Front Cover
 Title Page
 Map of Florida agricultural experiment...
 Table of Contents
 Agricultural experiment stations...
 Report of the director
 Report of the administrative...
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering
 Animal science
 Dairy science
 Food technology and nutrition
 Fruit crops
 Ornamental horticulture
 Plant pathology
 Plant science section
 Poultry science
 Vegetable crops
 Veterinary science department
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Indian River field laboratory
 Everglades station
 Plantation field laboratory
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Marianna field laboratory
 Range cattle station
 Subtropical station
 Suwannee Valley station
 West central Florida station
 West Florida station
 Federal-state frost warning...
 Potato investigation laborator...
 Strawberry investigation labor...
 Watermelon and grape investigation...

Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00010
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1962
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00010
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Map of Florida agricultural experiment stations
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Agricultural experiment stations staff
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Report of the director
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Agricultural economics
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Animal science
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Dairy science
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Food technology and nutrition
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Fruit crops
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Ornamental horticulture
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Plant pathology
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    Plant science section
        Page 148
    Poultry science
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    Vegetable crops
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
    Veterinary science department
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    Central Florida station
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
    Citrus station
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
    Indian River field laboratory
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
    Everglades station
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
    Plantation field laboratory
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
    North Florida station
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
    Marianna field laboratory
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
    Range cattle station
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
    Subtropical station
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
    Suwannee Valley station
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
    West central Florida station
        Page 339
    West Florida station
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
    Federal-state frost warning service
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
    Potato investigation laboratory
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
    Strawberry investigation laboratory
        Page 354
        Page 355
    Watermelon and grape investigation laboratory
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
Full Text

B -;-






JUNE 30, 1962







JUNE 30, 1962

10Jay \ OrLMES /
f 4 ,. -I ti7 ;-- % a S MonatiCello.
S LTN ,' .Quincy Monti LTOT
S-- -... .. .. .. .r .i 0N --'
'ERIMENT STATION /- ''. .. ,










Agricultural Experiment Stations Staff ............................-.... 4
Report of the D director .................................................... 14
Report of the Administrative Manager ...................................... 22
Agricultural Economics ..- ...- .. ... ..... ................ ............... 24
Agricultural Engineering .................. ................ ........ .... 41
Agronom y -- -.............. ...................-....- 47
A nim al Science .... ...... ......... .......... ...-.. ........ 64
Botany ..............-....... ..-.......-. ....... .................. 80
D airy Science ......................... -.........-... .... .......- .. 83
E editorial ...... ........ ......- ......- ...-- ........- -.... ....- ...... 91
E ntom ology .....................................-... .....- ................ 103
Food Technology and Nutrition .......... --.... .- ........................-.. 111
Forestry ....................... ............................... 119
Fruit Crops .......................................... ........ ... 126
Library ..........................---.....--. --..... -- --------------- ......... 131
Ornamental Horticulture ............................................... 133
Plant Pathology .............. ........... ................ ........... 139
Plant Science Section ........................................ .. ........ 148
Poultry Science ........-.....---.... ...-.. .....--. ..... ......... 149
Soils .............. .. ............. .. --- ....... .. ... ..... .... 154
Statistics ... .... ..... ......-----. .. 171
Vegetable Crops ............ ..- .. ....- ............. -- ..... ...... 17 172
Veterinary Science .. -...... ..... .. ...........-- ..-- -- .. 181
Central Florida Station .............
Citrus Station --....... ................. -.. .--- ...- ..- ..-- ...- ....--..- 20-
Indian River Field Laboratory .-...----- .......................-- 233
Everglades Station .....-. ....--.....-----. -
Indian River Field Laboratory .......... .......----.................. 260
Plantation Field Laboratory ..........-................ -- .........- 269
Gulf Coast Station ......... .................... .............. --
South Florida Field Laboratory ............ --------------------- ...... 293
North Florida Station .......- .......... .........----- ............ --- ....... 298
Marianna Field Laboratory --............ ---........-.................. --311
Range Cattle Station ............................... ................ .................... 314
Sub-Tropical Station .....................-..-- .........--- ---- ..... ..... 324--
Suwannee Valley Station .................... ............................ 336
W est Central Florida Station .................. .. ....................... 339
W est Florida Station ............... .... ........ ...... .. .............. 340
Federal-State Frost Warning Service ................................. ..... 345
Potato Investigations Laboratory .................. ..................... 348
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory _...--.........- .......... .......... 354
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory .............................. 356

B. M. Harrison, Jr., Chairman, St. Petersburg
Frank M. Buchanan, Vice Chairman, Miami
John C. Pace, Pensacola
Ralph L. Miller, Orlando
S. Kendrick Guernsey, Jacksonville
Charles R. Forman, Ft. Lauderdale
Gert H. W. Schmidt, Jacksonville
J. Broward Culpepper, Executive Director, Tallahassee

J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., President
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for Agriculture
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Director
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Assoc. Director
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Director
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Superintendent of Field Operations
W. H. Jones, Jr., M. Agr., Asst. Superintendent of Field Operations

The following abbreviations after name and title of Experiment Station
Staff indicate cooperation with other organizations:
Coll.-University of Florida College of Agriculture
Ext.-University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service
USDA-United States Department of Agriculture
USWB-United States Weather Bureau
FCC-Florida Citrus Commission

Agricultural Economics Department
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and Head; also Coll.
and Ext.
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Assoc. Agricultural Economist
C. J. Arnold, Ph.D., Int. Assoc. Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Assoc. Agricultural Economist
W. F. Chapman, M.S., Asst. in Agricultural Economics, USDA
H. B. Clark, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
E. G. Close, M.S., Int. Asst. in Agricultural Economics
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Marketing Economist; also Coll. (on Iv. of absence)
G. G. Goshorn, B.S., Asst. in Agricultural Economics, Orlando
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
J. R. Greenman, B.S.A., LL.B., Agricultural Economist; also Coll., (on
Iv. of absence)
R. R. Hancock, M.S., Asst. Agricultural Statistician, Orlando
A. B. Krienke, M.S., Int. Asst. in Agricultural Economics
Billie S. Lloyd, B.S., Int. Asst. in Agricultural Economics
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.

L. D. Marquis, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Agricultural Statistician, Orlando
W. T. Manley, Ph.D., Asst. Agricultural Economist, USDA
J. E. Mullin, B.S., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
C. E. Murphree, D.P.A., Assoc. Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
C. A. Ouzts, B.S., Asst. in Agricultural Statistics, USDA
L. A. Reuss, M.S., Agricultural Economist, USDA
W. B. Riggan, B.S., Asst. Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
G. N. Rose, B.S., Assoc. Agricultural Economist, Orlando
G. A. Rowe, B.S.A., Asst. Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
C. N. Smith, Ph.D., Assoc. Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
J. F. Steffens, Jr., B.S.B.A., Assoc. in Agricultural Statistics, USDA,
R. G. Stout, Ph.D., Asst. Agricultural Economist, Orlando
J. C. Townsend, B.S.A., Agricultural Statistician, Orlando, USDA
H. G. Witt, M.S.A., Asst. Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando

Agricultural Engineering Department
D. T. Kinard, Ph.D., Agricultural Engineer and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
E. K. Bowman, B.S., Assoc. Industrial Engineer, USDA
R. E. Choate, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
W. G. Grizzell, B.I.E., Asst. Agricultural Engineer, USDA
E. S. Holmes, M.S., Asst. Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
J. B. Richardson, M.S., Asst. Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
I. J. Ross, Ph.D., Asst. Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
G. E. Yost, B.S., Asst. Agricultural Engineer, USDA

Agronomy Department
F. H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist and Head; also Coll.
K. D. Butson, M.S., State Climatologist, USWB
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
F. Clark, M.S.A., Assoc. Agronomist
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Assoc. Agronomist; also Coll.
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
K. Hinson, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist, USDA
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assoc. Agronomist; also Coll.
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
A. J. Norden, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist; also Coll.
P. L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
G. M. Prine, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Agronomist; also Coll.
0. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist; also Coll.
S. C. Schank, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist; also Coll.
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist; also Coll.
S. H. West, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist, USDA
Merrill Wilcox, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist; also Coll.

Animal Science Department

T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Asst. Animal Nutritionist
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Assoc. Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. W. Carpenter, Ph.D., Asst. Meat Scientist
G. E. Combs, Ph.D., Asst. Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Dir. of Nuclear Science
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Assoc. Biochemist

J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Assoc. Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
Marvin Koger, Ph.D., Animal Geneticist; also Coll.
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Asst. Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
J. E. Moore, Ph.D., Asst. Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Assoc. Meat Scientist; also Coll.
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
D. L. Wakeman, M.S.A., Asst. Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Assoc. Animal Physiologist; also Coll.

Botany Department

G. R. Noggle, Ph.D., Botanist and Head; also Coll.
D. S. Anthony, Ph.D., Assoc. Biochemist; also Coll.
G. J. Fritz, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Physiologist
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Assoc. Biochemist
Yoneo Sagawa, Ph.D., Asst. Botanist; also Coll.
D. B. Ward, Ph.D., Asst. Botanist; also Coll.

Dairy Science Department
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist and Head; also Coll.
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Assoc. Dairy Technologist; also Coil
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
K. L. Smith, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
C. J. Wilcox, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Assoc. Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.

West Florida Dairy Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Assoc. Dairy Husbandman

Editorial Department
Hervey Sharpe, Ph.D., Editor and Head; also Ext.
W. P. Coulter, A.B., Asst. Editor
W. G. Mitchell, M.S.A., Assoc. Editor; also Ext.
Mary C. Williams, B.A., Asst. Editor

Entomology Department
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist and Head
A. A. DiEdwardo, Ph.D., Asst. Nematologist
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
F. A. Lee, M.A., Int. Asst. Entomologist
V. G. Perry, Ph.D., Nematologist; also Coll.
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
R. C. Wilkinson, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist

Food Technology and Nutrition Department
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biochemist and Head; also Coll.
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Assoc. Horticulturist
F. W. Knapp, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist; also Coll.
G. D. Kuhn, M.S., Asst. Food Microbiologist; also Coll.

H. P. Pan, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
R. C. Robbins, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist; also Coll.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulturist
Ruth 0. Townsend, R.N., Asst. in Nutrition
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Assoc. Biochemist

Forestry Department

C. M. Kaufman, Ph.D., Forester and Head; also Coll.
S. L. Beckwith, Ph.D., Assoc. Forester; also Coll.
P. W. Frazer, M.F., Assoc. Forester; also Coll.
C. G. Geltz, M.S., Forester; also Coll.
R. E. Goddard, Ph.D., Asst. Geneticist; also Coll.
J. B. Huffman, D.F., Assoc. Forester; also Coll.
J. W. Miller, Jr., M.S.F., Forester; also Coll.
W. J. Peters, B.S., Int. Asst. in Forestry
D. M. Post, M.S.F., Asst. Forester; also Coll.
E. T. Sullivan, D.F., Assoc. Forester; also Coll.
K. R. Swinford, Ph.D., Forester; also Coll.
R. K. Strickland, M.S., Int. Asst. in Forestry
J. W. Willingham, Ph.D., Assoc. Forester; also Coll.

Fruit Crops Department

A. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Ext.
R. H. Biggs, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. F. Gerber, Ph.D., Asst. Climatologist
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Horticulturist
J. S. Shoemaker, Ph.D., Horticulturist
M. J. Soule, Jr., Ph.D., Assoc. Horticulturist; also Coll.


Ida K. Cresap, Librarian
A. C. Strickland, Asst. in Library
Janie L. Tyson, Asst. in Library

Ornamental Horticulture Department

E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Horticulturist
G. C. Horn, Ph.D., Assoc. Turf Technologist; also Coll.
J. N. Joiner, Ph.D., Assoc. Ornamental Horticulturist; also Coll.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
R. T. Poole, Jr., M.S.A., Int. Research Assoc.
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist; also Coll.

Plant Pathology Department

P. Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head; also Coll.
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Assoc. Virologist
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
M. K. Corbett, Ph.D., Assoc. Virologist
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, USDA
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist
D. A. Roberts, Ph.D., Assoc. Plant Pathologist; also Coll.
R. F. Stouffer, Ph.D., Asst. Virologist
E. West, M.S., Botanist and Mycologist; also Coll.

Plant Science Section
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist in Charge

Poultry Science Department
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman and Head; also Coll. and
R. E. Cook, Ph.D., Asst. Poultry Geneticist; also Coll.
R. H. Harms, Ph.D., Assoc. Poultry Nutritionist; also Coll.
F. R. Tarver, Jr., M.S., Asst. Poultry Husbandman; also Coll. (on Iv.
of absence)

Soils Department
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist and Head; also Coll.
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Assoc. Biochemist
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chemist
G. A. Brown, B.S.A., Asst. Soils Surveyor
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Assoc. Chemist; also Coll.
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Assoc. Soils Microbiologist
J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Biochemist; also Coll.
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Assoc. Soils Physicist; also Coll.
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Assoc. Soils Surveyor
T. C. Mathews, B.S.A., Asst. Soils Surveyor (on Iv. of absence)
H. L. Popenoe, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Microbiologist; also Coll.
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soils Technologist
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Assoc. Chemist
D. F. Rothwell, Ph.D., Assoc. Soils Microbiologist; also Coll.
D. O. Spinks, Ph.D., Soils Chemist; also Coll.
M. M. Striker, B.S.A., Int. Asst. Soils Surveyor
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Asst. Chemist
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist

Statistical Department
A. E. Brandt, Ph.D., Statistician and Head

Vegetable Crops Department
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
D. D. Gull, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
S. J. Locascio, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist; also Coll.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Assoc. Horticulturist; also Coll.

Veterinary Science Department
G. T. Edds, Ph.D., Veterinarian and Head; also Coll.
D. D. Cox, Ph.D., Asst. Parasitologist; also Coll.
Margarete G. Goerigk, D.V.M., Asst. in Bacteriology
A. J. Kniazeff, Ph.D., Assoc. Virologist
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Pathologist; also Coll.
W. M. Stone, Jr., M.S., Asst. in Parasitology
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist; also Coll.
F. H. White, Ph.D., Assoc. Bacteriologist


J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist in Charge
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Assoc. Plant Pathologist
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chemist
H. L. Rhoades, Ph.D., Asst. Nematologist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Assoc. Horticulturist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Horticulturist
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist

H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
G. E. Alberding, B.S., Asst. in Chemistry, FCC
L. B. Anderson, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. in Entomology-Pathology
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Chemist, FCC
J. A. Attaway, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist, FCC
R. W. Barron, B.A., Asst. in Chemistry, FCC
R. F. Brooks, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
R. J. Collins, M.S., Int. Asst. Horticulturist
G. E. Coppock, M.S., Assoc. Agricultural Engineer, FCC
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Asst. in Entomology-Pathology
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Asst. Chemical Engineer, FCC
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Asst. in Chemistry
A. W. Feldman, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Francine E. Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Assoc. Horticulturist
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Asst. in Entomology-Pathology
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
C. I. Hannon, Ph.D., Asst. Nematologist
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Physiologist, FCC
C. H. Hendershott, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Assoc. Chemist
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Asst. Bacteriologist, FCC
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Asst. in Entomology-Pathology
E. F. Hopkins, Ph.D., Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Assoc. Chemist, FCC
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Assoc. Entomologist
P. J. Jutras, M.S., Asst. Agricultural Engineer
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Chemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. C. Koo, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
D. W. Kretchman, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Assoc. Horticulturist
S. K. Long, Ph.D., Asst. Industrial Bacteriologist
W. G. Long, Ph.D., Assoc. Chemist
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist, FCC
M. D. Maraulja, B.S., Asst. in Chemistry, FCC
W. R. Meagher, Ph.D., Assoc. Chemist
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Chemist, FCC
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Assoc. Biochemist
M. F. Oberbaucher, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
R. Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist

A. H. Rouse, M.S., Pectin Chemist
G. F. Ryan, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Lila L. Sebring, M.S., Asst. in Library
A. G. Selhime, B.S., Asst. Entomologist, USDA
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
H. O. Sterling, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Nematologist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Assoc. Horticulturist
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Asst. in Entomology-Pathology
H. M. Vines, Ph.D., Assoc. Biochemist, FCC
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Assoc. Chemist, FCC

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 1351, Fort Pierce
Mortimer Cohen, Ph.D., Assoc. Plant Pathologist
R. C. Bullock, Ph.D., Assoc. Entomologist
D. V. Calvert, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chemist

W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chemist
M. H. Byrom, M.S., Agricultural Engineer, USDA
T. W. Casselman, M.S., Asst. Agricultural Engineer
H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Assoc. Animal Husbandman
J. C. Crockett, B.S., Int. Asst. in Animal Husbandry
D. W. Fisher, M.S., Assoc. Agronomist, USDA
W. G. Genung, M.S., Assoc. Entomologist
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Assoc. Agronomist
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Assoc. Horticulturist
C. E. Haines, Ph.D., Asst. Animal Husbandman
E. D. Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
C. C. Hortenstine, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chemist
J. F. Joyner, Asst. Agronomist, USDA
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Animal Husbandman
F. leGrand, M.S., Asst. Agronomist
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Assoc. Horticulturist
C. C. Seale, D.I.C.T.A., Assoc. Agronomist
W. H. Speir, Assistant in Hydraulic Engineering, USDA
T. E. Summers, Ph.D., Assoc. Plant Pathologist, USDA
P. L. Thayer, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
F. H. Thomas, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
C. Wehlburg, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
H. D. Whittemore, B.S.A.E., Assoc. Agricultural Engineer, USDA
F. D. Wilson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Geneticist, USDA
J. A. Winchester, Ph.D., Asst. Nematologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Assoc. Horticulturist

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 1351, Fort Pierce
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Entomologist
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Assoc. Agronomist
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist

Plantation Field Laboratory, 5305 S. W. 12th St., Fort Lauderdale
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. D. Blackburn, M.S., Asst. Agronomist, USDA
H. I. Borders, Ph.D., Assoc. Plant Pathologist
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
D. E. Seaman, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Physiologist, USDA
R. R. Smalley, Ph.D., Asst. Turf Technologist
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer, USDA
E. H. Stewart, M.S., Assoc. Soils Physicist, USDA
L. W. Weldon, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist, USDA

GULF COAST STATION, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Bradenton
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Assoc. Soils Chemist
E. L. Hobbs, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
D. G. A. Kelbert, Assoc. Horticulturist
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Amegda J. Overman, M.S., Asst. Soils Microbiologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. E. Waters, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist

South Florida Field Laboratory, Box 973, Immokalee
P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chemist

W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
F. S. Baker, Jr., M.S.A., Assoc. Animal Husbandman
C. E. Dean, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
D. T. Sechler, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Asst. Entomologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Assoc. Agronomist
W. D. Woodward, M.S., Asst. Soils Chemist
H. W. Young, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist

Marianna Unit, Box 504, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Assoc. Agronomist

E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist, Acting in Charge
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge (on Iv. of absence)
C. L. Dantzman, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chemist
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Asst. Animal Husbandman

SUBTROPICAL STATION, Route 1, Box 560, Homestead
G. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist

C. W. Campbell, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Assoc. Chemist
L. A. McFadden, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
P. G. Orth, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chemist
J. Popenoe, Ph.D., Assoc. Horticulturist
J. W. Strobel, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Horticulturist

H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Assoc. Agronomist in Charge

W. C. Burns, M.S., Asst. Animal Husbandman in Charge, USDA

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
L. S. Dunavin, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
R. L. Smith, M.S., Assoc. Agronomist


Potato Investigations Laboratory, Box 728, Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
D. R. Hensel, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chemist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. B. Workman, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist

Pecan Investigations Laboratory, Box A, Monticello
J. R. Large, M.S., Assoc. Plant Pathologist
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Assoc. Entomologist

Strawberry Investigations Laboratory, Plant City (Box 2386, Lakeland)
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Paul Sutton, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Box 321, Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
W. C. Alderz, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
C. H. Curran, D.Sc., Entomologist
J. A. Mortensen, Ph.D., Asst. Geneticist
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
L. H. Stover, Asst. in Horticulture

Weather Forecasting Service, Box 1058, Lakeland
W. O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in Charge, USWB
J. G. George, B.S., Principal Asst. Meteorologist, USWB
L. L. Benson, B.S., Asst. Meteorologist, USWB
G. R. Davis, B.S., Asst. Meteorologist

R. H. Dean, Asst. Meteorologist, USWB
W. F. Mincey, Asst. Meteorologist, USWB
B. H. Moore, B.A., Asst. Meteorologist, USWB
0. N. Norman, B.S., Asst. Meteorologist, USWB
R. T. Sherouse, Asst. Meteorologist, USWB
A. W. Smith, Special Meteorologist Observer
W. R. Wallis, B.S., Asst. Meteorologist
H. E. Yates, Asst. Meteorologist, USWB


Three-quarters of a century is a long time. It has been 75 years since
the Hatch Act of 1887 was passed which led to the establishment of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station system. On this anniversary date,
we pause to reflect on the progress of agriculture in Florida. The progress
has been tremendous, and much of the progress is the result of the accom-
panying agricultural research program. Frankly, we are very proud of the
contributions of research and the growth of Florida's agriculture from vir-
tually a squatter subsistence to nearly a billion dollar income for producers
of agricultural products. And, since the depression in the early 1930's, the
growth of Florida agriculture has been at a rate 30 per cent greater than
the United States as a whole. This proves that our research program has
been effective. It shows that the overall program has found ways by sci-
entific methods to take advantage of the soil, water, and climatic resources,
to produce many diversified crops and livestock for the benefit of the total
economy of Florida.
But, researchwise, much more remains to be done. The potential for
continued growth and development in the future appears to be greater than
ever before.
Major capital improvements for much needed facilities continue at a
snail's pace in the space age. Replacements have not kept up with needs,
so the overall quality of facilities is deteriorating. This in turn certainly
does adversely affect the progress of the total research program.
At the end of the year two $50,000 appropriations of the 1961 Legisla-
ture for relocation and facilities at the Strawberry Investigations Labora-
tory, Plant City, and the Pecan Investigations Laboratory, Monticello, re-
spectively, had not been released. If released in time during the coming
year, the research programs at these two locations will be materially im-
Some construction during the year has eased the pain in the more criti-
cal areas. Because of the critical shortage of laboratory and office space
at the Citrus Experiment Station, through financial support of the Florida
Citrus Commission, this need was lessened by remodeling and refurbishing
a portion of the Processing Building. A much needed repair and remod-
eling of the Production Building also was accomplished. A Legislative
appropriation of $20,000 for a Citrus Pulp Pilot Plant has been released,
and work is underway constructing this specialized research facility.
With the limited operating capital outlay funds available facilities such
as greenhouses, barns, sheds, and silos were acquired as well as other im-
provements, remodeling, land clearing, and minor repairs by most of the
Departments and Stations.

New problems constantly occur in Florida's dynamic agricultural in-
dustry. The Stations' responsibility is to meet the challenges as they be-
come known, so the number of active projects underway is constantly
changing. Active projects are initiated formally in accordance with the
usually recognized procedures either by individual scientists or groups.
The team approach to solving the agricultural problems, which are continu-
ally becoming more complex, is a widespread practice throughout the Sta-
tion system. All work is carefully coordinated and evaluated for most

Annual Report, 1962

efficient use of research funds as well as most effective approach to the
solution of a problem. Research planning is a continuing process.
Following is a summary of the project changes during the year:

Projects State Hatch Regional AMA Total

Initiated 32 14 0 0 46
Completed 49 10 1 0 59
Revised 5 1 0 0 6
Total Active
(as of June 30, 1962) 316 92 12 2 422*

(* The total represents a reduction of 13 from the previous year.)

Except for some projects which were temporarily inactive during the
year, the following reports by departments and stations contain the sum-
mary of work of all projects plus additional reports of preliminary explor-
atory research.
To obtain complete information on a given problem, commodity, or
process, the reader should consult the index, since related work may have
been done at several locations.
This report reflects an outstanding service to growers, ranches and re-
lated agricultural industries as evidenced by the research contributions
reported in the following pages. To keep the public promptly informed,
field days, short courses, and conferences were held by various departments,
branch stations and field laboratories periodically during the year.



Donald F. Rothwell, Assoc. Soils Microbiologist, Soils Dept., July 1, 1961
Daniel Owen Spinks, Soils Chemist, Soils Dept., July 1, 1961
Thomas W. Stearns, Chemist, Animal Science Dept., July 15, 1961
Ernest Lagrande Hobbs, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Station, July
16, 1961
George Frisbie Ryan, Asst. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, August 1, 1961
William Gordon Long, Assoc. Chemist, Citrus Station, September 1, 1961
Pierre Jean Jutras, Asst. Agricultural Engineer, Citrus Station, September
1, 1961
John Edward Moore, Asst. Animal Nutritionist, Animal Sci. Dept., Sept. 1,
Paul Sutton, Asst. Horticulturist, Strawberry Lab., Sept. 1, 1961
David S. Anthony, Assoc. Biochemist, Botany Dept., Sept. 1, 1961
Stanley Cox Schank, Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., Sept. 1, 1961
Mortimer James Soule, Jr., Assoc. Horticulturist, Fruit Crops Dept., Sept.
22, 1961
Richard Turk Poole, Jr., Int. Research Associate, Ornamental Horticulture
Dept., Sept. 25, 1961
David Victor Calvert, Asst. Soils Chemist, Citrus Station, October 1, 1961
Frank Averitt Lee, Int. Asst. Entomologist, Entomology Dept., Nov. 21,
Allen Griffin Selhime, Asst. Entomologist, Citrus Station, Jan. 1, 1962,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

John Federick Steffens, Jr., Assoc. Agri. Statistician, Agri. Economics,
Jan. 10, 1962, USDA
Carl Alton Ouzts, Asst. in Agri. Statistics, Economics Dept., Jan. 10, 1962,
Carl Jefferson Arnold, Int. Assoc. Agri. Economist, Agri. Econ. Dept., Feb.
1, 1962
George T. Edds, Veterinarian and Head, Vet. Sci. Dept., April 1, 1962
Mary Cilley Williams, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., April 1, 1962
William Richard Meagher, Assoc. Chemist, Citrus Station, May 1, 1962
Marion Mathias Striker, Int. Asst. Soils Surveyor, Soils Dept., May 1, 1962
William Henry Speir, Asst. in Hydraulic Engineering, Everglades Station,
May 1, 1962, USDA
Joe Edward Mullin, Agri. Statistician, Agri. Economics Dept., May 7, 1962,
Louis Cornelius Kuitert, Entomologist and Head of Dept., Entomology Dept.,
July 1, 1961
Jasper Newton Joiner, Assoc. Ornamental Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept.,
July 1, 1961
Franklin Henry White, Assoc. Bacteriologist, Vet. Science Dept., July 1, 1961
Harold Dean Wallace, Animal Scientist, Animal Science Dept., July 1, 1961
John Garth Austin Fiskell, Biochemist, Soils Dept., July 1, 1961
Joseph Reuter Orsenigo, Assoc. Horticulturist, Everglades Station, July 1,
Ivan Stewart, Biochemist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1961
Richard Leigh Huggart, Assoc. Chemist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1961, FCC
John Richard Edwardson, Assoc. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., July 1, 1961
Merwin Kenneth Corbett, Assoc. Virologist, Plant Path. Dept., July 1, 1961
Miles Hervey Sharpe, Editor and Head, Editorial Dept., December 1, 1961

William Conway Price, Virologist, from Everglades Station to Plant Path-
ology Dept., July 1, 1961
William Gordon Kirk, Vice Director in Charge, from Range Cattle Station
to Ford Foundation Burma Grant, November 1, 1961
Marshall Reid Godwin, Marketing Economist, from Agri. Economics De-
partment to Florida Citrus Commission, November 15, 1961
John Roosevelt Greenman, Economist, from Agri. Economics Department to
Ford Foundation Burma Grant, February 1, 1962

Curtis Rukes Jackson, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Station, July
15, 1961
George Lafayette Capel, Assoc. Agri. Economist, Economics Dept., August
25, 1961, USDA
Albert Benjamin Krienke, Int. Asst. in Agri. Econ., Economics Dept., Aug.
25, 1961
Ruppert Rudolph Hunziker, Asst. Soils Chemist, Citrus Station, Sept. 30,
Elmer George Close, Int. Asst. in Ag. Econ., Economics Dept., Sept. 30, 1961
James Bacto Owens, Agri. Statistician, Economics Dept., Nov. 15, 1961,
USDA, Orlando
Robert Edward Cook, Asst. Poultry Geneticist, Poultry Dept., Dec. 31, 1961
Reynolds B. Smith, Assoc. Forester, Forestry Dept., Feb. 15, 1962

Annual Report, 1962

William Franklin Spencer, Assoc. Soils Chemist, Citrus Station, Feb. 19,
Richard C. Orr, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., Mar. 31, 1962
Julius Charles Townsend, Agri. Statistician, Economics Dept., May 2, 1962,
USDA, Orlando
William M. Stone, Jr., Asst. in Parasitology, Vet. Sci. Dept., May 10, 1962
Donald E. Seaman, Asst. Plant Physiologist, Indian River Lab., June 1,
William P. Coulter, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., June 30, 1962


Joseph Robert Neller, Soils Chemist, Soils Department, June 30, 1962
Willard M. Fifield, Provost for Agriculture, June 30, 1962

Retirements Prior to 1961-62 (Emeritus)
Arthur Liston Shealy, Animal Husbandman and Head, Ani. Sci. Dept., 1949
Gulie Hargrove Blackmon, Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., 1954
Levi Otto Gratz, Asst. Director, 1954
Arthur Forrest Camp, Vice-Director in Charge, Citrus Station, 1956
Ouida Davis Abbott, Home Economist, Food Tech. and Nutr. Dept., 1958
Lillian E. Arnold, Assoc. Botanist, Plant Path. Dept., 1958
P. T. Dix Arnold, Assoc. Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Dept., 1959
Rudolf William Ruprecht, Chemist and Vice-Director, Central Fla. Station,
Jesse Roy Christie, Nematologist, Entomology Dept., 1960
Mark W. Emmel, Veterinarian, Vet. Sci. Dept., 1961
J. Francis Cooper, Editor and Head, Editorial Dept., 1961


Commercial grants and gifts accepted as support for existing programs
during the year ending June 30, 1962. Financial assistance is hereby grate-
fully acknowledged.
Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois
Poultry Science Department-$2,000
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,500
American Cyanamid, New York 20, New York
Animal Science Department-$2,500
American Cyanamid, Princeton, New Jersey
Food Technology Department-$1,000
American Oil Company, Chicago 80, Illinois
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,100
American Smelting and Refining Company, South Plainfield, New Jersey
Everglades Experiment Station-$500
Armour and Company, Chicago 9, Illinois
Animal Science Department-$3,000
Basic, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio
Citrus Experiment Station-$4,000
Brunswick Pulp and Paper Company, Brunswick, Georgia
Forestry Department-$2,000
The Buckeye Cellulose Corporation, Foley, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000
California Chemical Company, Orlando, Florida
Plant Pathology Department-$500

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Chemagro Corporation, Kansas City 20, Missouri
Central Florida Experiment Station-$1,000
Citrus Experiment Station-$500
Container Corporation of America, Fernandina Beach, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000
Continental Woodlands, Savannah, Georgia
Forestry Department-$2,000
A. D. Davis, Winn-Dixie Stores, Jacksonville, Florida
Animal Science Department-$2,000
Distiller Feed Research Council, Cincinnati 2, Ohio
Animal Science Department-$4,000
E. I. Du Pont De Nemours, Wilmington 98, Delaware
Poultry Science Department-$1,200 -
Everglades Experiment Station-$750
Diamond Alkali Company, Cleveland 14, Ohio
Sub Tropical Experiment Station-$500
Diamond Alkali Company, Painesville, Ohio
Everglades Experiment Station-$500
The DOW Chemical Company, Winter Park, Florida
Plantation Field Laboratory (Everglades)-$500
Esso Research and Engineering Company, Linden, New Jersey
Vegetable Crops Department-$750
Central Florida Experiment Station-$750
Everglades Experiment Station-$165
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$165
Plantation Field Laboratory (Everglades)-$500
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory-$165
Farmhand Company, St. Petersburg, Florida
Dairy Science Department-$1,633
Florida Agricultural Research Institute, Winter Haven, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$255
Florida Citrus Commission, Winter Haven, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$80,000
Florida Forests Foundation, Fort Myers, Florida
Botany Department-$500
Geigy Agricultural Chemical, Yonkers, New York
Agronomy Department-$500
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$500
Fred C. Gloeckner Foundation, Inc., New York 10, New York
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$1,000
Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, Jacksonville Beach,
Ornamental Horticulture-$500
Growers Administrative Committee, Lakeland, Florida
Agricultural Economics Department-$4,700
Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington, Delaware
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,500
Highland Bentgrass Commission, Corvallis, Oregon
Ornamental Horticulture Department-$1,000
International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Skokie, Illinois
Fruit Crops-$2,500
International Paper, Mobile, Alabama
Forestry Department-$2,000
Jensen-Salsbery, Kansas City 41, Missouri
Veterinary Science Department-$3,000

Annual Report, 1962

R. D. Keene, Winter Garden, Florida
Animal Science Department-$20,000
Lake Garfield Nurseries, Bartow, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$3,000
The Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis 6, Indiana
Animal Science Department-$3,000
Animal Science Department-$3,000
Live Oak Gas Company, Live Oak, Florida
Suwannee Valley Experiment Station-$400
Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corporation, Baltimore 15, Maryland
Everglades Experiment Station-$200
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. Louis 66, Missouri
Poultry Science Department-$3,500
Everglades Experiment Station-$1,500
National Association of Artificial Breeders, Columbia, Missouri
Diary Science Department-$1,200
Naugatuck Chemical Division (United States Rubber Company), Nauga-
tuck, Connecticut
Agronomy Department-$1,500
Niagara Chemical Division (FMC Corp), Jackson, Mississippi
Everglades Experiment Station-$500
Everglades Experiment Station-$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$1,000
Chas. Pfizer and Company, Inc., Terre Haute, Indiana
Animal Science Department-$1,000
Soils Department-$2,000
Poultry Science Department-$1,000
Phelps Dodge Refining Corporation, New York 22, New York
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,000
Everglades Experiment Station-$2,000
Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlsville, Oklahoma
Soils Department-$2,000
Rayonier, Inc., Fernandina Beach, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Agronomy and Agricultural Engineering Department-$5,000
Rohm & Haas, Philadelphia 5, Pennsylvania
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$1,500
Scott Paper Company, Mobile, Alabama
Forestry Department-$2,000
Seminole County Farm Bureau, Sanford, Florida
Central Florida Experiment Station-$2,693.13
Shell Chemical Company, New York 20, New York
Food Technology Department-$3,000
Central Florida Experiment Station-$600
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,500
Everglades Experiment Station-$500
Everglades Experiment Station-$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$600
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory-$300
Shell Development Company, Modesta, California
Agronomy Department-$500
Vegetable Crops Department-$600
Plant Pathology Department-$600
Central Florida Experiment Station-$800
Smith-Douglas, Norfolk, Virginia
Poultry Science Department-$3,000

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Soft Phosphate Research Institute, Ocala, Florida
Ornamental Horticulture-$1,000
Citrus Experiment Station and Soils Department-$3,000
Speed Sprayer Plant, John Bean Division, Food Machinery and Chemical
Corporation, Orlando, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station-$2,000
Squibb Institute, Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation, Port Jefferson Sta-
tion, New York
Everglades Experiment Station and Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-
Squibb Institute, New Brunswick, New Jersey
Animal Science Department-$1,800
St. Regis Paper Company, Jacksonville, Florida
Forestry Department-$2,000
Stauffer Chemical Company, Mountain View, California
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,500
State Road Department, Tallahassee, Florida
Ornamental Horticulture-$8,306
State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida
Vegetable Crops Department-$600
Tennessee Coal and Iron, Division of US Steel, Fairfield, Alabama
Citrus Experiment Station-$1,200
W. B. Tisdale Family and Friends, Gainesville, Florida
Plant Pathology Department-$325
Union Bag Camp Paper Corporation, Savannah, Georgia
Forestry Department-$2,000
U. S. Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, Florida
Everglades Experiment Station-$2,000
UpJohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan
Plant Pathology Department-$500
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$750
Velsicol Chemical Corporation, Chicago 11, Illinois
Everglades Experiment Station-$500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-$1,000
Wallace Hatchery, St. Petersburg, Florida
Poultry Science Department-$425
Weber, Frank, Ormond Beach, Florida
Fruit Crops Department-$300
Grants for basic research were accepted from national agencies as
Atomic Energy Commission:
Agronomy Department-$9,500
Agronomy Department-$15,800
Botany Department-$6,870
Soils Department-$12,818
National Institutes of Health:
Animal Science Department-$10,005
Animal Science Department-$17,250
Animal Science Department-$30,187
Food Technology-$6,828
Food Technology-$9,788
Food Technology-$15,454
Plant Pathology Department-$18,399
Veterinary Science Department-$23,318
Veterinary Science Department-$19,345

Annual Report, 1962 21

Veterinary Science Department-$21,210
Veterinary Science Department-$14,317
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-$27,604
National Science Foundation:
Agronomy Department-$4,700
Agronomy and Plant Pathology Department-$5,250
Agronomy and Plant Pathology Department-$8,400
Botany Department-$33,000
Nutrition Foundation:
Animal Science Department-$2,500




Fla. Agric.
Exp. Sta.
General Revenue

Salaries and wages ........ ... ..-...........---........ $4,213,341.02
Travel ...................... .... ............... .. ---...... 122,757.63
Transportation and communication .............-......... 51,687.43
Utilities ............. .. ..... .. ... .. ..........- 81,010.74
Printing ...................- .......-.......... ..... 41,912.52
Repairs and maintenance ..........-........... ......... 80,117.08
Contractual services ................ ..-......... .......- 30,326.29
Rentals .............-...........-.....--......- ...... 20,792.45
Other current charges and
obligations ...-..................... -- -....-.- ... .. 28,069.68
Supplies and materials ................. ... ......... ... 309,591.52
Equipm ent ....... ................ .. ..... 87,376.19
Land and buildings .........--................- ..... 48,778.74
Replacement fund ...-.....-- -----.....................-. 4,770.80
Plant fund ...... ................ ...--.... ........ 27,393.44
Transfers ....... ---.......... .... --....

.-... ................... $5,147,925.53 $544,528.46


$ 70,541.15


Grants and







Total state funds ......

$377,936.28 $6,070,390.27



Salaries and wages ...............................
T ravel ....................... ... ..- .... ......

Transportation and communication ......
U utilities ............... ... ..- ...- ...

Printing ..-..... ............................ .

Repairs and maintenance ........................
Contractual services .............. ......
Rentals ....................... ...- ..........
Other current charges and obligations .

Supplies and materials .........-...-.....
Equipment ......... .....- ..-..-...-......- ....

Land and buildings ........... ..... ....

Total federal expenditures ............ .

.... .-......- $231,178.63
- -...-..- ..... 6,543.31
... .......... 967.90

-.-. --..--. 5,834.59
...-...- .... 208.35

-..-- .....- 3,371.17
-. ...-.-..- 1,426.15
---...-.. .. 772.00
..-...-.... ...- 6.00

.......-.- ... 61,138.76

.-..-.....- 59,438.81
.- .-.....-.. 37,037.76







Act Funds





Federal Funds







$9,638.05 $480,822.76

.... $407,923.43 $63,261.28

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Work during the year covered two broad areas: marketing and produc-
tion economics. The research was conducted under 44 projects, approxi-
mately 60 percent of these on marketing research.
During the year the Florida Citrus Commission and the Department of
Agricultural Economics entered into a cooperative arrangement to coordinate
their research activities with respect to citrus. The Commission located
six positions with the Department of Agricultural Economics which are
well supported by operating expenses for the purpose of conducting research
work in the area of demand and market development. In addition to this
support, the United States Department of Agriculture has assigned five
positions to assist in the research program of the department.

State Project 154 H. G. Hamilton, A. H. Spurlock, and
M. D. Love, Jr.
No new results were obtained during the year. An effort is being made
to bring together in one publication the most significant results of research
on farmers' cooperatives covered by this project over the last 30 years.

Hatch Project 186 Zach Savage
In general, profitableness by variety or kind during the 1955-60 period
varied very largely with yield and price of fruit. Duncan grapefruit yield
averaged 76 percent higher per acre than tangerines with trees at 26 years
of age. Yield was the number of boxes of fruit picked. Yields for most
varieties other than grapefruit were actual or total fruit produced and on
the tree at picking time. During these seasons, nearly all of the fruit was
picked. Operating cost was 67 percent higher per acre and more than double
per box for tangerines as compared to Pineapple oranges (Table 1).

1955-60 AVERAGE.

Variety Yield
or per Net Above
Kind Acre Operating Cost Returns Operating Cost

Per Per Per Per Per Per
Boxes acre box acre box acre box
Hamlin ........... 422 $187.00 $ .44 $780.70 $1.85 $593.70 $1.41
Pineapple ......... 390 166.05 .43 709.80 1.82 543.75 1.39
Valencia ........... 338 219.98 .65 794.30 2.35 574.32 1.70
Temple ............ 332 241.65 .73 747.00 2.25 505.35 1.52
Tangerine ........ 306 276.65 .90 618.12 2.02 341.47 1.12
Marsh seedless 488 218.47 .45 527.04 1.08 308.57 .63
Duncan .............. 540 218.47 .40 361.80 .67 143.33 .27

Annual Report, 1962

Valencia oranges brought 120 percent more money per acre and 251
percent more per box than Duncan grapefruit. Net returns above operating
cost were highest per acre for Hamlin oranges and highest per box for
Valencia oranges. The difference in the net per acre for Hamlin, Pineapple,
Valencia, and Temple oranges was small. The net per acre for Hamlin was
only 17 percent higher than the net for Temple. Prior to 1955, the net per
acre for Temple was highest during most seasons and was also highest
during some individual seasons of the 1955-60 period. For the 1955-60
period, the order in net per acre was: (1) Hamlin, (2) Valencia, (3) Pine-
apple, (4) Temple, (5) tangerines, (6) Marsh Seedless, and (7) Duncan

State Project 345 A. H. Spurlock
Records of replacements, causes of losses and disposal dates were con-
tinued on five dairy herds. Data were combined with results previously
obtained to determine length of life, depreciation rates, and reasons for
The life span of 3,743 replaced cows averaged 6.5 years, or about 4.5
years in the milking herd. The disposal rate increased rapidly after the
first year in the herd and after three years less than two-thirds of the
original animals remained. After five years 62 percent were gone.
Cows reaching age six had a life expectancy of 2.7 years and averaged
8.7 years of life; cows reaching age 10 had 1.7 years of life expectancy
and thus averaged 11.7 years of life.
Live disposals from the herd were principally for low production, 30.3
percent; mastitis or some form of udder trouble, 24.9 percent; and reproduc-
tive troubles, 17.9 percent. These three reasons, or combinations of them,
were responsible for 77 percent of the live disposals. About nine percent
of the live disposals were for unstated reasons.
Death from all causes accounted for 13.9 percent of all disposals.
(See also Project 345, Dairy Science Department.)

State Project 451 G. N. Rose, G. G. Goshorn,
R. G. Stout, and
R. R. Hancock'

This project is in cooperation with and under the direction of the Agri-
cultural Statistician In Charge, Field Operations Division, Statistical Re-
porting Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Orlando, Florida.
Seasonal acreage and production forecasts for Florida's 16 major vege-
table crops were made monthly during the growing season. Reports were
integrated with the national program of vegetable crop reports. Acreage
inventory reports were made monthly for celery and sweet corn, and weekly
for tomatoes. This is the first year that an acreage inventory report has
been made on sweet corn. Monthly celery inventory reports provided
greater detail on acreage harvested and production than during previous
seasons. Preliminary studies on the development of objective methods of
forecasting celery yields were made in the Everglades and Zellwood areas.
These studies will be the basis of a technical report.
Extensive end-of-season surveys for major vegetable crops provided the
1 Cooperative with Statistical Reporting Service, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

necessary data for estimating acreage and production by marketing areas
and counties within the State. Data were released in Volume XVII,
"Florida Vegetable Crops," Annual Summary 1961-62-1,500 copies.

State Project 615 R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to determine the relative productivity of
cows with different proportions of English and Brahman blood when run
under pasture programs designed to supply low, medium, and good nutrition
levels. The Agricultural Economics Department has the responsibility of
working with the project leaders in evaluating the various programs as to
net income. Work on the project has not progressed far enough during the
year for an economic evaluation to be attempted.
(See also Project 615, Range Cattle Station.)

State Project 627 R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to evaluate pasture programs varying in
intensities of fertilization and levels of management in terms of forage
production, soil nutrient balance, and rate of economy of beef production.
The Agricultural Economics Department has the responsibility of evaluat-
ing the various programs as to net income. No attempt was made to evalu-
ate the data for the 1960-61 season. Summaries will be made during the
coming year for the 1960-61 and 1961-62 seasons, also a summary based on
an average of the data for four seasons. Summaries of the data for the
1958-59 and 1959-60 seasons showed that Program 2 had the lowest net
cost per pound of beef and the highest net return per acre. This is a
clover-grass program receiving the lowest applications of fertilizer per acre
and no top dressing.
(See also Project 627, Animal Science Department.)

State Project 638 R. E. L. Greene
Very little work has been done on this project during the year. Some
attention has been given to the preparation of a tentative draft of a final
report. This report will be completed during the coming year and the
project closed.

State Project 660 D. L. Brooke
An economic analysis was made of the experimental results from field
trials of the effect of five different sources of nitrogen in fertilizer materials
on the yield of cucumbers and pole beans in the spring of 1961. Differential
price maps indicate that, at a farm price of 50 cents or more per bushel
of cucumbers, farmers would profit by using calcium nitrate rather than
calcium nitrate plus potassium nitrate if the cost of the calcium nitrate was
not more than 6 cents per pound of nitrogen higher than the cost of calcium

Annual Report, 1962

nitrate plus potassium nitrate. At a farm price of $1.63 or more per bushel,
farmers would benefit by using the calcium nitrate source as long as its
cost was not more than 20 cents per pound higher than the calcium nitrate
plus potassium nitrate. Comparison of sources of nitrogen for pole beans
indicates that sodium nitrate was the least profitable among the sources
On a net return per acre per pound of nitrogen applied basis, the am-
monium nitrate source of nitrogen was most profitable on cucumbers. For
pole beans, the ammonium sulfate source returned the most profit. In each
case, the sodium nitrate source was least profitable.
(See also Project 660, Gulf Coast Experiment Station.)

State Project 685 P. E. Shuler2
and R. G. Stout
This project is in cooperation with and under the direction of the Agri-
cultural Statistician In Charge, Field Operations Division, Statistical Re-
porting Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Orlando, Florida.
Surveys of the pre-season fruit counts by use of the frame and limb
count procedures were completed in September. After the December freeze,
a cold damage survey was conducted to evaluate the extent of freeze dam-
age. The objective counts on grapefruit and early and mid-season oranges
provided a fairly accurate October forecast. The October forecast was 35
million boxes of grapefruit and 49 million boxes of early and mid-season
oranges. Final pick-out was 35 million boxes of grapefruit and 52.5 million
boxes of early and mid-season oranges. However, the forecast for Valencia
oranges was considerably less than the actual crop. The October forecast
was 45 million boxes of Valencias and the final pick-out was 56 million. The
new "pie-shaped" frame count was used in obtaining objective information
for temples, tangerines, and tangelos.
The monthly surveys on sizing and droppage were continued. A publica-
tion was released during the year based on these surveys-"Size of Fruit
and Droppage Rates Influence Total Citrus Production," Agricultural Eco-
nomics Mimeo. Report 62-2, July 1961.
Preliminary analysis of the new work on internal fruit quality shows
promise in estimating optimum picking dates and pounds solids early in the
season. Also data have been collected to study the relationship between
size of fruit and weight of fruit.

State Project 701 R. E. L. Greene
Work in cooperation with the Florida Milk Commission was continued.
A study was completed to show changes in costs and returns on dairy farms
in Central Florida between 1958 and 1960. On farms in this area during
this period, the average number of cows per farm increased 8.3 percent,
and the production of milk per cow, 8.7 percent. As a result, the amount
of milk sold per farm increased 17.7 percent. The gross income per gal-
lon of milk sold decreased 0.94 cents and the gross cost per gallon in-
creased 1.42 cents. The net cost per gallon of milk sold was 1.42 cents
higher in 1960 than in 1958. The net return per gallon was 2.08 cents less.
Dairy farmers in Florida are faced with major adjustment problems.
Costs continue to increase, but the price of Class I milk in areas under the
Florida Milk Commission remains the same. Since large farms tend to
2 Cooperative with Statistical Reporting Service. USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

have lower costs than small farms, a major adjustment has been an increase
in size of dairy farms. Many dairies have also been shifted from higher
price to lower price land. Additional and more complete data are needed to
better appraise desirable economic adjustments in the dairy industry in
Florida. Work will be continued in this area during the coming year.

State Project 720 R. G. Stout and J. W. Todd'
This project is in cooperation with and under the direction of the Agri-
cultural Statistician In Charge, Field Operations Division, Statistical Re-
porting Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Orlando, Florida.
The first year's work on the five-year plan of surveying the citrus groves
for a tree count was processed and released in October, 1961. The total
number of trees was estimated at 49.2 million trees, a 13.1 percent increase
since 1957. This change includes a 23.9 percent increase in Valencias, 25.8
percent increase in early and mid-season types, 19.2 percent increase in
temples, and a 14.1 percent decrease in grapefruit trees.
Considerable statistical analysis of the estimated tree numbers has been
completed. This analysis revealed that the total numbers of trees for the
State are fairly accurate. However, the sampling errors computed for each
county indicate that many of the county figures may be somewhat in error.

State Project 787 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley'
The purpose of this project is to evaluate the economic importance which
consumers attach to the external quality characteristics of mature green
Florida tomatoes.
Analysis of the results of sales tests conducted in 11 large supermarkets
in Dayton, Ohio, during the spring of 1960 indicates that the standards cur-
rently employed in marketing Florida tomatoes delineate quality differences
that are somewhat finer than the perceptions of customers.
A manuscript dealing fully with the findings and their implications from
the standpoint of the Florida tomato industry has been prepared and is in
the process of publication. The publication of this manuscript will represent
a full achievement of the objectives for which this project was initiated.
This project is closed with this report.

State Project 788 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley5
The practice of shipping staked or trellis-grown tomatoes showing a
color break has been a major development in the marketing of the Florida
crop during recent years. Growers, shippers, and terminal market receivers
are all in need of information regarding the effect of this innovation upon the
pricing and market structure of the Florida tomato industry.
A market survey involving interviews with 49 tomato handlers in 30
major market areas of the eastern United States to provide such informa-
tion was completed on July 30, 1961. An analysis of the data obtained from
this survey is currently in progress.
3 Cooperative with Citrus Crop Estimates Research Fund.
SCooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.
6 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1962

Hatch Project 791 H. G. Hamilton
The cost of packing and selling Florida honey varies greatly among
packers. Approximately one-half of honey packers' sales are made to
Florida buyers, and a considerable part of these sales are made to roadside
stands. Out-of-state sales are made primarily in the Atlantic Seaboard
states, but substantial sales are made to the north central states and as far
west as Oklahoma. Results of the study have been published in Agricultural
Economics Mimeo Report No. 62-10. This project is closed with this report.

State Project 822 G. N. Rose, G. G. Goshorn, and
L. D. Marquis, Jr."

This project is in cooperation with and under the direction of the Agri-
cultural Statistician In Charge, Field Operations Division, Statistical Report-
ing Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Orlando, Florida.
Acreage inventory reports for tomatoes were continued during the 1961-
62 season. Reports were issued weekly during August 1961 through June
1962. Acreage data were shown for the major late fall, winter, and early
spring areas of tomato production. Stages of plant development, acreage
expected to begin harvest, acreage in harvest, and acreage harvested were
shown by areas. The forecasts of acreage expected to begin harvest were
made for bi-weekly periods two weeks in advance.
This project has passed from the developmental to the operational stage.
It is now being financed with recurring federal appropriations in Florida
and a federal project, patterned after the Florida model, is in operation in
Texas. Weekly reports include data for both states.


Hatch Project 826 L. A. Reuss and R. E. L. Greene
The third and final report for this project was completed during the
year. The report should give a better understanding of factors contrib-
uting to low incomes in rural areas such as North and West Florida. The
effectiveness of remedial policies and programs in improving levels of living
of people in such areas depends on the nature of the situation and the ex-
tent to which policies and programs are tailored to the needs of particular
groups. Data from the project should help in developing more effective pro-
grams to use in attacking low income problems in West Florida. The proj-
ect is closed with this report.


State Project 856 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley 8
In the markets of the East and Midwest, Florida celery must compete
directly with that grown in California. The purpose of this project is to
8 Cooperative with Statistical Reporting Service, USDA.
SCooperative with Farm Economics Research Division, ARS, USDA.
8 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.

30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

examine certain aspects of the competitive relationship between the two
Work during the year has consisted of the completion of an analysis of
data obtained from retail store tests relating to the nature of the compe-
tition between Florida and California celery. (See 1959 Annual Report.)
The study results show that there is an inherent preference on the part of
consumers for the California product, but that the competitive position of
the Florida industry is improved by greater emphasis upon the production
of Utah types at the expense of the Summer Pascal types.
A bulletin entitled "Customer Preference Aspects Between Florida and
California Celery" dealing fully with an examination and interpretation of
the results has been prepared during the year. With the release of this
publication the work on this project was completed. Consequently, it is
closed with this report.

Hatch Project 895 A. H. Spurlock, H. G. Hamilton,
(Regional SM-22) and G. L. Capel"
Costs of harvesting citrus for 37 firms, 1960-61, averaged as follows per
1% bushel equivalent: picking oranges, 35 cents; picking grapefruit, 26.7
cents; and picking tangerines, 83.5 cents. Hauling from grove to the plant
cost 11.2 cents a box. Citrus dealers had an additional cost of 212 to 4
cents per box for procurement and sale of fruit.
Costs of packing and selling Florida fresh citrus fruit per 1% bushel
wirebound box for 42 packinghouses, 1960-61, were $1.12 for oranges and
$1.00 for grapefruit. For 5-pound bags in master cartons costs were $2.12
per equivalent box for oranges and $2.01 for grapefruit.
Average costs for processing, warehousing, and selling typical citrus
products for 24 plants were as follows: single strength orange juice in
12/46 oz. cases, sweetened, $1.65; grapefruit sections in 24/303 cases,
sweetened, $2.64; frozen orange concentrate in 48/6 cases (excluding sell-
ing), $2.19.
Total costs for processing and selling citrus by-products, summarized
for the first time this season, were: citrus pulp and meal, $25.30 per ton;
molasses, $14.11 per ton; and peel oil, 16 cents per pound.
The experimental tests of large pallet-box handling of citrus were
concluded at the first location and moved to a different packinghouse to
obtain experience with a wider range of conditions. However, no new data
were obtained during 1960-61.
(See also Preliminary Non-Projected Packinghouse Studies, Citrus Sta-

State Project 899 D. L. Brooke, F. W. Williams,
and W. B. Riggan
Work on this project was completed with the publication of Experiment
Station Bulletin 645. The study indicated that: (1) the high-income cli-
entele purchased almost twice as many avocados as medium-income clien-
tele; (2) customers preferred clear fruit almost 2 to 1 over blemished at
the same price; (3) at a 4-cent differential in favor of blemished, they
9 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1962

bought an equal volume of both; (4) at an 8-cent differential, the ratio of
blemished to clear sales was 1.4 to 1 and with a 12-cent differential, 1.8
to 1; (5) customers preferred fruit for consumption within one to two days
rather than fruit which had to be stored longer until it became soft. This
project is closed with this report.

Hatch Project 916 R. E. L. Greene
Potato growers and shippers in the Hastings area have faced many ad-
justment problems as a result of the increase in demand for potatoes from
the area by potato chippers and also changes in the local potato industry.
This project was initiated for the purpose of describing and evaluating re-
cent changes in market practices for potato growers and shippers and the
effects of such changes on the market organization for potatoes in the
Hastings area.
Work on the project during the year has been devoted to completing a
manuscript for publication on the study. Attention also was given to pre-
paring material for Florida for presentation at a public hearing on a pro-
posed National Marketing Order for Potatoes.


Hatch Project 937 W. B. Riggan, M. R. Godwin,
(Regional SM-22) and B. S. Lloyd
The correlation for the past several years between the retail price of
fresh oranges from Florida and the retail price of orange concentrate has
been 0.95. The correlation between the retail price of fresh oranges and
the retail price of single strength orange juice has been 0.67. The correla-
tion between the retail price of orange concentrate and the retail price of
single strength orange juice has been 0.80. Under these conditions one
cannot estimate the parameters by least squares from a single equation
model. All prices and quantities tend to move together. One price ex-
plains approximately as much of the variation in quantity as all the vari-
A system of simultaneous equations is being developed for the demand
for citrus products. Special attention is being given to the problem of
identification and the computations needed to handle the auto-correlation
existing between residual errors from one time period to the next.

AMA Project 951 C. N. Smith
Findings of a study on marketing ornamental nursery products in
Pinellas County were published in Agricultural Economics Mimeo. Report
62-8. Final estimates were substantially the same as those noted in the
1961 Annual Report.
No guidelines were available for making an analysis of landscape mar-
ketings into components of plants, materials, and services. The cost of
landscaping labor and nonplant materials and services was estimated at a
third of the retail value of the plants used in landscaping. Thus, of
$1,104,000 in income to Pinellas County nurserymen from landscaping in

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

1959, $828,000 represented marketing of plants and $276,000 sales of
labor, fertilizer, and other materials and services.
Additional field schedules were taken in the statewide nursery market-
ing study. This enumeration will be completed, the results tabulated and
analyzed, and a manuscript prepared.

State Project 961 H. B. Clark
This year an attempt has been made to keep abreast of developments
in the Florida-Georgia shade-tobacco industry. In the last report men-
tion was made of the large stocks of wrapper leaf in storage, largely the
so-called off-grades. Sales were so poor, due largely to the loss of the ex-
port markets, that growers voted to reinstate the suspended marketing
order of 1952. Under this order, Amendment Number 195, an average of
18 leaves only can be harvested. Ordinarily about 22 to 26 leaves are har-
vested. Since the harvesting of the crop is now in progress, it has not been
possible to appraise the results of the order. However, arrangements have
been made with two packinghouses to collect complete data on packing-
house costs and compare them with former costs of the same packinghouses.
Packinghouse costs will undoubtedly be less, but it remains to be seen what
the net effect on returns to producers and to the packinghouse operators
will be.
Another development in process during the present harvesting season
is the fire-curing of type 62 leaf in such a manner as to produce a Cuban
type wrapper. Leaf from about 300 acres are being cured in this manner.
Arrangements have been made with producers and packers of this leaf to
evaluate the results. At the present time, it appears that type 62 leaf
can be cured in such a manner as to produce a satisfactory substitute for
Cuban wrapper tobacco.
The long-run outlook for Florida-Georgia wrapper tobacco is still in
doubt. The threat of the use of homogenized wrappers, which will not use
type 62 tobacco as an ingredient, is still great.

State Project 970 D. L. Brooke
Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida for the 1960-61 sea-
son were obtained from growers and summarized for 13 different vegetable
crops in 10 of the major producing areas of the state. In making compari-
sons with the 1956-57 season, the last for which costs had been obtained, it
was quite apparent that while per acre costs have continued to increase,
increased yields per acre have been sufficient, in most cases, to maintain
an equal or lower unit cost of production. An increase of 35 percent in
snap bean yields in the Everglades area from 1956-57 to 1960-61 resulted
in an 18 percent decrease in per unit costs of production. In the Pompano
area, a 21 percent increase in snap bean yield was accompanied by an 18
percent decrease in per unit costs. There was relatively little difference in
profits in the areas for the two seasons.
Increases in yields of ground-grown tomatoes ranged from 12 percent
in the Ft. Pierce area to 67 percent in Dade County. Per unit costs de-
creased 21 percent in Dade County but were 11 percent higher in Ft. Pierce
in 1960-61 than they had been in 1956-57. As a result, profits were greater
in Dade and smaller in Ft. Pierce in 1960-61. Harvesting and marketing
costs have increased since 1956-57 on practically all vegetable crops.

Annual Report, 1962

State Project 973 W. K. McPherson
(Regional SM-23)
On the basis of carcass weight, the volume of hogs sold by farmers in
Northwest Florida exceeded volume of commercially slaughtered in that
area. In the remaining three areas of the state, slaughter exceeded mar-
ketings by substantial amounts during the three-year period 1956-58, in-
clusive. During the same period, consumption exceeded area commercial
slaughter in each area.
A bulletin containing estimates of inter- and intra-state movement of
hogs and pork products in the several areas of Florida and in six South-
eastern states has been approved by the regional technical committee and
is now in the hands of the printer. Two additional bulletins based on the
data collected on this project are being prepared for publication in the
regional series.

State Project 995 R. E. L. Greene
This is a cooperative project with the Animal Science Department.
The object of the study is to compare beef production and income from
heifers bred to calves first as two-year-old heifers versus calving at three
years of age. The Agricultural Economics Department has the responsi-
bility of working with the leaders on the project to assemble data to com-
pare net returns for the two breeding systems. Data have been obtained
for only one group of heifers. Additional data are needed for an economic
comparison to be made.
(See also Project 995, Animal Science Department.)

AMA Project 1012 D. L. Brooke, E. G. Close,
(ES 672) and C. N. Smith
The Florida watermelon market is composed of growers, itinerant truck-
ers, and established watermelon handlers. The latter represent the only
segment of the industry which has some semblance of order. Small grow-
ers rely heavily on single load sales to itinerant truckers. The medium-
sized and larger growers are more prone to sell through watermelon
handlers or direct to chain store buyers. Itinerant truckers handle about
10 percent of the Florida volume annually and, contrary to popular opinion,
only about 20 percent of the melons they buy are culls or off-grade melons.
Of all handlers, 61 percent were buyers and 21 percent acted as selling
brokers; 60 percent sold on a delivered basis and 36 percent on an F.O.B.
basis. Handlers disposed of 52 percent of their volume to chain stores.
There was no appreciable difference in prices paid by chains and jobbers
for watermelons. Melons weighing under 20 and over 27 pounds received
the highest prices. The principal factors affecting the price of melons
were terminal market temperature and Florida supply. Factors of lesser
importance were other supply and disposable income of consumers. Eighty-
four percent of the variation in price could be accounted for by the four
variables above.
Growers, truckers, and handlers were in fair agreement that supply
and quality control were essential to any improvement in watermelon mar-

34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

keting. These cannot be accomplished without a great deal of educational
effort to appraise growers of their possible values.

State Project 1017 E. K. Bowman 1 and R. E. L. Greene
This project was designed to develop and test methods of receiving and
handling bulk hauled Irish potatoes at the packinghouse. Work was con-
tinued on testing two new methods for the Hastings area. One was to
haul the potatoes on a truck equipped with a regular dump body and to
dump the load directly into a flat bottom bin. A second method was to load
the potatoes directly from the harvester into boxes that held about 1,500
pounds. The boxes were handled at the packinghouse with a tractor equip-
ped with a fork lift.
Sufficient data were obtained to show that the newer methods could be
used satisfactorily from the standpoint of the amount of physical injuries
to the potatoes in the handling process. Additional work is needed to de-
velop satisfactorily operational techniques that will be necessary to handle
the volume of potatoes that move through a packinghouse. An appraisal is
also needed of the cost of the newer methods compared with present meth-
ods used in the Hastings area. Work on this project during the coming
year will be devoted to these questions.
(See also Project 1017, Agricultural Engineering Department.)


Hatch Project 1018 R. E. L. Greene
The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze fluid milk sup-
ply and movement by producing areas, and fluid milk utilization patterns
and the net balance of supplies and consumption of fluid milk in various
marketing areas.
Tabulation and analysis of data on the present phase of the project have
been completed. The net balance between supplies and consumption of
milk has been calculated for various areas of the state. Based on the ex-
pected population of Florida in 1970, estimates have been made of the
potential demand for milk in the state and also in each market area. The
increase in need for milk for the state will run from 31 to 44 percent, de-
pending on two estimates of Florida's population. Such an increase in
total production can be obtained from little or no change in number of cows
if the present rate of increase in production per cow continues.
A final report is being prepared on work on the project to date. Future
work will depend on the need for data on the regional study.

State Project 1027 R. E. L. Greene
The objectives of this study are to determine the economic value of
several methods of supplemental feeding grazing-yearling-steers for one
year before they are placed in the feedlot and to determine the subsequent
effects of these methods on feedlot performance. The Agricultural Eco-
nomics Department has the responsibility of working with the project
leaders in making an economic evaluation for the different methods. This

1o Cooperative with ERS, TFRD, and MQRD, USDA.

Annual Report, 1962

experiment is now in its third cycle. A summary will be prepared based
on the three periods as soon as these data are available.
(See also Project 1027, Everglades Station.)


State Project 1028 W. K. McPherson
While other project leaders continued to collect experimental data, a
method was developed for analyzing the data when it all becomes available.
(See also Project 1028, Everglades Experiment Station.)

State Project 1030 D. E. Alleger
(Regional S-44)
Family employment is largely nonagricultural throughout the low-
income areas of northwestern Florida and, when employment is not avail-
able to youth and young adults, they migrate to other areas. The concept
of low-income as applied to the areas studied is tempered by the advanced
age of many farm operators, by emphasis upon security rather than eco-
nomic growth, by community conservatism, and by a paucity of commer-
cial farmers, or farmers with annual gross product sales in excess of $5,000.
Only 14 percent of the families interviewed were so classified; yet, three-
fourths of them reported annual gross incomes in excess of $10,000. More
than half the households were rural residential nonfarm units.
When the nonindustrialized counties of Holmes and Walton were com-
pared to the industrialized Pensacola Area (Escambia-Santa Rosa counties),
the Holmes-Walton area had but half the economic opportunity of the Pen-
sacola area as measured by per capital incomes; the Holmes-Walton area lost
population both in absolute numbers and by specific age groups during recent
years as the Pensacola area gained; in both areas despondency of large seg-
ments of the male family heads was recorded by scale tests; housewives, in
spite of low-family incomes, were unwilling to leave their home communi-
ties; and commercial farmers were the most active participants in com-
munity organizations.
The main impact of industrialization was to raise total family incomes
and lower the contributions of agriculture to the total gross county product.

Hatch Project 1035 R. E. L. Greene
The purpose of this study was to describe hatcheries in Florida as to
management practices and significant trends and to determine and analyze
major factors affecting costs and returns. Work on analysis of the data
has continued. A preliminary manuscript presenting the results of the
study has been prepared. Some of the major conclusions from the study
are: (1) The factors more closely associated with high returns to operators
of hatcheries were (a) a large-size business, (b) a high utilization of plant
capacity, and (c) sales of a large number of chicks of both egg and meat
type; (2) Plants specializing in the production of meat-type chicks were
able to utilize their facilities at a higher percent because of a more even

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

demand for chicks throughout the year; (3) Egg-type chicks appear to be
a highly differentiated product; the added cost of producing a chick that
will sell for a high price tends to be more than offset by the added price
received for the chick; and (4) Price differentials for meat-type chicks are
small. Low expense per chick sold was the key to profitableness for this
type. Expenses were lowest in the large-size hatcheries that were operated
at a reasonably high rate of capacity.

State Project 1066 M. R. Godwin, B. S. Lloyd,
and K. M. Gilbraith "
This study was designed to examine the potentialities for developing a
foreign market for Florida icebox type watermelons. The specific questions
considered were the physical problems involved in making delivery, the
costs and returns, and the degree of consumer acceptance of these melons.
In the spring of 1961 three shipments of melons were made to England.
(See the 1961 Annual Report.) Work during the year has consisted of
an analysis of the results of these test shipments. The results indicate
that the Sugar Baby variety at the pink to red stage of maturity is more
satisfactory for export marketing than any other variety-maturity combina-
tion tested. The results also indicate that melons picked in the middle of
the harvesting season withstand the long shipping period better than those
harvested either early or late.
Per-crate costs exceeded returns for both varieties of melons. The data
suggest that more efficient harvesting and packing operations and a decrease
in ocean transportation rates could perhaps effect reductions in cost which
would permit some profit from the export marketing of the Sugar Baby
variety. Consumers in the English market are willing to pay good prices
for first quality melons of this variety.
Successful export marketing, however, would likely also depend upon
solving two major problems which are inherent in such operations. These
are (1) the harvesting of melons at a particular maturity stage with ac-
curacy and (2) the disposition of melons which do not meet the rigid re-
quirements of uniform size and quality for the export market.

Regional Project 1078 C. N. Smith
(Regional SM-25)
Plans were initiated for conducting a consumer preference study for
horticultural specialty products during the next fiscal year. Contacts were
made with trade groups concerning their interest in the survey, literature
was reviewed, and the preparation of a questionnaire was begun.

Hatch Project 1083 W. K. McPherson
A comparison of the estimates of the grade of approximately 500 cattle
made over a five-year period by seven graders with the federal grade of the
carcass produced from each animal confirmed tentative conclusions made
on the basis of a limited amount of preliminary data that:

11 Cooperative with Florida Agricultural Extension Service.

Annual Report, 1962

1. The differences between the ability of individuals to estimate the
grade of live animals by the official USDA Grade Standards were both
real and measurable.
2. Graders were able to improve their ability to recognize animals with
similar physical characteristics but were not able to improve their
ability to estimate the Federal carcass grade correctly, and
3. The number and magnitude of the errors made in estimating live
animals by the official USDA Standards were too large to make them
useful as a basis for trading animals without incurring the cost of
physical inspection.


Hatch Project 1084 J. R. Greenman and Frank E. Maloney "
Some preliminary work was done on the laws and administrative ar-
rangements for the control and use of water in Florida. Further work was
done on the manuscript entitled, "Inheritance Laws Affecting Florida Farms
and Farm Families." The project leader was on leave from January 1, 1962,
to June 30, 1962.

State Project 1085 C. E. Murphree
Suwannee County, Florida, was selected for the study area. An inven-
tory of the riparian land in the county has been completed. This land, as
defined in the study, amounts to approximately 20,000 acres. It is adjacent
to approximately 110 miles of river frontage.
The land has been classified according to use: (1) urban, (2) recreation,
and (3) nonrecreation. An analysis of the effect of a shift in use from
nonrecreation to recreation on the tax revenue of the county is in progress.
In addition, a partial classification of the nonrecreation land with respect
to suitability for recreation has been made.
The next step in the analysis is to contact those who own recreational
land in the county and determine future plans for using the land. This in-
formation will be the basis for predicting the ultimate effect of the shift
in land use on the economy of the county.


Hatch Project 1096 M. R. Godwin, W. F. Chapman, Jr.," and
(Regional SM-22) W. T. Manley"
The fresh orange market is an important outlet for Florida citrus. Be-
cause of its importance, it is a market in which Florida must aggressively
seek to maintain or improve its position. The most direct competition faced
by Florida fresh oranges comes from those produced in California.
This project is designed to examine the relative values which consumers
attach to oranges grown in California and Florida and the extent to which

"D'ean of the College of Law, University of Florida,
13 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, ERS, USDA.

38 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

they will substitute fruit grown in one area for fruit grown in the other.
Since there is a substantial difference in the market position of Indian River
and interior Florida fruit, the competitive position of each of these two
Florida types in relation to California oranges is also examined.
The field work on this project was conducted in nine representative re-
tail food stores in Grand Rapids, Michigan, over a six-week period beginning
April 9, 1962. It consisted of the maintenance of standardized retail dis-
plays of California and Florida interior and Indian River oranges, and the
systematic introduction of price differentials among the three displays. The
test situations were designed to provide data that would allow an examina-
tion of the general substitution relationship between Florida and California
oranges, and to provide information on the differences in the competitive
position of the interior and Indian River producing areas in relation to
Analytical operations using the data generated in the retail store tests
are currently in progress.


Florida Agricultural Production Index.-Index numbers measuring the
total volume of agricultural production in Florida have been brought up to
date through 1961. Crop production in 1961 was 10 percent higher than in
1960 and 65 percent above the base period, 1947-49. Livestock and livestock
products increased in volume by 4 percent over 1960 and were 118 percent
over the base period. Production of all crops and livestock were up 8 per-
cent over the preceding year and were 81 percent above the 1947-49 average.
Production of vegetables as a group increased in 1961 by 20 percent;
poultry products, 14 percent; grains, 3 percent; tobacco, 2 percent; meat
animals, 1 percent; and sugar cane for sugar, 31 percent. Dairy products
decreased for the first time in many years by 1 percent, and citrus had a
one percent decline.
Yields, or output per unit for all crops, increased by 13 percent in 1961,
livestock and products by 3 percent, and all products by 11 percent. (A. H.
Competition for Florida Fruit and Vegetable Crops.-The degree of com-
petition which Florida faces is provided by tabulating weekly carlot ship-
ments of selected fruits and vegetables from Florida, other states, and
foreign countries during the Florida shipping season. Such data are valu-
able to growers and extension workers in determining the more desirable
production periods during the Florida season. They are also available to
industry groups in the preparation of statistics for hearings on freight rates
and marketing agreements and in establishing annual movement patterns of
Florida crops. Allied service industries may find them valuable in planning
peak movement and supply requirements.
"Florida Truck Crop Competition" was published as Agricultural Eco-
nomics Mimeo. Report 62-6. (D. L. Brooke)
Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries.-Movement of citrus trees
from Florida nurseries to Florida destinations was the highest during the
period of July 1, 1960, to June 30, 1961, since the beginning of this project
in 1928. The movement was 12 percent higher than last season and 37 per-
cent above the five-year average of 1955-60. The movement in 1960-61 was
2,835,190 trees.
Eighty-four percent of the 1960-61 movement was orange trees-Temple
included-and 85 percent during the five-year period of 1955-60. Orange,
grapefruit, and tangerine trees made up 90 percent of the total movement

Annual Report, 1962

in 1960-61 and during the five-year average of 1955-60. The remaining trees
were Murcott, lime, lemon, tangelo, and other citrus. (Zach Savage)
Some Economic Problems in the Florida Celery Industry.-The celery
industry in Florida, one of the oldest in the vegetable group, has undergone
many changes and was, until the 1961-62 season, experiencing great diffi-
culty in marketing the product at prices favorable to growers. Growers had
gone to great expense to increase mechanization and efficiency in production
and harvesting. As a result, more celery was produced on fewer farms,
and only the larger farms were able to compete. A decline in national de-
mand for fresh vegetables, including celery, and an increase in competition
from California-produced celery created additional hardships for Florida-
produced celery. Recognizing the need for supply adjustments, quality con-
trol, uniform trading practices, and more efficient marketing and better
distribution of the product, the growers organized the Florida Fresh Pro-
duce Exchange in 1961 and requested a State Marketing Order Program.
To formally present some of the production and marketing problems of the
industry at a public hearing on the proposed State Marketing Order was
the purpose for which "Some Economic Problems in the Florida Celery In-
dustry" was prepared. It was subsequently published as Agricultural Eco-
nomics Mimeo. Report 62-1. (D. L. Brooke)
Trends in Irish Potato Production, Shipments, and Prices.-While there
have been significant trends in the potato industry in Florida during the past
35 years, the most important changes have occurred since the end of World
War II. During the five-year period 1954-55 to 1958-59, an average of
43,080 acres of potatoes were harvested per season with an average yield
of 140 hundredweight per acre. This was 36 hundredweight or 35 percent
more than the average of the 1944-45 to 1948-49 period. Average production
during the 1954-55 to 1958-59 period was 6,034,000 hundredweights and cash
value $18,157,000. Compared with the five-seasons 1944-45 to 1948-49, pro-
duction increased 119 percent, but value increased only 82 percent. At the
present time Florida produces 2 percent of the total United States production
as compared to less than 1 percent during the years 1935-39. "Statistics on
Production, Shipments, and Prices of Florida Irish Potatoes" was published
as Agricultural Economics Mimeo. Report 62-13. (D. L. Brooke and R. E.
L. Greene)
Costs and Returns on the West Florida Dairy Unit.-The West Florida
Dairy Unit is located at Chipley, Florida. A milking herd consisting of
about 46 cows is maintained on 202 acres of land. J. B. White is in charge
of the farm and it is operated under the direction of the Dairy Science De-
partment. The unit was assigned to the latter Department on July 1, 1960.
Assistance has been given to Mr. White and the Dairy Science Depart-
ment in outlining, keeping, and summarizing records to show cost and re-
turns in producing milk and also cash cost of producing various crops. Rec-
ords are being kept on a calendar year basis. They were summarized for
1961 and comparisons made with the results for 1960. Forms were developed
and definite recommendations made for improving the accuracy of the data
being obtained. (R. E. L. Greene)
Taxation.-A brief review of literature and available data on land owner-
ship and taxation suggests that:
(1) It is no longer possible to earn a reasonable return (opportunity
costs) on much of the agricultural land in Florida if it is (a) purchased at
its current market price or (b) carried on the books at full market value.
(2) Increases in assessed value of land due to an increase in price and
increases in the rate of taxation (millage) are increasing the cost of pro-
ducing agricultural products when all of the taxes are charged off against

40 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

the farm enterprise and none to the opportunity to earn a profit from a
continued increase in land prices (speculation).
(3) Some of the alternative means of resolving this problem at any
given level of public expenditures are to (a) decrease the portion of the
tax burden born by land by increasing revenues from other sources, (b)
eliminate the homestead exemption, (c) develop and enforce compliance with
a land use plan that would bring land values in line with use, (d) eliminate
the tax on land improvements (capital) and increase the tax on raw land,
and (e) separate the land tax into a tax on value in current use and a value
for speculation. (W. K. McPherson)

Annual Report, 1962


Research has been done on 11 regular projects related to the production
of tobacco, vegetables, and beef cattle considering efficiencies to be gained
by the use of mechanical and physical aids to the production and handling
of crops.

Hatch Project 555 J. M. Myers
This is a cooperative project between Agricultural Engineering and
Agronomy departments and Suwannee Valley Station. Results are reported
under Project 555, Agronomy Department.

State Project 627 J. M. Myers
The pasture program on which irrigation is used as a cultural practice
was managed in accordance with established procedure for this project.
Irrigation applications were made when soil moisture deficit was approxi-
mately one inch of water below field capacity in the top 18-inch layer of
soil. Rainfall for the year was about 10 percent below normal. Irrigation
was not needed during the fall and winter months even though rainfall for
this period was considerably less than normal. This was probably a result
of soil moisture carried over from the unusually wet summer that preceded
the recording period. This moisture was stored temporarily as ground
water. Also, plant water use rate was low for the period because of un-
favorable growth environment for clover. In late April, May, and early
June 1962, it was necessary to make five applications of irrigation water
because of soil moisture deficiencies.
The project does not have a pasture program to which a direct compari-
son can be made to measure responses from irrigation. There are indica-
tions that the irrigation management program being used does not provide
enough supplemental water to give a significant increase in production under
the conditions of the experiment. Production in the pasture program on
which irrigation is used has been consistently equal to the best of the re-
maining four programs in the experiment. Since fertilization and other
pasture management practices for this program in which irrigation is
used are as good as or better than any of the other programs, this program
should be expected to yield more than the other programs if irrigation re-
sponse was significant.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agronomy, Animal Sci-
ence, and Soils departments.)

Hatch Project 758 J. M. Myers
Research under this project consisted of statistical analyses of data pre-
viously obtained.
(See also Project 758, Agronomy Department.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 946 J. M. Myers
No additional subirrigation or drainage cycles were run during the past
year. Research was devoted to an analysis of field information obtained
during the previous year.
The shape of the water table between ditches was decidedly different
for the two types of soil. Water tables were relatively flat during drain-
age in the Felda plots and elliptical in the Leon plots. The rates at which
the water tables receded in the Felda plots were independent of ditch
spacings (up to 405 feet), but the rate of fall decreased as ditch spacings
increased in the Leon plots.
During subirrigation, the sandy loam layer (pan) in Felda was pene-
trated only slightly during a 13-day period with a static head of 1.5 feet,
while the organic pan in the Leon was more rapidly penetrated by the rising
water table.
Dumm's Equation was inadequate for estimating ditch spacings in Leon
soil. Calculated spacings fitted actual ditch spacings better for the nar-
rower spacings. As the actual spacings increased, calculated spacings in-
creased at a lower rate. Luthin's Formula was also unsatisfactory due
to difficulty in estimating drainable porosity as a function of tension.
Since water table control was independent of ditch spacing for Felda
soil, equations for ditch spacings are not applicable. Subsurface ditches
may be relatively great distances apart if surface drainage is adequate and
the soil is underlain by highly permeable material. Shallow ditches for
removal of surface water may be used in conjunction with deeper ditches
for subsurface drainage to maintain a deep layer of aerable soil.
Ditches spaced 133 to 200 feet apart should be satisfactory for produc-
tion of most crops on Leon soil and 405 feet or more for deep ditches on
Felda soil. Surface drainage would be desirable for Leon and necessary
for Felda.
(See also Project 946, Soils Department.)

State Project 1017 E. K. Bowman and E. S. Holmes
Work was continued along the same lines as during the preceding year
with two different experimental operations.
Bulk Dumping.-A farm truck equipped for handling and dumping
potatoes in bulk was used. It was loaded directly from a mechanical har-
vester with approximately 7,800 pounds of potatoes per load. In the special
flat-bottom bin, slope of the floor toward the main flume was decreased and
a small flume along the center was added. A stationary water supply pipe
was provided at the back (high) end of this flume. Water could also be
introduced through a flexible hose movable to any point in the bin (Fig. 1).
Time study data showed a truck unloading cycle of 2.19 minutes or a
19.8 percent improvement over the preceding year. The unloading crew
was reduced from two men to one man (driver) by improvements in the
end gate and in the wheel guard to prevent roll back of potatoes.
It was possible to flume out about 400 hundredweight of potatoes per
hour with the available water flow of 312 gallons per minute. Tuber in-
jury evaluation showed essentially the same acceptable relationship be-
tween experimental and commercial operations as for last year.
Pallet Boxes.-The experimental operation was essentially the same as
for last year. Six 1,500-pound boxes were handled per load on a flat-bed

Annual Report, 1962 43


Fig. 1.-Potatoes being flumed from the experimental bin.


w^ vS i.' mZ._ -... .._.a^ E ..-

Fig. 2.-Pallet boxes being filled on a flat-bed truck by a
mechanical potato harvester.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

truck (Fig. 2). At the packinghouse, commercial operation was simulated
with a tractor forklift for moving boxes and a pallet box dumper arranged
to dump the potatoes into the main flume.
Time study data leave the conclusions of last year essentially unchanged.
One suitably equipped tractor forklift could supply a packing line at about
300 hundredweight per hour handling two of the boxes at a time and travel-
ing about 100 feet round trip between truck, storage areas, and dumper,
Tuber injury data showed essentially the same acceptable relationship
between experimental and commercial operations as for last year.
(See also Project 1017, Agricultural Economics Dept.)

Project 1020 E. S. Holmes
Equipment that had been previously developed for application of liquid
fumigants to soils for control of nematodes was used during the year in
replicated plantings of cabbage and okra. The effects on yield are reported
by the Central Florida Station. The equipment used for in-row treatment
performed as satisfactorily as the broadcast type, which is significant be-
cause of the saving in amount of fumigant needed per acre for soil treat-
ment. The in-row treatment will require the grower to use row markers
in planting the crop so that plants or seed will be placed in the treated
area. A bed press was designed to help prevent fumigant losses after ap-
plication. The press attachment was effective in forming the beds, but
whether fumigant retention was improved has not been determined.

r,41 I .

Fig. 3.-Bed press being used for retention of fumigant after soil treatment.

Annual Report, 1962

Attempts were made to determine the actual fumigant placement by
each of the applicators by using fluorescent material in water suspension.
The material was applied with surface broadcast, blade with T-jets and
underground broadcast, plow shank with T-jet in row, and by conventional
shank application. Photography of the pattern of distribution was only
partly successful, but visual observations showed that (1) surface broad-
cast with subsequent roto-tilling gave poor distribution of the material to
the root zone; (2) blade underground broadcast gave effective coverage but
did not overlap as intended; (3) plow shank gave effective coverage but
produced a half-mooned concentration on each end; and (4) conventional
shanks covered only a small circular area approximately one-inch in di-
ameter at point of liquid discharge.
(See also Project 1020, Central Florida Station.)


Hatch Project 1034 I. J. Ross and J. M. Myers
The physical and chemical properties of bright leaf tobacco cured in
bulk have been determined for various curing environments and bulk densi-
ties. The effects of temperature and drying rate during coloring were
evaluated with essentially the same results as those reported in 1961.
Other variations considered in curing environment were air velocity during
coloring, leaf drying, and stem drying; length of coloring and ordering
period; and leaf and stem drying temperatures. These tests were conducted
to establish priorities for future bulk curing tests and to establish tech-
niques for conducting such tests. Results showed no consistent variation
in any of the chemical or physical analyses. Replicated tests being con-
ducted this season on several of the aspects mentioned above will provide
further information on functional specifications for the design of bulk
curing systems and will have an important bearing on the economic aspects
for bulk curing.
The design of the curing facility for the Florida continuous harvesting-
curing system was changed to simplify operations, improve curing environ-
ment, and reduce capital cost for the 1962 tobacco season. Three of the
improved units were in operation in Suwannee County this season.
The Florida continuous-harvesting-curing system has several advantages
when compared with other types of bulk curing systems that are presently
being marketed. These advantages are less labor requirements, more uni-
form labor input, less arduous labor operations, flexibility in size and op-
eration, more control over curing environment, more frequent harvest, and
multiple use of harvesting and drying equipment. Disadvantages are a
requirement for more management time and a greater initial cost. The
Florida system appears to be the best harvesting-curing system for many
tobacco production units.
(See also Project 1034, Agronomy Department and Suwannee Valley

Hatch Project 1082 I. J. Ross
A laboratory system for handling granular materials in bulk is essen-
tially complete. This facility includes four bulk storage bins and three of
the major types of commercially available conveyors.
Two preliminary studies have been initiated this spring. These included
(1) the design and preliminary testing of an apparatus used for determin-

46 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ing the resistance of granular materials to air flow and (2) the application
of basic equations for predicting forces existing in stacks of non-free-
flowing granular materials. Further work on both of these aspects of
materials handling and conditioning is continuing.

Hatch Project 1111 E. S. Holmes
This is a cooperative project between Agricultural Engineering, Fruit
Crops, and U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Serv-
ice. Results are reported under Project 1111, Fruit Crops Department.

Mechanical Harvesting of Vegetables.-Cooperatively with the Depart-
ment of Vegetable Crops, plantings of yellow squash, peppers, cantaloupes,
and beans were made during the year to study further the possible advan-
tage of transporting pickers. The findings plus experience of the previous
year indicate that there is considerable merit to transporting the worker
as compared to the conventional method of hand harvesting with pickers
walking. Table 1 shows the increase found for each crop by riding. The


Walking Riding Increase Machine
Product Bu/Worker/Hr. Bu/Worker/Hr. Over Hand (Percent)

Southern peas 1.79 2.21 19.0
Peppers 6.08 9.58 36.5
Yellow squash 10.06 13.96 27.9
Green beans 0.66 0.89 25.8
Cantaloupes 8.50 19.13 55.6

data also revealed that generally percentage increases in productivity were
higher with higher crop yields. How vegetable size, bulkiness, or shape
influences output was not determined. Results of this work confirm the
probable success of further study of the use of mechanical aids for harvest-
ing. Some of the essential information necessary for design of a harvester
aid for vegetables has now been determined, such as forward speed, row
clearance, expected product damage, worker position, steering controls,
and certain acceptable methods of handling the product. This worker out-
put increase compares with that found in other states with specialized crops
such as strawberries. (E. S. Holmes)

Annual Report, 1962


Research was conducted on 33 active projects. Cooperative work with
other departments and branch stations involves 13 of these projects.
The range of work covers weed control, detailed biochemical aspects of
crop nutrition, crop and pasture management on various soils including
flatwoods for feed production, bulk harvesting and curing of tobacco, intro-
duction of new crops, and improvement by breeding of peanuts, small grains,
corn, tobacco, soybeans, lupines, clovers, and pasture grasses.


Hatch Project 20 W. A. Carver, A. J. Norden,
and R. W. Lipscomb
Florigiant, a jumbo runner type released in 1961, is liked by growers
because of its high yield of peanuts per acre and by processors for its
large oblong light colored seeds. Processing trials to date indicate that
Florigiant seed generally compare favorably with seed of other jumbo va-
rieties. Florigiant showed no tendency toward fragile seed skins during
several years of stack curing and none in 1960 when cured in the window
and drying bin. Some lots of Florigiant seed grown in 1961 blanched and
split badly in shelling or in oil roasting. It is not known how much of
the blanching was due to curing processes or to variety factors. Variety
and processing studies are continuing with Florigiant and with other large
seeded types.
In the variety tests during the years 1958 to 1961, Florigiant produced
41 percent more sound and mature seed than NC-2, 18 percent more than
Early Runner, and 62 percent more than Dixie Runner. A new hybrid line
(420-215-1) from Florigiant x Dixie Runner produced 21 percent higher than
Florigiant during the two seasons 1960-1961.
Twelve intercrosses of varieties and types were made in the spring of
1961. The more important ones were Florigiant x Early Runner, Florispan
x Early Runner, Florispan x Dixie Runner, 393 x Dixie Runner, 420-215-1 x
406-12-2 (jumbo) and 420-215-1 x 406-8 (jumbo).
Nineteen varieties and breeding lines were grown in Florida Station
tests. Line 420-215-1 ranked highest in yield of sound and mature seed
per acre. Florigiant ranked fourth, Early Runner was sixth, Bradford
Runner thirteenth, NC-2 was seventeenth, Dixie Runner was eighteenth,
and Common Runner was nineteenth or lowest in yield.

Hatch Project 295 G. B. Killinger
Tifhi-1 bahiagrass averaged 7,793 pounds and Pensacola bahiagrass av-
eraged 6,713 pounds of oven dry forage per acre from seven replicated plots
of each grass. All of the increased yield from Tifhi-1 was harvested in
April and May. Seed harvested from Tifhi-1 will produce inferior bahia
plants, and this practice is not recommended.
Louisiana S-1 and Nolin's improved white clovers yielded 4,506 and
4,328 pounds of oven dry forage per acre, respectively, from a three-year-
old stand and 4,412 and 4,509 pounds from a one-year-old stand.
Nolin's red and Tensas red clovers yielded 5,129 and 5,272 pounds per

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

acre of oven dry forage. Both white and red clovers were grown on a Leon
fine sand soil type and received no irrigation.
First year stands of H-60, Arizona Chilean, African, and Hairy Peruvian
alfalfas yielded 8,260, 8,035, 7,953, and 7,903 pounds of oven dry forage per
acre, respectively, on an Arredondo sandy loam soil.
Fritted trace elements applied to white clover plots were responsible for
a 500 pound increase of oven dry forage when compared with plots receiving
no trace elements.

State Project 301 J. R. Edwardson, E. S. Horner,
and F. H. Hull
Selection for increased persistence in alfalfa was continued. Observa-
tions made during the past year confirm earlier findings that the experi-
mental strain developed at Gainesville persists better in old stands than
the standard variety Hairy Peruvian. However, it is believed that still
more improvement must be made before release of the strain as a variety
can be justified. Breeding efforts toward this end have been intensified.
Cytological and genetic studies of fertility restoration in cytoplasmic
male-sterile crotalaria is continuing.
This project is terminated with this report with certain objectives con-
tinued under new projects.

Hatch Project 372 Fred Clark
Thirty-six breeding lines, 20 commercial varieties, and some 20 selec-
tions were tested in 1961. A regional variety test, which included 12 lines
from several states, was conducted. All lines having possible nematode
resistance were tested in nematode infested soil at two locations, Gainesville
and Branford, Florida. Performance varied some with many of the lines
because the species of nematodes at the two locations differed. C-187 Hicks,
C-316, McNair 10, 12, and N.C. 75 were the high yielding commercial va-
rieties tested. F22 and N.C. 95 performed significantly better than most
other entries in the regional tests in all of the states. Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station Circular S-104, "F22, A New Nematode Resistant Flue-
Cured Tobacco Variety" was released.

Hatch Project 374 E. S. Horner
Studies were continued to evaluate different methods of improving grain
yield of hybrid corn. A selection experiment in which an inbred line and
a heterogeneous, heterozygous variety were compared as testers for four
cycles of selection during the past 10 years was evaluated. The variety
tester appeared to be more effective than the inbred line tester in the first
cycle of selection. However, in the advanced cycles the inbred line was
definitely superior to the variety for the following reasons: (1) genetic
variance was maintained at a significantly higher level in cycles 2, 3 and 4;
(2) the line x location interaction was significantly lower; and (3) combin-
ing ability both with the inbred tester and with a series of unrelated testers
was increased to a larger extent by use of the inbred tester than with the
variety tester. These results show that a narrow gene base tester such as
an inbred line can be effective in improving general as well as specific com-
bining ability.

Annual Report, 1962

A heterogeneous tester selected for low performance in hybrids and
another selected for high performance were compared as testers in crosses
with 82 lines. The component of variance due to lines, which is a measure
of genetic variance among the lines tested, was about 40 percent higher for
the "low" tester than for the "high" tester both in 1960 and 1961. These
results are in agreement with the theory that a tester having a low fre-
quency of dominant favorable genes should be used for evaluating com-
bining ability of inbred lines.
Coker 67, Coker 811, Jackson, Coker 811A, Florida 200, and Dixie 18
were the leading hybrids in the commercial variety tests.
(See also Project 374, West Florida, North Florida, and Suwannee Val-
ley stations.)

Hatch Project 440 H. C. Harris
The nutrient requirements of Hairy Peruvian alfalfa and ladino clover
when grown on virgin Leon fine sand at the greenhouse were compared
this year. Sulfur was highly important for both crops. An application
of copper to the soil greatly increased the yield of alfalfa, but had only a
slight beneficial effect on clover. Boron doubled the yield of alfalfa but had
no noticeable effect on the clover. The yield of alfalfa was improved by
an application of molybdenum. As might be expected, a higher lime level
was more important for alfalfa than the clover.
This project is being closed out with this report. Under it a large num-
ber of nutrient deficiencies for different crops on various soils have been
demonstrated. For example, copper deficiency for oats, wheat, barley,
alfalfa, corn, white clover, and lupine has been shown. Boron deficiency of
alfalfa, white clover, and lupine was demonstrated. Molybdenum deficiency
for legumes has been common. A zinc deficiency for corn frequently has
been found. Sulfur deficiency has been general in the Gainesville, Florida,
area for both legumes and non-legumes. Crops have differed in minor ele-
ment response when grown on the same soil in as nearly as possible the
same way.

Hatch Project 488 H. C. Harris
Florigiant peanut when grown at the greenhouse on Arredondo loamy
fine sand responded markedly to an application of lime, potash, or boron to
the soil. Where boron was not applied there was a high percentage of
hollow heart defect of the nuts (described in Soil Science 84: 233-242, 1957),
and about 55 percent of all peanuts were one-cell compared to about 10
percent for other treatments. Calcium sulfate in the surface soil, even
where a liberal amount of calcium carbonate was applied, seemed to be
beneficial. Dark plumule of seed (see above reference for description) was
about 21 percent where calcium carbonate was not applied, and this trouble
was completely associated with low lime level. Percentage of hulls was
high without an application of calcium carbonate. Experiments in progress
on Lakeland fine sand appear to be giving similar responses.
Factors affecting fructification of peanuts have been studied for some
years. Thousands of pegs have been grown without cover in the open, and
not one has developed seed. Darkness, moisture, and nutrients in contact
with the peg appear necessary for proper fruit development. Fruits have
been grown successfully in large glass test tubes containing cloth wicks

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

and a small amount of calcium sulfate and boron solution. The pegs were
inserted in the tubes and everything covered with aluminum foil to ex-
clude light.
Germs removed from peanut seed have sprouted and grown.

Hatch 555 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
Several new treatments were tested in 1961. These were calcium vs.
no calcium, three rates of nitrogen (48, 72, 69 pounds N) and 120, 160, and
200 pounds of potash (K2O) per acre with and without maleic hydrazide.
Four rates of nitrogen were used on tobacco plants which had been pro-
duced under plastic film and cheese cloth, with and without maleic hy-
drazide, and in irrigated vs. non-irrigated comparisons.
Black plastic film mulch was tested with three rates of fertilizer.
The regional evaluation test of maleic hydrazide was continued with
four variables.
The N, K, (48 pounds N and 120 pounds K) treated with maleic hydrazide
was the best treatment, and the NK. treatment (72 N and 160 K2O) was
the best treatment where no maleic hydrazide was applied. There was little
difference noted from the use of additional calcium.
In the nitrogen rates tests with cover comparison, there was no signifi-
cant difference between covers; however, 100 pounds nitrogen, irrigated,
produced the best yield and quality. Yields were doubled by irrigation over
no irrigation in 1961. Only 1.63 inches of rainfall occurred during March,
April, May, and early June.
Fertilizer rates had more effect than the plastic mulch with the 1,800-
pound rates producing the highest yield and value.
In the regional maleic hydrazide test, yield increases up to 460 pounds
per acre were obtained with excellent quality as compared with the check.
Tobacco treated with maleic hydrazide appears to withstand brown spot
better than the non-treated tobacco.
(See also Suwannee Valley Experiment Station.)

State Project 600 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
Breeding for increased persistence, productivity, and disease resistance
in white clover was continued. The procedure has been to propagate vege-
tatively superior plants which have lived through a summer and produced
good fall growth, followed by continued evaluation of these clones in repli-
cated plots. Seedling progenies of 12 selected clones which were inter-
crossed in 1960-61 are now being evaluated for persistence both in broad-
cast-seeded plots and as spaced plants. One of the 12 clones produced slow-
growing seedling progeny and will be discarded. The progenies of the other
11 clones appear very promising, but their relative persistence will not be
known until the fall of 1962.
No work was done on red or sweet clover except that a planting of
Floranna sweet clover was made to increase the supply of breeder's seed.

Hatch Project 612 J. R. Edwardson and F. H. Hull'
The Stemphylium resistant selection G. P. continues to outyield com-
mercial varieties of sweet and bitter blue lupine in production of seed and
1Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1962

forage. The G. P. selection has been found to be susceptible to Stemphylium
Studies of the inheritance of resistance to Phomopsis in yellow lupine
are continuing. The inheritance of several mutants in yellow and blue
lupine is being investigated.
This project is terminated with this report with certain objectives con-
tinued under a new project.
(See also Plant Pathology Department.)

State Project 627 G. B. Killinger and H. C. Harris
Dry weather during March, April, May, and the first half of June, 1961,
reduced pasture production; however, the quality of forage was excellent as
evidenced by cattle gains and condition.
The average yield of dry forage from the five programs, total crude
protein per acre, and treatment are shown in the following table:

Lbs. Per Acre
Lbs. 0-10-20 Lbs. of Nitrogen Ls. P
Program Per Acre Per Acre Oven-dry forage Crude protein

1 450 180 8,877 1,039
2 300 0 6,622 954
3 500 0 8,532 1,203
4 700 0 8,504 1,242
5 900 0 8,428 1,188

There was 22 pounds of dry forage produced per pound of fertilizer applied
under Program 2 and 17 pounds of forage per pound of fertilizer under
Program 3. Production for Program 3 has averaged over 2,000 pounds more
dry forage per acre per year for the past four seasons than has Program 2.
The extra ton of dry forage is attributed to the effect of an additional 200
pounds per acre of 0-10-20 fertilizer.
Approximately 40 percent of the forage consumed during the season
was white clover.
The phosphorus and potassium content of the forage was increased as
pounds of applied fertilizer was increased.
Pasture forage from Programs 1 and 5 was lower in calcium than forage
from other programs.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineering,
Animal Science, and Soils departments.)


Hatch Project 758 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
Research in curing tobacco is presently being conducted under Project
1034. Official completion is planned with a publication, which is still in the
draft stage, pending final analysis of the data.

52 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 760 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder,
O. C. Ruelke, S. H. West,2
and K. D. Butson3
Temperature studies within the microclimate of pangolagrass grown on
level land, and the north and south slopes of hilled land were expanded.
Temperatures one inch above soil in pangolagrass grown on southern
slopes were colder during winter nights, and were warmer during the day
than on northern slopes or on level land. Average soil moisture percent-
ages of the upper six inches were nearly the same at all exposures, however,
average soil moisture percentage in the upper two inches of soil showed
that southern slopes were much drier and northern slopes were much
wetter than level land. The modifying effect of this soil moisture on tem-
perature could explain why the measured temperature differences occurred.
The grain yield of individual prolific corn plants decreased 22 percent
when the plant population was increased from 6,000 to 12,000 plants per
acre and another 21 percent when the population was increased from 12,000
to 18,000 plants per acre. The lower grain yields per plant as the population
increased was attributed to competitive stress within the above-ground en-
vironment, as the soil environment was controlled by growing the corn
plants studied in uniformly-treated submerged steel drums under the normal
field environment of each population. Other experiments showed that light
is a principal factor influencing the grain yield of corn plants as the popula-
tion increases. The increased self shading of lower plant parts as popu-
lation increased reduced the average number of ears per plant and resulted
in lower grain yield per plant as average ear weight remained the same
over wide ranges in light conditions and populations.

State Project 761 Kuell Hinson'
The development of high protein varieties has recently become the major
objective in soybean breeding. Since chemical analyses for protein are
expensive, selection for "indicator" characters in early generations has been
suggested as a means of reducing the number of chemical analyses needed.
Correlations obtained by one investigator suggest that the use of indicator
characters has merit. High negative correlations are always obtained be-
tween percent protein and percent oil; therefore, high protein and high
oil selections from the same population should be significantly different for
any characters associated with either high protein or high oil.
The merit of indicator characters in high protein breeding was further
evaluated by selecting high protein and high oil lines from two populations.
The selected lines were tested two years in multiple-row plots replicated
three times at Gainesville. The high protein and high oil lines did not differ
enough in flowering date, length of fruiting period, maturity date, plant
height, seed size, lodging, or shattering for these characters to be used
reliably as indicator characters. Seed yield of the high protein and high
oil selections was essentially the same. This is encouraging, since one in-
vestigator reported high negative correlations between percent protein and
yield and high positive correlations between percent oil and yield.
2 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
3Cooperative with U.S. Weather Bureau.
Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1962

Hatch Project 766 V. N. Schroder and H. C. Harris
Work with oats grown in nutrient solution has shown that a chelating
agent ethylenediamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) has severely reduced
growth, causing a marked chlorosis and eventual death of plants. Iron
chelate used as the iron source also caused a severe chlorosis which was
more marked in the treatments with EDTA. Addition of iron tartrate to
the treatments with iron chelate soon produced a definite visual response,
but the organic acid patterns considered typical for iron deficient oats in the
past were not repeated, most likely because of conditions of aeration. Potash
deficiency produced a distinctive organic acid pattern over a wide range of
leaf color from dark green to almost white. There was a complete ab-
sence of succinic acid in potash deficient plants except in the treatments with
EDTA, where a small amount was present. Additional iron caused a change
in an unidentified acid, but did not affect the succinic acid. The amounts of
citric and malic acids seem to depend on the general vigor of the plant. At-
tempts to produce a lime-induced chlorosis in soil grown plants of several
species greatly reduced growth in proportion to the amount of calcium
hydroxide added, but did not produce the anticipated iron chlorosis.

Hatch Project 767 G. B. Killinger, W. A. Carver,
(Regional S-9) A. J. Norden, and F. H. Hull
Grass, legume, and miscellaneous plant species for industrial utilization
were placed in the Plant Introduction Garden near Gainesville.

Erucas tru rm
a.byss tic a

Fig. 1.-Erucastrum after December freeze. (Photo taken on January 9.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Erucastrum abyssinica, P.I. 243913, a rape like oil seed and forage crop
shows promise as a cash crop for North Central Florida. This crop planted
in mid-November was approximately two feet high by January 9 and was
in full flower and producing seed pods by March 9. Growth habit at two
stages of growth is shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The seed contain 33.5 percent oil
(primarily erucic acid) and 31.8 percent protein. Seed yields of 1,500
pounds per acre were harvested by combine, with yields of 2,000 to 2,200
pounds per acre from small plots, hand harvested. The protein content of
the entire plant when 18 to 24 inches in height ranged from 16 to 22 percent
on a dry matter basis.
Irradiated seed of Pensacola and P.I. 227832 bahiagrass strains produced
several plants with distinctly different growth habits.
Ten new peanut (Arachis hypogaea) accessions were received from Brazil
and Mexico. One of these accessions, P.I. 280688, has deep purple plant
pigment which will be used as a marker in breeding new peanut varieties.
July castorbean plantings produced significantly higher yields (Fig. 3),
than March plantings (2,120 and 1,517 pounds per acre of seed respectively).
Diseases, capsule drop, and shattering were reduced in the July planting.
A differential response of varieties to planting season was obtained.

-'as, e136
mm in I I ...- -. 1

Fig. 2.-By March 9, Erucastrum
was over six feet in height and in
full bloom.

Fig. 3. -Hale castorbeans at
Gainesville, Florida, on January 5,
1962, from a July planting. Frost
terminated growth in late December
and caused the leaves to drop. The
beans were in excellent condition for
mechanical harvesting by late Jan-
uary 1962.

Annual Report, 1962

Selection within sesame introductions for seed yield, resistance to leaf
and stem diseases, growth habit, and desirable seed characteristics has re-
sulted in the isolation of lines with uniform superior response over years.
Of two species of annual rape being evaluated at Gainesville, Argentine
(Brassica napiis) was more cold tolerant than Polish (B. campestris) (Fig.
4) and subsequently produced higher forage and seed yields.

Fig. 4.-An October 1961 planting of Argentine rape on the left and
Polish rape on the right. Polish was flowering when the temperature
dropped to 21 F on December 26, and was killed. Argentine was only
slightly damaged by the cold.


Hatch 780

Fred Clark

One acre of tobacco was planted and nine materials were tested. Acre
yield and value were not as high as last year; however, highly economic
returns were obtained. Evaluation of new and more versatile materials
is always in demand.
(See also Project 780, Entomology Department.)


Hatch Project 783

P. L. Pfahler

Oats.-A highly heterogeneous, late maturing strain of oats possessing
the unique combination of desirable agronomic characteristics and the more
permanent "late rusting" form of crown rust resistance is under intensive
Studies involving Avena sativa, Arena byzantina, their interspecific
crosses, and the derived varieties have established that distribution of forage

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

production can be predicted and subsequently controlled by proper selection
and mechanical mixing of complementary genotypes. Moreover, in some
combinations, a synergistic response for both forage and grain yield was
obtained and is being intensively studied.
Rye.-An attempt to increase the frequency of inter-varietal hybrids
within two varieties of rye was made in an effort to increase forage and
grain yield. Seed of the variety Florida Black was exposed to various
levels of gamma irradiation to induce male sterility and then planted in
field isolation blocks with the variety Gator. Formulae were developed to
estimate the frequency and yield of inter-varietal hybrids within a popula-
tion containing a mixture of inter and intra-varietal hybrids. These formu-
lae are:
(H .5P1 .5P2)
N (Frequency of inter-varietal hybrids) 1 .5P1 .5P
where H = seed weight of population containing a mixture of inter and
intra-varietal hybrids; P1 and P2 = seed weight of maternal and paternal
parent populations containing 100 percent intra-varietal hybrids.
Yield of inter-varietal hybrids = M (1 -N)R where M = mean
yield of population containing inter and intra-varietal hybrids; N = fre-
quency of inter-varietal hybrids in the population; R = mean yield of
maternal parent containing 100 percent intra-varietal hybrids.
Frequency estimates were made assuming additivity was involved in seed
weight inheritance. A positive correlation between the irradiation dosage
applied to the seed and the frequency of inter-varietal hybrids within
Florida Black was obtained, probably the result of irradiation-induced
male sterility. However, a high frequency of inter-varietal hybrids within
Gator was observed, possibly due to an increased amount of pollen competi-
tion produced by medium dosages of irradiation. No effect on forage or
grain yield was detected by increasing the frequency of inter-varietal hybrids
in solid-seeded populations at various densities. However, under space-
planted conditions, the heterotic response of the inter-varietal hybrids was
positive for vegetative growth and negative for grain yield.
(See also Project 783, Plant Pathology Department and North Florida

State Project 794 Fred Clark
Once again plastic film proved superior to cheesecloth in the production
of early seedlings. A comparative test, plastic film vs. cheesecloth, with
three seeding dates and six varieties, proved very interesting. Early trans-
planted tobacco produced the lowest yield of three transplant dates. For
the first time in six years, however, the differences were not significant be-
tween transplants from cloth or plastics. There was a significant difference
between MH-30 and no MH-30 with both the cloth and plastic grown plants.
Plastic film has provided a technique for evaluating early transplants and
has reduced planted management time from three to four weeks. Seedlings
can be produced with predictability rather than by probability.


Annual Report, 1962

Regional Research Project 839 E. G. Rodgers and M. Wilcox
Leachability of simazine, atrazine, atratone, and in ipazine in an Ever-
glades muck containing 81 percent organic matter as influenced by rate of
application and the amount and frequency of simulated rainfall was studied
under greenhouse conditions. These herbicides were applied at 4 and 8
pounds active ingredient per acre of soil surface. Simulated rainfall then
was applied in amounts varying from 1 to 16 inches in 7 to 28 days. Ab-
normalities of cucumber and oats seedlings grown in treated soil samples
taken weekly from various one-inch horizons to a maximum depth of six
inches served as the basis of evaluations.
Both cucumber and oats seedlings grown in soil from the top one-inch
horizon developed leaf chlorosis-plus stem bending and breaking in cu-
cumbers-7 to 10 days after emergence, and seedlings died soon thereafter
as a result of each herbicidal treatment. No differences were noted among
herbicides or between rates of application. Slight growth retardation of
seedlings growing in soil from the second inch horizon below the surface
was caused by both rates of simazine, atrazine, and atratone, but not ipazine.
Seedlings growing in deeper horizons were normal.
Cucumbers were slightly more susceptible than oats to the herbicidal
treatments. Varying rates and intensities of simulated rainfall, however,
failed to influence seedling performance.

Hatch Project 850 W. A. Carver, S. C. Schank,
and F. H. Hull

Several different appearing dwarf millets have been found in the nursery
during inbreeding procedures with Pennisetum glaucum and P. spicatum and
in hybrid strains. Dwarf lines are being intercrossed to determine their
genetic behavior. Selection in millet is made for short stalk, multiple tiller-
ing habit, good forage quality, lateness in heading, and deep red stem color.
Colored stems appear to give some resistance to helminthosporum disease.
Selection is also made for compact seeded heads having flinty dark colored
seeds. Color and hardness appear to give some resistance to fungi which
attack seed heads during rainy weather. The spiny head character is being
combined, by crossing, with better tillered plants and better forage types.
Heavily spined seed heads give some protection against bird damage.
One millet-napiergrass hybrid (number 125) possesses several millet-
like characters and showed more winter hardiness in 1959-60 than several
other hybrids. However, its degree of winter killing in 1961-62 shows that
it must be grown in a more southern location.
Total number of Digitaria and Chloris accessions is now 223. Breeding
and evaluation nurseries of this material are in three locations. Cytogenetic
information on Digitaria species is being obtained prior to an interspecific
hybridization program. Of material analyzed, two lines of D. pentzii, have
a chromosome number 2n = 18, insect and disease tolerance, rapid growth
rate, morphology similar to pangolagrass, and other desirable agronomic
traits. Winter survival is still unknown. Attempts to double the chromo-
some number of D. decumbens are underway.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 886 M. Wilcox and E. G. Rodgers
Peanuts treated at emergence with 3 pounds 2,4-DEP and one and one-
half pounds DNBP were weed-free for about 7 weeks. Similar treatment
combinations of sesone or amiben with DNBP at the same rates were some-
what less effective, giving weed control for from three to five weeks. These
same treatments caused severe burning when applied four days after
emergence. R-1607, zytron, and amiben were the most promising pre-
emergence herbicides. Evaluations are continuing.
(See also Project 886, West Florida Station and North Florida Station,
Marianna Unit.)

State Project 900 E. G. Rodgers and Fred Clark
The study of 10 crop rotation systems involving four levels of fertiliza-
tion on nine different crops initiated in 1958 has been continued. Increased
rates of fertilization resulted in increased yields of all crops. Corn produced
higher yields when grown in alternating years than when grown each year
on the same land. This crop again showed marked response to nitrogen.
Tobacco again produced higher yields after fallowing than after corn in the
rotation. Tobacco grown after fallowing also had a lower content of nico-
tine, potassium, magnesium, and particularly calcium than that grown after
corn. Other crops in the rotations performed too poorly for proper evalua-
(See also Project 900, Suwannee Valley Experiment Station.)

State Project 909 Kuell Hinson'
Soybean varieties previously grown in northcentral and central Florida
have not performed well enough to be widely accepted by farmers. New
varieties developed in the South and breeding lines developed primarily in
Florida were evaluated on mineral soils at Gainesville and Live Oak and on
muck soils at Zellwood to select better adapted varieties.
Breeding lines yielded more than the best adapted varieties at all loca-
tions. The average yield of F58-3734 was 37 bushels per acre at Gainesville
and Live Oak for the two-year period 1960-61 compared to 26.7 bushels for
Jackson. F58-3734 is satisfactory for a variety in all other respects and
will be released for production under the variety name Hardee. Seed is ex-
pected to be available for commerical plantings in 1963 or 1964. Hardee is
not well adapted to the muck soil at Zellwood.
Vegetable growers on muck soils occasionally have grown CNS-4 soy-
beans as a summer cover crop and for grain production. Yields have not
been high enough to make production profitable. In 13 replications of check
varieties at Zellwood in 1961, Lee yielded 35 bushels per acre compared to
29 bushels for CNS-4 and Jackson. The apparent 6-bushel yield advantage
Lee has over CNS-4 is expected to result in a complete shift in variety
preference and create more interest in soybeans for the area. Some breed-
ing lines yielded significantly more than Lee; however, more extensive test-
ing will be required before they are properly evaluated.
(See also Project 909, Suwannee Valley, Central Florida, North Florida,
and West Florida stations.)
5 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1962

Hatch Project 950 H. C. Harris
In cooperation with Dr. S. H. West (ARS) seed coat color studies have
been made. Non-uniform germination of Hairy Peruvian alfalfa seed led
to the separation of them into three color classes-olive to yellow, dark
brown to red, and intermediate. White, ladino, and crimson clover seed
were also separated into three classes. Germination of dark seed in all cases
was markedly lower than lighter ones. Water extracts from dark alfalfa
seed inhibited germination of yellow seed and subsequent seedling growth.
Extracts from dark alfalfa seed contained more minerals, nitrogen, amino
acids, proteins, and nucleotides than from the yellow seed.
Alfalfa on Arredondo loamy fine sand under sulfur, copper, boron,
molybdenum, or calcium deficient conditions and ladino and white clover
on Leon fine sand under sulfur, copper, molybdenum, or calcium deficient
conditions were grown at the greenhouse. Correlation coefficients between
yield and percentage composition for potassium, sulfur, calcium, magnesium,
and phosphorus were in most cases highly significant negative ones; correla-
tion between yield and nitrogen was positive. Milligrams of each element
in a crop were positively correlated with yield. Thus any deficiency that
has a pronounced effect on yield will cause marked changes in chemical com-
position, and one can predict the direction the change will take.
Pure lines of corn, F6A (resistant to zinc deficiency) and L578 Fertile
(susceptible to zinc deficiency) were grown both under deficient and sufficient
zinc conditions. Foliage of the bud areas were compared in chemical com-
position. No nucleotides were detected in L578 corn. The nucleotides of
F6A were somewhat higher in zinc deficient plants. Nucleic acid was higher
in both lines with zinc deficiency.

State Project 969 J. R. Edwardson
Seed of cytoplasmic male-sterile Minnesota A158T and Florida F6T and
their fertile maintainers Minnesota A158 and Florida F6 were treated with
gamma radiation. Height of seedlings taken over a four-week period was
used as a measure of response to radiation. Plants containing T-type cy-
toplasm were significantly taller than plants containing normal cytoplasm,
indicating a cytoplasmic effect on response to radiation damage.
Differences in inclusions in sections of T-type male-sterile and maintainer
corn were found with electron microscopy.
This project is terminated with this report with certain objectives con-
tinued under a new project.

State Project 971 A. J. Norden
Although final conclusions cannot be made on this long range study,
annual data are being obtained from each individual plot in an effort to
derive a more accurate and meaningful interpretation of the final results
when the study is completed in 1966. The design stipulates that a previously
designated number of plots are seeded in bahiagrass each year while the

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

remaining plots are maintained in a rotation of cultivated field crops.
Therefore, the number of plots in a cultivated field crop decreases each year.
Bahiagrass seeded in 1960 yielded 7,048 pounds per acre of dry forage
from three cuttings. Nitrogen content of the grass declined from 1.54 to 1.22
to 1.05 percent dry weight from cuttings made in June, July, and August,
respectively. In comparison to the cultivated plots, the grass plots had a
lower number of nematodes; however, the mean number of Sting nematodes
was higher in the grass plots.
Drastic changes were observed in the species and numbers of nematodes
found in the cultivated plots in 1961 compared to the same plots in 1960.
Stubby root nematodes, the most numerous species in 1960, were found in
much reduced numbers in 1961. Ring nematodes, found in small numbers
in 1960, were present in large numbers in the 1961 plots. Negative correla-
tions were obtained between yield of peanuts and numbers of nematodes;
however, only the correlation with Lance nematodes was statistically signifi-
cant (r = -0.3; significant at the 5 percent level). In general the total
numbers of nematodes in the cultivated plots were higher in 1961 than in
Tests of soil heterogeneity using peanut yields as an indicator showed
that the field design was satisfactory for maximum statistical efficiency in
testing treatment effects. Correlations between peanut yields and levels
of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium indicated that only
potassium with r = .6 (significant at the 1 percent level) may have limited
the peanut yields.

Regional Research Project 998 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder,
(Regional S-47) 0. C. Ruelke, S. H. West,"
and K. D. Butson'
The influence of growth regulators on the physiology and ecology of
forage crops was expanded to study their effect on the growth habit and
chemical composition of forage plants. Large, coarse, hard to manage
forage crops, like napiergrass, were held to the proper size for grazing
when the growth retardant maleic hydrazide was applied at the proper
time and rate. The total available carbohydrate percentage of the forage
was tripled when 8 pounds per acre of maleic hydrazide was sprayed on the
foliage of napiergrass at an early stage of development. Feeding trials
with sheep are in progress to study animal performance.
Pangolagrass which received 200 and 400 pounds of nitrogen per acre
in early September again suffered severe winterkill. Balancing the nitro-
gen with various rates of phosphorus and potassium had little effect on
amount of winterkill. The 100-pound rate of nitrogen applied in the fall
to pangolagrass resulted in good forage yields both in fall and spring and
there was little increase in winterkilling of plants over the 0 nitrogen rate.
Various management treatments, including height and frequency of cut-
ting, fertilization with major and minor elements, liming, and planting on
wide shallow beds have thus far not prevented the thinning of alfalfa stands
to unproductive levels by end of the first growing season. Twenty varieties
of alfalfa are being screened for relative persistence under local conditions
and to determine time and probable cause of death of plants not surviving.
6 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.

Annual Report, 1962

Project 1034 Fred Clark
Bulk curing tests were continued again this year, and results of the
temperature and drying rates during coloring corroborated the 1960 results.
Coloring time varied at 20-hour intervals from 30 to 110 hours showed a
slight increase in filling value for the samples colored for the longer periods.
Air velocity through the tobacco was varied from 10 to 40 feet per
minute, during coloring, leaf drying, and stem drying periods. These tests
were made to assist in determining the optimum drying rate without loss
of quality, which is important in establishing a capital-cost-time relation-
Density tests varying from 18 to 36 percent per square foot were also
made and no deterious effects were noted on quality. These tests were also
conducted to assist in determining a volume measurement, which certainly
would be of tremendous economic importance. Findings indicate a greater
volume may be cured satisfactorily. Results to date with bulk curing are
encouraging; however, the interaction of the above factors have not been
adequately ascertained and a better understanding is vital to the successful
operation of bulk curing system.
(See also Project 1034, Agricultural Engineering.)

Hatch Project 1036 A. T. Wallace
Tests to determine a treatment or combination of treatments which will
produce the highest number of mutations at the Vb locus in oats were
continued. Seventy-six additional treatments were planted to test the muta-
genic effects of four chemicals both alone and in combinations with different
levels of ionizing radiations, the chemicals being ethyleneimine, diethyl sul-
fate, myleran, and ethyl methane-sulphonate. The results from these tests
will be determined in the following growing season. Maximum mutation
rates obtained per panicle for six completed tests are as follows: seeds at dry
ice temperature-16.1 x 10-' at 50 kr; seeds irradiated with thermal neutrons
-26.7 x 10-' at four hours; seeds exposed to UV one hour before being
irradiated with gamma rays-31.8 x 10- at 10 kr; seeds at 3.5 percent mois-
ture-157.4 x 10- at 5 kr; seeds soaked two hours in ethyleneimine-102.6
x 10- at .07 percent concentration. Mutation rates obtained suggest two
hypotheses: (1) as the chromosome becomes more labile, the mutation
efficiency of the ionizing particle increases; (2) as conditions in the cells
are modified to allow an increase in the accumulation of radicals, the higher
is the mutation efficiency of the ionizing particle. Cytological examination
of 46 mutants at meiosis showed that all but two had normal bivalents. To
obtain hybrid progeny for further examination of the nature of the muta-
tions being induced, crosses are being made between the different mutants.
Over 400 hybrid seed have been obtained. These will be tested for allelic

State Project 1053 A. J. Norden
The first cycle of a rotation system consisting of spring corn, summer
sorghum, and fall oats indicated that the selection of both the corn and
sorghum variety was of prime importance to the successful utilization of
this system.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

A highly selected group of 20 hybrid corn varieties is being evaluated
for maturity, plant height, leafiness, and ratio of grain to total forage to
find a more suitable variety for the exacting requirements of this system.
An early maturing variety is desired to allow more time for preparation of
the seed bed and planting the sorghum in early July.
A sorghum variety which will produce reliable yields of quality silage
from July plantings is also required. A differential response was obtained
from a diverse group of more than 600 sorghum genotypes to the physical
environments associated with plantings made in April, May, June, and July
of 1961. Both the vegetative and reproductive development of the sorghum
was differentially affected by planting date. Genetic variability between
genotypes was also observed in regard to other desirable agronomic char-
acteristics. Thirty sorghum genotypes selected from this 1961 test are being
evaluated, under more controlled conditions, in 1962 to obtain estimates of
yielding ability and to test the level of significance of interactions. An
April 1961 planting of 40 commercial grain sorghum hybrids yielded from
1,928 to 3,677 pounds of dry grain per acre. The dry forage yield from a
single harvest of 26 commercial silage-type sorghums ranged from 2 to 6
tons per acre. Average plant height of the grain and forage sorghums
ranged from 35 to 48 and 57 to 106 inches, respectively.
Although results of the first cycle were adversely affected by the selec-
tion of varieties, the data indicates that the potential of this system far
exceeds that of the standard two-crop system.
(See also Project 1053, Dairy Science Department.)

Hatch Project 1087 M. Wilcox and E. G. Rodgers
New or unproven herbicides were applied in duplicate to corn and soy-
beans at various rates in screening experiments. The more promising
herbicides were included in advanced yield trials of from four to six repli-
Field Corn.-Corn receiving a pre-emergence application of 1 pound
each of simazine and atrazine per acre yielded 95 bushels per acre without
cultivation, while cultivated checks yielded 82 bushels per acre. Atrazine
and simazine also performed well when applied alone. Other pre-emergence
herbicides performing well were linuron (1z pound per acre) and 2,4-D plus
dacthal (112 plus 8 pounds per acre). Yields resulting from several other
herbicidal treatments were as high as those resulting from cultivation.
Soybeans.-Twelve pounds PCP applied pre-emergence controlled weeds
almost as well as the thiolcarbamates, and did not require incorporation into
the soil to be effective. Treatments with these herbicides and amiben re-
sulted in yields equal to or greater than the cultivated check.
(See also Project 1087, Central Florida and Everglades stations.)

State Project 1100 P. L. Pfahler
This project is new, initiated in December 1961. Studies with corn, oats,
and rye are now in progress.

Growing Peanuts in Grass Sods for Hay.-Ten varieties of peanuts were
planted in Pensacola bahiagrass, Coastal bermudagrass, and pangolagrass
sods fertilized with 500 pounds per acre of 0-10-20 fertilizer. Fifteen-inch-

Annual Report, 1962 63

wide ribbons of the grass sod were worked into a rough seedbed on 38-inch
centers by going over the same strips four times with weighted straight
bedding disks followed by a bullnose scooter on a Ford tractor tool bar. A
row of peanuts was planted in the center of each seedbed strip with a Cole
Splinter which dropped a peanut every three inches. Good growth of pea-
nuts was obtained in all three grass sods though leaves on early growth
were of lighter green than normal. Several introduced peanuts-Kutambaa
(P.I. 244603), Samarw 38 (P.I. 244608), Kongwa Runner (P.I. 244602),
Mwitunde II (P.I. 244606), and Wima Runner (P.I. 244607)-produced the
most topgrowth in grass sods. Dixie runner had the best topgrowth of
commonly grown varieties tested. The peanuts growing in sod produced
only a few seed pods per plant. Common leaf spot did not develop on the sod
grown peanuts, though it was prevalent in nearby fields.
Planting peanuts for hay in an established grass sod in the above manner
does not appear to be practical because of the high cost of peanut seed and
land preparation, the difficulty in obtaining good stands of peanuts in a poor
seedbed, and the fact that good hay can be made from the grasses alone
if properly fertilized and managed. (G. M. PriDe)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research was conducted on 48 projects. New projects include studies
on evaluation of dietary factors of interest in the nutrition of cattle, swine,
and sheep, using laboratory animals; geographical and selection effect on
lambing date; control of parasitic infection in sheep; the interrelationships
of ration and rumen biochemistry to animal performance; the effect of
temperature on vitamin A needs; the effect of energy and protein level on
reproduction in rams; the effect of irradiation on swine and sheep nutrition;
and survival and the effect of feeding high levels of antibiotics at farrowing
time on sow performance.
A new barn for basic rumen studies has been completed. This facility
will be used to initiate a strong program in the area of trying to decrease the
amount of feed needed by ruminant animals to produce a pound of meat.
Grant-in-aid funds totaling approximately $80,000 were obtained from
20 different commerical companies, foundations, and the U.S. Public Health
The Animal Science Department has continued its cooperation with other
departments and branch stations in nutrition, physiology, breeding, genetics,
and meats studies. Many of the staff have also judged livestock shows and
helped breeders in Central and South America with their livestock procure-
ment and production problems. In addition to considerable foreign corre-
spondence, visitors from all parts of the world visit and consult staff mem-
bers frequently throughout the year. Some of the staff have visited Vene-
zuela and have advised and consulted with Universidad Central de Venezuela
at Maracay and Universidad del Zulia at Maracaibo on their teaching and
research programs. At present seven Latin American students are doing
research and graduate study toward advanced degrees in the department.
This is indicative of the increasing importance of Florida in the Latin Ameri-
can areas.
Hatch Project 356 R. L. Shirley, J. F. Easley,
C. B. Ammerman, and G. K. Davis'
During the year approximately 2,000 samples of forages and other feeds
and tissues were analyzed for such constituents as moisture, protein, ether
extract, crude fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potas-
sium, copper, nitrate, cyanide, urea, vitamin A, and carotene. Much of
these data were obtained in cooperation with (1) fertilizer and forage evalu-
ation studies at the Range Cattle Station, (2) a vitamin A and pasture
rotation program with cattle at the Everglades Experiment Station, and (3)
cattlemen in Florida that had toxic or low performance problems with their
livestock. This project was closed out in June 1962.

State Project 627 M. Koger
Five pasture programs are being evaluated by grazing with cows and
calves which are also utilized in the cattle breeding study.
1 Cooperative with W. G. Kirk, E. M. Hodges, and J. E. McCaleb, Range Cattle Station,
and Dr. H. L. Chapman, Everglades Experiment Station.

Annual Report, 1962

The five pasture programs include an all-grass program fertilized at the
rate of 450 pounds of 0-10-10 plus 180 pounds of nitrogen annually per acre.
The remaining programs are clover-grass, fertilized at varying rates as fol-
Slows: 300 pounds of 0-10-20; 500 pounds of 0-10-20 annually plus nitrogen as
needed up to 60 pounds per acre; 700 pounds of 0-10-20 plus nitrogen as
needed; and 900 pounds of 0-10-20 plus nitrogen as needed on irrigated pas-
ture. The weight of calf weaned per acre was 297, 374, 319, 322, and 370
pounds, respectively.
The breeding systems being compared are straight breeding to Angus
and Hereford, crisscrossing of Angus and Hereford, crisscrossing Angus and
Brahman, and crisscrossing Hereford and Santa Gertrudis. Weaning rate
of 1961, based on number of cows bred, was 85, 98, 79, and 89 percent re-
spectively. Average weaning weight per calf was 491, 495, 476, and 522
pounds for the respective groups.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineering,
Agronomy, and Soils departments for other phases of this cooperative

State Project 717 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and M. Koger
Relative breed performance data were compiled on registered Angus,
Brahman, and Hereford cattle and calves which were maintained under simi-
lar environmental conditions. These data will be collected for a 10-year
period to permit calculation of heritability estimates of performance factors.
Brahman calves had heavier birth weights than Herefords, and Herefords
had heavier birth weights than Angus. Prior to supplemental feeding,
Angus male and female calves gained faster than Herefords by 0.11 and
0.15 pound per day, respectively. During the supplemental feeding period,
Angus females outgained Hereford females by 0.1 pound per day, but gains
for bulls of each breed were equal. Non-creep-fed Brahman male and female
calves had average daily gains of 2.5 and 1.95 pounds, respectively. At
weaning time, mature cows of the Angus, Brahman, and Hereford breeds
averaged 1,155, 1,289, and 1,073 pounds respectively. At this same time,
yearling replacement heifers of the Angus, Brahman, and Hereford breeds
averaged 862, 784, and 825 pounds, respectively. Type scores and estimated
slaughter grades were higher for Angus and Hereford than Brahman off-
spring. Detailed data on other performance factors were recorded for later

Hatch Project 738 G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace,
and T. J. Cunha
To evaluate the ability of young pigs to digest various feed mixtures,
pigs weaned at two weeks of age were fed rations containing soybean meal,
peanut meal, dried skimmilk, or fish meal as the source of supplementary
protein. Coefficients of digestion were determined when the pigs were
three, five, and seven weeks of age. Digestion coefficients for dry matter,
protein, ether extract, and energy showed that efficiency of digestion in-
creased with age. In all instances digestibility during the seventh week
of age was greater than at three and five weeks of age. The largest increase
occurred with the ether extract fraction. The occurrence of significant
differences among sources of protein during the third and fifth week indi-
cated that ingredients for starter rations should be carefully selected.

66 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Pigs weaned at two weeks of age were fed fortified corn-soybean meal
rations for a six-week period. Ground limestone, oyster shell, or gypsum
was added to form ration treatments that contained calcium levels ranging
from 0.40 to 0.88 percent. The high calcium rations exerted an adverse
influence on rate of gain. Source of calcium did not significantly influence
either rate or efficiency of gain. Digestibility of dry matter was compar-
able for both sources and levels of calcium. A comparison of the calcium
present in fish meal and ground limestone indicated that level exclusive of
source influenced rate of gain; rations that contained 0.70 percent calcium
produced significantly less gain than those containing 0.52 percent calcium.

State Project 752 (contributing to S-10) M. Koger, A. C. Warnick, and
J. F. Hentges, Jr.
This year's calf crop will conclude the evaluation of critical test matings
between the Snorter Hereford, Midget Brahman, and Guinea (Dexter).
The conclusions to date are:
(1) The compact animal known in Florida as the Guinea is the heretro-
zygote for the Dexter bulldog gene.
(2) There appears to be some genetic or physiological relationship be-
tween the Guinea and the Snorter Hereford dwarf, since crossing them has
resulted in one Dexter type bulldog and numerous fetal resorptions.
(3) The Snorter gene is present in the Brahman, as evidenced by the
appearance of typical Snorter dwarf calves in crossbred progeny of pure-
bred Brahman and Hereford parents. It appears likely that the Midget
Brahman is the heterozygote for the Snorter dwarf gene.
(4) Genes carried by cattle of mixed breeding modify the expression of
the Snorter dwarf gene. Non-carrier females produced by mating Snorter
Hereford bulls to Brahman native cows when mated back to their dwarf size
have produced significantly fewer than the expected ratio of one-half dwarf
This project is in the process of revision. Cooperative work with the
Medical School on the biochemical aspects of dwarfism continues.

Hatch Project 755 L. R. Arrington, C. B. Ammerman,
G. K. Davis, and T. J. Cunha
The nutritive value of the protein in dried tomato pulp was compared
with soybean meal in a nitrogen balance trial with lambs fed a ration con-
taining 33 percent tomato pulp. The nitrogen in tomato pulp was 51 per-
cent digestible, but was significantly less digestible than soybean meal and
had a lower biological value. Digestion coefficients for enery and organic
matter in tomato pulp were 69 and 70, and in soybean meal, 74 and 77.
Two 90-day summer feeding trials with lambs were conducted to compare
dried citrus pulp with ground snapped corn using rations containing 66
percent of citrus pulp or ground snapped corn. In the first trial lambs fed
citrus pulp gained slightly more, but in the second trial those fed ground
snapped corn gained significantly more. The results indicate that both
dried citrus pulp and ground snapped corn may be used in lamb fattening
2 Cooperative with J. M. Wing, Dairy Science Department, and P. E. Loggins, Animal
Science Department.

Annual Report, 1962

The physical characteristics of dried citrus pulp were found to vary and
to affect the nutritive value of the pulp. Seeds contained 15.6 percent pro-
tein and 43.2 percent fat. Pulp, fines, and pellets contained an average of
6.5 percent protein and 1.8 percent fat. Digestion coefficients were highest
for pulp followed by meal and pellets.
An enzyme preparation containing protease, amylase, and gumase activity
was added to the ration of sheep. The enzyme gave some evidence of in-
creased NFE digestibility of a ration containing 70 percent citrus pulp.
Total energy utilization, however, was not improved, and the enzyme had no
effect upon digestibility of nutrients in a ration containing 33 percent tomato
State Project 768 L. R. Arrington, C. B. Ammerman,
and G. K. Davis
Nutrient requirement studies were concerned with attempts to formulate
a purified or semi-purified diet for rabbits which is suitable for studying
the requirement for specific nutrients. Diets containing purified cellulose,
starch, sugar, protein, minerals, and vitamins were unpalatable and resulted
in poor growth inadequate for measuring nutrient requirements. Prelimi-
nary experiments with ground corn cobs as a source of roughage in place
of cellulose have been conducted and offer promise of providing an accept-
able ration. Diets with corn cobs were consumed in greater quantities than
diets with all purified ingredients.
Molybdenum as sodium molybdate added to the ration of growing rabbits
in amounts equivalent to 1,000 and 2,000 ppm caused a 10 and 40 percent
reduction in voluntary feed intake but did not reduce weight gain or feed
efficiency over pair-fed controls. Molybdenum did not affect digestibility
of nutrients in the rations.
One thousand ppm iodine as pottassium iodide added to the ration of
pregnant females 10 days prior to kindling resulted in death of all young
born to 10 females. Gestation appeared to be normal, but young were dead
at birth.

State Project 805 R. L. Shirley, J. F. Easley,
C. B. Ammerman, A. C. Warnick,
H. D. Wallace, J. F. Hentges, Jr.,
P. E. Loggins, and T. J. Cunha
Six Jersey steer calves, six months old, depleted of iron were compared
with three corresponding normal calves and were found to have no significant
differences in the succinoxidase and cytochrome oxidase activity and gly-
cogen concentration in their heart and gracilis muscle.
Swine fed growing fattening corn-soybean oil meal rations, with and
without 0.4 percent added L-lysine-HC1 were compared at market weight
for activity of three enzymes. Lysine caused a decrease (P< 0.025) in iso-
citric dehydrogenase activity in the heart, but not in the liver. Xanthine
oxidase activity in the liver was increased as reported by others to occur in
smaller species. Succinoxidase activity in the heart and liver was not
affected by the lysine.
Lambs that received 1.25 mg of selenium as sodium selenite per sub-
cutaneous injection at three 28 day intervals before weaning were found to
have equivalent amounts of serum glutamic-oxalacetic acid transaminase,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

serum glutamic-pyruvic acid transaminase, and serum lactic dehydrogenase
activity as the untreated lambs.

Hatch Project 809 A. C. Warnick and M. Koger
A cooperative experiment with Deseret Farms of Florida, Inc. was con-
ducted on two-year-old heifers and lactating cows to determine the use of
feeding a progesterone compound for 18 days on syncronization of estrus to
facilitate artificial breeding. Fifty-three percent of the two-year-old heifers
had a corpus luteum on the ovary, while 23 percent had infantile reproduc-
tive tracts. Only 9 percent of the lactating cows had a corpus luteum on the
ovaries before progesterone feeding. One-third of the heifers and cows
were given no Estradiol two days after the end of progesterone feeding, one-
third received 1 mg Estradiol, and one-third received 3 mg Estradiol intra-
muscularly. Within five days after injection 55, 40, and 50 percent of the
0, 1, and 3 mg groups had been in heat. Of those heifers coming into heat,
78, 80, and 90 percent had a corpus luteum on the ovary 16 days after the
injections in the 0, 1, and 3 mg groups, respectively. Of those heifers not
showing heat, 74, 89, and 84 percent had a corpus luteum on the ovary 16
days after injection on the 0, 1, and 3 mg groups, respectively. The percent-
age of lactating cows showing heat 11 days after injection was 27, 20, and
31 percent for the 0, 1, and 3 mg groups, respectively. The percentage of
lactating cows that showed heat with a corpus luteum 11 days after injection
was 85, 50, and 49 percent for the 0, 1, and 3 mg groups, respectively.
The higher incidence of estrus and ovulation following the hormone feed-
ing in the heifers compared to the lactating cows was probably due to a
higher incidence of ovarian activity with a corpus luteum before the hor-
mone feeding began. The fertility of the inseminations following hormone
therapy is not now available and will be reported later.


State Project 884 A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter
In 1957, 48 weanling heifers of mixed breeding but predominately Brah-
man and Shorthorn crosses were grouped into four lots by weight and breed-
ing. Wintering and feed lot phases of the study of the "Effects of Winter
Gain of Calves on Feed Lot Performance and Carcass Grade" were conducted
at the Range Cattle Station, Ona. The wintering and feeding study was rep-
licated in 1958, 1959, and 1960. All heifers were slaughtered at the Meats
Laboratory to obtain slaughter and carcass data. The fourth trial heifers
were slaughtered in July 1961, and as with previous groups, tenderness data
were obtained. As an indication of carcass composition, the percentages
of separable lean, fat, bone, and connective tissue from the 9-10-11 rib cut
were determined. The collection of data has been completed and the infor-
mation is being prepared for statistical analysis.
(See also Project 884 Range Cattle Station.)


State Project 922 M. Koger
This project is designed to study the comparative performance of
straightbred Angus, straightbred Brangus, and Angus-Brangus crossbreds.

Annual Report, 1962

The crossbred animals will be produced from a crisscross system. The cow
herd will be divided into four groups: Herd 1-Angus cows mated to Angus
bulls; Herd 2-Angus-Brangus crossbred cows mated to Angus bulls; Herd
S 3-Angus-Brangus crossbred cows mated to Brangus bulls; and Herd 4-
Brangus cows mated to Brangus bulls.
The project has been underway only two years; thus it will be several
years before breed composition will stabilize. The average weaning weights
of calves produced by the four foundation herds in 1961 were 361, 406, 353,
and 355 pounds, respectively. Pregnancy rates were 82, 70, 77, and 79 per-
cent, respectively.
(See also Project 922, Everglades Experiment Station.)

Hatch Project 938 A. C. Warnick and M. Koger
A cooperative experiment with purebred Brahman breeders showed that
no yearling heifers had a corpus luteum on the ovary in January or Feb-
ruary and by June only 15 percent of the heifers had a corpus luteum.
Thus, puberty is attained at a later date than in heifers of British breed-
ing. In two-year-old Brahman heifers 35 percent had no corpus luteum
with an infantile tract in January; this decreased to 25 percent in February,
to six percent in March and one percent in April. Therefore, some two-
year-old Brahman heifers are not showing estrus when the breeding season
begins in January through March 1.
The average length of estrus during May with 10 commercial Brahman
two-year-old heifers was 8.6 hours (range 2 to 22 hours) with a standard
deviation of 5.66. The interval from beginning of estrus to time of ovula-
tion was 32.9 hours with a standard deviation of 9.73. The very short estrus
period in some heifers indicates the problem of heat detection in an arti-
ficial insemination program. Also, such a short estrus period could mean
that under certain conditions the bull would not detect estrus, which would
result in a lowered calving percentage.

Hatch Project 975 A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter
Ninety-six steer calves, 16 each of Angus, Hereford, Brahman, Angus X
Hereford, Hereford X Brahman, and Angus X Brahman breeding, were
weaned at about two months of age and placed on a feeding trial for 162
days. Half of calves in each breed group were equalized fed on the basis
of 2 percent of body weight per day and the remaining half full fed; all
calves were fed the same ration. At the end of the feeding trial, half of
each breed and feeding group were injected intravenously 15 minute ante-
mortem with crude papain (10 mg per pound body weight). The remain-
ing calves served as non-injected controls. Warner-Bratzler shear and
taste panel evaluations were obtained on rib roasts and replicate loin steaks.
Taste panel evaluations of liver and kidneys indicated that livers and kid-
neys from papain injected cattle were significantly more tender (P<0.01)
than controls. Warner-Bratzler shear and taste panel determinations on
rib roasts showed a significant (P<0.01) tenderness difference in favor of
the full fed calves. According to panel and shear data on both roasts and
steaks, the papain injected calves were significantly (P>0.01) more tender
than the non-injected controls. Steak and roast data also showed a sig-
nificant (P<0.01) effect of breed on tenderness, with Angus being most
tender and Brahman least. A significant (P<0.05) breed X papain inter-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

action was shown by the taste panel evaluation of roasts, indicating a vari-
ble response to the papain treatment among breeds.
(See also non-projected study "Physiology and Biochemistry of Hybrid
Vigor", Animal Science Department.)


Hatch Project 977 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs,
and M. Koger
A new farrowing facility was completed in July 1960 and used for the
first time in August 1960. Since that time an attempt has been made to
farrow approximately 20 sows every two months. Farrowing results to
date indicate a seasonal influence on reproductive performance. Conception
rates are lower during the hot months of June, July, August, and September.
The ability to raise pigs farrowed is also adversely affected by the warm
season when measured in terms of percent survival and weight of pigs at
weaning. The average number of pigs weaned per litter has ranged from
lows of 7.33 and 7.70 for August and June, respectively, to 9.56 and 9.90
for December and February farrowings, respectively. Crossbred sows (Duroc
X Landrace) continue to outperform purebred Duroc sows. Ninety cross-
bred litters with an average of 8.95 pigs have been weaned, while 30
purebred Duroc litters with an average of only 7.53 pigs have been weaned.
A comparison of the number of matings per conception (1 vs. 2) continues
to show a marked difference in favor of two matings. Forty-one sows mated
a single time have farrowed an average of 8.76 live pigs. Fifty-six sows
mated twice have farrowed an average of 10.35 live pigs. A nutritional
study designed to evaluate dried corn distillers solubles as a source of un-
identified factors has not yielded significant positive results. The feeding
of the antibiotic tylosin at 200 gm per ton of feed for 10 days during the
farrowing period has increased weaning weights of pigs at two weeks of
age by about 0.4 pound, but has failed to increase survivability. Several
other management problems are under study, and the task of cost analysis
will be undertaken in the near future.


State Project 981 M. Koger, T. J. Cunha,
and A. Z. Palmer
Steers have been finished by three different methods:
(1) Calves were fed in dry-lot immediately following weaning for a
period of 160 to 180 days.
(2) Long yearling steers which were wintered as calves to gain one-
half pound per day grazed on pasture without supplement from March 1
to July 15, supplemented with 6 pounds of concentrate on pasture from
July 15 to September 15, after which time they were placed in dry-lot and
fed a maximum of 70 days or until an estimated average grade of good
was reached.
(3) Long yearling steers were handled until July 15 the same as Group
2, after which they were continued on pasture without supplement until
September 15. They were fed in dry-lot until they had consumed the same
amount of concentrate which Group 2 had received on pasture and in the
3 Cooperative with W. K. McPherson, Agricultural Economics Department, T. C. Skin-
ner, Agricultural Engineering Department, and S. J. Folks, Florida Power Corporation.


Annual Report, 1962

Carcass weights averaged 450, 558, and 576 pounds, respectively, for
the three groups. Carcass grades averaged high good, average good, and
low good, respectively, for the three groups. Using prevailing feed costs
r and a pasture cost of $48 per steer for Groups 2 and 3, there was no sig-
nificant difference in the return per steer, although Group 3 returned
slightly better returns than Group 2, with Group 1 showing the lowest
return per steer. The average net return for all steers was approximately
State Project 995 M. Koger and A. C. Warnick
Since 1958 one-half of the replacement heifers at the Beef Research Unit
have been bred as yearlings to calve first at two years of age. Calves
from these two-year-old heifers are being vealed at the start of the breed-
ing season on March 1. The other half of replacements have been bred to
calve first at three years of age. It will be 1963 before sufficient data will
accumulate for analysis.

State Project 999 G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace
Peanut meal containing 55 percent protein was evaluated for use as a
source of protein in pig starter and grower rations. The calculated amino
acid deficiencies in these rations were corrected with supplements of lysine,
methionine, and threonine or by using combinations of peanut meal and soy-
bean meal or fish meal. When used alone or in combination with fish meal,
peanut meal did not support a satisfactory rate of growth. In no instance
did any amino acid supplementation permit growth comparable to that ob-
tained when soybean meal supplied all of the supplemental protein. The
data indicated that 25 percent of soybean meal can be satisfactorily replaced
by peanut meal in starter and grower rations.
The value of Nassau Fish Meal as a source of supplementary protein was
studied with young swine. A comparison of rations containing 0, 5, 10,
15, and 20 percent fish meal showed that the 15 and 20 percent levels de-
pressed both rate and efficiency of gain. Additional comparisons indicated
2.5 percent was the optimum level of Nassau Fish Meal for starter and
grower rations.

State Project 1001 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs,
and A. Z. Palmer
Work has continued on the relationship of gossypol toxicity and protein
metabolism with particular emphasis on dietary lysine. Balance studies
have been conducted, but a complete analysis of results is not yet available.
This work is part of a Ph.D. dissertation which should be completed during
the coming year. A feeding trial in which 0.4 percent 1-lysine was added
to a conventional corn-soybean meal type mixture for growing-finishing
pigs has been completed. Gains and feed conversion were approximately
the same for the control and supplemented groups. However, carcass evalu-
ation data indicate less backfat, longer carcasses, larger loin eye areas, and
greater percent of the four lean cuts for the lysine supplemented pigs.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 1002 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs
Several feeding experiments have been conducted to determine the effi-
cacy of using certain antibiotics and other compounds as growth stimu-
lants for growing-finishing swine. The relatively new antibiotics, tylosin
and oleandomycin, continue to produce growth responses. A combination
of terramycin and oleandomycin has produced improvements in perform-
ance. A combination of aureomycin, penicillin, and sulfamethazine has pro-
duced the most pronounced improvement of any additives tested. Sodium
acrylate, a by-product of the plastics industry, failed to stimulate perform-
ance of pigs when fed either singly or in combination with aureomycin.
A continued interest of swine feeders in the possible application of high
levels of copper has prompted further tests in this area. When copper sul-
fate was added at a rate to provide 150 ppm of copper, gains and feed con-
version were markedly increased during the initial stages of the experi-
ment. However, control pigs gained more rapidly during the finishing
phases of the experiment and overall performance was about the same.
It appears from this experiment and others now in progress that high levels
of copper (100 to 150 ppm) may be used advantageously for periods of six
to eight weeks during the early phase of the fattening period. Early
weaned pigs have also responded well to copper feeding for short durations.
Levels of 200 ppm and over are considered in the toxic range, as shown by
previous work at this station.


State Project 1003 M. Koger and A. C. Warnick
This is a new project, cooperative between the Animal Science Depart-
ment, North Florida Experiment Station, and State Prison Farm, Raiford.
Data will be available on the first calf crop in 1962.
(See also Project 1003, North Florida Experiment Station.)


State Project 1004 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs,
and A. C. Warnick

Floor space and feeder hole allowance studies have demonstrated that
8 square feet per pig permits similar performance to 16 square feet and
that four to five pigs per feeder hole is about optimum on concrete. Crowd-
ing pigs into less than 16 square feet, however, does increase the difficulty
of keeping the animals clean and may be a predisposing factor toward in-
tensifying the tail biting problem. Temperatures of 60, 70, 80, and 90F
have been compared for young pigs from 2 to 10 weeks of age. Data
through the first four weeks indicate that temperatures of 80 and 90'
are more satisfactory than lower temperatures. From 6 to 10 weeks of
age, a temperature of 80 was more suitable than the lower or higher tem-

Annual Report, 1962


State Project 1010 A. C. Warnick and H. D. Wallace
Forty-four crossbred gilts were allotted to three diets in two experi-
ments to determine differences in level of energy intake and alfalfa meal
on time of first heat, ovulation rate and number of viable embryos at 25
days. The diets fed were: (1) high energy with 10 percent alfalfa, (2)
limited energy with 52 percent alfalfa, and (3) limited energy with 10 per-
cent alfalfa. The average age in days and weight in pounds at first heat
on the three respective diets were: (1) 200, 232; (2) 204, 185; and (3)
207, 213. The average number of corpora lutea when bred at first heat for
gilts on the three diets were: (1) 14.5, (2) 13.0, and (3) 13.9. The average
number of normal embryos and percentage embryonic survival at 25 days
postbreeding for gilts on the three diets were: (1) 10.4, 71.7 percent, (2)
11.1, 85.6 percent, and (3) 11.2, 80.2 percent. Diet had very little influence
on age at first heat, while the weights were influenced by the level of energy
intake. The number of corpora lutea was less in gilts on low energy-alfalfa,
which is different from previous trials with purebred Duroc gilts. The
number of viable embryos and percentage embryonic survival was higher
in gilts on limited energy. The high level of alfalfa showed a slight ad-
vantage in percentage survival compared to the limited energy with 10
percent alfalfa.
Crossbred gilts of similar breeding in the second experiment conducted
during the winter months were 29 days younger at first heat than those
in the first experiment conducted during the summer months. The ovula-
tion rate and number of embryos were lower for those on the second ex-
periment since all gilts were mated at the first estrus. It is possible that
high environmental temperatures or some other climatic factors inhibits
the occurrence of puberty in gilts.

Hatch Project 1044 J. P. Feaster
Additional experiments have been carried out in the study of effects of
cobalt-60 radiation of pregnant rats on the transfer of injected radioiron
across the placenta. The amount of radioiron transferred in 48 hours was
determined in fetuses taken from mother rats on each of the last nine days
of the 22-day gestation period. Rate of transfer was higher in irradiated
females exposed to 200 roentgens whole-body cobalt-60 radiation than in
non-irradiated controls, and significantly higher in those sacrificed on days
16 through 20 (irradiated on days 12 through 16). Assuming that the in-
fluence of gamma radiation is exerted through increasing the permeability
of the placenta, the period in the second half of pregnancy during which
this organ is most susceptible to radiation effects must be days 12 through
16. (Effects during the first half of pregnancy have not been studied.)
Increased excretion of iron-59 in the urine was noted in the irradiated rats,
indicating a further effect of radiation on membrane permeability, in this
case the renal tubular membrane. Despite reports in the literature to the
contrary, an appreciable amount of radioiron was found to pass to suck-
ling young in the milk following injection of iron-59 into the mother rat.
A study similar to that described above has been begun with swine.
Transfer of intravenously injected radioactive iron in irradiated and non-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

irradiated gilts is being compared. Radiation dosage is 400 roentgens, ad-
ministered on about the 95th day of pregnancy. Early findings indicate
increased placental transfer of radioiron following irradiation.

Hatch Project 1045 R. L. Shirley, C. B. Ammerman,
L. R. Arrington, G. K. Davis,
and J. P. Feaster
A study has been made with Torula and Brewer's yeast diets, with and
without vitamin A, in regard to tolerance to 630 roentgens of cobalt-60
gamma whole body irradiation. The irradiation was made a few days after
the rats deprived of the vitamin started to lose weight. Rats that received
the vitamin A withstood the irradiation and continued to grow as the non-
irradiated vitamin A fed controls. The depleted rats died within two weeks
whether they were irradiated or not. Thus, this study did not demonstrate
that rats depleted of vitamin A would die more quickly if irradiated at this
LDso (approximately) level.
An experiment was made in which weanling rats were fed 18 percent
casein diets containing 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 ppm of added selenium as
sodium selenite, each selenium level with and without added vitamin E.
Over a 120-day period of growth the data indicated that (1) the males
responded with greater gains with the 0.5 and 1.0 ppm levels of selenium,
(2) both sexes had poor gains with the 5.0 ppm selenium diets, and (3)
vitamin E had no consistent influence on growth with or without the se-

Hatch Project 1063 P. E. Loggins, M. Koger, A. C. Warnick
(Contributing to Regional Project S-29) and T. J. Cunha
Sixty-six yearling Rambouillet ewes of similar breeding and age were
selected from a flock in Mountain Home, Texas. These ewes were randomly
allotted to the Florida and cooperating stations, Auburn, Alabama, and
Knoxville, Tennessee, on May 1, 1962. An additional 15 Florida raised
Rambouillet and 15 Florida native yearling ewes were moved to the Auburn
Station on April 23, 1962. Also, 15 yearling Rambouillet ewes raised in
Auburn, Alabama, were moved to the Gainesville, Florida, station on May
1, 1962. The reproductive performance of these ewes at their various loca-
tion points is now being checked for the 1962 breeding season. These data
and similar data will be collected during the next five years' duration of
the project.
The 1962 lamb crop was produced during the period of transition to
the new project. The performance of these ewes and lambs during the
1962 lamb crop was as follows: The average date of first estrus for the
Rambouillets was July 20, and for Florida Natives, July 25. The average
lambing date for the Rambouillet ewes was December 17, and for the
Florida Natives, December 17, with a lambing percentage of 93 and 116
percent, respectively. The lambs were weaned on February 23 at an aver-
age age of 70 days. The lambs received creep feed and were continued on
a full feeding program following weaning until May 18, 1962. The lambs
averaged 69 pounds and graded an average Choice. The Rambouillet lambs
averaged 74 pounds and graded Choice plus. The Florida native lambs
averaged 67 pounds and graded average Choice.

Annual Report, 1962

Hatch Project 1079 C. B. Ammerman, L. R. Arrington,
J. M. Wing, R. L. Shirley, J. P. Feaster,
G. K. Davis, and J. F. Hentges
The composition of tissues as affected by breed and level of feeding
was studied with 14 Hereford, 14 Brahman, and 14 Hereford-Brahman
crossbred steers.' The animals received a fattening ration either ad libitum
or as 2 percent of body weight daily for 162 days, following which they
were slaughtered and samples of heart, gracilis muscle, and liver were ob-
tained for water, protein, and mineral analyses. The protein and water
content of the heart, liver, and muscle were similar for all breed groups.
Less (P<0.01) water was found in the liver when it was determined by
toluene distillation compared to heating at 1000 C. Both methods gave
comparable values for water in the heart and gracilis muscle. The livers
of the Herefords contained more (P<0.01) phosphorus than the livers from
the Brahman and crossbred cattle. The hearts of the crossbred cattle con-
tained less (P<0.01) calcium than hearts from the other two breed groups.
The liver (P<0.05) and the heart (P<0.01) from the Brahman steers con-
tained more ash than the livers and hearts from the Hereford and cross-
bred cattle. Level of feeding had no effect on tissue composition.
Six-month-old dairy calves, a number of which had been iron-depleted,
were dosed orally with iron-59 as ferric chloride or ferric oxide. Approxi-
mately 60 percent of the total radioactivity administered as Fe"'C13 was
recovered in the feces within 96 hours. Less than 15 percent of the total
radioactivity administered as Fe-5'03 was recovered in a similar time. Tis-
sues from iron-depleted calves that received Fe"Cl1 contained three to five
times more radioactivity than corresponding tissues from normal calves.
No radioactivity was detected in the tissues of the iron-depleted calves that
received Fe2?0a.
Hatch 1117 J. E. Moore, R. L. Shirley, C. B. Ammerman,
and L. R. Arrington
An experiment dealing with the effect of protein supplement on the
utilization of low-quality Pangola grass has been partially completed. A
soybean meal supplement increased the consumption of hay by fistulated
steers. The cellulose of small samples of hay suspended in the rumen was
more rapidly digested when soybean meal was fed. Rumen total volatile
fatty acid concentration was greater in steers fed the additional protein.
It was observed that rumen fill was greater in steers fed soybean meal.
These data suggest that biochemical reactions in the rumen play a large
part in determining appetite for low quality roughage.
The effect of 400 roentgens of whole-body cobalt-60 gamma irradiation
given as a single dose on the appetite of three mature ewes was investi-
gated. Feed consumption was decreased immediately after irradiation, but
appetite was recovered in 6 to 10 days. The concentration of total volatile
fatty acids in the rumen was directly related to the appetite. This study
is being repeated with more animals.

Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Pigs Fed Low Vitamin A Rations.-
Pigs irradiated with 350r bilaterally at the rate of llr per minute 9 feet
SIn cooperation with D. IT. Hargrove and M. Koger.

76 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

from source survived an average of 264 hours. A moderate vitamin A de-
ficiency had no effect on irradiation damage; in fact, the vitamin A deficient
pigs lived an average of two days longer. The irradiation lowered the
total white blood cell count rapidly. The major symptoms of irradiation
damage were depression, skin hemorrhages, hemorrhaging from eyes and
mouth, decreased respiration, mild muscular spasms just prior to death,
and extensive hemorrhage of lymph nodes, plus varying amounts of hemor-
rhage in the kidneys, heart, urinary bladder, intestine, and stomach. (T. J.
Cunha, G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace, A. C. Warnick, R. L. Shirley, and
C. F. Simpson)
Effect of Temperature on Vitamin Status of Crossbred Lambs.-Twenty-
four crossbred lambs were used to study the effect of two environmental
temperatures, 90 and 550F, and two levels of vitamin A intake on growth,
feeding performance, and vitamin A levels in the blood and liver during a
118-day period. The high temperature lowered feed intake (P<.05) and
blood vitamin A (P<.01). Supplemental vitamin A tended to increase feed
intake, gains, and blood vitamin A levels, but the increases were not sta-
tistically significant. The considerable variation in performance between
treatment groups accounted for the failure to obtain statistical significance.
Neither the temperature nor the level of vitamin A appeared to influence
growth or activity of the ovaries, uteri, or pituitary glands. (T. J. Cunha,
A. C. Warnick, P. E. Loggins, R. L. Shirley, and J. F. Easley)
The Physiology and Biochemistry of Hybrid Vigor.-Various straight-
bred and crossbred calves are being fed experimentally from approximately
60 days of age to slaughter in order to determine why crossbreds grow faster
than straightbreds. Comparative appetite, efficiency of feed utilization,
and economy of production are being determined. In two trials completed,
Brahman-Shorthorn crossbred calves have had significantly greater appetite
than Brahman and slightly greater feed intake than Shorthorns. There was
no significant difference in efficiency of feed utilization. Shorthorn calves
had the lowest rate of growth but stored more body fat and had higher
grading carcasses than the crossbreds or Brahmans. A third trial utilizing
calves from Angus, Brahman, Hereford, and the three possible crosses of
these breeds likewise indicated that there were no significant differences in
efficiency of feed utilization. The trial also indicated measurable heterosis
in Hereford-Angus crossbred calves. This trial will be repeated later, uti-
lizing calves where individual parentage will be known. (M. Koger, T. J.
Cunha, and A. C. Warnick)
Effect of an Energy and Protein Deficiency on Weight Changes and
Reproduction in Rams.-Thirty-six yearling rams weighing approximately
120 pounds were assigned to one of three semi-purified diets to determine
nutritional effects on semen production and weight changes. The three
diets were: (1) complete, (2) energy deficient with adequate protein, and
(3) protein deficient with adequate energy. All rations had adequate vita-
mins and minerals. After 113 days on the diets the average body weights
and daily gains of rams on the diets were: (1) 144, 0.20 pounds, (2) 89,
-0.29 pounds, and (3) 110, -0.07 pounds. The average daily feed intake
of the rams on the three respective diets was: (1) 3.4, (2) 1.11, and (3)
2.58 pounds. There are no differences in libido or semen production and
quality to date.
In a comparison of methods of collection of semen using the artificial
vagina and electrical ejaculator, there were no differences in total number
of sperm cells. However, collections with the electrical ejaculator gave a
significantly greater volume but lower concentration of cells compared to
the artificial vagina. (A. C. Warnick, T. J. Cunha, and R. L. Shirley)

Annual Report, 1962

Nutritive Value and Characteristics of Grass Silages Preserved with
Zinc Bacitracin and Ground Snapped Corn.-Coastal bermudagrass, Pan-
golagrass, and Pensacola bahiagrass were ensiled with no preservative, with
5 grams zinc bacitracin per ton fresh forage and with 5 grams zinc baci-
tracin plus 150 pounds of ground snapped corn per ton of fresh forage.
Nutrient composition of the fresh forage and silage and digestion coefficients
and total digestible nutrient values for the silages were obtained with
lambs, using conventional methods. All fresh forages appeared quite sim-
ilar in nutrient composition except that Bahiagrass was lower in ether
extract and higher in fiber, thus making it lower in nitrogen-free-extract
than either the bermudagrass or pangolagrass. In general, the nutrient
composition of the silages was similar to the fresh forage except for lower
protein values for the Pangolagrass and Pensacola bahiagrass silages.
While the preservatives did not respond the same with all forages, the
highest coefficients of the digestibility for the nutrients of all forages were
obtained when either the antibiotic was used alone or when the antibiotic
plus ground snapped corn was used as a preservative. Coastal bermuda-
grass silage treated with zinc bacitracin plus ground snapped corn had the
highest individual nutrient coefficients of digestibility and was highest in
total digestible nutrients. The Pensacola bahiagrass silage treated with
zinc bacitracin alone had the highest digestibility coefficients for individual
nutrients and was highest in total digestible nutrients. The advantage
of adding a preservative to Pangolagrass silage was less clearly defined,
and similar total digestible nutrient values were obtained both with the
untreated and with the preservative treated silage. The average total di-
gestible nutrient values regardless of treatment and expressed on a 90
percent dry matter basis were 47.63, 46.95, and 34.32 for the Coastal bermu-
dagrass, Pangolagrass, and Pensacola bahiagrass silages, respectively.
The color and odor of the silages were observed and recorded, and
measurements of depth of spoilage, pH, organic acids and palatibility were
made to aid in evaluating the silage. In general, the treated silages were
lighter green in color and of a more desirable odor than the untreated
silages. With all forages tested, the untreated silages had the highest pH,
and for two of the three forages the silage treated with antibiotic alone
had the lowest pH. The amount of surface spoilage did not appear to be
related to treatment. Relative palatability of the three grass silages did
not appear to be related to treatment. In comparing the different grasses,
the Pangolagrass silage was the most palatable both on the basis of con-
sumption by lambs during a short term feeding period and as measured by
preference tests when all silages were offered free-choice. The Coastal
bermudagrass silage was the next most palatable on the basis of silage
consumed during the feeding period. However, when all silages were offered
free-choice, all three of the Pensacola bahiagrass silages were preferred
over the Coastal bermudagrass silages. (P. E. Loggins and C. B. Ammer-
Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of Digestive Disorders in Cat-
tle.-The disorder in feedlot cattle commonly called "founder" has been
experimentally produced in order to conduct a study of its biochemical and
physiological effects on immature cattle. Excessive consumption of starchy
concentrate mixtures have been associated with short periods of abnormally
high levels of rumen acidity and subsequent symptoms of "founder". Gross
examinations of the feet from steers with chronic "founder" have revealed
extensive rupture of capillaries. Recovery of affected animals was variable;
less than 10 percent were permanently lame, and none exhibited a reduced
rate of gain or efficiency of feed utilization. (J. F. Hentges, Jr.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Formulation of Beef Cattle Feed Mixtures for Increased Efficiency
of Utilization.-The effect of four methods of processing a high-energy, low-
fiber concentrate mixture on cattle feed-lot performance and carcass value
was studied in a 126-day feeding trial. Yearling Hereford steers, half
selected for heavy muscling and half selected for lack of muscling, were the
subjects. The four physical forms of feed mixtures fed were hammermill
ground, cold cracked, steamed rolled, and steam pelleted. Flaked and pel-
leted mixtures produced the most gains and were the most efficient from the
standpoint of feed required per pound of gain. Differences in carcass char-
acteristics were small. Volatile fatty acid determinations showed higher
ratios of propionic to other acids. Examination of the rumen papillae re-
vealed a higher incidence of large, tongue-shaped, dark-colored papillae in
stomachs from steers fed steamed rolled corn. (J. F. Hentges, Jr.)
The Influence of High Level Antibiotic Supplementation at Breeding
on Embryonic Survival in Gilts.-Two experiments have been completed.
Zinc-bacitracin was tested in the first, and tylosin in the second. The anti-
biotics were fed for a period of 21 days before breeding and 25 days after
breeding, at which time the animals were slaughtered for measurements.
In both experiments the antibiotics, fed at a level of 200 grams per ton of
feed, increased daily gains and improved feed conversion significantly.
However, ovulation rate and embryo survival were not significantly affected
in either experiment. Embryo weights were some heavier for the treated
groups at 25 days gestation. (H. D. Wallace, A. C. Warnick, and G. E.
Effect of Temperature on Early Embryonic Survival in Gilts.-Twenty-
nine crossbred gilts were assigned to either 600 F, 90 F, or an outside pen
with ample shade 10 days after first estrus and bred once during the second
estrus. One-half of the gilts in the 60F and 90'F treatments were
switched three days after breeding to the other temperature. Ovulation
rate was not influenced by temperature. The number of normal embryos
at 25 days postbreeding was not different in gilts when kept at either
60F or 90"F up to three days postbreeding. However, there were 1.4
fewer embryos in gilts kept at 90F from 3 to 25 days postbreeding com-
pared to those at 60F. (A. C. Warnick, H. D. Wallace, and A. Z. Palmer)
Sources of Error in Obtaining Loin Eye Area in Pork Carcasses.-In
a preliminary study (Fla. An. Sci. Mimeo Series 62-3) a difference of 20
percent was found between the loin eye areas of paired pork loins from
the same carcass. Possible explanations for these differences are: (1)
bilateral asymmetry, (2) splitting error, (3) cutting procedure, (4) cut-
ting positions, (5) tracing error, and (6) measuring error.
In a second study 72 pork carcasses were dressed unsplit in order to
eliminate splitting error. The full unsplit loin was removed by cutting on
each side of the back bone adjacent to the L dorsi muscle. Each loin was
sectioned by cutting across both loin eyes at the same time just back of the
10th rib and back vertebra junction and at right angles to the long axis of
the L dorsi muscle. The areas of the loin eyes were traced by four different
individuals each in duplicate. Each tracing was measured in duplicate by
four different operators. Data are now being completed for analysis of
variance to determine the magnitude of each source of error as well as
the repeatability of each operator. (J. W. Carpenter)
Variability of Rib Eye Area and Degree of Marbling of Beef Carcasses
as Influenced by Method of Ribbing.-In a study involving 149 beef car-
casses, the angle of ribbing or the cutting of the L dorsi muscle between
the 12th and 13th ribs significantly influenced (P<.005) rib eye area. The
average rib eye area for the left side cut on the same angle as the rib was

Annual Report, 1962 79

9.44 square inches compared to 8.76 square inches for the right side cut at
right angle to the long axis of the L dorsi muscle.
Apparent degree of marbling differed between sides and the difference
was attributed to method of ribbing. Fifty-seven percent of the carcasses
had higher marbling scores in the left side compared to 19 percent having
higher marbling scores in the right side. Twenty-four percent of the car-
casses showed no difference between sides. This difference in degree of
marbling between the two sides cut by different methods was highly signifi-
cant (P<.005). (J. W. Carpenter)
Estimated and Actual Yields of Boneless Retail Cuts from Brahman
Crossbred Cattle and Carcasses.-One-hundred thirty-eight cattle, varying
in slaughter weight, breeding, and quality grade, were used in this study.
The purpose of the study was to determine the predictive value of a pre-
viously reported estimating equation developed for evaluating cattle and
carcasses as to percent of boneless, trimmed retail cuts from the round,
loin, rib, and chuck. A further purpose was to study the relationship of
breeding, slaughter weight, and quality grade with boneless, trimmed retail
cut yields. The previously reported estimating equation used in this study
and compared with equations developed out of these data was: Percent of
boneless, trimmed retail cuts from round, loin, rib, and chuck = 51.34
-5.78 (fat thickness over ribeye, inches) .0093 (carcass weight, pounds)
-.462 (kidney fat, percent of carcass) + 0.740 (area of ribeye, square
inches). The simple correlation coefficient between on-foot percent estimates
and actual percent yields was 0.59 (P<0.01); the simple correlation co-
efficient between on the rail percent estimates and actual percentage yields
was 0.76 (P<0.01). Correlation coefficients between predicted yield grades
and actual yield grades were highly significant. Through regression anal-
ysis, the predictive value of on-foot and on-rail estimates is indicated.
(A. Z. Palmer)
Indices of Meatiness in Pork Carcasses.-Two-hundred and twenty pork
carcasses of known sex and breeding were evaluated in the meats labora-
tory. Carcass weights, measurements, specific gravity of the rough cut
ham, and complete cut out values were obtained. All data were recorded
and are now in the statistical laboratory for electrical computation. Cor-
relation coefficients should furnish information as to the best single or com-
bination of criteria for determining meatiness in pork carcasses. (A. Z.

80 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Hatch Project 953 T. E. Humphreys
Acid Soluble Phosphate Esters in Corn Roots.-Extracts prepared by
grinding roots of corn seedlings in trichloroacetic acid were chromato-
graphed on Dowex-1 resin columns. In this manner the acid soluble phos-
phate compounds of the roots were separated into 5 to 10 fractions depend-
ing on the method of chromatography. A quantitative and qualitative anal-
ysis of each fraction is presently underway using specific colorimetric and
enzymatic analytical methods. The following compounds have been identi-
fied: glucose-6-phosphate, inorganic phosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and
adenosine triphosphate. From the position of the phosphate peaks on the
Dowex-1 column elution diagram, the presence of the following compounds
is suspected: fructose-6-phosphate, fructose-1, 6-diphosphate, and glyceric
acid phosphates. Glucose-1-phosphate and adenosine monophosphate have
not been found and are probably present in concentrations below the limits
of detection by the analytical methods used.
Uptake of Sugars by Excised Roots and Scutella of Corn Seedlings.-
Excised roots of corn seedlings take up glucose at a maximum rate of
approximately 1 mg per hour for each gram fresh weight of tissue. Slices
of the scutella from corn seedlings of the same age, however, take up glu-
cose at a maximum rate of 5 to 6 mg per hour for each gram fresh weight.
These figures are for tissues incubated at 30" C. The respiration rates of
the two tissues are of the same order of magnitude, indicating that a greater
proportion of the metabolic energy is available for glucose up-take in
the scutellum than in the root. This is not unexpected, since the scutellum
is an organ which absorbs the glucose produced from starch breakdown
in the endosperm and uses it to nourish the developing root-shoot axis.
The up-take of glucose is under metabolic control and, in the case of
the scutella slices, glucose itself has an effect on its up-take. When slices
that have been absorbing glucose from a medium of relatively high glucose
concentration are transferred to a medium containing only one-half that
concentration the rate of glucose up-take remains the same for 15 to 30
minutes after the transfer. Glucose does not increase the rate of respira-
tion of the scutella slices, but may alter the metabolism of those cells re-
sponsible for glucose up-take. This is being investigated.

Hatch 1042 George J. Fritz
This project is concerned with the study of the utilization of molecluar
oxygen by plants; particular interest is focused on that portion of oxygen
absorption which is not catalyzed by the cytochrome system. The stable
isotope O18 is used; the isotope is analyzed by mass spectrometry and neu-
tron activation.
It was found that when etiolated corn seedlings were exposed to atmos-
pheres enriched with 0"18, the chloroform-soluble extracts subsequently ob-
tained from these seedlings were labelled with 018. Results of this type
indicate that a portion of the absorbed oxygen gas is directly incorporated
into chloroform soluble compounds, and therefore is independent of the
cytochrome system. At the present time it is presumed that the mechanism
responsible for this direct incorporation of molecular oxygen into organic

Annual Report, 1962

substrate(s) involves the formation of fatty acid peroxides from fatty
acid complexes found in the seedlings. This phenomenon is now being
called "oxygen fixation" in this laboratory. Its biological significance is
being further investigated in the following areas:
(1) the relative abilities of plant seedlings such as soybean, pea, castor
bean, corn, and wheat to fix molecular oxygen directly into organic
(2) the effect of various environmental factors such as temperature and
oxygen tension upon the ability of plant seedlings to fix oxygen gas;
(3) the identification of the products of molecular oxygen fixation.

State 1118 D. B. Ward
This project was just activated on May 7, 1962, but work on various
aspects has been under way for some time. Plans are to study families or
other sub-units and to prepare detailed descriptions and keys of these
groups. As these are prepared they will be published separately so that
they will be available to interested people in the state. Three such units
have been prepared: Pinus, Convolvulaceae, and Polygonaceae. Publica-
tion of the individual units is being made in Castanea, a journal devoted
largely to taxonomy.

State Project 1121 Yoneo Sagawa
This project was activated in June. Studies have been under way for
some time on certain aspects of this research. In many members of the
Orchidaceae at the time of pollination the megaspore mother cell has not
developed. Fertilization cannot take place until the ovules are formed.
This project is studying the factors connected with the development of the
ovules in orchids. It is hoped that this research will make it possible to
do a better job of hybridization in the Orchidaceae.

Summary of Nematode Research.-An attempt was made during the
fall and winter to determine whether the burrowing nematode, Radopholus
similis, was attracted to "host roots" over a distance.
The first major experiment involving nematodes placed in the center of
a damp filter paper strip in a Petri dish with host (tomato) roots at one
end of the strip yielded apparently clear-cut results which could be in-
terpreted as demonstrating attraction over a distance. It was felt prudent
to repeat these results-and this could not be done. Many modifications
of the test system and apparatus were tried without success. A number
of the experiments were vitiated by technical problems in handling the
It finally became apparent that a long period of strictly nematological
research would be required to develop a satisfactory test system. Such re-
search did not seem to be a proper subject for this largely biochemical
research team which had as its chief interest and competence the biochem-
istry of plant host-parasite interrelationships. Accordingly, this line of
investigation has been abandoned. (David S. Anthony)
Biochemical Effects of High Temperatures in Plants.-An attempt is
being made to gain some insight as to the effect of high temperatures on
plant growth and development. The present approach is to examine the

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

distribution of a variety of alcohol-soluble compounds in plants grown under
various temperature ranges. The alcohol-soluble compounds are separated
by two-dimensional paper chromatography. Quantitative paper chroma-
tography of the ninhydrin reactive constituents is being attempted.
Several different plants are being studied. Six strains of Arabidopsis
thaliana were obtained from Australia. These strains have different heat
sensitivities. They can be grown under aseptic conditions under carefully
controlled environmental conditions. Two varieties of radish are also be-
ing studied. One variety is heat intolerant, while the other has a certain
degree of high temperature tolerance. Finally, several different strains of
Lemna are being studied. These are aquatic plants that can be grown un-
der controlled conditions. (D. S. Anthony)
Metabolism of Atrazine and Simazine by Sugarcane.-Preliminary work
on the metabolism of Atrazine and Simazine following soil application of
the herbicides to sugarcane was done on two- or three-month-old plants
(Annual Reports 1960, 1961.) Work this year was done on plants four to
five months of age. It was found that after a treatment period of three
months, during which time the plants were exposed to C"-Simazine or
C"-Atrazine applied to the soil at a rate of eight pounds per acre, there
was no detectable herbicide in the ethanol or chloroform extracts of the
plants. With the older plants a greater proportion of the extractable C"
was found in the chloroform extract, indicating that there is at least a
quantitative difference in the metabolism of these herbicides as the plant
ages. This work was supported in part by the Geigy Chemical Company.
(T. E. Humphreys)
Chemical Dwarfing Agents.-Two dwarfing compounds, Phosfon-tributyl-
2, 4-dichlorobenzyl-phosphonium chloride and CCC-(2-chloroethyl) trimethyl-
ammonium chloride, have been tested on a number of turf grasses. The
effective range of concentrations necessary to control plant growth is
now being tested. The study is also attempting to determine the biochemi-
cal, morphological, and anatomical effects of the dwarfing compounds.
(G. R. Noggle)

Annual Report, 1962


The Department of Dairy Science conducts research in dairy husbandry
at the Dairy Research Unit at Hague, Florida, and at the West Florida
Dairy Unit at Chipley, Florida. Facilities at these two units include ap-
proximately 300 and 100 cows, and 1,100 and 200 acres of land, respectively,
plus buildings and equipment appropriate to the work in progress. Re-
search in this area covers the general area of feeding, breeding, and man-
agement of dairy animals and the economic aspects of the production of
Research in dairy products is conducted at the Dairy Science building
on the campus. A modern dairy manufacturing plant provides facilities for
research in many areas of dairy products manufacture including market
milk, ice cream, condensed milk, and cottage cheese. Some projects in
progress are cooperative with other departments and branch stations.
There have been no changes in staff during the past year.
State Project 213 J. M. Wing, R. B. Becker, and C. J. Wilcox
Ten experimental 6-ton concrete silos were completed and found to be
satisfactory. Comparisons of thick-planted versus row-cropped corn are
in progress. Evaluation of previous voluntary consumption and digestion
data included four legumes and four grass-type forages with one or more
of several forms of preservation. Forage crops tested were alfalfa, hairy
indigo, soybeans, lupine, oats, pangolagrass, pearlmillet, and Sart sargo.
The forms of preservation included the addition of the following ma-
terials in varying quantities: ground snapped corn, citrus pulp, sodium
metabisulfite, and zinc bacitracin.
All of the species studied are recommended for silage where they are
adapted. The data have been prepared for presentation in the form of
an Experiment Station bulletin.
State Project 345 R. B. Becker and C. J. Wilcox
Records of cow disposals and reproduction were obtained from five co-
operating Florida herds. Records also were obtained on tenure and turn-
over of bulls in artificial use in 58 artificial breeding organizations in the
United States and Canada. Several studs are consolidating for economy
of operation, facilitated by conservation of semen with frozen storage. A
grant from the National Association of Artificial Breeders contributes to
the support of this project.
Station Bulletin 639 on "Crampy-Progressive Posterior Paralysis in
Mature Cattle" has been published. A brief report on this subject by the
Purebred Dairy Cattle Association has been distributed widely. Reports
came back that even two-year-old cows have been affected, extending the
condition into the range of first-calf heifers.
(See also State Project 345, Agricultural Economics Department.)
State Project 575 C. J. Wilcox, R. B. Becker, and S. P. Marshall
Production continues to improve in the experimental herd with moderate
increases in all of the five dairy breeds. Overall yield per cow was up 8.8

84 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

percent for milk and 8.3 percent for fat. Herd size has remained the same
for the past three years.
Detailed records on individual cows are being continued. Birth weights,
gestation lengths, and other pertinent data on over 2,000 individuals have
been transcribed onto punched cards and are awaiting analysis. Estimates
of several environmental and genetic parameters concerning these variables
will be obtained. A preliminary study of the effects on milk production of
year and season of freshening is under way with records from the Jersey
herd during 1931-60 being utilized.
As usual, most animals in the herd were also assigned to one or more
intra- or inter-departmental projects.

Hatch Project 667 R. B. Becker, C. J. Wilcox, W. A. Krienke,
J. M. Wing, L. E. Mull, and E. L. Fouts
The fourth trial was completed on relation of feeding practice to solids-
not-fat contents of milk. Corn silage was offered at the rate of 3 pounds
per 100 pounds live weight and mixed concentrates were given to balance
the offering planned. Four cows received 75 percent of their calculated
TDN requirements, four cows received 85 percent, and four cows in the
first lactation served as controls.
The control cows maintained body weights; whereas, experimental cows
on the 85 percent TDN intakes decreased 8 percent in weight and 57 per-
cent in milk yield. Those on the 75 percent TDN intake decreased 10
percent in weight and 63 percent in daily milk yields. Butterfat tests in-
creased slightly in all groups. The results were not conclusive, but it ap-
pears that the cows on the 75 percent TDN requirement level decreased in
solids-not-fat somewhat more than those on 85 percent level and those
in the 100 percent or control groups. Protein content of milk from all
groups increased, but the increase was considerably less in the 75 percent
Yields of cottage cheese curd were obtained from milk of individual
cows at the start and close of the feeding trials. The percentage of curd
from the skimmilk, as calculated from the protein and skimmilk solids,
appeared unrelated to energy intakes of the cows in the current trial. The
curd characteristics of the cottage cheese likewise did not show effects of
the energy intakes.
The project is closed with this report.

Hatch Project 781 J. M. Wing, E. L. Fouts, R. B. Becker,
and C. J. Wilcox
This work concerns the effects of various combinations of possible
feed additives on young dairy calves. Body weight gains during the first
60 and 90 days of life of four comparable groups were as follows: no
supplement, 49.3 and 93.6; chlortetracycline, 58.6 and 103.7; chlortetra-
cycline plus terephthalic acid, 57.0 and 104.4; chlortetracycline and my-
costatin, 59.4 and 75.6 pounds. The antagonistic effects of the last two
appeared to have been through depression of appetite. A combination of
orotic acid and methionine had no effect on growth or the efficiency of feed
utilization under the conditions of this experiment. These supplements
appeared to stimulate the formation of red blood cells, but this effect was
erratic. This project is closed with this report.

Annual Report, 1962

State Project 919 K. L. Smith
Various enzyme inhibitors were tested in an attempt to find one which
would be inhibitory to the members of the genus Streptococcus commonly
found in lactic starter cultures but which would allow growth of the associ-
ative organisms which belong to the genus Leuconostoc. Both sodium fluo-
ride and cysteine were inhibitory to the organisms tested, but both groups
exhibited approximately the same tolerance to these two compounds.
Sodium fluoride was inhibitory at a molar concentration of 16 x 10 ", and
a 10-" molar concentration of cysteine was inhibitory.
Five strains each of leuconostoc and streptococcus were tested on a
tomato juice agar containing alpha-bromopropionic acid. At a molar con-
centration of 8 x 10'-, the acid was inhibitory to the streptococci but would
allow normal growth of the leuconostoc. Using the same medium but re-
placing the alpha-bromopropionic acid with a 6 x 10-5 molar concentration
of iodoacetate produced similar results. These media did not give com-
plete enough separation of the two groups to be used in counting leuconos-
toc in a mixed culture with streptococci, but they would be useful in isolat-
ing leuconostoc from mixed lactic starter cultures. Combining alpha-bromo-
propionic acid and iodoacetate in the medium failed to increase the selectivity
of the medium. A medium containing molar concentrations of 8 x 10'
alpha-bromopropionic acid and 16 x 10- iodoacetate showed no more selec-
tivity than did the medium containing the same concentration of only one of
the compounds. This project is closed with this report.


State Project 923 J. M. Wing and C. J. Wilcox
This is a study of the voluntary intake and digestibility of various for-
age crops which are harvested and fed while in the green state. Over
500 individual digestion trials are involved. The forages include oats; white
clover alone and with Dallasgrass, pangolagrass, hay, or citrus pulp; Coastal
bermudagrass; pangolagrass; pearlmillet; Dallasgrass; soybeans; field peas;
green corn; rye; alfalfa alone and with hay, clover, or citrus pulp; Sart
sargo; Gahi millet; and Starr millet. Comparisons included plots which
were broadcast versus planted in rows. All samples in this trial have been
collected and are being subjected to chemical and mathematical analyses.


State Project 967 S. P. Marshall, R. B. Becker,
and K. L. Smith

Calves eight to 15 days of age were fed milk or colostrum with most of
the fat removed to study the disappearance rate of proteins from the
abomasum. Passage of casein, albumin, globulin, and total nitrogen
from the abomasum was more rapid after colostrum feedings than fol-
lowing the consumption of fresh skimmilk. Lower pH values of abomasal
contents appeared to be associated with longer periods of fasting. Small
amounts of nitrogen were present in abomasal and rumenal fluids after 48
hours of fasting.
This project is closed with this report.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 982 J. M. Wing and C. J. Wilcox
The cost of nutrients from concentrate feeds is more nearly comparable
to that of forage nutrients than ever before. Hence there has been consid-
erable interest in high levels of concentrates in dairy cattle rations. Most
studies have shown increased production with increased concentrates, but
in such trials the leafy roughage supply was limited. This study concerns
the effects of extra concentrates in conjunction with a good leafy roughage
program. Ninety lactations were completed by cows assigned to one of
three treatment groups: (1) concentrates according to recommended stand-
ards; (2) treatment 1 plus individually fed bulky concentrates, and (3)
treatment 1 plus group fed bulky concentrates. No significant differences
in quantity or quality of the milk were observed. This project is closed
with this report.

Hatch Project 1046 L. E. Mull and W. A. Krienke
Fifteen samples of commercially produced NDM were analyzed. Among
these samples the variation in protein content was narrow, being about
0.35 percent from low to high on a 9 percent solids reconstituted basis.
The majority of the samples were of excellent bacteriological quality, with
only a few classified as slightly questionable based only on total bacterial
For cottage cheese manufacture two levels of concentration, 10 and 12
percent, were used for the reconstituted skimmilks. Quadruplicate vats of
cottage cheese were made at each solids level for a total of 120 vats.
Manufacturing characteristics showed wide variations at the two solids
levels-12 percent total solids produced a firm coagulum and clear, natural-
colored whey which drained easily from the curd. Curd particles were firm,
even-textured, and uniform. At the 10 percent level, the whey was light-
colored and cloudy, the coagulum was weak, and the whey was difficult to
drain from the resulting weak, pasty curd.
The average yield of all samples at the 12 percent total solids level was
23.31 percent greater than that for all samples at the 10 percent total solids
level after adjusting to a 20 percent total solids basis. Cottage cheese curd
yields obtained on the 120 batches were related to the protein content of
the reconstituted skimmilks at the two solids levels. An overall summariza-
tion of this limited number of samples showed a 1.67 percent increase in
yield of cottage cheese curd for each 0.10 percent increment of protein
RRF Project 1047 C. J. Wilcox, R. B. Becker, W. A. Krienke,
(Regional S-49) J. M. Wing, L. E. Mull, and E. L. Fouts
Monthly sampling of the 180-cow station dairy herd continued with data
accumulated for local and regional use. Some 278 lactation records were
forwarded to the regional data collection center. Data from 2,052 milk
samples, taken from randomly selected Jersey, Guernsey, and Holstein
cows during six consecutive days, were analyzed to obtain estimates of
day-to-day variability. Repeatability estimates for fat content ranged
from 0.46 to 0.62 for the three breeds studied. Estimates were considerably

Annual Report, 1962

higher for other constituents and properties and for milk yield, with 18
estimates ranging from 0.75 to 0.95. Based on the coefficients of variation,
pH was the least variable, followed by percent solids not fat, percent pro-
tein, percent titratable acidity, percent chloride, milk yield, and percent fat.
In the investigations involving these variables, little could be gained by
taking samples more frequently than once a week. If particularly sensitive
estimates are required, reductions in variances of means based on two
samples, rather than a single sample, would be about 7 to 12 percent for
percent SNF, 19 to 27 percent for percent fat, 8 to 20 percent for pH, 7 to 9
percent for percent titratable acidity, 5 to 10 percent for percent protein,
7 to 8 percent for percent chloride, and 2 to 3 percent for milk yield.

Hatch Project 1049 K. L. Smith and C. J. Wilcox
During the past year 3,154 aseptically drawn quarter milk samples were
tested. Samples containing hemolytic staphylococci constituted about 39
percent, and those containing hemolytic staphylococci plus a leucocyte
count of 1 million per ml or more represented about 7 percent of the total
During the study of the quarter samples, 400 hemolytic staphylococci
were isolated and purified. About 60 percent of the isolates were coagulase
positive. The average leucocyte count for the samples not containing
hemolytic staphylococci was higher than for those containing hemolytic
staphylococci. Some of the samples containing only streptococci had very
high leucocyte counts. The average leucocyte count for the samples con-
taining hemolytic coagulase positive staphylococci was 1.5 times that for
the samples containing hemolytic coagulase negative organisms.

Fig. 1.-Staphyloocccus aurens bacteriophage 53 of the Blair-Carr In-
ternational Series showing the tail first orientation of the phage particles
around two cells of its propagating strain (X 50,000).

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Using the six bacteriophages developed by Seto and Wilson specifically
for typing staphylococci isolated from bovine sources, it was found that
about 50 percent of the isolates were typed with phage S2. Phage typing
using the Blair-Carr International series of phage (Fig. 1) is being done.

State Project 1053 S. P. Marshall, J. B. White,
and E. L. Fouts
Rotational plantings of corn for ensilage followed by sorghum for en-
silage and by oats for forage were made to study an integrated silage and
grazing system. Dixie 18 corn planted March 1, 1961, produced an average
of 19 tons of fresh ensilage per acre with grain comprising 36 percent of
the dry matter. Sorghum planted July 8 produced an average of 6.4 tons
of ensilage per acre; 24 percent of the dry matter was grain. Oats seeded
October 23 were grazed with heifers from December 13, 1961, through Feb-
ruary 26, 1962. The heifers gained an average of 159 pounds in body weight
and obtained an average of 1,125 pounds of total digestible nutrients per
acre of pasture. Average daily gains of 1.35 pounds by the animals indi-
cated pasture quality was good.
Since the suitability for ensilage production of sorghum varieties planted
in July was uncertain, an early seeding of NK 300 was made for the silage
investigation. Ensilage yield averaged 16 tons per acre, and 38 percent of
the dry matter was grain.
Average daily milk production per cow of 41.6 pounds while on corn
silage was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of 38.6 pounds produced
while on sorghum silage. Daily silage dry matter intake per cow averaged
19.0 pounds on corn and 18.2 pounds on sorghum. Supplemental concen-
trate allowances were equalized between groups receiving the different
silages and averaged 15.8 pounds per cow daily.
Apparent digestibility of sorghum silage dry matter was 57.6 percent.
(See Project 1053, Agronomy Department.)

Hatch Project 1062 J. M. Wing
The objective of this work is to determine whether source or season
influence the extent which carotene is absorbed. Digestion trials are being
run with six steers, at 30-day intervals, on alfalfa hay and fresh or en-
siled grasses and legumes. Five feeding and collection periods have been
completed, and chemical analyses are now in progress.

Hatch Project 1079 J. M. Wing
Six calves were depleted of iron reserves as determined from hematocrit
and hemoglobin values. Three depleted and three normal animals were
dosed with 400 uc of iron-59 as ferric chloride. The other three depleted
calves were treated with ferric oxide.
Approximately 60 and 15 percent of the radioactivity as the chloride and
oxide, respectively, were recovered in the feces within 96 hours. None
appeared in the urine.
After 96 hours all subjects were sacrificed, and radioactivity was de-
termined on liver, heart, kidney, spleen, bone, and muscle. The chloride,

Annual Report, 1962 89

but not the oxide, appeared in these tissues. Depleted animals utilized two
to five times as much ferric chloride as did normal calves.
(See also Project 1079, Animal Science Department.)

State Project 1114 L. E. Mull and K. L. Smith
Six commercial brands of INDM in consumer-size packages from the
Gainesville market were sampled monthly for nine months-54 samples
total. Standard plating procedures were used to enumerate and isolate
organisms. Isolates were purified using standard plating techniques. Ap-
proximately 850 isolates have been obtained.
Average bacterial count per sample was approximately 2,000 per gram.
Incubation temperature apparently had little effect on total count averages.
Highest average count was 2,100 per gram at 30C and the lowest was 1,500
per gram at 37 C. Average counts at 32 and 55C were 1,800 and 1,900 per
gram, respectively. Identity of the organisms obtained at the different
temperatures has not yet been determined.
Average count per sample during the five-month period December
through April was 2,400 per gram. The November and the May through
July samples averaged 1,100 per gram. Of the total isolates approximately
16 percent were G* cocci and 84 percent G- rods. Only one G- rod was iso-
lated. Incubation temperature appeared to have a pronounced effect on
morphology of isolates, since only four G* cocci of a total of 142 were isolated
at 55C. There appeared to be a relationship between the number of cocci
present and high bacterial counts; during the five-month period, December
to April, when total counts were highest, 25 percent of the isolates were
cocci. During the remaining months, when total counts were lowest, only
6.7 percent of the isolates were cocci. Total yeast and mold count on 48
samples of INDM was 26, which indicates that these organisms constitute
only a minor part of the total flora.
Three more monthly samples of the six brands of INDM will be taken.
After the 12-month sampling period, all isolates will be identified to the
species level if possible.

Influence of Feeding Arsenic and Lead to Cows Upon Levels Secreted
in Milk.-Eight lactating Jersey cows were divided into four groups of
two animals each. Lead arsenate levels of 0.00, 5.41, 10.84, and 21.69 mg
per 100 pounds of body weight were fed to respective groups of cows. This
study is in cooperation with the Citrus Station and results of milk analyses
are shown in their report. (S. P. Marshall and E. L. Fouts)
The Utilization of Citrus Seeds by Dairy Cattle.-This research was
undertaken to determine whether seeds in citrus pulp add to or reduce the
nutritional value of the feed. Ten mature milking cows and eight young
calves were fed from 1,100 to 1,800 citrus seeds per head daily in addition
to the regular feed. Representative fecal samples were examined by dry-
ing and sifting through screens. No whole seeds or large particles were
found. (J. M. Wing)
Hairless Calves (Hypotrichosis).-A report of birth of four hairless
Guernsey calves in a cooperating institutional herd was investigated. Both
males and females were afflicted, with pedigrees available on three indi-
viduals. Gross examination indicated that the condition was similar to one
previously reported in Guernseys in 1953. The animals were viable, with
a varying degree of hairlessness. The close relationships of the three

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

afflicted animals confirmed a previous report that the condition was genet-
ically influenced. The Department of Veterinary Science has cooperated
in this investigation with a comprehensive evaluation of skin sections, blood
hemoglobin, and tissue samples from various organs. (R. B. Becker and
C. J. Wilcox)
Mechanical Losses Reduced in Cottage Cheese Manufacture.-Cottage
cheese curd was made from skim milk reconstituted to 10 percent and to
12 percent solids of the same lot of non-fat dry milk. Curd yields were ad-
justed to a standard 20 percent solids basis.
The yield of cottage cheese curd at the 12 percent level was 37.47 per-
cent more than at the 10 percent level, although the former contained only
20 percent more solids than the latter. On the basis of solids content the
12 percent skim yielded 13.66 percent more curd than did the 10 percent
skim per pound of solids in the skim. Observations made during cooking,
washing, and draining indicate that most, if not all, of the loss at the lower
solids content was due to very small particles of casein lost mechanically.
(L. E. Mull and W. A. Krienke)
Composition of Consumer-size Packaged Instant Non-Fat Dry Milk
(INDM).-Forty-seven samples of INDM were reconstituted to 10 percent
total solids and analyzed for protein and chloride content. Percentage pro-
tein was found to be relatively constant using the formol titration method.
Approximately 70 percent of the samples contained 3.3, 0.10 percent
protein-this small difference was not related to the brand of powder or to
the time of sampling.
Chloride values, as determined by the AgNO3 method, ranged from about
0.15 to 0.19 percent, with an average value of about 0.17 percent for all
samples, which indicates a considerable range in the chloride content of the
original skimmilks. When calculated to a 9 percent total solids basis, all
chloride values appeared to be somewhat higher than that of normal skim-
milk, suggesting that the solids content of the original skimmilk was some-
what lower than 9 percent solids not fat. (W. A. Krienke, L. E. Mull, and
K. L. Smith)
Solids Not Fat (SNF) by Lactometers in Error.-Limited data (34 sam-
ples) collected on whole milk of individual cows ranging in protein content
formoll titration) from 2.8 to 4.6 percent adjusted to plasma basis (skim
milk) show deviations for both the Quevenne and the Watson Lactometers
in estimating SNF as compared to values obtained by the Mojonnier
The estimated SNF values were low by the Quevenne Lactometer
(C.L. + 0.2 X F) by 0.033 for each 0.10 percent increase in protein con-
tent of the plasma above 3.1 percent. For the Watson Lactometer the
SNF values were low by 0.025 for each 0.10 percent increase in protein
content of the plasma above 2.8 percent. At a protein content of 3.8 percent
the Quevenne value was low by 0.23 percent and the Watson value was low
by 0.26 percent. The study is being continued. (W. A. Krienke)

Annual Report, 1962


Improved facilities allowed the department to become a more effective
unit. Multi-inhabited offices were divided, giving each worker a private
work space and a telephone. A sound-proof recording booth was constructed,
which enabled the department to produce top quality radio tapes. A high-
speed tape duplicator was installed to copy the master tapes which were
distributed to radio stations, allowing Experiment Station research informa-
tion to reach at least 500,000 individuals each week.
Television coverage remained at a substantial level. The resignation
of two assistant editors during the latter part of the year caused a recession
in publication and news activities.


The Station printed 95,000 copies of 16 new bulletins totaling 592
pages. Sixty-two thousand copies of eight new circulars totaling 108 pages
were printed. One 12-page circular and one 16-page circular were re-
printed. Ten thousand copies were ordered.
Publications printed were: Number
Pages Printed

Bul. 632 An Economic and Statistical Evaluation of
Grading Cattle, W. K. McPherson, L. V. Dixon,
and H. L. Chapman, Jr .............- ..... ...............
Bul. 634 An Annotated List of Predators and Parasites
Associated with Insects and Mites on Florida
Citrus, Martin H. Muma, Allen G. Selhime, and
Harold A. Denmark ......... ........ ..................-
Bul. 635 Factors Influencing Winter Gains of Beef
Calves, F. M. Peacock, J. E. McCaleb, E. M.
Hodges, and W G. Kirk .....................................
Bul. 636 Competition Between Florida and California
Celery in the Chicago Market, Marshall R. God-
win and Billie S. Lloyd ...................................
Bul. 637 Chrysanthemum Diseases in Florida, C. R.
Jackson and L. A. McFadden ............................
Bul. 638 Long Distance Marketing of Fresh Sweet Corn,
R. K. Showalter, A. H. Spurlock, W. Smith
Greig, C. S. Parsons, and K. D. Demaree ........
Bul. 639 "Crampy"-Progressive Posterior Paralysis in
Mature Cattle, R. B. Becker, C. J. Wilcox, and
W R Pritchard .................................. .. .... .......
Bul. 640 Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida,
M artin H M um a .............- ....... ......- ........... ....
Bul. 641 Utilizing Bagasse in Cattle Fattening Rations,
W. G. Kirk, F. M. Peacock, and G. K. Davis......
Bul. 642 Characteristics and Potentialities of the Con-
sumer Market for Florida Limes, William T.
Manley and Marshall R. Godwin.......................-......
Bul. 643 The Income Implications of Acreage Control for
Flue-Cured Tobacco Producers, Levi A. Powell,
Sr., Clyde E. Murphree, and Charles D. Covey







24 5,000

40 15,000



88 4,000

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Bul. 644 The Effects of Feeding Various Levels and
Sources of Phosphorus to Laying Hens, R. H.
Harms, C. R. Douglas, and P. W. Waldroup........ 24 6,500
Bul. 645 The Effects of Price Variation, Skin Blemish,
and Firmness on Retail Sales of Florida Avo-
cados, F. W. Williams, D. L. Brooke, and W. B.
Riggan ... ............................ .... .... .... .. ... 40 4,500
Bul. 646 Effect of Grower Diets on the Performance of
Egg Production Type Pullets, P. W. Waldroup
and R. H. Harm s ........................ .... .......... ..... 24 5,500
Bul. 647 Marketing Florida Ferns, Cecil N. Smith, Don-
ald L. Brooke, and Tze I. Chiang ......................... 36 6,500
Bul. 648 Customer Preference Aspects of Competition
Between Florida and California Celery, Marshall
R. Godwin and William T. Manley ....................... 16 4,000
Cir. S-133 F.46-136, An Early Maturing Sugarcane
Variety, F. le Grand and T. Bregger .................. 8 7,500
Cir. S-134 Florida 22-A New Nematode Resistant Flue-
Cured Tobacco Variety, Fred Clark ......................- 12 11,500
Cir. S-135 Information to Consider in the Use of Flat-
woods and Marshes for Citrus, J. W. Sites, L. C.
Hammond, R. G. Leighty, and W. O. Johnson.... 36 6,500
Cir. S-136 Torpedograss and Citrus Groves,
D. W Kretchm an ....-....-.. ............................... 12 5,000
Cir. S-137 Floralou, A Disease-Resistant Tomato with Im-
portant Refinements, B. F. Whitner, Jr., J. M.
Walter, D. G. A. Kelbert, and N. C. Hayslip...... 8 7,500
Cir. S-138 Floridew, A Honeydew Melon for Florida, F. S.
Jamison, James Montelaro, and J. D. Norton...- 4 7,500
Cir. S-139 Two New Cantaloupe Varieties for Florida
Growers, F. S. Jamison, James Montelaro, and
J. D N orton .......-............... .. ....-- ...... .......... 8 10,000
Cir. S-140 Chicken Manure, Its Production, Value, Preser-
vation, and Disposition, Charles F. Eno............ 20 6,500
All new publications are sent to libraries and specialists in many states
and to county agents and vocational agricultural teachers in Florida. The
Mailing Room also distributes the publications upon request.
Improvement in readability of the Sunshine State Agricultural Research
Report was stressed. Circulation of this 20-page research quarterly con-
tinues to increase. Currently 7,500 copies of the magazine are printed.

Live programming of the Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, University
radio station, remained at the same level as the past year. The program
went into its 34th year with broadcast time from 12:10 to 12:30 p.m., Mon-
day through Friday. Experiment Station workers made 236 talks during
the year.
The 60-second spot announcements continued to increase in popularity.
Stations using the spots increased from 7 to 13 during the year. The spots
are voiced by the radio specialist, and about half of them deal with Experi-
ment Station information.
Mimeographed Farm Flashes were sent out daily to 55 radio stations.
One-half of these 5-minute features were based on Experiment Station

Annual Report, 1962

information. Five short items, usually about 1 minute in length, were
sent weekly to the same 55 radio stations for use during station breaks or
during farm shows. At least 60 percent of the material came from Experi-
ment Station information.
The tape service was expanded. Radio stations using the tapes were
increased from 8 to 28 stations. Six cuts-each about 5 minutes-were sent
weekly to these stations. These tapes featured 167 talks by Experiment
Station workers.
The Florida Farm Review, a 5-minute summary of agricultural informa-
tion, was sent weekly to Associated Press and United Press International
news wire services for teletype distribution to their member radio and
television stations. Much of the information contained is based on Experi-
ment Station material.
The weekly television show over WUFT, University educational televi-
sion station, was continued. During the 45-week show year, 75 Station
researchers appeared on the program. The live show was taped and sent
to five stations for showing on a regular schedule basis. Thus, 205 show-
ings of this program were made during the year, reaching an estimated
40,000 individuals per week.
Five new 15-minute television films were made during the year, which
increased the number of films made by the department to 197. These films
are loaned to commercial television stations. One station ran a film daily
for a five-month period. Four other stations use a film each week for 52
weeks. The television film service reaches an estimated 80,000 viewers each
week. About half of these films are on Experiment Station activities. In
addition to television use, these films are becoming increasingly popular as
teaching films by county agents.

During the year an Experiment Station news letterhead was initiated to
better represent the Station in the mass media field. News stories were
mimeographed on the new letterhead paper and sent to daily and weekly
newspapers, magazines, radio stations, and other mass media outlets.
The editor wrote a weekly gardening column which appeared in 23
papers on a regular schedule and in a dozen other papers as filler material.
These columns were based on Experiment Station material and reached an
estimated 500,000 individuals each week.
Local correspondents and farm page editors were assisted in securing
material for their own stories. Many correspondents picked up materials
for news stories at the branch stations. Also, farm journals continue to use
Experiment Station information supplied by Station editors and other staff
Papers by research staff members continue to be printed in large num-
bers. These appear in technical journals in the United States and a few in
foreign countries. Those included in the Journal Series are forwarded to
the journals by the Station editorial staff, and reprints are ordered for dis-
tribution when they are printed. The series now contains more than 1,400
Following is a list of Journal Series articles printed during the year
and those not previously listed:
770. Retention of Fertilizer Elements in Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam. W.
K. Robertson and C. E. Hutton. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
20: 158-166. Nov. 1960.

94 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

778. Evaluation of Mechanical Separators for Cold Damaged Orange
W. Grierson and F. W. Hayward. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 73: 278
288. 1959.
1051. The Pseudo-Curly Top Disease in South Florida. John N. Simo"i
J. Econ. Entomol. 55: 358-363. June 1962.
1052. Life-History and Behavioral Studies on Micrutalis malleifera, Vectoi
of Pseudo-Curly Top Virus. John N. Simons. J. Econ. Entomol|
55: 363-365. June 1962.
1079. Analyses of Pecan, Peanut and Other Oils by Gas-Liquid Chroma
tography and Ultra-Violet Spectrophotometry. R. B. French. J. Am
Oil Chem. Soc. 39: 176-178. March 1962.
1085. Bitterness in Celery. Huo-Ping Pan. J. Food Sci. 26: 337-344
1087. Inheritance of a Mutant-1 Phenotype in Pepper. A. A. Cook. Ji
Heredity. 52: 154-158. July-Aug. 1961.
1092. A Bacterial Disease of Philodendron. H. N. Miller and Lorne A
McFadden. Phytopathology. 51: 826-831. Dec. 1961.
1093. The Carbohydrates in the Peel of Oranges and Grapefruit. S. V
Ting and E. J. Deszyck. J. Food Sci. 26: 146-152. 1961.
1102. The Productivity of Snorter Dwarf-Carrier and Non-Carrier Herefor
Cattle. J. C. Dollahon, M. Koger, J. F. Hentges, Jr., and A. C. War
nick. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 24: 153-161. Sept. 1961.
1107. Bacterial Stem and Leaf Rot of Dieffenbachia in Florida. Lorne A
McFadden. Phytopathology. 51: 663-668. Oct. 1961.
1109. Relative Frequency of Loss of Individual Molars of Rats During
Longevity Study. R. L. Shirley, H. D. Wallace and G. K. Davis
Jour. Dental Research 40:1155-1159. Nov.-Dec. 1961.
1116. The Influence of Yolk Color upon Yolk Shadow Values, Albumen
Quality and Yolk Color Index-Deposition and Color Intensity of
Abdominal Fat of Pullet Carcasses. Fred R. Tarver, Jr. Poultry
Sci. 40: 987-991. July 1961.
1118. The Effect of Low Storage Temperatures on the Color, Carotenoid
Pigments, Shelf-Life and Firmness of Ripened Tomatoes. C. B. Hall.
Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 78: 480-487. Jan. 1961.
1119. Some Effects of Ultraviolet Light on Barley and Oat Embryos. A. O.
Lunden and A. T. Wallace. Crop Sci. 1: 212-215. 1961.
1120. The Relationship of Calcium-Phosphorus Ratios to the Utilization of
Plant and Inorganic Phosphorus by the Chick. J. M. Vandepopuliere,
C. B. Ammerman, and R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 40: 951-957. July
1122. Gaseous Loss of Ammonia from Surface-Applied Nitrogenous Ferti-
lizers. Gaylord M. Volk. J. Agr. and Food Chem. 9: 280. July-
Aug. 1961.
1125. Mechanical Transmission of the Infectious Variegations Virus of
Citrus. T. J. Grant and M. K. Corbett. Nature. 188: 519-520. 1960.
1127. The Measurement of Bovine Thyroid Activity Using Low Dosages
of Radioactive Iodine 1-131. J. R. Howes, W. A. Higinbotham, J. F.
Gennaro, and J. P. Feaster. Am. J. Vet. Research. 22: 887. Sept.
1148. A Three Year Study of Drying High Moisture Snapped Corn with
Heated Air. Dalton S. Harrison, and Victor E. Green, Jr. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 20: 19-22. 1960.

Annual Report, 1962

1149. Magnesium Content of Pecan Leaves as Influenced by Seasonal Rain-
fall and Soil Type. Nathan Gammon, Jr., K. D. Butson, and R. H.
Sharpe. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 20: 154-158. 1960.
1190. Relationship of Soil Nitrogen to Crop Response from Fertilizer Ni-
trogen Applied to Mineral Soils. W. L. Pritchett, M. N. Malik, and
C. F. Eno. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 20: 393-403. 1960.
1191. The Effects of Particle Size and Rate of Solution on the Availability
of Potassium Materials. W. L. Pritchett and C. N. Nolan. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 20: 146-153. 1960.
1192. Research and Application of Soil Testing for Organic Soils. Charles
C. Hortenstine and W. T. Forsee, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 20: 363-370. 1960.
1193. Comparison of Summer Cover Crops for Effect on Populations of
Subterranean Insect Pests Associated with Corn. Emmett D. Harris,
Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 20: 45-49. 1960.
1194. Popcorn Quality and the Measurement of Popping Expansion. Victor
E. Green, Jr., and Emmett D. Harris, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 20: 28-41. 1960.
1200. Growth Characteristics of Dactylella drechsleri n. sp., an Adhesive-
Knobbed, Nematode-Trapping Hyphomycete from Florida. A. C.
Tarjan. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata. 14: 136-144. 1961.
1201. Effect of Variation in the Bacterial Spot Pathogen of Pepper and
Tomato on Control with Streptomycin. P. L. Thayer and R. E. Stall.
Phytopathology. 51: 568-571. Aug. 1961.
1202. Studies on Infection and Immunity with the Lung-Worm Dictyocaulas
viviparius (Bloch) II. Active Immunization of Calves. A. E. Wade,
L. E. Swanson, Lauretta E. Fox, C. F. Simpson, and T. D. Malewitz,
Am. J. Veter. Research. 23: 277-283. March 1962.
1203. Effects of Aluminum on Sunflower Growth and Uptake of Boron and
Calcium from Nutrient Solution. Charles C. Hortenstine and J. G. A.
Fiskell. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 25: 304-307. July-Aug. 1961.
1205. Date of Planting X Variety Interactions in Grain Sorghum. A. J.
Norden. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 20: 61-71. 1960.
1206. Detection of Leptospires in Naturally Infected Dogs, Using Fluores-
cein-Labeled Antibody. F. H. White, H. E. Stoliker, and M. M. Gal-
ton. Am. J. Veter. Research. 22: 650-654. July 1961.
1207. The Effect of Dietary Protein and Zinc on the Absorption and Liver
Deposition of Radioactive and Total Copper. John T. McCall and
George K. Davis. J. Nutrition. 74: 45. May 1961.
1210. The Use of Anhydrous Ammonia in the Curing of Hay. Wm. G.
Blue and Charles F. Eno. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 20: 99-
104. 1960.
1211. Fertility, as a Limiting Factor for Pastures in Florida. O. Charles
Ruelke. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 20: 23-28. 1960.
1212. A Comparison of Oat and Rye Pastures for Fattening Long-Yearling
Steers in South-Central Florida. J. E. McCaleb, F. M. Peacock,
E. M. Hodges, and W. G. Kirk. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
20: 71-74. 1960.
1213. Tobacco Plant Production as Affected by Plantbed Management Prac-
tices. E. B. Whitty and Fred Clark. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 20: 74-93. 1960.
1214. Problems in Grain Sorghum Production in West Florida. M. C.
Lutrick. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 20: 41-44. 1960.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

1215. Major Insect Problems of Soft (Bast) Fiber Species in South Florida.
William G. Genung. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 20: 105-109.
1216. Effect of Flatwoods Pasture Fertilization on Soil Test Results. C. L.
Dantzman, E. M. Hodges, and W. G. Kirk. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. Proc. 20: 175-178. 1960.
1217. A Study of the Reproducibility of Soil Analysis Results. H. L.
Breland and James NeSmith. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
20: 403-418. 1960.
1218. Factors Limiting Field Crop Production in North Central Florida.
W. K. Robertson and H. W. Lundy. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 20: 306-307. 1960.
1219. Current Status and Future Development of Research Pertaining to
the Nutrient Requirements of Field Crops Growing on the Organic
and Sandy Soils of Southern Florida. W. T. Forsee, Jr. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 20: 316-323. 1960.
1220. Limiting Factors in Field Crop Production in Northwestern Florida.
C. E. Hutton, M. C. Lutrick and W. K. Robertson. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 20: 298-305. 1960.
1221. Soil Analysis in Florida. Herman L. Breland and James NeSmith.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 20: 356-363. 1960.
1222. Response of Slash Pine to Colloidal Phosphate Fertilization. W. L.
Pritchett and K. R. Swinford. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 25: 397-400.
Sept.-Oct. 1961.
1223. The Effect of Source and Level of Dietary Protein on the Toxicity of
Zinc to the Rat. John T. McCall, Jaque V. Mason, and George K.
Davis. J. Nutrition. 74: 51-57. May 1961.
1226. The Influence of Dietary Calcium Level and Supplementary Ascorbic
Acid and/or Dienstrol Diacetate upon Performance of Egg Produc-
tion Type Hens. R. H. Harms and P. W. Waldroup. Poultry Sci.
40: 1345-1348. Sept. 1961.
1230. A Mutation for Resistance to Potato Virus Y in Pepper. A. A. Cook.
Phytopathology. 51: 550-553. Aug. 1961.
1234. Digestibility of Nutrients by Cattle and Sheep Fed Chopped Oat
Silage Preserved with Zinc Bacitracin. R. A. Alexander, J. T. Mc-
Call, J. F. Hentges, Jr., P. E. Loggins, and G. K. Davis. J. Dairy Sci.
44: 1928-1932. Oct. 1961.
1237. Optical Determination of Spray Coverage. G. J. Edwards, W. L.
Thompson, J. R. King, and P. J. Jutras. Agr. Eng. 4: 206-207.
1238. The Effect of Plant Type upon Corn Earworm Control in Sweet Corn.
John W. Wilson and E. V. Walter. J. Econ. Entomol. 54: 689-692.
Aug. 1961.
1241. Replacement of Turkey Oak Vegetation with Low Growing Soil Cover.
E. G. Rodgers, E. O. Burt, and R. P. Upchurch. Weeds. 10: 48-53.
Jan. 1962.
1242. Certain Factors Affecting the Leaching of Potassium from Sandy
Soils. C. N. Nolan and W. L. Pritchett. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
Proc. 20: 139-145. 1960.
1244. The Value of Menhaden Fish Meal in Practical Broiler Diets. R. H.
Harms, P. W. Waldroup and C. R. Douglas. Poultry Sci. 40:1617-
1622. Nov. 1961.

Annual Report, 1962

1245. Some Considerations Pertaining to the Use of Soil Analysis in Citrus
Production. W. F. Spencer. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 20:
374-381. 1960.
1246. Bioassay of Tobacco Ringspot Virus in Cassia occidentalis. D. A.
Roberts and M. K. Corbett. Phytopathology. 51: 831-833. Dec.
1247. Oat Smut Races of the South Atlantic States. H. H. Luke, P. L.
Pfahler, and S. J. Hadden. Phytopathology. 51: 490-491. July 1961.
1248. The Effect of Ante-Mortem Injection of Papain on Tenderness of
Chickens. D. L. Huffman, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter, and R. L.
Shirley. Poultry Sci. 40: 1627-1630. Nov. 1961.
1252. The Use of a Color Additive in Bologna. A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Car-
penter, and R. H. Alsmeyer. Food Technol. 16: 101-104. 1961.
1253. Winter Injury of Pangolagrass Reduced by Use of Maleic Hydrazide.
O. Charles Ruelke. Agron. J. 53: 405-406. 1961.
1254. Evaluation of Ronphagrass for Pasture. O. Charles Ruelke and
John T. McCall. Agron. J. 53: 406-407. 1961.
1256. Spray Programs To Control Citrus Rust Mite in Florida. Roger
B. Johnson. J. Econ. Entomol. 54: 977-979. Oct. 1961.
1257. Electron Microscope Studies and Staining Reactions of Leptospires.
Charles F. Simpson and F. H. White. J. Infectious Diseases. 109:
243. Nov.-Dec. 1961.
1258. The Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Microbial Population of the
Soil. Hugh Popenoe and Charles F. Eno. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc.
(Division III). 26: 164-167. March-April 1962.
1259. The Composition of Three Celery Varieties at Several Stages of Ma-
turity. C. B. Hall, H. W. Burdine, and V. L. Guzman. Proc. Amer.
Soc. Hort. Sci. 78: 361-366. Dec. 1961.
1260. Growth Changes in Three Celery Varieties on Everglades Organic
Soils. H. W. Burdine, V. L. Guzman, and C. B. Hall. Proc. Amer.
Soc. Hort. Sci. 78: 353-360. 1961.
1261. The Phosphorus Requirement of Young Pigs. G. E. Combs, J. M.
Vandepopuliere, H. D. Wallace, and M. Koger. J. Animal Sci. 21:
3-8. Feb. 1962.
1263. The Influence of Feeding Various Levels of Velvet Beans to Chicks
and Laying Hens. R. H. Harms, Charles Simpson, and P. W. Wal-
droup. J. Nutrition. 75: 127-131. Sept. 1961.
1266. Bougainvillea Culture. John Popenoe. Am. Hort. Magazine. 40:
319-324. Oct. 1961.
1268. Comparison of the Thyroid Release of 1-131 by Hereford and Brah-
man Cattle Maintained Under Identical Environmental Conditions.
J. R. Howes, J. P. Feaster, and J. F. Hentges, Jr. J. Animal Sci.
21:210. May 1962.
1269. Effect of Source and Level of Nitrogen on Semen Production and
Libido in Rams. A. C. Warnick, T. N. Meacham, T. J. Cunha, P. E.
Loggins, J. F. Hentges, and R. L. Shirley. Fourth Internat. Congress
on Animal Reproduction, The Hague, Holland. 4:202-211. 1961.
1270. Soil and Foliar Treatments for the Control of Sclerotiniose of Let-
tuce. J. F. Darby. Plant Disease Reporter. 45: 552-556. July 15,
1272. N, P, and K in Leaves of Citrus Trees Infected with Radopholus
similis. A. W. Feldman, E. P. DuCharme, and R. F. Suit. Plant Dis-
ease Reporter. 45: 564-568. July 15, 1961.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

1274. A Urinofecal Separator for Monkeys. Ralph C. Robbins and James
A. Gavan. Proc. Animal Care Panel. 12: 15-18. Feb. 1962.
1275. Some Host-Parasite Relationships in the Curvularia Disease of Glad-
iolus in Florida. Curtis R. Jackson. Plant Disease Reporter. 45:
512-516. July 15, 1961.
1276. The Arachnid Order Solpugida in the United States (Supplement I).
Martin H. Muma. Am. Museum Nat. Hist., Novitates. 2092: 1-44.
June 13, 1962.
1278. Potentiation of Terramycin. II. Evaluation of Low Dietary Calcium
in Laying Hen Diets. P. W. Waldroup and R. H. Harms. Avian Dis-
ease. 5: 409-414. Nov. 1961.
1279. Quantitative Measurement of Host-Pathogen Interactions. H. H.
Luke and P. L. Pfahler. Phytopathology. 52: 340-343. April 1962.
1280. The Cause and Control of Low Viability of Rye. H. H. Luke and
P. L. Pfahler. Phytopathology. 52: 344-347. April 1962.
1281. Effects of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on the Enzymes of Gly-
colysis and the Pentose Phosphate Cycle. C. C. Black, Jr., and T. E.
Humphreys. Plant Physiol. 37: 66-73. Jan. 1962.
1284. Reproductive Performance of Crossbred and Straightbred Cattle on
Different Pasture Programs in Florida. M. Koger, W. L. Reynolds,
W. G. Kirk, F. M. Peacock, and A. C. Warnick. J. Animal Sci. 21:
14-19. Feb. 1962.
1285. Relationship of Nitrogen and Calcium to "Soft-Nose" Disorder in
Mango Fruits. T. W. Young. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 78: 201-208.
1288. The Influence of Dicoumarol on the Incidence of Blood Spots in Eggs.
P. W. Waldroup and R. H. Harms. Poultry Sci. 41: 509-512. March
1290. The Effect of Water Content and Surface Moisture on the Freezing
of Orange Fruits. C. H. Hendershott. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci.
78: 186-189. 1961.
1291. Control of a Corn Stem Weevil (Hyperodes humilis), and Fall Army-
worm with DDT and Parathion in South Florida. Emmett D. Harris,
Jr. J. Econ. Entomol. 55: 83-85. Feb. 1962.
1292. Parasitism of Purple Scale in Florida Citrus Groves. Martin H.
Muma and D. W. Clancy. Fla. Entomol. 44: 159-165. Dec. 1961.
1293. Effect of Age, Breed and Diet on the Glycogen of the Heart, Liver
and Muscle of Cattle. R. L. Shirley, A. C. Warnick, A. Z. Palmer,
G. K. Davis, F. M. Peacock, and W. G. Kirk. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 24:
239-246. 1961.
1295. Further Studies on the Relationship of Egg Production Rate as Af-
fected by Feed to Haugh Units of Eggs. R. H. Harms, W. B. Lester,
and P. W. Waldroup. Poultry Sci. 41: 576. March 1962.
1296. Gnotobiotic Techniques and the Study of Radopholus similis on
Citrus. E. P. DuCharme and R. W. Hanks. Plant Disease Reporter.
45: 742-744. Sept. 15, 1961.
1297. Operation of an Ecological Survey for Florida Citrus Pests. William
A. Simanton. J. Econ. Entomol. 55: 105-112. Feb. 1962.
1298. Cytoplasmic Differences in T-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Corn and
its Maintainer. J. R. Edwardson. Am. J. Botany 49:2: 184-187.
Feb. 1962.

Annual Report, 1962

1301. Treatment of Citrus Trees with Cynem for Control of Radopholus
similis. R. F. Suit and A. W. Feldman. Plant Disease Reporter. 45:
782-786. Oct. 15, 1961.
1302. Peanut Meal as a Source of Protein in Pig Starter and Grower
Rations. G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace. J. Animal Sci. 21: 95-97.
Feb. 1962.
1303. Methionine Supplementation of Laying Hen Diets. R. H. Harms,
C. R. Douglas, and P. W. Waldroup. Poultry Sci. 41: 805-812. May
1304. The Effect of Stemphylium Leaf Spot Complex on Yields of Field
Planted Blue Lupine. J. R. Edwardson, Homer D. Wells, and Ian
Forbes, Jr. Plant Disease Reporter. 45: 958-959. Dec. 1961.
1308. Three Uncommon Watermelon Fruit Rots in Florida. N. C. Schenck.
Plant Disease Reporter. 45:841-843. Nov. 15, 1961.
1309. New Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmate) from Florida. Martin
H. Muma. Fla. Entomol. 45: 1-10. March 1962.
1315. Comparative Digestibility of Nutrients in Roughages by Cattle and
Sheep. R. A. Alexander, J. F. Hentges, Jr., J. T. McCall, and W. O.
Ash. J. Animal Sci. 21: 373-376. May 1962.
1316. Grapefruit Seed Oil. Rudolph Hendrickson and J. W. Kesterson.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 74: 219-223. 1961.
1317. Do Adhesives Improve Mite Control? Roger B. Johnson. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 74: 13-17. Oct. 1961.
1318. The Effect of Superphosphates on Watermelon Yields. Paul H. Ev-
erett. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 74: 158-161. 1961.
1319. Bacterial Spot Control of Pepper with Streptomycin in Central Flor-
ida. J. F. Darby. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 74: 161-166. 1961.
1320. Developing New Peach Varieties for Florida. R. H. Sharpe. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 74: 348-352. 1961.
1321. Additional Citrus Rootstock Selections that Tolerate the Burrowing
Nematode. H. W. Ford and W. A. Feder. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
74: 50-53. 1961.
1322. Preliminary Studies on Eradication of Root-Knot in Caladium Tubers.
H. L. Rhoades. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 74: 393-397. 1961.
1323. A Relationship of Chemical Weed Control to Corn Stem Weevil Con-
trol on Sweet Corn. Emmett D. Harris, Jr., and J. R. Orsenigo. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 74: 166-168. 1961.
1324. DDT and Sevin for Earworm Control on Sweet Corn in the Ever-
glades. Emmett D. Harris, Jr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 74:
169-171. 1961.
1325. Leaf Mining Insects, Especially the Serpentine Miners on Vegetable
Crop Plants and Their Control. D. O. Wolfenbarger. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 74: 131-133. 1961.
1326. Verticillium Wilt of Okra and Southern Pea in Southern Florida.
James W. Strobel. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 74: 171-175. 1961.
1327. Development in Florida of a Different Pathogenic Race of the Fu-
sarium Wilt Organism of Tomato. R. E. Stall. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 74: 175-177. 1961.
1328. Effects of Spacing, Fertilizer and Variety upon Pepper Yields. Henry
Y. Ozaki. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 74: 178-180. 1961.