Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Report of the director
 Report of the administrative...
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering
 Animal science
 Dairy science
 Food technology and nutrition
 Fruit crops
 Ornamental horticulture
 Plant pathology
 Plant science station
 Poultry science
 Statistical section
 Vegetable crops
 Veterinary science department
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Everglades station
 Indian River field laboratory
 Plantation field laboratory
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Range cattle station
 Sub-tropical experiment statio...
 Suwannee Valley station
 West central Florida station
 West Florida station
 Federal-state frost warning...
 Potato investigations laborato...
 Strawberry investigations...
 Watermelon and grape investigations...

Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00009
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1961
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00009
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Report of the director
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Agricultural economics
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Animal science
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Dairy science
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Food technology and nutrition
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    Fruit crops
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
    Ornamental horticulture
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
    Plant pathology
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    Plant science station
        Page 164
    Poultry science
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
    Statistical section
        Page 189
    Vegetable crops
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Veterinary science department
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
    Central Florida station
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
    Citrus station
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
    Everglades station
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
    Indian River field laboratory
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
    Plantation field laboratory
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
    North Florida station
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
    Range cattle station
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
    Sub-tropical experiment station
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
    Suwannee Valley station
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
    West central Florida station
        Page 364
    West Florida station
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
    Federal-state frost warning service
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
    Potato investigations laboratory
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
    Strawberry investigations laboratory
        Page 379
        Page 380
    Watermelon and grape investigations laboratory
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
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        Page 394
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        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
Full Text







JUNE 30, 1961

Report of the Director ..................... .....-..... --... .................-...... 13
Report of the Administrative Manager ...--...--- ...----- ---... 21
Agricultural Economics .-... .........----....- ..... ..---- 23
Agricultural Engineering ..-...... .. ................................. -42
Agronomy ................-- --- .... ------ 50
Animal Science --....-- --.........-.........---- -- 68
Botany .-..--- .... ............ 87
Dairy Science ................ ......- ..........- ----- ... .......-- -- -. 90
Editorial ...........................-...-..-..-. --.... .. .. .. 100
Entom ology ............. -.......... ...... ....-.-- ...- ...- 114
Food Technology and Nutrition ...................... -..-----.. 121
Forestry ............... ................... .. .. ..... ... ..... .- 129
Fruit Crops ... ..............- ......-.... --.-. ......- -... .-. 138
Library ....................................... ..................... 143
Ornamental Horticulture ....... .. ...-- ..- .. ....-.. --.... -... 146
Plant Pathology ..................... ........... .....----.. 156
Plant Science Section .............. ......... .... -.-.. ....... 164
Poultry Science ....-.. ... ......-..~.-- ..---. ..... 165
Soils ..............-... ....... ..-..- ..... -. ...- ..... -- --- -- 171
Statistical Section ........... ... .. .... ... ..189
Vegetable Crops ..............-................ ............... 190
Veterinary Science ................ ... .--........- ..------ ..-.. .-- 199
Central Florida Station ................ .--........-- ---- ...... .. 205
Citrus Station ............-.....--........-....-..- ..-. ---.-.-. --. 223
Everglades Station ...................-- ... -..--- ... -..-- ... .. 256
Indian River Field Laboratory ........................------.. ... ....-. 283
Plantation Field Laboratory .......-..-..... ..-.-....-------.----- 291
Gulf Coast Station ..................-...-..... --..--..-.---.--. 300
South Florida Field Laboratory ..........-...---- ---..--... ...... .. 317
North Florida Station .......-- ..... ---...........-.. --- 321
Marianna Field Laboratory .........-............------..-..-..----- 333
Range Cattle Station ..............-.....--..-.....-..--. ---.--.. 335
Sub-Tropical Station ........--...--......----....... ---..-..-. 347
Suwannee Valley Station ...........-..----.....-...---.------------ 360
West Central Florida Station .......................----.--- --------..-.-- 364
W est Florida Station .....-...-...-- ..- .........-- .--... .... ......... 365

Federal-State Frost Warning Service ...............---.
Potato Investigations Laboratory ..................-...........
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory ..............-.........
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory .

.... 371
--..... 374
....--- 379
........ 381


J. J. Daniel, Chairman, Jacksonville
James J. Love, Quincy
Ralph L. Miller, Orlando
Joe K. Hays, Winter Haven
Frank H. Buchanan, Marianna
S. Kendrick Guernsey, Jacksonville
James D. Camp, Ft. Lauderdale
J. Broward Culpepper, Executive Director, Tallahassee

J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., President
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for Agriculture
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Director
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Associate Director
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assistant Director
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Superintendent of Field Operations
W. H. Jones, M.Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Operations

The following abbreviations after name and title of Experiment Sta-
tion Staff indicate cooperation with other organizations:
Coll. University of Florida College of Agriculture
Ext. University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
USWB United States Weather Bureau
FCC Florida Citrus Commission
SPB State Plant Board


Agricultural Economics Department
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and Head; also Coll.
and Ext.
H. B. Clark, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Marketing Economist; also Coll.
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
J. R. Greenman, B.S.A., L.L.B., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
F. T. Hady, B.A., Agricultural Economist, USDA
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
J. B. Owens, B.S., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
L. A. Reuss, M.S., Agricultural Economist, USDA
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
J. C. Townsend, B.S.A., Agricultural Statistician, Orlando, USDA
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate Agricultural Economist
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist
G. L. Capel, Ph.D., Assoc. Agricultural Economist, USDA
C. E. Murphree, D.P.A., Associate Agricultural Economist; also Coll.

G. N. Rose, B.S., Associate Agricultural Economist, Orlando
C. N. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
W. T. Manley, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA
W. B. Riggan, B.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
G. A. Rowe, B.S.A., Asst. Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
R. G. Stout, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Orlando
R. R. Hancock, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Statistician, USDA
L. D. Marquis, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Statistician, USDA
H. G. Witt, M.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Statistician, USDA
F. W. Chapman, M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
G. G. Goshorn, B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, Orlando
Mrs. B. S. Lloyd, B.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics
E. G. Close, M.S.A., Int. Assistant in Agricultural Economics
A. B. Krienke, M.S., Int. Assistant in Agricultural Economics

Agricultural Engineering Department
D. T. Kinard, Ph.D., Agricultural Engineer and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
R. E. Choate, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
E. K. Bowman, B.S., Associate Industrial Engineer, USDA
W. G. Grizzell, B.I.E., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
E. S. Holmes, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
J. B. Richardson, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
I. J. Ross, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
G. E. Yost, B.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA

Agronomy Department
F. H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist and Head
K. D. Butson, M.S., State Climatologist, USWB
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Agronomist; also Coll.
F. Clark, M.S.A., Associate Agronomist
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist; also Coll.
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
K. Hinson, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
D. B. Linden, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
A. J. Norden, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
P. L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
G. M. Prine, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
0. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
S. H. West, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
M. Wilcox, M.S., Assistant Agronomist

Animal Science Department
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll. and Director of Nu-
clear Science
M. Koger, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist; also Coll.
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman; also Coll.

A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Associate Physiologist; also Coll.
C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
J. W. Carpenter, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman
G. E. Combs, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
D. L. Wakeman, M.S.A., Assistant Animal Husbandman; also Coll.

Botany Department
G. R. Noggle, Ph.D., Botanist and Head; also Coll.
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
G. J. Fritz, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist
Yoneo Sagawa, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist; also Coll.
D. B. Ward, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist; also Coll.

Dairy Science Department
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist and Head; also Coll.
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Associate Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Associate Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
K. L. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
C. J. Wilcox, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.

West Florida Dairy Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Dairy Husbandman

Editorial Department
M. H. Sharpe, Ph.D., Associate Editor and Acting Head of Dept.; also
W. G. Mitchell, M.S.A., Associate Editor; also Ext.
W. J. Brown, B.S., Assistant Editor
R. C. Orr, B.S., Assistant Editor

Entomology Department
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist and Head
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist
V. G. Perry, Ph.D., Nematologist; also Coll.
A. A. DiEdwardo, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Assistant Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
R. C. Wilkinson, M.S., Assistant Entomologist

Food Technology and Nutrition Department
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biochemist and Head; also Coll.
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulturist; also Coll.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
F. W. Knapp, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist; also Coll.
G. D. Kuhn, M.S., Assistant Food Microbiologist; also Coll.
H. P. Pan, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
R. C. Robbins, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist; also Coll.
Ruth O. Townsend, R.N., Assistant in Nutrition

Forestry Department
C. M. Kaufman, Ph.D., Forester and Head; also Coll.
C. G. Geltz, M.S., Forester; also Coll.
J. W. Miller, M.S.F., Forester; also Coll.
K. R. Swinford, Ph.D., Forester; also Coll.
S. L. Beckwith, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
P. W. Frazer, M.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
J. B. Huffman, D.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
R. B. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
E. T. Sullivan, D.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
J. W. Willingham, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
R. E. Goddard, Ph.D., Assistant Geneticist; also Coll.
D. M. Post, M.S.F., Assistant Forester; also Coll.
R. K. Strickland, M.S., Int. Assistant in Forestry
W. J. Peters, B.S., Int. Assistant in Forestry

Fruit Crops Department
A. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Ext.
J. S. Shoemaker, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Horticulturist
R. H. Biggs, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
J. F. Gerber, Ph.D., Assistant Climatologist

Ida K. Cresap, Librarian
A. C. Strickland, Assistant in Library
Janie L. Tyson, Assistant in Library

Ornamental Horticulture Department
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Horticulturist
G. C. Horn, Ph.D., Associate Turf Technologist; also Coll.
J. N. Joiner, Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist; also Coll.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.

Plant Pathology Department
P. Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head; also Coll.
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, USDA
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. West, M.S., Botanist and Mycologist; also Coll.
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Associate Virologist
D. A. Roberts, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist; also Coll.
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
M. K. Corbett, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
R. F. Stouffer, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist

Plant Science Section
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist in Charge

Poultry Science Department
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman and Head; also Coll. and

R. H. Harms, Ph.D., Associate Poultry Husbandman; also Coll.
R. E. Cook, Ph.D., Assistant Poultry Husbandman; also Coll.
F. R. Tarver, Jr., M.S., Assistant Poultry Husbandman; also Coll. (on
leave of absence)

Soils Department
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist and Head; also Coll.
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soils Technologist
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist; also Coll.
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Associate Soils Microbiologist
J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Associate Soils Physicist; also Coll.
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Associate Soils Surveyor
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
G. A. Brown, B.S.A., Assistant Soils Surveyor
T. C. Mathews, B.S.A., Assistant Soils Surveyor
H. L. Popenoe, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist; also Coll.
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist

Statistical Section
A. E. Brandt, Ph.D., Statistician and Head

Vegetable Crops Department
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist; also Coll.
D. D. Gull, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
S. J. Locascio, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.

Veterinary Science Department
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Veterinarian and Acting Head; also Coll.
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Pathologist; also Coll.
A. J. Kniazeff, D.V.M., Associate Virologist
D. D. Cox, Ph.D., Assistant Parasitologist; also Coll.
F. H. White, Ph.D., Assistant Bacteriologist
W. M. Stone, Jr., M.S., Assistant in Parasitology
Jane Beck Walker, M.S., Assistant in Bacteriology
H. Kitchen, D.VM., Int. Research Associate


J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist in Charge
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Horticulturist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist

H. L. Rhoades, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist

H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
L. L. Sebring, M.S., Assistant in Library

Harvesting and Packing Section
E. F. Hopkins, Ph.D., Plant Physiologist, FCC
G. E. Coppock, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, FCC
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC
M. F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist, FCC

Production Section
D. W. Clancy, Ph.D., Entomologist, USDA
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. W. Feldman, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist (on leave of absence)
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Nematologist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
I. Stewart, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
H. M. Vines, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist, FCC
R. F. Brooks, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
Francine E. Fisher, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
C. I. Hannon, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
C. H. Hendershott, M.S., Assistant Plant Physiologist, FCC
R. C. Koo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
D. W. Kretchman, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
H. 0. Sterling, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
L. B. Anderson, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
M. D. Maraulja, B.S., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
R. J. Collins, M.S., Int. Assistant Horticulturist
K. C. Li, Ph.D., Int. Assistant Food Technologist

Processing Section
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Chemist, FCC
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Chemist
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Chemist, FCC

R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
R. Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Pectin Chemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. C. Bullock, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Associate Chemist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Associate Chemist, FCC
J. A. Attaway, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist, FCC
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Assistant Chemical Engineer, FCC
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Assistant Bacteriologist, FCC
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Assistant Chemist, FCC
S. K. Long, Ph.D., Assistant Industrial Bacteriologist
G. E. Alberding, B.S., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
R. W. Barron, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 1351, Fort Pierce

M. Cohen, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. R. Hunziker, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist

W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge

Fiber and Engineering Section
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
M. H. Byrom, M.S., Agricultural Engineer, USDA
D. W. Fisher, M.S., Associate Agronomist, USDA
C. C. Seale, D.I.C.T.A., Associate Agronomist
T. E. Summers, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist, USDA
H. D. Whittemore, B.S.A.E., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
T. W. Casselman, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
J. F. Joyner, Assistant Agronomist, USDA
F. D. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Geneticist, USDA
J. R. Crockett, B.S., Int. Assistant in Animal Husbandry

Soils and Chemistry Section
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
C. C. Hortenstine, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
F. H. Thomas, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist

Horticulture Section

V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Associate Horticulturist
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

Agronomy Section
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
F. leGrand, M.S., Assistant Agronomist

Plant Pathology Section
P. L. Thayer, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
C. Wehlburg, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist

Entomology Section
W. G. Genung, M.S., Associate Entomologist
E. D. Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Animal Husbandry Section

R. W. Kidder, M.S., Animal Husbandman
H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman
C. E. Haines, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 1351, Fort Pierce
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Entomologist
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist

Plantation Field Laboratory, 5305 S. W. 12th St., Fort Lauderdale
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Agronomist
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer, USDA
H. I. Borders, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. R. Smalley, M.S., Research Associate
E. H. Stewart, B.S., Associate Soils Physicist, USDA
R. D. Blackburn, B.S., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
D. E. Seaman, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist, USDA
L. W. Weldon, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA

GULF COAST STATION, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Bradenton
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. 0. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
D. G. A. Kelbert, Associate Horticulturist
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
C. R. Jackson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
Amegda J. Overman, M.S., Assistant Soils Microbiologist
W. E. Waters, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

South Florida Field Laboratory, Box 973, Immokalee
P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist

W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
F. S. Baker, Jr., M.S.A., Associate Animal Husbandman
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
C. E. Dean, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
D. T. Sechler, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Assistant Entomologist
W. D. Woodward, M.S., Assistant Soils Chemist
H. W. Young, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

Marianna Field Laboratory

R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
C. L. Dantzman, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman

SUB-TROPICAL STATION, Route 1, Box 560, Homestead
G. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
J. Popenoe, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
C. W. Campbell, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. A. McFadden, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
P. G. Orth, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. W. Strobel, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist

H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist in Charge

W. C. Burns, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman, Acting in Charge,

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
L. S. Dunavin, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist


Potato Investigations Laboratory, Box 728, Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
D. R. Hensel, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
R. B. Workman, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Pecan Investigations Laboratory, Box A, Monticello
J. R. Large, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Associate Entomologist; also USDA

Strawberry Investigations Laboratory, Plant City (Box 2386, Lakeland)
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Box 321, Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
C. H. Curran, D.Sc., Entomologist
W. C. Adlerz, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
J. A. Mortensen, Ph.D., Assistant Geneticist
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture

Weather Forecasting Service, Box 1058, Lakeland
W. 0. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in Charge, USWB
A. W. Smith, Special Meteorologist Observer
L. E. Hughes, M.S., Associate Meteorologist, USWB
L. L. Benson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
G. R. Davis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
J. G. Georg, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. F. Mincey, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
B. H. Moore, B.A., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
O. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. T. Sherouse, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. R. Wallis, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB


Although interest in Science is mounting rapidly, interest in biological
and agricultural sciences, excepting human health, is at low ebb. Agri-
cultural surpluses are partly responsible, and have resulted in a bad pub-
lic image for agriculture generally. It hasn't helped that national agricul-
tural policies have been made political issues.
Perhaps more important, however, is the glamour of the scientific
competition. Food and clothing are rather prosaic as compared with
moon rockets and satellites.
National prestige is involved in these rocket and satellite programs.
More than prestige is involved in our agriculture; our future as a nation
and leader of nations is directly involved. Present surpluses are very
transient things; if our expanding population is to be fed and clothed,
our agricultural research at all levels should be expanded at once. The
problems facing Agriculture are becoming increasingly complex and dif-
The financial status of the Florida Station has retrogressed during the
past year. Federal Grant appropriations about held their own; State ap-
propriations for operating funds were reduced, and needed building facil-
ities were ignored.
In spite of this, the research operation continues to open doors which
will be reflected in great advances for Florida's agriculture. Underfinanc-
ing only means that fewer such doors can be opened than otherwise. We
can be proud of the fact that many presently important crops would not
be here without past research by the staff of the Experiment Stations.
Every farm commodity has received major help; specific important re-
search contributions can be cited with each one. Our citrus, beef cattle,
sugar, dairy, poultry, vegetable and ornamental industries routinely use
Station research findings; without these scientific contributions none of
these income producers could exist as major industries.
Forestry, as a continuing industry and income producer, is approach-
ing a cross-roads in Florida. The state has been pretty well logged off.
The future must be a farm forest operation, and much research is need-
ed if it is to continue long as a major economic asset.
We must urge continued and expanded investments in agricultural re-
search. Agribusiness is Florida's biggest industry; only added public
support for research can keep it in this position.


As part of the Board of Control "Role and Scope" study during the
past year, a re-evaluation of physical needs was made. The situation is
something less than adequate since major capital improvements have
been virtually at a standstill for several years. The study showed that
almost one-fourth of our scientific staff are housed in inadequate quar-
ters. Another study of miscellaneous small buildings showed 7 percent
currently inadequate which would require slightly more than one-half
million dollars to replace. Only significant appropriations for major build-
ings, facilities and land will correct this shortage which is adversely af-
fecting the progress of the over-all Station research program.
Facilities completed during the year included an experimental pilot-
model growth room which provided invaluable information to be used in
the development of the much needed basic plant science research facil-
ity; a toxicology laboratory for entomological research; and a few sheds,:

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

shelters, barns, silos, feed rooms and greenhouses. At the West Florida
Station construction is now underway of a laborer's cottage, silos, barn
and equipment shelter provided by a $30,000 special appropriation of the
1959 legislature.

As Florida's agriculture continues to grow (at a rate 30 per cent fast-
er than the national average) new problems constantly occur. A well or-
ganized and flexible research program is underway to anticipate and
solve these pressing problems through the use of specific planned re-
search projects. Many of the projects are cooperative, being planned and
conducted using the team approach by two or more researchers in more
than one department, branch station or field laboratory. Such work is
carefully coordinated and evaluated for most efficient use of research
funds as well as most effective way to solve the problems.
The current research program consists of 435 approved projects plus
additional preliminary non-projected unnumberedd) research projects,
most of which briefly are reported herein. During the year 74 projects
were initiated and 62 terminated. Currently there are 12 regional re-
search projects underway. Since the projects are reported by number, to
obtain complete information on a given problem, commodity or process,
which may have received attention by a number of scientists at several
locations, the reader should consult the index under the various subjects
of interest.
During the year a number of staff research planning conferences
were held in specific subject-matter areas. Field days, short courses and
conferences also were held by various departments, branch stations and
field laboratories at which time research underway and results were re-
ported to the public. All in all, the Station system has provided outstand-
ing service to growers, ranchers and related agricultural industries
throughout Florida as evidenced by the research contributions described
in the following report.


Dale Robert Hensel, Assistant Soils Chemist, Potato Investigations Lab.,
July 1, 1960
Gerald D. Kuhn, Assistant Food Microbiologist, Food Tech. and Nutr.
Dept., July 1, 1960
Shurley Allen Poole, Jr., Int. Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept.,
July 1, 1960
Dale Truman Sechler, Assistant Agronomist, North Fla. Station, July 1,
Frederick W. Knapp, Asst. Biochemist, Food Tech. and Nutr. Dept., Aug.
1, 1960
Glenn Gilbert Goshorn, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., Aug. 1,
Joe Richard Crockett, Int. Asst. in Animal Husbandry, Everglades Sta-
tion, Aug. 16, 1960
Anthony Alexander Di Edwardo, Asst. Nematologist, Ent. Dept., Aug. 16,
Richard James Collins, Int. Asst. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, Sept. 1,
Matthew Daniel Maraulja, Asst. in Chemistry, Citrus Station, Sept. 1, 1960

Annual Report, 1961

Kenneth L. Smith, Asst. Dairy Technologist, Dairy Sci. Dept., Sept. 1, 1960
Ray Kenneth Strickland, Int. Asst. in Forestry, Forestry Dept., Sept. 1,
Robert Cleveland Wilkinson, Asst. Entomologist, Ent. Dept., Sept. 1, 1960
Herbert Max Vines, Associate Biochemist, Citrus Station, Sept. 1, 1960
William Fred Chapman, Jr., Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept.,
Sept. 15, 1960, USDA
George J. Fritz, Asst. Plant Physiologist, Botany Dept., Oct. 1, 1960
Gerald Rogers Davis, Asst. Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Service,
Oct. 1, 1960
John Alan Mortensen, Asst. Geneticist, Watermelon and Grape Lab., Oct.
1, 1960
T. W. Casselman, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Everglades Station, Nov. 1, 1960
Robert Franklin Brooks, Asst. Entomologist, Citrus Station, Nov. 1, 1960
Alan Beverly Irving, Int. Asst. in Ag. Econ., Ag. Econ. Dept., Nov. 8, 1960
Warren Reuben Wallis, Asst. Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Service,
Nov. 21, 1960
Robert D. Blackburn, Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Station, Dec. 1, 1960,
Lyle W. Weldon, Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Station, Dec. 1, 1960,
Richard Franklin Stouffer, Asst. Virologist, Plant Pathology Dept., Jan. 1,
Charles Howard Curren, Entomologist, Watermelon and Grape Lab., Jan.
16, 1961
Robert Harold O'Bannon, Int. Asst. in Ani. Husbandry, An. Sci. Dept.,
Feb. 1, 1961
Ralph Ray Smalley, Research Associate, Everglades Station, Feb. 1, 1961
Roy Glendon Stout, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Feb. 1, 1961
Gilbert Eugene Alberding, Assistant in Chemistry, Citrus Station, April 1,
Robert Crossly Bullock, Associate Entomologist, Citrus Station, April 1,
William P. Coulter, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., April 1, 1961
Raymond Robert Hancock, Ag. Statistician, Ag. Econ. Dept., April 1,
1961, USDA
Leo Daniel Marquis, Jr., Asst. Ag. Statistician, Ag. Econ. Dept., April 1,
1961, USDA
Harry Gene Witt, Asst. Ag. Statistician, Ag. Econ., April 1, 1961, USDA
Albert Benjamin Krienke, Int. Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept.,
May 1, 1961
Margarete Gertrude Goerigk, Asst. in Bacteriology, Veterinary Sci. Dept.,
May 15, 1961
Elmer George Close, Int. Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., June
1, 1961

George Lafayette Capel, Associate Agricultural Economist, Agr. Econ.
Dept., July 1, 1960
William Grant Mitchell, Associate Editor, Editorial Dept., July 1, 1960
Julian Mostella Myers, Agricultural Engineer, Agr. Eng. Dept., July 1,
William Freeman Newhall, Associate Biochemist, Citrus Station, July 1,
Ralph H. Sharpe, Horticulturist, Fruit Crops, July 1, 1960
Kenneth Roberts Swinford, Forester, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1960

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Buford Dale Thompson, Associate Horticulturist, Vegetable Crops Dept.,
July 1, 1960
Sik Vung Ting, Associate Biochemist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1960
James Marvin Wing, Associate Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Science Dept.,
July 1, 1960
Philip John Westgate, Horticulturist, Central Florida Station, July 1, 1960
Billie S. Lloyd, Assistant in Agricultural Economics, Agr. Econ. Dept.,
Nov. 1, 1960


Lawrence Adkins Reuss, from Costa Rica Assignment to Ag. Economics
Dept., July 1, 1960
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., from Costa Rica Assignment to Everglades Ex-
periment Station, Aug. 24, 1960
W. G. Blue, from Costa Rica Assignment to Soils Department, Sept. 16,


Robert E. Hellwig, Asst. Engineer, Everglades Station, July 1, 1960, USDA
Paul A. Mott, Asst. Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Service, July 1,
Clyas Lee Crenshaw, Asst. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., July 31, 1960
D. C. Russell, Associate Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Service, Aug.
1, 1960
R. G. Orellana, Associate Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology Dept.,
Aug. 16, 1960, USDA
John Ralph King, Associate Entomologist, Citrus Station, Aug. 31, 1960
Chi-Wu Wang, Associate Forester, Forestry Dept., Aug. 31, 1960
Stanley A. Ostazeski, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Plant Path. Dept., Sept. 1,
1960, USDA
Louis Vernon Dixon, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Sept. 2, 1960,
Shurley Allen Poole, Int. Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept., Sept.
15, 1960
Howard J. Teas, Associate Biochemist, Botany Dept., Sept. 16, 1960
Thomas Everett Pope, Asst. Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., Sept. 29, 1960
Ronald John Drago, Asst. in Agronomy, Agronomy Dept., Oct. 14, 1960
Levi Allen Powell Sr., Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Nov. 30, 1960
William Grierson, Associate Chemist, Citrus Station, Jan. 31, 1961
John T. McCall, Asst. Chemist, Animal Science Dept., Feb. 28, 1961
Edward John Deszyck, Associate Horticulturist, Citrus Station, Feb. 28,
Pierre Jean Jutras, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Citrus Station, Feb. 28, 1961
William J. Brown, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., Feb. 28, 1961
Jane Beck Walker, Asst. Bacteriologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Mar. 17, 1961
Donald Washburn Clancy, Entomologist, Citrus Station, Apr. 30, 1961
D. B. Linden, Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., May 31, 1961
Herbert Winthrop Warburton, Asst. in Ag. Economics, Ag. Econ. Dept.,
June 20, 1961
William Roy Pritchard, Veterinarian and Head, Vet. Sci. Dept., June 30,
Frank Thomas Hady, Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., June 30, 1961,
L. E. Hughes, Associate Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Service, June
30, 1961

Annual Report, 1961

Retirements, 1960-61

J. Francis Cooper, Editor and Head, Editorial Dept., April 30, 1961
Mark W. Emmel, Veterinarian, Vet. Sci. Dept., June 30, 1961
Homer E. Bratley, Assistant Entomologist, Entomology Dept., June 30,

Retirements Prior to 1960-61 (Emeritus)
Arthur Liston Shealy, Animal Husbandman and Head, Ani. Sci. Dept., 1949
Gulie Hargrove Blackmon, Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., 1954
Levi Otto Gratz, Assistant Director, 1954
William Burleigh Tisdale, Plant Pathologist and Head, Plant Path. Dept.,
Arthur Forrest Camp, Vice-Director in Charge, Citrus Station, 1956
Oudia Davis Abbott, Home Economist, Food Tech. and Nutr. Dept., 1958
Lillian E. Arnold, Associate Botanist, Plant Path. Dept., 1958
Thomas Bregger, Plant Physiologist, Everglades Station, 1958
P. T. Dix Arnold, Associate Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Dept., 1959
Rudolf William Ruprecht, Chemist and Vic-Director, Central Fla. Station,
Jesse Roy Christie, Nematologist, Entomology Dept., 1960


Commercial Grants and Gifts accepted as support for existing pro-
grams during the year ending June 30, 1961. Financial assistance is here-
by gratefully acknowledged.
Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois
Poultry Science Department $2,000
American Agricultural Chemicals Company, New York 7, New York
Soils Department $3,600
Citrus Experiment Station $900
American Cyanamid Company, New York 20, New York
Animal Science Department $2,500
Food Technology Department $1,500
Citrus Experiment Station $900
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $500
American Dehydrators Association, Kansas City 5, Missouri
Animal Science Department $2,500
American Smelting and Refining Company, South Plainfield, New Jersey
Everglades Experiment Station $500
Atlantic Creosoting Corporation, Portsmouth, Virginia
Forestry Department $600
Brunswick Pulp and Paper Company, St. Simons Island, Georgia
Forestry Department $2,000
Buckeye Cellulose Corporation, Foley, Florida
Forestry Department $2,000
California Chemical Company, Orlando, Florida
Plant Pathology $500
California Spray Chemical Corporation, Richmond, California
Everglades Experiment Station $1,000
Citrus Processors Association, Winter Haven, Florida
Animal Science Department $6,000
Commercial Solvents, New York 16, New York
Animal Science Department $1,200

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Container Corporation of America, Fernandina Beach, Florida
Forestry Department $2,000
Continental Can Company, Chicago 20, Illinois
Citrus Experiment Station $3,500
Continental Can Company, Inc., Savannah, Georgia
Forestry Department $2,000
Cornellis Seed Company, St. Louis 2, Missouri
Vegetable Crops $250
Dixie Lily Milling Company, Williston, Florida
Animal Science $20,400
The DOW Chemical Company, Winter Park, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station $500
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Delaware
Everglades Experiment Station $750
Everglades Experiment Station $500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $1,000
Eppinger and Russell Company, Jacksonville, Florida
Forestry Department $600
Ferro Corporation, Cleveland 5, Ohio
Soils Department $2,500
Ferry Morse Seed Company, Mountain View, California
Vegetable Crops $250
Florida Agricultural Research Institute, Winter Haven, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station $3,600
Florida Flower Association, Bradenton, Florida
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $1,000
Florida and Georgia Cigar Leaf Tobacco Association, Quincy, Florida
North Florida Experiment Station $10,000
F. Julius Fohs, Houston 2, Texas
Ornamental Horticulture Department $1,000
Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation, Lakeland, Florida
Fruit Crops Department $2,500
Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa
Veterinary Science Department $2,000
Geigy Agricultural Chemicals, Yonkers, New York
Agronomy Department $500
Botany Department $2,000
Everglades Experiment Station $500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $500
General Chemical Division, Orlando, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station $500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $200
General Chemical Division, Morristown, New Jersey
Citrus Experiment Station $500
The Golf Course Superintendents of America, Scholarship and Research
Fund, Jacksonville, Florida
Ornamental Horticulture Department $500
W. R. Grace and Company, Clarksville, Maryland
Everglades Experiment Station $2,000
Growers Administrative Committee, Lakeland, Florida
Agricultural Economics Department $3,700
Highland Bentgrass Commission, Corvallis, Oregon
Ornamental Horticulture Department $1,000
Hillsborough County Commissioners, Tampa 1, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station $2,850

Annual Report, 1961

Hollingsworth and Whitney, Mobile, Alabama
Forestry Department $2,000
International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Skokie, Illinois
Fruit Crops Department $5,000
International Paper Company, Mobile, Alabama
Forestry Department $2,000
Jensen-Salsbery Laboratories, Inc., Skokie Illinois
Veterinary Science Department $3,000
Lake Garfield Nurseries, Bartow, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station $3,000
Eli Lilly Company, Indianapolis 6, Indiana
Plant Pathology Department $500
Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly Company, Indianapolis 6, Indiana
Gulf Coast Experiment Station $1,100
Martin County Flower Growers Association, Stuart, Florida
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $1,000
Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation, Port Jefferson Station, New York
Everglades Experiment Station $500
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $800
Merck and Company, Rahway, New Jersey
Animal Science Department $2,000
Moorman Manufacturing Company, Quincy, Illinois
Animal Science Department $3,000
Everglades Experiment Station $2,500
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. Louis, Missouri
Poultry Science Department $4,000
Everglades Experiment Station $1,000
National Association of Artificial Breeders, Columbia, Missouri
Dairy Science Department $1,200
Niagara Chemicals, Jackson, Mississippi
Citrus Experiment Station $500
Pabst Brewing Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Everglades Experiment Station $5,000
Chas. Pfizer and Company, Inc., Terre Haute, Indiana
Animal Science $1,000
Poultry Science Department $1,000
Polk County Commissioners, Bartow, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station $2,850
Rayonier, Inc., Fernandina Beach, Florida
Forestry Department $2,000
Rohm and Haas, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Citrus Experiment Station $3,000
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $1,500
Scott Paper Company, Mobile, Alabama
Forestry Department $2,000
Seaboard Air Line Railroad Company, Richmond, Virginia
Forestry Department $600
Shell Chemical Company, New York 20, New York
Food Technology Department $3,000
Shell Chemical Company, Atlanta, Georgia
Central Florida Experiment Station $600
Shell Development Company, Modesta, California
Plant Pathology $600
Central Florida Experiment Station $800
Everglades Experiment Station $500

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Smith-Douglass Company, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia
Poultry Science Department $3,000
Soft Phosphate Research Institute, Ocala, Florida
Animal Science Department $4,000
Southern Wood Preserving Company, Atlanta, Georgia
Forestry Department $600
Squibb Institute, New Brunswick, New Jersey
Animal Science Department $1,800
Stauffer Chemicals Company, Mountain View, California
Citrus Experiment Station $1,500
St. Regis Paper Company, Jacksonville, Florida
Forestry Department $2,000
Tennessee Coal and Iron, Fairfield, Alabama
Citrus Experiment Station $1,200
Tennessee Corporation, Atlanta, Georgia
Citrus Experiment Station $1,000
Tennessee Corporation, College Park, Georgia
Central Florida Experiment Station $500
Central Florida Experiment Station $500
Union Bag-Camp Paper Corporation, Savannah, Georgia
Forestry Department $2,000
United States Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, Florida
Everglades Experiment Station $2,000

Grants for Basic Research were accepted from National Agencies as

The Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Agronomy Department $15,800
Agronomy Department $9,500
Botany Department $4,000
Botany Department $12,490
Soils Department $11,692

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
Animal Science Department $10,005
Animal Science Department $17,250.
Animal Science Department $30,475
Food Technology Department $12,982
Food Technology Department $21,077
Food Technology Department $6,825
Plant Pathology Department $14,892
Veterinary Science Department $17,928
Veterinary Science Department $19,931
Veterinary Science Department $12,896

The National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.
Agronomy and Plant Pathology $6,100


Salaries & W ages ..-............-.... ...-....

Travel ........ ......-...

Transportation & Communication .....

Utilities ........ ... ... .....- ..... .

Rentals .......... .... ...........

Printing ..-..---......- ----. -----------

Repairs & Maintenance ..................

Contractual Services .........-.....-... ....

Supplies & Materials ..........................

Equipment .....-........ ---. ... ..

Land & Buildings ................. ......

Total Expenditures ................. .


SHatch Funds RRF AMA













$ 38,823.15










$ 60,973.18

$ 11,000.00

$ 11,000.00

Grand Total
Federal Funds














Salaries & Wages .........

Travel ....--..... ............ .....

Transportation &
Communication ............

Utilities ........ ..........

Rentals ......................... ...-

Printing .......................

Repairs & Maintenance..

Contractual Services ....

Supplies & Materials ...

Equipment .....................

Land & Buildings ...........

Plant Funds ...................

Transfers ...................

Total .............. .. .... ....

Fla. Agri.
Sta. General














Citrus Crop

$ 41,134.25







$ 72,623.77













$ 61,272.81












$8,990.88 $538,537.88

Grants and













State Funds















Annual Report, 1961


During the year, work was completed on 7 projects, and work was be-
gun on 5 new projects. At the close of the fiscal period, research was
being conducted on 45 projects. During the year there were 6 resignations
and 7 appointments.

State Project 154 H. G. Hamilton, A. H. Spurlock
and M. D. Love, Jr.

From 1885 to 1959 there were issued 927 charters to farmer cooperative
associations. In 1959 there were 159 cooperatives operating. These cooper-
atives marketed 38 percent of the Florida citrus crop, 38 percent of the
milk, 20 percent of the truck crops and 12 percent of the cattle. Members'
equity in the cattle associations averaged $442 per member, $7,236 for
the truck crop associations, $5,723 for citrus packing associations, $29,274
for citrus processing associations and $51,616 for dairy distributing asso-
ciations. Financial ratios indicate that most Florida cooperatives operat-
ing in 1959 were in sound financial condition. However, there was a
great variation in the volume of business handled and the cost of opera-
tions. The size of business of 27 citrus packing associations ranged from
an index of 19 to 266 when the average of all associations is taken as 100.
Cost of packing fresh citrus fruit ranged from an index of 77 to 133 when
the average of all associations is taken as 100. Most of the failures of
Florida cooperatives have been due to technological advancement and
changes in market structure. However, many failures have been due to
size of business, unequal treatment of members, extent that facilities
were used at full capacity and investment in facilities per unit of ca-

Hatch Project 186 Zach Savage
There are many factors that influence yields of citrus fruit. Some of
these factors cannot be controlled, some can be partially controlled and
others can be largely controlled. Inherent factors of the variety and kind
of citrus influence tendencies for high or low yields. Some varieties and
kinds tend to bear more heavily on alternate seasons with intervening
seasons of lower yields. Generally, yields following high yielding seasons
tend to be lower. Health and vigor of the tree materially affect yield.
Adequacy and proper ratio to each other of the necessary fertilizer el-
ements present tend toward high yields. Insect and disease control, tem-
perature and soil moisture are very important factors in maintaining
high yields.
Maintaining a large number of favorable production factors tends
toward continuous high yields. However, it frequently happens that for
various reasons not all of which can be accounted for adequately -
yields are low during some seasons. At times, yields are extremely low.
These variations make it hard to arrive at representative yield figures
for the various kinds of citrus.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Average or usual yields are sometimes used in indicating what may
be expected in yields over a period of time. However, such data do not
indicate what may be expected in variations from the average yield of
a particular grove or between yields of different groves. A publication
was issued that includes an average or normal yield generally expected
by age of tree for early, midseason and late oranges, seedy and seedless
grapefruit, tangerines and temple oranges. Usual variations are indi-
cated by a "high" and "low" figure for each age. These data include
the 10 seasons of 1947-57.

State Project 345 A. H. Spurlock
Records of replacements, causes of losses and disposal dates were
continued on 5 dairy herds. Data were combined with results previously
obtained to determine length of life, depreciation rates and reasons for
The life span of 3,502 replaced cows averaged 6.5 years, or about
4.5 years in the milking herd. The disposal rate increased rapidly after
the first year in the herd, and after 3 years less than two-thirds of the
original animals remained. After 5 years, 61 percent were gone.
Cows reaching age 6 had a life expectancy of 2.8 years and averaged
8.8 years of life; cows reaching age 10 had 1.7 years life expectancy and
averaged 11.7 years of life.
Live disposals from the herd were principally for low production (30.6
percent), mastitis or some form of udder trouble (24.2 percent) and
reproductive trouble (18.0 percent). These 3 reasons or combinations of
them were responsible for 76 percent of the live disposals. About 10 per-
cent of the live disposals were for unstated reasons.
Death from all causes accounted for 14.1 percent of all disposals.
(See also Project 345, Dairy Science Department.)

State Project 451 G. N. Rose, G. G. Goshorn
and R. R. Hancock1
This project is conducted in cooperation with and under the direction
of Statistical Reporting Service, Field Operations Division (formerly Agri-
cultural Estimates Division, Agricultural Marketing Service). An ex-
panded program on celery statistics was added to the current estimates
of acreage, yield, production and prices of Florida's vegetable crops.
The work was tied in with the regular national monthly reports of
acreage intentions, preliminary acreage, forecasts of production and fi-
nal production and utilization. These estimates were made for 4 fall, 14
winter and 11 spring vegetable crops and included both fresh market and
processing utilization. The tomato crop received special weekly treatment
- a detailed report of which is covered under Project 822. The compre-
hensive weekly summary, "Florida Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin,"
was continued in addition to monthly production forecasts for Florida
and competing states.
An extensive post-season interview survey under way at the beginning
of the fiscal year was completed. This survey furnished data for the dis-
1 Cooperative with Statistical Reporting Service, USDA.

Annual Report, 1961

tribution of acreage and production by marketing areas and counties.
Survey results formed the basis for the current data published in "Flor-
ida Vegetable Crops, Annual Statistical Summary," Volume XVI, 1960 -
1,500 copies.

Hatch Project 602 W. K. McPherson
(Regional SM-7)
Tabulation of data to be used in comparing prices in several mar-
kets was continued. The results of the entire study were summarized
and the project terminated. Some of the work initiated under this project
will be continued under a new project.

State Project 627 R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to evaluate pasture programs varying in
intensities of fertilization and levels of management in terms of forage
production, soil nutrient balance and rate of economy of beef production.
The Agricultural Economics Department has the responsibility for com-
paring costs and returns for each program to show how well it pays. To
make the results applicable to commercial operations, the experimental
data are supplemented with cost data from other sources.
Summaries were made showing costs and returns for the 1958-59 and
1959-60 seasons. In each year, Program 2 had the lowest net cost per
pound of beef and the highest net returns per acre. This was a clover-
grass program receiving the lowest application of fertilizer per acre and
no top dressing. Production of beef on this program averaged 235 pounds
per acre in 1958-59 and 316 pounds in 1959-60. In the 1958-59 season,
production of beef on the all-grass program was 37 pounds more than
on Program 2; in the 1959-60 season it was 31 pounds less. In each season,
the net cost per pound of beef on the grass program was about double
that on Program 2. The difference was due mainly to the much higher
fertilizer cost and also the necessity to feed more supplemental feeds.

Regional Project 630 A. H. Spurlock
(Regional SM-8)
The economic phase of this project has been inactive during the past
year except for completion of a manuscript covering results of the study.
The manuscript has been approved by the Publications Committee. (See
also Project 630, Food Technology and Nutrition Department.)

State Project 638 R. E. L. Greene and G. L. Capel2
Work has been devoted to completing the analysis of the data col-
lected on a study of potato packinghouses in Florida and Alabama. A

2 Marketing Economics Division, Economic Research Service, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

mimeographed report was published on "Cost of Alternative Methods of
Bagging and Loading Potatoes in the Southeast."
Two methods of filling and weighing bags were studied. In the older
method, bags were filled and set off to be weighed as a separate oper-
ation. In the newer method, workers fill the bags and simultaneously
weigh them on scales built into the filling stations. For both burlap and
paper bags, the new method has lower costs at annual volume levels at
which most packinghouses operate (above 25,000 hundredweights for firms
packing in burlap and 24,000 hundredweights for firms packing 50-pound
paper bags).
Packed bags can be handled in at least 3 ways on 2-wheel hand
trucks, conveyors and fork trucks. This analysis indicated that in most
situations costs are lower for the hand truck method. An important ex-
ception is for a house loading motor trucks only the conveyor method
has lower costs at average to high annual volume levels. When both
trucks and rail cars are to be loaded, the hand truck method has the
lowest costs, except at the highest volume levels used in this study.
Under the conditions that the packinghouses studied operated, the fork
trucks had costs higher than either of the other 2 methods.
This project will be closed with the preparation of a final manuscript
during the coming year.

Hatch Project 656 J. R. Greenman and H. G. Hamilton
Revision of a manuscript entitled "Inheritance Laws Affecting Florida
Farms and Farm Families" has been continued. Additional preliminary
work on a study of administrative arrangements and laws for the control
and use of water in Florida has been done. Since the original objectives
of this project had been accomplished, it was terminated as of June 30,
1961; and the work on inheritance laws and the control and use of water
will be conducted under a new project entitled "Economic, Legal and
Administrative Aspects of Water Use and Control for Agriculture of Flor-
ida." It is believed that publications based upon this research should be
useful to farmers and those working with farmers in providing a better
understanding of the laws dealing with the vital problems of inheritance
and the economic, legal and administrative problems connected with the
control and use of water.

State Project 660 D. L. Brooke
An economic evaluation was made of the experimental results from
field trials of the effect of 5 different sources of nitrogen in fertilizer
materials on the yield of cucumbers and pole beans in the spring of
1960. Differential price maps indicate that at a farm price of $0.50 or
more per bushel for cucumbers, farmers would profit by using calcium
nitrate rather than sodium nitrate if the cost of the former was not more
than $0.03 per pound of nitrogen higher than the cost of sodium nitrate.
If the farm price was $3.00 or more per bushel, farmers would benefit
by using the calcium nitrate source as long as its cost was not more
than $0.18 per pound higher than sodium nitrate. Ammonium nitrate is
also a profitable substitute for sodium nitrate at a very low farm price
per bushel of cucumbers. Similar comparisons for pole beans indicate
that ammonium sulfate and calcium nitrate produce the most profitable

Annual Report, 1961

yields within the normal range of prices for the crop and differentials in
cost over other sources of nitrogen.
On a net return per acre per pound of nitrogen applied basis, the
ammonium nitrate source of nitrogen was most profitable and the so-
dium nitrate source least profitable for both cucumbers and pole beans.
(See also Project 660, Gulf Coast Experiment Station.)

State Project 679 C. N. Smith, D. L. Brooke
and H. G. Hamilton

The manuscript on marketing ferns was revised. Additional informa-
tion on industry trends was obtained in a series of field interviews.
Work was begun on a manuscript, prepared in cooperation with per-
sonnel at the Gulf Coast Station, relating to the gladiolus industry.

State Project 685 J. C. Townsend, Jr.", P. E. Shuler'
and R. G. Stout

Frame and limb fruit counts for the preseason citrus estimates were
completed in early September. Shortly after this completion Hurricane
Donna did considerable damage to the crop; consequently, a resurvey
was conducted which estimated the storm damage at about a 10 percent
loss of crop. October estimates based on the fruit count, projected sizes
and drop rates were 90.5 million boxes of oranges and 30 million boxes
of grapefruit. Final estimates are going to be close 87.0 million boxes
of oranges and 31.8 million boxes of grapefruit.
A manuscript entitled "Size of Fruit and Droppage Rates Influence
Total Citrus Production" was prepared for review for publication.
New work was initiated in September 1960 to collect data on internal
fruit quality.
A new type frame count was devised to estimate the number of fruit
on each tree. This procedure was tested during May and June on 115
Valencia trees. Tree height and diameter measurements were obtained,
and an estimate of the bearing surface was determined. Fruit per frame
was determined for several frame readings on each tree. These readings
were expanded to a tree total by multiplying by the reciprocal of the
ratio of the area of the frame to the bearing surface area. The estimate
for the 115 trees was 69,269 fruit, and the actual number was 68,658,
giving an error of 0.9 percent. It is planned to utilize this procedure
during the coming year to estimate temple and tangerine production,
since these trees are too thorny to make a limb count.

Regional Research Project 700 C. N. Smith and D. L. Brooke
(Regional SM-12)
Further modifications were made on the pilot model of the display
cart developed for displaying cut flowers in supermarkets. Constructed
of plywood, the cart is 31 inches high and measures 18x30 inches at
3Cooperative with Statiscal Reporting Service, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

the top. The sides and ends taper to a bottom measurement of 131x30
inches. A pan 8 inches deep, with cells to hold flower stems in place, is set
in the top of the cart. Water is placed in the pan and can be drained
through a rubber spout.
The cart was tested in several stores and met with favorable ac-
ceptance from grocery shoppers as well as store personnel.
A manuscript on handling cut flowers in mass market stores was
prepared. (See also Project 700, Ornamental Horticulture Department.)
This project was closed June 30, 1961.

State Project 701 R. E. L. Greene
Work in cooperation with the Florida Milk Commission to collect data
on the cost of producing milk in each of the 3 areas under its supervision
was continued. Preliminary tabulation and analysis of data for 51
farms in the Tampa Bay milk marketing area for the 1959 calendar
year were completed. A preliminary mimeographed report was issued.
In the spring of 1961, the Milk Commission requested a resurvey of a
part of the farms included in the central Florida study for 1958. Rec-
ords have been obtained for 20 of the 34 farms in the original study.
These data are now in the process of being summarized.
On a 4 percent fat-corrected milk basis, the net cost per gallon of
producing milk in 1959 on all farms in the Tampa Bay area was 60.17
cents. This compared to an average cost of 55.93 cents per gallon in
northeast Florida and 60.50 cents in central Florida in 1958. It is felt
that the level of cost was about the same in the 2 years. It is believed
the data for the 2 years are comparable. In each area, the net cost per
gallon was substantially lower on large farms as compared to small
farms. The highest net returns per gallon were on large farms in cen-
tral Florida. Even though producers in northeast Florida had a lower
cost than those in the other 2 areas, their percent of production in
other than class 1 milk was such that the net returns per gallon were
about the same in the 3 areas.

State Project 720 J. C. Townsend, Jr.,' R. G. Stout
and J. W. Todd'
After several years preliminary ground work, a joint undertaking on
the part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Statistical Reporting
Service) and the Florida Department of Agriculture (Division of Plant
Industry) was started August 1, 1960, to determine changes that have
taken place in the citrus industry since the 1957 census. The new cen-
sus is set up on a 5-year plan. Twenty percent of all land sections con-
taining old citrus as well as new and outlying areas are being checked
for new plantings each year. For a rate of change in old groves, a sample
of groves within this area is being completely re-enumerated. From
this, changes that have taken place during the 5-year period since the
last census will be determined. First year results are now being proc-
essed, and results are expected to be released shortly.
The Statistical Reporting Service is responsible for over-all supervi-
sion of all statistical and tabulating work, and the Division of Plant
Industry provides the five 2-man crews to do the grove inspection.
Cooperative with Statistical Reporting Service, USD'A.

Annual Report, 1961


State Project 787

M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley'

In the spring of 1960, marketing tests were conducted in 11 large
supermarkets in the Dayton, Ohio, market area to examine the prefer-
ence patterns of consumers for Florida mature green tomatoes. The ex-
periments were designed to determine the importance which consumers
attach to varying grade and size characteristics. The purpose of the
research is to provide information which will aid in efficient price
determination and effect economies in operational procedures in the dis-
tribution process.
Test situations were arranged so that the preference pattern could be
examined for 3 grades and 11 sizes of tomatoes. From the tests it is
possible to analyze the effect of grade upon the sales of tomatoes, the
effect of size on sales and the combined effect of both grade and size
upon consumer purchases.
The results of a preliminary analysis of the data were published in
the 1960 Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, October
1960. This article appears as Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Journal Series No. 1178.
Preliminary results of the marketing tests show that consumers do
not discriminate between all current grades and sizes of tomatoes. They
did not distinguish between tomatoes that were not greatly different
with respect to size or grade, or some combination of size and grade.


U. S. No. 1

U. S. No. 2

U. S. No. 3

5x6 6x6 6x7 7x7 7x8

grade and size used as basis for comparison
grade-size combinations regarded as equally acceptable
grade-size combinations not regarded as equally acceptable

Figure 1.-The ability of consumers to discriminate between Florida
tomatoes, using the U. S. No. 3 size 5x6 as the basis for comparison.

Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, Economic Research Service, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

For example, in a comparison of the sales of the U.S. No. 3 size 5 x 6
tomatoes with the other 10 grade-size combinations tested, consumers
found the 5 x 6 U.S. No. 1 tomato superior. However, they regarded the
5 x 6 U.S. No. 3 tomato as equally as good as the 5 x 6 and 6 x 6 sizes of the
U.S. No. 2 grade. (See Figure 1.)

State Project 788 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley0
During the past several marketing seasons, the practice of shipping
vine ripened tomatoes into the terminal markets has gradually increased
in importance. This development has created significant changes in the
market structure for Florida tomatoes. Inherent in these changes have
been certain problems in distribution and marketing. In some cases,
new distribution channels have been utilized in the marketing of vine
ripened tomatoes. Merchandising methods are in variance to those com-
monly used for mature green tomatoes. Tomatoes shipped mature green
and vine ripened compete directly with one another in the terminal
A survey of the distributive trade was initiated to determine handling
practices for vine ripened tomatoes and to examine the adjustments in
operational procedures that have been necessary in order for firms to
handle and merchandise the product. The survey involved visitations to
firms in about 30 terminal market areas. Types of firms visited were
tomato repackers, wholesale receivers, commission merchants, and chain
store organizations.
Most of the field work has been completed. It is anticipated that an
analysis of the data will be made and a report on the findings released
during the coming year.

Hatch Project 791 H. G. Hamilton and F. J. Hoffer
There is a close correlation between Florida citrus production and
honey production. From 1939 to 1958 citrus production increased at the
rate of 6.8 percent per year and honey increased at the rate of 8.5 per-
cent. There are no official grades or container standards for Florida
honey. As a result, a multiplicity of grades and containers are used in
the industry. This has caused high costs of packing and selling Florida
honey. If the industry would adopt standard grades and containers, costs
of packing and selling could be greatly reduced, and an effective adver-
tising and promotional program could be instituted. During the year a
doctoral manuscript based on results of this work was completed by

State Project 796 L. A Powell, Sr., C. E. Murphree
and C. D. Covey
A manuscript for publication as a technical bulletin was completed
and has been reviewed by the Publications Committee. An examination
of the manuscript reviews is in progress.
SCooperative with Marketing Economics Division, Economic Research Service, USDA.

Annual Report, 1961

Hatch Project 814 W. T. Manley' and M. R. Godwin
This study describes the market status of fresh limes and frozen
limeade concentrate at the consumer level and from the standpoint of
current distribution and merchandising practices at the retail level.
A bulletin entitled "Retail Distribution and Merchandising of Fresh
Limes and Frozen Limeade Concentrate" was released in September 1960.
It reports the findings of a survey of 258 retail food stores in the Dayton
and Cincinnati, Ohio, market areas. The information reveals several im-
portant points that may be useful in the formulation of improved mar-
keting practices and policies.
A bulletin manuscript entitled "Characteristics and Potentialities of the
Consumer Market for Florida Limes" received approval for publication
in May 1960. It is based on the results of a consumer survey involving
personal interviews with 2,172 families in the market area of Dayton,
An examination of the existing use patterns for fresh limes and froz-
en limeade concentrate suggests that these products have a substantial
market potential. The fact that a large proportion of consumers do not
know about the products or do not use them with any degree of fre-
quency suggests that the basic problem of the industry is one of gaining
more widespread recognition for its products.
The project is closed with this report.

State Project 822 G. N. Rose, G. G. Goshorn
and L. D. Marquis'

Further expansion in the operational field was made on this project
during 1960-61. The objective of the program was to develop the rela-
tionship between weekly planting of tomatoes and ultimate weekly pro-
duction. Growers and other allied interests were furnished a weekly
planting record by areas of the state. This information was integrated
with the weekly shipments together with pertinent crop development and
conditions. For the first time, the project assumed national scope as
the U.S. Department of Agriculture financed the operation of the pro-
gram and included Texas in the program.
Weekly reports were issued to a mailing list of about 1,000 growers,
shippers and others. Publication began the week of September 8 and con-
tinued through the spring crop in June.


Hatch Project 826 L. A. Reuss" and R. E. L. Greene
Work has been devoted to establishing a basis for measuring the ex-
tent of the low income problem and its association with personal limi-
tations for employment and limitation on quantities of non-human re-

7 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, Economic Research Service, USDA.
8 Cooperative with Statistical Reporting Service, USDA.
9 Cooperative with Farm Economics Division, Economic Research Service, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

sources. Previous work indicated that per capital income offered the best
measure of the existence of low income problem situations. Advanced
age, lack of education and physical disability were taken as criteria of
personal limitations on employment and adjustment capabilities. House-
hold net worth measured the quantity of capital resources available to
the people.
Households and individuals having similar capabilities and resources
are being studied with relation to some of the possible indications of
imperfections in the markets for labor and capital. Specifically, study
is being made of differences associated with rurality of the area, mi-
gration of youth and sex and color of the individual. Other indications of
adjustment potentials being considered include extent of idle cropland on
farms and the interest of individuals in enlarging their farms, obtain-
ing additional employment and attending adult education classes.

Hatch Project 895 A. H. Spurlock, H. G. Hamilton
(Regional SM-22) and G. L. Capel'1
Cost of harvesting fruit for 33 firms, 1959-60, averaged as follows per
1% bushel box: picking oranges, 34.2 cents; picking grapefruit, 25.2
cents; and picking tangerines, 83.6 cents. Hauling from grove to plant
cost 11.2 cents a box. Citrus dealers also had an additional cost of 3.3
cents per box for procurement and sale of fruit.
Costs of packing and selling Florida fresh cirtus fruit per 1% bushel
wirebound box for 39 packinghouses, 1959-60, were $1.08 for oranges and
$0.95 for grapefruit. In % bushel fiberboard boxes, costs per equivalent
full box were $1.26 for oranges and $1.18 for grapefruit.
Average costs for processing, warehousing and selling typical citrus
products at 17 plants were as follows: single-strength orange juice in 12/46
cases, sweetened, $1.58; grapefruit sections in 24/303 cases, sweetened,
$2.54; frozen orange concentrate in 48/16 cases, unsweetened, selling ex-
cluded, $2.20.
The work on the evaluation of pallet boxes as containers for handling
citrus fruit was continued. A preliminary report was prepared dealing
with the physical and economic considerations in using pallet boxes.
Compared to handling costs using conventional field boxes, the pallet
box method had a cost advantage of 4 to 7 cents per 1% bushel equiva-
lent of fruit, depending upon the annual volume.
Results of the year's work were distributed to citrus dealers, pack-
ers and processors in 3 mimeographed releases for the 1959-60 season:
(1) Costs of Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits, (2) Costs of
Packing and Selling Florida Fresh Citrus Fruits and (3) Costs of Proc-
essing, Warehousing and Selling Florida Citrus Products.

State Project 899 D. L. Brooke, F. W. Williams
and W. B. Riggan
Analysis of data previously obtained from tests with avocados in 4
supermarkets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has been completed. The
tests sought to determine consumer response to price variation, prefer-
lc Cooperative with Marketing Economics Division, Economic Research Service, USDA.

Annual Report, 1961

ence for avocados having varying amounts of skin scab and scar and
preference for avocados having varying degrees of firmness. Results
indicate that high-income clientele purchased almost twice as many avo-
cados as the low-income clientele. Customers preferred clear fruit almost
2 to 1 over blemished fruit at the same price. At a 4-cent differential in
favor of blemished, they bought an equal volume of both. At an 8-cent
differential, the ratio of blemished to clear sales was 1.4 to 1, and with
a 12-cent differential, 1.8 to 1. Customers preferred soft fruit for immedi-
ate consumption rather than hard fruit which must be stored until it is
A Ph.D. dissertation entitled "An Evaluation of Consumer Preference
and the Effects of Price Variations and Selected Fruit Characteristics on
Retail Sales of Florida Avocados" based on this project was accepted by
the Graduate School of the University of Florida. A proposed bulletin
manuscript on the same subject has been prepared for submission to
the Publications Committee of the Experiment Station.

Hatch Project 916 R. E. L. Greene and Paul T. Blair
This project was initiated for the purpose of describing and evaluat-
ing recent changes in marketing practices of potato growers and ship-
pers and the effects of such changes on the market organization for
potatoes in the Hastings area. A survey was made, including 93 growers
and 7 selling agencies, to obtain data on significant changes that oc-
curred in the Hastings area from 1954 to 1958. During the year, analysis
of the data has been completed and a preliminary manuscript prepared.
The main problems facing the Hastings potato industry, as seen by
growers, were (1) too many potatoes, (2) too many sellers, (3) poor
quality, (4) poor market organization and (5) contract growing. To
date, no satisfactory solutions have been offered to improve the situ-
ation. It appears that group action of some sort on the part of growers
and shippers will be necessary. This study attempted to appraise 3 of
the more popular approaches-federal marketing agreements and or-
ders, central sales agency and grower bargaining associations which
have been employed to solve problems similar to those facing growers
in the Hastings area. Each proposal was examined from the standpoint
of (1) requirements on the part of growers and sellers for successful
operation, (2) what it might be expected to accomplish and (3) charac-
teristics of the Hastings area which might affect success or failure of
the venture.


Hatch Project 937 L. A. Powell, Sr., W. B. Riggan,
(Regional SM-22) M. R. Godwin and B. S. Lloyd
Information relating to the multiple demand for citrus products would
be helpful to the implementation of a coordinated sales program designed
to increase industry revenue by improving the utilizational allocation of
the citrus crop.
Work has been concentrated upon the revision and testing of a tenta-
tive model for analyzing the simultaneous demand for frozen orange con-
centrate, single-strength juice and fresh oranges at the f.o.b. level in

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Florida. Modifications or refinements in the form of additional variables
included in the formulation during the past year consist of the inclusion
of a year effect, the inclusion of a period effect, to adjust for seasonal
differences within a year, the development of pseudo-month categori-
cal variables to correct for supply effects during periods when fresh
oranges were available and during periods when they were not avail-
able, and the introduction of quadratic price effects for each of the 3
products under consideration.
The results of the work outlined above are all negative. The model
fails to explain, with any degree of acceptability, the relationship be-
tween the 3 products. The principal manifestation of its shortcoming
lies in the inconsistency of the sign of the price coefficients both with-
in and between the items included in the analysis.
The review and reformulation of the model is nearing completion. Once
the model is complete and data for the new variables assembled, appro-
priate statistical testing techniques should reveal its acceptability as a
suitable estimating device.

AMA Project 951 C. N. Smith
Field enumeration of data on nursery marketing practices in Pinellas
County was completed. An analysis of data from this pilot phase of the
project indicated that, of the estimated $1,900,000 in sales of Pinellas
County nurserymen, some 95 percent were made at retail. More than 10
percent of all sales by nurserymen were of non-nursery items. Nearly
55 percent of all sales were landscape plantings, and 25 percent were
retailed at sales yards. Half of all nursery stock sold consisted of orna-
mental plants with 80 percent of these plants in cans. Although large
growers catered mainly to retail customers, most sales by small grow-
ers were made to the wholesale trade.
Experience gained in the pilot phase of the project was utilized in
planning a sample survey of the state ornamental nursery industry. A
questionnaire was developed, and a stratified sample of 200 growers was
selected. Approximately 75 schedules have been taken to date.

State Project 961 H. B. Clark
Interviews with growers indicate that they are pleased with the pres-
ent highly integrated system of marketing tobacco. They do not want
federal grading or a price support program similar to that being used
for other types of tobacco.
The production of wrapper tobacco is increasing at a faster rate than
consumption. Hence, stocks are increasing, and there is danger of over-
production. The costs of growing and marketing are increasing, largely
because of increased labor costs. Efforts have been made to economize
on labor. Forced sweating in boxes by packers is the primary innova-
tion which bears watching. Also, the use of solar heat in barn curing,
a practice started in Puerto Rico, is being tried. If any significant
progress is made in reducing costs of growing or packing, it must come
by lower labor costs.
Although it was not possible to get data from enough packinghouses
to make a formal analysis, the evidence shows that the grower gets a

Annual Report, 1961 35

higher proportion of the selling price of tobacco than he did in the early
Competition between Connecticut Valley and Florida in producing ci-
gar wrapper is keener than ever. The Florida tobacco is inferior in all
respects except color. Every effort must be made to improve quality
and lower costs to remain in business.

State Project 970 D. L. Brooke
Data were obtained and summarized, and preliminary tables were
prepared on labor and material requirements for 19 different vegetable
crops in 15 production areas of Florida. The data indicate the changes
in labor requirements as a result of technological advances in produc-
tion and harvesting practices. There has been some decrease in man-
hour requirements but an increase in tractor hours used in producing
and harvesting vegetables. Growers are substituting machines for hand
labor and increasing the number of acres of crops produced per man in
an attempt to increase production efficiency and reduce costs.

State Project 973 W. K. McPherson
(Regional SM-23)
The volume of pork produced, slaughtered and consumed in 4 eco-
nomic areas of the state over a period of 3 years was estimated. These
data, together with similar data collected in other states, are now being
used to determine the nature and extent of inter- and intra-state move-
ment of pork and pork products.

State Project 974 C. D. Covey and H. G. Hamilton
The object of this research was to make projections with respect to
agriculture and forestry for the river basins in north and west Florida
for the years 1975 and 2000 within a set of certain assumptions. The pro-
jection for population in these river basins for 2000 is 1,658,000, or an
increase of 116 percent. The number of farms by 2000 is estimated at
less than /2 the present number. Cropland is expected to increase by 50
percent. Pasture land is expected to increase slightly and woodland de-
crease slightly. Livestock production is expected to be 2 to 3 times as
large in 2000 as it was in 1960.
This project was closed December 1960.

Hatch Project 977 W. K. McPherson
Researchers participated in the planning of experimental work carried
on by the other project leaders. The data collected to date are not yet
adequate to make a reliable economic analysis. (See also Project 977,
Animal Science Department.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 995 R. E. L. Greene
The objective of the study is to compare beef production and income
from heifers bred first at 1 versus 2 years of age. The Agricultural Eco-
nomics Department has the responsibility for assembling data on costs
and returns. The project had not progressed far enough at the end of the
year for economic comparisons to be made. (See also Project 995, Ani-
mal Science Department.)

AMA Project 1012 D. L. Brooke, E. G. Close
(ES-672) and C. N. Smith
Marketing information was obtained by personal interview methods
from growers and handlers of watermelons. These data plus information
on the factors affecting the price of Florida watermelons have been tab-
ulated and are being analyzed. The Florida watermelon market is quite
disorganized. It is composed of a great many individualists who question
the motives of their competitors and the buyers.
Delivered sales (on a shipping-point basis) returned 9 cents per hun-
dredweight more to handlers than f.o.b. type sales. Consigned sales
returned 49 cents less than f.o.b. and 59 cents per hundredweight less
than delivered sales.
The principal factors affecting the Florida price appear to be (1) the
terminal market supply, which reflects Florida and competing ship-
ments, and (2) the average daily temperatures in the terminal markets.
Florida shipments alone had little effect on price.

State Project 1017 E. K. Bowman," and R. E. L. Greene
The proportion of the potato crop in the Hastings area harvested with
mechanical equipment continues to increase. A problem in the use of
mechanical harvesters that has not been solved satisfactorily is that of
providing better methods and facilities at the packinghouse for tempor-
ary storage of potatoes hauled in bulk. This is evidenced by the fact that
many growers in the area are now buying 2-row harvesters that place
the potatoes in bags.
Two new methods of handling bulk-harvested potatoes in the Hast-
ings area were tested during the year. One was the use of a regular
dump-body truck to unload the potatoes into a flat-bottom bin. At the
time of washing and grading, the potatoes were moved out of the bin
into a flume by means of a stream of water. The second method was
to load the potatoes from the harvester directly into large boxes that
held about 1,500 pounds. The potatoes were unloaded and handled at the
packinghouse by means of a tractor equipped with a fork lift. A box
dumper was used to empty the boxes when the potatoes were washed
and graded. Samples were collected for each method to compare amount
1 Cooperative with Economic Research Service, Transportation and Facilities Research
Division, Marketing Quality Research Division, USDA.

Annual Report, 1961 37

of physical damage in the potatoes with that in the regular method of
handling. Each of the newer methods was satisfactory from a physical
injury standpoint. (See also Project 1017, Agricultural Engineering De-

Hatch Project 1018 R. E. L. Greene and
(Regional SM-10) Herbert W. Warburton
The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze fluid milk
supply and movement by producing areas, fluid milk utilization patterns
and the net balance of supplies and consumption of fluid milk in various
market areas.
Florida was divided into 5 market areas. Three of the areas corre-
spond to the 3 areas under the Florida Milk Commission. The other areas
are southeast Florida, which is under a federal marketing order, and
northwest Florida, which is under neither federal nor state control. The
months of April and October 1959 were selected to show the supply
situation, movement and utilization pattern for milk in the state. Data
have been collected on the supplies of milk in each market area show-
ing volume of producer milk by counties, plus volume and source of out-
of-area supplies of milk, including milk from other states. Data have also
been collected for individual plants in each area showing processing
and distribution facilities, utilization of milk supplies, prices of products
and volume of sales by counties.

State Project 1027 R. E. L. Greene
The objective of this study is to determine the economic value of
several methods of supplemental feeding of grazing yearling steers for 1
year before they are placed in the feed lot and to determine the sub-
sequent effects of these methods on feed lot performance. The Agricul-
tural Economics Department has the responsibility for making the cal-
culations on costs and returns.
The experiment has run through 1 cycle. Eighty yearling steers, di-
vided into 4 groups, were used to determine the effects of supplemen-
tary pasture grazing with a limited amount of concentrate mixture dur-
ing various seasons of the year. Some of the animals were then placed
in the feed lots for 105 days to measure the results of the different treat-
ments on feed lot performance. The data are being summarized to show
comparison of net returns for each of the 4 systems of handling yearl-
ing steers. (See also Project 1027, Everglades Station.)

State Project 1028 W. K. McPherson
Participated in the planning of experimental work carried on by the
other project leaders. The data collected to date are not yet adequate
to make a reliable economic analysis. (See also Project 1028, Everglades
Experiment Station.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Hatch Project 1030
(Regional S-44)

D. E. Alleger

In this study the differential effect of economic opportunity was meas-
ured by comparisons against state averages for personal incomes, ci-
vilian production income, income payments to agriculture and by an in-
dex of economic opportunity. In general per capital incomes for Area 1


Farm Economic Class

I. Rural Residential Nonfarming' ....

A. Gainfully employed ......................
B. Retired .............---------.........................
C. All others (disabled, etc.) ..........

II. Limited Farming ..........................

A Part-tim e .....................................
B. Part-retirement ....................3..

III. Low-income Farming .....................

A $50 to $2,499 ...............................
B. $2,500 to $4,999 .........................

IV. Commercial Farming ......................

Percentage ..................................
Num ber' 7 .......... ......................... .

Percent by Area and by Year

Area 1 Area 2

1955 1960 1955 1960

48.5 60.9 41.5 49.4

24.3 29.0 26.4 27.2
12.1 23.2 9.4 17.3
12.1 8.7 5.7 4.9

18.2 11.6 17.0 22.2

13.1 7.3 10.4 9.9
5.1 4.3 6.6 12.3

22.2 11.6 25.4 14.8

14.1 7.3 16.0 4.9
8.1 4.3 9.4 9.9

11.1 15.9 16.1 13.6

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
99 69 106 81

1 Value of farm products sold ranging from none to $49.
2 Operator under 65 years of age, working off farm 100 or more days and with sales of
farm products ranging from $50 to $2,499.
3 Operator 65 years old or over and with sales of farm products ranging from $50 to
4 Operator under 65 years of age, with less than 100 days off-farm work and with sales
of farm products ranging from $50 to $2,499.
SAll operators with sales of farm products ranging between $2,500 and $4,999.
0 All farm products sold ranged in value from $5,000 upward.
7Differences in numbers between 1955 and 1960 represent either removals by change
of residence or deaths of family heads.
Note: Individual farm incomes were based on gross estimates made by farmers.

12 Contributing project of the Cooperative Regional Research Project S-44, Southern

Annual Report, 1961

remained at around 40 percent of the state average for the last 10 years
as compared to 90 percent for Area 2. Proprietor incomes (largely agri-
culture) and transfer payments (mostly governmental, such as old age
assistance, social security, etc.), are important sources of income for
Area 1 (46 percent) and minor sources (16 percent) for Area 2. Manu-
facturing accounts for over 27 percent of the civilian production income
in Area 2 as compared to less than 6 percent for Area 1. Off-farm mi-
gration was toward areas of employment opportunity.
The rural families interviewed in this study indicated an aging rural
family head and a decreasing reliance upon agriculture for a livelihood.
The importance of farms simply as rural homesteads was impressive
(Table 1). The proportion of commercial farmers as a percentage of all
farms was comparatively small. Between 1955 and 1960 not only were
many rural family removals noted, but there were occupational shifts as
measured by farm economic reclassifications. These findings stress the
need for the people of any given county to secure reasonably satisfac-
tory personal incomes if they are to resist the tug of migration.

Hatch Project 1035 R. E. L. Greene and Victor G. Edman
The purpose of this project was to describe hatcheries in Florida as
to management practices and significant trends, and to determine and
analyze major factors affecting costs and returns.
At the time of this study there were 33 hatcheries in the state. They
ranged in size from 13,300 to 507,000 eggs capacity. Because of the
small number and the extreme variation in size, the decision was made
not to sample the group but to obtain information from each hatchery.
The 33 hatcheries were visited. Data were obtained from 31 firms on
management practices. Cost and return data were obtained from 20 hatch-
Tabulation and analysis of data are in progress. The average invest-
ment of the 20 hatcheries was $28,473 or $162 per 1,000 eggs capacity.
The average cost per chick sold was 36.5 cents per egg-type chick and
12 cents for meat-type. Hatching eggs accounted for 47 percent of total
costs in egg-type and 67 percent in meat-type. The major factors af-
fecting cost per chick were size of hatchery, percent utilization of capa-
city, number of chicks sold, cost of hatching eggs and cost of labor.

State Project 1066 M. R. Godwin, B. S. Lloyd
and K. M. Gilbraith"
The development of a foreign market for the small varieties of Flori-
da watermelons could have a big impact on the economic position of
both producers and marketing agencies. The purpose of this project is
to conduct experimental shipments of Florida icebox watermelons to Eng-
land to establish (1) the economic feasibility of such shipments and (2)
the degree of consumer acceptance for these melons.
During the year, 3 shipments of the New Hampshire Midget and the
Sugar Baby varieties of icebox watermelons were made at intervals of
2 weeks. In order to examine the effect of maturity on the acceptability

13 Cooperative with Florida Agricultural Extension Service.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

of the melons, each of these varieties was shipped at 3 maturity levels
- breaker, slightly pink and pink to red. Also, both nailed and wire-
bound crates were used in the shipments.
Shipments were broken down into variety of melons, maturity stage
and type of crates. Ten crates of each possible combination were includ-
ed in each of the 3 shipments. The 3 shipments were completed in May
1961, and data are currently being assembled for the analysis.

Florida Agricultural Production Index.-New index numbers measuring
the total volume of agricultural production in Florida by groups of com-
modities from 1910 to 1960 have been prepared, using a more recent base
period, 1947-49. In 1960 the total farm output was 66 percent higher than
in the base period, crops were 52 percent higher and livestock products
were 109 percent higher. Total farm output in 1960 increased over 1959
by 2.5 percent, though a few individual products, notably meat animals,
declined. Tobacco production was 16 percent higher in 1960; oranges, 6
percent; and milk, 5 percent.
Since 1940 production of all crops has increased at an average an-
nual rate of 4.25 percent, livestock at 5.6 percent and all farm products
at 4.7 percent per year.
Total production since the base period, 1947-49, was higher because of
increased total acreage and number of head of breeding stock, and also
because of higher yields or production per unit. Per-unit production in
1960 was 38 percent above the base period for both crops and livestock.
(A. H. Spurlock.)
Movement of Citrus Trees from Florida Nurseries.-Movement of cit-
rus trees from Florida nurseries to Florida destinations was the second
highest in number during the 32 years of these records. This season was
from July 1, 1959, through June 30, 1960, when there were 2,539,076 trees
moved. This movement was 3 percent less than the highest season of
1958-59, 16 percent more than the third highest season of 1956-57 and 220
percent of the 1928-60 average.
Eighty percent of the 1959-60 movement was orange trees; 5 percent,
grapefruit; 2 percent, tangerine; 7 percent, Murcott Honey; 1 percent,
other mandarins; 3 percent, tangelos; and 2 percent limes, lemons and
other citrus. Fifty-one percent of the movement was on lemon stock, 31
percent on sour orange, 12 percent on cleopatra mandarin, 4 percent on
sweet seedling and 2 percent on other stocks. (Zach Savage.)
Competition for Florida Fruit and Vegetable Crops.-The degree of
competition which Florida faces is provided by tabulating weekly carlot
shipments of selected fruits and vegetables from Florida, other states
and foreign countries during the Florida shipping season. Such data are
valuable to growers and extension workers in determining the more de-
sirable production periods during the Florida season. They are also avail-
able to industry groups in the preparation of statistics for hearings on
freight rates and marketing agreements and in establishing annual move-
ment patterns of Florida crops. Allied service industries may find them
valuable in planning peak movement and supply requirements. "Florida
Truck Crop Competition. 1. Inter-state and Foreign" was published as
Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 61-3. (D. L. Brooke.)
Pecan Production and Marketing in Florida.-The Marketing Econom-
ics Research Division of the USDA, ERS, is conducting a study of "Pe-
can Marketing in the Southeast." This station cooperated to the extent

Annual Report, 1961 41

of securing 100 records on pecan production in 5 counties in Florida.
Counties included were Alachua, Jefferson, Jackson, Santa Rosa and Su-
wannee. Preliminary results of the survey indicate that (1) 93 percent of
the pecan trees on farms are of bearing age; (2) 85 percent of the trees
are more than 21 years old and 1/ are older than 41 years; (3) the num-
ber of trees planted per acre ranges from 10 in Jackson and Suwannee
counties to 17 in Alachua County and averages 13 trees per acre for the
5 counties studied; (4) commercially mixed fertilizers were applied to
trees or cover crops on 85 percent of the acreage in pecan orchards,
and average application rate was 650 pounds per acre; (5) of the 100
orchards surveyed, 11 were treated for insects, diseases or Spanish moss,
and on 90 percent of the acreage treated, the purpose was to control
scab; and (7) more than 90 percent of all pecan sales were to regular
pecan dealers. (D. L. Brooke.)

42 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research has been done on 9 regular projects and on preliminary
investigations of questions related primarily to efficiencies to be gained
by the use of mechanical and physical aids to production. New projects
deal with a new system of harvesting and curing tobacco and with equip-
ment for removing non-free-flowing feed materials from bulk storage.

Hatch Project 555 J. M. Myers
The study of 4 different irrigation management programs for tobacco
was continued in 1960. Amount and distribution of rainfall (12.66 inches
from March 31 to June 25, 1960) approximated the average for the sea-
son of year and location of experiment. The "no delay", "3-day delay",
and "6-day delay" plots received 7.24, 5.07 and 2.43 inches of irrigation
water in 12, 7 and 4 applications.
Treatment responses are shown in Table 1. Highest yield and best
quality were obtained from the "no delay" (calculated optimum) irri-
gation treatment. Response during the 1960 season is believed to be a
more typical response than those received in 1958 or 1959, which were
years of exceedingly high rainfall.


Irrigation Yield Price Value
I Lbs./A. I /Lb. $/A.

No delay .....................---.............. I -1,780 62.7 1,116

3-day delay .......... .... I 1,768 62.0 1,096

6-day delay .....-..........- ................. .. 1,610 61.4 989
None ......------..... ... ..-- .............. --1,205 58.5 705

The results of the experiment indicate that significant economic losses
are likely to occur if irrigation is delayed more than 3 days when re-
lated to the estimated optimum time of application for greatest gross re-
turn from tobacco.
Ten varieties of tobacco were subjected to each of the irrigation vari-
ables. The varieties could be placed in two groupings according to re-
sponse as indicated by yield to irrigation treatment. The highest yield
for varieties White Gold, Virginia Gold and Virginia 21, which were in
one of the groups, was obtained with the "3-day delay" treatment. Yield
was depressed by the "no delay" irrigation treatment for these varie-
ties. The other group of varieties, Coker's 187, 178 Hicks, Golden Cure,
Hicks, McNair 2, Vesta 5 and 402, gave no indication that the "no-delay"
irrigation treatment was detrimental. Yield was depressed for all varie-
ties in the experiment by the "6-day delay" and no irrigation treat-
ments. (See also Project 555, Agronomy Department and Suwannee Val-
ley Station.)

Annual Report, 1961

State Project 627 J. M. Myers
The pasture program on which irrigation was used as a cultural prac-
tice was managed in accordance with established procedure. Rainfall
during the period July to December, 1960, was above average, but dur-
ing the period January to June, 1961, it was slightly below average. Two
applications of irrigation were applied to the pastures during the dry
period in May and June, 1961.
The pasture program which included irrigation produced 394 pounds of
calf per acre and 7175 pounds (dry weight) of forage during the 1959-60
grazing year (October to September). These yields represent the highest
production levels of all the programs tested. (See also Project 627, Agri-
cultural Economics, Agronomy, Animal Science and Soils departments.)

Hatch Project 758 J. M. Myers
Tobacco harvested at optimum maturity produced 4.6 percent more
cured leaf than tobacco harvested 1 week earlier or 1 week later. Ma-
ture leaf was valued at $0.01 per pound more than leaf harvested pre-
maturely but was valued at $0.025 per pound less than overmature
leaves. The experiment furnishes overwhelming evidence that a signifi-
cant reduction in crop value is obtained when tobacco is harvested be-
fore it is fully mature. Indications are, however, that no economic loss
results when tobacco is harvested 1 week after the time of estimated
optimum maturity.
A linear relationship was found to exist between levels of coloring
temperature and maturity at harvest as measured by leaf quality. Im-
mature tobacco gave lowest quality and overmature tobacco highest
quality irrespective of coloring temperature. Quality of the cured leaf
was approximately the same for coloring temperatures of 90, 95, 100 and
105oF but was depressed considerably by 110F. A significant reduc-
tion in development of Brown spot ("frog eye") was noted when the
coloring temperature was 105F or greater.
An inverse relationship was found to exist between maturity at har-
vest and nitrogen fertilization levels as indicated by leaf quality. The
96-pound level of nitrogen produced highest quality when harvested at
the overmature stage, while the 48-pound level gave highest quality when
harvested immature. Coloring temperatures of 90, 95, 100 and 105F
produced approximately the same quality for each of the nitrogen levels,
but for the 1100F temperature a linear relationship existed, with the 48-
pound nitrogen level producing highest quality and the 96-pound level
producing lowest quality. The quality differential between these treat-
ments was valued at $0.05 per pound of tobacco. (See also Project 758,
Agronomy Department.)

State Project 946 J. M. Myers
Two subirrigation and 2 drainage cycles were run on Leon sand at
the Beef Research Unit during the winter of 1960-61. Water table chang-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

es in the soil between ditches spaced 67, 133 and 200 feet apart were
Figure 2 shows the change of water table at midpoint of the 3 ditch
spacings as a function of time during a subirrigation cycle. After 48
hours of subirrigation, the hydraulic head of the ditch was approximate-
ly 1.7 feet higher than the water table in the soil at the midpoint between
the 200-foot ditch spacing; and after 210 hours, the head differential was
still 0.8 foot. The maximum water table in the soil at the midpoint
between the 67-foot ditch spacing was obtained approximately 72 hours
after subirrigation started. The head differential at that time was 0.7
The depth to water table in the soil at the midpoint between the 200-
foot ditch spacing had been lowered less than 0.25 foot after 48 hours of
drainage with a hydraulic head differential of 2.3 feet. More than 10
days was required to obtain a 1-foot change in the water table at the
midpoint between the 200-foot ditch spacing. Approximately 20 hours was
required to lower the water table 1 foot at the midpoint between the 67-
foot ditch spacing with an approximate average hydraulic head differ-
ential of 0.7 foot.
The results of this experiment on Leon sand indicate a need for rela-
tively close ditch spacing, and consequently, high land development cost,
for growing crops sensitive to precise water table control. (See also
Project 946, Soils Department.)
2..4 .

2 /

S 1.5

1.2 -a- 200 ft. spacing
S .... 133 ft. spacing
S / J--- 67 ft. spacing
o 0.9

.6 /

0 45 o0 135 180 225
Tlme (hours)
Figure 2.-Change in depth to water tables with time at midpoints of
three ditch spacings on Leon sand. Subirrigation cycle: 1415, 12/1/60-
1150, 12/10/60.

State Project 1017 E. K. Bowman and E. S. Holmes
During this year 2 approaches were taken in handling potatoes. The
first approach was using a dump truck as a substitute for the bulk
body normally used. The second approach was the pallet box method.

Annual Report, 1961 45

Figure 3.-Forklift truck placing pallet boxes onto flatbed truck at
packing house.

I I.

Figure 4.-Holding bin with dump-bed load of potatoes.


~~L---- ___

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Bulk Dumping.-Tests were run during early, mid and late season
by dumping potatoes onto a special floor and floating them into the
flume. The injury analysis showed similar results to the previous year.
Approximately 300 gallons per minute of water was available for floating
the potatoes out of the bin, and this was found to be insufficient. Indi-
cations were that about twice that much water was needed. Time studies
did not materially add to the data obtained last year because of the
unexpected problems encountered and resulting inconsistencies in the op-
Pallet Boxes.-An experimental pallet box operation consisting of pal-
let box dumper, skate wheel conveyors, pallet boxes, a flatbed truck
and forklift tractor equipment was set up at a commercial packing house
near Elkton, Florida. At the packing house, boxes were handled in a
cycle that simulated a commercial operation, including temporarily hold-
ing the potatoes prior to dumping them into the packing line.
The rate at which potatoes were harvested into pallet boxes was about
the same as that for harvesting into hopper bodies.
Tuber injury showed that the experimental pallet box operation com-
pared favorably with the regular hopper-body operation.
Preliminary time study data indicated that an industrial forklift trac-
tor could feed a packing line at a rate of about 300 hundred-weight per
hour. The pallet box dumper capability was indicated to be as much
as 735 hundred-weight per hour under favorable conditions. (See also
Project 1017, Agricultural Economics.)

State Project 1020 E. S. Holmes
During the year, liquid fumigants were applied to test plots at the
Central Florida Station according to a predetermined experimental de-
sign. Applications were made in the following way:
1. Conventional shank at 6-inch depths and 12-inch row spacing.
2. Conventional shank at 6-inch depths and 6-inch row spacing.
3. Shear blade with fan spray nozzles making complete horizontal
coverage at 6-inch depths.
4. Specially built plow with fan nozzle to inject fumigant in an 8-inch
Initial experiments with row fumigation for 30-inch row spacing were
unsuccessful because of adverse weather conditions.
A new idea for a band injector was devised as shown in Figure 5.
Preliminary field trials indicated that an 8-inch width of soil could be
treated satisfactorily with this T shank injector. (See also Project 1020,
Central Florida Station.)

Hatch Project 1034 I. J. Ross and J. M. Myers
The smoking characteristics and physical properties of bright leaf to-
bacco can be controlled during bulk curing by suitable adjustment of
temperature and drying rates during the coloring period. An experiment
completed in 1960 has shown that these 2 variables act in opposition to

Annual Report, 1961 47

each other. An increase in the coloring temperature increases the smok-
ing strength and the filling value, while an increase in the rate of water
removal reduces the smoking strength and the filling value.
Experiments are being continued on other phases of bulk curing. Work
this year includes studies on the density of tobacco in boxes; air flow
rates during coloring, leaf drying and stem drying; and techniques for
ordering and storing the cured leaf.
A continuous harvesting and bulk curing system is being tested on
the tobacco research farm. The system is designed so that 2 men work-
ing 40 hours per week during the tobacco harvesting season can harvest
and cure approximately 4 acres of tobacco. Four boxes of tobacco are
harvested each work day. The tobacco is cropped manually by 2 men
riding on a mechanically-driven harvesting aid. The tobacco is placed
in a bulk box on the harvesting aid as it is harvested. After a box is
filled, it is carried to and placed in a bulk curing unit. The bulk curing
system consists of 10 separate curing units, each holding 2 bulk boxes
in which the tobacco is completely cured and ordered. The functional
specifications for bulk curing tobacco were determined from the experi-
ment summarized in the first paragraph.
The continuous harvesting and curing system is being evaluated on
the basis of labor input, operating costs and yield and quality of the
tobacco produced. (See also Project 1034, Agronomy Department and Su-
wannee Valley Station.)

State Project 1067 E. S. Holmes
During the year 30 beef animals weighing about 600 pounds were ran-
domly divided into 3 lots to study the effect of summer cooling by a fan
thermo-statically controlled to operate only when the temperature was
above 75F. Ten animals were under fan, and the other 2 lots were

Figure 5.-T-shank fumigant injector with 9 holes 1/64 inch in diameter
and 1 inch apart, for mounting on rear of tractor.

2.. L:.. .

W" ":.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

controls. During the test period beginning June 20, and running for 106
days, temperatures were recorded with thermocouples in 6-inch black
globes at 6-foot heights in the cooled and non-cooled pens. There were
18 days in which the air temperature in the barn went above 90F and
57 days above 85F. It was interesting to note that only 8 times during
the test interval did the humidity in the shed go below 60 percent. Data
from the weight gains and carcass grades were analyzed, and there was
no significant difference in weights. The carcass grades of the cooled
lot were generally higher than the non-cooled lots. (See Project 1067,
North Florida Station.)

Hatch Project 1082 I. J. Ross
The difficulty involved in removing non-free-flowing materials from
bins by present methods is the major obstacle in automating handling
and processing systems for these feeds. From an analysis of the problem
it appears that an inexpensive device for positively unloading bins of
non-free-flowing materials such as citrus pulp can be developed. Such a
device should encourage the use of bulk storage and provide a necessary
equipment component for completely automating feed handling.
Plans have been made to construct a laboratory system for handling
granular materials. This system will include 2 common types of com-
mercially available hopper-bottom bins. Several types of mechanical un-
loaders will be developed and installed in these bins, and their effective-
ness in unloading non-free-flowing materials will be determined. The ef-
fect of compaction, kind of material, bin unloading techniques, bin shape
and bin hopper slope on feed removal from the bins will be studied.

Mechanical Harvesting of Vegetables.-Harvesting by Riding.-In the
development of functional specifications for harvester aids, 1 important
question is whether the picker should ride or walk. During the year,
in cooperation with the Department of Vegetable Crops, attention was
given to this point. Exploratory picking tests were carried out on small
plantings at the Horticulture Farm on endive, broccoli, southern peas,
tomatoes and cucumbers, using an experimental, self-propelled harvester
aid to ride the pickers and transport the product. Harvesting rates per
worker, for all crops except broccoli, were higher with pickers riding on
the harvester aid as compared to walking.
Longer test runs were made using the harvester aid on commercial
plantings of eggplant and southern peas. The harvesting rate on egg-
plant was 17.7 percent higher with the harvester aid and on southern
peas was as much as 50 percent higher as compared to picking in the
conventional manner by walking.
The data are not conclusive but suggest merit in the possible use of
harvester aids as a means to reduce the labor input of the vegetable
harvesting operation.
Mechanical Cutter for Southern Peas.-A small plot of Florida 7809
peas was planted for mechanical harvest during the year. This was a
high pod setting line. The crop set well but was inclined to vine heavily
into the middles. Finger guides only along the outer edges of the row
gave relatively poor results (only 54 percent of the peas were machine
cut). Fair results were obtained with flexible guides that went under

Annual Report, 1961

the vines about 12 inches from the base of the plant. These guides also
had fingers that lifted the vine about 3 inches over the cutter bar. (E. S.

E'" 4' I' '
J,. W_

Figure 6.-Workers cutting endive while riding on a harvester aid machine.

Forced Air Precooling of Citrus Fruit.-This is a cooperative project
with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Transportation and Facilities
Research Division, Agricultural Marketing Service. The project was de-
signed to determine the optimum conditions of operation for forced air
precooling of citrus fruit in pallet boxes, bulk and consumer packages
and the effects on subsequent decay and physiological breakdown of the
fruit. Small temperature and humidity control chambers located in the
Agricultural Engineering Building plus 1 large control chamber at the
Fruit Crops packing house will be used to carry out this work. During
the year time has been devoted to assembling and checking equipment
with which to carry out this project. (E. S. Holmes.)
High Moisture Shelled Corn in Air-Tight Storage.-In air-tight storage
the normal respiratory processes of the grain are halted with the con-
version of the oxygen in the initially present interstitial air into carbon
dioxide. Since little or no further respiration occurs because of the
lack of oxygen, the heating that occurs in high moisture grain in open
storage does not occur. Furthermore, most storage molds, insects and
rodents cannot grow under the anaerobic conditions in air-tight storage.
Shelled corn at a moisture content at approximately 25 percent wet
basis is being stored in 4 sealed containers. Each container holds ap-
proximately 7 bushels of shelled corn. Corn has also been stored in a
fifth container utilizing the zero-pressure or breather principle. This
storage unit allows a limited quantity of gas exchange between interstitial
gases and ambient air.
The pressure and the volume of oxygen and carbon dioxide present
in the storage units are being measured. Information gained from ex-
perience with these storage units should give an indication of the feasibil-
ity of this type of storage under Florida weather conditions. (I. J. Ross.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research on bulk handling and curing of flue-cured tobacco was be-
gun in cooperation with Agricultural Engineering with encouraging re-
sults the first season. Two projects were revised under new numbers.
Research on more detailed biochemical aspects of crop nutrition has
been expanded with assignment of additional laboratory space and ac-
quirement of a number of much needed items of laboratory equipment.
Research on 31 older projects was continued with satisfactory results
as reported below.

Hatch Project 20 W. A. Carver
Florida Station pedigreed line number 392-12, a jumbo runner peanut,
was given the name Florigiant and officially released by the Florida Ex-
periment Station on January 16, 1961. Florigiant is a complex hybrid.
Its ancestry includes Spanish, North Carolina runner and Virginia types.
The final cross in the pedigree of Florigiant was made in 1951.
Hybrids between breeding lines and varieties were made in 1960,
the objectives being to improve present lines having small and large seed
in soundness, uniformity and yield. Parents used in these crosses were
Florispan Runner, Early Runner, Dixie Runner, 392-12 and 420 (Dixie
Runner x 392-12). Four different pedigreed lines of Dixie Runner were
intercrossed with the hope of restoring some of this variety's yielding
Twenty-two varieties and breeding lines were grown in variety tests.
Line 420-215-1 ranked highest in yield of sound and mature seed, Early
Runner ranked seventh, Florigiant ranked eighth, common runner ranked
last and Dixie Runner next to last. A yield trial using regular and peg
(small) seed of Early Runner and Dixie Runner showed no advantage for
peg seed. The same weight of seed per row was planted from each sort.
The Florigiant peanut variety is described in Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station Circular S-129, February 1961.

Hatch Project 295 G. B. Killinger and H. C. Harris
Starr, Common (Pearl or Cattail) and Gahi-1 millets were compared
at 2 levels of nitrogen fertilization as shown in Table 3.
All millet plots received a uniform application of 622 pounds per acre
of an 8-8-8 fertilizer at planting and additional nitrogen applied after
each cutting. It appears these varieties of millet were unable to utilize
the higher application of nitrogen during the 1960 season. This lack of
response to 545 pounds of nitrogen is not unusual as the yield of other
forage and grain crops are often depressed by extreme rates of nitrogen
fertilization. Potassium nitrate equivalents in the dry forage ranged from
less than 1 percent to over 4 percent. No toxic condition was noted when
green and/or dry forage was fed to sheep.
White clover yields of 6,999 pounds per acre dry forage from Louisi-
ana S-1 was recorded as the highest yield of all varieties harvested from
a 2-year-old stand. A yield of 5,077 pounds of dry forage per acre from

Annual Report, 1961

Nolin's Improved White was the highest yield from a first year stand.
Louisiana S-1 red clover, Nolin's red and Pennscott red clover yielded
7,455, 7,296 and 7,024 pounds per acre of dry forage, respectively. Red
clover as an annual crop warrants serious consideration by livestock
producers in Florida.


Variety Lbs. Oven Dry Forage per Acre
214 lbs. N 545 lbs. N

Starr .............. ........ ......... 6,277 5,227

Common .......................... 6,261 6,261

Gahi-1 ..............- .................. 7,304 6,948

A new hybrid bahiagrass, Tifhi-1, yielded 10,691 pounds per acre of
dry forage from 5 cuttings as compared to a 10,067 pound yield from
Pensacola bahiagrass. This 624 pound increase in dry forage is not suf-
ficient to justify the Tifhi-1 variety. Seed from Tifhi-1 plantings must
not be harvested and planted because of lesser yields in following gen-


State Project 301 J. R. Edwardson, E. S. Horner
and F. H. Hull
Evaluations of strains and species of crotalaria and alfalfa for adap-
tation to the environmental conditions found at Gainesville were con-
Backcrossing cytoplasmic male-sterile lines of Crotalaria mucronata by
normal lines is continuing with the objective of converting several nor-
mal lines to the male-sterile condition. These converted lines will even-
tually be used in producing hybrids which will be incapable of producing
seed by self pollination. Studies of the inheritance of fertility restora-
tion in cytoplasmic male-sterile lines is continuing.
Selection for increased persistence in alfalfa was continued. Fourth-
cycle seed was harvested from surviving plants in 3-year-old plots. Re-
sults of tests conducted in 1959 and 1961 indicate that the selected strain
is equal to commercial Hairy Peruvian in forage production the first year
after seeding and is significantly higher yielding the second and third
years because of better stands.


Hatch Project 372 Fred Clark
Thirty advanced breeding lines and 16 commercial varieties were test-
ed. All of the advanced breeding lines were tested on nematode infested
soil. A belt-wide regional test was also conducted with 8 advanced lines
from the several tobacco producing states. Included in the test were

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

North Carolina 8069-5 and F22-2. North Carolina 8069-5 has been re-
leased by North Carolina as North Carolina 95. F22-2 will be released
for the 1962 season. F22-2 led all regional advanced breeding lines
in all locations in all states. It had high resistance to nematodes and
to brown leaf spot. F22-2 is unique in that it combines the highest yields
of any advanced breeding line with a high level of nicotine. This has
been a limiting factor in developing varieties having high yields and ac-
ceptable nicotine content. F22-2 also has other desirable chemical con-
stituents and compares well with Hicks and 402, the 2 leading commer-
cially grown varieties in Florida.

Hatch Project 374 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
Studies were continued to evaluate different methods of improving yield
of hybrid corn. Three recurrent selection experiments, utilizing as test-
ers an inbred line, a single cross and a heterogeneous variety, have been
carried on for 3 cycles. Tests were conducted in 1960 to measure the
relative amount of progress made. The results show that in each experi-
ment general combining ability was improved significantly by the first
2 cycles of selection, regardless of the type of tester used. However, no
further improvement in general combining ability was made by the third
cycle in any of the 3 experiments. On the other hand, combining abil-
ity with the 2 specific testers (the inbred line and the single cross) was
improved as much by the third cycle as by the second in the 2 experi-
ments involving these testers. These results indicate that it will be pos-
sible to improve yield more effectively with recurrent selection if a spe-
cific tester rather than a general tester is used.
In the experiment discussed above which utilizes a single cross test-
er, no additional improvement was observed for the fourth cycle of se-
lection. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that no
high-yielding hybrids were saved unless they also had low ear placement,
good standability and resistance to weevil damage. For this reason the
selection differential for yield was considerably lower in the fourth cycle
than for the previous cycles.
Two cycles of selection based only on yield of inbred lines were ef-
fective in improving general combining ability in a fourth experiment.
Florida 200, Dixie 18 and Coker 811A were the leading hybrids in the
commercial variety tests. (See also Project 374, West Florida, North
Florida and Suwannee Valley stations.)

Hatch Project 440 H. C. Harris, V. N. Schroder
and Fred Clark
Oats and ronphagrass grown on virgin Leon fine sand from the Beef
Research Unit area and given a complete fertilizer were not affected
either beneficially or detrimentally by additions of magnesium acetate
at rates up to 2,000 pounds per acre (equivalent to 375 pounds MgO). The
oats out-yielded the ronphagrass during February, March and April but
had a shorter period of production.
Sesame grown on this same soil responded to all the major fertilizing
elements and gave a very positive response to the addition of copper.

Annual Report, 1961 53

The studies with sesame at the greenhouse are being continued. In the
past, copper, boron and molybdenum have increased the yield of several
crops when grown on this soil.

State Project 444 Fred Clark
Excellent production of plants was obtained in the seventeenth year
for the permanent beds. Plants were used to set experimental plots of
the several other tobacco research projects. (See also Project 444, Su-
wannee Valley Station.)

Hatch Project 488 H. C. Harris, V. N. Schroder
and Fred Clark

A field experiment involving spacing, fertilization and other treatments
is being conducted in a manner similar to the one reported last year.
The variety being grown is Florigiant. A test on the nutrient require-
ments of this variety on soil from the same area is being conducted at
the greenhouse. It is too early to draw conclusions.
Foliar applications of phosphorus and boron were applied to peanuts
in pot experiments and field experiments at different stages of growth.
In general the foliar application reduced both the growth of the foliage
and the nut yield by about 10 percent. Neither the maturity nor the
quality of the peanuts seemed to be affected.

Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
Four times of irrigation, 4 nitrogen rates (42, 72, 96 and 120 pounds
per acre) and 10 commercial varieties of tobacco were tested. The
"on time" and "3-day delay" irrigation treatments produced the best
yields, quality and price. The 3-day delay of irrigation produced over 500
pounds more tobacco than no irrigation, giving a total increased
acre value of $350. Seventy-two and 96 pounds of nitrogen per acre con-
tinued to be the best nitrogen treatments. The interaction of nitrogen
rates 72 and 96 pounds and irrigation treatments on time and delayed
3 days produced the highest yields and dollar value. C-187-Hicks, Gold-
en Cure, Vesta 5 and Hicks were the highest yielding varieties.
Six fumigants were tested for control of nematodes. W-85, Telone
and DD produced more than 700 pounds over the no treatment with in-
crease in gross value of over $490 per acre.
A side-dressing experiment was conducted comparing a 4-8-12 fertil-
izer with a 2-10-4 analysis plus 3 applications of a 13-0-44 nitrate of pot-
ash. All nutrient levels were equal. The 4-8-12 fertilizer was superior
to the 2-10-4 plus nitrate of potash. (See also Project 555, Agricultural
Engineering Department and Suwannee Valley Station.)

State Project 600 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
Breeding for increased persistence, productivity and disease resistance
in white clover was continued. The procedure has been to propagate
vegetatively superior plants which have lived through a summer and

54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

produced good fall growth, and to make continued evaluation of these
clones in replicated plots. Twelve clones which have survived several
years of elimination were intercrossed in 1960-61. A synthetic variety
will be produced from this material for comparison with commercially
available varieties.
A second cycle of selection has been initiated with the establishment
of a space-planted seedling nursery with seed obtained from intercross-
ing 26 selected clones.

Hatch Project 612 J. R. Edwardson and F. H. Hull'
The Stemphylium resistant selection G. P. consistently outyielded com-
mon bitter blue lupine and 2 varieties of sweet blue lupines in green
weight. The same resistant selection produced significantly more seed
than common bitter blue or sweet varieties of lupine. The G. P. selec-
tion has been found to be resistant to both Stemphylium solani and S.
In yellow lupine, crossing programs were continued with the ultimate
objective of transferring genes controlling resistance to bean yellow mo-
saic virus and Phomopsis from agronomically undesirable species and
varieties to commercially desirable varieties.

State Project 627 G. B. Killinger and H. C. Harris
Clover and grass growth during the summer and fall of 1960 was near
normal after a late spring had delayed early growth and grazing.
The average yield of dry forage from the 5 programs, total crude
protein per acre and treatment are shown in Table 4.


Program ILbs. 0-10-20 Lbs. of Nitrogen Oven-dry Forage Crude Protein
per Acre per Acre (Lbs. per Acre) (Lbs. per Acre)

1 450 180 6,951 806

2 300 0 5,317 766

3 500 0 6,207 792
60 6,878
4 700 0 6,640 933
60 7,496
5 900 0 6.688 897
60 7,662

Program 2, which received an application of 0-30-60 fertilizer with no
nitrogen, produced the most economical forage of the 5 programs under test.

1 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1961

A low calcium supply in the soil under programs 4 and 5 was probably
responsible for the lack of response to heavier fertilization applied to
these programs.
Approximately 50 percent of the forage consumed during the season
was white clover.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineer-
ing, Animal Science and Soils departments.)

State Project 747 M. Wilcox and E. G. Rodgers
Promising herbicides were applied at several rates to field corn and
soybeans at various stages of development in replicated field trials. The
responses of the crop and weed species were observed and yields meas-
ured where appropriate.
Field Corn.-Several chlorinated aromatic fatty acid herbicides applied
at late dough stage gave effective control of crotalaria. The least ex-
pensive of the effective treatments was 2,4-D amine at % to 1 lb. per
acre, which has USDA approval. Control of crotalaria by applications
at lay-by or earlier will require further evaluation. Some herbicides at
least as effective as those commercially available for general pre-
emergence and post-emergence weed control in corn also require further
Soybeans.-The most promising herbicides tested were two thiolcar-
bamates which controlled weeds for one month without damaging soy-
beans. Soil incorporation studies of these compounds are under way in
order to improve their performance.
This project is terminated with this report. Future work will be in-
cluded in State Project 1087.


Hatch Project 758 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
Tobacco with 3 rates of nitrogen-48, 72 and 96 pounds per acre-was
harvested at 3 maturities-green, ripe and over-ripe. Five yellowing
temperatures-90, 95, 100, 105 and 110 F-were used in the coloring of
the tobacco. As the nitrogen increased from 48 to 96 pounds, the amount
of green weight tobacco increased, while the ratio of green weight to
cured leaf dropped. Seventy-two and 96 pounds of nitrogen produced
the best yields and quality. Effects of maturity on yield were small;
but there was a difference in price of over 3 cents per pound. There
was an increase in the green to cured leaf ratio in favor of the ripe to
overripe leaf.
Coloring temperatures up to 105F had little effect on quality; how-
ever, there was a loss of over 6 cents per pound at the 1100F level of color-
ing. There was a small increase in the ratio of green weight to cured
leaf in the temperatures above 100F. The interaction of maturity x ni-
trogen was best with ripe tobacco at the 72-and 96-pound levels of nitro-
gen. Over-ripe tobacco had the highest ratio of green weight to dry
leaf with all levels of nitrogen; however, the 48-pound rate of nitrogen
had the highest percent. The interaction of maturity x temperature was
best with ripe to over-ripe tobacco cured at temperatures of 90 to 100 F.
Temperatures above 100F gave the best percent of dry leaf to green
weight. (See also Project 758, Agricultural Engineering.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 760 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder,
O. C. Ruelke, S. H. West2
and K. D. Butson'
Temperatures within the microclimate of pangolagrass grown on level
land and hilled land having north and south slopes were measured dur-
ing cold periods in the winter. The average temperature of 4 locations
on the south slope during days of measurement was 29.6F shortly be-
fore daybreak, increasing to 96.4 F shortly after noon. Corresponding
temperatures on the north slopes averaged 31.8F and 78.20F. The per
acre yields of pangolagrass hay harvested at first cutting were 840
pounds on the south slopes, 117 pounds on the north slopes and 709
pounds on the level. Most of the pangolagrass was winterkilled on north
slopes, and weeds had developed in its place.
Several experiments probing into the effect of light on field grown
corn indicated that light was an important factor limiting corn yield
under conditions of good management and high plant populations. At
15,000 plants per acre Florida 200 corn plants which yielded 135 bushels
per acre utilized 3.3 percent of total solar energy during the last 2
months of their life cycle. Calculations indicated that to have produced
200 bushels of corn per acre these corn plants would have required 4
percent efficiency in use of solar energy.
There was no difference between forage yields of Florad oats in rows
oriented in north and south versus east and west directions. In Janu-
ary a severe freeze completely killed recently defoliated oats, while un-
cut and defoliated oats with 2 weeks regrowth survived. The Florad oat
is apparently very susceptible to cold damage when defoliated, so over-
grazing or severe cutting should be avoided during periods of expected
severe cold.

State Project 761 Kuell Hinson'
Recent predictions on future soybean utilization indicate that the de-
mand for soybean protein will increase more rapidly than the demand
for soybean oil. Therefore, emphasis is being shifted to combine high
protein content of seed with high yield and good agronomic and disease
resistance qualities. Single, double and 3-way crosses have been made
to combine desirable genetic material. Early generation breeding ma-
terial is still predominately segregated from crosses made to improve
yield and maintain high oil; therefore, a period of 3 to 5 years will be
required before high protein selections occupy a prominent place in the
variety testing program.
A genetic study was conducted to obtain information on the number of
genes determining photoperiod response and their linkage relationship
with genes determining 10 qualitative characters. F, populations were
grown from Improved Pelican (very late) crossed with 9 genotypes
having a photoperiod response adapting them to the northcentral states.
Population size was adequate to sample a chromosome region approxi-
mately 30 crossover units on either side of the gene involved. Three of
2Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
3 Cooperative w.th Un ed states Weather Bureau.
Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1961 57

the 10 chromosome regions sampled gave significant associations with
photoperiod response as measured by flowering date. Since a relatively
small percentage of the chromatin material was sampled, a large num-
ber of genes having a measurable effect on photoperiod response is in-

Hatch Project 766 V. N. Schroder and H. C. Harris
Peanuts were grown in nutrient solution to study the effect of various
deficiencies. In general, healthy peanuts have a citrate to malate ratio
of about 3:1 when the petioles of the leaves were examined. A lack
of iron results in a disappearance of the malate or a much higher citrate
to malate ratio. Additions of iron or other minor elements were made
to the deficient nutrient solution, after which leaves and petioles were
checked daily over a period up to 6 days. Deficient plants gave a
rapid response (24 hours) to these additions as indicated by the increase
in malate. The response to the treatment depended somewhat on the
severity of the deficiency indicated by the color of the plant. Efforts to
produce similar deficiencies in soil by adjusting the pH to very high
levels have not given comparable results.

Hatch Project 767 G. B. Killinger, W. A. Carver,
(Regional S-9) A. J. Norden and F. H. Hull
Grass, legume and miscellaneous agronomic species representing 350
accessions were received from the Regional Plant Introduction Station
and planted in the introduction garden for forage and pasture evaluation.
A Paspalum notatum escape plant was selected for pasture and/or turf
from P.I. No. 227832 and has distinctly different characteristics than oth-
er known P. notatum varieties. Erucastrum abyssinicum, P.I. No. 243913,
has grown exceptionally well both summer and winter and is being test-
ed as a cash oil seed crop. Pensacola bahia plants grown from irradi-
ated seed are showing distinct changes in growth habit and may be
useful as pasture or turf species.
Pearl Spanish peanut introductions 246388 and 246391 were planted in
yield trials in 1959 and 1960. The Spanette Spanish variety, released by
the Georgia Station, averaged 43 percent more sound seed per acre than
246388 and 5 percent more than 246391. In 1960, an introduction from
Israel, Number 258489, under the name of Dixie, was most productive
of 9 entries in the test and led Spanette by 8 percent. Number 258489
(Dixie) appears to be a selection from Florispan Runner.
For the third year significant date of planting x variety interactions
were obtained with grain sorghums at Gainesville in regard to mean
yield, plant height, days from planting to heading and days from plant-
ing to maturity. This variation among sorghum varieties, in response to
date of planting, should increase their potential usefulness in Florida,
where there is need for a crop that can be planted at a time that will not
greatly interfere with the growing and harvesting of a winter crop.
Replicated trials comprising strains of oil seed crops from the genera
Brassica, Ricinus and Sesamum were tested at Gainesville to determine
their adaptation as potential new cash crops for Florida.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 780 Fred Clark
One acre of tobacco was planted, and 7 insecticide materials were
tested. Acre yields were reduced by as much as 400 pounds where no
insecticide was applied, and a loss of over $250 per acre occurred. (See
also Project 780, Entomology Department.)

Hatch Project 783 P. L. Pfahler
A high positive correlation (r = +.89**) between second clipping and
total forage production of oats was obtained, indicating that selection on
the basis of second clipping data would be relatively effective. A sig-
nificant positive correlation (r = +.29*) between growth type and total
forage production was obtained, indicating that a semi-decumbent winter
type variety would produce a larger amount of forage.
Population density studies with 2 varieties of oats were conducted.
Seedling emergence data indicated that high population densities resulted
in a significantly lower percentage emergence. Apparently root secre-
tions from germinating seedlings grown in close proximity lowered the
percentage emergence. Although no variety x density interaction was
detected, selective elimination of individual biotypes within these varie-
ties may occur at high population densities. A highly significant date-of-
clipping x variety interaction was observed; the upright, spring type va-
riety Seminole produced large amounts of forage earlier in the season,
while the semi-decumbent variety Floriland produced larger quantities
later in the season. Population density could considerably alter the dis-
tribution of forage production within each variety. A highly significant
date-of-clipping x seed size was obtained, with larger seed producing
larger amounts of late season forage. Larger amounts of stored seed
reserves would not contribute materially to growth in this advanced pe-
riod in the life cycle of the plant. Therefore, selection of large-seeded
biotypes within these supposedly heterogenous varieties may be respon-

State Project 794 Fred Clark and E. B. Whitty
Experiments over the past 4 years have shown plastic film to be su-
perior to cheesecloth for tobacco planted covers. Plants again reached
transplanting size earlier under plastic than under cheesecloth. Up to
300 pounds more tobacco was produced by plants grown under the plas-
tic covers. Greater yields were also obtained from tobacco transplant-
ed March 18, which was early for the 1960 season, and from the F22-2
variety. Hoagland's solution was the superior source of nitrogen in the
cheesecloth covered planted, but no difference existed between plants
receiving the various fertilizers under plastic film. Tobacco seedlings
transplanted immediately after pulling produced better yields than plants
held from 2 to 8 days before being transplanted.

Annual Report, 1961


Regional Research Project 839 E. G. Rodgers and M. Wilcox
(Regional S-18)
Leachability of simazine, atrazine, atratone and ipazine as influenced
by rate of application and the amount and frequency of simulated rain-
fall was studied under greenhouse conditions. These herbicides were ap-
plied at 2 and 4 pounds active ingredient per acre to Greenville fine
sandy loam soil which then received simulated rainfall in amounts vary-
ing from 1 to 16 inches in 7 to 28 days.
Each herbicide applied at 4 pounds per acre commonly was leached
to greater depths by a given quantity of simulated rainfall than the same
material applied at only 2 pounds per acre. Abnormalities of cucum-
ber and oat seedlings grown in treated soil taken from various 1-inch
horizons to a maximum depth of 6 inches served as the basis of evalua-
tions. A given quantity of water applied during a specific period of time
appeared to move the herbicide or its effect downward to greater depths
than the same amount of water applied over a longer period of time.
More leaching occurred, however, in soil to which were applied greater
total quantities of simulated rainfall. Oats were more sensitive than
cucumbers to these herbicides.
Based on the combined responses of oats and cucumbers, the most
leachable material was atrazine, followed in decreasing order by atra-
tone, simazine and ipazine.

Hatch Project 850 W. A. Carver, D. B. Linden
and F. H. Hull

Inbred lines are being established in Pennisetum glaucum and P. spi-
catum and in hybrid strains. Dwarf lines, which originated in the selling
program, are being intercrossed and inbred to determine their heredity
for future use as seed parents and for increasing forage yield through
hybrid vigor. One millet-napiergrass cross possesses several millet-like
characters and good winter hardiness. This plant is a hybrid between a
tall, late maturing strain of P. glaucum and napiergrass. Forty-six
millet-napier plants had been transplanted from the breeding nursery to
permanent plots for study of forage quality and resistance to cold. Most
of the plants were killed by cold during the winter of 1959-60.
The regional millet variety test of 1960 showed the same variety rank
as in 1959: Gahi-1, Starr, Hybrid SJ, Cattail No. 7, and Common. Starr
was 10 percent lower than Gahi in green forage yield, and Hybrid SJ
was 23 percent lower.
The Digitaria collection includes 55 named species and 46 accessions
without species designation, representing the largest assemblage of Dig-
itaria in the United States. They are being evaluated and classified with-
in the taxonomic sub-groups in preparation of an interspecific hybridiza-
tion breeding program. Some entries with superior winter hardiness or
aggressive growth habit are being tested directly as possible new varie-
ties. Digitaria smutsii and Digitaria eriantha, primarily bunch types
have shown the greatest winter hardiness, some with no winter killing in
3 years. Some of the introductions from Belgian Congo had a rate of
growth faster than pangolagrass. These introductions survived their first
winter in Florida as well as pangola did.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

State Project 886 M. Wilcox and E. G. Rodgers
A comparison was made of weed control activity with and without soil
incorporation of thiolearbamates and other promising herbicides for use
in peanuts. Herbicidal activity was generally greater with incorporation,
the increase being greater with the thiolcarbamates.
Yield data from another field trial of 60 herbicidal treatments at vari-
ous rates and growth stages show considerable promise for several new
herbicides. In addition to those previously reported, R-1607 shows prom-
ise for control of both broadleaf weeds and grasses. Further evaluations
are underway.
(See also Project 886, West Florida Station.)

State Project 900 E. G. Rodgers and Fred Clark
The study of 10 crop rotation systems involving 4 levels of fertilization
on 9 different crops initiated in 1958 and modified in 1960 has been con-
tinued. Response of all crops to fertilization was satisfactory. Corn
showed a marked yield increase in response to high nitrogen applica-
tions. Corn grown in alternating years produced higher yields than corn
grown each year on the land. Tobacco yields were higher following fal-
lowing than when following corn in the rotation. Rotation and fertiliza-
tion effects on chemical content of the crop plants have been inconclu-
sive. Other specific effects of the rotation systems can be determined
only after a much longer evaluation period. (See also Project 900, Su-
wannee Valley Experiment Station.)

State Project 909 Kuell Hinson"
Approximately 500 soybean breeding lines were planted at Gainesville,
Live Oak and Zellwood to compare their performance with the best avail-
able commercial varieties. The Zellwood nursery was not harvested be-
cause of excessive stinkbug damage. However, data were collected to
permit elimination of lines with undesirable agronomic and disease qual-
ities. Of the 388 lines tested for the first time at Gainesville and Live
Oak, 39 yielded more and 60 yielded essentially the same as the Jack-
son check. All 99 lines have satisfactory agronomic and disease quali-
ties and will be tested again at both locations. More than 100 lines tested
in previous years were tested again. F55-822, a potentially early ma-
turing variety for north central Florida, has a 4-year average yield 22
percent above Jackson at Gainesville and a 3-year average yield 11 per-
cent above Jackson at Live Oak. F58-3734, a potential variety of medium
to late maturity, has a 2-year average yield 35 percent above Jackson at
Gainesville and was 20 percent above Jackson at Live Oak in 1960. The
parent line from which F58-3734 was selected averaged 19 percent above
Jackson at Gainesville and Live Oak over a 2-year period. F55-822 and
F58-3734 will be recommended for variety release if their relative superi-
ority to Jackson is maintained in 1961. (See also Project 909, Suwannee
Valley and Central Florida stations.)

SCooperative with Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, USDA.

Annual Report, 1961

Figure 7.-Photograph showing the effect of treatments on alfalfa:
complete fertilization, including minor elements (28); same treatment ex-
cept without molybdenum (24); and same as 28 except without boron (20).

Figure 8.-Close view of extreme boron deficiency of alfalfa.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 950 H. C. Harris
In order to have plant material for the study of the effects of nutrient
deficiencies on biochemical relationships within the plant, an effort was
made to grow plants with deficiencies. Hairy Peruvian alfalfa was grown
on Arredondo loamy fine sand and Ladino and white clovers on Leon fine
sand at the greenhouse. Several deficiencies developed. An application
of copper or sulfur increased the yields of all these crops. Zinc ap-
pared to be harmful to both alfalfa and Ladino clover. Boron greatly
increased the yield of alfalfa (Figures 7 and 8) but had little effect on
the other crops. Cobalt, at the rates applied, seemed to be harmful for
alfalfa and Ladino. An application of vanadium significantly increased
the yield of alfalfa and Ladino, suggesting the possibility that vanadium
may be of value on some Florida soils.
In a similar test, low temperature seemed to kill lupine where boron
or lime was not applied.
Chemical work on the plants thus grown is only in the early stages,
but it appears that nutrient deficiencies have a tremendous effect on
the composition of the plants.
Color of some legume seeds appears to have an effect on viability
and biochemical changes.

State Project 969 J. R. Edwardson
Seed of Minnesota A158T(BC.) and A158 corn were treated with gam-
ma radiation of 10,000, 20,000, 30,000 and 40,000r. Seed of both lines
which were not irradiated served as controls. All seed were planted in
a completely randomized design, in vermiculite in flats. Height meas-
urements were begun 1 week after planting and taken once a week in 3
succeeding weeks. Analysis of variance was applied to the height meas-
urements. Significant differences in height were found between treat-
ments, lines, dates and treatment and line interaction. A158T plants
were consistently taller than A158 plants in all treatments except at 20,-
000r, where the lines produced plants with identical mean heights. There
was no significant difference between the controls in height. The dif-
ferential response to radiation damage is probably cytoplasmic.

State Project 971 A. J. Norden
In this study, previously designated plots are seeded each year to
bahiagrass until a period of 5 years has elapsed, after which time all
plots are planted to a cultivated field crop to determine the effect of
age of sod on field crop production. Seasonal records are maintained to
determine the rate and extent of decline of the bahiagrass plots.
In cooperation with Dr. V. G. Perry the soil of each plot is examined
for changes in the numbers and species of nematodes. Covariance an-
alysis of the 1960 data indicated that of the 8 species of nematodes iden-

Annual Report, 1961

tified, the sting nematode, although present in fewer numbers than sev-
eral of the other species, had the most deleterious effect on the yield, ear
height and plant height of corn.
Soil samples from each plot are taken yearly to determine availabil-
ity of nutrients, and an attempt is made to lessen soil heterogeneity be-
tween plots. From 1960 corn yield data designed to determine soil hete-
rogeneity, the plot means involved in the "years in bahiagrass vari-
able" were not significant statistically. Positive correlations were ob-
tained, however, between amount of available calcium and growth of
corn and yield of grain, indicating that even though relatively large ap-
plications of dolomitic limestone were made in 1959, further applications
are necessary to remove this limiting factor.

Regional Research Project 998 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder,
(Regional S-47) O. C. Ruelke, S. H. West'
and K. D. Butson7
Studies of perennial grasses fertilized with nitrogen in the fall to pro-
duce hay for the winter have been expanded. The growth retardant
maleic hydrazide, sprayed on the regrowth of grasses at the rates of 2
and 6 pounds per acre after harvesting hay in the fall, reduced the
percentage of winter-killed plants and increased the hay yield of the
first cutting the following spring. Twelve pounds per acre of maleic
hydrazide injured the plants, reduced the stands and reduced the yield
the following spring. In general, growth retardants were less effective
in preventing winter injury when temperatures were consistently cold
than when winter temperatures were alternately cold and warm.
Winterkill of pangolagrass receiving high rates of nitrogen fertilization
in the fall (200 to 400 pounds of N per acre) was not successfully prevented
by applying rates of P20 and K2O up to 200 pounds per acre. However,
increasing the rate of KO0 did decrease the amount of winterkill
A technique of growing alfalfa seedlings under conditions of infre-
quent irrigation in an unshaded greenhouse during the summer shows
promise for screening alfalfa plants tolerant to heat and high moisture
stress. Alfalfa plants survive better on a slight hill than they do on
nearly level land-even if the hill is only a fraction of an inch high. New
research was initiated to substantiate this observation and to determine
if planting alfalfa on low, flat beds will effectively increase longevity of

Hatch Project 1034 Fred Clark
This is a new project begun March 1, 1961. Three acres of the Hicks
variety were grown in a special row arrangement designed for the pro-
posed system of harvesting. Harvest was only about half done at the
time of this report, but it may be said that the partly mechanized sys-
tem was working about as predicted.

0 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, USDA.
7 Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Preliminary work on bulk curing in the 1960 season was done in 10
small laboratory size curing units. A 3 x 3 factorial design experiment
for curing included 3 rates of coloring and 3 rates of drying. The Hicks
variety of tobacco was used for the tests, and a sample of leaf was cured
in both the bulk system and in the conventional barn for comparative
purposes. Leaf quality comparisons were the most important fac-
tors studied in the 1960 tests. Both physical and chemical evaluations
were made, and it was shown that bulk curing gives a product similar
in chemical composition and physical properties to that obtained by the
barn cure. Certain of the coloring and drying rates produced a better
ratio of cured leaf to green weight without loss of quality, and this fac-
tor is of economic importance. (See also Project 1034, Agricultural Engi-

Hatch Project 1036 A. T. Wallace
Seeds of the Victorgrain variety of oats, which is susceptible to the
fungus Helminthosporium victoria, were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gam-
ma rays, and the second generation was screened for mutations at the
locus controlling the disease. The standard mutation rate of seeds with
10 percent moisture content at 22C has been found to range from 1.3 to
8.5 x 10-" per roentgen at the locus. Results now show that this rate
can be modified with pre- or post-irradiation seed treatments. A number
of treatments were tested with a series of doses. The maximum muta-
tion rates for each series of treatments are as follows: Seeds with 6.8
percent moisture = 24.4 x 10-/r/1 at 10kr. Seeds with 6.8 percent mois-
ture but wet immediately after irradiation = 25.8 x 10-8/r/1 at 20kr. Seeds
heated for 1 hour at 85C after irradiation = 24.6 x 10-'/r/1 at 10kr. Seeds
heated for 1 hour at 85C before irradiation =14.3 x 108-/r/1 at 20kr. Seeds
soaked for 24 hours at 22C before irradiation = 113 x 10-'/r/1 at 2.5kr.
Seeds in absence of oxygen during irradiation 24.6 x 10-'/r/1 at 10kr.
Seeds in absence of oxygen during irradiation and stored in nitrogen
=41.2 x 10-8/r/1 at 10kr. Seeds at dry ice temperatures before irradiation
= 4.9 x 10 8/r/1 at 20kr. Seeds irradiated with ultraviolet light for 1 hour
before being irradiated with gamma radiation = 31.8 x 10-'/r/1 at 10kr.
This is the first report that gamma radiation induced mutation rates
at a specific locus in higher plants can be modified. Generally, the re-
sults indicate that factors which make the seed more radiosensitive will
increase the mutation rate. Also they indicate that the agents that tend
to trap free radicals may be used to increase the efficiency of ionizing
radiations for the production of mutations.

State Project 1053 A. J. Norden
In 1961 at the Hague Dairy Unit a 4 replicated test was initiated to
compare the forage and grain yield obtained from a consecutive plant-
ing of spring corn, summer sorghum and fall oats with the standard pro-
cedure of spring corn and fall oats. Application of plant nutrients is
made on the basis of soil test results from samples taken annually from
each plot. Seasonal fluctuations in the organic matter content of the soil
will be exmained to determine the effect of the root systems in main-
taining organic matter.

Annual Report, 1961

In prior grain sorghum tests at Gainesville, significant date-of-planting
x variety interactions were obtained, indicating the possibility of select-
ing or developing sorghum varieties adapted to either early or late plant-
ings. Therefore, satisfactory silage yields from sorghum may be possi-
ble with July plantings. To determine planting date response within the
sorghum species, more than 700 genotypes from the World Collection,
including over 100 established commercial varieties, are being evaluated
in single row plots at Gainesville in 1961. The genotypes will be plant-
ed in 4 periods: April, May, June and July. Data on maturity, plant
height, head development, insect damage and disease incidence are be-
ing obtained. Promising genotypes from this 1961 test will be further
evaluated in a replicated July planting in 1962 and subsequent years for
yield of forage and grain, interval from planting to ensiling stage, ma-
turity date, insect damage and disease resistance. (See also Project
1053, Dairy Science Department.)

State Project 1087 M. Wilcox and E. G. Rodgers
This is a new project, initiated in the summer of 1961. Studies are
underway in corn, soybeans and tobacco. (See also Project 1087, Cen-
tral Florida and Everglades stations.)


Field Crops Production on Flatwoods Soil.-The effect of 4 bed heights
(0, 3, 6, and 9 inches), 5 populations (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 thousand plants
per acre) and 2 planting dates (March 25, 1960, and April 14, 1960) on the
growth, development and yield of 2 varieties of hybrid corn (Florida
200 and Coker 811) grown on Flatwoods soils was measured in 1960.
A curvilinear effect was indicated between bed height and grain yield
of the March planting of corn and a linear effect between bed height
and grain yield of the April planted corn. From the relationships, ap-
parently an interaction exists, suggesting that bed height is a more im-
portant factor in April plantings. Early planted corn is apparently suf-
ficiently well developed that the effects of excess water are reduced.
As population increased, grain yield in the March planting increased
from 106 to 132 bushels per acre. A range of 74 to 97 bushels per acre
was obtained in the April planting; however, no increase was observed
between 20,000 and 25,000 plants per acre.
The effect of plant populations and bed height on root development
is shown in Figure 9. A negative linear correlation was obtained be-
tween plant population and dry weight of roots per plant. However, the
total dry weight of corn roots produced per acre increased as the pop-
ulation increased to 20,000 plants. In general, the dry weight of roots
and width of the root clump was less affected by bed height than was
the depth and angle of root penetration. A curvilinear effect was ob-
tained between bed height and the dry weight of roots and width of root
clump. A linear effect between depth of root clump penetration and bed
height was indicated. (A. J. Norden.)
Evaluation of Ronphagrass for Pasture in Florida.-Ronphagrass, a
perennial bunch type grass, produced less forage than adapted varieties
of rye and oats but outyielded wheat during winter trials at Gainesville.
Ronphagrass continued to produce fresh green forage in the late spring,
when cereal grains matured, but it became dormant during the sum-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

mer. Ronphagrass tolerated frosts which seriously injured the leaves of
cereal grains.
Ronphagrass contained a high crude protein content (24.5 percent of the
dry forage). Ronphagrass was less palatable than cereal grains to beef
cattle; however, they would eat it when other forages were not available.
Ronphagrass was toxic to sheep. Seventeen days after initial feeding
of pure ronphagrass to a sheep, the animal became extremely nervous,
as evidenced by trembling, showed abnormal coordination and eventu-
ally died. There was no recovery in afflicted animals even after they
were fed normal diets for 2 months.

Figure 9.-Representative root clumps of Florida 200 hybrid corn grown
on 9-inch beds (upper photograph) and 0-inch beds (lower photograph).
Root clumps on the left in each photograph are from plots having 25,000
plants per acre, and clumps on the right are from plots with 5,000 plants
per acre.

Annual Report, 1961 67

Exploratory experiments indicated that high nitrogen content in the
grass was not the principal cause of the disorder. A high level of avail-
able cobalt (25 times the daily requirement) administered orally, daily,
in capsules, prevented the disorder. A comparable high level of zinc
(administered orally), intramuscular injections of Vitamin B., or a co-
balt bullet in the rumen did not prevent the disorder. (0. C. Ruelke'
P. E. Loggins', J. T. McCall9, C. B. Ammerman' and C. F. Simpson."o)

8 Agronomy Department.
9Animal Science Department.
1o Veterinary Science Department.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research was conducted on 55 projects. New projects include studies
on age at which to first breed heifers; geographical and selection effects
on early lambing; mineral requirements of cattle; effect of nutrient de-
ficiencies on semen production of cattle and rams; effect of pre-slaugh-
ter feeding of sucrose to swine on carcass quality; the effect of tem-
perature on litter size in gilts and on vitamin A need of swine, sheep
and cattle; the effect of flavoring agents in swine rations; the effect of
level of nutrition on life span of rats; the effect of method of processing
on the nutritive value of corn; and the evaluation of ronphagrass for
feeding cattle and sheep.
A beef cattle shed was constructed for animal breeding and physiology
studies. Holding pens for handling animals prior to slaughter were con-
structed outside the Meats Laboratory. A small addition was made to a
barn at the Nutrition Laboratory for digestion trial studies.
Grant-in-aid funds totaling approximately $110,000 were obtained from
21 different commercial companies, foundations and the U.S. Public
Health Service. These funds made it possible to expand many of the
research studies in the department.
The department has continued its cooperation with many other de-
partments and branch stations in nutrition, physiology, breeding, genetics
and meat studies. Many of our staff have also judged livestock shows
and helped breeders in Central and South America with their livestock
procurement and production problems. The department receives consid-
erable foreign correspondence, and persons from all parts of the world
visit and consult with our staff frequently throughout the year. Some of
the staff have visited Venezuela and have advised and consulted with
Central University and the University of Zulia on their animal science
teaching and research work. This program has been sponsored and fi-
nanced by the Creole Oil Foundation of Venezuela. At the present, 7
Latin American students are doing research and graduate study toward
advanced degrees in the department. This is indicative of the increas-
ing importance of Florida in the Latin American area.

Hatch Project 133 C. B. Ammerman, R. L. Shirley,
L. R. Arrington, J. P. Feaster
and G. K. Davis
Forty-eight heifers were divided equally into 4 ration groups and win-
tered on fair Bahiagrass pastures for 135 days before being placed in
the feedlot for 143 days. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were fed during wintering
1.07, 1.31, 1.57 and 1.80 pounds of cottonseed meal and 1.61, 2.08, 3.12
and 5.61 pounds of citrus pulp per day, respectively. Average daily
gains during the wintering period for the 4 groups were 0.16, 0.32, 0.56
and 1.04 pounds, respectively. When the heifers were sacrificed after
being in the feedlot, the gracilis muscle, heart ventricle and liver were
found to contain 194+ 4, 236+- 6 and 399- 2 milligrams of phosphorus per
100 grams of fresh tissue, respectively. Corresponding values for per-
centages of total solids in the muscle, heart and liver were 26.7 1.5,
22.0- 0.3, and 30.3 2.6, respectively.

SIn cooperation with W. G. Kirk, F. M. Peacock and E. M. Hodges, Range Cattle Station;
H. L. Chapman, Everglades Station; W. C. Burns, West Central Florida Station; and R. B.
Becker and J. M. Wing, Dairy Science Department.

Annual Report, 1961

Semen samples from bulls that received the National Research Coun-
cil recommended level of dietary protein were pooled, and 445 minutes
were required for methylene blue reduction compared to 140 minutes re-
quired for corresponding semen from bulls that received 9 percent of
this protein level. Aluminum, calcium and adenesine triphosphate were
found to have no effect on rate of reduction of the methylene blue,
while ferrous iron increased the rate by 25 percent in both dietary
groups, and copper (2.6 ppm) completely inhibited reduction in all sam-
This project is closed with this report.

Hatch Project 346 R. L. Shirley, J. T. McCall,
L. R. Arrington, C. B. Ammerman
and G. K. Davis

Over a period of 7 weeks young rats were found not to be affected by
the dietary protein (17.5 versus 10 percent) level on the deposition of
zinc and copper in the liver. Diets that contained 1,000 ppm of copper,
both with and without 200 ppm of molybdenum, resulted in about 2 times
as much zinc deposited in the liver as the controls. The low protein
group deposited about 2 times as much iron in the liver as the high
protein group; this was also true in rats that received 1,000 ppm of
copper. However, rats that received 200 ppm of molybdenum plus 1,000
ppm of copper had only about half as much iron in the liver in the 10
percent compared to the 17.5 percent dietary protein groups. This inter-
ference of molybdenum with iron deposition occurred only in the pres-
ence of high levels of copper. A diet that contained 1,000 ppm compared
to 6 ppm of copper resulted in about 10 times as much copper being pres-
ent in the liver. Approximately 3 times as much (P<0.05) orally admin-
istered radioactive copper-64 was deposited in the livers of the rats fed
1,000 ppm of copper and 200 ppm of molybdenum and 10 percent protein
diets compared to corresponding rats that were fed 17.5 percent pro-
tein. The 17.5 percent protein diet gave an increase in hemoglobin over
the 10 percent protein diet; the 200 ppm of molybdenum decreased he-
moglobin; and 1,000 ppm of copper increased the hemoglobin (P <0.01).
This project is closed with this report.

Hatch Project 356 R. L. Shirley, J. T. McCall,
P. E. Loggins, J. F. Hentges,
J. F. Easley and G. K. Davis
Much of the analytical work in the Animal Nutrition Laboratory is con-
cerned with this project, and it involves cooperative work with many of
the branch stations. Over 3,300 determinations were made of the chem-
ical composition of grasses, silages and other feedstuffs during the past
year. These data have demonstrated that many factors control the ni-
trate, protein, ether extract, crude fiber and ash composition of millet,
Bahia, Ronpha and Pangola grasses and silages.

Cooperative with W. G. Kirk, E. M. Hodges and J. McCaleb, Range Cattle Station;
R. B. Becker and J. M. Wing, Dairy Science Department; and G. B. Killinger and 0. C.
Ruelke, Agronomy Department.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 566 J. P. Feaster and R. L. Shirley
Findings obtained on the placental transfer of radioactive iron (Fe-59)
in the rat following intramuscular injection indicate that iron crosses the
placenta as early as the thirteenth day of the 22-day gestation period,
and that the amount transferred increases with increasing fetal age.
Average percentage of the Fe-59 dose found in each 16-day fetus, 48
hours after injection into the maternal rat, was about 0.3 percent, while
4.8 percent was found in each 22-day-old fetus. Thus, iron transfer at the
end of pregnancy was about 16 times as high as that just past mid-
pregnancy. In terms of concentration of radioiron in the fetus, or per-
cent of the dose per gram of fetus, a peak was reached on the seventeenth
day with a gradual decline in concentration noted to term.
This project is closed with this report.

State Project 627 M. Koger
Five pasture programs are being evaluated by grazing with cows and
calves which are also utilized in the cattle breeding study.
The 5 pasture programs include (1) an all-grass program fertilized
at the rate of 450 pounds of 0-10-10 plus 180 pounds of nitrogen annually
per acre. The remaining programs are clover-grass, fertilized at vary-
ing rates as follows: (2) 300 pounds of 0-10-20; (3) 500 pounds of 0-10-20
annually plus nitrogen as needed up to 60 pounds per acre; (4) 700
pounds of 0-10-20 plus nitrogen as needed; and (5) 900 pounds of 0-10-20
plus nitrogen as needed on irrigated pasture. The weight of calf weaned
per acre was 285, 316, 304, 304 and 312 pounds respectively.
The breeding systems being compared are (1) straight breeding to An-
gus and Hereford, (2) crisscrossing of Angus and Hereford, (3) criss-
crossing Angus and Brahman and (4) crisscrossing Hereford and Santa
Gertrudis. Weaning rate in 1960, based on number of cows bred, was 83,
90, 80 and 84 percent respectively. Average weaning weight per calf was
449, 427, 443 and 465 pounds for the respective groups.
(See also Project 627 under Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engi-
neering, Agronomy and Soils for other phases of this cooperative study).

State Project 629 M. Koger, A. Z. Palmer
(Contributing to S-10) and A. C. Warnick
This project is cooperative between the Florida Station and USDA. It
is located at Brooksville, and results are reported under Project 629 un-
der West Central Florida Experiment Station.

State Project 710 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger
and T. J. Cunha
Twenty-four 3-year old pregnant Brahman x Angus heifers weighing
approximately 770 pounds were individually fed 1 of the following ra-

Annual Report, 1961 71

tions: (1) 100 percent N.R.C. requirements without alfalfa, (2) 120 per-
cent N.R.C. requirements without alfalfa and (3) 120 percent N.R.C. re-
quirements including 6 pounds alfalfa meal. The heifers on the 100 per-
cent ration lost 25 pounds, while heifers on the 2 120 percent rations
gained approximately 58 pounds 120 days following calving. The average
calf gains on the 3 rations were similar, ranging from 164 to 171 pounds
during the 120-day period. The percentage of heifers showing estrus and
average interval in days from calving to first estrus on the 3 rations
was (1) 38 percent, 93; (2) 62 percent, 87; and (3) 88 percent, 71.
The production of heifers raised during their first 2 years on the 4
winter programs, (1) grass pasture, low protein; (2) grass pasture, high
protein; (3) clover-grass pasture, low protein; and (4) clover-grass pas-
ture, high protein, has been compared. Heifers on the high protein sup-
plement averaged 35 pounds heavier after the first winter than those on
the low protein and at 30 months of age those on high protein were 41
pounds heavier. However, heifers raised on the clover-grass pastures
were 103 pounds heavier at 30 months of age than comparable heifers
raised on the straight grass pastures. There was a 4 percent advantage
in calves weaned for heifers wintered on high protein compared to low
protein, while heifers raised on clover weaned 10 percent more calves
than heifers on the straight grass pasture. The average weaning weight
of calves per cow was 19 pounds heavier in females wintered on high
protein compared to low protein and 39 pounds heavier for those win-
tered on clover-grass compared to those on straight grass pasture.
This project is closed with this report.

State Project 717 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and M. Koger
Relative breed performance data were compiled on registered Angus,
Brahman and Hereford cattle and calves which were maintained under
similar environmental conditions. These data will be collected for a 10-
year period to permit calculation of heritability estimates of perform-
ance factors. For the first time, average birth weights of Angus calves
equalled those of other breeds. Apparently the effect of the imported
Angus herdsire, Elector of Shempston, was reflected in the improved
performance of this calf crop. Prior to supplemental feeding, Angus
calves of each sex group gained faster than Herefords. During the sup-
plemental feeding period, Angus males out-gained Hereford males by 0.47
pound per day while Angus females gained 0.24 pound per day faster
than Hereford females. Non-creep-fed Brahman male and female calves
each had average daily gains of 1.7 pounds. For the first time, every
Brahman female 3 years of age or older gave birth to a calf. The re-
production rate in the Angus herd was reduced 16 percent by initiation
of artificial insemination. Type scores and estimated slaughter grades
were higher for Angus and Hereford than Brahman offspring. Detailed
data on other performance factors were recorded for later analyses.


Hatch Poject 738 G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace
and T. J. Cunha
A study designed to determine the phosphorus requirement and op-
timum calcium to phosphorus ratio for young pigs has been completed.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The pigs were weaned at 2 weeks of age and were individually fed semi-
purified or fortified corn-soybean rations respectively until they were 35
or 155 days of age. Criteria used in establishing the optimum require-
ment and ratio were weight gain, feed efficiency, percentage ash and
radiographs of the fibula and femur and length of the femur. An evalua-
tion of all criteria indicated that the phosphorus requirement of pigs
from 2 to 7 weeks of age was 0.44 percent of the ration and that with this
phosphorus level the optimum calcium to phosphorus ratio was 0.9:1.
From 35 to approximately 155 days of age 0.44 percent phosphorus with
a calcium to phosphorus ratio of 1.2:1 was adequate for optimum growth
and skeletal development.
Pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age were fed rations containing soybean
meal, fish meal, peanut meal or dried skim milk as the source of sup-
plementary protein. The daily gains and feed efficiencies ranked in de-
creasing order for the various rations were as follows: dried skim milk,
soybean meal, fish meal and peanut meal. Digestion coefficients for dry
matter, protein, ash, ether extract and energy are presently being de-
termined for the various rations. These coefficients will permit the pig's
digestive ability to be evaluated at 3, 5 and 7 weeks of age.
The influence of the calcium to phosphorus ratio on pig performance
and nutrient digestibility is presently being studied.

Hatch Project 740 P. E. Loggins, M. Koger,
(Regional Project S-29) A. C. Warnick and T. J. Cunha
The 1961 lamb crop was produced from a straight breeding program
of Rambouillet and Florida native ewes. Forty-seven Rambouillet ewes
(17 of which came from the Auburn, Alabama, early-lambing ewe flock)
and 39 Florida native ewes were exposed to rams of the same breeding.
Visectomized rams were used from April 15 to Septemebr 15, 1960, to
determine earliness of estrus and breeding dates. Intact rams were
placed with the ewe flock beginning July 1 for a 75-day breeding sea-
son. The Florida Station Rambouillet, Florida native and Auburn Ram-
bouillet ewes were found to be in anestrus prior to July 1. The average
dates of first estrus in the breeding ewes were as follows: Florida Ram-
bouillet, July 29; Auburn Rambouillet, July 19; and Florida native, July
31. The lambing percentages for the 1961 lambing season were as fol-
lows: Rambouillet, 98 percent and Florida Natives 115 percent, with aver-
age lambing dates of December 30 and December 30 respectively.
The lambs were weaned on March 9, 1961, at an average age of 69
days. The lambs received creep feed and were continued on a full feed-
ing program following weaning until May 19, 1961. The lambs averaged
67 pounds at 139 days average age on May 19 and graded a low Choice.
The Rambouillet lambs averaged 70 pounds and graded Choice. The
Florida native lambs averaged 64 pounds and graded Good plus.
This project is terminated with this report.

State Project 752 M. Koger, A. C. Warnick
(Contributing to S-10) and J. F. Hentges, Jr.
This year's matings concluded critical test matings of the Snorter
Hereford, Midget Brahman and Guinea (Dexter). The results from the
previous years' matings confirm previous findings: (1) a high frequency
of dwarf genes results in numerous resorbed fetuses, abortions and still-

Annual Report, 1961 73

births among normal appearing calves; (2) mating of carriers of the
Dexter gene (Guinea) with known carriers of the Snorter gene has re-
sulted in 1 observed Dexter type "bulldog monster" plus numerous re-
sorbtions; and (3) mating of Snorter dwarf bulls to known carrier fe-
males of mixed breeding has produced less than 1/ dwarf progeny which
would be expected on the basis of a simple Mendelian recessive.
Cooperative work with the Medical School established that the Snorter
dwarf excretes in the urine an acid Mucopolysaccharide similar or iden-
tical to chondroitin sulphuric acid-B, the same polysaccharide found in
the urine of humans affected with a form of dwarfism known as the
Hurler syndrone or gargoylism. These forms of dwarfism in the 2 spe-
cies show other phenotypic similarities also. Work on excretion of this
polysaccharide by carrier and non-carrier cattle continues.

Hatch 755 L. R. Arrington and C. B. Ammerman
Digestion trials were conducted with steers to determine the digestibil-
ity of nutrient components of dried citrus pulp and to study the effect of
excess calcium upon digestibility of these components. When citrus pulp
composed 70 percent of the ration, the protein digestibility of 55 percent
and crude fiber digestibility of 60 percent in normal pulp were not af-
fected by an increase in the calcium from 1.5 to 3.1 percent. Digestibil-
ity of ether extract and nitrogen free extract, however, were significant-
ly depressed. A slight but non-significant decrease in energy digestibil-
ity occurred when the calcium intake was 3.1 percent.
Digestion coefficients of the nutrients in dehydrated tomato pulp when
fed alone to steers were protein, 54.6; ether extract, 85.5; fiber, 42.2;
and nitrogen free extract, 78.4. Digestibility of the nutrients was im-
proved when the tomato pulp was fed with soybean oil meal. Nitrogen
balance data obtained with lambs fed tomato pulp revealed a biological
value of 57, which may be compared with a value of 64 for soybean
oil meal obtained in the same manner. The apparent digestibility of
the nitrogen in tomato pulp by lambs was 51 percent.

State Project 768 L. R. Arrington, C. B. Ammerman
and G. K. Davis
The effect of protein intake upon the growth of young rabbits was
studied with Dutch and New Zealand rabbits. Using rations containing
11.5, 13.5 and 15.5 percent protein, 4-week old Dutch rabbits gained 463,
550 and 589 grams respectively during a 28-day experimental period. At
8 weeks of age, the intake of 13.5 percent protein improved gains over
11.5 percent, but 15.5 percent protein did not increase the gain over 13.5
percent. Using additional rations containing 16, 20 and 24 percent pro-
tein fed to 8-week old rabbits, the weight gains were not improved in
Dutch rabbits as protein increased, but were slightly improved in New
Zealand rabbits fed the same rations. Feed efficiency was not improved
with increasing intakes of protein.
Feed conversion by growing rabbits decreased rapidly with increas-
ing age. At 4 to 8 weeks of age, the feed required per unit of gain was
2.6; at 8 to 12 weeks, 4.4; and at 12 to 16 weeks, 6.5. The growing New
Zealand rabbits were more efficient in the conversion of feed than were

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Dutch rabbits. At 8 to 12 weeks of age, the feed efficiency of New
Zealands was 3.95, and the Dutch, 4.82.
The feeding of a ground ration reduced the voluntary feed intake of
rabbits by 11 percent when compared to the intake of the same ration
fed in pellet form.
Fecal dry matter excretion was determined in mature rabbits fed dif-
ferent intakes of feed in effort to measure the effect of intake upon
coprophagy. Feed intakes amounting to 1.6, 3.0, 3.25 and 5.0 percent of
body weight resulted in dry matter excretion equal to 29.39, 32.25, 32.69
and 33.84 percent of the intake. These results indicate that at the lower
feed intakes a greater proportion of feces is consumed in the normal
practice of coprophagy.

State Project 805 R. L. Shirley, G. K. Davis, H. D. Wallace, A. C.
Warnick, J. F. Hentges, A. Z. Palmer, P. E.
Loggins, J. W. Carpenter and T. J. Cunha
A ration that contained approximately 9 percent of the N.R.C. recom-
mended level of dietary protein was observed to decrease (P<0.01) the
mg. of nitrogen per ml. of semen from 1.85 (for control adequate protein
fed bulls) to 0.95, to decrease (P<0.01) the ig. of phosphorus liberated
per ml. semen from 492 to 61, and to decrease the Ag. of phosphorus liberated
per mg. nitrogen in the semen from 306 to 57 due to 5-nucleotidase ac-
tivity, respectively. Rams fed urea as the only source of nitrogen com-
pared to others fed Dracket soybean protein had 105 compared to 280
lig. phosphorus liberated per mg. nitrogen in the semen due to 5-nucleo-
tidase activity (P<0.01).
The bulls fed an adequate level of protein had approximately 400 mg.
compared to 10 mg. of fructose per 100 ml. of semen in the group on only
9 percent N.R.C. protein requirements. Yet, when fructose was added to
the semen of both groups of bulls the adequate protein group had only
slightly greater capacity to produce fructolysis. Rams that received urea
as their only source of nitrogen had greater (P<0.01) fructolysis than
those that received Dracket protein or no nitrogen at all over a 7-week
The rate of methylene blue reduction in bull semen was found to be
significantly increased in the semen of the bulls fed the recommended
protein level and in the rams that received the Dracket protein. The
rate of decoloration was significantly increased in the bull semen when
succinate, glutathione and thioglycollic acid were added.

Hatch Project 809 A. C. Warnick and M. Koger
Time of estrus and ovulation were controlled in nonparous cycling
Brahman heifers injected with 75 mg. progesterone every third day for
15 days. The subsequent estrous cycle ranged from 18 to 23 days in
length. A second series of injections of progesterone in the same heifers
did not inhibit estrus and ovulation, indicating a possible refractory re-
sponse to steroids or dosages near the threshold level. Time of estrus
3 Cooperative with W. G. Kirk and F. M. Peacock, Range Cattle Station.

Annual Report, 1961

was regulated in a purebred herd of 94 Brahman females with daily
injections of 25 mg. progesterone for 14 days followed with one injection
of 2 mg. estradiol benzoate. However, only 5 percent of the females
became pregnant when inseminated with frozen semen on the third and
fourth days following last injection of progesterone. One-third of the 2-
year old heifers and 1/ of the parous cows failed to ovulate following
treatment. The specific cause of low fertility at the induced estrus is
not known but appears to be one of failure of ovulation, failure of fertili-
zation or embryonic mortality.
Daily injections of 25 mg. progesterone or injections every third day
of 75 mg. progesterone over a 15-day interval were equally effective in
regulating estrus with purebred Angus, Hereford and Brahman females.
The pregnancy rate following artificial insemination in the above ex-
periment was Angus, 21 percent; Brahman, 40 percent; and Hereford,
12 percent.

State Project 867 J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. C. Warnick
and R. L. Shirley
The study of the comparative physiology of Brahman and Hereford
cattle fed 2 levels of dietary protein was terminated with several scientif-
ic publications. Brahman venous blood was reported to contain a higher
percentage saturation with oxygen and a lower percentage of carbon
dioxide than Hereford venous blood. The erythrocytes in Brahman blood
were shown to have a lower potassium and higher sodium content than
those in Hereford blood. In a study of adrenal gland weights from 119
cattle of all sexes, it was noted that Brahmans in all sex groups had a
slightly smaller adrenal to live weight ratio than Herefords. The total
adrenal weight of cattle was reported to be smaller in relation to unit
body weight than any other mammalian species for which data are avail-
able. The thyroidal uptake of radioactive iodine was reported to be slow-
er in Brahmans than Herefords. Hereford thyroids took up more iodine
and retained a greater percentage of it at comparable time intervals
than Brahmans. These data confirmed a belief that Herefords have a
more active thyroid than Brahmans. A 50 percent reduction in dietary
protein intake reduced the iodine retained by the thyroids of both spe-
cies. In a series of 20 digestion trials, Brahmans digested crude protein
and other nutrients more efficiently and consumed more feed dry mat-
ter at low levels of nutrition than Herefords, but no differences in di-
gestibility were apparent when nutrition level was adequate. These find-
ings further explain the ability of Brahman cattle to better withstand un-
favorable semi-tropical environments.


State Project 884 A. Z. Palmer
In 1957, 48 weanling heifers of mixed breeding but predominately
Brahman and Shorthorn crosses were grouped into 4 lots by weight and
breeding. Wintering and feed lot phases of the study of the "Effects of
Winter Gain of Calves on Feed Lot Performance and Carcass Grade"
were conducted at the Range Cattle Station, Ona. The trial was replicat-
ed in 1958, 1959 and 1960. Heifers on the first 3 trials were slaughtered
at the University Meats Laboratory, and slaughter and carcass data

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

were recorded. Fourth trial heifers were slaughtered during July 1961.
Data collected over the 4-year period are being statistically analyzed.
(See also Project 884, Range Cattle Station.)


State Project 906 J. P. Feaster
To test the effect of whole-body radiation on fetal nutrition, as meas-
ured by the placental transfer of iron to the fetus, pregnant female rats
were exposed to 200 roentgens whole-body cobalt-60 radiation. Forty-
eight hours later they were given single intramuscular injections of ra-
dioiron (Fe-59), and 48 hours after dosing the fetuses were removed and
assayed for Fe-59 content. Rats were irradiated at stages of gestation
ranging from the twelfth to the eighteenth day. Controls consisted of
pregnant rats in which injection of Fe-59 was not preceded by Co-60
irradiation. Content of Fe-59 in fetuses from the 2 lots of rats was
Radioiron was found to cross the placenta in both lots of rats at all
stages of gestation studied, from the thirteenth to the twenty-second day,
or term. Rate of transfer of radioiron was clearly higher in the ir-
radiated rats than in controls, indicating increased placental permeabil-
ity with irradiation.
Radiation did not affect the excretion of Fe-59 by the adult rats,
the amounts excreted in 48 hours by both lots being negligible. Amounts
of radioiron found in blood, liver and muscle were also similar for rats
of the control and irradiated lots.
To study the intra-uterine buildup of proteins, whole fetuses obtained
under this project have been hydrolyzed to free the amino acids, which
are being measured both qualitatively and quantitatively after isolation
by column chromatography. Analyses completed indicate that all amino
acids of biological significance are present in the rat fetus by the eigh-
teenth day.
This project is closed with this report.

State Project 922 M. Koger
This is a new project cooperative with the Glades State Prison Farm
and the Everglades Station. The first year's calf crop will be weaned
in 1961. (See also Project 922, Everglades Experiment Station.)

Hatch Project 938 A. C. Warnick and M. Koger
Observations were made on ovarian development in Brahman and
other breeds of beef cattle. Studies in a private purebred Brahman
herd and at the West Central Experiment Station at Brooksville indicate
that from 50 to 75 percent of the 2-year old heifers do not have a corpus
luteum at the beginning of the breeding season. Also, 67 to 80 percent
of the lactating and non-lactating parous cows, respectively, had no cor-
pus luteum at the beginning of the breeding season. All 2-year old
heifers of the Angus, Hereford, Brangus and Santa Gertrudis at the

Annual Report, 1961 77

station in Brooksville had a corpus luteum at the beginning of the breed-
ing season.
The lack of ovarian development as shown by no corpus luteum in
Brahman females would partially explain lowered reproduction rate and
late calving compared to British breeds. Some 3-year old nonparous
Brahman heifers show irregular estrual cycles and long periods of an-
estrous and anovulation during the summer. There was a tendency for
heifers showing irregular estrual cycles during the summer to repeat
this condition in the winter. It is possible that regularity of the estrous
cycle in Brahman is a heritable trait and improvement in reproductive
rate could be made by selection for it. The age at puberty is delayed
in Brahman heifers compared to Shorthorn or Brahman x Shorthorn
heifers raised under a similar environment.

State Project 972 J. F. Hentges, Jr.
Hays for cattle feeding experiments were produced by 4 fertilizer
treatments on Coastal bermudagrass. The fertilizer treatments were a
base application of 0-10-20 with and without minor elements plus either
100 or 200 pounds nitrogen per acre initially with 1z this amount ap-
plied after each cutting for hay. Minor element application increased
the yield of hay 1,483 pounds for a 4-cutting season yield of 8,931 pounds
per acre with the 100 pound nitrogen per acre fertilizer treatment. With
the 200 pound per acre nitrogen level, minor elements increased the
yield 822 pounds for a season yield of 11,683 pounds per acre. Increasing
the level of nitrogen fertilization from 100 to 200 pounds per acre in-
creased the 4-cutting season yield of hay by an average of 3,082 pounds
per acre. Crude protein content of hay was increased by increments of 2
percent to 5 percent by increasing the rate of nitrogen fertilizer from
100 to 200 pounds per acre. The average crude protein content of all
hay was 9.2 percent and 12.2 percent for 100 and 200 pound nitrogen
treatments respectively. The digestibility of crude protein, dry matter
and energy increased with increases in hay protein content. Grinding
and/or pelleting did not affect the digestibility of dry matter or the total
digestible nutrient content but decreased protein and crude fiber digesti-
bility. Lactating cows given free access to either long or ground Coastal
bermudagrass hays grown with either the 100 or 200 pound nitrogen fer-
tilizer rates lost 0.6 to 0.7 pound weight per day; however, calves suck-
ling these cows gained from 0.7 to 1.0 pound per day. Lactating cows
fed hay fertilized with 200 pounds nitrogen per acre and ground through
a /4-inch screen lost less weight, produced heavier calves and consumed
more dry matter than cows fed a similar hay in the long form. (See
also Project 972, Suwannee Valley Station.)

Hatch 975 A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter,
M. Koger and R. L. Shirley
Twenty-two steers of mixed breeding, averaging 1,067 pounds live
weight, grading U.S. Good, were randomly divided into control and treat-
Cooperative with W. G. Kirk and F. M. Peacock, Range Cattle Station.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ed groups. The treated cattle were injected with 500 ml. of a saturated
NaC1 solution 30 minutes ante-mortem to determine the effect of that
treatment on beef tenderness. It was found that the injection caused
an increased incidence of carcasses lacking a desirable bright cherry-red
color of lean; the injection did not influence the tenderness of broiled
short-loin steaks.
In a second study, involving 80 cattle divided into 5 lots of 16 head
each, ante-mortem injections of 0.9 percent NaCI (.07 ml. per pound
live weight), crude papain ash (0.2 mg./lb. live weight), crystalline
papain (0.2 mg./lb. live weight) and crude papain ash (0.2 mg./lb. live
weight) plus crystalline papain (0.2 mg./lb. live weight) had no effect on
beef tenderness. The latter 2 treatments, however, over-tenderized the
The purpose of a third study was to accomplish the technique of sur-
gically blocking the blood supply to 1 hind leg of anesthetized sheep
while injecting tenderizing materials in the juglar vein to tenderize the
leg with a blood supply. The technique was developed and shown to offer
excellent possibilities as a method to use in studying the effects of vari-
ous ante-mortem injections on tenderness.

Hatch Project 977 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs
and M. Koger5
A new farrowing facility was completed and used for the first time in
August 1960. At this time 18 sows farrowed an average of 9.06 live pigs
and weaned an average of 7.94. Comparable figures for the next farrow-
ing involving 21 sows during the month of October 1961 were 9.09 and
8.00. In January 1961, 15 sows farrowed an average of 9.93 live pigs
and weaned 8.87. The March 1961 farrow for 28 sows resulted in an
average of 9.39 live pigs per sow with an average survival of 9.09. These
data suggest a gradual improvement in farrowing results over the period
from August to March. This improvement probably reflects the ever
increasing number of crossbred sows (Duroc X Landrace) in the herd.
Thirty-six litters from crossbred sows show an average of 9.69 live pigs
per litter with a 94.8 percent survival to weaning. Twenty comparable
purebred Duroc litters produced an average of 8.45 live pigs with 90.5
percent survival to weaning. Thus far data collected do not show great
seasonal influences either in terms of regularity of estrous, conception
rate or sow performance at farrowing and during lactation. A compari-
son of the number of matings per conception (1 versus 2) indicates a
difference in favor of 2 matings of almost 1 pig per litter weaned. Data
are being accumulated on the influence of age of pigs at weaning on
subsequent rebreeding efficiency of the sows. A nutritional study which
is evaluating corn dried distillers solubles as a source of unidentified
factors has not yielded positive results to date. Performance and car-
cass quality data for market swine are accumulating for 3 breed groups
Purebred Durocs, Durocs X Landrace and a 3-way cross consisting of
1/ Duroc, 14 Landrace and %/ Hampshire. The first phase of the cost
analysis will be initiated as soon as 1 year of the study has been com-
6 Cooperative with W. K. McPherson, Agricultural Economics Department, T. C. Skinner,
Agricultural Engineering Department, and S. J. Folks, Florida Power Corporation.

Annual Report, 1961

State Project 981 M. Koger, T. J. Cunha
and A. Z. Palmer
The second year's results from a 3-year study have been completed.
One more year's data will be included before the data are summarized.


State Project 995 M. Koger and A. C. Warnick
Since 1958, 12 of the replacement heifers at the Beef Research Unit
have been bred as yearlings to calve first at 2 years of age. Calves
from these 2-year-old heifers are being vealed at the start of the breed-
ing season on March 1. The other half of replacements have been
bred to calve first at 3 years of age. The first year's data from the first
group of heifers will not be complete until the fall of 1961.

State Project 999 G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace
Three experiments have been conducted with early weaned pigs to
evaluate the usage of 55 percent protein peanut meal in starter and
grower rations. The peanut meal proved unsatisfactory when used as
the only source of supplemental protein. When the peanut meal was
supplemented with lysine or lysine and methionine, performance was not
significantly improved. With a different sample of peanut meal, supple-
ments of lysine or lysine and threonine appeared beneficial. When pea-
nut meal was used in combination with soybean meal, the most satis-
factory performance was obtained with a mixture in which peanut meal
and soybean meal contributed 25 percent and 75 percent respectively of
the supplemental protein.
In another study the feasibility of substituting ground snapped corn
for corn meal was investigated. The results showed that substituting
the snapped corn for corn meal adversely affected both rate and effi-
ciency of gain. However, the increase in carcass value obtained by re-
stricting the feeding of snapped corn to the period from 100 pounds to
market weight was sufficient to offset this inferior growth performance.
Feeding of the ground snapped corn throughout the growing-finishing pe-
riod was not found to be an economical practice.
The data from another experiment indicated that fish meal could
serve satisfactorily as the only source of supplemental protein for fin-
ishing swine.

State Project 1000 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and J. T. McCall
Silage for beef cattle feeding studies was produced from Dixie 18
corn grown with varying fertilizer treatments and plant populations. In-
creasing the plant population from 6,750 to 13,500 plants per acre in-
creased forage yields but decreased nutrient content (percent) and di-
gestibility. Within each plant population, an increase in fertilizer rate
from 56-48-48 to 112-96-96 pounds N-P-K per acre increased protein con-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

tent; had little effect on crude fiber, ether extract or energy; and de-
creased nitrogen-free extract and ash. In the highest plant population
and lowest fertilizer rate, protein digestibility was highly significantly
lower than in other treatment combinations. Digestibility of protein, en-
ergy and ether extract were significantly increased in the high fertilizer
treatments. Increasing the fertilization rate at both plant populations
increased total nutrients by an average of 1,107 pounds per acre or 25
percent and total digestible nutrients by an average of 903 pounds per
acre or 27.5 percent. Increasing the plant population from 6,750 to 13,500
increased total nutrients by 1,511 pounds per acre or 32.6 percent and
total digestible nutrients by 1,167 pounds per acre or 34.2 percent. All
treatments of corn forage contained less than 0.015 percent potassium
nitrate, which was far below toxic levels. (See also State Project 1000,
Soils Department).

State Project 1001 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs
and A. Z. Palmer
Two experiments have been completed this year which were primar-
ily concerned with the influence of lysine supplementation on the mani-
festation of gossypol toxicity in pigs fed cottonseed meal rations. The
protein quality-gossypol relationship has long been a baffling problem in
the cottonseed meal industry. These experiments were designed to de-
termine if lysine per se would reduce or overcome gossypol toxicity.
Results suggest the following summation statements. The early weaned
baby pig was very sensitive to dietary gossypol and for this reason may
represent a much more suitable animal for special work on the problem
of gossypol poisoning than the growing-finishing pig. Increasing incre-
ments of lysine supplementation (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 percent) progressively
improved both gain and feed conversion. Apparently lysine exerted most
of its effect through a detoxification mechanism in counteracting gossypol
poisoning. Pigs fed lysine exhibited less severe symptoms of gossypol
poisoning and survival was much better, particularly at 0.4 percent and
0.8 percent levels of supplementation. Labored breathing was the most
pronounced symptom of toxicosis in the live pig. Post-mortem observa-
tions included hydrothorax, edema of the lungs and lesions of the heart
and liver.

State Project 1002 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs
Several feeding experiments have been conducted to determine the
efficacy of using certain antibiotics and other compounds as growth stim-
ulants for growing-finishing swine. A promising new antibiotic, tylosin,
has been studied extensively at various levels of supplementation. Daily
gains and feed conversion were consistently improved. However, control
pigs have performed very well in the trials, and the magnitude of anti-
biotic response has not been as great as with other antibiotics in earlier
experiments at this station. In 1 experiment in which tylosin, aureomy-
cin and oleandomycin were compared, results showed a marked response
to all of the antibiotics with oleandomycin producing the greatest re-
sponse. An experiment planned to determine the value of feeding my-
costatin, an antifungal antibiotic, in the presence of aureomycin to fungi
inoculated pigs gave the following results. Oral inoculations of Candida
albicans and Candida tropicalis had no apparent effect on rate of gain

Annual Report, 1961

and feed utilization. Both inoculations were successfully cultured from
the alimentary tract of pigs, although the culture of the latter was
small. Aureomycin appeared to enhance the growth of both organisms.
Mycostatin was partially effective in eliminating the Candida albicans
and Candida tropicalis from the feces of the pig. In another experiment
sodium acrylate was tested as a growth promoting substance with en-
couraging results. Further testing of this material is planned.

State Project 1003 M. Koger and A. C. Warnick
This is a new project cooperative between the Department of Animal
Science, North Florida Experiment Station and State Prison Farm, Rai-
Data from the first calf crop will be collected during the fall of 1961.
(See also Project 1003, North Florida Experiment Station.)

State Project 1004 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs
and A. C. Warnick
Two experiments have been completed during the past year. The first
was designed to measure humidity and temperature effects and was con-
ducted during the summer months of 1960. Four groups of pigs weigh-
ing approximately 65 pounds initially were subjected to different com-
binations of temperature and humidity during the finishing period. The
temperatures involved were 650 and 750F, and the relative humidities
were 40 and 80 percent. Performance data suggested that the higher
temperature and lower humidity were most desirable. Nevertheless, all
groups performed quite well, indicating that none of the conditions im-
posed caused any serious stress on the experimental animals. The sec-
ond experiment was a large scale practical trial conducted during the
winter months of 1960-61 to measure the value of providing wood shav-
ings over a portion of the pens as bedding. The common practice in
the operation of large confinement feeding pens is to provide no bed-
ding. This study demonstrated, however, that wood shavings improved
the performance of pigs, particularly during the first 4 weeks of the
trial. Forty-two pigs provided with shavings gained 1.51 pounds per day
and required 2.67 pounds of feed per pound gain. A similar number of
pigs with no shavings gained 1.40 pounds and required 2.72 pounds of
feed. Beyond 4 weeks the shavings appeared to exert very little influ-
ence on performance. The tendency to develop tender-footedness was
not noticeably alleviated by the use of shavings.

State Project 1010 A. C. Warnick and H. D. Wallace
Forty-eight purebred Duroc gilts were assigned to 1 of 3 diets to de-
termine differences in level of energy intake and alfalfa meal on puber-
ty, ovulation rate, number of viable embryos at 25 days and levels of
acid and alkaline phosphatase in the endometrium. The diets fed were
(1) high energy with 10 percent alfalfa, (2) limited energy with 52 per-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

cent alfalfa and (3) limited energy with 10 percent alfalfa. The average
age in days and weight in pounds at puberty on the 3 diets were (1) 319,
421; (2) 348, 340; (3) 358, 392. Puberty was delayed in all gilts, probably
due to a late sexual maturing strain of pigs. The average number of
eggs ovulated per gilt on the 3 diets were (1) 15.6, (2) 16.1 and (3) 15.3,
which means that alfalfa prevented the decrease in ovulation rate asso-
ciated with limited energy. The average number of viable embryos and
percent embryonic survival at 25 days based on ovulation rate on the 3
diets were (1) 12.5, 80.3 percent; (2) 14.1, 87.2 percent; and (3) 12.7,
83.4 percent.
There were no significant dietary differences in alkaline and acid
phosphatase activity in the endometrium, but there was significant nega-
tive correlation (r = -0.351) between level of alkaline phosphatase and
number of viable embryos. There were significant differences in acid
and alkaline phosphatase in the endometrium due to stage of cycle and
stage of gestation, indicating that hormones are probably controlling en-
zyme activity of the uterus.


State Project 1061 R. L. Shirley
This is a cooperative project between Animal Science and the Range
Cattle Station. Results from this study are reported under Project 1061,
Range Cattle Station.

Hatch Project 1063 P. E. Loggins, M. Koger,
A. C. Warnick and T. J. Cunha
This project was just recently approved and will be initiated this
Hatch Project 1079 C. B. Ammerman, L. R. Arrington,
R. L. Shirley, J. P. Feaster,
J. M. Wing and W. G. Kirk
This project was just recently approved, and studies on mineral re-
quirements of cattle are now being initiated.

Effect of a Protein Deficiency on the Growth, Blood Constituents and
Reproductive Physiology of Bulls.-Twelve weanling grade Angus bulls
were studied for 7 months to determine the effect of a protein deficiency
on various physiological factors. Eight bulls were fed a ration contain-
ing 1.50 percent crude protein, and 4 bulls received a ration containing
13.5 percent crude protein. The deficient animals rapidly lost appetite
and exhibited marked losses in body weight. During the 7 months the
deficient bulls had an average daily loss of -0.71 pounds, and the controls
gained 1.10 pounds daily.
After 2 months on the experimental rations, the semen volume, sperm
motility and sperm concentration were adversely affected in the bulls on
the deficient ration. There was a constant decline in quantity and qual-
ity of semen throughout the experiment from the bulls on the protein

Annual Report, 1961

deficient ration. At the end of the fourth month semen was collected
from all the bulls and frozen for artificial insemination. Approximately
22 heifers per bull were used in the fertility study. Conception rates are
not yet available. Four of the 8 deficient bulls died by the end of the
seventh month. One of these bulls became aspermia shortly before death,
but the other 3 produced motile sperm in reduced amounts until they
died. At this time the remaining 8 bulls were slaughtered, and samples
of the reproductive tissues were obtained for histological study. At the
time of slaughter, the surviving deficient bulls were still producing se-
men. Average values for semen volume, motility and total sperm pro-
duction for the deficient and control groups at the last collection were
2.6 and 8.9 ml., 22 percent and 61 percent and 101 X 108 and 926 X 10'
respectively. Libido of the deficient bulls was markedly reduced by the
deficiency. After 2 months, the bulls began to lose interest and were
reluctant to mount. This decline in interest continued until the deficient
bulls failed to mount at all, or would only make 1 or 2 attempts. Blood
hemoglobin, hematocrit and serum protein levels were determined dur-
ing the experiment. There was a gradual reduction in all 3 criteria in
the deficient bulls. However, the levels did not drop far below the nor-
mal range. Final average values obtained for the deficient and control
groups were 7.69 and 12.44 mg per 100 ml., 36.33 and 58.68 percent and
5.43 and 6.66 percent for the hemoglobin, hematocrit and serum protein
respectively. (T. J. Cunha, A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges, P. E. Loggins
and R. L. Shirley.)
Effect of Source and Level of Nitrogen on Semen Production and
Libido in Rams.-Sixteen crossbred rams 11 months old and averaging
97 pounds were fed 3 rations to compare Drackett and Urea as sources
of nitrogen to a nitrogen-free ration on sperm production and libido.
Four of the 8 rams on the nitrogen-free ration died after an average of
78 days on the experiment but were still producing sperm cells and
were able to mate a ewe at previous check before death. The experi-
ment was terminated after 98 days, when the nitrogn-free rams were
very emaciated and near death. The average final body weight of the
surviving rams was 103, 101 and 63 pounds for the Urea, Drackett and
nitrogen-free rations, respectively. There were no statistically signifi-
cant differences in volume, motility or total sperm per collection by
electrical ejaculation. (T. J. Cunha, A. C. Warnick, P. E. Loggins, J. F.
Hentges and R. L. Shirley.)
The Effect of Pre-Slaughter Feeding of Sucrose to Swine on Slaugh-
ter, Carcass and Quality Characteristics.-The feeding of slaughter hogs
over weekends and holidays is costly to the commercial slaughterer;
labor and feed costs frequently exceed returns in terms of salable meat
and by-products. In practice, hogs are fed only shelled corn, which
amounts to a change in diet for some animals and results in decreased
feed consumption. The question thus arose of whether or not a more
palatable ration would increase consumption to a point detectable by in-
creased carcass and liver weights and improved pork quality. A study
involving 103 finished market hogs was conducted comparing the pre-
slaughter feeding of a ration consisting of 60 percent ground corn and 40
percent sucrose with the feeding of shelled corn. The sugar ration in-
creased feed consumption, liver weights, yields of the 4 lean cuts (ham,
loin, picnic and butt) and improved tenderness and sweetness of the liv-
ers. (A. Z. Palmer.)
The Relationship Between Specific Gravity and the Chemical Com-
position of the Beef Carcass.-A preliminary study of the moisture, fat,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

protein and ash components of 41 beef carcasses from yearling standard
to top choice steers and heifers is under way. Chilled half carcasses
and 9-10-11 rib cuts were weighed in air and then submerged in water
and weighed again. Specific gravity was calculated by the formula:

weight in air
Specific gravity =
weight in air weight in water
A high relationship was noted between specific gravity of the carcass
and the rib and average carcass grade. As carcass grade decreases,
specific gravity increases.


No. of Carcass Grade Sp. Gr. of Carcass Sp. Gr. of Rib

1........ Top Choice 1.0329 1.0353
1 ........ Avg. Choice 1.0490 1.0620
3 ........ Low Choice 1.0392 1.0439
6 ........ Top Good 1.0496 1.0561
5 ........ Avg. Good 1.0632 1.0756
14........ Low Good 1.0616 1.0696
5 ........ Top Standard 1.0652 1.0709
4 ....... Avg. Standard 1.0724 1.0838
2 ........ Low Standard 1.0823 1.0968

Although there was some overlapping due to small differences be-
tween each 1/ grade, differences between specific gravities of each aver-
age grade were real and distinct for both carcass and rib. The value of
the specific gravity of the 9-10-11 rib cut as the value of the specific
gravity of its full side will be studied along with chemical composition,
degree of marbling, estimated kidney knob percent and amount of out-
side fat. (J. W. Carpenter.)
The Effect of the Removal of the Preputial Glands of Weanling Boars
on Growth, Carcass Fatness and Acceptability of the Carcass Meats.-An
attempt was made to surgically remove the preputial glands from six 9-
week-old boar pigs. These 6 pigs were then compared in feed lot per-
formance, carcass fatness and acceptability of the carcass meat to 6
other intact boar pigs whose glands were not removed and to six bar-
rows receiving the same feed treatments and fed to a 240 pound aver-
age. Results of the preliminary trial showed that both boars and gland-
less boars produced longer, leaner carcasses than barrows. All barrows
produced carcasses with no objectionable odor. Two intact boars pro-
duced carcasses with only very slight odor, and 1 boar carcass had no
detectable odor either in the fat or lean. Four of the boar pigs from
which all visible glands were removed at weaning were found to have
mature glands at slaughter and produced a characteristic boar odor in
the fat. One boar pig died while on trial, and the other pig from which
glands were removed had no visible glands at slaughter and produced
no boar odor in the fat. (J. W. Carpenter.)
The Effect of Temperature on Early Embryonic Survival in Gilts.-
Thirty-two Duroc x Landrace gilts were randomly assigned to 1 of 5
treatment groups at 10 days following first estrus and bred to a fertile

Annual Report, 1961

boar at second estrus. Gilts were killed 25 days postbreeding, and counts
were made of the number of corpora lutea and normal embryos. Group
1 remained on pasture with ample shade; Group 2, constant temperature
at 90F; Group 3, one-half of gilts in 2 moved to 60'F 3 days post-
breeding; Group 4, constant temperature at 60F; Group 5, one-half of
gilts in 4 moved to 90F 3 days postbreeding. There was no difference
in conception rate or number of eggs ovulated due to temperature. The
average number of normal embryos at 25 days for Groups 1 through 5,
respectively, was 12.6, 9.4, 14.1, 12.7 and 11.2 (not statistically signifi-
cant). However, all gilts kept at 90oF 3 days after breeding had only 10.4
embryos compared to 13.6 embryos in gilts a 60F 3 days after breeding.
High temperatures may be more harmful after 3 days postbreeding than be-
fore, which is opposite to the effect in sheep. (A. C. Warnick, H. D.
Wallace and A. Z. Palmer.)
Use of Flavoring Agents in Pig Starter and Grower Rations.-An ex-
periment was conducted to determine if Sucro-Flavor, a synthetic flavor-
ing agent, would enhance ration palatability and pig performance. Pigs
weaned at 2 weeks of age were given starter rations containing either
20 percent sugar or 0.1 percent Sucro-Flavor. The daily gain, daily feed
consumed and feed efficiency was comparable for both groups. (G. E.
Combs and H. D. Wallace.)
Isocitric Dehydrogenase and Pyruvic Dehydrogenase Activity in the
Liver of Rats Fed Diets Varying in Calories and Fat.-The activities of
these enzymes were determined in the liver of rats fed 0, 2, 5, 10 and
20 percent fat in the diet. The fat was substituted for sucrose with and
without adjustments of calories. Pyruvic dehydrogenase activity was
higher in the liver of rats fed no fat than in those fed varying levels of
fat. There was no significant difference in the activity of livers of rats
fed 2, 5, 10 and 20 percent fat in the diet, either with increasing calories
or isocaloric. Isocitric dehydrogenase activity of the liver was correlat-
ed with the grams of weight gained per calorie consumed. With an in-
crease in the grams of weight gained per calorie consumed, the isocitric
dehydrogenase activity increased. (J. F. Easley and R. L. Shirley.)
Effect of Protein Intake and Amino Acid Deficiency upon Growth,
Growth Recovery and Life Span of Rats.-Laboratory rats have been fed
from weaning on purified rations containing 4 different levels of protein
in order to determine the effect of protein intake upon growth and lon-
gevity. After 1 month on the experimental rations, the weight gains
were as follows: 7.5 percent protein, 35 grams; 13 percent, 70 grams;
18 percent, 104 grams; 24 percent, 111 grams. At 7 months the gains
were 201, 269, 303 and 305 grams. Gains of the lowest protein group
were only 32 percent as much as the highest protein intake at 1 month;
however, at 7 months the gain amounted to 66 percent as much as the
highest protein intake. No deaths have occurred through 7 months of
experimental feeding. Additional rats have been fed from weaning on
a semi-purified diet deficient in lysine and tryptophane. Rats consum-
ing the deficient diet gained an average of only 13 grams during the first
2 months, while rats consuming a similar ration with lysine and trypto-
phane gained 186 grams. Approximately 20 percent of the rats consum-
ing the deficient diet died during the first 2 months. A portion of the
remaining rats will be continued on the deficient diet in order to de-
termine life span. The remaining portion will be changed to the normal
diet to study growth recovery following the period of amino acid defi-
ciency and retarded growth. (L. R. Arrington.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Effect of Method of Processing on Nutritive Value of Corn for Fatten-
ing Steers.-The effect of 4 methods of processing dry shelled corn upon
feedlot performance and carcass value were studied in a 112-day exper-
iment. Crossbred steers with at least 50 percent Brahman breeding and
straightbred Hereford steers were the subjects. The 4 physical forms of
corn studied were ground, cracked, flaked (cut, steamed and rolled) and
pelleted ground. Flaked and pelleted corn mixtures produced the most
efficient gains. Cracked corn produced the least weight gain and was
the least efficient. Steers fed ground, flaked and pelleted forms had the
same average daily gains 3.2 pounds per day. Carcasses of Hereford
steers had higher grades, higher conformation scores, lower carcass ma-
turity scores, more marbling in the rib eye muscles and higher cutabil-
ity scores than the crossbred steers. Propionic acid production in the
rumen at 1 and 8 hour intervals after feeding was highest in steers fed
flaked corn; however, neither this nor total volatile fatty acid production
in the rumen fully explained the increased feed efficiency observed with
the 2 steam-processed corn mixtures. (J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. Z. Palmer
and J. W. Carpenter.)
Evaluation of Ronphagrass for Pasture in Florida.-Ronphagrass, a
perennial bunch type grass, produced less forage than adapted varieties
of rye and oats but outyielded wheat during a winter trial at Gaines-
ville. Ronphagrass continued to produce fresh green forage in the late
spring, when cereal grains matured, but it became dormant during the
summer. Ronphagrass tolerated severe frosts which seriously injured the
leaves of cereal grains. Ronphagrass contained a high crude protein
content (24.5 percent of the dry forage). Ronphagrass was less palatable
than cereal grains to beef cattle; however, they would eat it when other
forages were not available. Ronphagrass was toxic to sheep. Seventeen
days after initial feeding of pure ronphagrass to a sheep, the animal
became extremely nervous, as evidenced by trembling, showed abnormal
incoordination (Figure 1), and eventually died. There was no recovery
in afflicted animals even after they were fed normal diets for 2 months
after evidence of toxicity.
Exploratory experiments indicated that high nitrogen content in the
grass was not the principal cause of the disorder. High levels of avail-
able cobalt (approximately 25 times the daily requirement administered
orally) prevented the disorder. A high level of oral zinc, intramuscular
injections of Vitamin B& or a cobalt bullet in the rumen did not prevent
the disorder. Until more trials are conducted, it is not recommended
that Ronphagrass be fed to cattle or sheep. (0. C. Ruelke, P. E. Log-
gins, J. T. McCall, C. B. Ammerman and C. F. Simpson.)
The Physiology and Biochemistry of Hybrid Vigor.-Various straight-
bred and crossbred calves are being fed experimentally from approxi-
mately 60 days of age to slaughter in order to determine why crossbreds
grow faster than straightbreds. Comparative appetite, efficiency of feed
utilization and economy of production are being determined. In 2 trials
completed, Brahman-Shorthorn crossbred calves have had significantly
greater appetite than Brahman and slightly greater intake than Short-
horns. There was no significant differences in efficiency of feed utiliza-
tion. Shorthorn calves had the lowest rate of growth but stored more
body fat and had higher grading carcasses than crossbreds or Brahmans.
(M. Koger, T. J. Cunha and A. C. Warnick.)

Annual Report, 1961


Considerable time was spent during this year in getting the new re-
search laboratories in operation. Most of the installation of benches and
fixed equipment has been completed. A new controlled environment
growth chamber has been placed in operation and will be available for
future studies.
Dr. H. J. Teas resigned during the year to become director of the
Ag-Bioscience Division of the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center in Mayaguez,
Puerto Rico.
Dr. George J. Fritz joined the department as assistant plant physiolo-
gist. He comes from Pennsylvania State University.
One project was terminated and 1 project was initiated during the

Hatch Project 848 H. J. Teas, T. W. Holmsen
and Margo Steinman

Two problems were investigated. The first involved a study of the
effect of gamma radiation on Chrysanthemum Morifolium. The cultivar
"Bluechip", and its spontaneous color sports "Bronzechip", "Yellowchip",
and "Whitechip" were treated in the cobalt-60 gamma irradiator, receiv-
ing doses of gamma radiation ranging between 2,500 and 7,500 roentgens.
Observations were taken on growth, morphology, flower color and head
The final average height of all the irradiated plants was less than
that of the controls at the time of flowering. Some common effects
of radiation on morphology were inhibition and killing of the terminal
shoot, reduction in internode length, fasciations of stems and heads, ex-
cessive production of lateral shoots, changes in leaf color and aberrant
leaf shapes. "Bluechip" and "Whitechip" were the most prolific in the
amount of induced color mutation and the range of colors produced,
while "Bronzechip" and "Yellowchip" showed relatively low induced mu-
tation rates and a limited range of colors.
The second problem was a study of geotropism and transport of in-
doleacetic acid (IAA) in normal and ageotropic Zea nays L. The results
indicated that IAA exists in at least 3 forms in corn stems: diffusible,
exchangeable and actively accumulated. Diffusible IAA was rapidly elut-
ed from tissue, whereas exchangeable and actively accumulated IAA
were slowly eluted. No evidence of irreversibly bound IAA was observed.
No effect of gravity on lateral transport of IAA was observed. It is sug-
gested that processes other than lateral transport cause the inequal dis-
tribution of diffusible auxin resulting from geotropic stimulation. It was
noted that horizontal placement of normal corn stem tissue resulted in
a marked reduction in polar transport of IAA, in redistribution of IAA
among its various forms and in changes in their rates of elution. Proc-
esses involving polar transport may be responsible for the unequal dis-
tribution of diffusible auxin resulting from geotropic stimulation.
This project was terminated during the year.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 953 T. E. Humphreys
Absorption of Sugars by Corn Roots.-A study of the absorption of
sugars by plant roots was undertaken in an attempt to shed some light
on the absorption process per se.
Two sugars (glucose and mannose) and a sugar alcohol (mannitol)
were used in these studies.
The rate of absorption of glucose or mannose increased as the con-
centration of the sugar solution bathing the roots was increased and ap-
proached a maximum at high sugar concentrations. Conversely, manni-
tol absorption increased in direct proportion to the concentration of man-
nitol in the bathing solution up to the highest concentration of mannitol
used (0.12 molar). At this concentration mannitol was entering the roots
at a rate 4 times as great as the maximum rate of glucose absorption
and 6 times as great as the maximum rate of mannose absorption.
Glucose and mannose were mutually inhibitory. Mannitol did not in-
hibit the absorption of the sugars, but was itself inhibited by them.
The absorpton of mannitol was not reversible. If roots which had
previously absorbed radioactive mannitol were placed in water or in a
non-radioactive mannitol solution for 2 hours, no radioactivity was found
in the external solution.
The absorption of mannitol apparently occurs by a mechanism dif-
ferent from that for the absorption of sugars, although from the inhibi-
tion studies it seems that some step(s) is common to both mechanisms.

Hatch Project 1042 G. J. Fritz
This research project was initiated during the past year. One aspect
of the project concerns the study of the direct assimilation of molecular
oxygen by plant tissues, that is, the direct addition of molecular oxygen
to organic substrate. In order to study direct incorporation of gaseous
oxygen by plants, it is necessary to utilize the heavy isotope of oxygen
(0'"). Work of this kind requires specialized apparatus and equipment.
To date, efforts have been made to complete the fabrication of a vacuum
manifold and accessory equipment required for work with 01". The
equipment is now assembled and is capable of the following operations:
(1) generation of 0"18 from labelled water in an electrolysis cell; (2)
analysis of the 018 content of labelled water by equilibration with carbon
dioxide; (3) application of s0 to living plant tissue; (4) analysis of the
0"O concentration of the oxygen of organic compounds, by conversion
(in vacuo at 500C with appropriate catalysts) of the organic compounds
to carbon dioxide. Analysis of the 0"1 content of the carbon dioxide de-
rived from tissue samples is performed by mass spectrometry.

Metabolism of Simazine and Atrazine by Sugarcane.-Simazine and
Atrazine when applied to the leaves of sugarcane were not translocated
to the stalk. Extensive breakdown of these compounds occurred at the
site of application, and some of the breakdown products were translo-
cated to the stalk.
Carbon-14-Atrazine was taken up from the soil or from a water solu-
tion by the sugarcane roots, and carbon-14 was rapidly distributed
throughout the plant and appeared in the respiratory CO2. After sugar-

Annual Report, 1961 89

cane grew for 2 months in soil treated with Atrazine, it was not possible
to demonstrate the presence of intact Atrazine in the aerial portion of
the plants. (T. E. Humphreys.)
Physiology of Dwarfing in Plants.-A biological test was developed for
screening the activity of various chemicals that may have dwarfing ac-
tivity. This test was standardized against 2-isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-
methyl phenyl 1-piperidrine carboxylate methyl chloride (Amo-1618), (2-
chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride (CCC) and tributyl-2, 4-dichlor-
obenzylphosphonium chloride (Phosfon). These compounds have all been
shown to possess the capacity to dwarf various plants. This study has
been conducted with the cooperation of a number of people in the Chem-
istry Department who have supplied various quaternary ammonium and
phosphonium compounds.

90 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The Department of Dairy Science encompasses 2 fields of dairy re-
search, namely dairy husbandry and dairy products manufacture. The
dairy cattle studies are conducted at the Dairy Research Unit at Hague,
Florida, and at the West Florida Dairy Unit at Chipley, Florida. The
latter unit was assigned to this department July 1, 1960; J. B. White is
in charge. A milking herd consisting of about 100 dairy animals is main-
tained on about 200 acres of farm land.
The Dairy Research Unit at the main station is made up of about 300
dairy animals and is situated on about 1,200 acres of farm land. During
the year 50 additional acres have been cleared and put into cultivation,
and a new hay barn and implement shelter has been built. A new con-
crete horizontal bunker type silo with a 400-ton silage capacity has been
The dairy products manufacture section has continued to develop its
facilities into a modern milk and ice cream plant. Some new equip-
ment has been added in the testing laboratories. Dr. K. L. Smith be-
came a member of the dairy manufacturing staff in September 1960.

State Project 213 C. J. Wilcox, R. B. Becker
and J. M. Wing
Evaluation of pearlmillet ensiled in 1959 was completed. Forage con-
taining 85 to 90 percent moisture was ensiled with or without various ad-
ditives. Consumption rates and intakes of total digestible nutrients and
digestible protein by experimental animals varied, but most silages ap-
peared to be acceptable. Dry matter recovery from silos with absorbent
additives ranged from 90 to 97 percent as opposed to 85 to 89 percent for
control silos. Addition of urea (even at low levels) to these forages when
ensiling appeared undesirable since it resulted in lower silage consump-
tion and increased blood levels of urea and ammonia. Addition of anti-
biotics to the silage apparently had little beneficial effect; 2 of 3
antibiotic-treated silages did not compare well with controls.
Ten experimental silos were filled in 1960 with oats cut in the early
boot stage. Proximate analyses of forage showed it to contain 21.0 per-
cent dry matter, of which 9.22 percent was crude protein. Ensiled with
various antibiotic and chemical additives, silages varied somewhat in
character as follows: range in dry matter content was 14 to 20 percent;
dry matter recovery, 75 to 93 percent; crude protein content 7.3 to 9.3
percent; crude protein recovery, 58 to 90 percent. Gross consumption
by experimental animals per 1,000 pound body weight ranged from 62 to
75 pounds of silage daily with dry matter intake ranging from 11 to 15
pounds daily. All silages were of acceptable quality; pH ranged from 3.4
to 4.0. There was no evidence of antibiotics in juice or dry matter of any
silages to which antibiotics had been added. Digestion trials involving 8
animals each were completed in order to estimate digestibility of organic
matter and crude protein; these data are awaiting analysis. (See also
Project 356, Animal Science Department.)

Annual Report, 1961


State Project 345 R. B. Becker and C. J. Wilcox
Records of breeding and disposal of cows from 5 cooperating Florida
dairy herds were accumulated during the year, and a revised life-
expectancy table for cows was prepared by joint leader A. H. Spurlock.
Records were obtained also of tenure and causes of turnover of bulls
during the year in the artificial breeding organizations of Canada and
the United States. A new life-expectancy table of the desirable bulls
leaving these herds during 1954-1960 showed their average productive ten-
ure now to be over 4.1 years.
A study of the records accumulated in this project revealed the inci-
dence and cause of crampy or progressive posterior paralysis in mature
cattle. It is inherited as a recessive character. Episodes become evi-
dent in cattle as young as 3 to 4 years old, up to advanced age. The indi-
cations are that it may be conditioned by a single gene in heterozygous
animals, becoming apparent when the gene is acquired by an animal
from both parents. Discomfort from the condition gradually restricts
usefulness of the animals. Spastic contractions of muscles of the back
and 1 or both rear legs occur under stress, and more frequently as the
condition advances. Affected animals restrict their activities. Some
deaths occurred from the posteriol paralysis in affected cattle that were
retained too long.
This investigation is supported in part by a grant from the National
Association of Artificial Breeders. (See also State Project 345, Agricul-
tural Economics Department.)


State Project 575 C. J. Wilcox, R. B. Becker
and S. P. Marshall

The purebred dairy herd, composed of the 5 major dairy breeds, was
maintained at about 300 head during the year. Average milk production
per cow was at the highest level in the history of the herd, averaging
10,150 pounds of milk and 466 pounds of fat (2X, 305-day, M.E.). Repro-
ductive efficiency declined slightly from the previous year, with fertile
cows requiring 2.61 services per conception, primarily due to low concep-
tion rates among the Brown Swiss. Close supervision of reproductive
performance resulted in an increase of 25 percent in number of cows
pronounced pregnant, however, even though the herd did not change ap-
preciably in size from the previous year. Frozen semen was used ex-
clusively. Horn of pregnancy was established with the following frequen-
cies: right, 56 percent; left 44 percent. Four breeds were classified for
type with average scores of 79.3 for Holsteins, 80.1 for Guernseys, 82.4
for Jerseys and 85.0 for Brown Swiss. This was the first classification
for Brown Swiss. Other scores represented no appreciable change for
Holsteins and moderate increases for Guernseys and Jerseys.
Most animals served as experimental subjects 1 or more times for
other intra- or inter-departmental research projects.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 667 R. B. Becker, C. J. Wilcox,
J. M. Wing, W. A. Krienke,
L. E. Mull and E. L. Fouts
The fourth trial was conducted on the relation of feeding practice to
composition of milk. Fourteen cows were on experiment, and an equal
number served as control animals. The experimental cows received corn
silage at the rate of 3 pounds per 100 pounds live weight and mixed con-
centrates to balance the offering planned. Seven of the experimental
cows received 75 percent of the calculated TDN requirements, while 7
were allowed 85 percent of their TDN needs during the experimental pe-
riod. An initial and a post-period with normal feed intakes also were
used as bases for comparison. Milk samples were taken from each cow
3 days each week and analysed for fat, solids-not-fat, protein and chlo-
Milk yields and body weights declined significantly during the under-
feeding. The solids-not-fat percentages increased only slightly with ad-
vancing lactation but at a slower rate than in milk of an equal number
of control cows. Butterfat percentages were not depressed by the level
of underfeeding during the trial.

Hatch Project 781 J. M. Wing, E. L. Fouts,
R. B. Becker and C. J. Wilcox
The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of supple-
mentary antibacterial and nutritional factors in the feed of young calves.
The criteria are general health, growth, efficiency of feed utilization and
variations in certain blood components. Eighty-eight calves were ob-
served during the period of this report. Replication during the ensuing
year will be necessary for definite conclusions, but certain trends seem
apparent. Calves supplemented with chlortetracycline alone appear to
be superior to comparable controls. Addition of terephthalic acid but
not of mycostatin appear to yield further benefits. Hemoglobin levels in
untreated control animals appear to decline rapidly during the first 60
days and increase somewhat during the next 30 days. Orotic acid alone
or combined with methionine appeared to shorten the depletion period
considerably. Guanine and adenine alone or in combination were inef-

State Project 919 K. L. Smith
The selectivity of media containing 1 of the following dyes was de-
termined: brom cresol purple, cresol red, brom thymol blue, crystal vio-
let, brilliant green and brom cresol green. None of the dyes would in-
hibit all of the strains of streptococcus tested and allow growth of all of
the strains of leuconostoc.
Tolerance for enzyme inhibitors was tested for the 2 groups of organ-
isms. Sodium fluoride, cysteine, alpha-bromopropionic acid and iodoace-
tate were tested. Both sodium fluoride and cysteine were inhibitory to
the organisms tested, but both groups exhibited approximately the same
tolerance to these 2 compounds. Alpha-bromopropionic acid was ef-

Annual Report, 1961

fective in separating the organisms. Five strains each of leuconostoc
and streptococcus were tested on a tomato juice agar containing alpha-
bromopropionic acid. At a molar concentration of the acid of 16 X 10-'
all strains of both groups of organisms were inhibited; at 8 X 10-3 molar,
only the streptococci were inhibited; at 4 X 10'3 molar medium, all
strains grew with no apparent inhibition. Iodoacetate was also effective
in separating the 2 groups. At 12.5 X 10' molar concentration, iodoace-
tate inhibited all of the organisms, and at 6.3 X 10-" only the streptococci
were inhibited. All strains of leuconostoc and some strains of strepto-
coccus tolerated 3.1 X 10- molar iodoacetate. The medium and the in-
hibitor had to be autoclaved separately and combined aseptically just
prior to pouring the plates.


State Project 923 J. M. Wing and C. J. Wilcox
This study was designed to measure the value of greenchopped feeds
in terms of digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrients. During
the present year 300 individual digestion trials were conducted. Chemi-
cal and mathematical analyses are not complete, but some interesting
data are available. The TDN content of most typical forages appears
to be somewhat lower than previously published data indicate. Consump-
tion rates, however, are much higher; some succulent feeds being con-
sumed at rates approaching 200 pounds per 1,000 pounds body weight
daily. The digestible crude proteins are much higher than previously
thought, and thus the qualitative nature of supplementary feeds may be
changed, allowing the use of less expensive mixtures.

State Project 967 S. P. Marshall and R. B. Becker
The influence of type of roughage fed upon stomach compartment de-
velopment was studied using male dairy calves. All animals were fed
milk through 60 days, supplemental concentrate through 110 days and
alfalfa hay through 30 days. During the 31 to 110 day period 1 group
was fed corn silage, another received fresh pasture forage and the third
group was continued on alfalfa hay. Data to date on 1 Holstein and 3
Jersey calves in each group indicate that type of roughage consumed
did not influence significantly the mass of any stomach compartment tis-
sue. Average weights of fresh rumen, reticulum, omasum and oboma-
sum tissues of calves fed corn silage were 1,384, 183, 387 and 337 grams;
for animals receiving fresh pasture forage, 1,437, 197, 314 and 338; and
for calves fed alfalfa hay, 1,242, 187, 425 and 398 grams, respectively.
Rumen tissue of Holstein calves was significantly heavier (P<0.01) than
that of Jerseys. Breed differences for weight of other stomach com-
partment tissues were not significant.
Average weights of ingesta in the reticulo-rumen cavity, omasum and
abomasum of the group fed silage were 13,717, 540 and 1,026 grams;
those for the group receiving fresh pasture forage were 9,499, 251 and
660; and for the group fed hay the values were 12,458, 496 and 1,030
grams, respectively. There was less ingesta in the reticulo-rumen cav-
ity of calves receiving fresh forage than of those fed hay or silage
(P<0.01). The amount of reticulo-rumen ingesta in calves fed silage was

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

larger (P<0.06) than for those receiving hay. There was more of reti-
culo-rumen ingesta in Holstein calves than in Jerseys (P<0.01). Differ-
ences for amount of ingesta in the omasum or abomasum were not sig-
nificant for types of roughage fed or for breed of calves.
Rumen papillae development was most advanced in calves fed fresh
forage; calves fed corn silage and alfalfa hay showed less papillae de-
Good quality fresh pasture forage or corn silage are satisfactory
roughages for calves during the period of 31 through 110 days of age.

State Project 982 J. M. Wing and C. J. Wilcox
Most dairy cows in this area are fed bulky concentrates in addition
to the usually recommended grain ration. Tnis project concerns the ef-
fects of (1) feeding strictly according to theoretical requirements; (2)
feeding additional bulky concentrates at the rate of 1 pound per 7 pounds
of 4 percent fat corrected milk (FCM), figured individually; and (3)
feeding by schedule 2, figured on a group basis. The present year's
work was a replication of previous work, which involved 45 cows as-
signed for an experimental period of 200 days. Milk yields were adjust-
ed for differences in initial production, body weights and days in lacta-
tion. Average daily yields of 4 percent fat corrected milk expressed in
pounds for the various groups was as follows: (1) 33.2 pounds, (2) 34.3
pounds and (3) 32.8 pounds. These differences cannot be considered as
significant statistically. The pasture conditions were extremely good, and
it seems doubtful that feeding beyond the usual requirements is desirable
when the roughage supply is adequate.

RRF Project 1047 C. J. Wilcox, R. B. Becker,
(Regional S-49) W. A. Krienke, J. M. Wing,
L. E. Mull and E. L. Fouts
Departmental cooperation in this regional research project is entering
its second year. Data collected will be utilized on a local as well as a
regional level to obtain estimates of genetic and environmental parame-
ters associated with milk composition. Samples from all milking cows
were tested once monthly for the following milk constituents: fat, solids-
not-fat (SNF), protein, chloride and titratable acidity. Milk yields were
recorded. Completed 305-day lactation records are contained in Table 6.


J] Actual I I I Titra-
Breed Records Milk Fat SNF Pro- Chlo- table
I Yield tein ride Acidity
(no.) (lb.) % % % | % \ %

Ayrshire ... 5 8,570 4.25 9.20 3.11 .129 .153
Brown Swiss 4 9,476 4.24 9.45 3.21 .109 .160
Guernsey .... 26 8,270 4.91 9.42 3.26 .127 .150
Holstein .... 27 12,462 3.69 8.80 2.95 .145 .136
Jersey ........ 66 7,099 5.34 9.58 3.53 .130 .151

Annual Report, 1961

Hatch Project 1049 K. L. Smith and C. J. Wilcox
The Dairy Research Unit milking herd was tested to determine the
incidence of hemolytic staphylococci and the leucocyte count of individ-
ual quarter milk samples. Three replicate samples were drawn from
each quarter, giving a total of 1,102 samples. Hemolytic staphylococci
were present in 33 percent of the samples, but only 5 percent of the
samples contained both hemolytic staphylococci and a leucocyte count of
1 million or more.
The herd was divided into 2 equal groups, and 1 group was vaccinat-
ed with a commercially available toxoid. Six months after vaccinating
the herd, the quarter samples testing procedure was repeated. Prelimi-
nary statistical analysis of the data showed no significant differences be-
tween the treated and control groups with regard to the shedding of
hemolytic staphylococci.
During the study of the quarter samples, 200 hemolytic staphylococci
were isolated and purified. Some of the physiological characteristics of
these isolates have been determined (Table 7).

Test Percent Positive Correlation
I Coefficient (r)*

Coagulase ...................................... 65 -
Hemolysis .---.....----..--- ..--------- 86 +I.41
Manitol fermentation .................. 82 +.44
Yellow pigment .................... 59 +.61
Gelatin liquifaction .............. 58 -.54

Estimated for the correlation between coagulase production and the other character-
istics listed.

State Project 1053 S. P. Marshall, J. B. White
and E. L. Fouts
An annual rotational planting of corn for ensilage followed by sorghum
for ensilage and then by oats for grazing is being made to develop and
evaluate an integrated silage and grazing system for dairy cattle. Corn
planted March 1 has yielded 19 tons of ensilage material per acre. Two
50-ton upright silos have been constructed for ensiling corn and sorghum.
Feeding facilities for comparative evaluation of corn and sorghum are
being developed. (See also Project 1053, Agronomy Department.)

Effect of Artificial Flavoring Materials in Calf Feeds.-Two groups of
8 young calves including Jersey, Guernsey and Holstein breeds were
used in this study. All subjects were raised according to regular herd
practices. The only difference in the treatment of the 2 groups was that
the concentrate feed for the experimental animals contained a complex
mixture of flavoring materials which was formulated just before the ex-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

periment began. There appeared to be no significant differences in gains
in body weight or in the consumption of either hay or concentrate feeds.
(J. M. Wing.)
Iron Requirements of Dairy Calves.-Six male calves of the Holstein,
Jersey and Brown Swiss breeds were confined to wooden pens at birth.
They were fed entirely on a milk ration which was high enough in solids
to result in constant growth though at a slower than normal rate. Vita-
mins and minerals other than iron were supplied at recommended levels.
Approximately 7 months were required for depletion of the iron reserves
as indicated by hemoglobin levels and hematocrit of the blood. The de-
pleted animals will be dosed with different forms of radioactive iron and
various tissues and excretion production will be examined for the pres-
ence of the supplements. (J. M. Wing.)
Effects of Methionine Hydroxy Analogue in a High Urea Ration for
Dairy Steers.-Eighteen steers which were approximately 6 months of
age were assigned to 2 comparable groups. Jersey, Guernsey and Hol-
stein breeds were included. All calves received a simple concentrate
feed which was calculated to contain 16 percent of protein equivalent,
approximately half of which was derived from urea. Hay and pasture
were supplied free choice. Concentrate feeds were supplied in the same
amounts to both groups, first at the rate of 6 pounds and later at 8 pounds
per head daily. Both groups of animals were healthy. It appears that
levels of urea adequate to supply half the protein can be used success-
fully with dairy cattle. Addition of methionine hydroxy analogue to this
type of ration was not found to be beneficial. (J. M. Wing.)
Persistency of Milk Production.-A total of 586 monthly milk produc-
tion records of the Holstein herd during 1955-60 were examined to meas-
ure the effects of calendar month on persistency. Persistency of indi-
vidual cows was expressed for each month as the percentage of milk
production for the previous month. Over 80 percent of the freshenings
occurred in the months of August through November, and to this extent,
effects of month of freshening were removed from the data through ap-
propriate statistical techniques. Over-all persistency of first-calf heifers
was shown to be 96 percent; of cows, 89 percent; and heifers and cows
combined, 92 percent, which agreed well with other investigations. For
the combined herd, 9 months fell within 2 percent of the over-all aver-
age. July and August were slightly lower at 88 and 86 percent, respect-
ively, and November was slightly higher at 97 percent. Recent manage-
ment practices apparently have eliminated much of the previously ob-
served drop in milk production during the summer months. (C. J.
Losses of Immature Jersey Females.-Herd records for the period
1950-58 were searched to determine the frequency and reason for losses
of Jersey females born in the Dairy Research Unit herd. For 334 fe-
male births, records showed the following results: stillborn, died at birth
or freemartin, 5 percent; died of accident, disease or miscellaneous
causes prior to 6 months, 8 percent; died of accident, disease or mis-
cellaneous causes from 6 months to freshening, 7 percent; failure to con-
ceive, 21 percent; entered milking herd, 58 percent. Previous work has
shown that 65 percent of the Jersey females born in the period 1929-49
entered the herd. Comparable losses for this period were 6 percent, 12
percent, 7 percent and 10 percent respectively. The large increase in
recent years of animals which failed to conceive (21 percent as opposed
to 10 percent) was attributable to an outbreak of vibriosis in the early
1950's. (C. J. Wilcox.)

Annual Report, 1961

Chloride Content Important in Fortified Skimmilk.-Two lots of milk,
1 selected from cows known to produce milk of low chloride content
and the other of high chloride content, were used in the study. Some of
the skimmilk of each lot was concentrated in a stainless steel vacuum
pan, and this was used to fortify its respective skimmilk by 2.0 percent
solids. Composition for the 2 lots of skimmilk and their respective for-
tified products were: low chloride-solids, 9.98 and 11.98 percent; protein,
3.45 and 4.17 percent; chloride, 0.132 and 0.15 percent; high chloride-solids
9.04, and 11.04 percent; protein, 3.12 and 3.81 percent; chloride, 0.18
and 0.22 percent.
Five experienced dairy products judges sampled the 2 skimmilks and
the respective fortified skimmilks. Two of the 5 criticized the high chlo-
ride skimmilk and the high chloride fortified skim as salty, with the lat-
ter considered objectionable.
It has been established that the salt taste threshold of people varies.
High chloride content of fortified skimmilk may result in consumer com-
plaints or in discontinuance of use of the product. (W. A. Krienke.)
Testing Cottage Cheese Curd for Solids.-Cottage cheese curd was dis-
persed with alkaline solutions of different concentrations and in different
amounts. After comparison of results the following procedure was con-
sidered satisfactory. Weigh 25 g. of curd into a 250 ml. Erlenmeyer
flask, add 25 ml. of alkali solution (1.2 ml. 50 percent NaOH solution
made to 100 ml.); stopper the flask and place on mechanical shaker un-
til all particles are dispersed (2 to 3 hours); use 2 g. for the Mojonnier
solids test.
Percent solids of curd = (percent solids of sample -0.30) X 2
The dry material in the aluminum dishes is easily removed after the
addition of distilled water, heating to boiling and cooling for a few min-
More than the recommended amount of alkali did not shorten disper-
sion time appreciably; it caused etching of the aluminum dishes as evi-
denced by appearance and weight losses. (W. A. Krienke.)
Formol Titration Test Used In Evaluating Cottage Cheese Cultures.
-Observations that slow acid production during cottage cheese setting
sometimes resulted in a "weak set" and a soft pasty-type curd suggested
possible proteolysis of casein. In comparisons using a "slow culture"
versus a "fast culture" the formol titration test was used on filtered
whey taken immediately after cutting of the curd and again mid-way in
the cooking period. For skimmilk (9.45 percent solids) and for recon-
stituted low-heat non-fat dry milk (10.5 percent solids) the respective for-
mol titration values at both times were, for the "slow culture," 2.6 and
2.5; for the "fast culture," 1.4 and 1.5 (ml. 0.1 N alkali per 18 g. whey).
The results suggest a protein breakdown (perhaps casein proteolysis)
or an interference of some type that prevented complete and/or adequate
coagulation of casein. Visual inspection of the filtered whey samples re-
vealed a slight cloudiness in appearance of the "slow culture" whey.
This finding suggested possible use of the formol titration test as a
useful tool for evaluating the quality of cultures intended for cottage
cheese manufacture. Additional research is planned to investigate cer-
tain aspects that may be related to this condition. (W. A. Krienke.)
Protein Content of Milk More Reliable than Solids Content in Pre-
dicting Yield of Cottage Cheese.-High protein producers (primarily
Guernseys) versus low protein producers (primarily Holsteins) were se-
lected for pooled samples of milk to study the relationship of protein
content of skimmilk to yield of cottage cheese. After pasteurization at

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

143'F for 30 minutes a portion of each lot of skimmilk was concentrated
in a vacuum pan. Triplicate trials were made involving 18 vats of
cottage cheese. For each trial, adjustments in composition were made
so that each of the pooled batches resembled its companion with respect
to protein content in 1 set of comparisons and solids content in another
set. Yields of curd were adjusted to an 80 percent moisture basis.
The high protein skimmilk (average 3.83 percent protein) yielded 24.9
percent more cottage cheese curd than did the low protein skimmilk
(average 3.12 percent protein). For the 6 comparisons based on protein
content, regardless if increased from the low to the high or decreased
from the high to the low, on the average, a difference of only 1.2 percent
in yield of cottage cheese curd was obtained. For the 6 comparisons
based on solids content (compared similarly to protein basis), on the
average, a difference of 12.5 percent in yield of cottage cheese curd re-
These data demonstrate the advisability of changing from a solids
basis to a protein basis in skimmilk composition for predicting yields of
cottage cheese. The results also are evidence that if these skimmilks
had been manufactured into non-fat dry milk and reconstituted to a solids
content of 10.0 percent, yield of cottage cheese curd for the high protein
product could have been expected to exceed that of the low protein
product by an average of 10.6 percent. (W. A. Krienke and L. E. Mull.)
Milk Composition.-Data from 2,052 randomly selected, daily, compos-
ite milk samples from Holsteins, Jerseys and Guernseys of the Dairy Re-
search Unit herd were analyzed. Within-breed zero-order correlation
were obtained between all combination of variables: (1) percent solids
not-fat (SNF), (2) percent fat, (3) pH, (4) percent acidity, (5) percent
protein, (6) percent chloride and (7) milk yield from which sample was
taken. Within-breed multiple correlations (R2) between (1) and (2) to
(7) ranged from 0.76 to 0.86; R' over all breeds was 0.89. R2 over all
breeds was essentially unaffected by deletion of variables (3), (4) or
(7) alone or in combination. Ranges of partial correlations (within-
breeds) between percent SNF and other variables were, with (2)
0.18 to 0.35, (3) -0.09 to -0.14, (4) 0.06 to -0.13, (5) 0.56 to 0.69, (6) -0.37
to -0.61 and (7) -0.06 to -0.15. Within-breed or combined breed regres-
sion equations which attempted to predict percent SNF from all other
measurements were associated with unbiased standard errors of estimate
of 0.20 to 0.23. Variability in percent SNF was practically unrelated to
percent acidity, pH and the milk yield from which the sample was taken,
but was moderately related to percent fat, percent protein and percent
chloride. (W. A. Krienke and C. J. Wilcox.)
Heat Treatments Affect Yield and Quality of Cottage Cheese.-The
skimmilks for this study involving 30 vats of cottage cheese were sep-
arated from mixed herd milk. After pasteurization (control samples
162'F for 17.4 seconds and test samples 143, 150, 155, 160 and 165F for 30
minutes) portions were concentrated from about 9.5 percent solids in a
vacuum pan to 15 to 17 percent solids. The latter portions were used
to standardize portions of respective skimmilks so that final solids con-
tents for comparative studies were 9.5, 10.0 and 10.5 percent solids. The
cottage cheese curd was made by the short-set method, and final yields
were calculated to an 80 percent moisture basis.
While data on yields of curd for the different test samples varied
somewhat irregularly from the controls, the yields at the 160 and 165F
treatments were substantially higher than the others. This indicates
some precipitation of B-Lactoglobulin trapped in the coagulated casein.

Annual Report, 1961 99

However, at these temperatures and at 155F the characteristics of the
curd ranged from weak and fragile to very pasty with the increases in
temperature. Curd of excellent quality at each of the 3 levels of solids
resulted from the control samples and the test samples pasteurized at
143 and 150F 30 minutes.
These results suggest that for cottage cheese purposes, heat treat-
ments must not exceed 150F for 30 minutes or its equivalent, whether
the milk product used be skimmilk, condensed skimmilk, or non-fat dry
milk. (L. E. Mull and W. A. Krienke.)