<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Agricultural Experiment stations...
 Report of the director
 Report of the administrative...
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering
 Agronomy
 Animal science
 Botany
 Dairy science
 Editorial
 Entomology
 Food technology and nutrition
 Forestry
 Fruit crops
 Library
 Ornamental horticulture
 Plant pathology
 Plant science section
 Poultry science
 Soils
 Statistics
 Vegetable crops
 Veterinary science
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Everglades station
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Range cattle station
 Sub-tropical station
 Suwannee Valley station
 West Central Florida station
 Big bend horticultural laborat...
 Potato investigations laborato...
 Watermelon and grape investigations...
 Federal-state frost warning...
 Index
 Historic note


UF FLAG



Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00013
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1965
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00013
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Agricultural Experiment stations staff
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Report of the director
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Agricultural economics
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Agronomy
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Animal science
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Botany
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Dairy science
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Editorial
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Entomology
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Food technology and nutrition
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Forestry
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    Fruit crops
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
    Library
        Page 146
        Page 147
    Ornamental horticulture
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
    Plant pathology
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    Plant science section
        Page 165
    Poultry science
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
    Soils
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
    Statistics
        Page 187
    Vegetable crops
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    Veterinary science
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    Central Florida station
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
    Citrus station
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 265
            Page 266
            Page 267
            Page 268
            Page 269
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
    Everglades station
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 299
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
        Plantation field laboratory
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
            Page 314
            Page 315
            Page 316
            Page 317
            Page 318
            Page 319
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        South Florida field laboratory
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
        Strawberry and vegetable field laboratory
            Page 339
            Page 340
            Page 341
            Page 342
    North Florida station
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Marianna unit
            Page 359
            Page 360
            Page 361
    Range cattle station
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
    Sub-tropical station
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
    Suwannee Valley station
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
    West Central Florida station
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
    Big bend horticultural laboratory
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
    Potato investigations laboratory
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
    Watermelon and grape investigations laboratory
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
    Federal-state frost warning service
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
    Index
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
    Historic note
        Page 430
Full Text



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


AGRICULTURAL


EXPERIMENT STATIONS


ANNUAL REPORT

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING

JUNE 30, 1965


_X_1~_1 ~__ ~~ ~~__~__;~_II_~~ ~_~~~~~ ~~__~~I ~~i__l_







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA










AGRICULTURAL


EXPERIMENT STATIONS












ANNUAL REPORT

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING

JUNE 30, 1965


I










STATION (UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA)


MARIANNA UNIT LABORATORY -,-.G
NORT FLORAL V Y -. WATERMELON GRAPE
NORTUFLORIDA ... INVe.STICAT/ON5 LABORATORY
EXPERIMENT STATION M A It NIV L8RTOR
4 CENTRAL FLORIDA
SUWANNEE VALLEY Teesbq Sor-g nfor EXPERIMENT STATION
EXPERIMENT STATION CITBr S
Brooksville { g 'A01^J
WEST CENTRAL FLORID*^ ` ERNANDP'I 0 K A N G E CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION
EXPERIMENT STATION P A 5 C O L ----
-- Loke Alfred 4.
FEDERAL-STATE WEATHER Ill
FORECASTING SERVICE Laelnd SEOLA INDIAN RVER
CPlon'6ip KOL N INELD LIAN RIVER
STRAWBERRY AND VEGETABLE P 0 L K FEL
FIELO LABORAToRY -- r --.l -----.----
h, 'w' ,One ,4'. /'L "c 1P .. ierce
GULF CoASTr .- ....-..HAPEE --
EXPERIMENT STATION d A-RDE '"I 4 E
44 DE SOTO A
RANGE CATTLE M ATIN
EXPERIMENT STATION CA LOTTE IGL EVERGLADES
-------- allGlade EXPERIMENT STATION
L E HE N D KRY
FLORIDA o- -"LMBEAC
SOUTH FLORIDA -------
TTTIELD LABORATORY ---- Ft. Lauderdale
AGRICULTURAL cD0 L L IE WR A RWAu~ ANTAT/IO
EX PE RIMENT FIELD LABORATORY

STATIONS oA 9
STATIONS 0 25i ;ese


__









CONTENTS
Page
Agricultural Experiment Stations Staff 4
Report of the Director .. .......14
Report of the Administrative Manager .----- 24
MAIN STATION
Agricultural Economics ..... .-. ..... 26
Agricultural Engineering .-.. ...-..... .............. _. ... .. 46
Agronomy .. -.. .-... ...... .. ... ....... 52
Animal Science ..-.- .....-... ... .. ..... ..... ... 69
Botany -.. -. -..--.- ...- ...... ......... ...... 86
Dairy Science .. . . ..---------- -.--. 88
Editorial ..... -..-------- ---.-- ---..-..-- -.... 96
Entomology --.-...-- -- ------. ----....-- ---- .. ... 113
Food Technology and Nutrition ...-...-. ... .. 124
Forestry -----. -------- ----- ---.. ......... .. 133
Fruit Crops ....... .. ------------140
L library ...- .------..._-- --.. ....... .. .. .... .. 146
Ornamental Horticulture .. -.-.. ................ 148
Plant Pathology .---.---.- .. ----. ---...... 156
Plant Science Section -.. .. ... ....- .- ... .. .. ..- .... 165
Poultry Science ..... --------... -- ....................... 166
Soils ----.....------ --- ----.............................. 170
Statistics --- ------ --.-... --. -- ................ 187
Vegetable Crops ----------- -----....... .. 188
Veterinary Science ------........................ 201
BRANCH STATIONS
Central Florida Station ..... ...------- -................. 7-
Citrus Station ------................................. 224
/Indian River Field Laboratory ..... ................. 265
Everglades Station ....... .......... ....... 270
Indian River Field Laboratory .--....2----.... 299
/Plantation Field Laboratory ............. 307
Gulf Coast Station ...... .......... 3-2 --
(South Florida Field Laboratory 3....... 35--
Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory 339
North Florida Station ... .............. 343
M arianna Unit .................... ...... 359
Range Cattle Station ....... 362
Sub-Tropical Station ......... .... 371
Suwannee Valley Station .......... 387
W est Central Florida Station ............................. 391
West Florida Station ...- ...... 393
FIELD LABORATORIES
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory ....... 400
Potato Investigations Laboratory .. .. 404
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory 410
Federal-State Weather Forecasting Service --...-.. ... 418


The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the
products named and does not signify that they are approved to the ex-
clusion of others of suitable composition.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


JUNE 30, 1965

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS STAFF
1964-65

BOARD OF REGENTS
Chester Howell Ferguson, Tampa, Chairman
Wayne McCall, Ocala, Vice Chairman
John C. Pace, Pensacola
Louis C. Murray, Orlando
Floyd T. Christian, St. Petersburg
Henry Kramer, Jacksonville
Clarence L. Menser, Vero Beach
Clifton C. Dyson, West Palm Beach
Mrs. E. C. (Carolyn) Pearce, Coral Gables
J. Broward Culpepper, Executive Director, Tallahassee

ADMINISTRATION
J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., President
E. T York, Jr., Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Director
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Associate Director
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assistant Director
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Superintendent of Field Operations
W. H. Jones, Jr., M. Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Operations

ACADEMIC STAFF

The following abbreviations after name and title of Experiment Station
Staff indicate cooperation with other organizations:
Coll.-University of Florida College of Agriculture
Ext.-University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service
USDA-United States Department of Agriculture
USWB-United States Weather Bureau, Department of Commerce
FCC-Florida Citrus Commission

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
Agricultural Economics Department
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist hnd Head; also Coll.
and Ext.
R. L. Addison, Jr., M.S., Assistant Agricultural Statistician, USDA,
Orlando
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate Agricultural Economist
B. R. Bennett, M.S.A., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, Orlando
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
T. L. Brooks, Jr., B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics
T. A. Calvert, B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
H. B. Clark, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
C. D. Covey, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist


--i








Annual Report, 1965 5



M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Marketing Economist; also Coll.
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
J. R. Greenman, B.S.A., LL.B., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
W. T. Manley, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, USDA
J. E. Mullin, B.S., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
C. E. Murphree, D.P.A., Associate Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
C. A. Outzs, B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Statistics, USDA
L. A. Reuss, M.S., Agricultural Economist, USDA
G. N. Rose, B.S., Associate Agricultural Economist, Orlando
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
B. J. Smith, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist
C. N. Smith, .Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
J. F. Steffens, Jr., B.S., B.A., Associate Agricultural Statistician,
USDA, Orlando
W. A. West, B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics. USDA
C. Williams, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Orlando, USDA
F. W. Williams, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, FCC

Agricultural Engineering Department
D. T. Kinard, Ph.D., Agricultural Engineer and Head; also Coll. apd
Ext.
J. F. Beeman, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
E. K. Bowman, B.S., Associate Industrial Engineer, USDA
R. E. Choate, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
W. G. Grizzell, B.I.E., Assistant Industrial Engineer, USDA
C. G. Haugh, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
J. B. Richardson, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
I. J. Ross, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
G. E. Yost, B.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA

Agronomy Department
F. H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist and Head; also Coll.
K. D. Butson, M.S., State Climatologist, USWB
F. Clark, M.S.A., Agronomist
B. N. Duck, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist; also Coll.
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
K. Hinson, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Agronomist; also Coll.
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
A. J. Norden, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
P. L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
G. M. Prine, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Agronomist; also Coll.
O. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist; also Coll.
S. C. Schank, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
S. H. West, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
Merrill Wilcox, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.


NEMENEMN








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Animal Science Department
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. W. Carpenter, Ph.D., Assistant Meat Scientist
G. E. Combs, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. R. Crockett, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Geneticist; also Coll.
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Dir. of Nuclear Science
J. F. Easley, M.S., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
Marvin Koger, Ph.D., Animal Geneticist: also Coll.
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
J. E. Moore, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Meat Scientist; also Coll.
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
D. L. Wakeman, M.S.A., Assistant Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Animal Physiologist; also Coll.

Botany Department
E. S. Ford, Ph.D., Botanist and Acting Head; also Coll.
D. S. Anthony, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
G. J. Fritz, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist; also Coll.
L. A. Garrard, Ph.D., Research Associate
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
D. B. Ward, Ph.D., Assistant Botainst; also Coll.

Dairy Science Department
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist and Head; also Coll.
H. H. Head, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
W. A. Krienke, M.S. Associate Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Nutritionist; also Coll.
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
K. L. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Microbiologist; also Coll.
C. J. Wilcox, Ph.D., Assistant Geneticist; also Coll.
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Associate Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.

West Florida Dairy Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Dairy Husbandman

Editorial Department
Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Editor and Head; also Ext.
K. B. Meurlott, B.A., Assistant Editor; also Ext.
Mary C. Williams, M.A., Assistant Editor

Entomology Department
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist and Head
D. H. Habeck, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist


M









Annual Report, 1965


V. G. Perry, Ph.D., Nematologist; also Coll.
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Assistant Apiculturist
G. C. Smart, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
R. C. Wilkinson, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Food Technology and Nutrition Department
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biochemist and Head; also Coll.
E. M. Ahmed, Ph.D., Int. Assistant Biochemist
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Horticulturist
J. H. Johnson, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
F. W. Knapp, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist: also Coll.
G. D. Kuhn, Ph.D., Assistant Food Microbiologist; also Coll.
H. A. Moye, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
R. C. Robbins, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist; also Coll.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulturist
Margaret E. Merkley, M.S., Int. Assistant in Food Technology
Ruth O. Townsend, R.N., Assistant in Nutrition
C. H. Van Middlelem, Ph.D., Biochemist

Forestry Department
J. L. Gray, M.S.F., Associate Forester and Head; also Coll.
S. L. Beckwith, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
P. W. Frazer, M.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
R. E. Goddard, Ph.D., Associate Geneticist; also Coll.
J. B. Huffman, D.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
C. M. Kaufman, Ph.D., Forester; also Coll.
J. W. Miller, Jr., M.S.F., Forester; also Coll.
D. M. Post, M.S.F., Assistant Forester; also Coll.
W. H. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Forester; also Coll.
E. T. Sullivan, D.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
K. R. Swinford, Ph.D., Forester; also Coll.
R. G. Stanley, Ph.D., Forest Physiologist; also Coll.
R. K. Strickland, M.S., Int. Research Associate; also Coll.

Fruit Crops Department
A. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
R. H. Biggs, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
J. F. Gerber, Ph.D., Assistant Climatologist; also Coll.
C. H. Hendershott, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; also Coll.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Horticulturist
J. S. Shoemaker, Ph.D., Horticulturist
J. Soule, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; also Coll.

Library
S. L. West, LL.B., B.S., Librarian and Head
S. F. Bennett, B.S.L.S., Associate Librarian
A. C. Strickland, M.S., Assistant Librarian
Janie L. Tyson, Assistant in Library








8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Ornamental Horticulture Department
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Horticulturist
G. C. Horn, Ph.D., Associate Turf Technologist; also Coll.
J. N. Joiner, Ph.D., Associate Ornamental Horticulturist; also Coll.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist (on leave)
R. T. Poole, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Associate Ornamental Horticulturist

Plant Pathology Department
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head; also Coll.
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
M. K. Corbett, Ph.D., Associate Virologist (on exchange)
J. A. deBokx, Ph.D., Virologist (exchange with Corbett)
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
J. W. Kimbrough, Ph.D., Assistant Mycologist
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, USDA
C. R. Miller, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist
D. E. Purcifull, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
D. A. Roberts, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist; also Coll.
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist; also Coll.
R. F. Stouffer, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
H. E. Warmke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, USDA

Plant Science Section
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist in Charge

Poultry Science Department
R. H. Harms, Ph.D., Poultry Nutritionist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
J. L. Fry, Ph.D., Associate Poultry Products Technologist; also Coll.
P. W. Waldroup, M.S., Research Associate; also Coll.
H. R. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Poultry Geneticist; also Coll.

Soils Department
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist and Head; also Coll.
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Biochemist
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist; also Coll.
V. W. Carlisle, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist; also Coll.
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Soils Microbiologist
J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Biochemist; also Coll.
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Soils Physicist; also Coll.
C. C. Hortenstine, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chemist
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Associate Soils Surveyor
R. W. Llewellyn, M.S.A., Int. Assistant Soils Scientist
T. C. Mathews, B.S.A., Assistant Soils Surveyor
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soils Technologist
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
D. F. Rothwell, Ph.D., Associate Soils Microbiologist; also Coll.








Annual Report, 1965


D. O. Spinks, Ph.D., Soils Chemist; also Coll.
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Associate Chemist

Statistics Department
William Mendenhall, Ph.D., Statistician and Head
Willard 0. Ash, Ph.D., Statistician; also Coll.
F. C. Barnett, M.S., Assistant Statistician; also Coll.
F. G. Martin, Ph.D., Associate Statistician; also Coll.
Ramon A. Bradley, B.S., Research Associate

Vegetable Crops Department
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
D. D. Gull, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
S. J. Locascio, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; also Coll.

Veterinary Science Department
G. T. Edds, D.V.M., Ph.D., Veterinarian and Head; also Coll.
W. W. Kirkham, D.V.M., Ph.D., Associate Virologist
J. M. Kling, D.V.M., M.S., Research Associate
S. E. Leland, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Parasitologist
F. C. Neal, D.V.M., M.S., Assistant Veterinarian; also Coll.
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Ph.D., Pathologist, also Coll.
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist; also Coll.
L. J. Wallace, D.V.M., M.S., Assistant Pathologist
F. H. White, Ph.D., Associate Bacteriologist


BRANCH STATIONS

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, Box 909, Sanford
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist in Charge
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
H. L. Rhoades, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Horticulturist
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist

CITRUS STATION, Lake Alfred
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
C. A. Anderson, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
L. B. Anderson, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. in Entomology-Pathology
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Chemist, FCC
J. A. Attaway, Ph.D., Associate Chemist, FCC









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


R. W. Barron, B.A., Asst. in Chemistry, FCC
J. G. Blair, B.S.M.E., Associate Mechanical Engineer, FCC
R. F. Brooks, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
R. J. Collins, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
G. E. Coppock, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, FCC
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Assistant Chemical Engineer, FCC
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry
A. W. Feldman, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
P. J. Fellers, Ph.D., Assistant Food Technologist, FCC
Francine E. Fisher, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. B. Graves, Jr., Ph.D., Int. Assistant Chemist
William Grierson, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist
C. I. Hannon, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
S. L. Hedden, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Associate Chemist
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Associate Bacteriologist, FCC
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomologist-Pathology
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Associate Chemist, FCC
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Chemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
D. H. Lenker, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
S. K. Long, Ph.D., Assistant Industrial Bacteriologist
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC
M. D. Maraulja, B.S., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
W. R. Meagher, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
J. F. Metcalf, M.S., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Chemist, FCC
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
M. F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
Roger Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
R. L. Phillips, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. L. Reese, M.S.A., Research Associate
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Pectin Chemist
G. F. Ryan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. L. Sebring, M.A., Assistant in Library
A. G. Selhime, B.S., Asst. Entomologist, USDA
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Nematologist
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist, FCC
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology








Annual Report, 1965


Kenneth Trammel, B.S.A., Int. Research Associate
H. M. Vines, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist, FCC
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
T. Adair Wheaton, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Associate Chemist, FCC

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce
Mortimer Cohen, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. C. Bullock, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
D. V. Calvert, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist


EVERGLADES STATION, P. O. Drawer A, Belle Glade
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
M. H. Byrom, M.S., Agricultural Engineer, USDA
T. W. Casselman, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
D. W. Fisher, M.S., Associate Agronomist, USDA
W. G. Genung, M.S., Associate Entomologist
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
C. E. Haines, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman
E. D. Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
J. R. Iley, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. F. Joyner, Assistant Agronomist, USDA
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Animal Husbandman
W. C. LeCroy, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
F. leGrand, M.S., Assistant Agronomist
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
T. E. Summers, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist, USDA
P. L. Thayer, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
F. H. Thomas, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
C. Wehlburg, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
H. D. Whittemore, B.S.A.E., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
F. D. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Geneticist, USDA
J. A. Winchester, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Associate Horticulturist

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Fort Pierce
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Entomologist
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist

Plantation Field Laboratory, 5305 S.W. 12th St., Fort Lauderdale
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. D. Blackburn, M.S., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
H. I. Borders, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
E. 0. Burt, Ph.D., Assistant Turf Technologist
W. C. Mills, M.S., Assistant Drainage Engineer, USDA
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
W. H. Speir, Assistant Hydraulic Engineer, USDA









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


E. H. Stewart, M.S., Associate Soil Physicist, USDA
L. H. Weldon, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA

GULF COAST STATION, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Bradenton
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
D. G. A. Kelbert, Associate Horticulturist
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. H. Littrell, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
R. O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Amegda J. Overman, M.S., Assistant Soils Microbiologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. E. Waters, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist
South Florida Field Laboratory, Box 973, Immokalee
P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist


Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory, Route 2, Box 629, Dover
Paul Sutton, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, Quincy
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
F. S. Baker, Jr., M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
H. H. Bryan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
T. J. Davidson, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
D. R. Davis, A.B., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
C. E. Dean, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
D. T. Sechler, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Assistant Entomologist
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
Marianna Unit, Box 504, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

RANGE CATTLE STATION, Ona
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
C. L. Dantzman, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
J. E. McCaleb; Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Associate Animal Husbandman

SUB-TROPICAL STATION, 18905 S.W. 280th Street, Route 1, Homestead
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
C. W. Averre, III, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
C. W. Campbell, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist









Annual Report, 1965 ]

R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
S. E. Malo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. B. Marlatt, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
P. G. Orth, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. W. Strobel, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
M. O. Thomas, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Horticulturist

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION, Box 630, Live Oak
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist in Charge

WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, Brooksville
W. C. Burns, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman in Charge, USDA

WEST FLORIDA STATION, Route 3, Jay
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
L. S. Dunavin, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
FIELD LABORATORIES
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, Box 539, Monticello
H. W. Young, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist in Charge
J. R. Large, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Associate Entomologist

Potato Investigations Laboratory, Box 728, Hastings
D. R. Hensel, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. B. Workman, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Box 321, Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
W. C. Adlerz, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
C. H. Curran, D.Sc., Entomologist
J. A. Mortensen, Ph.D., Assistant Geneticist
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture

Weather Forecasting Service, Box 1058, Lakeland
W. O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in Charge, USWB
J. G. Georg, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
L. L. Benson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
G. R. Davis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. M. Hinson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist
G. W. Leber, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. F. Mincey, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
O. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. T. Sherouse, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. R. Wallis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB


1









REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Probably the most significant event of the year was the appropriation
by the Legislature of $3,500,000 for needed agricultural facilities in May
of 1965. The largest unit authorized was $1,890,000 for an added unit to
the McCarty Hall complex on the main campus. This will be developed
to serve the teaching and Extension programs as well as agricultural
research.
Also authorized, however, was an extensive list of branch station
buildings and funds for land purchase. The entire list, with amounts
authorized, follows:

Unit D, McCarty Hall .. ..------------- ----- $1,890,000
Sewage Line Tie In Veterinary Science 60,000
Plantation Field Laboratory Fort Lauderdale:
Lab and Office Building -...... -----155,000
Service Building -------------- 60,000
Animal Isolation and Laboratory ....--- -80,000
Greenhouse and Headhouse ------20,000
Citrus Experiment Station -- Lake Alfred:
Office and Laboratory Building ----------... 260,000
Water Storage Tank 30,000
Everglades Experiment Station Belle Glade:
Library and Conference Room .-------- 80,000
Equipment and Storage Building ...--------- 20,000
Central Florida Experiment Station -Sanford:
Office and Laboratory Building --- 117,000
Land --------------------- -- 40,000
Greenhouse and Headhouse --....--- -- ------ 31,000
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station Homestead:
Entomology and Pathology Building --- 97,500
Land --------- ------------------- -- 60,000
Indian River Field Laboratory Fort Pierce:
Library and Conference Room -- -------- 20,000
Gulf Coast Experiment Station Bradenton:
Headhouse and Farm Equipment Building -----. 30,000
North Florida Experiment Station Quincy:
Tobacco Processing Laboratory .----------- 60,000
Range Cattle Experiment Station Ona:
Library Conference and Laboratory Addition 35,000
North Central Florida Area:
Land to Relocate Agronomy Farm --- 100,000
Apopka Foliage Plant Laboratory Apopka:
Office and Laboratory Building -- ... 80,000
Marianna Swine Research Unit Marianna:
Office and Laboratory ----...----- 65,000
Minor Buildings Throughout the State -- 150,000
TOTAL UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA -
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES ------. $3,540,500

When these are constructed and in operation, the research potential
of the Agricultural Experiment Stations will be greatly expanded.








Annual Report, 1965


No major natural disasters interrupted the program during the year,
although a hurricane brought heavy rain and winds to north Florida in
September, and a heavy frost in February did some damage.
The program advanced and was productive, as is detailed in this report.
Research continues to be the base for the rapid expansion of Florida's
agriculture. This expansion must be in harmony with the continued growth
of tourism and of industry. With good research and careful planning, con-
flict can be avoided and progress made on all three fronts.

CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS
Construction of the new Gulf Coast Experiment Station at Bradenton
was completed and occupied in the spring of 1965. The new Braden River
site will be the main station and laboratory center, and the old Bradenton
site will be completely abandoned and released for other use by the State
Board of Education. In addition, the small operation at the Cortez farm
will continue.
The Southern Regional Agricultural Pesticide Research Laboratory was
completed and occupied in the spring of 1965. This laboratory is located
on the Main Station farm on the University campus in Gainesville and will
serve the 14 states which comprise the southern region.
A Florida Citrus Commission grant of $143,000 has made possible the
planning and letting of a construction contract for additional facilities
to the processing building at the Citrus Experiment Station in Lake Alfred.
Less major improvements but over $10,000 each included the installation
of automatic feeding and milking equipment at the Dairy Science Research
Unit; remodeling of the Plant Pathology Department building; air-condi-
tioning the main Everglades Experiment Station building; a new silo and
service building at the North Florida Station, Quincy; modifying citrus
fruit degreening facilities at the Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred;
and remodeling of Veterinary Science Laboratory in Gainesville.
Remodeling and expansion of an old house into a forestry genetics-
physiology building was completed and equipped for basic research and
occupied in the summer of 1965. This will materially strengthen the re-
search in this area.
The tobacco unit is to be relocated from the main station farm to a
new 80 acre tract 8 miles northwest of Gainesville, which was secured for
this purpose.
The swine unit is being relocated on the south side of the Archer road,
west of the main animal science farm, to make way for the relocation of the
University plant and grounds division.

RESEARCH PROGRAM
Florida's agriculture is making continued growth and expansion, now
nearing the $1 billion annual cash farm income level. New problems arise,
and new projects are immediately initiated to find answers for the further
development of the total industry. Many new projects require the team
approach. New projects are carefully screened and formally reviewed in
accordance with recognized procedures. Old projects are terminated when
completed or when they appear unproductive. All work in the entire Sta-
tion system is carefully and effectively coordinated. The total research
program is a continuing process, and following are the figures showing
the changes during the year:








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Projects State Hatch Regional AMA McInt-S Total
Initiated 35 25 2 0 0 62
Completed 25 4 4 2 0 35
Revised 5 1 0 0 0 6
Total Active
6/30/65 305 110 9 0 1 425
Total Active
6/30/64 295 89 11 2 1 398

Except for some projects which were temporarily inactive during the
year, the following reports by departments and stations contain the sum-
mary of work of all projects plus additional reports of preliminary ex-
ploratory research.
To obtain complete information on a given problem, commodity or proc-
ess, the reader should consult the index, since related work may have been
done at several locations.
This report reflects an outstanding service to growers, ranchers, and
related agricultural industries as evidenced by the research contributions
reported in the following pages. To keep the public promptly informed,
field days, short courses, and conferences were held by various departments,
branch stations, and field laboratories periodically during the year.

STAFF CHANGES
Appointments
Thomas A. Calvert, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., July 1, 1964,
USDA
William Grierson, Assoc. Chemist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1964
Simon Edwardo Malo, Asst. Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Station, July 1,
1964
James William Kimbrough, Asst. Mycologist, Plant Path. Dept., July 1, 1964
Lorena Helen Wing, Int. Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., July 1,
1964
Frank Garland Martin, Assoc. Statistician, Stat. Dept., July 1, 1964
Jacob Annee deBokx, Assoc. Virologist, Plant Path. Dept., July 1, 1964
Esam Mahmoud Ahmed, Int. Asst. Biochemist, Food Tech. and Nutr.
Dept., July 6, 1964
Bobby Neal Duck, Asst. Agronomist, Agron. Dept., Sept. 1, 1964
Frederic Charles Barnett, Asst. Statistician, Stat. Dept., Sept. 1, 1964
Henry Fleming Decker, Int. Research Associate, Agron. Dept., Sept. 1, 1964
William Clifford Meredith, Int. Research Assoc., Orn. Hort. Dept., Sept. 1,
1964
Robert Bruce Marlatt, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Sub-Tropical Station, Sept.
16, 1964
Wayne H. Smith, Asst. Forester, Forestry Dept., Nov. 1, 1964
Ray McLean Hinson, Asst. Meteorologist, Weather Bureau, Nov. 23, 1964
Carol Raymond Miller, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Plant Path. Dept., Dec. 1,
1964
Joseph Francis Metcalf, Asst. in Chemistry, Citrus Station, Dec. 1, 1964
William Robert Llewellyn, Int. Asst. Soils Scientist, Soils Dept., Jan. 1, 1965
Robert Greenblatt Stanley, Biochemist, Forestry, Jan. 1, 1965
Clarence A. Dunkerley, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., Jan. 1,
1965, USDA








Annual Report, 1965


Paul Joseph Fellows, Asst. Food Technologist, Citrus Station, Jan. 1, 1965,
FCC
William Gibbs Eden, Entomologist and Head, Ent. Dept., Feb. 1, 1965
Jocelyn Juniper Newhall, Int. Asst. in Library, Citrus Station, Mar. 1, 1965
Hugh Anson Moye, Asst. Chemist, Food Tech. Lab., Apr. 1, 1965
George Elden Brown, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Citrus Station, Apr. 1, 1965,
FCC
Joe Edward Clayton, Assoc. Ag. Engineer, Everglades Station, Apr. 1, 1965,
USDA
Willis A. West, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., Apr. 1, 1965,
USDA
William Welch Deen, Jr., Asst. in Ag. Engineering, Everglades Station,
May 1, 1965
Harry Gene Witt, Int. Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., May 1, 1965
Edward Patrick Fisher, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., May 17, 1965
Harold Franklin Wilkins, Asst. Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station, June
15, 1965

Promotions
Earl Stewart Horner, Agronomist, Agron. Dept., July 1, 1964
Arno Zane Palmer, Meat Scientist, Ani. Sci. Dept., July 1, 1964
George J. Fritz, Assoc. Plant Physiologist, Botany Dept., July 1, 1964
Chesley Barker Hall, Horticulturist, Food Tech. and Nutr. Dept., July 1,
1964
Ray E. Goddard, Assoc. Geneticist, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1964
Robert Hilton Biggs, Assoc. Biochemist, Fruit Crops Dept., July 1, 1964
Tsu Lisang Yuan, Assoc. Chemist, Soils Dept., July 1, 1964
John F. Darby, Plant Pathologist, Central Fla. Station, July 1, 1964
Paul Harrison Everett, Assoc. Soils Chemist, So. Fla. Field Lab., July 1,
1964
Luther Carlisle Hammond, Soils Physicist, Soils Dept., July 1, 1964
Robert Chung Jen Koo, Assoc. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1964
Richard Turk Poole, Jr., Asst. Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., Jan. 1, 1965

Resignations
Roy Glendon Stout, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., July 31, 1964
Pierre Jean Jutras, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Citrus Station, Aug. 31, 1964
James Edmond Reynolds, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Sub-Tropical Station,
Aug. 31, 1964
Wilson Butler Riggan, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Sept. 15, 1964
Gilbert Eugene Alberding, Asst. in Chemistry, Citrus Station, Sept. 30,
1964, FCC
Allen Griffin Selhime, Asst. Entomologist, Citrus Station, Dec. 31, 1964,
USDA
Curtis Williams, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Jan. 31, 1965, USDA
William C. LeCroy, Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Station, Mar. 15, 1965
Bobby Ray Bennett, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., Apr. 30, 1965
William Clifford Meredith, Int. Research Assoc., Orn. Hort. Dept., Apr. 30,
1965
Jocelyn Juniper Newhall, Int. Asst. in Library, Citrus Station, May 31, 1965
Paul Lloyd Thayer, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, May 31,
1965
Chancellor Irving Hannon, Asst. Nematologist, Citrus Station, June 30, 1965








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Transfers
Robert Eugene Stall, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, from Indian River Field
Laboratory to Plant Pathology Department at Gainesville.

Leave of Absence
Samuel E. McFadden, Jr., Asst. Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., to Hawaii,
July 1, 1964, to June 30, 1965
Marshall Reid Godwin, Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., to Head the Fruit and
Vegetable Section of the National Commission on Food Marketing,
Mar. 26, 1965
Victor Eugene Green, Jr., Assoc. Agron., Everglades Station, to Costa
Rica, June 1, 1965

Deaths
Bernard H. Moore, Assistant Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Service,
USWB, Sept. 10, 1964

Retirements
Henry Glenn Hamilton, Economist and Head of Department, Ag. Econ.
Dept., June 30, 1965
Robert Verrill Allison, Fiber Technologist, Everglades Station, June 30,
1965
David Gustaf Alfred Kelbert, Associate Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station,
June 30, 1965
Loren Haight Stover, Assistant in Horticulture, Watermelon and Grape
Lab., June 30, 1965

Retirements Prior to 1964-65
Arthur Liston Shealy, Animal Husbandman and Head, Ani. Sci. Dept., 1949
Gulie Hargrove Blackmon, Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., 1954
Levi Otto Gratz, Assistant Director, 1954
Arthur Forrest Camp, Vice-Director in Charge, Citrus Station, 1956
Oudia Davis Abbott, Home Economist, Food Tech. and Nutr., 1958
Lillian E. Arnold, Associate Botanist, Plant Pathology Dept., 1958
P. T. Dix Arnold, Associate Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Dept., 1959
Rudolf William Ruprecht, Chemist and Vice-Director, Central Fla. Sta.,
1959
Jesse Roy Christie, Nematologist, Entomology Dept., 1960
Mark W. Emmel, Veterinarian, Vet. Sci. Dept., 1961
J. Francis Cooper, Editor and Head, Editorial Dept., 1961
Joseph Robert Neller, Soils Chemist, Soils Department, 1962
Willard M. Fifield, Provost for Agriculture, 1962
William L. Thompson, Entomologist, Citrus Station, 1962
Ida K. Cresap, Librarian, Agricultural Library, 1963
Norman R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman and Head, Poultry Sci. Dept.,
1963
Auther H. Eddins, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Pot. Inv. Lab., 1963
Raymond B. Becker, Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Sci. Dept., 1963
William Angus Carver, Agronomist, Agronomy, Jan. 31, 1964
Archie Newton Tissot, Entomologist, Entomology, June 30, 1964
Erdman West, Botanist and Mycologist, Plant Pathology, June 30, 1964








Annual Report, 1965 19

GRANTS AND GIFTS

Commercial grants and gifts accepted as support for existing programs
during the year ending June 30, 1965. Financial assistance is hereby grate-
fully acknowledged.

Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois
Fruit Crops Department-$1,000
Poultry Science Department-$2,000
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$1,000
Allied Chemical Corporation, New York, New York
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$1,000
Allied Chemical Corporation, Morristown, New Jersey
Indian River Laboratory-$250
Citrus Experiment Station-$250
Everglades Experiment Station-$500
North Florida Experiment Station-$250
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$250
Amchem Products, Inc., Ambler, Pennsylvania
Central Florida Experiment Station-$500
American Cyanamid Company, Princeton, New Jersey
Animal Science Department-$2,500
Food Technology and Nutrition Department-$900
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$1,000
American Potash Institute, Washington, D. C.
Vegetable Crops Department-$3,000
American Poultry and Hatchery Federation, Kansas City, Missouri
Poultry Science Department-$1,000
American Railroads Association, Chicago, Illinois
Forestry Department-$100
Basic Inc., Cleveland, 15, Ohio
Animal Science Department-$2,000
Citrus Experiment Station-$4,000
Brunswick Pulp and Paper Company, Brunswick, Georgia
Forestry Department-$2,000
California Chemical Company, Richmond, California
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,000
California Chemical Company, Ocoee, Florida
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$1,000
Chemagro Corporation, Kansas City, Missouri
Veterinary Science Department-$1,000
Citrus Experiment Station-$500
Chevron Chemical Company, Orlando, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,000
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,000
Chilean Nitrate Educational Bureau, Inc., New York 5, New York
Citrus Experiment Station-$3,600
0. H. Clapp and Company, New York, New York
Agricultural Engineering Department-$3,000
Fruit Crops Department-$3,000
Commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana
Animal Science Department-$3,000
Container Corporation of America, Fernandina Beach, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Continental Woodlands, Savannah, Georgia
Forestry Department-$2,000
Mrs. F. L. DeBusk, Pensacola, Florida
Plant Pathology Department-$50
Diamond Alkali Company, Painesville, Ohio
Plant Pathology Department-$600
Plant Pathology Department-$600
Central Florida Experiment Station-$1,000
Central Florida Experiment Station-$500
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,500
Everglades Experiment Station-$750
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$1,000
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$750
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500
Diamond Alkali Company Foundation, Painesville, Ohio
Plant Pathology Department-$600
The DOW Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan
Agronomy Department-$250
Dixie Lily Company, Williston, Florida
West Florida Experiment Station-$6,350
Eaton Laboratories, Norwich, New York
Veterinary Science Department-$2,800
Esso Research and Engineering Company, Linden, New Jersey
Agronomy Department-$500
Everglades Experiment Station-$750
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$1,000
Florida Agricultural Research Institute, Gainesville, Florida
Animal Science Department and
Range Cattle Experiment Station-$6,000
Florida Citrus Commission, Lakeland, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$5,000
FMC Corporation, Niagara Chemical Division, Middleport, New York
Central Florida Experiment Station-$500
Florida Meat Packers Association, Tampa 1, Florida
Veterinary Science Department-$500
Florida Orchid Association, Inc., Sarasota, Florida
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$300
Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa
Veterinary Science Department-$2,000
Gastobac Corporation, Charlotte, North Carolina
Fruit Crops Department-$500
Geigy Agricultural Chemicals, Yonkers, New York
Agronomy Department-$3,000
Central Florida Experiment Station-$1,000
Central Florida Experiment Station-$500
Citrus Experiment Station-$500
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,000
Hendry County Citrus Account, LaBelle, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$4,500
Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington, Delaware
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$1,000
Hoffman-LaRoche, Inc., Nutley, New Jersey
Animal Science Department-$1,000
International Fortrition Company, Inc., Atlanta 5, Georgia
Poultry Science Department-$2,000








Annual Report, 1965


International Copper Research Association, New York 20, New York
Animal Science Department-$5,000
International Paper Company, Mobile, Alabama
Forestry Department-$2,000
Immokalee Sugarcane Growers Cooperative, Immokalee, Florida
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$2,700
Eli Lilly and Company, Greenfield, Indiana
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500
ITT Marlow, Midland Park, New Jersey
Citrus Experiment Station-$5,000
Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation, New York, New York
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$1,000
Marine Colloids, Inc., Springfield, New Jersey
Citrus Experiment Station-$975
Merck, Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey
Veterinary Science Department-$5,000
Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corporation, Baltimore 15, Maryland
Everglades Experiment Station-$700
James T. Miner, Boynton Beach, Florida
Everglades Experiment Station and
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$1,500
Minute Maid Groves, Orlando, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$7,500
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. Louis, Missouri
Poultry Science Department-$3,800
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,000
Moorman Manufacturing Company, Quincy, Illinois
Animal Science Department-$3,000
Morton Chemical Company, Woodstock, Illinois
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$2,266
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$875
National Association of Artificial Breeders, Columbia, Missouri
Dairy Science Department-$1,200
National Canners Association, Washington, D. C.
Gulf Coast Experiment Station and
Food Technology Department-$1,800
0. F. Nelson and Sons' Nursery, Inc., Apopka, Florida
Everglades Experiment Station and
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$1,500
NOPCO Chemical Company, Newark, New Jersey
Poultry Science Department-$1,000
Phelps Dodge Refining Corporation, New York 22, New York
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,000
Everglades Experiment Station-$2,000
Chas. Pfizer and Company, Inc., New York 17, New York
Animal Science Department-$1,000
Poultry Science Department-$1,000
Rayonier, Inc., Fernandina Beach, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Agronomy Department and
Agricultural Engineering Department-$5,000
Rockefeller Foundation, New York 27, New York
Animal Science Department-$500








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Rohm and Haas Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$1,500
Scott Paper Company, Mobile, Alabama
Forestry Department-$2,000
Shell Development Company, Modesto, California
Agronomy Department-$500
Central Florida Experiment Station-$800
Everglades Experiment Station-$600
Shell Chemical Company, New York 20, New York
Central Florida Experiment Station-$1,000
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500
Smith Douglass Company, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia
Poultry Science Department-$3,000
Soft Phosphate Research Institute, Ocala, Florida
Soils Department and
Citrus Experiment Station-$3,000
Southern Forest Diseases and Insect Research Council, Atlanta, Georgia
Entomology Department-$2,400
Entomology Department and
Forestry Department-$2,400
South Florida Tomato Improvement Association, Homestead, Florida
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$2,025
Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, North Carolina
Forestry Department-$3,000
Soils Department-$4,000
St. Regis Paper Company, Jacksonville, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000
Standard Oil Company, Cleveland, Ohio
Entomology Department-$900
Stauffer Chemical Company, Mountain View, California
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500
State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida
Vegetable Crops Department-$600
Sun Oil Company, Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$1,000
Soils Department-$500
Central Florida Experiment Station-$1,000
Central Florida Experiment Station-$1,000
Potato Investigations Laboratory-$1,000
Thompson-Hayward Chemical Company, Kansas City, Missouri
Vegetable Crops Department-$500
Citrus Experiment Station-$300
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500
United States Steel Corporation, Fairfield, Alabama
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,400
Union Bag Camp Paper Corporation, Savannah, Georgia
Forestry Department-$2,000
The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan
Agronomy Department-$500
Central Florida Experiment Station-$500
V-C Chemical Company, Richmond, Virginia
Entomology Department-$1,000








Annual Report, 1965


Velsicol Chemical Corporation, Chicago, Illinois
Vegetable Crops Department-$500
Plant Pathology Department-$1,000
Wedgworth's Inc., Belle Glade, Florida
Everglades Experiment Station-$100
West Coast Fertilizer, Tampa, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,545
Zirin Laboratories, Hialeah, Florida
Veterinary Science Department-$2,000


Grants for basic research were accepted from national agencies as
follows:

Atomic Energy Commission
Agronomy Department ------ $ 9,915
Agronomy Department $10,000
Agronomy Department $17,000
Food Technology Department -- $79,252
Soils Department --------- $11,565
Veterinary Science Department $20,800

National Science Foundation
Veterinary Science Department ---- $ 6,350

National Institute of Health
Animal Science Department $27,655
Animal Science Department --- $ 7,920
Animal Science Department $34,349
Animal Science Department ---- $ 9,960
Animal Science Department ---- $13,080
Botany Department .......--------------- $11,240
Food Technology Department ---- $15,168
Veterinary Science Department ....------ $24,750
Veterinary Science Department -- $14,239
Gulf Coast Experiment Station --- $ 8,600
Plant Pathology Department $31,351

Public Health Service
Animal Science Department $33,460

United States Department of Agriculture
Agronomy Department and
Plant Pathology Department -- $ 9,000
Entomology Department .. ---- -- $57,210
Entomology Department ----- $24,906
Entomology Department and Soils Department- $57,971
Fruit Crops Department ----- $20,000
Citrus Experiment Station $13,000
Everglades Experiment Station --- $ 2,500
Gulf Coast Experiment Station .-------------- $ 2,000










REPORT OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGER
SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES OF STATE FUNDS 1964-65

Fla. Agricultural
Experiment Station Grants and Total
General Revenue Incidental Donations State
Funds Funds Funds Funds

Salaries and wages --. ------- $5,127,093.80 $108,315.24 $374,885.99 $5,610,295.03
Travel -- ---------- 157,052.86 8,529.08 28,221.61 193,803.55
Transportation and communication --- 74,238.86 9,310.48 2,714.28 86,263.62
Utilities --------------- 122,072.36 11,014.65 5,430.49 138,517.50
Printing ....----- -------_-_ ---------, 50,986.70 429.98 8,691.63 60,108.31
Repairs and maintenance ..-------_..... .------- 56,198.45 18,181.28 9,702.48 84,082.21
Contractual services --... ------------- 30,834.72 8,736.53 9,330.51 48,901.76
Rentals --------- 21,185.29 16,678.27 3,976.27 41,839.83
Other current charges and obligations ---------- 7,106.46 20,489.00 459.90 28,055.36
Supplies and materials -.. -----------------..----- 463,229.90 357,891.16 116,141.03 937,262.09
Equipment -.....----- ----- --- ---.- -- 102,333.20 65,411.42 104,456.18 272,200.80
Land and buildings -.- -- --------__-.... ----. 30,202.91 61,440.65 28,596.08 120,239.64
Replacement fund -- -.--..- --------------------- 1,010.00 1,010.00
Special appropriation -building fund -- 195,810.94 195,810.94
Total state funds .__. __..--- ------- ---- .$6,439,356.45 $686,427.74 $692,606.45 $7,818,390.64






SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES OF FEDERAL FUNDS 1964-65


Regional Total
Hatch Research McIntire Federal
Funds Funds Pesticide Stennis Funds


Salaries and wages .-.-.-_-.-.
Travel ----
Transportation and
communication .._--- --_--. -
Printing --------.. ------
Repairs and maintenance ---
Contractual services ----
Rentals --..-. _..........- -
Other current charges
and obligations _- __---_--..
Materials and supplies -------
Equipment ----.---- _-_--. ..- -
Land and buildings -..........


-$431,951.08
2,120.68


$50,286.00
2,721.95


40.39
311.82
336.77
22.80
142.60


S5,531.86
_-- 105,649.87
.-- 19,898.63


38.00
13,252.51
12,481.22
7,839.81


351.58
200,555.43


$ 8,696.01





19.20
440.00
4.56
10.00



3,292.00
11,521.39
6,218.19


$490,933.09
4,842.63

40.39
331.02
776.77 '
27.36
152.60

38.00
22,076.37
130,004.06
234,512.06


Total federal expenditures _.-$565,152.12 $87,473.87 $200,907.01 $30,201.35 $883,734.35








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Research was conducted under 45 projects. There were three new
projects initiated and five projects closed. One of the projects is regional in
cooperation with other Southern State Experiment Stations. The depart-
ment continued its arrangement of coordinating its research program with
the Florida Citrus Commission in the area of economics and marketing of
citrus fruit. During the year one bulletin, eight Agricultural Economics
Mimeo Reports, and six journal articles were published.

FACTORS AFFECTING COSTS AND RETURNS IN
FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION
Hatch Project 186 Zach Savage
Cash costs at $234.42 per acre for 1963-64 were up less than 1 percent
from the previous season. This season was the third highest of these records
being 97 percent of the highest at $241.42 in 1961-62 and 106 percent of
the 1956-61 average.
Labor, power, and equipment costs in 1963-64 at $122.81 were the highest
of these records being up 17 percent from the previous high of $116.14 in
1956-57 and 12 percent above average. This was largely due to increased
pruning brought about by low temperatures in 1962. Money spent for
fertilizer materials at $51.73 per acre was the lowest since 1950-51 and
84 percent of average. (Low temperatures of 1962 lowered these expendi-
tures for 1963-64.) Money spent for spray and dust materials at $32.21
was lower than the previous four seasons but 92 percent of average. Real
estate taxes at $19.19 per acre were second only to 1961-62, the highest
of these records, and 31 percent above average. Other items listed as
"miscellaneous" at $8.48 were near average.
Fruit yields during and since the 1962 freeze have been down with
prices good. As a result, returns from fruit per acre have been somewhat
lower than either of the five seasons of 1957-62.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY, ITS POSSIBLE
INHERITANCE AND DEPRECIATION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
State Project 345 (Revised) A. H. Spurlock
Records of replacement, causes of losses, and disposal dates were con-
tinued on five dairy herds. Data were combined with results previously
obtained to determine useful lifespan, depreciation rates, and reasons for
replacements.
The lifespan of 4804 replaced cows averaged 6.4 years, or about 4.4
years in the milking herd. The disposal rate increased rapidly after the
first year in the herd, and after three years less than two-thirds of the
original animals remained. After five years only 37 percent were still in
the herd.
Cows reaching age six (4 years in the herd) had a life expectancy of
2.7 additional years and averaged 8.7 years of life; cows reaching age 10
had 1.7 years of life expectancy had averaged 11.7 years of life.
Live disposals from the herd were principally for low production, 31.9
percent; mastitis or some form of udder trouble, 24.6 percent; and repro-
ductive troubles, 17.6 percent. These three reasons or combinations of








Annual Report, 1965


them were responsible for 78.8 percent of the live disposals. About 8
percent of the live disposals were for unstated reasons.
Deaths from all causes accounted for 13.5 percent of all disposals.
This project has been closed.

INFLUENCE OF BREED COMPOSITION AND LEVEL OF
NUTRITION ON ADAPTABILITY OF CATTLE TO
CENTRAL FLORIDA CONDITIONS

State Project 615 (Revised) R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to determine the relative productivity and
profitableness of cows of different proportion of English and Brahman
blood when run on pasture programs designed to supply low, medium, and
good nutrition levels. Data are being accumulated on physical inputs and
outputs for the various programs that will serve as a basis of the economic
analysis. The experimental data will be supplemented with estimates of
costs of performing various operations under ranch conditions to reflect
expected net income from various programs if followed by commercial
ranchers.
(See also Project 615, Range Cattle Station.)

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION ON FLATWOOD SOILS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA

State Project 627 (Revised) R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to evaluate pasture programs varying in
intensities of fertilization and levels of management in terms of forage
production, nutrient balance, and rate and economy of beef production
for a cow calf program. The present experiment contains one all grass,
three grass-clover, and one irrigated grass-clover program, with varying
rates of fertilization and cow numbers.
During the year, summaries were made showing costs and returns for
the 1963-64 season. As has been true in other years, Program 2 had the
lowest cost per pound of beef produced and the highest net returns per
acre. Program 2 is a grass-clover program that is fertilized with 300
pounds of 0-10-20 fertilizer per acre per year, but receives no top dressing.
Program No. 5, an irrigated grass-clover program, had the highest cost
per pound of beef and the lowest net returns per acre. This program is
fertilized with 900 pounds of 0-10-20 fertilizer per acre per year, but re-
ceives no top dressing. The production of beef was 391 pounds per acre
on this program. The value of beef produced per acre was $78, which
was $17 less than the net cost per acre for the program.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Animal
Science, and Soils departments.)

METHODS OF ESTIMATING FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION
State Project 685 P. E. Shuler'
The objective method developed through research sponsored by the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations continued to be used for citrus
crop forecasts. In the 1964-65 season October forecasts indicated crops
1 Cooperative with the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.


I








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of 83.6 million boxes of oranges and 33.5 million boxes of grapefruit, both
sharp increases over the light crops of the preceding year. Production
based on utilization is currently estimated at 86.2 million boxes of oranges
and 31.8 million boxes for grapefruit.
Experimental monthly reports of maturity and yield tests on grove-run
fruit continued for the second successive season. Grapefruit was added
to the three orange types on which testing began in 1963. In October
1964 high yields for fruit in terms of pounds solids were predicted based on
these tests. Yields of pounds solids in oranges exceeded all previous records.
A midseason survey in which fruit counts were repeated in sample
groves originally counted in August and September was inaugurated.
Preliminary conclusions from this survey were that the monthly counts
of fruit made in sample groves to determine droppage were providing
accurate results. In addition, the survey indicated that early season
counts of fruit based on the limb count technique may be more accurate
than counts made from the exterior of the tree using counting frames.
Measuring and weighing individual fruit to determine relationship
between circumferential measurement and weight was continued. The
objective here is to develop a more precise measure of this variable in
order to enhance the accuracy of crop forecasts.


ECONOMICS OF FLORIDA DAIRY FARMING
State Project 701 R. E. L. Greene and B. J. Smith
Only a limited amount of work was done on this project during the
year. Work on the economic study of dairy farms in the Pensacola and
Tallahassee areas was completed. Mimeograph reports of the results were
issued for each area. Time was spent in developing and summarizing
economic data for the Dairy Cattle subcommittee as a part of operation
DARE. Economic data relating to the dairy industry in the Tampa Bay
area were summarized for presentation at the federal hearing on the re-
quest of producers for a federal milk order in that area.


COSTS AND EFFICIENCY IN HANDLING FLORIDA
CITRUS FRUITS
Hatch Project 895 A. H. Spurlock and H. G. Hamilton
Citrus harvesting costs for 30 firms, 1963-64, averaged 43.0 cents per
box for picking oranges, 31.5 cents for picking grapefruit, and $1.01 for
picking tangerines. Hauling from roadside to plant cost an additional
13.7 cents per box.
Costs of packing and selling Florida fresh citrus fruit per 1-3/5 bushel
equivalent by 38 packinghouses, 1963-64, averaged as follows:


Container Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines
1-3/5 bushel wirebound box $1.25 $1.09
4/5 bushel wirebound box (half Bruce) 1.64 1.36 $1.78
4/5 bushel fiberboard box 1.42 1.29
5-lb. mesh bag in master carton 2.16 2.03
5-lb. poly. bag in master carton 1.88 1.66









Annual Report, 1965


Packinghouses ranged in the cost of handling all fruit from 27 percent
below average to 131 percent above. Variation was extreme on the high
side this season because of the low volume handled by a few houses. Only
10 houses were within 5 percent of the average cost.
Cost of processing, warehousing, and selling typical citrus products
from 19 plants, 1963-64, averaged $1.78 for single strength orange juice
in 12/46 oz. cans, unsweetened; $2.79 for grapefruit sections in 24/303
cans; $2.72 for frozen orange concentrate in 48/6 oz. cans, and $0.68 per
gallon, excluding packaging materials. Processing of citrus feed cost an
average of $29.28 per ton. Results of the year's work were distributed
to dealers, packers and processors in three mimeographed summaries for
the 1963-64 season: (1) Costs of Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus
Fruits, (2) Costs of Packing and Selling Florida Fresh Citrus Fruits,
and (3) Costs of Processing, Warehousing and Selling Florida Citrus
Products.

SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF MULTIPLE
DEMANDS FOR CITRUS
Hatch Project 937 W. B. Riggan and M. R. Godwin
The analytical work was completed last year. The important finding:
a 1 percent change in the production of Florida oranges was associated
with a change in the on-tree price in the opposite direction of 1.5 percent
in the short run and 4.3 percent in the long run. A 1 percent change in
disposable income was associated with an on-tree change in price of 0.9
percent in the short run and a 2.6 percent change in the long run. The
manuscript reporting these and other results is being revised. Due to the
resignation of the senior author and leave of absence granted the junior
author, the work on the manuscript has been greatly retarded.

MARKETING OF FLORIDA CIGAR WRAPPER TOBACCO, TYPE 62
State Project 961 H. B. Clark
The project leader returned from leave during the year and made one
exploratory trip to the growing area to determine if the project should be
closed out. Since the last substantive report several developments have
taken place in the marketing of Type 62 tobacco which should be researched
during the coming year. Hence, it was decided to keep open the project for
one more year. First, a federal marketing agreement has operated for
about four years. This agreement limits the number of leaves which
can be harvested from each plant. This affects both the quantity and
quality of tobacco which enters the marketing stream. Second, there has
been a breakthrough in warehouse processing methods which is about two
years old. The cost-reducing benefits can be studied, as we have accurate
cost data on processing just prior to the use of the new method. Third,
the curing of Type 62 tobacco the Cuban way to make a green wrapper
has been going on for about three years. The demand for this kind
of cured wrapper has been in effect a "new" demand. What has been the
impact of these on the industry?
It is proposed that the above three aspects be studied to update the
marketing for Type 62 tobacco. The fear of homogenization still persists
and the farmers interviewed still feel that over-supply is the problem for
the years ahead. The shift from cigarettes to cigars, the federal marketing








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


agreement, and demand for the Cuban green cured wrapper has given a
reprieve in recent years. The method of financing the crop by the cigar
companies still persists. Under this method there is a tendency for the
cigar companies to finance just a little bit more tobacco than they might
need.


LABOR, MATERIALS, COSTS, AND RETURNS
IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

State Project 970 D. L. Brooke
Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida were obtained from
growers and summarized for 13 different vegetables in nine of the major
producing areas of the state. The 1963-64 season was a profitable one for
growers of most vegetables. The only real exceptions were on cabbage,
where yields were lower than normal in all areas, and cucumbers, where
prices were low in relation to those of other seasons.
Labor and material requirements and costs of production of straw-
berries were secured and compared for the Lower East Coast, Plant City,
and Starke areas of Florida. Major production is now centered in the
Lower East Coast area where intensive production on a large scale is a
general practice. Results of this study were presented in an M.S. thesis
entitled. "Some Economic Aspects of Strawberry Production and Market-
ing in Florida," by R. L. Quails in December 1964.


AGE OF HEIFERS AT FIRST BREEDING
AS RELATED TO BEEF PRODUCTION

State Project 995 R. E. L. Greene
At weaning each year, beginning in August 1958, selected replacement
heifers from the Beef Research herd have been divided at random into
two groups. Group I is bred as yearlings and Group II as two year olds,
to compare beef production and income for the two breeding systems. The
breeding period runs from March 1 to May 31. At the beginning of the
second breeding period for Group I heifers, the calves are taken from
their mothers and sold as veal calves.
Various physical production data have been collected on experimental
groups of heifers born from 1958 to 1962. These data have been sum-
marized to show the results of the breeding phase of the study and costs
and returns for heifers in various age and treatment groups.
The percent calf crop weaned for the two year old dams has averaged
49. The average age of calves at weaning has been 59 days and the
average weight 130 pounds. Breeding heifers as yearlings has had no
detrimental effect on their performance as two year olds or in subsequent
years. Omitting the first year calf crop, weaning percentage for heifers
bred as year':ngs has averaged 85 and 82 for those bred for the first time
at two years of age. The adjusted 205 day weight has averaged 450 and
447 for the two groups, respectively.
The net cost to raise a heifer to 27 months of age has been $162.63 for
Group I heifers and $164.06 for Group II heifers. For breeding to date,
excluding the calf crop for Group I yearlings, the amount and value of
beef produced per heifer has averaged about the same for the two groups.
(See also Project 995, Animal Science Department.)








Annual Report, 1965


CHANGES IN THE MARKET STRUCTURE FOR SELECTED FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES
State Project 1012 D. L. Brooke
Market Organization and Structure of the Florida Celery Industry.-
Results of this study were reported in the previous fiscal year. A manu-
script has been submitted for approval and publication as an Agricultural
Experiment Station bulletin.
Market Structure and Factors Affecting Industry Revenue for Florida
Sweet Corn.-Results of this study were reported in the previous fiscal year.
A manuscript for an Agricultural Experiment Station bulletin was sub-
mitted and approved. Publication is in progress.


IMPROVING METHODS OF HANDLING POTATOES
AT THE PACKINGHOUSE
State Project 1017 R. E. L. Greene
This project was designed to develop and test new methods, equipment,
and facilities for receiving and temporary holding of potatoes at packing-
houses, with major emphasis on bulk handling systems. Tests have been
conducted for two systems small bulk boxes and bulk dumping using flat
bottom bins. The results indicated that the flat bottom bin system would
be a satisfactory method for receiving and temporary holding of potatoes
hauled in bulk.
Work during the year has been devoted to the completion of a manu-
script on the study describing the two experimental systems, specifications
for their installations, description of operational procedures, and estimates
of investment and costs as compared with the present bulk-body sloping-
bottom bin system.
This project is closed with this report.
(See also Project 1017, Agricultural Engineering Department.)


AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF FLUID MILK SUPPLY, MOVEMENT,
AND UTILIZATION IN FLORIDA
Hatch Project 1018
(Regional SM-28) R. E. L. Greene and B. J. Smith
SM-10 (revised) was terminated on June 30, 1964, and replaced by
SM-28, "The Impact of Changing Market Structure Upon the Competitive
Position of the Dairy Industry in the South." Attention during the year
was devoted to both the wrap-up of SM-10 (revised) and the inauguration
of work under SM-28.
Released for distribution under SM-10 (revised) was Bulletin No. 92 of
the Southern Cooperative Series titled Optimum Assembly of Milk Supplies
in the Southeast. Approved for publication were two other regional bulle-
tins, Institutional Arranygements Influencing the Movement of Milk in the
South, and Patterns of Fluid Milk Distribution in the Southeast, 1959 and
Projected 1975. Both of these publications are now being printed and will
be available for distribution in the near future.
The work under SM-28 consisted largely of the development and/or
discovery of procedures to be employed in accomplishing the objectives of


MM=Md








32 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

that project. Principal attention to the supply aspects of the regional study
was given at the Florida Station and will continue to receive primary em-
phasis there.
A master's thesis titled "Economic Analysis of Competitive Sources of
Milk Supply to Florida" was completed. The leader of this project worked
closely with the author of that thesis as a member of his supervisory com-
mittee. An article title "An Algebraic Procedure for Separating Total
Reported State Milk Supplies into Grade A and Non-Grade A Components,"
authored by the project leader, was published in the May 1965 issue of the
Journal of Farm Economics.
A statement of a project to supersede 1018 was submitted in April, has
been revised, and has now been re-submitted. Project 1018 will be terminated
when the new project becomes effective.



SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING OF YEARLING STEERS
ON PASTURE
State Project 1027 R. E. L. Greene
The objective of this study is to determine the relative economic returns
for several methods of handling stocker steers in growing them to market
weight. Four groups of 20 yearling steers were confined to 10-acre lots
of St. Augustinegrass pastures. Lot 1 was full fed on pastures until the
steers reached market weight. Lots 2, 3, and 4 were fed 10, 5, and 0 pounds
of concentrates per head per day, respectively, on pasture and then fattened
in drylot. The length of time Lots 2, 3, and 4 were on pasture varied, for
they were fed to about the same average weight per head before they were
placed in the drylot. An effort was also made to finish each lot of steers
to about the same final weight.
For each lot of steers, the amount that average slaughter value per
steer exceeded purchase price was less than the cost of supplemental
feed per head. The lots in order of the smallest negative returns per head
over cost of feed were 4, 3, 1, and 2. The days from time placed on pasture
to date of slaughter were 274 for Lot 1, 344 for Lot 2, 378 for Lot 3, and
476 for Lot 4.
(See also Project 1027, Everglades Station.)



BLACKSTRAP MOLASSES AND OTHER ENERGY-CONTAINING
FEEDS AS A SUPPLEMENT TO PASTURE FOR BEEF COWS
State Project 1028 W. K. McPherson
It is profitable to supplement the feeding of pasture forages to beef
cows with molasses when the price of molasses is relatively low and the
price of weaned calves relatively high. In most instances, it is more profitable
to feed the molasses seasonally than continuously. The ranges of prices of
molasses and weaned calves within which the feeding of molasses is feasible
are presented in tabular form in a bulletin manuscript entitled "Blackstrap
Molasses for Beef Cows."
(See also Project 1028, Everglades Station.)








Annual Report, 1965


A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF OFF-FARM EMPLOYMENT
ON THE USE OF AGRICULTURAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES
IN A LOW-INCOME FARM AREA OF NORTHWEST FLORIDA
Hatch Project 1030
(Regional S-44) D. E. Alleger

The major findings of this project were released in AES Bulletin 671,
May 1964.
Selected data have subsequently been developed on the measurement of
anomie (abject depression) in low-income areas of the South. This was
accomplished by the use of zero-one or dummy variables in a regression
analysis of factors determined as being significantly related to anomie.
Implicit in the findings is the fact that the rural social structure of the
South is somewhat ambiguous because its current historical social evolution
offers various behavioral alternatives of uncertain appropriateness. The
zero-one analysis amply demonstrated that education facilitiates human
adjustment under difficult circumstances. It also indicated that chronic
low incomes of the rural South may be responsible for the anomie recorded
there.
This project is closed with this report.




MARKET DEVELOPMENT FOR HORTICULTURAL
SPECIALTY PRODUCTS
Regional Project 1078
(Regional SM-25) C. N. Smith

Further analyses were made of the data collected from the savings and
loan associations of Florida and a sample of 50 real estate agencies in
Tampa and a like number in Orlando. This information was obtained for
the purpose of ascertaining their practices and viewpoints with respect to
landscaping.
Of the 95 savings and loan associations which returned mail question-
naires, 88 responded to the question whether, in appraising the market
value of a home, the appraised value was normally increased by the cost
of the landscaping done. Of these, 49 replied "yes" and 39 "no". The reason
most frequently given by those replying "no" was fear of loss or damage
through neglect.
Asked about the ways in which nurserymen could best work with real
estate agencies in an effort to improve nursery landscaping, the most fre-
quent response related to a program of education in the care and main-
tenance of plants.
These studies point up the key position held by savings and loan ap-
praisers and lending offices and real estate agency appraisers who can
influence the market not only for ornamental trees and shrubs, but also for
landscape services.
Field interviews were conducted with a stratified random sample of
196 householders in Gainesville to ascertain their knowledge and opinions
about purchase patterns and practices followed in caring for living and
artificial flowers and plants.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ACCURACY OF CATTLE GRADE AND PRICE REPORTS
Hatch Project 1083 W. K. McPherson
Eight variables were identified as having some possibility of affecting
the variations in the price of cattle at specific locations at specified times
in Florida. A linear stepwise regression technique was used (1) to deter-
mine which of these variables were statistically significant for selected
classes, sexes, and grades of animals in selected markets; (2) to estimate
the proportion of the week-to-week price variations that could be explained
by these variables; and (3) to develop equations for predicting the prices
of selected classes, sexes, and grades of slaughter cattle at selected markets.
From this analysis, it was concluded that (1) it is not possible to explain
any appreciable proportion of the week-to-week variation in the higher
grades of slaughter cattle in auctions selling less than an average of 20
head of steers and heifers weekly; (2) in the only market selling an average
of more than 20 head of U. S. Good slaughter steers (Graceville), three
variables explained 90 percent of the week-to-week variation in the price;
(3) it was possible to explain from 43 to 83 percent of the week-to-week
variations in the price of U. S. Commercial slaughter steers in the seven
markets in which an average of more than 20 head of all grades of slaugh-
ter steers and heifers were traded each week; (4) the rank correlation
coefficient (0.86) indicates a relatively high degree of association between
the price of U. S. Standard steers and the total number of slaughter animals
in the market; (5) in the 11 markets in which an average of more than 20
slaughter cows were sold per week, one or more of the eight variables
explained from 27 to 66 percent in the week-to-week variation in the price
of U. S. Utility cows.


ECONOMIC, LEGAL, AND ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECTS OF
WATER USE AND CONTROL FOR AGRICULTURE IN FLORIDA

Hatch Project 1084 J. R. Greenman

Under a letter of agreement with the Economic Research Service of the
United States Department of Agriculture, an employee of the United
States Department of Agriculture has made a study of water use regula-
tions in Florida. Approximately 60 special and general statutes have been
analyzed under the majority of which districts have been created with
the authority to regulate water use. Approximately 15 of the districts
have been visited to investigate the actual implementation of water use
regulations.


THE USE OF RIPARIAN LAND ON STREAMS FOR RECREATION
AS A SOURCE OF INCOME FOR A RURAL AREA IN
NORTH FLORIDA

Project 1085 C. E. Murphree
This project was terminated with the publication of Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station Bulletin 690 entitled "Resource Use and Income Im-
plications of Outdoor Recreation," March 1965.
The analysis suggested that the demand by non-residents for river-








Annual Report, 1965 35

front land in Suwannee County has increased substantially since World
War II. However, competition from other uses and a lack of services ade-
quate to meet the requirements of a concentration of users could delay a
shift of riverfront land into outdoor recreation.
This project is closed with this report.



THE COMPETITIVE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN
FLORIDA AND CALIFORNIA ORANGES
Hatch Project 1096 M. R. Godwin, W. F. Chapman, Jr.2
and W. T. Manley"
During the past year a manuscript entitled "Competition Between
Florida and California Valencia Oranges in the Fresh Market" has been
cleared by the Department of Agricultural Economics and the Experiment
Station Review Committee as a bulletin. A second manuscript entitled
"Competitive Relationships and Alternatives in Marketing Florida Oranges"
has been cleared by the Department and will be published as an Agricul-
tural Economics Report. This project will be closed with the final publica-
tion of these reports.



HANDLING FRESH CITRUS FRUIT IN PALLET BOXES
State Project 1127 A. H. Spurlock
Tentative summaries were made to compare the total operating costs
of the pallet box system of handling fresh oranges, from the tree to the
packing line, with the field box system and with full bulk handling. These
costs were based on economic-engineering analyses of actual performance
rates where possible, but in some instances on estimated or synthesized data.
The total operating costs of the pallet-box system and the full-bulk
system appeared to be close together with the field box operation higher.
These pallet box cost differences varied slightly with changes in seasonal
and weekly volumes of oranges handled.
Recent changes in labor rates make it desirable to incorporate cost
changes in the comparisons before publication of final results.
(See also Project 1127, Citrus Station.)



MARKET ANALYSIS OF THE FOLIAGE PLANT INDUSTRY
Hatch Project 1129 C. N. Smith
A schedule requesting information on the current area in greenhouse
and open field production of foliage plants was mailed to all growers
interviewed in 1962 and 1963. Data were also requested on 1964 sales of
foliage plants.
Approximately half of the schedules mailed have been returned. The
information is now being analyzed and will be incorporated in the manu-
script reporting results of the study.
Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.








36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

FORECASTING FLORIDA VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN SPECIFIED
PERIODS AND AREAS

State Project 1133 B. R. Bennett, G. N. Rose,
and R. L. Addison, Jr.3

The analysis of data collected for development of a mathematical model
for forecasting the average yield and production of celery disclosed that
grower's estimates of acreage harvested for individual weeks that had been
used to develop a true mean of the universe were inaccurate, making it
impossible to adequately test the mathematical model. Field counts and
measurements were continued during the 1964-65 season, and net acreage
harvested was measured by the individual making these counts and meas-
urements.
Field work was inaugurated to obtain counts and measurements on sweet
corn for the purpose of developing a tentative mathematical model for the
forecasting of yields of this crop.
Collection of data on days from planting to harvest by variety and
location continued on sweet corn, celery, and tomatoes. In the case of sweet
corn, these data were used experimentally and with some success to predict
future production levels.
Summarization of basic data relating to acreage, yield, production, and
monthly average prices of 17 major vegetable and melon crops on a county
basis continued. These data are valuable as marketing information, and
they provide a sampling frame and measures of relative importance for
individual crops useful in statistics and research.
Vegetable Summary and weekly and monthly reports providing detailed
statistics and comments on Florida vegetable supplies were released.


AN EVALUATION OF LAND USE IN FLORIDA

State Project 1153 W. K. McPherson

A relatively high percentage of Florida's land is potential cropland-
i.e., Soil Capability Classes 1 through 4. At the present time, only 12
percent of this land is being used to produce crops. The percentages of
potential cropland being used to produce crops in selected agricultural and
southern states are:
Iowa 81%
Illinois 78%
Indiana 75%
California 60%
Mississippi 37%
South Carolina 35%
North Carolina 33%
Georgia 31%
Alabama 31%

Thus, Florida has more opportunities to intensify the use of land to
produce higher farm incomes than almost any of the other 47 contiguous
states.
3 In cooperation with the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.









Annual Report, 1965


AN ECONOMIC DETERMINATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF
TRANSPORTING GRAIN AND GRAIN-FED ANIMALS
FROM SURPLUS GRAIN-PRODUCING AREAS TO FLORIDA
State Project 1162
(Regional Project SM-29) W. K. McPherson
In an effort to determine the effect of the current transportation rate
structure on the relationship between the cost of shipping livestock products
and feedstuffs from surplus to deficit feed grain producing areas, the cost
of the least-cost formulations of the rations meeting tentative nutrient
specifications for five classes of animals in the two areas was compared
with the cost of shipping livestock products at six-month intervals over a
three-year period.
Within a given framework of assumptions, farmers will continue to
ship feed into Florida and to produce milk and eggs. The cost of trans-
porting feed does not constitute a barrier to the production of broilers.
Illinois and Florida cattle feeders are in a competitive position. The de-
cline in the demand for lard and a relatively low Plan III, two-trailer
piggyback rail rate has weakened competitive position of Florida swine
producers.
As the rations actually used in the production of livestock products in
Florida approach their least-cost formulations, the size of the firms supply-
ing farmers with feedstuffs and the size of the firms feeding livestock
will probably increase. However, before least-cost rations can be formulated'
and used by livestock producers, more precise information is needed on
the nutrient specifications of rations, the composition of the feedstuffs,
and the prices at which the feed ingredients are available at specific
locations. In the case of beef, pork, and broilers, the locational impact of
large changes in the cost of transporting grain from surplus to deficit
areas can be offset by relatively small changes in the cost of transporting
livestock products.
Finally, a technique for evaluating the impact of any rate structure on
the location at which livestock products are produced was developed.


COMPETITION BETWEEN FLORIDA AND
GREENHOUSE-GROWN TOMATOES
State Project 1168 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley'
During the past year a manuscript entitled "Demand and Competitive
Relationships for Florida and Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes" has been
cleared by the Department of Agricultural Economics and the Experiment
Station Review Committee as a bulletin. This project is closed with the final
publication of this report.

CONTINUING SURVEY FOR ESTIMATING NUMBER OF AND
INCIDENCE OF DISEASED CITRUS TREES IN FLORIDA
State Project 1170 J. E. Mullin5 and J. W. Todd5
The fourth increment in a series of 20 percent samples was completed
during the past year. The procedure of sampling every fifth section and
4Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.
SCooperative with the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


drawing a subsample of groves to determine changes since the original tree
census of the mid-1950's was followed in the established citrus areas.
However, in order to enhance the accuracy of published results and to
obtain more reliable data in rapidly expanding areas, flatwoods plantings
in east Florida counties from Brevard south through Palm Beach were
completely enumerated, and selected counties in the southern part of the
state were also enumerated. Continued sampling of these rapidly expanding
areas was inefficient from both statistical and administrative viewpoints.
This last year's survey disclosed a record large number of citrus trees
in the state. The total was 54.3 million commercial trees of all types, of
which 65 percent were bearing and 35 percent non-bearing in the 1964-65
season. The 35.1 million bearing trees last season is only slightly less than
the record 35.8 million trees bearing in 1962. The survey showed the
sharp expansion along the East Coast and in south Florida, and the re-
setting of substantial acreages of freeze-damaged trees in the northern
interior and along the West Coast.
The report of "Commercial Citrus Trees in Florida" issued June 2, 1965,
by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service was published.


MARKETING FLORIDA TURF

State Project 1171 C. N. Smith

Additional field interviews were conducted with 16 turf growers whose
names were not on the original list of growers. Calls were made on a limited
number of growers previously contacted in order to obtain up-to-date
information on various components of their business operations.
Revised estimates indicated that 14,678 net acres (i.e., exclusive of
ditches, roads, etc.) were devoted to the culture of turf grasses for sale
as sod in 1963. Almost 60 percent of the 320 million square feet of sod
sold consisted of St. Augustinegrass. More than a fifth was bahia sod.
These were followed in turn by centipede, bermuda and zoysia grasses.
Total income from grower marketing of sod in 1963 was estimated to
be $8,366,000. An overall average price of 2.62 cents a square foot was
reported. Average prices received for various varieties of sod were as
follows: St. Augustine 2.25 cents; bahia 3.99 cents; centipede 4.59
cents; bermuda 4.22 cents; and zoysia 7.40 cents.
Landscape contractors purchased 49 percent of all sod sold by growers.
Sod dealers bought 19 percent and housing contractors acquired 19 percent
of the total. No other type buyer purchased as much as 10 percent of the
industry output.
A master's thesis reporting information on sod growers' marketing
practices and on the scope of the sod industry is completed. Work is in
progress to develop a bulletin manuscript reporting findings of the study.


ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF SELECTED SYSTEMS OF BEEF
PRODUCTION IN THE SUWANNEE RIVER DEVELOPMENT AREA
Hatch Project 1172 R. E. L. Greene
The purpose of this study is to determine production practices of beef
producers, and to evaluate the economic potential of selected systems of
beef production as a means of making a more profitable use of farm and
human resources in the Suwannee River Development Area. Only a limited









Annual Report, 1965 39

amount of work has been done on the project during the year. The analysis
of the data collected has been completed to show present production
practices of beef producers and costs and returns under present methods
of operation. Work is in progress to show the effect on income if farmers
adopt a higher level of practices.

INDUSTRY PERCEPTIONS OF MARKETING
AGREEMENT PROGRAMS
State Project 1173 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley6
During the spring of 1964 a sample of 65 tomato growers were inter-
viewed for the purpose of establishing the following information about the
marketing order for Florida tomatoes:
1. The general interpretation of growers about the benefits of specific
types of regulations under the order.
2. The position of individual growers with respect to the equity of
benefits forthcoming from the order.
3. Opinions of growers about the effectiveness with which the order
was administered.

An analysis of the survey results indicate:
1. Growers were about equally divided in their opinions about the
financial benefits of regulations restricting certain grades and sizes
from the market. That is, about one-half believed they benefited,
while one-half believed they did not benefit from these regulations.
2. About 90 percent of the growers interviewed believed they benefited
financially from regulations which standardized the size, weight, and
dimension of shipping containers and regulations which standardized,
on an industry basis, the size designations used in marketing.
3. With regard to the question of equity among different size growers,
almost one-half of those interviewed felt that the order did not serve
equally well the needs of small and large growers. Those holding this
view were almost unanimous in feeling that the order worked more
to the advantage of the large grower than to the small grower.
4. About one-third of the growers felt that the order did not serve
equally well the needs of all five producing districts. These growers
felt that because of the large degree of overlapping in marketing
periods between districts that it was very difficult to administer the
order so that all areas were treated equally.
5. A vast majority of growers interviewed were very complimentary of
the efficiency and fairness of those charged with the responsibility of
administering the order for Florida tomatoes. Growers recognized
that the administration of the order was within the limits imposed
by the Marketing Agreement Act of 1937.

A complete analysis of the study findings is in process. It is anticipated
that a bulletin will be published during the coming year.
6 Cooperative with Marketing Eoenomies Division, ERS, USDA.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


DEMAND AND SUBSTITUTION RELATIONSHIPS FOR
FROZEN ORANGE CONCENTRATE

Hatch Project 1174 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley7
The purpose of this project is to accomplish the following objectives:
(1) Estimate the retail price elasticity of demand for three brand
classes of frozen orange concentrate, and
(2) Estimate the degree of competition among the three brand classes
of frozen orange concentrate.
The study data were generated in 18 retail supermarkets located in the
Cincinnati-Dayton area of Ohio during the spring of 1964. The study shows
that the estimated elasticity of demand for a national brand of frozen
orange concentrate is -2.3, for a packer brand -4.4, and for a private brand
-2.6. Thus, the packer brand was found to be the most sensitive to price
changes on a relative basis, while the private and national labels were less
responsive in that order.
With respect to the extent of competition among brand classes it was
found that the national brands sales were directly influenced at the rate
of .3 percent by the private label. The packer brand's sales were affected
by the national price by .8 percent and the private label price at the rate
of 1.2 percent. Finally, the private label suffered competition from the
national and private brands in the amount of .9 percent and .6 percent,
respectively.
It is anticipated that a report dealing fully with the study results
will be published during the coming year.


ECONOMIC PROVISIONS FOR OLD AGE MADE BY RURAL FAMILIES
Regional Project 1187
(Regional S-56) D. E. Alleger and H. G. Hamilton
The states of Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, and Texas participate with
Florida in this project. Field work was conducted in all cooperating states
during July and August, 1964. Records secured in Florida totaled 100 for
families with male heads aged 45 to 64 years and 80 for families with male
heads aged 65 or over. The project sample was drawn from three areas
of Florida, namely, south central (Glades and Sumter counties), northeast
(Clay and Marion counties), and west Florida (Gadsden and Okaloosa
counties) where 56, 66, and 58 records, respectively, were taken. All
pertinent data have been transcribed to IBM cards for statistical computing.
Preliminary regional and state analyses are scheduled for the last quarter
of 1965.


ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE MOVEMENT OF BEEF CATTLE
IN FLORIDA

State Project 1190
(Regional Project SM-27) W. K. McPherson
An analysis of the variation in the prices paid for selected classes, sexes,
and grades of cattle during six selected weeks in 34 sub-state areas within
12 southeastern states was initiated. Preliminary analysis shows that
7Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.









Annual Report, 1965


during a given week the price of fed slaughter steers (U. S. Good or better)
may vary as much as $5.10 per hundredweight and the price of cows as
much as $3.97 per hundredweight. The data also indicate that packers pay
as much as $2.50 per hundredweight for fed cattle and $2.99 per hundred-
weight for cows above the price farmers receive for fed steers and cows
at auctions located in the same sub-state area.

ECONOMIC INTERPRETATION OF PRODUCER OBJECTIVES TO
SUPPLY MANAGEMENT MARKETING PROGRAMS
Hatch Project 1199 C. E. Murphree
Vegetable marketing agreements and orders, with a high level of interest
but limited success, seemed to be a logical choice for analysis. Records of
public hearings provided a convenient source of information for the study.
Growers who oppose marketing order programs can be placed into one of
two broad categories. The largest group concedes that benefits can be
created through a marketing program. Their opposition is based on the
manner in which benefits are distributed among producers. A second and
smaller group questions the usefulness of a marketing program to generate
grower benefits.
Most representatives of the vegetable marketing system oppose grower
marketing programs. An increase in grower bargaining power stands to
redistribute consumer expenditures for vegetables in favor of growers.
On the other hand, if consumer expenditures are increased through a re-
duction in supply, the revenue of those who process and distribute the crop
is reduced.

THE STATUS OF RURAL ZONING IN FLORIDA
State Project 1200 C. D. Covey
Prior to the 1965 legislative session 37 counties had some form of
enabling authority for rural zoning. The degree of effective authority
granted in these several laws varies widely as does the degree of imple-
mentation. Depending on how land use control, which includes rural zoning,
is defined, the number of counties implementing such control will vary.
Using a very broad definition, which includes such laws as junk yard
fencing, plat recording, and lot clearing acts, 37 counties have implemented
some form of land use control even though much of it is insignificant in
light of the problems.
Following completion of the field work, which involved visits with
county officials in all Florida counties, a comparative analysis of the
enabling laws, zoning regulations, comprehensive plans, and administrative
procedures was initiated.
The preparation of a manuscript presenting the findings and implica-
tions of the study is currently in progress.

POOLING ARRANGEMENT FOR CITRUS COOPERATIVES UNDER
DISTRESSED CONDITIONS
State Project 1201 H. G. Hamilton
Three distinct types of citrus cooperatives are operating in Florida.
These are local packing associations, processing associations, and bargain-
ing associations. There is no uniform pooling arrangement for the different









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


types of associations or for associations within a given type. However,
there has been a definite change from the weekly or monthly type of pools
to the seasonal pool. For associations handling both fresh and processed
fruit, the trend is toward a single type pool in which the processed fruit
and fresh fruit returns are pooled together. There is a distinct advantage
in the seasonal and single type pooling arrangements. These types of pools
make possible more flexibility in allocated fruit to the various markets and
members' products. Furthermore, it provides for more efficient use of
facilities, which is most important under distressed conditions such as
occur with a freeze. It also makes it easier to maintain equal treatment
of members.
A manuscript is now being reviewed for publication. The project is
closed with this report.

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS UPON REPRODUCTIVE
PERFORMANCE AND LIFE SPAN OF FLORIDA DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 1234 A. H. Spurlock
No work has been done on this project since approval. The annual
inventory and collection of replacement data for dairy cows were done
under a previous project, State 345.
(See also Project 1234, Dairy Science Department.)

ESTABLISHING GUIDES FOR ADJUSTMENTS BY FIRMS
MARKETING FRUITS (NON-CITRUS) AND VEGETABLES IN
THE SOUTHERN REGION

Hatch Project 1243
(Regional SM-30) A. H. Spurlock and D. L. Brooke
This project was activated in March 1965, and work was begun on
input-output relationships in sweet corn and celery grading and packing.
Sweet corn required an average of 196 hours of man labor per 1000 crates
for harvesting, packing, and hauling to the precooler. Several methods of
operation were studied for both winter and spring corn. Yield per acre
influenced the labor required, but there were also differences in organization
and operation of crews.
Celery required 220 man-hours per 1000 crates packed and hauled to
the precooler.
A retail store study was conducted in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to
determine consumer acceptance of prepackaged sweet corn. Consumers were
offered a four-ear and a three-ear package of husked sweet corn in a display
with green corn of comparable quality. Of the volume of corn sold, 64
percent was packaged corn and 36 percent green corn. Of the 64 percent
of the packaged corn, 38 percent was the four-ear package and 26 percent
the three-ear package. Low income stores sold more total corn and more
packaged corn per 100 customers than high income stores.
(See also Project 1243, Food Technology and Nutrition Department.)

PRELIMINARY NON-PROJECTED STUDIES

Florida Agricultural Production Index.-Index numbers measuring the
total volume of agricultural production annually by commodity groups have
been brought up to date through 1964. Crop production in 1964 was 6









Annual Report, 1965


percent lower than in 1963 but was 64 percent above the 1947-49 average.
Production of livestock and livestock products increased by 18 percent over
1963 and was 156 percent above the 1947-49 period. Production of all crops
and livestock was 1 percent lower than the preceding year but was 84 per-
cent higher than in 1947-49.
The important citrus group decreased in production again in 1964 by
21 percent, still because of the effects of the freeze in December 1962.
Vegetable production declined by 5 percent from the preceding year, grains
declined 42 percent, and cotton and cottonseed, 19 percent. Production
increases for crops were shown by sugarcane, 229 percent; avocados, 11 per-
cent; peanuts, 9 percent; and hay, 6 percent.
Production of poultry products increased by 48 percent in 1964, meat
animals by 11 percent, and fluid milk by 4 percent. (A. H. Spurlock)

Competition for Florida Fruit and Vegetable Crops.-The degree of
competition which Florida faces is provided by tabulating weekly carlot
shipments of selected fruits and vegetables from Florida, other states,
and foreign countries during the Florida shipping season. Such data are
valuable to growers and extension workers in determining the more de-
sirable production periods during the Florida season. They are also avail-
able to industry groups in the preparation of statistics for hearings on
freight rates and marketing agreements and in establishing annual move-
ment patterns of Florida crops. Allied service industries may find them
valuable in planning peak movement and supply requirements.
"Florida Truck Crop Competition" was published as Agricultural
Economics Mimeo Report EC65-3. (D. L. Brooke)

The Demand for Milk in the Tampa Bay Area.-The demand for fluid
milk in the proposed Tampa Bay Milk Marketing Area (Charlotte, Collier,
DeSoto, Hardee, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lee, Manatee, Pasco,
Pinellas, Polk, and Sarasota counties) was projected to 1975 by estimating
the population and per capital consumption of fluid milk at that time.
The population of the area is expected to increase from 1.3 million in
1960 to 2.1 million in 1975. During the same period, per capital income is
expected to increase from $1,877 to $2,800. On the other hand, the per
capital consumption of fluid milk is expected to decline from 276 pounds
to 250 pounds per capital. This suggests that the total volume of fluid
milk consumed in the area in 1975 will be 534 million pounds, an increase
of 50 percent over the amount consumed in 1960. (W. K. McPherson)

Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries.-Movement of citrus trees
from Florida nurseries to Florida destinations at 2,524,580 trees in 1963-64
was the fifth highest on record. This movement was up 59 percent from
1962-63 when low temperatures reduced nurserystock supplies. The fiscal
period used was July 1 through June 30.
Seventy-three percent of the 1963-64 movement was orange trees, 4
Temple, 4 tangerine, 5 grapefruit, 5 limes and lemons, 6 tangelo, and
other citrus 3 percent. Eighty-five percent of the 1955-60 movement was
orange trees. (Zach Savage)

The Feasibility of Hedging Cattle Feeding Operations.-The price of
U. S. Good cattle in Florida reported by the Federal-State Market News
Service is related to the price of U. S. Choice cattle in Chicago, but the
relationship is not as close as the relationship between the price of









44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

U. S. Good and U. S. Choice cattle in Chicago. The average difference
between the price of U. S. Choice cattle in Chicago and the low of the
range of U. S. Good cattle in Florida over a period of 423 weeks was
$3.12 per hundredweight, and this difference ranged from $1.40 per
hundredweight to $4.84 per hundredweight approximately two-thirds of
the time. Thus, hedging U. S. Good cattle produced in Florida in the
Chicago futures market for U. S. Choice cattle affords only limited pro-
tection against fluctuations in market price. Likewise, there is some re-
lationship between the price of U. S. Standard cattle in Florida and the
price of U. S. Choice cattle in Chicago. The difference between the low
of the range of prices of U. S. Standard in Florida and U. S. Choice in
Chicago was $5.80 per hundredweight over a period of 412 weeks and
ranged from $4.14 to $7.46 per hundredweight two-thirds of the time.
Actually, hedging U. S. Standard steers produced in Florida in the futures
market for U. S. Choice steers in Chicago affords the feedlot operator
just about the same type of protection as it does hedging U. S. Good cattle
in the Chicago futures market.
Florida producers of U. S. Good and U. S. Standard cattle who sell
direct to packers and who trade on the basis of Chicago prices plus a
transportation differential can hedge their feeding operations much better
than those who sell through the auctions, dealers, etc. This is largely due
to the fact that the prices in the national market are quoted on the basis
of relatively large lots of uniform animals and that Florida prices are
heavily weighted with prices paid for relatively small lots of animals at
widely scattered locations. (W. K. McPherson)


Costs and Returns on the West Florida Dairy Unit.-Assistance was
again given to J. B. White in summarizing records to show costs and re-
turns in producing milk and also cash costs for the various crop enterprises
at the West Florida Dairy Unit at Chipley. This is the fifth year that the
records have been summarized. Summaries were prepared on a calendar
year basis for 1960, 1961, and 1962. A fiscal year, October 1 to September
30, was used for 1962-63 and 1963-64. Summaries were made comparing
the results for 1963-64 with each of the other four years. Over the period,
considerable improvements have been made in building equipment and gen-
eral facilities on the unit. The improvement in the operating efficiency of
the unit has not been as great as desired. (R. E. L. Greene)


Marketing Florida Watermelons-Early in 1965 the Commissioner of
Agriculture was petitioned by a number of Florida watermelon producers
to hold a public hearing for the purpose of determining the feasibility
of a state watermelon marketing order. The Department of Agricultural
Economics was requested to prepare an economic analysis of the Florida
watermelon industry for presentation at the hearing in Orlando on May
12, 1965. Subsequent postponement of the hearing provided additional
time for a more detailed analysis of the marketing phase of the Florida
watermelon industry.
This material, considered quite timely for watermelon producers faced
with decisions concerning the merits or demerits of a state watermelon
marketing order, was published in July 1965, as Agricultural Extension
Service Economic Series 65-6, "Marketing Florida Watermelons." (C. D.
Covey)








Annual Report, 1965 45

Florida Inheritance Laws.-A proposed bulletin entitled "Making a Will
in Florida" has been submitted to the Publications Committee for review.
This bulletin is intended to provide lay readers with a general explanation
of some of the problems and their possible solutions in connection with
the making of a will and estate plan. It is anticipated that it will alert
its readers to the need for doing something about planning for the dis-
position of their estates and for seeking competent assistance in so doing.
(J. R. Greenman)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Research done relates to the production of tobacco and vegetables, bulk
handling of citrus pulp, handling of potatoes at packing houses, problems
in harvesting of sorghum for silage, land drainage, and other subjects,
with emphasis on determining efficiencies to be gained by the use of me-
chanical and physical means in the production and handling of crops and
agricultural materials. The work involved 12 regular projects, all but four
being in cooperation with other Station units.

PASTURE PROGRAM AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL
AND NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA

State Project 627 J. M. Myers
The project was revised in October 1964. Three new pasture programs
have been initiated. These programs are now going through an establish-
ment period so that treatment effects will be well pronounced when pro-
duction data collection begins in October 1965. The Agricultural Engineer-
ing Department is most directly concerned with the pasture program on
which seepage irrigation is used as a cultural practice.
Construction of the seepage irrigation facilities was completed in March
1965. Preliminary functional tests of the irrigation system indicate that
it can be operated satisfactorily. During a period of low rainfall the water
table in the experimental area was controlled at an average of 12 inches
below the soil surface without difficulty. At that time the maximum depth
to the water table at a point midway between field ditches was 18 inches.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agronomy, Animal
Science, and Soils departments.)

IMPROVED METHODS OF HANDLING POTATOES
AT THE PACKINGHOUSE

State Project 1017 E. K. Bowman (USDA)
and I. J. Ross

A manuscript was completed entitled "Systems for Bulk-Handling
Spring Crop Potatoes from Harvester to Packing Line" with the collabora-
tion of R. E. L. Greene of the Agricultural Economics Department. This
manuscript covers the research on this project since its inception.
The bulk-dumping system which was developed and tested in the re-
search conducted under this project had a total cost (labor, equipment,
and facilities) which was approximately $18 less for 1,000 packed hundred-
weight of potatoes than for a pallet box system of handling, also covered
in the research. Further, the bulk-dumping system cost about $14 less
per 1,000 packed hundredweight than the conventional hopper-body sloping-
bottom bin system.
Advantages of the bulk-dumping system other than cost, and additional
information on comparative relationships for this system, a pallet box
system, and the conventional hopper-body sloping-bottom system are in-
cluded in the manuscript. When the manuscript is published, information
will be available to potato growers and shippers which will enable them to
install a bulk-dumping system. 'The potential for cost savings as men-
tioned above, and other advantages, will be available.








Annual Report, 1965


A CONTINUOUS HARVESTING-CURING SYSTEM FOR
BRIGHT LEAF TOBACCO


Hatch Project 1034


J. M. Myers and I. J. Ross


Experiments were continued to determine the relationship of various
bulk curing techniques with tobacco quality and curing efficiency.
The difference in the curing environment between the two layers in
double layer bulk curing is of sufficient magnitude to affect leaf quality.
The results of chemical analysis, physical tests, and other quality evalua-
tions strongly indicate that the sugar content of tobacco cured in the
lower layer will be significantly higher than that of tobacco cured in the
upper layer. Also, more barn scald and a higher percentage of slick
leaves will occur in the upper layer.
Immediate wilting versus a 36-hour delay in wilting of the leaf during
the curing process did not appear to affect the quality of the cured leaf.
There appears to be a wide latitude in the amount of moisture that can
be removed during the stem drying phase of curing without reducing leaf
quality. Treatments in which 10, 20, and 30 percent of the total moisture
was removed during the stem drying phase produced tobacco of similar
quality.
During the 1965 tobacco curing period five tests were conducted. Four
of the tests constituted a replicated factorial experiment to study depth
of loading and rates of air flow during curing. Loading depths were one
and two layers, and rates of air were 20, 30, and 40 cubic feet per minute
per square foot. The object of the fifth test was to measure the effect on
leaf quality and drying efficiency of air recirculation techniques employed
during the leaf and stem drying phase of curing.

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF INTEGRATED SILAGE
AND GRAZING SYSTEMS FOR DAIRY CATTLE


State Project 1053


I. J. Ross and J. M. Myers


The yield and apparent digestibility of sorghum silage ensiled in the
milk-to-dough stage of maturity was compared with the same crop ensiled
after the grain had become hard. Approximately 21 tons of the hard-grain
silage was prepared for this test. The silage consisted of approximately
25 percent grain and 75 percent forage by wet weight. Approximately
6,250 pounds of tap water was added to the forage-grain mixture during
the loading of the silo. The grain had an average moisture content of
22 percent (wet basis), an average fineness modulus of 4.67 (ASAE
Standard, ASAE Yearbook, 1965), and a uniformity index of 7:3:0
(ASAE Standard).
(See also Project 1053, Dairy Science Department.)

EQUIPMENT FOR REMOVING NON-FREE-FLOWING GRANULAR
MATERIALS FROM BULK STORAGE


Hatch Project 1082


I. J. Ross and C. F. Kiker


A vertical screw bin unloader has been tested as a means for unloading
dried citrus pulp from a hopper-bottom storage bin. Six-inch, 10-inch,
14-inch, 18-inch, and 22-inch screws have been tested in the bin. The un-
loader removed citrus pulp from the bin in a consistent and dependable
manner. Tests are being continued in flat bottom bins.


-a








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


An equation of motion for multiple granular particles falling in en-
closed ducts has been developed. A high-speed photographic technique
was used in the determination of particle velocities.
The feasibility of pelleting wet citrus pulp prior to drying has been in-
vestigated. Several of the factors affecting pellet durability have been con-
sidered, and a quantitative analysis of the effects of pellet diameter and
compressing pressure has been determined. It was found that the level
of applied pressure, in the range of 300 to 1000 psi, and the diameter, in
the range of /2 to 1 inch diameter, do not significantly affect pellet dur-
ability.
The equilibrium moisture content of citrus pulp at different relative
humidities has been determined for one type of pulp. Other physical
properties of the pulp such as bulk density, coefficient of friction, fineness
modulus, and moisture content are being determined for the pulp from
several processors in the state. The possible use of large bulk storage
units is being investigated.


FORCED-AIR PRECOOLING OF CITRUS FRUITS
Hatch Project 1111 D. T. Kinard and G. E. Yost (USDA)
Analysis of data previously obtained was completed. A manuscript for
a technical bulletin was written with the collaboration of J. Soule of the
Fruit Crops Department and A. H. Bennett, ARS, USDA, Athens, Georgia.
Some of the significant findings included in the manuscript follow.
1. Forced-air precooling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, or tangelos
in bulk containers is rapid, apparently reasonable in cost, and safe.
Oranges, tangerines, or tangelos can be precooled from initial temperatures
of 70 to 90 degrees F. down to temperatures ranging from 35 to 50 de-
grees F., measured as the mass-average, in an hour or less. Grapefruit
will precool somewhat more slowly than oranges. Rate of precooling is
dependent upon fruit size and structure and precooler characteristics.
Actual cost of providing air movement and cooling capacity will amount
to about $0.20 to $0.25 per hour for 1,000 pounds of fruit.
2. Exposure of citrus fruits to air temperatures of 15 degrees F. or
below (measured at fan inlet) did not result in rind injury or increased
subsequent decay. Control must be exercised so that fruit surface tempera-
ture does not fall below 25 to 28 degrees F. Loss of weight in fruit, pre-
sumably moisture, averaged less than 1 percent per precooling test run.
3. Forced-air precooling of citrus fruits packed in wirebound boxes,
ventilated fiberboard cartons, or polyethylene bags will take place at about
half the rate for the same fruit in bulk containers. Fruit packed in either
non-ventilated fiberboard cartons or polyethylene bags in bagmaster car-
tons will precool very slowly.


A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO VEGETABLE HARVESTING
State Project 1203 J. F. Beeman
Studies were continued to determine the physical properties which will
be useful in developing the functional specifications for harvesting equip-
ment for celery, sweet corn, tomatoes, and cucumbers. Celery plant pro-
files, resistance to drop, force to cut, plant weights, center of gravity, and
coefficient of friction data were obtained. Sweet corn ear weights, diameter,








Annual Report, 1965


and lengths were observed for two varieties of commercial corn. Measure-
ments were made to determine the force required to remove tomato and
cucumber fruits from the plant. Variables considered in these studies
included variety, degree of maturity, and degrees of rotation in two planes.
Coefficients of static and sliding friction were also obtained for tomatoes
and cucumbers.
Field tests were continued on an experimental celery cutter. The me-
chanical cutter successfully cut the top of the plant and the root to the
correct length for packaging. Extensive tests were conducted to determine
the damage index and the market quality of celery harvested by the
mechanical cutter for the most commonly grown variety, 318. The results
from these studies indicate that the damage inflicted to the celery by the
mechanical cutter was less than that caused by hand cutting. Damage
which did occur was mainly restricted to the outer petioles, which are
normally removed from the plant before package.
(See also Project 1203, Vegetable Crops Department.)

EFFECTS OF SHADE ON THE ABILITY OF
DAIRY CATTLE TO ADAPT TO SUMMER CONDITIONS
State Project 1207 I. J. Ross
Twenty-four shaded and unshaded lots are being used to determine
the effect of shade on the ability of dairy cattle to maintain normal pro-
duction and composition of milk, and to study some related physiological
factors during hot weather. The functional specifications for the design
of the shades were obtained from the results of experiments conducted
in California by Ittner, Bond, and Kelly. Feeders were designed for use
in the lots with sliding doors in the back for easy clean-out since individual
animal consumption is being measured. The shade effectiveness is being
determined by measuring and computing the ratio of the mean radiant
temperatures in the unshaded and shaded areas. For May 10, 1965, the
average shade effectiveness was 1.31.
(See also Project 1207, Dairy Science Department.)

TEMPORARY LININGS FOR WATERWAYS AND EMBANKMENTS
State Project 1212 J. M. Myers and R. Choate
Tests have been conducted to measure the permissible tractive force
for soil surfaces covered with several different erosion retarding cover
materials. There appear to be considerable differences in the stabilization
qualities of commonly used lining materials. The permissible tractive force
for unlined channel bed constructed with fine sandy soil is 0.006 pounds
per square foot. The permissible tractive force for a channel bed con-
structed of similar soil type but covered with a knitted fabric material
made of small paper cords is 0.032 pounds per square foot. When the
channel bed was covered with a heavier mesh fabric made of hemp fiber
cords, the permissible tractive force was 0.160 pounds per square foot. For
retarding erosion, the heavier weight cover material gave approximately
five times more protection than the lighter cover material, and the lighter
cover material was about five times more effective than the uncovered
channel bed. These values indicate the importance of giving consideration
to the hydraulic characteristics of the different lining materials when they
are included in the specifications of water control facilities.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN LAYING HENS
State Project 1251 I. J. Ross
Temperature, humidity, and air-flow rate control units are being used
to provide a controlled environment to study the effect of various factors
on the heat tolerance of five-week old White Leghorn chicks. A 2 X 2 X 3
X 3 X 3 factorial experiment was designed to determine the effects of two
sexes, two genetic lines, three temperatures, three relative humidities, and
three air-flow rates on survival time. Temperatures of 105 0.2, 108 0.2
and 111 0.2 "F; relative humidities of 60 2.5, 75 2.5 and 90 2.5
percent; and air-flow rates of 40 -+ 5, 60 5 and 80 5 cubic feet per
minute were used in this year's experiments.
(See also Project 1251, Poultry Science Department.)


PRELIMINARY NON-PROJECTED STUDIES

Drying Lychee Fruit.-The drying rates for lychee fruit as affected by
air temperature, air velocity, and pre-drying treatment (blanching) have
been determined. The time required to dry the unblanched fruit to 36
percent of original weight at various drying air temperatures and with
an air-flow rate of 25 FPM was as follows: 120 F 116 hours; 140 F 68
hours; 160 F 39 hours; and 180 F 27 hours. The drying time as
affected by air velocity through the fruit and a drying air temperature
of 140 F was as follows: 15 FPM 105 hours; 25 FPM 71 hours;
35 FPM 60 hours; 45 FPM 57 hours; 60 FPM 54 hours; 80 FPM
54 hours; and 100 FPM 48 hours. The equilibrium moisture content
of the fruit at various relative humidities is being determined. (I. J. Ross
and C. F. Kiker)

Irrigation Efficiency.-In cooperation with the Water Resources Center,
preliminary research has been initiated to evaluate factors influencing
irrigation water losses for the various types of systems used in Florida
agriculture. Progress to date consists of design of facilities and the pur-
chase and assembly of equipment and instruments. (J. M. Myers, I. J.
Ross and R. E. Choate)

Handling and Packing Celery.-Manual packers of celery on mobile field
packing houses do not accurately size celery. Tests were conducted in
1965 to size celery stalks by weight. Celery was separated by weight into
sizes and packed into wire-bound crates. Average stalk weights were
2.34 pounds, 1.88 pounds, and 1.55 pounds respectively for sizes 2, 2/2,
and 3.
A consistent weight of packed crates appears to be an advantage of
weight sizing celery. The average crate weight was 61.62 pounds for
size 2, 61.82 pounds for size 21, and 61.41 pounds for size 3. The range
between the heaviest and lightest crate weight was 5.08 pounds for size
2, 3.12 pounds for size 21, and 3.11 pounds for size 3. By comparison, the
range between the heaviest and lightest weights for crates that were
packed by workers on mobile field packing houses were 7.32 pounds for
size 2, 7.79 pounds for size 2%, and 8.21 pounds for size 3.
A small-package, highly accurate continuous motion weigher has been
purchased for tests in weight sizing celery in cooperation with the USDA.
A series of conveyors to orient, accumulate, and feed stalks onto the








Annual Report, 1965 51

weigher has been constructed to assist in testing the application of the
continuous motion weigher for sizing celery. (J. M. Myers and W. G.
Grizzell)
Mechanical Harvesting of Tea.-Methods of removing the desired leaves
from tea plants were investigated. A laboratory model of a tea plucking
device indicated that the stem of the tea plant will experience a flexural
fracture failure under ideal conditions. This principle was studied further
to assure that it can be incorporated into a full scale prototype tea
harvester which will meet the requirements of selectively and completely
harvesting tea.
A full scale prototype of an experimental tea harvester is under con-
struction which will selectively pluck tea without damaging the remaining
tea plant or the plucked flush. An upward movement of air through the
tea plant having a velocity greater than 650 feet per minute positions
the young flush vertically for satisfactory plucking and subsequently con-
veys the plucked flush to a holding tank for separation. (C. G. Haugh)









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


AGRONOMY

Research was continued very much as in the previous year. The to-
bacco breeding project was revised to include blackshank resistance as a
major objective. Dr. A. J. Norden is continuing peanut breeding since the
retirement last year of Dr. W. A. Carver. Research on pasture programs
was revised in Project No. 627 in the light of results of the last few years.
Dr. B. N. Duck joined the staff in September to continue research on
sorghums which Dr. Norden had been doing; however, most of Dr. Duck's
effort will be on improvement of pasture grasses-a considerable increase
of effort on this important objective.
Basic research on chemical weed control was expanded considerably
by grants from National Science Foundation and National Cancer Society.
Grants from A. E. C. and N. S. F. are providing substantial support
of basic research in genetics, biochemistry, and physiology of crop plants.

PEANUT BREEDING FOR SUPERIOR TYPES FOR MARKET
AND FOR LIVESTOCK FEED
Hatch Project 20 A. J. Norden
Yield and seed quality studies were conducted with 143 new Florida
lines and standard varieties. A total of 1248 plant-row selections, in the
F. to F, generation, were grown and evaluated as well as plantings of
F1 and F, generation hybrids. Additional crosses were made in the green-
house to improve the quality, yield, and toughness of peg attachment of
Virginia and small podded lines and to study the inheritance and physiologi-
cal implications of seed coat development and pubescence on pods. Fa
families derived from crosses of four Dixie Runner lines were tested in
1964 and did not yield significantly more, statistically, than did the parental
lines. Lines derived from crosses of Dixie Runner with widely different
types such Florigiant (Cross F420) and with F385 (Cross F416) gave
highly significant increases in yield over Dixie Runner. A line of F420,
with a spreading bunch growth habit, produced significantly higher yields
than Florigiant, but the pod size of this line is somewhat irregular.
The most productive line in a test of 25 new Florida lines was F439-16-
10, derived from a cross of Early Runner by Florispan, which yielded 53
percent more sound and mature seed than the Early Runner check.
The percentage yield of pods of F416 compared with Dixie Runner,
Early Runner, and Florigiant for the four-year period 1961-64 is 172,
100, 158, and 177 respectively. Of the varieties included in a three-year
study of mechanical pod breakage, F416 had the lowest percent of broken
pods and the least amount of loose shelled kernels. In 1965 a limited
acreage of F416 is being grown under contract to study, under field con-
ditions, its disease reaction and to observe its processing characteristics,
seed quality, and consumer acceptance.
(See also Hatch Project 20, North Florida Station, Marianna Unit.)

PASTURE GRASS AND LEGUME RESPONSES TO VARIOUS
FERTILIZER AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Hatch Project 295 G. B. Killinger
Tifhi-1 bahiagrass produced 12,048 pounds of oven-dry forage per acre
for the season as compared to a yield of 11,641 pounds from Pensacola ba-








Annual Report, 1965


hiagrass. The two bahia varieties have been harvested from five to seven
times annually for the past five seasons with the 1964 yields over 1000
pounds higher than those of any other season.
Of 16 millet, sudan, and sudan x sorghum hybrids tested, Gahi-1 millet
yielded 14,646 pounds of oven-dry forage per acre, which was the highest
of all varieties under test. There were three harvests of each variety, three
applications of nitrogen totaling 182 pounds, and 48 pounds each of
phosphoric acid and potash applied.
FTE 503 (Fritted trace elements) applied to ryegrass, white clover,
red clover, and alfalfa increased dry-matter yields of forage from 15 to
60 percent. FTE 503 applied at a 15-pound per acre rate to white clover
variety plots in the fall of 1961 was responsible for yield increases of 25,
30, and 11 percent dry-matter forage during 1962, 63, and 64. One appli-
cation of this minor element mixture thus was effective over a two to
three-year period for this crop.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IMPROVEMENT
Hatch Project 372 F. Clark
The program to develop varieties of flue-cured tobacco with a high
level or resistance was continued on an expanded basis. Fifty-one flue-cured
Regional Variety test entries were evaluated in a heavily infested black-
shank nursery at the North Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. The
plant survival in this test ranged from 0 to 95 percent with an average
of 43 percent. N. C. 2326, Va. 115, Speights 36, and Coker 298, four newly
released varieties, had ratings of 42, 31, 72, and 95 percent, respectively.
These varieties produced yields and leaf quality equal to many of the
older commercially available tobacco varieties on non-infested blackshank
and nematode soil.
Breeding lines in the F5 generation with resistance derived from Florida
301 had generally high resistance to blackshank along with good plant type.
Selections from this material are being evaluated for yield and quality
and for desirable agronomic characteristics.
Material in the F2 generation with resistance from N. plumbaginifolia
was selected, harvested, cured, and graded on an individual plant basis.
In addition, chemical analyses were performed on cured leaf samples to
more fully evaluate quality characteristics. From these data, selections
for subsequent field testing were made on the basis of disease index, yield,
and quality and/or chemical data.
The flue-cured regional variety tests entries were also grown in the
nematode nursery at Gainesville and Branford, and only a few lines had
satisfactory resistance to nematodes. Most all the varieties tested pro-
duced higher yields than Hicks and N. C. 95, two varieties most commonly
grown in Florida. However, many of the varieties do not have as satis-
factory chemical properties. This project is closed with this report.
(See also Hatch Project 372, North Florida Station.)

CORN BREEDING
Hatch Project 374 E. S. Horner
The evaluation of commercial hybrids, new inbred lines, and different
breeding methods was continued.
Florida 200A and Florida 200 were the highest yielding commercial
hybrids among the 17 tested at 6 locations in north Florida. Florida 200A








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


was again significantly better than Florida 200 with regard to lodging and
ear height. Seed of Florida 200A was produced commercially for the first
time in 1964.
Two experimental lines, 2S66-4 and P13-2, were especially good in
hybrid combinations, confirming earlier results. The former, when crossed
with the male parent of Florida 200A, contributes very good yield, good
weevil resistance, strong stalks, large ears, and good grain quality to the
hybrid. It appears likely that this line or a closely related one can be
substituted for F6 in the seed parent of Florida 200A to good advantage.
The line P13-2 contributes exceptionally high grain yield, very large ears,
and high quality grain to crosses with unrelated lines. However, since it
has white kernel color, it will be useful only as a breeding line.
Additional evidence was obtained to show that a tester used to evaluate
new lines should have a low frequency of dominant favorable yield genes.
Hybrids between lines selected by use of such a tester were found to have
a very low interaction with locations, while similar hybrids between lines
selected by use of a tester having a relatively high gene frequency had
a very marked interaction with locations. Large hybrid x location inter-
actions are undesirable because they indicate that the hybrids involved
are not adapted to a wide range of environments.
(See also Project 374, North Florida, Suwannee Valley, and West
Florida stations.)

PERMANENT SEEDBEDS FOR TOBACCO PLANTS
State Project 444 F. Clark
The following materials and combination of materials were tested dur-
ing the 1964-65 plant growing season in search for new production tech-
niques that will improve seedling vigor and reduce production cost: 1. A
combination of 30 percent ethylene dibromide and 70 percent methyl bro-
mide; 2. A mixture of 10 percent ethylene dibromide and 90 percent methyl
bromide; 3. A mixture of 59.5 percent methyl bromide, 25.5 percent ethylene
dibromide, and 15 percent methyl chloride; 4. A mixture of isothiocyanate
plus chlorinated hydrocarbons; 5. A mixture of 61 percent methyl bromide,
30 percent chloropicrin, 6.8 percent propargyl bromide, and 2.2 percent Ca
chlorinated hydrocarbons; 6. A mixture of 80 percent ethylene dibromide,
15 percent chloropicrin and 5 percent propargyl bromide; 7. A mixture of
80 percent dichloropropene, 15 percent chloropicrin, and 5 percent propargyl
bromide; 8. Methyl bromide plus chloropicrin. All treatments were superior
to the check for control of weeds and subsequent plant growth. There were
differences in the control of weeds among the several treatments as well as a
slight difference in vigor of plant growth. Methyl bromide was the chemical
which was used for comparative evaluation purposes. Several of these
chemicals will need further testing under more widely varying ecological
conditions.
Four plant bed cover designs were also tested for differential growth
responses. These included (1) two colors of laminated, perforated cheese-
cloth covers, (2) one translucent perforated plastic film, and (3) cheese-
cloth. Growth vigor was influenced in the order listed above. It will be
necessary to test the combination of plastic (laminated on cheesecloth)
further because of a lack of durability and cost of covers.
Another production technique tested was an asphaltic petroleum mulch
that was sprayed on the soil following seeding to see if seedling germina-
tion could be enhanced. A comparison was made of mulch plus perforated








Annual Report, 1965


film, mulch plus cheesecloth, and perforated film and cheesecloth without
the petroleum mulch. The results of this test proved very interesting.
Germination, rootgrowth, and plant vigor were influenced by the combina-
tion of perforated plastic plus the asphaltic mulch.
NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PEANUT
Hatch Project 488 H. C. Harris
Comparative studies of the effect of boron deficiency on four varieties
of peanuts-Early runner, Star spanish, Line F416, and Florigiant-in
nutrient solution and soil were made. The deficiency symptoms for the
varieties were similar. In nutrient solutions flower production for the
boron-deficient plants was negligible five weeks after flowering had begun
in the controls. Foilage and root growth were greatly reduced by the
deficiency. In the soil studies boron deficiency symptoms were similar, but
possibly not as severe. With the deficiency considerable flowers were pro-
duced, but the distribution pattern differed from the controls. Maximum
flower production of the controls came early and diminished towards the
end of the season. With boron deficiency the number of flowers produced
per day was never high, but production continued at much the same rate
throughout the season. Yields of peanuts for all varieties were negligible
without boron in the treatment.
Research on the effect of imbalance of boron nutrition on the peanut
was continued. The Florigiant variety produced more peanuts without any
fertilization than with complete fertilization except without boron. Visual
boron deficiency symptoms were not observed where plants were grown
without any fertilizer. In contrast, deficiency symptoms were striking for
plants grown on the same soil with complete fertilization except without
boron.
FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 555 F. Clark
Fertilizer ratios, new fumigants for control of nematodes and black-
shank, new chemicals for control of suckers, and the use of a herbicide
were tested during the 1964 tobacco season.
The fertilizer ratio test included five rates of nitrogen 50, 75, 100,
125, and 150 pounds, two rates of phosphorous 100 and 150 pounds,
and potash rates of 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 pounds per acre. All
phosphorous was applied preplant and the nitrogen-potash as split appli-
cations. The 150 pounds of preplant phosphorous, plus 100 pounds of nitro-
gen and 250 pounds of potash produced the best results.
Three rates of nitrogen 60, 90 and 120 pounds per acre- and three
rates of potash 120, 180, and 240 pounds per acre were tested with
an application of 120 pounds of phosphorous, applied before transplanting.
These treatments received MH-30 vs. no MH-30. The addition of MH-30
increased yields slightly; however, the higher level of nitrogen 120 pounds
plus 240 of potash with no MH-30 applied was 54 pounds below the same
rates treated with MH-30.
Diphenamid was used at 4 and 6 pounds active per acre for control of
weeds in tobacco. Three application dates were used: 1, 3, and 6 days after
transplanting. No appreciable phytotoxic effects were noted on the plants.
There were no significant yield differences between the cultivated check
and the 4 and 6 pound rates of diphenamid. However, the number of hours
needed for adequate cultivation was greater with the cultivated check plot.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Several fumigants were tested for the control of nematodes, and none
proved any better than DD or EDB. However, some of the new materials
appear to offer longer residual protection.
Thirty-six chemicals were tested for control of suckers. Many proved
phytotoxic to the lamina of the leaf, and further testing will be required
before any of the materials will be recommended.
Two fumigants,(1) a mixture of 80 percent dichloropropene, 15 percent
chloropicrin, and 5 percent propargyl and (2) a dichloropropene mixture,
were tested at three rates in a blackshank nursery. None of the rates
proved satisfactory. However, severe flooding occurred shortly after appli-
cation of the materials, and this might have affected the final results.

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL
AND NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 G. B. Killinger
A lack of moisture from mid-April to mid-June cut clover growth and
caused a reduced grass yield because of a limited nitrogen supply from the
clover.
Data collected from October 1963 through September 1964 completes the
information for the second cycle of this project. The pasture fertilization
by programs and total oven-dry forage yields for this season are shown in
the following table:
Lbs. 0-10-20 Lbs. Nitrogen Lbs. of Forage
Program Per Acre Per Acre Per Acre
1 450 120 7786
2 300 0 5254
3 500 0 6959
4 700 0 7582
5 900 0 6864
All but program 1 had a combination of clover and grass as the forage,
with most of the grass being Pensacola bahia.
Program 2, treated with 30 pounds of P20 and 60 pounds of KzO per
acre, produced considerably less forage per acre for the 7th consecutive
year than any other program in the experiment.
With this report this project is closed and will be revised for another
cycle or period with a new set of treatments.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineer-
ing, Animal Science, and Soils departments.)

MEASUREMENT OF METEOROLOGICAL ELEMENTS
OF THE MICROCLIMATE
Hatch Project 760 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder, O. C. Ruelke,
S. H. West', and K. D. Butson'
A "critical period" in the life cycle of Florida 200 corn has been found
when the light environment must be favorable or development of extra
ears will be restricted. Present data indicate this critical period to be from
silk emergence to 5 days after silk emergence.
The average ear corn yield of Florida 200 corn plants was .35 and .61
'Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
SCooperative with the U. S. Weather Bureau.








Annual Report, 1965


pound at populations of 9,000 and 18,000 plants per acre, respectively.
Twenty-one percent of the ear weight per plant was contributed by the
bottom five leaves at the 9,000 population and 4 percent at the 18,000
population.
The effect of the growth regulators, 2,4-D, gibberellic acid, Cycocel,
succinic acid, and napthalene acetic acid, applied as foliar sprays or seed
treatments on the growth of Florida 200 corn was studied under field
conditions. No significant increases in grain yield were obtained although
tillering was greatly reduced by the gibberellic acid sprays. Gibberellic
acid spray increased the susceptibility of corn plants to frost damage.
Temperatures in the microclimate surrounding pangolagrass, and a
new Digitaria species, P.I. No. 238290, which produces underground
rhizomes, were measured. The average minimum air temperature 1 inch
above the soil of pangolagrass was 23oF; temperature 1 inch above the
soil of the new Digitaria species was 24oF, while the temperature 1 inch
deep in the soil around the rhizomes of the new grass was 32*F. The modi-
fying effect of the soil on the minimum temperature around the under-
ground rhizomes would probably allow rhizomatous grasses to survive
freezes better than nonrhizomatous grasses.

BREEDING AND EVALUATING NEW VARIETIES OF
SOYBEANS FOR FLORIDA
State Project 761 Kuell Hinson3
High protein has been emphasized in the breeding program at Gaines-
ville in recent years. The original sources of high protein germplasm were
relatively low in yield and had generally poor agronomic and disease
resistance qualities. Breeding lines selected from crosses between high pro-
tein sources and improved varieties accounted for more than half of the
377 lines tested in replicated tests in 1964. None were higher than check
varieties in yield, but some were within the range of experimental error.
They had lower average yields than lines selected from crosses in which
both parents were improved varieties or strains with relatively low protein
content.
The value per bushel, based on recent prices of protein and oil, usually
was higher for high protein selections than for standard varieties. How-
ever, to obtain a significant increase in value per acre, a high protein
variety probably will have to at least equal the yield of standard varieties.
More recent crosses have utilized high protein sources with better
agronomic qualities as they became available. Also, the backcross method,
with the high protein source as the nonrecurrent parent, has been used
more extensively.

INTERRELATION OF ENVIRONMENT TO THE PHYSIOLOGY AND
CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS II. ORGANIC ACID METABOLISM OF
PLANTS IN RELATION TO MINOR ELEMENT NUTRITION
Hatch Project 766 V. N. Schroder
A relationship between the level of succinic acid in oats and the level
of potassium (K) supplied in the nutrient has been shown together with
changes in the levels of other organic acids. Work during the past year
has done much to fit these changes into a more consistent pattern. An
accurate picture of the changes occurring with changes in the nutrient
3 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


level of K can be obtained if chromatographic analyses are run on plant
tissue from tip, base, and midrib of young and old leaves. When visually
identical plants were analyzed, the young leaves from plants receiving a
high level of K contained succinic acid in the tip, base, and midrib, but
young leaves from plants receiving a low level of K contained succinic acid
only in the tip. Old leaves from high K oat plants contained succinic acid
in all parts of the leaves, while old leaves from low K plants contained only
a small amount of succinic acid in the tip but much larger amounts of
citric acid in the tip, base, and midrib. Other changes in citric and malic
acid levels were also found. Sunflower is responsive to changes in the
nutrient supply, but the pattern of change in the organic acid levels is not
as clear as in oats.

SMALL GRAIN IMPROVEMENT BY BREEDING AND SELECTION
Hatch Project 783 P. L. Pfahler
Oats.-The hybridization and selection program is being continued in an
effort to isolate lines which combine forage and grain production with a
high level of crown rust resistance and cold tolerance. Evidence is accumu-
lating to indicate that in an area such as Florida which experiences
abrupt temperature changes and sporadic, damaging outbreaks of diseases,
composite populations containing a number of genotypes whose characteris-
tics and responses supplement each other, are desirable. In such popula-
tions, not only production but environmental stability also is increased. A
survey of the germ plasm in the cultivated species of Avena has indicated
that a large amount of diversity is present, thereby suggesting that adapted
genotypes are available for inclusion into composite populations. Since
crown rust is the most damaging disease, more stable forms of resistance
other than the monogenic forms are being investigated. Several lines
which combine desirable agronomic traits with the more stable "late rust-
ing" form of resistance prevalent in Avena byzantine have been isolated
and are being tested and purified. The grain yield of Florida 500 was
higher than any entry in the Southern Oat Nursery in the 1964-65 season,
which was characterized by a severe epiphytotic of crown rust.
Rye.-The presence and activity of the fungus Helminthosporium
sorokinianum and the storage insect Sitophilus oryza were suspected re-
sponsible for sharply decreased grain production. Tests indicated that
grain production was reduced only by the combined action of both the
fungus and insect. The seed application of Arasan or Ceresan did not
control the fungus, whereas DDT or Dieldrin was equally effective in
controlling the insect.
(See also Project 783, Plant Pathology Department and North Florida
Station.)

TESTING SOYBEAN BREEDING LINES AND VARIETIES
State Project 909 Kuell Hinson'
Nine varieties and three breeding lines were tested at Jay, Marianna,
Live Oak, Gainesville, and Zellwood (organic soil) in 1964. The variety x
location interaction for yield was significant at .01. Bragg and Hardee
were within the range of experimental error of the highest yielding variety
at four (but not the same four) of the five locations. Two of the three
Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.








Annual Report, 1965 59

breeding lines were equal to Bragg and Hardee in yield and range of
adaptation. Other varieties performed very well at one or two locations,
but appeared to be less widely adapted in the state.
Bragg and Hardee were superior to all other named varieties at Gaines-
ville. These results and data from other sources provide good evidence
that Bragg and Hardee are the two best varieties now available for north
central Florida.
Preliminary screening of breeding lines included testing 377 selections
from 39 different parental combinations for yield, agronomic qualities,
and disease resistance. Sixty-four will be retested. The remainder will be
replaced by approximately the same number of new selections.
(See also Project 909, Central Florida, North Florida, and Suwannee
Valley stations.)

THE INTERRELATED EFFECTS OF MINERAL NUTRIENT
DEFICIENCIES, ENVIRONMENT, AND HEREDITY ON
THE NITROGEN METABOLISM OF PLANTS
Hatch Project 950 H. C. Harris
Last year an attempt was made to produce soybean seed under various
nutrient deficiency stresses and to determine what effect the stresses would
have on the crop grown from the seed thus produced. Boron deficiency was
so severe that no seed were obtained, but relatively good seed were pro-
duced with slight manganese, zinc, copper, or molybdenum deficiency. The
manganese deficient seed were small, and many of them had a dark area
on the back of the seed. Zinc deficient seed were large, but a smaller num-
ber was produced. Seeds from the various treatments were germinated
and then grown in a growth chamber for about a month. Differences of
nutrient treatment in producing seed last year had a marked effect on the
plants grown this year even though all plants were grown in complete
nutrient solution. Size of seed seemed to be a factor involved.
A similar experiment was conducted with Florigiant peanuts grown in
soil. Variation in treatments the previous year had a marked effect on
seedling growth under uniformly controlled conditions. Again the differ-
ences seemed to have some relation to size of seed.

EFFECT OF AGE OF SOD ON YIELD OF BAHIAGRASS
AND SUBSEQUENT FIELD CROPS
State Project 971 A. J. Norden
In this project, previously designated plots are seeded each year to
bahiagrass, while the remaining plots are maintained in a cultivated crop
rotation of corn during the even-numbered years and peanuts during the
odd-numbered years. The first grass seedings were made in 1960; and in
the fall of 1965, 1966, and 1967 previously designated plots will be plowed
to determine the effects of grass sod of various ages on subsequent culti-
vated crops. Plant nutrient, nematode, and agronomic data are obtained
annually from each plot.
Bahiagrass yields were taken in 1964 during the months of June, July,
August, and September. After four years there is no indication that the
bahiagrass is losing any of its productive ability. More total forage of a
higher nitrogen content was produced from the four-year-old stands (plots
seeded in 1960) than the younger stands. Two-year-old bahiagrass stands








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


produced slightly more forage than three-year-old stands and considerably
more than one-year-old stands. The recovery in forage of the applied
nitrogen was least efficient in the one-year-old sod plots.
The available calcium, magnesium, and potash declined from a fairly
high level in the one and two-year-old sod plots to a medium level in the
three and four-year-old sod plots. The level of available phosphorous de-
clined slightly with age of sod but continues to be high.
Seven nematode species were identified in the experimental plots in
1964. Ring nematodes were found in every plot and in much larger num-
bers than any of the other six species. The numbers of Lance, Dagger,
and Root Lesion nematodes decreased with age of sod, while the numbers
of Ring, Sting, and Stubby Root nematodes remained fairly constant or
increased with age of sod. Corn appeared to be a better host than bahia-
grass for all but the Ring nematodes. Ring nematodes were found in con-
siderably higher numbers in the grass plots than in the corn plots.

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF FORAGE
CROPS TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS EFFECTED
THROUGH MANAGEMENT
Hatch Project 998 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder, O. C. Ruelke,
S. H. West," and K. D. Butson'
Results from freezing chamber experiments in the laboratory indicated
that young pangolagrass plants, which had just rooted, would survive
colder air temperatures than old established plants. Newly established
pangolagrass in the field remained greener and initiated growth earlier
than old established plants; however, because low temperatures during the
winter of 1964-65 were not critical, survival was satisfactory in both young
and old stands of pangolagrass plants.
In a cooperative experiment on phenological development of alfalfa at
various latitudes, it was found that a uniform clone of vernal alfalfa
(clone C643) initiated growth earliest (Jan. 16, 1964), flowered earliest
(Apr. 1, 1964), and contained the highest percentage of crude protein of
the alfalfa grown at any station from Florida to Alaska.
An experimental alfalfa being selected for vigor and persistence under
Project 1154 produced over 2 tons per acre more hay than the next best
variety among 16 varieties studied in the second harvest season. The ex-
perimental alfalfa was the only alfalfa variety which had a stand dense
enough to produce a satisfactory hay crop at the beginning of the third
harvest season.

A CONTINUOUS HARVESTING-CURING SYSTEM
FOR BRIGHT TOBACCO
Hatch Project 1034 F. Clark
Four experiments were conducted: 1. The effects of coloring techniques,
expressed in drying rate, percent water loss in 48 hours. Water loss or
percent drying ranged from 12.5 to 50 percent during the 48-hour coloring
time. The combination of 25 percent loss during the first 12 hours with no
loss of moisture during the last 36 hours was the most satisfactory from
the physical and chemical standpoint. 2. Coloring techniques for bulk
cured tobacco when cured in single and double layers. Two layers were
cured in the same compartment. The bottom layer of tobacco that was
6 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
8 Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.








Annual Report, 1965


colored for 63 hours at 105F with a 12.5 percent water loss and where
gradual increments of heat were used for 49 hours (9 hours 110oF; 6 hours
120F; 10 hours 130F; and 24 hours 140'F) was considered to be the
most acceptable from the physical and chemical standpoint. 3. Variations
in the amount of moisture removed during stem drying phase of curing in
single and double layers. The treatment which met more of the acceptable
quality standards was one in which the tobacco was colored for 64 hours
at 1050F with a moisture loss of 15 percent and a total of 55 hours of
leaf drying and 40.5 hours of stem drying. This sample was the
top layer; however, the bottom layer of this same curing regime was
rated very high. To obtain the variations used in this experiment, leaf
drying time was shortened and stem drying time increased from 40.5
hours to 67 hours. A temperature of 170F was the air temperature for
stem drying for all experiments. 4. This experiment was similar to ex-
periment 1. However, the tobacco density was greater, and tobacco was
cured in two layers. Water loss was uniform at 15 percent. However,
the coloring duration was 73 hours at 105F, leaf drying required 45
hours and stem drying 48 hours at 107'F. Tobacco that was bulked at
20 pounds per square foot and was colored for 73 hours at 105F, with a
15 percent moisture loss, leaf dried for 45 hours, and stem dried for 48
hours, was preferred over the other treatments. In another curing trial,
bulk density was increased to 22.2 pounds per square foot for each layer,
and the tobacco was colored for 66.5 hours at 105F with a moisture loss
of 15 percent during coloring, leaf dried for 46 hours, and stem dried for
55 hours. Leaf ripeness, coloring time, air movement, and bulk density
were the most important points.
(See also Project 1034, Agricultural Engineering Department and
Suwannee Valley Station.)

INDUCED MUTATION RATE MODIFYING AGENTS IN OATS
Hatch Project 1036 A. T. Wallace
Research was largely directed towards an investigation of induced
mutations at the Vb locus in oats. A great deal of effort was made to
find a technique sensitive enough to measure small differences in resistance
of oats to toxin produced by Helminthosporium victoria. The bioassay
finally developed is not as sensitive as we need to measure small differences.
It involves 14 different steps and takes a total of 6 days. This technique
was applied to a total of 1400 different mutant lines. From these, 250 were
selected as being different and will be used to continue the investigation of
the genetic nature of induced mutation in higher plants. Fifty-seven of
the mutants proved to be partially resistant. The degree of resistance
ranged from 10 to 90 percent. When toxin resistant mutants were in-
oculated with crown rust, the degree of necrosis and not pustule size or
degree of chlorosis was found to be related to resistance to toxin. Some
mutants exhibited partial toxin resistance and full necrosis, indicating
only part of the Vb locus controls necrosis. Partial resistance was found
to be dominant to complete resistance, while susceptibility to toxin was
found to be completely dominant to partial resistance and complete re-
sistance. F, segregation ratios from mutant by parent crosses frequently
were greater than 3:1, indicating that some of the mutations are deletions.
A chromosome analysis of these segregates confirmed this assumption. The
influence of 6-azauracil, chloramphenicol, and kinetin on the response of
mutants to toxin was tested. 6-azauracil gives partial protection to toxin








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


damage, while chloramphenicol effects are very similar to the effects of
toxin. These results suggest that toxin performs its action by inhibiting
protein synthesis. A hypothesis describing the genetic mechanism involved
in the resistance-susceptibility relationship has been proposed. (This
project is being terminated with this report. The research will be con-
tinued under Hatch Project 1237.)

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN INTEGRATED SILAGE
AND GRAZING SYSTEM FOR DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 1053 A. J. Norden
The fourth cycle of a rotation system comparing yields from consecu-
tive plantings on the same land of spring corn, summer sorghum, and fall
oats with yields obtained from the conventional procedure of spring corn
and fall oats was completed.
The dry matter yields of corn and oats averaged 8,679 and 1,673 pounds
per acre from the fourth cycle of the three-crops-per-year rotation plots
compared to significantly higher yields of 10,221 and 2,106 pounds per acre
of corn and oats, respectively, from the two-crops per year rotation plots.
This is the first time that both the corn and oat yields were significantly
higher on the two-crops-per-year rotation plots than on the three-crops-
per-year plots and indicates that, unless additional measures are employed
to maintain soil productivity, this intensive cropping system may not be
feasible for extended periods of time.
The three-crops-per-year rotation plots received a yearly average of 286,
129, 186, 400, 264, and 24 pounds per acre of N, P205, KSO, CaO, MgO, and
Fritted Trace Elements, respectively, compared with 164, 81, 125, 400,
264, and 15 pounds per acre for the two-crops-per-year rotation plots. The
mean NOs, P20O, K20, and pH level was practically identical in plots of
both rotations, whereas the level of available CaO and MgO was somewhat
higher in the two-crops-per-year plots, 860 and 92 pounds per acre re-
spectively, compared with 707 and 75 pounds per acre of available CaO
and MgO in the three-crops-per-year plots.
(See also Project 1053, Agriculture Engineering and Dairy Science de-
partments.)

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN FIELD CROPS
Hatch Project 1087 M. Wilcox and E. G. Rodgers
New or unproved herbicides were applied in duplicate to corn, soybeans,
and peanuts. The more promising herbicides were included in advanced
trials of from four to six replications. Studies of the metabolism of
herbicides in crop plants continue.
Peanuts.-2,4-DEP at 2 pounds per acre in combination with 8 pounds
PCP or 1.5 pounds DNBP per acre and sesone + DNBP at 2 plus 3 pounds
per acre were again the treatments giving the highest yields. 2,4-D (low
volatile ester) plus DNBP at 1.5 plus 1.5 pounds per acre also performed
well. All were applied at "cracking time".
Field Corn.-Fenac or 2,4-D at 1 pound per acre or less in combination
with dacthal at 4 to 6 pounds per acre gave good weed control and non-
significantly higher yields than a cultivated check. These combinations
continued to perform better than the conventional s-triazine herbicides.








Annual Report, 1965


Soybeans.-Ametryne, which has performed well in previous years,
has shown an insufficient margin of safety. Tenoran at 3 to 6 pounds per
acre, and 1.5 to 2 pounds DNBP in combination with 5 pounds dacthal,
2 pounds diphenamid, 4 pounds OCS 21944, or 2 pounds OCS 21693 per
acre gave commercial weed control without apparent crop damage.
(See Project 1087, Central Florida, North Florida, and West Florida
stations, and Marianna Unit, North Florida Station.)

QUANTITATIVE GENETIC STUDIES OF CORN AND
CERTAIN SMALL GRAINS
State Project 1100 P. L. Pfahler
Corn.-In both classical and population genetics, the fertilization ability
of the male gamete is assumed independent of its genetic constitution.
However, differences in the fertilization ability of pollen from various
genetic sources were found, suggesting that this basic assumption may not
be completely valid. Predictions of genetic gain from selection and popu-
lation structure in successive generations may have to be altered. Breed-
ing systems which require the assumption of random mating may also
have to be revised. Preliminary investigations have indicated that the
genotype of the pollinated female may also be involved. Therefore, an in-
teraction between the genotype of the pollen source and the genotype of
the pollinated female is probable. A medium for in vitro germination of
pollen is being developed for more critical studies.
Small Grains.-The possibility of the commercial exploitation of hybrid
vigor in rye which is self-incompatible is being intensively studied. Re-
sults have indicated that increased grain and forage production are ob-
tained with certain combinations of inter-varietal hybrids. Greater stability
in production has also been found. The increase resulting from hybrid
vigor was greater under space-planted conditions, especially when vegeta-
tive plant weight is considered. Commercial production of inter-varietal
hybrids would be possible only if an economical method of controlling
pollination is found. The effect of the exposure of seed to gamma irradia-
tion on the resulting plant is being studied primarily in terms of number
and function of pollen grains and the number of seed. Relatively high
irradiation dosages did not decrease seed numbers but markedly decreased
the number of pollen grains. However, the fertilization ability of the
pollen grains produced appeared to be enhanced.

LEACHING CHARACTERISTICS OF CERTAIN HERBICIDES
IN SELECTED SOILS
Regional Research Project 1131 E. G. Rodgers and M. Wilcox
In columns of Lakeland fine sandy soil 6 inches in diameter and 23
inches in depth, varying amounts of simulated rainfall resulted in slightly
more leaching of ametryne than of prometryne. As indicated by oats and
cucumbers in bio-assay, ametryne moved downward in phytotoxic concen-
trations to a maximum depth of 3 inches after initial application at
4 pounds per acre; one-half that initial application rate reduced maximum
leaching depth to 2 inches. Prometryne at 4 pounds per acre leached con-
siderably less and was not completely phytotoxic to these test seedlings even
at the soil surface, and at 2 pounds per acre, this material showed less








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


phytotoxicity and leaching. Increased amounts of simulated rainfall ap-
parently dispersed the herbicide and reduced its toxicity.
In field plots, these herbicides persisted longer and leached to greater
depths when applied initially at 8 pounds per acre than at 4 or 2 pounds
per acre. Oats and soybeans grown in soil taken from various depths in-
dicated that ametryne at the highest rate had moved downward in
phytotoxic concentrations within 2 months to a depth of 4 inches, whereas
the rates of 4 and 2 pounds per acre had moved downward only 2 and 1
inches, respectively. Downward movement of prometryne was negligible.
The growth of second and third sets of these crops of 28 days each in these
same soil samples was associated with reduced phytotoxicity which may have
been influenced by the growing seedlings as well as by the moisture applied
to support plant growth. Additional soil samples taken 41/2 months after
initial application failed to show further leaching of the individual treat-
ments, but instead, a reduction and occasionally complete disappearance
of phytotoxicity were noted at depths where acute phytotoxicity was ob-
served 21 months earlier.


NATURE AND FUNCTION OF CYTOPLASMIC FACTORS
INVOLVED IN HEREDITY IN HIGHER PLANTS

Hatch Project 1134 J. R. Edwardson
The inheritance of a leaf variegation in the NN Turkish tobacco variety
is being studied. Attempts to transmit cytoplasmic male sterility asexually
by means other than grafting are continuing. Fixation techniques for
intracellular preservation of spherical and rod shaped viruses have been
developed, and are being applied to the search for cytoplasmic factors
with the electron microscope. Cytological comparisons of cytoplasmic male
sterile and maintainer embryo sacs of corn, petunia, onion, beet, carrot, and
crotalaria are in progress. A cytoplasmic inclusion of pin-wheel shape
has been found to be characteristic of infection by seven viruses of the
Potato Virus Y group. Corn hybrids containing male sterile T-type cyto-
plasm were found to be more resistant to radiation damage than their
normal counterparts. Genetic studies of fertility restoration in petunia
and crotalaria are continuing.


BREEDING FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE IN LUPINES

Hatch Project 1135 J. R. Edwardson

Stemphylium solaWi resistance in introductions of blue lupine from
Portugal has been found to be controlled by a single pair of recessive
genes glgl. Resistance to S. solani is also controlled by recessive genes
glgll, which assort independently of gl,. The gll gene has not been detected
in any of the Portugese material studied. It has been found that optimum
seed production of sweet blue lupine requires not only Stemphylium resist-
ance but also insecticide applications to control thrips. Inheritance studies
of Phomopsis and Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus resistance in yellow lupine
are continuing. Studies of herbicides as selective eliminators of virus in-
fected seedlings in yellow lupine plantings will be continued. Screening of
yellow lupine introductions for differences in capacity to transmit Bean
Yellow Mosaic Virus through seed has been initiated.








Annual Report, 1965 65

WHITE CLOVER AND ALFALFA BREEDING

State Project 1154 E. S. Horner

Selection for improved productivity and summer persistence in white
clover and alfalfa was continued.

White Clover.-Emphasis during the past year has been on selection
for increased flowering along with summer persistence in a ladino-type
experimental variety. Clones were established from 114 plants which had
bloomed to some extent in the spring of 1964 and had produced vigorous
fall growth. About two-thirds of these clones bloomed in the spring of
1965, and there was a wide range among clones for rate of spread, height,
and other characters. The new clones have also been inter-crossed in an
isolated area, using lights to induce flowering. Continued selection will be
done among plants obtained from this seed.

Alfalfa.-Experimental variety "G63", developed by five generations of
mass selection for persistence (perennial habit), produced over twice as
much forage as the commercial varieties Hairy Peruvian and African in
the second harvest year of plots planted in 1963. Stands in plots of G63
were estimated to be 78 percent of a full stand, compared with 36 percent
for Hairy Peruvian and 32 percent for African (Figure 1). These results,
along with similar findings in previous tests, indicate that good progress
has been made toward developing a persistent alfalfa variety for Florida.
Additional tests in other locations are being planned to determine whether
or not the variety should be released to farmers in its present form.


Figure 1.-Alfalfa plots of experimental variety G63 (left) and Hairy
Peruvian (right), showing superior stand of G63 in the second harvest year.
Heavy lines indicate the centers of 19-inch alleys between plots, which were
planted in October 1963 and photographed in May 1965.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED PLANT SPECIES AND
VARIETIES FOR ECONOMIC USES


Hatch Project 1166 G. B. Killinger
(RRF Contributing to Regional Project S-9)
Sunflower (Helianthus annus) introductions (40 P. I. numbers) and two
commercial varieties, planted in April, developed large seed heads; how-
ever, diseases almost eliminated the seed crop before harvest. The same
seed planted in late August matured a full seed crop by mid November
with no disease, and the plants were mostly under 7 feet in height.
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus Linn.), yielding 7 to 10 tons of oven dry
plant stem per acre grown on a Leon fine sand (soil), shows promise as a
paper-pulp crop. Everglades 41 and 71 varieties, of which limited quantities
of seed are available, yielded more dry matter than varieties presently
grown in Central America. Plant introductions and breeding lines from
the Everglades Station are under trial for yield and paper-pulp qualities.



EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED AND NATIVE PLANT SPECIES
FOR PASTURE, FORAGE, AND OTHER USES


State Project 1167 G. B. Killinger, E. S. Horner, G. M. Prine,
S. C. Schank, and B. N. Duck

Digitaria decumbens plants from gamma radiation treatment in 1963
continue to exhibit varied growth habits. Because the 1964-65 winter period
was mild, no cold injury was noted on the living plants.
Phaseolus atropurpureus (siratro), a summer growing perennial legume,
has recovered and made early spring and summer growth following two
winter seasons. This legume appears to be adapted for growing in peren-
nial grass sods in the northcentral area of Florida.
Perennial Arachis species, (wild peanut), showing desirable forage
characteristics, have been increased from 11 to 36 lines. The perennial pea-
nut "Arb" (A. glabrata), P. I. 118457, Figure 2, shows promise as a
summer forage legume for well-drained soils.
Over 250 new Digitaria introductions, from Africa, were received as
vegetative material and successfully established in plots. These represent
the collections made in the 1964 USDA African Plant Collection Expedition.
Screening of these new introductions for adaptation and desirable pasture
or forage qualities is in progress.
A number of warm-season grass introductions are being evaluated for
forage possibilities, among which are 42 accessions of Rhodesgrass (Chloris
gayana), 21 Setaria sphacelata, and 101 Panicum spp. (maximum, colora-
tum, makarikariense) accessions. New hybrids of Cynodon spp. are being
evaluated on flatwoods soils. Preliminary observations show some Rhodes-
grass and Panicum accessions to have much vigor. Considerable variability
has been noted in the Rhodesgrass introductions, and it may be possible
to make desirable selections from this species.
(See also Project 1167, Everglades, North Florida, Range Cattle, and
West Florida stations and Indian River Field Laboratory, Everglades
Station.)








Annual Report, 1965


Figure 2.-The perennial peanut, Arb, showing top-growth attached
to the underground rhizomes which are used in propagating this summer
forage legume.




FORAGE GRASS IMPROVEMENT BY INTERSPECIFIC
HYBRIDIZATION WITHIN THE GENUS DIGITARIA


Hatch Project 1227 S. C. Schank
Extensive taxonomic observations on both old and new Digitaria intro-
ductions were completed in 1965 by H. F. Decker. Basically, distinct species
were recognized in D. diversinervis, D. swazilandensis, D. chevalieri, D.
scalarum, D. eriantha, D. macroglossa, D. natalensis, and D. decumbens.
Others of the new introductions were placed into five broad taxonomi-
groups, namely, D. milanjiana, D. pentzii, D. valida, D. smutsii, and t.
"Umfolozi group". Forty-four of the over 500 total Digitaria introductions
were obviously misclassified, and correct names have been assigned.
Interspecific hybridizations made in the 1964 crossings are being evalu-
ated. Out of 114 crosses, only 30 set seed, and 20 of these germinated.
In the first half of 1965, of 30 crosses made, 15 have yielded viable progeny.
All 1965 hybridizations have been accomplished using the new USDA
South African collections, particularly within the milanjiana, valida, and
pentzii groups. Supplementary information on chromosome numbers,
flowering date, pollen stainability, marker genes, agronomic traits, and the
"in-vitro" nutritive methods is being accrued.








68 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

INDUCED MUTATIONS AT SPECIFIC LOCI IN HIGHER PLANTS


Hatch Project 1237 A. T. Wallace
This is a new project under which the research begun under Hatch
Project 1036 will be continued. The genetic investigation of the 250 selected
induced mutations at the Vb locus in oats was continued. Cytological and
morphological examination of seven monosomic lines was begun, and results
from the karyotypes indicate that these represent seven different chromo-
somes. Two of these, when in the nullisomic stage, exhibit "desynapsis".
Further examination of these two monosomic lines is being continued. Thus
far, the data indicate that they are different. One seems to influence two
genomes, each having seven pairs of chromosomes, and the other influences
the third genome. However, the nullisomic form of either one induces
desynapsis in all 21 pairs of chromosomes. The monosomic form of either
has normal pairing. One is linked to the gene suppressing fatuoids.
Mutations for DDT resistance in barley have been induced with gamma
rays and ethylene imine. The chemical was 2.5 times as efficient as gamma
rays in the production of albino mutations and 4.5 times as efficient in the
production of mutations at the DDT locus. Genetic analysis of four of the
DDT-resistant mutants indicate that they are all at one locus. A selection
program involving male sterility and recurrent irradiation was initiated
here and at the West Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in coopera-
tion with Ralph Smith. This program is in its second cycle. Thus far, two
lines of barley have been selected and tested for the possibility of releasing
one for Florida growers. These lines produced 41 and 43 bushels per acre,
respectively, at Gainesville.



GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO


Hatch Project 1260 F. Clark
This new project was activated in May 1965, to replace Hatch Project
372, making blackshank resistance a major objective. Since this project is
new, all results of tobacco breeding are reported under the old project
number, 372, for this year.








Annual Report, 1965


ANIMAL SCIENCE

Research was conducted on 41 projects. New projects included formula-
tion of controlled-intake supplements for beef cattle, the relationship of
inheritant body size in cattle to adaptation to Florida, selection of re-
placement females in beef cattle, 3- versus 12-month breeding seasons for
beef cattle, age of heifers at first breeding as related to beef production,
and selection of maternal ability in beef cattle.
Grants-in-aid totaling approximately $220,000 were obtained from
various commercial companies, foundations, the USDA, and the National
Institute of Health, U.S. Public Health Service for use in research studies.
The department has continued and enlarged its cooperation with other
departments and branch stations on nutrition, breeding, physiology, gene-
tics, and meats studies.


PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION IN FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL
AND NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA

State Project 627 M. Koger

Five pasture programs are being evaluated by grazing cows and
calves which are also utilized in the cattle breeding study.
The five pasture programs include (1) an all-grass program fertilized
at the rate of 450 pounds of 0-10-10 plus 180 pounds of N annually per
acre. The remaining programs are clover-grass, fertilized at varying
rates as follows: (2) 300 pounds of 0-10-20; (3) 500 pounds of 0-10-20
annually plus nitrogen as needed up to 60 pounds per acre; (4) 700 pounds
of 0-10-20 plus nitrogen as needed; and (5) 900 pounds of 0-10-20 plus
nitrogen as needed on irrigated pasture. The weight of calf weaned per
acre was 380, 373, 347, 340, and 355 pounds respectively.
The breeding systems being compared are: (1) straight breeding to
Angus and Hereford, (2) crisscrossing of Angus and Hereford, (3) criss-
crossing Angus and Brahman and (4) crisscrossing Hereford and Santa
Gertrudis. Weaning rate of 1964, based on number of cows bred, was
92, 90, 88, and 79 percent respectively. Average weaning weight per calf
was 513, 512, 516, and 522 pounds for the respective breed groups.
This project has recently been revised and is now entering a third
phase.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineer-
ing, Agronomy, and Soils departments.)


SELECTION OF CATTLE FOR BEEF PRODUCTION
IN SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

State Project 629 M. Koger, A. Z. Palmer
(Contributing to S-10) and A. C. Warnick

This project is cooperative between the Florida Station and USDA. It
is located at Brooksville, and results are reported under Project 629 under
West Central Florida Experiment Station.









70 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

HERITABILITY OF PERFORMANCE ESTIMATES ON ABERDEEN
ANGUS, BRAHMAN, AND HEREFORD CATTLE

State Project 717 J. F. Hentges, Jr. and M. Koger

Relative breed performance data were compiled on registered Angus,
Brahman, and Hereford cattle and calves which were maintained under
similar environmental conditions. These data will be collected for a 10-
year period to permit calculation of heritability estimates of performance
factors. During 1964, preweaning average daily gains for Angus, Brahman,
and Hereford heifer calves were 1.83, 1.97, and 1.77 pounds respectively.
Similar data for bull calves were 1.67, 1.85, and 2.0 pounds for Angus,
Brahman, and Herefords respectively. Average feeder grade was highest
for both male and female Herefords, being 11.4 for both as compared to
10.3 and 11.0 for Brahman males and females and 10.7 and 11.3 for Angus
males and females respectively. The weighted mean live weights of the cow
herds at weaning time were 1129 pounds for Angus, 1229 pounds for Brah-
mans, and 1169 pounds for Herefords. Herefords had the highest pregnancy
rate, followed by Angus, then Brahmans. Detailed data on other perform-
ance factors were recorded for later analyses.






NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF PIGS WEANED
AT AN EARLY AGE

Hatch Project 738 G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace
and T. J. Cunha

The interrelationship of calcium level, vitamin D2 level, and source of
vitamin D was studied with 72 pigs weaned at two weeks of age. Rations
were formulated to contain 0.44 percent phosphorus and 0.48, 0.88, or 1.32
percent calcium. Vitamin Da treatments were formed by supplying 0, 100, or
400 I.U. per pound to each calcium level or by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation
of pigs at each level of calcium. A 10-minute exposure three times weekly
constituted the UV treatment for each pig. At the end of five weeks diges-
tion coefficients were determined and the animals were sacrificed to permit
extraction of bones for chemical analysis. Daily gain decreased significantly
with increasing calcium levels. Neither level nor source of vitamin D in-
fluenced daily gain. Feed consumption was not affected by either calcium
or vitamin D treatment. Feed efficiency was best with the lowest calcium
level and was not significantly influenced by vitamin D treatment. Diges-
tibility of phosphorus, protein, and dry matter was not significantly
influenced by the imposed calcium or vitamin D treatments. Calcium
digestibility was lowest with the group which received 1.32 percent calcium
and with the groups given 0 I.U. vitamin D2 or UV irradiation. Diges-
tibility of ether extract was significantly altered by calcium level but was
higher with the pigs which were fed the 0 and 100 I.U. levels of vitamin D.
Femur and fibula ash were not significantly affected by any of the imposed
treatments.









Annual Report, 1965


THE NUTRITIONAL AVAILABILITY OF COMPONENTS OF
LIVESTOCK FEEDSTUFFS

Hatch Project 755 C. B. Ammerman, P. E. Loggins,
L. R. Arrington, G. K. Davis,
and T. J. Cunha

Two summer fattening trials involving 92 lambs were conducted to
evaluate rations high in citrus by-products and corn in pelleted and non-
pelleted rations. Lamb gains, feed efficiency, and slaughter grades were
not significantly different in lambs fed rations containing 67 percent dried
citrus pulp which had been produced by two different methods. Pelleting
the rations high in citrus pulp did not significantly improve gain or feed
efficiency; however, the trend was in favor of the pelleted rations. When
citrus meal was substituted for corn meal, the rations containing the higher
levels of corn produced significantly higher average daily gains and more
efficient gains. The rumen fluid acetic to propionic acid ratios changed from
1 to 1 for high corn to 3 to 1 for the high citrus meal ration and were re-
lated to feed efficiency.
Five commercial dietary enzyme preparations, added separately to diets
containing 70 percent dried citrus pulp, for lambs, did not significantly
affect nutrient digestibility. The coefficients of apparent digestibility for
the control and the average for the enzyme supplemented diet were 50.5
and 55.6 for protein and 78.2 and 81.4 for energy when the total dietary
protein was 6.5 percent. With 12 percent dietary protein the coefficients
listed in the same order were 74.8 and 75.7; 79.7 and 80.6.
A sewage sludge-oakwood sawdust mixture either composted or not
composted was consumed satisfactorily by growing lambs but was less
valuable nutritionally than bermudagrass hay when comprising 20 percent
of a corn-cottonseed meal type ration. Digestibility of protein, fat, fiber
and nitrogen-free extract was lower for the rations containing the sludge-
sawdust mixture. Composting resulted in a more palatable ration.


NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF RABBITS
State Project 768 L. R. Arrington, C. B. Ammerman
and G. K. Davis

Protein and energy requirements and their interrelationships were
studied with growing rabbits in a factorial design of feeding experiments.
Various levels of dietary fat were fed with different levels of proteins.
Preliminary results indicate that rabbits may effectively utilize higher
levels of dietary fat than that normally fed. With dietary protein at 16
percent, an increase in fat from 2 to 14 percent resulted in an increase in
daily gain from 11.1 to 13.6 grams and change in feed to gain ratio from
4.6 to 3.5. Utilization of the higher levels of fat appeared to be better with
high levels of protein.
Comparative performance of the Californian and Florida White breeds
of rabbits was determined in studies of reproduction, growth, efficiency of
feed utilization, and dressing percentage of market rabbits. The latter
breed was recently developed in this state. Results for the Californian and
Florida White breeds respectively were: average number per litter, 8.6
and 5.6; average weight at 8 weeks, 1421 and 944 grams; mature weight,
3625 and 2365 grams; grams feed per gram weight of litter at 8 weeks,
2.7 and 3.6; dressing percentage, 55.7 and 57.5.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION, BREED, AGE, AND SEX ON
RESPIRATORY ENZYMES IN THE TISSUES OF
CATTLE, SWINE AND SHEEP
State Project 805 R. L. Shirley, G. K. Davis, H. D. Wallace,
A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. Z. Palmer,
P. E. Loggins and T. J. Cunha

Rams at 11 months of age were divided into two groups of five animals
each and fed diets that supplied one group with approximately 0.6 percent
and the other with 0.05 percent phosphorus. The diets contained Dracket,
gelatin, urea, and calcium phosphate as nitrogen and phosphorus sources.
After 148 days, two of the rams on the low P diet were returned to the
0.67 percent phosphorus diet for 76 days. The rams were sacrificed after
224 days on the experiment. The lactic dehydrogenase activity in the heart
expressed as i1 of 02 uptake per mg nitrogen per hour was found to be 161,
183, and 182 for the controls, returns, and phosphorus-deprived groups,
respectively. Corresponding values for succinoxidase activity were 685,
669, and 836. Semen obtained with an electroejaculator from six rams out
of the control and phosphorus-deprived groups after 5 to 8 months on the
diets was sampled for enzyme evaluation. Mean values for 5-nucleotidase
activity were 172 and 121 gg phosphorus liberated per mg nitrogen in the
semen plasma for the control and deprived groups, respectively. Values
of 742 and 339 ig phosphorus per ml of semen were found to be liberated
by this enzyme. Mean values for alkaline phosphatase expressed as Sigma
units were 345 and 260 for the control and deprived rams, while corre-
sponding values for acid phosphatase were 49 and 39, respectively.


THE EFFECT OF HORMONES ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF
REPRODUCTION IN BRITISH AND BRAHMAN CATTLE
Hatch Project 809 A. C. Warnick and M. Koger
Braham, Brahman x Hereford (B x H), and Hereford pregnant cows
were brought from the Everglades Station to study feed intake, daily gain
of calves, efficiency of feed utilization based on daily gain of calves, and
reproductive performance after calving. Up to May 14, 1965, the average
daily gain of calves was 0.88, 1.72, and 1.51 pounds for Brahman, B x H,
and Hereford cows, respectively. All cows received 10.5 pounds daily of
a concentrate mixture with daily hay intakes of 18.62, 20.99, and 21.92
pounds in Brahman, B x H, and Hereford, respectively. The average
pounds of hay consumed by cows per pound of gain of calf was 21.05, 12.21,
and 14.50 in Brahman, B x H, and Hereford, respectively, while pounds of
concentrate eaten per pound of gain were 11.93, 6.09, and 6.95 respectively
for the above three breed groups. There is no explanation for the low daily
gain of Brahman calves. The B x H cows were much more efficient than
Brahman cows and slightly more efficient than Herefords.
One hundred percent of the Hereford, 75 percent of the Brahman, and
73 percent of the B x H cows had shown estrus following calving. The
average interval from calving to first estrus was 153, 123, and 82 days in
Brahman, B x H, and Hereford, respectively.
In a study of calving rate of Angus, Hereford, and Brahman cows at
the Brooksville station from 1956 to 1963, the calving percentage was 83,
81, and 69 for the respective breeds mentioned. Cows with older calves
(calved earlier in calving season) had a significantly higher subsequent









An/nal Report, 1965


calving rate than cows with younger calves. There was no significant
relationship between 205-day weaning weight of calf and subsequent calv-
ing rate of the cow. However, there was a significant relationship of
market grade of weanling calf to calving in Brahman cows, with cows
weaning calves with a high grade (fatter) having a lower calving rate.

ANGUS, BRANGUS, AND ANGUS x BRANGUS CROSSBREDS FOR
BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE EVERGLADES
State Project 922 M. Koger
This project is designed to study the comparative performance of
straightbred Angus, straightbred Brangus, and Angus x Brangus cross-
breds. The cow herd is divided into four groups: Herd 1-Angus cows
mated to Angus bulls; Herd 2-Angus x Brangus crossbred cows mated
to Angus bulls; Herd 3-Angus x Brangus crossbred cows mated to
Brangus bulls; and Herd 4-Brangus cows mated to Brangus bulls.
The average weaning weights of calves produced by the four foundation
herds in 1964 were 378, 385, 416, and 415 respectively. Weaning rates were
65, 61, 78, and 69 respectively.

FACTORS INFLUENCING BEEF TENDERNESS
Hatch Project 975 A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter
The temperature and pH of the Longissinms dorsi (LD) of 36 carcasses
from crossbred steers averaging 437 kg at approximately 34 months of age
were determined at 1-hour intervals for 24 hours and then at 4-hour inter-
vals for the next 24 hours post-mortem. Final pH was taken at 192 hours
post-mortem. Average tenderness values for the 36 animals as measured
by the panel and shear showed that the LD steaks were more tender at
1 hour than at 24 or 48 hours but less tender than at 192 hours post-
mortem. Tenderness values at 192 hours were closely related to the 24-
and 48-hour tenderness values but appeared to be inversely related to
initial tenderness values. Free moisture and cooking losses showed min-
imum values at 1 hour and increased with time post-mortem. Average pH
values decreased with time, with minimum values obtained at 192 hours
post-mortem.
Correlation coefficients between tenderness of broiled steaks and ratio
of buffer insoluble N/buffer soluble N at the four post-mortem times were:
1 hour, r -.38 and .04; 24 hours, r=.58** and -.51*; 48 hours, r=.47* and
-.55*; 192 hours, r=.70** and -.56** for shear and panel, respectively.
Low correlations were found between tenderness and water soluble N.
Viscosity of the water extracts showed low correlations with 192-hour post-
mortem tenderness of deep fat fried steaks (r=.41 and -.43 for shear and
panel, respectively).

MANAGEMENT AND COST FACTORS RELATED TO
MULTIPLE FARROWING
Hatch Project 977 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs
and M. Koger'
Since August of 1960, approximately 20 sows have been farrowed every
two months on a year around basis. A total of 27 separate farrowings have
P <.05
** P < .01
SCooperative with W. K. McPherson, Agricultural Economics Department; T. C.
Skinner, Agricultural Engineering Department; and S. J. Folks, Florida Power Corporation.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


been completed, involving a total of 543 litters. An average of 10.93 live
pigs per litter were born, and an average of 9.39 pigs were weaned per
litter at two weeks of age. Thus the overall survivability to two weeks of
age has been 85.9 percent. During the past year 121 litters were farrowed
which averaged 12.08 live pigs at birth with 10.02 being weaned at two
weeks of age, giving a survival of 82.9 percent. Litter size has continued
to improve with each year of the project, because of a careful selection pro-
gram and a more predominating role of crossbred sows and aged sows.
Farrowing data indicate relatively minor effects of season on litter size,
but weaning weights and survivability have not been as good during the
hot months. The crossbreeding program under evaluation in the project
has proved very effective. The mating of Duroc-Landrace sows with Hamp-
shire boars has resulted in large litters of uniform, growth pigs which
have yielded meaty, high quality carcasses. It is hoped that a complete
cost analysis will be available for presentation next year.


AGE OF HEIFERS AT FIRST BREEDING AS RELATED TO
BEEF PRODUCTION
State Project 995 M. Koger and A. C. Warnick
Since 1958 one-half of the replacement heifers at the Beef Research
Unit have been bred as yearlings to calve first at 2 years of age. The other
half of the replacements have been bred to calve first at 3 years of age.
Calves from the 2-year-old heifers have been vealed at the start of the
breeding season prior to this year. Beginning with this year the calves
from 2-year-old heifers will be weaned at the same time as calves from the
3-year-olds.
Average weaning weights for those bred as yearlings, excluding their
first calf, was 493 pounds. Average weaning weights of calves from heifers
bred at 2 years of age was 498 pounds. Average weaning rates were 83
and 84 percent for 2 and 3-year-old dams respectively.


FLORIDA FEEDS AND BY-PRODUCTS FOR SWINE FEEDING
State Project 999 G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace
Seventy-five early weaned pigs were used to study the feasibility of
substituting 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 percent of dried bakery product (DBP) for
equal amounts of dried skim milk (DSM). The daily gain of all treatment
groups was similar, with a difference of only 0.04 pound between the high-
est and lowest gain figure. Daily feed consumption tended to increase with
increasing DBP, which resulted in slightly less efficient feed conversion
figures for the pigs fed the three highest levels of this feedstuff. The
difference between the most efficient and least efficient among all the treat-
ments was, however, only 0.13 pound. Based on current feed prices, the
cost of the ingredients, excluding antibiotic, mineral, and vitamin supple-
ments, used in formulating the 20 percent DBP and DSM rations was
$4.30 and $7.36 per cwt. This lowered feed cost in conjunction with the
similarity in performance indicates that DBP may replace 20 percent DSM
in pig starter rations.
A study was conducted to determine the effect of altering dietary energy
and protein on the performance of pigs fed rations in which ground whole
soybeans supplied the supplementary protein. Rations containing either








Annual Report, 1965


17 or 22 percent protein were supplemented with fat at the rate of 5, 10,
or 15 percent and fed to young pigs for a 44-day period. Expressed as
rate and efficiency of gain, the performance of the control group fed a
ration containing soybean meal was greatly superior to that obtained with
any of the groups given ground whole soybeans. The data indicated that
the growth inhibition which occurs when raw soybeans are fed to young
swine was not alleviated by the levels of supplemental fat used.

EVALUATION OF FEED ADDITIVES IN SWINE NUTRITION
State Project 1002 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs
Seventy-five early weaned pigs were used to evaluate the relative effec-
tiveness of: a combination of aureomycin, penicillin, and sulfamethazine;
tylosin; a combination of terramycin and oleandomycin; and copper sulfate
for the promotion of increased rate and efficiency of gain. All supple-
mented groups gained faster than the non-supplemented basal group. Only
copper sulfate was effective in reducing the feed required per pound of
gain. Pigs fed either the combination of aureomycin, penicillin, and sulfa-
methazine or copper sulfate gained at approximately the same rate, and
both gained faster than the other experimental groups. Eighty-four pigs
were fed in concrete confinement to determine the influence of level and
withdrawal of a feed additive consisting of chlortetracycline, sulfametha-
zine, and penicillin on feedlot performance. All treated lots, regardless of
level or withdrawal, gained significantly faster than the control group. Pigs
fed the equivalent of 125 gm total additive per ton of feed gained just as
fast and more efficiently than pigs fed 250 gm of total additive. Complete
removal of the additive at 125 pounds liveweight caused a moderate adverse
effect on performance. A creep diet containing 25 percent iron fumarate and
offered to suckling pigs commencing at one day of age proved more effective
for the maintenance of Hb than the use of the conventional injectable iron.
However, pig gains were essentially the same for both treatments.

INHERENT BODY SIZE IN CATTLE AS RELATED TO
ADAPTATION TO FLORIDA
State Project 1003 M. Koger and A. C. Warnick
This project is cooperative between the Department of Animal Science,
North Florida Experiment Station, and State Prison Farm, Raiford.
Cattle of different inherent sizes will be developed by selection. Data
will not be available until differences between the different groups are
developed through selection. In 1964 the average weaning weight of calves
was 444 pounds, with a pregnancy rate of 73 percent.
(See also Project 1003, North Florida Experiment Station.)

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF DIETARY FACTORS OF INTEREST
IN THE NUTRITION OF CATTLE, SWINE, AND SHEEP
USING LABORATORY ANIMALS
Hatch Project 1045 L. R. Arrington, R. L. Shirley,
J. P. Feaster and C. B. Ammerman
Iodine toxicity studies were continued with rats, and additional studies
were completed with hamsters. The lactation failure observed in rats and
high mortality of newborn rats and rabbits from females fed excessive









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


iodine was not observed in hamsters fed 2500 ppm iodine. Gestation time
of rats and hamsters was not affected by iodine, but parturition time of
rats was prolonged. Longevity of female rats fed 2500 ppm iodine as KI
was not affected.
Protein requirements of growing hamsters were studied in feeding
trials using synthetic diets containing 8, 12, 16, and 20 percent protein as
casein. Six-week weight gains and feed to gain ratios for the respective
increasing levels of protein were: 23.3 and 9.5; 51.6 and 5.4; 58.0 and 4.9;
57.8 and 4.8.
Weanling rats were fed synthetic diets containing 0, 50, or 250 ppm
copper without added vitamin A, and tissues were analyzed for vitamin A,
copper and iron after 10 weeks. Vitamin A content of the livers (179, 149,
and 180 micrograms per gram dry weight for the respective levels of
dietary copper) was not affected by dietary copper. Copper and iron in
the tissues (micrograms per gram dry weight) for the respective levels of
dietary copper were: liver, 17, 22, 36; heart, 34, 33, 35; liver, 188, 204, 216;
heart, 315, 348, 267.

EFFECT OF SOIL PHOSPHORUS RESIDUES ON
PANGOLAGRASS PASTURES2

State Project 1061 R. L. Shirley, J. F. Easley and G. K. Davis
In September, December, March, and June, blood was obtained from
cattle on pasture that received the following types of fertilizer from 1948
until 1958: none, superphosphate, superphosphate and lime, triple phos-
phate, rock phosphate, colloidal phosphate, and basic slag. After 1958 the
cattle have been tested for effects of residual phosphate. These treatment
groups had mean hemoglobin values of 12.0, 11.9, 13.0, 12.2, 12.0, 11.3, and
12.0 gm per 100 ml of blood, respectively. Average values for all treat-
ment groups were 11.2, 13.0, 12.7, and 11.5 gm per 100 ml blood obtained
in September, December, March, and June 1964-65, respectively. Hema-
tocrit values varied from 48.5 to 52.1 among the groups. Calcium values
for the groups ranged from 9.3 to 10.3 mg per 100 ml plasma. The mean
values for phosphorus for the above treatments were 4.0, 5.5, 6.5, 5.3, 6.1,
5.7, and 5.9 mg per 100 ml plasma, respectively. An apparent seasonal
effect occurred as mean values for September, December, March, and June
were 7.1, 5.7, 5.3, and 4.2 mg phosphorus per 100 ml plasma, respectively.
The blood plasma was found in September 1964 to have 110, 200, 170, 186,
216, 233, and 220 I.U. vitamin A per 100 ml for the various groups, respec-
tively. Corresponding carotene values were 873, 1189, 836, 898, 977, 1017,
and 1066 ug per 100 ml plasma. Glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase activity
was determined and average Sigma-Frankel units of activity per ml serum
ranged within the groups from 74 to 94, which is in the normal range.

GEOGRAPHICAL AND SELECTION EFFECTS ON LAMBING DATE
Hatch Project 1063 P. E. Loggins, M. Koger, A. C. Warnick
(Contributing to Regional Project S-29) and T. J. Cunha
The 1965 lambs are the third crop produced from the experimental
design to study the effect of geographical location on the reproductive per-
formance of sheep. Fifty Rambouillet ewes of Alabama, Florida, and
2 In cooperation with Drs. Elver Hodges and W. G. Kirk at the Range Cattle Experi-
ment Station, Ona.









Annual Report, 1965


Texas origin plus 51 Florida Native ewes were exposed to rams of the
same breeding. Vasectomized rams were used from April 15 to September
15, 1964, to determine earliness of estrus and breeding dates. Intact rams
were placed with the flocks beginning July 1 for a 45-day breeding season.
One Florida Native and two Rambouillet ewes were found to be in estrus
prior to July 1.
This is a decrease in the number of ewes showing estrus prior to July
1, 1963, but numbers have remained low throughout the study. The average
dates of first estrus in the breeding ewes were as follows: Alabama Ram-
bouillet, July 6; Florida Rambouillet, July 19; Texas Rambouillet, July 15;
and Florida Native, July 20. The lambing percentages for the 1965 lamb
crop were as follows: Alabama Rambouillet, 133 percent; Florida Ram-
bouillet, 105 percent; Texas Rambouillet, 110 percent; and Florida Native,
127 percent, with average lambing dates of December 3, 11, 9 and 16 re-
spectively. All ewe groups conceived on first estrus observed.
The lambs were weaned on February 17 and 23, 1965, at an average
age of 70 days. The lambs received creep feed and were continued on a full
feeding program following weaning until market date, May 20, 1965. The
Alabama Rambouillet lambs average 62 pounds, Florida Rambouillet 61
pounds, Texas Rambouillet 65 pounds, and Florida Natives 66 pounds with
an average live slaughter grade of top good for all groups. Twelve Ram-
bouillet and no Florida Native lambs were lost from weaning to market
date.

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE3

Hatch Project 1079 C. B. Ammerman, J. E. Moore,
L. R. Arrington, R. L. Shirley
and J. P. Feaster

The biological value of several phosphates was determined by both
in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo absorption and retention of a single
oral dose of P3 by lambs, and in vitro cellulose digestion with phosphorus
depleted rumen microorganisms were used to measure the utilization of
phosphorus from both calcium and sodium ortho-, meta-, and pyrophos-
phate. The relation of in vitro phosphorus solubility to utilization and the
effect of neutron irradiation on phosphorus solubility and cellulose diges-
tion were determined. Both in vivo and in vitro studies indicated that
calcium ortho- and sodium ortho-, meta-, and pyrophosphate were equally
available as sources of phosphorus. Calcium pyrophosphate was unavail-
able to rumen microorganisms, was least soluble in neutral ammonium
citrate, and was the least available on the basis of absorption and tissue
deposition. Calcium metaphosphate was intermediate in absorption, tissue
deposition, and cellulose digestion, but was the least soluble in 0.4 percent
hydrochloric acid. The presence of 600 ppm added magnesium did not affect
the in vivo availability of the phosphates. Cellulose digestion and solubility
were similar for the neutron irradiated and non-irradiated phosphates.
Two groups of steers approximately 9 months of age were fed either
a low-carotenoid ration or this ration plus 30,000 I.U. of vitamin A palmi-
tate per head daily. The steers were fed 160 to 180 days with three
slaughter intervals. Heart and liver copper levels were not influenced by
vitamin A supplementation, but vitamin A in blood and liver was sig-
nificantly increased.
(See also Hatch Project 1079, Dairy Science Department.)
3In cooperation with W. G. Kirk at the Range Cattle Station.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


CONTROL OF PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN SHEEP
State Project 1101 P. E. Loggins
This is a cooperative project between the Animal Science and Veteri-
nary Science Departments. Results from the study are reported under
Project 1101, Veterinary Science Department.

INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF RATION, RUMEN BIOCHEMISTRY,
AND ANIMAL PERFORMANCE
Hatch Project 1117 J. E. Moore, R. L. Shirley,
C. B. Ammerman and L. R. Arrington
Voluntary intake and rumen fermentation of low-quality (4 percent
protein) pangolagrass hay were studied in 12 fistulated steers fed a con-
centrate supplement at daily intake levels of 0, 1, 2, and 4 gm/kg body
weight. Three steers were fed each concentrate level. Hay intake and
the rate of ruminal cellulose digestion were increased at daily concentrate
levels of 2 and 4 gm/kg. Rumen fluid analyses for pH, volatile fatty acids,
total carbon dioxide, and ammonia indicated that the concentrate was fer-
mented rapidly during the first two hours after feeding. Total volatile
fatty acids and ammonia concentrations were higher at all of the five daily
sampling times in steers fed concentrate at 4 gm/kg. Ruminal acetate
relative to propionate was lowest in the steers that received no concentrate.
Buffering characteristics of rumen fluid were altered by treatment, with
the steers fed 4 gm of concentrate/kg body weight having the lowest carbon
dioxide:volatile fatty acid ratios even though there was little effect of
treatment on rumen pH.
Verxite exfoliatedd hydrobiotite) added to a high concentrate ration
decreased the digestibility of ration cellulose by sheep and decreased the
rate of digestion of the cellulose of hay in nylon bags suspended in the
rumen of fistulated sheep. However, there was no effect of verxite on
ruminal volatile fatty acid or ammonia concentrations.

FORMULATION OF BEEF CATTLE FEED MIXTURES FOR
INCREASED EFFICIENCY OF UTILIZATION
State Project 1132 J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. Z. Palmer
and J. E. Moore
Work on this project consisted of writing two bulletin manuscripts
and three scientific papers plus completion of a histological study of papillae
from ruminoreticulums of steers fed various levels of dried citrus products
in a high-concentrate diet. A pattern of progressive degeneration of epi-
thelial cells was related to the concentration of calcium deposits in the
tissue.

BIOCHEMICAL AND CYTOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
OF INHERITED DWARFISM IN BEEF CATTLE
Hatch Project 1136 J. R. Crockett, M. Koger,
(Contributing to S-10) J. F. Feaster and A. C. Warnick
Measurements have been obtained from 38 fetuses representing the
various genotypes involved. The fetuses were either 90 or 60 days post-
conception. The measurements indicate that the dwarf gene is exhibiting








Annual Report, 1965


itself by 90 days post-conception. There are some indications that the
abnormality is present at 60 days post-conception; however, numbers are
too small for conclusions. Body fluids are being analyzed by electro-
phoresis.

BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF
DIGESTIVE DISORDERS IN CATTLE

State Project 1155 J. F. Hentges, Jr., J. P. Feaster
and F. C. Neal

This project was inactive during 1964-65. Acquisition of new facilities
and equipment for physiology studies will permit resumption of experi-
ments to determine the cause of feedlot founder and to develop preventive
measures. Observations of several thousand steers in commercial feedlots
in Florida revealed that the species has a definite influence on suscep-
tibility to feedlot founder. Cattle with a predominance of Brahman ancestry
apparently are more susceptible to digestive disturbances when restricted
to a high-concentrate diet.

SELENIUM IN GROWTH, REPRODUCTION, AND
HEALTH OF CATTLE AND SHEEP4

State Project 1156 R. L. Shirley, M. Koger,
P. E. Loggins, J. E. Moore,
J. P. Feaster and T. J. Cunha

A two-year study was completed of the effect of selenium administered
subcutaneously to cows at the Beef Research Unit. Selenium as sodium
selenite was injected at the level of 2.5 mg per 100 pounds body weight
approximately every 90 days during the previous 2.5 years to 67 cows,
with a corresponding number of controls. The corrected 205-day weaning
weights of the calves were 463 and 465 pounds for the selenium treated
and untreated groups, respectively. The corresponding values for the
previous year were 455 and 444 pounds, respectively. Also, there were no
significant differences in the pregnancy rate, weaning percentages, and
average daily gains of the calves.

MARKET GRADES OF BEEF FROM STEERS CASTERATED AT
VARIOUS AGES AND BEEF FROM BULLS AS RELATED
TO AGE AT TIME OF SLAUGHTER

Hatch Project 1204 J. W. Carpenter and A. Z. Palmer
Two studies were completed in 1964. Study I: Sixty Hereford half-sib
males were assigned to five treatments: animals castrated at birth, 3
months, 6 months, 8 months, and non-castrated bulls. All animals were
fed a high concentrate ration for 182 days and were slaughtered at ap-
proximately 14 months of age. Only small and non-significant differences
existed among castrate groups for most traits studied. However, bulls
gained significantly faster on less feed, dressed significantly higher, ap-
peared to have more mature carcasses, had lower marbling scores, and
graded slightly lower on the rail than other groups. Carcasses from bulls
had more lean and less fat and about 4 percent more edible portion than
SIn cooperation with H. L. Chapman, Jr., and R. W. Kidder of the Everglades Experi-
ment Station.


I








80 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

the next highest group. Differences in tenderness among groups were not
significant either by taste panel or mechanical shear.
Study II: Forty-two bulls and forty-two steer calves of Braford breed-
ing from feeding trials at Everglades Experiment Station were used in
this study. Six bull and six steer calves were slaughtered at weaning.
One-half of all other bulls and steers were implanted with 24 mg Diethyl-
stilbestrol. Slaughter ages were weaning (9 months), 12 months, and 15
months of age. Stilbestrol implants affected steer performance more than
bulls. Otherwise, bulls gained significantly faster, had heavier hides, lower
dressing percent, and heavier G.I. tract and content than steers. Differ-
ences between bulls and steers in carcass grade were not significant; how-
ever, the 15 month cattle graded higher than the two other slaughter age
groups. Carcasses from bulls were leaner at all slaughter ages, having
less fat over the loin, less kidney and pelvic fat, larger rib eye areas, and
a greater estimated percent yield of edible portion. There was no signif-
icant difference in tenderness between bulls and steers. Carcasses of both
sexes were more tender at 15 months of age than at 12 months.


PHYSIOLOGICAL AGING OF CATTLE AND CARCASS MATURITY AS
RELATED TO PALATABILITY, MARKETABILITY, AND THE
FEDERAL STANDARDS FOR GRADING BEEF
Hatch Project 1205 A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter
Carcasses of 39 bulls and 41 steers of Braford breeding were used
in this preliminary study of the effects of age at time of slaughter on
flesh and bone characteristics. Six bulls and six steers were slaugh-
tered at weaning (9 months). Remaining bulls and steers were put on
feed; 12 bulls and 12 steers were slaughtered at 12 months of age, and 21
bulls and 23 steers were slaughtered at 15 months of age.
Texture of lean of either the bull or steer carcasses did not increase
appreciably in coarseness with advancing age; firmness of lean was im-
proved only slightly but not significantly with advancing age. The lean of
the steer carcasses became brighter red and more attractive in color with
age at slaughter, whereas the lean of the bull carcasses was a deeper red
at 15 months than at either 12 or 9 months. Differences in degree of bone
ossification were not great between the age groups used in this study.


TOXICITY OF NITRATE FORAGE FOR BEEF CATTLE'
State Project 1211 R. L. Shirley and J. F. Easley

Pearl millet was raised on plots with high levels of nitrate fertilizer.
The plots were treated in addition with 0, high level of copper sulfate, high
level of sodium molybdate, and high levels of both copper and molybdenum
salts, respectively. This was done to test if molybdenum and copper were
factors in the rate at which nitrate in the plant was reduced to nitrite when
fed to ruminants. Studies with sheep failed to consistently demonstrate
that molybdenum increased nitrate reduction or that copper decreased the
accumulation of nitrite. High levels of sodium bicarbonate drenching de-
creased the rate of nitrate reduction in the rumen. The overall study is
being repeated with cattle instead of sheep.
5 In cooperation with W. G. Killinger of the Agronomy Department and H. L. Chapman,
Jr. of the Everglades Experiment Station.








Annual Report, 1965


FORMULATION OF CONTROLLED-INTAKE SUPPLEMENTS
FOR BEEF CATTLE
State Project 1238 J. F. Hentges, Jr. and J. E. Moore
This project was approved January 14, 1965; consequently, work to date
has not been sufficiently summarized or analyzed to permit a statement on
the findings. Several intake regulators have been tested in supplements
which were offered with grass hay ad libitum to yearling steers. A wide
variation among individual steers in diet acceptance was a consistent ob-
servation.

THREE- VERSUS TWELVE-MONTH BREEDING SEASONS
FOR BEEF CATTLE
State Project 1245 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger
and W. C. Burns
This project was initiated March 15, 1965, at the West Central Florida
Experiment Station at Brooksville, so only limited data are available.
Forty-seven Brahman and 45 Santa Gertrudis females of breeding age were
divided into two groups, with one group exposed to bulls during a 3-month
period from March 15 to June 15, and the others exposed on a year-around
basis. Two bulls in each breed group are used for breeding. The ovaries
of all nonpregnant females are palpated at monthly intervals to determine
time of first corpus luteum.
At the beginning of the breeding season there were 5 percent of the
lactating Brahman cows with a corpus luteum and none in the Santa Ger-
trudis. One month later approximately 50 percent of the lactating cows in
each breed had a corpus luteum. Three months after the breeding season
began, 71 percent of the Brahman and 90 percent of the Santa Gertrudis
had a corpus luteum, while 38 percent and 49 percent respectively of the
Brahman and Santa Gertrudis were pregnant 35 days or more. There was
a higher percent of nonlactating Brahman cows with a corpus luteum and
pregnant compared to the lactating Brahman cows, indicating estrus occurs
earlier in the nonlactating female.

PRELIMINARY NON-PROJECTED STUDIES

Vitamin A and Carotene in Various Tissues of Sheep.-A study was
made to determine the level of vitamin A and carotene in the tissues of
rams fed diets with and without vitamin A; and the effect of thyroprotein,
testosterone, and pregnant mare serum on the concentration of vitamin A
and carotene in several tissues of rams deprived of dietary vitamin A. The
rams were on the treatments from approximately 80 to 101 weeks of age.
Deprivation of vitamin A caused the vitamin level to decrease from approx-
imately 518 ig per gram dry weight of liver of those fed vitamin A to 9
for the vitamin deprived rams, and 3 to 7 for those deprived and given the
hormones. Corresponding values in the kidney were 2 jig for the controls
compared to 0.3 ig for those deprived of vitamin A. Levels of approx-
imately 1 jg occurred in the heart with all treatments compared to 0.1 to
0.3 in the lungs and 0.1 to 0.5 in the kidney fat. All tissues except the
heart reflected dietary vitamin A level at least slightly. Vitamin A had no
effect on the level of carotene in any of the tissues. The heart and kidney
had approximately one-fourth as much carotene present as the liver, which
contained 17 to 18 pg in rams with and without vitamin A. The vitamin A








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


deficient rams given the hormones had a marked decrease (8 to 13 gg) in
carotene level in the liver. The lungs ranged from approximately 0.2 to
1.0 ig carotene, and kidney fat had approximately 0.2 ig carotene per gram
dry weight. (J. F. Easley, R. L. Shirley, E. Sosa, R. E. Deese, A. C. War-
nick, and T. J. Cunha)

Incidence of Urinary Calculi in Cattle.-During 1964-65, 33 cattle out
of a total of 297 observed had calculi. These cattle were from various feedlot
trials. The treatments involved vitamins A and E, shrimp meal, bakery
waste, tranquilizers, and stilbestrol. No treatment had any significant effect
on the incidence of calculi. When slaughtered, six heifers out of 77 had cal-
culi compared to 26 with calculi out of 172 steers. Eighteen bulls were free
of calculi. (J. C. Outler, R. L. Shirley, W. G. Kirk, H. L. Chapman, Jr.,
W. C. Burns, M. Koger, and A. Z. Palmer)

Shrimp Meal and Cottonseed Meal and Tissue Composition of Feedlot
Cattle.-Eighteen steers were divided into three equivalent groups and fed
rations that contained 0, one-fourth, and all shrimp meal with all, three-
fourths, and 0 cottonseed meal as the principal sources of protein, respec-
tively. When the steers were slaughtered after approximately 100 days
on the rations, blood, liver, and heart were analyzed for various con-
stituents. Serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase activity averaged 114,
100, and 104 S.F. units, and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity
averaged 22, 24, and 23 S.F. units for the three dietary groups, respec-
tively. The average values for vitamin A in the serum of the three dietary
groups were 163, 140, and 107 I.U. per 100 ml, respectively (P<.05) Cor-
responding vitamin A concentrations in the liver were 114, 147, and 94 I.U
per gram fresh weight. These ration groups averaged 13, 20, and 19 ppm
copper in the heart and 270, 261, and 208 ppm Cu in the liver per gram
dry weight, respectively. Corresponding values for potassium in the heart
were 12.1, 12.6, and 11.5; and in the liver, 10.6, 10.4, and 10.6 mg per gram
dry weight. The ash in the heart varied from 1.05 to 1.07 and in the liver
from 1.43 to 1.47 percent on the fresh weight basis. (J. F. Easley, J. C.
Outler, Jr., W. G. Kirk, and R. L. Shirley)

Effect of a Phosphorus Deficiency on Growth and Reproduction in Young
Rams.-After 147 days on a phosphorus (P) deficient semipurified ration
six Florida Native rams were fed a phosphorus adequate ration and gained
0.51 pound per day with a daily feed intake of 3.04 pounds during 77 days.
The control deficient rams gained .03 pound daily and consumed 1.14 pounds
of feed. The rams on the control adequate ration from the beginning gained
0.26 pound daily and consumed 3.50 pounds of feed daily. The blood phos-
phorus values of deficient rams returned to normal levels immediately after
rams were fed a phosphorus adequate ration. Semen volume was signifi-
cantly higher in rams on either an adequate P ration throughout or those
fed an adequate P ration after being on the deficient P ration compared to
those continued on P deficient rations. (A. C. Warnick, T. J. Cunha, P. E.
Loggins, and R. L. Shirley)

Effectiveness of Various Procedures in Reducing the Amount of Radio-
nuclides in the Human Dietary Chain.-Sheep were fed freshly harvested
pangolagrass and bermudagrass at four stages of maturity, and fecal ex-
cretions of calcium and environmental strontium-90 were determined. Fecal
Sr-90/Ca ratios were different among the two species of grass and four
stages of maturity. In a second experiment, oral doses of strontium-85








Annual Report, 1965


were administered daily for 10 days to sheep fed either pelleted alfalfa,
pelleted bermudagrass, or pelleted purified diet. The isotope level in the
feces increased more rapidly after dosing was initiated and declined more
rapidly after dosing was discontinued in sheep fed bermudagrass than in
sheep fed alfalfa or purified diet. There was no difference between sheep
fed alfalfa and bermuda in the rate of fecal elimination of a single intra-
venous dose of Sr-85. (J. E. Moore and G. K. Davis, cooperating with B. G.
Dunavant, College of Medicine)

Influence of Form and Level of Dietary Fat on Total Cholesterol, Total
Lipid, and Total Fatty Acids in Rats and Rat Fetuses.-In a study of the
effects of feeding a highly saturated fat (butter), a highly unsaturated
fat (corn oil), and a fat intermediate in degree of saturation (lard), 160
female rats were allocated to six dietary lots which were fed 8 or 45 per-
cent lard, corn oil, or butter as the source of fat. The rats were bred upon
reaching maturity, and sacrificed on the 20th day of gestation. Maternal
tissues, whole fetuses, and fetal livers were analyzed for total cholesterol,
total lipid, and 10 fatty acids. The only effect of form or level of fat on
cholesterol concentration in maternal or fetal tissue was a significant de-
crease in cholesterol in maternal bone marrow in rats fed butter at both
8 percent and 45 percent levels. Total lipid concentrations in fetal tissues
were not affected by diet. Among maternal tissues, significant increases
in total lipid concentrations were noted in adipose tissue, bone marrow, and
liver as a result of feeding the high-fat diets. Degree of saturation of fat
affected total lipid only in maternal bone marrow; 8 percent corn oil and
45 percent lard significantly decreased total lipid concentrations compared
with concentrations found with 8 percent and with 45 percent, respectively,
of the other two fats. With regard to fatty acids, a number of significant
differences were noted due to form and level of dietary fat fed. In general,
the pattern of fatty acids in maternal tissues much more closely resembled
the pattern of fatty acids in the fat fed than did the pattern of fatty acids
in fetal tissues. (J. P. Feaster)

Influence of Form and Level of Dietary Fat on Lipid Patterns and on
the Metabolism of C"-labeled Palmitic Acid in Pregnant Swine.-Twenty-
four gilts were bred at first estrus and lots of eight placed on experimental
diets differing in form or level of fat: 5 percent corn oil (control), 15 per-
cent corn oil (highly unsaturated fat), or 15 percent coconut oil (highly
saturated fat.) Eighty-four days later the pregnant gilts were given oral
doses of 400pc of palmitic-1-C". Two hours after dosing the gilts were
placed under general anesthesia, and muscle, fat, rib, and liver samples
and fetuses were taken at 21, 41/, and 61 hours. Additional maternal
tissue samples were taken at sacrifice 61/ hours after dosing. To date, all
24 gilts have been processed and maternal and fetal tissue samples (some
700) collected, weighed, and frozen. Two of the tissues from all gilts (blood
plasma and livers) have been extracted with chloroform-methanol solution
to isolate the lipid present. Carbon-14 determinations have been run on a
number of these extracts, using the Packard Tri-Carb Scintillation Spec-
trometer. In some of these, counts have been only slightly above back-
ground, indicating a need for higher carbon-14 dosages in future work with
large animals. Findings on C14 activity obtained so far are not sufficient
to indicate any dietary responses, but in some plasma samples a peak in
activity seems to have been reached at about 4 hours after isotope admin-
istration. (J. P. Feaster)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


A Study of Genetic-Environmental Interaction on Some Blood Con-
stituents of Beef Cattle.-This study was designed to determine contem-
porary blood levels of hematocrit, phosphorus, calcium, and copper and
liver content of copper and iron in Hereford cattle of the Montana Line 1
and Brooksville herd that has been exchanged between the USDA stations
at Brooksville, Florida, and Miles City, Montana. Minor differences have
been detected between the two groups of cattle. Results showed that liver
copper from Montana Line 1 cattle now located at Brooksville was low
during the 1964 breeding. Conception was also low in this group, but defi-
nite conclusions cannot be drawn as yet. (J. R. Crockett, H. L. Chapman,
Jr., W. C. Burns, and 0. F. Pahnish) Cooperative study between Main
Station, Gainesville; Everglades Station, Belle Glade; W. C. Burns, ARS,
AHRD, Brooksville; and 0. F. Pahnish, ARS, AHRD, Miles City, Montana.

Effect of Protein Level on Carcass Quality.-Two experiments, involving
a total of 80 growing-finishing pigs, have been conducted to determine the
importance of dietary protein level relative to restricted feeding. As in
previous experiments, restricted feeding slowed gains, reduced the efficiency
of feed conversion, and generally improved carcasses in terms of a greater
yield of lean meat. A 17 percent protein diet was markedly superior to an
11 percent diet for both full-fed and restricted pigs. The higher level of
protein induced more rapid and efficient gains and much leaner, more de-
sirable carcasses. These results stress the importance of adequate protein
under both full feeding and restricted feeding programs. Inadequate protein
downgrades both feedlot performance and carcass value. With restricted
feeding, it is especially important to provide enough protein in order to
obtain maximum daily gain, feed efficiency, minimum backfat thickness,
and the highest possible yield of four lean cuts. (H. D. Wallace, A. Z.
Palmer, J. W. Carpenter, and G. E. Combs)

Methods of Feeding Swine in Confinement.-One hundred growing-
finishing pigs were used to study various methods of feeding swine in con-
crete confinement. Pigs fed by self-feeder gained faster and more efficiently
than pigs fed on the floor. Pigs fed shelled corn and supplement free choice
gained significantly slower than pigs fed a complete mixed diet for the first
4 weeks of the feeding period. However, during the finishing phase, the
free-choice pigs outgained pigs fed a complete mixed diet, and thus gains
for the entire period were not significantly different. Pigs fed the complete
mixed diet were superior in feed conversion. Soybean oilmeal, used in com-
bination with corn, induced greater feed consumption and more rapid gains,
while feed conversion was less efficient than for a mixed supplement con-
sisting of soybean oilmeal, meat scraps and alfalfa meal. Under the con-
ditions of this experiment, feed costs favored the use of the mixed supple-
ment, fed either as a complete mixed feed in combination with corn meal
or free-choice with shelled corn. It must be pointed out, however, that
7 to 10 days more time was required to finish the hog when the mixed sup-
plement was used. The 52 barrows in the experiment gained an average
of 1.69 pounds per day, compared to 1.58 pounds per day for the 48 gilts.
(H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs)

Effect of Crotalaria Spectabilis Seed on Swine.-An experiment, involv-
ing 40 growing-finishing pigs, was initially designed to compare the feeding
value of two common field corn varieties used in the swine producing areas
of Florida-namely Dixie 18 and Coker 67. However, the presence of Cro-
talaria spectabilis seed in the Coker 67 variety was ascertained a few weeks









Annual Report, 1965 85

after the experiment started. The contamination level was estimated to
be approximately 400 seeds or 5.5 gm per bushel. Because of this, the orig-
inal objective of the study was abandoned, and the poisoning effect of the
crotalaria seed was the main feature studied in the experiment. No useful
information was obtained relative to the comparative feeding value of the
two corn varieties. Pigs fed a ground mixed feed containing the crotalaria
contaminated corn grew very poorly and were severely emaciated after 36
days on test. Similar pigs fed the same type corn on a free-choice basis
with protein supplement gained fairly well. This suggested that the pigs
were sorting the crotalaria from the shelled corn and rejecting it. However,
even these pigs appeared to be adversely affected to some degree, as meas-
ured by their performance during the final 56 days of the experiment. When
pigs that had been severely retarded by the presence of crotalaria seed in
their ground mixed feed were changed to a normal diet, recovery was rapid,
and no evidence of permanent damage was seen. The experiment re-em-
phasizes the toxicity of crotalaria seed and suggests the need for great care
in the cleaning of grains harvested on the farm. (H. D. Wallace and G. E.
Combs)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


BOTANY
The four projects of this unit have continued with partial support from
the Atomic Energy Commission and the National Institute of Health. Work
on these projects has included the research of H. C. Jones, E. Stout, E'. H.
Shokraii, and Tin Myint, who completed their Ph.D. degrees during the
year and are now employed by other institutions.

BIOSYNTHESIS OF CARBOHYDRATES IN PLANTS
Hatch Project 953 T. E. Humphreys
The study of the uptake and metabolism of sugars by the corn scutellum
was continued. Hexoses (glucose and fructose) are rapidly taken up by
slices of the scutellum and converted to sucrose. Sucrose but not hexose
are accumulated by the slices. The uptake process appears to involve an
initial phosphorylation reaction. The enzyme (hexokinase) which catalyzes
the phosphorylation reaction has been extracted from the scutellum and
purified. Its properties are similar to those of yeast hexokinase. It is not
inhibited by hexose phosphates as was postulated earlier from the results
of glucose uptake studies. It has been shown that adenosine triphosphate
(ATP), which is necessary for the phosphorylation reaction, does not limit
the rate of sugar uptake since, when the slices were placed in solutions
of adenosine, the ATP level of the slices was doubled but the rate of sugar
uptake was not changed.
Sucrose can accumulate in the slices to a concentration of 0.25 to 0.3 M.
In the intact corn seedling this sucrose is translocated to the developing
root-shoot axis. It was found that some of the accumulated sucrose was
free to move out of the slices into the bathing solution. This leakage was
inhibited by hexose, mannitol, sorbitol, and inositol. These studies are con-
tinuing since they may give some insight into the process whereby sucrose
moves out of the storage compartments of the cells of the scutellum and
is translocated to the developing seedling. Recognition for much of the
detailed work of this project goes to Dr. L. A. Garrard as Research As-
sociate.

METABOLISM OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN BY PLANTS
Project 1042 G. J. Fritz
Efforts directed during the past two years to the demonstration of the
oxygenation of proline in hydroxyproline biosynthesis in etiolated maize
and soybean seedlings were brought to a successful conclusion. In these
experiments, seedlings were grown for several days in atmospheres enriched
with O18. Hydroxyproline subsequently isolated from the seedlings by col-
umn and thin-layer chromatography was labeled with excess O0", but proline
was not. Control experiments in which seedlings were grown in H20"1
and unlabeled atmospheres demonstrated that neither proline nor hydroxy-
proline was labeled with excess 018. It was concluded that oxygen fixation
is an essential feature of hydroxyproline biosynthesis in these seedlings,
and that the hydroxyl oxygen atom in hydroxyproline is derived from molec-
ular oxygen and not from water; similar results have been reported pre-
viously for sycamore cell suspensions.
In related work involving 018 technology in investigations of oxygen
metabolism, a method was developed for analyzing the 0" isotope abun-








Annual Report, 1965


dance of submicromole samples of carbon dioxide by mass spectrometry.
The isotope abundance of organic and inorganic compounds labeled with
0" is usually determined by converting the compound to a gas such as
carbon dioxide, which is then analyzed by mass spectrometry. However,
convential mass spectrometers require relatively large quantities of gas
(in the order of 1 micromole) for accurate isotope measurements. It was
found that the procedure of adding an inert gas-sufficient to meet the
minimum pressure requirements of the mass spectrometer-makes possible
the accurate and precise measurement of the atom fraction of O18 in car-
bon dioxide samples as small as 0.01 micromole.
In addition, a technique was developed (in cooperation with the Depart-
ment of Nuclear Engineering) for analyzing the 0" isotope abundance of
submicromole samples of carbon dioxide by thermal neutron activation;
the induced 0" radioactivity was measured by gamma ray spectrometry.
At present this technique is more time-consuming and less sensitive-the
minimum sample of carbon dioxide is about 0.3 micromole-than mass spec-
trometry, but appears to offer promise of future improvement.


A FLORA OF FLORIDA
Project 1118 D. B. Ward
During the year descriptions and keys to several genera were prepared
in final manuscript form: Baptisia (Leguminosae), Matelea (Asclepia-
daceae), Elephantopus, Psuedo-elephantopMs, and Gnaphalium (Compos-
itae), Sida (Malvaceae), and Eleocharis (Cyperaceae). A number of others
were partially completed, at least to the extent of having a suitable key
prepared, among the more difficult being Spiranthes (Orchidaceae), Viola
(Violaceae), and Pluchea (Compositae).
Effort was continued toward completion of a checklist of the state's vas-
cular flora. Approximately 50 percent of the species, including all of the
monocotyledons, have been covered.
A survey was made of the Herbarium's holdings of species from dif-
ferent counties of the state, to update a similar sampling made in 1960.
Field efforts are being concentrated on those areas least well represented.


BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURES ON PLANTS
Project 1191 D. S. Anthony
One phase of a study of the biochemical effects of high temperature in
plants was completed. The free amino acids of the common pea (Pisum
sativm) were found to increase at high temperatures. Certain amino acids
and their amides (glutamic and aspartic acids and glutamine and aspara-
gine) increased more than others. Experiments to determine whether the
increase in amino acids was due to: (1) increased protein breakdown; (2)
decreased utilization of free amino acids; or (3) increased synthesis of
the amino acids, were not conclusive.
Study continued on the suitability of Arabidopsis thaliana as a possible
test plant for additional studies of the biochemical effects of higher than
optimal temperatures. This plant grows rapidly under aseptic conditions
on synthetic media in test tubes in growth chambers. The possibility of
"chemical modification of climatic lesions" is now being investigated with
the Arabidopsis test system.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


DAIRY SCIENCE

Results of work under 17 projects are reported here. The members
of the Department have worked cooperatively on projects with members of
the Departments of Animal Science, Entomology, Agronomy, Agricultural
Economics, and Agricultural Engineering. Some new areas of research in
dairy husbandry include the use of radioactive isotopes to determine effects
of growth hormone and insulin on the metabolism of glucose and acetate
in dairy cattle; a study of feeding systems, nutrient intake, and growth of
dairy calves; and the effect of feeding roughages of different types on milk
production. The rate of acid production by lactic acid bacteria is being
studied under a new project.
New facilities have been added at the Dairy Research Unit. The dairy
barn has been converted from a stanchion-type barn to a modified parlor
type operation. Twelve stalls have been equipped with feed metering de-
vices, weigh jars, a pipeline system, and completely automatic equipment
for cleaning and sterilizing all apparatus with which the milk comes in
contact.
The Holstein herd owned by the Station has been recognized nationally
for its excellence by the Holstein-Friesian Association, and the Station was
given the Progressive Breeders Award in 1964 for the second consecutive
year. Several individual cows in the herd have made outstanding records
in the production of milk and butterfat.
The West Florida Dairy Unit at Chipley has made available complete
economic records of its operation. These records have been useful to sim-
ilar sized dairies in the area in locating and resolving their problems.

A STUDY OF THE ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project 213 J. M. Wing and C. J. Wilcox
This work was designed to determine the efficiency of silos and silage
additives, and the nutritional value of silages made from various forages
with different additives. Work now in progress involves oats, pearlmillet,
and kenaf, ensiled alone and with the addition of 270 grams per ton of
propyl para hydroxy benzoate. Percent efficiency of ensilability for plain
oats was 92.6; with dried citrus pulp (150 pounds per ton) 86.8; with 250
pounds of dried citrus pulp per ton 87.5; with 175 pounds per ton of citrus
pulp 86.2; with bagasse molasses 82.7; soybeans alone 83.1; soybeans plus
150 pounds per ton citrus pulp 93.7; soybeans plus 8 pounds per ton of
sodium metabisulfite 86.22; oats plus 150 pounds per ton of ground snapped
corn 75.1; oats plus .2 pound per ton of zinc bacitracin 74.0; sweet yellow
lupine alone 84.5; sweet yellow lupine plus 125 pounds per ton of citrus
pulp 92.2; plus 8 pounds sodium metabisulfite 86.0; wilted Louisiana white
clover alone 75.6; with 80 pounds per ton of citrus molasses 85.0; with 150
pounds per ton of citrus pulp 90.1; with 250 pounds per ton of citrus pulp
92.5; with 160 pounds per ton of citrus molasses 85.0; corn alone 87.6; sugar
cane 84.1; sorghum 83.6; sorghum plus .5 percent urea 91.7; plus 1 percent
urea 82.6; plus 1 percent urea plus 1 percent jackbean suspension 84.2;
plus 1.5 percent urea 90.4; Texas seeded ribbon cane 82.3; Napier grass
93.2; Napier grass plus 70 pounds per ton of cane molasses 82.6; cowpea
vines 98.8; cowpea vines plus 75 pounds per ton citrus pulp 91.0; cowpeas
alone 91.0; cowpeas plus 80 pounds per ton of citrus molasses 91.5; plain
pangolagrass wilted 88.3; wilted mature pangola plus 150 pounds per ton








Annual Report, 1965


of citrus pulp 87.3; wilted mature pangola plus 250 pounds per ton of
citrus pulp 90.9; immature pangola not wilted 87.7; plus 150 pounds per
ton of citrus pulp 89.7; and plus 8 pounds per ton of sodium metabisulfite
89.3.


STUDY OF PRODUCTION, REPRODUCTION AND CONFORMATION
OF THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
DAIRY HERD

State Project 575 C. J. Wilcox, H. H. Head,
S. P. Marshall, J. B. White,
and J. M. Wing

Sire and sex of calf, and year and month of birth, were shown to affect
birth weights and gestation lengths of Jersey cattle in a study of data
collected from 1930-62. The phenotypic relationships between birth weights
and gestation lengths were established. With cows which have had more
than one calf, the age of the dam had a highly significant curvilinear effect
upon birth weights but not on gestation lengths. The length of the gesta-
tion was affected in a nonlinear fashion by the length of the previous dry
period, although birth weight was not. About 47 percent of the variability
in birth weights and 45 percent of the variability in gestation lengths can
be attributed to well-defined genetic and environmental causes. Preliminary
heritability estimates for the two traits, each adjusted for variability in the
other, were 0.26 and 0.21, respectively. Additional estimates of heritability,
repeatability, and genetic correlations are being obtained.


GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
UPON COMPOSITION OF MILK

Hatch Project 1047 C. J. Wilcox, W. A. Krienke, J. M. Wing,
(Regional S-49) L. E. Mull, and E. L. Fouts

Monthly sampling of the 180-cow station dairy herd continued. Some
298 lactation records were forwarded to the national data collection center
for a total of 726 since the project was initiated. In addition to the vari-
ables included in the national analysis, chloride and titratable acidity per-
centages will be studied at the Florida station.
Analyses of the effects of underfeeding of energy for 7 to 10 weeks
have been completed. Performance was measured on 65 cows assigned to
one of three treatment groups: (1) fed according to Morrison standards,
(2) fed at an energy level of 85 percent of the standard, or (3) fed at a
75 percent level. Percent SNF, percent protein, average daily milk yields,
and body weights of low energy groups were significantly lower than the
control (1) group. Adjusted treatment means for these variables were (1)
9.57 percent, 3.89 percent, 24.5 pounds, and 984 pounds; (2) 9.44 percent,
3.57 percent, 14.8 pounds, and 877 pounds; (3) 9.24 percent, 3.49 percent,
15.0 pounds, and 850 pounds. No differences due to treatments could be
detected for percent of fat, chloride, or titratable acidity. Results indi-
cated that not only will those cows subjected to extremely low-energy
feeding levels lose weight and produce less milk, but the milk will be lower
in SNF and protein contents. No analyses have been undertaken as yet
on completed lactation records.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TOXOID IN THE CONTROL
OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL MASTITIS

Hatch Project 1049 K. L. Smith and C. J. Wilcox

A preliminary statistical analysis of the data has been completed. Be-
cause of disproportionate numbers in the treatment combinations, unweight-
ed means were used in the analysis. A logarithmic transformation was
performed because the standard deviations of the treatment combinations
were proportional to the means. Main effects tested were breed (Jersey,
Guernsey, and Holstein), udder quarter, treatment with or without toxoid,
hemolytic reaction of the staphylococci in the sample (negative, alpha,
beta, and alpha-beta), and the field diagnosis of presence or absence of
clinical mastitis. All possible two and three factor interactions were tested;
all main effects were considered to be fixed.
The interaction between field diagnosis and hemolytic reaction was
found to be significant (P <0.01). Those samples which contained no hem-
olytic staphylococci, but which came from quarters exhibiting symptoms
of clinical mastitis, contained large numbers of leucocytes. This suggested
that even though an udder quarter contained no hemolytic staphylococci,
it might contain other organisms capable of causing mastitis. Leucocyte
counts were significantly higher in those samples which were taken from
quarters exhibiting clinical symptoms. No evidence was found to indicate
that toxoid-treated animals had fewer cases of clinical mastitis than did
controls. The toxoid treatment resulted in a 14 percent decrease in leu-
cocyte count (0.05 < P <0.10). The average leucocyte counts for three
breeds in the herd were significantly different, with the Guernseys hav-
ing the lowest average and Jerseys the highest.


DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN INTEGRATED SILAGE
AND GRAZING SYSTEM FOR DAIRY CATTLE

State Project 1053 S. P. Marshall, E. L. Fouts
and J. B. White

Yield determinations were made from rotational plantings of sorghum,
oats, and corn, and the effect was studied of stage and maturity and crush-
ing of seeds at ensiling time upon the feeding value of the silage made
from grain-type sorghum. NK 310 sorghum planted July 1, 1964, and har-
vested October 13 produced a yield of 1.4 tons of dry matter ensilage per
acre, with 16 percent of the dry matter being grain. Florad oats seeded
after the sorghum harvest was cut on January 13, 1965, with a yield of
10.3 tons of fresh forage or 3.5 tons of dry matter per acre. DeKalb 805
corn planted in the spring produced a yield of 9.4 tons of forage per acre
containing about 3.6 percent of dry matter.
A field of NK 310 sorghum was ensiled at two stages of maturity. One
portion was ensiled when the seeds were in the milk-to-dough stage. After
the seed had become hard, the other portion was ensiled by harvesting,
cracking, and recombining the grain with the forage as it was blown into
the silo. Fermentation dry matter losses were determined, and the feed-
ing values of these silages and that of DeKalb 805 corn were compared
using lactating cows. Fermentation dry matter losses averaged 7.1 per-
cent for sorghum ensiled in the milk-to-dough stage, 4.5 percent for that
ensiled with grain crushed at the hard seed stage, and 5.3 percent for the








Annual Report, 1965


corn. Daily milk production per cow averaged 44.3 pounds, 46.3 pounds,
and 44.9 pounds when the respective silages were the sole roughages fed.
Daily silage dry matter intake per cow averaged 20.3, 25.7, and 22.9 pounds
for the respective silages. Daily intake of concentrates averaged 15.6, 16.1,
and 16.0 pounds per cow on the respective silages.
(See Project 1053, Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy Depart-
ments.)


DIGESTIBILITY OF CAROTENE IN CATTLE
Hatch Project 1062 J. M. Wing
The objectives of this work are to determine the extent to which car-
otene from hay and from fresh forages consumed by cattle is digested and
the effect of season upon this digestion. The digestibility of dry matter and
carotene, respectively, from different sources varied by months as follows:
January, hay 78.5 and 34.5, grass 61.4 and 99.9; February, hay 65.3 and
39.7, grass 58.9 and 99.9, legumes 55.4 and 99.9; March, hay 35.4 and 64.5,
grass 48.3 and 99.7, legumes 54.2 and 99.9; April, hay 40.6 and 5.3, grass
50.3 and 99.7, legumes 54.6 and 99.8; May, hay 57.7 and 43.1, grass 50.4
and 99.9, legumes 52.2 and 99.8; June, hay 61.1 and 87.9, grass, 48.3 and
98.8, legumes 59.5 and 99.9; July, hay 57.1 and 49.7, grass 48.5 and 98.9,
legumes 60.9 and 99.6; August, hay 51.1 and 27.8, legumes 54.9 and 99.9;
September, hay 52.3 and 37.7, grass 52.4 and 98.2, legumes 60.2 and 99.8;
October, grass 49.5 and 99.9, legumes 55.0 and 99.1; November, hay 51.6
and 57.2, grass 52.5 and 99.7, legumes 51.3 and 99.7; December, hay 55.7
and 21.3, grass 51.0 and 99.3, legumes 51.7 and 95.1.


MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE
Hatch Project 1079 J. M. Wing
Supplementation with iron is recommended for Florida cattle. Yet, with-
holding supplementary iron from steers for 11 months did not produce ane-
mia. Iron may pass through the digestiv- tract and build up land reserves.
Three comparable groups of seven cows were assigned as follows: Group
1, new ground with no iron supplement; Group 2, new ground and iron;
Group 3, old ground with no iron. Mean values of hematocrit and hemo-
globin were: Group 1, 41.47 and 9.54; Group 2, 42.18 and 10.27; Group 3,
41.27 and 10.31. Cows completed first lactations under routine herd man-
agement and were assigned during second lactations averaging 83 days
postpartum. First records and pre-assignment production of the second
were used in multiple covariance analyses of 305-day milk yield to test
differences in production among treatment groups in (a) the remainder
of the second lactation, and (b) the entire third lactation. All animals
completed second lactations, but two animals of Group 2 aborted and were
excluded from analysis (b). Production differences during the remainder
of lactation 2 were not significant. Production in Group 1 declined during
the third lactation. Adjusted treatment means were: Group 1, 5641 pounds;
Group 2, 8207 pounds; and Group 3, 7886 pounds, with Groups 2 and 3
differing from Group 1 (P < 0.05) but not from each other. Milk pro-
duction was affected significantly although other physiological functions
appeared normal in non-supplemented cattle.
(See also Hatch Project 1079, Animal Science Department.)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


THE BACTERIAL FLORA OF INSTANT NON-FAT DRY MILK (INDM)
State Project 1114 L. E. Mull and K. L. Smith
Preliminary examination of the rods isolated at various incubation
temperatures from instant non-fat dry milk (INDM) has been completed.
Of the organisms isolated at 300 C., Bacillus licheniformis, B. laterosporus
B. pumilus, B. cerens and B. subtilis were found to predominate. At 32
C. incubation temperature, B. licheniformis and B. cereus comprised the
major portion of the flora. When the samples were incubated at 370 C.,
B. licheniformis and B. subtilis comprised the major portion of the flora.
At 55 C., B. licheniformis was the predominant organism.

VARIATIONS OF MILK AND FAT YIELDS
OF FLORIDA DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 1137 C. J. -Wilcox
No analyses have been completed as yet, and collection of data con-
tinues. Production records from Florida dairy herds, assembled through
the Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing programs, are being used
to estimate the effects upon milk production of breed, herd, year, and sea-
son and their various interactions.

FEEDING SYSTEMS, NUTRIENT INTAKE AND GROWTH
OF DAIRY CALVES
State Project 1185 S. P. Marshall and K. L. Smith
Sixteen one-day-old male Jersey calves were placed randomly on one
of four diets for a 21-day feeding period. The diets were (1) whole milk
ad libitum, (2) skimmilk ad libitim, (3) colostrum ad libitum, and (4)
whole milk fed twice daily at 4.5 percent of body weight per feeding. Aver-
age intake per calf of pounds of milk, grams of fat, lactose, and protein,
and of Calories of metabolizable energy for the 21-day periods on diets
1, 2, 3, and 4 were: (1) 367, 7,309, 8,389, 5,216, and 115,212, (2) 444,
82, 10,248, 6,696, and 62,897, (3) 287, 5,075, 4,136, 12,130, and 103,969 and
(4) 113, 2,254, 2,525, 1,630, and 35,384. Average pounds of body weight
gains for the 3-week period on the respective diets were 45, 32, 29, and
12. All average weights were significantly different (P < .05) except the
comparison between gains obtained in diets 2 and 3.
The Calories of metabolizable energy consumed per gram of gain aver-
aged 5.6, 4.3, 7.8, and 6.3 for the animals fed diets 1 through 4, respect-
ively. The differences between these values were significant (P < .05)
except for that between diets 1 and 4. The intake of metabolizable energy
above the requirements for resting metabolism per gram of weight gain
made by the calves averaged 3.7, 1.8, 5.2, and 1.1 for those on diets 1 through
4, respectively. All of these differences were significant (P < .05).

MINIMUM WEANING AGE OF DAIRY CALVES FROM HIGH SOLIDS
RECONSTITUTED SKIM MILK AND COLOSTRUM
State Project 1206 J. M. Wing
Six calves in each of three groups were offered simple concentrates and
hay from birth. Controls (group 1) also received 10 percent of body weight
daily (two feedings) of colostrum through 4 days, half colostrum and half








Annual Report, 1965


remade skim milk (13 percent solids) 5 through 21 days, and skim milk
through 60 days. The experimental milk was half colostrum and half re-
constituted skim milk (20 percent solids). The experimental schedules for
milk were 10 percent of body weight in two feedings daily through 14 days
(group 2) or 7 days (group 3) followed by 5 percent of body weight in
one feeding daily through 21 days. Mean days to consume 4 pounds of
solid feed daily were by groups, (1) 60.8, (2) 35, and (3) 50.3. All treat-
ment comparisons differed (P < .01). Daily gains, expressed as linear
regression coefficients, were: group 1, 1.089 pounds; group 2, 0.735 pound;
and group 3, 0.622 pound. Groups 2 and 3 differed from group 1 (P < 0.01)
but not from each other. Mean gains/Estimated Net Energy by groups
were (1) 1.793, (2) 2.593, and (3) 3.157. Groups 2 and 3 were not signifi-
cantly different from each other, but were different from group 1 at P < .01.
These data suggest that early weaning from high solids milk is feasible.

EFFECTS OF SHADE ON THE ABILITY OF DAIRY CATTLE
TO ADAPT TO SUMMER CONDITIONS
State Project 1207 J. M. Wing, H. H. Head,
and C. J. Wilcox
The reactions of 12 cows which have access to shade are being compared
with 12 which are exposed continuously except when being milked. During
the first part of the season the non-shaded cows appeared to suffer some-
what, but adaptation occurred rather rapidly. Fourteen lactation records
have been completed and 16 are in progress. Neither production nor physi-
ological effects have as yet been observed sufficiently for analysis.
(See also State Project 1207, Agricultural Engineering Department.)

EFFECTS OF GROWTH HORMONE AND INSULIN UPON THE
METABOLISM OF GLUCOSE AND ACETATE IN
DAIRY CATTLE
Hatch Project 1213 H. H. Head and C. J. Wilcox
Experiments were conducted to determine the rate and magnitude of
effect produced by exogenous insulin injections (0.25 to 1.0 units per kilo-
gram body weight) to fasted dairy cattle. Glucose and Free Fatty Acid
(FFA) blood plasma concentrations were determined at varying intervals
after endocrine administration. Blood glucose levels declined rapidly after
insulin administration, reaching plateau levels within 90 minutes. The
length of time the plateau level was maintained appeared to be related to
the total insulin administered. Based upon these preliminary findings, fu-
ture studies will seek to evaluate immediate and long-term effects of insulin
on glucose kinetics in dairy cattle.
Growth hormone administration (0.25 to 0.40 milligrams per kilogram
body weight) to fasted dairy cattle consistently produced small increases
in both glucose and FFA levels within 3 hours after administration. Growth
hormone administration (0.28 milligrams per kilogram body weight per
day) for 3 consecutive days resulted in elevated glucose and FFA blood
plasma levels compared to the control period. However, no apparent effect
on acetate metabolism was detected.
The single intravenous injection of 100 milligrams of growth hormone
(0.26 milligrams per kilogram body weight) to a Jersey cow resulted in
an increase in the glucose turnover rate (about 12 percent). Compared to








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the control period both glucose and FFA levels were significantly increased.
These findings taken together suggest that growth hormone stimulated glu-
cose metabolism. Additional studies need to be performed, as well as a suffi-
cient number of control studies, to substantiate this effect of growth hor-
mone on glucose metabolism and to determine whether it is a direct or in-
direct effect.



EFFECT ON MILK PRODUCTION OF FEEDING ROUGHAGES
OF VARIOUS TYPES AND COMPOSITIONS

State Project 1221 J. M. Wing

The purpose of this project is to compare the effects of corn silage and
dry roughage mixtures on the productive performance of dairy cattle. One
series of trials has been completed on a mixture composed in parts by weight
of dairy cut alfalfa hay, 2; dried citrus pulp, 8; cottonseed hulls, 3; hominy
feed, 1; ground snapped corn, 5; and vitamin A, 35,000 I.U. per ton. The
average daily production of 4 percent fat corrected milk during the experi-
mental period was 21.9 pounds for the silage-fed groups compared to 19.1
pounds for those fed the dry-roughage mixture.



GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS UPON REPRODUCTIVE
PERFORMANCE AND LIFE SPAN OF FLORIDA DAIRY CATTLE

State Project 1234 C. J. Wilcox

Six cooperating dairy herds provide data for this project; two are asso-
ciated with the University of Florida, two are institutional herds, and two
are privately owned herds. A living population of over 1000 cows is provid-
ing about 250 completed life span records annually.
An analysis is under way of data from one herd in which crossbreeding
has taken place in order to see if detectable amounts of heterosis are pres-
ent in various measures of reproductive performance. Of 1000 cows studied,
845 are straightbreds and 155 are crossbreds. Preliminary research shows
that the total life span of Jersey-Holstein crossbreds averaged 77.3 months,
which differed significantly from the average life span of contemporary
straightbreds of 74.0 months. Further work is needed to ascertain if this
is valid evidence of heterosis in this measure of life span.
(See also State Project 1234, Department of Agricultural Economics.)



RATE OF ACID PRODUCTION IN LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

Hatch Project 1249 K. L. Smith and L. E. Mull

The object of this project is to determine the effect of selected incuba-
tion temperatures on the rate of lactic acid production per cell per hour
and also per generation.
This is a new project. To date insufficient data have been collected upon
which to draw conclusions. Methods of procedure are being tested.








Annual Report, 1965 95

EFFECTS OF ENERGY SOURCE ON DIGESTIBILITY OF CELLULOSE
AND PROTEIN AND UPON RUMEN FERMENTATION
IN DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 1255 J. M. Wing
Rumen fistulated steers were fed high-concentrate rations to the limit
of their appetites in a 4x4 Latin square. The basal ration contained in
parts by weight: corn, 3.5; dried brewers' grains, 1.0; cottonseed meal (41
percent), 2.0; wheat bran, 5.0; and alfalfa hay, 3.0. Modifications included
6, 12, or 18 percent of cane molasses, 79.5 percent brix. Mean percent diges-
tibility of cellulose and protein for each molasses level were: control -
49.2 and 70.7; 6 percent 49.8 and 66.4; 12 percent 52.0 and 65.3; and
18 percent 51.1 and 62.8. Molar proportions of acetates, propionates,
and butyrates varied as follows: control 62.3, 18.5, 14.6; 6 percent -
62.6, 18,7, 14.4; 12 percent 64.8, 19.1, 12.3; and 18 percent 63.6, 20.5,
11.5. These data suggest that molasses is a practical ingredient in high-
concentrate rations.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


EDITORIAL

A special and worthwhile project was editing and printing a 208-page
DARE Report, which has as its objective to Develop Agricultural Resources
Effectively. This report was the first major publication developed by the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
A three-year research project was initiated. Goals of the project in-
clude improvement of publications and the mass media program.

FLORIDA STATION AND EXTENSION COMMUNICATION
MEDIA AND METHODS

State Project 1224 K. B. Meurlott, M. C. Williams
and M. H. Sharpe

Of the seven original objectives of this project, Objective 2, an analysis
of news releases concerning both Experiment Station and Extension sub-
jects, and the subsequent usage of these releases by Florida newspapers,
is nearing completion.
Each release sent during an 18-month period was analyzed and classi-
fied by its origin (Extension or Station), timeliness, date released, intended
audience, purpose, whether agricultural or non-agricultural in nature, its
general commodity or subject area, and its specific subject. Each newspaper
in the state, and each county, were assigned code numbers. Background
information on the characteristics of each newspaper and each county was
secured. All of this descriptive information was transferred to 3 x 5 cards,
and then to IBM cards.
At this writing a computer program is being written to guide tabula-
tion of this information.
Preliminary planning is underway on Objective 1 of the overall project-
"Effectiveness of the Quarterly Sunshine State Research Report."

PUBLICATIONS

The Station printed 102,500 copies of 12 new bulletins totaling 424
pages, and 161,500 copies of 17 new circulars totaling 200 pages. Two bul-
letins and two circulars were reprinted. These totaled 63,000 copies and
52 pages. Also during the year four 20-page Research Reports were print-
ed and distributed to 7,800 subscribers.
Number
Publications printed were: Pages Printed
Bul. 680 Slaughter and Carcass Characteristics of
Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn Steers. J.
W. Carpenter, A. Z. Palmer, W. G. Kirk, F.
M. Peacock, M. Koger .. 12 7,500
Bul. 681 Better Handling of Florida's Fresh Citrus
Fruit. W. G. Long, F. W. Hayward, M. F.
Oberbacher, E. F. Hopkins, A. M. McCornack,
H. M. Vines ------ 40 10,000
Bul. 682 Management and Chemicals for the Control
of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Cattle. M.
Koger, L. E. Swanson ..... --- 12 7,500








Annual Report, 1965


Bul. 683 Minerals for Beef Cattle in Florida. T. J.
Cunha, R. L. Shirley, H. L. Chapman, Jr.,
C. B. Ammerman, G. K. Davis, W. G. Kirk,
J. F. Hentges, Jr. -
Bul. 684 Hesperidin in Florida Oranges. R. Hendrick-
son, J. W. Kesterson -----
Bul. 685 Annotated List and Keys to Phytoseiidae
(Acarina: Mesostigmata) Associated with
Florida Citrus. M. H. Muma _-__. __ ---------
Bul. 686 Forage and Animal Response to Different
Phosphatic Fertilizers on Pangolagrass Pas-
tures. E. M. Hodges, W. G. Kirk, F. M.
Peacock, D. W. Jones, G. K. Davis, J. R.
Neller -----------------
Bul. 687 Heterodera leuceilyma n. sp. (Nemata: Het-
eroderidae), A Severe Pathogen of St. Au-
gustinegrass in Florida. A. A. Di Edwardo,
V. G. Perry
Bul. 688 Production, Voluntary Consumption, and
Digestibility of Forages Used as Feeds for
Dairy Cattle in Florida. J. M. Wing ----
Bul. 689 Roselawn St. Augustinegrass as a Perennial
Pasture Forage For Organic Soils of South
Florida. C. E. Haines, H. L. Chapman, Jr.,
R. J. Allen, Jr., R. W. Kidder -
Bul. 690 Resource Use and Income Implications of
Outdoor Recreation. Clyde E. Murphree ..--
Bul. 691 Dried Tomato Pulp, Its Production and
Nutritive Value for Livestock and Poultry.
C. B. Ammerman, R. H. Harms, R. A. Den-
nison, L. R. Arrington, P. E. Loggins ---

Cir. S-153 Tomato and Pangolagrass Rotation for
Sandy Soils of South Florida. N. C. Hayslip,
E. M. Hodges, D. W. Jones, A. E. Kretsch-
mer, Jr. ----------...
Cir. S-154 Floricream, A New All-Purpose Cream-
Seeded Southern Pea Variety. A. P. Lorz,
L. H. Halsey ----... _------


Cir. S-155

Cir. S-156


Lime in Florida Agriculture. H. L. Breland.

Florida 683, A Utah-Type Celery. Emil A.
Wolf .. .- -- ------


Cir. S-157 Flordasun, A Peach for Central Florida.
R. H. Sharpe- ---------

Cir. S-158 Sunred, A Nectarine for Central Florida.
R. H. Sharpe --------


60 15,000

44 7,500



44 5,000





28 5,000




36 7,500



16 7,500




20 7,500

56 5,000




20 10,000




24 10,000


7,500
15,000


8 5,000


8 15,000


4 15,000









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Cir. S-159 'Oklawaha' Blackberry. J. S. Shoemaker, P.
J. Westgate ------

Cir. S-160 Snapea, A New Cream-Type Southern Pea.
A. P. Lorz, L. H. Halsey -----

Cir. S-161 Immokalee, A Disease-Resistant Determinate
Vine-Type Tomato with a Concentrated-Yield
Potential. P. H. Everett, D. G. A. Kelbert,
N. C. Hayslip, J. M. Walter -. -

Cir. S-162 Floradel, A Productive, Large, Smooth To-
mato Adapted for Pink Harvest. N. C. Hay-
slip, J. M. Walter, D. G. A. Kelbert, P. H.
Everett ---- ---- ---

Cir. S-163 Berseem Clover, A New Winter Annual for
Florida. Albert E. Krestchmer, Jr. .---------

Cir. S-164 Florida 15, A New Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco
Variety. C. E. Dean --------------

Cir. S-165 Florida 200A, An Improved Yellow Field
Corn Hybrid for North and West Florida.
E. S. Horner, H. W. Lundy, M. C. Lutrick,
R. W. Wallace --..--- ------- -----

Cir. S-166 Florida 500 Oats. Dale Sechler, W. H.
Chapman --- ...- .... ---

Cir. S-167 Plantation Pride, A Bird- and Disease-
Resistant Feed Sorghum for South Florida.
F. T. Boyd, V. E. Green, Jr., H. L. Chap-
man, Jr -.--.--... .---

Cir. S-168 'Everglades 41' and 'Everglades 71,' Two
New Varieties of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabi-
nus L.) for Fiber and Seed. F. D. Wilson,
T. E. Summers, J. F. Joyner, D. W. Fisher,
C. C. Seale -. --...--- .. --

Cir. S-169 Florida Rust Resistant Ryegrass. W. H.
Chapman, T. E. Webb ..- --

Publications revised and/or reprinted were:
Bul. 536B Recommended Fertilizers and Nutritional
Sprays for Citrus. H. J. Reitz, C. D. Leon-
ard, Ivan Stewart, R. C. J. Koo, D. V.
Calvert, C. A. Anderson, P. F. Smith, G. K.
Rasmussen .-- --. ----

Press Composting and Mulching. F. B Smith,
Bul. 602B George D. Thornton -- -
Cir. S-111 Indian River, A Disease-Resistant Tomato of
General Adaptability. N. C. Hayslip, J. M.
Walter, D. G. A. Kelbert ---.- -- -


8 12,000

12 7,500




12 7,500




8 6,000


16 7,500

12 7,500




8 12,000


12 8,000




12 8,000





12 10,000

12 8,000


24 30,000


8 25,000



12 3,000








Annual Report, 1965


Cir. S-112 Flordagrand, A Blackberry for Home Gar-
dens and Local Markets. J. S. Shoemaker,
J. W. Wilson, R. H. Sharpe ----- 8 5,000


MASS MEDIA
Newspapers, magazines, television, and radio were used in informing
the public of the research programs of the Experiment Stations. News
and feature stories were mailed to all media outlets in Florida quoting
researchers and reporting on news-worthy events. This averaged 10 re-
leases per week.
Experiment Station staff members participated in the radio and tele-
vision series produced by the Agricultural Extension Service. They also
served as resource materials for newspaper and magazine items.
A survey shows that mass media continue to use more and more Sta-
tion information. This success was credited to the Department's effort to
design releases that: (1) told all Floridians how efficient agriculture ben-
efits the state's total economy and the amazingly high standard of living;
(2) explained the vital importance of agricultural research and education;
and (3) provided educational information on nearly every phase of Flor-
ida life.
It is estimated that upward of one million individuals were reached
each week via the mass media program. Commercial time and space "do-
nated" by these mass media outlets was estimated at $350,000 for the
past year.


TECHNICAL JOURNAL ARTICLES
Papers by research staff members continue to be printed in large num-
bers. These appear in technical journals in the United States and a few
in foreign countries. Those included in the Journal Series are forwarded
to the journals by the Station editorial staff, and reprints are ordered for
distribution when they are printed. The series now contains more than
2,170 listings.
Following is a list of Journal Series articles printed during the year
and those not previously listed:
1447. The Relation of Yield to Quality among Hybrids in Popcorn. V. E.
Green, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 23:240-45. 1963.

1648. Comparative Digestive Capacities of Bos taurns and Bos indicus
Cattle as Affected by Feed Intake. J. R. Howes, J. F. Hentges, Jr.
Nature. 203:4946:784. Aug. 1964.

1668. Avocado Red Mite Control in Florida. Proc. Caribbean Region
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 8:233-36. June 1965.

1671. Some Factors to Consider in Reporting Yields and Quality in Pop-
corn. V. E. Green, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 23:245-49.
1963.

1674. Glucose Uptake by the Corn Scutellum. T. E. Humphreys, L. A.
Garrard. Phytochem. 3:26:647-56. 1964.