Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Agricultural experimentations...
 Report of the director
 Report of the administrative...
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering
 Animal science
 Dairy science
 Food science
 Fruit crops
 Ornamental horticulture
 Plant pathology
 Plant science
 Poultry science
 Vegetable crops department
 Veterinary science
 Brooksville beef cattle research...
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Everglades station
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Range cattle experiment statio...
 Sub-tropical experiment statio...
 Suwannee Valley experiment...
 West Florida experiment statio...
 Big Bend horticultural laborat...
 Potato investigations laborato...
 Watermelon and grape investigations...
 Federal-state forecasting weather...
 Historic note


Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00015
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1967
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00015
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Agricultural experimentations staff
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Report of the director
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Agricultural economics
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Animal science
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Dairy science
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Food science
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    Fruit crops
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Ornamental horticulture
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Plant pathology
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Plant science
        Page 167
    Poultry science
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Vegetable crops department
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
    Veterinary science
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
    Brooksville beef cattle research station
        Page 210
        Page 211
    Central Florida station
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
    Citrus station
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 273
            Page 274
            Page 275
            Page 276
            Page 277
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
    Everglades station
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 298
            Page 299
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
            Page 303
            Page 304
        Plantation field laboratory
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
            Page 314
            Page 315
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        South Florida field laboratory
            Page 329
            Page 330
            Page 331
            Page 332
            Page 333
            Page 334
        Strawberry and vegetable field laboratory
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
    North Florida station
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Marianna unit
            Page 353
            Page 354
            Page 355
    Range cattle experiment station
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
    Sub-tropical experiment station
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
    Suwannee Valley experiment station
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
    West Florida experiment station
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
    Big Bend horticultural laboratory
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
    Potato investigations laboratory
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
    Watermelon and grape investigations laboratory
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
    Federal-state forecasting weather service
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
    Historic note
        Page 415
Full Text






JUNE 30, 1967

IMtanano ,
- -----Montiello Na 1
l Pr .Qnon-cy Montilo -.-... \N A ."
/ MADISOM' ;. 5
Lieo "- BAI IvAL
I -J ^BER ** YLORi--'
.. ''-~ B---- 'G oinei ll ---.- .
,8/ BEND' I "atin
Loke Alfred
5C tCi r! p 0 L K '0
GULF COAST Bradenton. /14Turr '. '.


lmIrrLi h'iCl 1'
K /.-*

0 5 o J.








- J~~~~r



Agricultural Experiment Stations Staff ....
Report of the Director ............
Report of the Administrative Manager .....
Agricultural Economics ................. .......................
Agricultural Engineering .............. .. ...................
Agronomy -- ........--. ....... ....
Animal Science .. ....................... ... .
Botany .. --- -- --. ................
Dairy Science .--- .. -- ..................
Editorial .- ----.........
Entomology .... ..-- ...............
Food Science ............
Forestry .. .......... .................... .... ....... .
Fruit Crops .- ...... ..........--.....--- -----
Ornamental Horticulture ..-..-- ------
Plant Pathology ......... ........................... -- ..
Plant Science ...----.. .---- -- ................................
Poultry Science -. .... ---............ ... ......--
Soils ........ .. -.. ---- .. --
Statistics ... ..-- .... ------. -----
Vegetable Crops ---.-- --- ......---
Veterinary Science ............... --. ..
Brooksville Beef Cattle Research Station .....
Central Florida Station ........................... .........
Citrus Station ................. ..............
Indian River Field Laboratory ......................
Everglades Station ...............
Indian River Field Laboratory ..................-
Plantation Field Laboratory -.........................
Gulf Coast Station ........
South Florida Field Laboratory .......................
Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory -.
North Florida Station ..
Marianna Unit .
Range Cattle Station ....... ....--
Sub-Tropical Station ..........................
Suwannee Valley Station ......
West Florida Station .. .....-- ........-
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory .. .
Potato Investigations Laboratory
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
Federal-State Weather Forecasting Service ..


.-.---.-..- 32
-- ..------ 46
---.-.--. ... 50
------ 64
--- ... 80
--.---- ..... 84
-----...-- 93
-----............ ---. 111
-.-...........- ..... 127
----.....-............. 136
.-......-..-. ......... 144
...--..-...--.... ..-- 149
....................... 157
................... .. 167
.-.....-....- ...-...... 168
...................... 173
-...... ....-.....--. 189
-........ ......... ....... 190
..-----............ ..- 200

- ............- 210
.........-----. .... ---. 212
..-...-..--- .. 228
................. 273
.................... 278
-. --....- ... --- 298
..-.-.-- 305
-.................... 316
-....................- 329
-.........-........... 335
.- ...... 338
---.............- 353
-........... ---..... 356
-... ................ .. 364
......... ...... --379
........ .. ~.......... 382

.- ----- 390
-.........-.... 393
....-- 398
-. .......- 405

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named and does not signify that they are approved to the ex-
clusion of others of suitable composition.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

June 30, 1967


Chester Howell Ferguson, Tampa, Chairman
Wayne McCall, Ocala, Vice Chairman
John C. Pace, Pensacola
Louis C. Murray, Orlando
Henry Kramer, Jacksonville
Clarence L. Menser, Vero Beach
Mrs. Margaret Behringer, Fort Lauderdale
Mrs. E. C. (Carolyn) Pearce, Coral Gables
Burke Kibler, Lakeland

Telephone University of Florida, 904-376-3261
Stephen C. O'Connell, J.D., LL.B., President of University, Ext. 2311
F. W. Conner, Ph.D., Vice-President of University
E. T. York, Jr., Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture, Ext. 2711
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Director, Ext. 2168
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Associate Director, Ext. 2753
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assistant Director, Ext. 2754
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Assistant Director, Ext. 2810
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager, Ext. 2865
W. H. Jones, Jr., M. Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Services,
Ext. 3230
S. F. Bennett, B.S.L.S., Librarian, Hume Library
The following abbreviations after name and title of Experiment Station
Staff indicate cooperation with other organizations:
Coll.-University of Florida College of Agriculture
Ext.-University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service
USDA-United States Department of Agriculture
USWB-United States Weather Bureau, Department of Commerce
FCC-Florida Citrus Commission
FAMU-Florida A&M University, Tallahassee
NOTE: Liaison appointments, as indicated following certain named in-
dividuals, represent responsibility for coordination, planning and
conduct of cooperative research with the department indicated.

Telephone University of Florida 376-3261, Area Code 904
Agricultural Economics Department, 162 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2153
K. R. Tefertiller, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and Chairman; also Coll.
and Ext.

Annual Report, 1967 5

D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate Agricultural Economist
H. D. Brodnax, M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Veg. Crops
T. L. Brooks, Jr., B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
H. B. Clark, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist, Coll.
B. R. Eddleman, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
W. F. Edwards, M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Ani. Sci.;
also Coll.
J. R. Greenman, B.S.A., LLB., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
G. C. Jones, M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
W. B. Lester, Ph.D., Research Economist, FCC
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Ani. Sci.;
also Coll.
W. T. Manley, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, USDA
L. H. Myers, Ph.D., Research Economist, FCC
J. E. Mullin, B.S., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
C. E. Murphree, D.P.A., Associate Agricultural Economist and liaison with
Forestry; also Coll.
J. L. Pearson, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA
L. Polopolus, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, FCC
J. E. Reynolds, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
G. N. Rose, B.S., Associate Agricultural Economist, Orlando
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Fruit Crops
B. J. Smith, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist and liaison with Dairy
C. N. Smith, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Orn. Hort.;
also Coll.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist. and liaison with Fruit
F. W. Williams, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, FCC
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Forestry,
Ornamental Horticulture)

Agricultural Engineering Department, 7 Frazier Rogers Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2848
D. T. Kinard, Ph.D., Agricultural Engineer and Chairman; also Coll. and
C. D. Baird, M.S.E., Int. Research Associate
E. K. Bowman, B.S., Associate Industrial Engineer, USDA
R. E. Choate, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer and liaison with Forestry; Coll.
R. C. Fluck, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer and liaison with Animal
J. J. Gaffney, M.S.A.E., Assistant in Agricultural Engineering, USDA
F. E. Henry, B.I.E., Assistant Industrial Engineer, USDA
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer and liaison with Agron.
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Animal
Science, Soils)

Agronomy Department, 304 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2181
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Agronomist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
J. M. Baskin, Int. Research Associate
Fred Clark, M.S.A., Agronomist and liaison with Ag. Eng.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Agronomist and liaison with Plant Path.
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
Kuell Hinson, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist, USDA
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Agronomist and liaison with Ent.
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist and liaison with Ag. Econ.
J. E. Mickelson, A.B., Assistant Climatologist, USDA
A. J. Norden, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
C. B. Owens, Ph.D., Agronomist, FAMU
P. L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
G. M. Prine, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist -and liaison with Soils
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Agronomist, Coll.
0. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist and liaison with Ani. Sci.; Coll.
S. C. Schank, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist; also Coll.
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist and liaison with Forestry
Aziz Shiralipour, Ph.D., Research Associate
R. M. Singh, Ph.D., Research Associate
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist; also Plant Science
H. E. Warmke, Ph.D., Genreticist, USDA; liaison with Plant Path.
T. E. Webb, M.S., Assistant Agronomist and Manager of Seed Foundation
S. H. West, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist, USDA
Merrill Wilcox, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Engineering,
Dairy Science, Entomology, Forestry, Plant Pathology, Soils)

Animal Science Department, 253 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2613
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist and liaison with
Poultry; also Coll.
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. W. Carpenter, Ph.D., Associate Meat Scientist; also Coll.
G. E. Combs, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and liaison with Ag. Eng.; also
J. R. Crockett, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Geneticist; also Coll.
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Director, Division of Biolog-
ical Sciences
J. F. Easley, M.S., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and liaison with Vet. Sci.;
also Coll.
Marvin Koger, Ph.D., Animal Geneticist and liaison with Soils; also Coll.
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Associate Animal Husbandman and liaison with Vet.
Sci.; also Coll.
J. E. Moore, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Meat Scientist and liaison with Food Science; also Coll.
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
D. L. Wakeman, M.S.A., Associate Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and liaison with Vet. Sci.; also
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Animal Physiologist and liaison with Poultry; also
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Food Science, Forestry, Soils, Vet-
erinary Science)

Annual Report, 1967 7

Botany Department, 318 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2441

Leland Shanor, Ph.D., Botanist and Chairman; also Coll.
D. S. Anthony, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
J. Beckner, B.S.A., Research Associate
J. H. Davis, Ph.D., Botanist; Coll.
J. S. Davis, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist; also Coll.
E. S. Ford, Ph.D., Botanist; also Coll.
G. J. Fritz, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist; also Coll.
L. A. Garrard, Ph.D., Research Associate
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
J. W. Kimbrough, Ph.D., Assistant Mycologist; also Coll.
J. T. Mullins, Ph.D., Associate Botanist; also Coll.
D. B. Ward, Ph.D., Associate Botanist; also Coll.
(See also liaison appointments in department of Plant Pathology)

Dairy Science Department, Dairy Science Building, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2861
C. B. Browning, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Chairman; also Coll. and
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist
H. H. Head, Ph.D., Assistant Physiologist; also Coll.
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Associate Dairy Technologist and liaison with Food
Science; also Coll.
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Nutritionist and liaison with Agron.; also Coll.
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Microbiologist; also Coll.
G. W. Powell, Ph.D., Interim Research Associate
K. L. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Microbiologist; also Coll.
C. J. Wilcox, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist; also Coll.
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman; also Coll. (on Iv.)
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agronomy, Food Science, Veterinary Science)

Dairy Research Unit, Hague-Phone 904, 462-1016

West Florida Dairy Unit, Chipley-Phone 904, 638-0544
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Dairy Husbandman

Editorial Department, 215 Rolfs Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2818
Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Editor and Chairman; also Ext.
E. P. Fisher, M.Ed., Assistant Editor
K. B. Meurlott, M.A., Assistant Editor; also Ext.
Mary C. Williams, M.A., Assistant Editor

Entomology Department, 344-B, McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2737
W. G. Eden, Ph.D., Entomologist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
F. S. Blanton, Ph.D., Entomologist; Coll.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

W. T. Calaway, M.S., Assistant Nematologist; Coll.
D. H. Habeck, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist and liaison with Veg. Crops;
also Coll.
L. A. Hetrick, Ph.D., Entomologist; Coll.
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist and liaison with Orn. Hort.;
also Coll.
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist and liaison with Agronomy; also Coll.
Milledge Murphey, Ph.D., Entomologist; Coll.
V. G. Perry, Ph.D., Nematologist and liaison with Fruit Crops; also Coll.
W. L. Peters, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist, FAMU
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Associate Apiculturist
G. C. Smart, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Nematologist and liaison with Soils; also
W. W. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist; Coll.
K. J. Stone, M.S., Research Associate
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
T. J. Walker, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist; Coll.
R. C. Wilkinson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist and liaison with Forestry
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Soils)

Food Science Department, Food Technology Laboratory, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2991
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biochemist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
E. M. Ahmed, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist; also Coll.
R. P. Bates, Ph.D., Assistant Food Technologist
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Horticulturist and liaison with Fruit Crops
J. H. Johnson, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist and liaison with Dairy Sci.
F. W. Knapp, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist and liaison with Ani. Sci.; also
Margaret E. Merkeley, M.S., Assistant in Food Technology
H. A. Moye, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist and liaison with Poultry Sci.
R. C. Robbins, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulturist and liaison with Veg. Crops
N. P. Thompson, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
Ruth O. Townsend, R. N., Senior Research Assistant in Nutrition and
liaison with Veg. Crops
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Biochemist
W. B. Wheeler, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Engineering,
Animal Science, Dairy)

Forestry Department, 305 Rolfs Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2878
J. L. Gray, M. F., Associate Forester and Chairman; also Coll.
S. L. Beckwith, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
G. W. Cornwell, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
P. W. Frazer, M.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
R. E. Goddard, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist and liaison with Agronomy;
also Coll.
R. E. Goddard, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist; also Coll.
J. B. Huffman, D. F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
C. M. Kaufman, Ph.D., Forester and liaison with Ani. Sci., also Coll.

Annual Report, 1967

J. W. Miller, Jr., M.S.F., Forester; also Coll.
F. L. Newby, M.S., Research Associate
D. M. Post, M.S.F., Assistant Forester; also Coll.
R. A. Schmidt, Ph.D., Assistant Forester and liaison with Plant Pathology;
also Coll.
W. H. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Forester and liaison with Soils; also Coll.
A. E. Squillace, Ph.D., Forester, USDA, Olustee
R. G. Stanley, Ph.D., Forest Physiologist; also Coll.
R. K. Strickland, M.S.F., Int. Research Associate; also Coll.
E. T. Sullivan, D. F., Associate Forester and liaison with Ag. Econ.; also
K. R. Swinford, Ph.D., Forester; also Coll.
D. D. Thomas, Ph.D., Research Associate
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Entomology, Soils)

Fruit Crops Department, 108-A McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2593

A. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. H. Biggs, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
D. W. Buchanan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.
J. F. Gerber, Ph.D., Associate Climatologist; also Coll.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Horticulturist
W. B. Sherman, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.
J. Soule, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Food Science, Plant Pathology,

Ornamental Horticulture Department, 406 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2821
E. C. Roberts, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist and Chairman; also Coll.
and Ext.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Horticulturist
G. C. Horn, Ph.D., Turf Technologist and liaison with Soils; also Coll.
J. N. Joiner, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist; also Coll.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist and liaison with Plant
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Ornamental Horticulturist
C. E. Whitcomb, M.S., Research Associate
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Entomology, Plant Pathology, Soils)

Plant Pathology Department, Building 833, Radio Road, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2371

L. H. Purdy, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and liaison with Veg. Crops
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist and liaison with Orn.
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and liaison with Agronomy, USDA

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

C. R. Miller, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist and liaison with Agron.
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and liaison with Orn. Hort.
D. E. Purcifull, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
D. A. Roberts, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist; Coll.
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist and liaison with Veg. Crops;
F. W. Zettler, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Virologist
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Forestry,
Ornamental Horticulture)

Plant Science Section, 202 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2851
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist and Head

Poultry Science Department, Archer Road, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 3221
R. H. Harms, Ph.D., Poultry Nutritionist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
B. L. Damron, Ph.D., Assistant Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. L. Fry, Ph.D., Associate Poultry Products Technologist; also Coll.
H. R. Wilson, Ph.D., Associate Poultry Physiologist; also Coll.
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Animal Science, Food
Science, Soils, Veterinary Science)

Soils Department, 106 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2363
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Soil Microbiologist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Biochemist and liaison with Ani. Sci.; also Coll.
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist; also Coll.
V. W. Carlisle, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist; also Coll.
C. L. Coultas, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Chemist, FAMU
J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Biochemist and liaison with Veg. Crops; also Coll.
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Fruit Crops
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Soil Physicist and liaison with Ag. Eng., also Coll.
C. C. Hortenstine, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Associate Soil Surveyor
T. C. Mathews, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Forestry
W. K. Roberston, Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Agron.
D. F. Rothwell, Ph.D., Associate Soil Microbiologist and liaison with
Poultry; also Coll.
D. O. Spinks, Ph.D., Soil Chemist; Coll.
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soil Chemist
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Orn. Hort.
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Animal
Science, Entomology, Forestry, Ornamental Horticulture)

Statistics Department, 9 McCarty Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2687
William Mendenhall, Ph.D., Statistician and Chairman; Coll.

Annual Report, 1967 11

F. C. Barnett, Ph.D., Assistant Statistician; also Coll.
R. P. Gupta, Ph.D., Int. Assistant Statistician: Coll.
F. G. Martin, Ph.D., Associate Statistician; also Coll.

Vegetable Crops Department, 305 Newell Hall, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2578

F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
D. D. Gull, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
S. J. Locascio, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; also Coll.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Food Science, Plant Pathology,

Veterinary Science Department, Archer Road, 32601
Phone 904, 376-3261, Ext. 2568

G. T. Edds, D.V.M., Ph.D., Veterinarian and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. E. Bradley, D.V.M., Ph.D., Assistant Parasitologist and liaison with
Animal Sci; also Coll.
W. G. Fletcher, B.S., Assistant in Pharmacology
J. A. Himes, V.M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Pharmacologist and liaison with Food
Sci.; also Coll.
C. A. Holden, M.S., Assistant in Microbiology
W. W. Kirkham, D.V.M., Ph.D., Associate Virologist and liaison with
Dairy Sci.
F. C. Neal, D.V.M., M.S., Associate Veterinarian and liaison with Dairy
Sci.; also Coll.
J. T. Perdomo, M.S.A., Research Associate in Pharmacology
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian and liaison with Dairy Sci.
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Ph.D., Pathologist and liaison with Poultry Sci.;
also Coll.
W. M. Taylor, Jr., D.V.M., M.S., Assistant Microbiologist
F. H. White, Ph.D., Bacteriologist and liaison with Dairy Sci.
(See also liaison appointments in department of Animal Science)


Phone 904, 796-3385
W. C. Burns, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman and Head, USDA

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, Box 909, Sanford 32771
Phone 305, 322-4134

J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
G. L. Greene, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

H. L. Rhoades, Ph.D., Associate Nematologist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
J. O. Strandberg, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Horticulturist

CITRUS STATION, P. O. Box 1088, Lake Alfred 33850
Phone 813, 372-1151

H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head
C. A. Anderson, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Chemist
L. B. Anderson, Jr., B.S.A., Research Asst. in Entomology-Pathology
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Chemist, FCC
J. A. Attaway, Ph.D., Associate Chemist, FCC
R. W. Barron, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
J. G. Blair, B.S.M.E., Associate Mechanical Engineer, FCC
R. F. Brooks, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
G. E. Brown, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist, FCC
G. E. Coppock, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, FCC
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Research Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Assistant Chemical Engineer, FCC
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Research Associate
A. W. Feldman, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
P. J. Fellers, Ph.D., Assistant Food Technologist, FCC
Francine E. Fisher, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. B. Graves, Jr., Ph.D., Research Associate
William Grierson, Ph.D., Horticulturist
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Research Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
Pamela K. Hearon, B.S., Research Assistant in Library
S. L. Hedden, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
Rudolph Hendrickson, B.S., Associate Chemist
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Associate Bacteriologist, FCC
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Research Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Associate Chemist, FCC
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Entomologist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Chemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
D. H. Lenker, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Horticulturist
S. K. Long, Ph.D., Assistant Industrial Bacteriologist
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC
M. D. Maraulja, B.S., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Chemist, FCC
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Biochemist
M. F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
Roger Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
R. L. Phillips, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

Annual Report, 1967 13

R. L. Reese, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Pectin Chemist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Nematologist
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist, FCC
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Research Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
H. M. Vines, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist, FCC
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
T. Adair Wheaton, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
J. O. Whitehead, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
J. D. Whitney, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
W. C. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Associate Chemist, FCC

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce 33451
Phone 305, 461-4371

Mortimer Cohen, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. C. Bullock, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
D. V. Calvert, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Chemist

EVERGLADES STATION, P. O. Drawer A, Belle Glade 33430
Phone 305, 996-3063

W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist and Head
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
D. W. Beardsley, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
R. D. Berger, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
T. W. Casselman, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
J. E. Clayton, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
W. W. Deen, Jr., M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
W. G. Genung, M.S., Associate Entomologist
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Agronomist (on lv.)
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Horticulturist
B. W. Hayes, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
M. J. Janes, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Animal Husbandman
F. leGrand, M.S., Assistant Agronomist
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Horticulturist
G. H. Synder, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
H. D. Whittemore, B.S.A.F., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
J. A. Winchester, Ph.D., Associate Nematologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Horticulturist

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce 33450
Phone 305, 461-6193

N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Entomologist
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Agronomist

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Plantation Field Laboratory, 5305 S. W. 12th St., Fort Lauderdale 33314
Phone 305, 583-5353
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. D. Blackburn, M.S., Associate Agronomist, USDA
H. I. Borders, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Associate Turf Technologist
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
W. H. Speir, Assistant Hydraulic Engineer, USDA
K. K. Steward, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist, USDA
E. H. Stewart, M.S., Associate Soil Physicist, USDA
T. L. Stringfellow, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
L. W. Weldon, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist, USDA

GULF COAST STATION, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Bradenton 33505
Phone 813, 755-1568
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist and Head
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
A. W. Engelhard, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
F. J. Marousky, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist, USDA
Amegda J. Overman, M.S., Assistant Soils Microbiologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. E. Waters, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist

South Florida Field Laboratory, Box 973, Immokalee 33934
Phone 813, 657-2835
P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
C. H. Blazquez, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist

Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory, Route 2, Box 629, Dover 33527
Phone 813, 752-7649
E. E. Albregts, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
C. M. Howard, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, P. O. Box 470, Quincy 32351
Phone 904, 627-6847; Tobacco section, 627-6691

W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist and Head
J. B. Aitken, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
F. S. Baker, Jr., M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
D. R. Davis, A.B., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
C. E. Dean, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
F. M. Rhoads, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Associate Entomologist

Annual Report, 1967 15

Marianna Unit, Box 504, Marianna 32446
Phone 904, 482-8061
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Phone 813, 735-3121

H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Head
C. L. Dantzman, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Animal Scientist
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Associate Animal Husbandman

SUB-TROPICAL STATION, 18905 S. W. 280th Street, Homestead 33030
Phone 305, 247-4624

R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Entomologist
H. H. Bryan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
C. W. Campbell, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
S. E. Malo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. B. Marlatt, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. T. McMillan, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
P. G. Orth, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. W. Strobel, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Horticulturist

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION, Box 657, Live Oak 32060
Phone 904, 362-1725

H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist and Head
G. R. Hollis, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist

WEST FLORIDA STATION, Route 3, Jay 32565
Phone 904, 994-5215
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Soils Chemist and Head
J. E. Bertrand, Ph.D., Associate Animal Scientist
L. S. Dunavin, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist


Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, Box 539, Monticello 32344
Phone 904, 997-2597

H. W. Young, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist and Head
W. J. French, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
W. H. Whitcomb, Ph.D.,'Entomologist

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Potato Investigations Laboratory, Box 728, Hastings 32045
Phone 904, 692-1792

D. R. Hensel, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist and Head
R. B. Workman, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
J. R. Shumaker, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Box 388, Leesburg 32748
Phone 904, 787-3423

J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head
W. C. Adlerz, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
Carlos Balerdi, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
C. H. Curran, D.Sc., Entomologist
J. A. Mortensen, Ph.D., Assistant Geneticist
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist

Weather Forecasting Service, Box 1068, Lakeland 33802
Phone 813, 686-3998 and 682-4221

W. O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist and Head, USWB
J. G. Georg, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
L. L. Benson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
G. R. Davis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. M. Hinson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
G. W. Leber, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. F. Mincey, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
O. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. T. Sherouse, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. R. Wallis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB


While the total research program showed significant progress in meeting
Florida's agricultural problems and in certain basic research areas, research
staff resignations were higher than in previous years. Twenty-one resigna-
tions are listed below.
This represents a 7% turnover, and such a high rate, if continued, can
weaken the program. New research personnel in agriculture require con-
siderable time to adjust their thinking and training to the problems of our
subtropical climate. The loss of staff is due, largely, to two consecutive
years in which available funds for merit salary increases were sharply below
those in competitive state experiment stations, and in the U. S. Department
of Agriculture. There is a continuing competition for good scientists, and
many of those who left for other jobs were young men who had made an
excellent start and were establishing national reputations.
On the brighter side, the 1965 Legislature authorized several badly
needed laboratory and office buildings, and these are listed below. Since it
had been almost 10 years since building needs had been met, these additions
should be very helpful.
All research performed during the past fiscal year is reported in the
various sections which follow. These reports include all formally approved
projects as well as all preliminary exploratory research on specific new
On July 1, 1967, Mr. George R. Freeman was appointed Assistant
Director of the Agricultural Experiment Stations, a new and much needed
position in the administrative offices. Mr. Freeman has many years of
experience as Superintendent of Field Operations, and in his new position
will handle the responsibilities related to new building construction.

Agricultural research is well recognized as an important endeavor toward
economic progress in Florida. There are tremendous opportunities ahead
for agriculture in Florida. It is now over the $1 billion level of annual cash
farm income and each year continuing to show very significant gains.
As new problems arise, new projects are initiated; and as problems are
solved, projects are terminated. New proposals for research are carefully
screened and reviewed before activation. Often new projects are more of a
team effort than in the past. All work throughout the entire Station system
is coordinated for maximum effectiveness. The entire research program is
based upon the use of the project system, the status of which was as follows
on June 30, 1967:

Projects State Hatch Regional McIntire-Stennis Total
Initiated 66-67 44 8 0 4 56
Closed 66-67 38 19 1 0 58
Revised 4 1 0 0 5
Total Active 304 109 8 8 429

Projects Reviewed by Committee 66-67 59
Projects Approved by Director 56
Projects Pending in Washington 1
Projects Pending in Director's Office 17

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Projects Pending in Committees 12
Total Projects Pending 30

To obtain complete and detailed information concerning research on a
given problem, commodity, or process the readers should consult the index,
since related work which was done at several locations may be reported
in different sections of this report.
The public is invited to contact any station personnel for further infor-
mation or to attend any field days, short courses, or conferences held during
the year at the various departments, branch stations, and field laboratories.

In 1966-67 the following facilities were in process of construction in
the Agricultural Experiment Stations. Those at various branch stations
are as follows.
Citrus Station, Lake Alfred. Office and laboratory building 9,077
square feet.
Plantation Field Laboratory, Ft. Lauderdale. The new laboratory will be
at Forman field and includes an office and laboratory building, and an animal
isolation building and laboratory 9,815 square feet.
Central Florida Station, Sanford. This station will also be moved in its
entirety. Office and laboratory facilities 4,841 square feet.
Ridge Ornamental Horticultural Laboratory, Apopka 2,971 square feet.
North Florida Station, Quincy. Tobacco Processing Laboratory 3,060
square feet.
Marianna Unit, Marianna. Swine laboratory and office 2,035 square
Indian River Field Laboratory, Ft. Pierce. Library and conference room
- 1,408 square feet.

Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona. Library, conference room and
office addition 2,444 square feet.

Sub-Tropical Station, Homestead. Entomology and Pathology building -
4,334 square feet.
In addition to these major buildings, we received a lump sum item for
minor buildings; these cost less than $15,000 each and include greenhouses,
metal buildings, maintenance shops, silos, and headhouses. We gained ap-
proximately 35,500 square feet of new facilities under this item.
Facilities at the new tobacco unit include two barns, two sheds, packing-
house, headhouse, and greenhouse. The Division of Sponsored Research has
contributed an additional $17,000 to complete this unit. Bids are being
obtained on these buildings at this time.
An additional $334,576 interest earnings should be released to us some
time soon. These funds will be used to complete the facilities which were
approved by the Legislature in 1965. These include:
(1) Service Building Plantation Field Laboratory, Ft. Lauderdale
(2) Greenhouse and Headhouse Plantation Field Laboratory, Ft.

Annual Report, 1967 19

(3) Water Tank Citrus Station, Lake Alfred
(4) Library Conference Building Everglades Station, Belle Glade
(5) Equipment and Storage Shed Everglades Station, Belle Glade
(6) Greenhouse and Headhouse Central Florida Station, Sanford
(7) Headhouse and Farm Equipment Building Everglades Station,
Belle Glade.



Charles Benton Browning, Animal Nutritionist and Chairman of Dept., Dairy
Sci. Dept., July 1, 1966
William Franklin Edwards, Asst. in Agricultural Economics, Ag. Econ.
Dept., July 1, 1966
Willis Boly Wheeler, Asst. Biochemist, Food Sci. Dept., July 1, 1966
Joseph Ezel Bertrand, Assoc. Animal Scientist, West Fla. Station, July 1,
Gerald Lee Greene, Asst. Entomologist, Central Florida Station, July 1, 1966
Carlos Francisco Balerdi, Asst. Horticulturist, Watermelon and Grape Lab.,
July 1, 1966
Gilbert Ray Hollis, Asst. Animal Nutritionist, Suwannee Valley Station,
July 1, 1966
John Norwood Love, Jr., Asst. in Pharmocology, Vet. Sci. Dept., July 1, 1966
Judith Lynn Brook, Research Assoc., Agron. Dept., July 1, 1966
Carl Joseph Chapman, Int. Asst. Botanist, Botany Dept., July 1, 1966
Henry Doss Brodnax, Jr., Asst. in Agricultural Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept.,
July 1, 1966, USDA
Pamela Kunsman Hearon, Research Asst. in Library, Citrus Station, July 1,
Frederick Milton Rhoads, Asst. Soil Chemist, North Florida Station, Aug. 1,
John Everett Reynolds, Asst. Agricultural Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Aug.
1, 1966
Donovan Des Sauges Thomas, Research Associate, Forestry Dept., Aug. 1,
John Wey Van Duyn, Int. Research Associate, Big Bend Lab., Aug. 1, 1966
Arthur William Engelhard, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Station,
Aug. 16, 1966
Arthur Wayne Davis, Asst. in Statistics, Statistics Dept., Sept. 1, 1966
Thomas Leslie Stringfellow, Int. Asst. Entomologist, Everglades Station,
Sept. 1, 1966
Bobby Ross Eddleman, Asst. Agricultural Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept.,
Sept. 1, 1966
Floyd Lavon Newby, Research Associate, Forestry Dept., Sept. 1, 1966
Robert Cleon Nims, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Station, Sept. 16,
Frederick Earl Henry, Asst. Industrial Engineer, Ag. Eng. Dept., Oct. 23,
1966, USDA
Richard Donald Berger, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, Nov. 1,
Shmuel Y. Gothilf, Research Associate, Entomol. Dept., Dec. 1, 1967
David Wesley Buchanan, Asst. Horticulturist, Fruit Crops Dept., Jan. 1, 1967
Richard Henry Teske, Int. Research Associate, Vet. Sci. Dept., Jan. 1, 1967

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Melvin Joseph Janes, Asst. Entomologist, Everglades Station, Jan. 1, 1967
George Heft Snyder, Asst. Soils Chemist, Everglades Station, Jan. 1, 1967
George William Cornwell, Assoc. Forester, Forestry Dept., Feb. 1, 1967
Kerry Kalen Steward, Asst. Plant Physiologist, Everglades Station, Feb. 1,
1967, USDA
William E. Harriot, Asst. in Statistics, Statistics Dept., Mar. 1, 1967
Antonio Gayoso, Int. Asst. in Agricultural Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., Mar.
1, 1967
James Robert Shumaker, Asst. Horticulturist, Potato Lab., Apr. 1, 1967
Walter Gerald Fletcher, Asst. in Pharmacology, Vet. Sci. Dept., Apr. 19,
James Edward Lloyd, Asst. Entomologist, Entomol. Dept., May 1, 1967
Fereidoon Hashemi, Int. Research Associate, Fruit Crops Dept., May 1, 1967
Robert Edward Trebilcock, Int. Asst. In Agronomy, Agron. Dept., May 1,
William Lee Peters, Asst. Entomologist, Entomol. Dept., May 1, 1967, FAMU
Eliot C. Roberts, Orn. Horticulturist and Chairman, Orn. Hort. Dept., June
1, 1967
Ben William Hayes, Asst. Animal Nutritionist, Everglades Station, June 1,
Charles Lynn Coultas, Asst. Soil Chemist, Soils Dept., June 15, 1967, FAMU
Clarence Burgess Owens, Sr., Agronomist, Agron. Dept., June 15, 1967,


D. T. Sechler, Associate Agronomist, North Florida Station, July 1, 1966
R. F. Brooks, Associate Entomologist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1966
C. D. Leonard, Horticulturist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1966
J. R. Edwardson, Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., July 1, 1966
S. C. Shank, Associate Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., July 1, 1966
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Dept., July 1, 1966
P. E. Loggins, Associate Animal Husbandman, Animal Science Dept., July
1, 1966
J. E. Moore, Associate Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Dept., July 1,
K. L. Smith, Associate Microbiologist, Dairy Science Dept., July 1, 1966
J. M. Wing, Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Science Dept., July 1, 1966
R. C. Robbins, Associate Biochemist, Food Science Dept., July 1, 1966
J. F. Gerber, Associate Climatologist, Fruit Crops Dept., July 1, 1966
J. N. Joiner, Ornamental Horticulturist, Ornamental Horticulture Dept., July
1, 1966
H. Y. Ozaki, Associate Horticulturist, Plantation Field Lab., July 1, 1966
C. E. Haines, Associate Animal Husbandman, Everglades Station, July 1,
V. L. Guzman, Horticulturist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1966
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Agronomist, Indian River Field Lab., July 1, 19'66
W. C. Adlerz, Associate Entomologist, Watermelon and Grape Lab., July 1,
F. A. Robinson, Associate Apiculturist, Entomology Dept., July 1, 1966
H. L. Breland, Associate Soil Chemist, Soils Dept., July 1, 1966
J. F. Darby, Plant Pathologist and Head, Central Florida Station, July 1,

Annual Report, 1967 21

Merwin Kenneth Corbett, Assoc. Virologist, Plant Pathology Dept., July 31,
Joseph Francis Metcalf, Asst. in Chemistry, Citrus Station, July 31, 1966,
Frank H. Thomas, Asst. Chemist, Everglades Station, August 31, 1966
Moulton O. Thomas, Assoc. Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Station, August 31,
William G. Grizzell, Asst. Ag. Industrial Engineer, Ag. Eng. Dept., August
31, 1966, USDA
James Richard Iley, Asst. Soils Chemist, Everglades Station, August 31,
Charles Edward Haines, Asst. Animal Husbandman, Everglades Station,
Oct. 31, 1966
Larry Junior Wallace, Asst. Pathologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Dec. 23, 1966
Charles Wilson Averre, III, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Sub-Tropical Station,
Dec. 31, 1966
John Wey Van Duyn, Int. Research Associate, Big Bend Hort. Lab., Dec. 31,
James Forest Beeman, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Ag. Eng. Dept., Jan. 15, 1967
Paul Sutton, Asst. Horticulturist, Strawberry and Veg. Field Lab., Jan. 31,
John Norwood Love, Jr., Asst. in Pharmacology, Vet. Sci. Dept., Jan. 31,
Ira Joseph Ross, Assoc. Agricultural Engineer, Eng. Dept., Apr. 18, 1967
Nader Gholi Vakili, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Indian River Lab., May 3, 1967
Carol Holman Eilbeck, Asst. in Agricultural Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept.,
May 17, 1967
Kenneth Trammel, Asst. Entomologist, Citrus Station, May 31, 1967
Carl Joseph Chapman, Int. Asst. Botanist, Botany Dept., May 31, 1967
Robert Morgan Hosford, Jr., Asst. Plant Pathologist, Potato Lab., June 30,
Richard Henry Teske, Int. Research Associate, Vet. Sci. Dept., June 30, 1967
James Malcolm Kling, Research Associate, Vet. Sci. Dept., June 30, 1967

Leave of Absence
James Malcolm Kling, Research Associate, Vet. Sci. Dept., Nov. 1, 1966 to
June 30, 1967
Richard Eugene Bradley, Asst. Parasitologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., April 1, 1967
to June 30, 1967

James William Kimbrough, Asst. Mycologist, from Plant Pathology Dept.
to Botany Dept., July 1966
H. E. Warmke, Plant Pathologist, from Plant Pathology Dept. to Agronomy
Dept., Sept. 1966
Herbert Harris Bryan, Asst. Horticulturist, from North Fla. Sta. to Sub-
Tropical Sta., Jan. 1, 1967

Russell Willis Wallace, Assoc. Agronomist, North Fla. Station, Sept. 30,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Earl Noel McCubbin, Horticulturist, Potato Lab., Oct. 31, 1966
William Conway Price, Virologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Dec. 31, 1966
Frederick Burean Smith, Soil Microbiologist, Soils Dept., June 30, 1967
Rowland Barnes French, Biochemist, Food Sci. Dept., June 30, 1967
Benjamin Franklin Whitner, Jr., Asst. Horticulturist, Central Fla. Station,
June 30, 1967
John Runyon Large, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Big Bend Lab., June 30, 1967


Marshall S. Neff, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Big Bend Lab., Nov. 29, 1966,
Albert Nelson Brooks, Plant Pathologist, Strawberry and Veg. Field Lab.,
Nov. 29, 1966-Emeritus
William Richard Meagher, Assoc. Chemist, Citrus Station, Dec. 5, 1966

Retirements Prior to 1966-67
(Continued on Emeritus status)
Gulie Hargrove Blackmon, Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., 1954
Levi Otto Gratz, Assistant Director, 1954
Arthur Forrest Camp, Vice-Director in Charge, Citrus Station, 1956
Ouida Davis Abbott, Home Economist, Food Tech. and Nutr., 1958
Lillian E. Arnold, Associate Botanist, Plant Pathology Dept., 1958
P. T. Dix Arnold, Associate Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Dept., 1959
Jesse Roy Christie, Nematologist, Entomology Dept., 1960
Mark W. Emmel, Veterinarian, Vet. Sci. Dept., 1961
J. Francis Cooper, Editor and Head, Editorial Dept., 1961
Joseph Robert Neller, Soils Chemist, Soils Dept., 1962
Willard M. Fifield, Provost for Agriculture, 1962
William L. Thompson, Entomologist, Citrus Station, 1962
Ida K. Cresap, Librarian, Agricultural Library, 1963
Norman R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman and Head, Poultry Sci. Dept.,
Arther H. Eddins, Plant Pathologist in Charge. Potato Inv. Lab., 1963
Raymond B. Becker, Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Sci. Dept., 1963
William Angus Carver, Agronomist, Agronomy, Jan. 31, 1964
Archie Newton Tissot, Entomologist, Entomology Dept., June 30, 1964
Henry Glenn Hamilton, Economist and Head of Dept., Ag. Econ. Dept.,
June 30, 1965
Robert Verrill Allison, Fiber Technologist, Everglades Station, June 30, 1965
David Gustaf Alfred Kelbert, Assoc. Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station, June
30, 1965
Loren Haight Stover, Asst. in Horticulture, Watermelon and Grape Lab.,
June 30, 1965
John Wallace Wilson, Entomologist and Head, Central Fla. Station, June
30, 1966
James Sheldon Shoemaker, Horticulturist, Fruit Crops Dept., June 30, 1966
Arthur Minis Phillips, Assoc. Entomologist, Entomol. Dept., June 30, 1966

Commercial grants and gifts accepted as support for existing programs
during the year ending June 30, 1967. Financial assistance is hereby grate-
fully acknowledged.

Annual Report, 1967

Abbott Laboratories
Fruit Crops Department-$500
Allied Chemical Corporation
Soils Department-$1,000
Vegetable Crops Department--500
Citrus Station-$500
Everglades Station-$250
North Florida Station-$500
North Florida Station-$250
Range Cattle Station-$500
Suwannee Valley Station-$500
Potato Investigations Laboratory-$500
Indian River Field Laboratory-$250
American Cyanamid Company
Animal Science Department-$2,500
Sub-Tropical Station-$1,000
American Oil Company
Soils Department-$1,890
Central Florida Station-$900
Suwannee Valley Station-$4,000
American Potash Institute, Inc.
Vegetable Crops Department-$3,000
Suwannee Valley Station-$500
American Poultry and Hatchery Federation
Poultry Science Department-$1,000
Association of American Railroads
Forestry Department-$100

Basic, Inc.
Citrus Station-$4,000
Bird, Thomas B.
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory-$540
The Borden Chemical Company
Poultry Science Department-$3,000
Range Cattle Station-$1,425
Brevard County, Board of County Commissioners
Soils Department-$3,000
Brunswick Pulp and Paper Company
Forestry Department-$2,416
Soils Department-$4,000
The Buckeye Cellulose Corporation
Forestry Department-$2,416

California Chemical Company
Plant Pathology Department-$500
Plant Pathology Department-$500
Chemagro Corporation
Central Florida Station-$1,000
Citrus Station-$500
Everglades Station-$500
Everglades Station-$500
Everglades Station-$700
Chemsalt Corporation
Citrus Station-$15,000

24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Chevron Chemical Company
Everglades Station-$500
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory-$500
0. H. Clapp and Company
Agricultural Engineering Department-$3,200
Fruit Crops Department--$3,200
The Colonial Plastics Manufacturing Company
Sub-Tropical Station-$595
Commercial Solvents Corporation
Animal Science Department-$3,000
Range Cattle Station-$500
Conrad, H. S.
Botany Department-$250
Container Corporation of America
Forestry Department-$2,000
Continental Woodlands
Forestry Department-$2,416

D'Arcy, W. G.
Botany Department-$558
Davis, J. S.
Botany Department-$225
Diamond Alkali Company
Plant Pathologist Department-$500
Plant Pathology Department-$500
Soils Department-$500
Vegetable Crops Department-$500
Everglades Station-$1,500
North Florida Station-$500
Sub-Tropical Station-$1,000
Potato Investigations Laboratory-$500
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory-$500
Distillers Feed Research Council
Animal Science Department-$4,000
Poultry Science Department-$2,000
Dixie Lily Milling Company
Animal Science Department-$2,000
Doplex, Inc.
Sub-Tropical Station-$595
The DOW Chemical Company
Agronomy Department-$750
Agronomy Department-$500
Veterinary Science Department-$2,874

E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company, Inc.
Citrus Station-$750
Eastman Chemical Products, Inc.
Citrus Station-$500
Eaton Laboratories
Veterinary Science-$2,300
Veterinary Science-$1,500
Esso Research and Engineering Company
Central Florida Station-$1,000
Citrus Station-$5,000
Citrus Station-$5,000

Annual Report, 1967

Falstaff Brewing Company
Animal Science Department-$2,000
Firestone Tire and Battery Company
Plant Pathology Department-$1,640
Plant Pathology Department-$2,200
Florida Board of Forestry
Forestry Department-$1,000
Florida Citrus Commission
Citrus Station-$3,000
Florida LP Gas Association
Citrus Station-$3,000
Florida Sugarcane League, Inc.
Everglades Station-$5,730
Florida Veterinary Conference
Veterinary Science Department-$2,060
Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation
Citrus Station-$2,000
Everglades Station-$750
Everglades Station-$500
North Florida Station-$1,000
Sub-Tropical Station-$500
Ford Motor Company
Poultry Department-$2,000

Geigy Agricultural Chemicals
Citrus Station-$500
Citrus Station-$750
Everglades Station-$800
Everglades Station-$2,000
Everglades Station-$539
Sub-Tropical Station-$500
Sub-Tropical Station-$500
Sub-Tropical Station-$1,500
Glade and Grove Supply Company
Sub-Tropical Station-$801
W. R. Grace and Company
Citrus Station-$4,000

Harbor View Farm
Veterinary Science Department-$15,000
Hudson Pulp and Paper Company
Forestry Department-$2,000
International Copper Research Association, Inc.
Animal Science Department-$5,000
International Paper Company
Forestry Department-$2,000
Jensen-Salsbery Laboratories
Veterinary Science Department-$6,000
Kendall, H. E.
Sub-Tropical Station-$1,240
Kennicott Copper Corporation
Everglades Station-$1,500
Sub-Tropical Station-$1,500

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Eli Lilly and Company
Citrus Station-$1,300
Everglades Station-$500

Johns Manville Corporation
Sub-Tropical Station-$595
Masonite Corporation
Poultry Science Department-$2,500
McFarlin, J. B.
Botany Department-$1,387
Merck and Company, Inc.
Gulf Coast Station-$500
Mobil Oil Corporation
Fruit Crops Department-$3,000
Everglades Station-$1,000
Monsanto Company
Everglades Station-$1,000
Morton Chemical Company
Central Florida Station-$898
Gulf Coast Station-$912

National Feed Ingredients Association
Animal Science Department-$3,000
NOPCO Chemical Company
Animal Science Department-$4,500
Parke Davis and Company
Veterinary Science Department-$3,000
Perry, Albert R.
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$2,000
Pensalt Chemical Corporation
Suwannee Valley Station-$375
Chas. Pfizer and Company, Inc.
Animal Science Department-$2,000
Veterinary Science Department-$2,000
Phelps Dodge Refining Corporation
Citrus Station-$2,000
The Plastex Company
Sub-Tropical Station-$595
The Proctor and Gamble Company
Agronomy Department-$1,000
Rainy Sprinkler Sales
Sub-Tropical Station-$802
Rayonier, Inc.
Forestry Department-$2,416
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
Agronomy Department-$3,737
Agricultural Engineering Department-$1,263
Rohm and Haas Company
Sub-Tropical Station-$1,500
Scott Paper Company
Forestry Department-$2,000
Senninger Irrigation, Inc.
Sub-Tropical Station-$563

Annual Report, 1967 27

Shell Development Company
Agronomy Department-$500
Agronomy Department-$500
Central Florida Station-$800
Shell Chemical Company
Food Technology-$5,000
Vegetable Crops Department-$500
Central Florida Station-$500
Citrus Station-$500
Citrus Station-$1,650
Everglades Station-$1,000
Sub-Tropical Station-$500
Potato Investigations Laboratory-$500
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory-$500
Shimoda, Kaz
Poultry Science Department-$350
A. O. Smith Harvestore Products Inc.
West Florida Station-$20,000
Smith, F. S. (Flying S Ranch)
Animal Science Department-$15,000
Smith, Kline and French Laboratories
Veterinary Science Department-$3,000
Southern Forest Disease and Insect Research Council
Forestry Department-$700
Southwest Potash Corporation
Agronomy Department-$600
Stauffer Chemical Company
Citrus Station-$1,500
Everglades Station-$250
Sub-Tropical Station-$500
Sub-Tropical Station-$500
St. Regis Paper Company
Forestry Department-$2,416
Sterling Drug Company
Everglades Station-$1,250
Sucrest Corporation
Entomology Department-$1,100
Sun Oil Company
Ornamental Horticulture-$1,000
Central Florida Station-$750
Citrus Station-$1,000
Everglades Station-$750

Thompson-Hayward Chemical Company
Central Florida Station-$750
Central Florida Station-$500
Everglades Station-$1,000
Gulf Coast Station-$500
Gulf Coast Station-$750
Everglades Station-$1,000

Union Camp Corporation
Forestry Department-$2,416
Union Carbide Corporation
Citrus Station-$2,500

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The Upjohn Company
Range Cattle Station-$2,000
West Florida Station-$3,600

Wiggins, Ira L.
Botany Department-$212
Woodruff, R. E.
Botany Department-$500
Wood Treating Chemicals
Forestry Department-$200

Grants for basic research were accepted from national agencies as

Atomic Energy Commission:
Agronomy Department ........................ $ 20,538
Agronomy Department ............................. 10,500
Botany Department ................................ 8,100
Food Science Department ...........--.... ......- 74,687

National Institutes of Health:
Animal Science Department ................... 18,928
Animal Science Department ................. .... 10,897
Animal Science Department ..................... 36,559
Bacteriology Department ........ .......... 27,782
Bacteriology Department .... .............. 9,104
Bacteriology Department ..................... 20,026
Botany Department ..... ...............--- 14,740
Entomology Department ..........3................. 33,872
Entomology Department .................. 18,438
Food Science Department.................... 159,074
Poultry Science .... .... ........... .....- 20,997
Soils Department ...-......... 19,986
Veterinary Science Department ........ .. 20,322
Veterinary Science Department .......... 16,039
Veterinary Science Department .............. 19,620
Veterinary Science Department ........... .... 25,794
Veterinary Science Department ................. 500
Veterinary Science Department .............. 56,160
Citrus Station .. ..... ....... ...... .... .. 25,523
Citrus Station ...... .. .............. ... 98,755

Public Health Service:
Animal Science Department ......-..- 37,051

National Science Foundation:
Agricultural Engineering Department ....... 7,700
Bacteriology Department ....................... 1,500
Entomology Department ................. ......... 28,200
Citrus Station ... .. ........................ ... 1,350

United States Department of Agriculture:
Agricultural Economics Department ...............$ 90,000
Agricultural Economics Department ............. .. 11,000

Annual Report, 1967 29

Entomology Department ......................... 15,890
Entomology Department ...................... 15,350
Entomology Department .................. 28,325
Entomology Department .............. ...... 20,000
Entomology Department and
Everglades Station .............. .. ............ 20,000
Entomology Department and
Sub-Tropical Station ........... ... 31,020
Forestry Department ......................... 3,000
Soils Department ... ........ ................ 75,000
Veterinary Science Department ................... 20,000
Everglades Station .. .......... 4,300
Gulf Coast Station ... ... .. ............... .. 3,000

American Cancer Society, Inc.
Agronomy Department ... ................. $10,848

Resources for the Future, Inc.
Agricultural Economics ............. .................. 70,528


Fla. Agricultural
Experiment Station Grants and Total
General Revenue Incidental Donations State
Funds Funds Funds Funds

Salaries and wages $5,352,251.75 $121,238.94 $526,905.95 $6,000,396.64
Travel 164,426.14 13,749.15 39,031.62 217,206.91
Transportation and communication 77,628.10 7,759.05 3,293.47 88,680.62
Utilities 121,483.04 13,743.06 3,297.16 138, 523.26
Printing 54,721.83 487.82 3,426.90 58,636.55
Repairs and maintenance 41,673.64 14,094.82 11,817.90 67,586.36
Contractual services 18,523.88 4,967.84 8.468.45 31,960.17
Rentals 29,535.21 18,538.38 1,101.50 49,175.09
Other current charges and obligations 19,458.34 13,294.40 15,543.39 48,296.13
Supplies and materials 500,535.86 449,255.21 158,179.50 1,107,970.57
Equipment 150,890.89 64,629.04 142,172.73 357,692.66
Land and buildings 25,572.42 51,175.40 24,130.32 100,878.14
Special appropriation-building fund 161,486.94 161,486.94

Total state funds $6,718,188.04 $772,933.11 $937,368.89 $8,428,490.04


Hatch Research McIntire- Total
Funds Funds Stennis Federal Funds

Salaries and wages $528,156.40 $82,756.36 $43,201.46 $654,114.22
Travel 913.25 3,527.01 684.89 5,125.15
Transportation and communication 316.99 4,668.21 731.58 5,716.78
Utilities -0- 5,317.54 4,294.36 9,611.90
Printing 185.04 174.96 40.35 400.35
Repairs and maintenance 20.32 480.97 306.69 807.98
Contractual services 300.63 1,219.94 554.87 2,075.44
Rentals 470.00 7.50 477.50
Other current charges and obligations -0- 50.50 -0- 50.50
Materials and supplies 8,364.62 15,196.88 8,824.50 32,386.00
Equipment 69,863.32 8,422.55 19,579.16 97,865.03
Land and buildings 14,361.69 880.00 5,499.88 20,741.57

Total federal expenditures $622,952.26 $122,694.92 $83,725.24 $829,372.42

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research was conducted under 34 projects. Four projects were closed.
The department continued its arrangement of coordinating its research
program with the Florida Citrus Commission in the area of economics and
marketing of citrus fruit. During the year four bulletins, 13 Agricultural
Economics Mimeo Reports, and four journal articles were published.

Hatch Project 186 Zach Savage
Money spent annually on bearing groves for labor, power, and equipment
increased since 1931. Five-year average costs increased from $22.70 per
acre in 1931-36 to $110.72 in 1961-66. See Table 1. This was an increase
of 388%.
Table 1.-Trends in money spent for labor, power, and equipment.
Per-Acre Data Per-Box Data
5-Year Cost Percent of Cost Percent of
Periods Operating Operating
Dollars Index Cost Dollars Index Cost
1931-36 22.70 100 40 0.18 100 39
1936-41 23.19 102 40 0.13 72 39
1941-46 41.40 182 42 0.16 89 41
1946-51 72.67 320 49 0.23 128 49
1951-56 88.14 388 46 0.24 133 45
1956-61 109.27 481 50 0.36 200 49
1961-66 110.72 488 46 0.41 228 47

There has been no adjustment made in these data for the changes in
the value of the dollar during this period. Average age of trees increased,
which accounts for some of the increase in money spent for labor, power,
and equipment. Increased yields in fruit per acre tended to offset these costs
per acre, resulting in smaller increases in costs per box. This item of cost
constituted slightly less than half of operating or cash costs per acre and
per box.
State Project 615 (Revised) R. E. L. Greenel
This experiment is designed to determine the relative productivity
and profitableness of cows of different proportion of English and
Braham blood when run on pasture programs designed to supply low,
medium, and good levels of nutrition. Physical input and output data
for the various programs have been accumulated. Costs and price data
are being obtained in preparation of making an economic analysis. Costs

1This experiment is a joint project between the Range Cattle Station and Animal
Science Department. The Department of Agricultural Economics is a cooperator on the

Annual Report, 1967 33

of performing various operations under ranch conditions will be used in
the evaluation to reflect expected net income from various programs if
followed by commercial ranchers.

State Project 627 (Revision No. 2) R. E. L. Greene2
This experiment is designed to evaluate pasture programs varying in
intensities of fertilization and levels of management in terms of forage
production, soil nutrient balance, and rate and economy of beef production.
The present phase of the experiment was started in the fall of 1964.
The number of programs was reduced from five to three. The present
experiment contains one grass-clover program, one grass-clover program
with temporary grazing crops, and one grass-clover program about half
of which is irrigated with seepage irrigation.
As has been true in the other two phases of the experiment, Program
1, which receives the lowest rate of fertilizer, continues to be the program
with the lowest costs of producing beef and the highest net returns. In
the 1965-66 season, the cost per pound of beef produced was 18.45 cents
on Program 1, 21.67 cents on Program 2, and 20.70 cents on Program 3.

State Project 701 R. E. L. Greene and B. J. Smith
The summary and analysis of records from dairy farm operators in
Southeast Florida for 1965 was completed. In the analysis the dairy
farms were divided into four groups. Groups I, II, and III were single
unit farms with different size herds. Group IV included multiple unit
farms where there were two or more herds on one or more farms milked
in different dairy barns. The net cost per gallon of milk was 55.09
cents on Group I farms, 51.94 on Group II farms, 52.36 on Group III
farms, and 52.46 cents on Group IV farms.
The study of optimal dairy cow replacement policies, initiated last
year, was continued. The variables which most adequately explain differ-
ences in expected net returns to dairy cows have been quantified and are
now being used as parameters in the two major alternative replacement
models currently being analyzed. The two models are both recursive or
sequential stochastic formulations of the replacement process; the first
optimizes forward, and the second in a backward fashion in the manner
of Bellmans' dynamic programming.

State Project 970 D. L. Brooke
Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida were obtained
from growers and summarized for 13 different vegetables in nine of
the major producing areas of the state. The 1965-66 season was less
2This experiment is a cooperative project between the Departments of Agricultural
Economics, Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Animal Science, and Soils.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

profitable than 1964-65 for most vegetable growers because of increasing
labor and material costs. Net losses were recorded for growers of
sweet corn in all areas, for tomatoes in Dade County, and vine-ripe
tomatoes in the Palm Beach-Broward area. Other losses were noted for
watermelons, cucumbers, and Irish potatoes in the Immokalee-Lee area
and leaf crops in the Everglades area. Adverse weather affected yield
and quality in most areas.


State Project 995 R. E. L. Greene3
The objective of this study is to compare beef production and income
from heifers bred first at one versus two years of age. Selected replace-
ment heifers from the Beef Research Herd are randomized each year into
two groups. Group I are bred as yearlings and Group II at two years
of age. In Phase I of the experiment, at the beginning of the second
breeding period for Group I heifers, when the calves were about two
months old they were taken from their mothers and sold as veal calves.
The net cost to raise a heifer to about 27 months of age was about the
same for each group when the value of the veal calves was credited to
the Group I heifers.
The experiment is now in Phase II in which the calves are being left
on the Group I heifers to the normal weaning period. Various physical
production data are being collected for Phase II of the experiment.
Sufficient data are not yet available for an economic analysis.

State Project 1027 R. E. L. Greene4
The objective of this study is to determine the relative economic
returns for several methods of handling stocker steers in growing them
to market weight. Five lots of 20 steers each were confined to 10 acre
lots of St. Augustine grass pasture. Lots 1, 2, and 3 were fed 0, 5,
and 10 pounds of concentrates per head per day, respectively, on pasture
until they reached approximately 850 pounds and then fattened in drylot
to a weight of about 1,040 pounds. Lot 4 was full fed concentrates
on pasture until the steers reached market weight. Lot 5 was fed a
molasses-vegefat mixture on pasture until the steers reached market
Lot 5 was fed a total of 525 days. It showed the highest return
over the cost of supplemental feeds. Lot I was fed a total of 451 days.
It showed the second highest return over the cost of supplemental
feeds. Lot 3 and 4 had a negative return over the costs of supplemental

sThis project is being carried on by the Animal Science Department. The Department
of Agricultural Economics is a cooperator on the study.
'This is a cooperative project with the Everglades Experiment Station.

Annual Report, 1967

State Project 1127 A. H. Spurlock
Time studies and performance rates were summarized for each of
three systems of harvesting and delivering to the fresh packing line,
and input-output comparisons were prepared for each system. Cost
tables were revised to incorporate changes in labor rates and machine
costs which may affect the several systems differently.
The field box system is a more expensive way of fruit handling at
all volumes studied than either the full bulk or pallet box systems. At
annual volume ranges of 200,000 to 700,000 boxes per year the saving
appears to be about 6 to 8 cents per box by using either of the bulk
handling methods.

State Project 1133 G. N. Rose, D. K. Rudser
and Frank Aigner6
Acreage, production, and value of 17 major vegetable, melon, potato,
and strawberry crops during the 1965-66 season, supplemented by an
estimated 45,550 acres of other vegetables, totaled 422,250 acres planted,
of which 393,700 acres were harvested. Production totaled 48.4 million
cwt at an estimated f.o.b. level value of 256.8 million dollars. These data
were released in 1967 in Florida Agricultural Statistics, Vegetable Sum-
mary, 1966.
Data obtained from farmers, shippers, and sellers, weighted against
shipments of record, were the basis of revisions of earlier estimates, fore-
casts, and prices received. Estimates of acreage and production at county
and area level were made concurrently. Census data were analyzed.
Crops were revised where indicated necessary.
Preliminary acreages were estimated and production was forecast on
16 commodities divided into 39 seasonal groupings with current monthly
releases. Preliminary estimates indicate harvested acreages of the 17
major crops (including squash) to have been 329,250 in 1966-67 vs.
342,450 the previous season. The effect of the February 26 severe freeze
on spring Irish potatoes accounts for a good portion of this differential.
Cooperative efforts of USDA, the Experiment Station, and industry
organizations provided data for weekly releases of acreage inventories,
with comparisons, on Dade County pole beans, all celery, South Florida
sweet corn, and all tomatoes. In collaboration with environmental serv-
ices, USDC, the Extension Service and farmers, weekly releases of
weather data and produce news notes were made. A weekly press
release was furnished news media. At least one national and one state
weekly periodical carried this release verbatim, others in part or in
Weekly consultations assisted the editor of Florida Produce Guide
Lines, a release of the Division of Marketing, MNS, FDA.
Data, historic and current, were used as a basis for Florida Vegetable

5In collaboration with the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Orlando.
*Agricultural Statistician, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Guides for the 1966-67 season and again, in preparation of a similar
report for 1967-68, as general marketing information and background
data for various research projects.

State Project 1162 W. K. McPherson
To the extent the market for feed and livestock products has the
attributes of a perfect market, the relationship between the cost of live-
stock feed and the cost of shipping livestock products between the Midwest
and Florida from April 1964 through March 1965 indicates: (a) Florida
fluid milk and fresh egg producers had a definite feed cost advantage,
(b) Florida broiler producers had a slight feed cost advantage, and
(c) Florida beef cattle and hog producers had a slight feed cost advantage
over producers near Cincinnati. Between Kansas City and East St. Louis
and Florida locations, the feed costs were favorable to Florida producers
when the meat was shipped in the form of carcasses by common carrier
The existence of a substantial movement of primal and lean cuts of
pork into Florida during the period suggests that there may not have
been a ready market for lard at Midwestern prices plus transportation
costs. If this was true, the competitive position of Florida hog producers
was considerably less favorable than the position of beef producers.
The rate at which the broiler, beef, and pork industries expand in
Florida will be greatly influenced by the relationship the I.C.C. main-
tains between the transportation rates on feed grains and meat. Lowering
the freight rates on meat without a corresponding decrease in the feed
grain freight rate will seriously retard the expansion of the broiler,
cattle, and hog industries in Florida and other deficit feed grain produc-
tion areas. On the other hand, a reduction in feed grain freight rates
without a corresponding reduction in meat rates will stimulate the Mid-
western livestock producers to adjust to technological change and take
fuller advantage of the economies of scale.

Hatch Project 1172 R. E. L. Greene
The purpose of this study was to determine production practices of
beef producers, and to evaluate the economic potential of selected systems
of beef production as a means of making a more profitable use of farm
and human resources in the Suwannee River Development Area. The
analysis of the data showed that as the beef enterprise was conducted
on the average farm it added little if any to net farm income. An
analysis of a representative small and large beef enterprise showed that
efficiency could be improved if a suggested level of practices was followed.
vever, net returns would be low if charged with all costs. Treated
as a supplemental enterprise, a beef herd would add to net farm income.
This project is closed with this report.

Annual Report, 1967 37

State Project 1173 M. R. Godwin, W. T. Manley
and K. M. Gilbraith
The manuscript, "Industry Perceptions About the Marketing Agree-
ment Program for Florida Tomatoes", has been cleared by the Experiment
Station Review Committee and is in process of being published. The project
will be closed with the release of this report.

State Project 1187 D. E. Alleger
(Regional Project S-56)
A draft of a regional manuscript relating to goals and provisions
for older age has been prepared for publication cooperatively by Alabama,
Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, and Texas. It is anticipated this manuscript
will be published in bulletin form by the Georgia Agricultural Experiment
Another bulletin relating to hobbies and organizations of rural people,
and their leisure expectations for retirement, is in preparation for
publication by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Two other
bulletins are being developed in Florida. One relates to income planning
for retirement and the other to medical costs of rural families in the

State Project 1190 W. K. McPherson
(Regional Project SM-27)
The analysis of prices paid for livestock in the Southeast during 1962
shows that the prices of comparable classes and grades of slaughter
cattle in deficit beef producing areas are generally lower than in surplus
beef producing areas. This is contrary to the economic theory which
postulates that the price of a commodity in areas not producing all of
that commodity consumed there should be higher than its price in surplus
producing areas by the cost of shipping the product from one area to
the other. The extent to which cattle prices in the Southeast fall below
the expected level varies from class to class, from grade to grade, among
locations, throughout time, and with weight. A statistical analysis of
the impact of these and other possible factors affecting the cattle prices
in 34 sub-areas of the South is now being made.

Hatch Project 1199 C. E. Murphree
A summary of this research appears in a publication of the Depart-
ment of Agricultural Economics, South Carolina Agricultural Experiment
Station (AE-293). The publication of a more detailed report which is
pending will terminate the project.
The conclusion reached is as follows: Grower marketing programs
create interest conflicts within the grower group and between growers

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

and the marketing system, consumers, and competing grower groups.
While the interest conflict between growers and the marketing system
is the most critical from the standpoint of initiating a marketing program,
after a program is in operation interest conflicts between growers often
result in the termination of a marketing program or drastically reduce
its effectiveness.
While this project will be terminated, a following project is planned
which will deal with the income implications of changes in the structure
of factor ownership for both growers and the local economy.

State Project 1200 C. D. Covey
Work during the year consisted of the completion of the analysis of
the county land use control enabling laws assembled during the earlier
field work phase of the project. A final report entitled "Zoning and Land
Use Control Authority in Florida Counties," Agricultural Economics Report
EC 67-5, was prepared and issued in January 1967.
The project is closed with this report.

State Project 1204 W. K. McPherson
The data on consumer preferences for the beef produced from the
final lot of calves slaughtered in the spring of 1966 and two lots of
calves slaughtered in 1967 have been processed. Several revisions have
been made in the program that has been selected to analyze the data,
but it is not yet operational. This program should be perfected by the
time all of the 1967 data becomes available.

State Project 1234 A. H. Spurlock
Records of births, disposal dates, replacements, and causes of losses
were continued on five dairy herds. Data were combined with results
previously obtained to determine useful life span, depreciation rates, and
reasons for replacements.
The life span of 5,136 replaced cows averaged 6.4 years or about
4.4 years in the milking herd. The disposal rate increased rapidly after
the first year in the herd, and after three years only 64% of the original
animals remained. After five years only 37% were still in the herd.
Cows reaching age 6 (4 years in the herd) had a life expectancy of
2.6 additional years and averaged 8.6 years of life; cows reaching age
10 had 1.7 years of life expectancy and averaged 11.7 years of life.
Live disposals from the herd were principally for low production,
33.6%; mastitis or some form of udder trouble, 24.2%; and reproductive
troubles, 20.5%. These three reasons or combinations of them were
responsible for 80.4% of the live disposals. About 7% of the live disposals
were for unstated reasons.
Deaths from all causes accounted for 12.8% of all disposals.
(See also Project 1234, Dairy Science Department.)

Annual Report, 1967

Hatch Project 1243 A. H. Spurlock and D. L. Brooke
(Regional SM-30)
Bush type green bean harvesters were observed under field conditions.
Machines operated at a rate of 0.63 acres harvested per hour of machine
operation with a picking efficiency of about 78%. An average of 7.48
man hours and 3.20 machine hours were required to harvest and haul
the yield from 1 acre. The cost per acre of machine harvesting is directly
related to the amount of use of the equipment.
Celery cutting machines were observed in operation at Belle Glade. They
were saving some labor and eliminating the task of hand cutting, even
though not operated at full capacity. When the new system is fully syn-
chronized, the labor requirement should be substantially less, though
partially offset costwise by increased machine requirements.
Sweet corn harvesting machines operating at Belle Glade and Zellwood
also were more efficient in use of labor than hand pulling and left fewer
marketable ears in the field. Grading labor was increased somewhat by
leaves and stalks included.
(See also Project 1243, Food Science Department.)

State Project 1244 D. E. Alleger
(Regional Project S-61)
All data required for Project 1244 in Florida were gathered in 1966.
Altogether 102 clusters in a 705-cluster sample were surveyed. The records
taken were classified as (1) "short" and (2) "in-depth". The short records
were essentially brief family residential and occupational histories, of which
321 were taken. In-depth records were probings of attitudes in respect to
residential and occupational decision-making. Responses were taken from
66 husbands and 65 wives. All these data have now been coded, but IBM
cards have not been prepared for use.

Hatch Project 1326 B. J. Smith
(Regional SM-28)
Project 1018 was closed out during the year, and the work under SM-28
was carried forward under this project (1326), initiated at the time 1018
was terminated.
Work related to SM-28 consisted of the development, by sub-state areas,
of refined estimates of the 1965 price of half-gallons of whole, homogenized
milk in paper cartons, of the production of milk for the years 1954 through
1965, and of the number of Florida dairy farms for the same years. These
data are to be used by the SM-28 Technical Committee, along with those
supplied by the other cooperating states, to determine the economically
optimum movement of raw and packaged fluid milk products between all
designated sub-state production and consumption areas of the South.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


State Project 1330 A. J. Minden
Optimum allocations of citrus supplies were developed with the use of
quadratic programming. The emphasis of the research in the 1966-67
period was upon the retail and producer sections of the industry. The
methodological framework for solving the constrained maximization problem
via quadratic programming was published in the Southern Journal of Busi-
ness ("Quadratic Programming: A Tool for Estimating Optimal Final
Product Combinations," Vol. 2, No. 2, April 1967, by A. J. Minden).
The project will be broadened in scope in the 1967-68 period to include
non-retail (i.e., institutional as well as retail markets for citrus products.
An attempt will also be made to solve the optimization problem via the

State Project 1340 A. H. Spurlock
Citrus harvesting costs for 27 firms, 1965-66, averaged 46.1 cents per
box for picking oranges, 37.8 cents for picking grapefruit, and $1.07 for
picking tangerines. Hauling from roadside to plant cost an additional 12.0
cents per box.
Cost of packing and selling .Florida fresh citrus fruit per 1-3/5 bushel
equivalent by 38 packinghouses, 1965-66, averaged as follows:

Container Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines

1-3/5 bushel wirebound box $1.27 $1.16 $ -
4/5 bushel wirebound box (half Bruce) 1.58 1.43 1.72
4/5 bushel fiberboard box 1.49 1.41
5 lb. mesh bag in master carton 2.32 2.22
5 lb. poly. bag in master carton 1.84 1.74

Packinghouse costs for handling all fruit ranged from 20% below average
to 29% above average for individual houses. Fifteen of the 38 houses were
within 5% of the average cost.
Costs of processing, warehousing, and selling typical citrus products
from 19 plants, 1965-66, averaged per case for single strength orange juice
in 12/46 oz. cans, unsweetened, $1.75; for grapefruit sections in 24/303
cans, $2.94; for frozen orange concentrate in 48/6 oz. cans, $2.38, or $0.59
per gallon equivalent, excluding packaging materials. Processing of citrus
feed cost $23.59 per ton.
Results of the year's work were distributed to dealers, packers, and
processors in three mimeographed summaries for the 1965-66 season: (1)
Costs of Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits, (2) Costs of Packing
and Selling Florida Fresh Citrus Fruits, and (3) Costs of Processing, Ware-
housing, and Selling Florida Citrus Products.

Annual Report, 1967 41


State Project 1351 M. R. Langham
The problem of fluctuating orange supplies and grower profits in the
frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) industry was investigated with a
DYNAMO simulation model which extended an earlier model by W. E.
Jarmain (Dynamics of the Florida Frozen Orange Concentrate Industry,
unpublished Master's thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cam-
bridge, Massachusetts). The model was used to compare the effectiveness
of six policies in stabilizing orange supplies and grower profits at an ac-
ceptable level. The policies were: free market policy; allocation of FCOJ
to two markets (primary and secondary) with different demand elasticities;
removal of fully productive trees at a specified level of grower profits;
curtailment of new tree plantings at a specified level of grower profits;
allocation of FCOJ to two markets plus removal of fully productive trees;
and allocation of FCOJ to two markets plus curtailment of new tree plant-
ings. The free market policy was simulated for 20 years under six sets of
randomly selected weather conditions. The other policies were simulated
under two sets of weather conditions. The results of the secondary market
policy were used to evaluate the feasibility of a marketing pool.
Those policies which control supply by limiting the number of orange
trees appear to have the most potential for success. Conversely, policies
which control supplies on a year-to-year basis appear less desirable since
they actually encourage new tree plantings, thus creating long-run supply
and profit problems.
This project will be closed with the publication of a manuscript which
is in the early stages of preparation.

Florida Agricultural Production Index.-Index numbers measuring the
total volume of agricultural production annually by commodity groups
have been brought up to date through 1966. Crop production in 1966
was 7% higher than in 1965 and was 92% above the 1947-49 average.
Production of livestock and livestock products increased by 11% over 1965
and was 193% above the 1947-49 period. Production of all crops and
livestock was 8% above the preceding year and was 114% higher than
in 1947-49.
The citrus group increased in production in 1966 by 13%. Vegetable
production increased by 6% from the preceding year, with cabbage
gaining 30% and sweet corn 11%. Sugarcane for sugar increased
11%. Production decreases for crops were shown by cotton and cotton-
seed, 32%; tobacco, 6%; and peanuts, 12%.
Production for poultry products increased by 24% in 1966, meat
animals by 2%, and fluid milk by 3%. (A. H. Spurlock)

Cost and Volume Relationships for Picking, Hauling, and Packing and
Selling Florida Oranges.-The objectives of this study were to estimate the
long-run cost curves for picking, hauling, and packing and selling
Florida oranges and to examine the implications of these cost-volume
relationships for the citrus industry. Estimates for the packing and

Floridt, Agricultural Experiment Stations

selling operation were for oranges moving into the fresh market.
Specifically, cross-sectional and time series data were combined within
the framework of covariance analysis to empirically verify the theoretical
concept of an economic planning curve.
Statistical tests indicated that every volume coefficient in the estimated
equations was significantly different from zero and consistent with economic
An analysis of the shift in the long-run average cost structure due
to technological improvements indicated that over time a sizeable shift
had occurred downward and to the right in the cost structure.
The results indicate that firms in the industry could decrease costs
considerably by increasing their size of operation. The estimated func-
tions indicated that the average firm was operating at 21, 17, and 38%
of an estimated "least-cost" volume for picking, hauling, and packing
and selling Florida oranges, respectively.
A paper from this study is being prepared for the 1967 meeting
of the Florida State Horticultural Society. (M. R. Langham and A. H.

Economic Externalities in Pesticide Use.-The objective of this research
project is to identify and measure economic externalities arising from
the agricultural use of pesticides in Dade County, Florida. The impli-
cations of these externalities for society's welfare will be considered.
The project will be a two-year effort, and is sponsored by Resources
for the Future, Inc., a non-profit research organization funded by the
Ford Foundation. (M. R. Langham and W. F. Edwards)
Movement of Citrus Trees From Florida Nurseries.-Movement of citrus
trees from Florida nurseries to Florida destinations was the second
highest of the 38 years of record. The movement in 1965-66 was
3,411,755 trees. This was the second season when more than 3 million
trees were moved but was a reduction of 9% from the previous season.
Fifty-six percent of the 1965-66 movement was orange trees, 23%
grapefruit, 10% tangerine, 8% tangelo, and 3% other citrus. Forty
percent of the movement was on lemon stock, 38% on sour orange, 16% on
cleopatra mandarin, 1% on sweet seedling, and 5% on other stocks. (Zach

Costs and Returns on the West Florida Dairy Unit.-Assistance was
again given to J. B. White in summarizing records to show costs and
returns in producing milk and also cash costs for various crop enter-
prises on the West Florida Dairy Unit. This is the seventh year that
records have been summarized for this unit. There was a continued
increase in pounds of milk sold per cow. However, increased attention
needs to be given to overall efficiency if the farm is to become an
economical unit. (R. E. L. Greene)

Competition for Florida Fruit and Vegetable Crops.-The degree of
competition which Florida faces is provided by tabulating weekly carlot
shipments of selected fruits and vegetables from Florida, other states,
and foreign countries during the Florida shipping season. They are
valuable to industry groups in the preparation of statistics for hearings
on freight rates and marketing agreements and in establishing annual
movement patterns of Florida crops. Allied service industries may find
them valuable in planning peak movement and supply requirements.

Annual Report, 1967

"Florida Truck Crop Competition" was published as Agricultural
Economics Mimeo Report EC67-1. (D. L. Brooke)

Inter- and Intra-State Truck Movements of Livestock and Meat.-The
Experiment Station is cooperating with the Florida Department of
Agriculture and the Statistical Reporting Service of USDA in designing
a questionnaire to collect data on the movement of livestock and meat
through the Road Guard Stations along the Suwannee River. The data
now being collected are being recorded on I.B.M. cards and stored on
electronic tape for future research. Data for the first 12 months in
which this program has been in operation have been helpful in designing
sales programs for feeder calves and determining the origin of meat ship-
ped out of the state. (W. K. McPherson)

Analysis of a Proposed Storage Program for Frozen Concentrated
Orange Juice.-At the request of the Florida Canners Association, a legis-
lative proposal (popularly known as the "Anti-Freeze" bill) was evaluated
under the assumption that no major freezes would occur over the next
decade. It was concluded that a storage program for surplus concen-
trated orange juice was not economically feasible. This conclusion was
based not only upon current market conditions, but also upon economic
logic and the experience of previous agricultural storage programs. It
was recommended that additional and basic economic research be con-
ducted in the following areas before a definite answer could be given:
demand projections; supply projections; the effect of surplus stocks
upon current market prices; and the effect of stockpile liquidations on
current market prices. Some of the detailed findings were as follows:
(a) if it is assumed that the market for frozen concentrated orange
juice will increase 10 million gallons per year and that the market
for other forms of Florida's oranges will increase at an annual rate
of 6%, then the surplus of frozen concentrated orange juice will accumu-
late at an average annual rate of 29 million gallons of 45 Brix over
the next decade; (b) approximately $2.28 million would be required
to construct a warehouse, provide one year of variable storage costs,
and procure the equivalent of one million boxes of oranges in the form
of 65' Brix frozen concentrated orange juice; (c) estimated total variable
storage costs are estimated to increase from $298 thousand in the first
year to $3.6 million in the tenth year; (d) tax revenues (at 6 cents per
box) are sufficient to acquire an average of 4.7 million boxes of oranges
per year for the next 10 years. This is based on the assumption that
administration, warehouse construction, and variable storage costs have
prior right to payment. (L. Polopolus, F. W. Williams)

The Incentive Brand Advertising Program of the Florida Citrus Com-
mission.-The Incentive Brand Advertising Program for processed orange
products was evaluated at the request of the Florida Citrus Commission.
The program permits brand owners of processed orange products from
Florida to receive advertising rebates of one-half of the national line
rate for approved advertising. A tax of 1 cent per pound of solids for
concentrated juices (or 1 cent per gallon for single strength juices)
provides the necessary tax revenues for advertising rebate payments.
Tax monies not utilized for brand advertising within a specified period
revert to the Advertising Trust Fund of the Commission for generic
(i.e., commodity) advertising. Because of the complicated nature of
the program and the initially rigid eligibility requirements, program

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

participation increased only as regulations became less rigid and com-
munications with brand owners improved. Through July of 1966, 60%
of the expired advertising receipts were disbursed to brand owners (i.e.,
$1.897 million of $3.157 million). Since July of 1966, the relaxation of
advertising copy requirements and the newly adopted method of handling
tear sheets for 1,650 daily newspapers removed serious impediments to
program participation. Qualified orange products newspaper advertising,
expressed as a percent of total advertising, increased from 54.8% in
April of 1966 to 71.9% in December of 1966. The bulk of the newspaper
advertising was purchased by local-as opposed to national-advertisers.
Advertising of frozen concentrated orange juice was particularly pro-
nounced among the national sample of program participants. Approxi-
mately two-thirds of the participants felt that their cost of participation
was less than their relative gain. This favorable indication was dominant
among respondents representing national chains, regional chains, coop-
eratives, and dairy processors. Some additional findings were as follows:
(a) the incentive rebate program has had a positive effect upon approxi-
mately one-half of the participants, particularly with respect to increasing
the number and size of the ads; (b) there is a relatively large volume
of advertising credits expiring among private label citrus processors (i.e.,
packer label firms received approximately 90% of their accrued adver-
tising credits, while private label firms received approximately 34%);
(c) 94% of the sample of participants advertised in newspapers, while
the radio and television media were utilized by roughly 30%; (d)
unfamiliarity with the program and the lack of an advertising program
were commonly cited as reasons for not participating. (L. Polopolus,
F. W. Williams)
Marketing Grade 1 Versus Grade 2 Oranges and Grapefruit in Florida.-
The Florida Citrus Commission requested that a proposed amendment
that would prohibit the sale of U.S. No. 2 fresh citrus fruit within the
State of Florida be studied. Under present regulations, the intrastate
sales of U.S. No. 2 oranges and grapefruit are permitted. It was
generally concluded that the sale of U. S. No. 2 fresh fruit should not
be prohibited within the State of Florida. This conclusion was supported
by economic logic and a retail store experiment, interviews with retail
purchasers of Grade 1 and Grade 2 fruit, a survey of Florida fresh fruit
packers, and a survey of Florida roadside fruit stands. The specific
findings were as follows: (a) Orange and grapefruit purchasers in six
Orlando supermarkets showed no significant preferences for either Grade
1 or Grade 2 fruit at the same prices or at a series of price differences.
(b) Orange purchasers in three Tampa supermarkets of one chain indi-
cated a preference for Grade 1 fruit when it was priced 6 cents per
dozen higher than Grade 2. In three Tampa supermarkets of another
chain, orange purchasers preferred Grade 2 oranges when Grade 1 fruit
was priced at 9.6 cents per dozen higher. A majority of the purchasers
in both chains were unaware of differences in the appearance of the two
grades of fruit when displayed side by side. (c) Approximately 57%
of the Florida fresh fruit packers surveyed favored a ban on intrastate
sales of Grade 2 fresh fruit. The grade regulations favored by packers
were influenced by the grades currently being packed. (c) Very small
differences exist in prices charged at roadside stands for Grades 1 and 2
oranges and grapefruit. The range in prices within grades is very wide.

Annual Report, 1967

(e) Market experience and research suggest that retail sales of fresh
fruit are more responsive to price changes than processed citrus products.
If this is true, diversion of fresh fruit to processed products will decrease
total industry revenue. To the extent that a ban on sales of Grade 2
fresh fruit reduces the market for fresh fruit, total industry returns
will be reduced. (F. W. Williams)
A Method of Estimating Weekly Citrus Harvest Labor Requirements.-
Because of likely increases in future citrus production, plus the increas-
ingly difficult problem of recruiting an adequate harvest labor supply,
the Florida citrus industry is interested in developing methods of pro-
jecting harvest labor requirements. In lieu of reliable work standards
data, the regression technique was issued to estimate weekly harvest labor
needs. Quadratic, cubic, and logarithmic functions were fitted to the
data. For the early harvesting period (i.e., prior to January 1 of each
season) the variables were defined to include: total weekly harvest labor,
weekly citrus utilization, and weekly specialty fruit (tangerines and
tangelos) as a percent of total citrus utilization in the same week. It
was found that labor requirements increase at a decreasing rate as
weekly volume increases to 5.024 million boxes, assuming that specialty
fruit account for 7% of total weekly utilization. For the late harvesting
period it was found that harvest labor requirements increase at a de-
creasing rate as weekly volume of fruit increases to 5.878 million boxes,
but increase at an increasing rate beyond 5.878 million boxes.
On the assumption of a 164 million box crop, the regression models
employed estimated that 26,072 harvest workers would be required in
the peak week. The peak week is expected to occur during the fourth
week of January. (L. Polopolus)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Research was conducted on eight projects. New work was initiated
in several areas relating to the mechanical harvesting of fresh market
A new laboratory has been established for measuring physical prop-
erties of vegetables that can be associated with mechanical harvesting.
Major new instruments in the laboratory are an Instron Universal
Testing machine and a Polaroid camera-oscilloscope readout. Also, with
the aid of a National Science Foundation grant, a TR-48 Analog Computer
has been added for general teaching and research application.
Personnel changes were the resignations of Dr. J. F. Beeman, Assist-
ant Agricultural Engineer, and Dr. I. J. Ross, Associate Agricultural
Two research findings of note were the determination of the effect
of duration of coloring time of tobacco on the subsequent yield by J. M.
Myers and the relating of physical properties of tomatoes to harvesting
and handling techniques by Dr. R. C. Fluck.

State Project 627 J. M. Myers
This is the first report on the third phase of this project and covers
the period October 1, 1965, through September 30, 1966. One of the
three pasture programs in the experiment involves the use of seepage
irrigation as a cultural practice. About one half of the 33 acres in
this program are irrigated at intervals according to a plan outlined in
the 1966 Annual Report on this project.
The program is designed to evaluate cattle and pasture responses
and to develop management techniques where irrigated and non-irrigated
pasture acreage is available in about equal proportions.
Rainfall supplied adequate soil moisture except during the months
of April and May, when it was necessary to apply about 8 inches of
irrigation water in four applications to adequately satisfy soil moisture
requirements. The seepage irrigation method of water distribution appears
to function satisfactorily and operational labor requirement is extreme-
ly low.
Production data from the first year's operation does not indicate
any strong trends with regards to the value of this type of pasture
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agronomy, Animal
Science, and Soils departments.)

Hatch Project 1034 J. M. Myers
Experiments were conducted in the tobacco bulk curing laboratory
facility to further investigate bulk curing techniques.
The duration of the coloring time for tobacco influences the market
weight and buyer demand for the cured leaf. A replicated study to

Annual Report, 1967

evaluate these influences gave results which indicates that when compared
to a normal 2-day coloring time, net weight losses of 3.5 and 7.0%
occur when the coloring time is extended to 3 and 4 days respectively.
The color of the cured leaf changed from lemon to variegated lemon as
the coloring time was increased from 2 to 4 days. Based on 1966
price averages, the value of tobacco colored for 2 and 3 days was about
equal, while the 4-day coloring time suppressed the leaf value by 3 to 4%.
The petiole of the tobacco leaf consists primarily of stem. The
stem is difficult and costly to cure and is of little value to cigarette
manufacturers. The bulk system for curing tobacco lends itself to sim-
plified techniques for removing the leaf petiole prior to curing. An
experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect on yield and quality
of tobacco as a result of removing 2% and 5-inch segments from the
petiole end of the leaf prior to curing. The uncured weight of the leaf
was reduced by 14.2 and 25.5% and the cured weight by 11.4 and
19.7% for the 2% and 5-inch treatments respectively. Only 2.0% of
the cured weight loss was due to losses of the lamina portion of the
leaf when 2% inches of the petiole was removed. Depending on market
reaction, it appears that removal of the petiole prior to curing may be


State Project 1203 R. C. Fluck
Cabbage Harvesting.-Studies were continued to determine the physical
properties of cabbage as they influence harvester design. These were
expanded to include the effects of seed size on transplant size. A stem
trimmer was designed and added to the harvester. Preliminary testing
indicated that this unit was functional and that it should be investigated

Tomato Harvesting.-Work was initiated in several areas relating to the
mechanical harvest of fresh market tomatoes. An experimental shaker
was designed, constructed, and field tested at Homestead. It functions
in comparing fruit removal characteristics of breeding lines and in
determining optimum stroke-frequency combinations for fruit removal.
Another shaker, differing from the latter in that vibration is induced
in the grasped main stem in a vertical plane, was designed and con-
structed, and underwent preliminary testing. Water handling tests in-
dicated that mature green tomatoes can be handled in water; submersion
time and the presence of chlorine are important factors in the resultant
quality. A creep tester for determining the deformation, with time, of
fruit under load was built, and limits for the depth and time of fruit
loading for dry handling are being established. An impact tester having
accelerometer transducer and Polaroid camera-oscilloscope readout has
been designed and constructed. Preliminary tests indicate distinct ad-
vantages and capabilities for this dynamic technique for determining
impact damage. An Instron testing machine was acquired and used for
measuring the force to separate fruit from vine and for slow compression
loading by flat plate and plunger. Significant differences have been found
among varieties and levels of maturity. Other variables are undergoing
further investigation.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Hatch Project 1082 I. J. Ross and J. M. Myers

Laboratory tests dealing with the storage of dried citrus pulp have
been completed. Two bins 3.5 feet in diameter and 16 feet high were
filled with 3000 pounds of dried citrus pulp at an average moisture
content of 8.8% (wet basis). One bin was aerated conventionally with
ambient air and the other by recirculation. Through the use of automatic
controls, aeration on the conventional bin was accomplished only when
the ambient temperature, in connection with a relative humidity of less
than 70%, fell below the expected average monthly temperature. Aeration
in the other bin was controlled by a time clock which turned the fan
on for two hours each morning and afternoon. After 15 months of
storage, the pulp that was conventionally aerated was found to have
a wider range of moisture content throughout the bin, but none of the
pulp in either bin had moisture contents above the safe storage level.
The tests indicated that dried citrus pulp can be successfully stored in
bulk under Florida conditions.
Work has also been completed on a continuous system for producing
pelleted citrus pulp using the wet pelleting technique. A screw auger
was used to force the mixture of molasses and ground pulp through an
extrusion die 1/2 inch in diameter. The pellets were then dried to 20%
(dry basis) and cut to length before testing. The effects of variations
in auger speed, auger pitch, and die length upon the system were studied.
The results indicated that a system using a low pitched auger, a short
die, and an auger speed greater than 300 rpm would be the most promising.


State Project 1207 Richard C. Fluck

The Agricultural Engineering phase of this project was completed
with the preparation of a manuscript entitled "Dairy Shade Shelters".
(See also Project 1207, Dairy Science Department.)


State Project 1250 R. E. Choate

Land clearing, site preparation, plot location, and installation of a
system of open-drainage ditches have been completed. The system of
ditches provides for plot drainage to a depth of 2 feet, and 5 feet, and
no artificial drainage. Plantings for the study will be established in
the winter of 1967-68. A system of piezometers will be installed in the
plots to aid in evaluating the influence of the drainage system upon the
water table patterns.
(See also Project 1250, Forestry and Soils departments.)

Annual Report, 1967


State Project 1296 J. M. Myers, R. E. Choate
and C. D. Baird
Work has continued in developing and constructing the laboratory
facility to be used for conducting irrigation evaporation studies. The
test facility, a low velocity environmental control wind tunnel, has been
completed and mechanical equipment and instrumentation is being in-
stalled. It is expected that evaporation studies will begin early in 1968.
A companion investigation to develop a highly sensitive hygrometer
for use in the wind tunnel has been completed. An electrolytic con-
densation hygrometer utilizing a single ionic crystal as the condensing
surface has been constructed and tested. It has the sensitivity to detect
changes in the dew point of air as small as 0.01 F. This hygrometer
when used as a component of the irrigation efficiency facility will enable
the measurement of evaporation losses to an accuracy of 5%.

Mechanical Harvesting of Tea.-A full-sized experimental model of a
mechanical tea harvester has been developed. The machine operates
on the principle developed by S. I. Kereselidge, a Russian scientist.
The principle is achieved by sliding a number of rubber covered fingers
between several sets of immobile pins. As the rubber fingers strike
the tea, it is bent between the immobile pins. If the flush is immature,
the stem will bend without breaking. If the flush is too coarse, the
rubber cover will flex, preventing the stem from bending to the breaking
point. However, if the flush is ripe, the stem will bend to the proper
angle and break off.
Once the tea has been plucked, an air suction duct picks up the
flush and deposits it in a tea collector. The tea is then removed manually
and inspected for damage at the end of each plucking. The machine
is powered by an 18 horsepower internal combustion engine, and power
mechanism, is transmitted to the plucking head, height adjustment and
ground speed drive through a hydraulic system. Field tests are in progress
to determine optimum operating conditions for the machine. Initial testing
indicates satisfactory performance of the machine. (J. M. Myers and
D. H. Willits)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research in agronomy was conducted on 26 projects. New projects
include varietal improvement of peanuts and soybean breeding.
Grants totaling almost $190,000 were received from 19 sources,
providing additional support for research on sub-tropical crop production
Physical plant additions included several buildings for tobacco re-
search, additions to the small grain laboratory facilities, and a new
cytological laboratory at the Plant Virus Laboratory.
A personnel change was the appointment of Dr. J. L. Brook as interim
research associate in agronomy; one position still remains unfilled.
A few outstanding research highlights include the following. At
the Herbicide Metabolism Laboratory, Dr. Merrill Wilcox has discovered
a large new family of very potent herbicides. At the Plant Virus Labora-
tory in cytoplasmic structure studies, Drs. J. R. Edwardson, D. E.
Purcifull (Plant Pathology), and H. E. Warmke have discovered a
new type of tobacco viral inclusion. Dr. S. C. Schank has initiated
an extensive plant breeding program with pangolagrass and its relatives;
screening for virus resistance is being done in Brazil and Surinam. Fred
Clark and H. W. Lundy (Suwannee Valley Station) have shown perforated
plastic covers to be superior for tobacco seedbeds.

Hatch Project 295 G. B. Killinger
Tifhi-1, a hybrid Pensacola bahiagrass type, yielded slightly more
total forage for the 1966 season than Pensacola bahiagrass. Each va-
riety yielded approximately 6%/ tons of oven-dry forage per acre. Tifhi-1
produces considerably more forage in the early spring than Pensacola,
while the Pensacola variety produces more in mid and late summer.
Residual fritted trace elements (FTE 503) applied to plots in the
fall of 1964 accounted for a 27.14% yield increase of white clover during
the 1966 season. Thirteen white clover varieties were in the test, with
ladino and Louisiana S-1 producing more forage than other commercial
varieties. Another white clover trial yielded 23.65% more forage from FTE
503 treated plots with the FTE applied in the fall of 1965.
Two non-commercial varieties of fescue grass responded to clipping
at two month intervals with near perfect stands throughout the year,
whereas stands were depleted under a four month clipping regime.

Hatch Project 374 E. S. Homer
Development and evaluation of new inbred lines and hybrids and
studies of different breeding methods were continued.
Three new lines had excellent records for the second year in tests
at five locations in North Florida. When crossed with 5B Syn., the male
parent of Florida 200A, they produced an average of 87 bushels per acre
compared with 81 bushels for Florida 200A. They were also superior
to Florida 200A in several other characteristics, including standability
and grain quality.

Annual Report, 1967

Additional evaluations of five cycles of selection for combining ability
with F44xF6 confirmed data obtained in 1965. For the last four cycles
there has been a gain of 10% in grain yield, 15% in standability, and
8% in lower plant height. Much of the gain in standability resulted
from extra emphasis on this trait in the fifth cycle. The sixth cycle of
this experiment has now been completed; preliminary data indicate that
an additional gain in yield has been made, because the 22 selected hybrids
averaged 5% more grain than Florida 200A in 1966.
Five cycles of a selection experiment, in which narrow and broad-
base testers are being compared with selection for S& progeny yield, have
been completed. The 11 selected fifth cycle test hybrids in the narrow-
base tester series were, on the average, equal to Florida 200A in grain
yield. The selected hybrids in the broad-base tester series average 4%
less than Florida 200A. An analysis of the first three cycles of this
experiment has just been completed. Relative amounts of inbreeding
depression in the different selected populations indicate that dominance
effects have been emphasized to a greater extent in the broad-base tester
series than in the S2 progeny series.
(See also Project 374, North Florida, Suwannee Valley and West
Florida Stations.)

State Project 444 F. Clark
New plantbeds were constructed at the new tobacco unit. However,
no new chemicals were tested for weed control.
Several planted covers were tested again this year to determine if
there would be differential growth responses. A clear solid plastic and
cheesecloth were used as check treatments with five vented or perforated
plastic covers. Seeding and fertilizer rates were the same for all cover
treatments. The best results were in number of transplants per square
yard and were obtained from the clear solid %"x3", %"x2", %f"x3",
staggered %"x3", and V'"xl14" perforated centers. The average num-
ber of transplants per square yard were 282, 252, 212, 183, 181, and
116, respectively. The extreme cold weather on February 26 severely
damaged the seedlings under cheesecloth and plant growth was delayed
well beyond completion of transplanting.
Several fungicides, both as sprays and dusts, were tested, including
zineb, fermate, and polyram. Bluemold was not present during this test;
consequently, no data was obtained. Polyram did not affect seedling

Hatch Project 488 H. C. Harris
Peanuts have been grown under nutrient deficiency stresses, and from
the seed produced plants were grown the next year. Some indication
that the deficiency stresses affected the next generation was evident.

Hatch Project 555 F. Clark and H. W. Lundy
The 1966 Regional Sucker Control test included 10 treatments in the
advanced test and 38 treatments in the preliminary test. Two of the

52 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

advanced treatments, T-61 and T-43, proved slightly toxic to the leaf;
19 of the chemicals tested in the preliminary test proved toxic to the
Three chemicals, vernam, diphenamide, and SD 11831, were tested
at two rates. The 6-pound rate of diphenamide was more effective in
controlling weeds, based on an actual hoe time reading to completely rid
the weeds from the drill row.
The most promising of the new fumigants tested, SD 14647, will be
tested again in 1967 in a new nematode nursery.
Because of the development of the new tobacco facilities, the 1965
fertilizer tests were not continued in 1966.
This project is being closed with this report.
(See also Project 555, Suwannee Valley Experiment Station.)


State Project 627 G. B. Killinger

Data from the first full year of production for programs under the
second revision of this project show: Winter oats, ryegrass, and clover
on completely renovated pastures furnish substantial amounts of high
quality forage in early spring. Permanent grasses re-establish without
reseeding and by midsummer following the fall renovation also supply
substantial amounts of forage. Renovation by plowing also serves as a
partial control of smutgrass.
Four months during the winter with temperatures one or more days
each month below the freezing point limited clover production, which in
turn was reflected in decreased grass growth during the balance of the
Composition of the forage in terms of protein, calcium, and potassium
was higher than was recorded for previous years.
(See also project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engi-
neering, Animal Science, and Soils departments.)


Hatch Project 766 V. N. Schroder

Interactions of calcium, potassium, and nitrogen on organic acid con-
tent of oats were studied along with the effect of substituting sodium for
potassium. Oat plants grown on a low nutrient level were treated with
various potassium, calcium, nitrogen, and sodium compounds. Analyses of
young leaf tissue from plants treated with potassium compounds or sodium
chloride contained considerable succinic acid. Plants treated with calcium
nitrate had citric acid present in the young leaves, but ammonium nitrate
had no effect. Older leaves from plants treated with potassium nitrate con-
tained citric and succinic acids, but other potassium compounds and sodium
chloride had little effect. Older leaves from plants treated with calcium
nitrate contained a large amount of citric acid but no succinic acid. Again
the ammonium nitrate treatment had no apparent effect. The presence of

Annual Report, 1967

succinic acid in the young leaves of plants treated with sodium chloride
seems to indicate that sodium can at least partially replace potassium in

Hatch Project 783 P. L. Pfahler
The improvement of small grains in areas such as Florida which ex-
perience sporadic epidemics of damaging diseases and abrupt alterations in
temperature during the growing season, requires varieties which in-
corporate very sensitive homeostatic mechanisms. A number of oat lines are
being tested and purified which apparently have such mechanisms, since even
though no genetic resistance to crown rust is present, the effect of crown
rust on yield is severely reduced or eliminated under field conditions. These
lines also possess cold tolerance which is expressed in a more uniform dis-
tribution of forage production during the critical winter season. In-
heritance studies of both crown rust and cold tolerance suggest that both
these characters are genetically inherited and, as such, can be isolated by
selection. However, both characters as expressed in these lines appear
highly quantitative in nature and are presumably influenced by the genetic
background. The development and improvement of laboratory techniques
for the measurement of these characters are continuing.
The self-incompatibility characteristic present in rye severely limits im-
provement programs, since genetic superiority cannot be stabilized and
perpetuated. Studies have indicated that substantial heterosis for both
forage and grain production has been obtained in intervarietal crosses.
Lowered environmental variability or greater homeostasis was also charac-
teristic of some intervarietal crosses. A system involving mixed planting of
parental varieties was devised wherein self-incompatibility would prevent
self pollination, and proximity to plants from the other variety would in-
crease the frequency of intervarietal hybrids. Under relatively high popu-
lation densities, the forage and grain production of populations produced
by this system were found to be almost equal to populations containing 100%
intervarietal hybrids.
(See also Project 783, Plant Pathology Department.)

State Project 971 A. J. Norden
This study was undertaken to provide information as to the factors
responsible for observed beneficial effects of sod on subsequent crops and to
study changes in the quality and productivity of a perennial grass with
age. The experimental design called for the establishment of bahiagrass in
previously designated plots each year beginning in 1960 and, when completed
in 1968, will provide simultaneous information on the effects of 0, 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, and 6 years of sod on subsequent cultivated crops.
Bahiagrass yield data are taken annually during the months of June,
July, August, and September. The 1966 grass yields and the nitrogen, re-
covered as protein, from the fertilizer applications were found to be equally
as high in the older plantings (4 to 6 year old sod) as in the younger
seedings (1 to 3 year old stands).
The plant nutrient and nematode status of each plot is determined an-
nually. Nematode species identification and counts made by Dr. V. G. Perry

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

in 1966 show that the numbers of Ring and Spiral nematodes continue to
increase with the age of the sod, while populations of Lance, Stubby Root,
Root Lesion and Root Knot nematodes are decreasing. The numbers of
Sting nematodes, while remaining comparatively stable in the grass plots,
increase rapidly on the corn. Corn also appears to be a better host than
peanuts for the Stubby Root and Root Knot species, while peanuts are a
much better host than corn for Ring nematodes. In regard to the plant
nutrient level in the grass plots, it appears to be more difficult to maintain
a moderate level of magnesium than that of the other macro-nutrients.
Phosphorus shows the least year to year fluctuation.


Regional Research Project 998 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder,
(Regional S-47) O. C. Ruelke, S. H. West1,
and J. E. Mickelson'

Severe winter killing of pangolagrass has been noted when nitrogen fer-
tilizer was applied to stimulate production of a fall hay crop. The addition
of 60 pounds per acre of potash (after the hay was removed) initially in-
creased the level of total available carbohydrates stored in the roots, and
the ability of the grass to tolerate injury from frost. By spring, however,
pangolagrass plots with and without potash were equally severely winter
Pot studies using pangolagrass, Pensacola bahiagrass, Coastal bermuda-
grass, and St. Augustinegrass showed that all four species were tolerant to
levels of sodium chloride as high as 4500 ppm in the irrigation water. Salt
levels of 9,000, 18,000, and 27,000 ppm greatly reduced photosynthesis and
transpiration, but had less effect on respiration. The Coastal bermudagrass
and St. Augustinegrass were the most tolerant of high levels of salt.
Chemical analyses indicated that Coastal bermudagrass absorbed less
sodium than the other species, but that St. Augustinegrass could tolerate
higher levels within the plant.
"Floranna" sweetclover planted in rows 10 and 20 inches apart had
similar forage yields under both north and south and east and west
directions of rows. Row direction does not seem to be important with
this crop.

Hatch Project 1087 M. Wilcox and B. R. Ray
Field studies of efficacy of herbicides in peanuts, corn, sorghum, and
tobacco continue. New or unproven herbicides were applied in duplicate for
preliminary testing. More promising herbicides were included in advanced
trials of from three to 10 replications. Studies of the metabolism of her-
bicides in crop plants and of the relation of chemical structure to inhibi-
tion of the Hill reaction continue.
Peanuts.-Pre-emergence applications of 2 pounds GS14260, 4 pounds
C6313, or 4 pounds C6989 per acre gave excellent control of weeds and

'Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
'Cooperative with Environmental Data Service, ESSA, U. S. Department of Commerce.

Annual Report, 1967 55

yields at least as great as hand cultivated control plots. Applications at
cracking time of 0.5 pound pyrichlor plus 1.5 pounds DNBP, 6 pounds
DNBP, or 2 pounds diphenamid plus 1.5 pounds DNBP per acre gave
similar results.
Field Corn.-Pre-emergence applications of 4 pounds C6313 or C6989
per acre gave excellent weed control without affecting yields.
Sorghum.-Pre-emergence applications of 2 pounds propazine or GS18183
per acre gave good weed control without crop damage.
Tobacco.-(See Project 555, this department.)
Nutsedge.-A chemical fallow treatment of 5 to 10 pounds dichlobenil
per acre incorporated 6 inches into the soil has eliminated nutsedge from
heavily infested areas.
Metabolism.-Conversion of dicamba to relatively harmless 5-hydroxy-
3,6-dichloro-o-anisic and to a lesser extent 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid by
young field corn has been demonstrated by means of higher diazoalkanes.
These gas chromatographic reagents have also proved useful in analysis of
paraben preservatives and phenolic urinary acids, thus facilitating diagnosis
of human metabolic diseases.
Structure-Activity Relationships.-Studies of the relation of chemical
structure to activity against the Hill reaction in photosynthesis have led
to the discovery of a large new family of very potent herbicides.
(See Project 1087, Central Florida, North Florida, and West Florida,
Stations, and Marianna Unit, North Florida Station.)

State Project 1100 P. L. Pfahler
Male gametes serve a vital function in transmitting genetic material to
succeeding generations, and generally large numbers of male gametes of
different genotypes compete to fertilize a small number of ovules. There-
fore, in naturally outbreeding populations such as corn and rye, differences
in fertilization ability as a result of the genotype of the pollen grain would
alter, in a differential manner, the transmission of genetic elements and the
genetic constitution and performance of succeeding generations. On the
basis of in vitro germination and pollen tube studies, varietal differences in
rye were obtained in relation to pollen transmission. Although differences
in pollen transmission were found between Secale cereal and S. montanum,
interspecific hybridization using S. montanum as the female parent were
successful. Studies on self-incompatibility in rye using in vitro methods
are continuing in an effort to determine the factors) which prevent or
would allow self-fertilization. A method for the in vitro germination of
corn pollen has been developed. Studies have indicated that in relation to
germination and tube growth, the pollen genotype interacts with calcium
and boron in the medium. Differences in fertilization ability because of
pollen genotype have also been detected with in vivo studies of corn, which
has no recognized form of self-incompatibility. The fertilization ability of
corn pollen was also found to be altered by the genetic constitution of
the female sporophyte on which they are placed. This pollen genotype-stylar
tissue interaction suggests that a selective mechanism exists which will

56 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

considerably alter random mating and will result ultimately in a genetically
stratified population. Therefore, the genetic structure and performance of
synthetic varieties in both corn and rye will probably shift over succeeding

Hatch Project 1134 J. R. Edwardson and H. E. Warmke3
Cytoplasmic Male Sterility.-Selections of Petunia atkinsonia have been
found to restore fertility to cytoplasmic male sterile Petunia hybrida lines.
The inheritance of this type of fertility restoration is being studied. Marked
differences in the size and shape of lodicules have been found in comparisons
of spikelets from cytoplasmic sterile and normal corn tassels. "Reversions"
from cytoplasmic sterile to a fertile condition, in the absence of restorer
genes, are being studied in certain corn single crosses. June varieties of corn,
from which T-type cytoplasm has been derived, are being examined for the
presence of restorer genes and for response to gamma radiation damage.
Cytoplasmic Viral Inclusions.-Investigations (in cooperation with D. E.
Purcifull) of cytoplasmic inclusions induced by 700 to 800 m/ flexuous rod
viruses have shown that the inclusions are not composed of aggregated
virus particles. Cytoplasmic inclusion fine structure is being studied with
various preparative techniques. Seed transmission of viruses in barley and
Datura stramonium is being investigated. Use of aqueous potassium per-
manganate for short times (2 to 4 minutes) or dilute solutions of osmium
tetroxide (0.02 to 0.08%) have given vastly improved preservation of
intracellular inclusions of tobacco mosaic virus. Regular aggregates in the
form of monolayers, three-dimensional crystals, and paracrystals have been
demonstrated in ultrasections of Turkish tobacco leaves by these procedures.
A new type of viral inclusion, termed "angled layer" aggregate, has been
demonstrated for the aucuba strain of tobacco mosaic virus. These are
gently twisted, elongate aggregates that may be single or grouped into
bundles of varying size. In cross section they appear as three-way cross-
hatched figures, and in longitudinal section as short parallel lines inter-
spersed with rows of dots.

Hatch Project 1135 J. R. Edwardson
With the important exception of cold resistant lines all entries in the
lupine nursery were killed by freezing injury in the 1966-67 growing season.
Selections from the cold resistant lines will be increased for release as
forage varieties, since it is apparent that cold resistance is a valuable
agronomic character for the lupine growing regions of Florida.

State Project 1154 E. S. Horner
Selection for improved productivity and summer persistence in white
clover and alfalfa was continued.
White Clover.-Three groups of clones were selected in 1966 on the basis
of spring and fall vigor, capacity to produce seed, and summer persistence.
8Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1967 57

Eight clones are survivors of several years of testing; 20 clones were
selected from a test of 100 new clones; and 52 clones were established from
superior spaced plants in a 2000-plant nursery. These three groups of clones
are being retested in replicated plots and were intercrossed separately un-
der lights. A new spaced nursery of 1400 plants was established from
seed obtained by intercrossing selected clones in 1966.
Alfalfa.-Data from replicated tests at the North and West Florida Sta-
tions showed that experimental variety "G63" is superior in persistence to
commercial varieties at those locations as well as at Gainesville. Hay yields
of this variety in the second harvest year were over twice as large as
those of the best commercial variety. Seed supplies are being increased in
anticipation of releasing the variety to farmers.
An experiment to test the value of inducing mutations in alfalfa by
ethyl methanesulfonate was started, and seed were harvested from the
first generation of treated plants.

Hatch Project 1166 G. B. Killinger
Brassica carinata P.I. 243,913, formerly known as Erucastrum
abyssinica, from Ethopia was screened for uniform seed coat color, and
several pounds of light colored seed were harvested in the spring of 1967.
The seed are high in oil, particularly erucic acid, and contain a trace of a
desirable mustard oil.
Variety and fertility test plantings of kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus Linn.,
suffered from flooding during late May while in a seedling stage. Yields
averaged generally less than 6 tons per acre of oven-dry stem. Kenaf silage
was made in cooperation with Dairy Science, and young dairy animals con-
sumed the silage at the rate of 149 pounds per day per 1000 pounds of body
weight. This quantity of silage contained 29.2 megacalories of energy
(slightly more than alfalfa hay) and 2.3 pounds of digestible protein.
An early August planting of sunflower varieties and introductions was
harvested for seed in November with yields of from 650 to 2200 pounds per
acre. Major problems in growing sunflower during late summer are mildew
and corn ear worms; the insects require insecticides for control.

State Project 1167 G. B. Killinger, E. S. Homer,
G. M. Prine and S. C. Schank
Digitaria introductions from the Oakes 1964 African collection trip
continue to be the major source of germ plasm for hybridization. P.I.'s of
particular value in the breeding program are: 209579, 299602, 299606,
299608, 299694, 299713, 299723, 299745, 299748, 299761, 299837,
299850, 299861, and 299892. A few selections from several hundred inter-
specific crosses appear promising.
From a collection of 60 wild peanut Arachis accessions, P.I. numbers
118457 'Arb', 262839 'Arblick', 262828, and 262794 have the most promise
as pasture legumes, and 151982 may have ornamental value because of
numerous orange flowers when grown with grasses in lawns.

58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Pangolagrass (Digitaria decumbens) treated with 17,000 r of gamma
radiation in 1963, planted at three locations, has survived adverse weather
conditions with little or no loss of plants.
Hemarthria altissima P.I. 299995 collected in Africa by Oakes in 1963,
planted at several locations, appears to have more frost tolerance than most
permanent pasture grasses in Florida. This grass spreads by stolons and
makes very early spring growth.
Increased plantings of Trenton and Flagler strains of fescuegrass from
seed appear promising for winter forage with somewhat reduced production
during the summer months. Annual yields of 9,000 to 10,000 pounds per
acre of oven-dry forage have been recorded during the past several seasons
from plantings on flatwoods type soil.
Stylosanthes humilis, a summer annual legume originally from Austra-
lia, makes excellent summer growth in the Gainesville area but has failed
to mature seed and must be considered of doubtful value for north Florida
unless an earlier maturing strain can be developed.
(See also project 1167, Everglades, North Florida, Range Cattle, and
West Florida Stations and Indian River Laboratory, Everglades Station.)


Hatch Project 1227 S. C. Schank

Progenies from interspecific crosses have been grown as single plants
along with their parents to determine desirable hybrids, and extent of
self-fertilization. Selections have been made from 418 progeny with six
showing greatest promise. These six selections represent interspecific
crosses which were made in 1965 and 1966 between Digitaria valida, D.
milanjiana, D. smutsii, D. pentzii, and the umfolozi group.
Approximately 1500 spaced plants were established in April and May of
1967 representing hybridizations of the previous year. Seed dormancy of
Digitaria prevents immediate germination of new hybrids.
Investigations of mode of reproduction and extent of apomixis in the
genus Digitaria have continued. There was no evidence of apomixis in the
spaced plants of open pollinated progeny of Digitaria established last year.
Analysis of embryo sacs and megasporogenesis has shown only single em-
bryo sacs another indication that apomixis is not present.
Results of seed-set temperature experiments in a Digitaria milanjiana
cross were reported December 1966 in a Master's thesis by Mayo Vega.
Basically he found an inverse relationship between temperature and quanti-
ties of seed produced. Highest average seed sets of 20.7% and 21.2% were
associated with the occurrence of an average hottest plant temperature of
87.0F and 87.7F, while the smallest average seed set of 1.9% was
associated with an average hottest temperature of 97.7"F.
Cooperation with the USDA on winter hardiness studies continued.
Evaluation of Digitaria accessions in Brazil, Surinam, and Puerto Rico was
achieved by personal visits to these countries in November-December 1966.
Most significant information obtained was data on seven accessions ap-
parently resistant to "pangola stunt-virus" in Surinam. These accessions
were included in the 1967 species hybridizations.

Annual Report, 1967

Hatch Project 1237 A. T. Wallace
Two hundred fifteen mutants, produced by ionizing radiations and
chemicals, at the vb locus in oats are being characterized for different
responses to Helminthosporium victoria toxin and to specific crown rust
races. The degree of resistance to toxin (as determined by root bioassay
tests, respiration rates, loss of electrolytes, wilting tests) does vary with
certain of the mutants. These reactions also vary as the temperature
changes: some become more resistant, others less so, and others do not
change at all. On the other hand, the degree of resistance to crown rust
invariably increases as the temperature rises. A ranking of the mutants
for these phenotypic responses indicates that they do not respond alike
for all reactions. Yet none of the mutants show the full reaction of the
wild-type parent for any of the expressions. The wild-type allele is
dominant to all of the induced alleles which in themselves have a hier-
archy of dominance relationships. A gene model has been formulated to
explain these diverse relationships. If the model is true, then the data in-
dicate that in higher plants one can separate by mutation a monogenically
inherited phenotypic expression into its component parts.
Other results at this locus indicate that the entire toxin molecule can act
as a mitotic inhibitor on susceptible lines, while one of its components can
inhibit mitosis in resistant tissue. Phenotypic response data from segregat-
ing progeny of different mutants are being collected to further investigate
the genetic changes induced at this locus. A similar study to investigate
the genetic nature of induced changes at the ddt locus in barley has been
initiated. Preliminary results support the hypothesis presented above that a
monogenically inherited expression can be separated by mutation and that
these separated reactions are inherited. These data suggest that the
"operon" model proposed for certain loci in microorganisms also functions
in higher plants.

Hatch Project 1260 F. Clark
Research during 1966 was conducted in two phases. One phase was the
testing of newly released varieties for their agronomic characteristics
under Florida conditions. In this test, N.C.95 is used as the standard
variety because of its partial blackshank resistance and market acceptance.
Resistant varieties C-298, C-258, C-319, and Speight 7 performed equal
to N.C.95. Growers should use a fumigant and the best rotation system
possible regardless of the variety of tobacco that is grown.
The other phase was the testing of varietal selections in a heavily
infested blackshank nursery at Quincy. It appears that the plumbagini-
folia resistance has deteriorated and that Florida 301 resistance pre-
dominates. An array of selections is being tested for their agronomic
characteristics. One selection was entered in the 1967 small plot regional
(See also Project 1260, North Florida Station.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 1262 G. M. Prine
None of the 12 herbicidical treatments applied to Pensacola bahia-
grass sod seeded in Florida 200A corn controlled the sod so as to make
possible satisfactory production of corn in the wet 1966 season. With
heavy rainfall and resulting high water table, early damage from herbi-
cides on bahiagrass disappeared and grass resumed normal growth and
competition to corn. Where sod was destroyed by rotovating and har-
rowing, and corn was cultivated twice, the growth of corn was normal
and less damage occurred to corn because of high water tables than
in sod plots. Present results indicate it is very hazardous to grow
corn in grass sods controlled by herbicides in either very wet or very
dry seasons, but the conventional method of plowing the sod followed
by cultivation of corn appears to control grass sod in all seasons.
Fourteen grain sorghums, 13 forage (silage) sorghums, and 17 sor-
ghum-sudangrass and pearlmillet varieties were evaluated. The top grain
sorghum yield was 5010 pounds per acre of grain for a seeding rate
of 10 pounds of seed per acre in rows 38 inches wide. The highest
forage sorghum yield was 10.8 tons per acre of dry matter. Gahi 1
pearlmillet produced 2 tons more forage than any of the sorghum sudan-
grass hybrids tested under management where all entries were cut when
30 to 36 inches high for a total of 6 harvests per season.
(See also Project 1262, Soils Department and North Florida and
West Florida Stations.)


Hatch Project 1286 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder,
O. C. Ruelke, and J. E. Mickelson'

Little damage to the leaf blades of an experimental bermudagrass
occurred following an average minimum temperature of 260 F in an area
which was shaded from the early morning sun, while leaf blades exposed
to the early morning sun were injured. On February 26, 1967, the
minimum air temperature at the 5 foot height above the experimental
area was 15 F, while the average minimum temperature 6 inches above
the soil in the bermudagrass canopy was 14 F. Average minimum air
temperatures at various dates during the winter ranged from 1 to 50
colder at a height of 6 inches above the soil than they were at 1 inch
above the soil in the bermudagrass which was 12 inches tall. Although
all of the top growth was injured, recovery from protected parts was
complete the following spring.
The average number of ears per plant for corn grown at 9,000 and
18,000 plants per acre was 2.70 and 1.88 for 'Embro Departure VIII',
1.71 and 1.02 for 'Florida 200A', 1.75 and 1.13 for 'Pioneer 309 B', 1.75
and 1.11 for 'Coker 74', and 1.20 and 1.00 for 'Asgrow 200 B'. Forty-five,
65, 52, 63, and 50%, respectively, of the reduction in ears per plant of
these hybrids at the 18,000 population compared to the 9,000 population
occurred during the 9 to 11 day period from time first plant silked

'Cooperative with Environmental Data Service, ESSA, U. S. Department of Commerce.

Annual Report, 1967

until all plants silked. This silking period was shown to be "critical"
for light and other environmental factors for all hybrids studied, irrespec-
tive of whether they were single-eared, semiprolific, or prolific.
(See also Project 1286, West Florida Station.)


State Project 1302 S. H. West

These studies attempted to correlate growth with nucleic acid metab-
olism. Growth in these studies was regulated by chemical retardants,
various temperatures, and drought conditions. Phosfon-S, a substance
which inhibits stem elongation, alters nucleic acid metabolism in Pisum
sativum 'Alaska'. Phosfon-S treatment of the plants resulted in a de-
crease in soluble RNA and in increase in ribosomal RNA. Total nucleic
acids from treated tissues were more resistant to RNase degradation,
and endogenous RNase activity was lower in treated tissues. Supra-
optimal growth temperatures caused increased RNase activity in control
tissues but did not affect RNase activity in treated tissues. Phosfon-S
may protect against supraoptimal temperatures.
Water-stress treatments in peas (Pisum sativum 'Alaska') resulted
in 18% fresh weight reduction when compared to the control treated
plants. On the basis of 14C-phenylalanine incorporation into protein
and on Lowery protein determinations, water-stress treatments reduced
protein synthesis 12%. Tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA in
the stress plants was less than 25% of that incorporated into plants
without water stress. Following isolation of the DNA-RNA hybrid com-
ponent, RNase degraded 37% of the DNA from the control plants and
only 10% of that from the treated plants. These data suggest that DNA
transcription into RNA was altered by the drought condition.
An inhibitor found in red alfalfa seed has been chromatographed on
paper using an ammonium-water solvent. Florescence in ultraviolet light
data and isolation in ethyl ether suggest that the portion of the inhibitor
that is soluble in ether is a furocoumarin. Although some inhibitor was
found in the seed coat, the bulk of the growth regulating material was
in the seed. Some of the seedcoat separation required soaking the seed,
which may have permitted translocation to seed or seedcoat.

Hatch Project 1303 A. J. Norden
A cooperative tri-state (Alabama, Florida, Georgia) test of promising
new peanut lines was initiated in 1966. Two Florida lines showing
promise in this test (a runner line derived from a cross between Early
Runner and Florigiant and a Virginia bunch line derived from a cross
between Florispan and Jenkins Jumbo) were submitted for evaluation
in USDA Regional tests in 1967.
F439, a runner line, has outyielded Early Runner by 15% during
the past three years at Gainesville and has rated equal to or higher
than Early Runner in quality evaluation during each of the three seasons.
This line is being increased in 1967 for larger scale processing and quality

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The effect of 18 and 36-inch row-spacings on the pod yield of advanced
breeding lines was compared. The yield of lines having a prostrate or
runner type growth habit was 5% greater in the closer row spacing,
and the lines with bunch type plants was 14% greater. The Early
Runner check variety, however, produced the same yield in both spacings.
In a study of yield and grade components of peanut varieties grown
alone and in a 1:1 mixture the yield and grade of the mixture was
intermediate between that obtained for the varieties when grown alone.
Therefore, if one has access to seed of the higher yielding line, there
appears to be no economic advantage from the use of a varietal mixture.
The presence of single-seeded pods in Virginia type peanuts has
been associated with adverse environmental conditions during early pod
development. In 1966 three F4 lines, resulting from a cross between
two varieties that differed in the expression of this character, produced
an average of 5, 9, and 14% single-seeded pods compared to 21 and 9%
for the parental varieties. These results suggest a genetic influence on
the expression of the character and indicate that progress is possible
in lessening its expression in future varieties.
(See also Hatch Project 1303, North Florida Station, Marianna Unit.)


State Project 1359 Kuell Hinson5
Selection from the Gainesville breeding program performed relatively
better at Gainesville and Live Oak than at other locations in the regional
testing program. However, at least one strain, F64-2571, appears to
have wide regional adaptation. It ranked first in yield at three of the
six locations growing preliminary group VIII and had the highest average
yield for all locations. It is about the same height and maturity as
Hardee and averaged 4.9 bushels per acre (13%) more.
Strains averaging up to 7 days later in maturity than Hardee and
up to 13 inches taller equalled the yield of Hardee in regional tests.
These strains are potentially well adapted to South Florida and to
tropical latitudes.
Several strains in local preliminary tests appeared to be much better
adapted to coarse textured soils, which have poor water and nutrient
holding capacities, than varieties now available. These strains have the
potential for expanding production onto soil types not now considered
suited to soybean culture.
In selecting for high protein, the second major objective of the breeding
program, one strain was obtained (F65-1270) which had 51.5% protein
compared with 41.1% for Bragg. Its yield was only 79% that of Bragg.
Other strains with 47 to 50% protein also had doubtful yield qualities.
However, strain F65-1248 had 46.6% protein and 91% the yield of Bragg.
F65-1248 will be evaluated further as a potential high protein variety.
(See also Project 1359, North Florida Station.)


Cytological Examination of Pangolagrass (from Surinam) Infected
with Stunt Virus.-Pangolagrass stunt virus is a threat to several hun-
dred thousand acres of pangolagrass pastures in Florida. The virus is

'Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1967 63

not known to occur in the United States, but has been devastating in
Surinam, Fiji, Taiwan, Guyana, and Peru. In order to gain a better
understanding of this disease, infected leaf tissue from a 15-year-old
pangolagrass field was collected, killed, and fixed in Surinam, S. A.
Pieces of infected leaf blades approximately 1 x3 mm were fixed in
6.5% gluteraldehyde for 10 days (while in transit from South America).
The tissue was post-fixed in 1% Os04 in O.1M. phosphate buffer (pH 6.8)
for 3.5 hours, and embedded in Maraglas plastic after dehydration in
an ethanol series. Ultrathin sections, cut with a diamond knife, were
stained with 1% uranyl acetate for 1 hour followed by lead citrate for
1/2 hour. Examination by electron microscope showed an orderly array
of particles from an infected pangolagrass leaf. The particles were
70 m/ in diameter and resembled rice dwarf particles in size, shape,
and morphology. Particles were observed in crystalline aggregates and
as separate particles, but always had the same circular outline. Purifi-
cation and transmission experiments could not be carried out, because
material necessary for such studies should not be brought into Florida.
(S. C. Schank and J. R. Edwardson)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Research was conducted on 38 projects. New projects included studies
on effect of various sources of vitamin A for beef cattle, urea in cattle
finishing ration, genetic selection of resistance in sheep to parasites, pro-
grams for wintering stocker calves in drylot, and the effect of pesticides on
Grants-in-aid totaling approximately $119,694 were obtained from vari-
ous foundations, commercial companies, the USDA, and the National In-
stitute of Health, U. S. Public Health Service for use in research studies.
These funds have made it possible to expand many of the studies underway.
The Department has continued to enlarge its cooperation with other
departments and branch stations on nutrition, breeding, physiology, genetics,
and meats studies. The Meats Laboratory slaughtered 955 cattle, 212 hogs,
and 50 sheep for carcass studies and evaluation in cooperative projects. The
analytical group at the Nutrition Laboratory took in 3,655 samples from
32 staff members in the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences' system
and made 5,600 analyses for. 32 different substances in feedstuffs, blood, and
other animal tissues and excretions.

State Project 627 M. Koger
Different pasture programs are being evaluated by grazing cows and
calves which are utilized also in a cattle breeding study. The project is
now in its third phase. Three pasture programs are being evaluated, includ-
ing (1) clover-grass pastures fertilized at the rate of 300 pounds of 0-10-20
annually, (2) clover-grass pastures of which one-fourth is renovated each
year by planting to temporary pastures after which permanent sod is al-
lowed to re-establish, and (3) clover-grass, one-third of which is irrigated.
The beef production per acre in 1966 for the three programs was 362, 314,
and 411 pounds per acre, respectively.
The breeding systems being compared include: (1) grading to Angus
and Hereford, (2) crisscrossing Angus and Hereford, (3) crisscrossing
Angus and Brahman, and (4) crisscrossing Hereford and Santa Gertrudis.
The average production performance during 1962-1966 for the four respec-
tive breeding systems was 88, 91, 87, and 87, percent for weaning rate; 513,
509, and 504, and 536 pounds for weaning weight of calves; and 430, 442,
432, and 417 pounds for production per 1000 pounds of cow. Blood composi-
tion in the various breed groups is not yet completely stabilized; thus, the
results for breeding systems are preliminary. The breeding systems are
being continued and will be evaluated further.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineer-
ing, Agronomy, and Soils for other phases of this cooperative study).

State Project 629 (S-10) M. Koger, W. C. Burns,
A. C. Warnick, and A. Z. Palmer
This project is cooperative between the ARS, USDA and the Florida
Agricultural Experimental Station. The project is located at Brooksville,

Annual Report, 1967 65

and results are reported under Project 629, Brooksville Beef Cattle Re-
search Station.


Hatch Project 738 G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace,
and T. J. Cunha
A nitrogen-free diet formulated with semi-purified ingredients was fed
to 24 pigs weaned at two weeks of age. After a two week period, all pigs
had exhibited a loss in weight and were given a repletion diet which con-
tained (1) a combination of ammonium citrate and soybean meal; (2) puri-
fled soybean protein; or (3) soybean meal as the source of dietary nitrogen.
At the end of a two week repletion period mortality rates of 38, 50, and 25%
had occurred in treatments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. With treatments 1 and
3 the mortality occurred within three days after initiating the repletion
period. This indicates that probably the length of the depletion period
should be decreased and that the use of such criteria as plasma protein or
plasma urea concentration in conjunction with weight loss would provide a
more valid assessment of nitrogen status. The remaining pigs in the two
treatment groups increased their weight approximately 33% during the
repletion period. Pigs in treatment 2 continued to lose weight during the
repletion period. This, in conjunction with the relatively high mortality
rate that was not confined to the initial days of the repletion period, tends
to confirm previous findings that the amino acids in purified soybean protein
are not efficiently utilized by the nitrogen-depleted pig.

Hatch Project 755 C. B. Ammerman, P. E. Loggins,
L. R. Arrington, G. K. Davis,
and T. J. Cunha
Pelleted dried citrus pulp was equal to regular pulp when fed to finish-
ing steers. The citrus pulp was substituted for an 80% corn meal-20% cob
and shuck mixture in amounts which represented 0, 22, 44, and 66% of
the total concentrate. Approximately 2 pounds of long bermudagrass hay
were fed per steer daily in addition to a full feed of concentrates. Carcass
characteristics and average daily gains were not significantly influenced by
treatment. The average daily gain for all steers was 2.89 pounds, with
those steers fed 66% regular pulp gaining 2.61 pounds per day and those
fed 66% pelleted pulp gaining 3.04 pounds. This suggested that difference
in gain may have resulted from a greater feed consumption by the steers
fed pelleted pulp.
Full-fat soybeans were autoclaved for various lengths of time at 120* C.
and 15 pounds per square inch of steam pressure and were fed as the
major source of protein to sheep in digestibility and nitrogen balance trials
and to sheep and rats in growth trials. Digestibility of protein and ether
extract was not influenced by heating, but the digestibility of organic mat-
ter and cellulose was significantly (P < .05) reduced by increased heating
time. Urinary nitrogen was reduced and net nitrogen utilization was sig-
nificantly (P < .05) improved by heating. There was a significantly linear
increase in average daily gains of lambs as the heating time increased from

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

0 to 30 minutes. Growth rate of rats was maximum with soybeans heated
for 15 minutes, but prolonged heating reduced the nutritive value of the
soybeans for rats.


State Project 768 L. R. Arrington, C. B. Ammerman,
and G. K. Davis

The effects of potassium permanganate upon feed and water intake were
studied with growing Dutch rabbits. Ten ppm KMnO4 in the drinking water
had no effect, but 100 ppm reduced both feed and water intake. The results
are not in agreement with another report which indicated that 1 ppm re-
duced water and increased feed intake. Total daily water, including that in
feed, averaged 96 ml per kg body weight and decreased with age per unit
of body weight. Eighty-one percent of the daily water was consumed be-
tween 4 p.m. and 8 a.m. Total feed (dry matter basis) was 62 gms daily
per kg body weight at 8-9 weeks of age and 50 gms at 12-13 weeks. Calorie
intake per kg body weight decreased from 268 to 217 Kcal. for the same
Preliminary data from studies of calcium requirements of growing rab-
bits indicate that growth is increased with increasing dietary calcium from
0.12 to 0.53%. Bone ash appeared to be more nearly constant in rabbits
fed diets with these levels of calcium.
This project is being terminated with this report.


State Project 805 R. L. Shirley, J. F. Easley,
C. B. Ammerman, H. D. Wallace,
A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges, Jr.,
A. Z. Palmer, and P. E. Loggins'

Eighteen Hereford-Angus crossbred yearling steers were divided equally
into three dietary supplementary iron groups. The treatments were: group
1, none; group 2, 400 ppm; and group 3, 1,600 ppm iron as ferric sulfate.
The ferric sulfate was incorporated in a ration of ground snapped corn, cit-
rus pulp and cottonseed meal for 90 days. The steers were then slaughtered,
and isocitric dehydrogenase activity was determined in the heart tissue by
the optical density technique. Average optical density change values per
minute per mg of tissue protein were 0.22, 0.18, and 0.14 for the control,
400 and 1,600 ppm iron dietary groups, respectively.
Six steers approximately seven months old were fed a ration consisting
of 77% cottonseed meal mixed with dried bakery products, alfalfa meal,
mineral, and vitamin A supplement for 190 days; and compared with six
corresponding steers fed a similar diet that had 10% urea and 66% corn
meal substituted for the cottonseed meal, in regard to glutamic oxalacetic
transaminase (GOT) activity in the blood serum, liver, and heart tissues
when they were slaughtered. Sigma-Frankel units of GOT activity for the
urea and control groups were as follows: 35 and 41 for the liver; 42 and
46 for the heart; and 84 and 84 for the blood serum, respectively.
1In cooperation with W. G. Kirk, Range Cattle Experiment Station.

Annual Report, 1967 67

Hatch Project 809 A. C. Warnick and M. Koger
A comparison of testicular development and semen quality in 105 year-
ling bulls of the Angus, Brahman, Hereford, and Santa Gertrudis breeds
was made at the Beef Cattle Research Station at Brooksville. The average
'size of the testes, sperm cell numbers, and sperm motility were greater in
the Angus and Hereford bulls, compared to the Santa Gertrudis and Brah-
man. However, the average body weights of the Santa Gertrudis and Brah-
mans were greater than the Hereford and Angus bulls. Five of the 13
Brahman bulls had a prepuberal penis, indicating delayed sexual develop-
ment. The reproductive system is slower to develop in the bulls with Brah-
man breeding, compared to the British breeds. The endocrine mechanism
responsible for this condition is not known.

Hatch Project 938 A. C. Warnick
Eighteen Brahman and 18 Hereford yearling cattle are being compared
at 90F, 70F, and outside temperatures during a one-year period.
Both bulls and heifers are in each group. Daily gains, blood physiology,
semen traits, and thyroid activity, measured by isotope techniques, are
being studied.
The gains of Brahmans were slightly higher than Herefords. The gains
of the outside animals were greater due to replacement animals that had
greater growth potential and less stress from being restrained in stanchions.
Differences in gains between 70F and 90F were small.
The Brahman animals had higher hemoglobin values than the Herefords,
with small differences between 70F and 90F. The Brahman cattle had a
higher level of red blood cells than Herefords. The values were slightly
higher at 90'F than at 70F.
The experiment is still underway and will not be completed until Janu-
ary 1968.

Hatch Project 975 A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter
The effects of breeds, sires within breeds, marbling, and carcass grade
on beef tenderness were studied using short loin steaks from 74 beef car-
casses chilled for 72 hours. Data obtained on the cattle slaughtered in 1967
will be combined with that collected in 1965 and 1966 as well as data to be
obtained in 1968 and 1969 for statistical analysis.
In a preliminary study of the effect of rate of carcass chilling on ten-
derness, seven 4-to-6-year-old native ewes were slaughtered. Carcasses were
split in half; one side of each carcass was chilled at 356 F. and the other
side at 45 or 550 F. for 72 hours. Then the L. dorsi, adductor, and triceps
brachii of chops and steaks were cooked for tenderness evaluation by taste
panel and Warner-Bratzler shear technique. A comparison of the paired
data showed consistency in all instances in that chilling at higher tem-
peratures improved tenderness of each muscle studied. The preliminary
phase of this study will be continued using ewes, but when the data allows


Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

conclusion of a tenderizing effect on mutton, beef cattle will be used to
further test the tenderizing effect of higher chilling temperatures.


Hatch Project 977 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs,
and M. Koger'

The value of increased feed intake for sows during the last 4 weeks of
gestation has been investigated. Previous work suggested a significant im-
provement in birth weights and number of pigs weaned per litter due to
heavier feeding during this period. However, the experiment completed this
year showed similar birth weights (3.01 vs. 3.03) and an advantage in pigs
weaned per litter for the lower feed level (9.58 vs. 9.27). In another investi-
gation the continuous feeding of high level copper from weaning through
breeding and farrowing has been studied. It was important to determine
if the use of high level copper fed during the growing period would be detri-
mental to subsequent reproduction. Twenty-eight of the thirty gilts involved
conceived at first service. Farrowing results indicated that the supple-
mentary copper levels (0, 100, 250 ppm) were neither beneficial nor harm-
ful. Excellent litters have been farrowed from all treatment groups.


State Project 995 M. Koger and A. C. Warnick
Since 1958, one-half of the replacement heifers at the Beef Research
Unit has been bred to calve first at 2 years of age, while the other half
was bred to calve first at 3 years of age. Until 1965, calves from the 2-year-
old heifers were vealed at the beginning of the breeding season, March 1.
Beginning in 1965, calves were left on the 2-year-old heifers until the usual
weaning time in September.
When calves from the 2-year-old heifers were vealed on March 1, calv-
ing first at two years of age had no significant effect on subsequent per-
formance. The average lifetime calving rate to date, excluding the record
from 2-year old heifers, has been 93% for heifers bred to calves first at 2
years of age and 90% for those bred to calve first at 3 years of age. Aver-
age weaning weight of calves for the two groups was 513 and 507 pounds,
Calves have not been left on 2-year-old heifers to normal weaning age
for enough years yet to evaluate the program. During 1966 the 2-year-old
heifers weaned 59% calf crop at an average weight of 454 pounds as com-
pared with a weaning rate of 89% and weaning weight of 528 pounds for
all older cows.

State Project 999 G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace
Two feeding and digestion trials were conducted to determine the re-
sponse of growing and of finishing swine to rations containing 0, 10, 20, 30,
and 40% standard cane molasses. The average initial and terminal weights
'Cooperative with W. K. McPherson, Agricultural Economies Department, T. C. Skinner,
Agricultural Engineering Department, and S. J. Folks, Florida Power Corporation.

Annual Report, 1967

for the growing and for the finishing groups were, respectively, 28 and 100
pounds, and 136 and 200 pounds. Daily gains of the growing pigs declined
with increasing dietary levels of molasses, whereas with the finishing pigs
the highest rate of gain was exhibited by the group that received the 40%
molasses ration. Molasses did not consistently enhance feed consumption
with either the growing or finishing swine. With the younger animals, the
feed required per unit of gain tended to increase with increasing levels of
molasses. Digestibility of dietary dry matter with growing pigs was sig-
nificantly reduced by the addition of 20 and 30% molasses. Ration treat-
ment did not affect dry matter digestibility with the finishing swine. Pro-
tein digestibility was depressed with both the growing and finishing groups
by the addition of molasses. The digestibility of ether extract varied con-
siderably, and no pattern with respect to dietary treatment with either
group was established. The concentration of serum glucose and plasma
urea nitrogen was similar for all treatments with the growing swine.


State Project 1002 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs

The effects and interrelationships of protein level, hormone supplementa-
tion, and sex have been studied. Pigs fed the higher level of protein (14-
12%) gained faster and much more efficiently than those fed the lower level
of protein (12-10%). Carcass measurements indicated that the higher pro-
tein level was also desirable in terms of carcass leanness. Pigs supple-
mented with testosterone and stilbestrol consumed less feed and gained
slower, but yielded leaner carcasses than non-supplemented pigs. The hor-
mone treatment imparted an undesirable aroma and flavor to the pork from
several of the animals, including both barrows and gilts. Barrows ate more
feed, gained faster, and yielded fatter carcasses than gilts. An experiment
designed to obtain information on the feasibility of adding high levels of
copper to the supplement for pigs in a free-choice system of feeding has
been completed. When 1000 ppm copper was added to the supplement,
initial intake of supplement was depressed below that necessary for good
performance. However, the pigs gradually adjusted, and during the final
phases of the experiment were consuming reasonable amounts of supple-
ment relative to shelled corn. Further testing is necessary before a recom-
mendation can be offered. In a copper toxicity study, pigs have been fed
0, 250, 350, 450, and 550 ppm of copper for 230 consecutive days. No
deaths have resulted, but pigs on the three high levels have gained slower
and have shown marked reductions in blood hemoglobin.

State Project 1003 M. Koger and F. S. Baker
This project is cooperative between the Department of Animal Science,
the North Florida Experiment Station, and the Raiford State Prison Farm.
Cattle of different inherent sizes are being developed through selection.
Data on the relationship of inherent size to adaptability in Florida will not
be available until more distinct differences in size have developed. In 1966
the average weaning weight of calves was 435 pounds with a pregnancy
rate of 80%.
(See also Project 1003, North Florida Station.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


State Project 1010 A. C. Warnick and H. D. Wallace
Growing and finishing gilts and barrows fed 2 gm methyl testosterone
and 2 gm diethylstilbestrol per ton of feed from 100 to 150 pounds and
1 gm of each from 150 to 200 pounds showed stimulation of the reproduc-
tive tissue. There was approximately a 13-fold increase in weight of sem-
inal vesicles and a 10-fold increase in weights of the Cowper's glands in
barrows fed the hormone, compared to control barrows. There was a
marked increase in uterine weight of gilts fed the hormone and several
cases of cystic follicles, indicating an imbalance of the gonadotrophin


Hatch Project 1044 J. P. Feaster
Female rats were fed a diet containing only 4 ppm manganese (Mn)
for 80 days after weaning, then were bred. A second lot, serving as con-
trols, was fed 100 ppm Mn. Pups born to these rats were sacrificed imme-
diately after birth, and their livers were assayed for Mn content, as were
livers of the maternal rats. Livers of maternal and newborn low-Mn rats
were slightly, but not significantly, lower in Mn content than livers of con-
trol rats. Thus a dietary level of 4 ppm Mn, generally considered a very low
level, did not result in serious deprivation of the fetuses. Feeding Mn at
a high level, 1500 ppm, to a third lot of rats caused a significant increase in
Mn in livers of both maternal and fetal rats, but no adverse effects on
reproduction were observed.
This project is being closed out.


Hatch Project 1045 L. R. Arrington, R. L. Shirley,
J. P. Feaster, and C. B. Ammerman

Comparative effects of iron and aluminum upon the utilization of phos-
phorus were studied with growing rats. Aluminum was more effective
than iron in rendering phosphorus unavailable. One-tenth per cent of iron
and aluminum added to purified diets containing 0.27% phosphorous caused
some retardation of growth. Three-tenths per cent of each element caused
more severe growth restriction, and a combination was more effective than
either element alone.
Phosphorus requirement for growing hamsters was determined to be
not over 0.25% of the diet for growth, but higher dietary intakes resulted
in increased bone ash.
Potassium bromide was not toxic to pregnant rats when fed at the same
level as potassium iodide, which was toxic.
Studies with rats were continued to determine the effect of dietary
selenium, vitamin E, and sulfate upon certain enzymes, growth, and tissue
concentrations of the nutrients. Increasing dietary vitamin E to 10 times

Annual Report, 1967 71

the requirement with and without 2% sulfate had no significant effect upon
ubiquinone content or succinoxidase activity of heart, selenium content of
kidney, or weight gain of rats. Two per cent dietary sulfate with and
without normal vitamin E levels had no effect upon these enzymes.

State Project 1061 R. L. Shirley, J. F. Easley
and G. K. Davis3
Pangolagrass pastures were fertilized between 1950-58 with phosphorus
from different sources as follows: control, superphosphate, superphosphate
plus lime, rock phosphate, triple superphosphate, colloidal phosphate, and
basic slag. Cows (and their calves until weaned each year) grazed the
pastures during this period and until 1965. Four cows per treatment that
were at least 10 years of age and had been in the trials for 7 or more years
were selected, and their metacarpal and/or metatarsal bones were obtained
for determinations of breaking strength, density, ash, phosphorus, calcium,
magnesium, and iron. Average values for breaking strength, expressed as
pounds per square inch times one-half distance between supports using the
Riehle Testing Machine, were 10,253, 9,635, 10,527, 10,931, 9,900, 12,780,
and 11,763 respectively, for the treatment groups listed previously. Corre-
sponding values for density of the bones were 1.957, 2.012, 2.049, 2.005,
2.001, 2.038, and 2.024, respectively. The average ash content of the meta-
tarsal bone of the control cows was 70.2%, while corresponding values for
the other treatment groups ranged from 70.0 to 71.7%. The average phos-
phorus content of the ash of the metatarsal bone was 17.8% in the control
cows and ranged from 17.0 to 17.9% in the other treatment groups. In the
metatarsal bone ash average calcium values ranged from 38.8 to 40.9%;
average magnesium values ranged from 0.50 to 0.60%; and corresponding
values for iron ranged from 17.0 to 17.9 ppm.

Hatch Project 1079 C. B. Ammerman, P. E. Loggins,
J. E. Moore, L. R. Arrington,
R. L. Shirley, and J. P. Feaster
Recent experiments have shown that high levels of dietary molybdenum
and sulfate affect several aspects of copper metabolism in ruminants. The
plasma half-clearance time of intravenously injected copper-64 was signifi-
cantly less and the plasma copper transport rate was greater in the control
animals than in treated animals. The amount of copper in the ceruloplas-
min fraction of plasma copper was significantly lower in the experimental
animals fed molybdenum and sulfate than in control animals, suggesting
that the synthesis of the enzyme, ceruloplasmin, was impaired by dietary
molybdenum and sulfate. Levels of copper-64 and of stable copper in kidney
and urine showed that the urinary excretion of copper was increased by
molybdenum and sulfate.
Observations on blood and bone composition have been made over the
past four years on two breeds of sheep located at the Gainesville, Florida,
Auburn, Alabama, and Knoxville, Tennessee stations. The sheep at the
3In cooperation with W. G. Kirk, Elver Hodges, and F. M. Peacock, Range Cattle
Experiment Station, Ona.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Alabama station had the highest plasma phosphorus levels, followed by
those in Florida, with those at the Tennessee station having the lowest
levels. Sheep in Tennessee had the highest plasma calcium levels; average
levels for sheep in Florida and Alabama were similar. Plasma magnesium
levels in lambs at the Florida, Alabama, and Tennessee stations averaged
2.75, 2.65, and 2.41 mg per 100 ml, respectively. The ash, calcium, and
phosphorus content of the metacarpal bone of lambs was similar, while
values for magnesium expressed on an ash basis for lambs from the Florida,
Alabama, and Tennessee stations were 1.01, 0.95, and 0.80%, respectively.


Hatch Project 1117 J. E. Moore, R. L. Shirley,
C. B. Ammerman, and L. R. Arrington

A corn meal, soybean meal, molasses supplement with and without citrus
oil was fed to four rumen fistulated steers receiving low-quality pangola-
grass hay ad libitum. Five per cent citrus oil reduced the rate of con-
sumption of the daily supplement rations of 2.5 kg but had no effect on
hay intake or rumen volatile fatty acids. When 2.5 kg of supplement con-
taining 10% citrus oil (250 gms citrus oil) was placed in the rumen once
daily, hay intake decreased immediately. Rumen fluid, total volatile fatty
acids, and ammonia levels were increased in those steers force-fed citrus
oil while the acetate:propionate ratio decreased. These changes indicated
that fermentation of the supplement was not inhibited by citrus oil. In
vitro rumen fermentation studies of the effect of citrus oil on cellulose diges-
tion were conducted. The fermentation of bermudagrass and purified cellu-
lose was inhibited by 1.0 mg/ml citrus oil in the media. This concentration
was estimated to be equivalent to the level in the rumen resulting from the
consumption of 50 gms of citrus oil daily. Volatile fatty acid synthesis
in vitro indicated that fermentation of non-cellulose components of ber-
mudagrass was not as completely inhibited by citrus oil as was cellulose
fermentation. Citrus oil at the 1.0 mg/ml level increased in vitro synthesis
of butyric acid relative to the other volatile fatty acid.

State Project 1132 J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. Z. Palmer
and J. E. Moore

Efficiency of utilization of all-concentrate diets was increased by addi-
tion of roughage. The inclusion of hay and other forage hampers the mix-
ing of complete diets; therefore, a study was made of the replacement
values of cottonseed hulls and hen-size oyster shell for grass hay in fat-
tening diets for mature steers. The steers were fistulated and were in-
dividually fed to permit the measurement of the digestibility of diet compo-
nents and the pH of ruminoreticular contents. Average daily consumption of
the hay, hulls, and shell diets respectively was 26.7, 28.0, and 19.7 pounds.
The marked decrease in consumption of the diet containing oyster shell
reflects a 40% decrease by two steers and an 80% decrease by one steer.
The other three steers apparently were not adversely affected. Live weight
changes reflected changes in diet consumption. Although average pH of
ruminoreticular contents was lowest when the oyster shell diet was fed,
these differences among treatments were not significant.

Annual Report, 1967

Hatch Project 1136 (S-10) J. R. Crockett, M. Koger,
J. P. Feaster, and A. C. Warnick
Continued studies of the skeletal development of fetuses obtained from
this project indicate the dwarf gene is showing its influence by 60 days
post-conception. The development of 85 fetuses have been examined by
radiography, and the results are shown in the tables. Continued skeletal
examinations are being conducted.

State Project 1156 R. L. Shirley, Marvip Koger, P. E. Loggins,
J. F. Easley, J. E. Moore, J. P. Feaster,
and T. J. Cunha'

Forty Hereford, Angus, and Brahman steers approximately 2 years old
were divided equally into five treatment groups. They were all fed the
same basal diet of 4.5 kg of ground snapped corn, citrus pulp, cottonseed
meal, and mineral per day on winter pastures for 121 days. Group 1 was
held as a control; groups 2 and 3 were supplemented orally with 50 I.U.
of d-alpha-tocopherol and 50 I.U. of dl-alpha-tocopherol per day, respec-
tively; and groups 4 and 5 were injected intramuscularly at 28-day inter-
vals with 1,400 I.U. of d-alpha-tocopherol and dl-alpha-tocopherol, respec-
tively. Average values of 0.87, 0.96, 0.50, 0.55, and 0.56 ppm of selenium
on the dry weight basis were observed in the liver of the above groups, re-
spectively (P<.01). Corresponding values for selenium in the heart were
0.81, 0.57, 0.84, 0.66, and 0.83 ppm, respectively. Corresponding weight
gains were 0.93, 0.87, 1.06, 0.95, and 0.96 kg per day, respectively. (This
study was supported in part by grants from Hoffman-LaRoche, Inc. and
the National Heart Institute, HE-01318.)

Hatch Project 1204 J. W. Carpenter and A. Z. Palmer
One hundred and twenty grade Angus bull, steer, and heifer calves, by
a single sire and dropped over a six week period, were selected at weaning
and placed on feed to finish for slaughter at 11, 14, 17, and 20 months of
age. The first three groups have been slaughtered, but the last will be
finished for slaughter September 2, 1967. Average daily gain and feed
efficiency data are being collected. Dressing percent, hide yield, and classi-
fication and grade of the carcasses are being obtained. Color, texture, firm-
ness, marbling, class, and grade of the wholesale cuts-round, loin, rib,
and chuck-are being determined. The palatability of steaks and roasts is
being determined by a trained taste panel and by a relatively large, se-
lected consumer panel. This study is not complete, and data have not
been analyzed.
Two additional trials involved grade Santa Gertrudis and Hereford
bulls, steers, and heifers that were fed similarly and slaughtered at about
'In cooperation with D. W. Beardsley, Everglades Experiment Station, and H. L.
Chapman, Jr., Range Cattle Experiment Station.
5Cooperative with Everglades Experiment Station.

Table 1-60 day- bone growth (length).
Genotypes' C-R Wt.
Sire Dam Fetus (mm) (mg) Radius Humerus Tibia Femur

N N N 68.6 14.017 .258 .245 .240 .217
S S S 63.0 9.662 .212 .200 .180 .166
S N C 66.6 14.150 .260 .247 .243 .210
S C ? 67.2 13.023 .249 .254 .235 .208

(Assumed genotypes
based on radius

C 70.6 14.244 .300 .285 .270 .228
S 64.5 12.274 .212 .231 .210 .194

1 N = normal, S = snorter, C = carrier

Table 2.-90 day -bone growth (length).
.nC.., oty C-R Wt. Meta- Meta-
Sire Dam Fetus (mm) (mg) carpal Radius Humerus tarsal Tibia Femur

N N N 160.7 164.0 .826 1.136 1.066 .940 1.294 1.164
S S S 152.8 139.6 .660 .967 1.000 .750 1.147 1.010

S N C 155.9 138.3 .764 1.090 1.040 .904 1.216 1.080

S C ? 151.6 136.9 .659 .986 .972 .750 1.124 1.019

(Assumed genotypes
based on radius

C 156.3 149.7 .744 1.098 1.072 .842 1.238 1.118

S 141.2 110.1 .547 .874 .872 .658 1.010 .920

1 N = normal, S = snorter, C = carrier

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

15 months of age. Feedlot, slaughter, and carcass and palatability data
are being analyzed.

Hatch Project 1205 A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter
One hundred and twenty grade Angus bull, steer, and heifer calves, by
a single sire, were placed on feed at weaning for finishing to slaughter
ages of 11, 14, 17, and 20 months of age. The first three groups have been
slaughtered, but the last group is still on feed. Blood hemoglobin, hemato-
crit, and blood serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium were determined
from blood samples taken at slaughter. These data will be studied relative
to carcass maturity of lean and bone; color, texture, and firmness of lean;
and steak and roast tenderness as determined by taste panel.
In a second study, steers and heifers of uniform breeding and feeding
background have been allocated to slaughter ages of 9, 15, 21, 27, 33, 39,
45, 51, 60, 72, and 84 months. In this second study, ossification of sacral
lumbar and thorasic vertebra will be studied in addition to the factors
listed in the first study.
Both studies are in progress, and the data collected thus far is insuffi-
cient for statistical analysis and reporting.


State Project 1238 J. F. Hentges, Jr. and J. E. Moore
The following dietary ingredients have been tested for control of volun-
tary feed intake by cattle: sodium chloride, stabilized animal fat, fish oil,
citrus oil, D-limonene, acetic acid, lactic acid, bentonite, defluorinated
phosphate, and urea. All were tested in forage supplements offered ad
libitum to individually-fed yearling cattle. Wide variation was observed
among individual animals for voluntary consumption of hay, supplement,
and water, regardless of the supplement intake regulator being studied.
The most consistent regulation of intake was obtained with D-limonene,
citrus oil, waste fat, urea, salt, and combinations of some of these in-
gredients. Rumen fermentation studies with fistulated steers fed each
test diet have produced data on in vivo cellulose digestion and on molar
proportions of volatile fatty acids, pH, ammonia nitrogen, and carbon di-
oxide concentration in ruminoreticulum fluid.


State Project 1245 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger,
and W. C. Burns

The results are available following the second year of a comparison of
Brahman and Santa Gertrudis cows bred during a 3-month period from
March 15 to June 15, with one-half bred on a year-around basis. On August
6Cooperative with Everglades Experiment Station.

Annual Report, 1967 77

29, 1966, at the regular weaning time, 69% pregnancy was found in the
Santa Gertrudis bred during a 3-month season, compared to 84% in the
year-around group. In the Brahman females, only 17% were pregnant in
the seasonal group, vs. 60% in the year-around group. However, one Brah-
man bull was of low fertility in the seasonal group, which accounts for the
low pregnancy rate.
By November 1966 all the Santa Gertrudis cows in the year-around
group were pregnant, while no additional Brahman cows were pregnant in
the year-around group. Only 20% of the nonpregnant Brahman cows in
the year-around breeding group had a corpus luteum in November. This
would indicate the failure of pregnancy was due to inactivity of the ovary.

State Project 1263 M. Koger and J. R. Crockett7
This project is in cooperation with the Seminole Indian Agency on the
Brighton Reservation. The first calf crop (1965) of the project resulted in
only 12 bulls available for use in the commercial herds. This year's calf
crop produced 227 weaned calves, of which 108 were bulls. Of these 108
bull calves, 63 were selected for prospective herd bulls. These selected bull
calves averaged 443 pounds at weaning and were placed on a feeding regime
that would enable them to gain 1.5 pounds per head per day until they are
approximately 20 months of age.

State Project 1264 C. J. Wilcox and M. Koger
Reproductive inefficiency was shown to be the major reason of disposal
(47%) of beef sires in AI. Problems of collection, due to inability or lack
of desire to serve, and poor temperament were the next most frequent
reasons (16%). Few sires (6%) have been removed from service because
of the performance of characteristics of their offspring, due in part to
limited tenure. Average age at entry into service was 3.20 years, and
average tenure was 2.79 years. Useful life span has increased in recent
years (1960-64) to an average of 3.15 years. Equations from which useful
tenure of a sire can be estimated when age of entry into service is known
have been published. (Wilcox & Koger, 1967, J. Anim. Sci. 26, 136-139.)

Hatch Project 1313 P. E. Loggins, M. Koger,
(Contributing to Regional S-29) R. E. Bradley and L. E. Swanson
One hundred eighty Rambouillet and Florida Native ewes of breeding
age were allotted to four treatment groups according to previous hemo-
globin level data on July 1, 1966. The 60 Rambouillet ewes were equally
divided into high and low hemoglobin level groups. The 120 Florida Native
ewes were similarly divided into high and low hemoglobin groups of 60
each. Intact rams with the highest hemoglobin levels were placed with
the higher level ewes and lower level rams with the lower ewe groups.
The ewe flocks have been maintained on the study for one year. The use
7In cooperation with Fred Montsdeoca, Seminole Indian Agency.

78 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

of anthelemetics to control internal parasite infections was restricted to
the low hemoglobin Rambouillet group of ewes and only then to maintain
required numbers.
The blood and parasitic infection data collected to date are being used
to further characterize the high and low hemoglobin grouping of the ewes
within the two breed groups. The previously established hemoglobin levels
in the two Florida Native ewe groups have been maintained during the
year. The use of phenothiazine in the Rambouillet flock has altered the
initial allotment based on hemoglobin values as to their high and low
The 1967 lambs are the first crop produced from the study. The percent
of lambs dropped were 80, 80, 116, and 111 for the high hemoglobin Ram-
bouillets, low hemoglobin Rambouillets, low hemoglobin Florida Native, and
high hemoglobin Florida Native, respectively. A significantly higher lamb-
ing percentage was obtained in the Florida Native ewe flock. Lamb weights
at 120 days of age within the two breed groups were not significantly
different. Lambs are being routinely sampled to characterize their selection
into proper treatment groups as replacement ewes.


State Project 1345 R. L. Shirley, J. F. Easley,
and J. E. Moore8

Six steers approximately seven months old were fed a ration consisting
of 77% cottonseed meal mixed with dried bakery products, alfalfa meal,
mineral, and vitamin A supplement for 196 days. Urea content of the liver
and heart tissue was compared for these and six corresponding steers fed a
similar diet that had 10% urea and 66% corn meal substituted for the
cottonseed meal. The liver contained an average of 4.0 and 4.7 mg urea
per gram fresh weight for the control and urea dietary group, respectively.
Corresponding values for the heart were 1.3 and 1.4 mg urea per gram
fresh weight.


Urinary Calculi Observations.-During the year, 242 feedlot cattle
slaughtered at the Meats Laboratory were observed for incidence of bladder
calculi. Forty-one (approximately 16%) of those observed had calculi that
varied from an estimated 0.01 to 15 grams. The treatments used involved
dietary urea, vitamin A, iron, and breeding. None of the treatments had
a significant influence on the incidence of calculi in these observations.
(R. L. Shirley, W. G. Kirk, F. M. Peacock, C. B. Ammerman, and A. Z.
Effectiveness of Various Procedures in Reducing the Amount of Radio-
nuclides in the Human Dietary Chain.-Lactating dairy goats were fed
bermudagrass hay and grain in the ratio of 1.25:1. Two hays, differing
in maturity when harvested, were compared. Each hay was fed to four
goats in a change-over design. The mature hay had one-half the 37Cesium
concentration of the immature hay. Goats fed the mature hay had lower
milk "Cesium concentrations but also gave less milk and were less efficient
than those fed the immature hay. Goats fed the mature hay transferred
8In cooperation with W. G. Kirk, Range Cattle Experiment Station.

Annual Report, 1967

less of the dietary 1'Cesium to the milk, relative to the amount of potas-
sium transferred, than those fed the immature hay. (J. E. Moore and
G. K. Davis, cooperating with B. G. Dunavant, College of Medicine.)
Effects of Trace Mineral Deficiencies and Excesses in Pregnant Rats on
Low-Level Dietary Pesticides.-One hundred and sixty-two female rats are
being studied. They have been allotted to six groups at weaning, and
placed on diets containing low, normal, or high levels of manganese (Mn),
with and without added pesticides. Pesticides which have been incorporated
in the diet are DDT, parathion, and Sevin. These have been added at
levels corresponding to those considered by FDA as permissible in agri-
cultural products (DDT 2.4 ppm, parathion 0.33 ppm, and Sevin 2.3 ppm).
The rats are being bred at 100 days of age and allowed to bear young, after
which the maternal and newborn rats are sacrificed to obtain tissues for
analysis. Analyses are being carried out for the following components in
the rat tissues: Acetylcholinesterase activity in blood (as a measure of pos-
sible effects of Sevin); total Mn in livers; prolidase activity in livers (as
a measure of tie-up of Mn by pesticides). To date, with Mn and acetyl-
cholinesterase determinations run on tissues of about one-half the rats, no
adverse effects of the low-level pesticide intake have been observed. Total
Mn is not significantly decreased in livers of rats fed the low-Mn diets,
although Mn content of livers of rats fed the high-Mn diet is significantly
increased over that in control rat livers. Reproduction is equally good in
rats fed diets with and without added pesticides. In low-Mn rats fed diets
with and without pesticides, a small number of offspring which were not
sacrificed at birth for analysis, but allowed to live, showed a 15 to 20%
mortality rate at 2 to 4 weeks of age. (J. P. Feaster)
Comparison of Three Feeding Programs for Wintering Stocker Calves in
Drylot.-Three feeding programs for wintering steer calves were compared.
Lots of eight calves each were offered ad libitum either Coastal bermuda-
grass hay of average quality, corn silage or a low-cost bulky concentrate
mixture which consisted of dried citrus pulp, cane molasses, corn meal,
alfalfa meal, urea, defluorinated phosphate and trace mineralized salt.
Two forage supplements, which differed in non-protein nitrogen (NPN)
content, were compared in two lots of cattle which were offered corn silage
ad libitum. The lot offered the concentrate mixture had the highest average
daily weight gain, 2.1 pounds per day as compared to 1.5 pounds per day
with ad libitum corn silage, low NPN supplement, 1.3 with ad libitum corn
silage, high NPN supplement and 1.1 with ad libitum hay, low NPN sup-
plement. (J. F. Hentges, Jr.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The research program in the Department of Botany continues to grow
through the expanding activities of staff conducting research projects pre-
viously initiated, the transfer of Dr. James W. Kimbrough and his ac-
tivities to Botany from Plant Pathology, and the exploratory work of new
staff on problems that relate to interests of the Experiment Stations but
which are non-projected as of this reporting. Among the new items of
equipment obtained in support of these projects are an additional fume
hood and a Percival Environator for the plant physiology research
laboratories, optical equipment and three herbarium cases for work in
Mycology, and four herbarium cases and steromicroscopes for work in
taxonomy of vascular plants.
Seventeen journal papers were published during the year by staff
members. Ten journal articles and one book manuscript have been sub-
mitted for publication and are in press.
Dr. Carl Chapman left the staff in May to accept a position in another
institution. Dr. Henry C. Aldrich (ultrastructure cytology and mycology)
and Dr. Joseph S. Davis (phycology) are new staff added during the year.
Dr. John Henry Davis, Dr. E. S. Ford, and Dr. J. T. Mullins have been
working on non-projected research of interest to the Stations.
The contract with the Air Force and grants from N.I.H., A.E.C., and
the Graduate School Research Council continue to support research ac-
tivities in the Department. Additional modest assistance has been obtained
through the American Cancer Society Institutional Grant and the Biomedi-
cal Science Institutional grant.


Hatch Project 953 T. E. Humphreys and L. A. Garrard

The study of sugar metabolism in the corn scutellum was continued.
During the early development of the corn seedling growth is supported
mainly by sugars originating from the starch of the endosperm. Glucose
from the endosperm enters the scutellum where it is used to synthesize
sucrose, which in turn moves to the root and shoot. The scutellum cells
have the ability to store sucrose, and the total amount of stored sucrose
increases with time following germination. As the concentration of stored
sucrose increases, the rate of sucrose storage decreases, and a greater
proportion of the newly synthesized sucrose remains outside the storage
compartment. Presumably this sucrose would most readily be available
for transport to meet the needs of the rapidly growing root and shoot. The
availability for transport of stored sucrose is not known, since little is
known of the mechanism by which sucrose enters or leaves the storage
compartment. Slices of the scutellum store sucrose when they are placed
either in a fructose or sucrose solution, and our evidence suggests that
exogenous sucrose is stored by a mechanism different from that used to
store sucrose newly synthesized from hexose. Carbon-14 labeled sucrose
in the storage compartment will exchange with unlabeled sucrose in the
bathing solution, and it is believed that this exchange is mediated by the
"carrier" that operates in sucrose storage.

Annual Report, 1967 81

Hatch Project 1042 G. J. Fritz
This project is concerned with the study of 02 fixation by higher plants.
By 02 fixation is meant the direct addition of 02 to organic substrate. 02
fixation studies involve incubation of plant tissues in 02 labeled with the
isotope oxygen-18, followed by subsequent isolation from the tissues of
compounds suspected of being labeled. Isotopic analyses are carried out
with a mass spectrometer.
Investigations during the past year were concerned with the possible
role of 02 fixation in tyrosine biosynthesis. An anaerobic pathway of
tyrosine biosynthesis in higher plant tissues has been recognized for several
years, whereas animal liver has been known to require 02 for the conver-
sion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. A recent report (Nair and Vining,
Phytochem. 4:401. 1965) directed attention to spinach tissue as a material
which might be used to demonstrate the aerobic synthesis of tyrosine; these
workers prepared an enzyme system from spinach leaves which was capable
of catalyzing the hydroxylation of phenylalanine, by a reaction similar to
that occurring in animal liver. The experimental procedure adopted to
demonstrate 02 fixation into tyrosine was to incubate spinach seedlings for
several days in nitrogen and oxygen gas mixtures (80%-20%) labeled
with oxygen-18. Both tyrosine and phenylalanine were isolated from the
seedlings by chromatographic techniques which were developed for this
purpose, and included adsorption on carbon, ion exchange, and partition on
thin layers of cellulose. Mass spectrometric analyses showed small oxygen-18
enrichments in tyrosine, whereas phenylalanine was not enriched. From
these results it was concluded that atmospheric 02 is incorporated directly
into tyrosine in intact green spinach seedlings, at least to a small extent.
Thus it appears that two pathways exist for tyrosine biosynthesis in
spinach. One is anaerobic and the other involves 02 fixation.

Hatch Project 1118 D. B. Ward
Further progress was made toward an understanding of the state's
vascular flora. Particular attention was given to Hyptis (Labiatae),
Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae), Proserpinaca and Myriophyllum (Halora-
gaceae), Hedyotis (Rubiaceae), Sagittaria (Alismataceae), Boerhavia
(Nyctaginaceae), Agaloma and Tithymalus (Euphorbiaceae), and Tillandsia
(Bromeliaceae). In most of these genera the nomenclature and the distri-
bution of the species within the state were worked out. Several species were
discovered that had not previously been reported for Florida.
The first portion of a checklist of the plants of Florida has been com-
pleted and is in the process of publication; it will contain the correct names,
the synonyms, and the common names for all ferns and other non-seed-
bearing vascular plants, the conifers, and the monocots, found native or
naturalized in the state.

Hatch Project 1191 David S. Anthony
A study of protein turnover in pea (Pisum sativum) plants as affected
by high temperature is under way. Preliminary experiments with 14C-labeled
amino acids suggested that newly synthesized protein was more rapidly

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

metabolized at supraoptimal temperatures than at optimal temperatures.
These same studies also revealed the existence of a substantial quantity of
acetone-soluble "C-labeled protein. The "C activity of this fraction was
higher in the extracts of plants grown at supraoptimal temperatures than
in those grown at optimal temperatures by an amount approximately enough
to account for the increased turnover of the water-soluble, tri-chloracetic
acid-precipitable protein at the high temperature. An extensive series of
experiments to confirm or refute these preliminary findings is in progress.
One by-product of the studies mentioned above that is worth noting is
the observation that a number of the usual manifestations of apparent
heat injury in the pea plant (such as retarded growth, yellowing of leaves,
and failure to set fruit) can be reduced or eliminated by very heavy
watering two or three times daily. Apparently the excessive transpirative
water loss at high temperatures may contribute to injury at high tempera-
tures even though no wilting or other obvious external signs of water stress
are seen. However, by raising the temperature to still higher levels the
symptoms of injury are not relieved or prevented by any amount of
Studies with Arabidopsis thaliana grown under aseptic conditions
showed some effect of high temperature on the amount of several organic
acids accumulated in the above-ground portions of the plant. The organic
acid content was generally elevated at high temperatures when compared
with the content at optimum temperature. However, the effect was neither
as great nor as consistent as the elevation in free amino acid content at
high temperatures previously observed in Pisum sativum.


Hatch Project 1226 J. W. Kimbrough

The reevaluation of genera of the Pseudoascobolaceae (Kimbrough, 1966.
Can. J. Bot. 44:685-704) resulted in the splitting and merging of old genera,
and the erection of new ones (Kimbrough & Korf, 1967. Amer. J. Bot.
54:9-23). Only a few species were involved in these changes. Initial
studies of North American collections of Ascophanus revealed that it con-
tained species of 11 genera under the current generic concept (see Annual
Report, 1966). Detailed studies on species differentiation in two of the
segregates, lodophanus and Coprotus, were initiated in 1966. This has been
expanded to include the genus Thecotheus. Herbarium studies have con-
tinued on collections from the Plant Pathology Herbarium, Cornell Uni-
versity (87); Plant Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada (30); Department
of Botany, University of Toronto (158) ; and 30 additional collections from
the New York Botanical Gardens. This study resulted in the transfer of
four species to lodophanus, three to Coprotus and one to Thecotheus. Pri-
mary characters for species differentiation in lodophanus are the manner of
spore ornamentation as correlated with size, shape and color of spores,
asci, and excipulum. Size and shape of spores, asci, and paraphyses largely
separate species of Coprotus, although shape and arrangement of cells of
the ectal excipulum is proving extremely useful. Thecotheus species may be
distinguished largely upon the number, size, shape, and ornamentation of
the ascospores.

Annual Report, 1967 83

Hatch Project 1287 D. B. Ward
A checklist was prepared of the genera of legumes known to occur
native or introduced in the state of Florida. This listing of 72 genera
reflects a realignment of the generic concepts held by the current manual,
where 99 genera are recognized.
Extensive field work was carried out, particularly in West Florida, for
the purpose of assembling a wide range of legume herbarium materials, for
the study of both the comparative morphology of complex groups and the
determination of ranges.
A note was published on the discovery in South Florida of Acacia
macracantha, a tropical tree not previously known in the United States.

84 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research has been conducted on 18 projects. Five projects were
terminated and one was revised. New projects included bacterial cell con-
centration in frozen cultures and the utilization of Florida grown fruits as
flavors for ice cream and sherbet. Several areas of work have been
investigated through non-projected research. Three are reported. This
research has resulted in 20 publications in scientific journals and numerous
popular articles. Much of our research has been done cooperatively with the
departments of Animal Science, Agronomy, Agricultural Economics and
Agricultural Engineering. One project was in cooperation with the Sub-
Tropical Station.
Personnel changes were the appointment of Dr. C. B. Browning as new
chairman of the Department of Dairy Science to replace Dr. E. L. Fouts,
who remained on the staff in a research capacity.
Additional silage research capabilities were brought about'by the addi-
tion of an upright silo at the Dairy Research Unit. Remodelling of the
dairy barn and construction of an upright silo at the West Florida Dairy
Unit were completed.
Major equipment purchases during the year included an atomic absorp-
tion spectrophotometer, an electronic calculator with four desk keyboard
units, and a continuous flow refrigerated centrifuge. Additional equipment
included a shaker water bath and a large walk-in incubator for dairy
bacteriology research.

State Project 213 J. M. Wing and C. J. Wilcox
The leaf, leaf stem, flower buds, and growth tip of kenaf may contain as
much as 30% protein. Ether extract content also is high. Moreover, the
fiber is largely cellulose which may be digested well by ruminants. It was
found that kenaf ensiled efficiently with or without a preservative. The
per cent efficiency of ensilability for dry matter, energy and protein was
85, 85, and 80 for plain kenaf, and 90, 88, and 87 for kenaf plus 150 pounds
of corn per ton. In all cases the digestibility was good and compared
favorably in digestibility with other roughages. Kenaf silage was ac-
ceptable to cattle as indicated by the consumption of approximately 30
megacalories of energy and 2.0 pounds of digestible protein per 1000 pounds
body weight daily.
Propylparaben has been used for many years as a food additive, and it
appears to have considerable possibility as a silage preservative. The
percent of dry matter, protein, and energy which were recovered from
experimental silos from forage treated with propylparaben was over 10%
higher than for forage which was ensiled with no additive. Forages in-
vestigated were oats, alfalfa, and a combination of oats and clover.


State Project 575 C. J. Wilcox, H. H. Head, S. P. Marshall,
J. B. White, and J. M. Wing

The experimental herd size (161) was essentially unchanged from last
year, with a modest (3.3%) increase in average production per cow.

Annual Report, 1967

Average type classification remained nearly constant with a slight decrease
in the Guernsey herd and a slight increase with Holsteins. Studies on
genetic and environmental influences upon birth weights and gestation
lengths continued. Uterine horn of pregnancy was determined in Guernsey,
Holstein, and Jersey cows during 1959-66 so that the effects of horn upon
these two traits could be evaluated. Only single, normal, living births were
included, 1082 cases in all. Through least squares analyses, the possible
confounding of effects of year, season, sire, sex, and most of their first-order
interactions, were removed along with the effects of the age of the dam.
Differences between horns in adjusted means of birth weights and gestation
lengths were slight and not statistically significant. Sire, sex, and season
effects were detected, but none of the first-order interactions were signifi-
cant. Age of dam effects were found to be curvilinear.

Hatch Project 1047 C. J. Wilcox, W. A. Krienke, J. M. Wing,
(Regional S-49) L. E. Mull, and E. L. Fouts
Monthly sampling of the Station dairy herd continued; 180 lactation
records were completed during the year. All data collected through 1964
have been punched into IBM cards; 1965 data are being summarized. De-
pendent variables include contents and yields of total solids (TS), solids-
not-fat (SNF), fat, protein and chloride, apparent acidity, and milk yield.
Independent variables include age and body weight of cow, length of
record, length of previous dry period, and days open. As a part of a
nationwide, cooperative research effort, records have contributed to analyses
of the effects of various genetic and environmental factors. During the
year, age adjustment factors for yields of milk, fat, SNF, TS, and protein
were obtained. Heritabilities of these yields ranged from 0.27 to 0.38;
heritabilities of percentages ranged from 0.40 to 0.67. Genetic correlations
among yields and among percentages were positive, most being 0.80 or
higher. Results suggested that major selection emphasis should be placed
on milk yield, while maintaining acceptable fat and SNF percentage levels,
under present milk pricing systems.

Hatch Project 1049 K. L. Smith and C. J. Wilcox
Animals in the University dairy herd were randomly assigned to either
a group receiving treatment with Staphylococcus aureus toxoid or a control
group receiving no treatment. Somatic cell counts on milk samples were
made and used to evaluate the effects of the toxoid treatment. Analysis of
a 23 x 3 x 43 factorial experiment has been completed. The seven main
effects tested included breed (Jersey, Guernsey and Holstein), year (1960-
63), season (fall or spring), treatment with toxoid, hemolytic reaction of
the staphylococci isolated, field diagnosis for mastitis, and the udder quarter
involved. Because of results of preliminary analyses, the interaction of
hemolytic reaction versus field diagnosis was included in the final analysis.
Also included were six continuous covariates, the linear and quadratic
effects of age of cow, lactation number, and weeks following parturition.
All effects except toxid treatment effect and the quadratic effect of weeks
following parturition were significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Assuming

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

that there was no interaction among the covariates considered, it was esti-
mated that the maximum effect of the age of the cow on the somatic cell
count was reached at age 14 years, that the maximum lactation effect oc-
curred during the third lactation, and that the somatic cell count increased
as the weeks following parturition increased.


Hatch Project 1062 J. M. Wing
Plants do not contain vitamin A as such, and carotene from which the
animal gets vitamin A appears to vary considerably in digestibility. This
work was undertaken to determine whether the source of carotene and the
season of the year were significant factors in digestibility. The over-all
mean digestibility of carotene was 77.7%, of dry matter content (DMC),
55.3%. Carotene digestibility was significantly affected by month of year,
year, form, and plant species. Fitting of least squares constants accounted
for 39 and 44% of the total variability in the two digestibilities. In no case
was variability among animals an important source of error.
This project is terminated with this report.


State Project 1137 C. J. Wilcox

The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects upon milk produc-
tion of such factors as herd, year, season, age, length of dry period, and
number of days open. Data consist of milk production records of Florida
cows on standard DHIA test. During 1966, 20,089 cows located in 121
herds were on test with records electronically processed. To date approxi-
mately 200,000 lactation records have been collected and are on file. Pre-
liminary studies have been undertaken to determine the most efficient means
of analyzing the total volume of data.


State Project 1185 (Revised) S. P. Marshall and K. L. Smith
Jersey calves were assigned randomly to one of four diets and were fed
ad libitum 2 through 22 days of age. The diets were: (1) fresh skimmilk;
(2) skimmilk, isocaloric in metabolizable energy to diet 1, made of recon-
stituted instant nonfat dried milk; (3) fresh skimmilk diluted with 1.5
parts of water; and (4) skimmilk isocaloric to diet 3 made of reconstituted
instant nonfat dried milk. All diets were supplemented with vitamins A
and D. Calves consumed more fresh skimmilk and gained more body
weight than those on diet 2. However, there was no difference in efficiency
of utilization of the milks, and reconstituted instant nonfat dry milk supple-
mented with vitamins A and D made a satisfactory diet for the young
calves. Differences in body weight gains and intakes were not significant
between animals receiving diet 3 and those receiving diet 4. The dilution
of each milk with 1.5 parts of water resulted in smaller gains and lower
energy intakes.
A mathematical model was developed to describe the relationship be-
tween weight gain and energy consumed:

Annual Report, 1967 87

V Ep
V =
K + Ep
where v observed weight gain, E p = energy above resting metabolism
requirement, V = maximum rate of gain possible, and K = energy above
resting metabolism necessary to produce z V. This model can be used to
predict weight gains after the constants V and K have been determined. By
substituting metabolizable energy into the equation, the level of energy in-
take which will produce most efficient gains can be estimated.


State Project 1206 J. M. Wing

A number of different early weaning systems were investigated, and
the one showing the most promise is as follows: (a) A mixture of colostrum
and high solids (20%) skimmilk or milk replacement formula is used. (b)
Milk feeding is twice daily (5% of body weight per feeding) through one
or two weeks depending upon the strength of individual calves, then once
daily until the calves consume at least a pound of solid concentrate feed
daily. This often occurs by the time they are three weeks of age, and at
this time they may be weaned abruptly. (c) Chopped or ground hay and
simple concentrates are mixed together and fed free choice from the first
day. In one trial calves consumed 4 pounds of solid feed per head daily at
an average age of 35 days. The early weaned calves grew slowly at first,
but they have remained healthy and indications are that there will be no
delay in maturity.
This project is terminated with this report.


State Project 1207 J. M. Wing, H. H. Head,
and C. J. Wilcox
The reactions of 12 cows which had access to shade were compared with
12 which were denied shade continuously except while being milked. Each
year, during the first part of the hot weather, the nonshaded cows appeared
to suffer considerably and milk production often dropped off rapidly. Typical
symptoms were slobbering and panting. Though water consumption was
not measured, cows without shade tended to stand near available water
during the day. Within a few days, however, the animals began to adapt,
in the sense that they did not appear to be as uncomfortable and milk
production increased. A total of 71 records have been completed during the
past three years. Shaded cows produced an average of 8292 pounds of milk
and 372 pounds of fat, whereas those in the sun produced 8426 pounds of
milk and 371 pounds of fat. Preliminary analyses did not show these
yields to differ significantly.
This project is terminated with this report.
(See also State Project 1207, Agricultural Engineering Department.)

88 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Hatch Project 1213 H. H. Head and C. J. Wilcox

Studies to evaluate the effects of growth hormone (GH) on plasma levels
of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and on glucose turnover
rate have continued. GH (NIH-B11) has been injected intramuscularly for
five consecutive days (1 mg/kg body weight) into four Jersey male calves
(about 120 days old). Five Jersey males injected with comparable quantities
of saline solution have served as controls.
Glucose turnover rate studies using the (UL) C14 glucose constant in-
fusion technique (16 hour fast) were conducted on all calves 8 days prior
to GH or saline administration. Blood samples were taken on alternate
days until GH or saline treatment began and then on a daily basis for
glucose, NEFA, insulin, and total lipid determinations. A second turnover
rate study was performed exactly 14 days after the first one. This was 16
hours after the last GH injection. All calves were sacrificed within /2 hour
after termination of the second (UL) C14 glucose study, which was within
20 hours of the last GH injection. Liver, muscle, and adipose tissue samples
were taken for glycogen, protein, and lipid analyses.
Blood and plasma glucose levels increased during GH administration.
There was no change in saline control calves. Similarly, average plasma
glucose levels observed during (UL) C14 glucose turnover studies were
higher after GH treatment, whereas no differences were observed in saline
control calves.
Incomplete analyses do not permit conclusions to be drawn on the GH
effect on turnover rate or distribution of radioactivity in various tissue
fractions. Upon completion of chemical analyses and additional animals, the
changes and mechanisms of action of GH in ruminants should be more
clearly defined.


State Project 1221 J. M. Wing

This experiment was designed to compare the effects of dry roughage mix-
tures and corn silage on milk production. The roughage mixture contained
in parts by weight: citrus pulp, 900; cottonseed hulls, 400; ground corn,
60; cobs and shucks, 140; defluorinated phosphate, 40; trace mineral mix-
ture, 20; and 35,000 I.U. of vitamin A per ton.
Both of the roughages were fed free-choice, and the concentrates were
fed according to a persistency factor. The animals on the mixed roughage
produced an average of 29.5 pounds of 4% fat corrected milk (FCM). The
average fat content of their milk was 5.3%, and the solids-not-fat (SNF)
averaged 9.55%. The animals fed silage produced an average of 29.0 pounds
of 4% FCM. Their milk averaged 5.4% fat and 9.33% SNF. The only signi-
ficant difference was in SNF %, which was significantly higher for the
animals fed mixed roughages.
This project is terminated with this report.

Annual Report, 1967 89

State Project 1234 C. J. Wilcox
Collection of data continues from four cooperating dairy herds with a
living population of about 1000 cows. Analyses of the effects of crossbreed-
ing upon reproductive performance were completed and results published. It
was not possible to detect any beneficial effects from crossbreeding on age at
first calving, productive life span, total life span, number of parturitions, or
abortion rates. Evaluation of other additive and non-additive genetic effects
is continuing.
(See also State Project 1234, Agricultural Economics Department.)

Hatch Project 1249 K. L. Smith and L. E. Mull
Buffered dilution blanks as described in Standard Methods for the Ex-
amination of Dairy Products (11th Edition) did not give consistent results
when plating at the high dilutions necessary to count bacteria in fermenting
milk. The use of peptone broth or the addition of sodium thiosulfate to the
dilution water used provided reproducible plate counts. To study factors
affecting the rate of acid production in dairy products, 11 fermentation ex-
periments were completed using Streptococcus lactis (ATCC 7962 and ATCC
12929) and S. cremoris (ATCC 9625) grown in skimmilk using incubation
temperatures of 25 and 30C. The rate of acid production per cell division in
these three strains is not significantly different, but the acid produced per
cell division is higher at 30C (4.58 x 10-15 moles) than at 25'C (3.43 x 10-15
moles). It appears that the rate of acid formation in fermented dairy
products is affected by both the rate of growth of the organism and the in-
cubation temperature. The interaction between the organism and the in-
cubation temperature was not significant.


State Project 1255 J. M. Wing
Three replications of a 5x5 Latin square are being used to evaluate 0, 16,
33, 44, and 60% citrus pulp in high concentrate rations. Experimental sub-
jects are steers which have permanent rumen fistulas. The present data are
not extensive enough for analysis, but no consistent effects have been ob-
served for complete digestibility of dry matter, protein, or energy, for rumen
digestibility of cellulose, or fatty acid patterns in the rumen liquors.

State Project 1264 C. J. Wilcox
Vital records of 3774 dairy sires which entered AI service at less than
three years of age were analyzed to determine the proportion entering which
survived until proof for milk production became available. Data were
grouped by breed, age of entry, and time period. All main effects and most
interactions were statistically significant. For 1068 sires entering service at

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

less than two years of age during the period of 1939-50, survival (55%)
was lower than for 1866 sires entering from 1951-61 (64%). Corresponding
survival rates for 530 and 310 two-year-olds were 44 and 52%, respectively.
Major causes of loss for the two age groups were reproductive failure (15
and 21%), disease (7 and 8%), accidents and injury (2 and 3%), and other
reasons (15 and 21%). Increased survival during 1951-61 has resulted from
decreased losses due to reproductive failure. Losses due to disease and in-
jury have not decreased. Real differences among breeds in survival rates of
bulls entering during 1951-61 were found and ranged from 41% for Milking
Shorthorns to 70% for Brown Swiss.
(See also State Project 1264, Animal Science Department.)

State Project 1271 H. H. Head
Experiments have continued on two groups of dairy calves to estimate
parameters of glucose metabolism and effects of age and diet on glucose
and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration.
Eight calves (Group I) were fed at 10% of body weight through
7 weeks of age, at 5% of body weight the 8th week, then weaned to
a hay-grain concentrate diet. They had access to the concentrate mix-
ture ad libitum from 3 days through 13 weeks (4 calves) or 22 weeks
(4 calves). Eight calves (Group II) were fed whole milk fortified with
milk solids (13% solids) at 8-10% of body weight through 13 weeks
(4 calves) or 22 weeks (4 calves).
Glucose turnover rate studies using the (UL) C14 glucose constant
infusion technique were conducted on all calves after a 16 hour fast
at 2, 5, 8, and 12 weeks, and at approximately the 22nd week on three
calves in each group. Average glucose turnover rate data at 2, 5, 8
and 12 weeks for Groups I and II were 2.96 and 2.57, 2.92 and 2.67,
2.14 and 2.88, and 2.10 and 2.55 mg/min/kg. Differences between Groups
I and II were observed. In general, the rate declined in grain-fed calves
(Group I) with the lowest value observed at the 8th week, which cor-
responded to the weaning date for these calves. Age was more important
than plasma glucose concentration in accounting for the within animal
variability in both groups. Turnover rates were consistently higher
in milk-fed calves at 8 and 12 weeks of age. No significant relationships
between plasma glucose concentration and turnover rate could be detected
in either group of calves irrespective of age.
With regard to age, changes in plasma glucose (Y1) and NEFA (Y2)
were best described by the equations Y = 79.3 + 0.3570Xi 0.002057X2
and Y2 = 883 15.842X, + 0.19370X2 for Group I, and Y, = 97.96 -
0.3408X1 + 0.002510X2 and Y2 = 395.82 + 6.9927X, 0.049507X2 for
Group II calves (where X1 = age, X2 = age squared).

State Project 1370 E. L. Fouts, G. D. Kuhn,
C. W. Campbell and S. E. Malo
The results of an extensive survey revealed that no Florida grown fruit,

Annual Report, 1967

except strawberries, was used in the top 50 most sold ice cream flavors in
the United States.
This project was designed to determine the usefulness of Florida grown
fruits in ice cream and sherbets. Tropical fruits are noted for their de-
licious, unique flavors and it was thought that if good formulas were de-
veloped for the use of certain of these fruits in ice cream and sherbets,
a new market could be created for them. It was realized that to be accept-
able to industry, a product must meet with public acceptance and be avail-
able at a cost competitive with other similar ice cream flavoring ingredients.
The first fruit tried was the mango. It had been tried by others in past
years, and while good, had never gained consumer acceptance as an ice
cream flavor. The fruit itself was practically unknown to most consumers
except those living in tropical areas. A product was made in the form of a
sauce acidfied with lemon juice, changed in color from the natural yellow
to a red shade, using a stabilizer and corn and cane products as sweeteners.
This sauce was injected into the soft vanilla ice cream as it was removed
from the freezer.
It was sent to the Food Service units on the campus under the name
"Tropical Delight". It was well received, and repeat orders were received.
Products made from Florida grown limes were prepared into a flavored
and colored formulation for the manufacture of sherbet. Excellent sherbets
resulted, and the formulas are now ready to be used by the fruit packing
industry for the preparation of measured units of sherbet flavors for use
by ice cream manufacturing plants.
Other Florida grown fruits will be experimented with when in season.


State Project 1352 L. E. Mull, K. L. Smith,
and W. A. Krienke

The purposes of this project are to evaluate growth media and methods
of concentrating, preserving, and storing cell concentrates; to observe their
effect on coagulation time of milk; and to utilize them in the manufacture
of cottage cheese and cultured buttermilk.
Various growth media tested were skimmilk, whey, and lactose broth.
These media were modified by the addition of glucose, yeast extract, or
citrate. Difficulty has been encountered during the first eight trials in
obtaining reproducible estimates of growth rates for Streptococcus lactis
(ATCC 7962). Attempts are being made to standardize procedures to over-
come this phoblem.
This is a new project. Sufficient data have not yet been collected to
draw conclusions.

New Product Development.-The introduction of many substitutes for
dairy products including margarine, coffee whiteners, dessert toppings, filled
milk, mellorine, and even synthetic milk has seriously encroached on the
market for fluid milk and other manufactured dairy products. The trend
toward weight reduction through dieting, the interest in cholesterol control,
and the lower cost of products used in these substitutes have caused a loss
in per capital consumption of milk and milk products during the past several

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

An effort is being made to develop new products using milk that could
be made and sold by dairy processors, thus regaining some of the losses that
have been incurred during the past several years.
A protein, carbohydrate, and vitamin enriched milk product has been
developed as a supplement to the regular diet for athletes and others wish-
ing to gain weight or undertake body development programs.
This product has been used at the training table of the University of
Florida athletes, and preliminary results indicate that it is suitable for its
intended purpose. When sufficient data have been accumulated, the formula
will be released for general use by milk and milk products processors.
(E. L. Fouts).
Solids-Not-Fat by Watson and Quevenne Lactometers.-In using the
Watson lactometer on samples of refrigerated high-fat milk from Jersey
and Guernsey cows, some churning of milk fat was encountered.
In the first phase of a study comparing the Watson lactometer procedure
on freshly drawn non-cooled milk to the Quevenne lactometer procedure
on split portions of the same samples that had been refrigerated for at
least 16 hours, no churning of fat with either procedure was observed.
On 24 individual cow samples (fat varying from 3.0 to 6.5%) the mean
differences in SNF values as determined by the Mojonnier method were
-0.05% for the Quevenne procedure and -0.06% for the Watson procedure.
Respective spreads of SNF value-differences were 0.29% and 0.50%. The
following formula for converting Quevenne values was used: SNF = (Cor.
Lactometer 4) + 0.2 X % fat. (W. A. Krienke)
Ensiled Complete Ration for Dairy Cows.-A complete ration was pre-
pared for ensiling by blending 39 pounds of a moistened concentrate mix-
ture with each 100 pounds of chopped fresh corn. The corn plant contained
36.5% dry matter, and about 40% of the dry matter was grain. The suit-
ability of this ensiled complete ration was determined by comparing it with
a control ration of plain silage made from comparable chopped fresh corn
and the same moistened concentrate mixture. The control ration of plain
silage and concentrate mixture were blended in the same proportions at
feeding time as the ensiled complete ration, and both were fed ad libitum.
Daily production of milk and of 4% fat corrected milk averaged 38.7 and
39.4 pounds, respectively, on the control ration and 38.8 and 40.4 pounds,
respectively, on the ensiled complete ration. Daily body weight gains aver-
aged 1.9 and 2.4 pounds on the respective rations. Dry matter intakes
averaged 2.7 pounds daily per 100 pounds of body weight on the control
diet and 2.9 pounds per 100 pounds of body weight on the ensiled complete
ration. To test the acceptability of the rations during hot weather, each
was fed for a period during May. Dry matter intakes per 100 pounds of
body weight of the cows were about the same as for the winter period.
Density of the plain silage, calculated on the basis of weight of fresh
material ensiled, averaged 49.6 pounds per cubic foot, while that of the
ensiled complete ration was 62.3 pounds per cubic foot. The addition of
26.7 pounds (air dry basis) of concentrate mixture to each 100 pounds of
green chopped corn increased storage space required only 5.2% over that
for chopped corn. The pH was 3.75 for the plain silage and 3.85 for the
ensiled complete ration. Fermentation dry matter loss was 8.4% for the
plain silage and 6.9% for the ensiled complete ration. (S. P. Marshall)

Annual Report, 1967



State Project 1224

K. B. Meurlott, M. C. Williams,
E. P. Fisher, and M. H. Sharpe

The first phase of this project, the analysis of 729 news stories, has been
completed. Currently, a manuscript is being processed and the results will
be published as a Station circular. For a digest of the research, see page
89 of the Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report, June 30, 1966.
Attention is now turned to evaluating the reader interests of the Sun-
shine State Agricultural Research Report, an Experiment Station magazine.
A questionnaire was mailed out with the May 1967 Report, and the returns
are now being analyzed.

The Station printed 63,000 copies of five new bulletins totaling 152
pages and 25,000 copies of three new circulars totaling 96 pages. Six bulle-
tins and four circulars were reprinted. These totaled 54,000 copies and
212 pages. During the year two 20-page and three 16-page Research
Reports were printed and distributed to 8,000 subscribers. Also, 11 bro-
chures were printed which described the activities of the Central Florida,
Everglades, North Florida, Range Cattle, Sub-Tropical and West Florida
Experiment Stations; the Plantation Field Laboratory, Big Bend Horticul-
tural Laboratory, Potato Investigations Laboratory, Watermelon and Grape
Investigations Laboratory, and the Federal-State Weather Forecasting
Publications printed were: Pages Printed

Bul. 711 Making a Will in Florida. J. R. Greenman

Bul. 712

Bul. 713

Consumer Acceptance of Prepackaged Sweet
Corn. D. L. Brooke .... -........ ....
Diseases of Southern Turfgrasses. T. E.
Freem an ..... .... .. ...

Bul. 714 Sweet Corn Production on the Organic and
Sandy Soils of South Florida. V. L. Guzman,
H. W. Burdine, W. T. Forsee, Jr., E. D.
Harris, Jr., J. P. Orsenigo, R. K. Showalter,
C. Wehlburg, J. A. Winchester, E. A. Wolf
Bul. 715 Fertilizing Flue-Cured Tobacco in the Suwan-
nee Valley. W. L. Pritchett, H. L. Breland,
H. W Lundy .... .. ... .... ..
Cir. S-176 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Vegetable Variety Trials for 1964 and 1965.
H. Y. Ozaki, ed. ........
Cir. S-177 Norris, A New Purple Bunch Grape. J. A.
Mortensen, L. H. Stover .... ..... ... ..

28 22,000

12 6,000

32 15,000

48 10,000

32 8,000

60 5,000

4 10,000

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Cir. S-178 General Map of Natural Vegetation of Flor-
ida. J. H Davis ....... ...- .....

Publications revised and/or reprinted were:
Bul. 575A Feeding Value of Citrus and Blackstrap Mo-
lasses for Fattening Cattle. W. G. Kirk,
E. M. Kelly, H. J. Fulford, H. E. Henderson
Bul. 578A Factors Affecting the Weaning Weight of
Range Calves. F. M. Peacock, W. G. Kirk,
M K oger .......... ..-- .. -.... .-.-
Bul. 616 Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus
Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped
Corn for Fattening Steers in Drylot. F. M.
Peacock, W. G. Kirk .................. -

Bul. 637A Chrysanthemum Diseases in Florida. C. R.
Jackson, L. A. McFadden, R. O. Magie, A. J.
Overm an ....... -....... .............-.. --. --

Bul. 663 Environmental Factors Affecting Weaning
Weights of Beef Cattle in the Everglades.
J. H. Meade, Jr., R. W. Kidder, M. Koger,
J. R. Crockett ......- ----..
Bul. 686 Forage and Animal Response to Different
Phosphatic Fertilizers on Pangolagrass Pas-
tures. E. M. Hodges, W. G. Kirk, F. M.
Peacock, D. W. Jones, G. K.. Davis, J. J.
Neller ........ ...- -. .
Cir. S-121C Recommendations for Commercial Lawn
Spraymen. S. H. Kerr ........ .............
Cir. S-140 Chicken Manure. C. F. Eno --........
Cir. S-152 Oats and Rye for Grazing on Florida Flat-
wood. J. E. McCaleb, F. M. Peacock, E. M.
H odges ......-. ... -- -.--

Cir. S-172 Azalea Culture. R. D. Dickey ...... ..

32 10,000
Pages Printed

24 3,000

12 4,000

12 4,000

52 10,000

12 3,000

28 4,000

20 6,000
20 10,000

16 5,000
16 15,000

By taping an extra show a week the television program was expanded
from 9 months to a year-around program. Measured by the volume of mail
from the viewers, the program was highly successful.
Radio stations continued to use taped materials developed by the depart-
ment in cooperation with the researchers. To meet modern commercial
broadcasting demands, music and sound effects were added to the tapes.
News and feature stories were mailed to all media outlets in Florida
quoting researchers and reporting on news-worthy events. These averaged
about nine releases per week, and reached an estimated 2,208,000 readers
per month.
Commercial time and space "donated" by these mass media outlets was
estimated at $800,000.

Annual Report, 1967 95

Papers by research staff members continue to be printed in large num-
bers. These appear in technical journals in the United States and a few
in foreign countries. Those included in the Journal Series are forwarded
to the journals by the Station editorial staff, and reprints are ordered for
distribution when they are printed. The series now contains more than
2,650 listings.
Following is a list of Journal Series articles printed during the year
and those not previously listed:
1121 Nature of Soil Acidity Released by Several Fertilizers near the
Zone of Placement. J. G. A. Fiskell. Soil and Crop. Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 25: 173-190. 1965.
1853 Uptake, Movement, and Transfer of Rb, S, Cl and Fe through
Stolonacious Plants as Affected by Moisture Stress. W. K. Robertson,
C. B. Ammerman, B. G. Dunavent. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc.
30:4:473-477. 1966.
1905 Amendment of Sandy Soil with a Phosphatic Clay. R. B. Diamond
and J. G. A. Fiskell. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 190-202.
2013 The Nature of Inclusions in Erythrocytes of Turkeys Treated with
Diethylstilbestrol. C. F. Simpson, R. H. Harms, J. M. King. Exp.
and Mol. Pathol. 5:2: 125-133. 1966.
2014 Genera of Fungi Associated with the Sandy Soils of S. W. Florida.
John Paul Jones. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 232-238.
2038 In Vitro Germination and Pollen Tube Growth of Maize (Zea Mays
L.) Pollen. I. Calcium and Boron Effects. Canadian J. Bot. 45:
839-845. 1967.
2065 Mating Behavior in the Solpugid Genus Eremobates Banks. Martin
H. Muma. Animal Behavior 14:2-3:346-350. 1966.
2078 The Effect of Antemortem Injection of Sodium Chloride, Papain
and Papain Derivatives on the Tenderness of Beef. A. Z. Palmer,
D. L. Huffman, J. W. Carpenter, J. F. Hentges, Jr., and R. L.
Shirley. J. Animal Sci. 26:2:285-289. 1967.
2083 The Effect of Breeding, Level of Feeding and Antemortem Injection
of Papain on the Tenderness of Weanling Calves. A. Z. Palmer,
D. L. Huffman, J. W. Carpenter, D. D. Hargrove, and M. Koger.
J. Animal Sci. 26:2:290-293. 1967.
2093 Correlation Studies of Slash Pine Tracheid Length. Ray K. Strick-
land and Ray E. Goddard. Forest Sci. 12:1:54-62. 1966.
2142 Fate and Persistence of Organic Pesticides in the Environment.
C. H. Van Middelem. Advances in Chemistry Series. 60: 228-249.
2145 Separation of Derivatives of 3,6-dichloro-O-anisic and 3,6-dichloro-
salicylic Acids and their Acetic Homologs by Gas Chromatography.
Merrill Wilcox. Anal. Biochem. 16:2: 253-259. 1966.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

2156 Dietary Phosphorus, Sulfur and Molybdenum, and Mineral Com-
position of Rumen Fluid. George K. Davis and Joe L. Evans. J.
Animal Sci. 25:4: 1010-1013. 1966.

2157 Influence of Sulfur, Molybenum, Phosphorus and Copper Inter-
relationships in Cattle upon Cellulose Digestion in vivo and in vitro.
George K. Davis, Joe L. Evans. J. Animal Sci. 25:4: 1017-1018.

2159 Red Spider Mite Infestation Differences in Mango Varieties. D. O.
Wolfenbarger. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 9: 165-169. 1965.

2160 Effect of Source and Level of Dietary Protein on Pigs Fed High
Copper Rations. G. E. Combs, C. B. Ammerman, R. L. Shirley,
H. D. Wallace. J. Animal Sci. 25:3: 613-616. 1966.

2172 Seasonal Changes in Oxidation and Phosphorylation in Mitochon-
drial Preparations from Grapefruit. H. M. Vines and J. F. Metcalf.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 90: 86-92. 1967.

2173 Electron Microscopy of Arteriosclerosis in Cows with Johne's Dis-
ease. Charles F. Simpson. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 27:120: 1197-1204.

2182 Responses of the Growing Pig to Alternations in the Amino Acid
Pattern of Isolated Soybean Protein. G. E. Combs, T. H. Berry,
H. D. Wallace, R. C. Robbins. J. Animal Sci. 25:3: 722-728. 1966.

2184 Copper Requirements of Watermelons. S. J. Locascio, J. G. Fiskell.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 88: 568-575. 1966.

2194 Crystalline Inclusions in Chloroplasts of the Coconut Palm. W. C.
Price, A. P. Martinez, H. E. Warmke. J. Ultrastructure Res. 14:
618-621. 1966.

2198 Effect of Flavonoids on Survival Time of Rats Fed Thrombogenic
and Atherogenic Regimens. R. C. Robbins. J. Atherosclerosis Res.
7: 3-10. 1967.

2258 Availability and Fractionation of Residual Phosphorus in Soils High
in Aluminum and Iron. W. K. Robertson, L. G. Thompson, Jr., C. E.
Hutton. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 30:4: 446-450. 1966.

2259 Response of Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) to
Phosphorus in Sandy Soils. W. L. Pritchett, W. R. Llewellyn. Soil
Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 30:4: 509-512. 1966.

2260 Leakage and Storage of Sucrose During Sucrose Synthesis in the
Corn Scutellum. T. E. Humphreys, L. A. Garrard. Phytochemistry
5: 653-663. 1966.

2262 The Effect of Fumigants and Plastic Film on the Control of Several
Soil-Borne Pathogens of Tomato. J. P. Jones, A. J. Overman, C. M.
Geraldson. Phytopathology 56:8: 929-932. 1966.
2264 Aphid Trap Collections Over a Three-year Period from Four Loca-
tions. D. O. Wolfenbarger. J. Econ. Entomol. 59:4: 953-954. 1966.

Annual Report, 1967

2265 Comparison of Calcium and Boron Deficiences on the Peanut. I.
Physiological and Yield Differences. H. C. Harris, J. B. Brolmann.
Agron. J. 58: 575-578. 1966.

2266 Comparison of Calcium and Boron Deficiencies on the Peanut. II.
See Quality in Relation to Histology and Viability. H. C. Harris,
J. B. Brolmann. Agron. J. 58: 578-582. 1966.

2267 Effect of Micronutrient and Other Deficiences on Yield and Mineral
Composition of Forage Crops. H. C. Harris. Proc. Tenth Inter-
national Grassland Congress, Section I, paper 21, 175-178. 1966.

2270 An Equation of Motion for Multiple Granular Particles in Free
Fall in Enclosed Vertical Ducts. C. F. Kiker, I. J. Ross. Amer. Soc.
Agr. Eng. 9:4: 468-473, 479. 1966.

2272 The Effect of Copper on Yield and Uptake of Phosphorus and Iron
by Citrus Seedlings Grown at Various Phosphorus Levels. W. F.
Spencer. Soil Sci. 102:5: 296-299. 1966.

2274 The Effects of Added Aluminum on Some Soil Microbial Processes
and on the Growth of Oats (Avena sativa) in Arredondo Fine Sand.
V. K. Mutatkar, W. L. Pritchett. Soil Sci. 103:1: 39-46. 1967.

2275 Familial Differences of Single Comb White Leghorn Chickens in
Tolerance to High Ambient Temperature. H. R. Wilson. Poultry
Sci. 45:4: 784-788. 1966.

2281 Growth of Pollen Tubes in Three Incompatible Varieties of Citrus.
L. D. Ton, A. H. Krezdorn. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 89: 211-215,
2283 Studies of Dietary Piperazine, phenothiazine and dibutyltin dilau-
rate. I. Fertility, Hatchability and Egg Production. H. R. Wilson,
J. L. Fry, J. E. Jones. Poultry Sci. 46:2: 303-309. 1967.
2284 Artificial Diets for Honeybees (Apis Mellifera). F. A. Robinson,
J. L. Nation. Florida Entomol. 49:3: 175-184. 1966.

2286 A Compendium of the Genus Criconemoides (Criconematidae: Nema-
toda). A. C. Tarjan. Helminthological Soc. of Wash. Proc. 33:2:
109-125. 1966.
2289 Influence of Chronic Intestinal Coccidiosis on the Protein Require-
ments of the Laying Hen. R. H. Harms, C. F. Simpson, B. L.
Damron, P. W. Waldroup. Poultry Sci. 46:1: 191-194. 1967.

2290 Intravascular Aggregation of the Cellular Elements of Blood in
Rats Fed Thrombogenic and Atherogenic Regimens. R. C. Robbins.
Atherosclerosis Res. 6: 467-473. 1966.

2291 Identification and Persistence of Phage Types of Staphyloccoccus
Aureus in Dairy Herds in Florida. George T. Edds, D. A. Sanders,
Amer. Veterinary Res. 27: 119: 951-955. 1966.

2298 Developing Mechanical Celery Harvester. James F. Beeman, William
W. Deen, Jr., Lawrence H. Halsey. Amer. Soc. Agr. Eng. 47:7:
376-377. 1966.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

2300 Relation of Kernel Size to Density and Popping Quality in Popcorn,
Zea Mays L. Victor E. Green, Jr. Soil and Crop. Sci. Soc. Proc. 25:
295-300. 1965.

2301 Fertilization of Oats and Rye for Forage. L. G. Thompson, Jr.,
W. H. Chapman. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 263-270.

2302 Response of Pangolagrass (Digitaria Decumbens Stent) to Different
Ratios and Amounts of Nitrogen and Potassium. J. E. McCaleb,
E. M. Hodges, C. L. Dantzman, D. W. Jones, R. L. Bullock, W. G.

2305 Evaluation of Electrostatic Charging of Chemical Dusts. T. W.
Casselman, C. Wehlburg, W. C. Genung, P. L. Thayer. Amer. Soc.
Agr. Eng. 9:6 803-808. 1966.

2307 Effects of Reagent Concentrations on the Molybdenum Blue Method
for Determining Phosphorus. H. L. Breland, J. NeSmith. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 211-218. 1965.

2308 Organophosphates, Soil Fumigants and Strawberries. A. J. Over-
man. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 351-356. 1965.

2309 Nutrient Requirements of Gladiolus Cormels on Sandy Soils of
Florida. W. E. Waters. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25:
59-63. 1965.

2310 Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Squash Yield.
P. Sutton. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 46-50. 1965.

2311 Selenium and Weaning Weights of Cattle and Sheep. R. L. Shirley,
Marvin Koger, H. L. Chapman, Jr., P. E. Loggins, R. W. Kidder,
Austin Raulerson, J. F. Easley, and T. J. Cunha. J. Animal Sci.
25:3: 648-651. 1966.

2314 Transformations and Mobility of Band-Placed Urea G. M. Volk.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 202-211. 1965.

2315 Response of Flue-Cured Tobacco to Micronutrients. W. L. Pritchett,
H. W. Lundy, H. L. Breland. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25:
116-122. 1965.

2316 Peanut Response to Calcium Sources and Micronutrients. W. K.
Robertson, H. W. Lundy, L. G. Thompson, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 335-343. 1965.

2317 Effects of Ammoniating Superphosphate on Yields and Phosphorus
Contents of Sorghum Plants. C. C. Hortenstine. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 63-69. 1965.

2318 Physiological and Biochemical Functions of Micro-elements. S. H.
West, H. C. Harris. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 83-95.
2319 Spodic Horizons in Selected Leon and Immokalee Soils. D. E. Pettry,
V. W. Carlisle, R. E. Caldwell, Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
25: 160-172. 1965.

Annual Report, 1967 99

2320 Induced Mutations at Specific Loci in Higher Plants. I. Relation-
ships to Seedling Heights and Chlorophyll Deficiencies. A. T.
Wallace. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 396-410. 1965.

2321 Storm Rainfall in Central and Southern Florida. W. C. Mills. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 311-319. 1965.

2322 Combination of High Analysis Fertilizers, Plastic Mulch and Fumi-
gation for Tomato Production on old Agricultural Land. C. M.
Geraldson, A. J. Overman, J. P. Jones. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 25: 18-24. 1965.

2323 Effect of Fertilizer Placement on P and K Uptake by Corn. L. C.
Hammond, W. K. Robertson. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25:
226-231. 1965.

2324 Micronutrient and Major Element Experiments Effectively Con-
ducted with Homemade Facilities. H. C. Harris, Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 112-116. 1965.

2325 Progress of Mulch Planting Corn and Soybeans in Florida. M. C.
Lutrick. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 51-58. 1965.
2326 Stylosanthes humilis, A Summer-Growing, Self-Regenerating, An-
nual Legume for use in Florida Permanent Pastures. A. E. Kret-
schmer, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla., Proc. 25: 248-262. 1965.
2327 Strawberry Fertilizer Trials on Sandy Soils of the Lower East
Coast. H. Y. Ozaki, J. R. Iley. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
25: 344-351. 1965.
2328 Magnesium, Iron, Manganese, and Zinc Ammonium Phosphates as
Fertilizer Sources for Eggplant. H. Y. Ozaki, J. R. Iley. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 123-128. 1965.
2329 Subsidence of Peat and Muck Soils in Florida and Other Parts
of the United States -A Review. F. H. Thomas. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 153-160. 1965.
2330 Preliminary Investigations of the Relationships of pH and Sugar-
cane Responses on Organic Soils. J. R. Iley, S. L. Hooks. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 29-35. 1965.
2331 Fertilization and Spacing of Peanuts. R. W. Lipscomb, W. K.
Robertson, W. H. Chapman. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25:
329-334. 1965.
2332 Varying the Light Environment of Semi-prolific Hybrid Corn
(Zea mays L.). G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 25: 284-294. 1965.
2333 A survey of Aluminum Status in Florida Soils. T. L. Yuan. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 143-152. 1965.
2334 Pensacola Bahiagrass as Haylage. L. S. Dunavin, Jr. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 239-248. 1965.
2335 The Impact of Rising Land Prices on Florida's Agriculture. W. K.
McPherson. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25: 303-310. 1965.