alter gene and
zygotic frequencies in succeeding generations and as a result, invalidate many
accepted statistical models. Studies with Zea mays have indicated that pollen
genotype and fertilization ability are related and a wide range of genetic
diversity exists. The genotype of the female sporophyte on which the pollen
grain must germinate and through which it must penetrate and grow to complete
fertilization also is a major influencing factor. The detection of
irradiation-induced mutations is to a large extent also dependent on the ability
of such changes to be transmitted to subsequent generations. Therefore, if
changes are lethal to the gametophyte, present concepts on the nature and
frequency of mutations are distorted since our present knowledge is based
largely on information derived from the haplo-viable group. Evidence has been
found to indicate that fertilization ability is not affected by irradiation of
mature pollen but that the first observable effect of irradiation occurs in the
development of the embryo. As the irradiation dosage increases, the percentage
of aborted embryos increases. Therefore, the disruption of the mitotic cycle by
irradiation acts as a screening mechanism rather than haplo-inviability per se.
The female genome or female sporophyte on which the embryo develops also
strongly influences embryo abortion.





ANIMAL SCIENCE

Research was conducted on 45 projects. New projects included studies on
acidosis and feelot founder in beef cattle, economic, nutritional and disease
factors in domestic rabbit production, the possible need for biotin by the pig,
developing methods for evaluating the nutrient content of forages and the effect
of pesticides on animal metabolism and productivity.
The department has continued to enlarge its cooperation with other depart-
ments and Branch stations on breeding, physiology, genetics, nutrition, feeding
and meats studies. The Meats Laboratory slaughtered 917 cattle, 402 hogs and
57 lambs for carcass studies and evaluation in cooperative projects. During
the past year the Nutrition Laboratory personnel made thousands of determinations
for 30 different substances in feedstuffs, blood and other animal tissues and
excretions.
During the year the staff in Animal Science published 120 scientific and
professional articles. The book "Factors Affecting the Calf Crop" was publish-
ed by the University of Florida Press and is available to anyone interested.
Physical improvements included the construction of a small physiology
laboratory to be used in conjunction with the Climatology Laboratory. Part
of the purebred beef unit is being moved to an area near the dairy unit at
Hague. Additional land clearing and pasture establishment has occurred there.
The livestock holding pens at the Meats Laboratory were concreted.



FLA-AL-U0627 KOGER ii

PASTURE PROGRAilS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The three pasture programs being tested include (1) clover-grass fertilized at the
rate of 300 lis. of 0-12-20 annually, (2) comparable pastures with 1/4 of area
being renovated annually and (3) one half of area same as i# with other nalf
seepage irrigated and fertilized at the rate of 500 lbs. of 0-10-20. Production
per cow was 511, 491 and 526 Ibs. of calf weaned, respectively, and calf production
per acre was 334, 321 and 378 lbs. For the 4 cattle breeding systems, production
per cow was 480, 473, 458 and 473 lbs., respectively, for grade British, Angus-
Hereford crisscross, Angus-Brahman crisscross and Hereford-Santa Gertrudis criss-
cross, respectively.



FLA-AL-00629 KOGER M

SELECTION OF BEEF CATTLE FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Selection for reproduction and growth rate in Florida's climate was continued in
5 herds, including one herd each of Angus, Brahman and Santa Gertrudis and 2
herds of Herefords. Apparent progress is being made in the Angus, Hereford
and Santa Gertrudis. Little progress has been made in the Brahman due to low
fertility and high death loss precluding effective selection. These results have
demonstrated to breeders that the generally poor production of purebred cattle
introduced into Florida can be improved through breeding methods. The study to
determine whether the specific combining of bulls for crossbreeding can be
improved by cross-progeny testing will be closed with,this years data.
Preliminary indications are that general combining ability is more important
than specific combining ability for bulls of the same breed.


FLA-AL-00755 AMMERMAN C B LOGGINS P E MOORE J E

THE NUTRITIONAL AVAILABILITY OF COMPONENTS OF LIVESTOCK FEEDSTUFFS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Twenty-four dried citrus pulp samples, from 13 production sources were examined
to determine physical composition. The samples were separated into two
fractions using a U.S. Bureau of Standards Number 10 Sieve. The fraction
retained on the sieve was separated further into pellets, visually detectable
seeds or seed particles, and peel plus pulp. An average of 40.3% passed the
sieve, and 59.71 was retained. The latter fraction, when expressed on the basis
of the whole sample, consisted of seeds, 4.8%; pellets, 5.3%; and peel plus
pulp, 49.6%. Analyses of 989 samples of dried citrus pulp obtained during 1963,
1964, and 1965 were summarized. The average moisture content was 8.62% and,
expressed on a dry matter basis, the average proximate composition was as
follows: ash, 5.1%; protein, 6.8% ether extract, 4.3%; crude fiber, 13.4%; and
nitrogen-free extract, 70.4%. Significant (P<.05) differences in nutrient
composition were found between production sources. Pelleted dried citrus pulp






was fed as a replacement for regular pulp in amounts up to 66% of the total
concentrate to finishing steers. The average daily gain for all steers was 2.89
pounds and those steers fed the higher levels of pelleted pulp consumed more
feed and gained at a slightly faster rate. Rumen parakeratosis was extensive in
steers fed as much or 44X of the concentrate as citrus pulp.



FLA-AL-00805 SHIRLEY B L EASLEY J F

RESPIRATORY ENZYMES VARIATIONS IN THE TISSUES OF CATTLE SWINE AND SHEEP

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
A study was made to determine if there were interrelations of dietary selenium
(Se) vitamin E and sulfate on ubiquinone content and succinoxidase activity of
the heart of rats. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 received no Se; Groups 5, 6, 7 and 8
were given Sppm Se in diets: Groups 3, 4, 7 and 8 were given 3 I.U. vitamin E
per day; and groups 2,4, 6 and 8 received 2% Na(2)SO(4). Those fed vitamin E
had more (86.05) ubiguinone present. Those supplemented with sulfate had more
(P.05) succinoxidase activity in the heart. A similar trial feeding 1 ppm Se
resulted in vitamin E giving higher (P.05) ubiquinone values, with no
significant effect of the Se and sulfate.



FLA-AL-00809 WARNICK A C

EFFECT OF HORMONES ON PHYSIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION IN CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
A comparison of thyroid status using an in vitro chromatographic technique
employing Sephadex G-25 and 1-131, Triiodo-thyronine for cattle was developed.
A comparison was made of the thyroid status between Brahman and Hereford heifers
and bulls. In the cool chamber (210C) Brahman had an 1-131 uptake of 68.6% vs.
64.6% in Hereford. Uptake at 320c was 67.3% in Brahman and 65.8% in Hereford.
On pasture, uptake was 65.3% in Brahman and 67.4% in Herefords. The average
1-131 uptake for all cattle varied from 55.1 to 74.3%. There was a close
relationship between 1-131 uptake and animal performance. Additional detailed
relationships between 1-131 uptake and reproduction, growth and blood physiology
will be made. Differences in sex, age and breeds were found in 17-ketosteroids
in urine in young Angus, Hereford and Santa Gertrudis cattle.




FLA-AL-00q22 KOGER n

CROSSBREDS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The breeding groups include Angus, Brangus, and crisscrosses between these two
breeds, i.e., breed of sire is alternated generation wise resulting in offspring
approaching 2/3 breeding of the sire and 1/3 of the alternate breed. The
production performance for Angus, Brangus and crisscrosses for 1967 was as
follows: weaning rate, 72, 91, and 81.5 per cent; weaning weight, 374, 470 and
444 lb.; and production per cow bred, 269, 428 and 362 lbs., respectively.
Thus, the crossbreds exceeded the mean of the parent breeds slightly but were
inferior to the Brangus.



FLA-AL-00938 WARNICK A C

CONTROLLED TEMPERATURE AND REPRODUCTION IN BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
The response of young Brahman bulls and heifers was measured at three different
temperatures: (1) 320C and 96% R.H., (2) 210C and 65% R.H. and (3) ambient
temperature. These animals were maintained for one year from December 16, 1966
to December 15, 1967 to determine growth, feed intake, blood physiology and
reproduction. Grass hay consumption was higher at 210C compared to 32C.
Ovarian activity as measured by the presence and number of follicles and corpora
lutea checked monthly by rectal palpation was greater at 21o compared to 320C.
The higher temperature also had an adverse influence on semen characteristics in
bulls, several Brahman hulls had a juvenile penis at 12 months of age such that
the glans penis was adhered to the muscle and tissue of the penis. Several
Brahman heifers had not attained puberty by 22 months of age.


43


1 _








MANAGEMENT AD COST ACTORS RELATED TO MULTIPLE FARROWING

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
The value of increased feed intake for sows during the last 4 weeks of gestation
has been investigated. Previous work suggested a significant improvement in
birth weights and number of pigs weaned per litter due to heavier feeding during
this period. However, the experiment completed this year showed similar birth
weights (3.01 vs. 3.03) and an advantage in pigs weaned per litter for the lover
feed level (9.58 vs. 9.27). In another investigation the continuous feeding of
high level copper from weaning through breeding and farrowing has been studied.
It was important to determine if the use of high level copper fed during the
growing period would be detrimental to subsequent reproduction. Twenty-eight of
the thirty gilts involved conceived at first service. Farrowing results
indicated that the supplementary copper levels (0, 100, 250 ppm) were neither
beneficial nor harmful. Excellent litters have been farrowed from all treatment
groups.


FLA-AL-00995 KOGER N

AGE OF HEIFERS AT FIRST BREEDING AS RELATED TO BEEF PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Breeding heifers to calve first at two years of age has increased subsequent
reproduction by 10% above that of heifers bred to calve first at 3 years of age.
An additional advantage has been the extra calf produced at 2 years of age with
no apparent disadvantage. It is emphasized, however, that to breed heifers to
calve successfully at 2 years of age, two conditions must be met. These are
heifers must weigh 600 lbs. or more at breeding and nursing 2-year old heifers
must be on a very high plane of nutrition. Otherwise, a reduced calf crop and
weaning weight of calf will more than offset the value of the calf from the
2-year old heifer.


T'.A-AL-00999 COMBS G E

PLORIDA FEEDS AND BY-PRODUCTS FOR SWINE FEEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Two experiments were conducted with finishing swine to study different methods
of feeding cane molasses. The average initial and terminal weights of pigs in
these experiments were, respectively, 97 and 201 pounds, and 113 and 185 pounds.
Dietary treatments in experiment one consisted of 0 percent molasses, 40 percent
molasses, 60 percent molasses-paste feed and molasses and protein supplement fed
free-choice. The daily gains of pigs given the 0 and 40 percent molasses diets
were similar whereas the comparative gains of the paste-feed and free-choice
groups showed a reduction of 8 and 24 percent, respectively. Feed required per
unit of gain increased with increasing levels of dietary molasses. To alleviate
the apparent consumption problem encountered by pigs given molasses free-choice
the consistency of molasses in experiment two was altered: molasses:water ratios
of 2:1, 4:1 and 8:1 were offered in wooden troughs. Supplementary protein was
fed twice weekly at the rate of 2 lb. per head per day. Rate of gain was
comparable with the groups given either the 2:1 or 4:1 mixture whereas a marked
reduction occurred with 8:1 ratio. Feed efficiency decreased as the
molasses:water ratio increased. In comparison to the control diet (0 percent
molasses) performance of pigs on any of the molasses treatments was
unsatisfactory.


FLA-AL-01002 WALLACE H D

THE EVALUATION OF FEED ADDITIVES FOR SWINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
A combination hormone treatment, diethylstilbestrol and methyl testosterone has
been studied as a means of improving feedlot performance and carcass
desirability of growing-finishing pigs. Hormone supplemented pigs consumed less
feed, gained slower and produced leaner carcasses than control pigs.
Unfortunately the hormone treatment imparted an undesirable aroma and flavor to
the pork. This aspect of the problem is to be further explored. High level
copper feeding has been investigated from several standpoints. A toxicity
experiment demonstrated that 250 p.p.m. was optimum for feedlot performance.
However, pigs adapted to higher levels and no deaths occurred when 350, 450 and
550 p.p.m. were fed. The analyses of edible tissues indicated that the


rFL-AL-00977


WALLACE H D COMBS G E


ROGER M







accumulation of copper was very negligible even at the high levels of
supplementation. In tests to determine a feasible level of copper to add to
protein supplements fed free-choice it has been determined that 500 p.p.m. is
probably the best level. Levels higher than this tend to interfere with
adequate consumption of protein supplement and levels much below this do not
stimulate maximum performance response.


PLA-AL-01003 KOGER n

INHERENT BODI SIZE IN CATTLE AS RELATED TO ADAPTATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
selection is progressing as planned. The project has not been in effect long
enough for trends to be apparent.


FLA-AL-l01O0 WARNICK A C

EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON THE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SWINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Work is planned on techniques in semen collection, storage and insemination to
use in subsequent nutrition studies.



FLA-AL-01044 FEASTER J P

EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION AND DIETARY DEFICIENCIES ON THE PLACENTAL TRANSFER
OF MINERALS AND THEIR

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/06
Objectives: Determine the effects on pregnant rats of feeding diets with and
without added pesticides in which copper is present at low and normal levels and
zinc is present at low, normal, and high levels. Effects of the diets on
growth, reproduction, and placental transfer have been studied. Approach:
Female rats were maintained on the experimental diets from weaning age then ere
bred, and at parturition tissue samples were obtained from maternal and newborn
rats for analysis. Findings: Diets deficient in copper caused reproductive
failure in 40% of the females bred and reduced hemoglobin levels in maternal
bloods and copper concentrations in livers of the newborn. Zinc-deficient diets
did not affect growth or reproduction, but high zinc diets (7,000 ppm) caused
almost all newborn to be born dead, and with increased concentrations of zinc in
the livers. Pesticides (DDT, parathion and Sevin) added to the diets at levels
corresponding to those permissible in the human diet did not affect growth
reproduction, or level of copper or zinc in maternal or fetal tissues. DDT and
its derivatives were found in livers of the newborn, indicating that placental
transfer of DDT takes place.


FLA-AL-010 5 ARRINGTON L R

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF DIETARY FACTORS OF INTEREST IN THE NUTRITION OF
LIVESTOCK USING LABORATORY

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Dietary iron and aluminum reduced phosphorus utilization by rats. Aluminum was
more effective than iron and a combination was more effective than either alone.
One-tenth % of each in diets with 0.27% phosphorus caused slight growth
restriction and bone calcification, and 0.3% resulted in severe growth
retardation and bone calcification. Dietary vitamin E at two and 10 times the
normal intake for rats increased the ubiquinone content of the heart.
Succinoxidase activity in the heart of rats was increased with 2% dietary
Na(2)SO(4) in the presence of added vitamin E and selenium.


FLA-AL-01061 SHIRLEY R L EASLEY J F

EFFECT OF SOIL PHOSPHORUS RESIDUES ON PANGOLAGRASS PASTURES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Proximate analyses were made on pangolagrass pastures that were being studied
for the effect of equivalent applications of superphosphate, super-phosphate
plus lime, triple superphosphate, basic slag, rock and colloidal phosphate
between 1947 and 1958. Residual effects were observed from 1959-65. Average crude






protein values ranged from 4.92 to 5.62% during 1955-58; and from 5.34 to 6.13%
during 1959-65 with the colloidal treatment at the highest concentration. The
phosphorus content during the treatment period was low on no phosphorus and
adequate on all phosphorus-treated areas. These values declined sharply during
the residual period for super and triple, were substantially lower on super plus
line, and basic slag, and slightly reduced but nutritionally adequate on rock
and colloidal treatments. The control values were essentially low and
unchanged.




PLA-AL-01079 AHMERMAN C B

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Steers averaging 517 pounds initially gained an average of 1.79 pounds daily for
84 days when a corn-cottonseed meal diet containing 77 ppm iron was fed. When
dietary iron was increased to 500 and 1700 ppm by the addition of ferrous
sulfate, average gains per head daily were reduced to 1.40 and 0.88 pounds,
Respectively. Dietary Mo and SO(4) increased the loss of Cu by the urine in
sheep. Kidney uptake of Cu"* during a 48-hour sampling period after injection
of the tracer, steadily increased during that period in animals fed No and
SO(4) while in the control animals, radioactivity decreased with time. Total
stable Cu in the kidney for the treated group was 2.07 mg and for the control
group 0.465 mg. Observations on blood and bone composition were made over a
four-year period on two breeds of sheep located at the Gainesville, Fla.,
Auburn, Ala., and Knoxville, Tenn. stations. The sheep at the Ala. station had
the highest plasma P levels followed by those in Fla. with those at the Tenn.
station having the lowest levels. Sheep in Tenn. had the highest plasma Ca
levels with the average levels for sheep in Pla. and in Ala. being similar.
Plasma Mg levels in lambs at the Fla., Ala. and Tenn. stations averaged 2.75,
2.65, and 2.41 mg. per 100 ml., respectively. The ash, Ca, and content of the
metacarpal bone of lambs was similar while values for Hg expressed on an ash
basis for lambs from the Fla., Ala. and Tenn. stations were 1.01, 0.95, and
0.80%, respectively.




FLA-AL-01117 MOORE J E

INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF RATION, RUMEN BIOCHEMISTRY AND ANIMAL PERFORMANCE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Replacing soybean meal with fish'meal in a 22% protein supplement to low quality
pangolagrass hay reduced crude protein digestibility by rumen fistulated steers
but other nutrient digestibilities were unaffected. Rumen ammonia, total
volatile fatty acids concentration and valerate molar % decreased with
increasing levels of fish meal. Adding 10% animal fat to a 22% protein
supplement containing 6% urea for rumen fistulated steers fed low-quality
pangolagrass hay had no effect on rumen ammonia concentrations. Adding 5%
citrus oil to a 22% protein supplement for rumen fistulated steers fed
low-quality pangolagrass hay reduced the rate at which the daily offering was
consumed. Administration of a 10% citrus oil supplement via fistula immediately
decreased hay consumption and increased rumen ammonia and total volatile fatty
acids. In vitro rumen fermentation of hay cellulose was decreased by citrus
oil. Volatile fatty acid synthesis was depressed only slightly in vitro
indicating that citrus oil had a greater effect on cellulose fermentation than
on other forage constituents. Increasing dried citrus pulp in the diet of
feedlot steers from 0 to 661 increased rumen acetate:propionate ratios.




FLA-AL-01132 HENTGES J F JR PALMER A Z MOORE J E

BEEF CATTLE FEED FORMULATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Complete diets were formulated for bulk-handling and self-feeding to beef bulls
on performance test. A coarse texture was obtained by pelleting all fine
ingredients through a 3/16" die and by steam rolling or crimping grains.
Sources of bulk which were evaluated and compared were cottonseed hulls as 10%
of the diet, ground hay as 10% of the diet and corn silage offered ad libitum.








BREEDING METHODS FOR BEEF CATTLE IN THE SOUTHERN REGION

PROGRESS REPORT: 68/01 68/07
A total of 85 gestations have been interrupted and fetuses obtained from matings
of known genotypes. These included 50 interrupted at 60 days post-conception
and 35 interrupted at 90 days post-conception. Results of the study indicate
that the gene or genes controlling "snorter" iwarfism is/are exhibiting
influence as early as 60 days post-conception. The fetus at this time is
sufficiently small enough to totally homogenize and fractionate for biochemical
analysis. Several cows have produced more than one fetus sired by the small
bull. There is variation among full sibs at the same period of gestation
indicating influence of the remainder of the genotype plus prenatal environment.




FLA-AL-01156 SHIRLEY R L EASLEY J F

SELENIUM IN GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND HEALTH OF CATTLE AND SHEEP

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
White clover (Trifolium repens) grown on Leon fine sand without addition of
selenium (se) contained 1.6 ppm Se which was within the adequate range for
cattle according to other workers. Twenty-five ppm Se applied to the soil was
most toxic to clover and decreasingly toxic to millet > corn. Sulfur
applications up to 100 ppm depressed Se uptake. Higher levels of sulfur (200
ppm) depressed yield and increased Se content of the forage. Forty beef steers
two years old were fed a basal diet of 4.5 kg snapped corn, citrus pulp,
cottonseed meal and mineral per day for 121 days on winter pastures. Five
treatments were as follows: controls; orally, either 50 I.U. of d-alpha or
dl-alpha tocopheral per day; and injected intramuscularly with either 1400 I.U.
of d-alpha or dl-alpha tocopherol per 28 day interval. The control steers and
those dosed orally with 50 I.U. of alpha tocopherol had more (P<0.01) Se in the
liver. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups tor Se
content of heart tissue.




FLA-AL-01186 KOGER 1

A STUDY OF RESPONSE TO SELECTION AND GENETIC-ENVIROMENTAL INTERACTION IN
HEREFORD CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
This represents the fifth year of this study. The performance of the
Brooksville and Miles City lines at the two locations suggests significant
genetic-environmental interaction. It is possible, however that acclimatization
responses unrelated to genetic differences may be involved. Two to three years
additional data should clarify this point. The evaluation of two selections
from the Miles City cattle at the two locations will provide additional
information on GEI but this phase of the study must await more time for the two
selections to diverge.




FLA-AL-01204 CARPENTER J W

QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF THE BEEF PRODUCED FROM YOUNG BULLS STEERS AND HEIFERS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
One hundred and twenty grade angus bull, steer and heifer calves, by a single
sire and dropped over a six week period, were selected at weaning, placed on
feed to finish for slaughter at 11, 14, 17 and 20 months of age. Average daily
gain and feed efficiency data were collected. Dressing percent, hide yield and
classification and grade of the carcasses were obtained. Color, texture,
firmness, marbling, class and grade of the wholesale cuts round, loin, rib and
chuck were determined. The palatability of steaks and coasts is being
determined by a trained taste panel and by a relatively large selected consumer
panel. This study is not complete and data have not been analyzed. Two
additional trials involved grade Santa Gertrudis and Hereford bulls, steers and
heifers that were fed similarly and slaughtered at about 15 months of age.
Feedlot, slaughter and carcass and palatability data are being analyzed
presently.


FLA-AL-01136


KOGER M






SHIRLEY R L EASLEY J F


TOXICITY OP NITRATES IN FORAGE FOR BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Star millet on sand land that had been fertilized at planting with 400 Ibs. of
10-10-10 fertilizer, 100 lbs. of liquid ammonia and one ton of dolomite per acre
was found in early July to cause two heifers to die and two cows to abort with
diagnosis of nitrate poisoning. Analyses of leafy samples of the millet gave
nitrate values of approximately .4, .6, .6, .5, and .6 per cent of dry weight
basis on July 7, 14, 21, 28 and August 13. These levels have been reported to
cause abortion and possibly death in cattle.



FLA-AL-01238 HENTGES J P MOORE J E

FORMULATION OF CONTROLLED-INTAKE SUPPLEMENTS FOR BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Urea at 4 and 6% levels in rations of yearling beef cattle was an effective
limiter of feed intake. Six percent urea in a self-fed diet restricted intake
to 6.0 Lb. per day but a weight loss of 0.6 lb. per day was experienced. Four
percent urea restricted intake only slightly to 9.25 lb. per day but no weight
was gained or lost. Two percent urea failed to limit consumption (11.1 lb/day)
and an average gain of 0.48 Ib. was recorded. Blood urea nitrogen levels
reflected the daily intake of dietary nitrogen.



FLA-AL-01245 WARNICK A C

THREE-VERSUS TWELVE-MONTH BREEDING SEASONS FOR BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
One-half of the Brahman and Santa Gertrudis cows are bred during a 90-day
breeding season March 15 to June 15 while one-half are bred on a continuous
year-around program. A total of 51 Brahman cows and 2 year old heifers were in
the two groups while 50 Santa Gertrudis females were studied. Cows are palpated
at monthly intervals to detect presence of a corpus Luteum and time of
conception. During the winter season several non-pregnant cows do not ovulate.
Also, Brahman yearling heifers attain puberty later than the Santa Gertrudis.
The pregnancy rate in August. 1967, was 52% and 68% in seasonal and year-around,
respectively in Brahman females and 48% and 57% respectively in the Santa
Gertrudis. The year around groups were slightly higher but both groups were
low. A part of this low percentage resulted from the dry spring weather with
poor pasture. The low fertility cows that had failed to become pregnant during
2 breeding seasons were mated to fertile bulls and killed 34 days post breeding.
Only 25% of the Brahman females had normal embryos while 50% of the Santa
Gertrudis had normal embryos.



FLA-AL-01263 KOGER M

SELECTION FOR MATERNAL ABILITY IN BEEF CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
This project is in its second year. This year's calf crop produced 227 weaned
calves of which 108 were bulls. Of these 108 bull calves 63 were selected as
prospective herd bulls. These selected bulls averaged 443 pounds at weaning.



FLA-AL-01284 SHIRLEY R L EASLEY J F

EFFECT OF VARIOUS SOURCES OF VITAMIN A ON FATTENING CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Twenty-four calves 7 to 8.5 months old were separated into six lots of four
animals each and fed a basal ration of cottonseed hulls, cottonseed meal (41%)
citrus pulp and minerals for 140 days. Liver biopsy samples were taken at 28
day intervals to determine rate at which the vitamin A stores were depleted in
the liver. Initially average lot values ranged from 74 to 143 mcg. vitamin A
per gm. fresh weight. Within 28 days corresponding values ranged from 41 to 85
mcg. At the end of 140 days the concentration ranged from 4 to 14 mcg. per g.
fresh weight. After supplementing the six lots of steers with none, 0.5 lb.


FLA-AL-01211







pangolagrass hay, 2.0 Ib. pangolagrass hay, 0.5 lb. pangolagrass hay plus 12.000
I.U. vitamin A, and 12,000 I.0. vitamin A per animal per day, values of 5, 7, 1,
3, 9 and 6 mcg. vitamin A per g. liver was observed for the treatments,
respectively. This demonstrated that the supplements were not sufficient for
any storage of vitamin A.



PLA-AL-01313 LOGGINS P E

SELECTION FOR RESISTANCE IN SHEEP TO ABOBASAL PARASITIC NEMATODES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
The blood and parasitic infection data collected to date are being used to
further characterize the high and low grouping of the ewes within the two breed
groups. The previously established hemoglobin levels in the Florida Native ewe
flock have maintained their high and low ranking on 60 day interval blood
analyses for the year. The use of phenothiazine in the low Rambouillet group
has altered the initial allotment on hemoglobin values as to their high and low
grouping. Hemoglobin concentration values and packed cell volume reached two
low points during the year; in February due to the additional stress of
lactation and in June, July when parasitic infections were high. Preliminary
data from monthly sampling of ewe groups for total gamma globulin as an
indicator of resistance shows little promise. Hemoglobin types of all ewes were
determined using starch gel media electrophoresis. Breed differences are
present but within breed resistance groups trends were slight with hemoglobin
type A slightly more prevalent in the high resistance Florida Native ewes. The
first lamb crop per cent data were 80, 80, 116 and 111 for the Bambouillet high,
low and Florida Native high, low groups, respectively.



FLA-AL-01345 CHAPMAN H L JB

UREA IN CATTLE FINISHING RATIONS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Six steers approximately seven months old were fed a ration consisting of 77%
cottonseed meal mixed with dried bakery product, alfalfa meal, mineral and
vitamin A supplement for 196 days, and compared with six corresponding steers
that had 10% urea and 66% cornmeal substituted for the cottonseed meal, for urea
content of the liver and heart tissue. The liver contained an average of 4.0
and 4.7 mg. urea per gram fresh weight for the control and urea dietary groups,
respectively. Corresponding values for the heart were 1.3 and 1.-4 g. urea per
gram fresh weight. The urea group average 26 compared to 35 mcg. of vitamin A
for control group per grams fresh weight of liver at time of slaughter.
Corresponding values for the heart were 0.12 and 0.16 mcg., respectively.



FLA-AL-01384 SHIRLEY R L EASLEY J F

PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS FOR BALANCING THE RATIO IN FLORIDA-PRODUCED CATTLE FEEDS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
During the past year blood plasma values for calcium, phosphorus and magnesium
were determined in several herds of cattle prior to ration treatments. Average
values for Ca, P and Mg in blood plasma for the Santa Gertrudis, Keene Bull,
Herd ( 16 animals) were 9.8, 4.8, and 2.0 mg/100 ml plasma respectively; Santa
Gertrudis, JAP Bull, Herd (17 animals) were 11.5, 5.7 and 2.3 mg/100 ml plasma,
respectively; Brahman Herd #81 (23 animals) were 9.4, 4.5 and 2.4 mg/100 ml
plasma; Brahman Herd #79 (22 animals) were 10.7, 5.8 and 3.0 mg/100 ml plasma;
Charolais Herd #2 (19 animals) were 8.5, 5.9 and 1.8 mg/100 ml plasma; Charolais
Herd #1 (19 animals) were 9.7, 6.0 and 2.1 mg/100 mls plasma respectively.



FLA-AL-01404 ARRINGTON L R SHIRLEY R L

ECONOMIC, NUTRITIONAL AND DISEASE FACTORS IN RABBIT PRODUCTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Questionnaire survey of rabbit producers designed to determine information on
number of rabbits produced, costs of production, marketing and problems of
production is approximately 50 percent complete. Nutritional study of fat
requirement and calcium requirement approximately 60 percent complete.






BOTANY

Substantial strides have been made during the period covered by this report
toward enchancing research facilities of the Department. An electron microscope
laboratory has been established in the Life Sciences Building, Unit I, under
the supervision of DC. Hencv C. Aldrich. This is fully equipped with a Hitachi
HY-11 electron microscope, high vacuum Freezeetch machine, dissecting microscopes,
ultra thin section microtomes, ovens, and other appropriate equipment. In
addition to the equipment for this new laboratory, other major additions during
the year for support of research include two research compound microscopes, micro-
void dust hood and accessories, a Percival growth chamber, Mettler balances,
stereomicroscopes, photographic equipment for photomicrography, automatic pipett-
ing machine, incubators, refrigerators, ovens, ultrasonic cleaner, pH meters, a
spectrophotometer, water bath, and numerous small items.
Outside support of staff research has come from NIH, AEC, the Graduate
School Research Council, the American Cancer Society Institutional Grant, the
Biomedical Science Institutional Grant, a contract with the Air Force, and a
contract with the Diamond Crystal Salt Company. The total amount received from
these several sources of support amounted to over $125,000.
Two new faculty have been added to the staff of the Department of Botany
during the period- Dr. Indra K. Vasil (developmental morphology) and Dr. Dana
G. Griffin, III biosystematicss and phycology). There have been no retirements
or resignations.
During the period faculty have authored nine publications and have eighteen
additional journal papers in press.





FLA-BT-00053 HUMPHREYS T E GARRARD L A

BIOSYNTHESIS OF CARBOHYDRATES IN PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Corn scutellum cells contain a compartment within which sucrose is synthesized
and one within which sucrose is stored. It has been presumed that a sucrose
derivative (sucrose phosphate?) is involved in the storage process. However,
since a sucrose kinase producing sucrose phosphate from sucrose and ATP has
never been found, exogenous sucrose should not be stored (if sucrose phosphate
is a required intermediate in the storage process) without prior inversion, we
have shown that in the corn scutellum inversion of exogenous sucrose is not
required for storage to occur. Corn scutellum slices stored sucrose when
incubated in either sucrose or fructose, and similar maximum rates of net
storage were obtained with 0.4M sucrose or 0.2M fructose. It is concluded that
exogenous sucrose is stored without prior inversion. This conclusion is based
on the following: The amount of extracellular inversion was too low to support
a net sucrose synthesis and storage, and sucrose storage in slices bathed in
optimal concentrations of fructose or glucose was increased by the addition of
sucrose to the bathing medium. Further evidence for a transport system for
exogenous sucrose was obtained in the demonstration of an exchange of sucrose
between the bathing solution and the storage compartment. Rate of exchange
increased as the concentration of exogenous sucrose increased, double in the
presence of citrate-phosphate buffer, little affected by pH in the range 5.0-7.3
and showed no dependence on the net amount of sucrose stored.



FLA-BT-01042 FRITZ G J

METABOLTSn OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN BY PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
The primary concern during the past year was the attempt to demonstrate that
0(2) is assimilated directly into tyrosine by intact spinach seedlings. The
basis for the investigation was provided by a report by Mair and Vining of the
existence of an enzyme prepared from spinach leaves which catalyzed the
hydroxylation of phenylalanine to tyrosine by 0(2). In the in vivo experiments,
spinach seedlings were incubated for several days in nitrogen and oxygen gas
mixtures (80%-20%) labeled with oxygen-18. Tyrosine and phenylalanine
subsequently isolated from the seedlings were analyzed by mass spectrometry;
small oxygen-18 enrichments were found in tyrosine but none in phenylalanine.
Since atmospheric 0(2) is incorporated directly into tyrosine, at least to a
small extent, it was concluded that an aerobic as well as an anaerobic pathway
for tyrosine biosynthesis investigation are now being applied to an in vivo
demonstration of 0(2) fixation in the conversion of cinnamic acid to p-coumaric
acid; a cinnamic acid hydroxylase was reported recently in pea seedlings.









A FLORA OF FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Major emphasis has been given to the completion for publication of a checklist
for Florida of the native and naturalized ferns and "fern allies," the
gymnosperms, and the monocotyledons. Within these groups the state was found to
contain 1178 species in 317 genera, a larger and richer flora than is present in
other states except for Texas or California.



FLA-BT-01191 ANTHONY D S

BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ON PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Previous investigations in this laboratory had shown an increase in free amino
acid and a decrease in protein in leaves of Pisum sativum grown at supraoptimal
temperatures compared with the content of these materials in plants grown at
optimal temperatures. Preliminary studies with 14C-labeled amino acids
indicated the cause of the above findings was an increased rate of degradation
of proteins at elevated temperatures. Also noted was a large and labile
acetone-soluble, apparently lipoprotein fraction. Attempts to repeat and extend
these findings to secure more adequate data for publication have not been
successful. In fact, it has not been possible to obtain any evidence of heat
injury in Pisun sativum in recent trials even when extraordinarily high growth
temperatures were employed. This phenomenon is being investigated and other
test systems such as etiolated pea shoots are being evaluated for their
usefulness in these studies.



FLA-BT-01226 KInBROUGH J W

TAXONOMY OF SPECIES OF THE TRIBE THELEBOLEAE.

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
A reevaluation of the genera of the Pseudoascobolaceae resulted in the splitting
and merging of old genera and the erection of new ones. Only a few species were
involved in these changes. Herbarium studies during 1967 revealed that the old
genus Ascophanus contained species of 11 genera under the current generic
concept. Detailed work on species differentiation in the segregates lodophanui,
Coprotus, and Thecotheus has continued. Collections for the Plant Pathology
Herbarium, Cornell University; Plant Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada;
Department of Botany, University of Toronto; and from the New York Botanical
Gdrlen were examined during the past year. This resulted in the transfer of 4
more species to lodophanus, 3 to Coprotus, and one to Thecotheus. Fundamental
characters tor species differentiation in Iodophanus were found to be the manner
of spore ornamentation as correlated with size, shape, and color of spores,
asci, and excipular cells. Size, shape and arrangement of asci, spores, and
paraphyses largely separate species of Coprotus, although shape and arrangement
of excipular cells is proving extremely useful. Thecotheus species may be
distinguished largely by the number, size, shape, and ornamentation of
ascospores.



FLA-BT-01287 WARD D B

THE LEGUME FLORA OF FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
A checklist was prepared of the genera of legumes known to occur native or
introduced and naturalized in the state of Florida. This listing of 72 genera
reflects a realignment of the generic concepts held in the current taxonomic
manual, where 99 genera are recognized. Extensive field work was carried out,
particularly in West Florida, for the purpose of assembling a wide range of
legume herbarium materials, for the study of both the comparative morphology of
complex groups and the determination of ranges, collections and initial studies
have been made of approximately 200 cultivated legumes maintained by the Indian
River Field Laboratory of the Everglades Experiment Station. Work has begun on
Caesalpinia (Caesalpinoideae), a tropical genus with several species native
along the lower Florida coasts, and Tephrosia (Papilionoideae), a large genus of
perennial vines, many species of which are native to Florida, and a source of
certain insecticides.


1


FLA-BT-01118


WARD D B







FLA-BT-01327


DAVIS J H JR


MAP VEGETATION TYPES OF FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The map has been completed and published. This project, therefore, is
terminated.



FLA-BT-01410 WARD D R

ECOLOGICAL RECORDS ON EGLIN ARB RESERVATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
A previous Air Force program on the Eglin Reservation, West Florida, of testing
spray equipment, designed to apply military chemical and biological agents by
aerial means, has given rise to the possibility that the testing program is
affecting the biota outside the test area. Observations conducted as part of
the present project show that changes have been Induced in the vascular flora,
but tnat they are not extensive, either in terms of distance from the test area,
or in duration, or in magnitude of effect.






DAIRY SCIENCE

Research has been conducted on 15 projects. One new project dealing with
ensiled complete rations was initiated. Several areas of work were investigated
as non-projected research.
Dr. J. M. Wing, while on a one-year leave of absence, was replaced by Dr.
G. W. Powell.
Remodeling and new construction at the Dairy Research Unit improved
facilities for metabolism studies and large animal surgery.






FLA-DY-00001 BROWNING C B

PRELIMINARY RESEARCH IN DAIRY PRODUCTION AND DAIRY PRODUCTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Trials are in progress to test the palatability of the addition of acid products
to citrus pulp. Trials are also in progress to establish complete rations for
dairy cows. Data are being accumulated on the growth and development of the
bovine totus various measurements and weights of fetuses at varying stages of
development. A new dairy product with high protein content and energy value has
been developed. Data on composition of milk plasma is being obtained. A
project is in preparation to study the causes of rancidity of milk produced by
Florida dairies.



FLA-DY-00213 WING J n POWELL G W

ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The ensilability and feeding value of two growth stages of Kenaf, with and
without propyl paraben added as a preservative, were investigated. Age at
harvesting, height, dry matter yield per acre, and percent dry matter for the
early-cut and late-cut Kenaf were 62 and 83 days, 6 and 8 feet, 1299 and 2569
Ibs, and 11.6 and 16.9% dry matter, respectively. Proximate analysis revealed
the following composition on a dry matter basis for the early and late cut
Kenaf: % protein, 24.3 and 15.2; % tat, 3.1 and 3.2; % fiber, 28.5 and 34.5; %
ash, 11.0 and 7.8; and % NFE, 33.1 and 39.3. Percent recovery of silage was
poor for the early-cut Kenat with or without the added propyl paraben (65%).
The silage, when removed from the silo, was extremely high in moisture and had a
putrefaction odor. Recovery of the late-cut Kenaf silage was good with or
without the added propyl paraben (95%). Percent recovery of dry matter was 67.8
and 88.3 for the early and late cut Kenaf, respectively. In no case did the
added propyl paraben influence the efficiency of ensilability or dry matter
consumption of either the early or late cut Kenaf. Dry matter consumption per
1000 pounds of body weight were 10.1 pounds for the early cut and 9.6 for the
late cut Kenaf. Digestibility of the individual nutrients will be calculated as
soon as the appropriate laboratory analyses are conducted.



FLA-DY-00575 WILCOX C J HEAD H H WHITE J B

PRODUCTION, REPRODUCTION AND CONFORMATION OF THE FLORIDA STATION DAIRY HERD

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Productive and reproductive performance of 371 dairy heifers of five breeds were
evaluated. All females were served at first heat after attaining 13 months of
age, but only if such service would result in due dates during mid-July to
mid-January. Average first service age was 455 days; average age at freshening
was 781 days. Significant positive relationships between age and weight at
freshening, milk yield, fat yield, gestation length and birth weight of calf
were detected and were consistent with previous research. A slight positive
relationship existed between age ot freshening and days open during the first
lactation. Although Holsteins had a consistently higher frequency of calving
problems, it was not possible to detect differences in frequency due to age at
parturition. Over-all frequencies were: retained placenta, 2.4%; uterine
prolapse, 1.1%; dystocia, 4.9%; metritis, 10.5%; dead calves, 10.2%; and one or
more problems, 21.6%. Dairymen should expect no increase in problems at
freshening if animals are managed according to standard recommendations and are
bred at 13 months of age.






WILCOX C J KRIENKE W A


GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES UPON COMPOSITION OF MILK

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 6//12
As a part of a nationwide, cooperative research effort, records have contributed
to analyses of the effects of various genetic and environmental factors.
Heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated on production traits
expressed as deviations from herdmate average by intraclass correlation
techniques. A total of 6389 records were available for each variable except
protein (4,011) from 67 herds in different sections of the U.S. Heritabilities
for the yields were: milk, .21; milk fat, .20; SNF, .19; TS, .19; and protein,
.13. Genetic correlations between milk yield and the remaining yields were
positive: .69, .96, .92, and .76 for milk fat, solids-not-fat, total solids,
ind protein yield, respectively. The genetic correlations between milk yield
and the percentages were negative: -.41 (fat %), -.17 (SNP %), -.35 (TS %), and
-.30 (protein %). The heritabilities of the yields and percentages were
slightly lower than the heritabilities of actual records whereas the genetic
correlations among the deviations were slightly higher than for actual records.
Results suggested that major selection emphasis should be placed on milk yield,
while maintaining acceptable percentage levels, under present economic
conditions.


FLA-DY-01049 SMITH K I WILCOX C J

STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TOXOID IN THE CONTROL OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL MASTITIS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The geometric mean of the cell counts obtained during the three year study was
estimated to be 480,000 per ml. The mean square for error with 7428 degrees of
freedom was 1.70 which represents the error associated with the mean logarithm
of the cell count obtained from three samples taken at weekly intervals. To
obtain an estimate of the laboratory experimental error involved in counting
somatic cells in cow's milk, duplicate counts were made on 527 quarter samples.
After transforming the data to lagarithms, the within mean square was 0.62 as
compared to 1.70 error associated with the three weekly samples.


FLA-DY-01137 WILCOX C J

VARIATIONS OF MILK AND FAT YIELDS OF FLORIDA DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Over 125,000 production records from cows on DHIA test during 1950 to date have
been collected and will be utilized to evaluate effects of breed, herd, age of
cow, month and year of freshening, and their several interactions. No analyses
have been at emptied as yet. Considerable effort has been exerted in sorting and
screening of data for acceptability. Results should provide Florida dairymen
with estimates of environmental effects which are unique to the state and which
can be useful in formulating managerial policies.


FLA-DY-01185 MARSHALL S P SMITH K L

FEEDING SYSTEMS, NUTRIENT INTAKE AND GROWTH OF DAIRY CALVES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The effect of varying the fat content of a milk diet on intake and growth was
studied, using young Jersey calves. Preliminary results indicated that level of
fat in the diet (3, 6 or 9%) did not affect significantly consumption or growth.
When the milks were diluted with 1.5 parts of water differences in consumption
and growth were not significant for the diets containing different levels of
fat. Gains and calorie intakes on the diluted milks were less and the volume
intake greater than on the undiluted milks.


FLA-DY-01213 HEAD H H WILCOX C J

EFFECTS OF GROWTH HORMONE AND INSULIN UPON THE METABOLISM OF GLUCOSE AND ACETATE
IN DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
The influence of Growth Hormone (GH) on plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty
acid (NLFA) and insulin concentrations and on glucose utilization rate was
determined in Jersey male calves (12) about four months of age. GH was injected
intramuscularly for five consecutive days (1 mg/kg body wt) into six calves and
saline into an additional six serving as controls. Plasma glucose levels within


!FLA-DY-01047


HEAD H H





Gh treated animals increased about 101 over pre-treatment levels. Plasma ;iEn\
generally increased through tne third day over pre-treatment levels:; declining
thereafter in GH treated animals. Plasma glucose and LEFA remained essentially
unchanged in saline control animals. o difference in immunoreactive plasma
insulin levels could be detected between GH and saline control animals or within
Gii treated animals. Glucose utilization rates, determined using the constant
rate infusion of uniformly labeled (UL) C14 glucose, corrected for body size
were essentially unchanged Dy G11 treatment. the small within animal differences
observed were similar in magnitude to changes observed in control animals. It
appears that GH administration did not produce the extensive anabolic or catabolic
effects observed in other species ana mnat tne physiological importance of iH imay
differ in ruminant animals.


FLA-DY-01234 WILCOX C J

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS UPON BEPODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND LIFI SPAN
OF FLORIDA DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Cooperating institutional and commercial dairy herds provide vital lifp
histories of a living population of over 1000 adult animals representing five
breeds. Nearly 10,000 completed histories are now on tile. From these data,
estimates of various environmental and genetic effects upon such measures of
reproductive performance as life span, calving interval, gestation Length,
conception rate, and age at rirst fresheniuq can be obtained. Of particular
interest will be estimates of the non-additive genetic contribution to
variability in reproductive pertormdncP, although results to late on this
project have not shown non-additive genetic variance to be ot practical
importance.


FLA-DY-01249 SMITH K L MULL L E

RATE OF ACID PRODUCTION IN LACTIC ACID PACTFRIA

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Eighteen fermentation experiments have been complete using four test organisms
at incubation temperatures of 25 and 300 C. The rate of acid production was not
significantly different among the four strains but the rate of acid production
per cell division was greater at 300C incubation temperature than at 250C. The
interaction between organisms and incubation temperatures was not significant.
It appears that the rate of lactic acid formation in tormented dairy products is
affected by both the rate of growth of the organism and the incubation
temperature.


FLA-DY-01255 WING J M POWELL G W

EFFECTS OF ENERGY SOURCE ON DIGESTIBILITY UF CELLULOSE AND PROTlIn AsU UPON
RUMEN FERMENTATION IN DAIRY CATTLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
High concentrate rations containing 0, 6, and 181 blackstrap molasses in the
concentrate portion were fed ad libitum as the only feed to milKing cows to
determine the effect of molasses on milk tat production. This experiment
involved three pairs of 3x3 Latin squares balanced for carryover effects. Each
period was for 4 weeks, with data from the last three weeks used for the
analysis. The 0i molasses ration contained the following ingredients: corn,
35%; brewers grains, 10%; cottonseed meal, 20%; wheat bran, 5; and alfalfa hay,
30%. Energy and protein contents were adjusted as follows: molasses was added
in place of corn; cottonseed meal was added to adjust for the difference of
protein content in corn and molasses, thereby standardizing the ration to be as
nearly isocaloric and isonitrogenous as possible. In no case was the 6% level
different from the control, but feeding the 186 level of molasses resulted in a
significant decrease in fat percentage. Fat yield was significantly decreased
and the drop in 4% daily FCM yield was significant at P = 0.06. This experiment
is currently being repeated to further study the effect of molasses on milk fat
production.


FLA-DY-01264 wILCOX C J

VITAL STATISTICS OF BEEF AND DAIRY SIRES USED IN ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Analysis of vital records of 6,887 U.S. and Canadian sires leaving AI service
during 1939-64 showed that reproductive inefficiency caused loss of 3b0;






performance or characteristics of offspring, 16%; disease, 14%; problems of
collection, 12%; accident and injury, 4%; miscellaneous 18%. Heterogeneity
among breeds for reasons of disposal was detected(P<0.01), due particularly to
higher than expected losses of Holsteins for disease, and high losses of
Guernseys, Jerseys and Milking Shorthorns for reproductive inefficiency.
Average age at entry into service was 4.75 yr; average tenure 3.18 yr. Tenure
increased from 1.74 yr during 1940-49 to 4.18 yr during 1960-64. Breeds
differed (P<0.01) in average tenure: Ayrshires, 2.91 yr; Brown Swiss, 3.46 yr;
Guernseys, 2.94 yr; Holsteins, 3.40 yr; Jerseys, 3.14 yr; Milking Shorthorns,
'2.90 yr. Prediction equations for life span were calculated for each breed and
time period. The pooled breed-time period equation was Y = 3.9460 0.1352X +
0.0034X2 where Y = expected tenure in years and X = age at entry. Provided the
sire was not culled because of the characteristics or performance of his
daughters, life span could be predicted as Y = 4.1431 0.2245X + 0.0025X2.


FLA-DY-01271 HEAD H H

GLUCOSE AND FREE PATTY ACID METABOLISM IN THE IMMATURE RUMINANT

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Experiments have continued on two groups of dairy calves to estimate parameters
of glucose metabolism and effects of age and diet on glucose and non-esterified
fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Average glucose turnover rate data (16 hours
postfeeding) at 2, 5, 8 and 12 weeks of age for Group I (weaned to a
hay-concentrate diet at 8 weeks) and Group II (fed a fortified milk diet
throughout) were 2.96 and 2.57, 2.92 and 2.67, 2.14 and 2.88, and 2.10 and 2.55
mg/min/kg body weight. Age was more important than plasma glucose concentration
in accounting for the within animal variability in both groups. Glucose
turnover rate was consistently higher in milk fed calves at the 8th and 12th
week of age. In Group I calves the decline in utilization rate approached
significance (P=0.05); however, there was no trend in milk fed calves (Group
II). No significant relationship between plasma glucose concentration and
turnover rate could be detected in either group irrespective of age. Average
plasma glucose values (16 hours postfeeding) were 75.4, 78.9, 78.9, and 92.0
mg/100 ml for Group I calves and 73.8, 82.13, 82.0 and 87.3 mg/100 ml for Group
II calves at 2, 5, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Pasting plasma NEFA levels
were consistently higher than postfeeding levels.


FLA-DY-01352 MULL L E SMITH L L KRIENKE W A

PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF CONCENTRATED MASSES OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING
BACTERIA

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Using Streptococcus lactis (ATCC 7962), erratic results on generation time,
previously encountered when the test organism was grown in various media, were
satisfactorily overcome when a pancreatic additive was added to the media at
the rate of 0.2%. Pancreatic extract was added to each of the following media-
skimmilk, lactose broth and whey. These media were tested to determine their
ability to support the growth of the test organism. The skimmilk yielded the
shortest and whey the longest generation times.


FLA-DY-01370 FOUTS E L

UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA GROWN FRUITS IN ICE CREAM AND SHERBETS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The pulp and/or juice or other products of several Florida grown fruits were
examined to determine their usefulness as flavoring ingredients for ice cream or
sherbets. Those used in ice cream were made into stabilized syrups and injected
into vanilla ice cream. Others used in sherbets were blended into the sherbet
mix in the usual way. The results in ice cream were as follows: Fruits tried
and thought to have promise in ice cream were mangos, blueberries and
caramobolas. Fruits tried and thought not to have promise were canistels, and
guava pulp. Fruits thought favorably of for sherbets were limes
(concentrated and puree) and lemon (puree).

FLA-DY-01399 MARSHALL S P BROWNING C B

ENSILED COMPLETE RATIONS FOR LACTATING COWS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Urea-treated chopped and a complete ration utilizing urea-treated chopped corn
were ensiled to study fermentation dry matter losses and obtain information on
density. A feeding experiment was initiated to study different methods of
feeding rations on intake, production and milk composition.





EDITORIAL

MASS MEDIA


By taping an extra show a week the television program was expanded from
9 months to a year-round program.
Radio stations continued to use taped materials developed by the depart-
ment in cooperation with the researchers.
News and feature stories were mailed to all media outlets in Florida
quoting researchers and reporting on news-worthy events. These averaged about
nine releases per week, and reached an estimated 2,208,000 readers per month.
Commercial time and space "donated" by these mass media outlets was
estimated at $400,000.


PUBLICATIONS

The Station printed 61,000 copies of seven bulletins totaling 408 pages
and 45,000 copies of five circulars totaling 92 pages. One bulletin was
reprinted. Three 16-page issues of the "Research Report" magazine were printed,
and distributed to 8,000 subscribers. Also, brochures were printed which
described the activities of the North Florida Station, Sub-Tropical Station,
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, and Indian River Field Laboratory. (The
listing of brochures printed July 1, 1966 to June 1967 should be corrected
as follows: Central Florida Station, Everglades Station, West Florida Station,
Dairy Research Unit, Potato Investigations Laboratory, South Florida Field
Laboratory, Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, West Florida
Station, and Federal-State Weather Forecasting Service.)

Publications printed were: Number
Pages Printed


Bul. 716 Soybeans in Florida. Kuell Hinson, W. K.
McPherson, W. K. Robertson, C. E. Hutton,
L. G. Thompson, R. W. Lipscomb, H. W. Lundy,
R. L. Smith, L. C. Kuitert, V. G. Perry, W. T.
Scudder, T. J. Cunha, F. S. Baker, Jr., J. M.
Wing, C. E. Combs, R. H. Harms................. 124

Bul. 717 Principal Soil Areas of Florida. F. B. Smith,
R. G. Leighty, R. E. Caldwell, V. W. Carlisle,
L. C. Thompson, Jr., T. C. Mathews............. 68

Bul. 718 Pangolagrass. E. M. Hodges, G. B. Killinger,
J. E. McCaleb, O. C. Ruelke, R. J. Allen, Jr.,
S. C. Schank, A. E. Kretschmer................ 32

Bul 719 Developing Calves and Steers on Pasture in
South and Central Florida. H. L. Chapman, Jr.,
D. W. Beardsley, T. J. Cunha, W. K. McPherson.. 44

Bul 720 A Synecological Study of the Imported Fire Ant
Eradication Program. W. C. Rhoades, R. W.
Murray ................... .................... 44

Bul. 721 Nonpathogenic Diseases of Lettuce: Their
Identification and Control. R. B. Marlatt..... 40

Bul. 722 Livestock Product Transportation Cost-Feed
Cost Relationships Between the Midwest and
Florida. W. K. McPherson, H. G. Witt.......... 56

Cir. S-179 Vegetable Variety Trial Results for 1966.
V. F. Nettles, ed............................... 36

Cir. S-180 Papaya Growing in Florida. R. W. Harkners...... 16

Cir. S-181 Florida 102 Barley. Dale Sechler, A. T.
Wallace, W. H. Chapman, R. L. Smith........... 8

Cir. S-182 Tropi-Red, A Determinate Tomato with
Excellent Color and Multiple Disease Resist-
ances. J. W. Strobel, J. M. Walter,
N. C. Hayslip............... .. ................. 16

Cir. S-183 Tropi-Gro, A Determinate Tomato with a
New Combination of Disease Resistances.
J. W. Strobel .................................. 16


10,000


10,000



10,000



12,000



7,000


6,000



6,000


3,000

10,000


10,000




10,000



10,000






The publication reprinted was:

Bul. 510A Plants That Poison Farm Animals.
Erdman West and M. W. Emmel.................... 56 5,000





TECHNICAL JOURNAL ARTICLES

Papers by research staff members continue to be printed in large numbers.
These appear in technical journals in the United States and a few in foreign
countries. Those included in the Journal Series are forwarded to the journals
by the Station editorial staff, andreprints are ordered for distribution
when they are printed. The series now contains more than 3,100 listings.

Following is a list of Journal Series articles printed during the year
and those not previously listed:

2113 Shield-Sprayer Application of Dalapon and Other Herbicides in Sugar-
cane. J. R. Orsenigo, T. W. Casselman, Proc. 12th Internat. Soc. of
Sugar Cane Technol. Cong. 510-517. 1967.

2126 Lifting and Transplanting Sugarcane Stubble as a Possible Method of
Reducing Cold Damage in Florida. F. le Grand, W. C. LeCroy. Proc.
12th Internat. Soc. of Sugar Cane Technol. Cong. 733-736. 1967.

2127 Some Factors Affecting the Phosphorus Content of Leaf Tissue from
Sugar Cane Grown on Organic Soils. J. R. Iley, F. le Grand, C. C.
Hortenstine, Proc. 12th Internat. Soc. of Sugar Cane Technol. Cong.
237-243. 1967

2353 Chemical Composition of Shrimp Meal and Its Value as a Protein
Supplement in Steer Fattening Rations. W. G. Kirk, R. L. Shirley,
J. F. Easley, F. M. Peacock, Quart. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 30:1 51:-56.
1967.

2356 Acid Extraction of Inorganic Ions from Roots. J. G. A. Fiskell, E.
A. Brams. Plant and Soil 27:3:415-431. Dec. 1967.

2363 Marginal Bands in the Blood Cells of Four Animal Species. Cornell
Veterinarian 57:3:390-397. July 1967.

2381 Variability of Diagnostic Characters among Some Plant and Soil
Nematodes. A. C. Tarjan. Prace Naukowe Instytutu Roslin (Bulletin
Institute Ochrony Roslin) 9:1:105-116. 1967.

2385 Roughoid--A Genetically Controlled Leaf Abnormality in Tobacco. C. E.
Dean. Tobacco Sci. 10:65-67. May 1966.

2388 Use of Dimethyl Sulfoxide as a Carrier for Iron in Nutritional Foliar
Sprays Applied to Citrus. C. D. Leonard. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 141:148-
158. March 1967.

2405 Effect of Dietary Vitamins A and E and Cu on Ubiquinone, Succinoxidase
and Aldolase Activity of Rat Heart. R. L. Shirley, J. F. Easley,
G. K. Davis. Proc. Internat. Cong. of Nutrition 5:621-634. 1966.

2410 Influence of Dietary Fat on Absorption and Deposition of 14C-Labeled
Palmitic Acid in Swine. J. P. Feaster, F. C. Neal, H. D. Wallace.
Proc. 7th Internat. Cong. of Nutrition 5:7:347-350. 1966.

2420 Induced Mutations at Specific Loci in Higher Plants. III. Mutation
Response and Spectrum of Mutations at the Vb Locus in Avena
Bysantina C. Koch. A. T. Wallace. German Acad. Sci. 47-57. 1967.

2426 A Vertical Screw Bin Unloader for Citrus Pulp. I. J. Ross, J. B.
Richardson. Trans. Amer. Soc. Ag. Eng. 10:2:223-225. 1967.

2432 Iodine Toxicity: Relation to Thyroid and Reproduction Hormones. L. R.
Arrington, R. N. Taylor, C. B. Ammerman, A. C. Warnick. Quart.
J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 29:4:290-294. Dec. 1966.

243P Thrips on Avocados and Control Measures. D. O. Wolfenbarger. Proc.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., Caribbean Region 10:108-113. 1966.






2440 Influence of Row Direction on Yield of Blue Lupine, Lupinus angusti-
folius L. G. M. Prine, S. H. West. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 26:185-188. 1966.

2442 Mineral Nutrition of Avocados and Other Tropical Fruits in South
Florida. S. E. Malo. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., Caribbean Region
10:101-107. July 1966.

2446 Effect of Raw and Heated Soybeans on Gain, Nutrient Digestibility,
Plasma Amino Acids and Other Blood Constituents of Growing Swine.
G. E. Combs, R. G. Conness, T. H. Berry, H. D. Wallace. J. Animal
Sci. 26:5 :1067-1071. 1967.

2459 Tillage Pan Characterization of Selected Coastal Plain Soils. A.
Eashirad, J. G. A. Fiskell, V. W. Carlisle, C. E. Hutton. Soil
Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 31:4:534-541. July 1967.

2460 The Chloroform Test as a Measure of Fermentation in Chinese Tea.
J. E. Bellizio, J. Soule. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 2:1:1967.

2463 Spectrophosphorimetry of Several Indole Derivatives. P. A. St. John,
Judith L. Brooke, R. H. Biggs. Anal. Biochem. 18:3:459-463.
Mar. 1967.

2467 In Vitro cultivation of Cooperia unctata from Egg to Egg. S. E.
Leland, Jr. J. Parasitol 53:5:1057-1060. Oct. 1967.

2469 Relative Contribution of Organic and Clay Fractions to Cation-Ex-
change Capacity of Sandy Soils from Several Soil Groups. T. L.
Yuan, N. Gammon, Jr., R. G. Leighty. Soil Sci. 104:2:123-128.
1967.

2470 The Effect of Divalent Cations on the Leakage of Sucrose from Corn
Scutellum Slices. L. A. Garrard, T. E. Humphreys. Phytochemistry
6:1085-1095. 1967.

2471 Heritability of Fertility in Brahman and Crossbred Cattle. R. E.
Deese, K. Koger. J. Animal Sci. 26:5:984-987. Sept. 1967.

2483 Influence of Energy Level Upon Performance and Methionine Require-
ment of the Laying Hen. R. H. Harms, B. L. Damron, P. W. Waldroup.
7th. Internat. Cong. of Nutrition 5:160-163. 1966.

2498 Revision of Oecanthinae (Gryllidae: Orthoptera) of America South
of the United States. T. J. Walker. Entomol. Soc. Amer.
60:4:784-796. July 1967.

2499 Maturity Testing of Sugarcane Growing on Organic Soil of Florida.
F. leGrand, F. G. Martin. British West Indies Sugar Ass. 1:238-245.
1966.

2564 Reproductive Performance in Male Chickens Fed Protein Deficient
Diets During the Growing Period. J. E. Jones, H. R. Wilson, R. H.
Harms, C. F. Simpson, P. W. Waldroup. Poultry Sci. 46:6:1569-1577.
Nov. 1967.

2568 The Effect of Nitrogen Sources, Rates, and Application Frequencies
on Pensacola Bahiagrass Forage Yields and Nitrogen Utilization.
W. G. Blue. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:105-109. 1966.

2569 Phosphorus Fixation and Phosphorus Fractions in Sandy Soils. C. C.
Hortenstine. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:136-142. 1966.

2570 Characterization of the Causal Organism of Tobacco Black Shank of
Florida Flue-Cured Tobacco: Preliminary Report. C. R. Miller.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:189-193. 1966.

2575 Intersexes in Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Caused
by Mermithid Parasitism in Florida. W. W. Smith, V. G. Perry. J.
Econ. Entomol. 60:4:1025-1027. Aug. 1957.

2576 Effect of Sodim Chloride on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of
Perrine Marl. G. M. Volk, P. G. Orth. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Pla.
Proc. 26:12-22. 1966.

2577 GLC Analysis for Hydroxydichlorophenoxyacetic Acids in Roots. N. C.
Glaze, M. Wilcox. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:271-279.
1966.






2578 Alfalfa Persistence in Florida. G. M. Prine. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:217-226. 1966.

2579 Effect of Fumigants and Fungicides on Fungi in Soil Planted Annually
in Watermelon. N. C. Schenck. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
26:70-80. 1966.

2580 Short Term Effects of Several Liming Materials on Soil pH, Calcium, and
Magnesium in Lakeland Fine Sand. C. A. Anderson. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:94-105. 1966.

2581 Isolating Pythium and Fusarium from Limestone Soil in Subtropical
Florida. C. W. Averre, III. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc.
26:279-285. 1966.

2583 The Re-establishment of Product'vity by Fertilization of Deteriorated
White Clover-Pensacola Bahiagrass Pasture on Leon Fine Sand. W. G.
Blue, N. Gammon, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:124-130.
1966.

2584 Effect of Accumulation of Salt in Sandy Spodosols on Tomato Production.
C. M. Geraldson. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:6-12. 1966.

2585 Interaction Between Sulfur and Selenium in Leon Fine Sand as it Affects
Forage Yields and Selenium Uptake. J. T. Perdomo, R. L. Shirley, W.
K. Robertson. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:131-135. 1966.

2586 Effect of Calcium and Phosphorus Applied to Surface and Spodic Horizons
of Leon Fine Sand on the Growth of Oats, Millet and Clover. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:175-184. 1966.

2587 Atomic Absorption Method of Analysis for Agricultural Samples. H.
L. Breland. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:53-64. 1966.

2588 Some Physical Properties of Dried Citrus Pulp. I. J. Ross, C. F.
Kiker. Amer. Soc. Agr. Eng. 10:4:483-488. 1967.

2589 Fertilizer Use in the American Tropics: Costa Rica, A Case History.
W. L. Pritchett, W. G. Blue. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
26:361-370. 1966.

2590 Drainage Characteristics of Leon and Felda Series Simulated with an
Electrical Resistance Network. L. A. Harper, L. C. Hammond. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:155-163. 1966.

2591 Plinthic Horizons in Selected West Florida Soils. H. F. Huckle, V. W.
Carlisle, F. B. Smith. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:143-154.
1966.

2592 Soil Factors Affecting the Supply of Manganese to Florida Crops.
D. F. Rothwell. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:265-271. 1966.

2593 Tillage Pan Identification and Root Growth. A. Kashirad, C. E.
Hutton, J. G. A. Fiskell, V. W. Carlisle. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 26:41-52. 1966.

2594 Characteristics of Surface and Spodic Horizons of Some Spodosols.
T. L. Yuan. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:163-174. 1966.

2595 Effect of Growth Regulator Cycocel on Sunflower Plants as Affected
by Method of Application. B. R. Ray, V. N. Schroder. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:245-248. 1966.

2596 Seeding Small Grain in Bermudagrass and Bahiagrass Sod. D. Sechler,
W. H. Chapman, W. K. Robertson, L. G. Thompson, Jr. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:193-205. 1966.

2597 Response of Pangolagrass and Pensacola Bahlagrass to Different Amounts
of Phosphorus and Potassium. J. E. McCaleb, C. L. Dantzman, E. M.
Hodges. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:248-256. 1966.

2598 Production and Adaptability of Trifolium sp. in South Florida. A. E.
Kretschmer, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:81-93. 1966.

2599 Four Years' Results with Sirato (Phaseolus atropurpureus D. C.) in
South Florida. A. E. Kretschmer, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 26:238-245. 1966.







2602 Nitrogen Sources for Carrots. R. B. Forbes. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:120-124. 1966.

2604 Comparative Morphologic Features of Babesia caballi and Babesia equi.
C. F. Simpson, W. W. Kirkham, J. M. Ring. Amer. J. Vet. Res.
28:127:1963-1967. Nov. 1967.

2605 Potassium Fertilization Influence on Winter Survival of Pangolagrass.
O. C. Ruelke. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:231-238. 1966.

2606 Soil Management for Nematode Control in Calcareous Soil. J. A.
Winchester, C. W. Averre, III. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
26:31-34. 1966.

2607 Effect of Macronutrients on Growth of Kenaf. P. Karbassi, G. B.
Killinger. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 26:226-230. 1966.

2608 Thiabendazole as a Postharvest Fungicide for Florida Citrus Fruit.
G. E. Brown, A. A. McCornack, J. J. Smoot. Plant Dis. Reporter
51:2:95-98. Feb. 1967.

2612 Graywall-like Symptoms Produced in Tomato Fruits by Bacteria. C. B.
Hall, R. E. Stall. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 91:573-578. 1967.

2614 Methods for the Determination of Oxygenated Terpene, Aldehyde, and
Ester Concentrations in Aqueous Citrus Essences. J. A. Attaway, R. W.
Wolford, M. H. Dougherty, G. J. Edwards. J. Agr. and Food Chem.
15:4:688-692. July 1967.

2616 Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Color Chanqes in the Rind of Three
Sweet Orange Cultivars (citrus sinensis blanco). M. A. Ismail, R. H.
Biggs, M. F. Oberbacher. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 91:143:149. 1967.

2617 A Comparison of Phosphorus Assay Techniques with Chicks. 2. Develop-
ment of a Calcium Standard Curve for Monosodium Phosphate. R. H.
Harms, P. W. Waldroup, B. L. Damron. Poultry Sci. 46:4:981-985.
July 1967.

2618 Potentiation of Succinylcholine by Organophosphate Compounds. J. A.
Himes, G. T. Edds, W. W. Kirkham, F. C. Neal. J. Amer. Vet. Med.
Ass. 151:1:54-59. July 1967.
2622 Effects of Fertilization Schedules on Flower Production, Keeping Quality,
Disease Susceptibility, and Chemical Composition at Different Growth
Stages of Chrysanthemum morifolium. W. E. Waters. Amer. Soc. Hort.
Sci. Proc. 91:627-632. 1967.

2623 Citrus Nematode found Widespread in Florida. A. C. Tarjan. Plant Dis.
Reporter 51:4:317. April 1967.

2625 Watermelon Mosaic Virus: Tubular Inclusions in Pumpkin Leaves and Aggre-
gates in Leaf Extracts. D. E. Purcifull, J. R. Edwardson. Virology
32:3:393-401. July 1967.

2629 Variation in Bovine Cholinesterase Levels. C. J. Wilcox, H. H. Head.
Quart. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 30:2:141-144. 1967 (1968).

2635 Effects of Excess Dietary Iodine upon Pullets and Laying Hens. L. R.
Arrington, R. A. Santa Cruz, R. H. Harms, H. R. Wilson. J. Nutrition
92:3:325-330. July 1967.

2640 Importance of Wounds in Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria) of
Tomatoes in the Field. N. G. Vakili. Phytopathology 57:10-1099-1103.
Oct. 1967.

2643 Performance of Hens Molted by Various Methods. H. R. Wilson, J. L. Fry,
R. H. Harms, L. R. Arrington. Poultry Sci. 46:6:1406-1412. Nov. 1967.

2645 Cassia Occidentalis Toxicosis in Cattle. H. D. Mercer, F. C. Neal,
J. A. Himes, G. T. Edds. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Ass. 151:6:735-741.
Sept. 1967.

2646 Water, Feed Intake, and Growth of Rabbits and Effect of Potassium
Permanganate. L. R. Arrington. Vet. Med./Small Anim. Clin. 62:9:895-897.
Sept. 1967.

2647 Pectinesterase Activity in Irradiated Valencia Oranges. Amer. Soc.
Hort. Sci. Proc. 91:163-168. 1967.


61


I







2649 The Degradation of Hesperetin and Naringenin to Phloroglucinol. W. F.
Newhall, S. V. Ting. J. Agr. and Food Chem. 15:5:776. Sept./Oct. 1967.

2650 Pathogenecity of Pratylenchus brachyurus to Citrus. T. L. Brooks, V. G.
Perry. Plant Dis. Reporter 51:7:569-573. July 1967.

2651 Florida Citrus Molasses from Early and Midseason Varieties of Citrus
Fruits During Two Years of Production. Applied Microbiol. 15:5:1091-
1094. Sept. 1967.

2652 Effects of Storage Lighting and Temperature on Metabolism and Keeping
Quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium Cut-Flowers Relative to Nitrogen
Fertilization. S. S.Woltz, W. E. Waters. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.
91:633-644. 1967.

2653 New Species and Records of Phytoseiidae (Acarina-Mesostigmata) from North
Carolina Forest Litter. M. H. Muma, L. J. Metz, M. H. Farrier. Fla.
Entomol. 50:3:199-206. 1967.

2654 Formation of Diacetonamine and Triacetonamine in Plant Extracts. Ivan
Stewart, T. A. Wheaton. Phytochemistry 6:1587-1588. 1967.

2656 Sweet Corn Shelf-Life as Affected by Trimming and Packaging. R. K.
Showalter. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 91:881-884. 1967.

2659 Fertilization Ability of Maize Pollen Grains. III. Gamma Irradiation
of Mature Pollen. Genetics 57:523-530. Nov. 1967.

2660 Fertilization Ability of Maize Pollen Grains. II. Pollen Genotype,
Female Sporphyte and Pollen Storage Interactions. P. L. Pfahler
Genetics 57:3:513-521. Nov. 1967.

2661 New Phytoseiidae (Acarina: hesostigmata) from Southern Asia. M. H.
Muma. Fla. Entomol. 50:267-280. 1967.

2665 Spectrophotometric Determination of Temik Resudies in Citrus. W. R.
Meager, R. hendrickson, B. G. Shively. J. Ass. Offic. Anal. Chem.
50:6. 1967.

2667 Fusarium Wilt (Race 2) of Tomato: The Effect of Lime and Micronutrient
Soil Amendments on Disease Development. J. P. Jones, S. S. Woltz.
Plant Dis. Reporter 51:8:645-648. Aug. 1967.

2668 Some Plant Nematode Genera Associated with Citrus and Other Crops in
Costa Rica and Panama. A. C. Tarjan. Turrialba 17:3:280-283. July
1967.

2669 An Attempt to Extend the Longevity of the Burrowing Nematode, Radopholus
similis with Citrus Root Exudate. P. W. Banks, A. W. Feldman. Plant
Dis. Reporter 51:8:675-677. Aug. 1967.

2672 Stridulation and Behavior in Two Southeastern Ips Bark Beetles (Coleop-
tera: Scolytidae). R. C. Wilkinson, W. T. McClelland, Ruth M. Murillo,
E. O. Ostmark. Fla. Entomol. 50:3:185-195. 1967.

2674 Influence of Diet Composition on the Utilization of Soft Phosphate in
Broiler Diets. B. L. Damron, P. W. Waldroup, R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci.
46:6:1544-1549. Nov. 1967.

2675 Comparison of Insecticide Deposits Applied as Dust and Spray by Airplane
to Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco. W. B. Tappan, C. H. Van Middelem, H. A. Moye.
Tobacco. Sci. 11:112-114. Sept. 1967.

2676 A Rapid Bioassay for Phytokinins Based on Transpiration of Excised Oat
Leaves. H. H. Luke, T. E. Freeman. Nature 215:5103:874-875. Aug. 1967.

2677 Graywall Symptom Development in Tomato Fruit after Injection of Extracts
of Graywall-Affected Tissue. R. E. Stall, C. B. Hall. Phytopathology
57:11:1276-1277. Nov. 1967.

2678 The Mechanism of Denucleation in Circulating Erythroblasts. C. F.
Simpson, J. M. Kling. J. Cell Biol. 35:1:237-245. 1967.

2679 Estimating Evapotranspiration from a Citrus Orchard with Weather Data.
F. Hashemi, J. F. Gerber. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 91:173-179.
1967.


I






2682 An Improved Microwave Emission Gas Chromatography Detector for Pesticide
Residue Analysis. H. A. Moye. Anal. Chem. 39:1441-1445. Oct. 1967.

2684 Biological Studies on Macroseius biscutatus (Acarina: Phytoseiidae).
M. H. Muma, H. A. Denmark. la. Entomol. 50:4:249-255. 1967.

2685 An Evaluation of Solanum nigrum and Physalis minima as Suscepts of
Xanthomonas vesicatoria. C. A. Laub, R. E. Stall, Plant Dis. Reporter
51:8:659-661. Aug. 1967.

2692 Separation of Alkyl and Trimethylsilyl Derivatives of Dicamba, 3,6-di-
chloro-5-hydroxy-o-anisic Acid, and 3,6-dichlorogentisic Acid by Thin-
Layer and Gas-Liquid Chromatography. B. R. Ray, Merrill Wilcox. J.
Chromatog. 30:428-432. 1967.

2694 Biological Notes on Coniopteryx vicina (Neuroptera: Coniopterygidae).
M. H. Muma. Fla. Entomol. 50:4:285-293. 1967.

2695 Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Levels on Growth and
Chemical Composition of Rhododendron indicum 'Formosa' and Viburnum
supensum. R. D. Dickey, R. T. Poole, J. N. Joiner. Amer. Soc. Hort.
Sci. Proc. 91:762-770. 1967.

2699 Breaking Strength of Chick Bones as an Indication of Dietary Calcium and
Phosphorus Adequacy. L. O. Rowland, Jr., R. H. Harms, H. R. Wilson,
I. J. Ross, J. L. Fry. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. and Med. 126:399-401.
1967.

2706 Infection of Apparently Uninjured Leaves of Bean by the Viruses of
Tobacco Necrosis and Southern Bean Mosiac. D. A. Roberts, W. C. Price.
Virology 33:3:542-545. Nov. 1967.

2717 An Economic Study on Florida Sugar. F. leGrand, R. G. Fabian, R. G.
Domey. Sugar y Azucar. Oct. 1967.

2722 Aphid Transmission of Virus from Leaf Sectors Correlated with Intra-
cellular Inclusions. F. W. Zettler, R. G. Christie, J. R. Edwardson.
Virology 33:3:549-552. Nov. 1967.

2729 Evapotranspiration and Pollution of Water by Water Hyacinth. C. E.
Timmer, L. W. Weldon. Hyacinth Control J. 6:34-37. June 1967.

2741 Differentiation of Avian Thrombocytes from Leukocytes by Use of Giemsa's
Stain. T. K. S. Mukkur, R. E. Bradley. Poultry Sci. 46:6:(n.p.)
Nov. 1967.

2744 Effect of Variety and Fumigation on Nematode Populations in Oats, Wheat,
and Rye. D. T. Sechler, W. B. Tappan, H. H. Luke. Plant Dis. Reporter
51:11:915-919. Nov. 1967.

2745 Stand Loss of Small Grains in Florida. D. T. Sechler, H. H. Luke. Plant
Dis. Reporter 51:11:919-925. Nov. 1967.

2746 Anthracnose of Rye in Florida. D. T. Sechler, H. H. Luke. Plant Dis.
Reporter 51:11:923-925. Nov. 1967.

2747 Eurasian Watermilfoil--Florida's New Underwater Menace. R. D. Blackburn,
L. W. Weldon. Hyacinth Control J. 6:15-18. June 1967.

2752 Respiration, Internal Atmosphere, and Ethylene Evolution of Citrus Fruit.
H. M. Vines, W. Grierson, G. J. Edwards. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.
91:171-172. 1967.

2761 Cladosporium Leaf Spot of Citrus in Florida. Fran E. Fisher. Plant
Dis. Reporter 51:12:1070. Dec. 1967.

2762 Influence of Temperature and Hydrogen Peroxide on the Extraction of
Burrowing Nematodes from Citrus Roots. A. C. larjan. Plant Dis.
Reporter. 51:12:1024-1028. Dec. 1967.

2767 The Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, Found in Florida. V. G.
Perry, G. C. Smart, Jr., R. S. Mullin. Plant Dis.Reporter 51:12:1066.
Dec. 1967.

2768 Annual Population Periodicity of Radopholus similis in Florida Citrus
Groves. E. P. DuCharme. Plant Dis. Reporter 51:12:1031-1034. Dec.
1967.






2784 Total and Nitrate Nitrogen and Solids Content of Processed Tomatoes as
Affected by Fertility and Variety. J. H. Johnson, P. G. Orth. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:313-317. Nov. 1967.

2800 Tropi-Red and Tropi-Gro--New Disease Resistant Tomatoes for the Fresh
Market. J. W. Strobel, J. M. Walter, N. C. Hayslip, P. H. Everett.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:112-114. Nov. 1967.

2801 Cost and Volume Relationships for Picking, Hauling, and Packing and
Selling Florida Oranges. T. E. Floyd, M. R. Langham, A. H. Spurlock.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:241-246. Nov. 1967.

2802 Snap Bean Yields Following Simulated Insect Defoliation. G. L. Greene,
D. R. Minnick. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:132-134. Nov. 1967.

2803 Influence of Nutrition on Yield, Quality, and Chemical Composition of
'Tropicana' Roses on Rosa fortuniana Rootstock. W. E. Waters. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:396-400. Nov. 1967.

2804 Burrowing Nematode Resistant Rootstocks as Biological Barriers in Citrus
Groves. H. W. Ford. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:56-59. Nov. 1967.

2805 Cottonseed Protein Processing and Utilization-An Example of Nutritional
Food Technology. R. P. Bates. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:289-292.
Nov. 1967.

2806 Superior New Strawberry Clones Resist Verticillium Wilt. J. W. Strobel.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:138-143. Nov. 1967.

2807 Nematode Control for Ornamental Foliage Plants. J. A. Winchester. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 81:451-454. Nov. 1967.

2808 GC-9160 and Other Materials for Citrus Mite Control. R. B. Johnson.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:73-76. Nov. 1967.

2809 The Mamey Sapote in Southern Florida. C. W. Campbell. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. Proc. 80:318-320. Nov. 1967.

2810 Effects of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilization on Persian Limes on Lake-
land Fine Sand. T. W. Young, R. C. J. Koo. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc.
80:337-342. Nov. 1967.

2811 Efficacy of Some Experimental Nematicides Applied In-the Row on Vegeta-
bles. H. L. Rhoades and J. F. Beeman. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc.
80:156-161. Nov. 1967.

2812 Absorption of P32 by Cattleva 'Trimos' from Foliar and Root Applications.
T. J. Sheehan, J. N. Joiner, J. K. Cowart. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc.
80:400-404. Nov. 1967.

2813 Efficacy of New Fungicides for Control of Gray Leaf Spot of Tomatoes.
R. A. Conover. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:162-167. Nov. 1967.

2814 Characteristics of Oranges from Five-Year-Old Trees. A. H. Rouse. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:222-227. Nov. 1967.

2815 Comparison of Yellow Strapleaf Syndromes Procuded by ANCPA and Isomers
of Isoleucine. S. S. Woltz. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:459-461.
Nov. 1967.

2816 Placement of Liquid and Dry Fertilizer for Vegetable Crops. V. F.
Nettles, W. C. Hulburt. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:193-200. Nov.
1967.

2817 Sprinkler Irrigation of Strawberries for Freeze Protection. S. J.
Locascio, D. S. Harrison, V. F. Nettles. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc.
80:208-211. Nov. 1967.

2818 Effects of Organophosphates on Gladiolus Infested with Root-Knot Nema-
todes. A. J. Overman. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:462-465. Nov.
1967.

2819 Curing Gladiolus Corms in Relation to Flower and Corm Production. R. O.
Magie. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:436-439. Nov. 1967.

2822 Effects of Phosphate Fertilizer on Young Citrus Trees on Flatwoods Soils.
C. A. Anderson, D. V. Calvert. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:19-25.
Nov. 1967.






2824 Harvesting Early and Midseason Citrus Fruit with Tree Shaker Harvest
Systems. G. E. Coppock. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:98-104. Nov.
1967.

2825 Insecticide Treatments for the Control of Potato-Infesting Wireworms.
R. M. Baranowski. Fla. State Hort.. Soc. Proc. 80:115-117. Nov. 1967.

2827 Effect of Fertilizer Placements and Rates on Watermelon Yields. J. G.
A. Fiskell, S. J. Locascio, P. H. Everett, H. W. Lundy. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. Proc. 80:168-173. Nov. 1967.

2828 Mechanizing the Harvesting and Post-Harvest Handling of Snap Beans,
Celery and Sweet Corn. R. K. Showalter. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc.
80:203-207. Nov. 1967.

28-- A Successful Method for Propagating Sapodilla Trees. S. E. Malo. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:373-376. Nov. 1967.

2830 Fungicidal Treatment of Gladiolus Corms after Harvest and before Plant-
ing. R. 0. Magie. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:439-443. Nov. 1967.

2831 Marginal Leaf Blight of Lettuce. R. D. Berger. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Proc. 80:134-138. Nov. 1967.

2832 Yield and Quality from Celery Transplants Hardened by Topping and Growth
Retardants. V. L. Guzman. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:117-123.
Nov. 1967.

2833 Influence of Plastic Mulch on Sand and Soil-Rot on tomatoes. L. H.
Halsey, R. C. Fluck, J. F. Beeman. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:200-
203. Nov. 1967.

2834 Population Fluctuations of Burrowing Nematodes in Relation to Sampling
and Delimiting Infested Areas in Florida Citrus Groves. E. P. DuCharme,
R. F. Suit. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:63-67. Nov. 1967.

2835 A Colorimetric Method for 2-aminobutane and Its Applications. F. W.
Hayward, W. Grierson, A. A. McCornack. Fla. State Hort. Sco. Proc.
80:305-308. Nov. 1967.

2836 Effects of Soil Amendments on Soil Moisture and Growth of Young Orange
Trees. R. C. J. Koo. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:26-32. Nov.
1967.

2837 Simulated marketingg Tests with Prepackaged Citrus. W. Grierson, F. W.
Hayward. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:237-241. Nov. 1967.

2839 Effects of Plant Populations, Fertilizer Rates on Tomato Yields on
Rockdale Soil. H. H. Bryan, J. W. Strobel, J. D. Dalton. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:149-155. Nov. 1967.

2840 Influence of Potassium Fertilizer on Severity of Tomato Graywall. N.
C. Hayslip, J. R. Iley. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:182-186. Nov.
1967.

2843 Effects of Potassium Source and Rate and Nitrogen Rate on Strawberry
Tissue Composition and Fruit Yield. S. J. Locascio, G. K. Saxena.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:173-176. Nov. 1967.

2844 Safety of Fungicides and Meta-Systox-R to Chrysanthemum Flowers in
Florida. A. W. Engelhard. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:443-448.
Nov. 1967.

2845 Influence of Lime on the Development of Fusarium Wilt of Watermelons.
P. H. Everett and C. H. Blazquez. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:143-
148. Nov. 1967.

2846 Efficacy of Zinophos and Other Treatments for the Control of Mites on
Gladiolus Corms in Florida. A. W. Engelhard. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Proc. 80:424-428. Nov. 1967.

2847 Susceptibility of Pierce's Disease of a Plant Introduction of Vitis
vinifera. J. A. Mortensen, R. J. Knight, Jr. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Proc. 80:348-350. Nov. 1967.

2848 Carrot Variety Trials in Central Florida. R. B. Forbes. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:123-132. Nov. 1967.







2849 Influence of Surface Mulches on Growth of Potatoes. D. R. Hensel. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:186-193. Nov. 1967.

2850 Turfgrass Insect Control in South Florida. T. L. Stringfellow. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:486-491. Nov. 1967.

2851 Phytophthora Crown Rot of Petunia in Florida. H. N. Miller, K. A.
Noegel. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:449-451. Nov. 1967.

2852 Influence of Nitrogen and Lime on Gladiolus Corm and Flower Production
and Internal Microflora of Corms. R. H. Littrell, W. E. Waters. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:405-408. Nov. 1967.

2853 Improved Fertilizer Material Gives Reduced Perchlorate Toxicity Symptoms.
R. L. Reese. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:15-19. Nov. 1967.

2854 Chemical Abscission Studies of Citrus Fruit. W. C. Wilson. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:227-231. Nov. 1967.

2855 Flood Irrigation Studies with Citrus. D. V. Calvert, R. C. J. Koo,
H. W. Ford. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:79-85. Nov. 1967.

2857 Variability of Root and Soil Analyses of a Valencia Grove Sampled in
January. E. A. Brams, J. G. A. Fiskell. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc.
80:32-37. 1967.

2858 Corynespora Leaf Spot of Cucumber. C. H. Blazquez. Fla. State Hort.
Sec. Proc. 80:177-182. Nov. 1967.

2859 Control of Growth and Flowering of 'Paul Mikkelsen' Poinsettias by
Photoperiod and Growth Retardants. J. N. Joiner, D. D. Harrison. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:416-420. Nov. 1967.

2860 Variations in Yield and Quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Iceberg'
Flowers Due to Different Planting Patterns. J. N. Joiner, C. A. Conover,
T. J. Sheehan. Fla. State. Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:421-423. Nov. 1967.

2861 Factors Affecting Copper Deficiency of Container Grown Ligustrum japonicum.
R. D. Dickey. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:409-412. Nov. 1967.

2862 Testing a Prototype Low Pressure Oil Burning Heating System. G. R. Davis,
J. F. Gerber. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:93-98. Nov. 1967.

2863 The Influence of Seeds and Pollen Source on the Size of Fruit. A. H.
Krezdorn. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 80:37-43. Nov. 1967.

2864 Response of Several Vegetable Crops to Underground Asphalt Moisture
Barrier in Lakeland Fine Sand. G. K. Saxena, L. C. Hammond, H. W. Lundy.
Fla. State Hort. SOC. Proc. 80:211-217. Nov. 1967.

2875 Copper and Other Nutrient Requirements of 'Baccara' Rose in Lightweight
Potting Medium. S. E. McFadden, R. T. Poole. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Proc. 80:480-486. Nov. 1967.







ENTOMOLOGY AND NEMATOLOGY

The name of the Department was changed from Entomology to Entomology and
Nematology to properly reflect departmental activities.
Funds from grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements have made it pos-
sible to expand the research program under some 25 projects and non-projected
work. Cooperative research with entomologists and nematologists at branch sta-
tions continues to increase with staff and graduate students.





FLA-EY-00678 KERR S H

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OP INSECT AND RELATFD PESTS OF TURFGRASSES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Carbaryl, Akton(Reg. trade) (0(2-chloro-1- (2,5-dichlorophenyl) vinyl)0,0-diethyl
phosphorothioate), and Dasanit(Peg.trade) (0,0-diethyl 0-p-(methylsulfinyl)
phenyl phosphorothioate) were tested on Titdwarf bermudagrass for lawn
caterpillar control (more than 1 species). Begun Aug 30, 1967, the test will
run for at least 1 year. All materials provided good initial control. Akton
and Dasanit remained effective two to three times longer than carbaryl.
Parathion and ethion-oil provided the greatest percentage control of rhodesgrass
scales, Antonina graminis (Mask.), on bermudagrass, but neither was
significantly better than malathion-oil, azinphosmethyl-oil, or Dasanit at the
5% level. A statewide survey revealed that the principal earwigs around Florida
residences are Labidura riparia Pall. and Euborellia annulipes (Lucas). Life
history studies are underway.


PLA-EY-0109H SMART G C

PLANT NEMATODE PROBLEMS ON TURFGRASSES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Several candidate nematicides were compared with each other and with Nemagon on
Ormond bermudagrass for nematode control and turf response. Four genera of
nematodes were present, criconemoides, Belonolaimus, Trichodorus, and
Pratylenchus, but only Criconemoides was present in large enough numbers to be a
good indicator of control. Nemagon plus Akton provided equal or slightly better
control and turf response than Nomagon. No other materials were as good as
Nemagon, but Niagara's 10242, DuPont's Lannate, and Thompson-Hayward's DuNema
looked promising. Nematicides currently on the market were compared on Ormond
bermudagrass for nematode control and turf response. Turf response ratings
indicated that Dasanit and Nemagon provided best response with Zinophos and
Sarolex next. Mocap had the lowest ratings of all treatments. Nemagon
generally provided best control ot Criconemoides and Belonolaimus, least control
of Pratylenchus and no control after 6 weeks of Trichodorus. nocap provided
best control of Pratylenchus. Dasanit provided good control of Belonolaimus,
Pratylenchus, and Trichodorus. In terms or turt response and at least some
control of all nematodes present, Dasanit ranks best based on data from the
months period of this test.


FLA-EY-01177 PERRY V G

ERADICATION AND PREVENTION OF NEMATODES OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Thoroughly saturating the soil of container-grown plants by drenching with
Zinophos and Mocap at 600 ppm was as effective in eradicating or controlling
nematodes as the bare-root dip or pot dip method of application. This method of
application is more feasible for nursery operations. Nematicides which were
somewhat phytotoxic caused more damage to sensitive plants when drenched than
when used as bare-root dips. Zinophos and Mocap at 600 ppm were not phytotoxic.
Granular formulations of nematicides, applied broadcast to the soil surface and
watered in with a hose or sprinkler system, are frequently used in commercial
nurseries. Tests show this method to be less effective than the use of liquid
or emulsible formulations drenched on the soil. Granularformulations of eight
nematicides, at 15 and 30 pounds per acre rate, failed to eliminate root-knot
nematodes from heavily infected gardenia plants in containers when the
nematicides were applied to the surface of the soil and watered in. Zinophos,
Mocap, Temik, NIA 10242, and TH 285 N reduced populations 85 to 90%.
Applications were less effective on open ground bed areas. Placement of







granules in the soil appears to be critical for maximum effectiveness. When
granular formulations were worked into the top layer of soil in containers, and
watered thoroughly, a higher percent control of nematodes was obtained by all
chemicals tested.



FLA-EY-O1184 HABECK D H WAITES R E

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF INSECTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Experiments were completed on control of the pickleworm on summer squash and
soil insects attacking sweetpotatoes. A manuscript on the work on control of
pickleworm was prepared and submitted to the Journal of Economic Entomology.



PLA-EY-01193 PERRY V G

RIONOMICS OF THE PLANT NEMATODE, TRICHODORUS CHRISTIEI

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Two-day-old onion seedlings growing on agar plates were inoculated with 20
specimens each of T. christiei. The length of the roots was measured when the
nematodes were added and every 24 hours thereafter. Growth rates for inoculated
roots were slower than for control roots. Root growth stopped completely in
some roots 3 days after inoculation. Root growth in controls slowed down after
6 days and usually stopped after about 10 days. A swelling behind the root tip
was the first visible abnormality in inoculated roots and appeared between 4 and
6 days. Paraffin sections of roots were cut and examined beginning 1 day after
feeding by T. christiei and up to 15 days. The only tissue deviating from
normal was the cortex. Cells of the cortex were abnormally large behind the
root tip. Presently a cell division study is being completed to compare the
frequency of mitotic division in inoculated and control plants.



FLA-EY-01228 ROBINSON F A

STERILIZATION OF BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Treating beekeeping equipment contaminated with spores of American foulbrood
Bacillus larvae (White) with ethylene-oxide-freon sterilizing gas mixtures at
temperatures over 100OF for 48 hours at a gas pressure of 30 psi reduced the
viable spore count more than 99A in all samples. Less uniform results were
obtained when the temperature or length of time was reduce. The least
reduction occurred in samples containing honey. There was little difference
between brood or pollen samples. No visible symptoms of the disease have
occurred after 13 months in one colony that was re-established on combs filled
with dead brood after they had been treated.



FLA-EY-01288 WAITES R E

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND ARTIFICIAL MEDIA FOR REARING MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Many formulations were tested during the past year by feeding to adult beetles
in small cages. Liquid formulations seemed to be as attractive as agar based
formulations; however, neither was satisfactory for long time maintenance of the
beetles as oviposition did not occur. Examination under the microscope of
dissected beetles showed that in the female the reproductive organs were very
small and undeveloped while in the male they appeared normal and large numbers
of active sperm were present. Lipid material extracted from bean leaves and
incorporated in the diet had no effect on the fecundity of the adult beetles.
Survival and growth of the larvae was adversely affected when they were fed
leaves dipped in a solution of oxythiamine, pyrithiamine or desoxypyridoxine. A
0.1% solution of each of these vitamin analogs was enough to repress growth and
cause total mortality of the larvae. When each corresponding vitamin, thiamine
or pyridoxine was added to its antivitamin solution in a ratio of 1:1 (vitamin:
antivitamin) by weight, the adverse effects of the antivitamin was reversed.
sulfanilamide and pantoyltaurine negatively affected survival only when applied
as a 1% solution, while pantothenyl alcohol, 2 picolinic acid, and 3 acetyl
pyridine were ineffective at the concentrations tested.






PERRY V G SMART G C


FACTORS INFLUENCING SURVIVAL AND PATHOGENICITY OF NEMATODES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Organic soil amendments of 4 F 8 tons/A of alfalfa meal, cotton seed meal or
ground rice straw resulted in reduced population levels of Belonolaimus
longicaudatus in a controlled experiment. Data obtained on associated organisms
indicated that parasites or predators were not directly associated with the
reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Escambia County, Florida is the
southernmosthabitat of Heterodera glycines. An evaluation ot the populations
from two fields indicate that this pest has been present for several years and
thus will survive in Florida. Onion roots growing in water agar in a
semi-sterile condition were inoculated with specimens of Trichodorus christiei.
Root growth ceased in a minimum of 3 days. Histological examinations of
sectioned roots fed upon for periods of 1-15 days revealed abnormally large
cells of the cortex. At least two and possibly three physiologic strains of
Belonolaimus longicaudatus have been determined in Florida. Seedlings of rough
lemon citrus are attacked by only one of the three populations, and this one has
failed to cause injury to Early Runner peanuts. The other two populations
differ somewhat in their ability to attack peanuts. Morphological difference to
distinguish the populations have not been found.




PLA-EY-01297 ROBINSON F A

POLLEN SUBSTITUTE FOR REARING HONEYBEES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Colonies of bees confined in a common flight chamber were found to exchange food
to such an extent that there was no difference in brood rearing between colonies
feeding on pollen and those getting a deficient artificial diet. Therefore diet
feeding tests must be conducted in individual cages. The addition of pollen
lipid increased diet consumption by colonies confined in screen cages or in a
bioclimatic chamber. When the diet was fortified with 5% by weight of whole
pollen lipid or the cold acetone soluble fraction 49 and 54% more food was
consumed. The addition of 51 of a freeze collected extract of the volatile
substances of fresh pollen resulted in a 68% reduction in food consumption. The
use of feeding attractants such as these lipids should be extremely useful in
determining the nutritional suitability of different artificial diets by
increasing their palatability. Bioassay analyses of inositol in royal jelly
from larvae less than 3 days old and in worked jelly from 4-5 day larvae showed
71.46 micrograms/gram (Sample 1) and 114.75 micrograms/gram (sample 2) in the
royaljelly while worker jelly contained 28.78 micrograms/gram (sample 1) and
34.94 micrograms/gram (sample 2). Information such as this may ultimately lead
to an understanding of the role of nutrition in cast determination in the
honeybee.




PLA-EY-01307 KUITERT I C

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECTS AND MITES ATTACKING STONE FRUITS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Studies on the biology of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagon
Targioni, indicate there are four generations per year and the scale passes the
winter as a fertilized female. Egg laying for the first generation is initiated
in early February and reaches its peak in early March. Egg laying for the
second generation is initiated in early May and reaches a peak in late May. Egg
laying for the third generation is initiated in late July and reaches its peak
in mid-August. Egg laying for the fourth generation is initiated in late
September and reaches its peak in late October. The egg laying process for each
generation extends over a period of 5 to 7 weeks. Eggs hatch 5 to 10 days after
deposition; however, this maybe extended somewhat in the first generation. Many
eggs have hatched before the female deposits the last egg. Death of the female
occurs following egg deposition. About 50 days are required from egg hatch to
adult female. Crawlers do not settle on green wood, although some are found in
the bud scales on green wood. Second generation females lay an average of 131
eggs. The scale was reared in the laboratory on sweet and irish potatoes. A
combination spray of ethion 0.67 plus superior 60 oil used at a concentration of
3 quarts per 100 gallons was applied to coincide with high crawler and first
sedentary stage populations of the first generation provided excellent control.
Diazinon Ag 500 used at 1 guart per 100 gallons also provided excellent control.


FLA-EY-01294








BIONOMICS AND CONTROL OF THE TWO-LINE SPITTLEBUG PROSAPIA BICINCTA (SAY)

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Experiments involving feeding of the spittlebug, Prosapia plagiata, on
Kikuyagrass, Pennisetum clandestinum, in Central America indicated greatly
reduced moisture content, inhibited growth, and apparently decreased
palatability, but did not affect nutritive value significantly. Carbaryl, Mobam
(MCA-600), malathion, diazinon, and phorate were evaluated for controlling P.
plagiata nymphs, and of these only the latter two at 2.60 and 2.85 Kg. actual
toxicant per hectare, respectively, were effective. At Gainesville, Florida,the
first two-lined spittlebug, Prosapia bicincta, was taken by blacklight traps on
May 6 and the last on October 23, 1967. Spittlebugs taken in blacklight traps
at Belle Glade, Ona, and Gainesville averaged 87% males. Light traps were
operated at heights of 10, 5, and 3 feet 6 inches with the 5 foot height
being most efficient. Flight activity occurs throughout the night with the peak
activity occurring within 2 hours after sunset. Virgin females collected in the
field as they emerged from the spittle mass produced a pronounced odor beginning
the second Tay of adult life. Females mated when 5 days old and produced eggs
in 7 days following emergence. Caged females lived 21 to 28 days and produced
from 48 to 142 eggs. Eggs maintained on moist filter paper hatched in 17-18
days. Ten percent granular formulations of chlordane, dieldrin, and parathion
at 3 lbs. active per acre controlled first generation nymphs. Sprays of
azinphosmethyl at 1.5 and 2.0 Ib/A controlled adults but not nymphs. Dursban 1%
Gr. at 0.2 lb/A and Tamik 10% Gr., Nia-10242 10% Gr., and Bayer 37289 10% Gr. at
2.0 Ib/A controlled nymphs. Mowing reduced nymphal populations.



PLA-EY-01314 SMITH W W

SANDFLIES IN ALACHUA COUNTY

PROGRESS RFPOPT: 67/07 67/12
Twenty-tour species of sandtlies (Culicoides) were found to occur in Alachua
County, four of which were treehole breeders not previously reported from the
state. The four mud-dwelling species insignis, haematopotus, stelliter, and
crepuscularis, were the species most abundant and widely distributed,
haematopotus being considered most likely to be of health importance because of
its great abundance and distribution tendency to feed upon both birds and man.
Less abundant but widely distributed were the treehole species arboricola,
nanus, debilipalpis, and paraensis. The last species feeds on birds, and avidly
on man during daylight hours in woods. The most pestiferous species, tissoti,
was captured only while biting humans during its short annual appearance in
early spring. Soil and air temperatures were the chief abiotic factors
affecting abundance of soil-dwelling species. Greatest abundance of treehole
species was associated chiptly with high air temperatures and with hurricane
season rains of June or July which filled and maintained water levels in
treeholes. A mermithid nematode which parasitized 30 to 90% of mud-dwelling
species in some local areas was the most important biotic factor found affecting
Culicoides populations. Three necies, acboricola, insignis, and haematopotus,
were successfully reared from jg to adult in the laboratory, and methods for
feeding adults on laboratory Tamals were developed. Laboratory colonization
was not possible because of failure to secure a high percentage of successful
matings, although small second and third generations of arboricola were
produced. Lite cycles varied from 3 weeks to 2 months, according to temperature
and nutrition variatios.-



FLA-EY-01315 KOITERT L C

FOMIGANTS AND DIPS FOR CONTROL OF INSECTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Chlorox and calcium hypochlorite (HTH) were evaluated as dips for controlling
citrus snow scale, Unaspis citri (Comst.). Two concentrations of each material
were used and each concentration was used for two and four minute exposures.
Scale counts made at weekly intervals indicated poor control; the percent live
scale varied from 21% to 54% in the treatments to 58% in the check. In a
similar test 12 varieties of camellias were submerged in a solution of Di-Syston
containing 1 lb active per 100 gallons. Eight varieties were dipped for 10
minutes and four for 20 minutes. No phytotoxicity occurred on the varieties
dipped for 10,minutes; however, considerable injury developed on varieties with
the 20-minute exposure. Tea Scale control was excellent, and complete
eradication of the infestation occurred on two varieties. In a second test


FLA-EY-01308


KUITERT L C







using Di-Syston at the same concentration and exposure 90% control of scales
resulted with 100% on one variety. No phytotoxicity occurred from dipping
maiden hair fern for 10 minutes in a 300 ppm solution of zinophos or from
spraying with a 1-100 concentration. Less than 10% kill was obtained of
Oleander scale from submerging magnolias in 1 pint and 1 quart/100
concentrations of Rayer 25141 for 10 minutes. No phytotoxicity was observed.



FLA-EY-01321 STONE K J

NON-INSECTICIDAL CONTROL OF THE LESSER CORNSTALK BORER, AND OTHER INSECTS OF
FIELD CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Male lesser cornstalk borer adults (Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller)) mate
equally well with differing female ratios, thus reducing the need for large
numbers of females in experimentation. Male and female total and mating life
spans, with spermatophore counts involved, and life spans ot male and female
virgins and temporal egg layi~y patterns were recorded in life history studies.
Chlorox treatment delays egg hatch and complicates larval emergence. Random
samples were to be trade from eggs soaked off egg sheets; another technique is
needed. Mated males can Le distinguished from unmated males by copulatrix
simplex color, which permits male dissection for mating success as opposed to
female dissection. Moths are sensitive to high and low sound frequencies at
high amplitudes, ind produce no ultrasonic sounds during mating or courtship.
Antennae are important in mating behavior. Moths mate from 12:00 midnight to
6:00 A.M. and only one spermatophoro is passed or accepted during one night.




FLA-EY-01322 WALKER T J

SOUND-PRODUCING ENSIFERAN ORTHOPTE3 (GRYLLIDAE AND TETTIGONIIAE) OF EASTERN
UNITED STATES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Study of male metanotal glands of Oecanthus revealed species groups that
correspond to groups recognized by other means. The glands are useful for
specific identification only within the niveus group. Allonemobius ambitiousu"
consists of two species. Field and lab studies have revealed differences in
songs but no nonoverlapping differences in morphology, seasonal life history, or
habitat. Females of each population are attracted to the broadcast song of
their own males but not to that of males of the other population. Both species
are being maintained in laboratory colonies. Attempts to hybridize the two have
been unsuccessful. Distribution maps were prepared for 95 species of
tettigoniids and 111 species of gryllids. All distribution records were mapped
by counties. These six categories of records were indicated by distinctive
symbols: song with correlated specimen, song and specimen (not correlated),
tape only, specimen only, heard only, literature only. More than 10,000 records
were plotted. Synoptic tapes, to be used in preparing phonograph records of the
songs of eastern gryllids and tettigoniids, were prepared for Phaneropterinae,
Copiphorinae, Decticinae, Tettigoniinae, Nemobiinae, Trigonidiinae, and
Eneopterinae.




FLA-EY-01323 CALAWAY W T

NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH SEWAGE TREATMENT AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Continuing investigations on the various nematodes associated with waste
treatment have confirmed that members of the families Rhabditidde and
Diplogasteridae are the dominant forms found. Further investigations of the
Diplogasteridae have shown that the genera Diplogasteritus and Mononchoides are
the ones most commonly present. The genera Paroigolaimella and Butlerius are
less frequently found. Other diplogasterids are rare. None of the nematodes
found in stream water or stream bottoms belong to the taxa already mentioned
even if the streams have received waste treatment effluents. There has been a
slight change in plans concerning publications, and the description of the
Mononchoides commonly found in waste treatment in Florida has been sent to the
editors of Nematology for their consideration. As soon as a publication date
for that paper is known, a paper on the revision of the genus will follow.
Extensive studies have been made on this species of Mononchoides, both for the
description and for further report on the detailed morphology of this species.



71









BIONOMICS AND CONTROL OF EYE GNAT (HIPPELATES PUSIO LOEW)

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The highest density of eye gnats, Hippelates pusio, occurred in July (66,830)
and the lowest in October (4,978) with neglLgible counts during November and
December. During the period 95.1% of the eye gnats trapped were females. The
length of the stem of the funnel trap was reduced to 1 inch, and this
facilitated the movement of the eye gnats into the trap cylinder. Soil samples
were collected from 10 different areas and placed in Hotpack incubators for eye
gnat emergence. Eye gnats were recovered from two samples; both samples had
been obtained from areas in cattle holding pens. Eye gnat pupae were dusted
with fluorescent dyes to determine if adults would be marked with dye upon
emergence. Using an ultraviolet light, detectable amounts of dyes were found
for as long as 28 days. Eggs laid by virgin females (12 hours old) were not
viable. Of approximately 10,000 eggs held at 750F (+ over -) 5 for 3 months
only 10.7% hatched. Viable eggs were obtained from crossing laboratory reared
females and wild males and vice-versa. Chemosterilization tests were conducted
using 5% metapa in methyl alcohol. Adult eye gnats were exposed to treated
strips of tine mesh screen in 10 dram vials, and 90-100% sterility resulted. In
other tests 78-92% sterility was obtained when adults were maintained in large
glass jars containing a dish of attractant covered with treated mesh screen.





FLA-EY-01331 WILKINSON R C

REPRODUCTION AND DIET IN THREE SPECIES OF IPS BARK BEETLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Yeasts associated with Ips avulsus (Eichh.) were identified as (Candida
silvicola Shifrine et Phaff=Hansenula holstii Wickerham) and (Pichia pinus
Phaff=Saccharomyces pini Holst); their relation to Ips avulsus brood development
is under study. A bacterium assoc. with Ips calligraphus (Germ.) was
biochemically characterized as Serratia marcescens Bizio var. marcescens. The
bacterium was facultatively pathogenic in Ips laboratory cultures and to a
lesser extent in field populations. Forty percent of the isolates were
hemolytic to sheep blood, suggesting that this bacterium might he dangerous to
use as a possible biological control agent vs. Ips population. Pinus elliottii
Engelm. var, elliottii phloem lipids were shown to be required for I.
calligraphus brood development. Foliage was substituted successfully for phloem
in one diet. Aerated thin-layer cultures were superior to petri dish cultures
of Ips calligraphus where media phloem concentrations were low.





FLA-EY-01332 BLANTON F S

CERATOPOGONIDAE (BITING MIDGES) OF MIDDLE AMERICA

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Technicians have prepared approximately 20,000 micro mounts on slides of the
Ceratopogonidae from Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras, El Salvador, Mexico
and several states in the U.S. Many of these have been identified.
Approximately 100 collections of Culicoides from the two proposed Canal sites in
Colombia and Panama, submitted to the writer by the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory,
have been processed. Dr. Willis W. Wirth and writer spent one month in Panama
studying the breeding habitat of some Panama species. Three manuscripts were
published. The art work was completed for four additional manuscripts.





FLA-EY-01341 HETRICK I A

LIGHT TRAPS FOB FOREST INSECTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Seasonal activities and abundance of a number of different species of forest
insects are being tabulated. Card sort files have been developed for the
different species encountered in the studies.


FLA-EY-01325


KIIITENT L C









BIONOMICS AND CONTROL OF PHYLLOPHAGA BRUNERI CHAPIN (A CUBAN MAY BEETLE)

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Evening emergence flight of beetles occurred primarily at light intensities
between 1 and 0.1 foot-candles. In the morning, beetles began leaving the food
plants when light intensity was .5 foot candles. A single application of
carbaryl, malathion, diazinon, endosulfan, and DDT at the rate of 1 pound
active per 100 gallons of spray did not control the beetles. A single
application of diazinon at 2 pounds active per 100 gallons gave fair control of
moderate beetle populations. Where the beetle population was much greater, a
single application to the trees alone was inadequate, while treatment of food
trees plus surrounding plants and turf gave fair control. Preliminary results
of laboratory tests to establish levels of susceptibility to insecticides for
the Cuban may beetle indicate that the LD(50) expressed in micrograms per gram
of body weight of females appears to be in the range of 10-30 for DDT,
malathion, carbaryl, and diazinon and about 185 for endosulfan. A final report
on this project is being prepared.





FLA-EY-01353 KUITERT L C

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECT AND RELATED PESTS CN ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Plants and tip cuttings of Aglaonema commutatum Schott were treated with
dimethoate, diazinon, meta-systox-R, bidren, and Thiocron, used at 8 oz A/100
gallons, to control aglaonema scale, Temnaspidiotus excisus (Green); all
treatments\ were effective. Niagara 10242 granules (1 lb. A/A) applied to the
soil gave poor control and UC 21149 granules (1 Ib A/A) moderate control. No
phytotoxicity was observed. Morestan, chloropropylate, pentac, meta-systox-R
and EP 333 sprays gave excellent control of two-spotted mites, Tetranychus
urticae (Koch), infesting roses. UC 21149 granules also provided good mite
control, while Niagara 10242 granules gave erratic results. Sprays containing a
combination of ethion 0.67 plus superior oil, dimethoate, and diazinon were very
effective in controlling tea scale infesting camellias, and whiteflies, aphids,
and thrips infesting a variety of ornamental plants. Bidrin injected into the
trunk of sycamores controlled infestations of the sycamore lacebug. A cane
borer collected as a pupa in rose canes was reared to adult and identified as a
longhorn beetle, Psyrassa pertenue (Coy.), Diazinon, dimethoate and
meta-systox-R sprays gave excellent control of brown soft scale, Coccus
hesperidum (Linn.), infesting orchids.





FLA-FY-01379 LLOYD J E

SYSTEMATIC AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES ON FIREFLIES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Study of signals and mating behavior showed that there are more species of
Photuris than previously realized by taxonomists, and this probably accounts for
the taxonomic difficulties thay have had with this group. Two Photinus species
or forms were found in the Gainesville area that seem to hybridize. Because
they have quite different flashing conduct the two forms may be well suited for
the study of genetic control of flashing behavior. Several additional species
were round to be involved in aggressive signal mimicry. One Photuris species
was found to have several flash signals; previously studied fireflies have but
one signal.


FLA-EY-01343


HABECK D H






FOOD SCIENCE

Studies were initiated to determine the freeze drying properties of some
Florida grown fruits and vegetables. A phosphorimetric method was developed
for parathion analyses with a detection limit of 0.05ppm.
Dr. R. P. Bates was appointed Assistant Food Technologist with respon-
sibility for processing studies. Dr. G. D. Kuhn, Assistant Food Microbiologist,
resigned.






FLA-FS-00816 TOWNSEND R 0

INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON BONE DEVELOPMENT OF WRIST/HAND OF
INFANTS/PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Skeletal age assessments from 1476 longitudinal radiographs of 175 Negro
children 3 to 144 months of age have been investigated. Children with physical
manifestation of nutritional deficiency at a given time interval were scored 2
and those without were scored 3. Separate regression equations based on means,
relating skeletal age with chronological age at 6 month intervals, differ
significantly from each other, and fit is extremely good with less than 1% of
variation in bone age means assignable to other sources. These data have been
regrouped to differentiate between those scored 2 and 3 throughout and those
scored 3 in infancy but changed to score 2, where they remained throughout
childhood. Regression analysis is underway, and results should implicate the
usefulness of the skeletal age method as an index of nutritional status in young
children.



FLA-FS-00914 TOWNSEND R 0

EFFECTS ON NUTRITIONAL ADJUNCTS VEGETABLE FATS ON BLOOD LIPIDS OF HUMANS AND
RATS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Like other physiological aspects of the aging process, skeletal demineralization
rate is variable and dietary supply of bone forming minerals has been considered
a highly probable determinant. Equating supply with rate of loss is dependent
on a method of measurement of bone containment in intact subjects, better
understanding of demand mediation by illness, disease, and long-term health and
dietary practices. A technique of measuring bone density on laboratory animals
(Hatch proj. 789) has been tested on radiographs of the hands of aging human
subjects. Optical density in proximal phalanx 3, drops as age advances at a
higher rate in males than females, but is decelerated by physical activity
maintenance. Bone cortex width decreases with age, but is not influenced by
activity level. A manuscript reporting these data has been prepared for
publication. Serum cholesterol levels, physical health and dietary
intake histories ot amounts and types of fat are being re-examined in light of
recent theory of atherogenesis that vascular damage precedes blood lipid
derangement and deposition in blood vessel wall.



FLA-FS-00952 MOYE I A VAN MIDDELEM C H WHEELER W B

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN PLANT AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
A phosphorimetric analytical method was developed for parathion on celery stalks
and leaves, with a limit of detection of 0.05 p.p.m. A microwave emission gas
chromatograph was constructed and modifications made to improve the sensitivity
and selectivity for chlorine, iodine and phosphorus containing pesticides.
Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 nanograms for 2-iodobutane to 11.5
nanograms for p,p' DDT. An atomic emission detector utilizing a low powered A.
C. and D. C. arc was evaluated. The D. C. arc was found to be superior to
either the A. C. or microwave powered detectors for phosphorus measurement.
Numerous derivatives were made from Sevin, Zectran, Matacil, UC10854 and Temik
and evaluated for their sensitivity to electron capture-gas chromatograph
detection. The most promising derivatives found to date are the
2,4-dichlorobenzamides, the p-bromobenzamides and the 3,4-dichlorobenzamides.
Sevin was determined as the 4-bromo-N-methyl benzamide on cabbage with a 0.05
p.p.m. limit of detection.









PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE AND METABOLISM OF BIOFLAVONOIDS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Flavonoids were fed to experimental animals in which atherosclerosis was induced
by two methods. In rabbits fed semi-synthetic diets made atherogenic by
addition of 2% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid, plaque formation did not follow
serum cholesterol levels but appeared to be an interactive effect of serum
cholesterol levels, suspension stability of blood and survival time. Rutin or
tangeretin at a 0.2% level did not have an innibitory effect on atherogenesis or
a significant effect on any of the blood parameters measured. In rats fed
semi-synthetic diets made atherogenic by addition of 1,500,000 USP units of
vitamin D (2) per kg. of diet, serum cholesterol levels remained normal but a
significant (P<0.05) decrease occurred in the suspension stability of blood and
severe vascular damage occurred. Rutin or hesperidin at a 1% level was
associated with a significant increase (P-0.05) in the suspension stability of
blood but did not inhibit vascular damage. Three general kinds of reactions
appeared to be involved in atherogenesis; i.e. serum cholesterol, suspension
stability of blood and vascular damage (or permeability). The contribution
of each to atherogenesis depends upon predominant or initiating factors. The
data indicate that the anti-atherogenic effect reported for flavonoids may be
mediated through their effect on the suspension stability of blood.



FLA-FS-01011 SHOWALTER R K

CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERMELONS BELATED TO BRUISING AND MARKET QUALITY

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Resistance to flesh rupture is an important factor in marketing watermelons. A
technique was developed to measure the deformation of cylindrical specimens of
watermelon flesh and the amount of force required for rupture. When the
moisture content of flesh specimens was increased 2 to 10 percent by vacuum
infiltration with water, the deformation to rupture decreased significantly.
The added water increased the feel of crispness and reduced the distance by
which the flesh could be deformed before breaking. When the moisture content of
flesh specimens from the same nelons was decreased 4 to 10 percent by osmotic
dehydration, the deformation to rupture increased significantly. The removal of
water produced a very noticeable loss of crispness and an increase in
flexibility. Deformation values varied among different areas within melons,
among different melons, and among 4 varieties ot melons. Deformation values of
specimens from individual melons averaged from 0.23 and 0.45 inch before
treatment, 0.17 to 0.37 inch after water was added, and 0.46 to 0.53 inch after
water was removed. Rupture forces usually average from 300 to 400 grams for
untreated specimens. When water was added or removed from some melons, the
force to rupture was reduced. For other melons there was no change in rupture
force due to change in moisture content. Results are significant because of the
method developed for measuring textural characteristics, and the effects of
measured changes in tissue hydration and dehydration on resistance to watermelon
flesh breakage.



FLA-PS-01057 ROBBINS R C

INDICATORS OF DIETARY ADEQUACY FOR INDIVIDUAL ANIMALS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Analytical systems have been assembled and methods developed for continuous in
vivo determination of rate and duration of absorption of nutrients from a diet.
Preliminary data were collected on sucrose absorption. Sucrose fed at a rate of
2.2 gms. per kg. of body weight to rhesus monkeys in a post absorptive state was
digested and absorbed at a rate of 0.134 gms. per minute. The techniques were
extended to develop a rapid method for determination of the nutritional value of
protein. Methods were developed for determination of rate and duration of
absorption of the amino acids from a diet and the pattern of amino acids
absorbed. A method for determination of total alpha amino nitrogen in blood or
urine has been adapted to the Technicon AutoAnalyzec. The biological specimens
are diluted with pH 5 citrate buffer and dialyzed against a recipient stream of
pH 5 buffer. The dialyzed amino acids are reacted with ninhydrin and read
colorimetrically at 570 millimicrons. This method permits direct or indirect
determination of total amino acids in portal and periphereal blood to determine
rate and duration of absorption. Pattern of amino acid absorption was
determined by comparing patterns in animals in the post absorptive state and
during the absorption of dietary amino acids. Amino acid analyses of blood were
carried out using a Technicon amino acid analyzer.


FLA-FS-01007


ROBBINS R C








ENZYMATIC BROWNING IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Thin layer gel (Sephadex) filtration of avocado polyphenoloxidase (PPO), fol-
lowed by spraying with substrate, revealed 5 fractions. The estimated
molecular weights were 1.4, 2.8, 5.6, 11.2 and 40 X 104. Electrophoresis at 90
resolved the 2.8 X 104 MW fraction into 4-6 components. One of these was by
far the most active of all the PPO fractions. Differences in substrate
specificity between fractions were noted. The relative PPO activities of mature
Maygold, Suwannee, Flordaqueen and Southland peaches were about 1:9:25:41.
Irradication (300 Krad) prior to storage of Flordaqueen and Suwannee peaches
at 2'C and 10 C, respectively, resulted in 20% more active and more stable
PPO preparations. The effects of irradiation and storage on PPO in Southland
peaches varied with fruit maturity and storage temperature. During 20C
storage, PPO of firm-ripe fruit decreased, but less in irradiated fruit; PPO
content of greener fruit did not change, regardless of prior irradiation.
During 2 C storage for 6 days, PPO of firm-ripe fruit increased 25-100%; it
increased again after transfer of the fruit to 20-C, but was unaffected by prior
irradiation. Slurries made after storage of irradiated Southland peaches
darkened less, or no more, than unirradiated controls, regardless of PPO content.


PLA-FS-011D6 VAN NIDDELEM C H

PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND METABOLITES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Endrin residues were conducted on cucumber internal fruit tissue, seeds, and
peels by electron capture gas chromatography. The purpose of this study was to
determine the extent of uptake by cucumber plants of endrin applied previously.
No significant residues were found in the internal tissues of cucumber fruits.
Slightly higher residues were found in the seeds (0.02-0.08 ppm.). Endrin
residues ranged from 0.03 to 0.25 ppm in the cucumber peels.



FLA-FS-01113 HALL C B

PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF TOMATO RIPENING

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Studies were made, with Dr. R. E. Stall of the Plant Pathology Department, on
factors involved in the growth of bacteria causing browning in tomato fruit
tissue. The bacteria were isolated from field samples of graywall-affected
fruits and caused similar symptoms when inoculated into the tissue. These
normally non-pathogenic bacteria can grow in tomato tissue under certain
conditions to the extent that tissue damage and browning occurs. Browning of
the tissue occurred within a few days following inoculation if the bacteria
multiplied to a high level. No browning occurred at lower levels. The four
bacterial types isolated had a different growth response to pH. One grew at
about the normal pH of tomatoes but the others required a higher pH for growth.
This pH effect is of importance in isolation procedures. Results of one growing
season indicated that low potash fertility resulted in fruits being more
susceptible to browning by bacteria than fruits from high potash fertility. A
comparison of two methods of inoculation using several tomato stocks indicated
two types of resistance, one by exclusion of bacteria trom the fruits and one by
resistance of the tissue to bacterial growth.



FLA-FS-01202 VARMIDDELEM C H MOYE H A WHEELER W B

CENTRALIZED PESTICIDE RESIDUE INVESTIGATIONS OF SOUTHERN AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT STATIONS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 b7/12
Pesticide levels of soil samples taken from field plots fortified to a six inch
depth with known concentrations showed considerable variability. Generally,
DDT, endrin and dieldrin exhibited approximately 35 to 55% loss from the soil
during the crop growing period; whereas trifluralin disappearance was 75% or
more under similar conditions. However, there were some instances where little
or no chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide loss appeared to occur during the
growing season. There appeared to be little, if any, uptake of DDT, endrin or
dieldrin by tobacco or turnip greens grown in soil fortified at three levels of
these pesticides. In several cases, however, values ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 ppm.
No significant uptake of endrin into shelled soybeans was noted except Florida


FLA-FS-01064


KNAPP F W







Lab data from beans grown in Mississippi. The most significant pesticide
absorption and/or translocation data resulting from this cooperative study was
noted in peanuts grown in DDT and dieldrin-contaminated soils. DDT and dieldrin
residues in peanut hulls ranged from 1.0 to 2.5 ppm and probably resulted
primarily from contact with contaminated soil. In the Virginia experiment,
peanut hay residues were as high as 0.5 and 2.5 ppm dieldrin and DDT
respectively, indicating the possibility of translocation. There appeared to be
significant dieldrin residues in shelled peanuts from North Carolina (0.25 to
1.35 ppm). DDT residues in smelled peanuts ranged from 0.04 to 0.16 ppm.
Relatively insignificant residues of endrin or trifluralin were noted in shelled
peanuts.


FLA-FS-01216 JCHNSON J H

EFFECTS OF SALT (NACL) ON THE PROTEIN COMPONENTS OF PROCESSED FOOD

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
The nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) component changes of canned split peas were
studied during storage at 40C. Split peas (50 gm) with 0.00, 0.23, 0.45, 0.68,
or 0.q1% salt in # 303 cans were processed at 250OF for 30 minutes. After
storage 0, 35, 70, or 105 days, analyses for solids, amino N, and total N and C
were made on the soluble extract. Significant storage differences were found
with all analyses. soluble solids, total N, and total C increased 26, 13, and
26% respectively during storage from 35 to 105 days. Amino N increased 25% with
105 days storage. The C:N ratio decreased 41% with 35 days storage but
increased slowly thereafter. A significant C:N ratio difference was evident
comparing 0.00 and 0.23% versus 0.91% salt levels. These data relate to both
salt concentration and storage life of canned split peas.


FLA-FS-01242 THOMPSON N P

REDUCTION OB ELIMINATION OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON FOOD AND FEED PRODUCTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Investigations concerned removal of field weathered and laboratory applied
parathion on lettuce and celery. A fatty alcohol, heptadecanol, was evaluated
in the laboratory as a carrier for parathion in an attempt to restrict movement
of the insecticide into plant tissue thus making removal more feasible. This
procedure was not successful. A 20 minute submersion of diced celery in 2%
KOH-3.5% H(2)0(2) aqueous solution removed 50-80% of laboratory applied
parathion. Field weathered parathion on diced celery ribs was reduced up to 90%
by this alkaline-hydrogen peroxide solution. Crated and uncrated celery with an
above tolerance residue was submerged in a large tank containing 2% KOH-7.0%
H (2)0(2) or 0.25 KOH-3.5% H(2)0(2). Analysis showed little or no significant
parathion breakdown in comparison with non base-peroxide treated celery. Lack
of significance resulted partially from sampling variability. Indications of
phytotoxicity resulted with the use of the more concentrated solution.



FLA-FS-01243 SHOWALTER R K

ESTABLISHING GUIDES FOR ADJUSTMENTS BY FIRMS MARKETING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
In evaluating alternative methods of harvesting, grading and packing of
snapbeans, sweet corn and celery, the characteristics and amounts of harvested
portions of the crops not suitable for packing were determined. In hand
harvesting of snapbeans and sweet corr., pods and ears of optimum maturity were
selected and detached with a minimum of stalks and leaves. With non-selective,
machine harvesting all maturities were harvested along with variable quantities
of trash. Machine harvested beans included 11 to 20 percent stems, leaves,
damaged and immature beans, and rocks. Varying quantities of immature beans
were removed by mechanical sizers. Graders sorted out some defects and trash.
Machine harvested beans are packed with more immature beans and trash than
hand-picked beans because of inadequate sizing and grading. Machine harvested
sweet corn included 13 to 23 percent immature ears, stalk sections and leaves.
Much of these materials were removed by hand before packing. Poor crate closing
was often associated with inadequate ear trimming. Two new celery harvesters
cut the roots and trimmed the stalks to 16 inches in length. The outer petioles
stripped off by hand accounted for 25 to 28 percent of the harvested weight. A
third celery harvester did not trim the stalks to 16 inches, and these trimmings
amounted to 7 percent of the harvest weight. Findings indicated an urgent need
for mechanized handling systems to remove the large quantities of trash
resulting from machine harvesting.


77







EFFECT OF FRYING MEDIA COMPOSITION ON MAILLARD REACTIONS IN MODEL SYSTEMS AND
I4 PROCESSED FOODS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Little difference in potato chip color was apparent from potato slices fried
from an initial temperature of 180'C until no bubbles evolved, without or
with monoglyceride or castor oil as a frying media additive. No color
differences were obtained when a model system of glucose-glycine impregnated
papers were used. By photometric reflectance measurement of model system
chips it was found that increased time and temperature of frying increased
browning. The concentration of reactants and amino acid used also affected
color development. For papers fried 20 seconds at 155.5 156.0 C mean
colorimetric values of 60.6, 46.5, 34.2, 33.9, 23.1, 21.3 and 16.3 were obtained
with the respective glucose-glycine solutions of 0.75%-0.25%, 0.5%-1%, 1.5%-0.5%,
1%-1%, 1%-2%, 2%-1%, and 2%-2%. Mean colorimetric values of 64.5, 55.0, 36.8,
25.2, 47.0, 43.8, 85.5, 71.7, 54.0, 41.4 were obtained for glucose-amino acid
solutions of 1%-1%, 2%-1i (glutamic), 1%-1%, 2%-1%(arginine), 1%-i%, 2%-1%
(alanine), 1%-1%, 2%-1% (cystine), and 1I-1%, 2%-1% (lysine), respectively.


FLA-FS-01338


JOHNSON J H


CAN DETINNING AS RELATED TO NITRATE CONTENT OF VEGETABLES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Tne nitrate (wt) content was determined of canned tomatoes, greens, and green
beans grown at three Florida areas. Homestead 24 (H24) and Tropi-Red (TR)
tomato varieties grown at Homestead under fertilization treatments were
analyzed for Nt. H24 increased in Nt with increased fertilization of N, P, or
K. TR did not respond similarly. Mean Nt values of 45 and 29 ppm, respectively,
for H24 and TR were obtained with H24 causing more tinplate corrosion than TR.
Greens grown at Plymouth gave hign Nt in the canned product as follows: mustard
685, collards 1050, and turnips (Just Rite) 2770, (Purple Top) 5620 raw,
1500 ppm canned. After 8 months storage of the greens little internal tinplate
corrosion developed. Green beans of 12 varieties from Belle Glade gave Nt
between 800 to 1160 ppm raw and 540 to 800 ppm canned. The bean varieties
differed greatly in their corrosiveness toward tinplate. Variety showed some and
commodity much variation in Nt accumulation. Internal tinplate corrosion with
greens and green beans was not directly related to nitrate content.





































78





U- -- .


FLA-FS-01256


JOHNSON J H







FORESTRY

During this period ten pulp and paper companies and three fertilizer
companies agreed to join with the Departments of Forestry and Soils in the
formation of a new cooperative research in forest fertilization ("CRIFF")
program. Cooperator support will include annual grants which will be used
primarily to support post-doctoral scientists and additional graduate students
to work in various phases of the total program. In addition, cooperators
will actively participate in a large scale applied testing effort on their own
lands to identify tree response to fertilizers and the role of micro-nutrients
under a variety of forest environments, primarily in the lower coastal plain.
Dr. W. L. Pritchett, Department of Soils, will serve as Program Coordi-
nator. Dr. Wayne H. Smith of Forestry will work with him in this effort.
During this six months period, an advisory council was formed, contact
men for each cooperating company were appointed and an initial technical
training session for contact men was held to make plans for installing some
thirty uniform fertilizer tests on cooperators' lands.
Large scale progeny testing of offspring of first round selections from
the wild received major attention of Department scientists and industry
cooperators in the cooperative forest genetics research program. Hudson Pulp
and Paper Corporation rejoined this program in July bringing the total number
of industry and agency cooperators to eleven.
Research in wildlife biology and ecology was expanded during this period
as a result of several special grants for support of graduate students made
available by the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission and the Delta
Waterfowl Research Station, Manitoba, Canada. New non-projected studies include
work on ecology of hatchability of mallards under Florida conditions, mortal-
ity patterns for the Florida Duck and development of the Gadwall as a possible
breeding duck for southern farm ponds and refuges.
Dr. Robert A. Schmidt, a forest pathologist, joined the faculty in
September 1967 with a joint appointment in Forestry and Plant Pathology. Dr.
Schmidt will conduct research to develop better testing procedures for
identifying fusiform rust resistant strains of slash pine. He will also work
in the fundamental area of epidemiology of selected forest disease organisms.
Dr. H. P. Roggen, Institute of Horticultural Plant Breeding, Wageningen,
the Netherlands, joined the Forestry research faculty in September 1967 as a
research associate working with Dr. R. G. Stanley on certain phases of cellulose
synthesis in cell wall formation. Mr. Floyd Newby continued to serve as a
research associate working with Dr. K. R. Swinford to develop testing procedures
for classifying the scenic quality of roadside environments in the southern
pine region. Both studies are supported through basic grants from the Forest
Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.





'L4-FY-00963 HUFFMAN J3 POST D

SEASONING CF CROSSTIES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Inspection of the condition ot 9H5 wooden crossties arter 5, 10, and 11 years of
service in railway tracks provides additional data for evaluating four methods
of seasoning crossties to prepare them for preservative treatment. The data
continue to indicate that the widening of seasoning checks (fractures) on the
upper surfaces of crossties seasoned by accelerated methods (kiln and torced-air
drying) is generally less than that observed in arr-seasoned crosstles.


FLA-FY-01068 SWINFORD K R

GROWTH, MORTALITY, AND HARVESTING IN INTENSIVELY MANAGED LONG-LEAF-SLASH PINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Field work completed for growth period ranging from 5 to 8 years between
inventories. Data in process of being analyzed.


FLA-FY-01130 KAUFMAN C M

SOIL SURVEY AND SITE FOR SOUTHERN PINES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Soil samples trom the principal horizons, along with tree growth-rate data, were
collected from 1305 forest sites in Florida. Site quality curves have been


79


---------------------------- 1





prepared for longleaf and slash pine for the following conditions: old field
plantations; forest floor plantations; natural regeneration in old fields; and
natural regeneration in forest floor. Some 1587 soil samples from 495 sites
have been analyzed for particle size distribution (including sieve analyses of
the sand fraction) and for pH and extractable nutrients (with NH(4)OAc buffered
at pH 4.8). Total N and organic matter contents, and cation exchange capacities
have been determined on surface soils only, and 1/3-and 15-atmospheres moistures
have been measured on samples from the horizon containing the greatest
percentage of silt and clay at each site. Data are being tabulated on sheets
for subsequent punching on IRM cards.


FLA-FY-01175 GODDARD R E STRICKLAND R K

BREEDING SUPERIOR STRAINS OF SOUTHERN PINES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Selections of plus phenotypes continued at a low activity level. During the
reporting period, 20 longleaf, 10 slash, and 30 loblolly pines were evaluated as
superior and added to the program. Measurement data from 184 plus longleaf
pines were used to compute relative crown efficiencies. The regression formula
y = 5.386 -1.267x(2) + 0.555x(3) + 0.00873x(1)x1x22 with bole volume (y) the
dependent variable, and independent varibles of crown length (x(1)), crown
radius (x(2)) and age (x(3)) explained 63.0% of observed variation in bole
volume among selected trees. Unexplained variation suggests possible genetic
increase in crown efficiency by further selection among plus phenotypes.
Grafting continued on substantial scale to increase seed orchard area and to
incorporate new selections into orchards. Data from 24 slash pine progeny tests
measure during 1966-67 season were analyzed. First or third year measurements
were taken in 14 slash pine progeny tests during reporting period. Slash pine
progeny test establishment continued.


FLA-FY-01176 KAUFMAN C M

DEVELOPMENT OF HORIZONTAL ROOT SYSTEMS OF SLASH PINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Growth of horizontal roots, height and dbh of five selected lines and three
bulk-seed lots of planted slash pine were followed through the third, fourth
and fifth years in the field. Treatments were irrigation, cultivation, and
fertilization, singly or in combination. Although root'growth responded to soil
temperature and rainfall, there were no significant responses in root growth or
length to treatment, except for cultivation due to rapid regrowth of cut roots.
Seasonal growth averages of the 256 roots were 55.62, 38.04, and 30.55 inches
for the three years, respectively, with variations from no growth to over 140
inches during the third year but with lesser maxima in the following years. The
plantation was on a very good site and responses to height and dbh to treatment
were limited, except for diameter growth to fertilization during the final year.
There were significant differences among lines relative to treatment for both
height and dbh. For 131 roots the diameters at the base and at intervals from
the trees and the diameters of the branches were measured. It was found by
regression analysis that reduction in diameter in the initial 0.91 m was closely
related to the branching within the section and to root length. Correlation
between the diameter of a root before forking and the diameters of the forks was
high. The average diameter of the tips of primary roots was 0.22 cm, varying
from 0.13 to 0.42. Tips of branches were 0.09 to 0.10 cm in diameter.


FLA-FY-0122q SULLIVAN E T

SOIL BANK TREE PLANTINGS AND LAND USE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Some 102,000 acres of slash pine plantations were set out in northeast Florida
under the Soil Bank Act. Plantation site index averaged 87% and survival 83%.
Federal expenditures on the program were $8 per acre for planting and $9.50 per
acre per year. Forty-one percent of the contract holders put the land into
trees because they felt continued agricultural use would be unprofitable.
Seventeen percent planted as an investment. Although 76% of the owners planned
to sell stumpage -- most of them pulpwood -- there were indications that either
they would be disappointed in their expectations or the full productive
potential of the plantations would not be realized. Owners anticipated cutting
their plantation at an average age of 15 years, one-half the usual age for
cutting pulpwood stands. An educational program is needed to inform the owners
of the financial gains resulting from holding the timber longer than 15 years.





Other information is needed by owners. Ninety percent of those planning to sell
stumpage were ignorant of the volumes they might have to sell. Only 43%
estimated current pulpwood prices. There was evidence that lack of information
on or a pessimistic view of the direction of future prices decreased owners'
interest in continuing the land in trees arter the first crop of timber was cut.



FLA-FY-01357 SIMANTON W A

CONTROLLING DEER DAMAGE TO CITRUS TREES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Activity by the Citrus Station in arranging for the survey of deer damage to
citrus and in reviewing the plot layout for deer repellent tests was largely
completed in 1966. Most of the investigative work was completed before July 1,
1967, and incorporated into a preliminary report. The only activity by Citrus
Station in the period from July through December 1967 was a critical review of
work lone to date as written up by Dr. Beckwith and Mr. Stith oa the School of
Forestry.


FLA-PY-01413 STANLEY R G

BIOSYNTHESIS OF CELLULOSE TN TREES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
A formerly unknown product of cellulose biosynthesis was isolated and identified
as Beta 1, 3-polyglucan. It is not cellulose but a polymer that could possibly
serve as a precursor substrate of cellulose.



FLA-PY-01414 SWINFORD K R

MhbSUREMENTS OF THE AESTHETIC APPEAL OF MANAGED FOREST AND WILD LAND ROADSIDE
ENVIRONMENTS
PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The research associate assigned to this study returned temporarily to the
University of Michigan to develop additional information on the psychology of
perception. A literature search of research in all related disciplines was
completed.








































81







FRUIT CROPS

Several new non-academic staff were added. A major grant was obtained
to study the role of nucleotides in fruit quality. Other major additions
were the development of a block of citrus with experimental, semi-automated
systems for irrigating, heating and fertilizing and a greenhouse with equip-
ment designed for propagation research.






FLA-FC--0187 SHARPE RH

VARIETY TESTS OF IINUO FBUIrS AND ORNAMENTALS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Pecans: New varieties and selections are being evaluated by topworkinq scions
into old trees. 'KernooeiL,' 'loreland,' and 'Curtis' appear promising for
central Florida. Apples: Seedlings trom previous crosses are now segregating
tor low chilling requirement. Approximately 500 seeds were obtained trom 1967
crosses. Plums: The planting at Gainesville now includes over 50 varieties
for testing and breeding. About 2500 seeds were obtained frcm crosses made in
1967. Pears, cherries, apricots: Breeding is continuing on a limited scale.
Tea: A number of Chineso-nybrid tea clones and seedlings were evaluated for
yield, bush characters, chloroform test, analyses or theaflavins and
thearbigins, total caffeine, ano taste test. Three clones, GSM 2, 26, and
30A, which were examined in detail, gave teas similar to a commercial standard
in color and strength hut lower in aroma, flavor, and total quality. Total
cafteino in these clones was higher than the world average.



FLA-FC-0OHj3 GERBEE J P

PPECONDITIONING PLANTS FOR COLD TOLERANCE

PRO;RESS REPOhT: 67/01 f7/12
Preliminary evaluations of citrus plants indicate that the physiological
conditions of plants exert a strong influence upon cold tolerance even when the
plants have been grown under approximately constant environmental conditions.
It appears that when the plants are in the first stages of the reproductive
cycle that the cold tolerance is reduced.



FLA-FC-0087 SHARPE R H SHERMAN W B

BLACKBERRY AND RASPBERRY BREEDING

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
The 1967 Blackberry crosses resulted in approximately 1000 seedlings. Thornless
and disease resistant genes are being incorporated into clones with a low cold
requreurement. Emphasis is being made for developing more adequate pollinator
varieties and additional varieties for a more continuous fruiting season.
Experiments are initiated to determine the temperature and scarification best
suited for seed germination.



FLA-FC-00868 GERBER J F KREZDCRN A H

METHODS OF FROST PREVENTION

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Solid fueled heating devices have been evaluated for effectiveness in cold
protection of citrus. Heating near the edge of the canopy was found to be more
efficient with petroleum coke heaters than heating in the middles with
conventional return stack heaters. This efficiency was expressed as degrees of
protection per unit of heat produced. The use of solid fuels such as petroleum
coke is more labor consuming than conventional heaters, and the length of
burning and regulation is largely uncontrolled. A model for estimating the heat
requirements for cold protection was developed and partially tested.






FLA-PC-00877 BIGGS R H

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF THE PERIODICTTY OF GROWTH IN FRUIT TREES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
It was shown that factors controlling dormancy, of peaches vary with the stage of
dormdncy of both sees and buds. Taking this into account, determinations of
endogenous actors responsible for dormancy has been approached by correlating
the growth and development of tae organs to changes in growth substances. In
addition to changes in iodolic auxins, there were changes in several
biologically active phenolic compound that could affect the organs. The
components of the punnolic complex with zoological activity that were identified
were benzaldehybe, mandelonitrile, 1-manielic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid.
There are still several very active unknowns tiat do not seem to be phenolic or
indolic. On the testing of chemicals to modify the Icrmant state of DUds and
seeds, 24 additional chemicals were u:sd. Several phenolic compounds were
effective and will be investigated further.





FLA-FC-01119 GERSEF J F

THE HEAT BUDGET AND MICROCLIMATE OF FRUIT CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Water balance and weather data were collected in a 'Parson Brown' orange orchard
in an attempt to correlate evapotranspiration as computed from Penman's energy
balance model with that measured by the water balance. Actual
evapotranspiration was determined from the water balance for 3-day periods. It
was round that analysis of 9-day periods improved in correlation coefficient
between the actual and computed potential evapotranspiration (r = 0.62).





FLA-FC-01298 KREZDORN A H

INCREASING YIELDS OF UNFRUITFUL VARIETIES OF CITRUS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
After refinement, a fluorometric technique was found adequate for quantitatively
determining the gibberellins in the flowers and young fruits of naval sweet
oranges. Using tnis method, significant changes in gibberllins were shown to
occur, both in tissue concentrations and total amounts per fruit, in samples
collected during the bloom and early period of fruit growth. Two relationships,
a correlation between gibberellin concentration and rate of fruit growth, and an
effect of total gibberellins per fruit on Cumulative fruit growth, were found.
These data indicated a cause and effect relationship between endogenous
gibberellins ana the early stages ot fruit growth of the navel orange.





FLA-FC-01301 RIGGS R H

ABSCISSION OF TREE FRUITS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Research was directed toward obtaining chemicals that would induce abscission of
citrus fruits. Some 300 or more chemicals were screened through the citrus
fruit explant test for possible abscission-accelerating properties. The
chemicals selected had properties similar to those xnown to have some effect on
abscission. From the group, there were 35 compounds which showed good
abscission activity. Only 9 of the 35 chemicals could be obtained in sufficient
quantities for whole-tree field application. One of these, HS-4, applied to
both 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia', greatly enhanced fruit abscission without leaf
abscission. Also, no abscission of small, green fruit was observed. Iodoacetic
acid has continued to be one of the better inducers of abscission. It was shown
that the iodoacetate was quickly metabolized to iodide and acetate in citrus
tissues and that the iodide portion of the molecule was subsequently active in
accelerating abscission.






83






ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE

Eleven projects were active during 1967 and several preliminary investi-
gations of specific problems were conducted. 1lajor emphasis has been placed
in development of better adapted varieties of ornamental plants and in deter-
minations of the effects of management practices on growth, quality, and nu-
trition of floricultural, foliage, woody ornamental and turfgrass crops.
Research results of special interest have been obtained in the following
areas. growth of excised meristems of Phalaenopsis species as influenced by
various media and sterilants. Effect of nyctoperiod and aD on height and
uract characteristics of poinsettias. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization
of .arcissus. coot pruning effects on Azalea and Ligustrum grown in containers.
Ruesonoe of turfgrasses to fertilizer applications and weed control chemicals.
evaluations of grasses for varying turf uses.






FLA-HT-00001 ROBERTS E C

PRELIiilARY EXPLORATORY RESEARCH IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE AT GAINESVILLE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Testing Monrovia Cultivars: Among 120 shrub and tree cultivars introduced from
Monrovia nursery Co., Azusa, California, 37 were successfully established in
field nursery culture and maintained 2 years or longer. Refinement in Plant
Grafting Technique: In comparison with conventional graft methods, a new proce-
dure modified to accommodate use of mechanized tools has improved efficiency in
test production of rose cultivars on Rosa fortuniana rootstock. The effects of
geometrics and natural regeneration versus artificial revegetation on maintenance,
safety and visual qualities of highways: Preliminary investigation in identifi-
aule landscape determinants for alignment control for a proposed 15-mile section
of Interstate Route 10 in Gadsden and Jackson Counties was begun. A corridor
was flown at about 500 feet and speed of 80 knots and black and white and color
oblique photography was implemented to obtain information concerning vegetation,
slope aspects, land form, soil and rock types and current land use patterns for
determining location of treatment replications. Preliminary and revised high-
way alignment plans have been submitted to representatives of the SRD, BPR and
design consultants. Approval of research intent has been granted and final
alignment revisions are being prepared.


FLA-HT-00652 HORN G C

EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF TU1IFG9ASSES FOR FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Bahiagrasses: Twenty-five Paspalums are under single plot evaluations. Twenty
dwarf PI introductions are to be planted in replicated plots during summer 1968.
Bermuiagrasses: 120 strains of bermudagrasses are being evaluated. These
include most of turt-type bermuda that have been collected from all over the
world. St. Augustinegrasses: 108 St. Augustinegrass seedlings and selections
are under evaluation. Plots are 6' x 9' and are mowed at 1/2, 1 and 2 Inch
height of cut and part of the plot is left unmoved. Zoys.agrasses: 100 strains
of zoysias are under single plot evaluations. Centipedegrasses: Different
strains of centipedegrasses have been selected ani are under single plot
evaluations. Results. Bahiagrasses: 'Argentine' was the outstanding bahia
from July through December 1967. 'Wilmington' was second best. The 20 dwarf
strains have not sufficiently covered to begin evaluating. Bermudagrasses:
'Tifdwarf' continues to outperform all other bermudas under putting green
conditions. FB-137 continues to prove outstanding in appearance. FB-115 was
another outstanding bermudagrass during this period. St. Augustinegrasses:
RF-220, FA-223 and FA-40 were the most outstanding strains in appearance.
FA-100 and FA-215 withstood the frosts better than other strains. Zoysia and
Centipedegrasses: No evaluations were made on these varieties during this
period.


FLA-HT-00896 DICKEY R D

FACTORS AFFECTING THE GROWTH AND QUALITY OF WOODY ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Experiment 1. A factorial experiment initiated April 1 and terminated October
19, 1967, tested effects of slow release urea-formaldehyde versus readily availa-





ble ammonium nitrate (GHiiO3), 2 nitrogen (N) rates (350 and 700 ppa/yr), and
2 potassium (K) sources (KC1 and K2SOg applied at rate of 200 ppa/yr) on growth
and quality of Ilex opaca Ait. var. 'East Palatka'. Plants grown in 8" metal
containers under 50 percent snade. The higher c level produced the larger plants,
but there was no difference in size between N source and K source plants. At
tie lower N level NH NiO produced higher quality plants than urea-formaldehyde,
but tnere was no difference in plant quality between N sources at higher N level.
Increasing the N level increased quality with both NH4 03 and urea-formaldenyde.
Experiment 2. Deficiency symptoms were more severe on Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.
in 1 and 2 gallon than in quart metal containers, and increased in severity as
fertilizer rate increased from 3000 to 6000 to 9000 ppa/yr (6-6-6-2 NIP204,
K20, MgO). Plants grown in Florida Florahome peat in 6" metal cans developed
similar symptoms wnich increased in severity as i levels were increased from 300
to 600 to 900 ppa/yr. Copper sulfate applied to soil in solution at rate of
100 ppa produced normal growth of affected plants while untreated plants continued
to show severe symptoms.



FLA-HT-00897 McFADDEN S E JR

DEVELOPaiENT OF NEW PLANTS FOR ORNAMENTAL USE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Seedlings from 1964 Amaryllis pollinations flowered this spring, and were
evaluated for virus resistance and cultivation qualities. Approximately 200
seedlings were selected to be maintained for further evaluation and breeding.
Progeny testing of especially meritorious selections was begun. Radiation
induced alterations in leaf color patterns were obtained from variegated cultivars
of nuonymus, Ligustrum and Pittosporium. Cuttings from altered shoots were
rooted to supply material for further studies of irradiation effects on shoot
apices. A Hibiscus breeding program was renewed. Inbreeding within 6 hybrid
lines of perennial hibiscus was begun to obtain cultivars that can be propagated
oy seed as well as vegetatively. Self-pollinated seed were obtained as a first
step in producing homogeneous lines from previously selected hybrid seedlings.
Distribution and use of these perennial herbaceous plants is expected to increase
when their propagation from seed is assured. The Turfgrass Breeding Program
was continued with the introduction of new material for breeding purposes.
Twenty dwarf type Paspalums were added to the Bahiagrass Experiment. Many
seedlings of Stenotaphrum secundatum were grown off.


FLA-HT-00917 SHEEHAN T J

EFFECTS OF NUTRITION AND POTTING MEDIA ON GROWTH AND FLOWERING OF CERTAIN
EPIPHYTIC ORCHIDS

PROGRESS DEPORT: 67/07 67/12
Experiments were initiated in October 1967 to study effects of various media and
sterilants on growth of excised meristems of Phalaenopsis 'Pink Chitfon' and
Phalaenopsis stuartiana x Phalaenopsis amabilis. Explants, approximately 2mm x
2mm x 2mm, were removed from meristems and placed in 25 ml of Knudson's "C,"
Vacin-Went or Murashiqe-Skoog solutions in 125 ml flasks. The flasks were
placed on a reciprocating shaker (150 rpm) for 10-25 days, and then placed on a
shelf at 700F with 120 fc of light ror 18 hours to allow tissue proliferation to
take place. Data on growth of explants is being accumulated and will be
reported at a later date.



PLA-HT-00987 DICKEY R D

EFFECT OF CONTAINER SIZE, TIME IN CONTAINER AND TRANSPLANTING METHOD ON GROWTH
OP ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Plants of 'Formosa' azalea, podocarpus macrophylla maki Endl., and Ligustrum
japonicum Thunb., were grown in quart, gallon and 2 gallon metal containers for
8, 14 and 20 months, then given 3 root pruning treatments (planted as they came
from containers, pot-bound roots removed, and 1-inch deep vertical cuts on
periphery of ball) and planted in the field. Depending on treatment, these
plants were grown in the field for 6 or 7 years before being dug. Their root
systems were examined for abnormalities such as coiled main roots and strangling
roots at crown of plant. From an examination of their root systems it was not
possible to tell in what size container plants had grown, how long they had been
in the containers, or what root pruning method had been given at planting time.


1






JOINER J N SHEEHAN T J


T!I, EFFECTS OF PHOTCPERIOD AND TEMPERATIIRE ON THE GROWTO AND FLOWERING OF
CERTAIN FLCRIST CHOPS

PROCESS PREORT: 67/07 67/12
Pottel 'Paul Aikkelsen' poinsettias qiven natural days in Florida beginning
October 2, 1967, were excessively tall and produced few bracts of small
dia eter. One week of 16-hour nyctoperiods followed by ND produced good height
control Lut low bract number and small diameter. Two through 7 weeks of long
nyctopenrods tolloeid by ND produced better plants and bracts than natural rays
with best treatment neing 6 weeks ot 16-hour nyctoperiod followed by ND. ;Living
LD Lollowinq 6 weeks of long nyctoperiods reduced quality.



FL:-i;T-01078 SHEEHAN T J

MAyKET DEVELOPMENT FOR HORTICULTURAL SPECIALTY

?'0GRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
A papcr entitled "Effects of varying nitrogen levels, storage temperatures and
storage times on keeping quality, chemical composition and respiration rates of
Chrysanthemum morifolium 'No. 2 Yellow Iceberg'" is in preparation. Briefly
summed up the paper will present the following information. Nitrogen was
applied at rates of 20, 40 and hO pounds N per acre biweekly and storage
temperatures were 31, 40 and 50 degrees F. for 1, 3 and 5 weeks. Generally,
all N level treatments could be stored successfully at 31 degrees F. up to 5
weeks except high N by the fifth week. Flowers could also he stored at all
temperatures and N levels for 1 week and keep fresh at least 7 days arter
removal from storage, but detrimental effects on keeping quality were associated
with 40 and 50 degree storage for 3 weeks or more. Keeping quality was
correlated with per cent soluble sugar in flowers upon removal from storage.
Respiration rates of flowers when removed from storage increased with N levels
and decreased with time.


PLA-HT-01107 JOINED J N SHEEHAN T J

MACRO-ELEMENT NTERITION OF CERTAIN FLCRICILTURAL CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Rounds of 'Paperwhite' Narcissus resulting from a factorilized field experiment
utilizing 100, 300 and 500 ppa each of N and K have been dug and potted and
flowering data are currently being taken.



FLA-HT-01178 HORN G C

FERTILIZATION OF TURFGRASSES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
N-P-K Experiment Three rates each of N, P and K in factorial combination were
applied to 'Tiflawn' bermuda, 'Emerald' zoysia, 'Floratine' St. Augustine and
'Argentine' bahiagrasses. One-half of each nitrogen rate plot received
urea-torm nitrogen and the other half ammonium nitrate. Potash
Source-Rate-Frequency Experiment Eight sources of potash were applied to
Tifway bermudagrass at rate of 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 pounds of K per 1000 sq. feet
and two frequencies all in one application and split into 4 equal quarterly
applications. Nitrogen Source Study Thirty-four nitrogen treatments were
applied to Tifgreen bermudagrass and replicated three times. This experiment
was overseeued. Results N-P-K Experiment As the rate of N increased to
16#/1000 sq. ft. the quality ratings increased. Eight pounds of N/1000 was
significantly better than 4 pounds of N. No significant response to phosphorus
was obtained. Two pounds of K/1000 sq. ft. were as good as higher rates.
potash Study Two and one-half pounds of K per 1000 sq. ft. applied in March
was as good as higher rates of K applied in one application or split into 4
equal applications. Carbonate and sulfate forms of potash were superior to all
other storms.



FLA-HT-01189 JOINER J N SHEEHAN T J

iOORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON FLOWERING PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
A 1,000 ppm napthylphthalamic acid (Alanap) solution prevented postharvest


FLA-HT-01069






ageotropic responses in snapdragons as well as 3,000, 4,000 and 5,000 ppm
solutions, but no solution was completely satisfactory. Horizontal presentation
for 5 minutes prior to treatment was as effective in stimulating ageotropic
response as 10 and 15 minutes. Stems were soaked in solutions 1 hour at room
temperature and horizontally presented for 48 hours. Soil drenches containing
5,000 and 10,000 ppm B-9, weekly sprays of 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 ppm B-9 and
150 ml soil drench of recommended Cycocel levels failed to control height of
'Paul Mikkelsen' and 'Stoplight' poinsettia varieties. Night temperatures
averaged 72 to 75 F as late as Decemoer. Plants are being propagated to
continue studying effects of growth retardants on off-season flowering of
gardenia varieties.


FLA-HT-01282 HORN G C

CONTROL OF WEEDS IN WARM SEASON TURFGRASSES WITH HERBICIDES

PROGRESS HEPOPT: 07/07 67/12
An experiment for preemerqence control of two spurges, spotted Euphorbia
maculata and tropical Euphorbia spp. was completed. Thirty-seven herbicide
treatments were replicated 3 times and treatments were assigned in a randomized
block design. Each treatment was applied with 2 gpa of sunspray 11EL oil and
without oil. Herbicides and rates used in parentheses (#ai/A) were as follows:
Tok (6 + 4), Herbam (3), Tordon (1/4 and 1/8), Banwel D (1 1/2 and 3/4) Atrazine
(2), Cotaran (8), Patoran (3), Tenoran (3), Planavin (2 and 1), Tordon plus 2,
4-D (1/8 + 3/4), Silvex (3/4), Sindone (8) and Sindone 3 (8). An untreated
check plot was left on each side of the treatments. Results. Atrazine, with or
without oil at 2 wai/A gave best control of both types of spurge. One hundred
percent control oi spuryo was tound throughout the duration of the entire
experiment. Cotaran at 8 pounds ai/A was second best in preemergence control
spurge. The third best treatment was Planavin at 2 pounds ai/A. Other
treatments resulted in very little control of lost their effectiveness within a
few weeks and are not considered to be useful in controlling spurge at the rates
used in this experiment. A .ding oil increased the effectiveness of some
herbicides and decreased the effectiveness of others.







PLANT PATHOLOGY

Laurence H. Purdy assumed the duties of Chairman of the Department of
Plant Pathology on September 1, 1967. Two new offices were added to
Building #833 for the chairman and head departmental secretary.
Plant disease investigations were conducted under 15 projects, in all
crop categories except forest trees.
Improvements to a portion of the Plant Virus Laboratory complex were
made to serve the needs for research with bacterial plant pathogens.





FLA-PT-OO802 FREEMAN T E

DISEASES OF TURFGRASSES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Extensive field and greenhouse tests designed to find more effective fungicides
for control of pythium blight (caused by Pythium aphanidermatum) of ryegrass,
and other cool-season grasses, were carried out. Terrazole at 4 and 6 ounces
per 1000 square feet and Demosan at 4 ounces provided an exceptionally high
degree of control as evidence by increased stand and decreased aerial blighting
of foliage. Dexon at 4 ounces per 1000 square feet provided acceptable control
but not as high a degree as that obtained with the first two materials. Fore at
an 8 ounce rate provided some control but was less effective than Terrazole,
Demosan and Dexon. Daconil 2787 failed to retard the disease even at an 8 ounce
rate, however, mixture containing this material in combination with Demosan,
Terrazole and Dexon provided very effective control. In less extensive tests,
Daconil 2787, Fore and DuPont 1991 provided the highest degree of control of
gray leaf spot of St. Auqustinegrass (caused by Piricularia grisea). Studies
were continued on the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the occurrence and
severity of pythium blight. Fertilization of ryegrass with two rates (1 and 3
lb per 1000 sq. ft) of three sources of N (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate,
and sodium nitrate) prior to inoculation with P. aphandidermatum resulted in
decreased severity as N rate increased. This was true for all three nitrogen
sources. Numerous isolates of P grisea from several grasses are being compared
in regard to pathogenecity on various grasses and rice, morphology and cultural
characteristics.



FLA-PT-00978 ROBERTS D A

PROCESSES THROUGH WHICH CROP PLANTS RETARD DEVELOPMENT OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 68/01
Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV), as well as southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV),
moved upward in the xylem of local-lesion bean hosts and infected uninjured
leaves. Plants were inoculated by injecting viral suspensions into their stems
or by immersing cut ends of excised shoots in viral suspensions. Infection also
occurred in bean leaves sprayed with TNV or SBMV and in leaves dipped into
suspensions of either virus. Earlier failures to demonstrate infection of
undamaged cells by plant viruses have probably been due to the almost exclusive
use of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as the test virus. TMV did not infect
undamaged cells in experiments comparable to those with TNV and SBMV.


FLA-PT-01008 FREEMAN T E LUKE H H

BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS AFFECTING PHYTOPATHOGENESIS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Previous results (electron micrograpns) indicated that the plasma membrane may
be the site of action of Victorin. This study did not eliminate the tonoplast
as the site of action. Results from a current study showed that toxin caused
C14-mannose-6-phosphate (M-6-P) to leach from susceptible oat tissue, but not
from resistant. M-6-P does not enter vascuoles and does not pass through
membranes that are functioning normally--thus demonstrating that the plasma
membrane is the site of action of the wilt toxin Victorin. Since the site of
action of this toxin is known, the mode of action can now be determined. A
solution to this problem could lead to effective controls of one of the most
serious groups of plant diseases (wilts). Investigation of the difference in
susceptibility of upper and lower leaf surfaces of St. Augustine grass to
Piricularia grisea infection was continued. Based on leaf spot counts after
uniform inoculation, the upper surface was 3 to 4 times as susceptible at the






lower. Stomata occurred on the two surfaces in approximately the same ratio as
95% of the cases observed. Theretore, differences in stomata does not fully
account for the difference in susceptibility of the two leaf surfaces.

FLA-PT-01177 MILLER H N

ERADICATION AND PREVENTION OF NEMATODES OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Thoroughly saturating the soil of container grown plants by drenching with
Zinophos and locap at 600 ppm was as effective in eradicating or controlling
nematodes as the bare-root dip or pot dip method of application. This method of
application is more feasible for nursery operations. Nematicides which were
somewhat phytotoxic caused more damage to sensitive plants when drenched than
when used as bare-root dips. Zinophos and Mocap at 600 ppm were not phytotoxic.
Granular formulations of nematicides, applied broadcast to the soil surface and
watered in with a hose or sprinkler system, are frequently used in commercial
nurseries. Tests show this method to be less effective than the use of liquid
or emulsible formulations drenched on the soil. Granular formulations of 8
nematicides, at 15 and 30 pounds per acre rate, failed to eliminate root-knot
nematodes from heavily infected gardenia plants in containers when the
nematicides were applied to the surface of the soil and watered in. Zinophos,
Mocap, Temik, NIA 10242, and TH 2 85 N reduced populations 85 to 90%.
Applications were less effective on open ground bed areas. Placement of
granules in the soil appears to be critical for maximum effectiveness. When
granular formulations were worked into the top layer of soil in containers, and
watered thoroughly, a higher percent control of nematodes were obtained by all
chemicals tested.


FLA-PT-01247 PURCIFULL D E

PHYSICAL ANE CHEMICAL NATURE OF FLEXUOUS PLANT VIRUSES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 68/01
Certain cytoplasmic inclusions formed in pumpkin leaf tissue infected with
watermelon mosaic virus 1 consist largely of striated, membranoid plates which
assume tubular outlines. These structures are subinclusions of the complex
bodies visible in cytoplasm examined by light microscopy. Virus particles in
various states of aggregation are also associated with the inclusions. Since
similar inclusions induced by other viruses have previously been assumed to
consist almost entirely of aggregated virus particles, these results represent
an important step in elucidating the nature of viral inclusion bodies. Two
antisera to tobacco etch virus (TEV) antigens were prepared by injecting
rabbits: one to purified virus and the other to a complex mixture of alkaline
degradation products derived from purified virus. Both antisera reacted with
products derived from purified virus. Both antisera reacted with purified virus
in liquid precipitin tests and with alkaline degradation products in
immunodiffusion tests. An immunodiffusion test for TEV was also developed for
testing small samples of crude plant sap.


FLA-PT-01279 STALL R E COOK A A

HOST PARASITE RELATIONSHIPS OF BACTERIAL SPOT DISEASE OF PEPPER AND TOMATO

PROGRESS REPORT: 66/01 66/12
The effect on permeability in resistant (hypersensitive) and susceptible leaves
of Capsicum annum following hypodermic injection of Xanthomonas vesicatoria was
assessed by leakage of electrolytes. Inocula were calibrated photometrically to
contain from 106-10S bacterial cells/ml and a standard weight of leaf tissue was
harvested at intervals up to 96 hours after inoculation and suspended in
distilled water. The increase in electrical conductivity of the water was
determined after six hours. Notable increases in conductivity occurred prior to
the appearance of visible symptoms in both types of leaf tissue. This increase
was more pronounced and appeared earlier in resistant than susceptible leaves.
The incubation period required for maximum increase in electrical conductivity
was directly correlated with inoculum concentration.


FLA-PT-01280 MILLER C R

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CAUSAL ORGANISM OF BLACK SHANK ON FLORIDA FLUE-CURED
TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/1L
Greenhouse studies were made to determine the effect of Meloidogyne javanica on





the incidence of black shank in the tobacco variety NC 95. NC 95 is hignly
resistant to the common root-knot nematode, M. incognita, and the black shank
fungus. Ten days following fungal inoculations, an average ot 64% of the
nematodo-infected plants exhibited black shank symptoms as compared to only 22%
of the nematode-free plants. The above observations indicate the need for a
tobacco variety that is resistant to M. javanica, as well as M. incognita and
the black shank fungus in areas where M. javanica is prevalent. Investigations
are also underway concerning stem resistance versus root resistance of tobacco
to black shank. Current results demonstrate that with all varieties tested, the
stem is significantly more susceptible to the black shank pathogen than the root
system. In addition, when tobacco plants are transplanted in infested soil in
such a manner that two or more inches of the stem is under the soil surface, the
inciaence of infection is significantly increased as compared to plants
tcansplanted at natural depth. Since approximately 2 to 3 inches of each stem
is placed below the soil surface during transplanting, the above results
demonstrate the need for a type of stem resistance in addition to root
rcsistince.



FLA-PT-01291 COOK A A STAIL R E

COMBINED DISEASE RESISTANCE IN PEPPERS

PROGRESS REPORT: 66/01 66/12
Single plant selections were made in the spring of 1967 from 33 pepper breeding
lines. These plants were permitted to set additional fruit in the greenhouse.
Seed from the open-pollinated fruit set in the field were planted and the
genotypes of the selected plants determined insofar as possible by multiple
inoculation of the plants in the seedling stage. Plants from these progenies
that exhibited homozygosity tor the desired resistances were saved tor seed
increase and/or verification of genotypic determinations. Preliminary studies
to determine inheritance of multigenic resistance to bacterial spot in pepper
were conducted in the greenhouse. Seed stocks to continue this investigation
are presently in storage for future use. A considerable number of varieties and
accessions, including some collected in Central and South America in the spring
of 1967, have been assayed for response to CMV, PVY, TEV, and TMV. To date, no
usable resistance has been found. A considerable number of plants derived from
P.I. 164561 have been inoculated to determine the heritability of a necrotic
response to infection with tobacco etch virus.



FLA-PI-01304 STALL R E COOK A A

RELATIONSHIPS OF BACTERIAL PHYTOPATHOGENS IN FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 66/01 66/12
Acidity of crushed tomato tissues interferes with isolation of certain bacteria
from it. Bacteria were isolated, however, from apparently healthy tomato
tissues, but much less frequently than from graywalled tissues. The numbers of
bacteria in healthy tissues were much lower than in diseased tissues.
Injections of minced graywall tissue extracts into tomato fruit resulted in
typical graywall symptoms. However, autoclaved or bacteriologically filtered
qraywall extracts did not produce symptoms. Similar extracts from healthy fruit
also did not produce graywall symptoms. Browning of wall tissue was found to
occur if the bacteria multiplied to a population of approximately 106 cells per
70 mm3 of tomato fruit wall tissue. The concentration of inocula, incubation
temperature, and cultivar were factors in determining the maximum multiplication
of the bacteria and thus browning in the fruit. Additional work on the
graywall disease is reported under Hatch Project 1113 by Dr. C.B. Hall, Food
Science Department. Plants of nightshade and groundcherry were hypersensitively
resistant to Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Low levels of the pathogen survived at
least 35 days in these plants without symptom development.


FLA-PT-01375 MILLER C P

CULTURAL MANAGEMENT ON BLACK SHANK AND ON QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF FLUE-CURED
TOBACCO

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
In order to determine the effects of various crop rotation programs, liming, and
fumigation practices on the control of black shank of flue-cured tobacco in
Florida, the disease potentials of the naturally infested, experimental plots
were determined under conditions of varying amounts of lime and with or without
the additions of a soil fumigant. These disease potentials will be used for the
future evaluation of the management program. In addition, first year







observations indicated that tobacco varieties may react differently to soil
fumigants and lime additions in so far as the incidence of black shank and yield
is concerned. In general, both fumigation alone and lime reduced the visible
incidence of black shank by approximately 5%, and in combination the reduction
was about 4%. On the otherhand, yield was drastically influenced. Average
yield increases of 53% were observed in plots that received fumigation only, and
an average increase of 13% in plots treated only with lime. Average yields of
plots treated with both fumigant and lime were increased over 70% as compared to
the non-treated controls. These increases were, no doubt, in part due to the
control of nematodes, especially Meloidogyne javanica, and perhaps the
inhibition of root infection by the black shank fungus.



FLA-PT-01388 ZETTLER F W

TRANSMISSION OF STYLET-BORNE VIRUSES BY APHIDS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 68/01
Experiments using 11 different aphid species are providing a basis for future
studies to determine reasons for the observed differences in vector efficiency
being noted among the various aphids. Using a virus affecting cowpeas we have
shown that epidermal tissues from single leaves systemically infected with virus
are not uniform as virus sources for aphids and this correlated with the
relative occurrence of virus-induced intracellular inclusions in these tissues.
We have, therefore, established the heterogeneity of epidermal tissues as virus
sources for aphids. This information will be of considerable value as we
compare the different aphid species as vectors. In similar trials we are
attempting to determine why aphids are less able to acquire and transmit bean
yellow mosaic virus from bean than from pea. preliminary evidence indicates
that the virus titer is lower in bean than pea and this is correlative to the
relative abundance of intracellular inclusions in the epidermal tissues of each
host. In another study we compared 2 papaya viruses and attempted to classify
each according to the scheme of Brandes and Bercks (Advan. Virus Res. 11: 1-24)
for classifying the rod shaped plant viruses. We concluded that papaya mosiac
was 700-800 miU aphid-transmitted viruses and that papaya mosaic was typical of
the 480-580 mMU viruses, none of which appear to be aphid-transmitted.



FLA-PT-01391 LUKE H H SECHLER D T

SMALL GRAIN IMPROVEMENT

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
H. avenae (H.a.) is the most destructive pathogen ot oats in the southeast. Two
high yielding oat varieties, (Fla. 500, Fla. 501) were observed to be very
susceptible to this pathogen; therefore an effort was made to find resistance to
H. a. Three resistant selections were found and studied under greenhouse and
field conditions. These selections were resistant to 3 isolates of H. a. under
greenhouse conditions and were resistant under field conditions at Gainesville
and Quincy. Pathologic races of H. a. were detected under greenhouse
conditions. Old tissue of some oat selections was more susceptible to H. a.
than young tissue. In other selections individual plants were uniformly
resistant or uniformly susceptible to H. a. Resistant selections are being used
to produce resistant varieties. Studies to determine why Red Rustproof oats
rust 2-weeks later than other varieties revealed that the late rusting character
is conditioned by an interaction between light, temperature and host physiology.
Efforts to transfer the late rusting character to an early maturing variety have
met with some success. Therefore, it is now possible to produce varieties that
escape severe rust infection.







POULTRY SCIENCE

Data are reported on five state and two Hatch projects. During the
past year one new project was initiated. Also staff members cooperated with
studies conducted under Hatch projects 1025 and 1045.
During the past year a house with 3840 square feet of floor space was
constructed. This is being used to house the farm feed mill, chick battery
brooders and garage. The space previously occupied for the chick battery
brooders has been converted into a poultry products laboratory.
Grants-in-aid totaling approximately $27,000 were obtained from the
National Institute of Health, American Poultry and Hatchery Federation and
commercial companies. These funds have made it possible to expand many of
the projects.




FLA-PY-00948 HARMS R H DAMRON B L

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENT OF THE BROILER

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Two eight-week feeding experiments, utilizing 1400 birds each, were conducted
to evaluate Masonex (wood molasses) as an energy source in broiler diets. A
corn-soybean meal diet containing approximately 22.5% protein and 2260
kilocalories of productive energy per kilogram of diet was fed as a basal diet.
Levels of 3 and 6% liquid and 2.04 and 4.08% dry Masonex were substituted on an
isonitrogenous basis for corn and soybean meal. Body weight and feed efficiency
criteria measured at four and eight weeks of age indicated that neither the
2.04% nor 3% liquid level of Masonex significantly depressed body weight at four
or eight weeks of age. All levels of supplementation exhibited a deleterious
effect upon feed efficiency at eight weeks of age- Calculation of expected feed
efficiency values based on the assumption of a zero energy value for Masonex and
using the eight-week feed efficiency value of the basal diet as a standard
indicated that chicks up to eight weeks of age were not able to effectively
utilize Masonex as an energy source.



FLA-PY-01070 HARMS R H

ENERGY AND PROTEIN REQUIREMENT OF THE LAYING HEN

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Two experiments were conducted with caged layers which indicated that a drop in
performance of hens artificially infected with coccidiosis was not as great when
an adequate level of methionine was included in the feed. The drop in egg
production and egg weights occurred during the second and third week
post-inoculation. However, by the end of the fourth week post-inoculation the
influence of the coccidiosis had disappeared. Two tests with Hy-Line 934-H egg
production type pullets indicated that a daily intake of approximately 0.28
grams of methionine was necessary to support maximum egg production. A slightly
higher level was required for maximum egg weight and body weight gain. This
requirement was met by a level of 0.271, 0.237, and 0.203% methionine with
energy levels of 2112, 1848, and 1584 kilocalories of productive energy per
kilogram of diet, respectively. This, of course, indicated that the energy
level of the diet does not actually affect the methionine requirement of the
hen, but does affect the requirement as expressed by a percent of the diet.



FLA-PY-01246 WILSON H R

GENOTYPE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Data collection has been completed and is being analyzed at the Southern
Regional Poultry Breeding Project Laboratory in combination with data from other
stations. This project terminates June, 1968.


FLA-PY-01251 WILSON h R

GENETICS AND ENVIRONMENT OF HEAT TOLERANCE IN LAYING HENS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate six force molting techniques. All
techniques effectively induced a feather molt and rest period. Egg production






was increased by i'' ing but was not significantly different from non-molted for
the combined molt i;.d post molt periods. Feeding a low protein (8.27%) diet
during molt increased the severity of the molt and extended the rest period.
Most birds lost body weight during the molt period and gained at a taster rate
after the molt. Egg weight and albumen quality were not affected by molting.
Shell thickness was increased significantly by molting in only one experiment.
Two experiments were conducted to test the effect of diet composition on heat
tolerance. The addition of 12% animal fat to the diet significantly reduced the
survival time of chicks previously selected for heat tolerance when they were
exposed 4.0 (+ over -) o.30C and 75 (+ over -) 5% RH. The level of protein in
the diets had no effect. Birds not previously selected for heat tolerance
exhibited such great individual variation in heat tolerance that the effect of
diet was obscured.



FLA-PY-01270 FRY J L

CAUSATION OF AND CONSUMER REACTION TO YOLK DEFECTS IN SHELL EGGS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
This project has involved studies of both yolk mottling and blood spots as yolk
defects of market shell eggs. Yolk mottling studies have shown a tendency for
birds on low protein diets to produce eggs with higher yolk mottling than birds
on normal levels of protein. This is apparently due to the effect of protein
deficiency on the structure of the vitelline membrane. Blood spot incidence was
found to be inversely related to blood prothrombin time when the latter is
affected by varying Vitamin K levels in the diet. The reduction in the number
of blood spots in egg from hens on low levels of Vitamin K (or on
anticoagulants) is felt to be due to the diffusion of the blood throughout the.
albumen. However, even on eggs containing visible blood, few, if any, intact
blood cells have been found in the albumen. This phenomena is being further
studied and is now attributed to the filtering action of the chalaze in the
formation of the egg. The blood pressure of the hen as related to the size of
the blood inclusion is being investigated.


FLA-PY-01346 WILSON H R HARMS B H

REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF MALE CHICKENS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Growth rate of cockerels was reduced by feeding low dietary protein during the
growing period. Body weight increased rapidly when they were placed on a 17%
protein diet; however, males fed the low protein grower diets never attained
weights equal to the cockerels fea the 16.0% protein diet. Sexual maturity was
delayed by feeding 8.0% protein or less. Testes weight and histological studies
revealed arrested testicular development in those males fed lcw dietary protein
levels. Semen volume, fertility, and peak sperm concentration increased rapidly
when males were placed on a 17.0% protein diet at 21 weeks of age. Males fed
low dietary protein attained a higher sperm concentration peak than controls,
and it was maintained for a longer period of time.


FLA-PY-01350 HARMS R H DAMRON B L

UTILIZATION OF PHOSPHORUS FROM VARIOUS MATERIALS BY POULTRY

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Three experiments were conducted to ascertain factors influencing growth of
broiler-type birds while utilizing soft phosphate as the sole source of
supplemental phosphorus. Four-week body weights equal to positive control diets
could not be produced by diets containing soft phosphate as the sole
supplemental phosphorus source. The addition of 2.5% fish meal to the basal
diet improved four-week body weights; however, they still were not equal to the
weights of birds receiving the control diet containing 0.80% calcium. The
addition of 0.40% supplemental phosphorus and 0, 0.10, or 0.20% supplemental
calcium to a diet containing 2.5% fish meal resulted in an eight week average
body weight statistically equal to the weight of the control groups. The
improved response of the birds receiving fish meal diets was attributed to the
supplemental phosphorus of high availability supplied by the fish meal. An
experiment was conducted using reagent grade monosodium phosphate and calcium
carbonate to establish a calcium standard curve for use in phosphorus
availability studies. Broiler-type chicks were fed the experimental diets for
21 days, and tibia ash data and body weights were used to determine the calcium
requirement at each phosphorus level. These data were used to construct a curve
giving the suggested calcium level for any level of monosodium phosphate when
using a diet based largely upon degerminated corn and soybean meal.







FLA-PY-01392


HARMS R H DAMRON B L


WILSON H R


FACTORS AFFECTING BONE FRAGILITY IN HENS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
An attachment was designed for the Allo-Kramer shear press which made it
possible to determine breaking strength of the tibia from four-week old chicks.
Breaking strength determined in this manner was found to be highly correlated
with tibia ash. It is suggested that breaking strength is a good measure of
dietary calcium and phosphorus levels. Also breaking strength of bones as
determined in this manner may be useful in evaluating factors influencing
fragility of bones.








SOILS

The Department of Soils has continued to improve its research program
and facilities during the past year. The soil storage building now contains
a very good soil preparation room that will be used by all members of the
Department--research, extension, and teaching. The area in McCarty Hall
formerly used by the Extension soil testing laboratory for soil preparation
is now being converted into an instrument room for sophisticated equipment
primarily for the research program. Plans are under way to move the entire
Extension soil testing facility to a newly renovated area in Newell Hall
Annex. This move will provide additional space in McCarty Hall for research
under the Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant relationship project; this is a new
cooperative research program with the Soil and Water Conservation Division
of the Agricultural Research Service and several other Departments and Branch
Stations. It will be funded January 1, 1968.
The Departments of Forestry and Soils, in cooperation with the major
pulp and paperwood companies in the Southeast and certain fertilizer manu-
facturing companies, have completed plans to initiate a new research program
in forest fertilization in 1968; it is entitled "Cooperative Research in
Forest Fertilization." Experiments will be conducted at the University and on
company-owned land.
Two new research projects have been added to the program: "Conservation
of water resources through modification of the physical and chemical proper-
ties of the soil" and "Measurements of elements deposited from the atmos-
phere."
Research was conducted under 28 projects and 3 preliminary non-projected
studies.




FLA-SL-00001 ENO C F

PRELIMINARY SOILS RESEARCri

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Central Analytical Laboratory During the first one-half of the fiscal year
the laboratory made 27,277 determinations on 6,298 research samples. They were
primarily soil and plant samples. The determinations were for Al, Ca, Cu, Cs, Fe,
K, Ag, Mn, N, P, Sr, and Zn. The samples came from a number of departments
and stations representing 21 State and Federal projects. (H. L. Breland).
Potash studies with Peanuts-Sulfate of potash magnesium was applied to peanuts
growing on Arredondo fine sand at low to high rates at planting and at flowering.
Yield differences were not significantly affected by these treatments. Soil
samples taken at harvest indicated that only a fraction of the applied K and Mg
remained in the surface six inches as indicated by extraction with N, NH, OAc
at ph 4.8 (W. K. Robertson). Boron Supplementation on Leon Fine Sand with
Colemanite and a Complete Micronutrient Frit. Borax may provide excess boron
in early stages of growth, then allow a deficiency to develop as a crop matures.
Frit, the most slowly soluble commercial boron source eliminates both the above
difficulties in forages and pastures the first year; however, it now appears
that boron from this source may be insufficient for clovers and other legumes
subsequently. Experiments have been set up to evaluate the use of Colemanite,
a long-lasting natural source of boron, in alternate years with frit. This
program should maintain an adequate supply of all micronutrients for legume
and grass forages. (H. W. Winsor)


FLA-SL-00389 CALDWELL R E CARLISLE V N HAMMOND L C

THE CLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING OF FLORIDA SOILS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
The work of the soil characterization laboratory which was established at the
University of Florida to support the National Cooperative Soil Survey and the
field work by the Soil Conservation Service was continued. More than one-half
of all physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses ot the 109 soil horizons
from 17 selected profiles in Brevard County have been completed, and an
additional 24 soil and 51 core samples from 6 profiles in this same county were
collected. These latter soil samples have been air-dried, sieved, and analyzed
for particle size distribution. Other soils from Dade and Alachua counties have
been collected and are in process ot analysis. Bulk soil samples were also
collected for engineering test data by the Florida State Road Department.
progressive soil surveys were continued in Lake, Brevard, and Pinellas counties
and also in the smaller areas of Eglin Air Force Base, Avon Park Bombing Range,
and the Disneyland Project in portions of Osceola and Polk counties. Numerous
textural determinations were also made to aid in the classification and
delineation of soil boundaries in the field.





BLUE W G GAMMON N


T;iE ,rAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY UNDER PERMANENT PASTURES

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
A continuing, 6-year study of N fertilization of Pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum
notatum) has shown a drastic increase in N utilization efficiency particularly
during the 5th and 6th years. Recovery percentages for 5 N sources averaged
25.7, 44.4, 47.3, 49.7, 61.1, and 70.6 for the 6 years beginning in 1962.
Recovery from the N sources differed significantly. The increased recovery may
nave been due to development of an equilibrium root system, and to reduced
leaching as tne root system was developed to the maximum with time. Nitrogen
accumulated in the root system at the rate of approximately 50 lb./acre/year
through the first 4 years. Substantial improvement in the perennation of white
clover (Trifolium repens) in Pensacola bahiagrass sod on Leon fine sand was
achieved by summer fertilization with KNO3. The initial clover harvest was
one of the largest ever obtained and was made one month earlier than any previous
harvest. Total N in white clover-bahiagrass forage was frequently in excess
of 350 lb./acre for the 1967 season. Forage yields were in excess of 8 tons/acre.


FLA-SL-00598 GAMMON N JR

THE ROLE OF THE MAJOR BASES IN FLORIDA SOILS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
A curve was calculated to show the persistence of lime in Leon fine sand under
pasture, Y = 4675 153.5X + 1.32X2, where Y = extractable Ca in kg/ha and X =
time in years. Calculations from the data of other workers show that Ca losses
from the surface 15 cm of soil following heavy applications of lime broadcast on
the surface of pastures without incorporation may exceed 1,200 kg/ha annually
for 7 to 9 years following the application. These losses are not the result of
mechanical movement. Studies on factors influencing Ca movement and techniques
to provide more efficient utilization or lime have been initiated. A test of Mn
sources confirm MnSO(4) as the form most available to plants followed in
decreasing order by MnCO(3), MnO and Min(2). Particle size proved to be
important, as availability of Mn0(2) finer than 200 mesh was greater than Mno of
60 mesh. All Mn sources reached the same degree of availability after prolonged
soil contact. Lime reduced the availability of all Mn sources. Fertilizer
salts used at normal rates of application had no significant effect on Mn but
those containing Cl, Mn as an impurity, or that increased soil acidity caused
some increase in plant uptake of Mn.


FLA-SL-00627 BLUE W G

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND CATTLE BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION

PRUOGESS REPORT: 67/07 67/12
Difficulty in maintaining the desired soil pH in permanent clover-grass pastures
on Leon fine sand has continued. Surface soil samples (0-6") collected in October
1967 frequently contained in excess of 1000 ppm of ammonium acetate (pH 4.6)
extractable Ca with pH values below 5.5. These are in contrast to approximately
one-half this Ca content with the same pH value in 1953 and 1954. The accumulation
of unreacted lime on the surface of these undisturbed pastures and the accumula-
tion of organic matter are contributing factors. At initiation of the experiment
in 1952, these soils contained an average of 2.25% organic matter in the surface
6 inches. Samples from 1967 averaged 4.7%. Phosphorus also has accumulated in
large quantities from annual fertilization. 'he initial P concentration averaged
30 ppm and the 1967 average concentration was 125 ppm.


FLA-SL-00707 ROBERTSON W K

THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZER AND CROPPING SYSTEMS ON SUWANNEE VALLEY SOILS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Three sources of potassium applied at the rate of 150 pounds K(2)0 per acre were
compared for soybeans. Muriate of potash, potassium sulfate and Sul-Po-Mag
sulfatee of potashmagnesium) yielded 20, 24, and 26 bushels per acre,
respectively. Differences were significant at the 5 percent level of
probability. The best yield was obtained when the materials were applied half
at planting and half as a sidedressing just prior to flowering. The other
methods of application all plowed down; half plowed down and half at planting;
one-third plowed down, one-third at planting and one-third side dressed; and all
at planting were not significantly different. Short-growing, early-maturing


FLA-SL-00404









hybrids were compared with tall-growing, late-maturing hybrids. Late maturing
hybrids yielded more corn grain than early maturing hybrils (114 as compared to
122 bushels per acre). However, Pioneer 304B, one of the early-maturing hybrid,
yielded more than any of the late ones. Regardless of variety most
late-maturing hybrids produced more stover. The nutrient uptake ny the
different hybrids will also be compared. The 1967 data trcm a corn-spacing
experiment confirmed that narrowing the row width increased yields if the plant
population was 12,000 plants per acre or greater. when the plant population wa:;
20,000, 110 bushels per acre were obtained tor the normal row with (36").
Decreasing the row width to 28" and 20" increase yields 137 and 237,
respectrivly.



"LA-SL-00901 FISKELL J G A BPELAND H L

FFerILIZER HEQ'UIEMENTS OF CTER'"LONS

PROCESS REPORT: 67/01 h7/12
Stuille of fertilizer rate and placement on melon yields indicated soluble salts
in broad band placement reduced early growth and stand. Low soluble salts in
tne Lroadcast treatment compared to high soluble salts in the single, double, or
road band scheme or fertilization promoted the hiqiest yields. Leaf K content,
but not leaf N content, decreased sharply with increased melon yield. This
indicated transfer of K to the fruit. In a study of Cu and phosphate rates, Cu
sulfate was changed to a reduced water solubility by phosphate in the fertilizer
zone. This prevented most of the applied Cu from escaping into the surrounding
soil and affected yields adversely. Laboratory studies revealed phosphate
replaced sulfate in the Ci crystals and in Zn-sultate crystals. The resulting
Cu ara Zn solubility varied with the P source employed and was least where
li-ammonium, or di-potassium phosriates were used. X-ray diffraction studies of
tnese crystals showed a complex of compounds formed from the reaction of the
different P source and Cu or Zn sulfates in a slurry.


FLA-SL-00903 ROBERTSO4 W K

SOIL FERTILITY STUDIES O. THE AGRICULTURALLY IMPORTED SOILS OF WESTERN FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
A fertility experiment consisting of 5 levels of N, P, and K and 2 levels of
dolomitic limestone has been conducted on Red Bay fine sandy loam from 1949
tnroagn 1966. Nitrogen (N) and potash (K20) at the rate of 0, 15, 30, 60, and
120 ib/acre and pnospnate (P205) at the rate of 0, 30, 60, 120, and 240 were
applied annually to corn for 8 years and to peanuts for 5 years. Following this
the areas were planted to corn, soybeans, and wheat with certain modifications.
The modifications were designed to determine if small annual applications of
P and A would be adequate when the residuals of these elements were built up
in the soil. Annually key plots were sampled and usually all crops were sampled
in alternate years. Yield and soil analytical data are being compiled for
statistical analyses.



FLA-SL-00939 YUAN T L FISFELL J G A

EFFECTS OF ALUMINUM ON THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOIL EXCHANGE COCFLEX

PFOSPESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Ten cntisols, ') inceptisols, and 9 spolosols were used to study thI iLlative
importance of Fe and Al in P retention. Highly significant correlations were
found in entisols, spodosols, and all 29 soils between the P retained and Ah
extracted by 0.1N 1C1, 1N NH (4)OAc (p 4.8) and hot 0.5 N3aOH followed by
buffered dithionite. Only spodosols showed a significant P-Fe relationship.
multiple regression equations with Al, Fe, and P variables weLe highly
significant except tor those ot the inceptisols. In all cases, the partial
regression coefficients for Fe were not significant. The clay fraction of Tany
Florida sandy soils was dominantly amorphous. These entisols and inceptisols
formerly classified as regosols usually had an amorphous SiO (2): (2)0 (3) weihlit
ratio less than unity and those as low humic gley soils greater than unity.
S Tiis ratio in regosols was approximately the same at various depths but in low
numic gley soils the amorphous Si decreased and Al and Fe increased with deptn.
The amorphous clay in the surface of spodosols was dominated by siliceous
compounds and in the spodic horizon by Al and Fe compounds. The atomic
absorption and colorimetric methods for Al, Fe, and Si in soil extracts were
compared. The correlation was close to unity for both Al and Fe by various
extractants. The Si analysis by the atomic absorption method was less
satisfactory due to the background noise.





ROBERTSON W K THOMPSON L G JR


EFFECTS OF CROP ROTATION, FERTILIZER AND LIME CN SOIL FERTILITY AND YIELDS OF
FIELD CROPS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Rotation experiments to compare the effect of planting a crop on the same area
every year with planting it in two and three year rotations with other crops
were conducted on Ruston loamy fine sand from 1950 to 1965 and have been
conducted on Red Bay fine sandy loam since 1955. A fertility experiment
consisting of three rates each of N, P, and K applied to each crop in a three
year rotation was conducted simultaneously and adjacent to the rotation
experiment on Ruston loamy fine sand. Yield and soil analytical data from this
soil type are being compiled for statistical analyses. The experiment on Red
Ray loamy fine sand which is still being continued is being sampled in the root
zone as the crops reach their grand period of growth to determine the nematode
species and population. Criconemoides (ring), Helicotylenchus (spiral), and
Pratylenchus (root-lesion) were present, but numbers varied more between
replicates than between treatments.


FLA-SL-00957 HAMMOND L C

MOISTURE RETENTION MOVEMENT MEASUREMENT AND AVAILABILITY TO PLANTS IN FLORIDA
SOILS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Drainage experiments are being established in cooperation with the Plantation
Field Laboratory, Ft. Lauderdale, and the North Florida Experiment Station,
Quincy. Additional research in progress includes methods of salinity testing of
well-drained sandy soils and characterization of selected soils in terms of
.ter retention and conduction (saturated and unsaturated).



FLA-SL-00976 FISKELL J G A CARLISLE V W YUAN T L

CHEMISTRY AND GENESIS OF THE COLLOIDAL FRACTION OF FLORIDA SOILS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Tillage pan properties were attributed to increased soil strength rather than to
decreased total porosity or any major change in particle size distribution.
Packing of the pores with organic matter at the interface of Al and A2 horizons
was a common feature and layering from past cultivations at these depths was
evident. Examination of corn roots at the pan interface or in the first few
centimeters of the pan showed gross distortion and abnormalities in the growth
pattern and at the root tips. This was explained by root confinement in soil
with adverse soil strength and lack of large pore continuities. Sieved soil
above and from the pan produced normal corn seedling roots without additional
fertilizer and growth was only slightly lower in soil from the pan. Twenty
locations were used in the study. These pans limit root growth to the surface
soil and accentuate drought effects. Alkaline soils from Okeechobee County were
found to be highly weathered from the amorphous nature of the clay. Marine
terraces were sampled down to the Caloosahatchee shell marl layer and from the
fine sand and heavy mineral content it was concluded that deposition was not
uniform. These data are valuable in assignment of soil series and weathering
of soils.



FLA-SL-00988 PRITCHETT W L

FERTILIZATION OF SOILS FOR SOUTHERN PINE

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
The Cooperative Research in Forest Fertilization program was organized among the
pulp and paper industries and agricultural chemical companies of the Southeast,
and the University of Florida. Some 30 sites were selected on soils or the
lower Coastal Plains for installation of uniform fertilizer experiments. soil
samples were collected from depths of 0-8, 8-16, and 16-24 inches. These
samples were analyzed for pH and extractable (NH(4)OAc buffered at pH 4.8)
nutrients. They will also be analyzed for total N and P, organic matter, cation
exchange capacity, and water content at 1/3 and 15 atmospheres of pressure.
Several sites were also selected for installation of fertilizer experiments on
stagnant stands of slash pine.


FLA-SL-00956





MANAGEMENT OF FLATWOOD SOILS

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Following alteration by drainage, deep treatments consisting of mixing of the
profile of a Spodosol (Leon fine sand) with or without limestone and P (rock
phosphate) to a depth of 90 cm were compared with surface liming at low and hign
rates. Over a 5-year period the O.1. decreased, but the decrease was nmre rapid
Lor the deep treatments than for the undisturbed soil. Improved drainaqo and
aeration as a result of mixing were probably responsible. Soil analyses after 5
years indicated that P applied as rock phosphate was primarily in organic and
acid soluble forms. No appreciable amount was lost by leaching. Soil core
examination 5 years after initial treatment indicated that corn-root
distribution was not affected by deep tieatnents. Roots were confined to tne
top 30 cm. When the soil profile was mixed, corn yields were less than those
from the undisturbed soil. Lime addition to the subsoil was no better than
mIxin i alone. however, mixing with lime and phosphate gave yields comparable to
the undisturbed treatments. The nutritional value of P apparently compensated
ror the detrimental effect of mixing. Bahiagrass and sorghum yields were not
affected by the deep treatments. However, nitrogen content of the grass was
always lower on the deep treatments. Phosphorus uptake was reduced and Ca
intake increased for bahiagrass by mixing.


FLA-SL-010q9 FISKELL J G A

EVALUATION OF SOFT ROCK PHOSPHATE AND OTHER SOIL AMENDMENTS FOP CITRUS

PROGRESS RFPOFT: 67/01 67/12
In a greenhouse study with Citrus jambhiri seedlings grown in Leon fine sand
with soft Lock phosphate (SRP), gypsum, or limestone applied at the rate of h
mt/ha of Ca and uniform fertilization, the SFP promoted twice the weight and
height over the other treatments. This was attributed to the colloid effect.
In another study with Citrus aurantium in Lakeland sand, 31 mt/ha of SRP 'id not
prevent high Cu activity. This was indicated by poor root systems high in Cu
with associated leaf-Fe chlorosis where Cu was added at 200 ppm.
Water-extractable Cu increased linearly with Cu rate in soil samples taken 25
months alter the application. In a field study, variability of citrus root
composition and 1I acetate (pH 4.H) extractable soil Ca, K, P, Cu, and Fe
were not related to soil amendment treatments with SEP, lime phosphate, or
fullers earth. These distributions were skewed and dissimilar for root and
soil Iata. Soil amendments and sampling distance from the Valencia trees were
relatively minor factors in the variability encountered in root and soil
analysis from the top 15 cm of soil.


FLA-SL-01110 ROTHWELL D F ENO C F

THE FFFJCT OF GAMiA RADIATION ON aITROGEL-FIXI1iG ORGANISM

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
Pure cultures of Rhizobium were subjected to irradiation from Gamma rays produced
from Cobalt 60. Extensive experiments were conducted using various levels of
irradiation ranging from 2000 to 64000 roentgens. Major emphasis was placed
on the use of tetraploid corn as the non-leguminous host plant. Lee variety of
soybeans was the major leguminous plant used. No positive correlations were
obtained during the period of investigation. The experiment is being terminated
this year. Due to the projected increase in world population, there will be a
need for an increased world food production in order to supply the necessities
of life. Therefore, had a positive correlation been achieved, the influence
would have been tremendous by making it possible to improve both crop yields and
quality. Atmospheric nitrogen would have been rendered available through
microbiological activity to areas where commercial fertilizer is not economically
available. At the same time, it would drastically reduce the amount of fertilizer
nitrogen necessary for maximum production.


S LA-SL-01130 PRITCHETT W L

CORRELATION OF SOIL SURVEY INFORMATION WITH TREE GROWTH IN FLORIDA

PROGRESS REPORT: 67/01 67/12
soil samples from the principal horizons, along with tree growth-rate data,


I




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