Front Cover
 Title Page
 Map of Florida agricultural experiment...
 Table of Contents
 Agricultural experiment stations...
 Report of the director
 Report of the administrative...
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering
 Animal science
 Dairy science
 Food technology and nutrition
 Fruit crops
 Ornamental horticulture
 Plant pathology
 Plant science section
 Poultry science
 Vegetable crops
 Veterinary science
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Indian River field laboratory
 Everglades station
 Plantation field laboratory
 Gulf coast station
 South Florida field laboratory
 Strawberry and vegetable field...
 North Florida station
 Range cattle station
 Sub-tropical station
 Suwannee Valley station
 West central Florida station
 West Florida station
 Big Bend horticultural laborat...
 Federal-state frost warning...
 Potato investigations laborato...
 Watermelon and grape investigations...

Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00012
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1964
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00012
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Map of Florida agricultural experiment stations
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Agricultural experiment stations staff
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Report of the director
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Agricultural economics
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Animal science
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Dairy science
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Food technology and nutrition
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Fruit crops
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    Ornamental horticulture
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Plant pathology
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
    Plant science section
        Page 156
    Poultry science
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Vegetable crops
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Veterinary science
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Central Florida station
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    Citrus station
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
    Indian River field laboratory
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
    Everglades station
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
    Plantation field laboratory
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
    Gulf coast station
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
    South Florida field laboratory
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
    Strawberry and vegetable field laboratory
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
    North Florida station
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
    Range cattle station
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
    Sub-tropical station
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
    Suwannee Valley station
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
    West central Florida station
        Page 370
    West Florida station
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
    Big Bend horticultural laboratory
        Page 377
        Page 378
    Federal-state frost warning service
        Page 379
        Page 380
    Potato investigations laboratory
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
    Watermelon and grape investigations laboratory
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
Full Text







JUNE 30, 1964


UNIT / j .










Agricultural Experiment Stations Staff -..-
Report of the Director --. ..--- ---
Report of the Administrative Manager ----.----..

Agricultural Economics --.---------------------
Agricultural Engineering --- -- -
Agronomy ....---. .--- --
Animal Science ---- --------
Botany .------------
Dairy Science -----------
Editorial ----------
Entomology --- --------
Food Technology and Nutrition -----
Forestry -.--- ------- ----
Fruit Crops ..-..-------
Library ...---- -------
Ornamental Horticulture -..... ------
Plant Pathology .. --- ---------
Plant Science Section --- -------
Poultry Science ----.----------..------------
Soils ---------------
Statistics .. --------------
Vegetable Crops .--.---.-..- .... -------.----
Veterinary Science .--- ---- --

Central Florida Station .. --- --
Citrus Station -.--...--------
Indian River Field Laboratory --- --
Everglades Station .- ....- ..-- ----
Indian River Field Laboratory ----.--
,Plantation Field Laboratory ...----
Gulf Coast Station ....... -------
South Florida Field Laboratory .---
Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory -
North Florida Station .. .........--
Marianna Unit ..--. ------
Range Cattle Station --...-- -----
SSub-Tropical Station .... .-- ----
Suwannee Valley Station -.---- ----
West Central Florida Station ------
West Florida Station ---.- ...--.-..-----. ----

Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory ._------------.
Federal-State Frost Warning Service .-- --
Potato Investigations Laboratory --------
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory


-- 26
----- 46
-..--- 51
--- 86
..---- 113
---- 121
.. 128
-.----- 135
---- 140
-...-- .- 142
- -.- 149
.. 156
.. 178
-....--- 179--
--- 193





B. M. Harrison, Jr., Chairman, St. Petersburg
Gert H. W. Schmidt, Vice Chairman, Jacksonville
James L. King, Miami
John C. Pace, Pensacola
Wayne McCall, Ocala
Chester E. Whittle, Orlando
Charles R. Forman, Ft. Lauderdale
J. Broward Culpepper, Executive Director, Tallahassee

J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., President
E. T. York, Jr., Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Director
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Associate Director
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assistant Director
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Superintendent of Field Operations
W. H. Jones, Jr., M. Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Operations

The following abbreviations after name and title of Experiment Station
Staff indicate cooperation with other organizations:
Coll.-University of Florida College of Agriculture
Ext.-University of Florida Agriculture Extension Service
USDA-United States Department of Agriculture
USWB-United States Weather Bureau
FCC-Florida Citrus Commission

Agricultural Economics Department
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and Head; also Coll.
and Ext.
R. L. Addison, Jr., M.S., Assistant Agricultural Statistician, USDA,
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate Agricultural Economist
B. R. Bennett, M.S.A., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, Orlando
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
T. L. Brooks, Jr., B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics
H. B. Clark, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
C. D. Covey, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Marketing Economist; also Coll.
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
J. R. Greenman, B.S.A., LL.B., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
R. R. Hancock, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Statistician, Orlando
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
W. T. Manley, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA
J. E. Mullin, B.S., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando

C. E. Murphree, D.P.A., Associate Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
C. A. Outzs, B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Statistics, USDA
L. A. Reuss, M.S., Agricultural Economist, USDA
W. B. Riggan, B.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
G. N. Rose, B.S., Associate Agricultural Economist, Orlando
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
B. J. Smith, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist
C. N. Smith, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
J. F. Steffens, Jr., B.S., B.A., Associate Agricultural Statistician,
USDA, Orlando
R. G. Stout, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Orlando
H. G. Witt, M.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Statistician, USDA,

Agricultural Engineering Department
D. T. Kinard, Ph.D., Agricultural Engineer and Head; also Coll. and
J. F. Beeman, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
E. K. Bowman, B.S., Associate Industrial Engineer, USDA
R. E. Choate, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
W. G. Grizzell, B.I.E., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
C. G. Haugh, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
J. B. Richardson, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
I. J. Ross, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
G. E. Yost, B.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA

Agronomy Department
F. H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist and Head; also Coll.
K. D. Butson, M.S., State Climatologist, USWB
F. Clark, M.S.A., Agronomist
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist; also Coll.
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
K. Hinson, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist; also Coll.
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
A. J. Norden, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
P. L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
G. M. Prine, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Agronomist; also Coll.
O. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
S. C. Schank, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
S. H. West, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
Merrill Wilcox, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.

Animal Science Department
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. W. Carpenter, Ph.D., Assistant Meat Scientist
G. E. Combs, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. R. Crockett, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Geneticist; also Coll.
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Dir. of Nuclear Science

J. F. Easley, M.S., Int. Assistant in Animal Nutrition
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
Marvin Koger, Ph.D., Animal Geneticist; also Coll.
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
J. E. Moore, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Associate Meat Scientist; also Coll.
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
D. L. Wakeman, M.S.A., Assistant Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Animal Physiologist; also Coll.

Botany Department
E. S. Ford, Ph.D., Botanist and Acting Head; also Coll.
D. S. Anthony, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
G. J. Fritz, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist; also Coll.
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
Yoneo Sagawa, Ph.D., Associate Botanist; also Coll.
D. B. Ward, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist; also Coll.

Dairy Science Department
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist and Head; also Coll.
H. H. Head, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Associate Dairy Technologist; also Coll
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Nutritionist; also Coll.
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
K. L. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Microbiologist; also Coll.
C. J. Wilcox, Ph.D., Assistant Geneticist; also Coll.
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Associate Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.

West Florida Dairy Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Dairy Husbandman

Editorial Department
Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Editor and Head; also Ext.
K. B. Meurlott, B.A., Assistant Editor; also Ext.
M. L. Sharpe, M.S., Assistant Editor
Mary C. Williams, B.A., Assistant Editor

Entomology Department
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist and Head
A. A. DiEdwardo, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
D. H. Habeck, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
V. G. Perry, Ph.D., Nematologist; also Coll.
F. A. Robinson, M. S., Assistant Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
R. C. Wilkinson, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Food Technology and Nutrition Department
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biochemist and Head; also Coll.
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist

J. H. Johnson, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
F. W. Knapp, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist; also Coll.
G. D. Kuhn, Ph.D., Assistant Food Microbiologist; also Coll.
R. C. Robbins, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist; also Coll.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulturist
Margaret E. Sosebee, M.S., Int. Assistant in Food Technology
Ruth O. Townsend, R.N., Assistant in Nutrition
C. H. Van Middlelem, Ph.D., Biochemist

Forestry Department
J. L. Gray, D.F., Associate Forester and Head; also Coll.
S. L. Beckwith, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
P. W. Frazer, M.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
C. G. Geltz, M.S., Forester; also Coll.
R. E. Goddard, Ph.D., Assistant Geneticist; also Coll.
J. B. Huffman, D.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
C. M. Kaufman, Ph.D., Forester; also Coll.
J. W. Miller, Jr., M.S.F., Forester; also Coll.
W. J. Peters, B.S., Int. Assistant in Forestry
D. M. Post, M.S.F., Assistant Forester; also Coll.
E. T. Sullivan, D.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
K. R. Swinford, Ph.D., Forester; also Coll.
R. K. Strickland, M.S., Int. Assistant in Forestry

Fruit Crops Department
A. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
R. H. Biggs, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
J. F. Gerber, Ph.D., Assistant Climatologist
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Horticulturist
J. S. Shoemaker, Ph.D., Horticulturist
J. Soule, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; also Coll.

S. L. West, LL.B., B.S., Librarian and Head
S. F. Bennett, B.S.L.S., Librarian
A. C. Strickland, M.S., Assistant Librarian
Janie L. Tyson, Assistant in Library

Ornamental Horticulture Department
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Horticulturist
G. C. Horn, Ph.D., Associate Turf Technologist; also Coll.
J. N. Joiner, Ph.D., Associate Ornamental Horticulturist; also Coll.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. T. Poole, Jr., M.S.A., Research Associate
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Associate Ornamental Horticulturist

Plant Pathology Department
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head; also Coll.
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (on leave of absence)
M. K. Corbett, Ph.D., Associate Virologist
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, USDA

H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist
D. E. Purcifull, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
D. A. Roberts, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist; also Coll.
R. F. Stouffer, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist

Plant Science Section
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist in Charge

Poultry Science Department
R. H. Harms, Ph.D., Poultry Nutritionist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
H. R. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Poultry Geneticist; also Coll.

Soils Department
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist and Head; also Coll.
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Biochemist
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist; also Coll.
V. W. Carlisle, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist; also Coll.
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Soils Microbiologist
J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Biochemist; also Coll.
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Associate Soils Physicist; also Coll.
C. C. Hortenstine, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chemist
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Associate Soils Surveyor
T. C. Mathews, B.S.A., Assistant Soils Surveyor
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soils Technologist
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
D. F. Rothwell, Ph.D., Associate Soils Microbiologist; also Coll.
D. O. Spinks, Ph.D., Soils Chemist; also Coll.
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist

Statistics Department
William Mendenhall, Ph.D., Statistician and Head
Willard O. Ash, Ph.D., Statistician; also Coll.
Ramon A. Bradley, B.S., Research Associate

Vegetable Crops Department
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
D. D. Gull, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
S. J. Locascio, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; also Coll.

Veterinary Science Department
G. T. Edds, D.V.M., Ph.D., Veterinarian and Head; also Coll.
Yuji Inaba, D.V.M., Ph.D., Interim Assistant Virologist
W. W. Kirkham, D.V.M., Ph.D., Associate Virologist

J. M. Kling, D.V.M., M.S., Research Associate
S. E. Leland, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Parasitologist
F. C. Neal, D.V.M., M.S., Assistant Veterinarian; also Coll.
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Ph.D., Pathologist; also Coll.
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist; also Coll.
L. J. Wallace, D.V.M., M.S., Assistant Pathologist
F. H. White, Ph.D., Associate Bacteriologist


J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist in Charge
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
H. L. Rhoades, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Horticulturist
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist

H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
G. E. Alberding, B.S., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
C. A. Anderson, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
L. B. Anderson, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. in Entomology-Pathology
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Chemist, FCC
J. A. Attaway, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist, FCC
R. W. Barron, B.A., Asst. in Chemistry, FCC
J. G. Blair, B.S.M.E., Associate Mechanical Engineer, FCC
R. F. Brooks, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
R. J. Collins, M.S., Int. Assistant Horticulturist
G. E. Coppock, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, FCC
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Assistant Chemical Engineer, FCC
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry
A. W. Feldman, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Francine E. Fisher, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Horticulturist
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist
C. I. Hannon, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
S. L. Hedden, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
C. H. Hendershott, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Associate Chemist
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Associate Bacteriologist, FCC
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomologist-Pathology
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Associate Chemist, FCC
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
P. J. Jutras, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Chemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
D. H. Lenker, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist

S. K. Long, Ph.D., Assistant Industrial Bacteriologist
W. G. Long, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC
M. D. Maraulja, B.S., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
W. R. Meagher, PhD., Associate Chemist
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Chemist, FCC
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
M. F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
R. Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. L. Reese, M.S.A., Research Associate
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Pectin Chemist
G. F. Ryan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. L. Sebring, M.S., Assistant in Library
A. G. Selhime, B.S., Asst. Entomologist, USDA
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Nematologist
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist, FCC
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
Kenneth Trammel, B.S.A., Int. Assistant in Entomology
H. M. Vines, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist, FCC
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
T. Adair Wheaton, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Associate Chemist, FCC

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 1351, Fort Pierce
Mortimer Cohen, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. C. Bullock, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
D. V. Calvert, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist

EVERGLADES STATION, P. O. Drawer A, Belle Glade

W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
M. H. Byrom, M.S., Agricultural Engineer, USDA
T. W. Casselman, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
D. W. Fisher, M.S., Associate Agronomist, USDA
W. G. Genung, M.S., Associate Entomologist
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
C. E. Haines, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman
E. D. Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
J. R. Iey, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. F. Joyner, Assistant Agronomist, USDA
W. H. Kahl, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Animal Husbandman
W. C. LeCroy, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
F. leGrand, M.S., Assistant Agronomist
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
T. E. Summers, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist, USDA

P. L. Thayer, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
F. H. Thomas, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
C. Wehlburg, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
H. D. Whittemore, B.S.A.E., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
F. D. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Geneticist, USDA
J. A. Winchester, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Associate Horticulturist

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 1351, Fort Pierce
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Entomologist
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist

Plantation Field Laboratory, 5305 S.W. 12th St., Fort Lauderdale
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. D. Blackburn, M.S., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
H. I. Borders, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Assistant Turf Technologist
W. C. Mills, M.S., Assistant Drainage Engineer, USDA
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
W. H. Speir, Assistant Hydraulic Engineer, USDA
L. W. Weldon, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA

GULF COAST STATION, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Bradenton
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
D. G. A. Kelbert, Associate Horticulturist
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. H. Littrell, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
R. O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Amegda J. Overman, M.S., Assistant Soils Microbiologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. E. Waters, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Associate Plant Physiologist

South Florida Field Laboratory, Box 973, Immokalee
P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist

Strawberry and Vegetable Field Laboratory, Box 629, Dover
Paul Sutton, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
F. S. Baker, Jr., M.S.A., Animal Husbandman
T. J. Davidson, Jr., M.S., Assistant Soils Chemist
D. R. Davis, A.B., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
C. E. Dean, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
D. T. Sechler, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Assistant Entomologist
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Marianna Unit, Box 504, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
C. L. Dantzman, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Associate Animal Husbandman

SUB-TROPICAL STATION, 18905 S.W. 280th Street, Route 1, Homestead
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
C. W. Averre, III, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
C. W. Campbell, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
P. G. Orth, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. E. Reynolds, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
J. W. Strobel, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
M. O. Thomas, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Horticulturist

H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist in Charge

W. C. Burns, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman in Charge, USDA

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
L. S. Dunavin, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist


Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, Box 539, Monticello
H. W. Young, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist in Charge
J. R. Large, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Associate Entomologist

Potato Investigations Laboratory, Box 728, Hastings
D. R. Hensel, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. B. Workman, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Box 321, Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
W. C. Adlerz, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
C. H. Curran, D.Sc., Entomologist
J. A. Mortensen, Ph.D., Assistant Geneticist
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture

Weather Forecasting Service, Box 1058, Lakeland
W. O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in Charge, USWB
J. G. Georg, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
L. L. Benson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
G. R. Davis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
G. W. Leber, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. F. Mincey, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
B. H. Moore, B.A., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
0. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. T. Sherouse, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. R. Wallis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB

Fiscal 1963-64 saw two organizational changes at the University of
Florida which should have a continuing effect on the research programs
of the Experiment Stations.
The first was the consolidation of all agricultural and forestry pro-
SCIENCES. A single appropriation will be made to the Institute, in lieu
of separate appropriations to the Experiment Stations and Extension
Service with the instructional budgets previously included in the "Educa-
tion and General" appropriation of the University.
The integrity of the four major units, the Agricultural Experiment
Stations, the Agricultural Extension Service, the College of Agriculture,
and the School of Forestry, will not be affected, but the reorganization
recognizes the inter-relationships among these units, and should assist in
The second organizational change is entirely within the Main Station.
By a method of liaison appointments between and among departments,
team research in both applied and basic areas should provide for better
planning of future research, with a stronger program resulting. The
primary responsibility for all applied research on agricultural commodi-
ties will be centered on the heads of commodity-oriented departments, and
that for basic research on the heads of discipline-oriented departments.
In addition, in the late spring most personnel in the Experiment Station
system participated in a series of conferences under the label "DARE".
This program was instigated by Provost for Agriculture E. T. York, Jr.,
and DARE stands for the phrase Developing Agricultural Resources
Effectively. Production projections were developed to the year 1975, and
industry leaders participated in a thorough review of the present situation
in our important industries, and the problems and needs which must be
resolved if our agriculture is to realize its potential.
Solid research progress was made in many agricultural areas, and the
results are detailed in the reports which follow.

Construction of a new $200,000 Gulf Coast Experiment Station at
Bradenton is now underway by appropriation of the 1963 Legislature.
This is a relocation of facilities on the Braden river farm and will materi-
ally strengthen the research program of this station in the area.
Two $50,000 appropriations by the 1961 Legislature were released, and
new facilities and land were obtained for the Strawberry and Vegetable
Field Laboratory at Plant City and the Big Bend Horticultural Labora-
tory at Monticello. The land at Plant City was donated by the County
Commissioners of Hillsborough County. With added research in vegetables
the name of the former was changed to depict this broader program.
Also renamed was the former Pecan Investigations Laboratory to the Big
Bend Horticultural Laboratory to better reflect the enlarged horticultural
program at Monticello. Both these laboratories are now occupied and in
full operation.
A grant of $212,000 by the Southern Regional Experiment Station
Directors was made to Florida for construction of a regional pesticide

Annual Report, 1964

residue laboratory which is now under construction at the Main Station
in Gainesville.
The Florida Citrus Commission, which collaborates with the Experiment
Stations in research on citrus, made a grant to the Citrus Experiment
Station of $143,000 for the purpose of adding to the packinghouse and
processing building. This will add laboratories and offices for additional
research staff.
One hundred acres of Forman Field near Davie, Florida, was granted
to the State of Florida by the U. S. Government for research and educa-
tional purposes. This new site is 2 miles south of the present Plantation
Laboratory and will be of significant importance in future research.
Worthy of special mention also were three private donations of con-
siderable merit. George Morikami donated 40 acres to be used primarily
for vegetable research. This tract is a few miles southwest of Delray
Beach. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Newbill of Fort Lauderdale donated a
tropical plant collection which is now located at the new Forman Field
site and will serve as a nucleus for a botanical garden for ornamentals
research. Also, the "Duncan McCulloch Collection" of orchid plants and
exotic plants was obtained from the widow of the late Duncan McCulloch
of Gainesville and will be maintained for research and teaching at the


New problems constantly occur in Florida's dynamic agricultural in-
dustry. The Stations' responsibility is to meet the challenges as they
become known, so the number of active projects underway is constantly
changing. Active projects are initiated formally in accordance with the
usually recognized procedures either by individual scientists or groups.
The team approach to solving agricultural problems, which are continually
becoming more complex, is a widespread practice throughout the Station
system. All work is carefully coordinated and evaluated for most efficient
use of research funds as well as most effective approach to the solution
of a problem. Research planning is a continuing process.
Following is a summary of the project changes during the year:
Projects State Hatch Regional AMA Stennis Total

Initiated 20 4 2 0 1 27
Completed 26 3 1 1 0 31
Revised 2 0 0 0 0 2
Total Active
6/30/64 295 89 11 2 1 398
Total Active
6/30/63 301 88 10 3 0 402
Increase or
Decrease -6 1 1 -1 1 -4

Except for some projects which were temporarily inactive during the
year, the following reports by departments and stations contain the sum-
mary of work of all projects plus additional reports of preliminary ex-
ploratory research.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

To obtain complete information on a given problem, commodity, or
process, the reader should consult the index, since related work may have
been done at several locations.
This report reflects an outstanding service to growers, ranchers, and
related agricultural industries as evidenced by the research contributions
reported in the following pages. To keep the public promptly informed,
field days, short courses, and conferences were held by various departments,
branch stations, and field laboratories periodically during the year.

Willard Osborne Ash, Statistician, Statistics, July 1, 1963
Charles Dean Covey, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Economics, July 1, 1963
Moulton O. Thomas, Assoc. Horticulturist, Sub-Tropical Station, July 1,
Dale Herbert Habeck, Asst. Entomologist, Entomology, July 1, 1963
Charles Wilson Averre, III, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Sub-Tropical Station,
July 1, 1963
Don Howard Lenker, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Citrus Station, July 1, 1963
Henry Herbert Head, Asst. Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Sci., July 1, 1963
Gail W. Leber, Asst. Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Service, August
1, 1963
James Edward Reynolds, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Sub-Tropical Station,
Sept. 1, 1963
William Cecil Le Croy, Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Station, Sept. 1, 1963
James Elmer Stearns, M.S., Int. Asst. in Poultry Husbandman, Poultry
Sept. 1, 1963
William Mendenhall, III, Statistician and Head of Dept., Statistics, Sept. 1,
William H. Kahl, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Everglades Station, Sept. 16, 1963
Bobby Ray Bennett, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., Sept. 23, 1963
Ramon A. Bradley, Research Assoc., Statistics, Oct. 1, 1963
Larry Junior Wallace, Asst. Pathologist, Veterinary Sci., Oct. 1, 1963
Thomas J. Davidson, Jr., Asst. Soils Chemist, North Florida Station, Oct. 1,
John Hal Johnson, Asst. Biochemist, Food Tech., Nov. 1, 1963
Robert Herdon Littrell, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Station, Dec. 1,
Harry E. Warmke, Plant Pathologist, Plant Path. Dept., Jan. 1, 1964,
Yuji Inaba, Int. Asst. Virologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Jan. 1, 1964
Silas Fleming Bennett, Assoc. Librarian, Ag. Library, Jan. 1, 1964
Herbert Harris Bryan, Asst. Horticulturist, North Florida Station, Jan. 1,
Jason Curry Outler, Int. Research Associate in Animal Nutrition, Ani. Sci.,
Jan. 13, 1964
Jack Leroy Fry, Assoc. Poultry Products Technician, Poultry, Feb. 1, 1964
Clarence Gene Haugh, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Ag. Engineering, Feb. 1, 1964
Walter Raymond Knudsen, Int. Asst. in Forestry, Forestry, Feb. 4, 1964
Curtis Williams, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Economics, Mar. 1, 1964, USDA
Johnnie Edmon Betts, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Economics, Mar. 1, 1964,
James Leslie Pearson, Asst. Ag. Economist, Economics, Mar. 1, 1964, USDA

Annual Report, 1964

Dan Elwood Purcifull, Asst. Virologist, Plant Pathology, May 1, 1964
Richard Lee Phillips, Asst. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, May 1, 1964
Grover Cleveland Smart, Jr., Asst. Nematologist, Entomology, June 16,


Norman Carl Schenck, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Watermelon and Grape
Lab., July 1, 1963
Charles Henry Hendershott, Jr., Assoc. Plant Physiologist, Citrus Station,
July 1, 1963
Elmer Carl Hill, Assoc. Bacteriologist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1963
Robert Eugene Stall, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, July 1,
Emmett DeWitt Harris, Jr., Assoc. Entomologist, Everglades Station, July
1, 1963
Herbert Lee Chapman, Jr., Animal Nutritionist, Everglades Station, July 1,
Richard Matthew Baranowski, Assoc. Entomologist, Sub-Tropical Station,
July 1, 1963
Frank Sloan Baker, Jr., Animal Husbandman, North Florida Station,
July 1, 1963
Fentress McCoughan Peacock, Assoc. Animal Husbandman, Range Cattle
Station, July 1, 1963
John Earl McCaleb, Assoc. Agronomist, Range Cattle Station, July 1, 1963
William Guard Blue, Biochemist, Soils Dept., July 1, 1963
Charles Franklin Eno, Soils Microbiologist, Soils Dept., July 1, 1963
Thomas John Sheehan, Assoc. Ornamental Horticulturist, Ornamental
Hort., July 1, 1963
Thomas Edward Freeman, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology, July
1, 1963
Fred Clark, Agronomist, Agronomy, July 1, 1963
Cecil Nockols Smith, Agricultural Economist, Ag. Economics, July 1, 1963
Harold William Young, Assoc. Horticulturist in Charge, Big Bend Lab.,
Sept. 16, 1963
Robert Henry Harms, Poultry Nutritionist and Head of Dept., Poultry,
Oct. 1, 1963
Dale Robert Hensel, Assoc. Soils Chemist in Charge, Potato Inv. Lab.,
May 1, 1964


Glenn Gilbert Goshorn, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Economics, July 31,
Fred Russell Tarver, Jr., Asst. Poultry Husbandman, Poultry, Aug. 28,
Ernest LeGrande Hobbs, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Station,
Aug. 31, 1963
William Fred Chapman, Jr., Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Economics, Sept.
15, 1963, USDA
Dale Warren Kretchman, Asst. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, Sept. 20,
Huo-Ping Pan, Asst. Biochemist, Food Tech. and Nutr., Oct. 1, 1963
Raymond Robert Hancock, Asst. Ag. Statistician, Ag. Economics, Nov. 17,
George Alton Brown, Asst. Soils Surveyor, Soils Dept., Dec. 28, 1963

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

William Gordon Long, Assoc. Chemist, Citrus Station, Feb. 29, 1964
Anthony Alexander Di Edwardo, Asst. Nematologist, Entomology, Mar. 6,
Marion Mathias Striker, Int. Asst. Soil Surveyor, Soils Dept., May 11, 1964
Glenn Ray Noggle, Botanist and Head Botany Dept., Botany, June 30, 1964
Johnnie Edmon Betts, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Economics, Apr. 18, 1964,
William H. Kahl, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Everglades Station, May 31, 1964
Harry Gene Witt, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Economics, May 31, 1964, USDA

William Angus Carver, Agronomist, Agronomy, Jan. 31, 1964
Archie Newton Tissot, Entomologist, Entomology, June 30, 1964
Erdman West, Botanist and Mycologist, Plant Pathology, June 30, 1964

James Wesley Willingham, Associate Forester, Forestry, Feb. 3, 1964

Retirements Prior To 1963-64
Arthur Liston Shealy, Animal Husbandman and Head, Ani. Sci. Dept., 1949
Gulie Hargrove Blackmon, Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., 1954
Levi Otto Gratz, Assistant Director, 1954
Arthur Forrest Camp, Vice-Director in Charge, Citrus Station, 1956
Oudia Davis Abbott, Home Economist, Food Tech. and Nutr., 1958
Lillian E. Arnold, Associate Botanist, Plant Path. Dept., 1958
P. T. Dix Arnold, Associate Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Dept., 1959
Rudolf William Ruprecht, Chemist and Vice-Director, Central Fla. Sta-
tion, 1959
Jesse Roy Christie, Nematologist, Entomology Dept., 1960
Mark W. Emmel, Veterinarian, Vet. Sci. Dept., 1961
J. Francis Cooper, Editor and Head, Editorial Dept., 1961.
Joseph Robert Neller, Soils Chemist, Soils Department, 1962
Willard M. Fifield, Provost for Agriculture, 1962
William L. Thompson, Entomologist, Citrus Station, 1962
Ida K. Cresap, Librarian, Agricultural Library, 1963
Norman R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman and Head, Poultry Sci. Dept.,
Auther H. Eddins, Plant Pathologist in Charge, Pot. Inv. Lab., 1963
Raymond B. Becker, Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Sci. Dept., 1963

Commercial grants and gifts accepted as support for existing programs
during the year ending June 30, 1964. Financial assistance is hereby grate-
fully acknowledged.
Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois
Fruit Crops Department-$1,000
Poultry Science Department-$2,000
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500

Annual Report, 1964

Allied Chemical Corporation (General Chemical Division), Orlando, Florida
Central Florida Experiment Station-$250.
Everglades Experiment Station-$500.
North Florida Experiment Station-$250.
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$250.
American Can Company, New York 17, New York
Dairy Science Department-$18,455
Atlas Chemical Industries, Wilmington, Delaware
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,000
American Cyanamid, Agricultural Division, Princeton, New Jersey
Animal Science Department-$2,500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$1,000
American Oil Company, Whiting, Indiana
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,100
The Avocado Administrative Committee, Homestead, Florida
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500.
Basic, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio
Animal Science Department-$2,000
Citrus Experiment Station-$4,000
Brunswick Pulp and Paper Company, Brunswick, Georgia
Forestry Department-$2,000
The Buckeye Cellulose Corporation, Foley, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000
California Chemical Company, Orlando, Florida
Plant Pathology Department-$500.
Central Florida Experiment Station-$500.
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,000
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,000
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$1,000
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory-$500.
California Pellet Mill Company, Crawfordsville, Indiana
Everglades Experiment Station-$3,450
Chemagro Corporation, Kansas City, Missouri
Central Florida Experiment Station-$1,000
Everglades Experiment Station-$200
Chilean Nitrate Educational Bureau, New York, New York
Citrus Experiment Station-$3,600
Columbia Nitrogen Corporation, Augusta, Georgia
Combined Units-$4,800
Container Corporation of America, Fernandina Beach, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000
Continental Woodlands, Savannah, Georgia
Forestry Department-$2,000
Mrs. F. L. De Busk, Pensacola, Florida
Plant Pathology-$50.
Diamond Alkali Company, Painesville, Ohio
Plant Pathology Department-$500.
Plant Pathology Department-$500.
Vegetable Crops Department-$136.
Everglades Experiment Station-$750.
Everglades Experiment Station-$750.
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$500.
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500.
Watemelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory-$500.
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory-$500.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Distillers Feed Research Council, Cincinnati, Ohio
Animal Science Department-$4,000
Dixie Lilly Company, Williston, Florida
Animal Science Department-$25,000
The DOW Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan
Agronomy Department-$500.
Vegetable Crops Department-$1,132
Everglades Experiment Station-$500.
Esso Research and Engineering, Linden, New Jersey
Vegetable Crops Department-$750.
Central Florida Experiment Station-$750.
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,000
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory-$750.
Falstaff Brewing Company, St. Louis 10, Missouri
Animal Science-$2,475
The Federation Garden Circles, Fort Lauderdale
Everglades Experiment Station-$2,500
(Old Plantation Field Laboratory)
Florida Citrus Commission, Lakeland, Florida
Agricultural Economics Department-$16,500
Citrus Experiment Station-$143,000
FMC Corporation, John Bean Division, Orlando, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,500
Geigy Chemical Corporation, Yonkers, New York
Agronomy Department-$3,000
Entomology Department $250.
Entomology Department-$750.
Central Florida Experiment Station-$500.
Citrus Experiment Station-$250.
Georgia, Florida, Alabama Peanut Association, Camilla, Georgia
Agronomy Department-$5,500
Growers Administrative Committee, Lakeland, Florida
Agricultural Economics Department-$5,092
Hoffman-LaRoche, Inc., Nutley 10, New Jersey
Everglades Experiment Station-$3,500
Humble Oil and Refining Company, Baytown, Texas
Citrus Experiment Station-$11,000
Hupp Corporation, Cleveland 10, Ohio
Fruit Crops Department-$2,500
International Fortrition Company, Inc., Atlanta 5, Georgia
Animal Science Department-$2,500
Poultry Science Department-$2,000
International Paper Company, Mobile, Alabama
Forestry Department-$2,000
Jabsco Pump Company, Costa Mesa, California
Dairy Science Department-$541.
Koppers Company, Inc., Pittsburg 19, Pennsylvania
Forestry Department-$200.
Eli Lilly Company, Greenfield, Indiana
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$360.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana
Animal Science Department-$2,000
Mrs. Frederick E. Lykes, Tampa, Florida
Fruit Crops Department-$250.

Annual Report, 1964

Manganese Chemicals Corporation, Baltimore 26, Maryland
Citrus Experiment Station-$4,000
McCulloch, Mrs. Duncan, Gainesville, Florida
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$10,002
Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corporation, Baltimore 15, Maryland
Everglades Experiment Station-$400.
Minute Maid Groves, Corporation, Orlando, Florida
Citrus Station-$3,000
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. Louis, Missouri
Poultry Science Department-$3,500
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,500
Naugatuck Chemical, Bethany 15, Connecticut
Agronomy Department-$500.
Niagara Chemical Division, FMC Corporation, Middleport, New York
NOPCO Chemical Company, Newark 1, New Jersey
Poultry Science Department-$1,000
Pabst Brewing Company, Milwaukee 1, Wisconsin
Animal Science Department-$500.
Phelps Dodge Refining Corporation, New York 22, New York
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,000
Everglades Experiment Station-$2,000
Rayonier, Inc., Fernandina Beach, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Agronomy and
Agricultural Engineering Departments-$5,000
Rohm and Haas Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$1,500
Shell Chemical Company, A Division of Shell Oil Company, New York 20,
New York
Food Technology Department-$3,000
Shell Chemical Company, A Division of Shell Oil Company, Atlanta 3,
Central Florida Experiment Station-$500.
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,000
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500.
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory-$500.
Shell Development Company, A Division of Shell Oil Company, Modesto,
Agronomy Department-$500.
Entomology Department-$500.
Central Florida Experiment Station-$800.
Citrus Experiment Station-$600.
Everglades Experiment Station-$600.
Everglades Experiment Station-$500.
Scott Paper Company, Mobile, Alabama
Forestry Department-$2,000
Smith-Douglas Company, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia
Poultry Science Department-$3,000
Sociedad Nacional De Pesqueria, Lima, Peru
Poultry Science Department-$3,000
Soft Phosphate Research Institute, Ocala, Florida
Animal Science Department-$3,000
Soils Department and

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Citrus Station-$3,000
Soils Department and
Suwannee Valley Experiment Station-$1,500
Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, North Carolina
Forestry Department-$3,000
Forestry Department-$1,000
Forestry Department-$3,000
Southern Forest Disease and Insect Research Council, Atlanta, Georgia
Entomology Department-$500.
Southern Railway Company, Washington 13, D. C.
Agricultural Economics Department-$26,250.
The Standard Oil Company, Cleveland 28, Ohio
Entomology Department-$900.
Central Florida Experiment Station-$1,500
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,500
Citrus Experiment Station-$500.
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500.
State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida
Vegetable Crops Department-$600.
St. Regis Paper Company, Jacksonville, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000
Sun Oil Company, Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania
Ornamental Horticulture-$1,000
Superior Fertilizer Company, Tampa, Florida
Range Cattle Experiment Station-$350.
Tennessee Coal and Iron, Division of U. S. Steel, Fairfield, Alabama
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,200
Tennessee Corporation, Atlanta, Georgia
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,000
Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, Tennessee
Forestry Department-$2,000
Thompson-Hayward Chemical Company, Kansas City, Missouri
Citrus Experiment Station-$500.
Citrus Experiment Station-$500.
Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory-$750.
Union Bag-Camp Paper Corporation, Savannah, Georgia
Forestry Department-$2,000
Union Carbide Chemicals Company, New York 17, New York
Citrus Experiment Station-$500.
VegeFat, Inc., East St. Louis, Illinois
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,500
West Coast Fertilizer Company, Tampa, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$618.
Grants for basic research were accepted from national agencies as
Atomic Energy Commission
Agronomy Department-$10,926
Agronomy Department-$9,456
Agronomy Department-$17,000
Botany Department-$16,124
Food Technology Department-$35,698
Soils Department-$9,552
Veterinary Science Department-$17,500
National Science Foundation
Agronomy Department-$9,600

Annual Report, 1964

Agronomy Department and
Plant Pathology Department-$30,200
Public Health Service
Animal Science Department-$34,500
National Institutes of Health
Animal Science Department-$15,924
Animal Science Department-$34,349
Animal Science Department-$27,720
Animal Science Department-$9,000
Animal Science Department-$13,624
Botany Department-$11,200
Food Technology Department-$23,090
Plant Pathology Department-$30,921
Veterinary Science Department-$16,236
Veterinary Science Department-$12,660
Veterinary Science Department-$27,730
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$8,470
United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Economics-$4,000
Animal Science Department-$2,000
Animal Science Department-$20,000
Plant Pathology Department-$4,000
Veterinary Science Department-$57,000
Citrus Experiment Station-$22,500
Citrus Experiment Station-$39,860
North Florida Experiment Station-$40,000



Fla. Agri.
Exp. Sta.
General Revenue

Salaries and wages
Travel .. .
Transportation and communication
Printing ..
Repairs and maintenance
Contractual services
Other current charges and obligations
Supplies and materials
Equipment ..
Land and buildings
Replacement fund .
Plant fund



$ 93,887.33

$6,066,836.80 $766,868.76

Grants and




Total state funds

$703,689.97 $7,537,395.53


Regional Agricultural Total
Hatch Research Marketing Federal
Funds Funds Act Funds

Salaries and wages $421,173.00 $ 45,786.00 $ 5,698.67 $ 472,657.67
Travel 2,476.65 2,239.51 4,716.16
Transportation and communication 29.07 29.07
Utilities -- 291.99 291.99
Printing 123.53 69.52 193.05
Repairs and maintenance 627.13 229.00 856.13
Contractual services 87.60 87.60
Rentals -... -0-
Other current charges and obligations -0-
Supplies and materials 1,155.94 14,237.74 257.92 15,651.60
Equipment 53,840.57 5,621.63 1,160.15 60,622.35
Land and buildings 18,695.11 5,587.43 24,282.54

Total federal expenditures ... $494,864.62 $ 74,868.77 $ 9,654.77 $ 579,388.16

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Research was conducted under 44 projects. Nine new projects were
initiated, and two projects were closed. Eight of these projects were
regional in cooperation with other southern state experiment stations.
The department continued its arrangement of coordinating its research
program with the Florida Citrus Commission in the area of economics and
marketing of citrus fruit. During the year three bulletins, 13 agricultural
economics reports, and five journal articles were published.

State Project 154 H. G. Hamilton and A. H. Spurlock
Minor revisions were made in the manuscript that was prepared in the
fiscal period 1962-63. This manuscript was published, and the project is
closed with this report.

Hatch Project 186 Zach Savage
Operating or cash costs per acre for 1962-63 were down 3 percent from
1961-62. These 1962-63 costs were the third highest of this project at
$235.17 per acre and 7 percent above the 1956-61 average.
Labor, power, and equipment costs at $109.12 were up 5 percent from
last season and were the highest since 1959-60. Money spent for fertilizer
materials at $63.34 was down 5 percent from last season and up 3 per-
cent from the 1956-61 average. Money spent for spray and dust materials
at $33.80 was down 7 percent from last season but up 34 percent over the
1956-61 average. Real estate taxes at $19.70 were the highest of this
project, up 1 percent over last season and up 34 percent over the 1956-61
average. Other items listed as "miscellaneous" at $9.21 were down 38
percent from last season and down 4 percent from the 1956-61 average.
This decrease in the item of miscellaneous was largely due to the increase
in money spent for materials in frost protection.
Proportionate increases in 1962-63 over the 1946-51 average were:
average age, 35 percent; labor, power, and equipment, 50; fertilizer ma-
terials, 32; spray and dust materials, 195; state and county taxes, 129;
miscellaneous, 23; and operating costs, 58 percent.

State Project 345 (Revised) A. H. Spurlock
Records of replacements, causes of losses, and disposal dates were con-
tinued on five dairy herds. Data were combined with results previously
obtained to determine length of life, depreciation rates, and reasons for
The lifespan of 4,228 replaced cows averaged 6.4 years or about 4.4
years in the milking herd. After three years less than two-thirds of the
original animals remained. After five years only 37 percent remained.
Cows reaching age six (4 years in the herd) had a life expectancy of

Annual Report, 1964

2.7 years and averaged 8.7 years of life; cows reaching age 10 had 1.7
years of life expectancy and averaged 11.7 years of life.
Live disposals from the herd were principally for low production, 31.6
percent; mastitis or some form of udder trouble, 24.8 percent; and re-
productive troubles, 17.6 percent. These three reasons or combinations of
them were responsible for 78.5 percent of the live disposals. About 8
percent of the live disposals were for nonstated reasons.
Death from all causes accounted for 13.5 percent of all disposals.
(See also Project 345, Dairy Science Department.)

State Project 615 (Revised) R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to determine the relative productivity of
cows of different proportions of English and Brahman blood when fed
under pasture programs designed to supply low, medium, and good nutri-
tion levels. Data are being accumulated on physical inputs and outputs
for the various programs that will serve as a basis for the economic
analysis. The experimental data will be supplemented with estimates of
costs of performing various operations under ranch conditions to reflect
expected net incomes from various programs if followed by commercial
(See also Project 615R, Range Cattle Station.)

State Project 627 (Revised) R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to evaluate pasture programs varying in
intensities of fertilization and levels of management in terms of forage
production, nutrient balance, and rate and economy of beef production for
a cow-calf program. The present experiment was started in 1957. It con-
tains one all-grass, three grass-clover, and one irrigated grass-clover pro-
gram, with varying rates of fertilization. Each is stocked with the esti-
mated number of cows it will carry on a year round basis. The cows are
managed according to the conditions of the pastures. They are fed supple-
mental feed during the winter as needed to keep the cows in each program
in about the same condition. The stocking rate is 1.45 acres per cow on
programs 1, 3, and 4, 1.36 on program 2, and 1.33 acres on program 5.
Summaries were made showing costs and returns for the 1962-63 season.
As had been true in other years, program 2 had the lowest cost per pound
of beef produced and the highest net return per acre. Program 1 had
the highest cost per pound and a negative net return per acre. Program
2 is a grass-clover program that is fertilized with 300 pounds of 0-10-20
fertilizer per acre per year, but receives no topdressing. Program 1 is an
all grass program that receives 450 pounds of 0-10-20 fertilizer and 180
pounds of N per acre per year. Cost of supplemental feed and minerals
per pound of beef produced on program 1 was almost four times that on
program 2.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Animal
Science, and Soils departments.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 660 (Revised) D. L. Brooke
Data furnished on the yield response of tomatoes and cucumbers grown
under plastic mulch in the spring of 1963 indicate that the application of
fertilizers was carried beyond the level of economic returns for both crops.
The application of more than 2,000 pounds per acre of Urea + KSO4 and
more than 3,000 pounds of a commercial 6-8-6 fertilizer on tomatoes in
the Manatee area resulted in physical decreases in yield per acre. There-
fore, any expense for fertilizer beyond that level which would give a max-
imum yield was not reflected in added value of product.
The same situation was indicated for cucumbers under plastic mulch
when the application of fertilizers was carried beyond the 1,000 pound
level of Urea + KNO;: and Urea + KSO or 3,000 pounds of a commercial
6-8-6 mixture. The fact that the highest yields were experienced at the
lowest level of fertilizer application indicates that further trials with lower
levels of plant food should be attempted.
(See also Project 660, Gulf Coast Station.)

State Project 685 R. G. Stout and P. E. Shuler'
Estimates of fruit numbers per tree were determined from the pre-
season surveys completed in September. The October orange crop was
forecast at 64.5 million boxes and grapefruit at 27.5 million boxes. Final
pick-out appears to be about 60 million boxes of oranges and 26.5 million
boxes of grapefruit.
A new survey was commenced in October to determine pounds solids,
acids, brix, and ratio attributes of oranges by the three types, early, mid-
season, and Valencias.
Information on losses from the December 1962 freeze was collected and
published as Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report EC64-7 entitled "Flor-
ida Citrus Fruit and Tree Losses from the December, 1962 Freeze." For
instance, components of the loss in the size of the Valencia crop totaled
27 million boxes. This loss was estimated to be 18.4 percent due to lack
of attaining normal harvest size, 67.7 percent due to excessive droppage,
and 13.9 percent due to other factors, largely, loss of juice.
Experiment Station Circular S-150 was published which evaluated and
illustrated a procedure whereby a grower could estimate the rate of juice
loss of cold damaged fruit.
An Agricultural Economics Report published, "Some Factors Contribut-
ing to Year to Year Variations in Florida Orange Production," estimates
that number of fruit per tree and droppage rates were equally important
in year to year variations in Valencia production, while number of fruit
per tree was the most important factor in early and midseaon variations
in year to year production.
An article was published in the Proceedings of the Florida State Horti-
cultural Society, Vol. 76, 1963, entitled "Some Relevant Factors in Fore-
casting Harvest Size of Valencia Oranges."

1 Cooperative with Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.

Annual Report, 1964 29


State Project 701 R. E. L. Greene and B. J. Smith
Work on the economic study of dairy farms in west Florida was con-
tinued in both the Pensacola and Tallahassee areas. The two major ob-
jectives of the study have been to develop an economic description of
dairying as it is carried out in these areas, and to get reliable data on the
costs and returns experienced in 1962 by west Florida dairymen. The re-
sults for each area will be reported in separate publications. The final
report for the Pensacola area is now in the process of being duplicated,
and the results for the Tallahassee area are currently being reduced to
manuscript form.
Records from 24 farms were used for the Pensacola report, and the
same number will be used for the Tallahassee report. Based on the findings
and assumptions of the study, the cost of producing milk in the Pensacola
area was 67.6, 77.0, 59.5, and 66.7 cents per gallon for small, medium, large,
and all farms, respectively, and the blend prices received were 50.7, 52.1,
52.1, and 51.8 cents per gallon respectively. The Tallahassee area showed
per gallon costs of 65.8, 58.8, 54.5, and 58.9 cents, with blend prices re-
ceived of 51.0, 48.2, 47.3, and 48.5 cents per gallon for small, medium, large,
and all farms, respectively.

Hatch Project 895 A. H. Spurlock and
(Regional SM-22) H. G. Hamilton
Citrus harvesting costs for 32 firms, 1962-63, averaged as follows per
1-3/5 bushel box: picking oranges, 39.6 cents; picking grapefruit, 28.3
cents; and picking tangerines, 96.0 cents. Hauling from roadside to plant
cost 12.9 cents per box.
Costs of packing and selling Florida fresh citrus fruit per 1-3/5 bushel
equivalent by 41 packinghouses, 1962-63, were as follows:

Container Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines
1-3/5 bushel wirebound box $1.40 $1.16 -
4/5 bushel wirebound (half Bruce) box 1.73 1.48 $1.81
4/5 bushel fiberboard carton 1.50 1.29 -
5 lb. mesh bag in master carton 2.25 2.24 -
5 lb. poly. bag in master carton 1.96 1.77 -

Differentials between containers and kinds of fruit were abnormal in
1962-63 because of conditions resulting from the freeze.
Packinghouses varied in the cost of handling all fruit from 27 percent
below average to 77 percent above average. Thirteen of the 41 houses
were within 5 percent of the average, and 17 were within 10 percent.
Average costs of processing, warehousing, and selling typical products
from 23 plants were: single strength orange juice in 12/46 ounce cans,
sweetened, $1.85; grapefruit sections in 24/303 cans, sweetened, $3.04;
chilled salad sections, 12/32 ounce jars, $3.68. Frozen orange concentrate
in 48/6 ounce cans cost $2.66, and per gallon excluding packaging ma-
terials, $0.71. Processing of citrus by-products cost an average of $25.08
per ton for citrus pulp and meal, $19.01 per ton for molasses, and $0.1779
per pound for cold pressed peel oil.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Results of the year's work were distributed to citrus dealers, packers,
and processors in three mimeographed releases for the 1962-63 season:
(1) "Costs of Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits," (2) "Costs of
Packing and Selling Florida Fresh Citrus Fruits," and (3) "Costs of
Processing, Warehousing and Selling Florida Citrus Products."

Hatch Project 937 W. B. Riggan and M. R. Godwin
(Regional SM-22)

A 1 percent change in the estimated annual production of oranges by
the U. S. Department of Agriculture is associated with a change in the
on-tree price in the opposite direction of 1.5 percent in the short run and
of 4.3 percent in the long run. Results of the study indicated a price
elasticity of demand at the producer level of -0.23.
In like manner, a 1 percent change in personal disposable income is as-
sociated with a change in the on-tree price of Florida oranges of 0.9 per-
cent in the short run and 2.6 percent in the long run. The equivalent in-
come elasticity at the producer level is 0.38.
Given a population of 180 million and the data on orange production
and prices used in the study calculation, a change in production of 1 million
boxes results in an on-tree price change of 4 cents per box in the opposite
direction. Under the same assumptions, a change in personal disposable
income of 1 billion dollars results in an on-tree price change of 1.7 cents
per box in the same direction.
The price elasticity of demand for fresh oranges at the retail level
ranges from -2.0 in the short run to -4.0 in the long run. The price
elasticity of demand for frozen concentrate is near unity, and the price
elasticity for canned single strength juice falls in between the other two.
A manuscript reporting the results of the research is being prepared.
A preliminary report has been published in the Stations Journal Series.


State Project 951 C. N. Smith

Further analysis of the data collected from a sample of 200 ornamental
nurserymen was done. Results indicated that very large nurseries-those
with 10 acres or more-accounted for more than $10 million of the $24
million total sales of all products by farms classified as nurseries which
grew ornamental plants. Estimated sales of very small nurseries-those
with less than 0.2 acre-made up more than $3 million of the total. Many
small operations were garden centers with small growing areas or else
had greenhouses in which orchids, potted plants, and flowers were pro-
duced along with various other nursery products.
It was estimated that 73 percent of all nursery stock sold by nursery-
men in Florida was marketed in containers. More than half of the total
retail marketing of almost $17 million consisted of landscape nursery sales.
A manuscript embracing the results of this study as well as data from
the census and from other sources is now in preparation.

Annual Report, 1964


State Project 970 D. L. Brooke
Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida were obtained from
growers and summarized for 13 different vegetables in 10 of the major
producing areas of the state. In general, the 1962-63 season was profitable
for vegetable growers. Major exceptions to this were the ground-grown
tomato crops in most of south Florida. Unfavorable weather during the
growing season reduced yields on most fall and winter tomatoes, resulting
in losses to growers. Weather was largely responsible also for losses on
cucumbers and squash in parts of the lower half of the peninsula.
Labor and material requirements data were released in Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 660. Nineteen vegetables were re-
ported in one or more of the important producing areas. The data indicate
increases in the use of machinery, equipment, materials, and semi-skilled
labor and some decreases in the use of unskilled labor on vegetable farms.
This reflects the rapid advances being made in technology.


State Project 995 R. E. L. Greene
The objective of this study is to compare beef production and income
from heifers bred first at one versus two years of age. Various physical
production data that will serve as a basis of the economic analysis are
being collected for experimental groups of heifers. These data are in the
process of being assembled and analyzed in order to make a comparison
of net returns for the two breeding systems.
(See also Project 995, Animal Science Department.)


AMA Project 1012 D. L. Brooke, W. B. Riggan
(ES 672) and C. N. Smith
The Florida celery industry has organized through the adoption of a
state marketing order and a cooperative selling organization. The 49
growers in the industry market all of their product through 14 authorized
sales agencies. Chains bought 24.7 percent, wholesale receivers and jobbers
41.2 percent, processors and repackers 5.2 percent, government 2.4 per-
cent, independent retailers 0.2 percent, and brokers 26.2 percent of the
1962-63 crop. Four major bases of sale were used in selling Florida celery;
F.O.B. Inspection Arrival Acceptance, F.O.B. Acceptance Final, and De-
livered sales accounted for 92.6 percent of the celery sales. The fourth basis,
Consigned, accounted for 7.2 percent for all sales.
Shipments outside of Florida were made to 35 states, the District of
Columbia, and Canada, and for European export. The Middle Atlantic
states received 32.2 percent of Florida's celery, East North Central states
25.4 percent, South Atlantic 15.9 percent, and East South Central states
3.9 percent. Only 11.4 percent moved west of the Mississippi River, while
9.2 percent went to Canada and 1.9 percent to Europe.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Results of this study were presented in an M.S. thesis entitled "Organi-
zation and Operation of the Florida Celery Industry" by G. H. Jung in
April 1964. This project is closed as an AMA supported study with this

AMA Project 1012 D. L. Brooke, W. B. Riggan
(ES 672) and C. N. Smith
The Florida sweet corn industry is the second vegetable group which
has organized through the adoption of a state marketing order and has
attempted a cooperative selling arrangement. The order is restricted to
sweet corn produced in south Florida.
In the 1962-63 season 89 growers sold sweet corn through 25 first-
handler sales firms in Florida. These firms sold 12.5 percent of the volume
through local brokers and 87.5 percent direct to wholesale or retail outlets
in the market. Chains bought 45.5 percent direct from Florida sales firms.
Terminal brokers handled 7.5 percent, wholesalers 44 percent, jobbers
1.3 percent, and independent retailers 0.2 percent. Government purchases
were 0.8 percent of the Florida volume.
The Florida sweet corn industry has operated predominately in the
elastic portion of the demand curve for the past three seasons. Therefore,
in only a few (2-3) weeks of the peak shipping period (May) could in-
dustry revenue have been increased by restricting the volume of the prod-
uct moving to market. Unless the cooperative selling organization can
increase its volume to include a major portion of the sweet corn moving
to market, it can do little to stabilize prices during the south Florida
season. The marketing order can encourage planned volume movement
to the point of satisfying demand during the major part of the season and
preventing over-supply conditions in May.
This project is closed as an AMA supported study with this report.

State Project 1017 R. E. L. Greene
This project was designed to develop and test improved methods,
equipment, and facilities for receiving and temporary holding of potatoes
at packinghouses, with major emphasis on bulk handling systems. Tests
have been conducted in the Hastings area comparing a flat-bin system and
small bulk boxes with the present hopper bodies and sloping-bottom bins.
The results indicate that the flat-bin system would be a satisfactory system
of receiving and temporary holding of potatoes handled in bulk.
Work has been devoted to preparation of a manuscript on the study
describing the experimental systems, specifications for their installation,
description of operational procedures, and estimates of investment and
costs compared with the present bulk-body sloping-body bin method.
(See also Project 1017, Agricultural Engineering Department.)

Annual Report, 1964


Hatch Project 1018 R. E. L. Greene
(Regional SM-10) and B. J. Smith
Work was devoted to the problem of making low and high-level esti-
mates of projected fluid milk demand and supplies in Florida for 1975,
assuming price relationships similar to those that existed in 1963. Fluid
milk demand was estimated based on an expected population of 8,500,000
in the state in 1975. The low-level demand was projected based on a per
capital consumption level the same as that estimated for 1959. The projected
low-level demand was 2045.5 million pounds of milk or 861.5 million pounds
more than the estimated consumption in 1959. The low-level projection of
supplies was 2038 million pounds. Estimates were made for demand and
supplies for five areas in the state and took into consideration differences
in expected rate of increase in population in each area.

State Project 1027 R. E. L. Greene
The objectives of this study are to determine the economic value of
several methods of supplemental feeding of grazing yearling steers for
approximately one year before they are placed in the feedlot and to de-
termine the subsequent effects of these methods on their performance in
the feedlot. Four groups of 20 yearling steers are confined to 10-acre lots
of St. Augustinegrass pasture. Lot 1 is maintained on pasture alone.
Lots 2, 3, and 4 are fed a concentrate mixture during the first quarter
of the experimental year. Lot 3 is fed a concentrate mixture during the
second quarter, and lot 4 during the fourth quarter.
Results have been obtained for three years. The data on the pasture
phase of the study were analyzed, using an average of the results for
the three years. Feeding concentrates on pasture during the first and
second quarters (lot 3) resulted in the largest increase in net returns.
Compared to lot 1 that received no supplemental feed, the additional re-
turns above the cost for feed were $4.77 per head for lot 3, $2.04 for lot
2, and -4 cents for lot 4.
(See also Project 1027, Everglades Station.)

State Project 1028 W. K. McPherson
The seasonal feeding of molasses to cows increases the margin between
the cost of producing and the value of weaned calves when the price of
molasses is relatively low and the prices of calves relatively high. The
molasses-weaned calf price relationships under which the seasonal feeding
of molasses is economically feasible are shown in Table 1.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Table 1.-Effects of Feeding Molasses Seasonally on the Margin Between
the Cost and Returns from Producing Weaned Calves.*

Molasses Price
$/T 20 25 30 35 40
Calf Price Change in Margin per Cow
10 $ -1.443 $ -3.01 $ -4.60 $ -6.18 $ -7.76
15 +1.02 .56 -2.15 -3.73 -5.31
20 +3.47 +1.89 + .30 -1.28 -2.86
25 +5.92 +4.34 +2.75 +1.17 .41
30 +8.37 +6.79 +5.20 +3.62 +2.04
35 +10.82 +9.24 +7.65 +6.07 +4.49
40 +13.27 +11.69 +10.10 +8.52 +6.94
The seasonal feeding of 633 pounds of molasses per cow increased the weight of
weaned calves produced per cow 49 pounds.
(See also Project 1028, Everglades Station.)

Hatch Project 1030
(Regional S-44) D. E. Alleger
With the publication of AES Bulletin 671, May 1964, the major phase
of this project was terminated.
An analysis of anomia, or the incidence of severe mental depression
among rural households, is in progress. Data indicate that age, years of
formal education, and kind of occupation are significant variables in ad-
justment. For farmers, the size of family was also an important factor;
the farmer in a two-person family tended to be anomic. In general persons
under age 50, and those who had completed some high school education or
better and who were employed in managerial or professional capacities
were the most likely to be scored as adjusted. For all families, both farm
and nonfarm, another significant personal adjustment factor was net worth
($10,000 or over).

Hatch Project 1035 R. E. L. Greene
Work on this project consisted of completing a manuscript which
presented the results of the study. This was published in the form of a
mimeograph report. This project is closed with this report.

Regional Project 1078
(Regional SM-25) C. N. Smith
Three field studies were initiated during the past year. Data on a study
of consumer purchase patterns and preferences for cut and artificial

Annual Report, 1964

flowers and for living and artificial foliage plants, conducted in Gainesville,
are now being processed.
A mail questionnaire concerning practices and attitudes toward orna-
mental landscaping by lending agencies was mailed to 130 savings and loan
associations in Florida. Approximately half were returned. A tabulation of
responses to date indicated that slightly more than half of these lending
agencies, when appraising the market value of a home, normally increased
the appraised value by the cost of the landscaping. Fear of loss or damage
through neglect was the major reason given by those who did not increase
appraisals as much as landscaping costs. A desire for pamphlets and other
information on the use and care of ornamental plants and for posters
showing typical landscape arrangements with information on design plans
and price ranges were among the major suggestions made by savings and
loan officers as measures for achieving closer cooperation between lending
agencies and ornamental nurserymen.
A follow-up mailing of questionnaires will be made to savings and loan
associations, and personal interviews will be made with a sample of non-
respondents to determine whether their practices and attitudes are sub-
stantially different from those who mailed in the questionnaire.
Personal interviews were conducted with 50 real estate agencies in
Tampa and a like number in Orlando to determine their attitudes toward
landscaping. An analysis of this phase of the study has not yet been
(See also Project 1078, Ornamental Horticulture.)

Hatch Project 1083 W. K. McPherson
An analysis of prices paid for specific classes and grades of slaughter
cattle in Florida auctions indicates that the price of beef carcasses in
Chicago, the number of slaughter cattle offered for sale in the interior
Midwestern markets, and the number of slaughter cattle offered for sale
in Florida are the major factors that determine price. In some instances,
these factors explain as much as 77 percent of the week to week price

Hatch Project 1084 J. R. Greenman
Another draft of the manuscript entitled "Inheritance Laws Affecting
Florida Farms and Farm Families" has been completed and will be sub-
mitted to the Publications Committee for review by August 31, 1964. In
the course of revising this manuscript, the additional research required
was much more than originally contemplated. Preliminary work that has
been done on the laws and administrative arrangements for the control and
use of water in Florida has revealed that the work to be done is too great
for manpower resources that are available. It is contemplated, therefore,
that the work on water use and control will be dropped and that a study
will be undertaken relating to the legal aspects of the corporate form of
organization for agricultural businesses in Florida.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 1085 C. E. Murphree
A manuscript entitled "Resource Use and Income Implications of Out-
door Recreation," which reports the results of this research, has been
reviewed in the department. A revised manuscript is ready for transmis-
sion to the Publication Committee for consideration as a Station bulletin.
One of the conclusions of this project involves the economic implications
of a decline in population. For an improvement in the economic status of
the residents of a rural area, an increase in resident-owned resources
must occur. Therefore, a decline in population which leaves resident-owned
resource earnings unchanged elevates per capital income but does not
change the income status of residents.
On the other hand, the evidence is convincing that a substantial shift
in the demand for riverfront land in the study area occurred between the
end of World War II and 1962. It is estimated that the total increase in
the value productivity of riverfront land during the period amounted to
more than $3 million, and county residents were the recipient of approxi-
mately two-thirds of this amount. While non-residents of the county will
receive most of the future earnings of riverfront land, an intensive use of
riverfront land for outdoor recreation stands to elevate the income status
of county residents through an increase in demand for consumption items.

Hatch Project 1096 M. R. Godwin, W. F. Chapman, Jr.2
(Regional SM-22) and W. T. Manley2
The purpose of this project is to determine the extent to which fresh
oranges grown in Florida and California are substitutes, and to obtain
estimates of the demand characteristics for fruit grown in the two pro-
ducing areas. Field work on this study was conducted during the spring of
1962 (see 1962 report).
Work during the year has consisted of the completion of analytical
operations and an evaluation of the findings. In retail pricing tests in-
volving Florida size 200 and California size 138 fruit, the following price
elasticity estimates were obtained: Florida Indian River, 3.07; Florida
Interior, 3:01; and California, 2.76. In market tests involving slightly
larger Florida size 163 fruit in contrast with the size 138 product from
California, the price elasticity estimates obtained were 3.42, 2.30, and 2.51
respectively for Florida Indian River, Florida Interior, and California
oranges. Additionally, the analytical results indicate that the two types of
Florida oranges are substitutes for one another, but that neither of the
Florida fruit types competes strongly with that produced in California.
The weak economic linkage between Florida and California fresh oranges
indicates that pricing activities or supply conditions in either of the two
states have little economic effect on the other.
The preparation of a manuscript presenting the full ramifications of
the findings and exploring their implications from the standpoint of the
Florida citrus industry is currently in progress.
2 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1964


Hatch Project 1126 A. H. Spurlock and
W. B. Riggan

No work has been done on the economic phase of this project during
the year. Most prices have been set by the Sweet Corn Exchange under the
Florida State Marketing Order Program. This precluded price variations
within the U. S. Fancy grade due to the specific characteristics of the lot
of corn.
The economic work originally contemplated in this project of relating
sweet corn price to quality, grade, external characteristics, and sale con-
ditions has been done on a more adequate sample under AMA Project
(See also Project 1126, Food Technology and Nutrition Department.)

State Project 1127 A. H. Spurlock

Work sampling studies were made in two additional citrus packing-
houses, representing the pallet box method and the full bulk system of
handling citrus from the grove through the dumper or entrance conveyor
in the house. Operations studied for each system were loading fruit in
grove, transferring to semitrailer, unloading semitrailer into coloring room
or fruit bin, and transferring fruit from coloring room to automatic
dumper or entrance conveyor.
Data on equipment and labor required for each system of fruit handling
together with current capital and operating costs have been obtained and
are ready to summarize.
(See also Project 1127, Citrus Station.)


Hatch Project 1129 C. N. Smith
Work consisted of the preparation of a manuscript to be submitted for
publication. Industry groups were supplied with information generated by
the recent survey of the marketing practices of the foliage plant industry.


State Project 1133 G. N. Rose, B. R. Bennett,
and R. G. Stout

Mathematical models for forecasting the average yield of celery a week
prior to harvest were developed based upon objective measurements in
sample fields in the Belle Glade area. Sample design and measurements
used were based upon the study "Growth Rates and Projecting Yields in
Celery Production" by Roy G. Stout and Raymond R. Hancock, Proceedings
of the State Horticultural Society, Volume 75, 1962. The most promising
model was a least squares equation in which both the average diameter of
plants and average distance between plants were utilized in predicting
yield per acre. Analysis of a forecasting equation for 18 consecutive weeks

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

in which field measurements were known to have been consistent shows an
average absolute error of 3.4 percent. Further testing of this method of
short-run forecasting of celery yields and experimentation in establishing
earlier forecasts are planned. Results of the 1963-64 study are being edited.
Exploratory studies in objective methods for forecasting yields of sweet
corn continue. If indexing of individual fields by location, acreage, time of
planting, and variety can be accomplished, sampling of these fields for
objective counts and measurements will be undertaken in 1964-65.
Summarization of data on tomatoes relating the number of days from
planting to initial harvest and the length of time between successive
pickings is in progress.

State Project 1153 W. K. McPherson
Since 1830 the population density of Florida has increased from 0.6 to
91.3 persons per square mile. The state is now more densely populated
than Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, or South Carolina, but does not ap-
proach the current population densities in New Jersey (806), Massachu-
setts (654), New York (350), or Illinois (180).
Florida's urban population has an average of 0.3 acres of land avail-
able per person-more than twice the amount available to the residents of
metropolitan areas, but considerably less than the residents and the amount
available to the residents of the Midwest and mountain states. On the other
hand, Florida has about 24 acres of agricultural and forest lands per rural
resident-more than Georgia (19), South Carolina (12), Alabama (21),
and Mississippi (20), and only slightly less than Iowa (26.5) and Cali-
fornia (24.5).
Cash receipts from the sale of agricultural and forest products per
acre indicate that the agricultural land available for the production of
these products is not being used as intensively in Florida as in some other
agricultural states. In Florida, cash receipts from the sale of these prod-
ucts is only about $23.00 per acre, much less than in Iowa ($74 per
acre) and California ($64 per acre). However, Floridians use their land
somewhat more intensively than other southern states, with the exception
of North Carolina.

State Project 1162
(Regional SM-11) W. K. McPherson
To date, the results of this research suggest two tentative conclusions.
Under the existing freight rate structure, Florida feedlot operators can
afford to pay up to approximately 35 cents per hundredweight more than
Illinois feeders for rations which result in a comparable weight increase
of 1 pound for each 8 pounds fed. In April and November of 1962, and in
November 1963, the cost of the least-cost formulation of the ration that
will produce these rates of gain in Florida exceeded the cost in Illinois by
from 21 cents to 32 cents-well below the 35 cent level. However, in No-
vember 1963 just after the freeze that reduced the supply and hence
raised the price of citrus pulp-the cost of the least-cost formulation of

Annual Report, 1964 39

this ration reached 38 cents. This indicated that Florida producers had
lost any competitive advantage they had in the feeding of cattle immedi-
ately after the freeze.
Under the same freight rate structure, and assuming that pork is
shipped into the state in the form of lean cuts, bellies, spare ribs, and lean
trimmings, rather than live hogs or whole carcasses, Florida swine pro-
ducers can pay up to 261% cents more for a ration 3.3 pounds which will
produce 1 pound of live hog, 0.7 pound of carcass, or 0.5 pound of the kind
of pork that is commonly shipped into the state. In April and November
of 1962 and 1963, the least-cost formulations of the ration that would
achieve this rate of gain cost from 31 to 36 cents more in Florida than in
Illinois, suggesting that Illinois producers had some comparative advan-
tage in the feeding of hogs over this entire period.


State Project 1168 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley3
Vine-ripened and mature green tomatoes produced in Florida are
marketed in direct competition with greenhouse-grown tomatoes produced
in the northern regions of the United States during the late spring. This
project is designed to examine the nature of the competitive relationships
between the two types of tomatoes produced in Florida and the greenhouse
tomato crop.
Field work on this project was conducted during the spring of 1963 (see
1963 report). Work during the year has consisted of an analysis of the
basic data collected to determine the demand characteristics for the three
types of tomatoes and the substitution relationships between them. Tenta-
tive results indicate that the demand for all three of the tomato types is
elastic. For Florida mature green tomatoes a 1 percent change in price
brought about a 1.68 percent change in the quantity purchased; for vine-
ripened tomatoes a 1 percent change in price was accompanied by a 1.79
percent change in the quantity bought by consumers; for the green-
house-grown product a 1 percent price change resulted in a change of 1.84
percent in the volume of the product purchased.
Additionally, the study results indicated that customers will quite
readily substitute vine-ripened tomatoes for the mature green type also
produced in Florida, but that they are somewhat reluctant to substitute
the mature green tomato for the vine-ripened product. Neither of the
Florida tomato types are ready substitutes for the greenhouse-grown
Final analytical refinements of the data are in progress, and the prep-
aration of a manuscript reporting the results has begun.

State Project 1170 R. G. Stout, J. W. Todd'
and J. E. Mullin'

Because of the severity of the freeze of December 1962. it was decided
that estimates of tree numbers for 1963 would be based on sample data
3Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.
'Cooperative with Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

collected after the freeze. The sample normally planned for 1963 was
completed, and additional field men were employed to re-survey the sample
that was originally surveyed in 1962 just prior to the freeze.
Estimated tree numbers were published by the Florida Crop and Live-
stock Reporting Service in their release of April 22, 1964, entitled "Florida
Citrus, Inventory of Commercial Citrus Trees in Florida."
The reduction in tree numbers from 1962, largely due to the freeze,
was approximately 3 million orange trees, nearly 600,000 grapefruit trees,
and 400,000 hybrids and others. The estimated numbers were as follows:
all oranges in 1962, 40.5 million, and 37.5 million in 1963; all grapefruit,
6.4 million in 1962 and 5.8 million in 1963; all citrus, 52.1 million in 1962
and 48.3 million in 1963.
An Agricultural Economics Report, "A Continuing Survey for Estimat-
ing Numbers of Florida Citrus Trees," was published, describing in detail
the procedures for conducting the survey and evaluating the reliability
of the estimates. Statistical analysis of the estimates indicates good reli-
ability in the large counties and for the state totals.

AMA Project 1171 C. N. Smith
(ES 835)
Field work in the first phase of this project has been completed. A
list of sod growers in Florida and their acreage in production was obtained
from various sources. Field interviews were conducted with a sample of
26 of the 46 growers in the industry.
A preliminary tabulation of results showed income from the marketing
of turfgrass sod in 1963 amounted to $6,750,000. More than 70 percent
of all grasses marketed consisted of St. Augustine types. Bahia, with 17
percent, bermuda, with 6 percent, and centipede, with 4 percent, were next
in importance. Although only 1 percent of all sales were of zoysia grasses,
16 percent of the sales of this item went to out-of-state markets and 11
percent to foreign buyers.
Further refinements will be made in the analysis of these data, and
a report will be prepared.

Hatch Project 1172 R. E. L. Greene
The purpose of this study is to determine production practices of beef
producers and to evaluate the economic potential of selected systems of
beef production as a means of making a more profitable use of farm and
human resources in the Suwannee River development area. Complete farm
business records covering the 1962 calendar year have been obtained for
25 operating units in Columbia and Suwannee counties. These farms have
been divided into two groups, those with less than 25 beef brood cows
and those with 25 or more cows. The records are being analyzed to show
present production practices of beef producers and costs and returns under
present methods of operation. Projections will be made as to the effect
on income if farmers adopted a higher level of production practices.

Annual Report, 1964 41


State Project 1173 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley'
In this project the Florida Tomato Marketing Agreement is used as
a case study to examine the extent to which the understanding and atti-
tudes of affected industry groups influence the operational problems en-
countered under Marketing Agreement programs. In view of the extensive
interest in collective action in various sectors of the Florida fruit and
vegetable industry, such information should be of assistance in designing
programs that will be more effective in achieving the ends sought by
producer groups.
Work on this project has consisted of the development of a question-
naire to obtain the desired information, the development of a sampling
procedure, and the partial completion of the field interview operations. The
questionnaire employed in the study covered the following basic elements
of the problem: (1) grower perceptions of the capabilities and limitations
of a marketing agreement program, (2) the conflicts arising from the
differing orientation of various producing areas within the state, (3) the
problem of common interest between the mature green and the vine-ripened
tomato producer, (4) the problem of equitable treatment for the large and
the small grower, and (5) the indirect value of the program to the industry
(market information, compulsory inspection, container standardization,
The sample design employed in the study involved stratification by
the five producing districts of the state (i.e., Dade, the Lower East Coast,
Immokalee, Ruskin, and Oxford) and a proportional sample of one-fourth
of the growers in each district. At the end of the year 80 percent of the
grower interviews dictated by the sample design had been obtained.


Hatch Project 1174 M. R. Godwin, W. F. Chapman, Jr.'
and W. T. Manley"

Over 60 percent of Florida's orange crop is utilized annually in the
production of frozen orange concentrate. This product is marketed under
nationally advertised, packer, and private labels. The nature of the market
on which frozen concentrated orange juice is sold is such that these three
brand-types not only compete with each other but also compete with other
concentrated and synthetic products. Florida's citrus industry, in formu-
lating marketing strategies designed to maintain and improve its position,
has need of information concerning the effect of a price change on the
sales of frozen orange concentrate. The purpose of this project is to provide
this information by estimating consumer reaction to varying prices for
orange concentrate in terms of an increase or decrease in the purchases
of a particular brand, and the rate of substitution among the three basic
The study data were generated in 18 retail supermarkets located in
the Cincinnati Dayton area of Ohio. The three brand-classes were offered
to customers in these stores under rigid pricing and merchandising con-
5 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.
0 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

trols commencing on May 11, 1964, and continuing through June 20, 1964.
Daily sales figures were recorded under a predetermined schedule of vary-
ing price situations, with all promotion of frozen orange concentrate by
the cooperating agency being suspended during this period. These data
included sales of the three types of frozen orange concentrate and shelf-
disappearance of all other frozen concentrated juices and synthetic products
sold in each store.
The sales data collected in the test stores are currently being prepared
for computer analysis.

Regional Project 1187
(Regional S-56) D. E. Alleger and H. G. Hamilton

This study was activated on August 1, 1963. The five participating
states Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, and Texas plan to com-
plete all field work by September 1964. It is anticipated analyses will be
started during the first quarter of 1965.

State Project 1190
(Regional SM-23) W. K. McPherson
Data describing the movement of cattle and calves to and from Florida
auctions have been collected, edited, tabulated, and coded. These data
are now being combined with data from other states for the purpose of
determining the direction and computing the magnitude of the movement
of beef animals between sub-state areas in the Southeast.

Hatch Project 1199 C. E. Murphree
Final approval for this project was made May 6, 1964. Consequently,
work to date has been limited to developing a detailed method of procedure.

State Project 1200 C. D. Covey
The purpose of this project is to determine those counties in Florida
which have legal authority for rural planning and zoning and which coun-
ties are currently exercising this power. The enabling laws, zoning regu-
lations, comprehensive plans, and administrative procedures will be ana-
lyzed to determine their effectiveness in solving conflicting land use
An extensive search of Florida law was made to determine the legal
basis for planning and zoning, or lack of it, in all Florida counties.
Approximately 218 laws were examined to determine whether they were
still in effect, repealed, or declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

Annual Report, 1964

A questionnaire was sent to the chairman of the Board of County Com-
missioners in each county requesting preliminary information on the
extent of planning and zoning in the county. Each county having zoning
regulations in effect was requested to return a copy of the zoning regu-
lation with the completed questionnaire.
Informal personal interviews were conducted with county officials in
47 counties to obtain detailed information on the administration of or
interest in planning and zoning in the county. County officials were
questioned on matters such as: general public acceptance of zoning, general
philosophy of zoning boards and boards of appeal, problem areas, adequacy
of laws and regulations, and nature of their comprehensive plan.
Twenty-five of the 47 counties visited were found to have enabling
authority for county zoning, although the zoning authority in three of
these counties was limited in some territorial manner. Out of the 25
counties with zoning authority which were visited, only 17 had implemented
some degree of county-wide zoning.


State Project 1201 H. G. Hamilton
Data on the type of pooling arrangement that each citrus association
had before the December 1962 freeze have been obtained. Data have also
been obtained on any changes that were made as a result of the freeze.
These data when analyzed should reveal the type pool that enabled maxi-
mum returns under distressed conditions and the type of pool that resulted
in equal treatment of members.


Movement of Citrus Trees From Nurseries.-Movement of citrus trees
from Florida nurseries to Florida destinations at 1,588,978 trees in 1962-63
was the first season when less than 2 million trees moved since 1957-58.
The movement in 1962-63 was 56 percent of the highest movement of
these 35 years of records (1928 to 1963), which was in 1960-61. The 1962-63
movement was 77 percent of the 1955-60 average. The fiscal period of
these data for 1962-63 was July 1, 1962, to June 30, 1963.
Eighty-one percent of the 1962-63 movement was orange trees, 3 percent
tangerines, 4 percent grapefruit, 4 percent tangelos, 4 percent other
mandarin, and 4 percent lime, lemon, and other citrus. Eighty-five percent
of the 1955-60 movement was orange trees. (Zach Savage)
Florida Agricultural Production Index.-Index numbers measuring the
total volume of agricultural production by commodity groups have been
brought up to date through 1963. Crop production in 1963 was 5 percent
lower than in 1962, but 71 percent above the base period, 1947-49. Live-
stock and livestock products increased in volume by approximately 6
percent over 1962, and were 139 percent over the base period. Production
of all crops and livestock was 3 percent lower than the preceding year and
was 87 percent over the 1947-49 average.
Production of citrus decreased in 1963 by 32 percent, due to the
freeze in December 1962, and tobacco declined by 15 percent. Other groups
increased in production over 1962 by 22 percent for cotton and cottonseed,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

13 percent for grains, 12 percent for all vegetables, 10 percent for poultry
products, and 6 percent for meat animals.
Total production is affected by crop acreage, numbers of livestock
breeding units, and by yield or output per acre of per unit. In 1963 crop
acreage decreased by 9 percent, and livestock breeding units decreased
by 5 percent. Yields of crops in 1963 were 4 percent lower than in 1962
but 63 percent above the 1947-49 base period. Livestock yields or output
per unit were 9 percent higher than in the preceding year and 59 percent
above the base period. (A. H. Spurlock)
Competition for Florida Fruit and Vegetable Crops.-The degree of
competition which Florida faces is provided by tabulating weekly carlot
shipments of selected fruits and vegetables from Florida, other states,
and foreign countries during the Florida shipping season. Such data are
valuable to growers and extension workers in determining the more
desirable production periods during the Florida season. They are also
available to industry groups in the preparation of statistics for hearings
on freight rates and marketing agreements and in establishing annual
movement patterns of Florida crops. Allied service industries may find
them valuable in planning peak movement and supply requirements.
"Florida Truck Crop Competition" was published as Agricultural
Economics Mimeo Report EC64-5. (D. L. Brooke)
Costs and Returns on West Florida Dairy Unit.-Assistance was again
given to Mr. White of the Dairy Science Department in summarizing
records to show costs and returns in producing milk and also cash costs
of producing various crop enterprises. Previous summaries have been
prepared for 1960, 1961, and 1962 on a calendar year basis. Because of
the sequence of crops in the area, the records were shifted to a fiscal year
basis, October 1 to September 30. The record for the past year was sum-
marized on that basis. A summary was made showing comparisons with
past years. (R. E. L. Greene)

Agri-business Aspects of the Tomato Industry in 'Dade County.-The
tomato industry is a major factor in the total agricultural economy of
Dade County. The more than $19 million in grower sales of tomatoes in
1961-62 comprised nearly 37 percent of all income from farm marketing.
Farmers growing tomatoes were estimated to have paid more than $18
million to other segments of the economy for production and marketing
expenses. Estimated total expenditures for labor used in tomato production
and marketing were more than $6 million. An additional $3,650,000 was
expended for fertilizer and pesticides, $2,640,000 for containers, wax, glue,
and labels, and almost $5,500,000 for other operating expenses. Additional
income was generated through the interaction of the Dade County tomato
industry with other segments of the economy.
An article reporting preliminary results of the study was published
in the Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society in 1963. A
master's thesis on this subject is nearing completion. (C. N. Smith)
Interrelationships of Food and Population.-The doubling of the cur-
rent world population to a level of more than 6 billion by the end of this
century presents a multitude of problems and a challenge for the people
of the world to produce and distribute sufficient food to feed them. Al-
though the provision of sufficient nourishment has always been a problem
of mankind, the magnitude of the problem has changed immeasurably
during the past several decades. The current rate of natural increase of

Annual Report, 1964 45

the population in the developing nations of the world is far beyond that
ever experienced by the developed nations. Many changes in the farm tech-
nology developed for the temperate lands of the world must be adapted
if rapid agricultural advances are to take place in the tropics, the area
with major population increases.
The human race is running out of arable land, water, energy resources,
and certain vital minerals. The years immediately ahead are crucial if the
exploding races of mankind are to be successful in expanding the food
supply. For example, an increase of more than 35 percent in world food
supplies will be required by 1975 if the world's population is to be sustained
at its present unsatisfactory level of diet. If grain production in the less
developed lands of the world is to be raised 10 percent by 1980 and another
10 percent by the year 2000, it will be necessary for output in developing
lands to triple over the next 36 years. This addition would be equal to the
entire world production of grain today.
Two articles on the finding of this research have been published. One
was a journal series paper presented at the Florida Soil and Crop Science
Society. The second was in the Economic Leaflet series published by the
Bureau of Economic and Business Research in the College of Business
Administration at the University of Florida. (C. N. Smith)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Research done relates to the production of tobacco and vegetables, bulk
handling of citrus pulp, handling of potatoes at packinghouses, problems
in harvesting of sorghum for silage, and to land drainage and other
subjects, with emphasis on determining efficiencies to be gained by the
use of mechanical and physical means in the production and handling
of crops and agricultural materials. The work involved eight regular
projects, all but three being in cooperation with other Station units.

State Project 627 J. M. Myers
One of the pasture programs being studied under this project involves
the use of irrigation as a cultural practice. Irrigation applications were
made with a portable pipe sprinkler irrigation system when the soil
moisture deficit was equivalent to 1 inch of water below field capacity
in the top 18-inch layer of soil. Rainfall for the year was about normal.
Three applications of irrigation water were made in June 1964.
It is concluded from the results of this experiment that irrigation of
flatwoods pastures with a portable pipe sprinkler irrigation system will
contribute little in increased production and is impractical. More frequent
irrigation might produce higher yields, but probably would not improve
the economic feasibility of this method of irrigation on flatwoods pastures.
In this type of situation, high irrigation costs are inevitable with a
portable type sprinkler system because of the frequent water applications
and consequently the frequent pipe moves that are required to maintain
a high level of soil moisture in sandy flatwoods soils during extended
drought periods. Also, high irrigation costs are not usually justified for
relatively low value crops such as a pasture that is used for producing
beef with a cow-calf production system.
A revision of this project will include a pasture program for evaluating
seepage irrigation as a means of applying irrigation water. (See also
Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agronomy, Animal Science, and Soils

State Project 1017 E. K. Bowman and I. J. Ross
Data and information obtained from the experimental handling opera-
tions conducted in prior years were prepared for use in a manuscript.
Drafting of the major part of a report was completed. Experimental
handling operations were not continued in the Hastings area.
In the Homestead area, tuber injury and cost factors were studied
for two bulk handling systems relatively new in commercial application
in that area and the entire state as well. One of these systems employed
hopper-body trucks to haul the potatoes from mechanical harvester to
packinghouse, where the potatoes were unloaded into drive-in bins using
a bin loader. The other was a pallet box system in which the potatoes were

Annual Report, 1964

hauled to the packinghouse in hopper-body trucks and transferred to
pallet boxes. They could be held temporarily in the boxes and dumped
onto the packing line when desired. Red La Soda potatoes were being
handled in each case. Injury data were analyzed statistically.
No significant difference in injury was found between the mechanical
harvester and the single or two-row digger. Mechanical harvesters were
not generally accepted in the Homestead area until the 1964 season.
There was no significant difference in injury between receiving in
hopper-body trucks or in field boxes. The same was true between drive-in
bins or pallet boxes for temporarily holding potatoes. Comparative cost
results have not been completed.

Hatch Project 1034 J. M. Myers and I. J. Ross
Experiments were continued to determine the relationship of various
bulk curing techniques to tobacco quality and curing efficiency. As a
means of reducing the cost of bulk curing, manufacturers of barns have
built them so that the tobacco can be double loaded or cured in two layers
with air passing through the bottom layer first and then into the upper
layer. This results in a differential in the drying rate between the two
layers of tobacco. Experiments conducted this year to measure drying
rates in each of the layers indicate that for an average drying rate of
11.5 percent moisture loss in 48 hours of coloring, the drying rate is
15.5 percent in the bottom layer and 7.4 percent in the top layer. Earlier
experiments have shown that a differential in drying rate of this magni-
tude will cause the quality of tobacco in the two layers to be significantly
The most common criticism of the quality of bulk cured tobacco by
tobacco buyers has been the flat or pressed-out appearance of the leaves
and the presence of excessive amounts of barn scald. Chemical analysis
and physical tests of many tobacco samples indicate that the flat or
pressed-out appearance is not indicative of lower quality. Physical tests
have consistently indicated that bulk cured tobacco has greater filling
value than conventionally cured tobacco. Barn scald is caused by inade-
quate ventilation or excessive heat before the leaf is dry and can be
practically eliminated by using an air flow rate of at least 30 cfm per
square foot of curing area and by using reasonable care in loading
tobacco to a uniform density in the bulk containers.

State Project 1053 I. J. Ross and J. M. Myers
The yield and apparent digestibility of sorghum silage ensiled in the
milk-to-dough stage of maturity was compared with the same crop en-
siled after the grain had become hard. Approximately 23 tons of the
hard-grain silage was prepared for this test. The silage consisted of
approximately 20 percent grain and 80 percent forage by wet weight.
The grain had an average moisture content of 18.1 percent (wet basis),
and average fineness modulus of 4.14 (ASAE Standard, ASAE Yearbook,
1963) and a uniformity index of 3:7:0 (ASAE Standard).
(See also Project 1053, Dairy Science Department.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 1082 I. J. Ross
A vertical screw bin unloader has been tested as a means for unloading
dried citrus pulp from a hopper-bottom storage bin. Under the test condi-
tions, the unloader removed the material in a consistent and dependable
manner. The screw was rotated at speeds from 170 to 760 revolutions
per minute. At these rotational speeds the flow rate from the bin was
105 to 365 pounds per minute with the higher flow rates obtained at the
higher speeds. The power requirements at these speeds was between 0.015
and 0.54 horsepower. The higher power requirements were required at
the higher speeds. Tests are being continued with the unloader in bins
of citrus pulp that has been stored under more adverse atmospheric
A technique for determining the 8 angle, one of the physical constants
used in calculating the forces acting between particles of granular ma-
terials in stacks, has been evaluated, and the constant determined for
dried citrus pulp. Particle size, moisture content, and material pressure
have been found to have a significant effect on the 8 angle at the 1 per-
cent level of significance.
Other phases of this project are in progress. The equilibrium moisture
content of citrus pulp at different relative humidities is being determined.
The mechanics of flow in enclosed tubes is being studied, and the pressures
required to force air through stacks of citrus pulp are being evaluated.
The feasibility of processing citrus pulp into a form in which it acts as
a free-flowing material is being investigated.

State Project 1203 J. F. Beeman
Studies were conducted to determine some of the physical characteris-
tics of sweet corn and celery which would influence the design and de-
velopment of mechanical harvesting devices. Celery height and width,
plant spacing, row spacing, and depth of root crown were determined
for two varieties. The location of ears, angle of attachment, and stalk
configurations were observed for commercial yellow sweet corn.
An experimental celery cutter was developed and partially field tested.
This mechanical cutter is designed to cut the celery stalk from the soil
and elevate it to a height suitable for further handling. The results of
initial field studies indicate that the capacity of this single row machine
is equivalent to that of approximately 20 domestic hand cutters. Estimates
were made of the mechanical damage to the celery stalks at field speeds
ranging from 0.4to 0.8 miles per hour. There appeared to be no significant
difference in the damage between speeds. The damage which did occur
was limited to outside petioles, which would normally be removed before
Observations were made of the present celery harvesting methods.
Information on the capacity and inherent losses of the present system
was obtained in an effort to establish a reference base upon which to
evaluate a new system.
Cinematographic techniques were used to obtain information regarding
hand movements involved in picking cucumbers and mature green tomatoes.
(See also Project 1203, Vegetables Crops Department)

Annual Report, 1964


State Project 1212 J. M. Myers and R. E. Choate
The object of this experiment is to determine design criteria for newly
constructed waterways and embankments covered with erosion-retarding
lining material and to determine hydraulic characteristics of the lining
Tests will involve the determination of the hydraulic characteristics
of several existing temporary lining materials in combination with at
least three representative types of Florida soils, and the effect of these
lining materials on establishment of a permanent vegetable cover.
A laboratory flume has been built, and experimental techniques have
been developed to determine the tractive force that various soil surfaces
will withstand. One cover material has been evaluated on one type of soil.
It has been determined that Leon fine sand from horizon B has a per-
missible tractive force of 0.005 pounds per square foot for bare soil and
0.18 pounds per square foot when the soil surface is lined with a heavy
mesh fabric made of hemp fiber.

Mechanical Harvesting of Tea.-Observations were made on Chinese-
type tea which indicated that the length of leaves and the internode
spacings might provide a basis for selective harvesting. A laboratory
model of a mechanical plucking head was built to study this technique
further. The large variability in the characteristics between plants limited
further consideration of this technique until more uniform plants are
A second possible method of harvest was studied which would make
cutting selectivity a function of the strength of the stem. A model device
performed well for selection, but damage to the remainder of the plant
made the system unacceptable.
Preliminary studies were made to determine the weights of leaves
and of correctly plucked two leaves and bud in an effort to determine
the feasibility of centrifugal separation. (J. F. Beeman)
Drying Lychee Fruit.-The drying rates for lychee fruit as affected
by air temperature and air velocity have been determined. Increasing the
air temperature and the flow rate of the air passing through the fruit
increases the rate of drying. The effects of these two factors, the effect
of multiple layer drying, and blanching prior to drying on the quality of
the dried fruit are being evaluated. (I. J. Ross)
Handling and Packing Celery.-A replicated experiment was conducted
to determine the degree of mechanical injury caused by handling celery
in bulk from field to central packing facility. In the tests, celery stalks
were cut in the field, dropped into pallet boxes (volume 40 cu. ft.),
transported two miles and evaluated for mechanical injuries.
The effect of stalk arrangement in the bulk container and the degree
of petiole stripping completed in the field prior to placing stalks into
the bulk container were evaluated. Random and oriented stalk arrange-
ments were compared, and no stripping, partial stripping, and complete
stripping were used as levels of the striping treatment. Injury was classi-
fied as (1) major, severe injury sufficient to cause the stalk to be un-

50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

acceptable for shipping as scored by Federal-State inspectors; (2) minor,
relatively minor injury, may or may not be sufficient to be scored as
unacceptable by inspectors; and (3) bruising, very minor injury, without
breakage or contusions and not scorable by inspectors. Significantly less
scorable injury was received by stalks handled with no field stripping
than was received by stalks that were handled after being partially or
completely stripped. Bulk handling with stalks oriented in the container
was significantly better than randomly arranged stalks insofar as scorable
damage was concerned. Results of the experiment indicate that bulk
handling of celery between field and central packing facility can be ac-
complished with less than 1 percent of the stalks receiving injury that is
severe enough to affect grade. (J. M. Myers and W. G. Grizzell)

Annual Report, 1964


Notable advances are reported under 29 research projects with field
crops, forage crops, and pastures. Most of the projects are in cooperation
with other departments and branch stations.
Research is divided between physiological and biochemical problems
of crop production; chemical weed control; and genetics and breeding of
important crops. In addition many new foreign plant introductions were
grown for observation and testing.
Dr. W. A. Carver retired after 381/2 years of service. He developed
three superior varieties of peanuts which are widely grown in this and
neighboring states. He also left a wealth of valuable selections which
are being continued.

Hatch Project 20 W. A. Carver and A. J. Norden
Crosses were made in the greenhouse in 1963 for the purpose of obtain-
ing bunch and runner plant types with desirable size and shape of pods
and seeds, low percent of pod breakage in handling, good flavor, and free-
dom from seed decay.
Yields of sound and mature seed, expressed in percent of common runner,
in Florida Station tests during the period 1961 through 1963 are as follows:
Dixie Runner 94, Early Runner 164, Florigiant 179, Bradford Runner 124,
NC2 142, and F416 169. F416 is derived from a cross between Dixie Runner
and F385. The plants of F416 resemble those of Dixie Runner. The pods
are uniform, resist breakage, and approximate the size of Va. Bunch 67.
Processed samples of F416 from the 1963 crop rated high in seed flavor
and other qualities. Large scale shelling and processing tests of F416 are
planned from the 1964 crop.
High pod breakage and a large amount of loose shelled kernels (LSK)
can result in significant losses to producers and processors of peanuts.
A mechanical breakage study was made on 10 varieties of peanuts cured in
stacks and picked on a carding type Lilliston picker in 1962 and 1963.
Three :)-quart samples of pods from each variety were examined per year
for a total of more than 4000 pods per variety. Pod breakage was recorded
in percent of total pods examined, and the quantity of LSK was expressed
in grams per pound. A range of 7.3 percent broken pods and 8.8 grams
per pound of LSK was obtained between varieties. F416 had the lowest
percentage of broken pods (2.3) and fewest LSK (1.2 grams/lb). NC2
had the highest percentage of broken pods (9.6), and Va. Bunch G26 the
highest amount of LSK (10 grams/lb). F393, a jumbo runner line, ranked
second to F416 in resistance to pod breakage. Florigiant showed better
than average resistance to pod breakage when compared with standard
Virginia types.
(See also Hatch Project 20, North Florida Station, Marianna Unit.)

Hatch Project 295 G. B. Killinger
For the fourth consecutive season Tifhi-1 bahia (a Pensacola hybrid)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

produced more oven-dry forage than Pensacola bahiagrass, with all of the
increase recorded during April and May.
A Florida strain of white clover yielded more dry matter than 13
other white clover varieties tested. Several sources of Ladino, Louisiana
S-1, and Nolins improved white ranked next in yield. All white clover
plots treated with 40 pounds per acre of FTE 501 in the fall of 1961 yield-
ed 29.8 percent more dry matter than those not treated. This was con-
sidered to be a residual response from the minor elements applied to the
proceeding seasons crop.
Tensas, Chesapeake, Nolins', and Penscott were the outstanding red
clover varieties. All yielded more than the white clovers but produced for
fewer months of the season.
Nine ryegrass varieties grown in a variety test produced yield in-
creases of from 17 to 67 percent from a 15-pound per acre treatment of
FTE 503. Average yield for all varieties and treatments was 5400 pounds
of oven-dry forage per acre.
Alfalfa plots treated with phosphate, potash, and boron yielded only
half as much dry forage as plots treated the same but with 15 pounds per
acre of FTE 503 added.

Hatch Project 372 Fred Clark
Over 100 tobacco selections and varieties were tested during 1963 at
Quincy, Gainesville, Branford, and Live Oak, Florida.
The regional variety group (49) was included in this number. In re-
viewing the regional variety data, there is evidence that many of the lines
are susceptible to blackshank under Florida conditions. The search for a
variety or varieties having good disease resistance and desirable agronomic
characteristics was accelerated during the 1963 growing season. Resistance
to several diseases, such as blackshank, rootknot, and brown spot, is the
major goal. Until suitable lines are deveolped, growers are urged to ro-
tate their tobacco to land that has been cropped or to plant grain for sods
for three to four years. Fumigation plus rotation appears to offer the best
combination for continuing growing old line varieties.
Farms where the disease has occurred should combine the best com-
mercial resistant variety with rotation and fumigation for best results.
(See also Project 372, North Florida Station.)

Hatch Project 374 E. S. Horner
Tests were continued to evaluate new inbred lines for use in commercial
hybrids and to compare different corn breeding methods.
Release of a new hybrid, to be called Florida 200A, has been approved
by a Station release committee. This hybrid supersedes Florida 200, which
was released in 1957. The main improvements made in the new hybrid are
better standability (less stalk breakage) and shorter plants. It is a product
of the fifth cycle of recurrent selection for combining ability with F44 x F6,
which is the seed parent. The pollinator is a synthetic variety made up by
intercrossing six selected lines.
Several other new inbred lines had excellent performance records in
hybrid combinations. These lines are being further evaluated for combining

Annual Report, 1964 53

ability with the two parents of Florida 200A, and are being used in a
modified reciprocal recurrent selection program designed to make addi-
tional improvements in this hybrid.
An experiment was designed to determine the value of a generation of
sib pollination following intercrossing of selected lines in recurrent selec-
tion experiments. Such a procedure would result in more genetic re-
combination than the usual method of initiating a new cycle of selection
immediately following the intercrossing. It was found that the extra
generation of sibbing increased the estimate of genetic variance from
0.14 to 0.25 when S, lines were crossed, and from 0.00 to 0.22 when S2
lines were crossed. The results are in agreement with expectation, and
indicate that an extra generation of sib pollination in each cycle may be
worthwhile. The test is being repeated in 1964.
(See also Project 374, North Florida, Suwannee Valley, and West
Florida stations.)


State Project 444 Fred Clark
The production of healthy tobacco seedlings is very important for
the success of a tobacco crop. Not only is the production important,
but the efficiency of production is also important. Therefore, a constant
search is being carried on to find ways to produce healthy plants as easily
and cheaply as possible.
During the 1963-64 growing season, two fumigant mixtures were com-
pared with methyl bromide: (1) a mixture containing 30 percent ethylene
dibromide and 70 percent methyl bromide; (2) a mixture of 10 percent
ethylene dibromide and 90 percent methyl bromide. All these performed
satistfactorily for the control of weeds. There was a slight plant reduction
from the two mixtures when compared with methyl bromide.
Translucent perforated plastic film when compared to solid film and
cheesecloth looked exceptionally good again this year. The plants grown
under perforated plastic film were as early as those grown under solid
film, and no management of the covers is needed. There was over a
month's difference in time in the production of seedlings grown under
plastic as compared to cheesecloth during this plant growing season.

Hatch Project 488 H. C. Harris
Applications of calcium carbonate and boric acid in another experiment
with Florigiant peanuts on Lakeland fine sand under controlled conditions
in the greenhouse again had a marked effect on the yield and nature
of peanuts. Plants without an application of boron showed pronounced
deficiency symptoms (previously described) in two months. Previous ex-
perience indicates that these plants will not produce peanuts, if boron
is not applied. A calculated 0.2 pound boric acid per acre dissolved in
water and poured around the plants caused the deficient plants to begin
growing in less than a week, and the new growth did not exhibit visual
boron deficient symptoms until about 10 days before harvest. This made
the middle part of the plants appear free of symptoms, while both extremes
appeared affected. A calculated 2.2 pounds of boric acid per acre completely
eliminated the hollow-heart defect, but calcium carbonate in the treatment
appeared to have no visual effect on the abnormality. The peanuts with
the 0.2 pound late application of boric acid produced some seed, many of

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

which had the hollow-heart defect, but some of them appeared normal.
When both calcium carbonate and boron were left out of the treatment,
the percentage of hollow-heart defect was less than where boron alone was
not applied.
Flower counts were made. Few flowers were formed before applying
boron; but after the application, flowering rapidly increased. The elimina-
tion of calcium carbonate from the treatment appeared to have little
effect on flowering.

Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark
The fertilizer analyses test was continued during 1963. Ratios of
5-10-10, 4-8-12, 3-12-9, and 3-9-9 were used. An 8-0-24 topdresser was used
to supply additional nitrogen and potash.
Yields were not high because of late cold and extended drought which
enhanced early flowering of plants. Ratios appear important only insofar
as to sources of material from which they are made. Pounds of essential
plant food, in balance, appears to be the most essential combination for
maximum yields and leaf quality.
Combined with proper fertilization, control of nematodes is needed for
best results. Consequently, new materials are being tested for their effec-
tiveness against nematodes; however, of the many tested during the 1963
crop season, none proved superior to D-D or ethylene dibromide.
The regional sucker control test was conducted with limited success.
Many of the new materials were very toxic to the tobacco leaf. This phase
of agronomic research on tobacco is being accelerated.
Seeds of several tobacco varieties were grown under plastic and cheese-
cloth, and the seedlings were transplanted at two different dates during
1963. Plastic grown seedlings produced the highest yields; however, the
yields were not as significant following the April 5 transplant date.

State Project 627 G. B. Killinger
Periods of frost starting in October 1962 and extending into April 1963
coupled with extreme drought from mid March to mid May limited clover
growth, which resulted in lowered grass yields for the season due to a
shortage of nitrogen.
The pasture fertilization by programs and total oven-dry forage yields
are shown in the following table:

Lbs. 0-10-20 Lbs. Nitrogen Lbs. of Forage
Program per acre per acre per acre

1 450 120 8247
2 300 0 4907
3 500 0 6398
4 700 0 6505
5 900 0 6128

Annual Report, 1964

For the sixth consecutive year the yield of dry forage harvested from
program 2 was markedly less than that harvested from programs 3, 4,
and 5.
Liveover white clover on programs 2 through 5 has been good this
season and should favorably influence 1963-64 clover development.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineer-
ing, Animal Science, and Soils departments.)


Hatch Project 760 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder, O. C. Ruelke,
S. H. West and K. D. Butson 2

A study was made of the relationship of winter temperatures to the
amount of winter injury to pasture grasses, especially pangolagrass. The
severest injury occurred during winters when frequent freezes (32 F or
colder) were followed by warm periods with minimum daily temperatures
above 50 F. Winter injury was less severe when freezes were less frequent
and were followed by a cool period when minimum daily temperature was
not above 50 F.
The removal of the bottom five leaves from Florida 200 corn at the
early tassel stage reduced the yield of grain per plant 10 percent at a
population of 9,000 plants per acre and 5 percent at a population of 18,000
plants per acre. The lower five leaves contributed 3 times more to in-
dividual plant yield of ear corn at 9,000 population (.06 lb.) than at the
18,000 population (.02 lb.). In other studies on semiprolific hybrid corn
it was found that a "critical period" exists near or during the silking stage,
when a good light environment is essential for the maximum numbers of
ears per plant to develop.
The effect of the growth regulators, 2,4-D, gibberellic acid, Cycocel,
Verdan, and succinic acid, applied as foliar sprays or seed treatments
on the growth of Coker 67 corn was studied under field conditions. Small
increases in grain yield were obtained from several of the treatments, which
are being investigated further.
The yield of F57-734 soybeans was reduced 27 percent by shading at
50 percent of daylight intensity over a two-month period beginning when
approximately 50 percent of plants had begun to flower. Shading reduced
the number of seed pods developing per plant, increased the height of main
stems, and increased the seed weight.


State Project 761 Kuell Hinson 3
Breeding for high protein is complicated by negative correlations be-
tween percent protein and yield. Some negative correlations have been
interpreted as genetic associations; however, it is also recognized that
environmental differences that influence yield may also influence percent
protein. The influence of environmental yield differences on percent pro-
tein and percent oil was measured in 72 plots of Jackson and 72 plots of
Hardee grown within a 2.5 field area at Gainesville in 1962. The area was
Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
2Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.
Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

characterized by above-average soil variability. Yields of Jackson plots
ranged from 18 to 41 bushels per acre, and yields of Hardee plots ranged
from 26 to 51 bushels per acre. The following correlations were obtained
between yield and percent protein and percent oil.

% protein % oil
Jackson .80 + .28
Hardee .44 + .29

All four correlation coefficients are statistically significant. The four
lowest yielding plots of Jackson had an average percent protein of 41.9
compared with 38.4 for the nine highest yielding plots. Differences of this
magnitude are important in selecting for high protein genotypes. It is not
clear if the two varieties are inherently different in their response to en-
vironment or if the difference in maturity caused them to respond differently.
However, the need for some consideration of relative yield levels is clearly
indicated in selecting for high protein genotypes.

Hatch Project 766 V. N. Schroder and H. C. Harris
Organic acid levels in several plant species have shown considerable
variation due to changes in the supply of major elements as well as minor
elements and other factors. Sunflower has been included as a test plant
because it is responsive to these changes and because separate chromato-
graphic analyses can be made of leaf and petiole tissue. In general, citrate
is present in leaves and petioles except under unusual circumstances, and
the variation in quantity is not large. Malate shows a great deal of varia-
tion and is usually found in both leaves and petioles, although at times is
found in only one of these places. This suggests that there may be con-
siderable movement of malate through the petiole, or that conversion in
the leaf is rapid. Leaves with no apparent visual differences from soil-
grown plants given a complete fertilizer or given a fertilizer without
potassium show differences, especially in malate, succinate, and fumarate.
Leaves from plants without additional potassium are much higher in
malate and lower in succinate and fumarate. Plants without additional
sulfur and plants without additional magnesium are usually low in citrate
and malate and relatively high in fumarate.

Hatch Project 780 Fred Clark
An acre of tobacco was grown, in cooperation with the Entomology
Department, for the purpose of testing seven insecticide materials for
the control of tobacco pests. Ethyl Methyl Guthion and TDE treated
tobacco produced the best yields, with an acre value of more than $150
over the untreated check.
Hatch 780 is closed with this report.
(See also Project 780, Entomology Department.)

Annual Report, 1964 57

Hatch Project 783 P. L. Pfahler
Oats.-The extent of genetic diversity for environmental variability in
the Avena genus indicates that hybridization and selection may be effective
not only in increasing but stabilizing grain and forage production. Results
also suggest that grain production of a genotype is not completely con-
trolled by crown rust resistance but is conditioned by a complex inter-
action of genetic and environmental variables.
The hybridization and selection program is being continued. Several
promising lines are being purified and tested.
Rye.-An interspecific hybridization program involving two wild rye
species, Secale montanumi and S. rarilocii, which are classified as perennial
in their native habitat, and three adapted varieties of cultivated rye, S.
cereale, was successful, with moderate quantities of seed produced in all
combinations attempted. Under Florida conditions, the perennial habit of
S. vavilovii was not retained; however, 2 percent of the individuals from
S. montantum have completed two cycles of reproduction and may be peren-
nial under these environmental conditions. No dormancy period was present
in most individuals of both species, and death occurred after a brief
period of vegetative growth immediately following the first cycle of repro-
duction. Very little male sterility as measured by unfilled pollen grains
was observed in the F, hybrids, and relatively large quantities of F. seed
were produced. The F, plants did not require increased daylength for the
initiation of reproduction as did the two parental wild species.
Seed treatment of rye with fungicides, insecticides, and their combina-
tion did not stimulate seed production or vegetative growth.
(See also Project 783, Plant Pathology Department and North Florida

Hatch Project 850 W. A. Carver and S. C. Schank
Penitsetnu glancom. X P. spicatim crosses and later hybridizations
from these parents were given a final evaluation and selection during
1963. Mature plant weights were taken from the most promising inbred
lines and F, intercrosses between them. An increase or 35 percent gain was
found in one selection.
During August of 1963, over 67 interspecific crosses were attempted,
using various Digitaria species as parents. Because seed set was so low,
breeding techniques and laboratory and greenhouse procedures were de-
veloped to handle the caryopses of the purported crosses. Progeny from 13
of these crosses verified that the hybridization techniques were successful.
Parents and Fl progeny of these crosses were also grown in the field.
Detailed cytogenetic studies on six Diyitaria species and their progenies
by N. V. Tan, graduate student in agronomy, has aided our understanding
of sterility in this genus.
This project is being closed out, but promising breeding materials will
be carried over to a new project on grass breeding.

State Project 909 Kuell Hinson'
Soybean varieties grown in other parts of southeastern United States
have not performed satisfactorily in northcentral Florida. Tests of var-
Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ieties and breeding lines were continued to identify better adapted types.
Two promising breeding lines were identified and have now become named
The Hardee variety was released for seed production in 1962. It has
continued to perform better than older varieties. Planting seed was avail-
able for planting about 1000 acres in Florida in 1964, and seed should be
in plentiful supply in 1965.
Breeding line F58-3786 was named Bragg in 1963. The average yield
of Bragg was 20 percent more than the yield of Jackson for the years
1959-63 at Gainesville and Live Oak. Seed of Bragg should be adequate to
meet moderate demands for planting seed in 1965.
Both Bragg and Hardee are resistant to shattering, which was a major
weakness of older varieties. They appear to be well enough adapted to
permit an expansion of soybean production in northcentral Florida. Bragg
is 7 to 10 days earlier in maturity than Hardee and is better adapted to
the northern two or three tiers of counties. Hardee is adapted over the
entire area but is relatively better on the lighter soil types of the northern
tiers of counties and in areas further south.
(See also Project 909, Central Florida, North Florida, and Suwannee
Valley stations.)

Hatch Project 950 H. C. Harris
Last year in greenhouse experiments F6A and L578 corn responded
markedly to an application of copper on Leon fine sand but not on Lake-
land fine sand. A boron application had no noticeable effect on the
growth of either crop on either soil. The same experiment with Dixie 18
corn on Lakeland fine sand was repeated this year with the same results
as last year. In nutrient solution studies with both F6A and L578 corn,
boron greatly increased yields. The L578 variety responded more to boron
than the F6A. The information in general indicates the boron requirement
for corn is low.
In cooperation with Dr. S. H. West (ARS, USDA) studies concerning
RNA metabolism and differences in seed of various colors have been made.
Older alfalfa seed have a larger percentage of dark colored seed. Water
extracts of the dark seed have more proteins, nucleotides, amino acids, and
related substances, suggesting that an alteration takes place within older
seed. Histological work, which is in progress, indicates that changes do
occur. These results suggested that other changes in seed might be shown
by this type of study, and calcium- and boron-deficient Florigiant peanut
seed were investigated. Boron deficiency of peanuts results in hollow-heart
defect between the cotyledons of a seed. If the deficiency is severe, the tips
of the plumules are small and seem to slough off as shown in Figure 1A.
On the other hand, calcium deficiency seems to be deep-seated in the
vascular system as shown in Figure lB.

State Project 971 A. J. Norden
This project was initiated in 1959 to study the deterioration of bahia-
grass plantings and the effect of sod of various ages on the yield and qual-

Annual Report, 1964



'i .


Figure 1.-Photomicrographs (50X) of stained longitudinal sections
through the plumules and hypocotyls of Florigiant peanut
seed; A (left) boron deficient, and B (right) calcium deficient.

ity of crops that follow. Each year since 1960, previously designated plots
are seeded to bahiagrass and the remaining plots planted to corn during the
even-numbered years and to peanuts during the odd-numbered years.
Bahiagrass yields were taken in 1963 during the months of June, July,
August, and September. Two-year-old stands of bahiagrass produced
higher yields of dry forage, 6707 pounds per acre from four cuttings, than
did one-year and three-year-old stands, which produced 5986 and 5386
pounds per acre respectively. The percent nitrogen in the grass decreased
rapidly after the July harvest.

60 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Duplicate soil samples are taken yearly from each plot and analyzed
for plant nutrients. The available calcium, magnesium, and potash de-
clined from a high level in the first-year sod plots to a moderate level in
the three-year-old sod plots. The level of phosphorous declined slightly.
The plant parasitic species of nematodes within each sample were iden-
tified and counted by Nematologist Dr. V. G. Perry. Eight species of plant
nematodes were identified in the experimental area; however, only sting,
lance, ring, and stubby root nematodes were found in sufficient numbers
to be considered significant factors. Although sting nematodes reportedly
infect peanuts, the varieties Early Runner and Florigiant used in this
experiment were not affected, and populations of sting nematodes decreased.
This indicates that either these peanut varieties are resistant to the sting
nematode or physiologic variations exist within the nematode species.
Populations of stubby root nematodes increased on plots seeded to corn
but were low on peanuts.


Regional Research Project 998 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder,
(Regional S-47) O. C. Ruelke, S. H. West'
and K. D. Butson"

Severe winterkill of pangolagrass occurred during the winter of 1963-64
where more than 50 pounds per acre of nitrogen was applied on September
9, 1963, to stimulate growth of the hay crop harvested on November 4, 1963.
Fertilization with 60 pounds per acre of potash on November 12 following
the hay harvest did not effectively reduce the average percentage of winter
killed plants where more than 50 pounds per acre of nitrogen was used.
The total available carbohydrate (TAC) content was increased in roots
and crowns, but was unchanged in stems of the pangolagrass by the
addition of potash.
Various rates and kinds of growth regulating substances were applied
to a number of forage crops including alfalfa, blue lupine, pangolagrass,
Pensacola bahiagrass, Coastal bermudagrass, pearlmillet, and napiergrass.
Maleic hydrazide at rates up to 18 pounds per acre applied prior to the
last hay harvest did not maintain the winter dormancy or minimize winter-
injury of pangolagrass. Changes in plant morphology and chemical com-
position were found in response to various growth regulating substances.
These changes are being studied further to see if they will improve the
persistence and quality of forage crops. Uracil, thiouracil, and guanine
enhanced the ability of blue lupine and pangolagrass to withstand freezing
temperatures. Potassium gibberellic acid simulated the fall growth of
alfalfa (see Figure 2).
An alfalfa selection being developed under Project 1154 was the most
productive and among the most persistent of 16 alfalfa strains studied.
The hay yield of the alfalafa selection in the second harvest season was
twice as great as in the first harvest season. The prospects appear good
that it will be possible to maintain alfalfa stands for two or more harvest
seasons with better adapted varieties and improved management practices.
SCooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
1 Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.

Annual Report, 1964

/I 3 / rr
KGa y

Figure 2.-Hairy Peruvian alfalfa on November 27, 1963, showing effect
of 100 ppm potassium gibberellate spray applied November 18,
1963, (right) compared with untreated plants (left).


Hatch Project 1034 Fred Clark

Most of the data collected under this project during the 1963 tobacco
season was primarily directed to the engineering phase of the project.
Agronomy was responsible for the production of the leaf used during
the curing tests. Consequently, most of the information will be presented
by Agricultural Engineering.
(See also Project 1034, Agricultural Engineering.)


Hatch Project 1036 A. T. Wallace

Research was continued on the objectives, i.e., developing treatments
that will produce the highest mutation rates at the Vb locus in oats and
investigating the nature of the induced mutations. In an experiment testing
the interaction of diethyl sulfate and gamma rays, the maximum mutation
rate obtained was 52 X10-/M2 seed. This rate was 8 times that obtained
by gamma rays alone and 4 times that obtained by diethyl sulfate alone.
A hypothesis has been suggested to explain this highly synergistic effect.
These treatments are being tested at the DDT locus in barley to determine
if the synergistic action can be repeated at another locus. In addition to
the ability to induce high mutation rates in plants, plant breeders are
interested in the genetic nature of the induced mutations. To obtain in-
formation on this aspect of mutation breeding, a number of mutants are

62 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

being examined phenotypically, cytologically, and genetically. The accumu-
lated data from a phenotypic classification of progeny from 66 different
mutants indicate that the individual mutants carry changes at a number
of loci other than the Vb locus. The variation probably represents changes
produced -simultaneously but independently of the mutations at the Vb
locus. A testing of 80 mutants for their reaction to crown rust indicates
that in all cases, including the two partial resistant mutants to H. vic-
toriae, a portion of the crown rust resistance of the parent was lost. The
meaning of these results for plant breeding purposes is not yet understood.

State Project 1053 A. J. Norden
The third cycle of a rotation system comparing yields from consecutive
plantings on the same land of spring corn, summer sorghum, and fall oats
with yields obtained from the conventional procedure of spring corn and
fall oats was completed. An average of 23 percent more dry matter was
obtained per year from the three-crops-per-year rotation compared to
the two-crops-per-year system.
Dry matter yields of corn, sorghum, and oats averaged 9,816, 7,529,
and 1,149 pounds per acre, respectively, from the third cycle of the three-
crops-per-year rotation plots compared to 11,047 and 1,782 pounds of corn
and oats, respectively, from the two-crops-per-year plots. The corn yields
from the two rotation systems were not significantly different. However,
the reduced oat yields from plots which had produced a summer crop of
sorghum were significant, a fact which was not evident in the first two
cycles of the rotation.
The three-crops-per-year rotation plots received an average of 290, 140,
200, 533, 352, and 32 pounds per acre of N, P20,, K2O, CaO, MgO, and
fritted trace elements, respectively, compared with 160, 92, 136, 533, 352,
and 20 pounds per acre for the two-crops-per-year rotation plots. The level
of available CaO and MgO were somewhat lower in the three-crops-per-
year plots than in the two-crops-per-year plots, which may have been
responsible, to some degree, for the reduced yields on these plots during
the past year. The pH level was similar (6.0) in plots of both rotations,
and only small differences existed in levels of available P2sO and K0O.
(See also Project 1053, Dairy Science and Agricultural Engineering

Hatch Project 1087 M. Wilcox and E. G. Rodgers
New or unproved herbicides were applied in duplicate to corn, soybeans,
peanuts, and alfalfa. The more promising herbicides were included in
advanced yield trials of from four to six replications. Studies of the
metabolism of herbicides continue.
Peanuts.-2,4-DEP plus PCP at 2 plus 8 pounds per acre and sesone
plus DNBP at 2 plus 3 pounds per acre gave commercial weed control and
as high yields as a hand-cultivated check. 2,4-DEP plus DNBP at 3 plus

Annual Report, 1964

1% pounds per acre performed similarly, as previously reported. R-1607
and Prometryne at 4 and 21/ pounds per acre respectively gave yields
which were non-significantly less than the hand-cultivated check (3 and
6 percent respectively).
Field Corn.-Fenac and dacthal at 1 plus 6 pounds per acre gave good
commercial weed control and non-significantly higher yields than the culti-
vated check. Atrazine, simazine, and combinations of 2,4-D and dacthal
performed well, as previously reported.

Soybeans.-Ametryne at 1 pound per acre and TD-66 plus dacthal at
2 plus 5 pounds per acre continue to be the best treatments, giving com-
mercial weed control without harming the soybean crop.
Alfalfa.-The most promising post-emergence treatments are H-8043
at 1 pound per acre, and 2,4-DB plus dalapon at 3/4 plus 1 pound per acre.
2,4-DB and dacthal in combination are effective both pre-emergence and
Metabolism.-A gas chromatographic procedure has been developed
which separates the herbicide dicamba from its suspected hydroxy metabo-
lite. The two acetic homologs, which probably have the same relationship,
are also separated. The procedure involves the acetyl methyl esters, pre-
pared by treatment with acetic anhydride followed by diazomethane.
(See Project 1087, Central Florida, Everglades, North Florida, and
West Florida stations, and Marianna Unit, North Florida station.)

State Project 1100 P. L. Pfahler
Corn.-Interplant competition and its relationship to homeostasis was
investigated. Various genotypes represented biological competition with
number of plants per hill used as physical competition in a complete fac-
torial design. The height of the mature plant was more affected by bio-
logical competition than physical competition, with level of heterozygosity
appearing to be the prime contributing factor. Number of seed and weight
of seed per plant decreased with increasing levels of physical competition.
A greater degree of homeostasis or reduction in environmental variability
was achieved at low levels of physical competition and competition with
the same genotype.
Seed exposure to 8000 r units of gamma irradiation produced in the
resulting plants: (1) no reduction in female sterility as measured by the
number of seed per plant; (2) a significant decrease in the weight of seed
per plant; and (3) a small but significant reduction in male sterility as
measured by the percentage of unfilled pollen grains. The pollen obtained
from plants grown from gamma-irradiated seed appears to possess greater
ability to fertilize even when very low dosages are involved.

Small Grains.-Under space-planted conditions, inter-varietal hybrids
of cultivated rye (Secale cereale) produced significantly more forage and
grain in comparison to the parental intra-varietal hybrids. In solid-seeded
stands, no significant difference between inter-varietal hybrids and parental
intra-varietal hybrids in forage or grain production was obtained. How-
ever, inter-varietal hybrids may be potentially important, since reduced
environmental variability was observed.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Regional Research Project 1131 E. G. Rodgers and M. Wilcox
The leaching of propazine and two wettable powder formulations con-
taining 50 and 80 percent active ingredients of prometryne applied at 2 or 4
pounds per acre was studied in columns 6 inches in diameter and 23 inches
in depth of Lakeland fine sandy soil as influenced by different amounts
and frequencies of simulated rainfall. Propazine moved downward in con-
centrations lethal to cucumber seedlings to a depth of at least 18 inches;
increased amounts and frequencies of simulated rainfall and the higher
rate of application contributed to more intensive leaching. This compound
was considerably less toxic to oats than to cucumbers in the seedling stage.
Prometryne was lethal to these seedlings only in soil from the top inch;
oats often survived in soil from this top horizon. This herbicide did not
move below the top inch of soil in concentrations adequate to cause serious
stunting sufficiently to determine any leaching pattern. No real difference
was apparent in the leaching behavior of the two formulations of prome-
These results suggest that prometryne probably would be safer than
propazine to use as a pre-emergence herbicide in areas where heavy
rainfall may occur between planting the crop seed and emergence of the
seedlings. Greater leaching of the latter material may cause it to come
into contact with the germinating crop seedlings and cause injury.

Hatch Project 1134 J. R. Edwardson
It has been found that genes suppressing variegation in tobacco do
not exert their effect through pollen-tube competition. The study of inheri-
tance of leaf variegation in petunia is continuing, and a study of the
inheritance of leaf variegation in corn has been started. An examination
of asexual transmission of sterility factors in petunia is continuing, using
polyploid sterile stocks and diploid fertile scions. The possibility that
cytoplasmic sterility factors may be transmitted by pollen is being in-
vestigated in petunia and corn. Inheritance studies are in progress on the
restoration of fertility to cytoplasmic male sterile petunias. Studies are
continuing on inactivation of sterility factors in corn by gamma irradiation.
A difference in response to radiation damage by corn lines containing
cytoplasmic sterility factors in comparison to the response of normal corn
lines is being studied. A cytological search for sterility factors in corn and
petunia is continuing.

Hatch Project 1135 J. R. Edwardson
Field tests of the effectiveness of Thimet in controlling vectors of
Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus in sweet yellow lupine are continuing. Inheritance
studies of resistance to Phomopsis and to Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus in
yellow lupine are continuing. An examination of the effectiveness of herbi-
cides in eliminating virus infected seedlings from plantings of yellow lupine
has been initiated. Attempts to increase the degree of resistance to Stem-
phylium fungi by selection in progeny of hybrids of blue lupine are con-

Annual Report, 1964

Project 1154 E. S. Horner
Selection for improved summer persistence and productivity in white
clover and alfalfa was continued.
White Clover.-Evaluation of an experimental variety developed by
intercrossing 12 selected clones was continued. Excellent summer persis-
tence and good fall growth were again obtained with this variety in 1963.
The only apparent deficiency in it is a lack of sufficient bloom to provide
for reseeding in case the stand is lost due to drought. Individual plants
which had produced seed during the summer were harvested, and a
spaced-plant nursery was established from this seed in the fall of 1963.
Selection for summer persistence, forage productivity, and seed produc-
tion capacity will be done in the fall of 1964. About 45 percent of the
plants were blooming to some extent on May 1, 1964, which indicates
that progress was made by selection for capacity to bloom under Gaines-
ville day-length conditions.
Two introductions from Israel, PI 214207 and PI 214208, were the most
promising of 38 that were tested. They are being evaluated on a larger
scale in 1964.

Alfalfa.-Evaluation of 136 introductions and 130 polycross progenies
is being continued at Gainesville another year because, with the exception
of some introductions, survival in the summer of 1963 was quite good.
Several introductions from India show promise in regard to persistence
and vigor. At the Beef Research Unit, on the other hand, there was very
little survival because of flooding during the summer. Seed was harvested
from about 100 surviving plants in the spring of 1964. This will be used
to establish another planting on flatwoods land in the hope that adaptation
to poor drainage can be improved.
A strain developed by five generations of selection for vigor and
persistence again performed well in plots. Completion of the sixth genera-
tion of selection was delayed because of unusually good survival in 1963.

Hatch Project 1166 G. B. Killinger
(RRF Contributing to Regional Project S-9)
Hibiscus cannabinus Linn. (kenaf) shows promise of producing suffi-
cient dry-matter on flatwoods soils (Leon fine sand) to make it an econ-
omic pulp crop.
Plant introductions of kenaf (23 P.I.'s) did not exhibit any yield
superiority over Everglades 41, an Everglades Experiment Station variety.
Crotalaria juncea Texas 374 and PI 248491 did not produce enough
dry-weight plant material to be considered as a pulp crop.
Sunflower (Helianthus annus) introductions (40 P.I.s) and varieties
hold some promise as a seed crop for bird feed or industrial uses. Dwarf
types as introductions and Minnesota varieties Arrowhead and Mennonite
may facilitate harvesting of the seed crop by combine.
Erucastrum abyssinica, PI 243913, an introduction from Ethiopa, a
rape or mustard-like crop, produced over 1500 pounds of seed per acre and
survived adverse winter weather conditions which destroyed many other
so-called winter growing crops. Erucastrum seed contain 33 percent oil
and may have a place on the industrial market.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) varieties and introductions were
destroyed by diseases, Stemphylium and others, in late spring.

State Project 1167 G. B. Killinger, E. S. Horner,
G. M. Prine, S. C. Schank
and A. J. Norden
Paspalum nicorae introductions PI 202044, 276248, 276249, and 284171
have made satisfactory growth and may be acceptable pasture species.
Siatro (Phaseolus atropurpureus) produced an abundance of forage
during the first season with limited seed set and perenniated.
"Abon," a new giant type of Persian clover, for one season only has
yielded as much dry forage as red clover and twice as much as commercial
Persian clover.
Ten accessions of perennial wild peanuts are being evaluated for forage
possibilities. Arachis glabrata, PI 118457, over a 2-year period yielded
4,860 and 5,600 pounds per acre of hay respectively, with a crude protein
content of 10.7 to 16.2 percent.
Alfalfa introductions from India, PI 196221-22, 196228, and 196231-35,
are being used in a breeding program to acquire a broad gene base
population. White clover PI 214207 and 214208 from Israel have shown
good persistence, have bloomed well, and are being incorporated in a
breeding program.
Silage sorghum tests at Gainesville from 1960 through 1963 showed
the highest dry-forage yields (61/ tons per acre) from the tall, late
maturing sweet sorgo types, with only 5 percent grain in the forage,
while several sorghum hybrids averaged 5 to 6 tons of dry-forage per
acre with 18 to 34 percent grain. Sorghum X sudangrass hybrids produced
41/2 tons per acre of dry-forage containing 31 percent grain.
Rescuegras (Bromus catharticus) selections were made within a
superior introduction to improve the perennial growth habit of this species.
New Digitaria species (211) from the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
collected in Africa, have been established from vegetative material. Half
the Digitaria species grown at Gainesville failed to survive the 1962-63
winters. Digitaria pentzii introduced from Taiwan as PI Nos. 279651-52 in
March 1962 winterkilled at one location but has survived more severe cold
at the Beef Research Unit. Approximately 250 other grasses, Andropogons,
Bothriochloas, and Dicanthiums, are under test.

Corn Culture in Grass Sod Controlled by Herbicides.-An investigation
was initiated to study the feasibility of growing corn in pasture grass
sods with minimum tillage by controlling growth of grasses with herbi-
cides. The only tillage was the opening of a narrow furrow in which to
seed corn kernels. Coker 71 corn was seeded at 14,000 plants per acre
in 38-inch rows on March 19, 1963, in pangolagrass and Pensacola bahia-
grass sods. The herbicide treatments were as follows: (1) untreated; (2)
4 pounds per acre of atrazine applied February 27; (3) 4 pounds per acre
of atrazine applied March 21; (4) 3.6 pounds of dalapon and 2 pounds of
atrazine per acre applied February 27; (5) 3.6 pounds of dalapon and
1 pound of 2,4-D per acre applied February 27; and (6) 7.2 pounds of dala-

Annual Report, 1964 67

pon and 1 pound of 2,4-D per acre applied February 27. The grain yield
of corn growing in pangolagrass for treatments 1,2,3,4,5, and 6 was 12, 59,
56, 66, 22, and 52 bushels per acre, respectively. The grain yield of corn
growing in Pensacola bahiagrass for treatments 1,2,3,4,5, and 6 was 11,
65, 52, 62, 43, and 61 bushels per acre, respectively. Herbicide treatments
varied in their initial kill of grass and in length of time regrowth of
grass was suppressed. The grasses were not completely killed by any
treatment, and most killed areas of grass were healed over by the time
that the corn was mature.
Many problems were found which must be solved before the planting of
corn in herbicide-controlled sod becomes a recommended practice. Conven-
tional plowing of sod and cultivation of corn will probably give highest
grain yields where it is practical to destroy the grass sod in this manner.
(G. M. Prine)

68 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Research was conducted on 47 projects. New projects included studies
on toxicity of forage nitrate for beef cattle, physiological aging of cattle,
and carcass maturity as related to palatability, marketability, and federal
standards for grading beef, market grades of beef from steers castrated
at various ages and beef from bulls as related to age at time of slaughter
and biochemical and physiological aspects of digestive disorders in cattle.
Grants-in-aid totaling approximately $165,000 were obtained from va-
rious commercial companies, foundations, and the National Institute of
Health, U. S. Public Health Service for use in research studies.
The department has continued and enlarged its cooperation with other
departments and branch stations on nutrition, breeding, physiology,
genetics, and meats studies.

State Project 627 M. Koger
Five pasture programs are being evaluated by grazing with cows and
calves which are also utilized in the cattle breeding study.
The five pasture programs include (1) an all-grass program fertilized
at the rate of 450 pounds of 0-10-10 plus 180 pounds of N annually per
acre. The remaining programs are clover-grass, fertilized at varying rates
as follows: (2) 300 pounds of 0-10-20; (3) 500 pounds of 0-10-20 annually
plus nitrogen as needed up to 60 pounds per acre; (4) 700 pounds of
0-10-20 plus nitrogen as needed; and (5) 900 pounds of 0-10-20 plus
nitrogen as needed on irrigated pasture. The weight of calf weaned per
acre was 345, 387, 324, 343, and 340 pounds, respectively.
The breeding systems being compared are: (1) straightbreeding to
Angus and Hereford, (2) crisscrossing of Angus and Hereford, (3) criss-
crossing Angus and Brahman, and (4) crisscrossing Hereford and Santa
Gertrudis. Weaning rate of 1963, based on number of cows bred, was
86, 93, 86, and 91 percent respectively. Average weaning weight per
calf was 504, 498, 514, and 512 pounds for the respective groups.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineer-
ing, Agronomy, and Soils for other phases of this cooperative study.)

State Project 717 J. F. Hentges, Jr. and M. Koger
Relative breed performance data were compiled on registered Angus,
Brahman, and Hereford cattle and calves which were maintained under
similar environmental conditions. These data will be collected for a 10-year
period to permit calculation of heritability estimates of performance
factors. During 1963, Brahman calves had heavier average birth weights
(59 pounds) than Herefords (57 pounds), and Herefords had heavier
birth weights than Angus (54 pounds).
Preweaning average daily gains for heifer calves were 1.9, 1.6, and
1.5 pounds for Brahmans, Angus, and Herefords, respectively. Similar data
for bull calves were 2.1, 1.8, and 1.7 pounds for Brahmans, Herefords, and

Annual Report, 1964

Angus, respectively. At weaning time, mature Hereford cows averaged 1101
pounds in weight, which was heavier than Brahmans (1083 pounds) or
Angus (1076 pounds). Until 1963, type scores and estimated slaughter
grades of weaning calves were higher for Angus and Herefords than
Brahams. In 1962, Brahman males had the highest average type score. In
1963, Brahman and Hereford males had identical average type scores of
11.0 as compared to 10.2 for Angus, while the average type scores for
females were 11.6 for Angus, 10.9 for Brahmans, and 10.4 for Herefords.
Angus and Hereford bulls reached puberty at earlier ages on the average
than Brahmans; however, motile sperm were seen in the semen of several
Brahman bulls between the ages of 14 and 18 months. Angus cows have
consistently weaned the largest calf crop. Detailed data on other per-
formance factors were recorded for later analyses.


Hatch Project 738 G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace
and T. J. Cunha

To further define the vitamin D requirement of young pigs and study
nutrient interrelationship with vitamin D, 75 pigs were fed rations con-
taining 0, 50, 100, 200, or 400 I.U. of supplemental vitamin D2 per pound.
All animals were housed in the absence of direct sunlight from birth to
eight weeks of age. The weight gained by the group receiving no supple-
mental vitamin D was significantly greater than those receiving either
50 or 200 I.U. of vitamin D; no other significant differences were found
with respect to weight gained. Neither feed consumed nor feed efficiency
was significantly influenced by ration treatment.
The absence of any visual bone abnormalities coupled with the finding
that no significant differences existed in bone ash among treatments
indicated that all levels of vitamin D were equally effective in promoting
adequate skeletal development. The quantity of blood, serum calcium,
phosphorus, and magnesium was not significantly altered by ration treat-
The effect of vitamin D on the apparent digestibility of dry matter,
fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus was studied by the chromic oxide
indicator technique. The digestibility of calcium was enhanced by the
highest level of vitamin D but not to a statistically significant extent.
Phosphorus digestibility was not influenced significantly by level of vita-
min D. Although significant differences were found in protein digestion,
a consistent pattern was not obtained; pigs fed rations containing 50 or
400 I.U. of vitamin D had lower digestion coefficients than those given
no supplemental vitamin D. Coefficient of digestion for dry matter and
fat were not significantly influenced by altering the ration concentration
of vitamin D.


Hatch Project 755 C. B. Ammerman, L. R. Arrington,
G. K. Davis, and T. J. Cunha

Samples of dried citrus seeds were separated into hull and kernel
fractions, and proximate analyses were made. The average values for the
major feed nutrients in the whole seeds, kernels, and seed hulls expressed

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

in percent on a dry matter basis were: ash, 3.4, 2.8, 4.4; protein, 16.2,
19.5, 6.1; ether extract, 45.1, 59.2, 2.3; crude fiber, 13.2, 3.1, 48.1; and
nitrogen-free extract, 22.1, 15.4, 39.1, respectively. When supplying 88
percent of the total protein in the ration for lambs, protein in dried citrus
seed meal was equal in digestibility and biological value to protein from
two samples of soybean meal.
High quality dried citrus pulp was equivalent to an 80 percent corn
meal-20 percent cob meal mixture for fattening steers in drylot. The
two feeds were mixed in the concentrate portion of the ration at ratios
of 0:66, 22:44, 44:22, and 66:0 with numerically higher gains resulting
where a combination of the two feeds was fed. Long bermudagrass hay
was fed as 6 to 6.5 percent of the total feed intake during the major
part of the 105-day feeding period. No significant differences in gain were
evident, but those steers receiving a combination of dried citrus pulp,
and corn and cob meal tended to have a higher dressing percent, more
fat over the rib eye, and a higher carcass grade.

State Project 768 L. R. Arrington, C. B. Ammerman
and G. K. Davis
Feeding trials were conducted using dried citrus pulp to determine
its value in meeting nutritional requirements of rabbits. A complete
commercial rabbit ration was modified with additions of 15, 30, and 45
percent citrus pulp for growing rabbits and 15 and 30 percent for breeding
rabbits. Voluntary feed intake and weight gains of weaning rabbits fed
citrus pulp were less than controls, but feed efficiency was not reduced.
Feed intake and gains were reduced with increasing levels of pulp up to
30 percent but were not further reduced with 45 percent pulp. Six of seven
females consuming 15 to 30 percent pulp produced and nursed normal
litters. Feed intake of the females was reduced, and weaning weights
of the young were approximately 85 percent of controls.
The nutritive value of dried bakery product for rabbits was studied
in one feeding trial. A complete commercial ration as control was modi-
fied by addition of the test material to make up 50 percent of the total
ration, and soybean meal was added to provide an intake of protein equal
to the control. Average daily feed intake and gain (grams) and feed to
gain ratio for the control and bakery product rations were 79 and 55;
17.3 and 16.1; 4.6 and 3.4, respectively. The improvement in feed effi-
ciency was attributed to the higher energy intake from the bakery product

State Project 805 R. L. Shirley, G. K. Davis, H. D. Wallace,
A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. Z. Palmer
and P. E. Loggins
Sixty purebred Hereford cattle that were half brothers were divided
equally at eight months of age and allotted in two dietary protein groups
and fed for 182 days in the feedlot. One group was fed 15 percent protein
for 98 days and then 13 percent for 84 days; the other group was fed
1In cooperation with W. G. Kirk at the Range Cattle Experiment Station.

Annual Report, 1964

13 percent and then 11 percent protein during the corresponding periods.
Each protein dietary group had 10 animals that had been castrated at
three months of age, 10 castrated at six months of age, and 10 that were
bulls. When the animals were slaughtered, blood serum glutamic oxalacetic
transaminase (SGOT) activity was determined. The bulls and early and
late castrates fed the high protein levels had 146, 128, and 107 Sigma-
Frankel units of activity, while the corresponding groups fed the low
protein rations had 120, 118, and 109 units, respectively. Serum glutamic
pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activity was determined on the same ani-
mals, and the means of all treatment groups were in the range of 20.1
to 22.2 Sigma-Frankel units. None of these transaminase enzyme activity
values indicate a condition of muscle dystrophy to exist in cattle on any
of these treatments.
Three cows 17 years old that had been on the phosphate source project
since 1948-49 were slaughtered and found to range in SGOT values from
93 to 118 Sigma-Frankel units and to have SGPT values ranging from
29 to 34 Sigma-Frankel units, which indicated freedom from muscle

State Project 922 M. Koger
This project is designed to study the comparative performance of
straightbred Angus, straightbred Brangus, and Angus-Brangus crossbreds.
The crossbred animals will be produced from a crisscross system. The
cow herd will be divided into four groups: Herd 1-Angus cows mated to
Angus bulls; Herd 2-Angus-Brangus crossbred cows mated to Angus
bulls; Herd 3-Angus-Brangus crossbred cows mated to Brangus bulls;
and Herd 4-Brangus cows mated to Brangus bulls.
The project has been underway only four years; thus it will be several
years before breed composition will stabilize. The average weaning weights
of calves produced by the four foundation herds in 1963 were 387, 381, 462,
and 439 pounds, respectively. Weaning rates were 70, 73, 85, and 69 percent,


Hatch Project 938 A. C. Warnick
Part of these data were collected in cooperation with certain purebred
Brahman breeders. The average age at first corpus luteum (puberty)
was between 19 and 22 months for Brahman heifers compared to 15-16
months in crossbred heifers descended from Brahman and Shorthorn.
The heavier weight heifers at 205 days of age tended to exhibit puberty
at a younger age. There was greater ovarian activity and size of uterus
during the summer in Brahman heifers compared to other seasons. The
average gestation length in Brahman cows was 292.8 days, and the
average calving interval was 409.9 days.
The average length of the estrual cycle was 27.6 days for 53 Brahman
heifers checked during a full year at Gainesville. The average duration
of estrus observed during four seasons on a limited number of heifers
was 6.73 hours, with ovulation occurring 25.6 hours from beginning of
estrus and 18.9 hours from end of estrus. Of all ovulations, 26 percent

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

occurred without estrus during the year, with a higher incidence during
the winter months. Only 5.9 percent of all estrous periods were not
accompanied by ovulation. There was a positive correlation of overall
reproductive performance and temperament score, with the gentler heifers
having increased reproductive activity.
All heifers were bred to a fertile bull and one-half killed three days
after breeding and one-half killed 39 to 41 days postbreeding to obtain
data on fertilization rate and embryonic survival. Sixty-seven percent
of the heifers had a fertilized egg at three days, while there was 64 percent
with normal embryos in the 39-41 day group. This would indicate little
embryonic mortality in Brahman heifers. An egg was not recovered from
21. percent of the heifers, possibly indicating a faulty egg pick-up mechan-
ism. There were 12 percent of the heifers at three days with unfertilized

Hatch Project 975 A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter
During the past year analytical procedures have been selected and em-
ployed in a fundamental study to characterize protein alterations that
occur during rigor and aging of beef and to relate such alterations with
tenderness. The accuracy of the various methods has been established by
the uniformity of triplicate values of single samples.
Qualitative data pertaining to the number of components of sarco-
plasmic and fibrillar proteins have been obtained but are insufficient for
a meaningful statistical analysis at this point in the study.
The value of dried citrus pulp was compared with ground corn and
cob meal for fattening steers. Twenty Hereford and four Angus yearling
steers were randomly assigned to four feeding treatments; the rations
varied in ratio of citrus pulp to corn and cob meal. Tenderness of broiled
short-loin steaks, as determined by taste panel and by Warner-Bratzler
Shear, differed significantly between lots; the steers fed the ration con-
taining no citrus pulp provided the less tender steaks, but differences
among the lots were not great.
In another study, the feeding value of dried citrus meal was compared
with corn meal for fattening steers. The five rations fed varied in calcium:
phosphorus ratio from 1.0:1 to 3.0:1. Short-loin steaks were cut 1-inch
thick, broiled to 165 F internal temperature, and tested for tenderness
by taste panel and by Warner-Bratzler Shear. Differences in tenderness
were not found between lots.

Hatch Project 977 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs
and M. Koger
Since August of 1960, approximately 20 sows have been farrowed every
two months on a year around basis. A total of 21 separate farrowings
have been completed to date involving a total of 422 litters which averaged
10.60 live pigs at birth and 9.21 live pigs when weaned at two weeks of
age. During the past year, the number of live pigs born per litter has
continued to increase, and at the present time the herd is averaging about
SCooperative with W. K. McPherson, Agricultural Economics Department; T. C. Skinner,
Agricultural Engineering Department; and S. J. Folks, Florida Power Corporation.

Annual Report, 1964

12 live pigs per litter. It appears that litter size has reached a level near
optimum and greater emphasis must now be given to a study of methods
of improving survivability. As litter size has increased, survivability has
tended to decrease slightly. Farrowing results indicate relatively minor
effects of season on litter size, but weaning weights and survivability have
been affected adversely by hot weather. Conception rates continue to
average lower during the hot months of June, July, August, and September.
Accumulated data indicate that double matings improve litter size sig-
nificantly. A nutritional study designed to evaluate dried corn distillers
solubles as a source of unidentified factors for the sow will soon be com-
pleted. Litter size has been slightly greater for supplemented sows. When
terramycin was fed to sows at a high level during the farrowing period,
two-weeks weaning weights of the pigs were improved about /4 pound per

State Project 995 M. Koger and A. C. Warnick
Since 1958 one-half of the replacement heifers at the Beef Research
Unit have been bred as yearlings to calve first at two years of age. Calves
from these two-year-old heifers are being vealed at the start of the breed-
ing season on March 1. The other half of replacements have been bred
to calve first at three years of age.
To date the calves vealed off the two-year-old heifers have just about
paid for the extra expense of early breeding. Subsequent production of
heifers bred at two years of age has been almost identical with that of
heifers bred to calve first at three years of age.

State Project 999 G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace
Raw and heated treated soybeans were evaluated for inclusion in swine
rations. Heat treatments consisted of autoclaving ground soybeans for 15
and 30 minutes at 120C (20 p.s.i.) and for 120 minutes at 110C (4 p.s.i).
Raw beans were fed with and without 5 percent added animal fat. When
compared with pigs fed solvent-extracted soybean oil meal, the weight
gain of all pigs fed the ground whole soybean was unsatisfactory. The
addition of 5 percent fat improved the daily gains of pigs fed raw beans,
with an additional linear increase in weight gain being obtained by in-
creasing the length of autoclaving time. Feed required per pound of gain
was decreased by the addition of 5 percent fat, and additional linear
decreases with this criterion were also obtained by increasing autoclaving
A study was conducted to determine if a dried bakery product con-
sisting of unused material from the production of bread and other bakery
items contained sufficient amounts of various B-complex vitamins to per-
mit satisfactory growth with pigs. The bakery product was included at
the rate of 30 percent and was fed with and without supplemental niacin,
riboflavin, pantothenic acid, and choline. Similar vitamin treatments were
also formed with rations containing no dried bakery product. Pigs which
received the supplemental vitamins gained more rapidly and efficiently
than those which did not receive the vitamin supplement. These data

74 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

indicate that for maximum utilization, rations that contain 30 percent
dried bakery product should be supplemented with niacin, riboflavin,
pantothenic acid, and choline.

State Project 1002 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs
Work has been completed on the use of zymo-pabst, a mixture of diges-
tive enzymes, in starter rations. The material proved ineffective. Mono-
sodium glutamate has consistently enhanced palatability of starter rations
but did not improve performance of pigs when critically tested in this
regard. High levels of copper have produced marked responses in the gains
and feed conversion of young pigs. Toxicity was not observed in short
time (6 wk.) feeding trials when copper was fed as copper sulfate at a
level of 250 ppm of copper. Neither zinc nor iron at levels of 250 or 500
ppm effectively stimulated rate and efficiency of gain. In a study compar-
ing natural bacitracin with zinc-bacitracin, it was determined that the
two antibiotic preparations were equally effective.

State Project 1003 M. Koger and A. C. Warnick
This is a new project cooperative between the Department of Animal
Science, North Florida Experiment Station, and State Prison Farm, Rai-
Cattle of different inherent sizes will be developed by selection. Data
will not be available until differences between the different groups are
developed through selection. In 1963 the average weaning weight of calves
was 453 pounds, with a pregnancy rate of 83 percent.
(See also Project 1003, North Florida Station.)

State Project 1010 A. C. Warnick and H. D. Wallace
Crossbred gilts on a high energy ration were 13 days younger and 46
pounds heavier at first estrus than comparable gilts on a low energy
52 percent alfalfa leaf meal ration. The number of ova shed at first estrus
was significantly higher in gilts on high energy vs. low energy. However,
the low energy ration gave an increased percentage of embryo survival
at 25 days postbreeding. The average number of live embryos per gilt was
not statistically different among rations, although it varied from 11.3
embryos on high energy (H.E.) to 10.9 embryos on both the high alfalfa,
low energy (A) and low alfalfa, low energy rations (GSC).
Levels of alkaline and acid phosphatase of the endometrium, embryos,
and corpora lutea were not statistically different between the three rations.
Acid phosphatase of chorionic fluid was significantly higher in gilts on
the "HE" and GSC" rations compared to those on the "A" ration.
The correlation between endometrial acid phosphatase activity and
number of viable embryos for the three treatment groups was 0.598 (P<
0.01), -0.582 (P<0.01), and -0.395 (NS) for the "HE", "A", and "GSC"

Annual Report, 1964

groups, respectively. Correlations between endometrial alkaline phospha-
tase and the number of viable embryos for the respective groups were
0.431 (P<0.05), -0.637 (P<0.01), and 0.090 (NS).
It is possible that differences in the correlations of phosphatase activity
with embryo numbers are correlated with the estrogen and progesterone
hormone production and its effect upon uterine environment.


Hatch Project 1044 J. P. Feaster
An investigation of the effects of gamma radiation of the pregnant
gilt on the transfer of radioactive iron (FE-59) to the fetus has been
completed. Eight of the 15 pregnant gilts used in the study were exposed
to 400 r whole-body Co-60 radiation on about the 93rd day of gestation.
Forty-eight hours after irradiation they were given single intravenous
doses of Fe-59 and sacrificed 24 hours later. Seven other pregnant gilts,
serving as controls, were given doses of Fe-59 without prior exposure to
Co-60 radiation.
Radiation caused a significant (P<0.01) increase in the amount of
Fe-59 transferred to the fetus. Fetuses of nonirradiated and irradiated
gilts averaged 0.397 x 10-: and 1.60 x 10'" percent of the administered
Fe-59 dose per gram of tissue, respectively, or 0.308 and 1.24 percent
per whole fetus.
Individual maternal and fetal tissues and organs which were assayed
for Fe-59 content were liver, spleen, blood, sternum, heart, and muscle.
A comparison of Fe-59 content in the tissues of the gilts of the two lots
showed lower concentrations in the irradiated animals than in controls
except in liver and heart. Fe-59 values were significantly higher in tissues
of fetuses of the irradiated gilts than in the fetuses of controls. In the
control lot maternal Fe-59 concentrations were higher than fetal, but in
the irradiated lot, fetuses showed Fe-59 concentrations from 2 to 20
times as high as concentrations in the corresponding maternal tissues.


Hatch Project 1045 L. R. Arrington, R. L. Shirley,
J. P. Feaster and C. B. Ammerman

Iodine toxicity studies were continued with rats and rabbits to further
identify and characterize the toxicity and evaluate other dietary factors
possibly related to the toxicity. Toxicity of 2500 ppm iodine, which, resulted
in lactation failure in rats, was not alleviated with 2 percent NaCl. The
addition of thyroid and thiouracil to the diet of pregnant rats resulted
in some mortality of the young but less than that caused by iodine.
Thyroid increased and thiouracil decreased feed intake and weight gain
of weanling rats. Twenty-five hundred ppm iodine as KI or Nal also
significantly reduced feed intake and gain of rats and rabbits. Female
rats and rabbits which had been fed toxic levels of iodine were changed
to control diets and rebred; they produced and nursed normal litters, in-
dicating no permanent harmful carry-over effects.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The chemical composition of dried bakery product was determined, and
the feeding value studied with rats. Composition, in percent, was: protein,
9.1; fat, 13.0; fiber, 1.0; ash, 3.4; and energy, 4.5 Kcal per gram. The dried
bakery product was equal to corn meal for rats when fed at levels up to
66 percent of a natural ration or a purified diet with added vitamins.
When fed at this level in a purified ration without added vitamins, growth
was unsatisfactory, indicating a deficiency of some vitamins. The bakery
product with added fermentation mixture (Nujets) but without added
vitamins in the diet promoted slightly better growth than the dried bakery
product. Diets with 66 percent bakery product and added vitamins and
calcium as the only added mineral promoted growth equal to the control.

State Project 1061 R. L. Shirley, J. F. Easley
and G. K. Davis
In September, December, March, and June blood was obtained from
cattle on pasture that received the following types of fertilizer from
1948 until 1958: none, superphosphate, superphospate and lime, triple
superphosphate, rock phosphate, colloidal phosphate, and basic slag. After
1958 the cattle have been tested for effects of residual phosphate. These
treatment groups had mean hemoglobin values of 11.1, 11.5, 11.8, 11.6,
12.1, 10.5, and 11.1 grams per 100 ml of blood, respectively. Their cor-
responding hematocrit values were 50.4, 49.2, 49.2, 48.6, 51.1, 45.5, and
48.3. Mean values for the control and phosphate treatment groups for mg
calcium per 100 ml plasma were 10.2, 10.0, 9.7, 10.2, 10.1, 9.8, and 10.1.
The control group had the lowest mean of 4.6 mg of phosphorus per 100 ml
of blood plasma, while the above phosphate treatment groups had values
of 5.6, 5.8, 6.1, 7.4, 6.6, and 5.8, respectively.
(See Project 1061, Range Cattle Station.)

Hatch Project 1063 P. E. Loggins, M. Koger,
(Contributing to Regional Project S-29) A. C. Warnick and T. J. Cunha
The 1964 lambs are the second crop produced from the experimental
design to study the effect of geographical location on the reproductive
performance of sheep. Forty-nine Rambouillet ewes of Alabama, Florida,
and Texas origin plus 52 Florida Native ewes were exposed to rams of
the same breeding. Vasectomized rams were used from April 15 to Sep-
tember 15, 1963, to determine earliness of estrus and breeding dates.
Intact rams were placed with the ewe flocks beginning July 1 for a 60-day
breeding season. All Rambouillet and Florida Native ewe groups were
found to be in anestrus prior to July 1. Ten of the Rambouillet ewes had
shown estrus by this date in the 1963 breeding season. The average dates
of first estrus in the breeding ewes were as follows: Alabama Rambouillets,
July 22; Florida Rambouillets, July 22; Texas Rambouillets, July 27; and
Florida Native, July 25. The lambing percentages for the 1964 lambing
crop were as follows: Alabama Rambouillets, 100 percent; Florida Ram-
bouillets, 106 percent; Texas Rambouillets, 70 percent; and Florida Native,
127 percent, with average lambing dates of December, 12, 24, 26, and 18,

Annual Report, 1964

The lambs were weaned on February 28, 1964, at an average age of
70 days. The lambs received creep feed and were continued on a full
feeding program following weaning until market date, May 20, 1964. The
Alabama Rambouillet lambs averaged 66 pounds; Florida Rambouillet,
72 pounds; Texas Rambouillet, 62 pounds; and Florida Native, 67 pounds,
with live slaughter grade of low choice, top choice, top good and low choice,
respectively. Average market weights of lambs in all groups were low for
profitable lamb production.

Hatch Project 1079 C. B. Ammerman, L. R. Arrington,
R. L. Shirley and J. P. Feaster
Soft phosphate and calcium fluoride supplying 134 ppm fluorine, and
sodium fluoride, supplying 67 ppm fluorine, did not affect feed intake
or body weight gains of steers fed for 91 days. Percent fluorine concen-
tration in the ash of the measured proximal fourth, center half, and distal
fourth of the metacarpal for soft phosphate was 0.420, 0.370, 0.603; sodium
fluoride, 0.340, 0.303, 0.477; and calcium fluoride, 0.163, 0.133, 0.210.
Levels of fluorine were significantly influenced by treatment (P<0.05).
Phosphorus-32 in three inorganic phosphatic compounds was adminis-
tered orally to calves and steers. Phosphorus-32 in reagent grade dicalcium
phosphate was absorbed and retained in larger amounts than that in
defluorinated rock phosphate or soft phosphate. Apparent absorption values
for the dicalcium phosphate, defluorinated phosphate, and soft phosphate
were 70.0, 61.2, and 53.5 percent, respectively.
In further studies evaluating sources of iron for ruminants, radioactive
iron as ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferrous carbonate, and ferric
oxide was administered orally to lambs. Iron-59 uptake by the red blood
cells and tissue deposition of iron-59 indicated that the chloride, sulfate,
and carbonate forms of iron were not significantly different in biological
availability. The iron in ferric oxide was significantly less available.
(See Hatch 1079, Dairy Science Department.)

Hatch Project 1117 J. E. Moore, R. L. Shirley,
C. B. Ammerman and L. R. Arrington
The development of a rapid gas-liquid chromatographic technique for
determining the carbon dioxide concentration of rumen fluid was employed
in further studies on the buffering properties of rumen fluid. These studies
demonstrated a direct relationship between the pH, the buffering proper-
ties, and the bicarbonate concentration of rumen fluid. When a concentrate
was fed as a single meal to fistulated steers previously fed hay, rumen
pH and rumen fluid bicarbonate concentration decreased rapidly after
feeding, with concurrent changes in the buffering characteristics of the
rumen fluid. The addition of 2 percent sodium bicarbonate to the concen-
trate reduced the rates of these changes. However, six hours after feeding
the concentrate there were no differences between treatments.
The effect of supplemental nitrogen on the rumen fermentation of
low quality hay was investigated with fistulated steers. Soybean meal
and soybean meal plus urea were superior to urea and urea plus starch
in terms of voluntary hay consumption and the digestion of cellulose in

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

the rumen. All treatments increased rumen volatile fatty acid and ammonia
concentrations. The highest rumen ammonia levels were observed with
supplements containing urea. Urea alone promoted the highest accumula-
tion of rumen ammonia, but the addition of starch reduced the rumen
ammonia concentration.

State Project 1132 J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. Z. Palmer
and J. E. Moore
Two experiments were conducted with beef steers to study the effect
of physical form of diet and ratio of dried citrus meal to corn meal in
the diet on degree of unsaturation of rib and kidney fat. Rumen volatile
fatty acids were measured and related to degree of unsaturation of body
fat. No differences were found in degree of unsaturation of kidney fat
among groups of steers fed high concentrate diets containing either flaked
or ground corn and a pelleted diet containing corn meal. Fatty acid com-
position and iodine number of fat over the 13th rib revealed that diets
containing 72 percent corn produced a higher degree of unsaturation than
diets containing either 31.6 percent dried citrus meal: 36.0 percent corn
or 63.2 percent dried citrus meal. The higher unsaturation of fat in corn-fed
steers was due to a higher oleic acid and a lower palmitic acid content.
These changes were associated with a higher starch content in the corn
diets. Rib fat was more unsaturated than kidney fat because of a lower
stearic and a higher palmitoleic and oleic acid content. Rumen microbial
metabolism, evidenced by proportions of volatile fatty acids in rumen
fluid, was altered by changes in ratios of dried citrus meal to corn meal
in diets. High correlation coefficients of -0.997 and 0.999 were found be-
tween dietary starch and molar proportions of ruminal acetate and pro-
pionate, respectively. The acetate to propionate ratio was narrowest when
the starch content of the diet was highest. Correlation coefficients of
0.576, -0.573 and 0.514 were found between acetate to propionate ratio in
rumen fluid and palmitic acid, oleic acid, and iodine number of rib fat,

Hatch Project 1136 J. R. Crockett, M. Koger,
(Contributing to S-10) J. P. Feaster, and A. C. Warnick
Specific matings were made this breeding season to produce embryos
of dwarf, carrier, and non-carrier genotypes. The embryos are being taken
by caesarean at varying ages in order to make gross studies in an attempt
to bracket the age at which the dwarf gene exhibits itself. Blood samples
have been collected from the three genotypes and prepared for electro-
phoretic analysis.

State Project 1155 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and J. P. Feaster
Five preliminary and four detailed experiments have been completed
on the cause of "founder", a digestive disorder widely prevalent among
cattle fed high concentrate diets in feedlots. In preliminary experiments,

Annual Report, 1964

yearling steers which had been fasted for 24 hours showed no behavioral
changes following intraruminal injections of up to 6.0 grams of histamine.
Intravenous injections of up to 100 micrograms of histamine produced
respiratory difficulty, slowing of heart rate, weak pulse, muscle tremors,
and moist rales in lungs. In two feeding experiments, excessive quantities
of a high concentrate feed mixture were consumed by steers which had
been fasted 48 hours, but the symptoms of founder were observed in only
4 percent of the animals. These symptoms disappeared when an antihis-
tamine was administered. Wide variability among animals was evident
for voluntary feed intake, rumen acidity, and symptoms of "founder".
Detailed experiments revealed (1) a rapid absorption of histamine from
the duodenum of steers as evidenced by a decrease in saphenous artery
blood pressure, (2) apparent absorption of histamine sprayed on the wall
of the posterior dorsal sac of the rumen as evidenced by a decrease in
ruminal motility, blood pressure and respiration rate, (3) transitory
tenderness of the foot after injections of histamine via the saphenous
artery, and (4) toxicity of Compound 48-80, which was injected intra-
venously to measure the effect of this histamine-releasing drug in cattle.


State Project 1156 R. L. Shirley, Marvin Koger,
P. E. Loggins, J. E. Moore,
J. P. Feaster and T. J. Cunha

At the Beef Research Unit, 80 mature cows that were three years or
older, 25 heifers born in 1961, and 28 heifers born in 1962 were injected
subcutaneously approximately every 90 days for the second year with
2.5 mg of selenium as sodium selenite per 100 pounds of body weight.
Each age group had an equal number that were not injected with selenium.
The combined pregnancy rate for those that received selenium was 93
percent compared to 96 percent for the control groups. The corresponding
average percentages of calves weaned were 87 and 93, respectively. The
average weaning weight of the eight-month-old calves of the cows that
received selenium was 510 pounds compared to 504 pounds for the control
calves. None of these treatment effects were statistically significant.
To determine if there was any evidence of white muscle disease in
lambs this year, serum glutamic oxalacetic acid and glutamic pyruvic acid
transaminases were determined on weanling lambs raised at the University
Sheep Unit and at a farm about 60 miles east of the University. Low and
normal values were found for the two enzymes, indicating that there was
no evidence of muscle dystrophy, which may be due to either vitamin E
or selenium deficiency.


Hatch Project 1204 J. W. Carpenter and A. Z. Palmer
Sixty Hereford half-sib males were assigned to five treatments. The
treatments consisted of animals castrated at birth, three months, six
months, eight months, and non-castrated bulls. All animals were weaned
and entered the feedlot at the same time. A high concentrate ration was
: In cooperation with H. L. Chapman, Jr., and R. W. Kidder of the Everglades Station.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

fed (ad libitum) for 182 days before slaughter at the University Meat
Laboratory. The effect of the treatments on feedlot performance, slaughter
and carcass characteristics, and palatability of steaks was studied. In
addition one-half of each carcass was boned and closely trimmed for cut-
ability studies. This study is in the final stages of completion, and data
have not been statistically analyzed.
Study II: Forty-two bulls and 42 steer calves of Braford breeding
from feeding trials at the Everglades Experiment Station were used in
this study. This study was designed to determine the effects of age at
time of slaughter on slaughter and carcass characteristics, palatability of
steaks and roasts, and especially carcass classification. Although the study
is in the final stages of completion and the data have not been statistically
analyzed, it is apparent that the federal meat graders had difficulty in
differentiating between bull and steer carcasses in the the various age
groups. It is interesting to note that three of the 15-month-old bulls
produced carcasses that could not be differentiated from steer carcasses
and were rolled as U.S. Choice beef.
(See Everglades Experiment Station project 1016 for feedlot perform-
ance of animals used in this study.)

Hatch Project 1205 A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter
This project received approval only recently. Research has been planned,
but the study has not progressed to the point of providing data.

State Project 1211 R. L. Shirley and J. F. Easley
In April this year a series of 35 monthly analyses of nitrate and
carotene on para, bahia, pangola and Roselawn St. Augustine grasses
grown at the Everglades Experiment Station were completed. Analyses
were started in May 1961. Missouri workers classified nitrate levels cal-
culated at KNO3 into four categories depending on toxicity. These levels
were (1) less than 0.5 percent (safe) ; (2) 0.5 to 1.0 percent (caused drop
in milk production of cattle) ; (3) 1.0 to 1.5 percent (drastic drop in milk
production); and (4) greater than 1.5 percent (possibly lethal). Above
0.5 percent may also cause abortion. The 35 monthly para samples had a
distribution of 12, 9, 4, and 10 samples in the above four categories, re-
spectively. The bahia samples had a distribution of 30, 5, 0, and 0; the
pangola, 23, 7, 3, and 2; and the Roselawn St. Augustine, 148, 44, 12, and 4,
respectively. All but one of those above 1.5 percent occurred after March
1963. No clinical symptoms were observed in the cattle grazing these
The carotene values had a seasonal pattern. They were relatively high
(40 to 170 mg carotene per pound dry weight) from April through No-
vember each year and quite low (3 to 40 mg) during December through
March. Generally, para and pangola were higher in carotene than the other
grasses during the summer and lower during the winter. The high carotene
content of the Everglades forages may be a factor in the tolerance of
cattle to the relatively high nitrate in the area.
SIn cooperation with H. L. Chapman, Jr., at the Everglades Station.

Annual Report, 1964

The Physiology and Biochemistry of Hybrid Vigor.-The efficiency of
feed utilization by straightbred and crossbred calves under strictly con-
trolled conditions has been determined. Results showed that crossbred
calves had a greater appetite than straightbred calves. Gross efficiency
of feed utilization (pounds of carcass per unit of feed) was similar for
all groups of calves. There were significant differences, however, in the
form in which tissues were stored. Brahman calves were most efficient
in converting feed into meat protein, and British calves were most efficient
in converting fat, while crossbreds were intermediate.
It is planned to expand this project to determine the relative feed
requirements of straightbred and crossbred mother cows for producing a
pound of calf. (M. Koger, T. J. Cunha and A. C. Warnick)

Effect of Vitamin A Deficiency on Reproduction in Young Rams.-Twelve
yearling rams were fed a purified diet containing 3,000 I.U. of vitamin A
per pound feed, while 36 were placed on a vitamin A free diet in which
plasma vitamin A values were 5 meg per 100 ml compared to 39 mcg per
100 ml plasma for the controls. Six of the control and six deficient rams
were irradiated with 400r whole body irradiation, while a part of the
deficient rams were given testosterone, pregnant mare serum (PMS), and
thryroprotein during a 21 week period. Deficient rams returned to the
vitamin A diet recovered, and death loss did not occur. Also, the volume,
sperm motility, percent abnormal sperm, and total sperm production im-
proved in the deficient rams returned to the vitamin A ration. Night
blindness, cloudiness of the cornea, uncoordinated gait, and extreme weak-
ness occurred in rams on vitamin A free diet, with death occurring in most
rams with depleted vitamin A reserves. Treatment of deficient rams with
either testosterone or PMS did not alter deficiency symptoms, time of
death, or semen quality and production. Thyroprotein did increase appetite,
decreased weight loss, decreased death loss, and improved sperm motility
and total sperm production. Rams on the vitamin A free diet had lowered
semen volume, sperm motility, percent normal sperm, and total sperm pro-
duction, with a reduction in germinal epithelium thickness and seminiferous
tubule diameter and weight of testes. Irradiation caused a depression in
feed intake and growth on all rams, and the vitamin A status had no
effect on survival time of irradiated rams. (A. C. Warnick, T. J. Cunha,
P. E. Loggins, and R. L. Shirley)

Effect of a Phosphorus Deficiency on Growth and Reproduction in Young
Rams.-Thirty-six Florida Native rams averaging approximately 12 months
of age were fed a purified ration to determine the effect of a phosphorus
deficiency on gains, blood, saliva and semen phosphorus, and semen traits.
The control rams weighed 128 pounds after five months compared to 82
pounds for those on a phosphorus deficiency. After 71/2 months the control
rams weighed 148 pounds vs. 82 pounds for the deficient rams. Deficient
rams put on the control ration gained 33 pounds in 63 days, while the
deficient rams merely maintained their weight. Blood and saliva phos-
phorus deficient rams dropped after two weeks to approximately one-third
the values of the control rams. These values were maintained at this low
level throughout the experiment, while semen phosphorus values in the
deficient rams did not differ from the controls. Semen volume, sperm
motility, percent abnormal cells, and total sperm per ejaculate from the
deficient rams were similar to the controls. Six control and six deficient
rams were given 350r whole body irradiation after five months. Two of

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

the deficient rams and one control ram died within 30 days after irradia-
tion. Appetite, gains, and percent normal sperm cells were decreased
following irradiation. Apparently semen production in the ram is not
markedly altered by phosphorus deficiency. (A. C. Warnick, T. J. Cunha,
P. E. Loggins, and R. L. Shirley)

Effect of Temperature Upon Reproduction in Gilts and Boars.-An
experiment using 35 crossbred gilts and 10 crossbred boars was run to
determine the effect of a 600 and 900 F temperature on fertility and to
determine if there was an interaction in fertility of the sexes at these
temperatures. Each boar was to be bred to two gilts at each temperature.
The boars were allotted at random to the two temperature rooms 80 days
before breeding began, while gilts were allotted at random 10 days after
first heat and continued there until 25 days postbreeding. The gilts were
killed 25 days postbreeding, and counts were made of the corpora lutea
and embryos to determine embryonic survival. The gilts were bred one
time to their respective boar at the first check in estrus, with one-half of
the gilts at each temperature bred to boars from the same temperature
and one-half bred to boars at the different temperature. The average
number of corpora lutea (eggs shed) in gilts at 60 F was 14.6 vs. 13.6 in
gilts at 90 F; however, this difference was not significant. The average
number of live embryos at 25 days in gilts at 600 F irrespective of tem-
perature of the boar was 11.7 compared to 10.4 embryos in gilts at 90
F, again a nonsignificant difference. The average number of live em-
byros in gilts bred to boars at 60 F was 11.1 vs. 11.3 in gilts bred to boars
at 900 F. There was no interaction in temperature and sex on fertility
at 25 days. These temperatures did not modify fertility in the boar,
although there was a slight but nonsignificant lowering of fertility at 90*
F in the gilt. (A. C. Warnick, H. D. Wallace, and A. Z. Palmer)

Effect of Protein Level and Restricted Feeding on Carcass Quality.
Three experiments, involving 300 growing-finishing swine, had been com-
pleted in an attempt to determine the influence of dietary protein level on
feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Pigs fed the higher levels
of protein have gained significantly faster and more efficiently and have
yielded carcasses which were significantly leaner in all respects.
A series of five experiments have been conducted on the problem of
feed restriction for the growing-finishing pig. The effect of a constant
level of feeding (5 pounds per head per day) from an initial weight of
100 pounds to a slaughter weight of 200 pounds has been studied from
several aspects. This procedure has reduced rate of gain and efficiency of
feed conversion. Restricted pigs have shown reduced backfat thickness, in-
creased loin eye area, and a higher percentage yield of four lean cuts. In gen-
eral, it can be said that feedlot performance has suffered, while producing a
leaner, more desirable carcass. (H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer, J. W.
Carpenter, and G. E. Combs)

Observations for Urinary Calculi in Cattle.-During the year, 492
slaughtered feedlot cattle have been observed for calculi in their bladders,
and 96 were found to have them in varying amounts ranging from ap-
proximately 0.1 to 5.0 grams. These cattle represented many different
treatments in the feedlot. Of a total of 367 steers, 78 had calculi; of 68
bulls, 17 had calculi; and of 57 heifers, 1 had calculi. Forty-nine steers
with no stilbestrol had 13 with calculi compared to 10 with calculi out of
45 that had 24 mg implants of stilbestrol. Five bulls out of 12 that received

Annual Report, 1964

no stilbestrol had calculi compared to 1 out of 10 bulls that were given
stilbestrol implants. Eight that received 30,000 I.U. of vitamin A per day
had no calculi compared to 3 that had calculi out of 8 deprived of the
vitamin. The previous year, 1 out of 10 of each vitamin A treatment group
had calculi. Fifty-six steers that were divided into equal lots and given
0 or 25,000 I.U. of vitamin A or 50 I.U of vitamin E orally, or both vitamins
orally per day, or 720,000 I.U. of vitamin A or 1,400 I.U. of vitamin E
by injection, or both vitamins by injection per 28 days were all found to
be free of calculi. A group of 18 steers with shade had 8 with calculi
compared to 10 with calculi out of 14 steers without shade. A group of
49 steers had 22 with calculi in a regular feedlot operation. No cattle in
the above feedlots died or suffered clinically from calculi. A group of 29
heifers after 140 days in the feedlot and 12 months of age were all free
of calculi. (R. L. Shirley, Jason Outler, Marvin Koger, J. F. Hentges,
Jr., and J. W. Carpenter)

Effect of Dietary Vitamin A on the Concentration of Vitamin A in the
Heart and Copper in the Heart and Liver of Feedlot Steers.-Twelve eight-
month-old steers were placed in the feedlot at the Range Cattle Experiment
Station for 180 days on a ration that contained only traces of carotene.
Half of the steers were supplemented with 30,000 I.U. of vitamin A palmi-
tate per day. Mean values of 0.86 and 0.24 pg of vitamin A and 5.6 and 5.9
pg of p-carotene per gram dry weight were found in the heart ventricle,
16.6 and 16.7 pg of copper per gram dry weight were found in the heart
ventricle, and 521 and 501 ug of copper were found in the liver of the
vitamin A supplemented and unsupplemented groups, respectively. The
heart had 20.4 and 19.5, and the liver had 25.7 and 25.8 percent dry matter
for the supplemented and unsupplemented groups, respectively. Mean
values of 13.9 and 11.8 grams of hemoglobin per 100 ml of blood and hema-
tocrit percentages of 51.9 and 44.7 were obtained for the supplemented and
control vitamin A dietary groups, respectively. (R. L. Shirley and G. K.

Effect of Stilbestrol Implants and Vitamins A and E on Cholesterol of
Blood of Cattle. Twenty-four Brahman-Hereford crossbreed bulls and 24
steers at eight months of age were equally subdivided into four treatment
groups, and half the bulls and steers were implanted with 24 mg of
cholesterol before being placed in the feedlot. When they were slaughtered
after 123 days in the feedlot, the average mg of cholesterol per 100 ml
of blood serum overall for the bulls and steers were 204 and 224, respec-
tively. The corresponding values overall for those with and without stil-
bestrol were 222 and 205, respectively.
Two-year-old steers of Angus, Hereford, and Brahman crossbreeding
were given orally and by injection supplementary vitamins A and E and
fed for 120 days in the feedlot. Those steers that received through supple-
mentation none (6), 25,000 I.U. vitamin A per day orally (4), 50 I.U.
vitamin E per day orally (7), both the A and E oral doses per day (5),
720,000 I.U. vitamin A each 28-day period by injection (3), 1,400 I.U.
vitamin E each 28-day period by injection (6), and both the doses of
vitamins A and E by injection (7) when slaughtered had 363, 348, 377, 365,
344, 343, and 369 mg cholesterol per 100 ml serum. The number in paren-
theses is the number of steers per treatment. (R. L. Shirley, Jason Outler,
J. W. Carpenter and A. Z. Palmer.)

Influence of Level and Form of Dietary Fat on Fatty Acid and Choles-
terol Composition of the Fetus.-Female rats maintained from weaning on

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

diets containing either 8 or 45 percent fat in the form of butter, lard, or
corn oil were bred on reaching maturity. On the 20th day of gestation
their fetuses were taken for assay of fatty acid and cholesterol. Assay
has been completed on some fetuses and maternal tissues from the animals
on the diets containing 8 and 45 percent lard. Preliminary findings indi-
cate no appreciable difference in fatty acid or cholesterol makeup of
maternal or fetal tissues between animals on 8 and 45 percent lard, al-
though in muscle and fat of the maternal rats, the concentration of
palmitoleic acid is about three times as high in the animals on 8 percent
lard as in those on 45 percent lard, and the concentration of fetal linoleic
acid in the 45 percent lard group is about twice as high as in the 8 percent
lard group. It will be of considerable interest to learn whether differences
occur in fatty acid and cholesterol tissue concentrations between animals
fed the highly saturated forms of fat, butter, and lard, and those fed
the relatively unsaturated corn oil. (J. P. Feaster)

Determination of Cholesterol in Animal Tissues.-A method designed
for the determination of cholesterol in blood plasma has been adapted for
use in the determination of cholesterol in animal tissues. Consistency of
standard curves and reproducibility in tissue sample duplicates indicate
that this modification will prove highly satisfactory for the determination
of cholesterol in connection with a lipid study in progress. (J. P. Feaster)

Destruction of the Thyroid Gland of the Turkey with Iodine-131 for the
Study of Blood Vascular Conditions.-Turkeys which have non-functioning
thyroid tissue develop aneurysm of the aorta, thus providing subjects for
the study of this condition. It is felt that destruction of thyroid tissue can
be accomplished by the injection of 6 to 8 millicuries of iodine-131. Per-
mission is being requested of the Radiation Safety Committee to carry out
this procedure. (J. P. Feaster)

Effectiveness of Various Procedures in Reducing the Amount of Radio-
nuclides in the Human Dietary Chain.-The inclusion of verxite (feed grade
vermiculite) in the diet of sheep was shown to increase the fecal excretion
of a-single oral dose of calcium-47. In a second experiment, the fecal ex-
cretion of calcium-47 administered to sheep fed a purified diet was similar
to that observed in sheep fed the non-verxite control diet in the first
experiment. However, replacing one-half of the purified diet with chopped
bermudagrass hay decreased calcium-47 excretion slightly. (J. E. Moore
and G. K. Davis, cooperating with B. G. Dunavant, College of Medicine)

Effect of High Levels of Vitamin A for Swine.-Two experiments were
conducted to study the influence of relatively large intakes of vitamin A
on growth and tissue composition. The pigs in both experiments were
weaned at two weeks of age and fed a nutritionally adequate corn-soybean
meal starter ration for 42 days. In experiment 1, this ration was supple-
mented with vitamin A in such quantities as to provide the pigs with
2,000 8,000, 32,000, and 128,000 I.U. of vitamin A daily. Experiment 2
utilized supplementary vitamin A levels of 0, 400, 2,000, and 256,000 I.U.
The rate and efficiency of gains with all pigs in experiment 1 were
statistically similar, and no abnormal effects from the ingestion of large
amounts of vitamin A were exhibited. Similar effects with respect to rate
and efficiency of gain were obtained in experiment 2. The pigs receiving
the highest level of supplementary vitamin A in experiment 2 exhibited

Annual Report, 1964 85

characteristic symptoms of weak bones. Bone analyses data did not reveal
a statistically significant treatment difference with respect to bone ash
and dry matter or fat content of the bone. Additional chemical analyses
showed that the vitamin A content of liver and blood serum was highest
with the pigs fed 256,000 I.U. of vitamin A. (G. E. Combs and H. D.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The work of this section has involved the active projects reported and
the project on orchid ovules (state 1021) which is being terminated by the
resignation of Dr. Y. Sagawa.


Hatch Project 953 T. E. Humphreys

The study of the uptake of sugars by the corn scutellum (cotyledon)
was continued. Mannose was found to inhibit glucose uptake. Both free
mannose and mannose-6-phosphate (synthesized from mannose by the tissue)
were responsible for the inhibition. These compounds inhibited glucose
utilization, not glucose penetration into the cells. These results support
the suggestion made earlier that the rate of glucose uptake is controlled
by the hexokinase reaction.
When glucose utilization was inhibited by mannose (or other compounds,
such as 2, 4-dinitrophenol), glucose entered the cells until the glucose in-
side was in equilibrium with the glucose outside. At equilibrium the amount
of glucose in the tissue indicates that only about 25 percent of the cell
volume contains glucose. Apparently the vacuole is not accessible to glu-
cose although it is accessible to sucrose, a product of glucose metabolism.
Studies on glucose penetration into the cells and sucrose synthesis are
underway. The enzyme, hexokinase, has been purified to an extent that its
properties may be investigated. This work is also underway.


Hatch Project 1042 G. J. Fritz

One of the goals of this project has been the demonstration of the
incorporation of molecular oxygen into hydroxyproline by etiolated soybean
and maize seedlings. The technique involves exposure of the seedlings for
several hours to gas mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen (20 percent-80 per-
cent); the oxygen gas is labelled with oxygen-18. After digestion of the
seedlings, the amino acids are separated from the digest by column chroma-
tography and treated with nitrous acid, to deaminate all of the amino acids
except proline and hydroxyproline. These two acids are separated by thin-
layer chromatography, and pyrolyzed to carbon dioxide, which is examined
by mass spectrometry for the presence of oxygen-18. If the hydroxyproline
is synthesized in vivo from proline, and if the oxygen atom is derived from
molecular oxygen, then the hydroxyproline should be labelled with oxygen-
18. Current work appears to bear out this hypothesis.
Another aspect of work in this laboratory is an investigation of the
feasibility of determination of oxygen-18 by neutron activation, in col-
laboration with the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University
of Florida. The sensitivity of the mass spectrometric analysis of oxygen-18
has been compared to the neutron activation analysis of this isotope, and
the two methods appear to be equally sensitive, and therefore, equally
useful as analytical tools.

Annual Report, 1964 87


State Project 1118 D. B. Ward
Final manuscript has been prepared on the portions of the state's flora
contained within the genera Conyza (Compositae), Corydalis and Fumaria
(Fumariaceae), and Ipomoea and Jacquemontia (Convolvulaceae). Keys
and preliminary manuscript have been assembled for Vicia (Leguminosae)
and Hypoxis (Amaryllidaceae).
With the expectation of providing a much needed list of the state's
vascular plants at an earlier date than that of the completion of the Flora
itself, work was initiated on an abbreviated checklist to consist solely of
the plant names, both scientific and common. This checklist is to be con-
sidered only a preliminary guide, subject to revision as the Flora itself
progresses. Approximately 20 percent of it, containing the ferns, the
gymnosperms, the grasses and sedges, as well as related smaller groups,
was completed during the latter part of the year. Present expectation is
to complete this checklist as quickly as possible and make it available as
a Station publication.
Initial calculations were made and an IBM program was prepared to
enable the flora of the state to be divided into areas of maximum biotic
diversity. If this program develops as expected, it will be expanded to
constitute a separate project.


Hatch Project 1191 D. S. Anthony
This project involves an investigation of the biochemical effects of high
temperatures in plants. The two species of plants currently under study
are the common pea (Pisium sativum) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The free
amino acids are the first class of substances to be investigated.
The total amount of free amino acids is markedly increased in the pea
grown at high temperatures (30C day temperature and 23'C night tem-
perature) as compared to those grown at approximately optimum temper-
atures (23 day and 17 night). Samples were taken at approximately
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after germination. The elevation of total free
amino acid at the high temperature was observed in all samples. The
increase was greatest at 2 weeks and least at 3 weeks. All comparisons
were made on plants of the same physiological age (same plastochron
index) ; care was taken to eliminate water stress as a variable by careful
and heavy watering of the plants growing in sand culture.
Assays for the amount of each individual amino acid were made by a
modification of the Moore and Stein technique. The free amino acids most
markedly elevated in amount in the peas grown at high temperature were
aspartic and glutamic acid and their amides, asparagine and glutamine, as
well as an amino acid which we believe to be methionine sulfoxide. There
was a substantial amount of a soluble peptide fraction in the high tempera-
ture series, while there was no soluble peptide fraction in extracts of the
cptimum temperature plants.
The studies on Arabidopsis are not nearly as far advanced since the
small size of the plants requires the development of more sensitive analyti-
cal techniques.
Further studies on peas will include an examination of the total soluble
protein content and perhaps some investigation of Krebs cycle acids.

88 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Another area of study only slightly related to the high temperature
experiments is an examination of the biochemical effects of Phosfon and
related growth-retardant compounds. The uptake, distribution, and me-
tabolism of these compounds will be investigated if a promising ultra-
sensitive analytical technique proves satisfactory. Currently, the major
effort is directed toward development of the analytical technique.

Annual Report, 1964


The Department of Dairy Science has expanded its facilities for
research in dairy manufacturing with the installation of: apparatus to
clean and sanitize automatically by circulation all pipe lines, pasteurizing
equipment, and milk storage tanks, including a truck mounted tank. Equip-
ment for the direct injection of steam into milk and other fluid dairy
products, followed by a vacuum treatment, also has ben installed to permit
research in flavor improvement in fluid dairy products.
Several new projects have been started, including the following: "Early
Weaning of Dairy Calves from an Extended Colostrum-High Solids Milk
Regimen" and "Feeding Systems, Nutrient Intake and Growth of Dairy
Calves". Another new project entitled "Effects of Shade on the Ability
of Dairy Cattle to Adapt to Summer Conditions" has been started to attack
the problem of summer slump in milk production of dairy cows. Facilities
have been provided to study the problem by keeping selected cows in
areas where shade is optional and other cows in areas where no shade is
available. It is planned to use the same cows throughout several lactations
in this experiment, to determine the effects of gradual subjection of the
animals to full summer conditions on milk production.
Cooperative projects have been conducted in cooperation with other
departments including Animal Science, Agricultural Economics, Agricul-
tural Engineering, and Agronomy. Dr. H. H. Head has been employed
in the capacity of assistant dairy husbandman. His chief interest is in
animal physiology. He will be using radioactive isotopes in research to
study the metabolism of certain compounds in dairy cattle. Laboratory
facilities for the handling of radioactive materials have been added.

State Project 213 J. M. Wing and C. J. Wilcox
Digestibility of the dry matter of pearlmillet ensiled without an additive
was 61.2 1.7 (standard deviation). Treatment with methyl-p hydroxy
benzoate resulted in dry matter digestibility of 63.8 1.3. The plain
pearlmillet silage contained an average of 1.55 0.02 percent digestible
protein, whereas the treated silage contained 2.07 0.03 percent. Per 1000
pounds of body weight, 93.80 pounds of the control and 91.38 pounds of
the treated silage were consumed daily. Efficiency of ensilability could not
be determined accurately because of a malfunction of the silo seal. Replica-
tion of this treatment and the effects of dried bakery product, propyl
para hydroxy benzoate, and orotic acid are in progress.

State Project 345 C. J. Wilcox
Records of length of productive lifespan and reason of disposal were
obtained from five cooperating Florida dairy herds, representing a living
population of over 1000 cows. Similar data were collected from 60 artificial
insemination studs in the United States and Canada, representing a living
population of over 3000 sires. Evaluation of these data is continuing.
The genetic aspects of actinomycosis (lumpy jaw) and actinobacillosis
(wooden tongue) were evaluated in cooperation with the Ohio Agricultural

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Experiment Station. These conditions accounted for disposal of 2.1 percent
of 16,249 males of the various dairy and beef breeds. In a survey of 29,182
cows, 0.2 percent were reported with the conditions. Differences in fre-
quencies among the dairy breeds were large. With males, the frequency
was seven times as great among Guernseys as the other breeds. Among
females, the frequency of infection was three times higher in Guernseys
than in Holsteins. There were many cases of related individuals with the
conditions, frequently at different farms or studs, and with a number of
years between time of contraction. The evidence of genetic differences
in susceptibility seemed convincing, although it was not possible to obtain
a specific heritability estimate.
(See also State Project 345, Agricultural Economics Department.)

State Project 575 C. J. Wilcox, H. H. Head,
S. P. Marshall, J. B. White,
and J. M. Wing
Records of 409 normal, single births of Jersey, Holstein, and Guernsey
calves from 1960-62 were analyzed by multiple covariance techniques.
Within-breed-year-season variances and covariances were pooled for two
analyses, first-calf heifers and older cows. Average birth weights and
gestation lengths compared well with published breed values. As expected,
males weighed more and were carried longer than females. Unadjusted
standard deviations for first-calf heifers were 7.6 pounds and 4.5 days;
for older cows, 8.2 pounds and 4.6 days, respectively. It was not possible to
detect significant effects of horn of pregnancy on birth weights or gesta-
tion lengths, nor was there evidence that prepartum dry period affected
these traits in older cows. Curvilinearity was detected in relationships
between gestation length and birth weight.
Effects of age, days open, previous dry period, and length of record
were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression techniques on 1406 Jersey
milk records from 1931-61. These variables accounted for 4.5 percent of
the variation in milk and fat yields of first-calf heifers, but had no detect-
able effect upon fat percentage. Corresponding values for older cows
were 11 percent for yields and 6 percent for fat percentage. Curvilinearity
in the effects of age, days open, and previous dry period was detected.

Hatch Project 1046 L. E. Mull and W. A. Krienke
Manufacturing trials and chemical and bacteriological analyses on
34 commercial samples of NDM have been completed. The primary ob-
jectives of this study were (1) to determine cottage cheese curd yield made
from nonfat dry milks of different composition, and (2) to apply certain
modifications in manufacturing procedure when using nonfat dry milks
containing different ratios of casein to total solids.
Results show that yield cannot be predicted with as high a degree
of accuracy on the basis of total solids as on protein content of the
reconstituted milks. Average change in curd yield amounted to approxi-
mately 1.67 percent for each 0.1 percent increment of protein content of

Annual Report, 1964

the reconstituted product, but there was no close relationship between
percent total solids in the reconstituted milk and the yield of curd which
High protein milk is preferred for cottage cheese manufacture because
of increased curd yield, firm textured, uniform curd particles with reduced
shattering, lower curd loss during manufacture, and a greater yield of
curd per unit volume of reconstituted milk.
Data are now being subjected to mathematical analyses. This project
is closed with this report.


Hatch Project 1047 C. J. Wilcox, W. A. Krienke,
(Regional S-49) J. M. Wing, L. E. Mull
and E. L. Fouts

Monthly sampling of the 180-cow station dairy herd continued with
data accumulated for local and regional use. Average yields during 1959-
62 of solids-not-fat (SNF), protein, and lactose-minerals (LM) were
as follows: Ayrshires (16 records), 825, 291, and 533 pounds, respectively;
Brown Swiss (12), 1011, 359, and 651 pounds; Guernseys (78), 763, 273,
and 489 pounds; Holsteins (97), 1180, 411, and 769 pounds; Jerseys (196),
748, 280, and 467 pounds. About 150 additional records were completed
in 1963, and a similar number are in progress in 1964.
These data are combined with data from 17 other experiment stations
in order to obtain sensitive estimates of several environmental and
genetic factors. In an analysis of 5003 Holstein lactation records, SNF
was found to average 8.67 percent with a total yield of 1081 pounds.
Noticeable variation in SNF yield due to month of freshening was noted,
reflecting seasonal effects upon milk yield and SNF percentage. Cows
freshening in December gave 107 pounds more SNF than those freshening
in July, the high and low months, respectively. Evaluation of the effects
of age of freshening is now under way.


Hatch Project 1049 K. L. Smith and C. J. Wilcox

A study was made of the relationship of coagulase, phosphatase, and
hemolysin production in bovine staphylococcal isolates with the leucocyte
count of the milk sample from which they were isolated. Approximately
94 percent of the 403 isolates tested either produced both coagulase and
phosphatase or produced neither of the enzymes. The remaining 6 percent
were capable of producing only one of the enzymes. Over 98 percent of
phosphatase positive, coagulase positive isolates produced hemolysins, but
only 75 percent of the coagulase negative, phosphatase negative isolates
produced hemolysins. Higher leucocyte counts were found in those milk
samples which contained organisms capable of producing hemolysins plus
both coagulase and phosphatase. The data collected to determine the effect
of the toxoid are being placed on IBM cards for subsequent statistical
analysis. This project will be terminated with the completion of the statis-
tical analysis.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 1053 S. P. Marshall, E. L. Fouts
and J. B. White
NK310 sorghum planted July 10, 1963, was harvested October 14 and
yielded 6.2 tons of ensilage per acre with 23.2 percent of the dry matter
as grain. Florad oats planted on the same plot were grazed with heifers
from December 4, 1963, through February 28, 1964. Body weight gains
averaged 182 pounds per acre, and the animals obtained an average of
1540 pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre from the pasture. A
subsequent planting of northern hybrid corn made March 6, 1964, was
harvested June 29 and produced an average of 10.5 tons of ensilage per
acre containing about 37 percent dry matter.
A portion of a spring planting of NK310 sorghum was ensiled when
the grain was in the milk to dough stage, and the remainder was allowed
to stand until the seed was hard. The grain then was combined, cracked,
and recombined with the forage as it was ensiled. The feeding value
of these silages and that made from DeKalb 805 corn were compared as
sole roughages of lactating cows in a changeover type feeding experiment.
Daily milk production per cow averaged 43.1 pounds on corn silage, 42.7
pounds on the crushed grain sorghum silage, and 40.9 pounds on the
sorghum ensiled in the milk to dough stage. Daily silage dry matter intake
per cow averaged 23.4, 28.3, and 17.9 pounds for the respective silages.
Concentrate intake averaged 15.6 pounds daily per cow on all silages.
(See Project 1053, Agronomy and Agricultural Engineering depart-

Hatch Project 1062 J. M. Wing
The vitamin A requirement of cattle is not known. Since normal feed-
stuffs contain no vitamin A per se, the extent to which carotene is ab-
sorbed must be determined first. Average digestibility determined under
conditions of this experiment was 59.1 6.86 percent (standard deviation).
Blood plasma content of vitamin A per ml averaged 229.4 73.2 I.U.
Liver vitamin A averaged 1813.3 I.U. 448.3 per gram. No significant
effects of season or source of carotene were discernible. Yet the possibility
that such effects exist still remains, and further research into this aspect
of the problem is in progress.

Hatch Project 1079 J. M. Wing
Dietary supplementation with iron oxide has been recommended for
Florida dairy cattle. Yet, it was not possible to produce anemia by with-
holding supplementary iron from steers on old land. Since the supplement
is only slightly soluble, much of it passes through the digestive tract and
thus may build up mineral reserves in the land.
Three comparable groups of seven cows each were assigned as follows:
Group 1, new ground with no mineral supplements; Group 2, new ground
and supplementary iron; Group 3, old ground with no supplementary iron.
Mean values of hematocrit (percent of packed red blood cells) and of

Annual Report, 1964

hemoglobin (grams per 100 ml), respectively, were as follows: Group 1,
41.47 and 9.54; Group 2, 42.18 and 10.27; Group 3, 41.27 and 10.31. All
blood constituents measured remained normal, and no differences in
general health or productive functions have been apparent during two
(See also Project 1079, Department of Animal Science.)

State Project 1114 L. E. Mull and K. L. Smith
A study of the sources of variation in counting bacteria in NDM re-
vealed that one of the largest sources of error is in weighing and diluting
the sample. Significantly higher counts were obtained when dilution bottles
tempered at 45C were used. The use of standard methods agar as com-
pared to milk protein hydrolysate agar also yielded higher results. It was
determined that the addition of each gram of powder to a dilution bottle
increases the volume approximately 0.6 ml. Although the highest average
(arithmetic average) count was obtained on samples incubated at 32C
as compared to those incubated at 30, 37, or 55oC, calculation of the loga-
rithmic average of the counts showed that the highest average counts
were obtained by incubating the plates at 30C. Analysis of the relationship
of the logarithm of the bacterial count versus incubation temperature
showed that the relationship was essentially linear with negative slope
for the incubation temperatures studied, which were 30, 32, 37, and 55oC.
Tentative identification of the cocci isolated from the powder showed 7.6
percent staphylococci and the remaining 92.4 percent streptococci. Of the
streptococci 32.8 percent were placed in the viridans group, 38.1 percent
were enterococci, 16.4 percent were of the lactic group, and 12.7 percent
were unclassified.


State Project 1137 C. J. Wilcox
This project is designed to isolate and evaluate variability in milk
and fat production associated with breed, herd, year, season of freshening,
and their various interactions. Production records from Florida dairy
herds, collected through the Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing
programs, are being utilized. No analyses have been completed as yet.
A large volume of data was added during the year, with the total number
of lactation records now in excess of 50,000.


State Project 1185 S. P. Marshall and K. L. Smith
Twelve male Jersey calves were removed from their dams at one day
of age. Three in the control group were fed from one to 22 days of age
on whole milk twice daily at the rate of 4.5 percent of body weight at
each feeding. Three calves in each of three experimental groups were fed
whole milk, skimmilk, or colostrum, respectively, ad libitum for the same
interval. Body weight gains per animal for the 21-day period averaged

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

9.0 pounds for those in the control group, and for the groups fed ad libitum,
averages were 45.7, 34.3, and 22.7 for those fed whole milk, skimmilk, and
colostrum, respectively. Differences in average rates of gains were signi-
ficant. Average pounds of milk consumed per pound of body weight gain
were 12.9 for the control group on whole milk, and for the groups fed
ad libitum were 8.5 for those receiving whole milk, 13.1 for those on skim-
milk, and 10.7 for those fed colostrum.

State Project 1206 J. M. Wing
Early weaning of dairy calves saves market milk and allows oppor-
tunity for use of automated systems. Especially good nutrition during the
milk feeding period may be provided by high solids milk if some colostrum
is included also. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the mini-
mum practical age for weaning to simple feeds without complicated
formulas and procedures. Of seven calves weaned at three weeks of age
to concentrates without minerals, only one survived. With supplemental
iron, copper, and cobalt, four of five lived. At 28 days of age, weaning
offered no problems, but further research into the effects of mineral sup-
plementation and subsequent development of early weaned calves seems

State Project 1207 J. M. Wing, H. H. Head,
and C. J. Wilcox
This project is designed to determine whether gradual conditioning
can help dairy cattle to change from cold weather to summer.physiological
status, thus alleviating losses in milk production due to hot weather.
Twenty-four lots have been constructed with facilities for determining
feed consumption. Twelve have been equipped with shade shelters. Two
comparable groups of 12 cows have been assigned to the experiment and
will remain in the lots continuously except when being milked. Data include
determination of the reduction in sky and ground radiation effected by
the shade, production and composition of milk, two-day average body
weights at monthly intervals, consumption of feed, and periodic determina-
tions of other physiological functions which appear to warrant investigation
following initial tests.

Dried Bakery Product in Dairy Cattle Rations. On the basis of
chemical composition, dried bakery product appears to be an excellent
feedstuff, but animal performance data are lacking. This product contains
cooked ingredients and thus could afford special benefits through its
effect on rumen organisms. The present experiment was accomplished by
means of a double reversal trial balanced for carryover effects. There were
four squares, each of which contained three cows of the same breed; six
Jerseys and six Holsteins were used. Average daily production in pounds

Annual Report, 1964

of 4 percent fat corrected milk by the control group was 29.9 compared
with 31.3 and 29.9, respectively, for low and high levels of dried bakery
product as a substitute for corn and citrus pulp. The results indicated
that the dried bakery product is a very satisfactory feed. Its main value
appeared to be as a source of energy. Further research into the funda-
mental effects of such products with both cows and calves is planned.
(J. M. Wing)

Growth and Development of the Bovine Fetus.-During the past year,
13 fetuses (7 male and 6 female) and 19 nongravid uteri were obtained
upon disposal of dairy cattle from the station herd. Ages of the fetuses
at slaughter were within the range 58 to 207 days. Both the gravid and
nongravid reproductive organs obtained were dissected, and observations
were recorded on size, weight, and ovarian status. Fetuses were visually
observed, weighed, and dissected according to previously followed proce-
dures which gave individual fetal organ weights.
With the addition of these specimens there have now accumulated 140
fetal dissections from which to construct the growth pattern of fetal
organs and 355 nongravid uteri from which base observations may be
obtained. It may further be possible to evaluate critically recent repro-
ductive performance of the nongravid females with their known repro-
ductive organ status. The collection of such specimens will be continued
and will include compositional analyses of several fetal organs. (H. H.
Head, C. J. Wilcox, with R. B. Becker cooperating)
Some Observations on Plasma Free Fatty Acid Levels in Dairy Cattle.-
Blood plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels have been estimated in open
and pregnant nonlactating dairy cattle and in nonruminating and rumi-
nating calves. In all cases the plasma levels fell within the range observed
in nonruminants, namely 0.2 to 2.0 micro equivalents per liter. No con-
sistent differences in plasma levels were attributable to the different
physiological states represented by the animals studied.
In fasted cows (16-18 hours) plasma FFA levels were higher than
in fed animals. Intravenous infusions of volatile fatty acids in these fasted
animals gave rise to increased blood plasma glucose levels; however, there
were only minimal concurrent decreases in the FFA levels. Factors con-
tributing to spontaneous variations in plasma FFA concentration have
been investigated prior to undertaking quantitative studies of FFA
metabolism in dairy cattle. (H. H. Head)
Freezing Point of Milk.-A total of 612 cryoscopic examinations were
made on individual cow samples of raw milk from February through July.
Of these 150 were in February, 116 in July, and the remainder in March,
April, and May. The data represent Holstein, Jersey, Guernsey, Ayrshire,
and Brown Swiss milks.
For February the average freezing point of milk for the 150 individual
cows was -0.546C and for the 116 cows in July it was -0.5400C. Of the
150 cows being milked in February 85 were still being milked in July,
the average freezing points for milks of the same 85 cows were -0.547C
for February and -0.541oC for July.
The breakdown by breeds was as follows for all cows being milked
both in February and in July: Holsteins, February, 44 cows, -0.545oC; and
July, 38 cows, -0.537oC; Jerseys, February, 69 cows, -0.547C; and July,
54 cows, -0.542C; Guernseys, February, 25 cows, -0.547C; and July, 16
cows, -0.538C; combined Ayrshire and Brown Swiss, February, 12 cows,
-0.546C; July, 8 cows, -0.541oC. For the same 29 Holsteins being milked

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

in February and July the respective values were -0.545C and -0.538C;
for the same 38 Jerseys, -0.547C and -0.543C; for the same 11 Guernseys,
-0.547C and -0.538C. Only a few Ayrshire and Brown Swiss were milked
in both February and July, and no averages are being reported because
of the small number of samples.
For all practical purposes to the commercial milk producers and milk
processors, the data show no difference in freezing point values of milk
among the five major dairy breeds and no differences during climatic
and/or stage of lactation changes (6-month period, February through
July 1964). (W. A. Krienke)
Rate of Acid Production in Lactic Cultures.-A formula is available for
determining the metabolic rate per bacterial cell. The only variables in the
formula are metabolic product, number of bacterial cells, and time. This
formula was used to determine the rate of lactic acid production per cell
in milk, using a commercial starter. The number of cells was determined
by multiplying the plate count by the average number of cells per chain
as observed under the microscope. The lactic acid present was determined
by titrating a 50 ml sample to the phenolphthalein endpoint using 1/10 N
sodium hydroxide. At 32C incubation temperature, the acid production
was 6.6 x 10l10 mg per cell per hour, and the generation time was 1.3
hours. This method will be used to study the effect of incubation tempera-
ture and milk composition on the rate of lactic acid production. (K. L.

Annual Report, 1964


A major special project of the year was assisting the Provost for
Agriculture in the mass media phase of Operation DARE, which has as
its objective to Develop Agricultural Resources Effectively between now.
and 1975. Other activities included a preliminary research study to dis-
cover the effectiveness of the department's news program and developing
final plans for a 3-year research project delving into several phases of
mass media. In July a staff member transferred to the President's office
to become the assistant to the president of the University of Florida.


The Station printed 150,000 copies of 19 new bulletins totaling 604
pages, and 57,000 copies of seven new circulars totaling 88 pages. Two
bulletins and one circular were reprinted. These totaled 136 pages and
30,000 copies. Also during the year four 20-page Sunshine State Agricul-
tural Research Reports were printed and distributed to 6,850 subscribers
per issue.

Publications printed were:

Bul. 661 Raising Domestic Rabbits in Florida. L. R.
Arrington ... ----- -

Bul. 662 Beef Cattle Production on Organic Soils of
South Florida. H. L. Chapman, Jr., R. W.
Kidder, C. E. Haines, R. J. Allen, Jr., V
E. Green, Jr., W. T. Forsee, Jr. .---------
Bul. 663 Environmental Factors Affecting Weaning
Weights of Beef Cattle in the Everglades.
J. H. Meade, Jr., R. W. Kidder, M. Koger,
J. R. Crockett ----
Bul. 664 Gladiolus Corm Production in Florida. R. O.
Magie, A. J. Overman, W. E. Waters .---
Bul. 665 Supplemental Feeding of Beef Cattle on Pas-
ture in South Florida. H. L. Chapman, Jr.,
F. M. Peacock, W. G. Kirk, R. L. Shirley,
T. J. Cunha --. -- ------
Bul. 666 Oral and Implanted Stilbestrol for Beef
Cattle Fattened on Pasture and in Drylot.
H. L. Chapman, Jr., A. Z. Palmer, R. W. Kid-
der, J. W. Carpenter, C. E. Haines -----
Bul. 667 Effect of Winter Gains of Beef Calves on
Subsequent Feedlot Performance. F. M. Pea-
cock, W. G. Kirk, E. M. Hodges, A. Z. Palmer,
J. W. Carpenter -------- ----------- ----
Bul. 668 Market Organization and Practices for Pota-
toes in the Hastings Area of Florida. R. E. L.
Greene, Paul T. Blair _------------

Pages Printed

28 10,000

56 10,000

12 5,000

48 5,000

28 10,000

16 7,500

12 10,000

100 5,000

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Bul. 669 Spring Lamb Production in Florida. P. E.
Loggins -------------

Bul. 670 Genetic Aspects of Actinomycosis and Actino-
bacillosis in Cattle. R. B. Becker, C. J.
Wilcox, C. F. Simpson, L. O. Gilmore, N. S.
Fechheimer --------------

Bul. 671 Rural Areas in Transition A Study of the
Impact of Off-Farm Employment in a Low-
Income Farm Area of Florida. Daniel E.
Alleger ....--- --------

Bul. 672 Florida Cooperatives. H. G. Hamilton, Maxey
Love, A. H. Spurlock ---------

Bul. 673 Systems of Crossbreeding for Beef Pro-
duction in Florida. R. W. Kidder, M. Koger,
J. W. Meade, J. R. Crockett ------

Bul. 674 Copper and Cobalt for Beef Cattle. H. L.
Chapman, Jr., R. W. Kidder -

Bul. 675 Finishing Cattle in North Florida, F. S.
Baker, Jr. -------------------

Bul. 676 Evaluation of Several Combinations of Grass-
es and White Clover on Immokalee Fine
Sand in South Florida. Albert E. Krestchmer,
Jr., Norman C. Hayslip --------

Bul. 677 Citrus Molasses. R. Hendrickson, J. W.
Kesterson --------------------

Bul. 678 Effect of Protein Intake on Gains, Repro-
duction, and Blood Constituents of Beef
Cattle. E. Bedrak, A. C. Warnick, J. F.
Hentges, Jr., T. J. Cunha -----
Bul. 679 Production and Utilization of Corn Silage
on Organic Soil. H. L. Chapman, Jr., C. E.
Haines, V. E. Green, Jr., R. W. Kidder -

Cir. S-146 Blue Lupines for Grazing and for Soil Im-
provement in Florida. J. R. Edwardson, H.
D. Wells, I. Forbes, Jr. ....----
Cir. S-147 Marketing Florida Vine-Ripened Tomatoes.
W. T. Manley, M. R. Godwin ---
Cir. S-148 Jubilee A Black-Seeded Garrison-Type
Watermelon. J. M. Crall ----
Cir. S-149 Smutgrass Control. J. E. McCaleb, E. M.
Hodges, W. G. Kirk .----------
Cir. S-150 Specific Gravity as a Means of Estimating
Juice Yield of Freeze Damaged Valencia
Oranges. Roy G. Stout _---------------

20 5,000

24 7,500

36 5,000

56 7,500

20 15,000

16 7,500

36 15,000

16 5,000

28 5,000

32 5,000

20 10,000

8 10,000

24 5,000

8 10,000

12 5,000

12 10,000

Annual Report, 1964 99

Cir. S-151 Three Citrus Rootstocks Recommended for
Trial in Spreading Decline Areas. H. W.
Ford, W. A. Feder ..---------------- 8 12,000
Cir. S-152 Oats and Rye for Grazing on Florida Flat-
woods. J. E. McCaleb, F. M. Peacock, E. M.
Hodges ---------- 16 5,000
Publications revised and/or reprinted were:
Bul. 635 Factors Influencing Winter Gains of Beef
Calves. F. M. Peacock, J. E. McCaleb, E.
M. Hodges, W. G. Kirk .-.------------ 12 5,000
Bul. 619A Insects and Diseases of the Pecan in Florida.
Arthur M. Phillips, John R. Large, John R.
Cole -------------- 88 15,000
Cir. S-135A Information to Consider in the Use of Flat-
woods and Marshes for Citrus. J. W. Sites, L.
C. Hammond, R. G. Leighty, W. O. Johnson,
K. D. Butson 36 10,000

To keep pace with rapidly changing trends in population and radio
listening habits, radio releases were redesigned to appeal to the vast
general audience of consumers rural and urban alike. The releases
were designed: (1) to tell all Floridians how efficient agriculture benefits
our state's total economy and amazingly high standard of living; (2) to
explain the vital importance of agricultural research and education; and
(3) to provide educational information on nearly every phase of Florida
During the period new facilities have allowed the radio program to
expand greatly. Current production and distribution includes 11,856 pro-
grams and 16,380 spot exposures per year. This is a composite annual total
of 28,236. If there were only 500 listeners per exposure, the radio mass
media programs had 14,118,000 exposures to Florida residents with Experi-
ment Station information. To purchase comparable commercial time on
radio stations now served would cost an estimated $179,000.
Television programming was expanded. The transition from 15-minute
filmed shows to 5-minute video taped shows provided a greater demand for
the tapes by commercial and educational channels. The goals of the tele-
vision shows were the same as for radio. A conservative estimate indicates
that at least 10,000,000 exposures were made annually, which was valued
at well over $100,000 worth of free television time.
Newspapers continued to be the standard mass media approach to
reaching the entire state with educational information. All newspapers,
magazines, and wire services were furnished with information.

Papers by research staff members continued to be printed in large
numbers. The series now contains more than 1,890 listings. Following
is a list of Journal Series articles printed during the year and those not
previously listed:
1067. Some Effect of Day Length and Temperature on Cold Hardiness
of Citrus. G. S. Nijjar, John W. Sites. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
72:106-109. 1959.