<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Table of Contents
 Agricultural experiment station...
 Report of the director
 Report of the administrative...
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering
 Agronomy
 Animal husbandry and nutrition
 Botany
 Dairy science
 Editorial
 Entomology
 Food technology and nutrition
 Forestry
 Fruit crops
 Library
 Ornamental horticulture
 Plant pathology
 Plant science section
 Poultry husbandry
 Soils
 Statistical section
 Vegetable crops
 Veterinary science
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Everglades station
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Range cattle station
 Sub-tropical station
 Suwanne Valley station
 West Central Florida station
 West Florida station
 Federal-state frost warning...
 Potato investigations laborato...
 Strawberry investigations...
 Watermelon and grape investigations...
 Index
 Historic note


UF FLAG



Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00008
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1960
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00008
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Dedication
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Agricultural experiment station staff
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Report of the director
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Agricultural economics
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Agronomy
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Animal husbandry and nutrition
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Botany
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Dairy science
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Editorial
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Entomology
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Food technology and nutrition
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Forestry
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Fruit crops
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Library
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Ornamental horticulture
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Plant pathology
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Plant science section
        Page 141
    Poultry husbandry
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    Soils
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Statistical section
        Page 163
    Vegetable crops
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Veterinary science
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
    Central Florida station
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
    Citrus station
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
    Everglades station
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 263
            Page 264
            Page 265
            Page 266
            Page 267
        Plantation field laboratory
            Page 268
            Page 269
            Page 270
            Page 271
            Page 272
            Page 273
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        South Florida field laboratory
            Page 288
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
    North Florida station
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Marianna field laboratory
            Page 302
            Page 303
    Range cattle station
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
    Sub-tropical station
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
    Suwanne Valley station
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
    West Central Florida station
        Page 329
    West Florida station
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
    Federal-state frost warning service
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
    Potato investigations laboratory
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
    Strawberry investigations laboratory
        Page 342
        Page 343
    Watermelon and grape investigations laboratory
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
    Index
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
    Historic note
        Page 365
Full Text





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA










AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT STATIONS











ANNUAL REPORT

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING

JUNE 30, 1960







A/.,-
13:iEBI.


Roger W. Bledsoe
(1908 1960)
We are dedicating this Annual Report to the memory of Dr. Roger
W. Bledsoe, Associate Director of the Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tions for several years and at the time of his death on January 24,
1960.
The research program of the Experiment Stations was near and
dear to Roger Bledsoe, and his service to Florida's agriculture, first as
a scientist and later as a research administrator, made him deeply
appreciated by all Floridians who are in any way familiar with the
important work of the Stations.
Those of us fortunate enough to work closely with him lost a be-
loved friend when he died. Much that he accomplished continues to
serve Florida's agriculture and reflects an extraordinarily productive
lifetime of effort.












CONTENTS
Page

Report of the Director ........................................... 13
Report of the Administrative Manager .................. --..-. --...--.-- 21
AIN STATION:
Agricultural Economics ..~... .... ... ...........- .... ..-..- ..-- 23
Agricultural Engineering ............. .... .. .- 39
A gronom y ------............... ........-...............-...- 46
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition .........................--.- ......-.. 62
Botany ..................... ......... .... ... .. 77
Dairy Science .......... .......... ............. 81
Editorial .......~..--. ...-..................... -87
Entomology --...-................. ....----------....----. 98
Food Technology and Nutrition ......................... ......... ........ 105
Forestry ....... ...... ................ -- 112
Fruit Crops ... .....-... ........ ..--. -----119
Library ............. --......-....-... ...............-............. 123
Ornamental Horticulture ...... ...... .............-.. ... --.. ..-... .. 125
Plant Pathology ............. ... ..... ........ 132
Plant Science Section ......-..... .. ..-.--.-....-- 141
Poultry Husbandry ............ ........ .. .142
Soils ................................- .. ..... ...... 148
Statistical Section ......-...-...........- ...--...--...... .--- ........ 163
Vegetable Crops ......-. .....-....--....- .......-. --. ..............- 164
Veterinary Science ................. -- .---~...... 175
RANCH STATIONS:
Central Florida Station ................... ....... ....--..-. .- 181
Citrus Station ....................- ....-.......- ..... .. ......... 194
Everglades Station ................ ............... ............ ..- 242
Indian River Field Laboratory ........................... ..... ...- 263
Plantation Field Laboratory .............-............... .....- 268
Gulf Coast Station ................................ ... ... --..- ... 274
South Florida Field Laboratory .................-...-.........- 288
North Florida Station .......-....-............. .....-............. 292
Marianna Unit ....-............... -.......-. ..-- ..- -- 302
Range Cattle Station ....... ...... ..........-....- ---- .... 304
Sub-Tropical Station ....................- .. .. ....- .... ... 315
Suwannee Valley Station .........---... .....- .......--..- ....-.. ......- 326
West Central Florida Station .................. ............... ....... ...... 329
W est Florida Station -.............. ............. ... .......... ...... 330
FIELD LABORATORIES:
Federal-State Frost Warning Service ...................... .. ......---- .. 335
Potato Investigations Laboratory ..................... .....---...... 338
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory ..................... ---........ 342
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory ..........................- 344


63Q-3











AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION STAFF

BOARD OF CONTROL
J. J. Daniel, Chairman, Jacksonville
James J. Love, Quincy
Ralph L. Miller, Orlando
Joe K. Hays, Winter Haven
Frank H. Buchanan, Marianna
S. Kendrick Guernsey, Jacksonville
James D. Camp, Ft. Lauderdale
J. Broward Culpepper, Executive Director, Tallahassee

ADMINISTRATION
J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., President
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for Agriculture
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Director
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Associate Director
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assistant Director
D. R. Bryant, Jr.. A.B., Administrative Manager
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Superintendent of Field Operations
W. H. Jones, M.Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Operations

ACADEMIC STAFF
The following abbreviations after name and title of Experiment Stati
staff indicates cooperation with other organizations:
Coll. Univ. of Fla. College of Agriculture
Ext. Univ. of Fla. Agricultural Extension Service
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
USWB United States Weather Bureau
FCC Florida Citrus Commission
SPB State Plant Board

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
Agricultural Economics Department
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and Head; also Coll. and Ext
H. B. Clark, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Marketing Economist; also Coll.
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
J. R. Greenman, B.S.A., LL.B., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
F. T. Hady, B.A., Agricultural Economist, USDA
L. A. Reuss, M.S., Agricultural Economist, USDA (on leave to Costa Rica
project)
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate Agricultural Economist (on leave to Costa
Rica project)
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist
C. E. Murphree, D.P.A., Associate Agricultural Economist; also Coll.
C. N. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist
G. L. Capel, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA
L. V. Dixon, M.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA









ST. Manley, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA
A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist
SB. Riggan, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist
T. Blair, M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics
B. Owens, B.S., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
A. Rowe, B.S.A., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
C. Townsend, B.S.A., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
W. Kelly, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, USDA, Orlando
N. Rose, B.S., Associate Agricultural Economist, Orlando
L. Crenshaw, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Orlando
W. Warburton, M.S., Assistant in Agricultural Economics, USDA
D. Covey, M.S.A., Interim Assistant Agricultural Economist
agricultural Engineering Department
T. Kinard, Ph.D., Agricultural Engineer and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
E. Choate, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
K. Bowman, B.S., Associate Industrial Engineer, USDA
M. Myers, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer; also Coll.
SS. Holmes, M.E., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
J. Ross, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
E. Yost, B.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
G. Grizzell, B.I.E., Assistant in Agricultural Engineering, USDA
gronomy Department
H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist and Head
D. Butson, M.S., State Climatologist, USWB
A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Agronomist; also Coll.
.Clark, M.S.A., Associate Agronomist
S. Horner, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
.Hinson, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; USDA
.B. Linden, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
J. Norden, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
M. Prine, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
.C. Ruelke,-Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist; also Coll.
.N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
S. H. West, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
Merrill Wilcox, M.S., Assistant Agronomist
R. J. Drago, B.S., Assistant in Agronomy

Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
M. Koger, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist; also Coll.
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist; also Coll.
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Associate Physiologist; also Coll.
J. W. Carpenter, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman
C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
G. E. Combs, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman; also Coll.


j








J. T. McCall, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
D. L. Wakeman, M.S.A., Assistant Animal Husbandman; also Coll.
R. B. Christman, M.S., Interim Assistant in Animal Husbandry
Botany Department
G. R. Noggle, Ph.D., Botanist and Head; also Coll.
W. M. Dugger, Jr., Ph. D., Associate Physiologist
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
H. J. Teas, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
Yoneo Sagawa, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist; also Coll.
D. B. Ward, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist; also Coll.
Dairy Science Department
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist and Head; also Coll.
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Associate Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
D. H. Kleyn, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Technologist; also Coll.
C. J. Wilcox, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Husbandman; also Coll.
Editorial Department
J. F. Cooper, M.S.A., Editor and Head; also Ext.
W. G. Mitchell, M.S.A., Assistant Editor; also Ext.
R. C. Orr, B.S., Assistant Editor
Margaret Jensen, B.S., Assistant Editor
Entomology Department
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist and Head
J. R. Christie, Ph.D., Nematologist
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist
V. G. Perry, Ph.D., Nematologist; also Coll.
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant Entomologist
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Assistant Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
Food Technology and Nutrition Department
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biochemist and Head; also Coll.
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulturist; also Coll.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
H. P. Pan, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
R. C. Robbins, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
R. J. Vilece, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist; also Coll.
Ruth 0. Townsend, R.N., Assistant in Nutrition
Forestry Department
C. M. Kaufman, Ph.D., Forester and Head; also Coll.
C. G. Geltz, M.S., Forester; also Coll.
J. W. Miller, M.S.F., Forester; also Coll.
S. L. Beckwith, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
P. W. Frazer, M.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
J. B. Huffman, D.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
R. B. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
E. T. Sullivan, D.F., Associate Forester; also Coll.
K. R. Swinford, M.S., Associate Forester; also Coll.









W. Wang, Ph.D., Associate Forester; also Coll.
W. Willingham, Ph.D., Assistant Forester; also Coil.
SE. Goddard, M.S.F., Assistant Geneticist; also Coll.
SM. Post, M.S.F., Assistant Forester; also Coll.
J. Peters, B.S., Interim Assistant in Forestry
fruit Crops Department
SH. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll.
S. Shoemaker, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. Sharpe, M.S., Associate Horticulturist
H. Biggs, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
SF. Gerber, Ph.D., Assistant Climatologist
library
da K. Cresap, Librarian
.C. Strickland, Assistant in Library
anie L. Tyson, Assistant in Library

ornamental Horticulture Department
.W. McElwee, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
.D. Dickey, M.S.A., Horticulturist
. C. Horn, Ph.D., Associate Turf Technologist; also Coll.
. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
. E. Pope, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
SN. Joiner, Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist; also Coll.
plant Pathology Department
. Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head; also Coll.
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, USDA
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. West, M.S., Botanist and Mycologist; also Coll.
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Associate Virologist
R. G. Orellana, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist, USDA
D. A. Roberts, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist; also Coll.
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
M. K. Corbett, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
S. A. Ostazeski, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist, USDA
Plant Science Section
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist in Charge
Poultry Husbandry Department
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
R. H. Harms, Ph.D., Associate Poultry Husbandman; also Coll.
R. E. Cook, Ph.D., Assistant Poultry Husbandman; also Coll.
F. R. Tarver, Jr., M.S., Assistant Poultry Husbandman; also Coll.
Soils Department
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist and Head; also Coll.
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soils Technologist
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist (on leave to Costa Rica project)
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist; also Coll.
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Associate Soils Microbiologist








J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist; also Coll.
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Associate Soils Physicist; also Coll.
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Associate Soils Surveyor
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
G. A. Brown, B.S.A., Assistant Soils Surveyor
T. C. Mathews, B.S.A., Assistant Soils Surveyor
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
R. J. Bullock, B.S.A., Interim Assistant in Soils
H. L. Popenoe, Ph.D., Interim Assistant Soils Microbiologist
Statistical Section
A. E. Brandt, Ph.D., Statistician and Head
Vegetable Crops Department
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head; also Coll. and Ext.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Horticulturist; also Coll.
D. D. Gull, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
S. J. Locascio, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist; also Coll.
Veterinary Science Department
W. R. Pritchard, D.V.M., Ph.D., Veterinarian and Head; also Coll.
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian; also Coll.
M. Ristic, D.V.M., Bacteriologist
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Veterinarian; also Coll. (on leave)
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist; also Coll.
A. J. Kniazeff, D. V. M., Associate Virologist
D. D. Cox, Ph.D., Assistant Parasitologist; also Coll.
F. H. White, Ph.D., Assistant Bacteriologist
Jane Beck Walker, M.S., Assistant in Bacteriology
W. M. Stone, Jr., M.S., Assistant in Parasitology
T. D. Malewitz, Ph.D., Interim Assistant Pathologist

BRANCH STATIONS

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, Sanford
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist in Charge
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
H. L. Rhoades, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist

CITRUS STATION, Lake Alfred
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
L. L. Sebring, M.S., Assistant in Library

Harvesting and Packing Section
E. F. Hopkins, Ph.D., Plant Physiologist, FCC
G. E. Coppock, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, FCC
W. Grierson, Ph.D., Associate Chemist








W. Hayward, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
A. McCornack, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC
SF. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist, FCC
V. Ting, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC

Production Section

SW. Clancy, Ph.D., Entomologist, USDA
P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. Feldman, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
C. Knorr, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
H. Muma, Ph.D., Entomologist
C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist
A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
.C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Nematologist
L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
.J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
.W. Ford, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
.B. Johnson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
D. Leonard, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
.F. Spencer, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
SStewart, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
rancine E. Fisher, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
.W. Hanks, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
I. Hannon, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
H. Hendershott, M.S., Assistant Plant Physiologist, FCC
J. Jutras, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
.C. Koo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
D. W. Kretchman, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
J. J. McBride, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
L. B. Anderson, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry
W. J. French, M.S., Interim Assistant in Horticulture
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology

Processing Section

C. D. Atkins, B.S., Chemist, FCC
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Chemist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Chemist FCC
R. Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Pectin Chemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Associate Chemist
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Associate Chemist, FCC
M. H. Dougherty, B. S., Assistant Chemical Engineer, FCC
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Assistant Bacteriologist, FCC
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Assistant Chemist, FCC
K. C. Li, Ph.D., Interim Assistant Food Technologist
S. K. Long, Ph.D., Assistant Industrial Bacteriologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
R. W. Barron, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
J. A. Attaway, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist, FCC








Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 1351, Fort Pierce
J. R. King, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
M. Cohen, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. R. Hunziker, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist

EVERGLADES STATION, Belle Glade
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge

Fiber and Engineering Section
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
M. H. Byrom, M.S., Agricultural Engineer, USDA
D. W. Fisher, M.S., Associate Agronomist, USDA
C. C. Seale, D.I.C.T.A., Associate Agronomist
T. E. Summers, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist, USDA
H. D. Wittemore, B.S.A.E., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
R. E. Hellwig, B.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
J. F. Joyner, Assistant Agronomist, USDA
F. D. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Geneticist, USDA

Soils and Chemistry Section
C. C. Hortenstine, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
F. H. Thomas, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist

Horticulture Section
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Associate Horticulturist
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

Agronomy Section
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
F. leGrand, M.S., Assistant Agronomist

Plant Pathology Section
J. N. Simon, Ph.D., Associate Virologist
P. L. Thayer, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
C. C. Wehlburg, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist

Entomology Section
W. G. Genung, M.S., Associate Entomologist
E. D. Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Animal Husbandry Section
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Animal Husbandman
H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman
C. E. Haines, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman

Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 1351, Fort Pierce
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Entomologist
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist (on leave to Costa Rica
project)
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
J. A. Winchester, M.S.A., Interim Assistant Agronomist








Plantation Field Laboratory, Fort Lauderdale
T. Boyd, Ph.D., Agronomist
C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer, USDA
I. Borders, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
.A. Weaver, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
.H. Stewart, B.S., Associate Soils Physicist
.Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
.E. Seaman, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist, USDA

ULF COAST STATION, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Bradenton
.L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
G. A. Kelbert, Associate Horticulturist
S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
C. R. Jackson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
Amegda J. Overman, M.S., Assistant Soils Microbiologist
W. E. Waters, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
South Florida Field Laboratory, Box 973, Immokalee
P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, Quincy
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
F. S. Baker, Jr., M.S.A., Associate Animal Husbandman
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
C. E. Dean, Ph.D., Interim Assistant Agronomist
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Assistant Entomologist
T. E. Webb, M.S.A., Assistant Agronomist and Manager Foundation Seed
Program
W. D. Woodward, M.S., Assistant Soils Chemist
H. W. Young, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
Chipley Unit
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
Marianna Unit
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

RANGE CATTLE STATION, Ona
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman
C. L. Dantzman, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist

SUBTROPICAL STATION, Route 1, Box 560, Homestead
G. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist








T. W. Young, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
C. W. Campbell, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. A. McFadden, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
P. G. Orth, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. Popenoe, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
J. W. Strobel, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION, Box 1630, Live Oak
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist in Charge

WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, Brooksville
W. C. Burns, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman, Acting in Charge, USD2

WEST FLORIDA STATION, Route 3, Jay
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
L. S. Dunavin, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist

FIELD LABORATORIES
Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
D. L. Myhre, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
R. B. Workman, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
Pecan Investigations Laboratory, Monticello
J. R. Large, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Associate Entomologist; also USDA
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory, Plant City, Box 2386, Lakeland
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Box 321, Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
W. C. Adlerz, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
J. G. Buchert, Ph.D., Assistant Geneticist
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture.
Weather Forecasting Service, Box 1058, Lakeland
W. O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in Charge, USWB
L. E. Hughes, M.S., Associate Meteorologist, USWB
D. C. Russell, B.S., Associate Meteorologist, USWB
L. L. Benson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
J. G. Georg, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
W. F. Mincey, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
B. H. Moore, B.A., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
P. A. Mott, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
O. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. T. Sherouse, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB











REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR


CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS

Major capital improvements have been virtually at a standstill for sev-
al years.
Research costs money and is, essentially, an investment in the future.
major private corporations place research high in their budgets; the largest
emical corporation of the country budgets 4 percent of gross sales for
search.
It is difficult for public government bodies to make judgments, especially
a state such as Florida where growth is so rapid and service needs are
developing even more rapidly than growth.
Nevertheless, agriculture is Florida's largest revenue-producing industry
nd research has given it this potential. The problems that remain to be
olved are innumerable and future expansion in agriculture depends upon
heir solution. Improvements and additions to the physical plant of the
agricultural Experiment Stations are badly needed and some means must
e found to meet this situation if our important agricultural industries are
o be properly served through productive research.

RESEARCH PROGRAM

Research in forestry has been added to the program this year and Dr.
.M. Kaufman, Director of the School of Forestry, will continue to head up
his phase of the program. It is hoped that this will strengthen research
in this important area by encouraging cooperative work in entomology,
pathology, soils and nutrition with research workers in these areas.
This report summarizes research done on 433 active projects, a net in-
crease of 43 above last year. Twenty projects were completed and closed
during the year; 63 new ones were initiated. Each is briefly reported in
this volume.
In addition to the projected work, many minor problems of the State's
agricultural industries are handled each year and these, too, are reported.
Finally, the nature of the program is gradually changing over the years.
Early work was directed almost entirely toward the solution of production
problems. With the small staff available during those years, the more com-
plex problems had to be deferred. With advances in basic knowledge, an
increased staff and a rapidly maturing industry, research on the nature and
control of virus diseases and nematodes has been initiated, and the many
complex harvesting and marketing problems now receive attention.
Even so, more problems are brought to our attention now than ever
before. Perhaps this results from the tremendous expansion in our agri-
cultural industries. Despite the important increases in tourism and man-
ufacturing in Florida, the recent expansion in agriculture keeps our basic
food-producing industries at the heart of the economy. More than ever
before, Florida is an agricultural state.
STAFF CHANGES
Appointments
Daniel A. Roberts, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology Dept., July 1,
1959.
Charles Julian Wilcox, Asst. Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Science, July 1, 1959.
Frank H. Thomas, Asst. Soils Chemist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1959.
Paul Gerhardt Orth, Asst. Soils Chemist, Subtropical Station, July 1, 1959.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Donald Lee Wakeman, Asst. Animal Husbandman, Animal Husb. Dep
July 1, 1959.
Charles C. Hortenstine, Research Associate, Everglades Station, July 1, 195
W. Lamar Reynolds, Research Associate, Everglades Station, July 1, 195
Paul Titus Blair, Asst. in Ag. Econ, Ag. Econ. Dept., July 1, 1959.
Stephen Lyon Beckwith, Assoc. Forester, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1959.
Jacob Brainard Huffman, Assoc. Forester, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1959.
Ray E. Goddard, Asst. Geneticist, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1959.
Reynolds B. Smith, Assoc. Forester, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1959.
Percy Warner Frazer, Assoc. Forester, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1959.
Don McKenzie Post, Asst. Forester, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1959.
Clemens Marcus Kaufman, Forester and Head and Dir. School of Forestr
Forestry Dept., July 1, 1959.
Chi-Wu Wang, Assoc. Forester, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1959.
James W. Willingham, Asst. Forester, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1959.
Kenneth Roberts Swinford, Assoc. Forester, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1959.
James W. Miller, Jr., Forester, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1959.
Edward Thomas Sullivan, Assoc. Forester, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1959.
Charles Gottlieb Geltz, Forester, Forestry Dept., July 1, 1959.
Harold Brown Clark, Ag. Econ., Ag. Econ. Dept., July 1, 1959.
Charles Edgar Dean, Int. Asst. Agronomist, North Fla. Station, July 1, 1959.
James Woodford Carpenter, Asst. An. Husbandman, An. Husb. Dept.,
August 1, 1959.
Charles Dean Covey, Int. Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., August 1,
1959.
George Alton Brown, Asst. Soil Surveyor, Soils Dept., August 1, 1959.
Harlan L. Rhoades, Asst. Entomologist, Central Fla. Station, Sept. 1, 1959.
Ira Joseph Ross, Asst. Ag. Engineer, Ag. Eng. Dept., Sept. 1, 1959.
Leonard Sypret Dunavin, Jr., Asst. Agronomist, West Fla. Station, Sept. 1,
1959.
Hugh L. Popenoe, Int. Asst. in Soil Microbiology, Soils Dept., Sept. 1, 1959.
Frank Thomas Hady, Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Sept. 16, 1959.
Robert Bruce Christmas, Int. Asst. in An. Husb., An. Husb. Dept., Sept. 16,
1959.
William John French, Int. Asst. In Hort., Citrus Station, Oct. 1, 1959.
Ralph Compton Robbins, Asst. Biochemist, Food Tech & Nutr. Dept., Oct. 1,
1959.
Thomas Everett Pope, Asst. Horticulturist, Orn. Hort. Dept., October 1,
1959.
William G. Grizzell, Asst. in Ag. Engineering, Ag. Eng. Dept., Oct. 1, 1959.
Huey Ingles Borders, Assoc. Plant Path., Everglades Station, Oct. 1, 1959.
James Walter Strobel, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Subtropical Station, Oct. 16,
1959.
Dirk Henry Kleyn, Asst. Dairy Technologist, Dairy Sci. Dept., Oct. 19, 1959.
Janson George Buchert, Asst. Geneticist, Watermelon Lab., Oct. 16, 1959.
Wilbur Franklin Mincey, Asst. Meteo., Weather Forecasting, November 1,
1959, USWB.
Herbert Winthrop Warburton, Asst. in Ag. Econ., Ag. Econ. Dept., Nov. 4,
1959.
John Allen Attaway, Asst. Chemist, Citrus Station, Dec. 1, 1959.
John Popenoe, Assoc. Horticulturist, Subtropical Station, Dec. 21, 1959.
William John Peters, Int. Asst. in Forestry, Dept. of Forestry, Jan. 1, 1960.
Cornelis Wehlburg, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, Jan. 1,
1960.
Willie E. Waters, Asst. Horticulturist, Gulf Coast Station, Feb. 1, 1960.
Ernest Harold Stewart, Assoc. Soil Physicist, Everglades Station, Feb. 1,
1960, USDA.








Annual Report, 1960


rl Walter Campbell, Asst. Hort., Subtropical Station, Feb. 16, 1960.
illiam Joe Brown, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., May 16, 1960.
errill Wilcox, Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., June 1, 1960.
ran Kitchen, Int. Research Assoc., Vet. Sci. Dept., June 1, 1960.
lomas Donald Malewitz, Int. Asst. Pathologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., June 17,
1960.
hn F. Gerber, Asst. Climatologist, Fruit Crops Dept., June 21, 1960.

Promotions
homas Elder Humphreys, Assoc. Biochemist. Botany Dept., July 1, 1959.
)hn Norton Simons, Assoc. Virologist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1959.
rederick Tilghman Boyd, Agronomist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1959.
ohn Wallace Wilson, Entomologist in Charge, Central Florida Station, July
1, 1959.
.Carl Knorr, Plant Pathologist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1959.
ortimer Cohen, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1959.
ohn Ralph King, Assoc. Entomologist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1959.
victor Fleetwood Nettles, Horticulturist, Vegetable Crops, July 1, 1959.
hris William Anderson, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Plant Pathology, July
1, 1959.
Villis Harleston Chapman, Agronomist in Charge, North Florida Station,
Sept. 1, 1959.
ohn Wilbur Sites, Associate Director, Ag. Exp. Station, March 1, 1960.
Nilliam G. Blue, Acting Chief of Field Party, Costa Rica Contract, March
15, 1960.
lfred Herman Krezdorn, Horticulturist and Head of Dept., Fruit Crops
Dept., May 1, 1960.
Transfers
Albert William Feldman, from State Plant Board to Citrus Sta., July 1,
1959.
Lawrence Adkins Reuss, Ag. Economics Dept. to Costa Rica Assignment,
July 1, 1959.
Dalton S. Harrison, Asst. Ag. Eng., from Everglades Station to Extension
Service, Aug. 16, 1959.
Granville C. Horn, from Ag. Ext. Serv. to Assoc. Turf Technologist, Ag. Exp.
Station, Ornamental Hort. Dept., September 1, 1959.
Thomas Elliot Webb, Asst. Agronomist to Asst. Agronomist and Manager,
Foundation Seed Program, Sept. 1, 1959.
R. W. Kidder, An. Husbandman, from Everglades Station to Costa Rica as-
signment, Oct. 19, 1959.
John Roosevelt Greenman, to Int. Asst. Dir. of Sci. and Engineer Study and
Prof. of Ag. Econ., December 1, 1959 to June 30, 1960.
Robert Bruce Christmas, Int. Asst. An. Husbandman to Ag. Ext. Serv., Feb.
1, 1960.
R. W. Kidder, An. Husbandman, from Costa Rica assignment to Everglades
Sta., May 16, 1960.
Daniel E. Alleger, Assoc. Ag. Econ., from Costa Rica assignment to Ag.
Econ. Dept., June 7, 1960.
Resignations
William James Wiser, Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1959,
USDA.
Larry Matthew Sutton, Asst. in Ent.-Path., Citrus Station, July 31, 1959.
Wallace T. Jacobs, Jr., Asst. Soil Surveyor, Soils Dept., July 31, 1959.
Robert Lee Jeffers, Assoc. Agronomist, West Florida Station, August 1, 1959.
Evert Oakley Burt, Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy, September 15, 1959.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Carroll R. Douglas, Int. Asst. in Poultry Nutr., Poultry Dept., Sept. 20, 195
Ray H. Creel, Int. Asst. in Bacteriology, Vet Sci. Dept., Nov. 30, 1959.
Joseph James McBride, Jr., Asst. Chemist, Citrus Station, Dec. 15, 1959.
Miodrag Ristic, Bacteriologist, Veterinary Science, Dec. 31, 1959.
Homer A. Weaver, Assoc. Ag. Engineer, Everglades Station, January 3
1960, USDA.
John Norton Simons, Assoc. Virologist, Everglades Station, Feb. 1, 1960.
Margaret S. Jensen, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., April 18, 1960.
W. M. Dugger, Jr., Assoc. Plant Physiologist, Botany Dept., April 27, 196
Bruce William Kelly, Assoc. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., April 30, 196
William John French, Int. Asst. in Hort., Citrus Station, June 24, 1960.
Jansen George Buchert, Asst. Geneticist, Watermelon and Grape Lab., Jun
30, 1960.
Dirk Henry Kleyn, Asst. Dairy Technologist, Dairy Science, June 30, 1960.
Donald Laverne Myhre, Asst. Soils Chemist, Potato Lab., June 30, 1960.
Paul Titus Blair, Asst. in Ag. Econ., Ag. Econ. Dept., June 30, 1960.
R. L. Bullock, Int. Asst. in Soils, Soils Dept., June 30, 1960.
H. W. Davis, Asst. Meteorologist, June 30, 1960, USWB.

Retirements
Robert Reed McNary, Biochemist, Citrus Station, July 31, 1959, FCC.
Francis B. Lincoln, Horticulturist, Subtropical Station, Dec. 31, 1959.
Felix S. Lagassee, Horticulturist, Fruit Crops, June 30, 1960, USDA.
Jesse R. Christie, Nematologist, Entomology Department, June 30, 1960.

Deaths
Robert Bruce Ledin, Assoc. Horticulturist, Subtropical Station, July 9, 1959.
Roger W. Bledsoe, Associate Director and Agronomist, Administration, Jan.
24, 1960.
G. E. Ritchey, Agronomist, Suwannee Valley (Emeritus), March 21, 1960.
J. W. Randolph, Agriculture Engineer, Everglades, April 18, 1960.

GRANTS AND GIFTS
Commercial grants and gifts accepted as support for existing programs
for the year ending June 30, 1960. Financial assistance is hereby gratefully
acknowledged.
Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois
Citrus Experiment Station $3,000
Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois
Fruit Crops Department $1,000
Amchem Products, Inc., Ambler, Pennsylvania
Everglades Experiment Station $300
American Agricultural Chemical Company, New York 7, New York
Soils Department $3,600
American Cyanamid Company, New York 20, New York
Citrus Experiment Station $1,500
American Cyanamid Company, Princeton, New Jersey
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $2,500
American Dehydrators Association, Kansas City, Missouri
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $2,500
American Meat Institute, Chicago 37, Illinois
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $1,733
American Orchid Society, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Ornamental Horticulture Department $1,000








Annual Report, 1960 17

erican Potash Institute, Inc., Washington, D. C.
Soils Department $2,000
mour and Company, Chicago 9, Illinois
Everglades Experiment Station $3,000
lantic Creosoting Corporation, Portsmouth, Virginia
Forestry Department $600
ckeye Cellulose Corporation, Foley, Florida
Forestry Department $2,000
unswick Pulp and Paper Corporation, Brunswick, Georgia
Forestry Department $2,000
lifornia Spray-Chemical Corporation, Moorestown, New Jersey
Entomology Department $500
lifornia Spray-Chemical Corporation, Moorestown, New Jersey
Plant Pathology Department $500
difornia Spray-Chemical Corporation, Moorestown, New Jersey
Citrus Experiment Station $3,000
lifornia Spray-Chemical Corporation, Moorestown, New Jersey
Everglades Experiment Station $700
lifornia Spray-Chemical Corporation, Richmond, California
Gulf Coast Experiment Station $750
lifornia Spray-Chemical Corporation, Richmond, California
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $1,000
BA Pharmaceutical Products, Inc., Summit, New Jersey
Everglades Experiment Station $4,500
itrus Processors' Association, Winter Haven, Florida
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $4,000
commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $2,000
commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $3,000
commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana
Everglades Experiment Station $2,000
container Corporation of America, Fernandina Beach, Florida
Forestry Department $2,000
continental Can Company, Chicago 20, Illinois
Citrus Experiment Station $10,000
diamond Alkali Company, Painesville, Ohio
Everglades Experiment Station $400
I. du Pont de Nemours, Wilmington, Delaware
Poultry Department $1,200
E. I. du Pont de Nemours, Wilmington, Delaware
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $1,500
DOW Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan
Citrus Experiment Station $990
Eppinger and Russell Company, Jacksonville, Florida
Forestry Department $600
Ferro Corporation, Cleveland 5, Ohio
Soils Department $2,500
Flavor Corporation of America, Chicago 14, Illinois
Dairy Science Department $1,000
Florida and Georgia Cigar Leaf Tobacco Association, Quincy, Florida
North Florida Experiment Station $10,000
Florida Flower Association, Bradenton, Florida
Gulf Coast Experiment Station $400
Florida Flower Association, Bradenton, Florida
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $1,000








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Florida Power Corporation, St. Petersburg, Florida
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $1,580
Florida Tomato Committee, Orlando, Florida
Agricultural Economics Department $7,000
Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation, Lakeland, Florida
Fruit Crops Department $2,500
Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation (Niagara Chem. Div.), Middl
port, New York
Citrus Experiment Station $1,000
Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation (John Bean Div.) Orland
Florida
Citrus Experiment Station $2,000
Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation (Niagara Chem. Div.),
Jackson, Mississippi
Everglades Experiment Station $600
Gair Woodlands Corporation, Savannah, Georgia
Forestry Department $2,000
Geigy Chemicals, Yonkers, New York
Agronomy Department $500
Geigy Chemicals, Yonkers, New York
Botany Department $1,000
Geigy Chemicals, Yonkers, New York
Entomology Department $500
Geigy Chemicals, Yonkers, New York
Soils Department $500
G L F Soil Building Service, Ithaca, New York
Everglades Experiment Station $300
Golf Course Superintendents' Association of America
Ornamental Horticulture Department $500
W. R. Grace and Company, Clarksville, Maryland
Everglades Experiment Station $3,000
Growers' Administrative Committee, Lakeland, Florida
Agricultural Economics Department $2,540
Hall and Thomas Incorporated, Lake Harbor, Florida
Entomology Department $500
Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington 99, Delaware
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $1,000
Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington 99, Delaware
Everglades Experiment Station $1,500
Hollingsworth & Whitney (Division of Scott Paper), Mobile, Alabama
Forestry Department $2,000
Tom Huston, Miami Florida
Fruit Crops Department $2,000
International Paper Company, Mobile, Alabama
Forestry Department $2,000
Eli Lilly Company, Indianapolis 6, Indiana
Gulf Coast Experiment Station -$1,100
Eli Lilly Company, Indianapolis 6, Indiana
Plant Pathology Department $500
Martin County Flower Growers' Association, Stuart, Florida
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $2,000
Merck and Company, Inc., Rahway, New Jersey
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $2,000
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. Louis, Missouri
Forestry Department $400
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. Louis, Missouri
Poultry Department $4,000









Annual Report, 1960


nsanto Chemical Company, St. Louis, Missouri
Everglades Experiment Station $1,000
orman Manufacturing Company, Quincy, Illinois
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $3,000
tionwide Chemical Company, Inc., Fort Myers, Florida
Central Florida Experiment Station $1,000
tionwide Chemical Company, Inc., Fort Myers, Florida
Everglades Experiment Station $1,000
tionwide Chemical Company, Inc., Fort Myers, Florida
Gulf Coast Experiment Station $2,000
tionwide Chemical Company, Inc., Fort Myers, Florida
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $1,000
ttional Association of Artificial Breeders, Columbia, Missouri
Dairy Science Department $1,200
xtional Feed Ingredients Association Des Moines, Iowa
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $1,500
agara Chemical Division, Jackson, Mississippi
Citrus Experiment Station $600
larles Pfizer and Company, Inc., Terre Haute, Indiana
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $1,000
larles Pfizer and Company, Inc., Terre Haute, Indiana
Poultry Department $1,000
harles Pfizer and Company, Inc., Brooklyn 6, New York
Everglades Experiment Station $1,000
hillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, Oklahoma
Soils Department $2,000
otato Chip Institute, Cleveland 15, Ohio
Food Technology and Potato Investigations Laboratory $1,200
ayonier, Inc., Fernandina Beach, Florida
Forestry Department $2,000
ohm and Haas Company, Philadelphia 5, Pennsylvania
Citrus Experiment Station $3,000
ohm and Haas Company, Philadelphia 5, Pennsylvania
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station $1,000
hodia Inc., New York 22, New York
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $3,000
aboard Air Line Railroad Company, Richmond, Virginia
Forestry Department $600
M. Scott and Sons Company, Marysville, Ohio
Entomology Department $500
Shell Chemical Company, New York 22, New York
Food Technology Department $3,000
Shell Chemical Company, Atlanta 3, Georgia
Plant Pathology, Central Florida, Everglades & Sub-Tropical Stations -
$3,300
Shell Development Company, Modesta, California
Central Florida $800
Shell Development Company, Modesta, California
Entomology Department $600
Ben Silverman, Dunedin, Florida
Gulf Coast Experiment Station $1,426
Smith-Douglas Company, Inc., Norfolk 1, Virginia
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition $3,000
Soft Phosphate Research Institute, Inc., Ocala, Florida
Poultry Department $3,000
Soft Phosphate Research Institute, Inc., Ocala, Florida
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $4,000









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Southern Wood Preserving Company, Atlanta, Georgia
Forestry Department $600
E. R. Squibb & Sons, New York 22, New York
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $1,800
Stauffer Chemical Company, Mountain View, California
Citrus Experiment Station $1,500
St. Regis Paper Company, Jacksonville, Florida
Forestry Department $2,000
St. Marys Kraft Corporation, St. Marys, Georgia
Forestry Department $2,000
Tennessee Corporation, Atlanta 1, Georgia
Citrus Experiment Station $800
Tennessee Corporation, College Park, Georgia
Central Florida, Everglades and Sub-Tropical Experimen
$1,300
Union Carbide Chemicals Company, White Plains, New York
Entomology Department $500
The UpJohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan
Plant Pathology Department $1,000
The UpJohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan
Plant Pathology Department $500
Union Bag-Camp Paper Company, Savannah, Georgia
Forestry Department $2,000
United States Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, Florida
Everglades Experiment Station $2,000
Frank Weber, Ormond Beach, Florida
Fruit Crops Department $500
Westinghouse Electric, Springfield, Massachusetts
Suwannee Valley Experiment Station $2,000
Grants for Basic Research were accepted from National
follows:
Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tennessee:
Agronomy Department $9,500
Agronomy Department $12,800
Botany Department $9,900
Botany Department $8,500
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland:
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $28,185
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $10,005
Food Technology and Nutrition Department $10,841
Plant Pathology Department $25,913
Veterinary Science Department $19,931
Veterinary Science Department $17,928
Veterinary Science Department $12,781
The National Science Foundation, Washington 25, D. C.
Agronomy and Plant Pathology Departments $14,400
The Nutrition Foundation, Inc., New York 16, New York
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory $2,500
The United States Study Commission, Atlanta 1, Georgia
Agricultural Economics Department $12,000


t Stations


Agencies a








Annual Report, 1960


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

research had been conducted on 40 projects at the end of the year. Six
ese were new.

FARMERS COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
te Project 154 H. G. Hamilton, A. H. Spurlock
and M. D. Love, Jr.
Economic data were obtained on the operation of all farmer cooperatives
;he State, except credit and electric cooperatives. There were 156 coop-
tives operating in the State during the 1958-59 fiscal period. The market-
,purchasing and service cooperatives had a membership of 14,408 and
a net volume of business of $300,760,000. These cooperatives handled
percent of the fruit, 12 percent of the cattle, 38 percent of the milk, 9
cent of the eggs, 15 percent of the tobacco and 20 percent of the vege-
les. Volume of business ranged from less than $500,000 to $25,000,000.
sets of cooperatives amount to over $120,000,000, of which 57 percent is
ned by the patron members. The rate of failure since 1950 has been much
aller than in any previous period. A preliminary analysis of the data
icates that inefficient operations and weak financial position are important
ses of failure.
FACTORS AFFECTING COSTS AND RETURNS
IN FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION
tch Project 186 Zach Savage
The usual field and office work of closing accounts and other necessary
rations was carried out.
Money spent annually on bearing mixed groves for spray and dust ma-
ials has tended to increase since 1931. Five-year average costs increased
om $3.33 per acre in 1931-36 to $19.81 in 1951-56 (see Table 1). This is
Increase of 495 percent.
ABLE 1.-TRENDS IN SPRAY AND DUST MATERIAL COSTS ON MIXED GROVES.

Per-Acre Data Per-Box Data
5-Year I Percent of st Percent of
Period Cost I Operating Cost Operating
I Dollars I Index j Cost Dollars Index I Cost

931-36 --.. 3.33 100 6 0.03 100 7
936-41 4.75 143 8 .03 100 9
941-46 .... 7.54 226 8 .03 100 8
946-51 ..-. 11.47 344 8 .04 133 9
951-56 -..- 19.81 595 10 .06 200 11

The value of the dollar decreased during the period of this study and
here has been no adjustment for this in these data. Average age of trees
increased, which accounts for some of the increase in materials used. Fruit
fields increased due to increased age of trees, better fertilization, better
rove care and other reasons. Increased yields tended to offset increased
spray and dust costs per acre, resulting in a smaller increase in costs per
.ox. Types and kinds of spray and dust materials changed over this period
resulting in more materials being available from which to select in attempt-
ing to control insects, mites, diseases and other pests.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Some of the groves of this project were not sprayed or dusted in 1957
while a goodly number had over $100.00 per acre spent for materials
their application. The grove on which the most was spent had $64.87 sp
for materials and $116.06 for their application, or a total of $180.93
acre for the season. This was 24 cents per box for materials, 43 cents
application and 67 cents for both. Insect and disease control was 51 perch
of the operating cost per acre on this grove. On the 123 groves in 1957
on which costs of spray and dust materials together with application co
be separated, cost for materials and application averaged $61.82 per ac
Of this amount, 49 percent was for materials.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY, ITS POSSIBLE
INHERITANCE AND DEPRECIATION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERD
State Project 345 A. H. Spurlo
Records of replacements, causes of losses and life spans were obtain
on 5 dairy herds. Data were combined with results previously obtained
determine length of life and depreciation rates.
The life span of 3,190 replaced cows averaged 6.5 years, or about
years of usefulness in the milking herd. The disposal rate increased rapid
after the first year in the herd and after 3 years only 65 percent of t
original animals remained. After 6 years, only 29 percent of the origin
animals remained.
Cows reaching the age of 10 had a life expectancy of 1.7 years a
averaged 11.7 years of life.
Live disposals from the herd were principally for low production, 29
percent; mastitis or some form of udder trouble, 24.1 percent; and repr
ductive troubles, 18.2 percent. The 3 reasons, or combination of the
were responsible for 75 percent of the live disposals. About 11 percent
the live disposals were for unstated reasons.
Deaths from all causes accounted for 14.2 percent of all disposals. (Se
also Project 345, Dairy Science Department.)

CROP AND LIVESTOCK ESTIMATING ON FLORIDA FARMS
WITH EMPHASIS ON VEGETABLE CROPS
State Project 451 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crensha
and J. B. Owens
This project is conducted in cooperation with, and under the supervision
of, the Agricultural Estimates Division, Agricultural Marketing Service
USDA, Orlando, Florida. Acreage, production, price and value of Florid
vegetables are estimated on a current, seasonal and annual basis.
Regularly scheduled reports, which included intentions to plant, prelimi
nary acreage, and forecast of production, together with final revisions, wer
made on 6 fall, 14 winter and 11 spring vegetables. In addition, estimates
were made of cucumber pickles and processor use of spinach, snap beans
and tomatoes.
The information used in making the above determinations was obtained
from normal channels of personal interviews, mailed questionnaires, etc.
Much of the tomato data was secured under Project 822. There were 20 per-
iodic releases made in addition to a comprehensive weekly summary entitled
"Florida Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin."
A personal post-season interview survey under way at the beginning of
the fiscal season was completed. The survey forms the basis of checking

1 Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.









Annual Report, 1960 25

current production and price estimates, and distributing the acreage
production into counties and areas. It covered over 212,000 acres of
1958-59 vegetable crop of 374,600 acres planted, 348,000 acres harvested
S1,592,800 tons produced with a valuation of close to $144 million.
"Florida Vegetable Crops," Volume XV, 1959 Annual Statistical Sum-
ry, was published-1,500 copies.

MARKETING MEAT ANIMALS IN FLORIDA

tch Project 602 W. K. McPherson and
regional SM-7) L. V. Dixon 2
The accuracy with which 10 cattle graders estimated the carcass grades
live animals was measured on 3 lots of more than 100 animals each.
mparisons of the scores made by these graders suggest that it is quite
ssible to estimate the average grade for a lot of 100 or more cattle within
e-sixth of a federal grade. On the other hand, most graders find it diffi-
it to estimate the carcass grade of a single animal within two-thirds of a
ade above or below the correct grade, on an average of more than 2 out
3 animals. Market News reporters employed by the Federal-State
reau of Markets are using the measurement technique developed in eval-
ting their ability to grade cattle and thereby improve the accuracy of the
market News reports on cattle.
The prices farmers receive for high-grade cattle in South Florida are
wer than the prices that would prevail if a large number of these grades
cattle were produced there. South Florida cattlemen can stabilize and
obably raise the average price they receive for their cattle by carefully
adjusting the number of animals offered for sale to the packers in the area.

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL
AND NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA

tate Project 627 R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to study variations in beef production by
sing a cow-calf program on a year-round basis for different pasture pro-
Irams and breeding systems. The study is now in its second phase. The
Agricultural Economics Department has the responsibility for comparing
costs and returns from the various programs to show how well they pay.
ata to make such calculations are being assembled. To make the results
applicable to commercial operations, the experimental data are being sup-
plemented with cost data from other sources. (See also Project 627, Agri-
cultural Engineering, Agronomy, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, and
Soils Departments.)

IMPROVING METHODS AND PRACTICES IN HARVESTING,
HANDLING AND PACKING EARLY IRISH POTATOES

State Project 638 R. E. L. Greene and
G. L. Capel3

The main effort on the project during the year was to continue the analy-
sis of data collected on a study of potato packinghouses in Florida and
Alabama. A mimeographed report was published on "An Analysis of Costs
for Packing Potatoes in 10-pound Bags in the Southeast." A preliminary
2 Cooperative with Marketing Research Division, AMS, USDA.
3Cooperative with Marketing Economics Research Division, AMS, USDA.


_1








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


manuscript was also prepared giving data on "Comparative Costs of Al
native Methods of Filling, Weighing, Handling and Loading Potatoes
Florida and Alabama Potato Packinghouses." In cooperation with the
apartments of Agricultural Engineering and the Transportation and Facili
Research Division of the Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA, prel
inary work was begun on a study of improved methods of handling potato
at the packinghouse.
In comparing the relative cost for packing and handling 100- and
pound bags, it was recognized that some costs could and some could
be determined. Costs were computed for materials, labor and equipm
and extra potatoes. The extra cost per hundredweight for these items
packing 10-pound bags ranged from 85 cents, if the annual volume of
pound bags was 2,500 hundredweights, to 50 cents if the annual volume
50,000 hundredweights. These differences are representative, assuming t
packing firm uses the lowest cost method for its annual volume and t
cost of extra potatoes is 3 cents per pound.

EFFECTS OF INTER- AND INTRA-MARKET COMPETITION ON MI
PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION IN CENTRAL
AND SOUTH FLORIDA
Hatch Project 651 W. K. McPhers
Upon the basis of a review of all of the work done on this study, the f
lowing conclusions were reached:
1. In 1953 and 1954 it would have been possible to increase the degree
competition that prevailed in the milk industry of Central and South Flori
by (a) defining the procedures whereby new firms could enter the industry
(b) increasing the amount and reliability of published information on t
supply of, demand for and price of milk and milk products, (c) the adoption
of method pricing milk that was more responsive to changes in the supply
of and demand for milk than the method used when data were collect
and (d) the establishment of market-wide pools that would enable all pro
ducers in a milkshed to sell milk of comparable quality at the same price.
2. Since then, (a) a Federal Milk Marketing Order was issued for th
Miami milkshed and (b) the policies of the Florida State Milk Commissio
have been changed significantly.
3. These major events, together with many minor innovations, hav
altered the competitive characteristics of the market for milk in Central an
South Florida so extensively that the data collected in 1952 no longer pro
vide a reliable basis for suggesting how the degree of competition might be
increased in the markets as they are currently organized.
The project was terminated June 30, 1960.

LEGAL ASPECTS OF FARM TENANCY IN FLORIDA
Hatch Project 656 J. R. Greenman and H. G. Hamilton
Farmers and those working with farmers should be provided with an
understanding of the Florida law dealing with the vital problems of inheri-
tance and water use.
Two manuscripts, one entitled "Inheritance Laws Affecting Florida
Farms and Farm Families" and the other entitled "Florida Water Laws,"
are being prepared. The first is in the process of revision to clarify certain
points of law and make the publication more readable, while the latter man-
uscript on water laws is in the early stages of preparation.








Annual Report, 1960


Work on this project was temporarily suspended from December 1, 1959,
Fune 30, 1960, when one of the leaders was on leave of absence.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DEMAND FOR FROZEN ORANGE
CONCENTRATE PRODUCED IN FLORIDA


tch Project 664
gional SM-22)


M. R. Godwin, L. A. Powell, Sr.,
and H. G. Hamilton


The profitable utilization of Florida citrus crops in the future will depend
an increasing extent upon the acuity with which the industry judges the
entities of raw fruit that should go into the several forms ultimately em-
yed in the marketing process. Estimates of optimum allocation of the
p among uses entails an understanding of the nature of the demand rela-
nship for each citrus product.
This project has been concerned with the development of a demand
action for frozen orange concentrate produced in Florida, and with internal
ifts in consumption patterns with respect to brands at varying price levels
This product. The basic research technique employed consisted of arti-
ially introducing price differentials for frozen orange concentrate into test
res under carefully controlled conditions, and the measurement of the
chase response of customers to these induced prices. (A description of
e data generating technique was given in the 1955 and 1956 annual
ports.)
During the year efforts were made to devise an econometric model that
would allow the measurement of the substitution between brands of frozen
ange concentrate at differing levels of prices. Customary analytical pro-
Idures have been found unsatisfactory for this purpose because of the
itercorrelation between the price variables for the different brands inherent
1 the data generating procedure employed in this study. Efforts to devise
a appropriate analytical technique have been unsuccessful, and it is deemed
advisable to devote additional manpower and monetary resources to such
a undertaking. Consequently, this project is closed with this report.

MARKETING CHARGES AND RETURNS FROM FLORIDA
VEGETABLES BY TYPES OF FIRMS AND METHODS OF SALE


;tate Project 666


D. L. Brooke, C. N. Smith
and H. G. Hamilton


F.o.b. sales were the most important type of sale used by Florida firms in
selling green peppers. Consignment and delivered selling were used to a
greater extent in 1953-54 than in 1952-53. The type of sale used appears
to vary with the general tone of the market and the expectations of buyers.
Between three-fifths and nine-tenths of Florida's peppers move to market
by truck. About one-half the volume shipped from Florida was sold in the
Northeast, between one-fifth and one-fourth in the Midwest and one-eighth
or less in the Southeast and the West. Diversions of shipments en route to
a final destination appear relatively unimportant for peppers, probably
because of heavy truck and mixed load movement.
Commission merchants and selling brokers handled about one-half the
volume of peppers sold by the firms studied. Buying brokers were important
in Florida sales but final destinations of their purchases were largely un-
known. Chain stores and wholesalers apparently purchase through buying
brokers or other sales agents, since their volume of direct purchases was
smaller than expected.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


MARKETING PRACTICES OF FLORIDA FLOWER
AND ORNAMENTAL PLANT GROWERS
State Project 679 C. N. Smith, D. L. Bro
and H. G. Hamil
A manuscript reporting results of a study on marketing ferns has b
revised and brought up to date. A survey of the fern industry in the spri
of 1960 indicated that little change had occurred in marketing channels d
ing the past 4 years, but that plumosus fern acreage was down about
percent from the earlier level. Although production had decreased ab
15 percent, price levels for plumosus remained essentially the same as
1956. It was estimated that the production of leatherleaf fern has triple
in the past 4 years. Information at hand indicates that leatherleaf fe
and other types of greenery are rapidly taking the place of plumosus fer
in the nation's florists' markets.

METHODS OF ESTIMATING FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION
State Project 685 J. C. Townsend, Jr.
B. W. Kelly and P. E. Shule
Work on this project continued for 1959-60 in the collection of product
data. Counts of fruit were made by the frame and limb for the preseas
estimates. Drop counts and fruit measurements were made throughout t
growing season. Monthly counts of frontal rows were made to determi
the percentage of the crop harvested.
A check on the loss of trees in 10 counties was made, indicating a high
loss of bearing trees than earlier surveys showed.
October forecasts made from the objective data of fruit numbers and pr
jected sizes and drop counts indicated crops of 93.9 to 95.0 million boxes
oranges and 28.7 to 36.3 million grapefruit. The final outcome will be close
to 91.5 million boxes of oranges and 30.5 million grapefruit.
Work on this project is made possible by funds provided, on a matching
basis, by the Growers Administrative Committee and the Agricultural Mar
keting Service, United States Department of Agriculture. The project
carried on in cooperation with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA

EXPANDING THE MARKET FOR FLORIDA FLORICULTURAL
AND ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Regional Research Project 700 C. N. Smith and D. L. Brooke
(Regional SM-12)
Observations from prior research and from industry practices indicated a
need for improved methods of displaying and merchandising cut flowers in
supermarkets. Buckets, lard tins and waste baskets are the containers now
generally utilized by supermarkets which sell cut flowers. However, these
containers are not satisfactory to the grocery trade.
A pilot display cart, designed with roller casters so that it could be moved
from one display area to another and in and out of produce coolers, was de-
veloped in cooperation with the Departments of Agricultural Engineering
and Ornamental Horticulture. It was tested in a cooperating supermarket.
Several modifications were made to reduce its bulk and improve its efficiency.
Supermarket personnel and customers expressed satisfaction with it. Three
units of a new model designed as a result of the experience gained have
been constructed and will be tested in the next fiscal year. (See also Project
700, Ornamental Horticulture Department.)
4Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMIS, USDA.








Annual Report, 1960 29

ECONOMICS OF FLORIDA DAIRY FARMING
te Project 701 R. E. L. Greene
Under the cooperative agreement with the Florida Milk Commission, data
section on the cost of producing milk in the marketing areas under the
ervision of the Commission was continued. Field work in progress at
Beginning of the year was completed for 34 farms in Central Florida.
hedules were also obtained for 51 farms in the West Coast area.
Records obtained for dairy farms in the Northeast and Central Florida
eas were tabulated. Preliminary summary reports were prepared for
ch area. At the end of the year, tabulation of records in the West Coast
ea was in progress.
The net cost per gallon of producing milk on all farms in Northeast
orida was 55.93 cents and 60.50 cents in Central Florida, or a difference of
57 cents. In Northeast Florida, the net cost per gallon on large farms was
33 cents less than on small farms. In Central Florida, the difference in
sts between large and small farms was 6.45 cents per gallon. These data
ustrate something of the dilemma of the Milk Commission when its mem-
rs are charged with setting a price for milk that will cover cost of pro-
ction.
Only a limited analysis has been made of the information collected. Re-
lts indicate the need for additional data to better appraise the economics
f the situations. Progress is being made on a report showing size of
arm, investment, costs and returns and some of the factors affecting costs
nd returns on farms producing milk in the areas studied.

CENSUS OF CITRUS GROVES IN FLORIDA
tate Project 720 B. W. Kelly and J. C. Townsend, Jr.
Since the completion of the Florida tree census in the fall of 1957 and the
subsequent tree loss in 1957 and 1958, much effort has been spent in the
ormulation of plans and methodology for a recheck of citrus planting on
permanently operative basis.
Several conferences were held at which members of the citrus industry
nd State and Federal government agencies studied ways and means of
setting up a perpetual inventory for Florida citrus.
A sampling method whereby the universe will be covered in a period of
10 years has been developed with a random sample of properties to deter-
mine change in tree numbers.
Work on this project has been in cooperation with the Agricultural Es-
timates Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, United States Department
of Agriculture, Orlando, Florida.

AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF GRADE AND SIZE
STANDARDS FOR FLORIDA TOMATOES
State Project 787 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley G
The multiplicity of grade and size designations involved in the marketing
of Florida tomatoes tends to impair the efficiency of price determination and
to create operational difficulties in the distribution process. The confound-
ing of real or envisioned value differences to the consumer with varying
available supplies of specific grades and sizes of tomatoes makes it difficult
for the shipper to determine the f.o.b. price for tomatoes under a given
supply situation. Moreover, repackers and retailers are faced with a dearth
SCooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.
6 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Research Division, AMS, USDA.


1







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of information regarding the characteristics of tomatoes that are of fun
mental significance to consumers, even though they must invest substan
sums in supplies to meet the needs of their trade. This project is design
to determine the importance which consumers attach to grade and s
characteristics in Florida tomatoes.
In the spring of 1960 marketing tests were conducted in 11 large sup
markets in the Dayton, Ohio, area to examine the preference pattern
consumers for Florida tomatoes (Fig. 1). The following diagram su
marizes the test situations that were introduced under carefully control
conditions at the retail level:


Grade Size
5x6 6 6 x 6x7 7x7 7x8

U.S. 1 ..........-..........-- x x* x
U.S. 2 .-............ .....--....- x x x x
U.S. 3 ----.-.-.-.- ..-......- x x x x

Matched with all other grade and size combinations in each test situation.

The market tests were so arranged to facilitate determination of the effe
of grade upon the sales of Florida tomatoes, the effect of size on sales an
the combined effect of both grade and size upon consumer purchases. Co
prisons will also be possible between any 2 of the test combinations e
played.
The field work on this project was completed on May 28, 1960. Th
transformation and analysis of the data are currently in progress.

THE ECONOMIC EFFECT OF PINK TOMATO SHIPMENTS
UPON THE FLORIDA TOMATO INDUSTRY
State Project 788 M. R. Godwi
The structure and organization of the market for Florida tomatoes hav
been modified as a result of the development of the practice of shipping sub
stantial quantities of pink tomatoes into the national markets. Growers,
shippers and terminal market receivers are all confronted with the need
for information regarding the long-run changes in pricing and distribution

Fig. 1.-Display techniques employed in the study of consumer pref-
erence of grade and size in Florida tomatoes. Tomatoes of carefully prede-
termined grade and size characteristics were displayed alongside U. S. 1,
Size 6 x 7 tomatoes. Consumers could choose from either display at the
same time.








Annual Report, 1960


actices that may be expected as a result of this innovation in marketing
chniques.
As background information, an analysis was initiated to determine the
ade composition of pink tomatoes in relation to mature green tomatoes.
e basic information for this analysis consisted of worksheets of the Fed-
al-State Inspection Service representing 461 shipments of Florida toma-
es during a 2-week period beginning January 10, 1959. Data from these
orksheets were processed so that machine methods could be employed in
e analysis.
Plans have been formulated for a survey of the distributive trade to de-
rmine the techniques involved in handling Florida pink tomatoes in the
rminal markets, and to examine the alterations in the operational practices
f individual firms that have been necessary in order to merchandise this
product.

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE FLORIDA HONEY INDUSTRY
atch Project 791 H. G. Hamilton and F. J. Hoffer
The calculations and discussion of average cost of packing Florida honey
y sizes and types of containers were completed in manuscript form for
955 and 1956. From other analyses it was determined that average f.o.b.
rices received per pound of honey by 9 packers for 1955 and 1956 were
higher for sales arranged by brokers than direct sales by packers, and also
hat the average returns for filtered honey were higher than for unfiltered
rands. Brokers' sales were 11.6 percent of total volume sold in 1955 and
.5 percent in 1956. The average broker's commission paid per pound was
.4 cents in 1955 and 1.3 cents in 1956. Total sales per 1,000 population of
lorida averaged 367 pounds for the 2 years, due in a large degree to sales
>y gift stands to the many visiting tourists in the State each year.
The manuscript is being completed to cover sales distribution by market
outlets and areas, transportation costs and selling policies and practices.

RESPONSE OF FARM INCOME TO CHANGES IN RESOURCE USE
ENGENDERED BY ACREAGE CONTROL AND
PRICE SUPPORT PROGRAMS
Regional Research Project 796 L. A. Powell, Sr.,
(IRM-1) C. E. Murphree and C. D. Covey
The need for research of this type is generated by the prominent role of
agricultural policy in determining the economic status of flue-cured tobacco
producers.
The analytical phase of the project is finished and the preparation of a
manuscript is estimated to be 90 percent complete.
Some of the more problematical aspects of the control program that were
studied included intra-industry adjustments. Empirical evidence suggests
that extremely severe limitations did not exist. Adjustments toward efficient
firm organization was facilitated by rental and purchase possibilities.
A comparison of a tobacco and a nontobacco farming area with compar-
able resource bases suggests that the tobacco program has possibly improved
rather than reduced the relative income of the tobacco area. The value of
allotment rentals provided further evidence that the program transfers in-
come to allotment owners. In addition, it was concluded that the permissi-
bility of unrestricted renting would enhance the aggregate value of benefits
realized by allotment owners.
While grower endorsement of the program is apparently indendent of
allotment size, the value of benefits realized is not directly proportional to
allotment size largely because of economies of scale.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


CONSUMERS' USES AND OPINIONS OF FLORIDA AVOCADOS
State Project 801 W. T. Manley and M. R. God
This study describes the nature of the consumer market for Florida a
cados. A knowledge of the existing market is vital to the development
workable policies and practices designed to expand the market through pr
motional programs or by other means.
A bulletin manuscript entitled "The Consumer Market for Florida Av
cados" was approved for publication. It reports the findings of a consum
survey in which personal interviews were conducted with 1,738 families
Dayton, Ohio. Information was obtained concerning the familiarity wit
use patterns of and opinions about avocados.
Work on the manuscript confirmed previous findings that the widespre
nonfamiliarity with avocados and the large proportion of consumers w
are nonusers seem to indicate that the immediate problem of market pr
motion is largely one of introduction or encouraging initial use.
This project is closed with this report.

CONSUMER USES AND OPINIONS OF FLORIDA LIMES
Hatch Project 814 W. T. Manley S and M. R. Godwi
The objectives of this research are (1) to describe the market status fo
fresh limes and frozen limeade concentrate from the standpoint of the con
summer and (2) to examine the extent of distribution and the nature of mer
chandising practices for these products at the retail level. This information
will assist in the development of improved marketing procedures and in th
formulation of promotional programs.
In the fall of 1958 a survey involving personal interviews with 2,17
families was conducted in the market area of Dayton, Ohio. During th
same period, interviews were conducted with 258 retail food store operators
in the Dayton and Cincinnati, Ohio, market areas. A partial analysis has
been made of the consumer survey. An analysis of the retail store survey
has been completed and a bulletin manuscript prepared.
Some of the salient findings of the retail store survey are that (1) neither
fresh limes nor frozen limeade concentrates enjoy wide retail distribution,
and they are much less available to consumers than are the comparable
lemon products; (2) among stores with fresh limes on hand, only a third
had displays that were completely free from conditional deficiencies involv-
ing shriveling and discoloration; (3) the first preferences of retailers for
limes of varying size were about equally distributed between large [175]
and medium [250] size fruit; (4) most preferred a dark green lime over a
light green or yellow green fruit; and (5) about a fifth of the retailers were
of the opinion that the sizes of wholesale packs currently used were too
large relative to their sales volume.
Further analyses of the consumer survey are in progress.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM FOR ESTABLISHING THE
SHORT-RUN PRODUCTION OUTLOOK FOR FLORIDA TOMATOES
State Project 822 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw
and J. B. Owens '
The furnishing of accurate current information on Florida's tomato crop
was the primary goal of this project. A weekly summary of the plantings
by 5 major areas, together with comments on crop progress in each, carlot
7 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Research Division, AMS. USDA.
8 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Research Division, AMS, USDA.
9 Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.








Annual Report, 1960


pments, rainfall and temperature data, was released to growers and
er interested people beginning August 1959 and continuing through June
i0.
Work on this project was made possible through funds of the Florida
mato Committee, supplemented by monies from the State Department of
riculture which were matched by the Agricultural Marketing Service,
ited States Department of Agriculture.
The project was carried out in cooperation with Agricultural Estimates
vision, AMS, USDA.

AN APPRAISAL OF THE ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
AND PROBLEMS OF LOW INCOME RURAL AREAS
IN NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
itch Project 826 L. A. Reuss, K. M. Gilbraith '
and R. E. L. Greene
A second mimeographed report, "Resource Characteristics and Utilization
id Level of Living Items, Rural Households, North and West Florida,
56," was issued.
Data in this study should give a better understanding of factors con-
ibuting to low incomes in rural areas such as those in West Florida. They
so point up persistently low income problem situations and the impossibil-
y of solving these problems only in agriculture.
Substantial progress has been made toward completion of the final report.
his report will attempt to relate the characteristics, organization and
utilization of resources to source of income, levels of income and levels of
ving. It will also suggest a preliminary classification of persistently low
come problem situations into broad fields or combination of fields of
adjustment.

A STUDY OF THE COMPETITIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
FLORIDA AND CALIFORNIA CELERY
MA Project 856 M. R. Godwin
ES-504) and W. T. Manley1"
Growers and shippers of Florida celery have become increasingly inter-
sted in improving their position in the national markets. Action to this
nd must, of necessity, take into account the nature of the competitive rela-
ionship between Florida and California celery. Generally, in the markets
f the East and Midwest, Florida celery must compete directly with that
grown in California. The purpose of this project is to examine the several
aspects of the competitive relationship between the 2 products.
Work during the year has been confined largely to the analysis of data
obtained in retail store studies conducted during 1959.

COSTS AND EFFICIENCY IN HANDLING FLORIDA CITRUS FRUITS
Hatch Project 895 A. H. Spurlock, H. G. Hamilton
(Regional SM-22) and G. L. Capel "
The purpose of this study is to provide data which may assist firms in
lowering their cost of marketing citrus fruit.
Cost of harvesting citrus for 32 firms, 1958-59, averaged as follows per
1% bushel box: picking oranges, 33.3 cents; picking grapefruit, 24.2 cents;
10 Cooperative with the Farm Economics Research Division, ARS, USDA.
11 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Research Division, AMS, USDA.
13 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Research Division, AMS, USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and picking tangerines, 74.9 cents. Hauling from grove to the plant
11.5 cents a box. Citrus dealers also had an additional cost of 3.6 cents
box for procurement and sale of fruit.
Costs of packing and selling Florida fresh citrus fruit per 1% bu
wirebound box for 42 packinghouses, 1958-59, were $1.10 for oranges
$0.97 for grapefruit. In 5-pound mesh bags, costs were $1.67 per equival
box for oranges and $1.61 for grapefruit.
Average costs for processing, warehousing and selling typical cit
products at 21 plants were as follows: single-strength orange juice in 12
cases, sweetened, $1.55; grapefruit sections in 24/303 cases, sweeten
$2.56; frozen orange concentrate in 48/6 cases, unsweetened, selling excl
ed, $2.10.
Facilities and equipment were tested for handling citrus fruit in seven
types of pallet boxes from the grove onto the packinghouse equipment.
servations were made to determine the suitability of various handling equ
ment and to obtain the equipment and labor inputs required. Data w
obtained on the initial investment needed and on operating costs. This w
was done in cooperation with the Citrus Experiment Station; the Agricult
al Engineering Research Division, ARS; and the Transportation and Fa
ities and the Marketing Economics Research Division, AMS.
Results of the year's work were distributed to citrus dealers, pack
and processors in 3 mimeographed releases for the 1958-59 season:
Costs of Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits, (2) Costs of Packi
and Selling Florida Fresh Citrus Fruits and (3) Costs of Processing, Wa
housing and Selling Florida Citrus Products.

THE IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF EXTERNAL
QUALITY FACTORS IN FLORIDA AVOCADOS HAVING ECONOMY
SIGNIFICANCE TO THE CONSUMER
AMA Project 899 D. L. Broo
(ES-505) and F. W. Willia
Tests in 4 supermarkets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to determine co
summer preference for clear and blemished avocados at varying prices an
degrees of softness indicate that: (1) high-income consumers purchase
fruit in larger volume than medium-income consumers; (2) clear fruit wa
preferred over blemished fruit at the same price and at a 4-cent premium
but at 8 and 12 cents consumers generally reverted to the blemished pro
duct; (3) the Lula avocados had a shelf-life of from 5 to 7 days under store
conditions; (4) fruit seldom remained on display over 3 days in high-incom
stores but considerable fruit was discarded in medium-income stores after
5 to 8 days on display.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 617 was released
"External Quality Factors of Florida Avocados-Their Importance to th
Consumer." It presents findings in November 1958 on consumer recognition
of external quality factors in Florida avocados.
This project is closed as an AMA effort with this report. It will be con
tinued as a State project until final completion.

A STUDY OF MARKET ORGANIZATION AND PRACTICES FOR
POTATOES IN THE HASTINGS AREA OF FLORIDA
Hatch Project 916 R. E. L. Greene and Paul T. Blair
This project was initiated for the purpose of describing and evaluating
recent changes in marketing practices of growers and shippers and the
effects of such changes in the market organization for potatoes in the Has-
tings area.








Annual Report, 1960


Analysis of data obtained from a survey of 93 growers and 7 selling
ncies has been under way. Work is also in progress on the preparation
Manuscript. Significant changes in the Hastings area since 1953 have
n an increase in number of growers and acres of potatoes harvested, an
ease in number of packinghouses, an increase in the proportion of the
al crops being bought by processors, a substantial increase in amount of
atoes being grown under contract and an increase in number of sellers.
Changes such as those enumerated above have resulted in rapid and
spread changes in the marketing of potatoes in the Hastings area. In
ny cases, information available is not adequate to make the best ap-
iisal as to whether these are good or bad.

SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF MULTIPLE DEMANDS
FOR CITRUS
tch Project 937 L. A. Powell, Sr., W. B. Riggan
regional SM-22) and M. R. Godwin
Information relating to the multiple demands for citrus products would
helpful to the implementation of a coordinated sales program designed
increase industry revenue by improving the utilizational allocation of the
rus crop.
Basic data relating to prices, movements and packs of frozen orange con-
ntrate, single-strength orange juice and fresh oranges were assembled for
e 5-season period, 1954-55 through 1958-59.
A statistical model for simultaneously analyzing the demand for these
oducts in fresh fruit equivalents at the f.o.b. level was formulated. The
ting of this model to the price and movement data is nearing completion.
nce the model is fitted, appropriate statistical testing techniques should
veal its acceptability as a suitable estimating device.

MARKET STRUCTURE OF THE NURSERY INDUSTRY
MA Project 951 C. N. Smith
S-606)
Enumeration of data in the pilot phase of this project has been almost
completed. Pinellas County, an area in which types of nursery stock com-
on to both North and South Florida are utilized and which has nearly all
types of nursery operations common to the State, was selected as the loca-
ion of the initial portion of this study.
A questionnaire was designed to obtain data on marketing channels, in-
ome generated and other aspects of the marketing of nursery products
n Pinellas County. Of the 372 nursery stock growers listed by the State
lant Board, a stratified random sample of 81 was selected. Seventy-three
schedules from nurserymen interviewed have been obtained to date. Addi-
ional data have been acquired through interviews with business firms mer-
handising nursery products and allied supplies.

MARKETING OF FLORIDA CIGAR WRAPPER TOBACCO, TYPE 62
State Project 961 H. B. Clark
Florida shade-grown tobacco farmers and packers are concerned that
homogenized wrappers may be used in increased amounts in the years
ahead. If a satisfactory homogenized wrapper is developed and accepted
by consumers, the Florida shade-grown tobacco industry will be adversely
affected. An effort is being made to determine how cost of marketing can
be lowered and if a change in the structure of the market would enable the
industry to meet the competition from homogenized wrappers. Using a








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


random sample, 20 percent of the growers have been interviewed and inf
mation on their method of marketing their tobacco crop ascertained.
though the questionnaires have not been completely analyzed, it is cl
that the information obtained will largely fulfill the first objective of the p
ject-to study changes in the market structure over time and the press
degree and nature of integration.
About 20 percent of the packers have been interviewed and detailed co
of-packing data collected. The largest item of cost is labor. A great d
of attention must be given to problems of labor utilization if signific
cost reductions are to be made.

LABOR, MATERIALS, COSTS AND RETURNS
IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
State Project 970 D. L. Broo
Data were obtained on normal labor and material requirements for Iri
potatoes and cabbage in the Hastings area, for cucumbers in Alachua Coun
and for watermelons in the Gainesville area. Summaries of the data indica
a decrease in man-hour requirements in recent years in line with technolo
ical advances in production practices.

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE MOVEMENT OF
HOGS AND PORK IN FLORIDA
State Project 973 W. K. McPhers
(Regional SM-23) and L. V. Dixon
This project was initiated October 21, 1959. It is a part of a Southeaster
Regional Research Project designed to (1) estimate volume of pork produce
consumed in economic areas and states, (2) estimate the volume of ho
slaughter in these areas and states, (3) estimate the annual and season
intraeconomic and intereconomic area movement of hogs and pork product
and (4) identify and evaluate any inefficiencies that may exist in such move
ments. The remainder of the year was devoted to the collection of data.
sample of auction markets supplied data on the number, price and destination
of hogs handled. Likewise, selected packers supplied information on th
number, quality and source of hogs slaughtered. Information on total pro
duction and consumption of pork was obtained from State and Federal sta
tistical sources, some of which were published and the remainder obtain
by recalculating the primary data upon which published reports were based

AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES
IN FIVE RIVER BASINS OF NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
State Project 974 C. D. Covey
The purpose of this study is to compile and analyze relevant data and
make projections with respect to the agricultural economy of 5 river basins
in North and West Florida. Ultimately this report will become an integral
part of a report on water resources in 8 Southeastern river basins to be sub-
mitted to the Congress and the President by the United States Study Com-
mission, Southeast River Basins.
The study involves 3 phases: (1) an inventory of the agricultural, forest
and water resources within each of the 5 river basins; (2) an evaluation of
development prospects and problems in each of the river basins and (3) pro-
jections on agricultural production and resource use for 1975 and 2000
within a set of general assumptions concerning national population, employ-
ment and production.
13 Cooperative with Marketing Economics Research Division, AMS, USDA.









Annual Report, 1960


The inventory phase of the study has been completed. This phase con-
ts of an inventory of: (1) land resources by present use and potential
oductive capacity, (2) capital investment in agricultural and forest re-
urces, (3) water resources as they apply to agriculture and (4) human
sources. A manuscript of the final report to the United States Study
mission, Southeast River Basins, which embodies an analysis of the
velopment prospects and problems and projections, is currently being
veloped.

MANAGEMENT AND COST FACTORS RELATED
TO MULTIPLE FARROWING
watch Project 977 W. K. McPherson
This project was approved April 19. Work this year consisted of deter-
ining the experimental design required for carrying out the objectives of
ie project. (See also Project 977, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition De-
artment.)
AGE OF HEIFERS AT FIRST BREEDING
AS RELATED TO BEEF PRODUCTION
tate Project 995 R. E. L. Greene
The object of this study is to compare beef production and income from
eifers bred first at 1 versus 2 years of age. The Agricultural Economics
department has the responsibility for making the calculations on costs and
returns. This project is just getting under way, so no results are available
t the end of the year. (See also Project 995, Animal Husbandry and Nu-
rition Department.)

PRELIMINARY NON-PROJECTED STUDIES
Florida Agricultural Production Index.-lndex numbers measuring the
total volume of agricultural production in Florida by groups of products
ave been brought up to date. Total production in 1959 was about 10 per-
ent higher than in 1958 and 2.7 times as large as in the 1935-39 base period.
reduction of all groups of products was higher in 1959 than in 1958, though
a few individual crops decreased. Tobacco production increased by 21 per-
cent and poultry products by 16 percent. (A. H. Spurlock.)
Movement of Citrus Trees from Florida Nurseries.-Movement of citrus
trees from Florida nurseries to Florida destinations was the highest of the
31 years of these records. This season was from July 1, 1958, through June
30, 1959, when 2,615,221 trees were moved. This movement exceeded the
previous high season of 1956-57 by 420,186 trees or 19 percent. The 1958-
59 movement was 241 percent of the 1957-58 movement, 184 percent of the
5-year average of 1950-55 and 247 percent of the 1928-58 average.
Eighty-three percent of the 1958-59 movement was orange trees; 4 per-
cent, grapefruit; 1 percent, tangerine; 2 percent, tangelo; 2 percent, Temple;
and 8 percent, lime, lemon and other citrus. Sixty percent of the movement
was on lemon stock; 22 percent on sour orange; 11 percent, cleopatra man-
darin; 6 percent, sweet seedling; and 1 percent, other stocks. (Zach Savage.)
Competition for Florida Fruit and Vegetable Crops.-The degree of
competition which Florida faces is provided by tabulating weekly carlot
shipments of selected fruits and vegetables from Florida, other states and
foreign countries during the Florida shipping season. Such data are val-
uable to growers and Extension workers in determining the more desirable
production periods during the Florida season. They are also available to
industry groups in the preparation of statistics for hearings on freight
rates and marketing agreements and in establishing annual movement pat-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


terns of Florida crops. Allied service industries may find them valuable
planning peak movement and supply requirements. "Florida Truck Cr
Competition" was published as Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 60-
(D. L. Brooke.)
Some Economic Problems in the Florida Sweet Corn Industry.-T
sweet corn industry in Florida, while relatively young, has undergone man
changes and tremendous expansion. Better varieties, higher rates of fe
tilization, improved insect and disease control and cultural practices ha
increased per-acre yields by 50 percent or more. Higher yields, together
with an 8-fold increase in acreage harvested, have resulted in an annual pr
duction of more than 3 million hundredweights.
The number of farmers growing sweet corn has decreased and th
average acreage per farm has increased. Mechanization of production an
harvesting operations and the exacting requirements for the preservation
of quality in the product make it a highly specialized industry.
Major production appears to be centering in those areas having th(
greatest advantage from a cost standpoint, namely the mucklands of th(
Everglades and Zellwood. This convergence and the increase in spring pro
duction has concentrated about 70 percent of the total volume into th-
months of April, May and June. The depressing effect which this volume
has had on prices during these months, particularly in May, is an indication
of either (a) a surplus in the market, (b) inferior condition of product in
retail stores or (c) poor distribution of the product. "Some Economic Prob-
lems in the Florida Sweet Corn Industry" was published as Agricultural
Economics Mimeo Report 60-8. (D. L. Brooke.)








Annual Report, 1960


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Work has been done on 10 regular projects and on preliminary investi-
tion of questions related primarily to efficiencies to be gained by the use
Mechanical and physical aids to production. All current work is cooper-
ive with 1 or more other units of the Experiment Station. New projects
eal with potato packinghouses and with equipment for the application of
emicals to soils for the control of pests.

FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
watch Project 555 J. M. Myers
The study of 4 different irrigation management programs for tobacco
as continued in 1959. The management programs were designed to de-
ermine the response by tobacco to different periods of delay in the appli-
ation of irrigation after an estimated optimum time for application had
een reached.
The amount of rainfall for the 1959 tobacco season was the highest on
record. Rainfall at the experimental farm amounted to approximately 27
inches between the initial fertilizer application and the end of the first
harvest. The estimated "optimum", "3-day delay", and "6-day delay" plots
receivedd 3.67, 1.56, and 0.64 inches of irrigation water in 7, 3, and 1 appli-
ations.
Treatment responses are shown in Table 2. Highest yield and best qual-
ty was obtained by delaying irrigation application 3 days after the estimated
optimum time. The treatment receiving no irrigation was about equal to
he "6-day delay" treatment but superior to the estimated "optimum"
treatment. The leaching of fertilizer nutrients by heavy rainfall was a
dominant factor in influencing the response of tobacco to irrigation treat-
ments. The importance of the effect of irrigation management on tobacco
reproduction is illustrated by the significant responses of the tobacco plots to
the relatively small variations in the amount of irrigation water applied to
the treatments. (See also Project 555, Agronomy Department and Suwannee
Valley Station.)
TABLE 2.-YIELD AND VALUE FOR IRRIGATION OF TOBACCO
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA, 1959.
Yield Value Value
Irrigation Pounds per Cents per Dollars per
Treatment Acre Pound Acre

Estimated "optimum" ......... 1578 60.5 954
"3-day delay" .......-.................. 1851 62.3 1154
"6-day delay" ........................ 1752 61.1 1070
None ......................................... 1738 61.3 1066


PASTURE PROGRAM AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL
AND NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 J. M. Myers
The pasture program on which irrigation was used as a cultural practice
was managed in accordance with established procedure. Rainfall during the
past year was heavy and well distributed. The water table remained at an








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


elevation adequately high to supply water needs during all periods betwe,
rainfalls except in May 1960, when it was necessary to make 1 application
This amount of irrigation did not appear to cause a significant increase i
forage production. (See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agrol
omy, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, and Soils Departments.)

CURING BRIGHT LEAF TOBACCO GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT
LEVELS OF NITROGEN
Hatch Project 758 J. M. Myei
Levels of yellowing temperatures during curing, leaf maturity at time o
harvest, and nitrogen fertilization were studied again in 1959. The expert
mental procedure was the same as that followed in 1958. The growth an
development of the 1959 crop was fairly typical for a season of unusual
high rainfall.
Three levels of maturity at harvest responded differently to levels of ai
temperature while being colored. Leaves with most maturity colored satis
factorily with air temperatures of 90, 95, 100 and 105F and were onli
moderately damaged with 110oF air temperature. Leaves with a medium
level of maturity colored satisfactorily with air temperatures of 90, 91
and 100F but were moderately damaged by 1050F and severely damage(
by 110F air temperature. Leaves with the lowest level of maturity wer
colored satisfactorily with air temperatures of 90 or 95F only. Air a
temperatures of 100 and 105F caused moderate damage to leaf quality an
110'F caused severe damage to leaf quality.
Tobacco fertilized with 48 pounds of nitrogen fertilizer per acre colored
satisfactorily at air temperatures of 90, 95, and 100F; was moderately
damaged at 105"F; and was severely damaged at 110F. Both the 72 and
96 pounds per acre nitrogen fertilization levels colored satisfactorily at air
temperatures of 90 and 95oF. They were moderately damaged by 100 and
105F air temperatures and severely damaged by 110oF air.
Preliminary studies of curing tobacco in bulk or closely packed leaf ar-
rangements were completed in 1959. These studies indicate that a satis-
factory cure is possible by this method. Research representatives of a
leading tobacco company judged samples of cured leaf to be satisfactory
for cigarette production. (See also Project 758, Agronomy Department.)

IRRIGATION OF TEMPORARY PASTURES FOR DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 772 J. M. Myers
The part of this project involving irrigation was discontinued because
a high water table under the experimental plots precluded a need for irriga-
tion except during extremely dry periods.
That part of the experiment not involving irrigation was continued in
1959, and results are reported by the Dairy Science Department.

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AS AN AID TO THE HARVESTING
AND HANDLING OF CABBAGE, CUCUMBERS, TOMATOES AND
OTHER VEGETABLES HANDLED IN A SIMILAR MANNER
State Project 811 E. S. Holmes
An experimental pea harvester was given further tests during the year
to determine desirable speeds of the conveyor, reel and cutter bar in rela-
tion to forward speed. The design uses a cutter bar that cuts off high grow-
ing peas, such as cabbage peas and similar varieties, and an elevator that
places the peas in bulk boxes from which they can be moved to a sheller.
The unit was mounted on the side of a tractor.








Annual Report, 1960


One man picking peas by hand was able to pick 6.6 pounds of shelled
eas per hour. With the machine 2 men could pick at a rate approximately
0 times as fast on a per-man basis. The trial harvester was successful in
harvesting over 70 percent of the yield at forward speeds up to 1.5 mph.

GLADIOLUS PRECOOLING AND TRANSIT INVESTIGATIONS
watch Project 860 E. S. Holmes and J. M. Myers
Two tests were run to determine the effect of time delay between cutting
nd precooling of gladiolus. Sample lots of flowers were precooled (1) im-
ediately, (2) at 3 hours, and (3) at 6 hours after being graded at the
ackinghouse. After precooling, all flowers were held in 50F storage to
imulate transit conditions and were then placed in flower buckets. All
ots were weighed before and after storage. One series of tests was run
during cool weather and the other in warm weather in late April. There
seemed to be no relationship between time of precooling and weight loss
under the conditions of this test. However, in the warm weather tests
pikes lost approximately 2 percent more moisture than did the spikes of
he cool weather tests.
For an evaluation of the flower quality and skips, see Project 860, Orna-
ental Horticulture.

HANDLING, REFRIGERATING AND STORING SHELL EGGS
ON THE FARM
State Project 908 R. E. Choate
The object of this experiment is to establish data upon which an economic
evaluation of shell egg handling and refrigerating can be based. Agricultur-
al Engineering's primary responsibility and contribution have been to pro-
vide refrigeration facilities and temperature and humidity controls. The
initial instrumentation was for the purpose of evaluating the effects of fre-
quency of gathering, rate of cooling, type of container and length of stor-
age. (See also Project 908, Poultry Husbandry Department.)

OPEN-DITCH SYSTEMS FOR WATER TABLE CONTROL ON
NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA FLATWOODS SOILS
State Project 946 J. M. Myers
Excessive rainfall precluded further studies on the original experimental
area at Gainesville during the past year.
An area in St. Lucie County being developed for citrus plantings was
used for a similar study in 1959-60. Approximately 85 percent of the land
in the new experimental area is classified as a Felda soil. Water control
ditches were approximately 5 feet deep and located at 135-foot spacings. A
series of piezometer tubes spaced at vertical intervals of 1 foot from the
surface down into the porous shell layer and at horizontal intervals of 27
feet were installed. Direction and rate of water movement were determined
and related to the changing elevation of water in the ditches by alternately
filling and draining the ditches on either side of the experimental area and
measuring the elevation of water in the piezometer tubes.
Results show that the porous shell layer is quickly responsive to slight
changes in elevation of the ditch water. The permeability in the sandy clay
layer of soil above the porous shell is variable in response to the hydrostatic
pressure in the porous layer. There was very little lateral movement of
water from the ditch into the surface sand layer; however, water moved
rapidly from this sandy layer on the drainage cycle. It appears that ditches
spaced 135 feet apart and 5 feet deep are adequate for excellent soil mois-




















First attention was given to the possibility of alternatives to the use
self-unloading bulk body trucks and temporary holding bins without sacr
ficing potato quality or adding to handling time. Both the bulk body an
temporary holding bins are expensive special units that have no other pra
tical use during the year. A dump truck with a wooden baffle that would
allow the potatoes to fall gently to the floor was tried for unloading pot
toes (Fig. 2). Tests were run on early, middle and late season potato
Results are shown in Table 3.








A"1 % *.- J-IH^



















Fig. 2.-Use of dump truck with wooden baffle for unloading potatoes
onto a concrete floor.

Preliminary observations indicate that regular dump trucks could be
substituted for the special bulk body trucks and that potatoes could be
dumped directly onto a concrete floor with no appreciable change in potato
damage. Time data indicated that under commercial operating conditions
it would take about 0.42 man minutes per 1000 pounds to unload with the
dump truck, as compared to about 1.33 man min. per 1000 pounds with the
bulk body truck. Other methods of unloading are to be considered. (See
also Project 638, Agricultural Economics.)
14 Cooperative with ARS, USDA.













TABLE 3.-COMPARISON OF POTATO INJURY FROM USE OF BULK BODY TRUCKS AND DUMP TRUCKS.

Bulk Body Dump Truck
Potatoes Injury After Injury After
Immediate Injury 7 Days Immediate Injury 7 Days
S (Percent) (Percent) (Percent) (Percent)

Surface Injury
Classification ** .................................. 5 or less 5-10t 5 or less 5-10 5 or less 5-10 5 or less 5-10

Early ...................-..-- ...-..--- ..--..... ... 3.8 1.7 6.5 4.4 4.5 2.8 5.7 4.6

Mid-season ...................-..................... 4.9 3.1 15.5 4.0 5.8 3.5 17.1 3.0

Late-season ...........................----.......--... 9.1 4.0 15.1 6.7 6.2 2.6 17.5 3.9

Potatoes held for 7 days at 70*F.
** The portion of the tuber surface rated as injured from inspection of individual tubers.
t All injuries over 10 percent were from potato harvester cuts and were not considered as a part of these tests.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


DEVELOPMENT OF EQUIPMENT FOR THE APPLICATION
OF SOIL FUMIGANTS TO THE MINERAL AND
ORGANIC SOILS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 1020 E. S. Holm
Work has been begun to provide more effective and less costly method
for the control of pests in soils by the application of chemicals. Different
types of equipment applying various formulations of promising chemical
are to be evaluated in terms of their ease of application and effectiveness
against nematodes, weeds, and disease. First experiments deal with the sub
surface application of volatile materials using tractor-mounted equipment
(See also Project 1020, Central Florida Station.)

PRELIMINARY NON-PROJECTED STUDIES
Cooling of Feeder Cattle in Dry Lot.-One-hundred twenty feeder cattle
were divided into 2 lots of 60 each in August 1959 for a full scale field tria
of a possible method for summer cooling of beef cattle on a commercial
farm. Each lot of cattle was given an equal ration of feed. One lot wa
placed under slatted shade and was cooled by a fan and sprinklers set t
operate at ambient temperatures above 75F. The other lot had only
slatted shade. After 65 days, the animals under fan and sprinklers ha
gained at the rate of 2.08 pounds per day and those under the slatted shad
had gained at the rate of 1.83 pounds per day. During the 65 days of the
test, temperatures were above 90F on 32 days and above 80F on 63 days.
The practicability of this method of cooling is not fully determined, how-
ever, and is to be considered further. (E. S. Holmes.)
Mechanical Measures of Cabbage Maturity.-Exploratory work was be-
gun on a possible method of mechanically selecting cabbage heads for har-
vest. Initial data suggest that mature and immature heads might be dis-
tinguished by differences in response to pressure and that sufficient response
in pressure can be obtained by depressions of 3/16 inch on the cabbage head.
At 1/4 inch depression slight damage was noticeable. (E. S. Holmes.)
Pelleting Pangola Grass.-Exploratory work with the Departments of
Agronomy and Animal Husbandry and Nutrition was begun on some of the
questions related to pelleting or watering of Florida forages.
Pangola grass pelleted in a commercial plant was used in preliminary
feeding trials on young heifers. Animals on rations including pellets failed
to gain as much as animals on other rations. In many instances animals
refused the pellets. Only 1 type of pellet was tried, that from 1 harvest of
pangola grass. The pellet mill experienced considerable difficulty in making
pellets of the ground pangola and it was necessary to dry it to approximate-
ly 8 percent moisture (wet basis) for pelleting. Use of grass with less ma-
turity and use of a different pelleting process might be more successful, but
this preliminary work did not show good promise for pellets of this grass.
(E. S. Holmes.)
Production Management for Large Yields of Peanuts.-The Agricultural
Engineering Department cooperated with the Agronomy Department in an
experiment to evaluate a completely mechanized production program for
peanuts. All plots received uniform treatments of lime, gypsum, irrigation,
herbicide, insecticide and fungicide. Two row spacings; 38.00 and 12.67 inch-
es; and fertilizer versus no fertilizer were compared. No cultivation was
used, and all phases of production and harvesting were completely mechan-
ized.
Results indicate that high yields (4,759 pounds per acre for the best
treatment combination) of excellent quality peanuts (value of $472.41 per









Annual Report, 1960


re) can be grown with complete mechanization. The 12.67-inch row
acing produced larger yields than the 38-inch row spacing and had more
fect in increasing yields than fertilizer. Fertilizer was more effective in
creasing the yield with 12.67-inch row spacing than with the wider row
lacing. Fertilizer improved the grade of the peanuts. (J. M. Myers.)
Forced Ventilation of Curing Barns for Shade Tobacco.-A forced ven-
ation system has been installed in an experimental curing barn at the
orth Florida Experiment Station. The exhaust system has a potential
pacity for uniformly changing air in the barn every 10 minutes.
The air is removed from the barn through vertical pipes extending into
e center of the tobacco mass. Forced air movement in the barn should aid
Sthe elimination of pockets of saturated air in the tobacco mass and im-
rove the uniformity with which tobacco cures throughout the barn. (I. J.
oss and J. M. Myers.)
Bulk Curing of Bright Leaf Tobacco.-Ten units in which samples of
-op materials can be placed under controlled temperature, humidity and
ir flow have been constructed in the processing laboratory of Rogers Hall.
these units will be used in studies of tobacco as an aid in determining the
functional specifications for commercial bulk curing equipment. This
equipment will be used later in drying, curing, and storage studies of other
rop materials.
Five series of bulk curing tests were conducted in 1960. Each test con-
isted of a 3 x 3 factorial experiment in which the air temperature in the
tobacco and the drying rate of the tobacco during the coloring period were
he 2 factors considered. The levels of drying rates and air coloring
temperatures were selected to bracket the values of these 2 factors as nor-
nally used in conventional barn curing systems. Tobacco samples obtained
rom each of these tests plus a sample cured by the conventional method
vill be rated for leaf quality, and the chemical and physical properties of
he samples will be determined. The information will be used to evaluate
possiblee procedures for curing bright leaf tobacco in bulk. This work is
cooperativee with the Department of Agronomy and the Suwannee Valley
station. (I. J. Ross and J. M. Myers.)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


AGRONOMY

Research results on field and forage crops under 32 projects are report
below. Two projects were revised. Breeding and introduction of improve
strains are the primary object of 13 projects; 12 are concerned with fert
ization, irrigation and other management practices; 3 are on chemical co
trol of weeds; 2 are on tobacco plant bed management; and 1 each is co
cerned with processing, climatology and insect control. Cooperation wi
other departments or branch stations involves 17 of the 33 projects.
A greenhouse 14 x 21 feet was obtained for starting and testing new i
productions of grasses and legumes when seed supplies are scant.

PEANUT BREEDING FOR SUPERIOR TYPES FOR MARKET AND
FOR LIVESTOCK FEED
Hatch Project 20 W. A. Carv
The highest producing lines in the 1959 Florida Station tests were Fl
393, Fla. 392, Early Runner and Fla. 404. The numbered lines are of hybr
origin with Florispan Runner as 1 parent. A new selection from Fla. 392-
having jumbo seed size is being increased in 1960 for processing trials b
confectioners and for possible release to growers. Analysis for oil conte
on the 1959 peanut crop showed Fla. 392-12-5 seeds equal to Early Runn
seeds in percent of oil. Smaller seeded lines of Fla. 392-12, which were under
test for several years, had less seed damage than Fla. 392-12-5. Their
average damage in the tests of 1954-58 was 2.37 percent. However, Fl
392-12-5 had less seed damage than 3 standard Virginia varieties whe
grown under the same conditions in 1958 and 1959.
A number of different crosses were made in the spring of 1960. Thes
crosses involved Early Runner, Dixie Runner, 392-12-5, 404 and 420. Fou
separate Dixie Runner lines were intercrossed in all possible ways in a
effort to restore some of the lost yielding ability of this variety.

PASTURE GRASS AND LEGUME RESPONSES TO VARIOUS
FERTILIZER AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Hatch Project 295 G. B. Killinger and H. C. HarriE
A clipping (management) test with Starr, Common and Gahi-1 pearl
millets fertilized with 800 pounds per acre of a 14-7-7 fertilizer at seeding
time and topdressed during the season with 132 pounds of nitrogen per acre
showed by forage yields that Starr and Gahi-1 pearlmillets produced more
uniform seasonal growth than common. Yields of dry forage in pounds per
acre and percent of forage by season are given in the following table.


Variety Lbs. Oven-Dry Seasonal Distribution
Forage per Acre _
Early Mid. I Late

Starr .................-....-... 8,541 30 35 35
Pearl .......................... 9,449 50 20 30
Gahi-1 ..-...-.................-. 11,531 40 25 35


Pearlmillet produces the most early forage, but fails to hold its yield
standing in mid and late season.
Louisiana White, Louisiana S-1 and Nolin's White clovers continue giv-








Annual Report, 1960 47

g more nearly year-around grazing than clover from imported or Northern
ed sources.
Louisiana S-1, Nolin's Pennscott and Kenland red clovers are superior
irieties for Florida and appear to have wide adaptation.
Clovers receiving from 60 to 72 pounds of P.,O5 per acre from super-
hosphate annually during the past 10 years continue yielding more forage
lan where lesser or larger quantities of phosphate have been applied.

VALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF FORAGE AND COVER CROP
LEGUMES OTHER THAN CLOVERS AND LUPINES
tate Project 301 J. R. Edwardson, E. S. Horner
and F. H. Hull
Breeding and evaluating strains of crotalaria and alfalfa for adaptation
the environmental conditions found at Gainesville were continued.
Crosses between cytoplasmic male-sterile Crotalaria mucronata and lines
ad varieties of normal C. mucronata have been obtained. Insects pollinate
tale-sterile material in the field, permitting backcrossing on an extensive
:ale. Backcrossing normal lines to male-steriles will be continued in order
>convert normal lines to sterility. These converted lines will be used in
reducing hybrids. Experimental hybrids have produced significantly more
ry matter than ordinary varieties. Investigation of the restoration of
fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile lines is in progress. F1 seed of the
iterspecific cross C. maratima x C. rotundifolia have been obtained.


Fig. 3.-Experimental alfalfa strain (right) persisted better than
Hairy Peruvian alfalfa (left) in 2-year-old plots.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


An experimental alfalfa strain, the result of 3 generations of mass sele
tion for perennial habit, was found to have significantly better persisten
than Hairy Peruvian in 2-year-old stands (Figure 3). These promising r
suits justify continued alfalfa breeding.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IMPROVEMENT
Hatch Project 372 Fred Clar
Seventy-four lines, including 25 commercially acceptable varieties, wer
tested this year. Several of these varieties were from North Carolina (10
South Carolina (7) and Virginia (5). All lines were tested for yieldin
ability, leaf quality and nematode resistance. Several lines, such as F22-
P.D. 611 and N.C. 8037, produced good to fair yields with fair quality an
good nematode resistance. Chemical evaluations of the leaf have show
both poor and good characteristics which presently limit the release of
variety having nematode resistance.

CORN BREEDING
Hatch Project 374 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hul
Studies were continued to evaluate different corn breeding methods an
to develop hybrids with improved yield, standability, and disease and insec
resistance. Results of tests conducted during 1959 again showed that re
current selection for specific combining ability is effective in increasing
production of hybrids. An experimental hybrid derived from the fourth
cycle of selection for combining ability with F44 x F6 produced 78 bushel
per acre, compared with 72 for Dixie 18 and Florida 200 at 5 locations in
North Florida. This difference is highly significant statistically. Data
from 2 other recurrent selection experiments were similar in that several
experimental hybrids in each out-yielded Dixie 18 by a significant amount
over a 2-year period. Since these hybrids are equal or superior to Dixie 18
in standability and other important characteristics, there seems to be a
good prospect for releasing an improved hybrid after additional testing.
(See also Project 374, West Florida, North Florida and Suwannee Valley
Stations.)

EFFECT OF Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S AND Mg ON THE GROWTH OF GRAIN
CROPS, FORAGE CROPS, PASTURES AND TOBACCO
Hatch Project 440 H. C. Harris, V. N. Schroder
and Fred Clark
Greenhouse studies have been conducted with sesame on virgin Leon
fine sand from the Beef Research Unit area. Major fertilizer elements had
an appreciable beneficial effect on growth of this crop. The minor elements,
especially copper, were important. Cultures without an application of cop-
per in the fertilizer treatment died before harvest time (Figure 4). Collec-
tive results for several years with different crops indicate that a small
amount of copper is important for this virgin soil.

PERMANENT SEEDBEDS FOR TOBACCO PLANTS
State Project 444 Fred Clark
Successful production of plants for the last 16 years has resulted mainly
because of management. Light sandy soils are low in organic matter and
the use of summer cover crops and mulches has provided for improved or-
ganic matter and tilth and has assisted in reducing many of the seedling
disease organisms. Chicken manure (free from sodium borate), peatmoss,








Annual Report, 1960


nely-ground peanut hay and vermiculite are excellent materials to incor-
orate into the soil.


Fig. 4.-Sesame without copper (left) finally died, while that with a
complete fertilizer, including minor elements (right) thrived.

Vapam and Crag mylone were tested again this year for weed control.
From over-all results obtained they are not recommended.
Anthracnose was found in a grower's planted this year for the first
time in Florida. This grower had used an antibiotic for blue mold control,
which has little effect on controlling the anthracnose organism. Ferbam,
Zineb and Copper A did provide good control. (See also project 444,
Suwannee Valley Station.)

NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PEANUT
Hatch Project 488 H. C. Harris, V. N. Schroder
and Fred Clark
A field experiment involving an all-out effort in peanut production was
conducted on Arredondo loamy fine sand. No lime or fertilizer had been
applied to this soil in recent years. All operations were mechanized. The
peanuts were planted in a level seedbed and after seeding there was no fur-
ther cultivation. In preparing the seedbed an effort was made not to bring
to the surface turned-under organic matter. Three variables were compared:
38-inch row spacing versus 12 2/3-inch; 2,500 pounds per acre of 4-12-12
fertilizer (containing the minor elements) plowed under with a cover crop








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of rye versus no fertilizer; and Early Runner compared to Virginia Runne
Georgia 26. Cover crop, lime, dinitro pre-emergence weed killer, gypsum o
the foliage, dusting for insects and diseases, and irrigation when desirable
were uniform for all plots.
Close spacing (Figure 5) had more effect on increasing yield than fertilize
er, but fertilizer was relatively more effective with closer spacing and ha
an appreciable effect on yield. The best yield and grade of peanuts was ob
trained with Early Runner grown with fertilizer in closely spaced rows
This combination averaged 4,759 pounds per acre.
A greenhouse experiment was conducted with Blanton fine sand, leve
phase. Calcium in the fruiting zone increased the yield of peanuts almost
300 percent over the same calcium treatment in the root zone. The same
amount of calcium added to both zones did not increase yields over those
for fruiting-zone application only. The amount of calcium applied was not
heavy. The pH of the soil at the end of the experiment had changed very
little in the fruiting area but had become more acid in the rooting zone. The
results suggest that the pH of the soil, per se, is not the important consid-
ation but that a lack of a moderate supply of calcium in the fruiting zone
is critical.

FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
The nitrogen (48, 72, 96 and 120 pounds per acre), 4 irrigations (on time,
3-day delay, 6-day delay and none), and 10 varieties experiment was con-
tinued. Irrigation is the main block. Varieties are planted as a split plot
and the nitrogen rates are randomized within the main block.
The 3-day delay irrigation treatment was best in 1959 for yield, price
and dollar value. Four varieties, Golden Cure, VA-21, Verta 5 and 402,
produced the best over-all results.
Seventy-two and 96 pounds of nitrogen per acre were the best nitrogen
treatments.
At the Suwannee Valley Station plant populations from 7,500 to 10,000
plants per acre fertilized with 1,500 pounds of 4-8-12 and containing 2 per-
cent MgO and not more than 2 percent chlorine produced best results. In-
teractions of variety x plant population were best with Golden Cure, Va.
gold and 402 varieties at 10,000 plants per acre.
Two new soil fumigants were tested this year-SD 4014 and Cy 18,133.
Neither proved equal to W-85 or DD.
(See also Project 555, Agricultural Engineering Department and Suwan-
nee Valley Station.)

Fig. 5.-Photograph made June 30, 1959, showing row spacing of peanuts.
Center plot had 12%-inch rows, side plots 38-inch rows.









Annual Report, 1960


BREEDING IMPROVED VARIETIES OF WHITE, RED
AND SWEET CLOVER
tate Project 600 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
Breeding for increased persistence, productivity, and disease resistance
n white and red clover was continued.
An experimental synthetic variety of white clover was produced by inter-
rossing 26 clones which had been selected for good summer persistence.
his variety produced significantly more forage than either Louisiana Sl or
olin's Louisiana white clover on Scranton loamy fine sand in the spring
of 1960. Tests for relative summer persistence have not been completed.
Polycross progenies of the same 26 clones differed significantly in forage
production, indicating that additional selection among these clones would
be beneficial in developing a high-yielding synthetic variety. There was no
significant correlation between intensity of bloom (ranging from none to
heavy) observed in the clones and productivity of their polycross progenies.
Selection for winter and early spring forage production was initiated
in a strain of mildew-resistant red clover which had been developed previ-
ously under this project.

IMPROVEMENT OF LUPINES BY BREEDING FOR YIELD AND
INSECT AND DISEASE RESISTANCE
Hatch Project 612 J. R. Edwardson and F. H. Hull
The chief problem in the lupine breeding program in Florida continues to
be the incorporation of virus resistance into commercial yellow lupine. In
order to solve this problem, crosses between G619, a resistant species, and
yellow lupine have been made. Plants from the seed produced by these
crosses will be self-pollinated to produce a population segregating for virus
resistance. Selections for virus resistance combined with other agrono-
mically desirable characters will be made. Crosses between L. rothmaleri
and G619 have been made also. Since L. rothmaleri crosses readily with
yellow lupine the hybrids involving G619 will be used in crosses to yellow
lupine in order to transfer virus resistance to yellow lupine.
A bitter blue selection resistant to Stemnphylium solani produced signifi-
cantly more green weight than common bitter blue lupine at Gainesville.
(See also Projects 612 and 742, Plant Pathology Department, and Project
612, North Florida Station.)

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL
AND NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 G. B. Killinger and H. C. Harris
Clover growing in combination with grass on 4 pasture programs made
appreciable growth throughout the entire year with a 50 to 100 percent sur-
vival of plants at the end of the summer. Good clover grazing was avail-
able in early January. Adequate fertilization, good pasture management
and a rather uniform rainfall distribution made the 1958-59 season profitable
from the forage and beef production standpoint.
Average yields of forages coupled with programs, acreage and fertiliza-
tion are shown in the accompanying table.
These data represent results from the 5 programs for the second season
and indicate the application of 0-50-100 fertilizer with 60 pounds of nitrogen
as the most economical for clover-grass pasture production. The data do
not indicate any particular advantage from the use of nitrogen on such
pastures.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Program Acres I Lbs. 0-10-20 Lbs. Nitrogen I Lbs. Oven-Dry
No. I per Acre per Acre Forage per Acre

1 32 450 180 7,207
2 40 300 0 8,618
3 32 500 60 10,939
4 32 700 120 9,198
5 24 900 180 11,375


Pangola and Coastal bermudagrass in the respective pastures are de
lining in stand and Pensacola Bahia is invading them rather extensively.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineering,
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, and Soils Departments.)

HERBICIDAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN CORN AND SOYBEANS
State Project 747 M. Wilcox and E. G. Rodgers
Excellent control of broadleaf and grassy weeds was effected by pre-
emergence treatments with fenac at 2 pounds acid equivalent per acre and
EPTC at 5 and 10 pounds active ingredient per acre, with negligible damage
to corn plants. EPTC at these rates also gave fair control of nut sedge.
Pre-emergence treatments with 1 pound of atrazine per acre and post-
emergence treatments with 2 pounds per acre controlled broadleaf weeds but
appreciably damaged corn. Pre-emergence treatments with 2 pounds of
simazine per acre controlled broadleaf weeds less effectively, but damaged
corn to a lesser extent.

CURING BRIGHT LEAF TOBACCO GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT
LEVELS OF NITROGEN
Hatch Project 758 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
Three nitrogen rates, 48, 72 and 96 pounds of N per acre, were used this
year; 3 maturities, green, ripe and overripe, were harvested and colored at
5 yellowing temperatures, 900, 950, 1000, 105' and 110F. Two complete
harvests of 6 plots each of the nitrogens and maturity of leaf were made;
the green leaf samples were cured in replicate. Seventy-two to 96 pounds
of nitrogen was best when harvested ripe and yellowed from 95 to 1000F.
There was a reduction in quality from 2.5 to 5.2 cents per pound from green
to overripe tobacco, fertilized with 48, 72 and 96 pounds of nitrogen.
There was a 11.4 cents per pound reduction in quality of leaf harvested
green, when the temperatures varied from 900 to 1100. There was an 8.8
cents average reduction irrespective of nitrogen.
Higher nitrogen rates increased the nitrogen and nicotine contents of
the tobacco and decreased sugar. Coloring at 110F seemed to decrease
sugar, while for some reason tobacco harvested green and cured seemed to
have a higher sugar content.
From the base of the plant to the top, nicotine and nitrogen contents
progressively increased while sugar decreased.
In summary, it is best to harvest ripe to slightly overripe for maximum
value.
Bulk curing experiments for this year offered considerable encourage-
ment for this method of curing tobacco.
(See also Project 758, Agricultural Engineering Department.)









Annual Report, 1960


Fig. 6.-Mobile microclimatological laboratory in operation measuring
soil and air temperatures on slopes of bedded land.

Row direction did not effect the yield or total amount of seed shatter
of Ogden and Lee soybeans. Eighty percent of seed shatter of Ogden soy-
beans occurred on the south side of rows planted in east and west direction
and 58 percent on the west side of rows planted in a north and south direc-
tion.
Photosynthesis and respiration measurements made in the field on com-
mon and coastal Bermudagrass, Pensacola bahiagrass, and pangolagrass
exhibited no clear cut differences between these grasses under conditions of
the experiment.

15 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USD'A.
'" Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


AB-180 oats were completely killed by severe cold weather where t
growth was harvested to 2-inch height just prior to the freeze. Unc
oats 15 inches high were severely damaged. Least damage occurred whe
oats had been cut to 2-inch height and had 4 to 6 inches of regrow
at time of severe cold conditions.

BREEDING AND EVALUATING NEW VARIETIES OF
SOYBEANS FOR FLORIDA
State Project 761 Kuell Hinson
The second cycle of soybean breeding was initiated in 1959 by hybri
izing experimental lines which had been selected specifically for the
adaptation to the state. Selection was continued in early generation lin
from other crosses for disease resistance and good agronomic qualities
Sixty observation plots and 333 plant rows were selected for testing at var
ous locations throughout the state under State Project 909.
An experiment to measure the effect of border-row competition on Jac
son revealed both positive and negative yield bias depending on the compe
ing line. The data collected support the idea that multiple-row plots a
superior to single-row plots for yield evaluation.
Chemical data from 219 F5 rows from CNS-4 x Biloxi gave evidence th
independent selection for high oil and high protein content of seed in 195
and 1958 was effective. It will now be determined if either selection press
sure was positively or negatively associated with yield.

INTERRELATION OF ENVIRONMENT TO THE PHYSIOLOGY AND
CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS II. ORGANIC ACID METABOLISM OF
PLANTS IN RELATION TO MINOR ELEMENT NUTRITION
Hatch Project 766 V. N. Schroder and H. C. Harri
Plants grown in nutrient solution under conditions of iron deficiency read
ily produce marked visual deficiency symptoms correlated with marked chan
ges in the proportions of various organic acids. Other deficiencies are mor
often apparent as a reduction in total growth. In lupine leaves iron defic
iency caused an accumulation of citric acid with almost no change in th
amount of malic acid. Addition of iron tartrate to the nutrient solution
resulted in lowering the citric acid to normal levels within 2 days, which
was long before any visual change was apparent.
Oats differ considerably from lupine in the organic acid pattern. Normal
oat leaves show an accumulation of succinic acid with only traces of citric
and malic acids. Iron deficiency results in an almost complete disappearance
of succinic acid. Other minor element deficiencies in oats do not seem to af-
feet the succinic acid level but result in accumulation of various amounts of
citric and malic acids.

EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED PLANT SPECIES AND VARIETIES
Hatch Project 767 G. B. Killinger, J. R. Edwardson, W. A. Carver,
(Regional S-9) A. J. Norden and F. H. Hull
Over 403 grass and legume species were received from the Southern Reg-
inal Plant Introduction Station and planted in the introduction garden for
forage and pasture evaluation. Bothriochloa intermedia A-5410 from Pun-
jab, India, appears to have excellent feed qualities and yield potential as a

17 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USD'A.








Annual Report, 1960


sture or hay crop. Buffelgrass, Pennisetumt ciliare strains "Chipinga" P.I.
o. 243198 and "Grassland" P.I. No. 243199 from South Africa, have sur-
ved 3 complete seasons with annual yields of 4 to 5 tons of dry forage per
*re.
Pensacola bahia seed were irradiated with 10,000 to 90,000 Kr units of
amma rays. From a 200-seed planting of each treatment, 60 seeds germ-
ated with no treatment, 43 at the 10,000 level, 4 at 20,000 and 2 at 30,000.
10-pound lot of Pensacola bahia seed was treated with 20,000 Kr's and
en planted for seed increase and thence plant type selection.
Ten percent of 880 strains of sesame comprising the world collection
ere promising and are being re-evaluated.
Highest yields from 4 grain sorghum varieties were obtained from late
arch and early April plantings. A highly significant variety by date of
planting interaction was obtained, indicating the possibility of developing
orghum varieties adapted for either early or late plantings. An average of
4 bushels of grain per acre was harvested from 43 sorghum hybrids and
varieties. Forage Sorghum, NK 300, produced 11,626 pounds of dry forage
nd 4,185 pounds of grain from 1 cutting.
A giant star bermudagrass, P.I. 224252, and a medium star type, P.I.
25594, were the best of 5 bermuda introductions grown since 1957. Several
ennisetum spicatumn and P. glaucum introductions are being used in a for-
ge breeding project.
Goober (Voandzeia subterranea) introductions died before maturing any
uts where grown on high sandy soils but matured a normal crop of
uts on lower, heavier textured soils.

INFLUENCE OF CULTURAL PRACTICES ON THE INCIDENCE AND
CONTROL OF INSECT INFESTATIONS IN FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 780 Fred Clark
Approximately one-half acre of tobacco was planted and 4 insecticide
materials were tested, together with a check plot. Acre yields were reduced
by over 250 pounds where no insecticide was applied and a loss of over
$144.00 per acre occurred. (See also Project 780 Entomology Department.)

SMALL GRAIN IMPROVEMENT BY BREEDING AND SELECTION
Hatch Project 783 P. L. Pfahler
A statistical model and appropriate analysis of variance was developed
to estimate the reaction of a wide range of genotypes to various environmen-
tal conditions. Three characteristics of a genotype or group of genotypes
were considered: 1, Genotypic base value; 2, genotypic environmental sensi-
tivity; and 3, genotype-environmental interaction. Results using Avena sa-
tiva as the experimental material grown in 2 years and in 2 diverse locations
indicated that grain production was much more sensitive to environment than
forage production. Analysis of crosses and lines within crosses indicated
that environmental response is partially under genetic control.
No crown rust epidemic was present during the 1959-1960 season, while
a damaging crown rust epidemic occurred during the 1958-1959 season.
Forty-one highly selected and diverse lines of oats were tested over these
2 years. The total forage production of a line was positively correlated
with late season or April forage production (r=+0.85**). Late forage
production should be emphasized in a selection program. When the 2 sea-
sons are considered, forage production had a relatively low heritability








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


(24%). A number of lines showed remarkable stability over these rath
diverse seasons.
Even though no crown rust was observed in the 1959-1960 season, Flo
iland and Seminole, the recommended varieties, had relatively low gra
yields as determined in the Uniform Southern Oats Test. However, ne
lines with superior germplasm for yield were represented in the test.
Heavy, damaging attacks of mildew continue to be a limiting factor
wheat grain production in this area. Bledsoe, the recommended variety
was one of the top yielding varieties in the Uniform Southern Soft Whe
Test. (See also Project 783, Plant Pathology Department and North Florid
Station.)

SUPPLEMENTAL HEAT AND LIGHT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF
TOBACCO SEEDLINGS
State Project 794 Fred Clark and E. B. Whitt
Experiments over the past 3 years have shown plastic film to be superior
to cheesecloth for tobacco planted covers. Plants grown under plastic fil
reached transplanting size in less time than those grown under the conven
tional cheesecloth covers. Even of possible greater importance was th
close agreement of results for the 3 years. Weather conditions varied wide
ly during the 3 years. Each year, however, beds covered with plastic
film had transplants ready within a week of 60 days after the bed was seed
ed. The cheesecloth beds varied considerably, with anywhere from 75 t
over 100 days needed to produce transplants. Protection from frost wa
another feature of plastic covers.
Higher yields and values in the field were obtained from plots set with
plants grown under plastic film rather than cheesecloth. Chemical analyses
of the cured leaf have shown that the plants grown under plastic produced
a more desirable tobacco than those grown under cheesecloth. This was
due to a more favorable balance of those elements that determine quality.
Planting dates, varieties and fertilization were studied in conjunctior
with the different bed covers.

THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATED RAINFALL ON THE HERBICIDAL
ACTIVITY OF DNBP AND SESONE
Regional Research Project 839 E. G. Rodgers
(Regional S-18)
Leachability of simazine, atrazine, methoxyatrazine, and ipazine as in-
fluenced by rate of application and the amount and frequency of simulated
rainfall was studied under greenhouse conditions. These herbicides were
applied at 2 and 4 pounds active ingredient per acre to Lakeland fine sandy
soil which then received simulated rainfall in amounts varying from 1
to 16 inches in 7 to 28 days.
Each compound was leached to lower depths by a given quantity of
water applied in 14 or more days than by the same quantity of water in 7
days, as indicated by abnormalities of cucumber and oat seedlings grown in
soil taken from various 1-inch horizons to a maximum depth of 6 inches.
Increased time after herbicidal application, therefore, favored leaching.
Each material applied at 4 pounds per acre was leached to lower depths by a
given amount of rainfall than the same material when applied at only 2
pounds per acre. Increasing the rates of simulated rainfall also increased
leachability of these compounds. Oats were more sensitive than cucumbers
to these materials.









Annual Report, 1960


Under comparable conditions, atrazine was leached most readily, follow-
by simazine, methoxyatrazine, and ipazine in decreasing order.

PLANT IMPROVEMENT WITH GAMMA RADIATION

watch Project 848 A. T. Wallace
Results from a series of experiments show that the radiosensitivity of
at seed decreases as seed moisture content increases from 3.2% up to 9.6%.
Reaches a minimum at 10-12% but re-increases at moisture contents over
2%. Storing of seed after irradiation increased the radiation damage.
eeds with low moisture content expressed the most "storage" effects. If
)w-moisture seed are hydrated immediately after irradiation they express
o more damage than seeds with 10% moisture.
Seeds of Victorgrain oats, susceptible to Helminthosporium victoria,
,ere equilibrated to 10% moisture, then irradiated with cobalt-60 gamma
ays at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 kiloroentgens. Second generation progeny,
screened for mutations at the disease-controlling locus, gave a mutation
ate (x10 -) of 0, 10.4, 13.5, 0.9 and 5.1 per roentgen per locus for the re-
pective dose levels. When seed moisture content was adjusted to 33(% and
irradiation applied at 0, 4.5, 9, and 13.5 kiloroentgens, the mutation rate
xl0 ) was 0, 35.9, 10.9, and 1.5 per roentgen per locus, respectively. In
another experiment seed of 10% moisture content were given 17 and 25
iloroentgens at an intensity of 20 roentgens per minute. The mutation rate
xl10-) obtained was 8.8 and 4.6 per roentgen per locus respectively-iden-
ical to the first experiment when the intensity was 4,500 roentgens per
minute.
These induced mutation rates, the first reported for a locus in a higher
lant, are in the same order of magnitude (1 to 35 xlO0" per roentgen per
ocus) as those reported for mice and Drosophila. This similarity from such
diverse organisms would indicate that the fundamental mutating unit in
11 3 is similar in size and material. (See also Project 848, Botany, Fruit
Crops, Plant Pathology, Ornamental Horticulture and Vegetable Crops De-
partments.)

FORAGE AND PASTURE GRASS IMPROVEMENT BY BREEDING
Hatch Project 850 W. A. Carver, D. B. Linden
and F. H. Hull

Improvement of pearlmillet is being continued with inbred lines and
crosses involving Pennisetum glaucuC and P. spicatum. No male-sterile
plants were found in 1959 among 30 head-row progenies resulting from dif-
ferent crosses to cytoplasmic male-sterile material from the Georgia Coastal
Plain Experiment Station. Descendants of this material possess several
desirable characters for breeding purposes.
Crossing of napiergrass and buffelgrass to pearlmillet was continued in
1959. Most of the millet-napier hybrid plants winter killed in 1959-1960.
Some plants that survived have less spines and hair on their leaves and
appear to be less fibrous.
Five varieties of pearlmillet furnished by the Crops Research Division,
ARS, were grown in a 6-replication variety test at Gainesville. Six clip-
pings were made on the variety Gahi 1 and 5 on the other entries. Gahi 1
was most productive in green weight per acre, followed by Starr, Hybrid
SJ Cattail #7 and common.
At present 208 accessions of Digitaria have been obtained represent-
ing 55 named species and 46 Digitaria spp. All continents in the world are
represented in the Florida collection, which is now the largest assemblage of








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Digitaria in the United States. They are being evaluated for growth ty
winter hardiness and seed production and will be checked for productivene
directly if adapted or used as parents in a breeding program.
Ten of the accessions which appeared to grow as fast as or faster th
Pangolagrass, Digitaria decumbens, are being compared with it in a rate
growth experiment. These are all stoloniferous types. Digitaria smut
and Digitaria eriantha, primarily bunch types, have shown most winter ha
diness, some with no winter killing in 3 years. All, however, suffer fro
damage.

HERBICIDAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN PEANUTS
State Project 886 M. Wilcox and E. G. Rodge
Very good control of broadleaf and grassy weeds was effected by pr
emergence applications of Dacthal at 12 pounds active ingredient per acr
with no damage to peanuts. DNBP granular at 6 pounds per acre and CDA
at 18 pounds per acre gave comparable weed control with negligible damage
to peanuts, when applied pre-emergence.
Pre-emergence combinations of amiben at 2 and 4 pounds per acre plu
DNBP liquid at 4 and 6 pounds per acre also gave good control of broadlea
and grassy weeds with little or no damage to peanuts. Pre-emergence treat
ments with amiben at 3 pounds per acre controlled broadleaf weeds, an
with 8 pounds of R-2061 per acre controlled grassy weeds with negligible
effect on peanuts.
(See also Project 886, Suwannee Valley and West Florida Stations, ant
North Florida Station, Marianna Unit.)

ROTATION AND FERTILIZATION OF FIELD CROPS
State Project 900 E. G. Rodgers and Fred Clarl
The study of 10 crop rotation systems involving 4 levels of fertilization
on 9 different crops initiated in 1958 has been continued. Crop response to
fertilization was satisfactory. Tobacco yields in 1959 were slightly higher
following a winter green manure crop of rye than when grown on land that
was fallow during the preceding summer, fall and winter. Rotation and
fertilization effects on chemical content of the plants have been inconclusive.
Other specific effects of the rotation systems also are inconclusive and can
be determined only after a much longer evaluation period.
(See also Project 900, Suwannee Valley Station.)

TESTING SOYBEAN BREEDING LINES AND VARIETIES
State Project 909 Kuell Hinson "
Soybean varieties now available are not well adapted for seed production
in peninsular Florida. Six hundred-fifty-four experimental lines from the
breeding program at Gainesville were compared with the best adapted com-
mercial varieties at 1 or more locations in the state in 1959. All lines were
tested at Gainesville and 156 and 68 were also tested at Live Oak, Zellwood
and Homestead.
Individual experimental lines yielded significantly more than check vari-
eties at Gainesville, Zellwood and Homestead. The variety x location inter-
action for yield was nonsignificant for 39 of the more advanced and more
rigorously selected lines tested at Gainesville, Live Oak and Homestead.

is Cooperative with Crops Research Division. ARS, USDA.








Annual Report, 1960


is indicates it may be possible to select 1 superior line for variety release
t will be adapted to mineral soils throughout the state. Evidence is ac-
mulating from tests at Zellwood that the breeding line best adapted for
oduction on muck soil in central Florida will have very limited adaptation
the mineral soils in the peninsula. (See also Project 909, Suwannee Val
,Central Florida and Sub-Tropical Stations.)

THE INTERRELATED EFFECTS OF MINERAL NUTRIENT
DEFICIENCIES, ENVIRONMENT, AND HEREDITY ON
THE NITROGEN METABOLISM OF PLANTS
watch Project 950 H. C. Harris
Most of the work so far has been of a preliminary nature. It deals pri-
arily with growing, preparing and extracting plant material. From ex-
acts obtained after homogenization of the plant, different amino acids,
well as proteins, have been separated. Electrophoretic operations work-
well for this type of separation.

CYTOLOGY AND GENETICS OF RADIATION INDUCED
ALTERATIONS IN CYTOPLASMIC FACTORS
CONTROLLING MALE-STERILITY IN CORN
tate Project 969 John R. Edwardson
Seed of Minn. A158 and Minn. A158T corn was irradiated at 0, 5,000,
0,000, 20,000, 30,000 and 40,000r. These seed were planted in a completely
andomized design, in vermiculite in flats. Height measurements were be-
un 1 week after planting and taken once a week in 4 succeeding weeks.
analysis of variance was applied to the height measurements. The signifi-
ant difference in height occurring in the lines and treatments interaction
as not expected. Since the 2 lines are assumed to be genetically identical,
o difference in response to irridiation was anticipated. The significant dif-
erences occurred at the 30,000 and 40,000r dosages, with A158 showing
ore susceptibility to radiation damage than A158T.
Examination of the cytoplasm of male-sterile A158T and maintainer
158 material has been initiated with phase-contrast and electron-micro-
copes.

EFFECT OF AGE OF SOD ON YIELD OF BAHIAGRASS
AND SUBSEQUENT FIELD CROPS
Project 971 A. J. Norden
It has been shown in other areas with other species that grasses often
become less productive after a period of years. Bahiagrass is an improved
perennial grass with high forage quality and a vigorous root system that
is widely grown and well adapted in Florida. In recent years an improve-
ment in the quality and quantity of certain crops has been observed when
grown after bahiagrass sod. This experiment is designed to study the de-
terioration of bahiagrass plantings and effect of bahiagrass sod of various
ages on yield and quality of crops that follow.
The first experimental plantings were made in March 1960. The soil
has been sampled and each plot is being cropped uniformly in order to de-
termine the productivity and general homogeneity of the experimental area.
Orthogonal polynomial comparisons are anticipated between the effects due
to years in sod, crop response the first year the sod is turned under with
the crop response the second year, and differences between seasons.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF FORAG
CROPS TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS EFFECTED THROUGH
MANAGEMENT PRACTICES


Regional Research Project 998
(Regional S-47)


G. M. Prine, S. H. West
O. C. Ruelke, V. N. SchrodE
and K. D. Butson


This is a new project designed to study agronomic forage problems froi
the standpoint of achieving the best possible relationship between forag
plant, management and microenvironment. Realizing that a change in an
one of the above factors will affect the other factors, all will be studied tc
gether with the common objective of obtaining higher, more uniform an
more dependable forage production.
The first problems to be studied are those of winter injury of pangola
grass and poor persistence of alfalfa. The study of winter injury to pan
golagrass is a continuation and expansion of research already initiate
Winter injury of pangolagrass was substantially reduced over the winter
of 1959-60 by application of the growth retardant, maleic hydrazide, t
foliage in fall prior to severe frost. (See Figure 7.)




---*.r a------------------ ;(--


.$ ..-
K: uiw F:k
N' "A" .*


NI0 4 R


N,' 'A Fj
NCS 94jE':
N%7IYAj-.X. Wi"


-21







N.


Fig. 7.-Winter injury of pangolagrass was reduced and spring re-
growth increased by the application of the growth retardant, maleic hydra-
zide, in the fall.

Preliminary research has been initiated to study the effects of fertiliz-
ers, lime, minor elements, frequency and height of cutting, and growth sub-

1 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
o2 Cooperative with I. S. Weather Bureau.








Annual Report, 1960 61

dances on the persistence, forage yield and carbohydrate content of alfalfa.
t is hoped that from this phase of this project will come agronomic man-
gement practices which will increase the life expectancy of an alfalfa
lant in Florida to 2 or more years.

PRELIMINARY NON-PROJECTED RESEARCH
Field Crops Production on Flatwoods Soil.-Preliminary results indicate
hat the optimum plant population, variety and planting date may not be
he same for corn grown on flatwoods soil as for corn grown on well-drained
iplands soils.
In a test planted April 16, 1959, on Rutledge fine sand, an increase of
1 bushels of corn per acre was obtained between 9,000 plants per acre and
5,000 plants per acre. The plant population of 15,000 had 24 percent in-
rease in ear number, 8 percent decrease in ear weight, and lodging was not
problem. The optimum plant population for flatwoods soil may not have
been reached.
Hybrids selected on the basis of yield differences on previous flatwoods-
soil trials are being studied in 1960 at populations ranging from 5,000 to
25,000 plants per acre on various bed heights and planting dates.
Grain sorghum hybrids and varieties yielded from 26 to 41 bushels per
acre on flatwoods soil and forage sorghum hybrids produced from 3.7 to
5.4 tons of dry forage per acre from 2 cuttings. (A. J. Norden and E. S.
Horner.)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION

Research was conducted on 50 projects. New projects include studies o
evaluation of finishing methods for steers from different breeding systems
the relationship of body size in cattle to adaptation in Florida, management
and cost factors related to multiple farrowing of swine, effect of tempera
ture on cattle, swine and sheep production, effect of protein deficiencies on
cattle and sheep reproductive ability, relationship between specific gravity
and chemical composition of beef carcasses, effect of removing preputial
glands of mature boars on sex odor in pork, effect of enzymes on meat ten-
derness and digestibility of ruminant rations, effect of gamma and electron
radiation on the nutrient value of cellulose for ruminants, and the develop-
ment of a purified ration for sheep.
A farrowing barn was completed. It will be used to conduct year-
around farrowing (multiple farrowing) and to study the problems involved
in this system of having pigs available for market throughout the year.
With financial support from the Florida Power Corporation, 4 individual
temperature and humidity controlled unit pens were constructed at the Swine
Unit. These will be used to study the effect of temperature and humidity
on growth rate and feed utilization of growing pigs.
Grant-in-aid funds totaling approximately $75,000 were obtained from
19 different commercial companies, foundations and the U. S. Public Health
Service.
The Department has continued its cooperation with other departments
and branch stations in nutrition, physiology, breeding, genetics and meat
studies. Many of our staff have also judged livestock shows and helped
breeders in Central and South America with their livestock procurement and
production problems. In addition to considerable foreign correspondence,
visitors from all parts of the world visit and consult with our staff frequent-
ly throughout the year. Some of the staff have visited Venezuela and have
advised and consulted with the Central University of Venezuela on their
animal science teaching and research program. At present 6 Latin Ameri-
can students are doing research and graduate study toward advanced degrees
in the Department. This is indicative of the increasing importance of Flor-
ida in the Latin American area.

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE 2
Hatch Project 133 George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley, L. R. Arrington,
J. P. Feaster, J. T. McCall and C. B. Ammerman
Extracts of grass and of clovers have been shown to contain non-protein
nitrogen compounds with strong chelating powers. The presence of these
chelating compounds has been related to the development of mineral element
deficiencies in areas where analysis of the forage has indicated satisfactory
levels of these mineral elements. In every instance where this has occurred,
the level of non-protein nitrogen in the forage has been high compared to that
occurring in other areas where this problem does not exist. These findings
have stimulated studies into the factors which influence conversion of non-
protein nitrogen to protein in forage.
Investigations into the factors influencing rumen digestion of cellulose
have shown that digestion is dependent upon the level of phosphate, sulfate
and copper in the rumen contents. A balance between phosphate and sul-
21 Cooperative with W. G. Kirk, Range Cattle Station, H. L. Chapman, Everglades Sta-
tion, W. C. Burns, West Central Florida Station, and R. B. Becker and J. M. Wing, Dairy
Science Department.









Annual Report, 1960 63

te proved more effective in stimulating cellulose digestion than any other
actor studied.
A study of the effect of crystallinity of cellulose on digestion indicated
hat cellulose crystallinity is a minor factor in the digestion of cellulose of
common forages, although a major factor in the digestion of more purified
elluloses.
Work has been continued on the study of toxic levels of manganese with
indications that the manganese exerts its adverse effect within the intestinal
ract before absorption. Consequently, the form of manganese in the diet
s of special importance where high levels of this element are found in the
eed.

INVESTIGATION OF MINERAL NUTRITION PROBLEMS OF
LIVESTOCK THROUGH THE USE OF LABORATORY ANIMALS
watch Project 346 George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley, J. T. McCall,
L. R. Arrington and C. B. Ammerman
In work with rats paralleling studies with large animals on the effect
of non-nitrogenous chelating agents, it has been shown that feeding chela-
ting agents in the diet will reduce the availability of various metallic ions.
The effect of any given sequestering agent appears to be dependent upon
the location in the intestinal tract where the mineral element complex with
the sequestering agent has its greatest stability.
In limited studies with feeding high levels of iodine to rats, it appears
that rats are not affected by levels as high as 2,500 ppm of iodine in the
diet insofar as growth and reproduction are concerned. On the other hand,
lactating females receiving these high levels of iodine failed to give ade-
quate milk to keep the young alive.
Continued work on the relationship between levels of protein in the diet
and the effects of low vitamin E or biotin has emphasized the protective
action of 20 to 25% protein in the form of casein, especially when compared
to low protein (12%) diets. High levels of protein have also shown a pro-
tective action in diets high in molybdenum.
In studies with antibiotics in the diet, it has been found that these pro-
ducts have no influence on the incidence of caries in rats.
High levels of zinc produced severe zinc toxicity in rats when the protein
source in the diet was casein. When soybean oil meal provided dietary pro-
tein the toxicity did not develop in 10 weeks. Young animals are more sus-
ceptible to zinc toxicity.

HERBAGE COMPOSITION AND ANIMAL RESPONSE AS INFLUENCED
BY PASTURE MANAGEMENT 2
Hatch Project 356 G. K. Davis, J. T. McCall, Jaque Mason,
Charles Burgin, P. E. Loggins and J. F. Hentges
The increasing numbers of cattle affected with nitrate poisoning has
stimulated the work under this project which has been concerned with factors
that result in high levels of nitrate in the forage. Special attention has
been given to Ronfa grass and millet. It is becoming increasingly apparent
that factors such as soil moisture level, environmental temperature, stage of
maturity, and level of fertilizer applications are all important influences
with respect to level of nitrate in the forage. In addition, the form of the
nitrate salt present may be important in the reaction of cattle to nitrate in
the forage.
2 Cooperative with W. G. Kirk, E. M. Hodges, J. McCaleb, Range Cattle Station, R. B.
Becker and J. M. Wing, Dairy Science Department, and G. B. Killinger and 0. C. Ruelke,
Agronomy Department.








r
64 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Continued work with silage preservation has shown than an antibiotic
zinc bacitracin, was effective in preserving oats and clover. Digestion tria
with sheep have indicated good maintenance of nutrient qualities of the e
siled forage. Non-protein nitrogen in forages is not converted to protein
in the ensiling process.
Much of the analytical work in the Animal Nutrition Laboratory is ca
ried out under this project. This involves cooperative work with many o
the branch stations, other departments of the main station in Gainesvill
and occasional samples from many other states and countries.
Improvement of spectrographic analysis in the laboratory has result
in many requests from state and national agencies for assistance in special
analytical procedures.

SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDS FOR SOWS
DURING GESTATION AND LACTATION
State Project 542 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Comb
The influence of level of feed intake during the last 4 weeks of gestatio
on farrowing and subsequent lactation performance has been studied i
mature sows. All sows were fed 3 pounds of a complete ration per head pe
day for the first 86 days of gestation. During the last 28 days of gestation
a portion of the sows were raised to a level of 5 pounds of ration per hea
per day. Ten sows fed the 3-pound level for the entire gestation period far
rowed an average of 8.9 live pigs per sow, which weighed an average of
2.99 pounds. They weaned 8.1 pigs per sow. Twelve animals fed on the
higher plane of nutrition during late pregnancy farrowed an average of 9.5
live pigs which weighed an average of 3.02 pounds. They weaned 8.5 pigs
per sow.

TRANSFER OF MINERAL ELEMENTS THROUGH THE PLACENTA
AND DISTRIBUTION IN THE FETUS
Hatch Project 566 J. P. Feaster, George K. Davis,
J. T. McCall and L. R. Arrington
In studies with rats and with swine, it has been found that transfer of
phosphorus across the placental membranes is proportional to the number
of fetuses viable and attached within the uterus. As the demands for
growth on the part of the fetuses approaches a maximum, the level of in-
organic phosphorus within the blood serum of the dam becomes limiting.
Reduced dietary phosphorus resulting in lowered inorganic blood phosphor-
us in the dam may produce a critical relationship between maternal blood
phosphorus supply and fetal demand at about the 60th day of gestation per-
iod in the sow. This appears to be one of the mechanisms whereby a phos-
phorus deficiency interferes with reproduction.
With manganese levels in the diet of 3 ppm and above, adequate man-
ganese is supplied for normal reproduction in swine, as indicated by placen-
tal transfer.

INFLUENCE OF BREED COMPOSITION AND LEVEL
OF NUTRITION ON ADAPTABILITY OF CATTLE
TO CENTRAL FLORIDA CONDITIONS
State Project 615 M. Koger
This is a cooperative project with the Range Cattle Station. For results
from the study, see the report on Project 615 at that station.









Annual Report, 1960 65

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS
FOR BEEF PRODUCTION IN FLATWOOD SOILS
OF CENTRAL AND WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA
ate Project 627 M. Koger
Four cattle breeding systems are being compared:
1. Upgrading to British (Angus and Hereford) bulls.
2. Rotation criss-crossing of Angus and Hereford.
3. Rotation crossing of Angus and Brahman.
4. Rotation crossing of Hereford and Santa Gertrudis.
The average weight of calf weaned per cow bred for 1959 was 276, 289,
0 and 313 pounds, respectively, for the 4 systems.
The breeding herds are used to graze 5 different pasture programs: (1)
0 pounds of 0-10-20 plus 180 pounds of N annually per acre on all-grass
astures. (2) 300 pounds of 0-10-20 on clover-grass pasture. (3) 500 pounds
S0-10-20 plus 60 pounds of N on clover-grass. (4) 700 pounds of 0-10-20
us 120 pounds of N on clover-grass, and (5) 900 pounds of 0-10-20 plus
0 pounds of N on irrigated clover-grass pasture. The production of weaned
If weight per acre for the 5 programs was 289, 364, 461, 362 and 506
pounds, respectively.
(See also Project 627, Soils, Agronomy, Agricultural Engineering and
agricultural Economics Departments.)

SELECTION OF CATTLE FOR BEEF PRODUCTION
IN SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

tate Project 629 M. Koger, A. C. Warnick
Regional S-10) and A. Z. Palmer
This project is cooperative between the Florida Agricultural Experiment
station and the United States Department of Agriculture. It is located at
rooksville and results from the trial are reported under Project 629 from
he West Central Florida Experiment Station.

IMPROVEMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF REPRODUCTION
IN BEEF CATTLE
tate Project 709 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger and A. Z. Palmer
A survey of the pregnancy rate of 10,170 cows in Florida from 1953 to
957 indicated that lactation during the breeding season reduces the preg-
nancy rate in cows. In nonlactating cows 3 years old and older the pregnan-
cy rate was 86%, compared to 57% in lactating cows of comparable age. This
educed fertility is primarily due to failure of estrus and ovulation rather
than a failure in conception following mating. Cows of British breeding had
a higher pregnancy rate than cows of Brahman breeding, with the crosses
being approximately intermediate between these 2 parent breeds. Year and
ranch location had significant influence on pregnancy rate. By following a
program of culling the non-pregnant cows and improving the nutritional
level and management practices, definite improvement can be made in re-
productive performance.

EFFECT OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION OF PASTURE
FORAGE UPON FERTILITY IN BEEF CATTLE
State Project 710 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger and T. J. Cunha
Twenty-four 3-year-old pregnant grade Brahman type heifers weighing
approximately 600 pounds were fed different rations to compare the effects









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of level of protein and alfalfa meal upon postpartum reproduction. Rati
1 contained no alfalfa. Ration 2 contained the same level of nutrients w
3 pounds alfalfa meal and Ration 3 contained 50% of the protein requi
ments with adequate energy and no alfalfa. During the first 120 da
postcalving only 3 of the 16 lactating heifers on Rations 1 and 2 came i
estrus and ovulated, although these heifers had gained approximately
pounds following calving. None of the heifers on the 50% protein level
tion came into estrus or ovulated; these heifers lost weight.
After 120 days postcalving 1 half of the heifers on each ration we
given an increased amount of feed and the experiment was continued un
240 days post-calving or until estrus and ovulation occurred. All heife
from the 50% protein intake that were given the increased feed with
pounds of alfalfa came into estrus and ovulated at an average of 85 da
following the increased feeding while none of the heifers kept continuous
on the low protein ration showed estrus during the 240-day postcalvi
period. All heifers on Ration 1 without alfalfa that received additional n
trients came into estrus 132 days postcalving compared to 202 days f
those continued without the increased nutrients. Feeding an additional
pounds of alfalfa meal from 120 days postcalving showed no advantage
earliness or frequency of estrus and ovulation. The alfalfa meal show
no advantage in reproduction compared to last year where some advanta
was obtained. This experiment is being repeated.

HERITABILITY OF PERFORMANCE ESTIMATES ON ABERDEEN
ANGUS, BRAHMAN AND HEREFORD CATTLE
State Project 717 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and M. Kog
Relative breed performance data were compiled on registered Angu
Brahman and Hereford cattle and calves which were maintained under si
ilar environmental conditions. These data will be collected for a 10-yea
period to permit calculation of heritability estimates of performance fac
tors. Again Angus calves were smallest at birth and the birth weights o
male calves exceeded those of female calves in all breeds. Prior to cree
feeding, Angus male and female calves gained faster than the Herefor
calves by 0.2 pound per day in each sex group. During the creep-feedin
period, Hereford male calves outgained the Angus males by 0.17 pound pe
day; no difference in average gain was recorded between the females of th
2 breeds. Non-creep-fed Brahman male and female calves each had average
daily gains of 1.57 pounds. The reproductive performance of the Angus an
Hereford cows was superior to a low rate of calving in the Brahmans bu
was about equal on basis of all cows, dry and lactating, which were bred
and conceived in 1959. Type scores and estimated slaughter grades were
higher for Angus and Hereford than Brahman offspring. Detailed data on
other performance factors were recorded for later analyses.

VITAMINS, ANTIBIOTICS AND UNIDENTIFIED
FACTORS IN SWINE NUTRITION
State Project 718 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs
and T. J. Cunha
Four experiments involving the use of antibiotics in the ration of young
pigs and growing-finishing swine have been completed this year. Favorable
responses were obtained by feeding zinc-bacitracin, spiramycin, oleandomy-
cin and terramycin. Aspartocin, on the other hand, did not improve either
gains or feed conversion when fed in starter, grower and growing-finishing
rations.
This project was closed January 1, 1960.








Annual Report, 1960 67

THE INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF NUTRITION ON THE
REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SWINE
te Project 725 A. C. Warnick and H. D. Wallace
Twenty-four Duroc gilts weighing approximately 115 pounds were ran-
ly assigned to 1 of 2 rations to determine the effect of level of energy
ake on puberty, ovulation rate and embryonic survival. One half of the
ts were fed a limited energy ration with 52Cr alfalfa meal that contained
out 85% of the TDN of the high energy ration with equivalent protein,
nerals and vitamins. The average age and weight of gilts at puberty
s 239 days and 272 pounds on the high energy ration, compared to 269
ys and 251 pounds on limited energy. There was little difference in ovula-
n rate between the 2 levels of energy but gilts on limited energy had 11.6
rmal embryos compared to 10.7 on the high energy ration 25 days post-
eeding.
Histochemical analysis for alkaline phosphatase activity in the uterine
dometrium showed no difference due to ration but there was nearly twice
much activity at 3 days postbreeding compared to 25 days.

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF PIGS
WEANED AT AN EARLY AGE
watch Project 738 G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace
and T. J. Cunha
Rations containing several phosphorus levels and calcium-phosphorus
tios have been used to determine the phosphorus requirement of baby
igs. In addition the comparative efficiency of growth rate, bone ash and
optical bone density as response criteria for phosphorus adequacy was
evaluated. The phosphorus requirement appears to be between 0.36 and 0.48
percent of the ration and the optimum calcium-phosphorus ratio appears
o be less than 2:1. Computation of response lines showed that bone ash
nd bone density exhibited a linear treatment response. Growth rate was
on-linear and was significantly affected by the calcium-phosphorus ratio.
results obtained with pigs fed rations containing 3 phosphorus levels (0.40,
.44 and 0.48 percent) and 3 calcium-phosphorus rations (.9:1, 1.2:1 and
.5:1) are presently being statistically analyzed.
Pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age were fed prestarter and starter rations
n which either a combination of dried skimmilk and soybean meal or only
oybean meal was used as the major source of supplementary protein. The
igs fed rations containing dried skimmilk exhibited the most rapid and
efficient rate of growth. The difference between the 2 treatments was
greatest during the early phases of the experiment. At 154 days of age
representative pigs from the 2 treatments were of approximately equal
eight.

PRODUCTION OF EARLY SPRING LAMBS IN FLORIDA
Hatch Project 740 P. E. Loggins, M. Koger,
(Regional S-29) A. C. Warnick and T. J. Cunha
Straight bred and cross-bred lambs were studied for a second year's
comparison for the productivity of spring lambs. Also 20 Rambouillet ewe
lambs were selected from an early lambing flock from the Auburn, Alabama,
Station and were included in this year's study. Rambouillet and Florida
natives were crossed with Hampshire rams; Rambouillet rams crossed on
Florida native ewes and Florida native rams crossed on Rambouillet ewes.
Hampshire ewes were straight bred. Visectomized rams were used from








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


May 20 to September 15,1959, to determine earliness of estrus and breed
dates. Intact rams were placed with the flock beginning July 1 for a
day breeding season. The Hampshire and Florida native ewes were fou
to be in anestrus, while 5 Rambouillet ewes and 4 Auburn ewe lambs we
cycling prior to July 1. The average dates of first estrus in the breedi
ewes were as follows: Hampshire, July 19; Rambouillet, July 14; Flori
natives, July 23; and Auburn Rambouillet ewe lambs, July 15. The lambi
percentages for the 1960 lambing season were as follows: Hampshire, 82
Rambouillet, 100%; Florida natives, 115%, with average lambing dates
December 24, December 21 and December 18, respectively.
The lambs averaged 61 pounds and graded average good on May 2
The lamb weights continue to be from 20 to 25 pounds under desirable ma
ket weight for spring lambs. The 1960 average wool clips were as follow
Hampshire 4.6 pounds, Rambouillet 6.5 pounds and Florida natives 4
pounds.
GENETICS OF DWARFISM IN BEEF CATTLE
State Project 752 M. Koger, A. C. Warnic
(Regional S-10) and J. F. Hentges, J
Results from test matings confirmed previous indications that certain
carriers of the snorter gene and snorter dwarf animals when mated t
normal appearing animals produce a high frequency of "comprest" typ
offspring and that the majority of the "normal" offspring of such mating
are more compact in type than animals in dwarf-free populations. A dwa
bull mated to cows of normal phenotype sired 1 dwarf, 2 "comprest" and
"normal" offspring. Eight guinea and midget cows mated to this sam
bull produced 2 "normal" and 6 "comprest" type females, which appear mor
extreme in type than their dams. An Angus carrier of the snorter gen
mated to normal cows produced 3 "normal" and 1 "comprest" offspring.
A guinea bull mated to a purebred Hereford of the "comprest" type re
suited in a typical Dexter type bulldog monster. This suggests that th
"comprest" Hereford may be a carrier of the Dexter gene. Whether "com
prest" Herefords descending from Colorado Domino 118 are genetically th
same as "comprests" sired by dwarf and carrier bulls is not known.
Investigations on the excretion of certain metabolic products by animal
of known genotypes were initiated in cooperation with the Medical School.

THE NUTRITIONAL AVAILABILITY OF COMPONENTS
OF LIVESTOCK FEEDSTUFFS 2
Hatch Project 755 G. K. Davis, C. B. Ammerman, L. R. Arrington, J. T.
McCall, H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs and P. E. Loggins
Tomato pulp contains approximately 20% protein and is consumed read-
ily by cattle and by sheep. The protein in tomato pulp is approximately
50% digestible and therefore compares with the digestibility of protein in
forages rather than with protein in concentrates.
Citrus pulp from all of the producers in Florida has been obtained through
the cooperation of The Citrus Processors Association and digestibility stud-
ies are in progress.
The study of phosphorus availability from different phosphorus sources
has been continued using rats and swine as well as ruminants. Results of
the swine study using P-32 as a tracer indicate that absorption of the phos-
phorus of defluorinated phosphate was 44%, dicalcium phosphate 37% and
soft phosphate 29%. Deposition in the femur of phosphorus from dicalcium
23 Cooperative with J. M. Wine, Dairy Science Department.








Annual Report, 1960 69

hosphate was 0.61%, defluorinated phosphate 0.55%, and soft phosphate
.37%.
NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF RABBITS
State Project 768 L. R. Arrington, C. B. Ammerman
and G. K. Davis
Feed requirements, feed efficiency and dressing percentages of the
Dutch and New Zealand breeds demonstrated that the New Zealand breed
has a greater feed efficiency, but the Dutch breed has a greater dressing
percentage. Feed required per pound of fryer rabbit at 8 weeks was 2.64
pounds for New Zealands and 3.19 pounds for the Dutch. The dressing
percentage of Dutch rabbits at 8 and 13 weeks and at maturity was 60.3,
63.3 and 62.7, compared with 55.9, 59.2 and 58.2 for New Zealand. Dressing
percentage increased in both breeds from 8 to 13 weeks but decreased from
13 weeks to maturity.
Feed maintenance requirements of mature rabbits was determined to
be a daily amount of typical commercial ration equivalent to 3% of the
body weight of the animal. Daily amounts below 3% resulted in weight
loss and quantities above 3% caused weight gain.
The use of purified or synthetic diets for rabbits has shown that nutrients
may be provided in such a ration but feed consumption and growth are very
poor, thus limiting the usefulness of purified diets in rabbit nutrition studies.
Young rabbits may be successfully weaned at 4 weeks of age rather than
the customary 8 weeks. Weaning at an early age permits earlier re-breed-
ing of the doe and provides growing young at an earlier age for nutritional
studies.

INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION, BREED, AGE, AND SEX ON
RESPIRATORY ENZYMES IN THE TISSUES OF CATTLE,
SWINE AND SHEEP 2

State Project 805 R. L. Shirley, G. K. Davis, H. D. Wallace, A. C.
Warnick, J. F. Hentges, A. Z. Palmer, P. E.
Loggins, J. W. Carpenter and T. J. Cunha
With yearling Brahman-Shorthorn crossbred heifers fed in dry lot, it
was found that as the Shorthorn breeding increased a marked increase in
succinoxidase activity occurred in the gracilis muscle but not in the heart.
The heart.had 30 to 40 times as much succinoxidase activity as the muscle.
Grade and rations had no consistent effect on enzyme activity.
After 369 days mean values for 5-nucleotidase activity of 1,616, 983 and
130 ugm of phosphorus liberated/ml semen, and 199, 132, and 24 ugm of
phosphorus liberated/mg N in semen plasma were obtained for high pro-
tein, recovered and low protein groups of yearling bulls respectively.
Succinoxidase activity in the heart and xanthine oxidase activity in the
liver were not affected by various papain treatments given cattle to study
the effect of this enzyme on tenderness of beef.
Rats fed 20 and 30% Torula yeast diets, with and without 125 mg. of
Santoquin per kg diet, had an increase of 23 and 58% succinoxidase activity
on the N basis in the liver. Rats fed 15, 30 and 60% Torula yeast diets
had approximately 0.4, 1.3 and 5.3 41.02 uptake/mg N/hour due to xanthine
oxidase activity in the liver. Rats fed the 30% yeast diet containing Santo-
quin had approximately 57% of the normal xanthine oxidase activity in the
liver.
*4 Cooperative with W. G. Kirk and F. M. Peacock, Range Cattle Station.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


EFFECT OF HORMONES ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF
REPRODUCTION IN BRITISH AND BRAHMAN BEEF CATTLE
Hatch Project 809 A. C. Warnick and M. Koger
Estrus behavior and ovulation were studied from January 7 to March
12, 1960, in 4 2-year-old Angus and 12 2-year-old Brahman heifers under
comparable environmental conditions. All 4 Angus heifers showed regular
estrus periods while only 3 of the 12 Brahman heifers showed regular cy-
cles. During the 65-day interval there were 14 estrus periods in the 4
Angus and 16 estrus periods in the 12 Brahman heifers. The estrus period
was approximately 18 hours in the Angus, compared to 6 hours in Brahman
heifers. Also, the interval from beginning of estrus to ovulation was short-
er for Brahman heifers.
Ninety percent of the British 2-year-old heifers that had not been in
estrus and injected intraveneously with 20,000 I.U. of Gonadotrophin (Ve-
trophin, Abbotts) ovulated. However, the induced corpus luteum did not be-
come functional or influence the subsequent occurrence of estrus. The aver-
age interval from March 12 (time of injection) to first estrus was 21 days
for the injected heifers, compared to 22 days for the control heifers. Addi-
tional evidence was obtained that many 2-year-old Brahman heifers go
into an anestrus and anovulatory condition during the winter while British
breeds continue to show estrus and ovulate under an adequate nutritional
regime.
CONTROL OF INTERNAL PARASITES OF SHEEP
State Project 815 P. E. Loggins
This is a cooperative project between the Animal Husbandry and Nu-
trition and the Veterinary Science departments. Results from the study
are reported under Project 815, Veterinary Science Department.

NUTRITIVE VALUE AND STORAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF
COBALT-60 IRRADIATED FOODS AND FEEDS
Hatch Project 849 G. E. Combs, J. P. Feaster,
A. Z. Palmer and G. K. Davis
Aqueous solutions of sucrose and urea, sucrose and thiourea, dextrose
and urea, and dextrose and thiourea were irradiated at 5 x 10', 1 x 106,
5 x 10', 10 x 100, and 20 x 100 reps. Both the irradiated samples and the
non-irradiated controls were analyzed for total nitrogen, urea nitrogen and
percentage of urea. Paper chromatography was also used to aid in the
detection of compounds formed in the irradiated samples.
The nitrogen analyses performed on the thiourea solutions produced
inconclusive results. The chromatograms obtained from the non-irradiated
and irradiated samples at each dosage were similar. Results obtained from
the chemical analyses of the urea solutions were also similar for the 3
lower radiation dosages. The difference in urea nitrogen between the
irradiated and non-irradiated samples at the 2 higher levels of radiation
was sufficient to warrant further study. (See also Project 849, Food Tech-
nology and Nutrition Department.)

INFLUENCE OF DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL ON PHYSIOLOGICAL
PHENOMENA IN BEEF CATTLE
State Project 867 J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. C. Warnick
and R. L. Shirley
The study of the comparative physiology of Brahman and Hereford cattle
fed 2 levels of dietary protein was intensified along several lines of investi-




----I



Annual Report, 1960 71

nation. The effect of age and season on plasma volume of each species
was measured by an intravenous radioactive bovine serum albumin method.
No seasonal effect was observed. Brahmans consistently had more plasma,
red cells and whole blood which could be an important factor in their greater
ability to withstand heat stress. A comparison of yield and composition
of milk from Brahman and Hereford females fed 2 levels of dietary protein
was continued. Parous Brahmans did not exhibit the marked advantage
over Herefords shown by first-calf heifers for calf growth and milk yield,
protein, fat, solids-not-fat and total solids. Reduction of dietary protein
by half had more effect on the lactation of first-calf heifers than on cows.
Milk yield and calf growth were correlated only in the early months of
lactation.
The detection of heat and ovarian activity in 12 Brahman and 12 Here-
ford virgin heifers on 2 levels of dietary protein was studied by 4 methods:
vaginal temperature, vaginal smears, ovary palpation and visual signs.
The level of dietary protein apparently had no effect on these criteria.
Although not as reliable as rectal palpation of the ovaries, the vaginal
smear technique was the best of the other methods. A study of the effect
of a dietary protein deficiency on the reproductive powers of beef bulls
revealed that, unlike beef females, bulls must sustain a severe, prolonged
deficiency before their reproductive ability is decreased.

FACTORS AFFECTING SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS GRADES
OF BEEF CATTLE
State Project 884 A. Z. Palmer
In replicate of previous years' work already reported, 48 weanling
heifers of mixed breeding but predominantly Brahman and Shorthorn
crosses were grouped into 4 lots by weight and breeding. Wintering and
feed lot phases of the study of the "Effects of Winter Gain of Calves on
Feed Lot Performance and Carcass Grade" were conducted at the Range
Cattle Station, Ona.
The heifers were slaughtered at the University Meats Laboratory during
July 1959; slaughter and carcass data are being analyzed statistically.
(See also Project 884, Range Cattle Station.)

EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION OF THE PREGNANT FEMALE
ON REPRODUCTION
State Project 906 J. P. Feaster and G. K. Davis
Radiation is known to affect the permeability of certain membranes,
but no mention has been found of studies of its effect on the placental
membranes. One such study has been completed recently under this
project. Pregnant rats were given 200 roentgens cobalt-60 radiation, fol-
lowed 48 hours later by an intramuscular dose of radioactive phosphorus
(P-32). Ninety-six hours after irradiation the rats were sacrificed and
the amount of P-32 present in the fetuses was determined as a measure
of the amount having crossed the placenta. P-32 activity in these fetuses
was compared with that in fetuses from control (non-irradiated) females
also injected with this isotope 48 hours before sacrifice.
During the period of gestation studied (16 through 22 days, or term)
rate of transfer of P-32 was found to be increased by irradiation on all
but the 16th day. These increases were statistically significant for days
17, 19, 21 and 22. At a given fetal age, placental transfer in both lots was
directly proportional to the number of fetuses in the litter.
The extensive preparations required for the determination of amino
acids by ion-exchange resin separation are nearly complete, and the fetuses









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


obtained in this study will be analyzed to find whether irradiation ha,
affected their amino acid make-up.

ANGUS, BRANGUS, AND ANGUS X BRANGUS CROSSBREDS FOR
BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE EVERGLADES AREA
State Project 922 M. Koger
This is a new project getting under way. A limited amount of data
will be obtained in the Fall of 1960. The project is cooperative with the
Glades State Prison Farm and the Everglades Experiment Station. (See
also Project 922, Everglades Station.)

THE EFFECT OF A CONTROLLED TEMPERATURE ON
REPRODUCTION IN BRAHMAN CATTLE
Hatch Project 938 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger and T. J. Cunha
Two concrete block rooms each 30 ft. x 22 ft. were constructed with
stanchions, feeding and watering facilities for 12 cows in each room. One
room has a 15-ton heat pump temperature unit which allows either heating
or cooling with an approximate range of 40 to 95'F. The other room
has 2 electric heaters with fans to obtain temperatures up to 95oF.
Thirty-six Brahman coming 2-year-old heifers which had a detectable
corpus luteum on the ovary by rectal palpation were assigned to the follow-
ing 3 treatment groups: 1, Outside temperatures in open barn, 2, heated
room at approximately 70oF. and 3, cold room at 40F. Occurrence of
estrus and ovulation was used as the criteria of measuring temperature
effects. There were no differences in response of heifers to the high and
low temperatures, as indicated by occurrence of estrus or ovulation. Heifers
at the outside temperatures showed more estrual and ovarian activity than
either temperature group. It is possible that differences in either light or
confinement and handling had an influence on expression of estrus. There
was no effect of temperature on the subsequent time of estrus after the
heifers went to the outside prevailing temperatures. Anestrus and anovulat-
ing conditions exist during the winter in some Brahman 2-year-old heifers
but the physiological mechanism is not known.

EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS WITH AND WITHOUT
A COMPLETE MINOR ELEMENT MIXTURE ON THE YIELD,
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENT
CONTENT OF COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS HAY
State Project 972 J. F. Hentges, Jr.
Hays for cattle feeding experiments were produced by 4 fertilizer
treatments on Coastal bermudagrass fields in Suwannee County. The
fertilizer treatments were a base application of 0-10-20 with and without
minor elements plus either 100 or 200 pounds nitrogen per acre initially
with half this amount applied after each cutting for hay. An experiment
is in progress with lactating Brahman and Hereford cows restricted in
feed intake during the latter part of their gestation and all of their lacta-
tion period to these hay treatments fed long and finely ground. Access to
a mineral supplement and water provides the remainder of their nutrition.
After 7 months, only 1 death loss has occurred, that being the largest cow
fed finely-ground (14 inch screen) hay. Death apparently was due to
failure to ruminate on the ground feed.
Ground hay is consumed in larger quantities than the same hay fed
long. This observation may explain part of the increase in daily intake
observed earlier by cattle fed pelleted grass. Although the average protein








Annual Report, 1960


content of hay from grass fertilized with 100 pounds nitrogen per acre
s 8% as compared to 14% when 200 pounds nitrogen per acre is applied,
here is little difference in the voluntary hay intake by cows fed these
ays. Although the application of minor elements increased the yield of
ay, no differences were observed in the nutrient composition of the hays.
(See also Project 972, Suwannee Valley Station.)

FACTORS INFLUENCING BEEF TENDERNESS
Hatch Project 975 A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter,
M. Koger and R. L. Shirley
In a study involving 538 cattle of known breeding and age, tenderness
of short-loin steaks was found to be influenced by breed of sire and by
various sires within breed. Tenderness was found to be a highly heritable
trait. The relationship of marbling and tenderness, although highly sig-
nificant, was found to be of low magnitude. Age at time of slaughter
accounted for only 0.3 percent of the variability in tenderness.
Ante-mortem intravenous injection of papain into beef steers 30 minutes
prior to slaughter significantly tenderized short-loin steaks.
In a study of the effects of aging on beef tenderness, it was found that
steaks and roasts found to be tough after a 48-hour chill in carcass im-
proved more in tenderness during aging than steaks and roasts inter-
mediate and tender at 48 hours. Tender steaks and roasts did not improve
in tenderness during aging.

MANAGEMENT AND COST FACTORS RELATED TO
MULTIPLE FARROWING a
Hatch Project 977 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs and M. Koger
This project has recently been initiated and no experimental data are
available for consideration as yet. A farrowing barn to be used in this
project is presently under construction. Sow farrowing groups are being
developed. The first group of sows under this project will farrow in
August 1960.

EVALUATION OF FINISHING METHODS WITH STEERS FROM
DIFFERENT BREEDING SYSTEMS
State Project 981 M. Koger, T. J. Cunha and A. Z. Palmer
This is a new project. Three groups of steers only have completed the
trial. Six more groups will be included before data will be summarized.

FLORIDA FEEDS AND BY-PRODUCTS FOR SWINE FEEDING
State Project 999 G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace
Gator rye grain was used to replace 0%, 50% and 100% of the corn
in complete mixed rations for growing-finishing swine. When rye replaced
all of the corn, both rate and efficiency of gain were adversely affected.
The overall performance of pigs fed the ration containing the grain mix-
ture of 50% rye and 50% corn was satisfactory but slightly inferior to
that of pigs fed corn.
Results obtained by body weight periods indicated that as body weight
increased rye was utilized more efficiently.
'5 Cooperative with F. M. Peacock and W. G. Kirk, Range Cattle Station.
26 Cooperative with W. K. McPherson, Agricultural Economics Department, T. C. Skin-
ner, Agricultural Engineering Department, and S. J. Folks, Florida Power Corporation.








74 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

EFFECT OF CULTURAL PRACTICES UPON THE YIELD AND
DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF CORN FOR SILAGE
State Project 1000 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and J. T. McCall
Silage for beef cattle feeding studies was produced from corn grown
with 12 fertilizer treatments and at 3 rates of planting on Blichton and
Kanapaha fine sand near Gainesville. Results on the relative digestibility
and nutrient composition of corn silage as affected by fertilizer rate and
plant spacing revealed that the treatment which produced silage with the
highest percentage of protein and energy content also had the highest
digestibility coefficients for these nutrients. The treatment employing the
commonly-used 20-inch spacing but a high rate of fertilization (800 pounds
4-12-12 and 80 pounds nitrogen per acre) was superior from a forage
quality standpoint in 1959.
Doubling the plant population by closer spacings in the row increased
yields about 50% but decreased forage quality in the first year of this
study. (See also Project 1000, Soils Department.)

LYSINE SUPPLEMENTATION OF PRACTICAL SWINE RATIONS
State Project 1001 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs and A. Z. Palmer
Three levels of 1-lysine (0.05, 0.10 and 0.15%) were added to a corn-
soybean meal type ration which was fed to growing-finishing swine. As
measured in terms of daily gains and feed conversion, none of the levels
of lysine tested exerted a significant beneficial effect.
Preliminary results indicate that lysine is partially effective in counter-
acting gossypol toxicity when added to corn-cottonseed meal rations for
early weaned pigs.

PRELIMINARY NON-PROJECTED STUDIES
Effect of a Protein Deficiency on Growth, Blood Constituents, and
Physiology of Reproduction.-Ten weanling bulls were studied for 1 year
to determine effects of a protein deficiency on various physiological factors.
Appetite and growth rate were markedly reduced on a protein deficiency,
while spermatogenesis was more resistant. Apparently very little protein
is required for spermatogenesis.
Libido was reduced and 1 deficient bull became aspermia. There was
less spermatogenic activity in the seminiferous tubules as shown by histo-
logical study in the deficient bulls. Also the epithelium cells of the seminal
vesicles and coper's gland showed less development in the deficient bulls.
Citric acid and fructose levels in the semen were lower in the deficient bulls
and increased when they were put on a protein-adequate ration. (T. J.
Cunha, J. F. Hentges, Jr, A. C. Warnick, R. L. Shirley and T. N. Meacham.)
Development of a Purified Ration for Sheep.-A purified ration consist-
ing of cerelose 22.45%, corn starch 28%, corn oil 4%, cellulose 30%, urea.
4%, minerals 7%, methionine 0.55%, and vitamins in cerelose carrier 4%
is being studied. Urea is being used as the only source of protein. This
ration has been fed successfully for 3 months with daily gains of 0.15 to
0.20 pounds daily. Lysine supplementation at a level of 3 grams per lamb
daily did not increase rate of gain. Lowering the cellulose level from 30
to 20% decreased rate of gain. (T. J. Cunha, A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges,
Jr., P. E. Loggins, R. L. Shirley and T. N. Meacham.)
Physiology and Biochemistry of Hybrid Vigor.-Brahman, Shorthorn
and F1 Brahman-Shorthorn crossbred calves from the Range Cattle Station
were weaned at 60 to 90 days and fed individually on 2 feeding regimes:








Annual Report, 1960


(1) Ad libitunm feeding and (2) calves were restricted in ration to 2 per-
cent of their body weight. At approximately 14 months of age the animals
were slaughtered and complete carcass information was obtained.
Response of the breed-feed regime groups is shown in the following
table. (M. Koger, A. C. Warnick, T. J. Cunha and D. D. Hargrove.)


Group Average Feed/Cwt. Carcass
Daily Gain Gain Grade

Brahman
Full-fed ................................. 1.52 710.20 7.75
2% body weight .................. 1.56 627.46 8.75

Shorthorn
Full-fed ............. ............ 1.37 730.44 10.00
2% body weight ..................... 1.29 655.40 10.00

Crossbreds
Full-fed ...-- ..-- ..---------- -...--. 1.73 746.50 9.50
2% body weight ..................-.. 1.47 i 618.95 8.00

Average
Brahman ............... .. .......... 1.54 668.35 8.25
Shorthorn .............................. 1.33 694.12 10.00
Crossbred .............--............... ... 1.60 687.87 8.75

Full-fed ............... ......... ....... 1.55 729.78 8.89
2% body weight ................. 1.44 632.90 9.10


Relationship between Tenderness of Broiled Short-loin Steak and Fiber
Extensibility, Fiber Diameter and Muscle pH.-Sixteen beef carcasses grad-
ing U. S. Standard and U. S. Good were used in a preliminary study of
the significance of differences in muscle fiber extensibility. A highly
significant correlation coefficient of 0.74 between steak tenderness, as indi-
cated by Warner-Bratzler shear, and fiber extensibility was obtained; the
close relationship indicates a potential of the fiber extensibility technique
as an objective measure of beef tenderness.
The relationship between fiber diameter in the L. dorsi muscle and steak
tenderness lacked magnitude and statistical significance.
Muscle pH of the fresh L. dorsi was related to the tenderness of broiled
short-loin steaks although the relationship was not close. (A. Z. Palmer.)
Relationship Between Specific Gravity and the Chemical Composition of
the Beef Carcasses.-A preliminary study of the moisture, fat, protein and
ash components of 19 beef carcasses from yearling standard to top good
steers is under way. Chilled half carcasses were weighed in air and then
submerged in water. Specific gravity was calculated by the formula:

Weight in Air

Weight in Air Weight in Water

A high relationship was noted between specific gravity of the half
carcass and carcass grade. Specific gravity increased as carcass grade
decreased as shown in the following table.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


No. of Observations Carcass Grade S. G. of Carcass


3 Top Good 1.0526

5 Average Good 1.0632

6 Low Good 1.0644

1 Top Standard 1.0680

2 Average Standard 1.0748

2 Low Standard 1.0823


Although the number of observations within each grade were small,
in each instance a decrease in carcass grade was followed by an increase
in specific gravity.
The relationships between specific gravity and chemical composition
of the 9-10-11 rib cut, amount of outside and inside carcass fat and degree
of marbling will be studied. (J. W. Carpenter.)
Effect of the Mature Boar Preputial Glands on the Flavor and Aroma
of Carcass Meats.-A preliminary study was carried out to develop a sur-
gical technique for removing the preputial glands of the mature boar. A
satisfactory method was developed. Fat samples removed by biopsy at
the time of operation were compared to back fat obtained at slaughter
8 weeks later. The volatile odors of steamed fat samples were evaluated
by an 8-member panel. Data indicated a decrease in the objectionable sex
odor of the fat which was attributed to the removal of the preputial glands.
Further, consumer preference data on chops and fresh pork sausage in-
dicated that removal of the preputial glands lessened the intensity of the
objectionable sex odor characteristic of pork from boars. (J. W. Carpenter.)
Influence of Slaughter Weight on Economy of Production and Carcass
Value of Swine.-Two feeding trials involving 128 weanling pigs were
conducted. Pigs were slaughtered at 150, 180, 210 and 240 pounds. Re-
turns over feed costs and the initial cost of pigs indicated an increase in
total returns but at a diminishing rate with each increase in slaughter
weight. Dressing percent, carcass length, backfat thickness, loin eye area
and percent fat trim increased with increased slaughter weight. Percent
lean cuts and adjusted cut value decreased as the slaughter weights in-
creased, indicating that the light weight pigs (150 and 180 pounds) pro-
duced more valuable carcasses per unit of weight than did the heavier
pigs (210 and 240 pounds). (H. D. Wallace, G. E. McCabe, A. Z. Palmer,
M. Koger, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.)
Pasture vs. Concrete for Growing-Finishing Swine with Special Emphasis
on the Carcasses Produced.-Pigs fed on pasture during this winter trial
gained significantly faster (P<.01) than pigs fed in concrete confinement.
The reverse has generally been true in previous trials, particularly during
the summer period. Total feed requirements were similar for pasture-fed
and confinement-reared pigs, indicating that the forage did not replace any
feed under the conditions of this experiment. The system of feeding
appeared to have very little influence on the leanness and quality of car-
casses produced. (H. D. Wallace, G. E. McCabe, A. Z. Palmer, M. Koger,
J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.)








Annual Report, 1960


Feedlot Performance and Carcass Traits of Growing-Finishing Swine
s Influenced by Sex and Breed.-Barrows gained significantly faster than
ilts (P<.01). Differences in dressing percent and carcass length between
he sexes were small and non-significant. Barrows were significantly
hicker in backfat than gilts (P<.01). Gilts produced significantly larger
oin eyes and larger percent lean cuts (P<.01). Breed comparisons re-
ealed that Duroc X Landrace crossbred pigs gained faster and produced
significantly longer carcasses with a higher percentage of lean cuts than
either purebred Durocs or purebred Spotted Poland Chinas (P<.01). The
urebred Durocs exhibited more backfat than the Duroc X Landrace or
potted Poland China (P<.01). The Spotted Poland Chinas produced the
largest loin eyes. Limited data on other breeds and breed crosses were
obtained. Market differences were apparent in certain carcass traits. (H.
D. Wallace, G. E. McCabe, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter, M. Koger and
. E. Combs.)
Effect of Dietary Enzyme Supplementation on Digestibility of Ruminant
Rations.-Ruminant diets containing 70% citrus pulp or 33%c tomato pulp
have been fed to lambs with and without a multiple enzyme preparation.
Results at present suggest no improvement in the digestibility of either pro-
tein or energy as a result of the addition of the enzymes. (C. B. Ammer-
man and G. K. Davis.)
Effects of Gamma and Electron Radiation on the Nutrient Value of Cel-
lulose for Ruminants.-Samples of forage irradiated at a level of 40 mega-
roentgens contained an average of 8% less cellulose and 56% less crude fiber
than did unirradiated samples of such products as cotton linters, peanut
hulls cellulose and bagasse cellulose. The digestibility of the remaining
cellulose was somewhat improved in the case of peanut hulls, but was re-
duced in the case of corncobs. (C. B. Ammerman and G. K. Davis.)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


BOTANY
During the past year the research facilities of the Botany Departme
have been relocated and now provide a single building for the activities
the department. One project was terminated and 1 was initiated.

BIOSYNTHESIS OF LYSINE AND TRYPTOPHAN
Hatch Project 810 H. J. Teas and T. W. Holmse
Work has been continued on the separation and characterization of th
enzyme system from peas that is responsible for the formation of the amin
acid tryptophan. This enzyme functions through the condensation of indol
with serine and requires pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor. The enzym
is unusual in that for optimal activity it requires a molar excess of about
40 times the amount of serine that it uses to make tryptophan. Preincu
bation of the enzyme with serine established that the high serine requirement
was not due to serine-dissipating systems also present. Tests of a series o
other amino acids and chelating agents suggested that a chelating action o
serine might be involved in the high serine requirement.
Also, kinetic studies show that there is a lag in response to substrate
that is suggestive of requirement of the enzyme for more than 1 molecul
of serine for its action in combining with indole. The enzyme has bee
obtained also from other legume seedlings, including peanuts, beans an
lupines. In general, cotyledons of these plants yield preparations of con
siderably reduced activity compared with those from seedling stem tips.
Classification of the nutritional mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana has no
been carried out because growth room space was no longer available.
This project is being closed.

PLANT IMPROVEMENT WITH RADIATION
Hatch Project 848 H. J. Teas and T. W. Holmsen
Ionizing radiation can affect plant response to gravity both from the
view of inducing ageotropic mutants and by causing physiological changes
that result in de-sensitization of the plant to gravity. Geotropism is known
to be auxin controlled and prior to the present work there had been no re-
port of radiation inhibition or reversal of the response. Cobalt-60 gamma
radiation from the Agricultural Irradiator was used to treat pea and corn
seedlings and seeds and the effect on geotropism of the seedlings was re-
corded by the use of time lapse photography (Fig. 8). Analysis of response
and growth in height were measured by the use of projected film images.
The gamma radiation markedly inhibited geotropic response at doses of
from 20 to 640 Kr. in both species, although peas were about 2 to 3 times
as radiosensitive as corn seedlings. Mathematical analysis of the dose-
response curves revealed that the primary component of radiation inhibition
was linear, with significant second, third and fifth order effects.
When dry corn seed were irradiated, the seedling growth was found to
be more radiosensitive than geotropism. Repeated experiments on corn
seedlings using auxins applied by several means failed to reverse radiation
inhibition. However, in the case of irradiated pea seedlings the auxin
indoleacetic acid reversed radiation damage. Thus, it appears that one of
the primary sites of radiation damage to pea plants must be concerned with
auxin metabolism. Preliminary experiments having to do with recovery
of geotropism after irradiation suggest that the damage may be to an auxin-
forming system.
This project is being closed.








Annual Report, 1960


BIOSYNTHESIS OF CARBOHYDRATES IN PLANTS
atch Project 953 W. M. Dugger, Jr., and T. E. Humphreys
Effect of Boron on Enzymes Associated with Sucrose Synthesis.-Crude
omogenates prepared from sugarcane and from pea seedlings catalyzed the
corporation of C1-labeled glucose into sucrose. It was found that boron
markedly enhanced this incorporation. However, when more purified prep-
rations from these plants were investigated it was found that boron de-
reased sucrose synthesis. These contradictory results are thought to be
ue to differences in the proportions of the various enzymes for sucrose
ynthesis present in the crude homogenates and the purified extracts. Boron
nhibited some reactions associated with sucrose synthesis while it enhanced
others (Annual Report 1959). It will be necessary to separate and further
urify the various enzymes associated with sucrose synthesis before the
effect of boron on sucrose synthesis can be clarified.
Mechanism of Action of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D).-Previ-
ous work indicated the 2,4-D treatment of plant roots caused an increase
in the amount of glucose metabolized through the pentose phosphate path-
way. In an attempt to further characterize this effect of 2,4-D, a study
of the enzymes constituting the pentose phosphate pathway and the glycoly-
tic pathway for glucose metabolism was undertaken.
It was found that corn-root extracts from 2,4-D-treated seedlings con-
tained a higher concentration of the enzymes of the pentose phosphate
pathway than did extracts from the control seedlings. Conversely, the ex-
tracts from roots of the control seedlings contained a higher concentration
of some of the glycolytic enzymes than did extracts from the 2,4-D-treated
seedlings. The activities of phosphoglucoisomerase and enolase were not
changed by 2,4-D treatment.
The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (an enzyme of the
pentose phosphate pathway) was greater, while the activity of glyceralde-
hyde phosphate dehydrogenase (an enzyme of glycolysis) was less in ex-
tracts from 2,4-D-treated roots. However, if the corn roots were excised
after the 2,4-D or control treatment and soaked in cold (40C) water for 12

Fig. 8.-Photograph of pea seedlings in an irradiation experiment
taken by the time lapse camera.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


hours prior to extraction there was found to be no change in the activity o
these enzymes due to 2,4-D treatment. This effect of soaking was not in
vestigated further.

PRELIMINARY NON-PROJECTED STUDIES
Metabolism of Simazine by Sugarcane.-Simazine is a herbicide which]
shows promise for both pre-emergence and post-emergence control of weeds
in sugarcane. By the use of C"-labeled Simazine (kindly supplied by Geigy
Chemical Co.) it was possible to study the extent of Simazine breakdown
in the sugarcane plant. It was found that Simazine was taken up from
the soil or from a water solution by the roots and carbon-14 was rapidly
distributed throughout the plant. A chloroform extraction followed by an
ethanol extraction removed all of the carbon-14 from the dried plant ma-
terial. It was not possible to demonstrate the presence of Simazine in these
extracts even by the use of paper chromatography and autoradiography.
(T. E. Humphreys and W. M. Dugger, Jr.)
Physiology of Dwarfing in Plants.-The compound known as Amo-1618
(2 isopropyl 4 dimethylamino 5 methylphenyl-1 -piperidenecarboxylate
methyl chloride) has been used by various workers to induce dwarfing in
plants. We have studied the effect of this compound on several biochemical
systems in plants with the idea of trying to locate possible sites of activity.
It has been suggested that the elongation of plants is closely related to
the metabolism of cell-wall constituents such as the pectic substances. Since
Amo-1618 contains methyl groups that might affect the esterifcation of gal-
acturonic acid by methyl groups, we studied the influence of Amo-1618 on
the pectin methylesterase (PME) activity of pea stems. There was some
indication Amo-1618-treated plants had a higher PME activity than the
untreated controls.
Methionine, which contains an exchangeable methyl group, has also
been suggested as being involved in the metabolism of cell wall constituents.
We incubated a series of Amo-1618-treated pea sections with C"-methyl-
labeled methionine and then fractionated the stem tissue into several cell
wall fractions. We were unable to demonstrate that Amo-1618 had any
effect on the incorporation of the C" into any of these cell wall fractions.
Anatomical studies were made on the internodes of the stems of pea
plants that had been grown in a solution containing Amo-1618. The length
of the pith cells in the treated plants was significantly reduced as compared
to the untreated plants. The Amo-1618 appeared to have no effect on the
number of cells per internode. (G. Ray Noggle and T. Adair Wheaton.)








Annual Report, 1960


DAIRY SCIENCE

The Department of Dairy Science has a 2-fold program of research. One
rt, dairy husbandry, deals with problems relating to feeding, breeding
d reproduction of dairy cattle and the production of milk. A 1,200-acre
rm and a herd of registered animals of 5 breeds provide the facilities for
ese studies.
The other part of the program relates to the processing of milk and the
manufacture of milk products. A modern milk and dairy products proces-
ing laboratory provides the facilities for these studies.
Research in progress deals with the usefulness of various Florida-grown
rops as feed for cows and with a study of several systems of feeding cows
under commercial conditions such as is commonly done in the large herds
Florida.
A study also is in progress to determine the effects of feed and other
actors on the composition of milk. Ways and means to improve the quality
ad nutritive properties of milk and milk products are under study.

ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
tate Project 213 C. J. Wilcox, R. B. Becker
and J. M. Wing
Twenty experimental silos were filled, 10 each with pearlmillet and oats.
he following additives were ensiled with pearlmillet: citrus pulp, ground
napped corn, urea, zinc bacitracin, neomycin and albamycin; with oats:
inc bacitracin, neomycin, albamycin, streptomycin, isoniazid, para amino-
salicylic acid and an enzyme mixture containing protease, amylase and
gumase.
First and second cutting Gahi pearlmillet silage contained 10.2 and 11.3%
crude protein, respectively, on a dry matter basis. Efficiency of ensilability
of dry matter averaged about 90%, of crude protein 76%. Antibiotics added
to pearlmillet forage at the rate of 5 grams per ton were not present in the
silage of the juice after an ensiling period of 87 or more days. All silages
were of good to excellent quality and were consumed readily. Digestion
trials were completed involving 6 to 8 animals per silage; digestibility of
organic matter and crude protein will be determined through use of an
electronic computer. The relative desirability of the various silage addi-
tives will be evaluated.
Similar information will become available on oats silage. Chemical
analyses, and digestion trials involving 8 animals per silage, are under way.
(See also Project 356, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department.)

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY, ITS POSSIBLE
INHERITANCE AND DEPRECIATION IN FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
State Project 345 R. B. Becker and C. J. Wilcox
Records of breeding and disposal of cows were accumulated from 5
cooperating Florida dairy herds. Also, records were obtained on tenure
and turnover during the year of bulls in 84 artificial breeding organizations
of Canada and the United States. Several of them are consolidating. A
grant from the National Association of Artificial Breeders supports this
project in part.
A current analysis deals with those bulls whose productive use terminated
in 1954-1958 and causes of their loss from service.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


An analysis dealt with a recessive character known as crampy, neur
muscular spasticity, progressive posterior paralysis or stretches. It ma
develop in either sex. Muscles of the back, loin and/or 1 or both rear le
may become affected when past 3 years old and may eventually become
critical. The condition is hereditary and is transmitted through bulls an
cows to their progeny. Records are on file of up to 4 successive generation
of affected cattle under differing environments. Although we have no
complete proof, it appears from ratios of known affected progeny that th
character may be conditioned by a single recessive gene.
Crampy has been reported among animals in 5 dairy breeds, 1 dual
purpose and 3 beef breeds of European origin. It cropped out to the exten
of 2.5 percent of the cattle on record. Analyses showed that the frequence
was greater in some breeds than in others. (See also State Project 345
Agricultural Economics Department.)

STUDY OF PRODUCTION, REPRODUCTION AND CONFORMATION
OF THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
DAIRY HERD
State Project 575 C. J. Wilcox, R. B. Becker
and S. P. Marshall
The purebred dairy herd now numbers 284 females of which 162 are
cows, 54 yearlings and 68 calves. The 5 dairy breeds are represented in the
following numbers: Ayrshires 8, Brown Swiss 10, Guernseys 59, Holsteins
62 and Jerseys 145. With the exception of 4 Brown Swiss yearlings, all
replacements were home grown.
All milking females were placed on an official breed testing program.
Two state championship records were completed. In addition, a mature
Holstein produced well over 20,000 pounds of milk in a single lactation, the
first such record in the herd.
Five Ayrshires were officially classified as first-calf heifers and averaged
82.7 points.
Use of frozen semen was continued; 2.18 services were required per con-
ception. Horn of pregnancy was established with the following frequencies:
right, 61%; left, 39%.
Practically all animals served as experimental subjects 1 or more times
for other departmental research projects.

SUB-NORMAL MILK: ITS PRODUCTION, CORRECTION
AND UTILIZATION
Hatch Project 667 R. B. Becker, C. J. Wilcox, J. M. Wing.
W. A. Krienke, L. E. Mull and E. L. Fouts
The third trial was conducted on relation of feeding practice to compo-
sition of milk. Corn silage was offered at the rate of 4 pounds per 100
pounds live weight and mixed concentrates to balance the offering planned.
Three cows received adequate feed intakes, while 5 cows received ade-
quate intakes except only 85% energy and 4 cows of only 75% energy.
The experimental cows decreased in body weight and milk yield on the
85% and 75% energy intakes, similarly to those of the previous trial. While
there were small and irregular changes in protein and solids-not-fat content
of the experimental cows' milk, the milk of the 3 control cows increased
significantly in both as the trial progressed. These results differed from
those of 2 previous years, when the milk of the control cows remained
relatively constant in protein and solids-not-fat while appreciable decreases
resulted to the milks of the experimental cows.









Annual Report, 1960


IRRIGATION OF TEMPORARY PASTURES FOR DAIRY CATTLE
tate Project 772 S. P. Marshall
An alfalfa-clover-oat pasture seeded on Scranton loamy fine sand was
razed with dairy heifers to determine the yield of total digestible nutrients,
seasonal distribution of feed supply and quality of the forage. A second
nd late seeding of unirrigated pasture was grazed continuously beginning
anuary 12, 1960. During the 168-day period through June 27, the pasture
furnished 696 heifer days of grazing per acre. Carrying capacity averaged
.9 animals per acre during the period January through March and 5.3
eifers per acre from April through June. The animals obtained an average
f 5,880 pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre from the pasture and
gained 840 pounds per acre. Daily gains averaged 1.2 pounds which was
108 percent of their normal growth rate. This project is terminated with
this report. (See also Project 772, Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy
Departments.)

MEDICATED FEEDS FOR DAIRY CALVES
Hatch Project 781 J. M. Wing, E. L. Fouts,
R. B. Becker and C. J. Wilcox
This study concerns the effects of supplementary antibacterial and nu-
tritional factors in the feed of young calves. Replication of previous work
confirmed additive growth-promoting effects of chlortetracycline and iso-
niazid. Orotic acid alone or combined with methionine appeared to stimu-
late erythropoesis in young calves during the first 2 months of life. Meth-
ionine alone had no noticeable effect. Control animals gained an average
of 132% of accepted standards. Under these conditions the following addi-
tives had no significant effects: Streptomycin alone or combined with para
aminosalicylic acid (PAS) or isoniazid (I); oleandomycin alone and with
PAS or I. Oxytetracycline alone or with PAS or I; 8 hydroxy quinoline
alone or with copper citrate or PAS, or copper citrate alone.
Most of the feed additives studied seem to have little merit but further
research into the effects on blood composition seems warranted.

THE COST AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF GREEN-CHOP
IN FEEDING DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 923 J. M. Wing and C. J. Wilcox
One hundred ninety-six individual animal feeding trials were conducted
with large heifers which were fed typical forage. Samples were taken,
chemical analyses performed and data assembled for electronic calculations.
Pearlmillet was ensiled with various antibiotics. The silages ranged in pH
from 4.0 to 5.2 with no evidence of any more than a trace of proteolytic
activity except with chlortetracycline (light). Other bacterial activity was
moderate. Antibiotic activity was noted in the milk of 1 of 4 cows from
silage preserved with oleandomycin only. All other samples were negative
to test.
Consumption rates by heifers ranged from 63 to 103 pounds per head
per thousand pounds of body weight daily. Highest rates were with green
forage and penicillin and oleandomycin silages, lower with zinc bacitracin
and streptomycin silages and lowest with chlortetracycline and oxytetracy-
cline silages.
Percent of TDN and digestible crude protein varied as follows: green
forage 59.1 and 5.1, silage with zinc bacitracin 61.1 and 6.3, chlortetracycline
62.4 and 8.8, oleandomycin 59.4 and 7.4, streptomycin 66.3 and 7.2, oxytetra-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


cycline 65.2 and 7.5, procaine penicillin 70.3 and 8.6. Antibiotics appear
warrant consideration as preservatives for silage.
Consumption of forages in terms of dry matter consumed as a percel
of body weight was as follows: green oats 1.46, alfalfa 2.16, oats plus a
falfa 1.79, clover 3.21, pearlmillet 1.95, green corn 1.53, pangola hay 2.2
millet silage with 150 pounds citrus pulp per ton 2.00, with 300 poun
citrus pulp per ton 1.79, with 5 grams of zinc bacitracin per ton 1.20, wi
streptomycin 1.42, with aureomycin 0.85, with oleandomycin 1.52, wi
terramycin 0.90, with penicillin 1.17, with erythromycin 1.23, with streptom
cin and isoniazid 2.24, with para aminosalicylic acid 2.71, with 150 poun
per ton of ground snapped corn 1.41, sartsargo silage 0.99 and corn sila
1.45. Slightly larger amounts were consumed when small amounts of dr
feed were supplemented.

FACTORS AFFECTING CALF STOMACH COMPARTMENT
DEVELOPMENT AND OBSERVATIONS OF SOME
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INGESTA
State Project 967 S. P. Marshall and R. B. Becke
The effect of type of roughage ration on stomach compartment develop
ment was studied using Jersey and Holstein male calves. Four animal
were fed alfalfa hay through 110 days of age, while 2 were changed to cor
silage and 2 were grazed on whiteclover pasture during the period of 3
through 110 days of age. Although the number of calves that receive
each type of roughage was not adequate for conclusive interpretation o
data, those grazing clover appeared to have greater development of rumer
papillae and there was less ingesta present in their reticulo-rumen cavity

EFFECTS OF LEVEL AND METHOD OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING
ON DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 982 J. M. Wing and C. J. Wilcox
Since Florida forages usually are very high in moisture, many dairymen
feed bulky concentrates in addition to the regular grain ration. The present
experiment was designed to study the effects of feeding (1) strictly accord-
ing to theoretical requirements, or feeding additional bulky feed at the rate
of 1 pound per 7 pounds 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) either (2) individual-
ly or (3) on a group basis. Forty-five cows were assigned to the trial for
an experimental period of 200 days. Milk yields were adjusted for differ-
ences in initial production (during a 15-day preliminary period), body
weights and days in lactation. Average daily 4% FCM yields for the 3 feed-
ing groups were (1) 31.6 pounds, (2) 33.3 pounds and (3) 32.2 pounds. These
differences were not statistically significant. All individuals were offered
good to excellent quality roughage free choice throughout the trial. Under
these conditions the extra bulky concentrates did not appear worthwhile.

PRELIMINARY NON-PROJECTED STUDIES
Rapid Cooling of Cultured Buttermilk.-Earlier trials of cooling butter-
milk in a continuous ice cream freezer indicated the need for modified equip-
ment and cooling procedure to minimize agitation. For this reason the
speed of the freezer agitator, which turned at 530 r.p.m., was reduced by
use of a variable speed pump to a speed ranging from 22 to 280 r.p.m. The
variable speed air pump replaced the mix pump, permitting control of pro-
duct flow (48.8 to 202.5 gph). A manually regulated back-pressure valve
controlled NH3 temperature.








Annual Report, 1960


A 40% cream and salt mixture was metered into the cooling chamber with
coagulum. The finished product contained 2% butterfat and 0.1% salt.
timum operating conditions were as follows: NH3 temperature, +20 F.;
pump speed, 64.7 gph.; and agitator speed, 280 r.p.m.
The resulting product was superior in viscosity, freedom from wheying-
,flavor and shelf life compared to buttermilk cooled by conventional
thods. (L. E. Mull and W. A. Krienke.)
Milk Composition.-During 1958-59 milks from randomly selected groups
Holsteins, Jerseys and Guernseys were tested for percent fat, solids-not-
S(SNF), protein and chloride for 6 consecutive days. Milk yields, pH
d acidity also were determined. A total of 396 series involving 2,376
mples were completed. A portion of the data was analyzed to establish
e relationships among 3 variables (1) SNF, (2) protein and (3) chloride.
The following zero-order total correlations were obtained: +0.74 (1 and
,-0.18 (2 and 3) and -0.64 (1 and 3). Partial correlation coefficients were
0.83, +0.52 and -0.77, respectively. The multiple correlation (1, 2 and 3)
counted to +0.90. These preliminary results indicate the potential im-
rtance of chloride content as a measure of milk quality. Analyses in-
Iving the remaining data and variables are contemplated. (W. A. Krienke
d C. J. Wilcox.)
Mammary Staphylococcal Infection Study.-Milk sampling of the milk-
g herd was initiated to establish the incidence of staphylococcal and any
her types of mastitis. With about 50% of the microscopic and culture
sts completed, 3% of the quarters were declared positive and 8% suspic-
us for staphylococcal infection. Positive diagnosis of other infection oc-
rred in 8% of the quarters. These levels are considerably lower than
ose generally reported. Nineteen of 35 bred heifers have been vaccinated
r staphylococcal mastitis; one-half of the milking herd will be vaccinated
hen all quarters have been tested. (D. H. Kleyn, C. J. Wilcox and J. M.
ing.)
Measurement of Chloride Content of Milk.-An accepted laboratory pro-
adure, the Mohr titration test, was compared to the newly developed po-
ntiometric method for measuring the chloride content of milk. Operator
liability was evaluated with no differences between methods: repeatabil-
y of estimates on the same sample was higher than 0.99 for both pro-
dures, showing that a single determination was adequate. Single deter-
inations on the same sample by each method were highly correlated (0.92).
ean chloride contents of 271 samples averaged 0.135 and 0.095%, for the
ld and new methods, respectively. The new method is purported to be
ore accurate since the values are not influenced by proteins and phosphates
a milk. (D. H. Kleyn, W. A. Krienke and C. J. Wilcox.)
Effect of Urea-Treated Silage on Levels of Urea and Ammonia in the
blood of Dairy Cows.-Seven dairy animals averaging about 1,050 pounds
ody weight were fed pearlmillet silage only during 3 10-day trial periods.
'resh pearlmillet with 150 pounds citrus pulp added per ton had been
nsiled with (a) 0, (b) 0.50 and (c) 0.75% urea added. After an ensiling
)eriod of 50 or more days the silages averaged 15.6% dry matter and
vere consumed at the following rates daily per head: (a) 100 pounds, (b)
i9 pounds and (c) 75 pounds. Urea treatment caused highly significant
increases in blood urea and ammonia levels, but critical values were not
-eached. (C. J. Wilcox, J. M. Wing and R. B. Becker.)
Effect of Liquid Diet on Development of Rumen Papillae During the
First 11 Months in Dairy Steers.-Observations of other workers which
involved calves no older than 12 weeks of age indicated an absence of
:umen papillae in calves fed milk exclusively. The present work included








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


7 calves, 2 of which were fed hay and grain while the other 5 were
milk fortified with vitamins and minerals through 11 months of age.
milk-fed calves consumed some wood shavings which were used as bedd
Four experimental rumens were essentially smooth. One of th
milk-fed calves showed some papillation of the rumen but the tissues
subnormal when compared with the controls. This organ was from
only milk-fed calf which showed active rumen fermentation at the time
slaughter. The other compartments in all calves appeared normal, sugg
ing that although rumen development varies with type of diet, develop
of the other compartments is a function primarily of age. (J. M. Wi
Supplementary Digestive Enzymes in the Feed of Dairy Heifers.-S
eral previous reports showed that enzyme products stimulated growth
improved feed efficiency in steers. The present study involved 40 heif
half of which received a fermentation enzyme product containing amyl
protease and gumase for 90 days. Succulent forage was used as roughly
for both groups. Analysis of variance showed that treatment effects w
not significant. (J. M. Wing.)
Relation of Dipping Teat Cups to the Incidence of Mastitis and Bactel
Counts of Milk.-Teat cups usually are rinsed in a mild disinfecting so
tion between cows, but research to determine whether this is necessE
was lacking. During the milking of 39 experimental cows teat cup dippi
was eliminated. A group of 40 cows was used as a control. No signifies
differences in incidence of mastitis or standard plate counts were obserl
but more coliform organisms were found in the milk from the contr(
Coliform counts on the dip solution also increased rapidly, showing t
all cleaning solutions used in the milking process need frequent renew
(J. M. Wing.)
Effect of Artificial Flavors on the Tendency of Young Calves to Consu
Concentrate Feeds.-Eight young calves were given the choice of c(
centrate feeds with and without artificial flavoring. The average amour
consumed were as follows: from 0 to 30 days of age, plain 159, flavor
184 pounds; 31 to 60 days of age, 301 plain, 370 flavored; 61 through
days, plain 761, flavored 893. These differences were significant at a lei
of 2%. (J. M. Wing.)
Effect of Methionine Hydroxy Analogue on Growth of Dairy Steers.
Twenty-four dairy steers were divided into 2 groups which were balance
with respect to breed, age and body weight. The basal ration contain
corn, brewers grain, citrus pulp, cottonseed meal and urea (3%). Feed f
the treated group was identical except that it also contained methioni
hydroxy analogue (.3%) during the 90-day period. The treated groin
gained an average of 88 pounds as compared to 90 pounds for the control
Under these conditions methionine hydroxy analogue was not effective
study with rations higher in urea is planned. (J. M. Wing.)
Effect of Method of Planting on Yield of Nutrients in Pearlmillet.-
Millet planted in rows was cut 3 times for yields of 17,514 pounds of green
forage, 162 pounds digestible crude protein and 1,874 pounds total diges
ible nutrients; yields from comparable plots seeded broadcast resulted '
2 cuttings only, totaling 6,875, 65, and 736 pounds, respectively. (J. D
Wing.)









Annual Report, 1960


EDITORIAL

Printing of publications was slightly lower than usual this year, but
number of journal articles constantly grows. Radio programming
derwent some changes, television work expanded slightly, and news and
*er activities continued in the usual pattern. The 2 books on citrus
d nematodes continued to sell well throughout the world.

BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS

The Station printed 78,000 copies of 11 new bulletins totaling 468 pages
d reprinted 1 bulletin, 12 pages, 5,000 copies. Sixty-eight thousand copies
8 new circulars totaling 103 pages were printed, and 60,000 copies of
)ress bulletins totaling 12 pages were reprinted.
New publications printed were: Number
Pages Printed


Bul. 610 Palatable Creep Feeds for Pigs, G. E. Combs,
Jr., and H. D. W allace ................. ...--... ..---- .
Bul. 611 Urea Toxicity in Cattle, George K. Davis and
H arry F. Roberts ................ ---- -..... -- ---- ----.
Bul. 612 An Analysis of Quality and Cost of Harvesting
and Handling Potatoes with Mechanical Equip-
ment, R. E. L. Greene, L. J. Kushman and H. C.
Spurlock ............ --. -.......-- -..- --- -----...---- --
Bul. 613 Whiteclover-Pangolagrass and Whiteclover-
Coastal Bermudagrass Pastures for Dairy
Heifers, Sidney P. Marshall -...-............ ............
Bul. 614 Effect of Rotations, Fertilizers, Lime and Green
Manure Crops on Crop Yields and on Soil Fer-
tility, 1947-1957, L. G. Thompson, Jr., and W. K.
R obertson ..................... ------ --- -------------.-- -- ..
Bul. 615 A Survey of the Florida Foliage Plant Industry,
Charles A. Nicholls, Cecil N. Smith and Donald
L. B rooke ---------- --... ----- ------ ---- -------- -- ---- ..
Bul. 616 Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus
Pulp, Corn Feed Meal and Ground Snapped Corn
for Fattening Steers in Drylot, Fentress M. Pea-
cock and W. G. Kirk (Technical) ................-
Bul. 617 External Quality Factors of Florida Avocados-
Their Importance to the Consumer, D. L. Brooke
Bul. 618 Microbiology of Citrus Fruit Processing, Roger
Patrick and Elmer C. Hill ................... ............
Bul. 619 Insects and Diseases of the Pecan in Florida,
Arthur M. Phillips, John R. Large and John R.
Cole -. -- -- ---- ----------.--- -. --- -- ----------.
Bul. 620 Degreening of Florida Citrus Fruits, W. Grier-
son and W. F. Newhall ..............-----......--...-----
'irc. S-115 A Tool Bar Mounted Moling Implement, Dalton
S. H arrison ................------ --- -------. ---- --- -----------
,irc. S-116 Control of Insects and Other Pests of Tomatoes,
Peppers and Eggplants, E. G. Kelsheimer and
D. O. W olfenbarger ...............------ ..--- ..-------


7,500

10,000



6,000


7,500



7,500


6,000



5,000

6,000

6,000


84 10,000


6,000


7 6,000


36 15,000








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Circ. S-117 Growing Sugarcane for Forage, T. Bregger and
R. W Kidder ..................... ..... .. ........... ..- 12 8,
Circ. S-118 Raising Dairy Herd Replacements, J. M. Wing 16 7,5
Circ. S-119 Flume Design for Receiving and Handling Po-
tatoes in Packinghouses, J. S. Norton and R. E.
L. Greene .... ..--- ..- ..................................... 8 6,0
Circ. S-120 Blue Lake-A New Bunch Grape for Florida
Home Gardens, L. H. Stover ..................- ............ 9 12,0
Circ. S-121 Recommendations for Commercial Lawn Spray-
men, S. H. Kerr ............................-- .. ......... 7 7,5
Circ. S-122 Seminole-A High-Yielding, Good Quality,
Downy and Powdery Mildew-Resistant Canta-
loupe, B. F. W hitner, Jr. ........... ..- ........ .... 6 6,0
All new publications are sent to libraries and specialists in many stat
and county agents and vocational agriculture teachers in Florida. Su
sequently, they are distributed on request.
The quarterly Sunshine State Agricultural Research Report continue
to elicit favorable comment. Now in its fifth year, each issue consists
20 pages, with 10,000 copies being printed.

OVER THE RADIO WAVES
Live programming in the Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, Universi
radio station, decreased slightly during the year as the program enter
its 32nd year on the air. The Farm Hour was reduced from 25 to 2
minutes January 1, 1960, and the Saturday half hour was discontinue
It is now broadcast 5 days a week from 12:10 to 12:30 p.m.
Staff members other than editors made 201 talks this year. The E
periment Station Editor broadcast the weekly Farm Question Box 5
times and this included questions answered by staff members.
A new spot announcement series was initiated January 1. This series
consists of 5 spot announcements ranging from 30 to 60 seconds aired b
tween 6:30 and 7:00 a.m. Monday through Friday. The spots are voiced b
an editorial worker and about half of them deal with Experiment Statio
materials.
Farm flashes copy was sent daily to 52 radio stations in the state, and 10
of the 5-minute features were based on Experiment Station information
Five short items, usually about 30 seconds in length, were sent weekly t
the same 52 stations for use during station breaks and on other shows
About half the material came from Experiment Station information. Th
tape service to other stations was expanded. Six cuts-each about 5 min
utes-were sent weekly on a regular basis to 5 stations and periodically t
2 others. Of the talks featured, 154 were made by Experiment workers.
The Florida Farm Review, a 5 minute summary of agricultural news an<
information, was sent weekly to Associated Press and United Press Inter
national wire services for teletype distribution to their member radio sta
tions. Much of the information contained is based on Experiment Station
materials.
FOR TELEVISION VIEWERS
The weekly television show over WUFT, University educational tele-
vision station, was continued with slightly more than half of the shows being
devoted to Experiment Station workers and materials. Station workers
appeared live 60 times on this show. About half of each show was live, the
other half a motion picture film.









Annual Report, 1960 89

Sixteen new motion picture films, from 14 to 15 minutes in length, made
ring the year featured Experiment Station workers and information.
ese and other films made previously were supplied weekly to 6 Florida TV
tions. We now have 166 motion pictures on hand, practically all of
em with sound and about half of them being devoted to Experiment Station
tivities and information. These films are also used occasionally for direct
dience showings.

NEWS AND FARM JOURNAL STORIES
The weekly mimeographed Agricultural News Service distributed to
ekly newspapers, farm papers, some radio stations and a few daily papers
ntinued to carry from 2 to 5 stories each week based on Experiment
nation events or information. News stories were sent to daily newspapers
er AP and UPI wire services and direct. Local correspondents and farm
ge editors were assisted in securing materials for their own stories. Many
respondents picked up materials for news stories at the branch experiment
nations.
Florida, Southern and national farm journals continued to make gener-
s use of Experiment Station information supplied by Station editors and
her staff members. Seven of them printed 14 articles by Station editors
r 478 column inches.

TECHNICAL JOURNAL ARTICLES

Papers by research staff members in slightly larger number were print-
din scientific and technical journals in the United States and a few in
foreign countries. Those included in the Journal Series are forwarded to
he journals by the Station editorial staff, and reprints are ordered for
distribution when they are printed. The series now contains more than
,000 listings.
Articles in the Journal Series printed during the year included:
709. Similarities and Differences Between Tristeza in North and South
America, by L. C. Knorr. Conference on Citrus Virus Diseases.
July 1959.
711. Excortis in Florida, by L. C. Knorr and H. J. Reitz. Conference on
Citrus Virus Diseases. July 1959.
738. Crop Rotation and Fallowing in Relation to Tobacco Disease Control,
by R. R. Kincaid. The Botanical Review 26:2: 261-276. Apr.-June
1960.
800. Demeton Residues on Turnips, Squash, Tomatoes, Peppers and Snap
Beans, by C. H. Van Middelem and R. E. Waites. Jour. of Econ.
Entom. 52:4: 741-744 Aug. 1959.
805. Determination of Exchangeable Hydrogen in Soils by Titration Meth-
od, by T. L. Yuan. Soil Science 88: 3: 164-167. Sept. 1959.
846. Diseases of the Coconut Palm. III. Red Ring, by M. K. Corbett.
Principes 3: 83-86. July 1959.
847. Diseases of the Coconut Palm. IV. Bud Rot, by M. K. Corbett.
Principes 3: 117-120. Oct. 1959.
848. Diseases of the Coconut Palm. V. Frond-Drop, by M. K. Corbett.
Principes 4:6-9. Jan. 1960.
849. Diseases of the Coconut Palm. VI. Yellow Mottle Decline (Cadang-
Cadang), by M. K. Corbett. Principes 4: 40-44. Apr. 1960.
850. Diseases of the Coconut Palm. VII. Minor Diseases, by M. K. Corbett.
Principes 4: 82-89. July 1960.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


851. Effect of Various Levels of Dietary Sugar on the Succinoxidase
the Liver of Swine and Cattle, by R. L. Shirley, H. D. Walla
J. F. Hentges, Jr., and G. K. Davis. Jour. of Agric. and Food Che
istry 7:8: 568-570. Aug. 1959.
852. Distribution of Microorganisms, Nitrate Production and Nutrie
in the Profile of Lakeland Fine Sand and Related Soils, by Char
F. Eno and Harry W. Ford. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. 18:
96. 1959.
853. A Macromutation in Yellow Lupine (Lupinus luteus L.), by J.
Edwardson and M. K. Corbett. Jour. of Heredity 1:4. July-A
1959.
854. Observations and Preliminary Experiments with Polyhedrosis Vi
for Control of Cabbage Looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hbn.), by W.
Genung. Fla. Entom. 42:3: 99-104. Sept. 1959.
855. A Possible Partial Solution to the Need for Quality Animal Feeds
Tropical and Sub-Tropical Countries, by J. W. Randolph, L. River
Brenes, J. P. Winfree and V. E. Green, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. S
Fla. 18: 97-105. 1959.
856. Influence of Fertilizers Containing Superphosphate on the Solub
Sulfate and Phosphate of Blanton Fine Sand, by J. R. Neller. S
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 18: 193-197. 1959.
857. Hard Fiber Investigations in Florida, by J. F. Joyner and C. C. Sea
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 18: 271-275. 1959.
858. Effects of Population Trends and Farm Mechanization on Producti
of United States Feed and Food Supplies, by F. T. Boyd. Soil a
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 18: 150-156. 1959.
860. Weed Control in Florida Field Crops, by E. O. Burt. Soil and Cro
Sci. Soc. Fla. 18: 224-227. 1959.
861. The Downward Movement of Potassium in Eustis Loamy Fine San
by M. C. Lutrick. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 18: 198-202. 1959.
862. Effect of Potash on Yield and Quality of Hamlin and Valencia Orange
by E. J. Deszyck, R. C. J. Koo, and S. V. Ting. Soil and Crop Sci. So
Fla. 18: 129-135. 1959.
863. Peanut Oil Meal as a Source of Protein in Broiler Diets, by C. R
Douglas and R. H. Harms. Poultry Science 38:4: 786-790. July 1959
864. Some Drainage Characteristics of a Cultivated Organic Soil in th
Everglades, by D. S. Harrison and H. A. Weaver. Soil and Crop Sci
Soc. Fla. 18: 184-192. 1959.
867. A Comparison of Certain Blood Constituents of Dwarf-Carrier an
Non-Carrier Cattle, by J. C. Dollahon, M. Koger, J. R. Hentges, Jr.
and A. C. Warnick. Jour. of An. Science 18:3: 947-953. Aug. 1959
869. The Inheritance of the Guinea Condition Observed in Descendants o
Florida Native Cattle, by J. C. Dollahon and Marvin Koger. Jour.
of Heredity 51:1: 32-34. Jan.-Feb. 1960.
870. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressures of Snorter Dwarf-Carrier and Non-
Carrier Cattle, by J. C. Dollahon, Karl G. Owens, M. Koger, J. F.
Hentges, Jr., and A. C. Warnick. Jour. of Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
135:2: 109-111. July 1959.
871. Natural Control of Florida Red Scale of Citrus in Florida by Preda-
tors and Parasites, by Martin H. Muma. Jour. of Econ. Entom.
52:4: 577-586. Aug. 1959.
872. Growth of Louisiana S1 White Clover Seedlings as Influenced by Soil
Additions of Lime and Phosphate, by Albert E. Kretschmer, Jr. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 18: 136-149. 1959.









Annual Report, 1960


3. Difficulties in Soil Sampling Pastures on Everglades Organic Soils,
by Albert E. Kretschmer, Jr. Soil and Crop. Sci. Soc. Fla. 18: 157-
165. 1959.
5. Effects of Penicillin on the Morphology of Streptococcus lactis,
Streptococcus thermophilus and Leuconostoc dextranicum, by B. J.
Liska. Jour. of Dairy Science 42:8: 1391-1393. Aug. 1959.
8. The Influence of Triiodothyronine on Feedlot Performance and Car-
cass Characteristics of Growing-Finishing Swine, by H. D. Wallace,
C. E. Norris, G. E. Combs, G. E. McCabe and A. Z. Palmer. Jour. of
An. Science 18:3: 1018-1024. Aug. 1959.
'9. Extractable Sulfate Sulfur in Soils in Relation to Amount of Clay
in the Profile, by J. R. Neller. Proc., Soil Sci. Soc. of America 23:5:
346-348. Sept.-Oct. 1959.
13. Use of Specifically Labeled Glucose and Gluconate in the Evaluation
of Catobolic Pathways for Glucose in Corn Roots, by T. E. Humphreys
and W. M. Dugger, Jr. Plant Physiology 34:5: 580-582. Sept. 1959.
;4. Factors to Consider Concerning the Occurrence of Coliforms in Citrus
Juices, by Roger Patrick and F. W. Wenzel. Jour. of Milk and Food
Tech. 22:8: 231-234. Aug. 1959.
88. Response of Pensacola Bahiagrass to Herbicides, by C. C. Black and
E. G. Rogers. Weeds 8:1: 71-77. Jan. 1960.
89. A Small Self-Propelled Sprayer for Agricultural Research by D. S.
Harrison, W. G. Genung, and E. D. Harris, Jr. Fla. Entom. 42:4 169-
174. Dec. 1959.
90. Inheritance of Resistance to Potato Virus Y Derived from Two Strains
of Capsicum annuun by A. A. Cook and C. W. Anderson. Phyto-
pathology 5:1: 73-75. Jan. 1960.
91. Symptoms and Host-Parasite Relations of the Alternaria Leafspot
Disease of Cucurbits, by Curtis R. Jackson. Phytopathology 79:
731-733. Nov. 1959.
93. Hypoglycemic Compounds as Appetite Stimulants for Baby Pigs, by
J. C. Pekas, G. E. Combs, J. M. Vandepopuliere and H. D. Wallace.
Jour. of An. Sci. 18:4: 1282-1291. Nov. 1959.
895. Volatile Loss of Ammonia Following Surface Application of Urea
to Turf or Bare Soils, by Gaylord M. Volk. Jour. of Amer. Soc. of
Agron. 51: 746-749. Dec. 1959.
896. Effect of Simple High-Fiber Feed on Dairy Calves, by J. M. Wing.
Jour. of Dairy Sci. 42:11: 1877-1879. 1959.
897. Growth of Forage Crops on Leon Fine Sand as Affected by Adding
Sulfur to Rock Phosphate, by J. R. Neller and F. D. Bartlett. Soil
Science 88:6: 331-335. Dec. 1959.
898. Derivatives of (+)-Limonene. II. 2-Amino-l-p-Menthanols, by W. F.
Newhall. Jour. of Organic Chemistry 24: 1673-1676. Nov. 1959.
899. Severity of Tomato Soil Rot Caused by Rhizoctonia solani as Influen-
ced by Previous Cover Crops, by Norman C. Hayslip and Robert E.
Stall. Plant Dis. Reporter 43:7. July 15, 1959.
900. Potato Virus Y Appears in Additional Areas of Pepper and Tomato
Production in South Florida, by John N. Simons. Plant Dis. Reporter
43:7. July 15, 1959.
901. Effects of Foliar Sprays of Cytovirin on Susceptibility to and Trans-
missibility of Potato Virus Y in Pepper, by John N. Simons. Phyto-
pathology 50:2: 109-111. Feb. 1960.








92 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

902. Progress in Mechanizing Citrus Fruit Harvesting in Florida, by
E. Coppock and P. J. Jutras. Tran. of Amer. Soc. of Ag. Engine
130-132. 1960.
903. An Evaluation of Spray Materials for Control of Bacterial Spot
Field Seeded Tomatoes, by Robert E. Stall. Plant Disease Repor
43:7. July 15, 1959.
904. Relationship of Rate of Egg Production as Affected by Feed to Hau
Units of Eggs, by R. H. Harms and C. R. Douglas. Poultry Scie
39:1: 75-76. 1960.
905. The Efficacy of Cyanacethy-razid drazide (Dictycide*) as a Tre
ment of Lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus Bloch) Infections
Cattle, by L. E. Swanson, A. E. Wade, V. F. Senseman and M.
Djafar. Amer. Jour. of Vet. Research 20:78: 777-783. Sept. 1959.
906. Growth and Root Distribution of Orange Trees on Two Differe
Rootstocks as Influenced by Depth to Subsoil Clay, by Harry
Ford. Amer. Soc. for Hort. Science 74: 313-321. Jan. 1960.
907. Studies on the Syndrome Called Mycotic Stomatitis of Cattle, by
R. Pritchard and P. W. Wassenaar. Jour. of the Amer. Vet. M
Assoc. 135:5: 274-277. Sept. 1959.
909. Aryl and Aralkyl-isocyansilanes, by J. J. McBride, Jr. Jour.
Organic Chemistry 24:12: 1029-1030. Dec. 1959.
910. Placental Transfer of Phosphorus in Sows Maintained on High a
Low Levels of Dietary Manganese, by H. W. Newland, G. K. Dav
and H. D. Wallace. Amer. Jour. of Physiology 198:4: 745-748. Ap
1960.
912. Virus Disease Resistance in Peppers, by A. A. Cook. Fla. Sta
Hort. Soc. Proc. 72: 110-112. 1959.
913. Feeding Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Growin
Finishing Swine Fed "C" Grade Sugar, by G. E. Combs, H. D. Wal
lace, J. W. Carpenter, A. Z. Palmer and R. H. Alsmeyer. Jour. o
An. Science 18:4: 1405-1408. Nov. 1959.
914. Host Testers Developed to Differentiate Oat Loose-smut Races o
the Southeastern United States, by H. H. Luke, D. D. Morey an
S. J. Hadden. Phytopathology 50:3: 209-212. 1960.
915. Victoria-type Resistance to Crown Rust Separated from Susceptibilit
to Helminthosporium Blight in Oats, by H. H. Luke, H. E. Wheele
and A. T. Wallace. Phytopathology 50:3: 205-209. Mar. 1960.
916. Influence of Excess Dietary Molybdenum on Rat and Calf Liver and
Heart Enzymes, by Dennis H. Cox, George K. Davis, Ray L. Shirley,
and Francis H. Jack. Jour. of Nutrition 70:1: 63-68. Jan. 1960.
917. Effects of Combining Hydrocarbon Insecticides with Parathion or
Diazinon for Leaf Miner Control on Tomatoes, by R. M. Baranowski.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 155-158. 1959.
918. Preliminary Work with Systemic Insecticides on Tomatoes, by R. M.
Baranowski. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 158-160. 1959.
919. Variation in Efficiency of Aphid Transmission of Cucumber Mosiac
Virus and Potato Virus Y in Peppers, by John N. Simons. Virology
9:4: 612-623. Dec. 1959.
920. Ceroospora Blight of Snapdragons, by Curtis R. Jackson, Phyto-
pathology 50:3: 190-192. Mar. 1960.
921. Effects of Heavy Applications of Phosphate and Lime on Nutrient
Uptake, Growth, Freeze Injury and Root Distribution in Grapefruit
Trees, by W. F. Spencer. Soil Science 89:6: 311-318. June 1960.








Annual Report, 1960


922. Predatory Mites of the Family Cunaxidae Associated with Citrus in
Florida, by Martin H. Muma. Annals of the Amer. Entom. Soc. 53:3:
321-326. May 1960.
923. Effects of Ammonium Nitrate and Sulfate of Potash on Cold-Injured
Pepper Plants, by H. Y. Ozaki. Amer. Hort. Soc. Proc. 75: 521.
1960.
924. Hymenopterous Parasites of Chrysopidae on Florida Citrus, by Martin
H. Muma. Florida Entom. 42:4: 149-153. Dec. 1959.
925. Sugar Composition, Bioflavonoid Content and pH of Grapefruit as
Affected by Lead Arsenate Sprays, by E. J. Deszyck and S. V. Ting.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 75: 266. 1960.
926. Effect of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilization on Yield, Fruit Qual-
ity, and Leaf Analysis and Valencia Orange, by Herman J. Reitz and
Robert C. J. Koo. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 75: 244. 1960.
927. Coldpressed Orange Oil Physico Chemical Procedure to Determine
Origin and Method of Extraction, by J. W. Kesterson, R. Hendrickson
and G. J. Edwards. Amer. Perfumer and Aromatics. Oct. 1959.
928. Influence of Nitrogen Fertilization and Seed Inoculation Levels of
Yields of Southern Peas, by L. H. Halsey. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
75:517. 1959.
929. Internal Color and Carotenoid Pigments of Burgundy, a New Variety
of Red Grapefruit by M. F. Oberbacher, S. V. Ting and E. J. Deszyck.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 75: 262. 1959.
930. Cattle Grub Control with Bayer 21/199 in the Everglades, by Emmett
D. Harris, Jr., W. G. Genung and C. E. Haines. Fla. Entom. 42:4:
155-157. Dec. 1959.
931. The Fungicidal Activity of Some New Aminoalcohols synthesized
from Citrus (+)-Limonene, by R. Patrick and W. F. Newhall. Jour.
of Agric. and Food Chemistry 8:5: 397-399. Sept.-Oct. 1960.
932. Budworm Control Studies on Sweet Corn in the Everglades, by Em-
mett D. Harris, Jr. Fla. Entom. 42:4: 163-167. Dec. 1959.
933. Purification by Density-Gradient Centrifugation, Electron Micro-
scopy, and Properties of Cymbidium Mosaic Virus, by M. K. Corbett.
Phytopathology 50:5: 346-351. May 1960.
934. A Microbial Pathogen for the Control of Certain Cabbage and Cauli-
flower Insects, by E. G. Kelsheimer. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 160-
163. 1959.
936. The Juice Content of Tahati Limes Produced on Various Rootstocks,
by Francis B. Lincoln. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 361-362. 1959.
938. Effects of Placement of Fertilizers and Lime on Pecan Seedlings, by
W. K. Robertson, Nathan Gammon, Jr., G. C. Horn. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 72: 317-320. 1959.
939. Symptoms of Nutritional Disorders of Chrysanthemums and Gladi-
olus, by S. S. Woltz. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 383-385. 1959.
940. Pre- and Post-Emergence Herbicides for Gladiolus, by D. S. Burgis.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 362-364. 1959.
941. Hesperidin in Orange Juice and Peel Extracts Determined by U. V.
Absorption, by R. Hendrickson, J. W. Kesterson, G. J. Edwards.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 258-263. 1959.
942. The Use of Tedion Against Citrus Red Mite and Texas Citrus Mite,
by Roger B. Johnson. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 51-56. 1959.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


943. Observations on Celery Flavors, by C. B. Hall. Fla. State Hort. Soc
72: 284-285. 1959.
944. Head Formation of Cabbage as Affected by Low Temperatures, b
D. G. A. Kelbert. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 177-179. 1959.
945. Herbicides of Tomatoes and Pole Beans, by D. S. Burgis. Fla. Hort
Soc. 72: 190-193. 1959.
946. Phosphatic Insecticides and Parathion-Toxaphene Combinations foi
the Control of the Green Peach Aphid and the Serpentine Leaf Miner
on Potatoes, by Emmett D. Harris, Jr. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72:
167-171. 1959.
947. Principles Applicable for Spraying Subtropical Fruit Plants, by D. O.
Wolfenbarger. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 77: 199-201. 1959.
948. Filtration of Anaplasma Marginal, by Miodrag Ristic. Amer. Jour.
of Vet. Research 72: 385-388. 1959.
949. Verticillium Wilt of Tomato in Dade County, Florida, by Robert A.
Conover. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 199-201. 1959.
950. Control of Leaf and Flower Diseases of Florist's Chrysanthemums,
by Lorne A. McFadden. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 385-388. 1959.
953. Chromosome Relations in Blackberries, by J. S. Shoemaker and T.
T. Sturrock. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 327-330. 1959.
954. Breeding Blueberries for the Florida Climate, by R. H. Sharpe, and
G. M. Darrow. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 308-311. 1959.
956. Soil Fungi from Chrysanthemum Plantings, by Curtis R. Jackson.
Quarterly Jour., Fla. Acad. Sci. 22:3: 149-154. 1959.
957. Hyperodes humilis (Gyll.), a New Pest of Sweet Corn in the Ever-
glades, and its Control, by Emmett D. Harris, Jr. Jour. of Econ.
Entom. 53:2: 251-257. Apr. 1960.
959. Compositional and Organoleptical Differences Between Celery Grown
in Florida and California, by C. B. Hall. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72:
142-145. 1959.
960. Ecological and Cultural Factors Affecting Chemical Control of Sub-
terranean Cutworms in the Everglades, by William G. Genung. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 72: 163-167. 1959.
961. Contamination of the Tomato Variety Manalucie During Its First Five
Years, by Robert E. Stall and James M. Walter. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 72: 151-153. 1959.
962. Comparison of an Air Carrier Sprayer and a Boom Type Sprayer for
Control of Early Blight on Celery, by D. S. Harrison and P. L. Thayer.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 139-141. 1959.
963. Use of Combinations of Maneb and Dyrene for Control of Tomato
Diseases, by Robert A. Conover and Robert E. Stall. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 72: 204-207. 1959.
964. Prevention of Butt Discoloration of Prepackaged Celery, by C. B.
Hall. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 280-284. 1959.
965. Promising Rootstocks that Tolerate Burrowing Nematode, by H. W.
Ford, W. A. Feder and P. C. Hutchins. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72:
96-102. 1959.
966. Bacterial Blight of Poinsettia, by Lorne A. McFadden. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 72: 392-394. 1959.
967. Chemical Studies on the Roots and Leaves of Coconut Palms Affected
by Lethal Yellowing, by John G. A. Fiskell, A. P. Martinez, L. G.
VanWeerdt. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 408-413. 1959.









Annual Report, 1960


68. Comparisons of Some Characteristics of Commercial Frozen Concen-
trated Orange Juices Prepared by Florida Processors During Five
Citrus Seasons, by C. D. Atkins, A. H. Rouse, E. L. Moore, F. W.
Wenzel. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 239-248. 1959.
969. Chemical Control of Weeds in Potato Fields by En. N. McCubbin.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 194-196. 1959.
970. Effect of Lead Arsenate Sprays on Deadwood, Yield, Fruit Size, and
Drop of Marsh Grapefruit, by E. J. Deszyck and S. V. Ting. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 72: 34-38. 1959.
971. Leaf Drop Following Spray Applications on Citrus, by W. L. Thomp-
son. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 29-34. 1959.
972. Chemical Control of Perennial Grasses in Citrus Groves, by Dale W.
Kretchman. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 21-29. 1959.
973. Genetics of Resistance in Capsicum Annum to Two Citrus Diseases,
by A. A. Cook. Phytopathology 50:5: 364-367. May 1960.
974. Response of Strawberries to Mulching with Plastic, by B. D. Thomp-
son. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 179-185. 1959.
975. Post-Harvest Treatments of Strawberries and Radishes with Cobalt-
60 Irradiation, by B. D. Thompson. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 114-123.
1959.
976. A Comparison of Quick Tests on Florida Soils, by Herman L. Breland.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 123-131. 1959.
977. Mechanization and Quality in Harvesting Florida Vegetables, by
L. H. Halsey. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 153-155. 1959.
978. Simulated Packing, Shipping and Marketing Experiments with Valen-
cia Oranges, by W. Grierson, F. W. Hayward and M. F. Oberbacher.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 248-254. 1959.
979. Packout as Affecting Profits of Fresh Citrus Packinghouses with
Particular Reference to Fruit Color, by W. Grierson and M. F. Ober-
bacher. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 254-258. 1959.
980. Soil Application of Manganese for Citrus, by C. D. Leonard and Ivan
Stewart. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 38-45. 1959.
981. Budwood Importation Its Dangers and Its Benefits, by L. C. Knorr.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 4-11. 1959.
982. Mechanical Aids and Equipment for Harvesting Vegetables in Flor-
ida, by E. S. Holmes. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 197-199. 1959.
983. Boron Deficiency and Alternate Bearing in Avocados, by Roy W.
Harkness. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 311-317. 1959.
984. Factors Affecting Secondary Spread of Nonpersistant Aphid-Borne
Viruses, by John N. Simons. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 136-139. 1959.
985. Current Studies on the Efficiency of Equipment for the Application
of Pesticides to Trees in Florida, by J. R. King, P. J. Jutras and W.
L. Thompson. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 16-21. 1959.
986. Chlorotic Ringspot of Vanda Orchid Caused by Cymbidium Mosaic
Virus, by M. K. Corbett. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 398-403. 1959.
988. Measurement of Color Changes in Green Beans by A. L. Shewfelt
and R. A Dennison. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 276-280. 1959.
989. Watermelon Spacing and Fertilization, by L. H. Halsey. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 72: 131-135. 1959.
990. Factors Affecting Specific Gravity of Potatoes, by Donald L. Mhyre.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 202-204. 1959.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


991. Comparison of Characteristics in Commercial Aqueous Extracts
Orange Pulp Produced from Midseason and Late Season Fruit.
Introduction and Some Characteristics in Aqueous Extracts of Oran
Pulp, by R. L. Huggart, R. W. Olsen, F. W. Wenzel, F. W. Barr
and G. H. Ezell. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 221-239. 1959.
992. II. Pectic Substances and Related Characteristics in Aqueous Extrac
of Orange Pulp, by A. H. Rouse, C. D. Atkins, E. L. Moore. Fl
State Hort. Soc. 72. 1959.
993. III. Microbiological Characteristics in Aqueous Extracts of Orang
Pulp, by E. C. Hill and Roger Patrick. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 7
1959.
994. Effects of Spacing Between Rows and Between Plants on Growth an
Yield of Three Celery Varieties, by Howard W. Burdine and V.
Guzman. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 145-150. 1959.
995. A Food Grinder-Recording Ammeter Method for Measuring Bee
Tenderness, by J. A. Emerson and A. Z. Palmer. Food Technolog
14:5: 214-216. May 1960.
996. Further Studies on Factors Affecting Field Spread of Potato Viru
Y in South Florida, by John N. Simons. Phytopathology 50:6: 424
428. June 1960.
997. The Effects of Gamma Radiation on Chrysanthemum and Gladiolus
by T. J. Sheehan and Y. Sagawa. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 388-391
1959.
998. Greasy Spot in Florida Its Control and Apparent Cause, by Morti
mer Cohen. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 56-61. 1959.
999. Effectiveness of a New Insecticide for Scale Insect Control, by L. C.
Kuitert. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 395-398. 1959.
1002. Clinical and Hematological Studies on Pure Lungworm Dictyocaulus
viviparus (Bloch) Infections in Calves, by M. I. Djafar, D. V. M.
L. E. Swanson and R. B. Becker. Jour. of the Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc.
136:5. Mar. 1960.
1005. A Direct Microscopic Method for Detecting Antibiotic Activity in
Milk, by B. J. Liska. Jour. of Milk and Food Tech. 23:4: 117-121.
Apr. 1960.
1006. The Performance of DDT for Corn Earworm Control Over an Eleven
Year Period, by John W. Wilson. Fla. Entom. 43:1: 69-75. June,
1960.
1007. The Relationship of Firmness and Pectinesterase Activity of Tomato
Fruits, by C. B. Hall and R. A. Dennison. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 75:
629. 1959.
1008. A Phomopsis Stem Blight of Yellow Lupine (Lupinus Luteus L.), by
Stanley A. Ostazeski and Homer D. Wells. Plant Disease Reporter
44:1: 31-35. Jan. 15, 1960.
1010. Increased Winter Hardiness in Citrus from Maleic Hydrazide Sprays,
by Ivan Stewart and C. D. Leonard. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.
75: 253. 1959.
1021. The Effect of Copper Compounds on Control of Citrus Rust Mite
with Zineb, by Roger B. Johnson. Jour. of Econ. Entom. 53:3: 395-397.
June 1960.
1022. Aphid Control on Potatoes: A Brief History, by D. O. Wolfenbarger.
Jour. of Econ. Entom. 53:3: 403-405. June 1960.









Annual Report, 1960 97

)23. Incubation of Soil and Root Samples in Polyethylene Plastic for Im-
proved Recovery of Nematodes, by A. C. Tarjan. Plant Dis. Reporter
44:1: 66-67. Jan. 15, 1960.
24. Induction of Traps of Nematophagous Fungi Using Panagrellus redi-
vivus, by A. C. Tarjan. Nature 185:4715: 779-780. Mar. 12, 1960.
)50. Comparison of Insecticides, Insect Pathogens and Insecticide-Patho-
gen Combinations for the Control of Cabbage Looper Trichoplusa ni
(Hbn), by William G. Genung. Fla. Entom. 43:1: 65-68. June 1960.
355. Seasonal Populations of Citrus Insects and Mites in Commercial
Groves, by William A. Simanton. Fla. Entom. 43:1: 49-57. June 1960.
056. Effect of Variety and Maturity of Fruit on Acetymethylcarbinal and
Diacetyl Content of Fresh Citrus Juices, by E. C. Hill, F. W. Wenzel
and R. L. Huggart. Food Tech. 1960.
057. Film-Forming Sprays on Citrus in Florida, by John R. King, M.
Cohen, R. B. Johnson. Fla. Entom. 43:1: 59-64. June 1960.
059. Effect of Dietary L. Triiodothyronine and Protein Level on the Ac-
tivity of the Succinoxidase of the Heart and Xanthine Oxidase of
the Liver of Swine, by R. L. Shirley, H. D. Wallace, C. E. Norris,
J. W. Carpenter, G. K. Davis. Quarterly Jour. Fla. Acad. Sci. 23:1:
13-18. 1960.
061. Comparative Efficiencies of Three Methods for Extracting Nematodes
from Root and Soil Samples, by Sim6n Malo. Plant Disease Reporter
44:3: 217-219. Mar. 15, 1960.
062. Inheritance of Fruit Cracking in a Tomato Cross, by H. W. Young.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 207-210. 1959.
063. Effect of Age on Lipid Phosphorus, Ribo- and Desoxyribonecleic Acids
of the Heart and Muscle of Cattle, by R. L. Shirley, A. C. Warnick,
A. Z. Palmer, G. K. Davis. Quarterly Jour. of the Fla. Acad. Sci.
23:4. 1960.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ENTOMOLOGY

A new laboratory building containing controlled-temperature grow
chambers, a preparation and application room and a holding room is nea
ing completion. This building will provide facilities for evaluating insect
cides and miticides and for studying such physiological relationships as t
development in insects of tolerance to pesticides. The laboratory also wi
be used for research on the parasite-host relationships of certain nematod
and crop plants.
Members of the Entomology staff have cooperated with workers in oth
units on various research projects and there also has been a close working
relationship with the Extension entomologist. Work on pecan pests wa
in cooperation with the Entomology Research Division, USDA.

CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID PESTS OF
WOODY ORNAMENTALS
State Project 531 L. C. Kuitert and S. H. Ker
Earlier observations that tea scale eggs begin hatching concurrent
with the development of new camellia growth were substantiated. Th
insecticides used to control scale insects are more effective against th
immature forms than the adults, so treatments should be applied whe
immature stages are predominant.
The use of a new technique for handling material from control experi
ments makes it possible to examine larger leaf samples for insect mortality
counts. Scale-infested leaves placed in plastic bags in a refrigerator re
main fresh for several weeks with no deterioration in the condition of the
scales.
Dimethoate was the most effective of 7 treatments applied to camellias
for control of tea scale. Eight and 16 ounces active ingredients per 100
gallons gave excellent kills of adult and immature forms as well as eggs.
This is the first scalicide tested that has effective ovicidal properties.
In other tests, dimethoate gave outstanding control of soft brown scale
on scheffiera; pyriform scale and citrus whitefly on gardenia; black thread
scale on zamia; cotton aphid on hibiscus and rose; spider mites on camellia;
and privet mite on azalea. In addition it has been applied to dooryard
citrus, ligustrum, poinsettia, slash pine and viburnum without evidence of
phytotoxicity. Granular formulations applied to the soil of the container
controlled pyriform scale on gardenias and cotton aphid on hibiscus.
Tedion and Kelthane were the most consistently effective of 10 materials
tested for the control of two-spotted mites on roses.
Two concentrations of parathion spray were applied to Single Red
hibiscus plants. Half of the plants were thoroughly watered and the rest
were dry and slightly wilted at time of treatment. There was a slight
increase in chlorotic and mottled leaves on the watered plants while the
wilted plants were markedly affected within 72 hours.
(See also Project 889, Entomology Department.)

INTRODUCTION AND TESTING OF NECTAR AND POLLEN
PRODUCING PLANTS IN FLORIDA
State Project 583 F. A. Robinson
The white tupelo, Nyssa ogeeche Marsh., and water tupelo, N. uniflora
Wangenh., planted along the shores of Biven's Arm continued their rapid
growth and bloomed freely but again failed to produce any nectar or
enough to attract honeybees.








Annual Report, 1960


In spite of a very profuse bloom, no honeybees were observed visiting
he flowers of the fall blooming elm, Ulmus parvifolia L.
Again large numbers of hymenopterous insects, including honeybees,
Tere attracted to the bloom of everflowering locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L.
The yellow poplar trees, Liriodendron tulipifera L., continue to grow
ell, but even the 8-year-old trees, now about 20 feet tall, have not bloomed
ret.
PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON VEGETABLES
tate Project 650 R. E. Waites
Sprays containing parathion, DDT and toxaphene emulsifiable concen-
rates at rates of 2, 16 and 16 ounces active ingredient respectively per 100
gallons per acre were applied twice to collards in the following combina-
ions: parathion plus DDT; parathion plus toxaphene; parathion plus DDT
lus toxaphene. The same combinations were also applied twice to mustard
ut the insecticides were used at the rates of 8, 8 and 32 ounces active in-
redient of the respective materials per 100 gallons per acre.
Collards sampled 6 and 14 days after the last application showed para-
hion residues ranging from 0.51 to 2.01 ppm and 0.0 to 0.47 ppm for the
periods. After 14 days, residues of DDT ranged from 1.50 to 5.85 ppm
and toxaphene from 2.60 to 5.66 ppm.
Mustard sampled 6 and 14 days after the last application showed para-
thion residues ranging from 4.95 to 10.86 ppm and 0.0 to 1.56 ppm for the
respective periods. After 14 days, maximum residues of DDT were 1.53
ppm and toxaphene 8.44 ppm.
(See also Project 650, Food Technology and Nutrition Department,
Central Florida, Everglades and Gulf Coast Stations, and Potato Investiga-
tions Laboratory, and Project 699, Food Technology and Nutrition Depart-
ment.)

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECTS ATTACKING
CRUCIFEROUS CROPS IN FLORIDA
State Project 669 L. C. Kuitert
Cabbage, collards, mustard and turnips were planted for insect control
studies. Heavy rains washed out large areas of each crop, making it
necessary to replant the entire area. Insect infestations failed to develop
in the cabbage and collards, probably due to the intermittent rains and
cold weather. Infestations of the turnip aphid, Rhopalosiphum pseudobras-
sicae Davis, developed in the mustard and turnips about the time the crop
was mature and only 1 insecticidal application was made. Thiodan was
the most effective of 5 insecticides used. Results of this test are summarized
under Project 889. (See also Project 669, Central Florida, Everglades and
Gulf Coast Stations and Potato Investigations Laboratory.)

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID
PESTS OF TURF GRASSES
State Project 678 S. H. Kerr
Tests on the control of chinch bugs on St. Augustinegrass were con-
ducted in Miami, Fort Lauderdale and Daytona Beach. Trithion, at a
dosage of 7.25 pounds technical per acre, gave consistently excellent con-
trol with 1 application and was added to the list of recommended materials.
Ronnel, at 10 pounds technical per acre, gave consistently good control for
a 2-week period but a second application is recommended about 2 weeks
after the first in order to assure satisfactory long-term protection. Ethion
and American Cyanamid 18133 gave promising results in early trials.
Geigy 30494 gave excellent initial control in its first trials, although there