Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Agricultural experiment stations...
 Report of the director
 Report of the administrative...
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering
 Animal science
 Dairy science
 Food science
 Fruit crops
 Ornamental horticulture
 Plant pathology
 Plant science
 Poultry science
 Vegetable crops
 Veterinary science
 Brooksville beef cattle research...
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Everglades station
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Range cattle station
 Sub-tropical station
 Suwannee Valley station
 West Florida station
 Big bend horticultural laborat...
 Potato investigation laborator...
 Watermelon and grape investigations...
 Federal-state weather forecasting...
 Historic note


Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00014
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1966
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00014
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Agricultural experiment stations staff
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Report of the director
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Agricultural economics
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Animal science
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Dairy science
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Food science
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    Fruit crops
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Ornamental horticulture
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Plant pathology
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Plant science
        Page 163
    Poultry science
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    Vegetable crops
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
    Veterinary science
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
    Brooksville beef cattle research station
        Page 204
        Page 205
    Central Florida station
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
    Citrus station
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 267
            Page 268
            Page 269
            Page 270
            Page 271
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
    Everglades station
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 292
            Page 293
            Page 294
            Page 295
            Page 296
            Page 297
            Page 298
        Plantation field laboratory
            Page 299
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        South Florida field laboratory
            Page 322
            Page 323
            Page 324
            Page 325
            Page 326
        Strawberry and vegetable field laboratory
            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 329
            Page 330
    North Florida station
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Marianna unit
            Page 346
            Page 347
            Page 348
    Range cattle station
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
    Sub-tropical station
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
    Suwannee Valley station
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
    West Florida station
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
    Big bend horticultural laboratory
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
    Potato investigation laboratory
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
    Watermelon and grape investigations laboratory
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
    Federal-state weather forecasting service
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
    Historic note
        Page 406
Full Text


JUNE 30, 1966

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JUNE 30, 1966

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4S04jDE 50TO k4,

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STATIONS *r.t od.


Agricultural Experiment Stations Staff
Report of the Director ....-
Report of the Administrative Manager
Agricultural Economics ............
Agricultural Engineering ...........-..........
A gronom y .... ..... ...... .. .....
Animal Science ........... .. ...
Botany .- .......... ...-
Dairy Science ......... -- ----..
Editorial .................. ..... .......
Entomology ......... ..- --- ...
Food Science ......... --. ..- ..-..
Forestry ........ .-- ------
Fruit Crops ..... .......... .. ...................
Ornamental Horticulture ...... ..
Plant Pathology .....................-
Plant Science ............
Poultry Science ... .....-
Soils ...- -. .... .............................
Statistics ..... ...
Vegetable Crops .....................................
Veterinary Science .... -----


..-.-..- ... ---- ....-- 32
--- ..- ...-- ..- ..... 43
..-.......- .- .-..... .. 48
....- ...--- ..... 63
-.-- ..----- ..-- 79
.-----.. ..---.- 81
.....- ...- ......-- 89
-..........-......- .. .--..... 107
.... ............... ................... 122
.........................-- ... 132
-.-.-. .- .... -.. -.........- 138
-. ...-................-..... ..... 145
.---..-.. ---- ... 153
...-...- ... ...~........... ... 163
....................-............. 164
--.-.-.......-. ........---............. 169
.................- ........ ....- 185
.-.- ........-- ..- 186
.-.-..- ........-- ....- 196

Brooksville Beef Cattle Research Station .........
Central Florida Station .......... ...- ... -
Citrus Station .....................-- .
Indian River Field Laboratory .. .
Everglades Station ...................... ...
Indian River Field Laboratory ..
Plantation Field Laboratory ...........................
Gulf Coast Station .........-....- -... -
South Florida Field Laboratory ..................
Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory -
North Florida Station ..... .
M arianna U nit ................ .......
Range Cattle Station ....... -..
Sub-Tropical Station ....... ...........
Suwannee Valley Station ..... ....... .......
W est Florida Station ....................
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory ......................
Potato Investigations Laboratory ...............
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
Federal-State Weather Forecasting Service

.... 204
........ 206
... 267
.... 292
.. 310
.. 322
... 327
.. 331
....... 349
..... 357
...... 371
.... 374

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named and does not signify that they are approved to the ex-
clusion of others of suitable composition.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

June 30, 1966


Chester Howell Ferguson, Tampa, Chairman
Wayne McCall, Ocala, Vice Chairman
John C. Pace, Pensacola
Louis C. Murray, Orlando
Woodrow J. Darden, Titusville
Henry Kramer, Jacksonville
Clarence L. Menser, Vero Beach
Clifton C. Dyson, West Palm Beach
Mrs. E. C. (Carolyn) Pearce, Coral Gables
J. Broward Culpepper, Chancellor, Tallahassee


J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., President of University
E. T. York, Jr., Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Director
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Associate Director
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assistant Director
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Superintendent of Field Services
W. H. Jones, Jr., M. Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Services

The following abbreviations after name and title of Experiment Station
Staff indicate cooperation with other organizations:
Coll.-University of Florida College of Agriculture
Ext.-University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service
USDA-United States Department of Agriculture
USWB-United States Weather Bureau, Department of Commerce
FCC-Florida Citrus Commission
NOTE: Liaison appointments, as indicated following certain named in-
dividuals, represent responsibility for coordination, planning and
conduct of cooperative research with the departments indicated.


Agricultural Economics Department
K. R. Tefertiller, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and Chairman; also Coll.
and Ext.
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate Agricultural Economist

Annual Report, 1966

D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Veg. Crops
T. L. Brooks, Jr., B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
H. B. Clark, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist, Coll.
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Marketing Economist and liaison with Fruit Crops;
also Coll. (on Iv.)
D. C. Goodrich, Jr., Ph.D., Int. Agricultural Economist
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Ani. Sci.;
also Coll.
J. R. Greenman B.S.A., LLB., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Ani. Sci.;
also Coll.
W. T. Manley, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, USDA
A. J. Minden, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, FCC
J. E. Mullin, B.S., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
C. E. Murphree, D.P.A., Associate Agricultural Economist and liaison with
Forestry; also Coll.
J. L. Pearson, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA
L. Polopolus, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, FCC
G. N. Rose, B.S., Associate Agricultural Economist, Orlando
D. K. Rudser, B.S., Int. Assistant in Agricultural Economics, Orlando
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Fruit Crops.
B. J. Smith, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist and liaison with Dairy
C. N. Smith, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Orn. Hort.;
also Coll. (on Iv.)
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist and liaison with Fruit Crops
F. W. Williams, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, FCC
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Forestry,
Ornamental Horticulture)

Agricultural Engineering Department
D. T. Kinard, Ph.D., Agricultural Engineer and Chairman; also Coll. and
J. F. Beeman, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer and liaison with Veg.
Crops; also Coll.
E. K. Bowman, B.S., Associate Industrial Engineer, USDA
R. E. Choate, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer and liaison with Forestry; Coll.
R. C. Fluck, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer and liaison with Dairy
J. J. Gaffney, M.S.A.E., Assistant in Agricultural Engineering, USDA
W. G. Grizzell, B.I.E., Assistant Industrial Engineer, USDA
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer and liaison with Agron.
I. J. Ross, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Engineer and liaison with Food
Technology; also Coll.
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Animal
Science, Soils)

Agronomy Department
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Agronomist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
K. D. Butson, M.S., State Climatologist, USWB


Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Fred Clark, M.S.A., Agronomist and liaison with Ag. Eng.
B. N. Duck, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist and liaison with Dairy Sci.
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist and liaison with Plant Path.;
also Coll.
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
Kuell Hinson, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist, USDA
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Agronomist and liaison with Ent.; also Coll.
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist and liaison with Ag. Econ.
A. J. Norden, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist; also Coll.
P. L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist and liaison with Poultry
G. M. Prine, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist and liaison with Soils
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Agronomist, Coll.
0. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist and liaison with Ani. Sci.; Coll.
S. C. Schank, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist and liaison with Forestry;
also Coll.
R. M. Singh, Ph.D., Int. Research Associate
S. H. West, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist, USDA
Merrill Wilcox, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Engineering,
Dairy Science, Entomology, Forestry, Plant Pathology, Soils)

Animal Science Department

T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist and liaison with
Poultry; also Coll.
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. W. Carpenter, Ph.D., Associate Meat Scientist; also Coll.
G. E. Combs, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist and liaison with Ag.
Eng.; also Coll .
J. R. Crockett, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Geneticist; also Coll.
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
J. F. Easley, M.S., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist and liaison with
Vet. Sci.; also Coll.
Marvin Koger, Ph.D., Animal Geneticist and liaison with Soils; also Coll.
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman and liaison with Vet.
Sci.; also Coll.
J. E. Moore, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Meat Scientist and liaison with Food Tech.; also Coll.
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
D. L. Wakeman, M.S.A., Assistant Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and liaison with Vet. Sci.; also
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Animal Physiologist and liaison with Poultry; also
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agronomy, Food Technology and Nutrition, Forestry, Soils, Veterinary

Annual Report, 1966

Botany Department
Leland Shanor, Ph.D., Botanist and Chairman; also Coll.
D. S. Anthony, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
G. J. Fritz, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist; also Coll.
L. A. Garrard, Ph.D., Research Associate
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
D. B. Ward, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist; also Coll.
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Ornamental Horticulture,
Plant Pathology)

Dairy Science Department

E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
H. H. Head, Ph.D., Assistant Physiologist; also Coll.
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Associate Dairy Technologist and liaison with Food
Tech.; also Coll.
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Nutritionist and liaison with Agron.; also Coll.
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Microbiologist; also Coll.
K. L. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Microbiologist; also Coll.
C. J. Wilcox, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist; also Coll.
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Associate Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Food Science, Veterinary Science)

Dairy Research Unit, Hague
West Florida Dairy Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Dairy Husbandman

Editorial Department
Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Editor and Chairman; also Ext.
E. P. Fisher, M.Ed., Assistant Editor
K. B. Meurlott, B.A., Assistant Editor; also Ext.
Mary C. Williams, M.A., Assistant Editor

Entomology Department

W. G. Eden, Ph.D., Entomologist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
F. S. Blanton, Ph.D., Entomologist; Coll.
W. T. Calaway, M.S., Assistant Nematologist; Coll.
D. H. Habeck Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist and liaison with Veg. Crops;
also Coll.
L. A. Hetrick, Ph.D., Entomologist; Coll.
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist and liaison with Orn. Hort.;
also Coll.
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist and liaison with Agronomy; also Coll.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Milledge Murphey, Ph.D., Entomologist; Coll.
V. G. Perry, Ph.D., Nematologist and liaison with Fruit Crops; also Coll.
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Associate Entomologist
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Assistant Apiculturist
G. C. Smart, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist and liaison with Soils; also
W. W. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist; Coll.
K. J. Stone, M.S., Research Associate
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
T. J. Walker, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist; Coll.
R. C. Wilkinson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist and liaison with Forestry
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Soils)

Food Science Department

R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biochemist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
E. M. Ahmed, Ph.D., Int. Assistant Biochemist
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Horticulturist and liaison with Fruit Crops
J. H. Johnson, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist and liaison with Dairy Sci.
F. W. Knapp, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist and liaison with Ani. Sci.; also
G. D. Kuhn, Ph.D., Assistant Food Microbiologist and liaison with Fruit
Crops; also Coll.
R. C. Robbins, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist; Also Coll.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulturist and liaison with Veg. Crops
Margaret E. Merkeley, M.S., Int. Assistant in Food Technology
H. A. Moye, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist and liaison with Poultry Sci.
N. P. Thompson, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
Ruth O. Townsend, R. N., Assistant in Nutrition and liaison with Veg.
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Biochemist
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Engineering,
Animal Science, Dairy)

Forestry Department
J. L. Gray, M.F., Associate Forester and Chairman; also Coll.
S. L. Beckwith, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
P. W. Frazer, M.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
R. E. Goddard, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist; also Coll.
J. B. Huffman, D. F., Associate Forrester; also Coll.
C. M. Kaufman, Ph.D., Forester and liaison with Ani. Sci., also Coll.
J. W. Miller, Jr., M.S.F., Forester; also Coll.
D. M. Post, M.S.F., Assistant Forester; also Coll.
W. H. Smith Ph.D., Assistant Forester and liaison with Agron.; also Coll.
A. E. Squillace, Ph.D., Forester, USDA, Olustee
R. G. Stanley, Ph.D., Forest Physiologist; also Coll.
R. K. Strickland, M.S., Int. Research Associate; also Coll.

Annual Report, 1966

E. T. Sullivan, D. F., Associate Forester and liaison with Ag. Econ.; also
K. R. Swinford, Ph.D., Forester; also Coll.
(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Entomology, Soils)

Fruit Crops Department
A. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. H. Biggs, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
J. F. Gerber, Ph.D., Assistant Climatologist; Coll.
C. H. Hendershott, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; Coll.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Horticulturist
W. B. Sherman, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
J. S. Shoemaker, Ph.D., Horticulturist
J. Soule, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Food Science, Plant Pathology,

Ornamental Horticulture Department

E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Horticulturist
W. E. Fletcher, Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist and liaison with
Ag. Econ.; Coll.
G. C. Horn, Ph.D., Associate Turf Technologist and liaison with Soils; also
J. N. Joiner, Ph.D., Associate Ornamental Horticulturist; also Coll.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist and liaison with Plant
R. T. Poole, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist and liaison with Botany
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Associate Ornamental Horticulturist
(See also liaison appointment in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agronomy, Entomology, Plant Pathology, Soils)

Plant Pathology Department

Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
A. A. Cook., Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist and liaison with Veg. Crops
M. K. Corbett, Ph.D., Associate Virologist
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist and liaison with Orn.
J. W. Kimbrough, Ph.D., Assistant Mycologist and liaison with Botany;
also Coll.
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and liaison with Agronomy, USDA
C. R. Miller, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist and liaison with Agron.
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and liaison with Orn. Hort.
W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist and liaison with Fruit Crops

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

D. E. Purcifull, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
D. A. Roberts, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist; Coll.
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist and liaison with Veg. Corps;
H. E. Warmke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, USDA

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Ornamental

Plant Science Section
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist and Head

Poultry Science Department
R. H. Harms, Ph.D., Poultry Nutritionist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
J. L. Fry, Ph.D., Associate Poultry Products Technologist; also Coll.
H. R. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Poultry Physiologist; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Animal Science, Food
Science, Soils, Veterinary Science)

Soils Department
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Soil Microbiologist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Biochemist and liaison with Ani. Sci.
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Associate Soil Chemist; also Coll.
V. W. Carlisle, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Chemist; also Coll.
J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Biochemist and liaison with Veg. Crops; also Coll.
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Fruit Crops
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Soil Physicist and liaison with Ag. Eng.; also Coll.
C. C. Hortenstine, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Chemist
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Associate Soil Surveyor
T. C. Mathews, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soil Technologist and liaison with Forestry
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Chemist and liaison with Agron.
D. F. Rothwell, Ph.D., Associate Soil Microbiologist and liaison with
Poultry; also Coll.
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist
D. O. Spinks, Ph.D., Soil Chemist; Coll.
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soil Chemist
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soil Chemist and liaison with Orn. Hort.
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
T. L. Yuan Ph.D., Associate Chemist

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agronomy, Animal
Science, Entomology, Ornamental Horticulture)

Statistics Department
William Mendenhall, Ph.D., Statistician and Chairman; Coll.
Willard O. Ash, Ph.D., Statistician; Coll.

Annual Report, 1966

F. C. Barnett, M.S., Assistant Statistician; also Coll.
F. G. Martin, Ph.D., Associate Statistician; also Coll.

Vegetable Crops Department
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
D. D. Gull, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
S. J. Locascio, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; also Coll.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D. Horticulturist; also Coll.
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.

(See also liaison appointments in departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Entomology, Food Science, Plant Pathology,

Veterinary Science Department
G. T. Edds, D.V.M., Ph.D., Veterinarian and Chairman; also Coll. and Ext.
R. E. Bradley, D.V.M., Ph.D., Assistant Parasitologist and liaison with
Poultry Sci.; also Coll.
J. A. Himes, V.M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Pharmacologist and liaison with Dairy
Sci.; also Coll.
W. W. Kirkham, D.V.M., Ph.D., Associate Virologist and liaison with Ani.
Sci.; also Coll.
J. M. Kling, D.V.M., M.S., Research Associate and liaison with Ani. Sci.;
also Coll.
S. E. Leland, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Parasitologist and liaison with Ani. Sci.;
also Coll.
F. C. Neal, D.V.M., M.S., Associate Veterinarian and liaison with Dairy
Sci.; also Coll.
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian and liaison with Dairy Sci.; also Coll.
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Ph.D., Pathologist and liaison with Poultry Sci.;
also Coll.
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist and liaison with Ani. Sci.; also Coll.
L. J. Wallace, D.V.M., M.S., Assistant Pathologist and liaison with Ani.
Sci.; also Coll.
F. H. White, Ph.D., Associate Bacteriologist and liaison with Dairy Sci.;
also Coll.
(See also liaison appointments in department of Animal Science)



W. C. Burns, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman and Head, USDA

12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, Box 909, Sanford 32771

J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist and Head
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
H. L. Rhoades Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Horticulturist
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist

CITRUS STATION, Lake Alfred 33850

H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head
C. A. Anderson, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
L. B. Anderson, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. in Entomology-Pathology
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Chemist FCC
J. A. Attaway, Ph.D., Associate Chemist, FCC
R. W. Barron, B.A., Asst. in Chemistry, FCC
J. G. Blair, B.S.M.E., Associate Mechanical Engineer, FCC
R. F. Brooks, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
G. E. Brown, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist, FCC
R. J. Collins, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
G. E. Coppock, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, FCC
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Assistant Chemical Engineer, FCC
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry
A. W. Feldman, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
P. J. Fellers, Ph.D., Assistant Food Technologist, FCC
Francine E. Fisher, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. B. Graves, Jr., Ph.D., Int. Assistant in Chemistry
William Grierson, Ph.D., Horticulturist
T. B. Hallam,'B.S., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
S. L. Hedden, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
Rudolph Hendrickson, B.S., Associate Chemist
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Associate Bacteriologist, FCC
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Associate Chemist, FCC
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Entomologist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Chemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
D. H. Lenker, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
S. K. Long, Ph.D., Assistant Industrial Bacteriologist
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC
M. D. Maraulja, B.S., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
W. R. Meagher, Ph.D., Associate Chemist

Annual Report, 1966

J. F. Metcalf, M.S., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Chemist, FCC
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
M. F. Oberbachdr, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
Roger Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
R. L. Phillips, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. L. Reese, M.S.A., Research Associate
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Pectin Chemist
G. F. Ryan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. L. Sebring, M.A., Assistant in Library
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Nematologist
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist, FCC
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
Kenneth Trammel, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
H. M. Vines, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist, FCC
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
T: Adair Wheaton, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
J. D. Whitney, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
W. C. Wilson, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Associate Chemist, FCC

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce 33451

Mortimer Cohen, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (on Iv.)
R. C. Bullock, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
D. V. Calvert, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist

EVERGLADES STATION, P. O. Drawer A, Belle Glade 33430

W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist and Head
R. J. Allen, Jr. Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
D. W. Beardsley, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
T. W. Casselman, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
J. E. Clayton, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
Thomas Cochis, Ph.D., Int. Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
W. W. Deen, Jr., M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Engineering
W. G. Genung, M.S., Associate Entomologist
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Agronomist (on Iv.)
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
C. E. Haines, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman
J. R. Iley, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Animal Husbandman

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

F. leGrand, M.S., Assistant Agronomist
R. W. Meyer, Assistant Plant Pathologist
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
F. H. Thomas, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
C. Wehlburg, Ph.D. Associate Plant Pathologist
H. D. Whittemore, B.S.A.E., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
J. A. Winchester, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Horticulturist

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce 33451

N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Entomologist
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
.N. G. Vakili, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist

Plantation Field Laboratory, 5305 S. W. 12th St., Fort Lauderdale 33314

F. T. Boyd, Ph.D, Agronomist
R. D. Blackburn, M.S., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
H. I. Borders, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Associate Turf Technologist
W. C. Mills, M.S., Assistant Drainage Engineer, USDA
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
W. H. Speir, Assistant Hydraulic Engineer, USDA
E. H. Stewart, M.S., Associate Soil Physicist, USDA
L. W. Weldon, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA

GULF COAST STATION, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Bradenton 33505

E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist and Head
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
C. M. Geraldson, Ph..D., Associate Soils Chemist
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. H. Littrell, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
R. 0. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Amegda J. Overman, M.S., Assistant Soils Microbiologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. E. Waters, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist

South Florida Field Laboratory, Box 973, Immokalee 33934

P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist

Annual Report, 1966

Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory, Route 2, Box 629, Dover 33527
Paul Sutton, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist


W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist and Head
F. S. Baker, Jr., M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
H. H. Bryan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
D. R. Davis, A.B., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
C. E. Dean, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
D. T. Sechler, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Assistant Entomologist
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Marianna Unit, Box 504, Marianna 32446

R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist


H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Head
C. L. Dantzman, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Animal Scientist
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Associate Animal Husbandman

SUB-TROPICAL STATION, 18905 S. W. 280th Street, Route 1, Homestead
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head
C. W. Averre, III, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
C. W. Campbell, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
S. E. Malo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. B. Marlatt, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
P. G. Orth, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. W. Strobel, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
M. O. Thomas, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Horticulturist

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION, Box 657, Live Oak 32060

H. W Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist and Head

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

WEST FLORIDA STATION, Route 3, Jay 32565

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Soils Chemist and Head
L. S. Dunavin, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist


Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, Box 539, Monticello 32344

H. W. Young, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist and Head
J. R. Large, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist
M. S. Neff, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist, USDA

Potato Investigations Laboratory, Box 728, Hastings 32045

D. R Hensel, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist and Head
R. M. Hosford, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. B. Workman, Ph.D., Assistant Ento.molgist

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Box 388, Leesburg 32748

J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head
W. C. Adlerz Ph.D., Assistant Entomolgist
C. H. Curran, D.Sc., Entomolgist
J. A. Mortensen, Ph.D., Assistant Geneticist
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist

Weather Forecasting Service, Box 1068, Lakeland 33802

W. O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist and Head, USWB
J. G. Georg, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
L. L. Benson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
G. R. Davis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. M. Hinson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
G. W. Leber, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. F. Mincey, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
O. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. T. Sherouse, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. R. Wallis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB

There is always satisfaction in reporting the successful adoption by
our agricultural industries of research results from the program. The
peach industry is essentially new to Florida, and is now of sufficient
magnitude to justify its consideration as a permanent addition to our
state. New varieties of low winter chilling requirement, bred and intro-
duced by Experiment Station personnel, are responsible for this advance.
The entire program shows steady progress, and this is detailed in the
following reports.
With all of the agricultural units of the University now combined in
the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, certain units are now
directly under the Provost, since they service all functions of the Institute.
Among these is the Library, and, consequently, no report of library service
is included in this report.
The office of the Administrative Manager, which used to service only
the Experiment Stations and Extension Service, now services the entire
The Field Services Department also services the entire Institute pro-
gram, but since this division is almost wholly Experiment Station in func-
tion, it is retained, administratively, in the Experiment Station.

The 1965 Florida Legislature appropriated $3.5 million for needed agri-
cultural facilities both on the Gainesville campus and at various branch
locations throughout the state. When these buildings are completed, the
research potential will be greatly enhanced. As funds are obtained, pri-
marily through bond issues, plans are being developed and facilities con-
structed. Much construction activity is underway to complete the facilities
during the biennium.
The largest single authorization was for a new wing to McCarty Hall
which has progressed through the preliminary planning stage. The cam-
pus Veterinary Science sewage line is under construction. Other branch
stations facilities, in various stages of development or construction, were
authorized as follows:
Plantation Laboratory, Ft. Lauderdale. Laboratory, office building, service
building, animal isolation laboratory, greenhouse, and headhouse.
Citrus Station, Lake Alfred. Office and laboratory building and water
storage tank.
Everglades Station, Belle Glade. Library and conference room, and equip-
ment and storage building.
Central Florida Station, Sanford. New office and laboratory facilities.
Sub-Tropical Station, Homestead. Entomology and pathology building.
Indian River Field Laboratory, Ft. Pierce. Library and conference room.
Gulf Coast Station, Bradenton. Headhouse and farm equipment building.
North Florida Station, Quincy. Tobacco processing laboratory.
Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona. Library and conference room ad-
Ridge Ornamental Horticulture Laboratory, Apopka. Office and laboratory
Marianna Unit, Marianna. Swine research office and laboratory building.
Land acquisition is also taking place to meet critical needs in certain
areas. Adjoining the recently acquired 81 acres for a tobacco unit, 8 miles
northwest of Gainesville, is the additional purchase of 161 acres for the

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

relocation of the agronomy farm. For the new Ridge Ornamental Horti-
culture Laboratory to be located at Apopka, 18 acres were donated by the
Orange County Commission. At Sanford, 35 acres have been acquired
across the highway from the present Central Florida Station, which will
permit consolidation of facilities at one site. An additional 20 acres. have
been obtained at the Sub-Tropical Station for use in an expanded research


Fruit Crops Department-Implement and storage shed to be used for
equipment storage; also provides fertilizer storage and small tool room.

Citrus Station-Pilot plant warehouse building will be used as a storage
building for equipment and supplies used intermittently by the pilot plant
facilities such as fruit bags, field boxes, waxes, and spare equipment.

Annual Report, 1966

Of special significance is the appropriated lump sum of $150,000 for
minor buildings throughout the state. These much needed facilities of less
than $15,000 each are in various stages of planning, construction, or com-
pletion, as follows:

Gainesville. Close porch at meat laboratory, horticulture equipment shed,
swine unit pens, fruit crops shed and greenhouse, plant science head-
house, turf building, air condition poultry laboratory.
Dairy Unit, Chipley. Milking parlor silo.
Potato Laboratory, Hastings. Equipment and maintenance building.
Sub-Tropical Station, Homestead. Maintenance shop.
Citrus Station, Lake Alfred. Pilot plant warehouse building.
Watermelon and Grape Laboratory, Leesburg. Greenhouse addition.
Suwannee Valley Station, Live Oak. New swine facilities.
Everglades Station, Belle Glade. Vegetable breeding laboratory.
South Florida Field Laboratory, Immokalee. Headhouse.
Strawberry and Vegetable Laboratory, Plant City. Headhouse.
West Florida Station, Jay. Fertilizer and equipment storage building.
North Florida Station, Quincy. Farm shop and storage building.

In the spring of 1966 a follow-up DARE conference was held. Plans
were made for realizing the full potential for agriculture in the years
ahead. New projections were made with the assistance of the leadership

Sub-Tropical Station-Maintenance shop will be used in the construction
of new equipment and repair of machinery.

* ;ic

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

of all segments of agriculture. Obviously, research is recognized as the
key toward progress. There are tremendous opportunities ahead for agri-
culture in Florida which is now at the billion dollar level of annual cash
farm income and each year continuing to show very significant gains.
As new problems arise, new projects are initiated, and as problems are
solved, projects are terminated. New proposals for research are carefully
screened and reviewed before activation; often new projects are more of a
team effort than in the past. All work throughout the entire Station sys-
tem is coordinated for maximum effectiveness. The entire research program
is based upon the use of the project system, the status of which was as
follows near the end of June 1966:

Projects State Hatch Regional McIntire-Stennis Total
Initiated 65/66 33 15 0 3 51
Completed 65/66 40 5 0 0 45
Revised 65/66 2 5 0 0 7
TOTAL 6/24/66 298 120 9 4 431

Projects Reviewed by Committee 65-66 75
Projects Approved by Director 51
Projects Pending in Washington 0
Projects Pending in Director's Office 17
Projects Pending in Committee 12
Total Projects Pending 29

All research performed during the past year is briefly reported in the
following sections. These include all approved projects as well as all pre-
liminary exploratory research. To obtain complete and detailed informa-
tion concerning research on a given problem, commodity, or process the
readers should consult the index since related work which was done at sev-
eral locations may be reported in different sections of this report. The pub-
lic is invited to contact any station personnel for further information or to
attend any field days, short courses, or conferences held during the year at
the various departments, branch stations, and field laboratories.


Kenneth Ray Tefertiller, Economist and Chairman, Economics Dept., July
1, 1965
Robert Morgan Hosford, Jr., Asst. Plant Pathologist, Potato Lab., July 1,
Daniel Waldo Beardsley, Animal Nutritionist, Everglades Station, July 1,
Nader Gholi Vakili, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, July 1,
Robert Lewis Reese, Int. Research Associate, Citrus Station, July 1, 1965
James Albert Himes, Asst. Pharmacologist, Veterinary Science Dept., July
1, 1965
Darrell Edison McCloud, Agronomist and Chairman, Agronomy Dept., July
1, 1965
Karl Johnson Stone, Int. Research Associate, Entomology Dept., July 1,
Bennett Avery Dominick, Jr., Int. Marketing Economist, Agricultural Eco-
nomics Dept., July 1, 1965

Annual Report, 1966

Richard Eugene Bradley, Asst. Parasitologist, Veterinary Science Dept.,
July 7, 1965
Donald Karl Rudser, Int. Asst. in Agricultural Economics, Agricultural
Economics Dept., July 19, 1965
Arlo James Minden, Asst. Agricultural Economist, Agricultural Economics
Dept., Aug. 1, 1965, FCC
Neal Philip Thompson, Asst. Biochemist, Food Science Dept., Sept. 1, 1965
Ronald W. Meyer, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, Sept. 1, 1965
Dana Clement Goodrich, Jr., Int. Agricultural Economist, Agricultural Eco-
nomics Dept., Sept. 1, 1965
Jodie Doyle Whitney, Asst. Agricultural Engineer, Citrus Station, Sept. 1,
Leland Shanor, Botanist and Chairman, Botany Dept., Sept. 1, 1965
Leonidas Polopolus, Assoc. Agricultural Economist, Agricultural Econom-
ics Dept., Sept. 16, 1965
Anthony Eugene Squillace, Forester, Forestry Dept., Oct. 1, 1965, USDA
Richard Conard Fluck, Asst. Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Engineer-
ing Dept.. Nov. 1, 1965
Rishi Muni Singh, Int. Research Assoc., Agronomy Dept., Jan. 1, 1966
Carol Holman Eilbeck, Int. Asst. in Agricultural Economics, Agricultural
Economics Dept., Jan. 3, 1966
Bobby Leon Damron, Int. Research Associate, Poultry Science Dept., Jan.
18, 1966
Reuben Navarro, Int. Asst. in Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Eco-
nomics Dept., Jan. 10, 1966
Thomas Cochis, Int. Asst. Ornamental Horticulturist, Everglades Station,
Feb. 1, 1966
Wayne Bush Sherman, Asst. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, Feb. 1, 1966
Jerome Joseph Gaffney, Asst. in Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural
Engineering Dept., Feb. 1, 1966, USDA
Gary Chandler Jones, Asst. in Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Eco-
nomics Dept., Mar. 15, 1966, USDA
Thomas J. Walker, Int. Associate Entomologist, Entomology Dept., May 1,
Carlos Humberto Blazquez, Asst. Plant Pathologist, South Florida Lab.,
June 1, 1966
William Curtis Wilson, Asst. Plant Physiologist, Citrus Station, June 1,
1966, FCC
% Francis William Zettler, Asst. Plant Virologist, Plant Pathology Dept. June
1, 1966

Charles Franklin Eno, Soil Microbiologist and Chairman, Soils Dept., July
1, 1965
Herbert Lee Chapman, Animal Nutritionist and Head, Range Cattle Station,
July 1, 1965
Ira Joseph Ross, Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Engineering Dept.,
July 1, 1965
Gordon Madison Prine, Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., July 1, 1965
Paul Leighton Pfahler, Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., July 1, 1965
James Woodford Carpenter, Meat Scientist, Animal Science Dept., July 1,
Clarence Bailey Ammerman, Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Dept.,
July 1, 1965
Charles Julian Wilcox, Geneticist, Dairy Science Dept., July 1, 1965

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Robert Cleveland Wilkinson, Entomologist, Entomology Dept., July 1, 1965
William Kitchener Robertson, Chemist, Soils Dept., July 1, 1965
Salvadore Joseph Locascio, Horticulturist, Vegetable Crops Dept., July 1,
Roger Burr Johnson, Entomologist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1965
William Grierson, Horticulturist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1965
Victor Eugene Green, Jr., Agronomist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1965
Evert Oakley Burt, Turf Technician, Plantation Lab., July 1, 1965
Charles Edgar Dean, Agronomist, North Florida Station, July 1, 1965
Emil Andrew Wolf, Horticulturist, Everglades Station, Jan. 1, 1966
Buford Dale Thompson, Horticulturist, Vegetable Crops Dept., Jan. 1, 1966
James Allen Norden, Associate Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., Jan. 1, 1966
Fred Carlton Neal, Associate Veterinarian, Veterinary Science Dept.,
Jan. 1, 1966
Kuell Hinson, Associate Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., Jan. 1, 1966
Sherlie Hill West, Associate Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., Jan. 1, 1966
James Walter Strobel, Associate Plant Pathologist, Sub-Tropical Station
Jan. 1, 1966
Carl Walter Campbell, Associate Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Station, Jan.
1, 1966
Willie Estell Waters, Associate Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station, Jan. 1,

Richard F. Stouffer, Asst. Vitrologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Aug. 31, 1965
F. D. Wilson, Asst. Plant Geneticist, Everglades Station, Aug. 31, 1965,
Clarence Gene Haugh, Asst. Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Engineer-
ing Dept., Sept. 20, 1965
William Robert Llewellyn, Int. Asst. Soil Scientist, Soils Dept., Sept. 26,
Thomas J. Davidson, Jr., Asst. Soil Chemist, North Florida Station, Oct.
15, 1965
Mills H. Byrom, Agricultural Engineer, Everglades Station, Oct. 30, 1965,
Emmett DeWitt Harris, Jr., Assoc. Entomologist, Everglades Station, Jan.
6, 1966
Park William Waldroup, Asst. Poultry Nutritionist, Poultry Science Dept.,
Jan. 17, 1966
Donald W. Fisher, Assoc. Agronomist, Everglades Station, Jan. 31, 1966,
Thomas E. Summers, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, Jan.
31, 1966, USDA
J. Frank Joyner, Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Station, Feb. 1, 1966, USDA
Lawrence Adkins Reuss, Agricultural Economist, Economics Dept., Feb. 2,
1966, USDA
Joe Byron Richardson, Asst. Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Engineer-
ing Dept., Feb. 10, 1966
Robert Lawrence Addison, Asst. Agricultural Statistician, Agricultural
Economics Dept., Feb. 15, 1966, Orlando, USDA
Thomas Allen Calvert, Asst. in Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Dept.,
Feb. 15, 1966, Orlando, USDA
Clarence A. Dunkerley, Asst. in Agricultural Economics, Agricultural
Economics Dept., Feb. 15, 1966, USDA
Carl Alton Outz, Asst. in Agricultural Statistics, Agricultural Economics
Dept., Feb. 15, 1966, USDA

Annual Report, 1966

Willie Ashley West, Asst. in Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Eco-
nomics Dept., Feb. 15, 1966, USDA
John Frederick Steffens, Jr., Assoc. Agricultural Economist, Agricultural
Economics Dept., Feb. 15, 1966, USDA
Harold F. Wilkins, Asst. Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station, Feb. 19, 1966,
Leila Louise Sebring, Librarian, Citrus Station, Mar. 10, 1966
Cornelius Wehlburg, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, Apr.
30, 1966
William C. Mills, Asst. Drainage Engineer, Plantation Field Lab., May 31,
1966, USDA
Marshall Reid Godwin, Agricultural Economist, Agricultural Economics
Dept., June 30, 1966
Bobby Neal Duck, Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., June 30, 1966
Ronald W. Meyer, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, June 30,
Robert Hardin Littrell, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Station, June
30, 1966
Richard Turk Poole, Jr., Asst. Horticulturist, Ornamental Horticulture
Dept., June 30, 1966

Leave of Absence
Mortimer Cohen, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Indian River Lab., to accept
Fulbright Grant for travel to Spain from Nov. 1, 1965, to June 1, 1966
Cecil Nockles Smith, Ag. Economist, Agricultural Economics Dept. to
accept Chief-of-Party post in Costa Rica on AID Contract with Min-
istry of Agriculture, July 1, 1965

Fred Harold Hull, Agronomist and Head, Agronomy Dept., Aug. 31, 1965
Albert Nelson Brooks, Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Station, June 30, 1966
John Wallace Wilson, Entomologist and Head, Central Florida Station,
June 30, 1966
James Sheldon Shoemaker, Horticulturist, Fruit Crops Dept., June 30, 1966
Arthur Minis Phillips, Assoc. Entomologist, Entomology Dept., June 30,

Retirements Prior to 1965-66
Arthur Listen Shealy, Animal Husbandman and Head, Animal Science
Dept., 1949
Gulie Hargrove Blackmon, Horticulturist, Ornamental Horticultural Dept.,
Levi Otto Gratz, Assistant Director, 1954
Arthur Forrest Camp, Vice-Director in Charge, Citrus Station, 1956
Ouida Davis Abbott, Home Economist, Food Technologist and Nutritionist,
Lillian E. Arnold, Associate Botanist, Plant Pathology Dept., 1958
P. T. Dix Arnold, Associate Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Science Dept., 1959
Jesse Roy Christie, Nematologist, Entomology Dept., 1960
Mark W. Emmel, Veterinarian, Veterinary Science Dept, 1961
J. Francis Cooper, Editor and Head, Editorial Dept., 1961
Joseph Robert Neller, Soils Chemist, Soils Department, 1962

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

William M. Fifield, Provost for Agriculture, 1962
William L. Thompson, Entomologist, Citrus Station, 1962
Ida K. Cresap, Librarian, Agricultural Library, 1963
Norman R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman and Head, Poultry Science
Dept., 1963
Auther H. Eddins, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Potato Investigations
Lab., 1963
Raymond B. Becker, Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Science Dept., 1963
William Angus Carver, Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., Jan. 31, 1964
Archie Newton Tissot, Entomologist, Entomology Dept., June 30, 1964
Henry Glenn Hamilton, Economist and Head, Agricultural Economics Dept.,
June 30, 1965
Robert Verrill Allison, Fiber Technologist, Everglades Station, June 30,
David Gustaf Alfred Kelbert, Associate Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station,
June 30, 1965
Loren Haight Stover, Asst. in Horticulture, Watermelon and Grape Lab.,
June 30, 1965


Commercial grants and gifts accepted as support for existing programs
during the year ending June 30, 1966. Financial assistance is hereby
gratefully acknowledged.

Abbott Laboratories
Fruit Crops Department-$1,000
Sub-Tropical Station-$1,000
Amchem Products Incorporated
Everglades Station-$500
American Brahman Breeders Association
Animal Science Department-$1,000
American Cancer Society
Agronomy Department-$13,560
American Cyanamid Company
Animal Science Department-$2,500
Sub-Tropical Station-$1,000
American Horchst Corporation
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory-$150
American Potash Institute, Incorporated
Vegetable Crops Department-$3,000
American Poultry and Hatchery Federation
Poultry Science Department-$1,000
Armour Agricultural Chemical Company
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$1,000
Atlas Chemical Industries
Fruit Crops Department-$2,000
Everglades Station-$1,000

Basic Incorporated
Animal Science Department-$2,000
Citrus Station-$4,000
Thomas B. Bird
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory-$540
Brunswick Pulp and Paper Company
Forestry Department-$2,520

Annual Report, 1966 25

Buckeye Cellulose Corporation
Entomology Department-$750
Forestry Department-$2,520

California Chemical Company
Plant Pathology Department-$500
Watermelon and Grape Investigation Laboratory-$500
Chcmagro Corporation
Central Florida Station-$500
Chevron Chemical Company
Central Florida Station-$1,000
Citrus Station-$1,000
Citrus Station-$1,000
0. H. Clapp and Company
Agricultural Engineering Department-$7,600
Fruit Crops Department-$5,000
Columbia Nitrogen Corporation
Combined Units-$4,800
Commercial Solvents Corporation
Animal Science Department-$3,000
Container Corporation of America
Forestry Department--$2,000
Continental Woodlands
Forestry Department-$2,520

Diamond Alkali Company
Ornamental Horticulture Department--$1,000
Plant Pathology Department-$750
Plant Pathology Department-$500
Gulf Coast Station-$500
North Florida Station-$500
Sub-Tropical Station-$1,000
Sub-Tropical Station--$500
Potato Investigations Laboratory-$500
Distillers Feed Research Council
Animal Science Department-$4,000
Poultry Science Department-$2,000
Dixie Lily Company
Animal Science Department-$2,000
The DOW Chemical Company
Agronomy Department-$750
Veterinary Science Department-$1,500

Edgar Minerals Corporation
Soils Department-$200
Esso Research and Engineering Company
Agronomy Department-$500
Fruit Crops Department-$1,000
Citrus Station-$750
Citrus Station-$7,200
Gulf Coast Station--$1,000

Firestone Plantation Fellowship Grant
Entomology Department-$2,200
Florida Board of Forestry
Forestry Department-$1,000

26 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Florida Citrus Commission
Animal Science Department-$3,000
Range Cattle Station--$1,200
Florida Citrus Mutual
Agricultural Economics Department-$4,000
Florida-Georgia Tobacco Research Foundation
North Florida Station-$100
Florida Orchid Association, Incorporated
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$300
Florida Sugarcane League, Incorporated
Everglades Station-$8,875
State of Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
Forestry Department-$7,500
Florida Foundation Seed Producers Association
Gulf Coast Station-$300
Fort Dodge Laboratories
Veterinary Science Department-$2,000
Florida Sweet Corn Committee
Agricultural Economics Department--$5,000
Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation
Entomology Department-$500
Citrus Station-$2,000
Everglades Station-$500
Sub-Tropical Station-$500

Geigy Agricultural Chemical Corporation
Agronomy Department-$3,000
Entomology Department-$1,000
Central Florida Station-$500
Central Florida Station-$500
Citrus Station-$500
North Florida Station-$875
Great Lakes Carbon Corporation
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$1,000
Gulf Oil Corporation
Agronomy Department-$1,000

Hercules Powder Company
Citrus Station-$500
Citrus Station-$695
Hoffman-LaRoche, Incorporated
Veterinary Science Department-$3,000
Everglades Station-$1,000

International Copper Research Association Incorporated
Animal Science Department-$5,000
International Disposal Corporation
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$1,000
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$1,000
International Fortrition Company
Poultry Science Department-$2,000
International Minerals and Chemical Corporation
Sub-Tropical Station-$500
Suwanee Valley Station-$2,500
International Paper Company
Forestry Department-$2,000

Annual Report, 1966

Jack King
Range Cattle Station-$3,200
Eli Lilly and Company
Citrus Station-$1,500
Everglades Station-$500
Sub-Tropical Station-$500
Lilly Research Laboratories
Animal Science Department-$4,000
Sub-Tropical Station-$500

Merck, Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories
Veterinary Science Department-$5,000
Minute Maid Grove Corporation
Citrus Station-$3,750
Mobil Chemical Company
Entomology Department-$1,000
Moorman Manufacturing Company
Animal Science Department-$3,000
Monsanto Chemical Company
Poultry Science Department-$4,100
Poultry Science Department-$3,500
Central Florida Station--$1,000
Everglades Station-$1,500
Morton Chemical Company
Everglades Station-$985
Sub-Tropical Station-$500

National Association of Animal Breeders
Dairy Science Department-$1,200
National Canners Association
Food Technology Department-$3,300
National Laboratories
Veterinary Science Department-$1,650
National Pest Control
Entomology Department-$8,000
Niagara Chemical Division-FMC Corporation
Everglades Station-$500
Sub-Tropical Station-$500
Sub-Tropical Station-$500
NOPCO Chemical Company
Poultry Science Department-$1,000
Chas. Pfizer and Company, Incorporated
Animal Science Department-$2,000
Poultry Science Department-$1,500
Everglades Station-$1,500
Phelps Dodge Refining Corporation
Citrus Station-$2,000
Everglades Station-$2,000
Poul-Animal Laboratory, Incorporated
Veterinary Science Department-$1,500
Proctor and Gamble Company
Agronomy Department-$1,000
Rayonier, Incorporated
Forestry Department-$2,000

28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
Agronomy Department-$3,000
Agricultural Engineering Department-$2,000
Rohm and Haas Company
Everglades Station-$500
Sub-Tropical Station-$1,500

St. Regis Paper Company
Forestry Department-$2,000
Schering Corporation
Poultry Science Department-$2,000
Scott Paper Company
Forestry Department-$2,000
Shell Chemical Company
Dairy Science Department-$2,000
Entomology Department-$750
Food Technology and Nutrition Department-$3,000
Central Florida Station-$5,000
Everglades Station-$1,000
Sub-Tropical Station-$500
Shell Development Company
Agronomy Department-$500
Central Florida Station-$800
North Florida Station-$500
Socony Mobil Oil Company
Fruit Crops Department-$3,347
Soft Phosphate Research Institute
Soils Department-$1,500
Citrus Station-$1,500
Southeastern Livestock Improvement Foundation
North Florida Station-$7,860
South Florida Tomato Improvement Association
Sub-Tropical Station-$1,800
Southwest Potash Corporation
Citrus Station-$750
Standard Oil Company
Entomology Department-$900
Central Florida Station-$1,000
State Department of Agriculture
Vegetable Crops Department-$600
Stauffer Chemical Company
Citrus Station-$1,500
Sub-Tropical Station-$500
Sun Oil Company
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$1,000
Central Florida Station-$1,000
Everglades Station-$1,000

Thompson-Hayward Chemical Company
Vegetable Crops Department-$750
Central Florida Station-$300
Thomson, W. H.
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory-$500

Union Bag Camp Paper Corporation
Forestry Department-$2,520

Annual Report, 1966

Union Carbide Corporation
Soils Department-$7,500
Sub-Tropical Station-$1,000
Upjohn Company
Central Florida Station-$1,000
Sub-Tropical Station-$1,000
Sub-Tropical Station-$500
United States Air Force
Botany Department-S46,632
United States Department of Commerce
Fruit Crops Department-$4,752

Grants for basic research were accepted from national agencies as

Atomic Energy Commission:
Agronomy Department $10,500
Agronomy Deaprtment 10,450
Agronomy Department 16,728
Food Technology Department 71,452
Veterinary Science Department 20,017

National Institutes of Health:
Animal Science Department 20,386
Animal Science Department 12,120
Animal Science Department 34,349
Animal Science Department 48,041
Botany Department 15,975
Entomology Department 18,438
Food Technology Department 77,034
Food Technology Department 15,168
Plant Pathology Department 10,290
Poultry Science Department 21,442
Veterinary Science Department 17,087
Veterinary Science Department 25,530

National Science Foundation:
Agronomy Department 2,200
Citrus Experiment Station 24,200
Public Health Service:
Animal Science Department .37,428
United States Department of Agriculture:
Animal Science Department 20,000
Animal Science 89,155
Entomology Department 15,350
Entomology Department 20,000
Entomology Department 23,975
Forestry Department 89,600
Forestry Department 62,594
Forestry Department 25,000
Veterinary Science Department 59,910
Citrus Experiment Station 22,500
Citrus Experiment Station 10,000
Citrus Experiment Station 39,860
North Florida Station ... .... 30,000


Fla. Agricultural
Experiment Station Grants and Total
General Revenue Incidental Donations State
Funds Funds Funds Funds

Salaries and wages $5,396,849.93 $ 97,676.13 $452,045.15 $5,946,571.21
Travel 158,439.62 13,295.70 40,223.88 211,959.20
Transportation and communication 80,290.37 8,110.35 10,350.64 98,751.36
Utilities 132,210.68 12,546.90 5,371.38 150,128.96
Printing 58,323.97 1,123.70 3,382.76 62,830.43
Repairs and maintenance 47,690.95 18,215.96 8,191.35 74,098.26
Contractual services 37,397.52 5,036.16 10,985.20 53,418.88
Rentals 31,933.90 14,483.17 1,601.04 48,018.11
Other current charges and
obligations 15,854.92 10,754.29 638.98 27,248.18
Supplies and materials 465,264.85 349,965.36 125,674.35 940,904.56
Equipment 148,037.93 47,660.64 150,754.73 346,453.30
Land and buildings 30,428.83 32,718.18 172,126.42 235,273.43
Replacement fund 223.33 223.33
Special appropriation-
building fund 174,473.47 174,473.47

Total state funds $6,777,420.27 $611,586.54 $981,345.88 $8,370,352.69


Regional Total
Hatch Research McIntire Federal
Funds Funds Pesticide Stennis Funds

Salaries and wages $479,066.72 $77,781.40 $ $25,744.65 $582,592.77
Travel 2,506.94 5,426.93 200.45 8,134.32
Transportation and communication 907.46 95.40 395.13 1,397.99
Utilities 6,312.74 2,480.78 1,360.16 10,153.68
Printing 227.72 80.90 84.95 393.57
Repairs and maintenance 997.95 1,052.15 319.60 2,369.70
Contractual services 432.65 151.37 748.00 1,332.02
Rentals 153.41 109.64 263.05
Other current charges and
obligations 129.30 12.00 25.00 166.30
Materials and supplies 16,287.49 11,182.54 3,812.11 31,282.14
Equipment 58,547.79 7,173.23 3,149.73 15,584.95 84,455.70
Land and buildings 8,619.81 4,262.97 21,831.30 17,391.48 52,105.56

Total federal expenditures $574,036.57 $109,853.08 $24,981.03 $65,776.12 $774,646.80

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Research was conducted under 40 projects. Seven projects were closed.
The department continued its arrangement of coordinating its research pro-
gram with the Florida Citrus Commission in the area of economics and
marketing of citrus fruit. During the year five bulletins, twelve Agricul-
tural Economics Mimeo Reports, and one journal article were published.

Hatch Project 186 Zach Savage
Money spent annually on bearing mixed groves for spray and dust
materials has tended to increase since 1931. Five-year average costs in-
creased from $3.33 per acre in 1931-36 to $25.26 in 1956-61 (Table 1). This
was an increase of 659%.
Table 1.-Trends in spray and dust material costs on mixed groves.

Per-Acre Data Per-Box Data
Percent of Percent of
Cost Operating Cost Operating
5-Year Period Dollars Index Cost Dollars Index Cost
1931-36 3.33 100 6 0.03 100 7
1936-41 4.75 143 8 0.03 100 9
1941-46 7.54 226 8 0.03 100 8
1946-51 11.47 344 8 0.04 133 9
1951-56 19.81 595 10 0.06 200 11
1956-61 25.26 759 11 0.08 267 11

The value of the dollar decreased during the period of this study and
there has been no adjustment for this in these data. Average age of trees
increased, which accounts for some of the increase in materials used. Fruit
yields increased due to increased age of trees, better fertilization, better
grove care, and other reasons. Increased yield tended to offset increased
spray and dust materials cost per acre, resulting in a smaller increase in
costs per box. Types and kinds of spray and dust materials used changed
over this period due to new kinds of materials coming on the market.
State Project 615 (Revised) R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to determine the relative productivity and
profitableness of cows of different proportion of English and Brahman
blood when run on pasture programs designed to supply low, medium, and
good levels of nutrition. Physical input and output data for the various
programs are being accumulated. These are now being summarized and
cost and price data obtained preparatory to making an economic evaluation.
Cost of performing various operations under ranch conditions will be used
in the evaluation to reflect expected net income from various programs
if followed by commercial ranchers. This experiment is a joint project
between the Range Cattle Station and the Animal Science Department. The
Department of Agricultural Economics is a cooperator on the project.

Annual Report, 1966


State Project 627 (Revised)

R. E. L. Greene

This experiment is designed to evaluate pasture programs varying in
intensities of fertilization and levels of management in terms of forage
production, nutrient balance, and rate and economy of beef production for
a cow-calf program. During the year a final summary was made for the
second phase of this experiment which contained one all grass, three grass-
clover, and one irrigated grass-clover program with varying rates of fer-
tilization and cow numbers.
During the second phase of the experiment, Program 2 had the lowest
cost per pound of beef produced and the highest net return per acre. Pro-
gram 2 was a grass-clover program that was fertilized with 300 pounds of
0-10-20 fertilizer per acre per year but received no top dressing. The aver-
age market weight of calves on this program was 539 pounds and the pro-
duction of beef 385 pounds per acre. Program 5 was a clover-grass pro-
gram irrigated by means of sprinkler irrigation. It was fertilized with 900
pounds of 0-10-20 fertilizer per acre but received no top dressing. Irriga-
tion as it was applied on this program did not increase production or re-
turns. The average production of beef was 368 pounds per acre. Costs per
acre were $22 more than the value of beef produced. This experiment is
a cooperative project between the departments of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Animal Science, and Soils.


State Project 701

R. E. L. Greene and B. J. Smith

Economic data relating to the dairy industry in the Northeast, Central,
and Tallahassee markets were summarized for presentation at the hearing
for a federal milk order in those areas.
In cooperation with the Extension Service, a descriptive economic study
is being made of dairy farms in southeast Florida. Plans are to get rec-
ords for 35 or 40 dairies. At the close of the year, these records had been
obtained for 28 farms.
Time was devoted to the development of the information and data
necessary to review and update the original Dairy DARE report. The
most significant events in the industry in the last two years were in the
area of direct public regulation. The major change in the projections for
1975 was the increase in the estimate of Florida production from 80 to 90
percent of Florida consumption.
Costs of milk production in Florida were compiled and compared from
all available sources. Various measures of income were also prepared
under prevailing prices and under prices which were assumed to be com-
petitive with costs of supplies from out-of-state markets. The results of
these investigations were presented in November at the Southeastern Dairy
Conference, Charlotte, North Carolina.
A study of dairy cow replacement policies, and the derivation of an
"optimal" policy, has been initiated. The objective of this study is to
devise an operational replacement decision process which will be applicable
to Florida herds, and which might be usable to Florida dairymen directly,
through the DHIA records processing center, or through other convenient

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 895 A. H. Spurlock
Citrus harvesting costs for 29 firms, 1964-65, averaged 43.4 cents per
box for picking oranges, 33.1 cents for picking grapefruit, and $1.03
for picking tangerines. Hauling from roadside to plant cost an additional
11.7 cents per box.
Costs of packing and selling Florida fresh citrus fruit per 1-3/5 bushel
equivalent by 38 packinghouses, 1964-65, averaged as follows:
Container Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines

1-3/5 bushel wirebound box $1.21 $1.03
4/5 bushel wirebound box (half Bruce) 1.59 1.35 $1.64
4/5 bushel fiberboard box 1.44 1.37
5-lb. mesh bag in master carton 2.22 2.03
5-lb. poly. bag in master carton 1.74 1.56

Packinghouses ranged in the cost of handling all fruit from 21% below
average to 26% above. Variation was less than last season because of a
nearer normal volume handled by most houses. Still, only 12 houses were
within 5% of the average cost.
Costs of processing, warehousing, and selling typical citrus products
from 18 plants, 1964-65, averaged $1.66 for single strength orange juice in
12/46 oz. cans, unsweetened; $2.94 for grapefruit sections in 24/303 cans;
$2.14 for frozen orange concentrate in 48/6 oz. cans, and $0.49 per gallon
equivalent, excluding packaging materials. Processing of citrus feed cost
an average of $24.89 per ton.
Results of the year's work were distributed to dealers, packers, and
processors in three mimeographed summaries for the 1964-65 season: (1)
Costs of Picking and Hauling Florida Fruits, (2) Costs of Packing and
Selling Florida Fresh Citrus Fruits, and (3) Costs of Processing, Ware-
housing and Selling Florida Citrus Products

State Project 970 D. L. Brooke
Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida were obtained from
growers and summarized for 13 different vegetables in nine of the major
producing areas of the state. The 1964-65 season was profitable for most
vegetable growers. Profits were smaller on some crops than in 1963-64. Net
losses were sustained by growers of cucumbers, squash, eggplant, and pep-
per in the Palm Beach-Broward area and growers of tomatoes in Dade
County. Lower yields and small differences in prices received were noted
in all cases. Labor expense for the production of vegetables increased
around 15% in 1964-65 as compared to the previous season.

State Project 995 R. E. L. Greene
The objective of this study is to compare beef production and income
from heifers bred first at one versus at two years of age. In phase I of
the experiment, selected replacement heifers from the Beef Research Herd

Annual Report, 1966

were randomized each year into two groups. Group I were bred as year-
lings and Group II at two years of age. In phase I data were collected
for heifers born from 1958 to 1962. In this phase, at the beginning of the
second breeding period for Group I heifers, when the calves were about
two months old, they were taken from their mothers and sold as veal
calves. Following this practice, breeding heifers as yearlings had no
detrimental effect on their performance as two year olds or in subsequent
years. Crediting the value of the veal calves to the Group I heifers, the
net cost to raise a heifer to about 27 months of age was about the same
for each group.
This experiment is now in phase II in which the calves are being left
with the Group I heifers to the normal weaning period. Various physical
production data are being collected, but sufficient data are not yet avail-
able for an economic analysis. This project is being carried on by the Ani-
mal Science Department. The Department of Agricultural Economics is a
cooperator on the study.

Hatch Project 1018 B. J. Smith and R. E. Greene
(Regional SM-28)
Work under SM-28, to which this project is now contributing, consist-
ed of the further evaluation of the efficacy of agriculture census data to
make areal and temporal comparisons of the cost of producing milk, and
in the development, by sub-state marketing areas, of estimates of pro-
duction, locations of production density centers, numbers of commercial
dairy farms, total and per capital bottled milk products sales, and identi-
fication of centers of processing. The SM-28 Technical Committee will use
this latter information, along with that supplied by the other cooperating
states, to determine the economically optimum movement of raw and pack-
aged fluid milk products between all sub-state production and consumption
areas in the South. The work on supply estimation was discontinued in
September, pending receipt of the necessary data from the Bureau of the
A report titled "Supplies of Fluid Milk for Florida-Competitive Po-
tential of Alternative Sources" was published during the year. It showed
that during the years 1961-63 prices received by Florida producers were
generally in excess of apparent costs of milk which might have been ob-
tained from out-of-state sources. It also showed that quantities of milk in
other markets would likely be more than adequate to meet Florida's needs at
all times of the year. When more recent Florida farm milk prices were con-
sidered, however, the report showed them to be approximately at geo-
graphically competitive levels.

State Project 1027 R. E. L. Greene
The objective of this study is to determine the relative economic returns
for several methods of handling stocker steers in growing them to market
weight. Lots of 20, 24, 28, and 32 steers were confined to 10 acre lots of
St. Augustinegrass pasture. Lot 4 was full fed on pasture until the steers
reached market weight. Lots 2, 3, and 1 were fed 5, 10, and 0 pounds of
concentrate per head per day, respectively, on pasture until they reached


36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

approximately 850 pounds and then fattened in drylot to a weight of about
1,000 pounds.
Because of dry weather, pasture conditions were poor in the spring
of 1965. Lot 1 was still on test at the end of the fiscal year. The full fed
group of steers gained very slowly after they reached about 925 pounds
of weight. Of the three groups that finished the trials, the cost of supple-
mental feeds averaged $112.02 for steers in group 2, $143.19 for group 3
steers, and $166.07 for group 4 steers. However, for each of these groups
the gain in value was more than the cost of supplemental feeds.

Regional Project 1078 C. N. Smith
(Regional SM-25)
Results of field interviews with a random sample of 196 householders
concerning flower purchases were coded for tabulation. Data will provide
the basis for a final report prepared by the project leader now on leave
of absence.

Hatch Project 1084 J. R. Greenman
A study of water use regulations in Florida was continued by an em-
ployee of the United States Department of Agriculture under a letter of
agreement with the Economic Research Service. Visits were made to sev-
eral water control districts to further refine information previously ob-
tained concerning the actual implementation of water use regulations. A
rough draft of a manuscript was prepared. In this manuscript an analy-
sis is presented of approximately 60 special and general statutes under the
majority of which districts have been created with the authority to regu-
late water use; and in addition an analysis of the actual implementation
of water use regulations in a number of districts is given.


Hatch Project 1096 M. R. Godwin, W. F. Chapman, Jr.,'
(Contributing to SM-22) and W. T. Manley'
Manuscripts entitled "Competition Between Florida and California Va-
lencia Oranges in the Fresh Market," "Competitive Relationships and
Alternatives in Marketing Florida Oranges," and "Behavioral Charac-
teristics of Customers Shopping for Fresh Oranges" were published during
the past year. These reports complete work planned under this project.

Hatch Project 1129 C. N. Smith
Data from a mail survey of foliage plant growers concerning recent
volumes of business and attitudes on market conditions were tabulated and
forwarded to the project leader on leave of absence.
'Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1966 37


State Project 1133 F. D. Aigner2, D. K. Rudser, and G. N. Rose

During the 1965-66 vegetable producing season basic acreage, yield, and
production data were obtained for preliminary estimates of 17 major vege-
table, potato, melon, and strawberry crops. Current reports of seasonal
grouping estimates and forecasts were released monthly. A weekly con-
densed narrative pertaining to crop progress, indicated harvest periods,
and current and future supplies available was released in conjunction with
the USDC Environmental Services. An increasingly popular press release
was provided interested newspapers and industry periodicals. Many ex-
cerpts were used in addition to the verbatim publishing of this condensed
Collection and analysis of data on days from planting to harvest by
variety and location continued on celery, sweet corn (South Florida),
tomatoes, and Dade County pole beans. Weekly reports of acreages plant-
ed and inventories were supplied the industry on these commodities.
End-of-season collection of data was continued. Such data was edited
and analyzed by comparing with shipments and utilization by intrastate
processors, with allowance for intrastate fresh consumption, to provide a
basis for final seasonal revisions on a county and area basis. Monthly
prices obtained were used in price adjustments for commodity valuation.
These data were released in an annual report entitled "Florida Agricul-
tural Statistics, Vegetable Summary-1965."
Technical problems and personnel limitations made it necessary tempo-
rarily to suspend field observations and statistical research to develop
mathematical models for forecasting production for short term periods.
This activity will be resumed at an early date.


State Project 1162 W. K. McPherson
(Regional Project SM-29)

The techniques used in making the analysis of relationships between
differences in the cost of feed and the cost of transporting five classes of
livestock products between midwestern origins and Florida destinations
reported last year were extended to include three locations in the Midwest
and three locations in Florida.
Costs and formulations of the rations were calculated for the 12-month
period April, 1964, to March, 1965. The results confirmed those obtained
in the earlier study in that (1) the cost of transporting milk and eggs from
the Midwest to Florida exceeds by substantial amounts the difference in the
cost of feed required to produce them and, (2) the cost of transporting
broilers, beef, and pork between Midwestern origins and Florida destina-
tions are so nearly the same as the differences in the cost of the feed
required to produce them that a relatively small change in either the price
of feed or transportation rates can shift the comparative advantage from
one area to the other. The relatively low Plan III, 2-trailer TOFC rates
that have been published in the past few years have reduced both the dif-
'Cooperative with Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ference in the price of livestock products between the two areas and the
price advantages Florida livestock producers have over their midwestern

State Project 1168 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley"
During the past year a manuscript entitled "Demand and Competitive
Relationships for Florida and Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes," AES Bul-
letin 703, was published. This publication completes the work on this

Hatch Project 1172 R. E. L. Greene
The purpose of this study was to determine production practices of
beef producers, and to evaluate the economic potential of selected systems
of beef production as a means of making a more profitable use of farm
and human resources in the Suwannee River Development Area. The an-
alysis of the data showed that, with present production practices, the beef
enterprise as it was conducted on the average farm added little if any to
net farm income. An analysis of a representative small and a representa-
tive large beef enterprise showed that efficiency could be improved if a
suggested level of practices was followed. However, net return per head
would be low if charged with all costs. Treated as a supplementary enter-
prise, a beef herd would add to net farm income. This project will be
closed with the publishing of the proposed manuscript.

State Project 1173 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley'
During the past year a manuscript entitled "Industry Perceptions of
Marketing Agreement Programs" has been cleared by the Department of
Agricultural Economics and is in the process of review by the Experiment
Station Review Committee for publication as an Experiment Station cir-
cular. This project is closed with the final publication of this report.

Hatch Project 1174 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley"
A manuscript dealing with the findings of this study was prepared dur-
ing the past year. It will be forwarded for administrative clearance dur-
ing the coming year.
3Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.
'Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.
"Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.

I -

Annual Report, 1966

Regional Project 1187 D. E. Alleger
(Regional S-56)
Records from 1,088 families selected by random sampling techniques in
Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, and Texas have been placed on
magnetic tape, from which trial runs have been made. Frequency distri-
butions, means, standard deviations, and chi squares for selected parts of
the data have been distributed to the cooperating states by the University
of Georgia Computing Center. Analyses are underway concerning sources
and amounts of retirement income, medical cost in older age, and sim-
ilar subject matter.

Hatch Project 1190 W. K. McPherson
(Regional SM-27)
The data on the movement and prices obtained from a sample of auc-
tions and packers in 34 sub-areas in Southeastern United States during
six weeks in 1962 were edited at this station and sent to the Texas station,
where they were summarized and made available to the members of the
regional technical committee. Work has been initiated on tabulating the
price data and developing an equation estimating the effect of several
variables on the price of cattle and calves.

Hatch Project 1199 C. E. Murphree
A paper based on the research findings of this project entitled "Mar-
keting Orders and Agreements as a Marketing Tool" has been published
by Clemson University in cooperation with The Agricultural Policy Insti-
tute at North Carolina State University.
A second manuscript dealing with the self-interest conflicts which are
generated by grower marketing programs has been prepared. Plans for
its publication are pending.
Work is in progress on an investigation of the impact of institutional
arrangements on grower returns. Both product and factor markets will
be examined. In the product market, growers' efforts to improve their in-
come position through an increase in bargaining power suffer from a
traditional predilection of the public to condemn seller monopolies. In
factor markets, it is acceptable for growers to seek increased bargaining
power as buyers. However, producers are faced with a declining distrib-
utive share as a result of technology which substitutes purchased for
owned factors.

Hatch Project 1204 W. K. McPherson
A random sample of Gainesville households was drawn and a ques-
tionnaire designed to (1) obtain basic data on their preferences for beef
and (2) determine whether or not they would participate in a meat eval-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

uation study. The results of this survey were then punched into IBM cards,
sorted, and used to distribute the meat from one lot of bulls, steers, and
heifers among the participating households.
(See also Project 1204, Animal Science Department.)

State Project 1234 A. H. Spurlock
Records of replacement, causes of losses, and disposal dates were con-
tinued on five dairy herds. Data were combined with results previously
obtained to determine useful lifespan, depreciation rates, and reasons for
The lifespan of 4,804 replaced cows averaged 6.4 years, or about 4.4
years in the milking herd. The disposal rate increased rapidly after the
first year in the herd and after three years less than two-thirds of the
original animals remained. After five years only 37% were still in the
Cows reaching age six (4 years in the herd) had a life expectancy of
2.7 additional years and averaged 8.7 years of life; cows reaching age
10 had 1.7 years of life expectancy and averaged 11.7 years of life.
Live disposals from the herd were principally for low production,
32.0%; mastitis or some form of udder trouble, 24.7%; and reproductive
troubles, 17.9%. These three reasons or combinations of them were respon-
sible for 79.5% of the live disposals. About 7% of the live disposals were
for unstated reasons.
Deaths from all causes accounted for 13.3% of all disposals.
(See also Project 1234, Dairy Science Department.)

Hatch Project 1243 A. H. Spurlock and D. L. Brooke
(Regional SM-30)

Labor and machine requirements for harvesting snap beans for fresh
market with mechanical harvester were compared with the hand picking
operation in the Pompano area. At yields of 100 bushels per acre a bean
harvesting machine did the work of about 75 hand pickers. However,
machines destroyed the foliage and lost the second picking.

Man-Hours of Labor per 1000 Bushels

Operation Machine Picking Hand Picking
Pick and haul to grader 45.3 1,069.9
Grade, pack, and haul to market 106.7 106.7
Supervision 5.3 5.3
Total 157.3 1,181.9

A successful celery cutting machine followed by a conventional mobile
harvester was observed at Belle Glade. There was apparently little sav-
ing of labor by this device, but it made the work much easier by elim-
inating stooping.

Annual Report, 1966

Corn harvesting machines, rapidly improving, were studied, but they
have not yet reached the stage for reliable comparison of operating re-
sults with the mobile corn harvester or the "bin-harvesting" system stud-
ied last year.
Questionnaires were affixed to packages of sweet corn in six retail
food stores in three income areas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, during
a three week period in May 1966 to determine consumer opinions of Flor-
ida corn in the husked and unhusked form. Customer response to the
questionnaire was disappointing in that only a 6% return was received.
Analysis of the data is in progress.


D. E. Alleger

Hatch Project 1244
(Regional S-61)

Project 1244 contributes to a regional project entitled, "Human Re-
source Development and Mobility in the Rural South." The universe for
the Florida study is Jackson County, where 90 clusters of five homes each
were drawn by random sampling for record-taking purposes. The recording
of interviews on regionally approved questionnaires began late in June. The
propensity of people to move and to change occupations (or not to) is
being investigated, as are the motivational processes which prompt such


Hatch Project 1259
(Regional SM-33)

C. N. Smith

A mail survey of 1400 registered producers of general ornamental
nursery stock in Florida yielded 55% response and provided the basis for
selection of nurserymen for subsequent study. Schedules from a sample
of 220 nursery crop growers thus identified were obtained by personal in-
terview. Information was obtained on sales by type and geographical loca-
tion of market outlet, sales by type and form of product, and reactions
to a variety of marketing problems.
Data from all schedules will be tabulated and analyzed for later pub-
lication. The data from 80 of the schedules earlier identified as part of a
Southern Regional sample will be forwarded for tabulation and analysis
to appointed members of the Regional Technical Committee.


Costs and Returns on the West Florida Dairy Unit.-Assistance was
again given to Mr. J. B. White in summarizing records to show costs and
returns in producing milk and also cash costs for the various enterprises
at the West Florida Dairy Unit. This is the sixth year that records have
been summarized for this unit. There was a significant increase in pounds
of milk produced per cow in the 1964-65 fiscal year over the previous
years. However, additional improvement will have to be made in operating
efficiency if the farm is to become an economical unit.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Florida Agricultural Production Index.-Index numbers measuring the
total volume of agricultural production annually by commodity groups have
been brought up to date through 1965. Crop production in 1965 was 11%
higher than in 1964 and was 79% above the 1947-49 average. Production
of livestock and livestock products increased by 4% over 1964 and was
163% above the 1947-49 period. Production of all crops and livestock was
10% above the preceding year and was 98% higher than in 1947-49.
The citrus crop increased in production in 1965 by 40%, following two
years of light crops as a result of the 1962 freeze. Vegetable production
increased by 2% from the preceding year, grains increased 46%, peanuts
10%, and soybeans 19%. Production decreases for crops were shown by
cotton and cottonseed, 8%, and sugarcane for sugar, 12%. Tobacco pro-
duction remained almost constant.
Production of poultry products increased by 8% in 1965, meat animals
by 4%, and fluid milk by 2%. (A. H. Spurlock)
Competition for Florida Fruit and Vegetable Crops.-The degree of
competition which Florida faces is provided by tabulating weekly carlot
shipments of selected fruits and vegetables from Florida, other states, and
foreign countries during the Florida shipping season. Such data are val-
uable to growers and extension workers in determining the more desirable
production periods during the Florida season. They are valuable to in-
dustry groups in the preparation of statistics for hearings on freight
rates and marketing agreements and in establishing annual movement
patterns of Florida crops. Allied service industries may find them valu-
able in planning peak movement and supply requirements.
"Florida Truck Crop Competition" was published as Agricultural Eco-
nomics Mimeo Report EC66-2. (D. L. Brooks)
Movement of Citrus Trees From Florida Nurseries.-Movement of cit-
rus trees from Florida nurseries to Florida destinations was the highest
of the 37 years of these records. This season was from July 1, 1964,
through June 30, 1965, when 3,657,312 trees were moved. This was the
first season for movement of 3 million or more trees. This movement
exceeded the previous high season of 1960-61 by 822,122 trees, or 29%.
Seventy-one percent of the 1964-65 movement was orange trees; 7%,
grapefruit; 5%, tangerine; 9%, tangelo; and 8%, lime, lemon, and other
citrus. Forty-six percent of the movement was on lemon stock; 33% on
sour orange; 16% on cleopatra mandarin; 2% on sweet seedling; and 3%
on other stocks. (Zach Savage)

Annual Report, 1966


Research undertaken relates to the production of tobacco and vege-
tables, bulk handling of citrus pulp, handling of vegetables at packing
houses, problems in harvesting of sorghum for silage, land drainage, and
other subjects, with emphasis on determining efficiencies to be gained by
the use of mechanical and physical means in the production and handling
of crops and agricultural materials. The work involved 13 regular proj-
ects, all but three being in cooperation with other Station units.

State Project 627 J. M. Myers
One of the pasture programs in the current phase of the project in-
volves the use of seepage irrigation as a cultural practice. A management
program is followed whereby during the clover season irrigation is started
when the receding water table reaches an average depth of 24 inches be-
low the soil surface. Pumping is continued until the average water table
is raised to a level 18 inches below the soil surface. During the grass
growing season the water table is allowed to recede to a level 30 inches
below the soil surface before irrigation is started. Here again pumping is
continued until the water table is 18 inches below the surface. Irrigation
was first needed in late March and the need continued for about 5 weeks.
During the period four applications of water of about 2 inches each were
made. During this dry period about 3 days of pumping (0.67 inches per
day) were required to raise the water table in the pasture from 30 to 18
inches below the surface. In 3 to 5 days the water table receded back to
30 inches.
No operational problems were experienced, and the labor requirement
for operational purposes was extremely low. Pasture production will be
given in the reports of the other cooperating departments.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agronomy, Animal
Science, and Soils departments.)

State Project 1020 J. F. Beeman
An experimental applicator for incorporating low rates of non-phyto-
toxic granular nematocides in-the-row was developed cooperatively with
H. L. Rhoades, Asst. Nematologist, Central Florida Station.
This equipment is designed to apply and incorporate granular mate-
rial in the top 2 to 4 inches of soil just prior to crop planting. The ex-
perimental applicator consists of a precision metering device to control
application rates and a set of rotary hoes to incorporate the nematicide
in the soil. Provisions were made for three-point hitch and treatment
of two rows simultaneously.
Initial tests indicated satisfactory performance of the equipment. Ex-
perimentation on the efficiency of treatments is planned.
(See also Project 1020, Central Florida Station.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Hatch Project 1034 J. M. Myers and I. J. Ross

Replicated tests of bulk cured tobacco samples were made to evaluate
the effect of several curing factors on value, leaf scald, and slickness. An
air flow rate of 40 cubic feet per minute per square foot of drying area
was only slightly better than 30 when measured in terms of value of the
cured tobacco. Tobacco cured with an air rate of 20 cfm was significantly
less valuable than either of the two higher air flow rates tested. The per-
cent of leaf area exhibiting a scalded appearance was 2.75, 1.88, and .94
respectively for the 20, 30, and 40 cfm rates of air flow.
Results of tests to evaluate the influence of the layer in which tobacco
is cured, indicate that the value was not independently influenced by the
layer in which it was cured. It appears that the length of coloring time and
the rate at which the leaf is dried are important factors affecting the dif-
ferential between tobacco cured in the upper and lower layers. Slightly
more leaf scald takes place in the top layer than in the bottom layer
when tobacco is cured in bulk. The rate at which the leaf is dried is in-
fluential on the value of bulk cured tobacco. However, the effect is also
dependent upon the degree of coloring of the leaf at the beginning of leaf
drying. The rate at which the leaf is dried does not appear to be an im-
portant factor in leaf scald.
Air flow rate, rate of leaf drying, and the layer in which the tobacco
is cured were not influencing factors in the degree of slickness appearing
in bulk cured tobacco.
(See also Project 1034, Agronomy Department.)


Hatch Project 1082 I. J. Ross and C. F. Kiker

Laboratory tests with the vertical screw bin unloader have been com-
pleted, and a report of the work has been submitted for publication to the
American Society of Agricultural Engineers. The unloader can be used to
remove citrus pulp from bulk storage in a continuous stream.
An equation of motion for multiple granular particles in free fall in
an enclosed duct has been developed. Tests have shown that the position
of the particles falling in the duct had no influence on the particle velocity.
A zero deflection thin-diaphragm type pressure transducer has been
developed and used to measure the pressures exerted by citrus pulp on
the floors of three different-sized bins. The data showed that the standard
equations used to predict pressures exerted by materials in storage bin
cannot be used with citrus pulp.
The bulk density, void space, moisture content, fineness modulus, uni-
formity index, uniaxial compression, equilibrium moisture, and coefficient
of friction for citrus pulp samples from four manufacturers over an entire
season have been determined. The results of this work are being prepared
for publication.
Work is being continued on the pressure drop of air forced through
citrus pulp and a continuous system for producing pelleted citrus pulp by
the wet-pelleting technique.


Annual Report, 1966

State Project 1203 J. F. Beeman
Mechanical Harvesting and Handling of Celery.-Studies were contin-
ued to determine the physical properties of celery.
The force required to cut the root stem was found to be a function of
the blade angle, with a minimum force at a 600 blade angle. The coefficient
of friction between celery and several different materials used in handling
celery ranged from 0.70 to 1.17. Damage studies indicate that it might be
expected that 20% of the stalks dropped from heights of greater than 12
inches will be damaged. Observations were made on plant profiles in situ
and compressed, weight, height, root system diameters, and center of
Studies with a mechanical harvesting system indicated that a single-
row harvester could harvest celery at the rate of 134 plants per minute with
less than 4% of the stalks receiving scorable damage and less than 3%
requiring retrim of root stems.
Mechanical Harvesting and Handling of Cabbage.-Studies were be-
gun to determine the physical properties of hybrid-type cabbage as they
influence machine design. Certain mechanical harvest principles were tried
at Gainesville, Hastings, and Belle Glade. The number of marketable heads
from a once-over mechanical harvester were not significantly different from
the number obtained from a once-over hand harvest. However, machine
harvested cabbage exhibited significantly greater damage.
Tomato Harvesting.-A commercial tomato harvester was field tested
at Homestead and Fort Pierce.
Harvester Aids.-Work continued with harvester aids at Belle Glade.
(See also Project 1203, Vegetable Crops Department, Everglades Station,
and Potato Investigations Laboratory.)

State Project 1207 R. C. Fluck
Instrumentation to measure mean radiant temperatures under shades
and in unshaded areas has been modified. Wind velocities are being meas-
ured with a rotating vane anemometer on a directional wind vane. Black
globe thermometer temperature differences are being measured with a
thermopile having one set of junctions in each globe and with single ther-
mocouples in each globe. Humidity measurements and estimates of cloud
cover are also being taken for correlation. Shade effectiveness, the ratio
of mean radiant temperatures in the unshaded and shaded areas, as well
as radiant heat loads in each area are being calculated.
(See also Project 1207, Dairy Science Department.)

State Project 1250 R. E. Choate
Principal work under this project has been devoted to site prepara-
tion, design of the experiment, locating plots on the sites, and establishing
the alignment of the necessary drainage ditches on the site. The experi-
mental design provides for three drainage treatments. The treatments are:

46 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

(1) plots drained by an open ditch having a nominal depth of 5 feet, (2)
plots drained by an open ditch having a nominal depth of 2 feet, and (3)
plots on natural ground elevation without special facilities to accelerate
surface and internal soil drainage. Treatments will be replicated 3 times
on plots 300 feet by 400 feet. Drainage ditches are to be located adjacent
to and parallel to the 300 foot dimension of the plots.
(See also Project 1250, Forestry and Soils departments.)


State Project 1296 J. M. Myers, I. J. Ross,
and R. E. Choate

The objective of the project is to measure the influence of air velocity,
air vapor pressure, air temperature, water droplet size, vegetative cover,
and soil variables on irrigation water losses.
Research during the past year was directed primarily toward developing
the laboratory facility that will be used in conducting the project.
Design of the major component of the facility, a control chamber which
consists of a low air velocity tunnel having controlled environment, has
been completed. Construction is approximately 30% complete.
The chamber is being fabricated of aluminum sheets and structural
members. All sides of the chamber are insulated. Inside dimensions are
8 feet wide, 8 feet high, and 34 feet long. Air velocity, temperature, and
humidity can be controlled independently within ranges that normally ex-
ist when sprinkler irrigation is practiced in Florida. Research is continu-
ing on the development of a highly sensitive dew point hygrometer to be
used in conjunction with the chamber. A prototype hygrometer, derived in
principle from the condensation hygrometer with the substitution of a water-
soluble ionic single crystal for the condensing surface, has been construct-
ed. Preliminary tests indicate that the prototype will bring the air to its
dew point and maintain the crystal resistance within a range correspond-
ing to much less than 0.01'F. Progress has also been made in developing
the apparatus for use in controlling water droplet size for evaporation

The Effects That Basic Food Components Have On Electromagnetic
Fields.-The objective of this work is to obtain a measure of the effect
that a given solution of a basic food component has on an electromagnetic
field and to use this measurement to make inferences concerning certain
physical properties of the solution. The properties of interest are the com-
position, concentration, and depth of solution.
All tests have been conducted by placing known concentration and depth
of a solution between a transmitting and receiving antenna and measur-
ing the effect the solution has on the electromagnetic field of the antennas.
Several basic food components have been tested at frequencies of 2, 10, and
30 megacycles. (I. J. Ross)
Handling And Packing Celery.-Further tests were conducted on an
electronic weighing system for sizing celery. The weighing system was
found to be capable of receiving celery stalks at a rate of 200 stalks per
minute and giving a weight accuracy of 0.04 pounds. This degree of ac-
curacy far exceeded that obtained by manual sizing. It also exceeds the
minimum requirements for a satisfactory mechanical sizing machine.

Annual Report, 1966 47

No unsurmountable problem is foreseen that would prevent the adaption
of this type of weight sizing system to a packinghouse operation. It ap-
pears to have advantages of lower initial cost and less space requirement
than other mechanical weight sizing systems that are being tested for use
in celery processing. (J. M. Myers)
Mechanical Harvesting of Tea.-Research is being continued on the
development of a mechanism for selectively harvesting tea. The mechanism
under study is based on theory developed by S. I. Kereselidge, a Russian
scientist. The theory is based on knowledge that a ripe tea sprout will
fracture when bent through a certain angle and that a certain force is
required to bend a ripe sprout through the specified angle. An immature
sprout can be bent through a larger angle without fracturing and over-
mature plant material will not be damaged if only the required force is
A laboratory machine to simulate the functions of a harvesting mech-
anism has been constructed. On the laboratory machine the essential com-
ponents can be varied with respect to speed and geometry. Laboratory
tests with field-grown tea sprouts are in progress to establish some of the
essential functional specifications for the selective harvesting mechan-
ism. (J. M. Myers)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research was conducted on 29 projects. New projects include: studies
on microclimatic influences on field crops with particular emphasis on solar
energy utilization by corn plants; and biochemical studies of effects of cool
temperatures on warm weather crop plants.
Grants totaling almost $100,000 were received from some 15 sources
providing funds for basic research on sub-tropical crop production problems.
Physical plant additions included purchase of 247 acres of farm land
six miles west of Gainesville for field crop research and development. The
tobacco unit relocation on a portion of this area is well under way. Also a
new physiology-ecology laboratory has been established for basic crop pro-
duction research.
Personnel changes were the retirement of Dr. Fred H. Hull and ap-
pointment of Dr. D. E. McCloud as new Chairman of the Department of
Agronomy. Dr. B. N. Duck, Assistant Agronomist, resigned.
A few outstanding research highlights include the following. Dr. G. B.
Killinger has demonstrated that kenaf is promising as a paper-pulp crop.
Dr. O. C. Ruelke has found that a maleic hydrazide spray brought about in-
creased carbohydrate content in pangolagrass forage. Dr. S. H. West has
discovered that the growth response of warm weather crops is linked to
the basic growth-controlling mechanism, nucleic acid metabolism. Dr. G.
M. Prine has shown that light during the silking stage is critical for
maximum yields in corn production.

Hatch Project 20 A. J. Norden
Crosses were made in the greenhouse in an effort to induce favorable
genetic recombinations so that selection for improved quality, yield, disease
resistance, and toughness of peg attachment may be possible. In selec-
tion, more emphasis is being placed on seed quality and types suited to
From the more than 13 acres of breeding lines and varieties grown at
the Gainesville location in 1965, a number of promising new lines are
emerging, primarily from crosses of Early Runner with Florispan, Flori-
giant, F404, and F420. For the second consecutive year the most produc-
tive line was F439-16-10 which yielded slightly more than Florispan. This
runner line has seed and pods similar to Early Runner in size. It has a
high shelling percent and on the basis of small sample evaluations the oil
has desirable characteristics. F439-16-10 and F393-9-5, a Virginia bunch
line, are being evaluated in USDA regional tests in 1966.
Shelling and processing trials with F416 indicate that the pod and
seed size are intermediate between Runner and Virginia in market type
classification, and the composition of the oil may not be completely satis-
factory to peanut butter manufacturers.
The yield and quality of Early Runner and Florigiant continue to be
good while that of Dixie Runner declines. Information is lacking regard-
ing the causes for this decline in a pure-line peanut variety. A peanut
variety may contain physiologic strains which, although morphologically
similar, may differ in yielding ability. An experiment was initiated in 1966
to provide information on the number of plants needed to maintain a pea-
nut variety without shifting the genetic base.

Annual Report, 1966

Additional appropriate crosses were made to study the inheritance of
seed coat development and pubescence on pods. Pubescence on peanut pods
results in unfavorable appearance due to soil clinging to the pods at har-
vest and may be related to susceptibility to disease organisms and yield.


Hatch Project 295 G. B. Killinger
Variety trials of ryegrass with and without fitted trace elements FTE
503 resulted in 25% more dry forage produced when 15 pounds of FTE
503 was applied per acre. With the trace elements Florida Rust Resistant
variety yielded more forage than any of the other 10 varieties under test.
Tifhi-1 bahiagrass yielded slightly more total forage than Pensacola
bahiagrass during the 1965 season. Tifhi-1 yielded 13% more forage
than Pensacola at the first cutting in June and produced 4.5% less forage
from June to October than Pensacola.
Two variety trials of white clover, one seeded in the fall of 1963 and
the other in the fall of 1964, yielded 14 and 45% more forage respectively
from plots treated with a single application of 15 pounds per acre of FTE
503 in the fall of 1963 and 1964.
Abon (Persian clover) yielded more forage than white clover varieties
but has failed for two seasons to satisfactorily reseed itself, probably due
to a lack of hard seed.

Hatch Project 374 E. S. Horner
The evaluation of experimental and commercial hybrids, new inbred
lines, and different breeding methods was continued.
An experiment designed to evaluate the progress made from three cy-
cles of selection in three different programs was completed. For average
combining ability with 11 different testers, there was no significant differ-
ence between selection for (1) inbred yield of S2 lines, (2) combining abil-
ity with a narrow gene-base tester, and (3) combining ability with a broad
gene-base tester. However, there was a significant increase in combining
ability from the first to the third cycle for the average of the three pro-
grams, and yields of the selfed populations obtained at the end of each
cycle were also increased. The data indicate that all three types of selection
were effective in increasing the frequency of favorable genes in the selected
Five cycles of selection for combining ability with the single cross
F44 x F6 have been completed. Data obtained in 1965 indicate that grain
yield was increased 11%, standability was increased 10%, and ear height
was lowered by 10% by selection during the last four cycles. The gains
shown here averaged about 2.5% per cycle, which is significant but less
than had been expected. Preliminary data indicate that a similar gain will
be obtained in the 6th cycle which is now under way.
The leading hybrid for grain yield in the 1965 commercial variety
tests was Florida 200A. which was released in 1964. It is a product of the
fifth cycle experiment discussed in the preceding paragraph.
(See also Project 374, North Florida, West Florida, and Suwannee
Valley stations.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 444 F. Clark
Testing of chemicals for weed control was not continued this year be-
cause of the establishment of a new tobacco research unit.
Several planted covers were tested to determine if there would be
differential growth responses. Five different sizes and combinations of
perforations were tested, with a laminated strip, plastic-cheesecloth com-
bination, clear plastic, and cheesecloth. The area of plastic covers vented
range from 0.54 to 8.71%.
The extreme cold weather during the growing season provided condi-
tions which contributed to the results. The best results were obtained from
perforations 1/2" to 3", 3/8" x 2", and 1/4" x 1-1/2" centers. The average
number of transplants per square yard were 238, 224, and 216 respective-
ly. These counts were made from March 24 to April 5. No seedlings of
transplant size were pulled from the cheesecloth covered plants until after

Hatch Project 488 H. C. Harris
The effect of calcium and boron dificiency on Early Runner, Flori-
giant, Starr Spanish, and F 416 peanuts, when they were grown in nutrient
solutions under controlled conditions was studied again. Without calcium
in the nutrient solution, the peanuts failed to get out of the seedling
stage. Without boron in the nutrient solution, deficiency symptoms de-
veloped in about 4 weeks after germination. Starr Spanish and Early
Runner developed the symptoms first. If boron was applied soon after
symptoms appeared, the plants recovered rapidly; but if the application
was delayed about 3 weeks, plants almost died and recovery was very
slow. Experiments showed that the Florigiant peanut plant survived a
critical shortage of boron for a longer time than the Early Runner even
when seed of both varieties were selected with the same weight.

Hatch Project 555 F. Clark
The 1965 Regional Sucker Control Test included 39 chemicals and 29 of
them damaged the leaf. However, several new materials were found which
will be tested in 1966.
Diphenamid 50W was used at 4 and 6 pounds of active per acre and
was applied at intervals of 1, 3, and 7 days after transplanting. The 6
pound rate was the most effective at the first and third day application.
The hoe time, after treating, ranged from 4.4 hours for the treated plot to
32 hours for the cultivated check.
A petroleum mulch was tested on the planted as well as in the field.
Field transplants grown under plastic covers and field mulched with the
petroleum produced the best results, the next best being those grown under
Several fumigants were tested in the nematode nursery. Several new
materials were superior to the untreated and D-D standard check plots. SD
559 and SD 7727 applied at the rate of 10 pounds per acre broadcast
produced effective control of nematodes.

Annual Report, 1966

Three rates of nitrogen, 60, 90, and 120 pounds, were tested with three
levels of potash, 120, 180, and 240 pounds per acre. The three levels of each
were also treated with Maleic hydrazide vs hand suckered. The 90-pound
level of nitrogen with 180 pounds of potash treated with Maleic hydrazide
produced the highest yields with good quality.
A nitrogen, phosphorous, and potash rates test was conducted. Nitrogen
rates were 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 pounds per acre; phosphorous rates
were 100 and 150 pounds; and potash levels were 100, 150, 200, 250, and
300 pounds. The best combination of all treatments for yield and quality
were the 75 to 100 pound rate of nitrogen, 100 pounds of phosphorous, and
up to 300 pounds of potash per acre.

State Project 627 G. B. Killinger

This project was revised at the close of the 1964 season, with results
for the past five years in the process of being published as a bulletin. The
revised project involves three pasture programs in place of the five pro-
grams conducted over the past five years.
One-fourth of the new program 2 was plowed and seeded to oats, rye,
and a mixture of clovers in the fall of 1964. By June of 1965 these plowed
pastures had a full stand of permanent pasture grass, without reseeding,
and considerable grazing was realized from the small grains and clover
during the winter.
No yield reports were kept during this period since this was a year
of pasture program changes involving fence relocation and new treatments.
(See also Project 627, Agriculture Economics, Agricultural Engineering,
Animal Science, and Soils departments.)


State Project 761 Kuell Hinson'
A specific gravity technique has effectively separated high oil from
high protein seeds in some experiments. Whole soybean seeds usually have
an average specific gravity of about 1.22, the oil about 0.90, and the protein
about 1.30 to 1.35. Usually, there is a high negative correlation between
percent protein and percent oil. Therefore, high specific gravity seeds
theoretically would be high in percent protein and low in percent oil. Pre-
liminary results obtained in 1965 indicate that the technique has little
utility when used on seeds from F1 plants. Correlation coefficients between
specific gravity and percent oil and percent protein were only -0.36 and
+0.33 respectively.
A comparison of the response in yield of Jackson and Hardee to various
soil properties and depths indicated that Hardee feeds at deeper soil depths
than does Jackson. The root system of Hardee was also found to be
much more extensively developed. The inherent capacity to develop a strong
root system is believed to be a major factor determining adaptation to the
light textured soils of north central Florida.
This project is closed with this report.

'Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.

52 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 766 V. N. Schroder
Experiments with oats have shown a fairly definite relationship of
potassium fertilization with the organic acids in plants and a fairly def-
inite pattern to the changes that take place. Considerable work with sun-
flower has also been carried out, but no clear cut pattern is indicated
for the amounts or changes in the organic acids either with changes in
maturity or with the fertilization treatment. The petioles were the best
source of tissue samples for analysis. The acids found in the petioles some-
times bear little relationship to the acids found in the leaves. The petiole
of a leaf showing only citric acid may show large amounts of malic, succinic,
and fumaric acids with only a trace of citric acid. The only generalization
to be made at this time is that petioles from the sunflower plants receiving
a high level of potassium fertilization contained more fumaric and suc-
cinic acid than corresponding petioles from plants receiving a low level
of potassium fertilization and that the petioles from the high potassium
treatment had more fumaric acid than citric acid. On the other hand, low
potassium treatment petioles always had more citric acid than fumaric
acid. Petioles from leaves showing signs of senescense contained citric and
malic acids, but never succinic or fumaric acids.

Hatch Project 783 P. L. Pfahler
Since cold tolerance represents a major problem in the production of all
species of small grains in Florida, methods to quantitatively measure this
characteristic in the laboratory are under development. Since a large number
of preconditioning factors are involved, the correlations of most of the
methods tested with field responses have been quite low. The existence of
such a large number of preconditioning factors also suggests that herit-
ability estimates would be extremely low necessitating long term selec-
tion and evaluation programs. However, a substantial amount of genetic
variation for cold tolerance appears to exist especially in the Avena genus
indicating that selection should be effective. Inheritance studies of cold
tolerance are being conducted and preliminary results indicate that most
of the genetic variation is additive in nature allowing for more rapid fixa-
tion by selection.
Improvement programs in rye (Secale cereale) are severely limited
because of self-incompatibility. As a result, superior types cannot be
isolated and perpetuated. Since the commercial production of intervarietal
hybrids is feasible and would allow for the exploitation of the hybrid
vigor reported in rye, studies on the forage and grain production of these
hybrids are being undertaken. Heterosis was obtained in some hybrid crosses
with substantial differences in combining ability between varieties observed.
The magnitude of the heterotic response was considerably influenced by the
direction of the cross and the year tested. Differences in the degree of
homeostasis were also obtained, with some hybrids being lower than the
lower parent.
The hybridization and selection program is being continued in an ef-
fort to isolate lines which combine high forage and grain production.
(See also Project 783, Plant Pathology Department and North Florida

Annual Report, 1966

State Project 909 Kuell Hinson'
Tests of nine commercially available varieties confirmed previous
results indicating that Hardee and Bragg as best adapted to north central
Florida. Variety ranks at Live Oak in 1965, when yields averaged 41 bushels
per acre, were very similar to those for the same varieties in 1964 when
yields averaged 19 bushels per acre. Yields of Hampton were 17% less
than those for Hardee at Live Oak in 1964-65, but 17% more than those
for Hardee at Jay in 1964-65. Yields of Bragg were within 3% of the
highest yielding variety at each location. The results indicate that Bragg
is well adapted to environments throughout the northern part of the
State, but that Hardee and Hampton are only well adapted to specific
Nearly 500 breeding lines were grown in replicated tests to evaluate
their potential for improved varieties. A major objective is to obtain a
higher protein content with equal or better yields in bushels per acre.
Several lines were higher than Bragg or Hardee in percent protein but
few yielded more. The more promising selections will be evaluated further
in 1966.
This project is being closed with this report.
(See also Project 909, Central Florida, North Florida, and Suwannee
Valley stations.)

Hatch Project 950 H. C. Harris
A number of interesting leads with respect to effects of nutrient
deficiencies on the physiological and biochemical nature of plants have
been obtained, but further confirmation is required before publication.

State Project 971 A. J. Norden
A number of previously designated plots with bahiagrass stands rang-
ing in age from 0 to 5 years were plowed in October 1965 and planted to a
cultivated crop in 1966. A second group of plots with bahiagrass stands
varying in age from 0 to 6 years will be plowed in 1966 and a third group
ranging in age of sod from 0 to 7 years will be played in 1967 to determine
the effects of age of sod on subsequent cultivated crops. Seasonal records
have been maintained on all plots since 1959 in regard to the status of plant
nutrients, soil nematodes, and productivity.
The pH and nutrient levels are in the medium to high range. However,
the available P205 and K20 has declined gradually since 1960 in both the
grass sod and corn-peanut rotation plots. The decline is somewhat greater in
the older sod plots than in the more recently seeded or non-seeded plots.
The average number of nematodes in the experimental area is declining
gradually from year to year as more of the plots are seeded to bahiagrass.
The numbers of Ring and Spiral nematodes, however, have increased with
'Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

age of sod. Sting nematode populations have remained comparatively stable,
while populations of other nematode species have declined. Peanuts, com-
pared with corn, appear to be a better host for Ring nematodes and poorer
host for Sting and Stubby Root nematodes.
After 5 years, bahiagrass seedings show no downward trend in produc-
tivity, and the recovery in forage of applied nitrogen appears to be more
efficient in the 5-year-old stands than in the younger stands.
A 2-year rotation of corn and peanuts with an annual winter rye cover
and green manure crop does not, as yet, appear to be detrimental to peanut


Regional Research Project 998 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder, O. C. Ruelke,
(Regional S-47) S. H. West3 and K. D. Butson'

The daily microclimate and macroclimate measurements made at the
Gainesville 3 WSW Weather Station were analyzed for the 6-year period
1959-65. Data from this station were compared with similar data from
four other stations in the Southern Region.
Two creeping alfalfa varieties, Arkansas Syn P-2 and Kentucky Syn Z-1,
produced less than one-half the forage produced by the adapted non-creeping
Florida experimental variety G63. The persistence of the creeping varieties
was very poor, the stand being too sparse to be of value by the end of
first harvest season. The creeping habit will have to be bred into the
better adapted alfalfas to be of value. The G63 variety was again the
highest yielding alfalfa among the 10 non-creeping varieties studied in
the second harvest season.
The drymatter yield of alfalfa was increased 30% for the December 16
harvest when sprayed until wet with a solution containing 200 ppm gib-
berellic acid and 0.5% alconox on November 11. The alfalfa had survived
the first harvest season with a good stand. No significant yield increase
was found from gibberellic acid treatment when applied to alfalfa in the
same fall as seeded.
The drymatter yield of blue lupine grown in 10-inch-wide rows was
9% higher in east-west rows than in north-south rows.


Hatch Project 1034 F. Clark

Most of the data collected under this project during the 1964 tobacco
season was primarily directed to the engineering phase of the project.
Agronomy was responsible only for the production of the leaf used dur-
ing the curing tests. Consequently, most of the information will be presented
by Agricultural Engineering.
(See also Project 1034, Agricultural Engineering Department.)

'Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
'Cooperative with Environmental Data Service, ESSA, U.S. Department of Commerce.

Annual Report, 1966

Hatch Project 1087 M. Wilcox
New or unproved herbicides were applied in duplicate to corn, soybeans,
and peanuts. More promising herbicides were included in advanced trials of
from four to six replications. Studies of the metabolism of herbicides in
crop plants continue. In order to relate structure and activity among in-
hibitors of the Hill reaction, several previously unreported compounds have
been synthesized.
Peanuts.-GS-14260 at 2 pounds per acre and 1.5 pounds DNBP plus
2 pounds diphenamid performed as well as the recommended treatment of
DNBP and 2,4-DEP.
Field Corn.-Combinations of the grass killers CIPC and DCPA with
broadleaf herbicides 2,4-D plus dicamba or fenac gave better weed con-
trol and yields than the conventional s-triazine herbicides.
Soybeans.-The recommended treatment, sixteen pounds of PCP per
acre, performed as well as or better than any other herbicide tested.
Tobacco.-Diphenamid at 4 pounds per acre and vernan incorporated
at 3 pounds per acre controlled respectively grass and broad-leaf weeds.
Neither damaged the crop. (See Project 555, this department.)
Metabolism.-A method for convenient preparation of higher diazoal-
kanes has been developed. These reagents have been used for improved sim-
ultaneous gas chromatographic assays of aromatic acid herbicides and their
phenolic metabolites and are useful in other fields where phenolic acids
must be separated from their alkyl ethers. It has been demonstrated by
these methods that young excised roots of several cereal species do not
produce appreciable amounts of 2,5-dichloro- and 2,3-dichloro-4-hydrox-
yphenoxyacetic acids, which have been reported as metabolites of 2,4-D.
Metabolic studies of 2,4-D and dicamba continue.
(See Project 1087, Central Florida and West Florida stations, and
Marianna Unit, North Florida Station.)

State Project 1100 P. L. Pfahler
The relationship between the fertilization ability of the male gamete
and its genetic constitution is under intensive investigation. Significant
deviations from the assumption of independence are being encountered as
a result of the genotype of the pollen and the genotype of the stylar tissue
on and through which the pollen grain must germinate and grow if fertiliza-
tion is to be effected. Since genetic control is indicated, factors such as ir-
radiation which alter genic elements have been found to change the fertiliza-
tion ability of the pollen carrying these alterations. In vivo studies have
shown that pollen grains produced on plants arising from seed exposed to
ultra low dosages of gamma irradiation possessed appreciably higher fer-
tilization ability. Pollen grains exposed to low dosages of irradiation
also had a greater capacity to fertilize. Therefore, the impact of irradia-
tion on the genetic structure of biological populations over a number of
generations would be much greater than previously predicted since male
gametes carrying genic alterations would be more effective in transmit-
ting these changes. In vitro studies have corroborated these observations
with irradiation enhancing the germinability of the pollen grains with a
negligible effect on the rate of pollen tube growth.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Genetic diversity within Secale cereale is relatively limited and difficult
to maintain. For forage production, morphological and physiological dif-
ferences within a population would present no problem and would be
advantageous. Composite populations containing a broad germ plasm base
which includes interspecific hybrids with S. montanum and S. vavilovii
are being developed and stabilized. Field tests have indicated that for
forage production, these populations display considerable heterosis and
increased homeostasis. Increasing population density decreased the de-
pressing effect of less vigorous, more homozygous individuals, thereby
eliminating the need for completely hybrid populations.

Regional Research Project 1131 E. G. Rodgers
Lakeland fine sandy soil treated October 9, 1964 with ametryne and
prometryne at 0, 2, 4, and 8 pounds per acre was sampled 9 months later
at depths of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 inches for use in bio-assay
tests of oats. Evidence of leaching of these two herbicides noted in bio-
assay tests 2 and 41 months after initial application could not be de-
tected; therefore, it was concluded that these compounds at rates studied
were rendered non-phytotoxic in the top 22 inches of soil, either by leach-
ing or dissipation or both, under field conditions in less than 9 months.
Atrazine was was applied at 2 pounds per 6 inches of depth of Lakeland
fine sandy soil in columns 4 inches in diameter and depths of 2, 4, 6, 12, 18,
24, 30, and 36 inches. Water leached through these respective columns
used to supply moisture required by oats growing in the greenhouse showed
striking effects. Dry weights of the oats grown for 28 days indicated re-
duced vigor in all instances, but solutions from columns 2 and 4 inches in
depth caused severely stunted plants and about 50% mortality of all plants.
After harvest of living top-growth at approximately the soil surface, less
than 5% of the plant stubbles produced any regrowth. This finding
suggested that root systems of living plants subjected to atrazine have
inadequate supplies of stored food to support renewed growth from the
stubble. Oats subsequently replanted in the same soil produced practically
no growth, indicating that phytotoxic quantities of atrazine had leached
through all columns of soil.

Hatch Project 1134 J. R. Edwardson
Grafts between cytoplasmic sterile and maintainer flax lines have
permitted an examination of the possibility of asexual transmission of male
sterility in this species. The restoration of fertility to cytoplasmic sterile
petunia is apparently controlled by a single dominant gene, while restora-
tion of fertility to cytoplasmic sterile Crotalaria mucronata is governed
by two dominant genes. A nuclear inclusion has been found to be associated
with a graft transmissable variegation in petunia. Combined tracings from
electron micrographs of serial sections of leaf tissue infected with tobacco
etch virus show that a cylindrical inclusion when sectioned in different
planes can produce configurations which have been interpreted as being
two distinct types of inclusion bodies. Reciprocal hybrids of corn, con-
taining normal cytoplasm, are being compared for possible differences in
resistance to radiation damage.

Annual Report, 1966 57

Hatch Project 1135 J. R. Edwardson
Selection for vigorous sweet blue lupine lines was continued under field
conditions. Screening yellow lupine introductions for differences in seed
transmission of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus is continuing. Inheritance of
Phomopsis resistance in yellow lupine selections is being studied.

State Project 1154 E. S. Horner
Selection for improved production and summer persistence in white
clover and alfalfa was continued.
White Clover.-Twenty-five clones were selected from a group of 114
on the basis of vigor, summer persistence in a bahiagrass sod, and capacity
to bloom at Gainesville. These clones have been intercrossed to produce a
synthetic variety, which will be evaluated for possible commercial use and
which will be a source for further selection. In addition, 100 new clones
have been established in replicated plots for evaluation, and a new spaced-
plant nursery of about 2000 plants was set out. These materials have good
potential as sources of the desired type of clover.
Alfalfa.-Experimental variety "G63" continued to persist very well
in comparison with commercial varieties. Seed was harvested from plant-
ings made in 1962 and 1963 in order to establish larger plots for manage-
ment studies and to increase seed supplies for possible release.

Hatch Project 1166
(RRF Contributing to Regional Project S-9) G. B. Killinger
Erucastrum abyssinica, P.I. 243,913, was reclassified during the year
and is now Brassica carinata. This Brassica is a winter oil seed crop con-
taining 33/%% oil, 39% of which is erucic acid. Seed yields of 1500 to
2000 pounds per acre are common. Selections are being made of individual
plants producing seed with a light seed coat and containing oil high in
erucic acid. General seed pod and plant characteristics are shown in Fig-
ure 1.
Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus Linn., stems have been used successfully
in the manufacture of samples of a number of types of paper. Kenaf stem
yields of seven or more tons per acre when grown on flatwoods soils may
make this a commercial crop for Florida. Note six months growth of Ever-
glades No. 41 kenaf in 38-inch rows (Figure 2).
Sunflower, introductions and commercial varieties, appears to be more
free from disease when planted from August 15 to September 1 in North
Florida than when planted in early spring. Late summer plantings mature
seed in the Gainesville area from October 20 to November 20. There is a
large ready market for sunflower seed as bird feed.


Figure 1.-Brassica carinata mature and ready for combine seed harvest.
Plants at this stage are nearly all stem and seedpod.

~ i

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Annual Report, 1966

Figure 2.-Everglades No. 41 kenaf planted in May reached a height of
15 feet by early November and yielded 712 tons of oven-dry stem per acre.


State Project 1167

G. B. Killinger, E. S. Horner, G. M. Prine,
S. C. Schank, and B. N. Duck

Preliminary evaluation of 517 plant introductions representing nine
genera of sub-tropical grasses known to be of value in other regions in-
dicate several of these introductions have desirable agronomic attributes.
Pronounced vigor, high forage production potential, winter hardiness, and
vigorous early spring growth have been noted for the promising species.
Wide variability within accessions make some of these introductions desir-
able for selection in a grass breeding program.
Perennial Arachis (peanut) accessions appear to have merit for plant-
ing in mixture with grass on highway shoulders and in lawns because of
their aesthetic flowers and nitrogen-fixation. Sixty wild Arachis species
accessions are being evaluated.
Digitaria decumbens (pangolagrass) plants treated with 17,000 r
gamma radiation in the spring of 1963, have survived three winter sea-
sons with no loss of plants from cold.
Trenton and Flagler strains of fescuegrass originally collected in Flor-
ida have produced over 9000 pounds of oven-dry forage for two consecu-
tive years on a Leon fine sand soil. These two strains of fescue remain
green and produce forage over the entire year.
Introductions are the main source of genetic variation for breeding
Digitarias. (See Hatch Project 1227). New Digitaria introductions have
been distributed vegetatively to the Range Cattle Station and to Honduras
and Brazil during the year.

60 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Digitaria pentzii, P.I. 279,651, has failed to do well in Northern Florida.
Cuttings from this introduction were sent to Brazil in 1962 and reports in-
dicate this Digitaria is now growing on over 100,000 hectares.
(See also Project 1167, Everglades, North Florida, Range Cattle, and
West Florida stations and Indian River Laboratory, Everglades Station.)


Hatch Project 1227 S. C. Schank and B. N. Duck

During the 1965-66 year, Dr. B. N. Duck joined the project on a full-
time basis. New hybridizations accomplished during 1966 numbered 318.
These hybridizations included the most promising Digitaria introductions
from over 500 Digitaria introductions received in Florida. The entire col-
lection has been subjected to screening, with a numerical rating applied
to each accession for agronomic characteristics. Four new evaluation
nurseries were established during the year. Two of the nurseries located
at the Beef Research Unit have a total of 152 entries and include the
more promising 1964 and 1965 hybrid material. The third new nursery is
composed of space plants of open pollinated progeny of selected breeding
lines of Digitaria. This nursery of 250 entries will aid in determining
mode of reproduction and extent of apomixis. The fourth newly established
nursery also has 250 entries and includes parents and progeny from 1964
and 1965 crosses which are under initial evaluation. Older introduction
nurseries are also being maintained.
Exchange of material and breeding lines with other research workers
has continued. Vegetative material of 50 of the most variable accessions
was sent to Brazil. A new hexaploid strain of Digitaria was received
from Hawaii during the year. Cooperative work on winter hardiness and
breeding for disease resistance has continued.


Hatch Project 1237 A. T. Wallace

Over the past years we have been collecting, purifying, classifying, and
hybridizing lines of oats carrying induced mutations at the Vb locus and
lines of barley carrying induced mutations at the ddt locus.
Data from a phenotypic classification of 24 characters on 65 gamma ray
induced mutations at the Vb locus indicate that even though selection of
the mutants was based entirely on changes at the Vb locus changes were
also induced at many other loci. Chi-square analyses of the data suggest
the variation was, to a major degree, associated with chromosome changes.
Eighty percent of the gamma ray induced mutations, 87% of the chemical
induced mutations, and 83% of the mutations from a mixture of gamma
rays and chemicals indicate that the mutations, at the Vb locus, represent
intragenic changes. These intragenic changes are based on an assumption
being tested at this time. If the assumption is correct, then this is the
first real evidence of "true intragenic" changes being produced with ionizing
radiation in higher plants. The evidence suggesting that the percent of
intragenic changes from gamma rays can be as high as 80% indicates that
this agent can be useful for gene mutation programs as well as chromosome
engineering programs.

Annual Report, 1966

Other investigations of partially resistant mutants of the Vb locus
indicate that some mutants become more resistant and others become more
susceptible at higher temperatures. This relationship does not hold for
the necrotic response to crown rust or for the loss of electrolytes from
toxin treated tissue.
Results from the barley ddt resistant mutants indicate that the primary
effect of DDT is on the chloroplasts, that there is a temperature effect, that
DDT is not translocated within the plant, and that the mutants are free
of chromosome aberrations. One selected line of barley will be released in
cooperation with the North Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

Hatch Project 1260 F. Clark
The regional variety test for 1965 included 45 selections and varieties.
Speights G-7 was the only selection which met the standards for release.
Blackshank was not a serious problem in 1965. Growers are continuing
to grow the old established varieties such as Hicks and N.C. 95.
Selections from breeding lines in the F, and F, generations with black-
shank resistance derived from Florida 301 look very promising. Selections
derived from N. plumbaginifolia were grown and evaluated for resistance
and physical and chemical properties. Many of the selections combine good
plant type and high yield potential with acceptable quality, including a
good balance of chemical constituents.
Some of the advanced selections are being considered for regional testing.
(See also Project 1260, North Florida Experiment Station.)

State Project 1262 G. M. Prine
Florida 200 corn was seeded directly into a pasture sod consisting mainly
of Pensacola bahiagrass and white clover. Sixteen different herbicide
treatments were applied to the sod in an effort to kill and retard the
growth of sod. None of the treatments gave complete kill of sod or com-
pletely retarded sod growth so that it did not compete with the corn. The
most effective herbicide treatments included dalapon at rates of 4 to 8
pounds per acre applied 3 weeks before planting corn in mixture with 1
pound per acre 2,4-D or 2 pounds per acre atrazine, atrazine at 6 pounds
per acre 3 weeks before planting or at planting, and 2 pounds per acre
atrazine in mixture with 1 pound per acre paraquat applied at planting.
The low corn yields (40 bushels top) are apparently due more to drought
conditions than to competition from sod.

Hatch Project 1286 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder,
0. C. Ruelke, and K. D. Butson"

The "Critical Period" when the light environment over Florida 200
corn plants must be favorable for maximum development of number of
ears per plant was found to correspond to the 10 or 11 day silking period
when the entire plant population was considered. The individual plants
began absorbing ears from about 3 days before the silks emerged until

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

about 8 days after silks emerged under unfavorable light conditions. The
increased shading of lower plant parts as plant populations increase re-
sults in greater abortion of ears and a lower grain yield per plant. This
is a major reason for the low increase in yield normally experienced with
semiprolific corn when the plant population is increased.
The yield of ear corn per plant for Florida 200 corn grown at 9,000
and 18,000 plants per acre was .56 and .35 pound, respectively. Removal
of the lower five leaves nearest soil at tassel emergence reduced the yield
per plant at the 9,000 population .08 pound and at the 18,000 population
.02 pound.
Temperatures were measured in the microclimate of oats, rye, and bitter
blue lupine during the coldest winter periods. On January 31, 1966, the
coldest day of winter, the minimum temperature 1 inch above soil surface
was 15F in these crops while the official minimum in a 5-foot weather
shelter was 17F. Plant survival after freezing, plant height, and top and
root weights of blue lupine were increased by spraying with either uracil,
throuracil, or guanine. The most effective rate of these chemicals was 2
pounds per acre.

State Project 1302 S. H. West

The effects on nucleic acid metabolism of temperatures above and
below that required for optimum growth have been investigated. Growth
rate was found to be temperature dependent. The rate of root growth was
highest at 20oC and dropped markedly at 30C to a level slightly lower
than that at 15C. In contrast, cell production was highest at 25C and
did not drop at 30C. The effect of temperature on the rate of cell produc-
tion was not parallel with the rate of cell expansion. The effect of tempera-
ture on total ribonucleic acid content in the dividing cells was not correlated
with growth rate. This suggests that growth rate was not necessarily de-
termined by ribonucleic acid content. Temperature of 10C decreased cell
The nucleic acid fractions of the plants grown at various temperatures
were isolated on methylated albumin columns. Only soluble ribonucleic acid
and ribosomal ribonucleic acid in the dividing cells responded to tempera-
ture treatments. The ratio between ribosomal RNA and soluable RNA in-
creased with an increase in temperature from 5 to 20C and decreased
with an increase in temperature from 20 to 25C. A close correlation
between temperature, growth rate, mitotic cycle time, and the ratio of
ribosomal RNA to soluble RNA was found in dividing cells. It was also
observed that there was an increase in soluble RNA and a decrease in
ribosomal RNA when cells shifted from division to elongation. It is
significant that none of the fractions of nucleic acids in elongating cells
were affected by the temperature treatments. The conclusion can thus
be made that the growth response of many of our forage plants to low
and high temperatures may be a result of the effect of temperature on RNA
metabolism and protein synthesis regulation.

"Cooperative with Environmental Data Service, ESSA, U. S. Department of Commerce.

Annual Report, 1966 63


Research was conducted on 41 projects. New projects included studies on
3- versus 12-month breeding seasons for beef cattle carcass characteristics
of Brahman, Angus, Charolais, and their crosses, selection for maternal
ability in beef cattle, and vital statistics of beef sires used in artificial in-
Grants-in-aid totaling approximately $165,000 were obtained from vari-
ous foundations, commercial companies, the USDA, and the National In-
stitute of Health, U. S. Public Health Service for use in research studies.
These funds have made it possible to expand many of the studies underway.
The department has continued to enlarge its cooperation with other de-
partments and branch stations on nutrition, breeding, physiology, genetics,
and meats studies. The Meats Laboratory slaughtered 681 cattle, 332 hogs,
and 52 sheep for carcass studies and evaluation. The analytical group at
the Nutrition Laboratory took in 2108 samples from 25 individuals and
branch stations during the past year and made 4108 analyses for 25 dif-
ferent constituents.


State Project 627 M. Koger

Different pasture programs are being evaluated by grazing cows and
calves which are utilized also in a cattle breeding study. The project is
now in its third phase where three pasture programs are being evaluated.
Five years' data from the previous study have been summarized in prep-
aration for publication as a station bulletin. Five pasture programs were
compared: (1) An all-grass program fertilized at the rate of 450 pounds
of 0-10-20 plus 180 pounds of nitrogen annually per acre. The remaining
programs were clover-grass pastures fertilized at varying rates: (2) 300
pounds of 0-10-20, (3) 500 pounds of 0-10-20, (4) 700 pounds of 0-10-20,
and (5) 900 pounds of 0-10-20 on irrigated pasture. The average produc-
tion per cow was 523, 539, 527, 530, and 542 pounds; and the production
per acre 383, 396, 374, 385, and 371 pounds, respectively, for the five pro-
The breeding systems being compared include: (1) grading to Angus
and Hereford, (2) crisscrossing Angus and Hereford, (3) crisscrossing
Angus and Brahman, and (4) crisscrossing Hereford and Santa Gertrudis.
The 5-year average production performance for the four respective breed-
ing systems was 88, 94, 84, and 88% for weaning rate; 511, 423, 512,
and 539 pounds for weaning weight of calves; 451, 493, 428, and 476 pounds
for production per cow; and 449, 493, 438, and 446 pounds for production
per 1000 pounds of cow. Weight of cows was taken at weaning time. Blood
composition in the various breed groups is not yet completely stabilized;
thus, the results for breeding systems are preliminary. The breeding systems
are being continued and will be evaluated further.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineering,
Agronomy, and Soils departments for other phases of this cooperative

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 629 (S-10) M. Koger, W. C. Burns, A. C. Warnick, and
A. Z. Palmer
This project is cooperative between the ARS, USDA, and the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station. The project is located at Brooksville.

State Project 717 J. F. Hentges, Jr. and M. Koger
Relative performance data which had been compiled from 1952 through
1965 on registered Angus, Brahman, and Hereford breeding herds under
similar environmental conditions in North Central Florida were summarized
and statistically analyzed. Differences among performance traits of econom-
ic significance were observed among the breeds, especially between
representatives of the Bos taurus and Bos indices species. A publication
on the results of this study has been submitted. This project is closed with
this report.

Hatch Project 738 G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace, and T. J. Cunha
Semi-purified and corn-soybean type diets were formulated to study
the influence of dietary ingredients and weaning age on the vitamin D re-
quirement of pigs. With the semi-purified diet all pigs weaned at one week
of age died; three of the eight pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age died, and the
remaining pigs gained at the rate of only 0.04 pounds daily. Three deaths
were recorded in the group weaned at 1 week and fed the corn-soybean
ration, whereas with those pigs weaned at 2 weeks no death losses occurred.
The daily gain of the surviving pigs on this dietary treatment was 0.54
pounds. The pigs weaned at either 1 or 2 weeks of age gained at approxi-
mately the same rate. The large death loss precludes an evaluation of
the influence of diet composition and weaning age on the vitamin D re-
quirement. Another study was initiated to formulate a nitrogen-free diet
which would be consumed by early weaned pigs. By use of the depletion-
repletion technique, amino acid requirements could then be studied. Ap-
proximately 3 weeks were required for all pigs to exhibit a loss of body
weight. After a 2-week repletion period in which an isolated soybean pro-
tein served as the source of nitrogen, only 30% of the pigs showed an in-
crease in weight. Future studies will be concerned with the use of a pro-
tein which is more biologically available during the repletion period.

Hatch Project 755 C. B. Ammerman, P. E. Loggins, L. R. Arrington,
G. K. Davis, T. J. Cunha, and R. Hendrickson'
Dried citrus pulp was used as the absorbent material for the droppings
of broiler chicks and the digestibility of the nutrients in the resulting lit-
ter was determined with lambs. Both the nutrient digestibility and com-
'Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred.

Annual Report, 1966

position of the poultry litter were compared with that of the citrus pulp.
On a percent composition basis, nitrogen and ash of the combined droppings
and citrus pulp were greater than in the original pulp. When compared
with the citrus pulp diet, the poultry litter diet had a higher (P<0.01) ap-
parent digestion coefficient for crude protein and a lower (P<0.05) digesti-
bility of ether extract. Other nutrients were similar in digestibility for the
two diets. The results suggest that dried citrus pulp and perhaps certain
other feeds can be used as poultry litter and subsequently fed to ruminants.
Three samples of dried citrus pulp, one sample of citrus meal, and one
sample each of light and dark colored citrus meal pellets were fed as 72.5%
of the total ration to wethers in a conventional digestibility trial. Approxi-
mately 33% of the total protein was supplied by the citrus pulp or citrus
meal. The average digestibility of protein in the total rations varied from
84.1% for one of the citrus pulps to 56.6%, for the dark color citrus meal
pellets. The digestibility of energy varied from 82.4 to 64.9% for the same
samples. In a second experiment samples of citrus pulp dried at stack
temperatures of 2200, 2400, and 260 F were fed as 70% of the total ra-
tion to lambs. Average coefficients of digestibility for protein were 62.7,
50.0, 50.3 and for energy were 81.0, 74.1, 76.9 for the respective drying


State Project 768 L. R. Arrington, C. B. Ammerman,
and G. K. Davis

Two feeding trials were conducted with 4-week-old Dutch rabbits to
determine the effect of the enzyme diastase upon mucoid enteritis and
growth. Animal diastase (0.5 gm per 100 gms feed) and malt diastase
(1 gm per 100 gms feed) were added to a commercial rabbit feed. Obser-
vations were made for incidence of enteritis, feed intake, weight gain, and
efficiency of feed utilization. No cases of mucoid enteritis were observed
in experimental or control animals. Diastase was not effective in improv-
ing weight gain or efficiency of feed utilization suggesting that the enzyme
is secreted by the rabbit at four weeks of age. Rabbits weaned at four
weeks of age gained weight satisfactorily but slightly less than those
remaining with the dam from 4 to 8 weeks of age.
In the slaughter of Californian rabbits, approximately 7% were found
without gall bladders. These rabbits appeared normal and were equal in
size to litter mates with gall bladders. The bile duct was present and ap-
parently the biliary system was functional even though the gall bladder
was absent.


State Project 805 R. L. Shirley, H. D. Wallace, A. C. Warnick,
J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. Z. Palmer, and P. E. Loggins

During the year many sheep in the experiment station herd developed
a type of muscle incoordination, and one died. A diagnosis of copper poison-
ing was made as resulting from a foot-bath containing copper. Serum
glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) enzyme activity was determined

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

in the blood serum of 28 of these sheep, half of them native and half
Rambouillet. The Rambouillet group averaged 512 (174 to 1180) units
of activity compared to 175 (126 to 225) units per ml of serum for the
native group. Three control sheep ranged from 81 to 105 units of enzyme
activity. The values for the Rambouillet breed are above normal and
indicate muscular or liver damage. The Rambouillet sheep had been more
exposed to the copper in the foot-bath.
SGOT activity was determined in the blood serum of 21 bulls, 58 steers,
and 11 cows and heifers, and average values for units of activity of 14735,
11537, and 9015 were obtained for the groups, respectively. Corre-
sponding values for serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) for the
three groups were 25-4, 25-13, and 25-5 units of activity, respectively.
Corresponding values for cholesterol in the blood of these three groups of
cattle were 228--57, 274-78, and 192-25. The heart of these groups of
cattle had 17-2, 16-2, and 17-2% phospholipids on the dry weight basis,
respectively. The extracted fat of the heart of the various groups had
Hanus iodine numbers of 5922, 58-20, and 43-21, respectively.

Hatch Project 809 A. C. Warnick and M. Koger
Braham, Hereford, and Brahman x Hereford (B x H) pregnant cows
were obtained from the Everglades Station to study feed intake, calf
gains, feed efficiency based on calf gains, and reproductive performance
after calving. The calves were weaned at 205 days of age. The average
daily gain and weaning weight of the calves were 1.75, 428; 1.54, 371; and
1.52, 369 pounds for the B x H, Hereford, and Brahman cows, respectively.
All cows received 10.5 pounds of concentrate daily, and the daily intake
of Coastal Bermudagrass hay was 21.1, 20.2, and 18.1 pounds for the
Hereford, B x H, and Brahman, respectively. The total pounds of feed
intake of the cow per pound of calf gain was 19.45, 21.15, and 22.44 for the
B x H, Brahman, and Hereford, respectively.
The percentage of cows showing estrus within 205 days postcalving was
88, 100, and 82 for the Brahman, Hereford, and B x H, respectively. The
average interval from calving to first estrus was 140, 84, and 120 days
for the above breed groups, respectively. The pregnancy rate of cows dur-
ing the 205 day lactation period was 75, 91 and 82% for the Brahman,
Hereford, and B x H, respectively.
The Brahman x Hereford crossbred cows produced calves with in-
creased weaning weight and were slightly more efficient in converting feed
to calf growth. This would indicate a definite heterosis effect on calf
gains and efficiency of feed utilization of the cow. The Herefords had
the highest reproduction performance, and the B x H cows were inter-
mediate between the two purebred breeds.

Hatch Project 938 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger, and T. J. Cunha
Seven Angus, six Brahman, and five Hereford 2-year-old heifers were
equalized among the following three groups: 90F (Hot), 45'F (Cold),
and outside prevailing temperatures (Control). The study at these temp-
eratures was made from February 4 to May 6 to determine effects on

Annual Report, 1966 67

reproduction, feed intake, gains, etc. Estrus was determined by a vasec-
tomized bull at 6-hour intervals and palpation of the ovaries was made
at weekly intervals.
There was a marked decrease in grass hay intake of heifers at 90F,
with daily intakes of 9.6, 12.2, and 13.9 pounds in the Hot, Cold, and Con-
trol groups, respectively. The average weight gain for the 63 days per
heifer was 17, 33 and 87 pounds in the Hot, Cold, and Control groups
respectively. Actually, three of the six heifers in the Hot room lost weight.
The heifers in the Cold room had rectal body temperatures of 101.6F,
compared to 102.3F, and 102.5'F for the Control and Hot groups, res-
pectively. The Brahman heifers maintained the lowest body temperatures,
compared to the Angus and Hereford, in all three groups.
There were more heifers showing estrus and a greater number of estrus
periods in the Control group with no difference between the Hot and Cold
groups. There was a similar number of corpora lutea detected by palpa-
tion in all groups indicating that the confinement of heifers in stanchions
in the Hot and Cold rooms may have interfered with detection of estrus.


Hatch Project 975 A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter
Short loin steaks from carcasses chilled for 48 to 72 hours were broiled
to an internal temperature of approximately 165F, cooled, and three 1/2
inch cores removed from each steak for Warner-Bratzler shear tenderness
evaluation. Steers providing the carcasses were from different breed groups
that had been fed similar rations in drylot for 168 days prior to slaughter
at approximately 14 months of age.
Of the eight breed groups (68 steers) studied in 1965, the most tender
group was progeny of Angus sires x (Angus x Hereford) cows, the least
tender was progeny of Angus sires x (Brahman x Angus) cows. Other
groups were similar in tenderness.
In 1966, differences among the eight groups (68 steers) were small.
The effects of breeds, sires within breed, marbling and carcass grade on
tenderness will be determined more precisely using data collected over a
4 or 5 year period; such an analysis will be made when sufficient data are


Hatch Project 977 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs, M. Koger,
W. K. McPherson,2 T. C. Skinner,' and S. J. Folks'

An intensive swine production program during the past six years has
demonstrated the feasibility of year around multiple farrowing under Flor-
ida conditions. Results have clearly shown that the winter and early spring
periods are best for optimum sow production, while there is a tendency
for reduced conception rate and reduced weaned litter weights to occur
during the summer months. Heat stress on the sow appears to be respon-
sible for reduced performance. However even during the hot summer
period, with no artificial cooling procedures used, sows maintained a rea-

2Agricultural Economics Department.
3Agricultural Engineering Department.
'Florida Power Corporation.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

sonably good level of fertility (approximately 75% conception rate) and
weaned over nine pigs per litter. During this past year the value of in-
creased feed intake for sows during the last 4 weeks of gestation has been
studied. Results to date suggest some improvement in birth weights of
pigs, but overall survivability and weaning weights have not been signifi-
cantly improved. Copper sulfate has been tested as an ingredient in the
sow diet at farrowing time for the purpose of preventing and controlling
scours in the suckling pig. Results were negative. The effect of supple-
menting the sow lactation diet with ferrous fumarate as a prophylaxis
for baby pig anemia was studied. Adequate hemoglobin levels were not
maintained in suckling pigs when they were denied access to the sow feed
and given limited access to the feces of ferrous fumarate-supplemented
sows. Results indicate that the concentration of iron in the milk of the
sows was not effectively increased. However the use of a creep feeding
mixture containing a high level of iron fumarate proved to be an effective
practical method of preventing baby pig anemia.

State Project 995 M. Koger and A. C. Warnick
Since 1958, one half of the replacement heifers at the Beef Research
Unit has been bred to calve first at 2 years of age, while the other half was
bred to calve first at 3 years of age. Until 1965, calves from the 2-year-old
heifers were vealed at the beginning of the breeding season on March 1.
Beginning in 1965, calves were left on the 2-year-old heifers until the usual
weaning time in September.
When calves from the 2-year-old heifers were vealed on March 1, calv-
ing first at 2 years of age had no significant effect on subsequent per-
formance. The average lifetime calving rate to date, excluding the record
from 2-year-old heifers, has been 92% for heifers bred to calve first
at 2 years of age and 91% for those bred to calve first at 3 years of
age. Average weaning weight of calves for the two groups was 502 and
504 pounds, respectively.
Calves have not been left on 2-year-old heifers to normal weaning age
for enough years yet to evaluate the program. In 1965 the 2-year-old
heifers weaned a 79% calf crop at an average weight of 424 pounds
as compared with a weaning rate of 88% and weaning weight of 505
pounds for all older cows.

State Project 999 G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace
The comparative feeding value of raw soybeans, heated soybeans, and
soybean meal was studied with pigs weighing approximately 10, 30, and
120 pounds. In an attempt to alleviate the growth inhibition which occurs
when raw soybeans are fed to young swine, additional dietary treatments
were formed by supplementing the raw soybeans with either 0.5 percent
trypsin or methionine. The daily gain data indicated that raw soybeans
with or without supplemental trypsin or methionine were unsatisfactory
for 10 and 30 pound pigs, whereas satisfactory and similar gains were
obtained for all dietary treatments with the heavier weight pigs. The feed
efficiency data tended to parallel that obtained with daily gain. The ap-

Annual Report, 1966

parent digestibility of ether extract was highest in all instances for the
group given raw soybeans supplemented with methionine. The protein
digestibility for the three weight groups was lowered when the supple-
mental protein consisted of either heated soybeans or raw soybeans with or
without supplemental trypsin or methionine. No consistent trend was found
with dry matter digestibility with respect to either weight of pig or dietary
treatment. Blood glucose generally decreased with increased pig weight,
and showed only limited correlation with other criteria. With the 10-pound
pig the level of blood urea nitrogen for the groups given raw soybeans was
about 30% higher than those fed either soybean meal or heated soy-
beans. With the heaviest weight pigs (120 pounds) blood urea was similar
for all treatment groups. These data would indicate that neither trypsin
nor methionine was effective in alleviating the growth-inhibitory effect of
raw soybeans and that raw soybeans are best utilized by pigs weighing in
excess of 100 pounds.

State Project 1002 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs
Three experiments involving early weaned pigs demonstrated that
copper sulfate was as effective for the promotion of gain and somewhat
more effective for the improvement of feed conversion than currently used
commercial feed additives. On the basis of these and previous tests at this
station, it appears that 250 ppm of copper fed as CuSO4 is an excellent
feed additive for young pigs fed for a relatively short period of from 6
to 10 weeks. Two growing-finishing experiments were conducted to deter-
mine the influence of 250 ppm copper from copper sulfate on the feedlot
performance and carcass characteristics of pigs, and to compare the
copper effect under the two typical commercial feeding situations com-
monly used-namely, concrete confinement and dirt lots with pasture. The
copper induced more rapid gains under both concrete and pasture feed-
ing. In concrete confinement, the amount of feed required per unit of gain
was reduced with copper supplementation, whereas the reverse was true
under pasture feeding. The over-all effect of environment showed that
the confined pigs gained faster, more efficiently, and yielded fatter car-
casses. The second experiment involved two main objectives: first, to
study the relative effectiveness of copper with different sources of sup-
plementary protein (soybean meal and fishmeal) ; and second, to observe
the effect of copper withdrawal on pig performance. Copper supplementa-
tion did not improve either weight gain or feed conversion with either
of the two types of diets. The withdrawal of copper appeared to have no
pronounced effect on gains of pigs, but in the case of the soybean meal
diet, appeared to markedly depress feed utilization. Terminal hemoglobin
values were very similar and not affected by copper feeding. The statisti-
cally significant differences in this experiment were all related to either
sex of the pigs or protein source. An experiment in which pigs were given
an opportunity to freely select a dietary copper level revealed that they
chose to eat approximately 175 ppm of copper in the feed.

State Project 1003 M. Koger and F. S. Baker
This project is cooperative between the Department of Animal Science,
North Florida Experiment Station, and the Raiford State Prison Farm.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Cattle of different inherent sizes are being developed through selec-
tion. Data on the relationship of inherent size to adaptability in Florida
will not be available until more distinct differences in size have developed.
In 1965 the average weaning weight of calves was 467 pounds with a
pregnancy rate of 78%.
(See also Project 1003, North Florida Station.)


Hatch Project 1044 J. P. Feaster

Radiation has been shown previously to cause an increase in the rate
of transfer or radioactive iron across the placenta of the pregnant rat
to its fetuses. A study of the effect of radiation on mammary transfer
of iron-59 in rats showed that pregnant rats irradiated during pregnancy
or immediately post-partum transferred no more radioiron to the young
via the milk than did non-irradiated females.
Preparations are being made to begin a study of the effect of low-
level pesticide intake on mineral metabolism in the pregnant animal and
its fetuses.


Hatch Project 1045 L. R. Arrington, R. L. Shirley,
J. P. Feaster, and C. B. Ammerman
Iodine toxicity studies were continued with rats and extended to in-
clude poultry. Chelated iodine (EDDI) at a dietary level of 2000 ppm
caused prolonged and incomplete parturition, lactation failure, and high
mortality of the young equal to that caused by KI or KIO.. Dietary iodine
(300 to 5000 ppm) as KI in a practical diet for laying hens resulted in
decreased egg production which ceased at the higher level. Hens which
ceased production did not molt and returned to normal production in 10
days after removal from iodine. Fertility of eggs was not affected, but
decreased hatchability, high embryonic mortality, and delayed hatching
Growth and enzyme activity (succinoxidase and isocitric dehydro-
genase) in the heart was studied in rats fed purified diets with and with-
out vitamin E (3 mg per rat per day) and selenium (1 and 5 ppm).
Weight gain of rats fed 5 ppm of selenium was one-half that of rats fed
no selenium, but enzyme activity was not affected by dietary treatments.
Sodium sulfate (2% of diet) provided to rats consuming diets with 5 ppm
selenium prevented the decreased growth caused by selenium but did not
affect succinoxidase activity.
A study was made with 80 rats of the effect of dietary fat level upon
concentration of copper in the liver. Diets contained 17% protein and
either 0.16 or 21.5% fat and 2.5 or 12.0 ppm copper. Dietary fat level had
no significant effect upon concentration of copper in the liver.

Annual Report, 1966

Hatch Project 1063 P. E. Loggins, M. Koger,
(Contributing to Regional Project S-29) A. C. Warnick, and T. J. Cunha
The 1966 lambs are the fourth crop produced from the experimental
design to study the effect of geographical location on the reproductive
performance of sheep. Thirty-seven Rambouillet ewes of Alabama, Florida,
and Texas origin plus 54 Florida Native ewes were exposed to rams of
the same breeding. Vasectomized rams were used from April 15 to Sep-
tember 15, 1965, to determine earliness of estrus and breeding dates. In-
tact rams were placed with the flocks beginning July 1 for a 45-day
breeding season. All Rambouillet and Florida Native ewes were found to
be in anestrus prior to July 1. These data further substantiate the find-
ing that very few ewes show estrus prior to July 1.
The average dates of first estrus in the breeding ewes were as fol-
lows: Alabama Rambouillets, July 11; Florida Rambouillets, July 18;
Texas Rambouillets, July 19; and Florida Natives, July 23. The lamb-
ing percentages for the 1966 lamp crop were as follows: Alabama Ram-
bouillets, 140%; Florida Rambouillets, 93% ; Texas Rambouillets, 88%;
and Florida Native, 124% with average lambing dates of December 1,
12, 14, and 17, respectively. The number of estrus periods required be-
fore conception in all breed groups was low.
The lambs were weaned on February 18 and 25, 1966, at an average
age of 70 days. The lambs received creep feed and were continued on a
full feeding program following weaning until market date on May 20,
1966. The Alabama Rambouillet lambs averaged 67 pounds, Florida
Rambouillets 68 pounds, Texas Rambouillets 66 pounds, and Florida Na-
tives 65 pounds with an average live slaughter grade of top good for all
groups. Ninety-eight percent of the 1966 lambs born were raised to wean-
ing date. This project is terminated with this report.

Hatch Project 1079 C. B. Ammerman, J. E. Moore, L. R. Arrington,
R. L. Shirley, and J. P. Feaster
An In vitro rumen fermentation technique was used to determine the
effect of phosphorus in monocalicum orthophosphate, feed grade dicalcium
phosphate, defluorinated phosphate, and soft phosphate upon the cellulose
digestion by rumen microorganisms. After 24 hours of fermentation, at
the 3 mg level of added phosphorus per fermentation tube, the percent
cellulose digestion for the phosphates as listed above was 50.8, 32.0, 37.0,
and 9.2, respectively. Cellulose digestion with no added phosphorus was
9.0%. The latter three phosphates were evaluated in vivo with steers
using a balance technique. Apparent absorption of phosphorus was
similar for the defluorinated and dicalcium phosphate and greater than
that for soft phosphate.
Four feed grade phosphates were offered free choice to cattle and
sheep to measure voluntary intake and thus determine relative palatibility.
Each of the phosphates was consumed by cattle, but considerable vari-
ability in consumption was observed indicating no specific preference.
When all trials were combined, however, the results indicated an order
of preference of dicalcium phosphate, defluorinated phosphate, soft phos-
phate, and bone meal. Sheep consumed very little of any of the phosphates,
the amounts being insignificant for accurate measurement.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 1117 J. E. Moore, R. L. Shirley,
C. B. Ammerman and L. R. Arrington
Eight rumen fistulated steers were used in a Latin square design to
evaluate feeding and sampling techniques to be used for studies on forage
utilization. There were no differences in rumen fluid composition between
steers fed hay ad libitum and those fed restricted hay intake levels. Hay
intake and rumen composition were the same when rumen samples were
taken by either an immersible lift-type pump or a conventional suction
pump. Steers that showed a transient, one-day, depression in intake had
high rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations.
Four rumen fistulated steers were fed pangola hay ad libitum and four
levels of supplement in a Latin square design. Hay intake was increased
by increasing supplement from 0 to 2, 4 or 8 gm per kg body weight per
day. Increasing levels of supplement increased ruminal cellulose diges-
tion rates, total volatile fatty acid, and ammonia concentration but de-
creased rumen pH, acetate: propionate ratios and carbon dioxide concentra-

State Project 1132 J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. Z. Palmer,
and J. E. Moore
The efficiency of utilization and growth response from three different
feeding systems were compared for the development of stocker steer
calves. Lots of 14 calves each were offered ad libitum either Coastal
bermudagrass hay of average quality, corn silage or a low cost bulky
concentrate mixture which consisted of dried citrus pulp, corn meal, cane
molasses, dehydrated alfalfa meal, urea, defluorinated phosphate, and
trace mineralized salt. Each lot also had free access to standard cane
molasses. The lots offered hay and silage were hand-fed daily 4 pounds
of a forage supplement containing 23% crude protein. Average daily
gains during the 112-day trial were 1.7 pound (concentrate mixture), 1.6
pound (silage), and 1.0 pound (hay). An average daily air-dry feed in-
take was 15.8 pound (silage), 14.7 pound (hay), and 13.2 pound (con-
centrate mixture).

Hatch Project 1136 J. R. Crockett, M. Koger,
J. P. Feaster, and A. C. Warnick
Earlier findings have led this project into the area of embryology and
skeletal development. Matings were made to produce fetuses of known
genotype (snorter, carrier, and normal). Fetuses were collected at 60
or 90 days, post-conception, by Caesarean section. Measurements of long
bones have been made by the use of radiography. As shown in the ac-
companying table of 90-day measurements, the dwarf gene is exhibiting
itself at this time in some of the bone growths. If the age at which the
gene shows itself can be bracketed, then biochemical analyses can be
made in an attempt to find the biochemical effect of the dwarf gene.

Annual Report, 1966

Meta- Meta-
Genotype of Fetus carpal Radius Humerus tarsal Tibia Femur
Snorter (3) .65 .97 1.00 .75 1.15 1.01
Assumed snorter (6) .58 .90 .91 .67 1.03 .94
Carrier (7) .78 1.10 1.05 .96 1.23 1.10
Assumed carrier (4) .77 1.12 1.07 .88 1.27 1.14
Non-carrier (6) .82 1.13 1.07 .94 1.29 1.16


State Project 1155 J. F. Hentges, Jr., J. P. Feaster,
and Fred R. Neal

Observations of several thousand steers in commercial and Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station feedlots in Florida have revealed that
the species of cattle has a definite influence on susceptibility to feedlot
founder. Cattle with a predominance of Brahman ancestry apparently
are more susceptible to digestive disturbances when restricted to a high-
concentrate diet. The absorption of histamine from the ruminoreticulum
or the release of histamine from gastrointestinal tract tissues was im-
plicated as the direct cause of capillary rupture and other symptoms of
the digestive disorder in feedlot steers termed "founder". This project
is closed with this report.


State Project 1156 R. L. Shirley, Marvin Koger, H. L. Chapman, Jr.,
R. W. Kidder, P. E. Loggins, and T. J. Cunha

Forty-eight steers on pasture were fed approximately 8 pounds of
concentrate feed per day, divided equally into six groups and supple-
mented with 0, 20 I.U. d-a-tocopherol per day orally, 50 I.U. d-a-toco-
pherol per day orally, 50 I.U. dl-a-tocopherol per day orally, 50 I.U.
d-a-tocopherol per day by intramuscular injection, and 50 I.U. dl-a-toco-
pherol per day by injection. After 101 days on trial the steers were
slaughtered and selenium determined in the heart ventricle. Average values
for the treatment groups were 0.11, 0.12, 0.11, 0.09, 0.11, and 0.11 ppm of Se
on the fresh weight basis, respectively. Vitamin E administration of any
of these isomeric forms, levels, and methods had no significant effect on
the concentration of selenium in the heart.


Hatch Project 1204 J. W. Carpenter and A. Z. Palmer
Bull, steer, and heifer calves were selected at weaning and fed simi-
larly until slaughter; half of each group was slaughtered at 12 months
and the other half at 15 months of age. Average daily gain and feed
efficiency data were obtained. Dressing percentage and hide yields was

5In cooperation with the Everglades Experiment Station.

74 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

determined. Classification and grade data were obtained on an intact side
of each chilled carcass as well as the round, loin, rib, and chuck of the
other side.
A comparison among the three groups in palatability of steaks and
roasts was made by a trained laboratory panel and is presently being
conducted with a relatively large selected consumer panel. This study is
not complete and data have not been analyzed.
A second study involved Santa Gertrudis and British type bulls, heifers,
and steers that were fed similar rations and slaughtered at 15 months
of age. Efficiency of production data were obtained but the primary pur-
pose of this study was to determine whether or not the classification of
carcasses and wholesale cuts as either "beef" or "bull" was influenced
by breed.

Hatch Project 1205 A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter
The degree of ossification of the sacral, lumbar, and thoracic vertebra
and pearls or buttons of steers, bulls, and cows was studied relative to
chronological age as determined by teeth development and wear. The
purpose of this study was to gain experience in subjectively determin-
ing degree of ossification and animal age by teeth development; written
definitions of the various degrees of carcass maturity were developed
further and colored photographs were taken of carcasses of all degrees
of maturity in an effort to standardize subjective methods that will be
used in the main course of this study. Objective research methods were
tried out and tested for repeatability by laboratory technicians in pre-
paration for the first group of cattle to be slaughtered for use in this
Steer and heifer calves of a single breed and sired by one bull were
dropped in November and December of 1965 and are allocated to this

State Project 1211 R. L. Shirley, J. F. Easley, C. J. Wilcox7,
G. B. Killinger,8 and H. L. Chapman, Jr.'
Molybdenum is a component of nitrate reductase and copper func-
tions in nitrate reductase activity. Molybdenum toxicity is alleviated
by copper supplementation and it was considered that nitrate toxicity
may be a part of molybdenosis. Gahi millet was raised during 1965
with high levels of nitrogen fertilization with and without added molyb-
denum and copper. Levels of molybdenum in the dry forage ranging from
0.6 to 27 ppm had no consistent effect on the rate of nitrate reduction
in the rumen of fistulated steers, indicating that microorganisms in the
rumen of steers have an effective nitrate reducing system with as little
as 0.6 ppm molybdenum. The addition of copper in the fertilizer did
not result in a significant increase in the copper content of the millet
and no response to this treatment was observed in regard to nitrate
reduction and methemoglobin and ammonia end-products.

I6n cooperation with the Everglades Experiment Station.
7Department of Dairy Science.
8Department of Agronomy.
*Range Cattle Station.

Annual Report, 1966


State Project 1238 J. F. Hentges, Jr. and J. E. Moore
Dietary ingredients which have been tested for control of voluntary
intake of forage supplements by cattle are the following: sodium chloride,
stabilized animal fat, fish oil, citrus peel oil, acetic acid, defluorinated
phosphate, and bentonite. All were tested in supplements offered ad libitum
to individually-fed yearling or older cattle. Wide variations among in-
dividual animals in voluntary feed and water consumption have been
observed with all intake regulators. Rumen fermentation studies with
fistulated steers have produced data on in vivo cellulose digestion and molar
proportions of volatile fatty acids, total volatile fatty acid concentra-
tion, pH, ammonia nitrogen, and carbon dioxide concentration in ru-
minoreticulum fluid. Statistical analysis of the data will be completed
before conclusions are drawn from these studies.


State Project 1245 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger,
and W. C. Burns

This project was initiated March 15, 1965, at the West Central Florida
Experiment Station at Brooksville, with the Brahman and Santa Ger-
trudis herds. Forty-seven Brahman and 45 Santa Gertrudis females of
breeding age were divided into two groups. One group was bred dur-
ing a 3-month period from March 15 to June 15, and the others exposed
on a year around basis. Two bulls in each breed were used.
At the regular weaning time, August 23, 1965, 52% of the Brahman
and 73% of the Santa Gertrudis females were pregnant in the 3-month
group. However, 71% of the Brahman and 100% of the Santa Gertrudis
were pregnant in the year-around breeding group. After one year all
but one of the 24 Brahman cows in the year-around breeding group be-
came pregnant. At each comparison more of the Santa Gertrudis cows
were pregnant than the Brahman. There may be advantage in extend-
ing the breeding season for these breeds to increase the pregnancy per-
In May 1966 there was approximately the same percentage of cows
with a corpus luteum that were not pregnant in the two length-of-breeding-
season groups and the two breeds.

State Project 1263 M. Koger, J. R. Crockett
and F. Montsdeoca"

This project was started this past year. The foundation cattle pur-
chased from the different Indian owners included: 161 cows born in 1959
or before, 97 heifers born in 1962 and bred to calve the first year, and
54 heifer yearlings born in 1963. From these cattle 215 calves were
weaned in 1965 averaging 499 pounds at an average age of 298 days.
Pregnancy testing for the 1966 calf crop indicated that the older
cows born in 1959 or before (6 years and over) had a conception rate of
89 percent; 1962 cows, 91%; and the 1963 cows, 98%.
"'Seminole Indian Agency.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Sand as an Ingredient in the Diet of Growing-finishing Swine.-A
feeding experiment, involving 92 pigs which averaged 97 pounds initially,
was conducted to determine the effect of diluting a typical corn-soybean
meal diet with 5, 10, and 20% of white builders' sand. Rate of gain
was adversely influenced by the inclusion of sand, but the effect was not
a true linear expression relative to sand level. Pigs fed 5% sand did
not perform as well as pigs fed 10% sand. Possible explanations for this
observation are presented. In no case was the gain per unit of non-sand
feed improved by the inclusion of sand. With the exception of the 5%
level of sand, it appeared that sand stimulated feed intake, suggesting
that the pigs were attempting to compensate for the reduced energy
intake by greater consumption. Limited carcass measurements revealed
no statistically significant effects of the dietary sand. Pigs consumed
the feed mixtures readily, with no apparent ill effects, and feed wastage
was not a problem at the levels of sand studied. (H. D. Wallace)

A study of Corn Distillers' Dried Soluables and Distillers' dried Grains
with Solubles Added as Sources of Unidentified Nutritional Factors for'
the Pig.-A feeding experiment, involving 90 pigs, was conducted to com-
pare dried corn distillers' solubles and dried distillers' grains with
solubles as sources of unidentified growth factors for the pig. Both
feed products, when added at a level of 5% to the diet, reduced rate of
gain during the early growth period from 3 to 11 weeks of age. During
the finishing period neither product significantly affected rate of effi-
ciency of gain. A second objective of the experiment was to study
possible nutritional carry-over effects in pigs resulting from the con-
tinuous feeding of dried corn distillers' solubles to the sows. The re-
sults indicated that pigs from supplemented and non-supplemented sows
performed at about the same level during the growing-finishing period. A
second feeding experiment, involving 100 early weaned pigs, was con-
ducted to study (a) the possible nutritional carry-over effects in pigs
as influenced by sow gestation diet and (b) to study the influence on
performance of including 5% dried distillers' grains with solubles in
the pigs' diet. No evidence was obtained to suggest that including dis-
tillers' dried solubles in the sow diet would provide essential unidentified
carry-over nutritional factors for the young growing pig. Including 5%
of dried distillers' grains with solubles in the diet significantly depressed
rate of gain of pigs during the period from 3 to 11 weeks of age. (H. D.

The Influence of 'Dietary Protein Level and Amino Acid Supplementa-
tion on Feedlot Performance and Carcasses of Swine.-One hundred weaned
pigs were divided into four similar groups and fed a basal corn-soy-
bean meal mixture with the following treatment variations relative to
protein level: (a) 19-17% sequence, (b) 17-15% sequence, (c) 13-11%
sequence, and (d) 13-11% sequence with sufficient lysine, methionine, and
tryptophan added to equal levels provided in treatment (b). In terms
of rate of gain, feed conversion, and carcass leanness, treatments (a)
and (b) produced comparable results. Treatment (c) was inferior in
all respects. The addition of the amino acids in treatment (d) improved
the diet so that feed conversion and carcass leanness were comparable
to those observed with the higher protein levels. Rate of gain was im-
proved over treatment (c) but inferior to gains observed on the treat-
ments (a) and (b). (H. D. Wallace)

Annual Report, 1966

Influence of Dietary Fat on Liver Fatty Acids in Swine and Swine
Fetuses.-As part of an investigation to learn whether fat in the diet of
the pregnant animal may influence the development of blood-vascular
disorders in the young, gilts were bred and maintained for 85 days of
pregnancy on diets containing corn oil, a highly unsaturated fat, or coco-
nut oil, a highly saturated fat, at the level of 15%. Those gilts fed 15%
corn oil showed increased liver concentrations of linoleic acid and de-
creased concentrations of myristic, palmitic, and arachidonic acids com-
pared with concentrations of these acids found in livers of pigs fed a
diet containing 5% corn oil. Feeding coconut oil, in which lauric, myristic,
and palmitic acids predominate, resulted in increased liver concentra-
tions of these three acids. In livers of 85-day fetuses from sows fed
15% corn oil, increases were noted in concentrations of stearic, linoleic,
and linolenic acids over those in livers from fetuses of sows fed 5%
corn oil, with decreases in palmitoleic and oleic acids. Livers from fetuses
of 15% coconut oil sows showed increased linoleic and decreased oleic
acid concentrations. Fetal synthesis of linolenic acid is indicated by the
finding of appreciable amounts of this acid, virtually absent in the
diet and in maternal livers, in fetal livers. These findings prove that
fetal as well as maternal fatty acid patterns are affected by maternal
dietary fat intake; therefore, maternal diet could conceivably be a fac-
tor in the development of blood-vascular disorders frequently observed
in young animals and humans. (J. P. Feaster)

Influence of Dietary Fat on Absorption and Deposition of C14-labeled
Palmitic Acid in Swine.-To study the effect of degree of saturation and
level of dietary fat on the metabolism of palmitic acid, carboxyl-labeled
C14-palmitic acid was administered orally to pregnant sows maintained
for 85 days on either corn oil (a highly unsaturated fat) at 5% or 15%
of the diet, or coconut oil (a highly saturated fat) at 15% of the diet.
Following administration of labeled palmitate, sows were placed under
general anesthesia and certain maternal samples and two whole fetuses
taken at 2, 4, and 6 hours after dosing. Livers of the pregnant sows
fed the high (15%) corn oil or coconut oil diet contained higher con-
centrations of the administered C14-labeled palmitic acid than did livers
of control diet (5% corn oil) sows. Livers from 85-day fetuses of the
sows fed 15% corn oil also showed significant increases in labeled pal-
mitic acid, over livers of control sow fetuses. These higher levels are
believed to be due to increased absorption of palmitic acid resulting from
the large amounts of oleic and linoleic acids present in the two high-
fat diets. Levels of the two phospholipids, lecithin and cephalin, in
maternal and fetal livers were not affected by level or degree of satura-
tion of dietary fat, although patterns of the component fatty acids were
altered. It was also learned that fetal livers contain lecithin and cephalin,
respectively, at concentrations 2/3 and 3/4 as high as those in maternal
livers. (J. P. Feaster)

Urinary Calculi Observations.-During the year, 280 head of feedlot
cattle were observed for calculi in their bladders when slaughtered, and
29 were found to have calculi present. A group of 64 steers supple-
mented for 140 days with various MgO (2%), sodium bicarbonate (3%),
and fat (5%) supplements were observed. Seven cattle had calculi
weighing less than 0.2 gram each and three had calculi weighing 1 to
2.5 grams present. The incidence of occurrence in the groups were:
MgO, 1; MgO plus fat, 2; MgO plus fat plus bicarbonate, 1; bicarbonate,
2; and bicarbonate plus fat, 4. The control, fat, and MgO plus bicar-

78 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

bonate groups had no steers with calculi. Another group of 75 2-year-
old steers of various Brahman-British crossbreeding that had been in
the feedlot 178 days on a cottonseed meal, corn meal, citrus pulp, alfalfa
leaf meal, and mineral ration was found slaughtered to have 19 with
calculi in their bladders that varied for 0.1 to 0.5 gram each. The ex-
tent of Brahman crossbreeding did not appear to be a factor on in-
cidence of calculi. In a study with 15 bulls, 15 heifers, and 15 steers in
the feedlot for 140 days, no calculi was found when the animals were
slaughtered. Twenty-four steers deprived of vitamin A for 140 days in
the feedlot and then supplemented with various levels of hay and vitamin
A for 56 days were all found to be free of calculi when slaughtered.
Seventy-two steers fed approximately 10 pounds of concentrate per day
on pasture and supplemented with treatments of 20 or 50 I.U. of vitamin
E as either d-or dl-a-tocopherol orally or by injection were slaughtered
after 140 days, and all were found to be free of calculi. (R. L. Shirley,
J. C. Outler, H. L. Chapman, Jr., W. G. Kirk, F. M. Peacock, Dan Beards-
ley, W. C. Burns, J. W. Carpenter, and A. Z. Palmer)
Evaluation of Electronically-Computed, Least-Cost Diets for Different
Classes and Breeds of Cattle.-The performance of steers, bulls, and heifers
of the Santa Gertrudis and Hereford breeds was studied from average
weights of about 500 to about 1,000 pounds. All were fed the same least-
cost diet formulated with the same ingredient and nutrient specifica-
tions by the aid of computers. Sex, breed, weight, and age were factors
which affected performance. A prediction made prior to the feedlot ex-
periment of the extent to which these factors would affect feedlot per-
formance was only slightly above the actual response. The feedlot phase
of this study was supervised by W. C. Burns, Jr. at the Brooksville Beef
Cattle Research Station. (J. F. Hentges, Jr.)
Effectiveness of Various Procedures in Reducing the Amount of Radio-
nuclides in the Human Dietary Chain.-The effect of diet on fecal excre-
tion rate of strontium-85 in sheep was confirmed using a single oral
dose. The oral dose appeared in the feces most rapidly when bermuda-
grass was fed, and slowest with alfalfa, with the purified diet being
intermediate. Total recovery was highest with alfalfa due to a higher
rate of reexcretion into the feces. Lambs were fed bermudagrass of vary-
ing stages of maturity and fecal excretion of dietary Cesium-137 was
measured. Cs-137 content of the grass declined but the percentage of
the Cs-137 intake that was excreted increased with increasing maturity but
there was no effect of maturity on voluntary intake. Lactating dairy
goats were fed bermudagrass ad libitum and 4 levels of concentrate and
mammary Cs-137 secretion was determined. Milk production was in-
creased by increasing concentrate from 0.4 to 1.6 kg daily while milk
Cs-137 concentration declined with increasing levels of concentrate. (J. E.
Moore and G. K. Davis, cooperating with B. G. Dunavant, College of Medi-

Annual Report, 1966


Research during the past year has followed along basically the same
lines as that pursued during the previous year. Four projects were contin-
ued and one new project, Hatch Project No. 1287, has been initiated. A
Honeywell recorder to be used with the gas chromatograph, 10 herbarium
cases, and a number of lesser items of equipment have been added in sup-
port of these projects.
Dr. Leland Shanor joined the staff in September as Chairman of the
Department. Dr. Carl Chapman, as Research Associate, and Mr. William
D'Arcy, as Herbarium Assistant, have been added to the staff of the Herba-
Grants from A.E.C. and N.I.H., and a contract with the Air Force are
providing substantial support for these activities.

Hatch Project 953 T. E. Humphreys and L. A. Garrard
The study of the uptake and metabolism of sugars by the corn scutel-
lum was continued. Sucrose synthesis occurs at a rapid rate when scutellum
slices are incubated in fructose. Some of the newly synthesized sucrose is
transported to a storage compartment within the cell and some leaks to
the cell exterior. As the fructose concentration is increased in the solution
surrounding the tissue there is a decrease in the amount of sucrose stored
and an increase in leakable sucrose, although the total amount synthesized
remains constant. It is concluded, therefore, that sucrose synthesis and su-
crose storage are independent processes. Calcium and manganese (but not
magnesium) strongly inhibit leakage of sucrose to the cell exterior but allow
storage to proceed. In addition, manganese appears to have a role in sucrose
synthesis and storage.

Hatch Project 1042 G. J. Fritz
The investigation of the process of oxygen fixation by plant tissues con-
tinues to be the major research effort of this research project. By oxygen
fixation is meant the incorporation of 02 into organic material by the direct
addition of molecular oxygen. Enzymes which catalyze oxygen fixation re-
actions are called oxygenases and hydroxylases. Studies of Or-fixation
require the use of the isotope oxygen-18, and isotopic analyses are carried
out with a mass spectrometer.
During the past year, studies were made of the day-to-day ability of
etiolated maize and soybean seedlings to carry on Os-fixation. It was found
that the rate of O2-fixation is very low when these seedlings first germinate,
increases to a maximum at the 4th day after germination, and then declines
to virtually zero 8 days after germination. Related studies of cumulative
Oa-fixation in etiolated maize and soybean seedlings, from germination to
death, show that the amount of 02 which is fixed levels off after about the
6th day after germination. Also it was found that some of the 0. which
is fixed into cell constituents appears in excreted carbon dioxide. Such stud-
ies are interesting in that they show that at least some of the products of
Os-fixation in vivo do not remain metabolically inert, but are respired.
Other studies in O2-fixation were concerned with the investigation of the
possible production in vivo of phenylalanine from tyrosine.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 1118 D. B. Ward
During the year a number of diverse genera were given intensive study.
An analysis of the Florida species of Fimbristylis (Cyperaceae) was com-
pleted and prepared for publication. Synopses of Rhexia (Melastomataceae)
and Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) were prepared. A careful study was giv-
en to the small genus Nyssa (Nyssaceae), and characters were found for a
satisfactory separation between the closely related and often confused N.
sylvatica (Black Gum) and N. biflora (Swamp Gum). Selected groups of
species in the large and intricate genera Physalis (Solanaceae) and Optntia
(Cactaceae) were worked out, although major problems remain before these
groups are fully understood.
Progress continued toward the completion of a checklist of the state's
vascular flora. Several difficult genera, perhaps the most complex being
Crataegos (Rosaceae), required exceptional effort, but are now believed to
reflect correctly the species present in the state.

Hatch Project 1191 D. S. Anthony
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the effect of high temperatures on a number of
gross indicators of physiological condition (number of secondary roots, num-
ber and weight of seeds and seed pods, stem elongation, fresh and dry
weight accumulation, etc.) has been determined. With this now well-defined
system, experiments attempting a modification by chemical means of the
effects of high temperature are being carried on. To date, only a 1% sucrose
addition has been effective in modifying some (but not all) of the gross
deleterious effects of high temperature.
In the same plant, study of the effects of high temperature on organic
acid metabolism is in progress.
Also in progress are further investigations designed to develop an ex-
planation of the increase in free amino acids previously observed in Pisrfm
sativum grown at higher than optimum temperatures.

Hatch Project 1287 D. B. Ward
This program was initiated during the year as an expanded and yet
specialized aspect of work on the flora as a whole (State Project 1118).
Initial studies were of genera of the Mimosoideae: Acacia, Dichrostachys,
Pithecellobium and Desmanthus. One genus, Tamarindus, in the Caesal-
pinoideae, was also studied, as were three in the Papilionoideae, Apios,
Chapmannia and Abrus. For each genus a tentatively final manuscript
was prepared, consisting of generic descriptions and keys to the species, with
observations, where appropriate, as to range, diagnostic characteristics,
nomenclature, and economic uses.
The genus Acacia, as represented in Florida, was found to contain two
species not previously reported for the state: A. macracantha and A. torta-
osa. Both of these are West Indian species but were found to be established,
and perhaps native, in several small areas in the Florida Keys and along
the lower West Coast. Publication of these range extensions is being made

Annual Report, 1966


Members of the department have been working on 18 projects, the re-
sults of which are reported here. Much of the research reported has been
done cooperatively with the departments of Animal Science, Entomology,
Agronomy, Agricultural Economics and Agricultural Engineering. New
projects include studies covering the following subjects: vital statistics of
beef and dairy sires used in artificial insemination and a study of the metab-
olism of glucose and free fatty acids in the immature ruminant.
The refrigeration system at the Dairy Products Laboratory was relo-
cated at the rear of the building and modernized. The space previously
occupied by this equipment was converted into an addition to the dairy bac-
teriology laboratories. New low temperature storage facilities were provided
at the Dairy Research Unit.
The West Florida Dairy Unit began a modernization program with a
legislative appropriation. New feed storage and automated feeding and
milking facilities are being installed. Economic studies at this Unit have
provided valuable information on the factors involved in the cost of pro-
ducing milk.

State Project 213 J. M. Wing and C. J. Wilcox
This project was designed to study the efficiency of ensilability of typ-
ical forages preserved alone and with various additives and to evaluate the
nutritive properties of the silages for dairy cattle. This report concerns
two replications of millet; one of an oats and clover combination; and two
of alfalfa each ensiled alone and with 277 grams per ton of propyl para
hydroxy benzoic acid. Preliminary observations indicate that the treatment
increases recovery of cellulose, protein, dry matter, energy, and carotene
from legumes but not from grasses. Silage content of various volatile fatty
acids and consumption rates and digestibility of the silages are being de-

State Project 575 C. J. Wilcox, H. H. Head,
S. P. Marshall, J. B. White,
and J. M. Wing
The size of the experimental herd decreased slightly to 159 milking cows
during the year. A slight gain in overall milk yield was recorded, however,
because of a 5.5 percent increase in production per cow. The Ayrshire type
classification reached a new high of 85.8 points. Other breed averages were
Brown Swiss, 83.5; Guernseys, 81.0; Holsteins, 80.5; and Jerseys, 82.7. As
usual a number of cows were assigned to various other intra- and inter-
departmental research projects. Studies of environmental and genetic ef-
fects upon birth weights and gestation lengths are continuing.
Evaluation of an cardiac monster case was completed. The subsequent
reproductive performances of the dam and normal daughter, in what was
apparently the first double acardius amorphous case in the bovine, were
in all respects normal and unaffected by the birth. The two masses were
apparently viable at birth and contained recognizable portions of bone but
no detectable vascular system.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 1047 C. J. Wilcox, W. A. Krienke, J. M. Wing,
(Regional S-49) L. E. Mull and E. L. Fouts
Monthly sampling of the 180-cow Station dairy herd continued. Some
184 lactation records were completed during the year for a total of 906
since the project was initiated. Measurements include milk yield, titratable
acidity, and percentages of fat, solids-not-fat (SNF), protein, and chloride.
Average yields during 1959-62 for SNF and protein were as follows: Ayr-
shires (16 records), 825 and 291 pounds, respectively; Brown Swiss (12),
1011 and 359 pounds; Guernseys (78), 763 and 273 pounds; Holsteins (97),
1180 and 411 pounds; Jerseys (196), 748 and 280 pounds.
As a part of an interregional analysis, records completed have contrib-.
uted to estimates of the effects of age of cow on yields of milk, fat, SNF,
protein, and total solids. Preliminary repeatability and heritability esti-
mates for these characteristics are 0.43 and 0.25, 0.35 and 0.24, 0.41 and
0.27, 0.41 and 0.39, and 0.40 and 0.27, respectively. Standard errors of the
heritability estimates ranged from 0.06 to 0.09. These data suggest that
repeatability and heritability estimates for the yields of the various milk
constituents are essentially the same as those for milk yield.

Hatch Project 1049 K. L. Smith and C. J. Wilcox

An analysis using 8280 somatic cell counts in cows' milk was carried
out. Since preliminary analysis of the data collected indicated that the
standard deviations of the treatment combination were proportional to the
means, the natural logarithm of the somatic cell count was analyzed. Each
recorded count was increased by one prior to the transformation to loga-
rithms to eliminate all zeros from the data. There was no evidence to indi-
cate that the vaccination of cattle with Staphylococcus aureus toxoid re-
duced the cell numbers in the milk of the treated animals. The mean cell
count for all samples collected during the three year period was 480,000
cells per ml. The mean square for error with 7428 degrees of freedom was
1.70, which represents the error associated with the mean cell count obtained
from three samples taken at weekly intervals plus pooled interaction. To
obtain an estimate of the laboratory experimental error involved in counting
somatic cells in cows' milk, duplicate counts were made on 527 quarter sam-
ples. A plot of the range of the two counts versus the sum of the two counts
for each quarter sample showed a linear trend again indicating that the
standard deviation tends to be proportional to the mean. After transform-
ing the data to logarithms the within sample mean square was 0.62 which
is considerably smaller than the 1.70 obtained with the three weekly sam-
ples. The coefficient of variation was 25%.

State Project 1053 S. P. Marshall, E. L. Fouts,
and J. B. White
A portion of a field of NK 310 sorghum was ensiled by the direct-cut
method when the grain was in the milk-to-dough stage. The remainder of
the crop was ensiled when the seeds were in the hard grain stage. The pro-

Annual Report, 1966

cedure employed to ensile the latter was to combine the seed, crush the
grain and to recombine it proportionately with the chopped forage as it was
blown into the silo. The feeding value of these silages and that of DeKalb
805 were compared when used as sole roughage for lactating cows. Ensiling
dry matter losses were determined on all silages.
Percentage of dry matter in the ensilage at ensiling averaged: corn,
33.3; sorghum at milk-to-dough stage, 27.1; and sorghum at hard seed stage,
48.9. Percentage of fermentation and seepage dry matter losses were: corn,
5.0; sorghum ensiled at milk-to-dough stage, 7.4; and sorghum ensiled at
the hard seed stage, 5.7. In a 3 x 3 Latin-square design experiment with
21-day feeding periods, the cows averaged 44.9, 44.3, and 46.0 pounds of
milk daily on corn silage, sorghum ensiled at the milk-to-dough stage, and
sorghum ensiled at the hard seed stage respectively. These differences
were not significant (P<.05). Daily dry matter intakes averaged 22.5, 20.7,
and 28.8 pounds for the respective silages. These differences were signifi-
cant (P<.05). Daily intake of concentrates averaged 13.3 pounds while the
cows were on corn silage and 13.4 pounds while the cows were on the sor-
ghum silages.
This project is terminated with this report.

Hatch Project 1062 J. M. Wing
The purpose of this work is to determine the effects of source, season,
and thyroid activity on the absorption of carotene. A total of 666 individual
digestion trials have been completed and the data were analyzed by the
Texas General Matrix program. There were highly significant differences
due to the effects of months, years, preservation, and species of plants. No
significant differences were detected among animals.
This project is closed with this report.

State Project 1114 L. E. Mull and K. L. Smith
Additional factors were studied to determine their effect on the plate
count of instant non-fat dry milk.
It was estimated that the addition of 10.5 grams of instant non-fat dry
milk to 99 ml of water more nearly approximated a 1:10 dilution than did
the currently recommended addition of 11 grams of powder. Incubation of
plates for 3 days at 32 C. produced counts 71% higher than those obtained
using 2 days incubation at 32 C. The use of dilution blanks tempered at
450 C. resulted in a 27% increase over the count obtained using dilution
blanks at room temperature. The interaction between incubation time and
water blank temperature indicated that the warmed dilution blanks exerted
a stimulatory effect upon the microorganisms in the powder. Counts ob-
tained using overlayed plates could be more accurately replicated but non-
overlayed plates yielded counts 15% greater. The use of Standard Meth-
ods Agar produced counts 10% higher than those obtained using Milk
Protein Hydrolysate Agar. Shaking dilution bottles 50 times produced
counts no larger than those obtained by shaking the bottles 25 times. A
pooled estimate of the variance between duplicate plates was found to be
This project is closed with this report.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 1137 C. J. Wilcox
Collection, sorting, and screening of data continues. Nearly 14,000 lac-
tation records were completed in Florida in 1965 as a part of the Dairy
Herd Improvement Association testing program. Analyses proposed should
provide reliable estimates of the effects upon milk and milk fat yields of
breed, herd, year, and season, and the several interactions between these
variables. Progress has been made in defining the variables to be consid-
ered and in developing methods of analysis. The volume of data collected
are now sufficient for the first analysis.

State Project 1185 S. P. Marshall and K. L. Smith
Sixteen one-day-old male Jersey calves were placed randomly on one of
four diets for a 21-day feeding experiment. The diets were: (1) whole
milk ad libitum, (2) skimmilk ad libitum, (3) whole milk diluted with 1.17
parts of water (isocaloric with diet 2), and fed ad libitum, and (4) skim-
milk diluted with one part of water and fed ad libitum. Vitamin A and D
supplements were given to calves fed skimmilk (diets 2 and 4). Intake per
calf for the 21-day period of pounds of milk, grams of fat, lactose and pro-
tein and calories of metabolizable energy on diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 averaged:
(1) 425, 8,316, 9,457, 6,344, and 125,956; (2) 508, 116, 11,925, 7,927, and
69,233; (3) 624, 5,518, 6,275, 4,209, and 83,578, and (4) 749, 85, 8,785, 5,840,
and 50,998. Body weight gains for the 3-week period by calves on the re-
spective diets averaged 45, 35, 36, and 26 pounds. Average body weight
gains of the calves on the various diets differed significantly (P<.05) ex-
cept for comparison between diets 1 and 3 and between 2 and 3.
The calves were thrifty on all diets. The results indicate that with ad
libitum feeding weight gains between the ages of 1 and 22 days of age
can be influenced markedly by adjusting the caloric content of diet.

State Project 1206 J. M. Wing
The purpose of this work is to determine the feasibility of weaning
calves at an early age from milks which contain more than the usual amount
of solids. All subjects received a mixture of chopped alfalfa hay and simple
concentrates free choice from birth. The solid feed for half the calves in
each group also contained supplementary orotic acid and methionine at the
rate of 43 grams of each per ton. The milk was a mixture of skim milk
(20% solids) and colostrum. Group 1 received the milk twice daily through
60 days. Group 2 was fed milk once daily through 21 days. Group 3 re-
ceived milk twice daily for the first week then once daily through 3 weeks
of age.
During this 90 day trial, calves in groups with non-supplemented solid
feed gained 0.9 pound per day. Four pounds of solid feed were consumed
at 61 days. With supplements, group 1 calves gained 0.84 pound daily and
consumed 4 pounds of solid feed daily at 64 days.
Non-supplemented calves in group 2 gained 0.79 pound daily and re-
quired 37 days to consume 4 pounds of the solid feed daily. Supplemented

Annual Report, 1966 85

calves in group 2 gained 0.86 pound daily and required 43 days to consume
4 pounds of solid feed daily. Group 3 non-supplemented calves gained 0.91
pound daily and required 42 days to consume 4 pounds of solid feed daily
compared to 0.78 pound daily and 53 days for supplemented calves.

State Project 1207 J. M. Wing, H. H. Head,
and C. J. Wilcox
This work was designed to determine the effects of shade on the ability
of dairy cattle to adjust to summer conditions. Twelve cows which have
shade on a free-choice basis are compared with 12 which never have shade.
Forty-four records have been completed and 23 are in progress. Neither
production nor other physiological effects have been observed sufficiently for
analysis. During the first part of the summer the non-shaded cows pant
and slobber noticeably but they appear to adapt rapidly with little loss in
(See also State Project 1207, Agricultural Engineering Department).


Hatch Project 1213 H. H. Head and C. J. Wilcox
Studies to evaluate the effects of growth hormone on plasma glucose and
non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and on glucose kinetics have been
performed. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels initially declined then in-
creased (<1 mg/kg body weight) in response to the intravenous adminis-
tration of growth hormone. These findings fortify earlier results that the
ruminant responds qualitatively to growth hormone in much the same man-
ner as do non-ruminants. However, quantitative aspects and long-term re-
sponses may differ.
To assess long-term effects of growth hormone on plasma levels of glu-
cose and NEFA and on glucose turnover rates, growth hormone was ad-
ministered intramuscularly for five consecutive days (1.0 USP unit/kg body
weight) to two ruminating calves. The glucose turnover rate was meas-
ured before growth hormone was administered and daily blood samples were
obtained three days before and during administration. The glucose turnover
rate was determined 16 hours after the last growth hormone dosage. Ex-
perimental conditions were held as constant as possible for both phases.
Plasma glucose levels increased over pre-G.H. levels in one trial but not
the other. NEFA levels were increased by growth hormone and were main-
tained at elevated levels.
Complete radioactive analysis of the data is to be made using a liquid
scintillation procedure developed to determine the specific activity of K-glu-
conate, the form in which plasma glucose can be most satisfactorily iso-

State Project 1221 J. M. Wing
The purpose of this project is to compare the effects of a dry roughage
mixture containing alfalfa hay, dried citrus pulp, cottonseed hulls, ground

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

snapped corn, and vitamin supplements with those of corn silage. Milk fat
tests, daily production of 4% fat corrected milk, and body weight changes
were 5.6%, 26.1 pounds, and +40 pounds, respectively, for the mixed rough-
age and 5.8%, 27.7 pounds, and +20 pounds, respectively, for silage.

State Project 1234 C. J. Wilcox
Records of lifetime productive performance on a population of over 1000
cows were provided by a cooperating Florida institutional dairy herd for
the years 1939-64. All animals had freshened one or more times. About
85% were straightbred Jerseys (registered or grade) or Holsteins,
7% Jersey-Holstein crosses, and 8 percent Jersey-Guernsey crosses of
various order. Registered Jerseys were not used for cross-breeding; tests of
heterosis involved only the grade Jerseys and Holsteins and their crosses.
About 88% of all cows were culled for reasons suggesting an innate weak-
ness in livability, but no evidence of heterosis was detected. Average age at
first calving of all cows was 28.8 months; productive life span, 42.4 months;
total life span, 71.2 months; parturitions, 3.5. Jerseys differed significantly
from Holsteins for these traits by +1.9, +9.9, and +10.7 months, and
+0.7 parturitions, respectively. Jersey-Holstein crosses performed at levels
suggesting lack of heterosis. Performance of Jersey-Guernsey crosses was
consistently poorer than that of Jerseys, Holsteins, or their crosses. Other
findings include: abortion rates of crossbreds and straightbreds were 5.3
and 3.5 percent, respectively, differing at P<0.05; twinning rates were 1.4
and 1.6 percent (not significantly different). The apparent lack of heterosis
in livability and life span of cattle after freshening suggested that dairymen
hoping to make improvements in these traits by crossbreeding would be
(See also State Project 1234, Agricultural Economics Department.)

Hatch Project 1249 K. L. Smith and L. E. Mull
Several experiments were performed at 300 C. using Streptococcus lactis
(ATCC 7962). It was found that the plot of the logarithm of the number
of cells versus time is best described by a quadratic equation (log B =
Bo + kit + klt2). When the experiment was performed at a pH below
7.0, the curve was concave downward (the sign of k. was negative), show-
ing that the growth rate was decreasing. Above pH 7.0, using either phos-
phate or carbonate buffer, the curve was concave upward. It was observed
that the amount of sodium hydroxide required to change the pH of the fer-
mented milk from 8.0 to 9.0 was not the same from one sampling time to
another, indicating that the buffering capacity of the fermented milk was
changing. The slope of the plot of pH versus milliliters of sodium hydrox-
ide tended to decrease as the fermentation progressed.

State Project 1255 J. M. Wing
This research was designed to determine the optimum dietary level of
various carbohydrate sources. Citrus pulp was used to replace 0, 1/3, 2/3,

Annual Report, 1966

and all of the corn in a complete dairy feed. Disappearance of cellulose
from the rumen amounted to 48.4 percent with no citrus pulp and to 30.6,
42.0, and 31.3 percent for rations on which citrus pulp replaced 1/3, 2/3,
and all of the corn. Work now in progress will delineate the effects of cit-
rus pulp on digestibility of protein, dry matter, and energy and upon pro-
duction of volatile fatty acids in the rumen.

State Project 1264 C. J. Wilcox
Over 50 AI studs are presently contributing information on life span
and reasons of disposal of sires. Analysis of data on 8,887 sires which
have completed their tenures showed that reproductive inefficiency was the
major cause of loss, accounting for 36% of all sires. Low milk yield of
daughters caused disposal of 868 sires; 225 were culled because of poor type
of offspring. Red factor caused departure of 2.8% of all Holstein sires. In
all, undesirable characteristics of offspring led to disposal of 16%. Disease
and infection accounted for 14%, with cramDiness and hardware leading.
Problems in collection, due to refusal or inability to serve, old age, etc., rep-
resented 12%. More Holsteins than expected left the studs because of
disease, and more Guernseys, Jerseys, and Milking Shorthorns than expected
left for reproductive inefficiency.

State Project 1271 H. H. Head
Experiments have been conducted on two groups of dairy calves to esti-
mate parameters of glucose metabolism. Group I calves (4) were fed at
10% of body weight through 7 weeks of age, at 5% of body weight the
eighth week, then weaned to a hay-grain concentrate diet. They had ac-
cess to the concentrate mixture ad libitum from 3 days through 12 weeks.
Group II calves (2) were fed milk fortified with milk solids (13% solids)
at 10 percent of body weight through 12 weeks of age. All calves were
housed on wire mesh floors, had access to trace mineralized salt, and were
given a complete vitamin and mineral mixture daily.
Glucose turnover rate studies, using UL C" glucose constant infusion
techniques, were conducted on all calves, after a 16 hour fast, at 2, 5, 8,
and 12 weeks. Weekly blood samples for non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA),
plasma glucose, and whole blood volatile fatty acid (VFA) determinations
were obtained through 12 weeks of age. Body weights and general health
data were recorded weekly.
Calves in both groups grew well and were healthy. Milk-fed calves did
somewhat better, especially from the eighth through twelfth weeks. Aver-
age daily weight gains through 12 weeks were 1.52 and 1.63 pounds per
day for Groups I and II, respectively.
Average plasma glucose levels after a 16 hour fast were 75.43, 78.91,
78.93, and 91.99 mg/100 ml for Group I calves at 2, 5, 8, and 12 weeks.
Weekly plasma glucose and NEFA (16 hour fast) levels showed no trend
with advancing age in Group I calves.
Glucose turnover rate data have been only partially completed. Rates
of glucose metabolism were higher in fasted two-weeks-old calves (6.5 mg/

88 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

min/kgl/') than previously observed for mature cows. No differences be-
tween groups was noted at two weeks. The volume of distribution of
glucose (glucose space-percent of body weight) was about twice as large
at two weeks as observed in mature animals (49-59% vs. 16-32%).

Annual Report, 1966



State Project 1224 K. B. Meurlott, M. C. Williams
and M. H. Sharpe

Objective 2 of the three-year research project has been completed. Dur-
ing the 18-month period of this study, the Experiment Stations and Exten-
sion Service produced and mailed to Florida newspapers 729 news stories.
The usage of these stories was studied.
Without regard to type of story, subject, or handling, the 729 stories
averaged publication in 5.71 newspapers each, out of a possible 152 total
newspapers. Overall, Station-originated releases averaged 5.94 and Exten-
sion stories 5.58 exposures.
A total of 83 (11.4%) of the releases failed to appear in any newspaper.
Coding by subject and handling revealed that 119 (including 38 no-runs')
were very limited in potential audience. Considered separately, the 119 had
a mean exposure of 2.62 newspapers.
Adding the no-runs to the LF2 releases, 22.5% of all stories distributed
by the Editorial Department during this study were relatively ineffectual.
Stories were classified by the urgency of information, intended audience,
purpose, general subject (agricultural or non-agricultural), and commodity
or subject matter area. There were several descriptions within each of
these categories, and comparative exposure of each description was meas-
Generally, non-dated stories on subjects intended for a general audience,
as opposed to rural audience, giving information on improved methods had
the highest exposure. Information on home economics subjects and horti-
cultural information for homeowners had higher exposures than informa-
tion on agricultural subjects.
Considering all stories that were published, 82.2% were in print within
30 days of the date mailed. Two-thirds or more of the total story was pub-
lished in 83.5% of the cases.


The Station printed 150,000 copies of 19 new bulletins totaling 724
pages, and 67,000 copies of 6 new circulars totaling 68 pages. Two bulle-
tins and five circulars were reprinted. These totaled 42,000 copies and 128
pages. During the year four 20-page Research Reports were printed and
distributed to over 7,000 subscribers. Also during the year three brochures
were printed which described the activities of the Citrus, Gulf Coast, and
The Suwannee Valley Stations.

Publications printed were: Pages Printed
Bul. 692 Subnormal Milk-Cause and Correction. R.
B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, C. J. Wilcox,
W. A. Krienke, L. E. Mull, E. L. Fouts 36 5,000
'No-runs: The abbreviation for stories not published in any newspaper.
2LF: The abbreviation for the stories mentioned that had limited potential audience.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Bul. 693 Effects of Feeding Limited Amounts of Con-
centrate to Stocker Steers on Pasture. C. E.
Haines, H. L. Chapman, Jr., R. W. Kidder,
R. E. L. Greene

Bul. 694 Mechanical Dewatering of Forage Crops. T.
W. Casselman, V. E. Green, Jr., R. J. Allen,
Jr., F. H. Thomas ......

Bul. 695 Productivity of Beef Cows as Influenced by
Pasture and Winter Supplement During
Growth. A. C. Warnick, M. Koger, A. Mar-
tinez, T. J. Cunha

Bul. 696 Market Structure and Economic Analysis of
the Florida Sweet Corn Industry. D. L.
Brooke, J. B. Bell ....

Bul. 697 Effect of Feed Additives on Preservation
and Feeding Value of Pangolagrass Silage.
J. E. McCaleb, F. M. Peacock, E. M. Hodges

Bul. 698 By-Products of Florida Citrus. R. Hendrick-
son, J. W. Kesterson

Bul. 699 Mineral Malnutrition in Cattle. R. B. Beck-
er, J. R. Henderson, R. G. Leighty

Bul. 700 Influence of Summer Pasture, Diethylstilbes-
trol, and Shade on Fattening Cattle in
South Florida. F. M. Peacock, W. G. Kirk,
E. M. Hodges, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Car-
penter ..

Bul. 701 Blackstrap Molasses for Beef Cows. H. L.
Chapman, Jr., M. Koger, R. W. Kidder, J.
R. Crockett, W. K. McPherson

Bul. 702 Liming Soils for Flue-Cured Tobacco in the
Suwannee Valley Area. H. L. Breland, H.
W. Lundy
Bul. 703 Demand and Competitive Relationships for
Florida and Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes.
Marshall R. Godwin, William T. Manley
Bul. 704 Competition between Florida and California
Valencia Oranges in the Fresh Market.
Marshall R. Godwin, W. Fred Chapman,
Jr., William T. Manley ..
Bul. 705 Effect of Brahman Breeding on Performance
of Calves from Weaning to Feedlot. F. M.
Peacock, W. G. Kirk, M. Koger .
Bul. 706 Feed Restriction of Swine during the Fin-
ishing Period. H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer,
J. W. Carpenter, G. E. Combs

20 5,000

40 5,000

16 7,000

116 5,000

16 7,000

76 12,000

56 10,000

16 10,000

32 12,000

40 6,000

24 6,000

28 6,000

8 10,000

36 8,000

Annual Report, 1966

Bul. 707 Nematode Control Guide for Vegetable Pro-
duction in Florida. H. L. Rhoades, J. A.
Winchester, Amegda J. Overman

Bul. 708 Replacement Value of Dried Citrus Meal for
Corn Meal in Beef Cattle Diets. J. F. Hent-
ges, J. E. Moore, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Car-

Bul. 709 Market Organization and Operation of the
Florida Celery Industry. D. L. Brooke, G.
H. Jung

Bul. 710 Tomato Production on the Sandy Soils of
South Florida. D. G. A. Kelbert, A. J. Over-
man, P. H. Everett, C. M. Geraldson, E. G.
Kelsheimer, John Paul Jones, D. S. Burgis,
E. L. Spencer

Cir. S-170 The Wolfe Loquat. Carl W. Campbell

Cir. S-171 U. S. 59-16-1, A New Sugarcane Variety for
South Florida. F. le Grand

Cir. S-172 Azalea Culture. R. D. Dickey

Cir. S-173 The Golden Star Carambola. Carl W. Camp-

Cir. S-174 Steer Wintering Rations in North Florida.
F. S. Baker, Jr.

Cir. S-175 Yolo Y, A Bell Pepper with Resistance to
Potato Y Virus and Tobacco Mosaic Virus.
A. A. Cook

Publications revised and/or reprinted were:

Bul. 639 Crampy-Progressive Posterior Paralysis in
Mature Cattle. R. B. Becker, C. J. Wilcox,
W. R. Pritchard

Bul. 674 Copper and Cobalt for Beef Cattle. H. L.
Chapman, Jr., R. W. Kidder

Cir. S-77A Soil Associations of Dade County, Florida.
R. G. Leighty, M. H. Gallatin, P. L. Mal-
colm, F. B. Smith

Cir. S-121C Recommendations for Commercial Lawn
Spraymen. S. H. Kerr

Cir. S-140 Chicken Manure Its Production, Value,
Preservation, and Disposition. C. F. Eno

Cir. S-149 Smutgrass Control at Range Cattle Station.
J. E. McCaleb, E. M. Hodges, W. G. Kirk

Cir. S-159A 'Oklawaha' Blackberry. J. S. Shoemaker, P.
J. Westgate

20 10,000

24 10,000

76 6,000

44 10,000

8 10,000

12 5,000

16 20,000

8 12,000

16 10,000

8 10,000

24 3,000

16 5,000

32 5,000

20 8,000

20 8,000

12 5,000

4 8,000

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


During the period major electronic equipment was installed which per-
mitted the department to meet the increased demands for on-the-spot cov-
erage of Experiment Station events. With this additional coverage, Station
researchers showed an increased interest in using mass media to inform the
public of their activities.
A five-day-a-week 15-minute television program was continued through-
out the period. Refinements of the program, including a new studio set,
were made. Measured by the volume of mail from the viewers, the program
was highly successful.
Radio stations continued to use taped materials developed by the de-
partment in cooperation with the researchers. To meet modern commercial
broadcasting demands, music and sound effects were added to the tapes.
News and feature stories were mailed to all media outlets in Florida
quoting researchers and reporting on news-worthy events. These averaged
about nine releases per week.
It is estimated that one million individuals were reached each week
via the mass media programs. Commercial time and space "donated" by
these mass media outlets was estimated at $700,000. This is twice as much
as the value of the program a year earlier.


Papers by research staff members continue to be printed in large num-
bers. These appear in technical journals in the United States and a few
in foreign countries. Those included in the Journal Series are forwarded
to the journals by the Station editorial staff, and reprints are ordered for
distribution when they are printed. The series now contains more than
2,400 listings.
Following is a list of Journal Series articles printed during the year
and those not previously listed:

1393. A Comparison of Gravimetric, Tensiometric and Neutron Scatter-
ing Methods of Measuring Water in Lakeland Fine Sand. R. C. J.
Koo, L. C. Hammond. Soil and Crop Sci. Fla. Proc. 24:63-68. 1964.

1800. The Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization of Mature Pangolagrass Just
Prior to Utilization in the Winter on Yields, Dry Matter, and
Crude Protein Contents. A. E. Kretschmer, Jr. Agron. J. 57:529-
34. 1965.

1854. Fish Meal Studies. 1. Effects of Levels and Sources on Broiler
Growth Rate and Feed Efficiency. P. W. Waldroup, P. van Wal-
leghem, Jack L. Fry, C. Chicco, R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 44:4:
1012-16. July 1965.

1868. Increasing the Effectiveness of Ionizing Radiations in Inducing
Mutations at the Vital Locus Controlling Resistance to the Fungus
Helminthosporium victoria in Oats. A. T. Wallace. Proc. of the
IAEA-FAO Tech. Meeting on the Use of Induced Mutations in
Plant Breeding 237-50. June 1964.

1869. Inhibition of Geotropism by Ionizing Radiation; Reversal of the
Inhibition by Auxins. T. W. Holmsen, H. J. Teas, A. L. Koch.
Radiation Botany 4:413-16. 1964.

Annual Report, 1966

1870. Control of the Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus Semipenetrans, in
Microplot Experiments. C. I. Hannon. Plant Disease Reporter
48:6:471. June 1964.

1876. Development of a New Medium for Culturing Dothidella Ulei in
Quantity. K. R. Langdon. Phytopathol. 56:5:564-65. May 1966.

1882. Isolation and Identification of Volatile Flavor Components in Re-
covered Orange Essences Using Gas Chromatography. J. A. Atta-
way, R. W. Wolford. Gas Chromatography. 170-79. 1964.

1885. The Occurrence of a Natural Antioxidant in Citrus Fruit. S. V.
Ting, W. F. Newhall. J. Food Sci. 30:1:57-63. 1965.

1892. Dynamics of Multiplication of Radolphus similis. E. P. DuCharme
and W. C. Price. Nematologica 12:113-21. 1966.

1894. Determination of Esters by Thin Layer Chromatography. J. A.
Attaway, R W. Wolford, G. J. Edwards. Anal. Chem. 37:1:74-
76. 1965.

1895. Identification of Nucellar and Zygotic Citrus Seedlings by Infra-
red Spectroscopy. A. P. Pieringer, G. J. Edwards. Amer. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 86:226-24. 1965.

1902. Fish Meal Studies. 2. Effects of Levels and Sources of "Fishy
Flavor" in Broiler Meat. J. L. Fry, P. van Walleghem, P. W.
Waldroup, R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 44:4:1016-19. July 1965.
1906. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in the Endometrium and
Ovary of Swine. L. Goode, A. C. Warnick, H. D. Wallace. J.
Animal Sci. 24:4:955-58. Nov. 1965.
1909. Radiosensitivity in Maize Influenced by Cytoplasmic Factors. Ra-
diation Botany 5:53-59. Feb. 1965.
1912. Effect of Dietary Energy Levels Upon Reproduction and the Re-
lationships of Endometrial Phosphatase Activity to Embryo Sur-
vival in Gilts. L. Goode, A. C. Warnick, H. D. Wallace. J. Ani-
mal Sci. 24:4:959-63. Nov. 1965.
1914. Increase of Rumple and Decay in Lemon Fruits During Storage.
M. F. Oberbacher, L. C. Knorr. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 86:
260-66. 1965.
1916. Strongyloides ransomi. 1. Tests of Anthelmintic Activity Against
the Migratory Stages in Experimentally Challenged Pigs. S. E.
Leland, Jr., G. E. Combs. Amer. J. Vet., Research 26:113:932-38.
July 1965.
1926. Analysis of Oxygen-18 in Carbon Dioxide by Thermal Neutron Ac-
tivation. G. J. Fritz, I. Han, W. H. Ellis. Internat. J. Applied
Radiation and Isotopes 16:431-37. 1965.
2011. Effectiveness of Foliar Sprays for Control of the Fuller Rose Bee-
tle on Florida Citrus. R. C. Bullock. Fla. Entomol. 48:3:159-61.
2015. Adjuvants in Sprays for Insect Control on Sweet Corn. E. D. Har-
ris, Jr. Fla. Entomol. 48:3:147-53. Sept. 1965.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

2016. Wireworm Control on Sweet Corn in Organic Soils. E. D. Harris,
Jr. Fla. Entomol. 48:3:207-11. Sept. 1965.
2018. Irradiation of Anaplasma Marginale for Vaccine Production. G. T.
Edds, C. F. Simpson, F. C. Neal, F. H. White. U. S. Livestock
Sanitary Assn. Proc. 68:102-11. Oct. 1964.
2020. The Influence of Certain Agronomic and Morphological Character-
istics on the Yield and Expansion of Popcorn. V. E. Green, Jr.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 24:259-65. 1964.
2021. Rule-of-Thumb Prediction of Popping Quality of Three-Way Pop-
corn Crosses from Inbred Performance. V. E. Green, Jr. Soil
and Crop. Sci. Soc. Fla. 24:266-74. 1964.
2023. The Freezing Point of Citrus Leaves. J. F. Gerber, F. Hashemi.
Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 86:220-25. 1965.
2024. Influence of Nutrition on Flower Production, Keeping Quality, Dis-
ease Susceptibility, and Chemical Composition of Chrysanthemum
morifolium. W. E. Waters. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 86:650-
55. 1965.
2029. Florida's 1964 Citrus Honey Crop. F. A. Robinson. Fla. Entomol.
48:2:97-99. 1965.
2033. Vitamin A and Carotene in Tissues of Sheep. R. L. Shirley, J. F.
Easley, E. Sosa, T. J. Cunha, A. C. Warnick. Quart. J. Fla. Acad.
Sci. 28:4:392-400. Dec. 1965.
2035. Effects of Late Nitrogen Fertilization on the Distribution of Ni-
trogen in Pangolagrass and Coastal Bermudagrass on Immokalee
Fine Sand. A. E. Kretschmer, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 24:
167-76. 1964.
2036. Yield and Nutrient Uptake by Corn (Zea mays L.) for Silage on
Two Soil Types as Influenced by Fertilizer, Plant Population and
Hybrids. W. K. Robertson, L. C. Hammond, L. G. Thompson, Jr.
Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 29:5:551-54. Sept.-Oct. 1965.
2039. The Effects of Lime and Phosphorus Fertilization on Oats and
Soil Phosphorus in Lakeland Fine Sand in Small Lysimeters. C. C.
Hortenstine. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:35-42. 1964.
2040. Response of Steers Grazing Oats on Florida Flatwoods to Supple-
mental Energy Feed. J. E. McCaleb, F. M. Peacock, E. M. Hodges.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:184-87. 1964.
2043. A Suggested Approach to the Use of Rainfall Record as an Aid
in Estimating Leaching Losses and Fertilization Needs. G. M.
Volk. Soil and Crop. Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:254-59. 1964.
2044. Tolerance of Warmseason Turfgrasses to Pre-emergence Herbi-
cides: Preliminary Report. E. O. Burt. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 24:137-41. 1964.
2048. Irrigation of Potatoes at Hastings, Florida. D. R. Hensel. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:105-10. 1964.
2049. Supplemental Feeding of Steers on Pangolagrass and Pensacola
Bahiagrass Pastures. E. M. Hodges, W. G. Kirk, F. M. Peacock.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:196-99. 1964.

Annual Report, 1966 95

2050. Sugarcane and Its By-Products for Cattle Feeding. H. L. Chap-
man, Jr., R. W. Kidder. W. G. Kirk, C. E. Haines, T. W. Cassel-
man, F. le Grand. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:486-97.

2051. Forage Possibilities in the Genus Arachis. G. M. Prine. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:187-96. 1964.

2052. Effect of Limestone and Fertilizer Applications on Certain Soil
Properties. H. L. Breland. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:
42-52. 1964.

2053. Comparison of Nitrogen Sources as Side Dressings. II. Efficiency
on Watermelons at Various Lime Levels. G. M. Volk, N. Gammon,
Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:76-80. 1964.

2054. Effects of Soil Acidity and Liming of Leon Fine Sand on the Ex-
change Properties and on Watermelons as Indicator Plants. J. G.
A. Fiskell, S. J. Locascio, H. L. Breland, T. L. Yuan. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:52-63. 1964.

2055. Use of Chromatography To Study Nutritional Status of Plants.
V. N. Schroder. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:111-14. 1964.
2056. A Review of Plant Breeding for Nematode Resistance. S. E. Malo.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:354-65. 1964.

2057. The Effect of Temperature and Flooding on Nematode Survival in
Fallow Sandy Soil. A. J. Overman. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 24:141-49. 1964.
2058. Longevity of the Citrus-Root Nematode in Florida. C. I. Hannon.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:158-61. 1964.
2059. Leaf Composition and Yield of Several Soybean Genotypes. J. G.
A. Fiskell, K. Hinson, H. W. Lundy. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 24:220-31. 1964.

2060. Differential Thermal Analysis of Some Clays and Florida Soil
Clays. J. G. A. Fiskell, V. W. Carlisle. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 24:114-24. 1964.

2061. Corn Experiments with the Mulch Planter. W. K. Robertson, R. W.
Lipscomb, W. G. Blue. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:237-
42. 1964.

2062. Accumulation of Organic Matter and Nitrogen in Flatwoods Soils
Planted to White Clover-Grass Pastures. W. G. Blue, N. Gam-
mon, Jr., H. W. Winsor. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:
20-26. 1964.

2063. The Effect of Site Preparation on the Growth of Slash Pine. L. W.
Haines, W. L. Pritchett. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:
27-34. 1964.
2064. A Novel Hydraulic Soil Auger-Screen Shaker Unit for the Collec-
tion of Root Samples. P. J. Jutras, A. C. Tarjan. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:154-58. 1964.

2065. Mating Behavior in the Solpugid Genus Eremobates Banks. M. H.
Muma. Animal Behavior 14: 2-3: 346-50. Apr./July 1966.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

2066. Comparison of Nitrogen Sources as Side Dressings: 1. Effect of
Surface Soil Moisture and Covering on Materials Applied to Sweet
Corn. G. M. Volk. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:69-75.
2067. Liming Flue-Cured Tobacco: Its Effect on Yield and Composition.
H. L. Breland, W. L. Pritchett, H. W. Lundy. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:243-54. 1964.
2068. Planting Date, Plant Population and Nitrogen Fertilization of
Field Corn in Western Florida. M. C. Lutrick. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:231-37. 1964.
2069. Inter-relationship of Stinkbugs and Diseases to Everglades Soy-
bean Production. W. G. Genung, V. E. Green, Jr., C. Wehlburg.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:131-37. 1964.
2070. Electron Micrographs of Clays in Florida Soils. V. W. Carlisle.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:89-99. 1964.
2071. Some Sugarcane Diseases in South Florida. C. Wehlburg. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:441-48. 1964.
2072. The Effects of Ammonium Nitrate-Potassium Sulfate Sidedressings
on Onion Yield and Leaf Composition. H. Y. Ozaki and J. R. Iley.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:217-20. 1964.
2073. Mechanism of Plant Nematode Injury. H. L. Rhoades. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:303-309. 1964.
2074. Preliminary Report on Caladium Fertilization Experiments in Cen-
tral Florida. R. B. Forbes, P. J. Westgate. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 24:99-104. 1964.
2075. Weed Control for Florida Sugarcane. J. R. Orsenigo. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:266-74. 1964.
2076. Timing Lime Applications to Obtain the Maximum Beneficial Effect
in Clover-Grass Pasture Establishment on Virgin Flatwoods Soils.
W. G. Blue. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:162-66. 1964.
2077. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on Digestibility and Feeding Value
of Pangolagrass Hay. H. L. Chapman, Jr., A. E. Kretschmer, Jr.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:176-83. 1964.
2080. Bacterial Metabolites that Affect Citrus Root Stock Survival in
Soils Subject to Flooding. H. W. Ford. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
86:205-12. 1965.
2081. Electron Affinity G.L.C. Residue Determination of Sevin and Other
Carbamates Following Hydrolysis and Bromination. C. H. Van
Middelem, T. L. Norwood, R. E. Waites. J. Gas Chromatography
310-13. Sept. 1965.
2082. Activation of Spider Spermatozoa. M. H. Muma, K. J. Stone. En-
tomol. News 76:7:177-78. July 1965.
2086. Field Evaluation of Injectable Trichlorphon in the Treatment of
Patent Strongyloides Ransomi Infection of Young Pigs. S. E. Le-
land, Jr., F. C. Neal. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 27:116:280-85. Jan. 1966.
2087. Insecticides for Tobacco Flea Beetle Control on Cigar-Wrapper
Tobacco. W. B. Tappan. J. Econ. Entomol. 58:4:730-72. Aug. 1965.

Annual Report, 1966

2088. Comparison of Effectiveness of Herbicides in Peanuts. M. Wilcox,
R. W. Lipscomb. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:199-208.

2091. A Comparison of Phosphorus Assay Techniques with Chicks. P. W.
Waldroup, C. B. Ammerman, R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 44:
4:1086-89. July 1965.

2092. Laboratory Tests of Insecticides on the Southern Potato Wireworm.
R. B. Workman. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 78:118-20. 1965.

2093. Correlation Studies of Slash Pine Tracheid Length. R. K. Strick-
land, R. E. Goddard. Forest Sci. 12: 1: 54-62. Mar. 1966.

2098. Interactions of Nematodes and Other Plant Pathogens. H. N. Mil-
ler. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:310-25. 1964.

2099. Fertilization Ability of Maize Pollen Grains. I. Pollen Sources.
P. L. Pfahler. Genetics 52:3:513-20. Sept. 1965.

2101. Environmental Factors Affecting Nematode Injury. G. C. Smart,
Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:294-302. 1964.

2104. Evaluation of Dried Bakery Products for Use in Broiler Diets.
B. L. Damron, P. W. Waldroup, R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 44:
1122-26. July 1965.

2105. Pathology of Aortic Atherosclerosis and Dissecting Aneurysms of
Turkeys Induced by Diethylstilbestrol. C. F. Simpson, R. H.
Harms. Exp. and Molecular Path. 5: 3: 183-194. June 1966.
2107. Effects of Victorin on Krebs Cycle Intermediates of a Susceptible
Oat Variety. H. H. Luke, T. E. Freeman. Phytopathol. 55:9:967-
69. Sept. 1965.

2109. The Decline of Tobacco Hornworm Population on Cigar-Wrapper
Tobacco. W. B. Tappan. J. Econ. Entomol. 58:4:771-72. Aug. 1965.

2110. Succinoxidase Activity of the Rat Heart after Whole-Body Gamma
Irradiation. J. F. Easley, R. L. Shirley, G. K. Davis. J. Fla. Acad.
Sci. 28:3:285-88. 1965.

2111. Penetration of Nematocides for Control of Radopholis similis and
for Destruction of Citrus Roots in the Deep Sands of Central Flor-
ida. R. J. Collins, A. W. Feldman. Phytopathol. 55:10:1103-07.
Oct. 1965.

2114. Phenolic Compounds in Roots and Leaves of Four Citrus Cultivars.
A. W. Feldman, R. W. Hanks. Nature 207:5000:985-86. Aug. 1965.

2116. Alteration of Sex Characteristic of Turkey Poults with Diethylstil-
bestrol. C. F. Simpson. R. H. Harms, H. R. Wilson. Proc. Soc. for
Exp. Biol. and Med. 119:435-38. 1965.
2118. Relationship of Age and Sex of Turkeys to Aortic Ruptures In-
duced by Diethylstilbestrol. C. F. Simpson. R. H. Harms. Proc.
Soc. for Exp. Biol. and Med. 119:509-12. 1965.
2119. Influence of High Phosphorus Levels in Caged Layer Diets. R. H.
Harms, B. L. Damron, P. W. Waldroup. Poultry Sci. 44:5:1249-
53. Sept. 1965.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

2120. A Study of Thioamide-Induced Germination of Seeds of Prunus
Persica. L. A. Garrard, R. H. Biggs. Phytochem. 5:103-10. 1966.

2121. Quantitative Changes in Free and Protein Amino Acids in Leaves
of Healthy, Radopholus similis-Infected and "Recovered" Grape-
fruit Seedlings. R. W. Hanks, A. W. Feldman. Phytopathol. 56:
3:261-64. Mar. 1966.

2122. Properties of Petroleum Oils in Relation to Toxicity to Citrus Red
Mite Eggs. K. Trammel. J. Econo. Entomol. 58:4:595-601. Aug.

2123. Gene Control of Non-Mendelian Variegation in Nicotiana Tabac-
aum. J. R. Edwardson. Genetics 52:2:Part 1:365-70. Aug. 1965.

2124. Insect Infestation in Relation to Subsequent Weed Invasion of Im-
proved Pastures. W. G. Genung, J. R. Orsenigo. Fla. Entomol.
48:4:221-26. Dec. 1965.

2128. The Influence of Supplemental Vitamin D on Gain, Nutrient Di-
gestibility, and Tissue Composition with Young Pigs. G. E. Combs,
T. H. Berry, H. D. Wallace, R. C. Crum, Jr. J. Animal Sci. 25:1:
48-51. Feb. 1966.
2129. Some Characteristics of Eggplant and Avocado Polyphenolases.
F. W. Knapp. J. Food Sci. 30:6:930-36. 1965.
2130. The Utilization of Phosphorus from Animal Protein Sources for
Chicks. P. W. Waldroup, C. B. Ammerman, R. H. Harms. Poultry
Sci. 44:5:1302-06. Sept. 1965.
2132. Genesis and Morphologic Characteristics of Macrophages and Lang-
hans' Giant Cells. C. F. Simpson. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 27:117:533-
40. Mar. 1966.
2133. Analysis of Terpene Hydrocarbons by Thin Layer Chromatogra-
phy. J. A. Attaway, L. J. Barabas, R. W. Wolford. Anal. Chem.
37:10:1289-90. Sept. 1965.
2135. The Nature of Bands in Parasitized Bovine Erythrocytes. C. F.
Simpson, J. M. Kling, F. C. Neal. J. Cell Biol. 27:1:225-35. 1965.
2136. Quantitive Analysis of Phenolic Amines Using Ion-Exchange Chro-
matography. T. A. Wheaton, I. Stewart. Anal. Biochem. 12:3:585-
92. Sept. 1965.
2137. Selection and Inheritance of Resistance in Tomato to Isolates of
Races 1 and 2 of the Fusarium Wilt Organism. R. E. Stall, J. M.
Walter. Phytopathol. 55:11:1213-15. Nov. 1965.
2138. Nematodes Associated with Citrus Trees Infected by Four Viruses
and Comments About Nematode Distribution in Florida Citrus
Groves. M. W. Brzeski. Plant Disease Reporter 49:7:610-14. July
2139. Observations on some Pratylenchinae (Nemata), with Additional
Data on Pratylenchoides guevarai Tobar Jimeniz, 1963 (syn:
Zygotylenchus brown Siddiqi, 1963 and Mesotylus gallicus de Gui-
ran, 1964). A. C. Tarjan, B. Weischer. Nematologica 11:432-40.

Annual Report, 1966 99

2140. Honey Bee Visit Numbers and Watermelon Pollination. W. C. Ad-
lerz. J. Econ. Entomol. 59:1:28-30. Feb. 1966.

2144. Studies on the Acidulation of Soft Phosphate. P. W. Waldroup,
C. B. Ammerman, R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 44:6:1519-23. Nov.
2147. The Origin of Citrus Flavor Components. 1. The Analysis of Cit-
rus Leaf Oils Using Gas-Liquid Chromatography, Thin-Layer
Chromatography, and Mass Spectrometry. J. A. Attaway, A. P.
Pieringer, L. J. Barabas. Phytochem. 5:141-51. 1966.

2148. Inheritance of Spontaneous Mutations of the Victoria-Locus in
Oats. H. H. Luke, H. C. Murphy, F. C. Petr. Phytopathol. 56:2:
210-12. Feb. 1966.

2149. Effect of Imbalance of Boron Nutrition on the Peanut. H. C. Har-
ris, J. B. Brolmann. Agron. J. 58:97-99. 1966.
2151. Derivatives of (+) -Limonene: Quarternary Ammonium Compounds
That Retard Plant Growth. W. F. Newhall, A. P. Pieringer. J.
Agri. and Food Chem. 14:1:23-27. Jan.-Feb. 1966.

2152. The Role of Oxygen Fixation in Hydroxyproline Biosynthesis by
Etiolated Seedlings. E. R. Stout, G. J. Fritz. Plant Physiol.
41:2:197-202. Feb. 1966.
2153. Evaluation of Hunter Citrus Colorimeter for Measuring the Color
of Orange Juices. R. L. Huggart, R. W. Barron, F. W. Wenzel.
Food Tech. 20: 5: 109-11. May 1966.
2154. In Vitro Germination of Rye (Secale cereale L.) Pollen. P. L.
Pfahler. Crop Sci. 5:597-98. 1965.
2155. Effect of Vitamins A and E on Copper in Heart of Cattle. R. L.
Shirley, H. L. Chapman, Jr., J. F. Easley, A. Z. Palmer, G. K.
Davis, T. J. Cunha. Quart. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 29: 1: 67-72. Mar.
2158. Effects of Excess Dietary Iodine Upon Rabbits, Hamsters, Rats,
and Swine. L. R. Arrington, R. N. Taylor, Jr., C. B. Ammerman,
R. L. Shirley. J. Nutrition 87:4:394-98. Dec. 1965.
2161. Eight New Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) from Florida.
M. H. Muma. Fla. Entomol. 48:4:245-54. Dec. 1965.
2162. Failure of Reserpine to Modify the Incidence of Aortic Ruptures
Induced in Turkeys by Diethylstilbestrol. C. F. Simpson, R. H.
Harms. Proc. Soc. for Exp. Biol. and Med. 120:321-23. 1965.
2163. A Quantitative Evaluation of the Ability of Individuals To Grade
Live Cattle. W. K. McPherson, L. V. Dixon. J. Farm Econ. 48:1:
61-74. Feb. 1966.
2164. Nootkatone Content of Expressed Duncan Grapefruit Oil as Re-
lated to Fruit Maturity. J. W. Kesterson, R. Hendrickson, R. R.
Seller, C. E. Huffman, J. A. Brant, J. T. Griffiths. Amer. Per-
fumer and Cosmetics Dec. 1965.
2165. Growth and Longevity of Rats Fed Different Diets. L. R. Arring-
ton, C. B. Ammerman. Quart. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 29: 1: 60-66.
Mar. 1966.