Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Report of the director
 Report of the administrative...
 Agricultural economics departm...
 Agricultural engineering depar...
 Agronomy department
 Animal husbandry and nutrition...
 Botany department
 Dairy science department
 Editorial department
 Entomology department
 Food technology and nutrition...
 Fruit crops department
 Library department
 Ornamental horticulture depart...
 Plant pathology department
 Plant science section
 Poultry husbandry department
 Soils department
 Statistical section
 Vegetable crops department
 Veterinary science department
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Everglades station
 Plantation field laboratory
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Range cattle station
 Subtropical experiment station
 Suwannee Valley station
 West central Florida station
 West Florida station
 Field laboratories

Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00007
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1959
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00007
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Report of the director
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Agricultural economics department
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Agricultural engineering department
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Agronomy department
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Animal husbandry and nutrition department
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Botany department
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Dairy science department
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Editorial department
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Entomology department
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Food technology and nutrition department
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Fruit crops department
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
    Library department
        Page 128
        Page 129
    Ornamental horticulture department
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Plant pathology department
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
    Plant science section
        Page 146
    Poultry husbandry department
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Soils department
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Statistical section
        Page 171
    Vegetable crops department
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Veterinary science department
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
    Central Florida station
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
    Citrus station
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
    Everglades station
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
    Plantation field laboratory
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
    North Florida station
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
    Range cattle station
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
    Subtropical experiment station
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
    Suwannee Valley station
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
    West central Florida station
        Page 375
    West Florida station
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
    Field laboratories
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
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        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
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        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
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        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
Full Text
, -' ,. L--







JUNE 30, 1959







JUNE 30, 1959

Report of Director ............ ..... -- .--...... ... ----... .. --- 11
Administrative Manager ............................. .... ......------.. -- -22
Agricultural Economics ..--.... ... --..... ............ ...................... 24
Agricultural Engineering ....-......-..--.-- .............--.----- .------- 39
Agronomy ...--.....--......--......-------...-- -------..... ---. ........ 48
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition .-.........-.........------- --- ---------- 67
Botany ............... --... -----... --- ....-.. -------- --- ------....... 83
Dairy Science .............. ............... ..... .. .. .................. 86
Editorial ..................................... ---- --- ------ ----- ----- 91
Entomology ......--..................--..... ------------ ------------- 101
Food Technology and Nutrition .........................------ ...-----..------ 111
Fruits Crops .............. ............... ..- .... ---- -- ... 119
Library ............................----... ----- ----------------------- 128
Ornamental Horticulture ..................... ..----- --------------- 130

Plant Pathology

-....-................................- 136

Plant Science Section ...............--------....------- ------------ 146
Poultry Husbandry ..---........-.......----...... ----------...-- 147
Soils .............---.-...-...-------------.---.. -------.--.------ 153
Statistical Section ...-.....--.......--..-..-..-- .........----- ------------ 171
Vegetable Crops ......- ....-- ...--------------.-- ------------------. 172
Veterinary Science ..........-- -.. ..- ....--- ------ ----- -- 183
Central Florida Station .........-----.......-.....---.-- .------------ 191
Citrus Station ....---......------... --........---------------------- 206
Everglades Station ......--.......-....--.....-------- --. ---- ---- -----. 266
Indian River Laboratory -.......-.......-...- .--------.... -------- 289
Plantation Laboratory ........-.....-- .....-.--..---- ------ --- 296
Gulf Coast Station ..............-.........-....---.....---.--.- ------ 302
South Florida Laboratory .................--...-- ----------------- 321
North Florida Station ............--....... ...--...--- .---.---------- 325
Range Cattle Station .-------.....--....----...--....-- --------- 341
Subtropical Station ....--............------.....--....----- ----------- 351
Suwannee Valley Station ................------...--- --------------------- 372
West Central Florida Station --....--.....-.....---.----.--- --------- 375
West Florida Station -..............- ------.----- ------...- -- --.-. 376
Frost Warning Service .----............----....-------- ---------------- 385
Potato Investigations ............--------------.....---------------- 387
Strawberry Investigations ..................-.....---- ---- ---------- 394
Watermelon and Grape Investigations .....- ---........-- -. --------------- 396


James J. Love, Chairman, Quincy
Ralph L. Miller, Orlando
J. J. Daniel, Jacksonville
W. C. Gaither, Miami
S. Kendrick Guernsey, Jacksonville
James D. Camp, Ft. Lauderdale
Joe K. Hays, Winter Haven
J. Broward Culpepper, Executive Director, Tallahassee

J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., President
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for Agriculture
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Director
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Associate Director
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assistant Director
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Superintendent of Field Operations
W. H. Jones, M.Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Operations

The following abbreviations after name and title of Experiment Station
staff indicate cooperation with other organizations:
Coll. University of Florida College of Agriculture
USDA U. S. Department of Agriculture
USWB U. S. Weather Bureau
Ext. University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service
FCC Florida Citrus Commission
SPB State Plant Board

Agricultural Economics Department
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist and Head, also Coll. and Ext.
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist, also Coll.
J. R. Greenman, B.S.A., LL.B., Agricultural Economist, also Coll.
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricultural Economist, also Coll.
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
L. A. Reuss, M.S., Agricultural Economist, USDA
J. B. Owens, B.S., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
G. A. Rowe, B.S.A., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
J. C. Townsend, B.S.A., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Marketing Economist, also Coll.
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist
C. N. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist
C. E. Murphree, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, also Coll.
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate Agricultural Economist (on leave to Costa
Rica Project)
G. N. Rose, B.S., Associate Agricultural Economist, Orlando
L. A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist
W. B. Riggan, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, also Coll.
B. W. Kelly, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist, Orlando
C. L. Crenshaw, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA, Orlando
G. L. Capel, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA
K. M. Gilbraith, M.S.A., Assistant in Research, USDA

L. V. Dixon, M.S.A., Assistant in Research, USDA
G. R. Powell, M.S., Research Associate
W. T. Manley, Ph.D., Interim Assistant Agricultural Economist
C. D. Covey, B.S.A., Interim Assistant in Research

Agricultural Engineering Department
D. T. Kinard, Ph.D., Agricultural Engineer and Head
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer, also Coll.
E. K. Bowman, B.S., Associate Industrial Engineer, USDA
E. S. Holmes, M.E., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
G. E. Yost, B.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA

Agronomy Department
F. H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist and Head
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
K. D. Butson, M.S., State Climatologist, USWB
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist, also Coll.
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
F. Clark, M.S.A., Associate Agronomist
E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
A. J. Norden, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
O. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, also Coll.
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, also Coll.
P. L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
G. M. Prine, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
D. B. Linden, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, also Coll.
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
S. H. West, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
K. Hinson, Ph.D., Cooperative Agent, USDA
D. J. Drago, B.S., Research Associate

Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman and Head, also Coll. and Ext.
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist, also Coll.
M. Koger, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman, also Coll.
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist, also Coll.
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman, also Coll.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman, also Coll.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Associate Physiologist, also Coll.
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Acsociate Animal Husbandman, also Coll.
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist, also Coll.
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
G. E. Combs, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman, also Coll.
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman, also Coll.
J. T. McCall, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist

Botany Department
G. R. Noggle, Ph.D., Botanist and Head, also Coll.
W. M. Dugger, Ph.D., Associate Physiologist
H. J. Teas, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
Yoneo Sagawa, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist, also Coll.
D. B. Ward, Ph.D., Assistant Botanist, also Coll.

Dairy Science Department
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist and Head, also Coll.
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman, also Coll.
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist, also Coll.
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman, also Coll.

W. A. Krienke, M.S., Associate Dairy Technologist, also Coll.
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Husbandman
B. J. Liska, Ph D., Assistant Dairy Technologist, also Coll.
P. T. D. Arnold, M.S.A., Associate Dairy Husbandman, also Coll.

Editorial Department
J. F. Cooper, M.S.A., Editor and Head, also Ext.
W. G. Mitchell, M.S.A., Assistant Editor, also Ext.
R. C. Orr, B.S., Assistant Editor
Margaret S. Jensen, B.S., Assistant Editor

Entomology Department
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist and Head
L. C. Kuitert, Ph. D., Entomologist
J. R. Christie, Ph.D., Nematologist
V. G. Perry, Ph.D., Nematologist, also Coll.
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D.. Assistant Entomologist
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Assistant Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant Entomologist

Food Technology and Nutrition Department
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biochemist and Head, also Coll.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulturist, also Coll.
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
R. J. Vilece, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist, also Coll. (on leave of absence)
H. P. Pan, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
Ruth 0. Townsend, R.N., Assistant in Nutrition

Fruit Crops Department
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head, also Coll.
J. S. Shoemaker, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. L. Barrows, M.S., Chemist. USDA
C. B. Shear, M.S., Plant Physiologist, USDA
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Associate Horticulturist
R. H. Biggs, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist

Library Department
Ida K. Cresap, Librarian
A. C. Strickland, M.S., Assistant Librarian
Janie L. Tyson, Assistant in Library

Ornamental Horticulture Department
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head, also Coll. and Ext.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Horticulturist
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Associate Turf Technologist, also Coll.
J. N. Joiner, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist, also Coll.
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

Plant Pathology Department
P. Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head, also Coll.
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. West. M.S., Botanist and Mycologist, also Coll.
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, USDA
R. C. Orellana, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist, USDA
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist

M. K. Corbett, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
S. A. Ostazeki, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist, USDA

Plant Science Section
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Geneticist in Charge

Poultry Husbandry Department
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman and Head, also Coll. and Ext.
R. H. Harms, Ph.D., Associate Poultry Husbandman, also Coll.
F. R. Tarver, Jr., M.S., Assistant Poultry Husbandman, also Coll.
R. E. Cook, Ph.D., Assistant Poultry Husbandman
C. R. Douglas, B.S., Interim Assistant in Poultry Husbandry

Soils Department
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist and Head, also Coll.
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soils Technologist
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Associate Soils Microbiologist
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist (on leave to Costa
R. J. Bullock, B.S.A., Interim Assistant in Soils
J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist, also Coll.
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Associate Soils Surveyor
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Associate Soils Physicist, also Coll.
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist, also Coll.
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
W. T. Jacobs, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Soils Surveyor
T. C. Mathews, B.S.A., Assistant Soils Surveyor
W. H. Thames, M.S., Interim Assistant in Soils, also Coll.
R. F. Christmas, B.S., Interim Assistant in Soils

Rica Project)

Statistical Section
A. E. Brandt, Ph.D., Statistician and Head

Vegetable Crops Department
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head, also Coll. and Ext.
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist, also Coll.
S. J. Locascio, M.S., Interim Assistant Horticulturist, also Coll.
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist, also Coll.
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
D. D. Gull, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

Veterinary Science Department
W. R. Pritchard, Ph.D., Veterinarian and Head, also Coll.
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. Ristic, D.V.M., Bacteriologist
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist, also Coll.
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Veterinarian, also Coll.
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian, also Coll.
A. J. Kniazeff, D.V.M., Associate Virologist
F. H. White, Ph.D., Assistant Bacteriologist
D. D. Cox, Ph.D., Assistant Parasitologist
W. M. Stone, Jr., M.S., Assistant in Parasitology
Jane D. Beck, M.S., Assistant in Bacteriology
R. E. Creel, B.S., Interim Assistant in Bacteriology


R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist

H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
L. L. Sebring, M.S., Assistant in Library
Harvesting and Packing Section
W. Grierson Ph.D., Associate Chemist
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
E. F. Hopkins, Ph.D., Plant Physiologist, FCC
G. E. Coppock, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, FCC
A. A. McCormick, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist, FCC
M. F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist, FCC
Production Section
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Nematologist
W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Entomologist
A. W. Feldman, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, SPB
D. W. Clancy, Ph.D., Entomologist, USDA
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
I. Stewart, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D. Associate Horticulturist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
A. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
J. J. McBride, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
C. I. Hannon, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
P. J. Jutras, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
D. W. Kretchman, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
Francine E. Fisher, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
H. O. Sterling, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
L. M. Sutton, B.S., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
C. H. Hendershott, M.S., Assistant Plant Physiologist, FCC
Processing Section
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Chemist
R. Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist

A. H. Rouse, M.S., Pectin Chemist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Chemist, FCC
R. R. McNary, Ph.D., Biochemist, FCC
E. L. Moore. Ph.D., Chemist, FCC
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Associate Chemist
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Associate Chemist, FCC
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
S. K. Long, Ph.D., Assistant Industrial Bacteriologist
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Assistant Chemical Engineer, FCC
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Assistant Bacteriologist, FCC
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Ass:stant Chemist, FCC
R. W. Barron, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry, FCC
K. C. Li, Ph.D., Interim Assistant Food Technologist
Indian River Field Laboratory, Fort Pierce
M. Cohen, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
J. R. King, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
R. R. Hunziker, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist

W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
Fiber and Engineering Section
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engineer
M. H. Byrom, M.S., Agricultural Engineer, USDA
C. C. Seale, D.I.C.T.A., Associate Agronomist
D. W. Fisher, M.S., Associate Agronomist, USDA
T. E. Summers, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist, USDA
H. D. Whittemore, B.S.A.E., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
D. S. Harrison, M.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
R. E. Hellwig, B.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
F. D. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Geneticist, USDA
J. F. Joyner, Assistant Agronomist, USDA
Soils and Chemistry Section
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
Horticulture Section
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Associate Horticulturist
V. Guzman, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
Agronomy Section
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
Ferdinand leGrand, M.S., Assistant Agronomist
W. J. Wiser, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
Plant Pathology Section
J. N. Simons, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
P. L. Thayer, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
Entomology Section
W. G. Genung, M.S., Associate Entomologist
E. D. Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
Animal Husbandry Section
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Animal Husbandman
H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman
C. E. Haines, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman

Indian River Field Laboratory, Fort Pierce
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Entomologist
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist (on leave to Costa Rica
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
J. A. Winchester, M.S.A., Interim Assistant Agronomist
Plantation Field Laboratory, Fort Lauderdale
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer, USDA
H. A. Weaver, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
D. E. Seaman, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist, USDA

GULF COAST STATION, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Bradenton
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. G. Kelsheimer. Ph.D., Entomologist
R. O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
D. G. A. Kelbert, Associate Horticulturist
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
C. R. Jackson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
Amegda J. Overman, M.S., Assistant Soil Microbiologist
South Florida Field Laboratory, Immokalee
P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Chemist

W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist, Acting in Charge
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
F. S. Baker, Jr., B.S.A., Associate Animal Husbandman
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
H. W. Young. Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
W. D. Woodward, M.S., Assistant Soils Chemist
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Assistant Entomologist
T. E. Webb, B.S.A., Assistant Agronomist
Chipley Unit
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
Marianna Unit
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman
C. L. Dantzman, M.A., Research Associate

SUBTROPICAL STATION, Route 1, Box 560, Homestead
G. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Horticulturist

F. B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. B. Ledin, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
L. A. McFadden, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist in Charge

W. C. Burns, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman, Acting in Charge, USDA

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
R. L. Jeffers, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist

Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
D. L. Myhre, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
R. B. Workman, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
Pecan Investigations Laboratory, Monticello
J. R. Large, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Associate Entomologist, USDA
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory, Plant City Box 2386, Lakeland
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, Box 321, Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
W. C. Adlerz, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture
Weather Forecasting Service, Lakeland
W. O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in Charge, USWB
D. C. Russell, B.S., Associate Meteorologist, USWB
L. E. Hughes, M.S., Associate Meteorologist, USWB
P. A. Mott, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
J. G. Georg, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
B. H. Moore, B.A., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
O. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
L. L. Benson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
H. W. Davis, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB
R. T. Sherouse, Assistant Meteorologist, USWB


Because of the straitened financial situation of the state, induced in part
by the freezes of 1957-58 and in part by the national recession, funds were
not released for many of the buildings and major facilities for which appro-
priations were made by the 1957 Legislature. During the 1959 legislative
session just completed, funds for most of these were not reappropriated.
Perhaps the most serious loss to the state's agricultural future was the
failure to reappropriate funds for the proposed basic plant science research
building. However, preliminary planning funds had been released, and
detailed preliminary plans developed with the firm of J. Gamble Rogers,
Lovelock and Fritz of Orlando for this facility. The complete climate
controls planned for this facility were expected to provide basic research
information on plants and on plant pests which could then be used in
practical field experimentation on problems which cannot now be resolved
because of the lack of such basic knowledge. Life history studies with
insects, climate effects on enzyme systems of insects, plants and viruses
are a few of the types of studies needed.
However, some new facilities were constructed during the year. Most
important of these is a $48,000 addition to the main building at the Indian
River Field Laboratory at Ft. Pierce, which is under construction. We are
negotiating for a new tract of land at the Potato Investigations Laboratory
at Hastings, for which a $15,000 appropriation was available. A land ex-
change was arranged whereby a new 200-acre tract was secured for use
by the Gulf Coast Station at Bradenton, in exchange for 85 acres of the
old farm.
The total program of the Experiment Stations expanded sharply during
the year. Some 65 new projects were started, as against 15 old ones com-
pleted and closed out. The present total of active projects (416) is the
largest in history. Results are separately reported for each.


An effective state-wide agricultural research program requires con-
siderable cooperation among various individuals. Many of the research
projects are prepared by staff members of 2 or more departments, branch
stations or field laboratories. The team approach toward the solution of a
problem is important in the present era of high specialization. The project
work of each individual research worker is reported under the respective
unit. The cooperative work of others is appropriately footnoted.
In a few cases, 1 report is made to cover the work of 2 or more depart-
ments. In these cases, the report is listed in only 1 place and appropriate
cross-references are made.
Work conferences are conducted during the year. Ideas are exchanged,
work plans coordinated and research results evaluated. Separate confer-
ences include researchers in animal husbandry, entomology, vegetable crops,
pastures, plant pathology and weed control. Also, there is a constant ex-
change of ideas and information on an informal basis by all staff members.
Field days, short courses and conferences are held by various depart-
ments, branch stations and field laboratories, at which time demonstrations,
research underway and results are reported. The public is cordially invited
and urged to attend these meetings.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Sterling K. Long, Asst. Ind. Bacteriologist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1958.
Donald W. Clancy, Entomologist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1958.
Alexis J. Kniazeff, Assoc. Virologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., July 1, 1958.
Thomas C. Mathews, Asst. Soil Surveyor, Soils Dept., July 1, 1958.
Ralph B. Workman, Jr., Asst. Entomologist, Potato Investigations Lab.,
July 1, 1958.
Yoneo Sagawa, Asst. Botanist, Botany Dept., July 1, 1958.
Harold W. Young, Asst. Horticulturist, North Fla. Sta., July 1, 1958.
Tzu Liang Yuan, Asst. Chemist, Soils Dept., July 1, 1958.
Charles F. Hinz, Int. Asst. Biochemist, Vet. Sci., July 1, 1958.
Sherlie Hill West, Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., USDA, July 1, 1958.
Ferdinand le Grand, Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Station, July 16, 1958.
Russell F. Christmas, Interim Asst. in Soils, Soils Dept., Aug. 1, 1958.
Wilson B. Riggan, Asst. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., Aug. 1, 1958.
Hou-Ping Pan, Asst. Biochemist, Food Tech. & Nutri. Dept., Aug. 1, 1958.
Drayton T. Kinard, Ag. Engineer & Head, Ag. Eng. Dept., Aug. 16, 1958.
Victor Guzman, Assoc. Horticulturist, Everglades Experiment Sta., Sept. 1,
Ray E. Creel, Asst. in Bacteriology, Vet. Sci. Dept., Sept. 1, 1958.
Jane D. Beck, Asst. in Bacteriology, Vet. Sci. Dept., Sept. 1, 1958.
Kuang Chiu Li, Ph.D., Int. Asst. Food Technologist, Citrus Sta., Sept. 1, 1958.
Robert E. Cook, Asst. Poultry Husbandman, Poultry Dept., Sept. 1, 1958.
Daniel B. Ward. Asst. Botanist, Botany Dept., Sept. 1, 1958.
William Davis Woodward, Asst. Soils Chemist, North Fla. Sta., Oct. 1, 1958.
A. E. Brandt, Statistician and Head, Statistical Section, Nov. 1, 1958.
Richard Clifton Orr, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., Nov. 1, 1958.
Dwain D. Gull, Asst. Horticulturist, Veg. Crops Dept., Nov. 15, 1958.
Vernon G. Perry, Nematologist, Entomology Dept., Jan. 1, 1959.
Salvadore J. Locascio, Int. Asst. Horticulturist, Veg. Crops Dept., Feb. 15,
Charles L. Dantzman, Research Assoc., Range Cattle Sta., Mar. 1, 1959.
James A. Winchester, Int. Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Sta., Mar. 1, 1959.
Leila L. Sebring, Asst. in Library, Citrus Sta., Mar. 10, 1959.
Charles Hendershott, Asst. Plant Physiologist, Citrus Sta., Apr. 1, 1959, FCC.
Bruce William Kelly, Assoc. Ag. Economist, Ag. Econ. Dept., May 16, 1959.
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Assoc. Agronomist, Everglades Sta., July 1, 1958.
S. P. Marshall, Dairy Husbandman and Prof. of Dairy Husb., Dairy Sci.
Dept., July 1, 1958.
M. R. Godwin, Ag. Mkgt. Economist and Prof. Ag. Econ., Ag. Econ. Dept.,
July 1, 1958.
J. T. McCall, Asst. Chemist, Ani. Husb. & Nutri. Dept., July 1, 1958.
J. P. Feaster, Assoc. Biochemist, Ani. Husb. & Nutr. Dept., July 1, 1958.
C. H. Van Middelem, Assoc. Biochemist, Food Tech. & Nutri. Dept., July 1,
R. Hendrickson, Assoc. Chemist, Citrus Sta., July 1, 1958.
R. B. Johnson, Assoc. Entomologist, Citrus Sta., July 1, 1958.
A. H. Rouse, Pectin Chemist, Citrus Sta., July 1, 1958.
A. C. Tarjan, Nematologist, Citrus Sta., July 1, 1958.
M. H. Muma, Entomologist, Citrus Sta., July 1, 1958.
F. S. Baker, Jr., Assoc. Ani. Husb., North Fla. Sta., July 1, 1958.
W. G. Genung, Assoc. Entomologist, Everglades Sta., July 1, 1958.

Annual Report, 1959

R. B. Ledin, Assoc. Horticulturist, Subtropical Sta., July 1, 1958.
T. W. Young, Horticulturist, Subtropical Sta., July 1, 1958.
Robert J. Bullock, Int. Asst. in Soils, Range Cattle Sta. to Soils Dept. in
Gainesville, July 1, 1958.
W. G. Blue, Soils Dept. to Costa Rica Project Assignment, July 1, 1958.
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Everglades Sta. to Costa Rica Project Assignment,
Sept. 1, 1958.
R. W. Kidder, Everglades Sta. to Costa Rica Project Assignment, May 16,
Howard E. Ray, Asst. Soils Chemist, Everglades Sta., Aug. 16, 1958.
Arron S. Baker, Asst. Soils Chemist, North Fla. Sta., Aug. 31, 1958.
Willie E. Thompson, Asst. in Bacteriology, Vet. Sci. Dept., Aug. 31, 1958.
Floyd W. Williams, Asst. Ag. Econ., Ag. Econ. Dept., Sept. 15, 1958.
Charles A. Stookey, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., Oct. 31, 1958.
Robert M. Pratt, Assoc. Entomologist-Pathologist, Citrus Sta., Oct. 31, 1958.
Nai Lin Chin, Asst. Chemist, Everglades Sta., Oct. 31, 1958.
Jules P. Winfree, Asst. Soils Chemist, Everglades Sta., Oct. 31, 1958.
Charles F. Hinz, Int. Asst. Biochemist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Nov. 30, 1958.
Hugh A. Peacock, Asst. Agronomist, Watermelon & Grape Lab., Dec. 31,
Frederick E. Van Nostran, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Sta., Jan. 3,
Ruby M. Keen, Asst. in Library, Citrus Sta., Mar. 9, 1959.
John L. Malcolm, Assoc. Soils Chemist Subtropical Sta., Apr. 31, 1959.
Gene C. Nutter, Assoc. Turf Technologist, Ornamental Hort. Dept., May 5,
Joseph Bernard Liska, Asst. Dairy Technologist, Dairy Sci. Dept., June 30,
P. T. D. Arnold, Assoc. Dairy Husbandman, Dairy Dept., June 30, 1959.
R. W. Ruprecht, Vice Dir. in Charge, Central Fla. Sta., June 30, 1959.
Frazier Rogers, Ag. Engineer and Head, Ag. Eng. Dept., July 22, 1958.
L. J. Corbo, Asst. Virologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Mar. 7, 1959.


Commercial grants and gifts were accepted as support for existing
programs for the year ending June 30, 1959. Financial assistance is hereby
gratefully acknowledged.
Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois, under the leadership of
Dr. John W. Sites. Fruit Crops Department, research to determine the
physiological basis of the action of gibberellic acid and related compounds
on bud dormancy of fruit trees. $2,500.
Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois, under the leadership of
Dr. Herman J. Reitz, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, research
on the use of gibberellic acid and related materials for the purpose of
improving yield and quality of citrus fruits. $3,000.
Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois, under the leadership of
Dr. Ivan Stewart, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, research on the
use of Sucaryl on citrus trees for improving the taste of fruit. $1,000.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Allied Chemical Corporation, New York City, under the leadership of
Drs. J. J. McBride, R. B. Johnson, and John R. King, Citrus Experiment
Station, Lake Alfred, research on the use of Kepone for control of mites
and insects attacking Florida citrus crops. $2,000.
Allied Chemical Corporation, New York City, under the leadership of
Dr. Herman J. Reitz, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, equipment
for making analyses in connection with the use of Kepone for the control
of mites and insects. $840.
Allied Chemical Corporation, New York City, under the leadership of
Dr. W. G. Kirk, Range Cattle Station, Ona, research on the economic value
of Feran and Uran for pasture grasses with respect to forage yields and
protein production as affected by rates, methods, and time of application.
American Cyanamid Company, Pearl River, New York, under the
leadership of Dr. H. D. Wallace, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Depart-
ment, research on the value of Aspartocin and Chlortetracycline in swine
feeds. $2,500.
American Cyanamid Company, Pearl River, New York, under the leader-
ship of Dr. W. R. Pritchard, Veterinary Science Department, research
conducting studies on the virus diarrhea-mucosal disease complex of cattle.
American Cyanamid Company, New York City, under the leadership of
Dr. Herman J. Reitz, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, research
on the use of parathion, malathion and similar materials for fruits in
Florida. $2,000.
American Dehydrators Association, Kansas City, Missouri, under the
leadership of Dr. A. C. Warnick, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Depart-
ment, research entitled, "The Effect of Protein Level and Dehydrated Alfalfa
Meal on Reproductive Performance of Young Lactating Beef Heifers on
a Grass Hay Wintering Ration." $2,500.
American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, under the leader-
ship of Dr. A. Z. Palmer, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department,
research on factors influencing beef tenderness. $2,600.
American Orchid Society, Cambridge, Massachusetts, under the leader-
ship of Dr. T. J. Sheehan, Ornamental Horticulture Department, research
studying the effects of nutrition and potting media on growth and flowering
of epiphytic orchids. $1,000.
American Potash Institute, Washington, D. C., under the leadership of
Dr. F. B. Smith, Soils Department, research on the potassium needs of
Florida soils and to correlate soil tests with crop response in field experi-
ments. $2,000.
Armour and Company, Chicago, Illinois, under the leadership of Dr. H.
L. Chapman, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, research in
establishing the value of new feed additives in cattle. $3,000.
Beechnut Life Savers, Canajoharie, New York, under the leadership of
Dr. R. W. Ruprecht, Central Florida Experiment Station, Sanford, research
for finding a suitable carrot variety for canning and determining best
practices for producing. $500.
California Spray-Chemical Corporation, Haddonfield, New Jersey, under
the leadership of Dr. W. M. Dugger, Botany Department, research for the
purpose of correlating metabolic shifts with morphological changes in
plants. $3,000.
California Spray-Chemical Corporation, Richmond, California, under the
leadership of Dr. Herman J. Reitz, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred,

Annual Report, 1959 15

research for the purpose of conducting investigations on the use of Cali-
fornia Spray-Chemical's products for the control of insects, diseases or
nematodes attacking Florida citrus. $3,000.
California Spray-Chemical Corporation, Moorestown, New Jersey, under
the leadership of Dr. W. T. Forsee, Jr., Everglades Experiment Station,
Belle Glade, research on the use of Ortho Dibrom, Ortho Phosphamidon,
Ortho Spray-sticker for the control of insects. $700.
California Spray-Chemical Corporation, Richmond, California, under
the leadership of Dr. E. L. Spencer, Gulf Coast Experiment Station, Braden-
ton, research on the use of Ortho Dibrom, Ortho Phosphamidon, Ortho
Spray-sticker for the control of insects. $750.
California Spray-Chemical Corporation, Richmond, California, under the
leadership of Dr. D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station,
Homestead, research on the use of Ortho Dibrom, Ortho Spray-sticker for
the control of insects. $1,000.
CIBA Pharmaceutical Products, Inc., Summit, N. J., under the leadership
of Dr. Herbert L. Chapman, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade,
research on the effect of Serpasil, with and without diethylstilbestrol on steers
being fattened on pasture and the effect of Serpasil upon in-transit shrink
and carcass characteristics of beef steers. $4,500.
Commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana, under the
leadership of Dr. H. D. Wallace, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Depart-
ment, research on antibiotic combination for growing swine with special
emphasis on Zinc Bacitracin. $3,000.
Commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana, under the leader-
ship of Dr. George K. Davis, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department,
research on the value of the preserved silage as animal feed. $4,500.
Commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana, under the leader-
ship of Dr. H. L. Chapman, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade,
research on the value of certain products as silage preservatives and the
value of the preserved silage as animal feed.
Continental Can Company, New York City, under the leadership of
Dr. Herman J. Reitz, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, research
for the purpose of developing some rapid methods of determining the
stability of frozen concentrate. $10.000.
Mars Cooper, Poultry Health Service, Jacksonville, Florida, under the
leadership of Mr. N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry Department, one Egomatic
grader, one Egomatic take-away conveyor, and one Egomatic counter as-
sembly. $800.
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington 98, Delaware, under
the leadership of Dr. Robert H. Harms, Poultry Department, research to
conduct investigations on protein levels and methionine hydroxy analogue
calcium in laying rations. $1,200.
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington 98, Delaware, under
the leadership of Dr. R. A. Conover, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station,
Homestead, research for the purpose of conducting investigations on the
use of fungicides in the control of diseases on tomatoes and other vegetable.
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington 98, Delaware, under
the leadership of Dr. Gene Nutter, Ornamental Horticulture Department,
research studying the effect of different rates, frequencies and sources of
nitrogen on turf grasses. $2,250.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Ferro Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, under the leadership of Dr. F. B.
Smith, Soils Department, research on the availability of minor elements
in FN-501, FN-502, and RL-95. $2,500.
Florida Celery Growers, Belle Glade, Florida, under the leadership of
Dr. W. T. Forsee, Jr., Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, a
climate-controlled greenhouse. $8,904.
Florida and Georgia Cigar Leaf Tobacco Association, Quincy, Florida,
under the leadership of Mr. W. H. Chapman, North Florida Experiment
Station, Quincy, research on the improvement of cigar-leaf tobacco through
breeding and selection. $10,000.
Florida Tomato Committee, Orlando, Florida, under the leadership of
Dr. H. G. Hamilton, Agricultural Economics Department, research on the
economic effect of pink tomato shipments upon the Florida tomato industry.
Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation, Lakeland, Florida, under
the leadership of Dr. John W. Sites, Fruit Crops Department, research on
the effect of wind machines and other devices and techniques for reducing
or preventing frost formation on tree fruits. $2,500.
Geigy Agricultural Chemicals, Yonkers, New York, under the leadership
of Dr. Earl G. Rodgers, Agronomy Department, research on the leaching
characteristics of simazine and related herbicides in Lakeland fine sandy
loam soil. $500.
Geigy Agricultural Chemicals, Yonkers, New York, under the leadership
of Dr. S. H. Kerr, Entomology Department, research on ornamental lawns.
Geigy Agricultural Chemicals, Yonkers, New York, under the leadership
of Dr. F. B. Smith, Soils Department, research on the effects of pesticides
on microbial action in the soil. $500.
Grange League Federation Exchange Soil Building Service, Ithaca, New
York, under the leadership of Dr. W. T. Forsee, Jr., Everglades Experiment
Station, Belle Glade, research on further evaluation of herbicides on muck
soil. $300.
Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, Jacksonville, Flor-
ida, under the leadership of Dr. E. W. McElwee, Ornamental Horticulture,
research on the effect of various plantbed amendments on soil physical and
chemical properties and turf quality under putting green conditions. $500.
Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation, Jackson, Mississippi, under
the leadership of Dr. J. R. Orsenigo, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle
Glade, research for furthering herbicides. $600.
Growers Administrative Committee, Lakeland, Florida, under the leader-
ship of Dr. H. G. Hamilton, Agricultural Economics Department, research
conducting investigations on improved methods of making estimates of the
citrus crop. $3,700.
Mr. Tom Huston, Miami, Florida, under the leadership of Dr. John W.
Sites, Fruit Crops Department, research on deciduous fruits. $2,000.
Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington, Delaware, under the leadership
of Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead,
research on the use of toxaphene and related materials for the control of
insects. $1,000.
Oscar Johnston Cotton Foundation, Memphis 12, Tennessee, under the
leadership of Dr. A. C. Warnick, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Depart-
ment, research to study the effect of cottonseed protein supplementation on
fertility and production of beef cattle. $1,500.

Annual Report, 1959

Kilby Steel Company, Anniston, Alabama, under the leadership of Dr.
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, a storage
bin to use in drying snapped ear corn and for bulk storage of grain for
livestock feed. $913.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis 6, Indiana, under the leadership
of Dr. R. O. Magie, Gulf Coast Experiment Station, Bradenton, research on
the study of Elcide for the treatment of gladiolus corms.
Martin County Flower Growers' Association, Stuart, Florida, under the
leadership of Dr. L. A. McFadden, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Home-
stead, research on the diseases of chrysanthemums and developing methods
of control. $2,000.
Merck and Company, Inc., Rahway, New Jersey, under the leadership
of Dr. H. D. Wallace, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department, re-
search on the addition of lysine to practical swine rations. $2,000.
Merck and Company, Inc., Rahway, New Jersey, under the leadership
of Drs. Fred B. Hull, G. R. Noggle, F. S. Jamison, R. W. Ruprecht, A. H.
Eddins, and G. D. Ruehle, in Agronomy, Botany and Vegetable Crops De-
partments, Central Florida Station, Sanford, Potato Investigations Labora-
tory, Hastings, and the Sub-Tropical Station, Homestead, respectively, re-
search on the use of gibberellic acid in our plant science studies. $7,500.
Climax Molybdenum Company, New York City, under the leadership of
Dr. W. T. Forsee, Jr., Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, research
on molybdenum requirements of vegetables and other crops. $1,000.
Climax Molybdenum Company, New York City, under the leadership
of Dr. W. T. Forsee, Jr., Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, re-
search on molybdenum deficiencies in the sandy soils of South Florida.
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. Louis 1, Missouri, under the leadership
of Dr. R. W. Ruprecht, Central Florida Experiment Station, Sanford, re-
search on the use of Monsanto herbicides on lettuce and sweet corn and
other crops. $500.
Monsanto Chemical Company, St. Louis 24, Missouri, under the leader-
ship of Dr. Robert H. Harms, Poultry Department, research on the value of
supplementing practical broiler feeds with various amino acids. $4,500.
Olin Mathieson Chemical Company, Baltimore, Maryland, under the
leadership of Dr. R. W. Ruprecht, Central Florida Experiment Station,
Sanford, research on the use of zinc and iron salts of Omadine and other
Omadine derivatives for control of early blight on celery. $1,000.
National Association of Artificial Breeders, Columbia, Missouri, under
the leadership of Dr. R. B. Becker, Dairy Science Department, research on
life span and usefulness of bulls. $1,000.
National Feed Ingredients Association, Des Moines, Iowa, under the
leadership of Dr. George K. Davis, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition De-
partment, research to investigate the effects of varying levels of trace
elements upon absorption, utilization, and tissue distribution of other
elements. $1,800.
National Potato Chip Institute, Ithaca, New York, under the leadership
of Drs. R. A. Dennison and A. H. Eddins, Food Technology Department and
Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings, respectively, research on the
effects of source of potash in the fertilizer on growth, yield, chemical com-
position and table and processing quality of potatoes. $1,200.
Charles Pfizer and Company, Inc., Terre Haute, Indiana, under the
leadership of Dr. T. J. Cunha, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Depart-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

meant, research on the evaluation of unidentified growth factors, antibiotics
and vitamins in swine nutrition. $2,500.
Charles Pfizer and Company, Inc., Brooklyn 6, N. Y., under the leader-
ship of Dr. Robert H. Harms, Poultry Department, research on inter-
relationship of Oleandomycin and Terramycin with dietary protein and
energy levels in Lysine supplemented laying hen rations. $1,500.
Charles Pfizer and Company, Inc., Brooklyn 6, N. Y., under the leader-
ship of Dr. H. L. Chapman, Jr., Everglades Experiment Station, Belle
Glade, research on the use of Tran-Q in fattening and wintering rations for
beef cattle. $1,000.
Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, Oklahoma, under the leader-
ship of Dr. F. B. Smith, Soils Department, research on methods of predict-
ing nitrogen fertilizer needs of Florida soils. $2,000.
Pioneer Growers, Inc., Belle Glade, Florida, under the leadership of
Dr. W. T. Forsee, Jr., Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, a
Beckman Zeromatic pH meter to be used in soil testing. $295.
Pitman-Moore Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, under the leadership of
Dr. W. R. Pritchard, Veterinary Science Department, assistance in develop-
ing virus research laboratory. $1,229.
Portland Cement Company, Atlanta, Georgia, under the leadership of
Dr. H. D. Wallace, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department, material
for constructing a "pig parlor". $1,200.
Rohm & Haas Company, Philadelphia 5, Pennsylvania, under the leader-
ship of Dr. Herman J. Reitz, Citrus Experiment Station, research on the
use of pesticides for the control of russeting and diseases attacking Florida
citrus. $3,000.
Rohm & Haas Company, Philadelphia 5, Pennsylvania, under the leader-
ship of Dr. George D. Ruehle, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead,
research investigating fungicides. $1,000.
Rhodia, Inc., New York City, under the leadership of Dr. G. E. Combs,
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department, research for testing optimum
levels of spiramycin in the diet of growing finishing pigs as compared to
other antibiotics. $3,000.
Reynolds Metal Company, Louisville, Kentucky, under the leadership of
Dr. H. D. Wallace, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department, material
for constructing "pig parlor". $1,200.
Shell Chemical Corporation, Atlanta 3, Georgia, research under the
leadership of Drs. P. Decker, W. T. Forsee, Jr., R. W. Ruprecht, and G. D.
Ruehle, of the Plant Pathology Department, Everglades Station, Belle
Glade, Central Florida Station, Sanford, and the Sub-Tropical Station,
Homestead, respectively, research for determining the use of certain chemi-
cals as related to Florida's agriculture. $3,300.
Shell Chemical Corporation, Atlanta 3, Georgia, under the leadership
of Dr. C. H. Van Middelem, Food Technology Department, research to
determine the amount of residues remaining on certain economic crops and
other materials of interest following treatment with insecticides. $2,500.
Shell Development Company, Modesto, California, under the leadership
of Dr. Vernon G. Perry, Entomology Department, research for the control
of nematodes under Florida conditions. $600.
Shell Development Company, Modesto, California, under the leadership
of Dr. R. W. Ruprecht, Central Florida Experiment Station, Sanford, re-
search on the use and adaptability of certain chemicals for the control of
weeds, nematodes, and plant diseases under Florida conditions. $800.

Annual Report, 1959

Smith, Kline, and French Laboratories, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, under
the leadership of Dr. H. L. Chapman, Jr., Everglades Experiment Station,
Belle Glade, research on the use of tranquilizing agents in cattle. $3,500.
Soft Phosphate Research Institute, Ocala, Florida, under the leadership
of Dr. George K. Davis, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Laboratory,
research on the availability of the phosphorus in soft phosphate with col-
loidal clay for livestock. $3,000.
Soft Phosphate Research Institute, Inc., Ocala, Florida, under the leader-
ship of Dr. Robert H. Harms, Poultry Department, research for studying
the various uses of various sources of phosphorous in poultry feeds. $3,000.
South Bay Growers, Inc., South Bay, Florida, under the leadership of
Dr. W. T. Forsee, Jr., Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, a Beck-
man Zeromatic pH meter to use in testing soil. $295.
Spencer Chemical Company, Kansas City, Missouri, under the leadership
of Dr. F. B. Smith, Soils Department, research on factors affecting com-
parative mobility of ammonium nitrate in soils. $1,500.
E. R. Squibb & Sons, New York City, under the leadership of Dr. H. D.
Wallace, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department, research on the
use of Mycostatin as a supplemental antibiotic in the ration of growing-
fattening pigs. $1,800.
State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida, under the leader-
ship of Dr. A. Z. Palmer, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, research to
study the use of artificial coloring in processed meat products. $2,000.
Stauffer Chemical Company, Mountain View, California, under the
leadership of Dr. E. 0. Burt, Agronomy Department, research on the use
of Eptam for the control of weeds in woody ornamentals. $400.
Stauffer Chemical Company, Mountain View, California, under the
leadership of Dr. Herman J. Reitz, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred,
research on the use of trithion in combination with other materials for the
control of scale insects and mites attacking citrus trees. $1,500.
Stauffer Chemical Company, Mountain View, California, under the leader-
ship of Dr. Ernest L. Spencer, Gulf Coast Station, Bradenton, 1 single-row
bed press to use with experimental work on soil herbicides, nematocides
and fungicides. $150.
The Tennessee Corporation, College Park, Georgia, under the leadership
of Dr. J. F. Darby, Central Florida Experiment Station, Sanford, research
on trace element materials and research with Tennessee copper fungicides.
The Tennessee Corporation, Atlanta 1, Georgia, under the leadership of
Dr. Ivan Stewart, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, research on the
influence of manganese on the amino acid content of citrus leaves. $800.
The Tennessee Corporation, College Park, Georgia, under the leadership
of Dr. W. T. Forsee, Jr., and Dr. E. L. Spencer, Everglades Station, Belle
Glade, and Gulf Coast Station, Bradenton, research on the response of vari-
ous crops including beans, peppers, tomatoes, etc. and to applications of
such iron-containing materials as Nu-Iron and iron sulfate. $1,500.
The Tennessee Corporation, College Park, Georgia, under the leadership
of Dr. R. O. Magie, Gulf Coast Experiment Station, Bradenton, equipment
to use on vegetable crops at the station. $325.
United States Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, Florida, under the leader-
ship of Dr. J. R. Orsenigo, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade,
research on the chemical control of weeds in sugar cane. $2,000.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

U. S. Golf Association, Green Section Research and Education Fund, Inc.,
College Station, Texas, under the leadership of Dr. E. W. McElwee, Orna-
mental Horticulture Department, research on the control of nematodes in
turfgrass. $1,000.
The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan, under the leadership of
Dr. T. E. Freeman, Plant Pathology Department, research on turf diseases.
Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation, Richmond, Virginia, under the
leadership of Dr. S. H. Kerr, Entomology Department, research on insect
control on lawns and ornamental plants. $300.
Frank D. Webber, Ormond Beach, Florida, under the leadership of Dr.
John W. Sites, Fruit Crops Department, research pertinent to the Peach
Improvement Program. $500.
Wedgeworth's Farm, Belle Glade, Florida, under the leadership of Dr.
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, a Beckman
Zeromatic pH meter to be used in soil testing. $295.
Williams & Vandergrift Farms, Pahokee, Florida, under the leadership
of Dr. W. T. Forsee, Jr., Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, a
Beckman Zeromatic pH meter to be used in soil testing. $295.
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Springfield, Massachusetts, under
the leadership of Mr. H. W. Lundy, Suwannee Valley Experiment Station,
Live Oak, research on the use of dehumidifiers in the curing of flue-cured
tobacco and related problems of chemical composition of tobacco leaf. $2,000.
Grants for basic research were accepted from national agencies as
Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, under the leadership
of Dr. A. T. Wallace, Agronomy Department, research entitled, "Recovery
of Induced Micromutations in Oats and Rye by Recurrent Selection."
Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, under the leadership
of Dr. John R. Edwardson, Agronomy Department, research entitled, "Cyto-
logical Study of Radiation Induced Alterations in Cytoplasmic Factors
Control on Male Sterility in Corn." $9,500.
Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, under the leadership
of Dr. T. E. Humphreys, Botany Department, research entitled, "Meta-
bolism and Transport of Carbohydrates in Plants." $8,500.
Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, under the leadership
of Dr. H. J. Teas, Botany Department, research entitled, "A Study of Tech-
niques for the Use of Gamma Radiation for Plant Improvement and Testing
the Nutritive Value and Storage Characteristics of Irradiated Agricultural
Products." $13,000.
Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, under the leadership
of Dr. H. J. Teas, Botany Department, research entitled, "Effect of Ionizing
Radiations on Geotropic Response in Plants." $9,900.
Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, under the leadership
of Dr. A. T. Wallace, Agronomy Department, research entitled, "Mutation
Research with Gamma Radiation at a Specific Locus in a Higher Plant."
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, under the leadership
of Dr. George K. Davis, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, research entitled,
"Dietary Trace Elements and Reproduction." $10,005.

Annual Report, 1959

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, under the leadership
of Drs. M. Ristic, F. H. White, D. A. Sanders, and M. Herzberg, Veterinary
Science Department, research entitled, "Vibriosis: A Comparative Study
of Vibrio fetus Strains Isolated from Infections in Humans and Domestic
Animals." $13,225.
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, under the leadership
of Drs. M. Ristic, F. H. White, D. A. Sanders, and D. B. Pratt, Veterinary
Science Department, research entitled, "Anaplasmosis of Cattle: A Study
of the Nature of the Causative Agent." $13,225.
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, under the leadership
of Drs. George K. Davis and L. R. Arrington, Animal Husbandry and Nutri-
tion Department, research entitled, "Dietary Trace Elements and Heart
Muscle Degeneration." $18,225.
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, under the leadership
of Dr. W. R. Pritchard, Veterinary Science Department, research entitled,
"The Viral Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease Complex." $17,928.
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, under the leadership
of Drs. Franklin H. White and Miodrag Ristic, Veterinary Science Depart-
ment, research entitled, "Detection of Leptospires with Fluoresceinlabeled
Antibody." $14,404.
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, under the leadership
of Drs. W. R. Pritchard and C. F. Simpson, Veterinary Science Department,
research entitled "The Cause of Dissecting Aneurysms of Turkeys." $29,097.
The National Science Foundation, Washington, D. C., under the leader-
ship of Dr. H. J. Teas, Botany Department, entitled, "Biosynthesis of Lysine
and Tryptophan in Higher Plants." $14,000.
The Nutrition Foundation, New York, N. Y., under the leadership of
Dr. George K. Davis. Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department, entitled,
"Quantitative Relationships of the Mineral Elements in Crop Production
and in Animal Nutrition." $2,500.



Salaries and wages .....................-...... .....
Travel ... ........ ..........-- ..... ..--------------- ....-
Transportation of things ..........--......... ......
Communications ..---......---..-.. .. .----....
Utilities .......... .........
R ental ..-.............-...--- .... .. ..................-- --
Printing -................. ........ .. ....... .... ..
Contractual services ..........---------.-..-.......
Supplies and materials ..........-............. ..-..
Equipment .....-- ....-------------------------......
Land and buildings -......... ...... --...-.....-.

Total expenditures ...........-- ..-.-....... ...-....-

Plus certifications forward 1958-59 .....................

Less certifications forward 1957-58 ..........- ....-

Less interdepartmental invoices .........................

Total disbursem ents .................................... -.....

Balance 6/30/59
Salaries .......................... ..----------------
Operating expense ..-.............................. ....-
Operating capital outlay ....... ............................

Total .........--. ..--........ ...... ......... .......... -...

GRAND TOTAL ......................... .. .........

Hatch Funds










Research Funds

$ 42,045.36






$ 65,730.32



$ 65,742.00

Act Funds

$ 12,948.29






$ 19,999.34



$ 20,000.00

Grand Total
Federal Funds











Salaries and wages ......................
T ravel .......................... ... -----------
Transportation of things .............
Communications ...........- .
Utilities .......-.. ...............-- .....---
R ental ..........-. .- .... ...... ....
Printing .................. ..
Contractual services --........
Supplies and materials .......-....-...
Equipm ent .... .......... ...--
Land and buildings ....................

Total expenditures .....................

Plus certifications forward .........

Total disbursements ................

Balance 6/30/59
Salaries ........... ... .... --.- ---...
Operating expense ....................
Operating capital outlay .............

T otal .............. ..... .......-.- ------

GRAND TOTAL ...................

Fla. Agri.
Sta. General




S 4,045,981.42



. 408519

Citrus Crop

$ 28,769.87












13,200.00 $115,094.94
11,430.90 6,476.62
309.40 1,493.77
62.10 1,536.93

25,002.40 452,990.94


25,002.40 460,596.32

2,000.00 214.57
997.60 5.39

2,997.60 221.80

$ 28,000.00 $460,818.12

Grants and
Donations Total
Funds State Funds

$173,949.89 $3,497,966.74
12,767.63 178,335.99
2,104.05 13,424.22
4,611.77 38,135.57
875.93 74,583.47
37,546.93 78,368.86
9,395.65 110,505.22
41,684.28 578,281.79
73,932.45 296,397.63
13,620.87 45,033.09

370,489.45 4,941,441.28


370,489.45 4,950,649.71

3.167.21 9,134.32
6,910.87 12,849.95
27,365.48 27,449.07

37,443.56 49,433.34

$407,933.01 $5,000,083.05

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research was conducted on 28 projects. One project was closed and
3 new projects were added-all in the area of marketing.

State Project 154 H. G. Hamilton and A. H. Spurlock
It is the purpose of this study to determine the factors that enable
cooperatives to operate successfully. Operating statements, financial state-
ments and pool analyses were obtained for 15 citrus cooperatives. Operat-
ing statements were obtained for 13 other cooperatives. Plans were de-
veloped for obtaining economic data on the operations of all cooperatives
operating in Florida in 1959.

Hatch Project 186 Zach Savage
The usual field and office work of closing accounts, making tabulations,
making comparisons of individual accounts with averages of comparable
citrus and issuing these and other materials in processed form to cooperat-
ing growers and to the industry generally was carried out.
Increased efficiency in citrus fruit production might be attained through
more intensive use of citrus land. Data for the 16 seasons of 1941-57
reveal that production per acre tended to increase with age of tree and
was faster where a large number of trees was set per acre. The increase
with age in closely set trees continued until the trees began crowding each
other. For example, yields of oranges with 40 to 49 trees per acre continued
to increase through 49 years of age. Data are insufficient to determine
yields at older ages. Yields on groves with settings of 90 to 99 trees per
acre increased substantially through the 34 year of age, when total yield
from age 5 through 34 was 3,175 boxes, or 72 percent more fruit than the
groves with 40 to 49 trees per acre. Yields decreased in the close settings
for the following 15 seasons, but at age 49 the close settings had produced
1,995 boxes more per acre than the wide spaced group. However, yields
of the closely spaced group were declining at a rapid rate between 40 and
49 years of age.
Yields were arrived at for a setting of 15.5 by 30 feet, with alternate
trees in predetermined rows at right angles to the rows of 15.5 foot spac-
ing to be progressively cut back as necessary to make room for the re-
maining permanent trees. Yields of the permanent trees would average
the same as other like settings where alternate trees were not set. Yields
were estimated for the alternate trees. By the 39th year there would be
few remaining alternate trees. These would then be removed and/or
transplanted. This combined method indicated 3,655 boxes per acre, or
35 percent more fruit, through ages 5 to 49 than a setting of 30 by 31 feet
for the same period, and 1,660 boxes, or 13 percent more than the double
setting of 15.5 by 30 feet.

State Project 345 A. H. Spurlock
Records were obtained on 5 dairy herds regarding inventory values,
replacements, life spans and causes of losses. These were added to the

Annual Report, 1959

results obtained in previous years to determine length of life and deprecia-
tion rates.
The life span of 2,961 replaced cows averaged 6.6 years, or about 4.6
years of usefulness in the milking herd. The rate of disposal increased
rapidly after the first year in the herd and after 3 years, only two-thirds of
the original number of animals remained. After 6 years only 30 percent of
the original animals remained.
Cows reaching the age of 10 had a life expectancy of 1.7 years and
averaged 11.8 years of life.
Live disposals from the herd were principally from low production,
25.2 percent; mastitis, or some form of udder trouble, 19.8 percent; and
reproductive trouble, 15.8 percent. These 3 reasons, or combinations of
them, were responsible for 71 percent of the live disposals. About 10
percent of the disposals were for unstated reasons.
Deaths from all causes accounted for 14.2 percent of all disposals. (See
also Project 345, Dairy Science Department.)

State Project 451 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw
and J. B. Owens'
This project is conducted in cooperation with and under the supervision
of the Crop Estimates Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA,
Orlando, Florida. Acreage, production and value of Florida vegetable crops
are estimated on a seasonal and annual basis.
During the fiscal year 1958-59 the regularly scheduled fresh market
estimates of acreages planted and harvest and production forecasts were
made on 6 fall, 14 winter and 11 spring vegetable crops. In addition,
processing estimates were made on cucumbers contracted for pickles,
spinach, snap beans and tomatoes.
Data are obtained for tomatoes under Project 822. The information
used in determining the other estimates was obtained through normal chan-
nels, mainly personal interviews, mail questionnaires and telephone. Twenty
periodic reports were released.
A personal interview survey underway at the beginning of the fiscal
year was completed. This survey was designed to obtain check data on
yields and production, and to ascertain monthly and seasonal prices. These
data were the basis for making county estimates of acreage and production
and revising the seasonal state estimates. The survey covered 229,000
planted acres, about 52 percent of the total.
Final figures for the 1957-58 crop year covered 440,150 acres planted,
369,950 acres for harvest. Production harvested totaled 30,411,000 cwt.
and was valued at $132,181,000.
These data were assembled into an annual statistical summary entitled
"Florida Vegetable Crops," Volume XIV, 1958. About 1,500 copies of this
report have been distributed.

State Project 480 D. L. Brooke
No field data were obtained on the cost of producing vegetables in the
1957-58 season. Data in such a disastrous year would be of little value to
growers, finance companies, extension workers or the general public.
1 Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

A comparison of costs and returns for Irish potatoes and cabbage on
small, medium and large farms in the Hastings area for the period 1952-53
to 1956-57 indicates the relatively poor competitive position of the small
farm in that area.
Small growers of cabbage, those having 40 or fewer acres, had lower
yields per acre, higher costs per unit of production and higher losses than
either medium- or large-sized growers. The average small grower lost
$0.28 per 50-pound sack during the period. Small growers of Irish potatoes
made a net profit of $0.24 per hundredweight while large growers, those
with more than 121 acres of potatoes, reported an average profit of $0.65
per hundredweight during the 5-year period. Differences in yields per
acre, materials costs and machine use were largely responsible for the
lower net returns to small growers of both crops.
Crop summary tables of costs and returns for major vegetable crops
during the 5-year period 1952-53 to 1956-57 were incorporated in the
mimeographed publication "Florida Vegetable Crops," Volume XIV, in
cooperation with leaders of State Project 451.

Hatch Project 602 W. K. McPherson and
(Regional SM-7) L. V. Dixon 2
This project is designed to determine the relative efficiency of different
methods used in marketing meat animals in Florida.
How well the retail prices of meat are reflected back through the mar-
keting channels to livestock producers is 1 indication of marketing efficiency.
A uniform system of grades facilitates this reflective process, but when
grades are determined subjectively there is the possibility of human error.
In estimating the carcass grade of a live animal, graders are not observing
the final product. Thus the problem of grade determination is magnified.
The proficiency with which graders can estimate carcass grades on
particular lots of cattle can be evaluated quantitatively by at least 3 meas-
ures: (1) bias of the estimates as measured by the average error-of-esti-
mate; (2) consistency of error as measured by the standard deviation of
the errors around the average error-of-estimate; and (3) variability of
the errors-of-estimates as measured by the conventional standard error of
estimate-in this case a standard deviation of the estimates about a line
representing the final carcass grades.

Hatch Project 619 L. A. Reuss and R. E. L. Greene
The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine trends in land utiliza-
tion and in pasture development and (2) costs of clearing land and develop-
ing improved pastures in central Florida.
The pattern of land use in Florida has been undergoing substantial
changes with rather marked differences within the state. In some areas
there are shifts from citrus groves to housing developments, from crop
and pasture land to groves, from undeveloped land to winter vegetables
and from native rangeland to improved pastures. The potential for such
changes remains large.
The direction of the land use changes in Florida depends on relative
2Cooperative with Marketing Research Division, AMS, USDA.
3 Cooperative with Farm Economics Research Division, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1959

returns from alternative uses of land. Therefore, individuals and groups
engaged in the agricultural industries and local, state and national officials
want to know what the potentials are for the future use of land and the
production likely to be obtained therefrom. Interest in these subjects will
likely continue in the future as population increases and the nature and
intensity of demand for land increases.
During the year a manuscript, "Cost of Clearing Land and Establish-
ing Pastures in Central Florida," was completed and published. The project
is closed with this report.

State Project 627 R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to study variations in beef production, using
a cow-calf program on a year-round basis, for different pasture programs
and breeding systems. A manuscript was prepared summarizing results
for the first 5 years. A summary was made of the costs and returns for
each of the 8 programs based on average inputs and production for the life
of the experiment. Costs for various operations were charged at what
it was estimated it would have cost to perform them on a commercial
On the all-grass programs, production of beef per acre was about twice
as high on high as on low rate of fertilizer programs. However, as the
rate of fertilizer was increased, production of beef increased less than cost,
so net income was reduced. During the first phase of the experiment,
Program 5 (an all-clover program with an intermediate level of fertility)
and Program 8 (a combination of native and improved pasture) were the
only programs on which values of beef produced were more than the esti-
mated net costs of production. In calculating costs on Program 8, a credit
was allowed for the estimated annual growth of timber on the native
pasture. (See also Project 627, Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Ani-
mal Husbandry and Nutrition and Soils Departments.)

State Project 638 R. E. L. Greene and G. L. Capel'
The main effort on this project was to continue the analysis of data
collected on a study of potato packinghouses in Florida and Alabama. A
mimeographed report was issued, "Packing Costs and Grading Efficiency
in Florida and Alabama Potato Packinghouses." A manuscript was pre-
pared on the cost of packing potatoes in 10-pound bags.
The study of the cost of packing and handling 10-pound bags of potatoes
was undertaken to compare costs for alternative methods available, and
to compare these costs for similar costs for packing 100-pound bags. Costs
were computed for 4 currently available methods of packing. The method
which required the lowest investment in equipment had the lowest costs
from the smallest volume which might be packed in 1 season up to about
20,000 hundredweights (200,000 10-pound bags). This method employed
a simple belt conveyor with filling stations along the side. For annual
volumes of more than 20,000 hundredweights, cost of packing 10-pound
bags was lower for the so-called roll-around table.
4 Cooperative with Market Organization and Costs Branch, Marketing Research Division,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Selection of 10-pound packing methods depends on certain factors in
addition to costs. Some of these are: (1) total investment required; (2)
ease with which the method is adaptable to the packinghouse and to
changes in the packinghouse; and (3) adaptability of the equipment to
moving between packinghouses and areas.

Hatch Project 647 R. E. L. Greene
Consideration was given to how the manuscript which is in hand could
best be synchronized with results of the work under Project 826. Results
of the 2 studies are complementary.

Hatch Project 651 W. K. McPherson
No primary data were collected during the year. The milk marketing
problems that are developing in the state were analyzed and some informa-
tion needed to suggest way and means of making the market more com-
petitive was assembled.

Hatch Project 656 J. R. Greenman and H. G. Hamilton
A manuscript entitled, "Inheritance Laws Affecting Florida Farms and
Farm Families," has been in the process of revision to clarify certain
points of law and to make the publication more readable. This manuscript
sets forth the Florida laws of inheritance with special reference to "farm
properties and farmers." It should be useful to farmers and those who
serve farmers in giving them a better understanding of how property is
distributed in the absence of a will and how a will may be used to accom-
plish the desires of the deceased.
Preliminary work has been continued in exploring the possibility of
undertaking a study entitled "Alternative Arrangements for the Control,
Development and Use of Water in Florida." This preliminary work has
included a review of all of the laws establishing agencies for the control,
development and use of water in Florida, a listing of the agencies doing
such work and an enumeration of their powers.

Hatch Project 664 M. R. Godwin, L. A. Powell, Sr.,
(Regional SM-22) and H. G. Hamilton
Information regarding characteristics of demand for various Florida
citrus products and the interrelationships among them will help the Florida
citrus industry evaluate the possibilities of alternative programs designed
to accomplish a more profitable utilization of the total citrus crop. Informa-
tion relating to the substitution among brands of frozen orange concentrate
would aid the concentrate industry in Florida in the formulation of pricing
and sales policies.
Efforts were made to develop an analytical procedure to establish the
substitution relationship among brands of frozen orange concentrate. The
basic data available for this investigation were obtained through the use

Annual Report, 1959

of vari-pricing techniques to generate data for an investigation of the
elasticity characteristics of the demand for frozen orange concentrate
( a description of the data generating procedure is given in the 1955 and
1956 Annual Reports).
Attempts to establish substitution relationships among brands of frozen
orange concentrate from the data available were unsuccessful because of
the inter-correlation among the price variables for the different brands.
Efforts to develop an econometric model to cope with this difficulty are being

State Project 666 D. L. Brooke, C. N. Smith
and H. G. Hamilton
Work on the tomato phase of this study included the preparation of a
statistical model for determination of the relationship between grade, size,
supply, firm and price during selected periods of the 1951-52 through the
1953-54 seasons. Two firms were chosen for initial testing of the model
and tabulation of required data is substantially complete.
Analysis on the snap bean phase of this study concerned the pattern of
distribution of Florida beans. Between three-fourths and seven-eighths of
Florida's snap beans are moved to market by truck. Rail movement is
largest only to the more distant market areas and to markets having rela-
tively poorer truck receiving facilities. During the 1952-53 and 1953-54
seasons about one-half the Florida volume was sold in markets in the
Southeast, one-fourth in the Northeast and between one-fifth and one-
seventh in the Southwest. Markets in the West and Canada absorbed
little of the Florida volume.
F.O.B. sales were the most important type of sale by Florida firms.
Consignment sales were relatively more important in 1953-54 in the Mid-
west, Northeast and West. Delivered sales were important in the Southeast.
Diversions of shipments en route to market were greater for consigned
and joint account type sales than for all other types of sale. Canners
purchased about one-third of the volume of the 9 firms studied and buying
brokers about one-fourth of the volume in the seasons studied. Commission
merchants handled one-fifth of the volume in each season and were most
important in the Norteast and Midwest.

AMA Project 679 C. N. Smith, D. L. Brooke
(ES-236) and H. G. Hamilton
Manuscripts on the marketing of foliage plants and ferns have been
prepared for publication.
The data on marketing practices of gladiolus growers during the 1956-57
season have been analyzed. Of the estimated 16,400,000 dozen spikes har-
vested by growers in that season, 6,800,000 were produced in the Fort
Myers area. The number of dozen gladiolus spikes harvested in other
areas were as follows: Bradenton 5,000,000; lower east coast 2,700,000;
and north Florida 1,900,000.
The major outlet for gladiolus continues to be wholesale commission
florists. Nevertheless, growers sold over half their supplies on an f.o.b.
or direct sale basis. The relative importance of various outlets in the
1956-57 season was as follow: consignment to wholesale commission florists

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

-47 percent; direct to wholesale florists-18 percent; direct to retail florists
-18 percent; direct to local buyers ("brokers")-12 percent; and other
outlets-5 percent.

State Project 685 B. W. Kelly and J. C. Townsend, Jr.'
Work on this project during 1958-59 continued for the collection of
production data by frame, limb and drop counts and with monthly size
measurements. The loss of trees presented some difficulties in determining
tree numbers for expansion of limb count data and resulted in indications
about 2.5 percent higher than the final outturn of the crop.
The original October production forecasts of grapefruit made from
these data was a ratio estimate using a 1956-57 base instead of the freeze
years 1957-58. For oranges, direct expansions were made.
Monthly counts of frontal rows to determine percent of crop harvested
were made.
These several objective counts and measurements, together with the
customary condition grower reports, resulted in forecasts of 85 million
boxes of oranges and 34 million grapefruit in October 1958. By the first
of July 1959, it is evident that these forecasts are very close to the final
outturn which will approximate 86 million boxes of oranges and 35 million
Work on this project is made possible by funds provided on a matching
basis by the Growers Administrative Committee and the Agricultural Mar-
keting Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Regional Research Project 700 C. N. Smith and D. L. Brooke
(Regional SM-12)
Problems and practices in merchandising cut flowers in supermarkets
were studied over a 17-week period from January through May. Seven
stores in Albany, Georgia, and 5 in Macon, Georgia, cooperated in the study.
The effect of an industry-sponsored promotion program on the sale of
flowers in Albany was observed. Chrysanthemums and gladiolus were
the 2 types of flowers utilized in the project.
Although analysis of the data generated in the study is still in process,
a preliminary appraisal indicates that consumers were not generally ac-
quainted with pompon chrysanthemums. If supermarkets are to handle
cut flowers on a more extensive basis and on 1 which is profitable for
both themselves and the flower industry, more appropriate methods and
devices for handling and displaying flowers must be developed. (See also
Project 700, Ornamental Horticulture Department.)

State Project 701 R. E. L. Greene
The Florida Milk Commission and the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations entered into a memorandum of understanding to undertake work
relating to the economics of dairy farming in the state. Work was started
to collect data on the cost of producing milk in each of the milk marketing
areas which are under the direction of the Florida Milk Commission.

5 Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1959

Complete labor income and cost of production records for the 1958
calendar year were collected for 31 farms in the northeast Florida area.
Work was started in the central Florida area. Plans are to collect records
for 34 farms. In each area data were available on the base gallons per
day for each dairy farmer for the 1959 base-setting period. The sample of
farms to be surveyed was randomly selected to represent all dairy farms
in various size groups. At the end of the year tabulation and analysis of
the records was in progress.

State Project 720 B. W. Kelly and J. C. Townsend, Jr."
The enumeration of Florida citrus tree population was completed in the
fall of 1957. The December 1957 freeze and other low temperatures in
January and February 1958 point up the need for the development of plans
for a perpetual inventory of citrus trees in the State.
Several sampling systems were developed this year by Agricultural
Estimates, Washington and Orlando staffs, and conferences were held
with the proposed operating agency-the State Plant Board. Work is
still in progress on this phase of the project.

State Project 788 M. R. Godwin
The rapid development of the practice of shipping pink tomatoes from
Florida has precipitated significant changes in the market structure and
organization of the Florida tomato industry. A study and evaluation of
the impact of this innovation in marketing methods for the Florida tomato
crop are of considerable importance to both growers and marketing agenices.
For a 2-week period beginning January 19, 1959, detailed information
was obtained from the worksheets of the Federal-State Inspection Service
regarding the exact grade composition of all individual samples taken
from 461 shipments of Florida tomatoes which were certified as to grade
and size. These data will be employed to determine the percentage grade
composition of lots of tomatoes shipped under various grade designaitons.
Also, an examination will be made of the variation in the percentage grade
composition associated with container type and size, and degree of maturity
of tomatoes.
These data have been processed so that machine methods can be em-
ployed in the analysis. The analytical procedure itself has not been initiated.

Hatch Project 791 H. G. Hamliton and F. J. Hoffer
The purpose of this project is to determine the best methods of market-
ing Florida honey; particularly with respect to sales, distribution, trans-
portation and cost of marketing service. I.B.M. tabulations of the data
for 6,760 sales invoices have been completed. Monthly sales of honey sold
in small containers in Florida are highest during winter and lowest in
summer months. Important sales outlets for honey packers in 1956 were:
wholesalers, 22.3 percent; chain stores, 21.5 percent; gift stands, 11.7 per-
cent; and to other honey packers, 17.3 percent. In both 1955 and 1956
more than 50 percent of honey packers' sales were made in Florida.

6 Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Project 796 L. A. Powell, Sr., H. G. Hamilton,
(Inter-regional IRM-1) C. E. Murphree and C. D. Covey
Because production control is an accepted feature of agricultural policy,
a need exists for information that will be useful in formulating agricultural
production programs better adapted to the needs and goals of farmers.
An analysis of information obtained from approximately 175 farmers
in the flue-cured tobacco area of north Florida has been completed. Data
relative to the equitability of income transfers through the tobacco pro-
gram was the basis for a thesis presented and accepted by the Graduate
School of the University of Florida in partial fulfillment of the require-
ments for the degree of Master of Science in Agriculture. It was con-
cluded that the feature of the tobacco program which maintains rigid
proportionality of allotted tobacco acreage among producers does not result
in the same degree of proportionality relative to net income transfers.
A mimeograph report entitled "Producers' Opinions of the Flue-Cured
Tobacco Acreage Control and Price Support Program" was released in
June. This report discloses that farmers possess a fairly high degree of
understanding of the economic objectives of the program and measures
utilized to achieve those objectives.
A tentative outline for a manuscript which will be presented for pub-
lication as a bulletin is currently being developed. Along with information
obtained directly from farmers, secondary data are being used to determine
the impact of the tobacco program upon the agriculture of the study area.

State Project 801 W. T. Manley and M. R. Godwin
The objective of this study is to ascertain and describe the nature of
the existing market for Florida avocados. This information will assist in
the adoption of practices designed to expand the market for avocados
through promotional activities.
The method of study involved a consumer survey in which personal
interviews were conducted with 1,738 families in Dayton, Ohio. Informa-
tion obtained concerning familiarity with, use-patterns of and opinions
about avocados.
A relatively small proportion of the families included in the survey
had purchased avocados for home consumption some time prior to the
interview. About one-fifth of the respondents were totally unfamiliar with
them. The use of this fruit was found to be more characteristic of high-
income than low-income families.
Among those who had used avocados, the consumption rate was extreme-
ly low. The most important reasons given for the infrequent use of avoca-
dos were a dislike for their taste and a lack of familiarity with ways to
prepare them for serving.

State Project 814 W. T. Manley and M. R. Godwin
This study is designed to provide producers and handlers of Florida
limes with information useful in the development of improved marketing
procedures and in the formulation of promotional programs.

Annual Report, 1959

In the fall of 1958 a survey involving personal interviews with 2,172
families was conducted in the market area of Dayton, Ohio. The informa-
tion obtained in this survey is designed to establish the relation between
various family characteristics and the use patterns for fresh limes and
frozen concentrated limeade, and to ascertain what consumers regard as
quality attributes for these products.
In addition to the consumer survey, interviews were conducted with
258 retail food store operators in the Dayton and Cincinnati, Ohio, market
areas. The objectives of these interviews were: (1) to determine the ex-
tent to which fresh limes and frozen concentrated limeade are handled by
type and size of retailing establishment. (2) to establish current mer-
chandising methods for fresh limes and frozen concentrated limeade, (3)
to ascertain what retailers regard as quality in fresh limes and (4) to
determine the extent of operational difficulties encountered by retailers
resulting from the present marketing system for fresh limes.
An analysis of the findings from the 2 surveys is currently in progress.

State Project 822 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw
and J. B. Owens
The purpose of this project is to give the Florida tomato grower and
personnel of allied industries accurate and current information regarding
tomato plantings, condition and progress of the crop throughout the grow-
ing and harvesting season.
The tomato industry was furnished information on plantings of tomatoes
in the 5 major areas of production on a weekly basis. These data were
summarized and published weekly beginning with the week of August 16,
1958, and continuing through June 1959.
In addition to the acreage planting data, there were pertinent comments
on condition and progress of the crop by areas, weekly rainfall and tem-
perature information and weekly carlot and truck shipments with historical
At the end of the season growers and shippers were surveyed as to the
value of the report and nearly unanimous approval was indicated. There
were close to 1,000 growers, shippers and others interested in receiving
the report.
Work on this project is made possible by funds provided on a matching
basis by the Tomato Marketing Agreement Committee and the Agricultural
Marketing Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

Hatch Project 826 L. A. Reuss," K. M. Gilbraiths
and R. E. L. Greene
The objectives of this study are (1) to determine and analyze forces
and conditions that operate to depress the economic welfare of residents of
low-income rural areas of north and west Florida and (2) to formulate
and evaluate alternative measures for promoting economic development in
these areas.
SCooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.
s Cooperative with Farm Economics Research Division, ARS, USDA.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

A survey was conducted in 20 counties of north and west Florida. Com-
plete records of resources, resource use and income were obtained from
730 families through personal interview. Tabulation of the data has been
substantially completed. Plans were made to publish the data in 2 mimeo-
graphed reports and a final bulletin. The initial publication entitled
"Sources and Levels of Income, Rural Households, North and West Florida,
1956," was mimeographed in November 1958. The final draft of a second
mimeograph report dealing with resources, resource utilization and income
has been completed. Substantial progress has been made toward com-
pletion of the final report.
Preliminary results of the study indicate that the basic problem in
Florida's low-income area is one of a serious imbalance of resources. This
is true both within the population as well as between the human and
physical resources of the area. Relative to the U. S. population, the study
area contains a population with substantially higher proportions of persons
under 20 years of age and above the age of maximum physical effort with
a considerably smaller proportion of persons in the productive age groups.
Households are characterized by large families, many families without
able-bodied male members and many family heads with very low levels
of education.
From the standpoint of commercial farming, the agricultural resource
base of many farm operators is extremely limited. On the basis of crop-
land used, over two-fifths of the farms are less than 40 acres in size.
Many of the farms have no mechanical power. The average values of farm
assets and operator net worth are very low. It is felt that the problem
of low farm income in the area is primarily one of scale rather than

AMA Project 856 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley
In the market centers of the eastern United States Florida celery must
compete directly with that grown in California. For Florida growers and
marketing agencies to improve their economic position in the celery market,
they must first understand the character of this competition. The purpose
of this project is to examine the nature of the competition relationship be-
tween the 2 products.
An analysis was made of data collected during the spring of 1958 (for
the data-generating procedure see the 1958 annual report) to determine
the nature of this competitive relationship. This analysis revealed that:
1. The preference for California celery over Florida celery is not strong
enough to cause customers to pay a very large premium for the California
2. Customers are more sensitive to changes in the price of California
celery than they are to changes in the price of Florida celery.
3. Customers are quite willing to make substitutions between the
products, but are somewhat more willing to substitute California celery
for Florida celery than they are to substitute Florida celery for California
The field work on the second phase of this project was completed also.
This entailed (a) a further study of the nature of the competitive relation-
ship between Florida and California celery at lower price levels than those

Annual Report, 1959

employed in the preceding investigation and (b) an examination of the
importance which consumers attach to the area in which celery is grown
in making a buying decision.

Fig. 1.-Display and price marking techniques employed in this study
of the importance which customers attach to the area in which celery is
produced. The test situation shown involved the identification of Florida
and California Utah-type celery.

The investigation of the competitive relationship between the 2 products
involved using carefully predetermined price combinations in matched-lot
retailing situations in 6 stores for 3 weeks. Summer pascal-type Florida
celery was employed in these tests in comparison with Utah-type pascal
from California. Celery from both producing areas was size 21 and U. S.
No. 1 grade. The 2 displays were not identified with respect to location
in which the celery was produced. The price combinations tested were:

Combination (cents per stalk)

(cents per stalk)


Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

An examination of the importance which customers attach to the area
in which celery is grown was accomplished by introducing the following
four treatments in a 4 x 8 experimental design:

Treatment Celery Type Identification Status

1 Florida Summer Pascal Producing area
California Utah-Type Pascal identified
2 Florida Summer Pascal Producing area
California Utah-Type Pascal not identified
3 Florida Utah-Type Pascal Producing area
California Utah-Type Pascal identified
4 Florida Utah-Type Pascal Producing area
California Utah-Type Pascal not identified

These tests were conducted during a 2-week period in 4 retail food
stores. The celery from both producing areas was available to customers
at the same price (Fig. 1).

Hatch Project 895 A. H. Spurlock, H. G. Hamilton
(Regional SM-22) and G. L. Capel
The purpose of this study is to provide data which may assist firms in
lowering their cost of marketing citrus fruit.
Costs of picking and hauling citrus for 34 firms, 1956-57, averaged as
follows per 1% bushel box:
Picking oranges, 33.3 cents; picking grapefruit, 24.1 cents; and picking
tangerines, 75.5 cents. Hauling from the grove to the plant cost 11.3
cents per box. Specialized citrus dealers also had an additional cost of
3.4 cents per box for procurement and sale of fruit.
Costs of packing and selling Florida fresh citrus fruit per 1%3 bushel
equivalent for 42 packinghouses, 1957-58 season, were as follows: Oranges,
1% bushel wirebound box, $1.12; 1% bushel standard box, $1.61; % bushel
wirebound box, $1.49; % bushel fiberboard box, $1.22; 8-pound mesh bag,
$1.36; 5-pound mesh bag, $1.65; bulk-in-truck, $0.68. Grapefruit, 1%a bushel
wirebound box, $1.01; 1% bushel standard box, $1.30; % bushel fiberboard
box, $1.11; 8-pound mesh bag, $1.31; 5-pound mesh bag, $1.58. Tangerines,
% bushel wirebound box, $1.65; % bushel wirebound flat box, $1.63. Bulk
fruit eliminated in the packinghouse cost $0.21 per box for oranges, $0.18
for grapefruit, and $0.29 for tangerines. Fruit direct from grove to
cannery averaged $0.08 per box for all types.
Processing costs for 1957-58 were studied at 19 plants which packed
62 percent of the juices and sections and 72 percent of the Florida pack
of orange concentrate. Average costs for processing single-strength
orange juice in 12/46 cases, sweetened, were $1.46; grapefruit sections in
24/303 cases, sweetened, $2.60; frozen orange concentrate in 48/6 cases,
unsweetened, $2.20; and per gallon, excluding materials and selling, $0.46.
Results of the year's work were distributed to citrus dealers, packers
and processors in 3 mimeographed releases for 1957-58: (1) Costs of
Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits. (2) Costs of Packing and Sell-
ing Florida Fresh Citrus Fruits, (3) Costs of Processing, Warehousing and
Selling Florida Citrus Products.
0 Cooperative with Market Organization and Costs Branch, AMS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1959

AMA Project 899 D. L. Brooke
Tests to determine the extent to which consumers regard variations
in the external characteristics of size, shape and appearance of avocados
as differences in quality were conducted in 6 retail stores (3 income areas)
in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from November 3 to 22, 1958. Results
indicate that: (1) More small avocados were sold, but at constant relative
prices among sizes about the same weight of avocados of a given quality
would be purchased regardless of size; (2) customers have a very decided
preference for clean, unblemished fruit; (3) consumers did not exhibit a
significance preference for shape of fruit; (4) Sales were highest in areas
of high and medium income consumers.
It appears that Florida sales offices need not be too concerned about
sizes and shapes of avocados available, other than to fill direct orders.
Wholesale buyers and commission handlers have a range of sizes from
which they may choose with some confidence. Buyers need not be overly
conscious of "breaking" fruit in purchases for immediate store delivery.
Some softer, but not "mushy", fruit in a display apparently assists sales.
Some customers each day want fruit for immediate consumption.

Hatch Project 916 R. E. L. Greene
This project was initiated for the purpose of describing and evaluating
recent changes in the amount of potatoes going to processors, changes in
marketing practices of growers and shippers and effects of such changes
on the market organization for potatoes in the Hastings area.
Information was obtained for 1953 to 1958 from a sample of 93 growers
and 7 selling agencies by personal interviews. Data for individual growers
showed changes in acreage and yields, distribution of sales by type of
seller, information on contract growing, changes in harvesting and pack-
ing operations, changes in production financing and opinions and attitudes
relative to market organization and practices. Sellers were questioned
regarding distribution of sales by type of buyer between fresh market
and processed market, and opinions and attitudes relative to market or-
ganization and practices.
Tabulation and analysis of data are under way.

Florida Agricultural Production Index.-Index numbers measuring the
total volume of agricultural production in Florida by groups of products
have been revised and brought up to date. Total production was about 10
percent lower in 1958 than in 1957, principally because of the effects of
the severe freeze on citrus and vegetable production. Total production in
1958 was 2.47 times as large as in the 1935-39 period. Production of cotton,
tobacco, truck crops and citrus decreased in 1958-the latter by 25 percent.
Increases were shown by grains, milk, poultry products and meat animals.
(A. H. Spurlock.)
Competition for Florida Fruit and Vegetable Crops.-The degree of
competition which Florida faces is provided by tabulating weekly carlot

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

shipments of selected fruits and vegetables from Florida, other states and
foreign countries during the Florida shipping season. Such data are
valuable to growers and extension workers in determining the more desir-
able production periods during the Florida season. They are also avail-
able to industry groups in the preparation of statistics for hearings on
freight rates and marketing agreements and in establishing annual move-
ment and supply requirements. (D. L. Brooke.)
Cull Tomato Disposal in Dade County.-While the net-to-industry cost
of cull tomato disposal may be less for the dehydration and feed production
alternative, the economical production of feed from tomatoes is predicated
upon a continuing volume of output sufficient that feed dealers may be
interested in handling the product. The risk factors, weather and price,
will cause fluctuations in volume of production in Dade County. Lengthy
storage of feed appears impractical, if not impossible, under Florida
conditions without special and expensive handling which the tomato in-
dustry or few feed dealers would be willing to undertake for a relatively
small and somewhat uncertain volume. (D. L. Brooke and G. L. Capel.)
Movement of Citrus Trees from Florida Nurseries.-Movement of citrus
trees from Florida nurseries to Florida destinations between July 1, 1957, and
June 30, 1958, were the lightest since the 1951-52 season. This season
ranked tenth in total number of trees moved. This total was slightly less
than half the number of trees moved last season. The series of low tem-
peratures affected trees in some nurseries to the extent that they could
not be moved during the season. The movement this seasons was 1,085,461
trees. This movement was 106 percent of the 1928-56 average and 77
percent of the 1950-55 average.
Eighty-three percent of the 1957-58 movement was orange trees, 3 per-
cent grapefruit, 2 percent tangerine and 12 percent lemon, lime, tangelo
and miscellaneous citrus. Sixty-three percent of the movement was on
lemon stock, 19 percent on sour orange, 13 percent Cleopatra mandarin,
3 percent sweet seedling and 2 percent on other stock. (Zach Savage.)

Annual Report, 1959


Work was continued on 10 regular projects with emphasis on irrigation
and curing of flue-cured tobacco, drainage of flatwoods soils and field
studies on harvesting of vegetables.
D. T. Kinard joined the staff September 1, 1958, as agricultural engineer
and head of department, succeeding the late Professor Frazier Rogers.
Personnel of the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural
Marketing Service, on assignment with the department, continued their
studies on packing of citrus.

Hatch Project 555 J. M. Myers
Ten of the more common varieties of tobacco grown in Florida were
tested with 4 levels of nitrogen fertilization and 4 different irrigation
management programs. The nitrogen levels were 24, 48, 72 and 96 pounds
per acre. The irrigation management programs are all related to 1 which,
in earlier experiments, consistently gave highest yields of good quality
tobacco and will be referred to as irrigation management program "on
schedule." The other 3 programs were less intense and will be referred
to as the "3-day delay," "6-day delay" and "no-irrigation" management
programs. As the names imply, these management programs represent
a 3-day and 6-day delay in application of irrigation after the "on-schedule"
program had received irrigation water. The "no-irrigation" program is
a check and did not receive any irrigation water.
The experimental area received 17.51 inches of rainfall and in addition,
the "on-schedule," "3-day delay" and "6-day delay" plots received 6.52,
4.31 and 3.97 inches of irrigation water in 10, 5 and 3 applications, respec-
Rainfall on the 1958 crop was about 60 percent above average, resulting
in a rather severe leaching of plant food nutrients in all plots. Even with
this amount of rainfall, moderate drought symptoms were observed in the
"no-irrigation" and "6-day delay" plots on 2 occasions.
Results indicate that the balance between available soil moisture and
nitrogen fertilization is critical in the production of large yields of high
quality tobacco.
The "on schedule" irrigation management program gave the highest
yield in pounds of tobacco for both the 48- and 72-pound-per-acre nitrogen
levels. Leaf quality was very poor for the non-irrigated tobacco at the
96-pound level of nitrogen. Each of the other 3 irrigation management
programs greatly improved leaf quality at this level of nitrogen. Irriga-
tion had a detrimental effect on quality at the low-nitrogen fertilization
level. The 2 medium levels of nitrogen fertilization in combination with
the "on schedule" irrigation management program produced the highest
value crop in 1958. (See also Project 555, Agronomy Department and
Suwannee Valley Station.)

State Project 627 J. M. Myers
The pasture program on which irrigation was used as a cultural practice
was managed in accordance with established procedure. Rainfall during

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

the past year was considerably above average, precluding the need for
irrigation except for 3 applications, 2 in the fall of 1958 and 1 in May
1959. Response from this amount of irrigation does not appear to be
significant. (See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agronomy,
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition and Soils Departments.)
Hatch Project 753 J. M. Myers
Research under this project has been devoted to the development of a
satisfactory method for taking a representative sample of mixed fertilizer
from the filled bins of bulk truck bodies. A prototype has been built to
investigate a possible method of doing this, but to date field tests have not
been made. (See also Project 753, Soils Department.)
Hatch Project 758 J. M. Myers
Levels of yellowing temperatures during curing, leaf maturity at time
of harvest, and nitrogen fertilization were tested during 1958. The curing
was done in laboratory curing units in which relative humidity was con-
trolled so that it did not exceed 80 percent. The temperature treatments
were 90, 95, 100, 105 and 110F. The levels of maturity were obtained by
dividing all field plots and delaying harvest on half of each plot for ap-
proximately 1 week after the estimated time of optimum maturity and then
removing 3 harvests (approximately 3 leaves per harvest) on a single day.
The 3 lower leaves were approximately 1 week past optimum maturity;
the next 3 leaves were of average maturity, and the last 3 leaves were
immature by approximately 1 week's growth. The maturity treatments
will be referred to as "over-ripe," "ripe" and "green," respectively. The
other half of each plot was harvested in a normal manner and served as
a check. Nitrogen fertilization levels were 48, 96 and 144 pounds per acre.
The general character of the 1958 crop was influenced by an unusually
large amount of rainfall. A yellowing temperature of 95F. resulted in
highest quality in 1958, contrasted to 100F. which gave best result in
1957, a year with near normal rainfall. The average temperature response
for the experiment is shown in Figure 2. Information obtained from this
experiment has indicated consistently that tobacco which is immature and
tobacco fertilized with high applications of nitrogen cure best with a
yellowing temperature of 90F. Ripe and over-ripe and medium and low
nitrogen fertilized tobacco cures best with a yellowing temperature between
95 and 105F. The higher the degree of ripeness and the lower the level
of nitrogen fertilization, the higher the yellowing temperature should be
within the range given above for best results.
Preliminary work is underway to develop equipment and procedures
for curing tobacco in bulk. This work has promise in reducing production
cost by saving labor during barning, ease in preparation for market and
requiring less barn space for curing. To date, 8 successful curings have
been made on a laboratory scale over 2 years. There has been no indica-
tion that the quality of the tobacco cured in these units will not be accept-
able to the trade. (See also Project 758, Agronomy Department.)
State Project 772 J. M. Myers
The 1958-59 results of this study to determine the value of irrigated
and non-irrigated alfalfa-clover-oat pastures were similar to those obtained

Annual Report, 1959

for the 1957-58 season. Heavy and excessive rainfall during the winter
months destroyed the stand of alfalfa and caused the pasture to become
non-productive by March 1959. Irrigation water was needed in the fall to
aid in establishing early growth, but these benefits were soon overshadowed
by the loss of the stand.

z 0.57





J 0.53

90 95 100 105 110



Fig. 2.-Average effect of yellowing temperature on quality of bright
leaf tobacco, 1958.

Results indicate that an area which supports a high water table during
periods with excessive rainfall is not suitable for this type of pasture.
During the 4 years of this experiment only 2 were suitable for economical
production. For these 2 years irrigation made possible earlier grazing,
by 2 weeks 1 year and 7 weeks the other, and increased production by
approximately 60 percent.
This project is closed with this report. (See also Project 772, Dairy
Science and Agronomy Departments.)
State Project 799 E. S. Holmes and J. M. Myers
A 3-year study has been completed to evaluate silage harvesting and
handling equipment and to determine costs involved in making silage in

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

horizontal type silos, both trench and bunker. Forage harvesters selected
included the flail type, horziontal cylinder type and the vertical knife or
flywheel type. Forage materials used were: corn, corn and cane, millet
and pangolagrass. Table 1 show results of harvesting and silo filling

Average Rate Machinery and
Silage of Harvest- Man Hours Labor Cost
Tons per Hour per Ton per Ton*

Corn .--........................... 6.7 1.90 $4.07
Corn ......................... 5.2 1.00 2.19
Corn ........................... 3.5 0.80 1.63
Corn .............................. 4.7 0.90 2.18
Corn and cane** ....... 7.0 0.51 1.50
Millet ..........- ............. 2.7 2.20 4.74
Millet ....---......................-- 3.7 0.81 1.91
Pangola -... ...............-- 2.5 1.90 6.17
Pangola ...... .. ...-...... 4.1 0.90 3.04
Pangola** ................... 2.2 2.58 4.39

Excludes cost of fuel and oil.
** Averages include data for 2 years only.

This study suggests that silage can be made in horizontal silos most
economically with the following equipment:
1. Three tractors, wheel-type-1 3-bottom class for pulling the har-
vester and 2 2-bottom class for pulling trailers and packing.
2. One forage harvester, power take-off.
3. Two self-unloading wagons.
Forage harvesters in good operating condition were cutting forage a
maximum of 40 percent of the total time to fill each silo. The best oper-
ations making corn silage averaged about 70 tons per 10-hour day and
reached a maximum of 100 tons on an exceptional day.
When horizontal cylinder and vertical knife harvesters were used, corn
could be ensiled at about twice the rate of grass. However, when the
flail-type harvester (designed specifically for low-growing crops) was used
on grasses, its rate of harvest was comparable with the other types in
corn. The flail-type harvester cut grasses into variable lengths (measured
from % to 3 inches). Settled silage of this type was found to be less
dense than a more uniformly cut grass. As grasses became more mature,
the rate of machine harvest appeared to decline. The lowest moisture
content of forage being placed in the silo was pangola at 52 percent and
the highest was millet at 83 percent. Best coloring of silage appeared to
be in materials at 60 to 70 percent mositure. Silage poorly spread and
packed had pockets of spoiled silage throughout.
Mechanical silo unloaders were economical in feed-out operations in-
volving 400 tons or more annually. Costs of feeding out varied from
$0.90 per ton to $3.15 per ton when 400 tons per year was taken as a base.
The manure scoop was partially satisfactory as an unloader, but had the
disadvantages of tying up a tractor for the feed-out period and causing
excess spoilage by tearing up the face of the silage.
Spoilage was highest in those silos: (1) having a large surface exposed
to air, (2) receiving little packing while being filled, (3) having material

Annual Report, 1959

too mature and low in moisture content and (4) being filled with flail-type
harvesters. Spoilage varied from 2 percent on 1 plastic covered silo to
36 percent on 1 unprotected bunker.
Density of settled silage was determined in the various silos. The
same material was more dense (other factors being equal) when cut uni-
formly by the harvester than when cut in variable lengths. All samples
were more dense toward the bottom of the silo. Although there was some
variation, millet was found to have a density of 35 to 40 pounds per cubic
foot, corn 45 to 50 pounds per cubic foot and pangola 55 to 60 pounds per
cubic foot. This is considerably more dense than has been reported for
corn silage and grasses.
This report concludes this project.

State Project 811 E. S. Holmes
A machine used successfully during the past year as an aid in harvest-
ing cabbage in the Hastings area was given further trials in the Sanford
area on cabbage planted at different row spacings and in lower beds.
Results were satisfactory, even with a very poor crew operating both the
machine and hand picking. The same crew operating the machine cut and
packaged at the rate of 6.4 boxes per man per hour, and by hand they cut
and packaged at the rate of 4.2 boxes per man per hour.
Trials also were made for harvesting savoy cabbage. The crew har-
vesting by machine averaged 8.1 boxes per man per hour, as compared
to 6.0 boxes per man per hour by hand.
The machine was tried in the Wauchula area for harvesting fresh mar-
ket cucumbers. Results are shown in the following table:

Machine Harvest Hand Harvest
Trial Yield per Acre (Bu. per Worker (Bu. per Worker
(Bushels) per Hour) per Hour)

1 41.2 7.2 3.2
2 59.3 4.2 3.0
3 33.2' 3.4 2.5

The outstanding results using the machine in Trial 1 can be attributed
primarily to good crew supervision, whereas only poor supervision was
available during Trials 2 and 3. Hand pickers were kept at a relatively
constant pace. The machine could have operated more efficiently if it had
been wide enough to cover 6 instead of 5 rows, since the workers performing
the sacking operation were idle for an average of 17 percent of the time.
At the University Horticultural Unit 2 plots of mature green tomatoes
were harvested for a comparison of hand picking with the method using
the machine. For 2 pickings from normal yields the machine operation
was about twice as fast as the hand operation. During the last picking
the yield was so low that the rate of picking by hand was double the rate
using the machine.
A commercial bean harvester was tried at the University Horticul-
tural Unit for harvesting fresh market, frozen and canning beans. The
machine picked at an average rate of 1,160 pounds per hour. Beans lost
by the machine were 6.1 percent by the picking reels and 1.5 percent by

44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

the cleaner. After trying a number of combinations of forward speeds
and picker drum speeds, best performance was found with a forward speed
of about 1 mile per hour and a drum speed of 200 RPM.
The commercial bean harvester was tested in a limited manner
on 3 varieties of southernpeas. The machine destroys the vines, and its
use would be justified only on crops which mature uniformly. A yield
estimate made on blackeye peas just before harvesting indicated a crop
of 679.5 pounds per acre of mature peas and a potential of 902 pounds
of immature peas. The machine did a good harvesting job on the mature
peas in this crop in that it picked 617 pounds per acre, or 80 percent of
the mature peas, and the shell-out was 16 percent. It picked at a rate of
510 pounds per hour.
The machine did a good job of picking topset peas with little or no
damage. From 19.47 pounds of unshelled peas there was a shell-out of
4.38 pounds, or 22.5 percent. In tests with cabbage peas the machine
was unsatisfactory as it failed to pick a large percentage of the peas.
During the year an experimental pea harvester was built. The design
uses a cutter bar that cut off high growing peas, such as cabbage peas
and topset peas, and an elevator that places the peas in bulk boxes from

Fig. 3.-Machine being used to cut and elevate cabbage peas.

Annual Report, 1959

which they can be moved to a shelter (Fig. 3). The machine did not work
on backeye peas because (1) heavy vines clogged the cutter bar and (2)
too much vine was cut which gave the sheller trouble. Unshelled peas
comprised only 30.9 percent of the bulk material harvested by the machine.
The machine was used successfully, however, on cabbage peas and topset
peas because of the nature of their growth. Very little vine and leaf went
into the bulk box. With cabbage peas the machine was able to cut an
average of 0.52 acres per hour with an average yield of 169.2 pounds of
shelled peas harvested. Peas lost by the machine amounted to 9.5 to 15.1
With topset peas an average of 0.37 acres per hour was cut with an
average yield of 63.0 pounds of shelled peas harvested. Peas lost by the
machine varied from 34 to 40.1 percent. Extra vine and green leaf content
contributed to this high loss. (See also Project 811, Vegetable Crops

State Project 842 E. S. Holmes
During the summers of 1957 and 1958 an experiment was conducted at
the North Florida Station to study the effect of forced air on gains of
steers fattening in dry lot under an aluminum roofed barn. One pen of
8 steers was equipped with a fan to force air through the pen at a velocity
of 25 fpm when air temperatures were above 75F. Much of the time
natural air movement predominated over the fan. Natural air movement
averaged about the same for the summers of 1957 and 1958. Periodic
checks of water consumption during 1958 revealed that the fan-cooled
animals averaged 11.9 gallons per 24 hours and the control lot averaged
14.4, suggesting that the control group needed more water to maintain
body comfort. Relative humidity during the test period averaged 65 to
70 percent, with a low of about 40 percent and a high of about 90 percent
except during rainfall.
During both years the cattle in the fan-cooled pen consumed slightly
more feed and made higher gains with no significant difference in cost of
feed per pound of gain. Heavier carcasses, coupled with a higher carcass
grade, resulted in a $3.32 and $3.77 per head higher net return from the
fan-cooled steers in 1957 and 1958, respectively. However, these differ-
ences may not be valid because of physical limitations of the experiment.
In a field trial conducted at the Norris Cattle Company Anthony Farm
in open pens, 60 animals were placed in a fan-cooled pen and a comparable
group in a control pen. The fan delivered air over the animals at approxi-
mately 25 feet per minute when the temperature was above 80F. During
the first year cooled animals gained at a slightly lower rate than the
control. During the second year sprinklers were added to operate when
the relative humidity was below 70 percent, which was about 30 percent
of the time. For the 54-day test period the treated animals gained at a
daily rate of 2.27 pounds and the control group at a rate of 1.94 pounds.
This project is being revised. (See also State Project 842, North Florida

Hatch Project 860 E. S. Holmes and J. M. Myers
Two further tests were carried out on this project during the year.
One was a study of temperatures in a truck load of gladioli and chrysanthe-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

mums in shipment, and the other involved further determinations of the
effects of hydrocooling and of mechanical cooling on gladiolus spikes.
The truck was an ice bunker type, similar to one used in earlier tests.
As found previously, the temperature of the flowers, not precooled, did not
reach 50F. until the 3-day trip was about half over.
In 1958 it was found that gladioli spikes were damaged in warm weather
by hydrocooling as a method of precooling. Additional trials were made
this year, with similar results as reported by the Department of Ornamental
Horticulture. (See also Project 860, Ornamental Horticulture Department.)

State Project 908 R. E. Choate
Experiments to determine the effect of time of gathering and rate of
cooling on interior quality of eggs were continued. (See also Project 908,
Poultry Department.)

State Project 946 J. M. Myers
The objective of this project is to obtain information to aid in the
establishment of design criteria for water table control systems for
flatwoods soils. The experimental area consists of 3 plots, each square in
shape with side lengths of 67, 133 and 200 feet. Each plot has a ditch
5 feet deep along 2 opposite sides. Pumping facilities are available for
controlling water levels in the ditches. Depth to water table in the plots
is measured in water table tubes located in 3 rows, 10 feet apart, running
across the center of each plot between the ditches.
By alternately raising and lowering water levels in the ditches and
measuring the depth to water table in water table tubes, the rate of sub-
surface horizontal water movement is determined. This information is
being correlated with the physical properties of the soils in the plots to
seek a dominant factor influencing sub-surface flow. Soil moisture tensi-
ometers and soil samples taken mechanically are used to determine the
effect of water table location on soil moisture in plant root zones.
Tests to date reveal a rather slow rate of horizontal movement with
low pressure heads in the top 21-foot layer of soil. In 1 test no effect
was found in the water table level 30 feet from the ditch by raising the
water level in the ditch from 2.50 feet to 2.0 feet below the field surface
in 1.75 hours. This treatment caused the water table to be raised 0.16
foot at a horizontal distance of 10 feet from the ditch. In another test
25 hours was required for a 11/-foot static pressure head in the ditch to
cause the water table to begin to rise at a horizontal distance of 90 feet
from the ditch, and after 72 hours the water table at this distance from
the ditch had been raised only 0.15 foot.
In conjunction with this experiment the necessary equipment and tech-
nique has been developed whereby a 2-man crew can make rapid determina-
tions of depth to water table. (See also Project 946, Soils Department.)


Drainage of Flat Woods Soils with Plastic Lined Mole Drains.-Ap-
proximately 3 miles of plastic lined mole drains were place under plots
at the Beef Research Unit, Gainesville, Florida, in March 1958. The drains

Annual Report, 1959 47

were installed at various depths and lateral spacings with an experimental
machine that was provided by the commercial developer.
Observations during the past year indicate that the drains were only
partially open as of June 1959. The partial failure of the drains is believed
to be caused by the improper functioning of the machine laying the plastic.
Improvements have been made in the machine since the original installation
and it is hoped that some of this work can be repeated. (J. M. Myers.)
Tile Drainage Systems for Sandy Soils.-The agricultural potential of
millions of acres of fine sandy soil in Florida can be developed and main-
tained only by the use of subsurface drainage. Open ditches can be used
successfully in most situations to provide this drainage, but ditch systems
have the disadvantages of utilizing otherwise productive land, restricting
machinery movement and making necessary regular maintenance involving
significant expense to assure the function of the system. Tile systems
might be expected to do much of this drainage for less cost, but so many
tile systems have failed that the general conclusion among growers is
that tile drainage is not suitable for fine sandy soils.
Many failures of tile systems have been attributed to clogging of the
lines by fine sand entering at the joints. Preliminary work has been started
to evaluate the use of various filters as a means of minimizing the problem
of sand entry into tile lines. (J. M. Myers.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Research on pastures was expanded by addition of Dr. S. H. West to
our staff on July 1, 1958, on a new courtesy appointment. Dr. West is
working with responses of pasture plants to environmental variables.
A herbicide research unit was completed on the main farm. consisting
of concrete block laboratory (15 by 24 feet) and Orlyt greenhouse (14 by
21/2 feet), at a total cost of $6,380.18.
Satisfactory to excellent progress is reported on 31 projects and 5 mis-
cellaneous objectives. Three new projects were started, while 1 was com-
pleted. Twelve of the projects are in cooperation with 1 or more other
departments or with branch stations.

Hatch Project 20 W. A. Carver
Seed quality and freedom from concealed damage continue high in the
Early Runner and Dixie Runner varieties. However, yielding ability of
Dixie Runner has declined. A new jumbo runner line, 392-12, has excelled
in yield of peanuts but has lower seed quality. A report on seed quality
and yield data is given in the accompanying table.

Total Seed Yield Sound and
Variety Damage in r Mature Seed in %
1954-1958 1955-1958

Dixie Runner ........ ......... 1.20 102
Early Runner ........................ 1.30 128
Common Runner ........... 4.03 100
Florida 392-12 ........... ... ..... 2.37 157

Florida 392-12 has been carried in the breeding nursery under several
sub-lines, some of which are very irregular in pod size. Newly selected
lines appear to have good unfiormity of pod and seed. Several additional
new lines of bunch and runner plant habit and of N.C. runner and jumbo
seed size are now under test.
Florida 378, having Spanish-like seed and runner plant habit, has been
found to lack in vigor and in seed quality. It was crossed to Spanish
varieties in the spring of 1959. Other crosses made at the same time com-
bine Fla. 392-12, Fla. 393 (jumbo runner types), Spanish and Dixie Runner
with Ga. 119-20, a jumbo bunch variety. Additional crosses combine Dixie
Runner and Spanish with Fla. 393. The objectives of the above crosses are
(1) Spanish type seed and runner plant habit, (2) Virginia seed type with
bunch and (3) with runner plant habit. Good seed quality and freedom
from concealed damage are sought in all crosses.

Hatch Project 295 G. B. Killinger and H. C. Harris
Pensacola and Argentine bahiagrasses and P.I. 158,822 and P.I. 162,902
bahiagrass species yielded more forage than common bahiagrass when

Annual Report, 1959

fertilized at rates of 30, 60 and 120 pounds of nitrogen per acre with
phosphorus and potassium constant. Pensacola bahiagrass forage pro-
duction occurred over a longer part of the season than the other varieties
and species.
Israel sweetclover, a promising variety in some Southern states, failed
to recover after 1 cutting, while Floranna sweetclover gave good growth
for 3 cutting treatments.
Indian and African alfalfa varieties produced 5% tons of dry alfalfa
hay per acre, while Hairy Peruvian and Arizona Chilean, the generally
recommended varieties, yielded only 3% tons.
Louisiana red clover, Certified Kenland, Certified Pennscott and Nolin's
red clover were all superior varieties, yielding 212 to 3% tons of dry hay
per acre.
Certified Ladino, certified Louisiana S-1 and Nolin's Improved Louisiana
white clover all yielded approximately 3 tons of dry weight forage per acre,
while Idaho common and New Zealand white produced less than 1 ton per
White and red clovers fertilized with 600 pounds of an 0-12-12 per acre
continued yielding more forage than the same clovers treated with fertilizers
having a ratio of 0-2-1 or 0-1-2.

Hatch Project 301 J. R. Edwardson, E. S. Horner
and F. H. Hull
Primary emphasis has been on breeding and evaluating strains of crota-
laria and alfalfa for adaptation to the environmental conditions found at
No significant difference in forage production was found in yield tests
comparing Crotalaria mucronata (P. I. 198001) and commercial C. striata
at Gainesville. Cytoplasmic male-sterility, the source of which is a line of
C. mucronata introduced from India, is being incorporated into several
promising lines and varieties of this species. It is anticipated that the
use of cytoplasmic male-sterility will facilitate the production of high-
yielding forage-type crotalaria hybrids. A chromosome number of 2n = 32
was established for Crotalaria maratima Chapm.
An alfalfa strain which had undergone 3 generations of mass selection
for perennial habit was placed in a yield trial. Its forage production was
equal to that of Hairy Peruvian in the spring of 1959, but its relative
persistence has not been determined.
This project is reclassified from Hatch to State effective July 1, 1959.

Hatch Project 372 Fred Clark
Seventy-six lines, including 28 lines or selections from other flue-cured
producing states, were tested in a heavily infested nematode soil at Bran-
ford, Florida.
Yields per acre, quality of leaf and nematode indices of the roots were
recorded on all lines of tobacco. Several lines have from fair to good
resistance with low quality. Others, such as 22-2, 7107, 417A, 525, 2141,
5-31, 5-57 and 5-53, have high resistance and produced good yields, with
fair to good quality.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Samples were submitted to a manufacturer for observation and tests
for smoking qualities. These tests are not completed. Two of the lines
tested (N.C. 73, and S.C. 58) have been released by the respective states
and both produced satisfactory yields and quality of leaf at both Gaines-
ville and Live Oak. These varieties are not superior to the commonly
grown varieties in yield; however, they do have some blackshank resistance.

Hatch Project 374 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
Studies to evaluate different corn breeding methods and develop im-
proved hybrids were continued. A selection experiment in which an inbred
line and a wide composite are compared as testers has been carried through
3 cycles of selection for combining ability. Where the inbred line was
the tester, the average yield of 12 hybrids selected to initiate the fourth
cycle was 104 percent of the Dixie 18 check yield, compared with 95 percent
where the composite was the tester. These results indicate that a specific
tester, such as an inbred line or a single cross, may be more effective than
a general tester in developing high-yielding hybrid combinations.
The population which is the product of 3 cycles of selection for com-
bining ability with F44 x F6 was used as a tester for 2 different groups
of new inbred lines. There were 20 test crosses in each of these groups
with average yields at least 15 percent higher than the Dixie 18 checks.
These high yields indicate that high general combining ability was built
up in this tester population, even though a specific tester (F44 x F6) was
used to develop it.
Several of the high-yielding test crosses mentioned also appeared desir-
able with respect to standability, grain quality, disease resistance and
other characters. The prospect of developing improved hybrids from some
of the lines involved seems good.
In the commercial variety tests, Dixie 18, Florida 200, Lee, Jackson
and Coker 811 again gave good performances. In addition, 2 new hybrids,
Coker 67 and Coker 71, also had excellent records.
(See also Project 374, West Florida, North Florida and Suwannee Valley

Hatch Project 440 H. C. Harris, V. N. Schroder
and Fred Clark
Dixie 18 corn was grown on Leon fine sand from the Beef Research Unit
area in glass containers outside the greenhouse. Various treatments were
applied to this soil to determine the nutrient deficiencies for corn. Nitrogen
had the most striking effect on increasing growth, although phosphorus,
potassium or sulfur also increased foliage yields considerably. Of the 2
levels of calcium, the higher gave slightly better foliage yields.
Using the soil mentioned, ronphagrass was grown in pots outside the
greenhouse to observe its production on a year-round basis. Harvests were
made at 6-week intervals. Ronphagrass is a cool-season plant and, as
expected, yields increased vwhen the weather became cooler. Oats planted
in October outyielded the rouphagrass during February, March and April,
but had a much shorter period of production. During the summer the
potted ronphagrass became chlorotic if not given some protection from
the sunlight. This chlorosis was partly corrected by high magnesium

Annual Report, 1959

State Project 444 Fred Clark
Good tobacco plants have been produced on the same bed areas now
for 15 years without any removal or replacement of soil. These beds have
also been used to test numerous materials for the control of weeds, nema-
todes and blue mold.
Successful production of plants has resulted mainly because weeds
and nematodes have been controlled satisfactorily. For maintaining good
soil tilth chicken manure, peat moss, sheep manure, vermiculite and finely
ground peanut hay were mixed in soils of separate beds the past few years.
All of these materials gave good results in aiding plant production during
the 1958-59 season. All materials increased plant yields by 50 percent
or more over the check plot.
The following herbicides were tested for weed control. VPM, vapam
and Eptam (5% solid material), but none produced results equal to methyl
Fungicides were not tested this year because blue mold did not appear
in the beds during the 1958-59 season. (See also Project 444, Suwannee
Valley Station.)

Hatch Project 488 H. C. Harris, V. N. Schroder
and Fred Clark

An effort has been made to mechanize the production of peanuts. The
test was conducted on Arredondo loamy fine sand and no fertilizer or lime
had been applied to this soil since about 1932. The experiment involved
fertilization, lime, spacing of rows, varieties, weed killer and culture.
Peanuts have been grown successfully without cultivation after seeding.
Without lime the peanuts were yellow, suggesting nitrogen deficiency. The
yellow color of the peanuts on the unlimed area changed to a dark green
color within 2 weeks after spraying the foliage with sodium molybdate.

Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
Several sources of nitrogen-nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia, urea,
ammonium nitrate and combinations of % nitrate of soda and % sulfate
of ammonia, % nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia and urea, and a 2%
mineral and % water-insoluble organic nitrogen fertilizer-were tested
at Gainesville and Live Oak on Pensacola bahiagrass sod. The /3 each,
all-mineral combination, produced tobacco worth over $100 more than the
mineral-organic combination.
A new experiment, including 10 varieties, 4 rates each of nitrogen
(24, 48, 72 and 96 pounds per acre) and irrigation (on time, 3-day delay,
6-day delay and none) was initiated this year. There were several inter-
acting factors in this test. There was a 104 drop in price per pound from
the "on-time" irrigation to "none" with the 96-pound level of nitrogen.
The best yield and dollar value was obtained from 72 pounds of nitrogen
per acre, irrigated on time. The yield and dollar value for nitrogen rates
were: 974, 1,121, 1,223 and 1,263 pounds per acre for yields and $549, $626,
$695 and $687 per acre, respectively. Yields for varieties were not sig-
nificant. However, Hicks brought the highest price per pound, and Va-
Gold produced the highest yield and dollar value. Quality of leaf was
best up to 72 pounds of nitrogen. Irrespective of variety or irrigation,

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

there was a 2.4 per pound reduction in price with the 96-pound rate of
Four fumigants, Dowfume-85, DD, Telone and Dorlone, were also tested
in a soil infected with nematodes. Dowfume-85 produced 136 pounds more
tobacco per acre, having a total value of $122 more than the check plots.
(See also Project 555, Agricultural Engineering Department and Suwannee
Valley Station.)

Hatch Project 600 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
Breeding for increased persistence and disease resistance in white and
red clover was continued.
Twenty-six white clover clones were selected from a replicated test of
70 clones on the basis of ability to live through the summer and produce
good fall growth. They were placed in a polycross nursery for producing
seed for progeny testing and to initiate another cycle of selection for
summer persistence. It seems likely that, after additional testing, an
improved variety can be produced by combining a few of the best clones.
Selection for summer persistence in a mildew-resistant strain of red-
clover has not been successful.
This project is reclassified from Hatch to State effective July 1, 1959.

Hatch Project 612 J. R. Edwardson and F. H. Hull
Continued study of protective borders on seed yield in sweet yellow
lupine showed seed yields of 866 pounds per acre in protected vs. 495
pounds per acre in unprotected plots. Seed transmission of bean yellow
mosaic virus was 3.1 percent in the protected and 8.0 percent in unprotected
plots. This seed is being used to continue the test this season.
Attempts to cross species G619 (unidentified), which has a hypersensi-
tive reaction to the lupine virus, on yellow lupines are continuing. The
hypersensitive reaction has been demonstrated to occur uniformly in field
plantings of lupine species G619. Inheritance studies of resistance to
Stemphylium solani in blue lupines are continuing.
Selection for virus resistance in progeny of irradiated sweet yellow
lupine has failed to date. (See also Projects 612 and 742 Plant Pathology
Department and Project 612 North Florida Station.)

State Project 627 G. B. Killinger and H. C. Harris
This project was revised as of January 1958, after having completed
5 years of research which involved 8 pasture programs and a number of
cattle breeding systems. Under the revised project 5 pasture programs
are under study, in addition to the breeding systems. Program 1 has
grass alone as the pastureage and all others have a grass-clover combina-
tion. Each replicate of each program utilizes 6 separately fenced pastures,
except program 1 which has only 3 pastures per replicate.
The table shows the fertilizer treatment of the 5 programs with the
1958 yield of dry forage in pounds per acre and average crude protein
content of each program as of May 19, 1958.

Annual Report, 1959


Pounds per Acre

Pasture Species

1 Bahia, bermuda and
pangola ............... ....-

2 Bahia, bermuda and
pangola, all with clover

3 Bahia, bermuda and
pangola, all with clover

4 Bahia, bermuda and
pangola, all with clover

5 Bahia, bermuda and
pangola, all with clover
and irrigated ................

The stands of pangola and Coastal
due to drowning out, winter killing
stands and growth.

I Am-
0-10-20 monium



450 180 7,300 9.66




0 6,300 21.73

60 8,000 22.60







bermudagrasses were rather spotted
and crowding out by heavy clover

Cattle gains and calf crop were relatively good for the season, probably
the result of excellent growth and quality of the pastureage.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineer-
ing, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, and Soils Departments.)


State Project 691

H. C. Harris, Frank Woods
and Walt Hopkins o1

Work on this project has been completed and results published (Ecology
40: 292-295. 1959). Root reserves of available carbohydrates were lowest
at about the time the trees were developing new leaves. (This project is
terminated with this report.)


Regional Research Project 743
(Regional S-12)

G. M. Prine, O. C. Ruelke,
S. H. West,", H. C. Harris
and L. S. Dunavin, Jr.

Temperature.-According to electroconducticity tests, Pensacola bahia-
grass was injured less by cold treatments where 400 pounds of nitrogen
was applied per acre per year than where 100 pounds of nitrogen was
applied. Pangolagrass, where 400 pounds of nitrogen was applied, was
injured by cold treatments much more than at the 100-pound level or than
bahiagrass at either level. Hardiness did not show any correlation with
total nitrogen content in either of the grasses.
10 Cooperative with East Gulf Coast Branch, Southern Forest Experiment Station.
11 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

In general, winter injury of the grasses in the field was light during
the winter of 1958-59. However, pangolagrass plots which received 400
pounds of nitrogen and on which forage was reserved for winter feed
showed serious winter injury. The forage yield of the first cutting in
May was less than half as much in plots receiving 400 pounds of nitrogen
per acre per year as where 100 pounds of nitrogen was applied. Pangola-
grass fertilized late at 200 pounds of nitrogen per acre per year had more
winter injury than the 100-pound rate, but recovered and made much more
growth in the early spring.
A new experiment was initiated to study the possibility of reducing
winter injury to pangolagrass from heavy nitrogen fertilization by properly
balancing the nitrogen with phosphorus and potassium. In August 0. 100,
200 and 400 pounds of N per acre were applied to pangolagrass in all
combinations with 0, 20 and 400 pounds per acre of both P2sO and KO.
Counts of live clumps of grass and the number of new shoots in late winter
showed a big increase in winter damage as the nitrogen rate increased
from 200 pounds to 400 pounds per acre. Phosphorus fertilizer had no
effect in reducing winter damage. Increasing the rate of potash per acre
reduced the winter damage on high nitrogen plots, but the stand of grass
was still unsatisfactory at the 400-pound-per-acre nitrogen rate and re-
quired a long recovery period in the spring.
Growth Regulators.-Gibberellic acid was applied to summer perennial
grasses at several rates and schedules of application to stimulate early
spring and late fall forage production. Rates which were economically
feasible gave no significant increase in production. Various formulations
of gibberellic acid which were prepared to make it slowly and steadily
available to the soil were compared with foliage spray applications. Only
leaf spray applications gave measurable responses in the grasses.
Water.-Duplicate evapotranspirometers for measuring PE (potential
evapotranspiration) from short grass sods have been placed in operation
at 5 locations-Belle Glade, Lake Alfred, Gainesville, Quincy and Jay. At
Gainesville 2 duplicate sets of evapotranspirometers containing Pensacola
bahiagrass were used to study the advantage of irrigating small areas
around the daily irrigated evaporation tanks to reduce advective heat trans-
fer and thus give a lower and more accurate estimate of PE. Daily irriga-
tion of an area approximately 20 by 30 feet with the tanks in center was
effective in reducing PE over no irrigation of tank area only during long
droughts when grass in the unirrigated tank areas was wilted due to lack
of soil moisture and grass in tanks was lush and green from the daily irri-
gation needed to operate the tanks.
It was concluded that daily irrigation of small areas around evapo-
transpirometer tanks is not necessary for a measurement of PE. How-
ever, irrigation should be applied to areas surrounding the tanks as often
as is necessary to prevent wilting of vegetation and to maintain vegetation
of similar height, density and color as within the tanks.
Light.-The field experiment evaluating 16 strains of Ladino and inter-
mediate whiteclover from widely diverse origins for blossoming habits
under central Florida day length conditions was terminated during the
year. Only strains of intermediate whiteclover of Southern origin were
found to be consistent producers of large numbers of flowers so as to
insure natural reseeding. The 4 strains-Nolin's Improved, Ala Lu, S-1
and a selection from Louisiana White which produced the most blossoms
per acre-were usually also the highest producers of forage.
Management.-Cutting studies on Starr pearlmillet again showed an
advantage for 19-inch row width over 7- and 38-inch row widths. Forage

Annual Report, 1959

yields from 19-inch rows were higher than from 38-inch rows and this row
width still permitted cultivation for control of weeds. Highest yields of
satisfactory quality forage were obtained when pearlmillet was allowed
to reach 30 inches in height and was then cut to 10- or 18-inch stubble
height. Early plantings in March and April were more productive than
later plantings. In some cases the early plantings stayed in production as
late in the season as did later plantings.
A field investigation was made of the effects of supplemental irrigation,
nitrogen fertilization and plant population on forage (silage) and grain
yields of Dixie 18 corn grown on Arredondo fine sand. On irrigation plots
where soil moisture was not allowed below a 1-inch deficit, yields of
forage and grain were 33 and 59 percent, respectively, higher than yields
from nonirrigated plots. Forage production was increased slightly by
increasing rates of nitrogen from 100 to 400 pounds per acre, but grain
yields remained relatively constant at all rates of nitrogen. Increasing
the number of plants per acre generally increased production of grain and
forage up to 17,000 plants per acre, the highest population rate. The
higher the population, the more the need for irrigation, fertilization and
good management. Results indicated that irrigated and highly fertilized
corn should be planted at a rate of at least 17,000 plants per acre when
harvested for silage and 11,000 to 15,000 plants per acre when harvested
for grain.

State Project 747 E. 0. Burt
Corn.-Two experiments were conducted to determine the practicability
of controlling weeds in field corn by the use of pre-emergence herbicides.
EPTC at rates of 5 and 10 pounds active ingredient per acre resulted in
mediocre control of broadleaf weeds, excellent control of annual grasses
and little or no injury to corn plants. Other treatments in this experiment
did not give satisfactory control of weeds.
In the second experiment EPTC at the 10-pounds rate gave excellent
weed control with slight temporary stunting of corn plants. The 1- and
1%-pound rates of simazin gave complete control of broadleaf weeds but
poor control of annual grasses. Two,4-D at the 4-pound rate gave very
good results. Other treatments did not give as good control of weeds
and/or injured corn plants.
Soybeans.-Three experiments were conducted to determine the effec-
tiveness of pre-emergence herbicidal treatments for controlling weeds in
soybeans. The most satisfactory treatment was sodium PCP at 8 pounds
active ingredient per acre. This treatment resulted in about 90 percent
control of annual weeds with no injury to soybeans at this rate, nor were
soybeans injured even at the highest rate used (12 pounds per acre). CIPC
at the 9-pound rate was even more effective (97 to 99 percent) in controlling
annual weeds, but the highest rate used (12 pounds per acre) resulted in
slight temporary injury to soybean plants. EPTC at 5 and 10 pounds per
acre was almost as effective. Trietazine and NPA each at rates of 1, 2
and 4 pounds per acre resulted in poor control and/or injury to soybean
plants. The 2- and 4-pound rate of the former gave almost 100 percent
control of weeds, but stand of soybeans was reduced to almost zero. Two
analogs of EPTC, R-1607 and R-2061, at 10 pounds per acre gave excellent
control of weeds with slight injury to soybeans.

56 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 758 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
Five nitrogen levels (12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 pounds per acre) were tested
as in 1957. Yields were 849, 916, 1,050, 1,120 and 1,280 pounds. Quality
as expressed in sales value per pound ranged from 50< to 609, with the
lowest values occurring from the high nitrogen and 110F. coloring tem-
An appraisal of the physical characters of the leaf was made by a
tobacco company. Leaf produced by the 24- and 48-pound rates of nitrogen,
cured at 95 temperature and 90 relative humidity, was judged most desir-
Three maturities of harvested leaf were tested (overripe, ripe and green)
from 3 levels of nitrogen (48, 96 and 144 pounds per acre). Yellowing
temperature from 90 to 100 was best for overripe and ripe leaf. There
was no reduction in yield by harvesting green tobacco. However, there
was a loss of over 6( per pound in price. There was also a temperature
x maturity interaction, as weight loss was higher from higher temperature
with green tobacco. A reduction of 3< to 5< per pound also occurred. Ripe
to overripe tobacco produced the best tobacco, regardless of how it was
The effect of curing environment on quality of leaf was again evident;
however, the interactions of temperature x nitrogen or humidity x nitrogen
was not as great as in previous tests because of heavy rainfall immediately
after each application of fertilizer which greatly affected the quality of
the green leaf. (See also Project 758, Agricultural Engineering Depart-

Hatch Project 760 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder,
S. H. West,"1 K. D. Butson "
and 0 C. Ruelke
Several variables of the microclimate of field crops were studied under
field conditions at Gainesville.
Temperature.-Measurements of temperatures in the microclimate of
Pensacola bahiagrass and pangolagrass were replicated 4 times in short
grass (112 inches) and in tall reserved forage (8 inches). The lowest
nocturnal temperatures were 3 inches above the soil surface, and the high-
est temperatures were 4 inches below the soil surface. Soil surface tem-
peratures were warmer under tall grass than under short grass. A wider
range in temperature was found at 3 and 12 inches above the soil than soil
surface or at the 5-foot level. At the 3-inch level temperatures were higher
in tall than in short grass. The 3-inch level in the tall grass was slightly
warmer than the 12-inch level above the tall grass while, in contrast, the
3-inch level was cooler than the 12-inch level in short grass. Wind reduced
temperature stratification.
In another study the temperature of the soil and air was measured
between 10- and 18-inch rows of Borre sweet blue lupine oriented in north
and south and east and west directions. During clear sunny days in Decem-
ber and January the temperatures of the soil at 1-inch depth and air at
3- and 12-inch heights between north and south rows were as much as
1 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
:3 Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.

Annual Report, 1959

7 to 10F. higher than east and west rows during the middle of the day
(10 a.m. to 3 p.m.). Also, the dewpoints of air at 3- and 12-inch heights
in north and south rows were at times lower than the dewpoints of east
and west rows during the same time. During other parts of the day and
during windy and/or cloudy days there was little difference in air and soil
temperatures and dewpoints between the 2 row directions.
Observations indicated that lupine growth during cool clear periods was
favored in north and south rows because of the slightly higher tempera-
tures during part of the day and the better light conditions resulting from
less shading of each row by adjacent rows. However, cold hardiness of
north and south rows was apparently reduced, so the lupine plants were
more susceptible to damage from severe freezes. During the winter of
1958-59 there was no advantage in yield of blue lupine between north and
south and east and west rows.
Light.-Light intensities within 4 populations of Dixie 18 corn in 38-
inch rows was measured from just prior to tasseling to early dent stage.
The amount of light passing through 9 to 11 foot plants to ground and
bottom leaves without interception by top of plant decreased as stands
increased from 5,000 to 17,000 plants per acre. Usually only a few scat-
tered spots of unintercepted light reached the ground of the 17,000 plant
The number of ears per plant decreased as the population number went
up. Early silking corn at 17,000 plants per acre had less than 800 foot
candles of light on most of the lower half of the stalk and leaves during
midday of fair days in June. On heavily overcast days there was generally
less than 400 foot candles on the lower half of the plant during the middle
of the day.
Light intensities on the lower plant parts were even lower during early
morning and late afternoon. It seems very likely that the lower leaves
of corn plants in thick stands, especially during cloudy weather, do not
receive enough light to carry on photosynthesis sufficiently to furnish the
plant food needed for respiration. Therefore, plant food must be trans-
located into these bottom leaves from the top portion of the plant. A
rapid deterioration of lower leaves of corn plants in thick stands was noted
just prior to and during silking.
Carbon Dioxide.-Measurements of the carbon dioxide content of the
air in a dense stand of corn (18,000 plants per acre) have shown a maxi-
mum decrease of 6 percent at the 6-foot level of plants approximately
8 feet high. These decreases were of a fluctuating nature; even slight
wind movement and normal diffusion tended to restore the carbon dioxide
to the normal level. Minimum measured rates of carbon dioxide evolution
from the soil under the plants were in excess of 90 pounds per acre per
day, indicating that this may be an important source of replenishing the
carbon dioxide used in photosynthesis. A comparison of photosynthetic
and respiratory rates of 4 pasture grasses under field conditions is presently
under way.
Climate.-An agricultural weather station was maintained on the Agron-
omy Farm at Gainesville. Meteorological measurements included those
normally taken in a U. S. Weather Bureau Class A Evaporation Station,
plus daily maximum and minimum soil temperatures at 3 depths under
Pensacola bahiagrass sod, relative humidity of air at 2 heights, soil mois-
ture tension under bahiagrass seed at 6-, 18-, 30- and 42-inch depths, daily
minimum temperatures at 8 heights above a bahiagrass sod and net radi-
ation received by the Pensacola bahiagrass sod. Micrometeorological data
obtained in and around growing plants are to be correlated with macro-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

meteorological data. The possibilities of estimating the micrometeorologi-
cal conditions of plants from the macrometeorological conditions as meas-
ured in a weather station are being explored.

State Project 761 Kuell Hinson "
Soybean breeding lines are being developed to obtain varieties better
adapted to Florida's environments. Hybridization of selected genotypes
has been followed by selection for better seed holding qualities, erect plant
type, good quality seed, high oil and protein content and resistance to bac-
terial pustule, target spot, rootknot nematodes and downy mildew. Selec-
tion has been practiced also for combinations of genes for height and
photoperiod response to produce optimum top growth in the various soil
types and photoperiod ranges of the state. The above objectives have
been accomplished to the extent they are no longer limiting factors in
variety release. Final yield selection is being accomplished in cooperation
with branch stations under State Project 909.
Genetic studies were conducted on the mode of inheritance of various
qualitative characters with particular emphasis on their linkage relation-
ships. The data obtained are in accord with published reports on the
inheritance of 10 characters; the hypothesis previously advanced for addi-
tional flower color genes was supported; and a new character, pubescence
type, appears to be simply inherited, with dense pubescence being dominant
to normal. Two linkages previously reported by other investigators were
confirmed: Gg (seed coat color) with Did1 (cotyledon color) and Dtdt
(growth type) with L- hl (pod wall color). The present investigation has
yielded strong evidence that Gg, Didi, Dtdt and L 1L are in the same link-
age group. An additional linkage grop containing Dad2 (cotyledon color)
Pdpd (pubescence type) and iii (seed coat color) was identified. Additional
data will be necessary to confirm the new findings and determine the
frequency of recombinations.

Hatch Project 766 V. N. Schroder and H. C. Harris
In addition to studying the effects of certain mineral deficiencies on
the organic acid content of plants, toxic levels of aluminum, iodine, zinc
and copper were applied to lupine plants in nutrient solution. The toxic
symptom of severe curling back of individual leaflets appears first in the
younger leaves and gradually extends over the entire plant. This toxicity
did not affect the organic acid ratios until it became very severe and
necrosis of the leaf was apparent. Boron, manganese and iron deficiency
studies were carried on using tobacco grown in nutrient solution. Boron
deficiency seems to cause an accumulation of citric acid in the leaf tissue
as necrosis of the leaf occurs. Iron-deficient plants did not have the usual
accumulation of malic acid in the midribs of the leaves. Lack of consistent
results in some experiments and generalized rather than specific effects
are problems that have received continued attention.
14 Cooperative with Crops Research D'ivision, ARS, USDA.

Annual Report, 1959

Hatch Project 767 G. B. Killinger, J. R. Edwardson,
(Regional 5-9) W. A. Carver, A. J. Norden
and F. H. Hull
The highest yielding lines in the grain sorghum yield test at Gaines-
ville were DeKalb D50A (52.3 bushels per acre) and Amak R12 (45.0
bushels per acre). In the forage sorghum clipping test Dekalb FS-1 was
the top yielder, producing 27.7 tons of green weight or 9.1 tons dry matter
per acre.
Four sorghum varieties (Early Hegari, Sagrain, Texas 601 and Texas
610) were planted at 6 different dates from April 7 to July 15, 1958. Yields
were highest for the first planting and declined consistently thereafter to
the last. The physiological development of Early Hegari was most seri-
ously affected by date of planting. At the earliest date Early Hegari
required the fewest days from planting to heading, while in the last few
planting dates Early Hegari was the last variety to head out.
Grass legume species received from the Southern Regional Introduction
Station numbered 352 with several Digitaria and Paspalum strains showing
extreme growth vigor and some cold resistance. For the second growth
season at Gainesville buffelgrass strains P.I. 243198 (Chipinga) and P.I.
243199 (Grassland) from South Africa showed marked superiority over
commercial buffelgrass in both yield and recovery from winter dormancy.

Fig. 4.-Chipinga buffelgrass (left) from South Africa showed marked
superiority over the commercial strain (right) for the second season at
Gainesville. It recovers earlier from winter dormancy, is leafier and more
vigorous, and produces higher yields. Photographed May 8, prior to first

t& I

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Note the vigor and leafiness of the Chipinga strain in Figure 4 (left) as
compared to commercial buffelgrass (right).
The regional sesame variety test was conducted at Gainesville along
with 216 additional lines evaluated for disease reaction. A local strain
produced the most seed, closely followed by Margo and Blanco varieties.
Pennisetum spicatum and P. glaucum introductions were grown and
evaluated for possible use in a forage breeding project. Four Arachis
hypogea introductions of Spanish and Valencia types were compared to
Florispan Runner in observation plots. Thirty-three goober introductions
(Voandzeia subterranea) were planted on 2 different soil types for a study
of soil and cultural requirements of this crop.

State Project 772 G. B. Killinger
Because of excess rainfall at the Dairy Research Unit experimental
area, the growth of alfalfa, oats, whiteclover and redclover were not
sufficient to justify tabulating the data. Heavy to moderate rains starting
in late December kept this experiment in a flooded condition much of the
time and did not allow for irrigation evaluation.
(See also Project 772, Dairy Science and Agricultural Engineering De-

Hatch Project 780 Fred Clark
Approximately 1 acre of tobacco was planted for test purposes and
several new insecticides were tested for effectiveness in insect control.
The cultural sequences have not been established as yet. However,
preliminary field observations appear that sods and forage type grasses
do provide organic material satisfactory for tobacco and they also reduce
nemic populations.
Some cultural phases will be initiated this year. (See also Project 780,
Entomology Department.)

Hatch Project 783 P. L. Pfahler
Breeding.-Forty-one advanced breeding lines of oats were tested for
grain and forage production in comparison with the recommended varieties
Seminole and Floriland. A highly significant line x date of clipping inter-
action was obtained. The lines differed primarily on late season forage
production. A highly significant positive correlation between forage yield
of the last clipping and mean forage yield of all clippings was obtained.
A highly significant positive correlation between date of grain harvest and
mean of all clippings was found, indicating later lines generally have
higher forage yields.
A severe crown rust epidemic, primarily of Race 290, was present during
the growing season of 1958-1959. Rust readings expressed as percent
coverage were taken on an unclipped plot of each of the lines. A highly
significant negative correlation between rust reading and late season
forage production was obtained. From visual observation rust was not
extensive or severe on the forage plots clipped at monthly intervals. How-
ever, the physiological processes of the susceptible lines may have been
disrupted, even though external symptoms of rust were not present. Link-

Annual Report, 1959

age between forage yield and rust reading is a possibility. A highly
significant negative correlation between grain yield and rust reading was
found. However, certain lines exhibited a degree of tolerance to rust
damage. Seminole, the highest grain-producing line in the test, was
heavily rusted. This test will be repeated next season.
Advanced Testing.-The Uniform Winter Oats Test was conducted.
Several new breeding lines appeared promising for grain production. The
Uniform Southern Soft Wheat Test was conducted. Further testing will
be necessary before a complete and adequate evaluation of new lines can
be made. Data from the Rye Clipping Nursery indicated that Gator
remains the superior recommended variety.
Population Studies.-The relationship between grain yield of a solid-
seeded population and mean grain yield of a number of space-planted in-
dividuals from that population was studied with 10 varieties of oats. A
significant interaction was obtained. This interaction indicates that the
yield of solid-seeded populations is largely influenced by 1 of 2 factors
or a combination of both: (1) The interaction of a group of biotypes;
(2) The competitive ability of certain biotypes present in the population
in a relatively low frequency.
The first factor seems more acceptable, since natural selection over a
series of generations would tend to eliminate all but the most competitive
biotypes from a given population. Varietal mixtures indicated that yield
of the mixture is not controlled by the proportion or yielding ability of
the varieties present in the mixture. Isolation of isogenic lines from
established varieties is being made to study and evaluate more critically
this interaction.
Irradiation Studies.-The oat variety Seminole and the rye variety
Florida Black were irradiated with 2 to 60,000 r units of gamma rays.
Grain and forage data were obtained from solid-seeded stands. Significant
reductions in grain and forage production was found above 30,000 r in
oats and above 10,000 ) in rye. Data obtained from low dosages were in-
conclusive. More acceptable experimental material is being increased in
order to measure possible biotype x irradiation interaction and to study
the relationship of this interaction to the population mean. (See also
Project 783, Plant Pathology Department and North Florida Station.)

State Project 794 Fred Clark and B. Whitty
Four seedbed treatment with 3 planting dates were tested to determine
their effects on growth. yield and quality of 3 varieties of tobacco. The
treatments consisted of 3 different type seedbed covers and a soil heat
treatment. The covers were 22 by 28 mesh cheesecloth, 4 mil clear vinyl
film and 3 mil natural polyethylene film. Soil heating cables were used to
maintain a soil temperature of 60oF. under a 3 mil natural polyethylene
film. Hicks, 402 and F22-2 (an experimental variety) were planted Jan-
uary 2, January 22 and February 11.
The season was favorable for seedling production. However, the grow-
ing period in the beds planted January 2 was reduced from 88 days for
the cheesecloth to 60 days by the vinyl, polyethylene and polyethylene and
cable. The same 3 treatments, compared to the cheesecloth, reduced the
growing period of the January 22 planting from 75 to 57 days and the
February 11 planting from 65 to 55 days.
Field plot results are not complete at this time.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Regional Research Project 839 E. 0. Burt and E. G. Rodgers
(Regional S-18)
Effects of varying rates and frequencies of simulated rainfall on herbi-
cidal activities of DNBP, 2,4-DES (presently known as sesone), and simazin
applied at 12, 4 and 2 pounds active ingredient per acre, respectively, pre-
emergence on annual weeds and peanuts in Lakeland and Greenville sandy
loam soils were studied under greenhouse conditions. Two inches of rain-
fall every 7 or 8 days caused more leaching of herbicides than did 1 inch,
whether applied in 1 application or 2 or more split applications. Herbicidal
leaching, as indicated by plant abnormalities and reduced plant weights,
was higher in the sandy soil (Lakeland) than in the heavier soil containing
clay (Greenville). Simazin was more toxic to peanuts than the other 2
materials, sesone slightly damaged the peanuts and DNBP did not affect
peanuts at any time as indicated by plant abnonnalities and dry weights
of 50-day-old plants.
One-half to 2 inches of simulated rainfall during the first 2 weeks after
planting caused more adverse effects of simazin and sesone than later rain-
fall in comparable amounts. The earlier rainfall, however, resulted most
commonly in more efficient control of annual weeds.

Hatch Project 848 A. T. Wallace and A. O. Lunden
Gamma Radiation.-Experiments were initiated to determine what modi-
fying factors can be used to increase gamma radiation mutation effects
in higher plants. (In microorganisms this range from 1 per million to 1
per 100 million individuals per locus per roentgen.) First, oat seeds were
irradiated at 4 moisture levels, 3 dose intensities and 4 dose levels. From
18,000 M1 progenies, M seed will be screened for mutations at the Victoria
blight locus for which a specific technique has been developed.
To bypass the time-limiting factor between generations, similar but
more extensive experiments are being conducted for seedling measurements
which will be related to the actual mutation rates. Initially, oat seeds
were irradiated at 18 different moisture levels at dosages ranging from
10 to 80 kilo-roentgens. A total of 140 such treatments have been given.
Seedling height measurements showed that seed sensitivity varies widely
with moisture content. For example, seeds irradiated at moisture contents
of 3.7, 5.9, 7.7, 9.6, 11.1 and 26.0% had average heights, expressed as per-
cents of the controls and averaged over 8 dose levels, of 14.9, 25.7, 40.4, 54.7,
43.9, and 18.5, respectively. Thus, if mutation rate is independent of seed
sensitivity, higher mutation rates may be expected from seeds with 9.6%
moisture content than from the others because they could survive a higher
level of irradiation.
Ultraviolet Light.-The penetration of ultraviolet light limits its use
for inducing mutations in the higher plants to pollen irradiation in most
cases. Because of other desirable characteristics of ultraviolet light for
mutation production, anatomical studies were designed with oats and barley
to determine the extent of embryo dissection necessary to provide effective
U.V. exposure of the growing point, amount of injury caused by this
dissection, depth of penetration of U.V. into the exposed tissue, degree of
injury, frequency of chlorophyll mutations and modifying effect of seed
moisture content.

Annual Report, 1959

By microscopic dissection, which can be done by a trained technician at
the rate of 1 seed per minute, it was found that the enclosing parts, seed
coat, coleoptile and first and second leaves could be removed from over the
growing point and the embryo left attached to the endosperm. The diam-
eter of the apex averaged 90 microns. Germination results with seeds
in plastic boxes showed that removing the first and second leaves reduced
survival by /3 and 23, respectively. Microscopic examination showed that
the average frequency of injury to terminal apices of dry embryos exposed
to U.V., averaged over all exposures, after 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days of
germination was 22, 49, 93, 55, 36, and 15%, respectively. Unirradiated
but dissected apices showed no damage. Maximum frequency (93/' of
injury occurred at 4 days of germination because after this time period
dead epidermal cells were replaced. These new cells appear to arise from
anticlinal divisions-an observation that, if confirmed, will be of great
interest to radiation geneticists. U. V. dosage levels produced considerable
injury even after 15 seconds (300 ergs/mm2 at 2537 A wave length) of ex-
posure in seeds soaked for 24 hours. Specific injuries included vacuolated
cells, enlarged cells, differences in staining and sloughing off of some dead
cells. Injury appeared in the surface and in the second and third layers
of cells up to 30 microns deep.
Seedling survival with the second leaf removed decreased with increasing
lengths of U.V. exposure. Exposures of 8 or more minutes were necessary
to reduce seedling survival with only the first leaf removed. Soaking the
seeds in water before irradiation increased their sensitivity. This sensi-
tivity decreased for a period after 4 hours of soaking-apparently after the
cells swell and before the chromosomes divide. Conversely, visible light
had no apparent effects of inactivation.
From a total of 1,623 barley plant progenies grown from all irradiation
treatment, 12 or 0.7% of chlorophyll mutations were observed. However,
the 4- and 8-minute treatments on seeds which had been soaked for 24
hours gave a chlorophyll mutation rate of 4%, a rate comparable to ionizing
radiations. This is the first recorded case of any heritable mutations being
induced in somatic tissue with ultraviolet light. These results indicate
that the technique can be a desirable method for getting mutations in
growing embryos. (See also Project 848, Botany, Fruit Crops, Plant
Pathology, Ornamental Horticulture and Vegetable Crops Departments.)

Hatch Project 850 W. A. Carver, D. B. Linden
and F. H. Hull
Selection for improvement of pearlmillet is being conducted in hybrid
material involving Pennisetum glaucum and P. spicatum. Plant rows or
plants having similar characters are intercrossed. Inbreeding is avoided
as far as possible. The characters sought in selection are good seedling
vigor, good tillering habit, late maturity and high forage yield. Inbred
lines are also being started among different millet types. As a first step
in breeding a hybrid millet, selfed lines are being crossed to a cytoplasmic
male sterile strain furnished by the Georgia Coastal Plain Station at Tifton.
Pearlmillet plants were crossed with napiergrass pollen in 1957, the
main objective being to produce a napier-type grass with some of the good
forage qualities of millet. The seed resulting from the millet by napier
cross produced plants as follows in 1958.

Normal millet plants (8 ft.) ....................... 83
Semi-dwarf millet plants (5 ft.) ....... ..... 52

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Dwarf millet plants (3 ft.) ................. ............ 15
Napiergrass-like plants (large) ...-............ 64
Napiergrass-like plants (small) ................ 27
The small napiergrass-like plants were generally chlorophyll deficient.
A large number of albino or near-albino plants died when they were young
and were not counted. All millet-like plants were completely fertile, but
the napier types formed no pollen or seed. Several superior napier-type
hybrid plants have been transplanted to an observation nursery. A superior
napiergrass selection is planted in the nursery to serve as a check.
Introductions of Panicumn miliaceum, Setaria italica, S. sphacelata and
S. glauca were obtained from the Regional Plant Introduction Station,
Ames, Iowa. All introductions proved to be poorly adapted at Gainesville.
Six varieties of pearlmillet furnished by the Crops Research Division,
ARS, were grown in a 4-replication variety test at Gainesville. The test
plots were clipped 5 times between July 3 and September 29. Variety Gahi
1 produced 18 percent higher in green weight than common millet. The
others produced slightly less than common millet.
About 100 letters were sent to most countries of the world asking for
species of Digitaria growing in these countries. Over 150 samples are
being grown to determine the extent of genetic variability within this genus
and to establish a collection to serve as a basis of a breeding program.
The major objectives are to find a highly productive pasture grass that is
winter hardy in Florida, preferably 1 that will set viable seed also. Over
30 different colchicine combination treatments have been used on Digitaria
decumbens (pangolagrass), but a chromosome doubled strain has not been
detected yet.
Two irradiation experiments using vegetative cuttings of pangolagrass
treated at the Cobalt-60 irradiator did not produce immediate morphological
changes or subsequent segregation in sectors. The 2 experiments differed
in the dosage that produced complete lethality, so additional studies will
have to be made to determine the optimum dose.

State Project 886 E. 0. Burt
Very good control of both broadleaf and grass weeds with no injury
to peanut plants was accomplished by the use of DNBP as a pre-emergence
treatment at rates of 9 and 12 pounds active ingredient per acre. CIPC
at rates of 6 and 9 pounds per acre and CDAA at 12 pounds per acre gave
nearly as good results. Sesone at rates of 2, 4 and 6 pounds per acre gave
fair to good control of weeds with little or no injury to peanut plants.
Post-emergence treatments of DNBP at 3 pounds active ingredient per
acre and a combination of DNBP at 3 pounds plus sesone at 2 pounds per
acre resulted in almost complete control of all annual weeds with tem-
porary stunting of peanut plants.
(See also Project 886, West Florida Station.)

State Project 900 E. G. Rodgers and Fred Clark
A study of 10 crop rotation systems involving 4 levels of fertilization on
9 different crops was initiated in 1958. Excellent response to fertilization
has been shown by all crops in terms of total yield. Effects of fertilization
on chemical content of the plants are inconclusive. Effects of the rotation
systems are not known and can be determined only after a considerably
longer evaluation period. (See also Project 900, Suwannee Valley Station.)

Annual Report, 1959

State Project 909 Kuell Hinson '
Soybean breeding lines were evaluated to select better adapted varieties
for Florida's environments. Four locations were selected for their range
in soil type and photoperiod. All 280 lines and check varieties were grown
at Gainesville on Arredondo fine sand, 88 at Live Oak on Klej fine sand,
72 at Zellwood on muck soil and 88 at Homestead on high calcium Rockdale
fine sandy loam. Excluding the Gainesville location, lines were selected
for testing at only those locations where their height and photoperiod re-
sponse suggested they were adapted. Two replications of 2 row plots were
gown at each location.
A highly significant interaction between varieties and locations was
obtained for 2 nurseries at Gainesville and Live Oak. Missing plots at
Zellwood and Homestead prevented a critical statistical treatment of data
from those locations. Breeding lines yielded considerably more than check
varieties at all locations. The highest yielding breeding line that has been
tested for 2 years at Gainesville and Live Oak averaged 35.6 bushels per
acre in 5 tests, as compared to 30.0 for the check variety Jackson. Although
data from Zellwood and Homestead are more preliminary, there is evidence
that breeding lines will demonstrate a larger yield advantage over the best
adapted check variety. (See also Project 909, Central Florida and Sub-
tropical Stations.)

Climatological Analysis.-Daily weather records from 33 weather sta-
tions, 32 in Florida and Brewton, Alabama, have been placed on punched
cards for the period 1931 through 1957 and are now ready for analysis.
In cooperation with the University of Florida Statistical Laboratory and
the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Statistical Sec-
tion, a tentative program has been developed for analysis of these weather
records using an IBM 650 computer. This program is a modification of a
similar type IBM program developed by the N.E. 35 Regional Climatological
Probabilities of rainfall amounts, frequencies of temperatures and grow-
ing degree days (heat units) will be determined for standard weekly inter-
vals. This detailed information will be useful in determining temperature
and drought hazards to crop production and will make rapidly accessible
detailed information on the climatic variables studied. It will also permit
detailed comparisons of weather-influenced biological responses from year
to year and/or from place to place. In a preliminary trial to test the
developed analytical program, the weather records from the Citrus Ex-
periment Station, Lake Alfred, are being analyzed. Data from other loca-
tions will be analyzed as rapidly as possible once a satisfactory analytical
procedure is established. (G. M. Prine and K. D. Butson.1")
Control of Broadleaf Weeds in Pasture Legumes.-4-(2,4-dichlorophen-
oxy) butyric acid, commonly designated as 4-(2.4-DB), at % and 1 pound
per acre was effective in controlling young broadleaf weeds in alfalfa,
whiteclover and redclover without injury to these desirable legumes. Lu-
pines. sweetclover and crimson clover were injured slightly from the treat-
ments. (E. 0. Burt.)
Control of Annual Weeds in St. Augustinegrass.-Simazin at rates of
2 and 4 pounds active ingredient per acre and 4-(2,4-DB) at rates of 1/
c. Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
1I In cooperation with the U. S. Weather Bureau.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

and 1 pound acid equivalent per acre were effective in killing established
annual broadleaf weeds in St. Augustinegrass. Simazin at the above rates
also was effective in controlling annual grasses when applied before they
emerged. St. Augustinegrass showed little or no injury symptoms from
the above treatments. (E. O. Burt.)
Crop Rotations and Fumigants.-In cooperation with the State Plant
Board, observations were made on the effect of various crop rotation
schedules on the nemic population. Tentative conclusions with regard to
nemic population were: (1) well established sod has very little plant para-
sitic nemas and (2) with the growing of row crops, parasitic nemas increase,
especially the rootknot, meadow and dagger nemas. Rootknot nemas were
not recovered from the soil if the last favorable host crop (tobacco) had
been prior to 1957. (Fred Clark.)
Field Corn Production on Flatwoods Soil.-Flatwoods soils are often
considered unsuitable for the production of cultivated field crops, and corn
is not generally grown on these soils in Florida. This test included 5
leading hybrids and was planted on Leon fine sand May 1, 1958. Two
seeding rates were used, 15,000 and 8,000 plants per acre, and the crop
received a total of 112 pounds of nitrogen, 84 pounds of phosphorus and
168 pounds of potassium per area.
The high rate of seeding gave an average yield of 103 bushels per acre,
compared to 75 for the low rate. Yield differences among varieties were
not statistically significant. Although, more ears were produced per plot
at the high seeding rate, they were not significantly smaller than the ears
produced on the low population plots. The number of ears per plant de-
creased from 1.43 to 1.04 as the plant population increased from 8,000
to 15,000 plants per acre, and the percent of lodged plants increased from
6 to 10 percent.
Results of this test suggest that on flatwoods soil where moisture is
usually not limiting, plant populations might be higher than those nor-
mally recommended for the well drained soils on which most of the corn
in Florida is now being grown. (A. J. Norden.)

Annual Report, 1959


Research was conducted on 45 projects. New projects include studies
on the effect of gamma radiation on animals and feeds, plane of nutrition
on marbling in beef, physiological and biochemical basis of heterosis in
beef cattle, breeding heifers as yearlings versus 2 years of age, pasture
versus dry lot feeding of steers, effect of fertilization and pelleting on
digestibility of Coastal bermudagrass hay, artificial insemination, lysine
supplementation of swine rations, effect of 4 different slaughter weights
on value of swine carcasses, new antibiotics for swine feeding, use of in-
jectable iron compounds for swine and a new project on comparing Angus,
Brangus and Angus x Crossbred cattle in the Everglades area in cooper-
ation with the Glades Prison Farm and the Everglades Experiment Station.
A $125,000 addition to the Meats Laboratory was completed. This will
allow for an expanded meats research program at Gainesville and in co-
operation with the branch stations. A pig parlor was completed and studies
are already underway on this method of growing-finishing pigs. A small
climatology laboratory building was obtained and studies involving the
effect of different temperatures on animal response will soon be underway.
A small silo for self-feeding cattle was constructed. This will provide
facilities for studies on feeding corn silage to beef cattle.
Grant-in-aid funds totaling approximately $70,000 were obtained from
17 different commercial companies, foundations, etc.
The Department has continued its cooperation with other departments
and branch stations in nutrition, physiology, meats, genetics and breeding
studies. Many of our staff also have judged livestock shows and helped
breeders in Central and South America with their livestock procurement
and production problems. In addition to considerable foreign correspond-
ence, visitors from all parts of the world visit and consult with our staff
frequently throughout the year. Forage and feed samples from Brazil,
Costa Rica and Paraguay have been received for analyses at the Nutrition
Hatch Project 133 George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley,
L. R. Arrington, J. P. Feaster,
J. T. McCall and C. B. Ammerman
Results of experiments under this project have emphasized that the
quality of protein in the diet of cattle may have a marked influence upon
the utilization of different forms of phosphate. With good quality protein
either from legume hays or from oil seed meals comparatively poor grades
of phosphate have been well utilized by cattle over 6 months of age.
As a result of work with rumen fistula animals, evidence has been ac-
cumulated indicating that the digestion of forages in the rumens of differ-
ent animals is very different. Part of this may be due to differences in
composition of the rumen fluid.
The value of iron in the diet of cattle is being studied in a cooperative
experiment with the Dairy Research Unit. Animals have been rendered
anemic and are being fed graded levels of iron in an effort to determine
iron requirements of cattle under Florida conditions.
Studies continue with the influence of diet upon changes in heart muscle
Cooperative with W. G. Kirk, Range Cattle Station, H. L. Chapman, Everglades
Station, W. C. Burns, West Central Florida Station, and R. B. Becker, Dairy Science De-

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

enzymes. This phase of the project is supported by a grant from the Na-
tional Institutes of Health. A deficiency of protein appears to reduce some
of the oxidation reduction in the heart muscle.
In a continuation of the study of the relationship between molybdenum,
copper and iron it has become evident that certain factors present in the
forage may interfere with the utilization of the trace elements. (See also
Project 133, Everglades Station.)
Hatch Project 346 G. K. Davis, J. T. McCall,
R. L. Shirley, J. P. Feaster,
L. R. Arrington and C. B. Ammerman
In a study of the effect of high molybdenum intake on rabbits and the
relationship to calcium and phosphorus utilization, the principal effect of
molybdenum on bone formation appears to be through an interference with
the organic matrix development rather than through a direct effect upon
calcium and phosphorus. It has been demonstrated that the interference
may exert itself through reduction in sulfur availability for formation of
bone cartilage.
Certain extracts of forages collected in the state have had a marked
chelating effect upon trace elements. Rats are being used in a study to
see if this effect occurs in the digestive tract.
The known relationship between dietary molybdenum and calcium and
phosphorus has led to a study of the effect of molybdenum upon dental
caries as they develop in rats. A high level of molybdenum interefered
with tooth formation and resulted in more caries. However, a moderate
level of 100 ppm molybdenum in the rat diet gave normal teeth with low
caries count.
In work with rats a high level of protein continues to be a moderating
influence on the development of trace element deficiencies and interactions.
This has emphasized the need for careful control of trace elements in the
diet when low levels of protein are fed.
Hatch Project 356 George K. Davis and J. T. McCall
An extensive study has been carried out on the influence of nitrate
level in the forage upon performance of animals and development of nitrate
poisoning. Results so far indicate that factors other than the level of
nitrate may have a marked influence on the development of nitrate
In an experiment supported in part by a grant from Commercial Sol-
vents Corporation the influence of an antibiotic upon the preservation of
silage was investigated. Oats, clover and various grasses have been ensiled
using the antibiotic as one treatment. The results thus far have indicated
a very satisfactory preservation from very small amounts of the antibiotic.
Samples of forage and other feedstuffs have been analyzed from many
parts of the state and in conjunction with many experiments at Gainesville
and the branch stations. Rapid changes occur in the composition of pasture
forages from 1 season to another, emphasizing the need for a constant
check to maintain good nutrition in animals which are dependent almost
entirely on pasture for their feed. (See also Project 213, Dairy Science
Cooperative with W. G. Kirk, Range Cattle Station, and R. B. Becker and J. M. Wing,
Dairy Research Unit.

Annual Report, 1959

State Project 540 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs, Jr.
Two experiments on concrete using complete mixed feeds have been
conducted to determine the relative supplementary feeding value of 44%
solvent extracted soybean oilmeal, 60% digester tankage and a mixture of
the 2 protein supplements. In Experiment I gains and feed requirements
per pound of gain were 1.78, 3.63; 1.63, 3.68; and 1.68, 3.70, respectively,
for the above treatments. In Experiment II which employed smaller pigs
and was terminated after 8 weeks the same respective performance data
were 1.27, 2.84; 0.90, 3.31; and 1.28, 3.05. In this test pigs fed soybean
oilmeal and those fed the mixture grew more rapidly and efficiently than
pigs fed tankage. Tankage tended to reduce feed intake in both experi-
A third experiment, also conducted on concrete using complete mixed
rations, compared soybean oilmeal fortified with mineral and vitamins
with a more complex commercially formulated supplement. Performance
data indicated that the pigs gained at a comparable rate and with similar
efficiency on the 2 supplements. The use of soybean oilmeal was more

State Project 542 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs, Jr.
Work has continued on the supplementary feeding value of triiodo-
thyronine, a thyroid-stimulating compound, for sows during early lactation.
Three trials were reported last year in which a supplementary level of
600 mg. per ton of feed was tested. This year an additional trial using
300 mg. per ton of feed has been completed. A consideration of the results
as a whole suggest the following statements. The feeding of triiodo-
thryonine at the level of either 600 or 300 mg. from the 109th day of
gestation through the 14th day of lactation did not affect the number or
weight of pigs weaned.
The treated sows lost an average of 15.1 pounds more weight per animal
during the 2-week lactation period. This difference, which was significant
(P .01), did not result from the consumption of less feed, since feed
consumption was approximately equal for the 2 groups. Weight loss was
higher for sows fed 600 mg. triiodothyronine than for those fed 300 mg.
Data on rectal temperatures of the lactating animals did not indicate a
significant increase in body temperature due to the feeding of triiodo-
Hatch Project 566 J. P. Feaster, George K. Davis,
L. R. Arrington and J. T. McCall
Radioactive phosphorus in the form of phosphate administered to preg-
nant rats is transferred across the placenta at an increasing rate as the
gestation period progresses. Maximum transference is reached on the
21st day of pregnancy, with a sharp decrease on the 22nd or last day.
In spite of a more rapid increase in phosphorus transfer across the placenta,
the percentage of phosphorus in the fetus decreases. Repeated studies
with radioactive phosphorus have indicated that approximately two-thirds
to three-fourth of the phosphorus transferred across the placenta comes
from the daily dietary intake of this element.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The curve indicating fetal requirement and the curve indicating placenta
transfer of phosphorus show that near the end of the first third of preg-
nancy phosphorus could be a limiting factor in fetal growth. This ob-
servation emphasizes the necessity of maintaining adequate dietary intakes
of phosphorus during the early periods of pregnancy.

State Project 615 M. Koger
This is a cooperative project conducted at the Range Cattle Station.
Results are reported under Project 615 from that station.

State Project 627 M. Koger
This project was in a state of transition from the first to the second
phase of the trial. The second phase has not progressed far enough to
indicate trends.
Five pasture programs will be studied, including 4 grass-clover pastures
fertilized at different rates and 1 all-grass program. The following breed-
ing systems for producing beef are being studied:
1. Up-grading of Angus.
2. Rotational crossbreeding using Angus and Hereford bulls in alter-
nate generations.
3. Rotational crossbreeding using Angus and Brahman bulls.
4. Rotational crossbreeding using Hereford and Santa Gertrudis bulls.
(See also Project 627, Soils, Agronomy, Agricultural Engineering and
Agricultural Economics Departments.)

State Project 629 M. Koger
(Regional S-10)
This project is cooperative between the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station and the Agricultural Research Service, USDA. The project is
conducted at Brooksville and results from the trial are reported in the
West Central Florida Station section. W. G. Kirk, Range Cattle Station,
also cooperates.

State Project 631 A. Z. Palmer, M. Koger and R. L. Shirley
In cooperation with F. M. Peacock, 281 progeny from the Range Cattle
Station herds have been slaughtered during the past 3 years in a study
of the effects of age at time of slaughter, carcass grade and/or marbling
and genetic background on tenderness in beef. One hundred fifty-six
progeny were sired by Brahman bulls, 115 by Shorthorn bulls and 10 by
crossbred bulls. Ages at time of slaughter ranged from 5 to 87 months.
In general, the addition of the third year's data to the 2 previous years
altered previously reported findings only slightly. However, preliminary

Annual Report, 1959 71

tabulation of data may be summarized as follows: the average panel tender-
ness score for the progeny of the various sires varied markedly. It appears
that tenderness is heritable and that the tenderness factor is not confined
to any single breed.
The heritability estimates derived from Brahman sires were 71 and 54
percent for panel and shear tenderness values, respectively. Heritability
estimates for Shorthorn sires were zero for both tenderness measures.
Other slaughter and carcass data have been recorded and are being ana-
lyzed. (See also Project 631, Range Cattle Station.)

State Project 710 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger and T. J. Cunha
Three-year-old and 8-year-old cows were fed 3 different rations during
late gestation and during early lactation to determine the effect of ration
and age on postpartum reproductive performance. The cows were exposed
to fertile bulls during an 84-day breeding season.
Either 3- or 8-year-old cows had less weight loss when a part of the
nutrients came from 3 pounds of alfalfa meal with equivalent energy,
protein, minerals and vitamins, compared to a similar ration without
alfalfa. The alfalfa meal increased the intake of pangolagrass hay. Lac-
tating cows on a ration with only 50% of the protein requirements and no
alfalfa meal had a large weight loss and were in thin condition. Hay intake
was reduced and there was a large consumption of salt and bone meal when
fed free choice.
Eighty-four percent of the 8-year-old cows on the two rations contain-
ing 100%/ of the protein requirements were pregnant, while only 33(
were pregnant on the ration containing 50% of their protein requirements.
The interval from calving to first heat was 136 days for those cows on
50% protein intake compared to 64 days for the cows getting 100% of their
protein requirements. Two-thirds of the 8-year-old cows on the low protein
intake showed no estrus and were not bred. The addition of alfalfa meal
had no marked influence on the reproduction in the older cows.
In the 3-year-old heifers that received the alfalfa meal there were 33%
pregnant, compared to 17% of those with no alfalfa meal but equivalent
nutrients, and zero percent for heifers on the 50% protein intake. The
interval from calving to first postpartum estrus was significantly shorter
for those heifers getting alfalfa meal. Heifers on the 50% protein intake
failed to ovulate and show estrus, making breeding impossible.

State Project 717 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and M. Koger
For the fifth consecutive year performance data were reported on
registered cattle and calves of the Angus, Brahman and Hereford breeds
kept under similar environmental conditions. In the 1958 calf crop Angus
calves were again the smallest at birth, averaging 60 pounds for bulls and
55 pounds for females. Brahman male calves were 13 pounds heavier and
females were 5 pounds heavier. Hereford male calves were 8 pounds
heavier and females 11 pounds heavier. Angus and Hereford calves aver-
aged about 1.5 pounds of gain per day to an average age of 4 months, when
creep feeding was started. On feed, Angus and Hereford bull calves aver-
aged 2.1 and heifer calves 1.8 pounds per day. Gains of Brahman calves
were higher, averaging 2.4 for bulls and 1.9 for heifers.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Type scores were highest for Hereford and lowest for Brahmas.
Estimated slaughter grades of Angus and Hereford calves were similar
and quite superior to those for Brahman calves. Reproductive perform-
ance of the Brahman cows was much lower than that recorded for Angus
and Hereford cows.

State Project 718 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs, Jr., and T. J. Cunha
Thirty pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age were used to test the value of
continuous feeding of piperazine, as piperazine phosphate, to "worm-free"
pigs. Previous work had indicated that piperazine was producing a growth
response which did not appear to be related to its anthelmintic properties
as judged by ascarid counts at time of slaughter. In this study, however,
the performance data were similar for the treated and untreated pigs,
indicating that the growth-stimulating effect previously noted for piper-
azine was likely due to anthelmintic properties.
A series of 3 experiments, involving 147 pigs, was conducted to deter-
mine the possible supplemental feeding value of triiodothyronine, a thyroid-
stimulating compound for the growing-finishing pig. In 1 experiment a
14% protein ration was compared to a 21% protein ration. Levels of 125
mg. triiodothyronine per ton and above appeared to be too high, as they
reduced efficiency of feed conversion. No consistent improvement in gains
or feed conversion was elicited at levels of 25 to 75 mg., although in 1
instance a statistically significant improvement in gains (P .05) was
observed at a 50 mg. level.
The compound tended to reduce the size of the thyroid gland, but
exerted no effect on the size of the pituitary and adrenal glands. Carcass
measurements revealed no significant effects due to treatment. Triiodo-
thyronine effects were not significantly influenced by protein levels studied.
However, pigs fed 14% protein gained faster, converted feed more effi-
ciently (P .01), gave higher dressing percentages (P .01) and were
thicker in backfat (P+ .01) than comparable pigs fed 21% protein rations.
An experiment comparing 3 ration treatments, (1) corn and minerals,
(2) corn, soybean oilmeal and minerals and (3) corn, soybean oilmeal,
minerals and antibiotic was conducted on concrete using pigs with initial
weights of 84 pounds. Gain and feed conversion data for the 3 treatments
respectively were 1.23, 4.35; 1.48, 3.70; and 1.54, 3.83. The beneficial effect
of the added soybean oilmeal is quite clear, but the antibiotic effect was
not significant.
Four feeding trials have tested the supplementary value of Arzene (an
arsenic-containing compound presently used as a coccidiostat for poultry).
With 1 minor exception, results were consistently negative, indicating that
this compound, at the levels tested, was an ineffective stimulant.

State Project 721 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and T. J. Cunha
An individual feeding trial with 4 lots of 4 heifers each was conducted
to study further the nutritive value of Coastal bermudagrass hay grown
under 2 rates of nitrogen fertilization and harvested at two different times.
The grass was grown at the Suwannee Valley Station on Klej fine sand
and was fertilized in August with 50- and 100-pound rates of nitrogen
per acre. One half of each fertilizer treatment was baled before frost
(October), while the remainder was baled after killing frost (December).

Annual Report, 1959

The heifers used in the feeding trial averaged 23 months of age, weighed
about 700 pounds and were open. Their only feed for 112 days was the
hay and a mineral supplement.
All heifers gained weight during the trial except those fed hay from
the low level of fertilization cut after frost. This lot lost an average of
0.3 pound per day and their appearance reflected their weight loss. How-
ever, the regularity of estrus was not affected by the treatment.
Complete data are available on the chemical composition of these hays
and digestion trials have been conducted to determine the digestibility of
the nutrients in each hay treatment. This project is closed with this report.
(See also Project 404, Soils Department and Suwannee Valley Station.)

State Project 725 A. C. Warnick and H. D. Wallace
Twenty-four Duroc gilts averaging 115 pounds and 134 days were in-
dividually fed. One half were fed a high energy ration and half a limited
ration to determine effect on puberty and early prenatal survival. The
limited energy ration contained approximately 85% as much TDN as the
high energy ration. The average age and weight at first heat (puberty)
for gilts on the high energy ration was 215 days and 242 pounds, compared
to 242 days and 217 pounds for the gilts on limited energy.
All gilts were bred to fertile boars at their second estrus and one-half
on each ration killed at either 3 or 25 days following breeding. The
embryos from the 3-day gilts were incubated at 39C. to study in vitro
development. Approximately 10; of the embryos showed 1 cleavage with
no apparent differences due to ration. There were 9.7 normal embryos per
gilt at 25 days on limited energy, compared to 8.0 embryos per gilt on
the high energy ration. Both ovulation rate and percentage embryonic
survival were higher at 25 days post breeding in the gilts on the limited
energy ration. The limited energy ration contained 52% alfalfa meal, so
it is possible that a part of the beneficial effects on reproduction was due
to the alfalfa as well as the reduced energy intake.

Hatch Project 738 G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace and T. J. Cunha
Studies on the phosphorus requirements of baby pigs have shown the
minimum to be in excess of 0.36 percent of the ration. Pigs that were fed
rations containing 0.48, 0.60 and 0.72 percent phosphorus had a more dense
bone as measured by X-rays and a larger percentage of bone ash than pigs
that received rations containing either 0.24 or 0.36 percent phosphorus;
comparable results were obtained with calcium-phosphorus ratios of either
1.2:1 or 2:1. However, growth rate was superior when the rations con-
tained a 1.2:1 calcium to phosphorus ratio.
Additional phosphorus levels and calcium-phosphorus ratios will be
investigated when the statistical analyses of the present data are completed.
A combination of penicillin and streptomycin has proven equally ef-
fective as the tetracyclines in stimulating both rate and efficiency of gain.
Arsenobenzene, oleandomycin and a streptomycin-sulfaquinoxaline mixture
had a comparable effect on stimulating baby pig performance. Low levels
of cortisone in combination with protamone adversely influenced feed
efficiency when included in starter and grower rations.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Hatch Project 739 A. Z. Palmer, H. D. Wallace,
T. J. Cunha and R. L. Shirley
Three feeding trials previously reported on this project indicated im-
proved feed conversion from feeding high-energy, high-protein diets follow-
ing growth on peanuts. The high level use of waste fats in swine feeds
was shown possible from a feeding standpoint. Improved feed conversion
resulted from feeding a high-energy, high-protein diet following growth
on peanuts.
Dressing percentage, average back fat thickness, carcass length and
carcass grade were not affected by finishing pigs grown on peanuts with a
ration containing 22 percent saponified beef tallow and 18 percent protein;
carcass yields of ham, loin, picnic and Boston butt were not influenced by
the feeding treatment.
Carcass grade, average back fat thickness, and carcass length were not
affected by finishing pigs grown on peanuts with a ration containing 15
percent acidulated coconut oil soap stock. Carcass yields of the primal
cuts were not influenced by feeding treatment.
Hardening rations did firm up pigs grown on peanuts but the effect
was of little practical magnitude.

Hatch Project 740 P. E. Loggins, M. Koger,
(Regional S-29) A. C. Warnick and T. J. Cunha
A cross-breeding study was introduced in the 1959 lamb crop breeding
season to compare productivity with straight-bred lambs from the 2 pre-
vious lamb crops. Rambouillet and Florida natives were crossed with
Hampshire rams; Rambouillet rams crossed on Florida native ewes and
Florida native rams crossed on Rambouillet ewes. Hampshire ewes were
straight bred. Visectomized rams were used from May 24 to September
30, 1959, to determine earliness of estrus and breeding dates. Intact rams
were placed with flocks beginning July 1.
The Hampshire ewes were found to be in anestrous, while 10 Ram-
bouillet and 6 Florida natives were cycling prior to July 1. The average
date of first estrus in the breeding ewes was as follows: Hampshire, July
23; Rambouillet, July 12; and Florida natives, July 17. Lambing percent-
ages for 1959 season were: Hampshire 88%; Rambouillet 109%; and
Florida natives 109%; with average lambing dates of December 20, Decem-
ber 11 and December 21, respectively.
Semen was collected with artificial vagina at 14-day intervals from
the middle of June through October. The data show a seasonal difference,
with semen quality being highest in June, followed by a decrease during
July, August and September. Recovery of semen quality began in late
September and early October.
The lambs were weaned and graded May 19, 1959, with an average
weight of 58 pounds and grade of low good. The average weight and
grade of the 1959 lamb crop were as follows: Hampshire, 65 pounds, grade
good; Rambouillet, 59 pounds, grade low good; Florida natives, 56 pounds,
grade utility; Hampshire ram x Rambouillet, 70 pounds, grade good; Hamp-
shire ram x Florida natives, 62 pounds, grade good; Rambouillet rams x
Florida natives, 54 pounds, grade high utility; and Florida native rams x
Rambouillet, 63 pounds, grade low good. The ewe flock was checked 48

Annual Report, 1959 75

hours after weaning and 80% of the Hampshire, 100% Rambouillet and
100% of the Florida natives with weaned lambs were lactating.

Hatch Project 752 M. Koger, A. C. Warnick
(Regional S-10) and J. F. Hentges, Jr.
Additional test matings were made to determine the genetic relationship
among the "snorter" dwarf which occurs in the Angus and Hereford
breeds, the midget which occurs in the Brahman and the "guinea" which
occurs in Florida native cattle. The important new finding which resulted
from this year's results was that a comprest Hereford female mated to
a "guinea" bull aborted a "bulldog" fetus, indicating that both animals
were heterozygous for the "bulldog" lethal gene. Thus it appears prob-
able that the "comprest" and "guinea" are not only phenotypically similar
to the Dexter, where the "bulldog" gene was first reported, but that they
carry the same lethal gene. Similar "bulldog" monsters had resulted last
year from guinea x guinea matings.

Hatch Project 755 G. K. Davis, L. R. Arrington,
C. B. Ammerman and J. T. McCall
Phosphate availability has been studied using several sources of phos-
phate, including dicalcium phosphate, soft phosphate and iron aluminum
phosphate. Iron aluminum phosphate was fed to rats and swine. It was
completely unavailable and is unsatisfactory as a source of phosphorus
for livestock. Work with swine on phosphorus availability has indicated
that an over-riding factor in phosphorus availability is the length of time
the phosphorus remains in the digestive tract. Such conditions as diarrhea
sharply decrease phosphorus availability.
Dried tomato waste has been fed in digestion trials alone and in com-
bination with alyce clover hay. Results indicate that dried tomato waste
is a fair to good by-product feed which can be used in cattle diets up to
levels of 100% without causing detrimental effects, at least for periods
of several weeks.
In studies with rumen fistula animals it has been shown that levels
of sulfur and phosphorus are very important influences upon the digestion
of cellulose. The level of phosphorus in the diet markedly influences palata-
bility of roughages for cattle. Increasing the level of phosphate markedly
improved the palatability of poor quality roughages, even though digesti-
bility was not significantly altered.

State Project 768 L. R. Arrington and G. K. Davis
Work on this project has been continued with generally the same proce-
dures and objectives as reported last year. Data were collected from feed-
ing trials designed to study feed efficiency or feed required per pound of
gain using 2 breeds of rabbits. Incomplete results indicate that more feed
is required per pound of gain for Dutch rabbits than for New Zealands.
Dressing percentages, however, are reversed, as indicated below. Dressing
percentages of approximately 100 rabbits slaughtered were as follows:
at 8 weeks, Dutch 60.2, New Zealand 56.2; at 12 to 14 weeks, Dutch 63.7,
New Zealand 59.4; mature rabbits, Dutch 61.8, New Zealand 56.2.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Work with Nitrofurazone has been continued. Reports from other
research have indicated that this product (NF-180) aids in control of mucoid
enteritis and also improves weight gains. An insufficient number of animals
has completed these trials to draw conclusions at this time.
During the year balance trials were initiated as a means of further
studying protein requirements and digestibility of feeds.

State Project 805 R. L. Shirley, G. K. Davis, H. D. Wallace,
A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges, A. Z.
Palmer and P. E. Loggins
A study of the influence of diet upon the enzymes of the heart and
skeletal muscle of cows and calves has been carried out with animals on
various levels of concentrate and forage. It was shown that the calves
had less glycogen in the muscle, more ribonucleic acid in both heart and
muscle and higher levels of desoxyribonucleic acid and phospholipid phos-
phorus in the heart than the cows. However, the ration fed had no effect
upon these compounds.
In an experiment with swine, the influence of the level of protein and of
sodium L-triiodothyronine was studied to determine the effect upon certain
compounds in the heart and liver. Neither the protein nor the hormone
had a significant effect upon the lactic acid, glycogen, ribonucleic acid,
desoxyribonucleic acid or succinoxidase of the heart nor upon the glycogen,
xanthine oxidase and endogenous oxygen uptake in the liver.
In a study with bulls it was found that level of protein had no effect
upon the succinic dehydrogenase or 5-nucleotidase activity or the content
of ribonucleic acid and desoxyribonucleic acid of the semen, when the ani-
mals were kept on the diets up to 10 months.

Hatch Project 809 A. C. Warnick and M. Koger
Twelve grade Brahman, 12 grade Hereford and 12 Brahman x Shorthorn
2-year-old heifers were studied to determine the effect of progesterone in
inhibiting estrus, and thus allowing animals to come into heat as a group
shortly following withdrawal of progesterone injections. The 2-year-old
Brahman heifers weighing 630 pounds had not yet attained puberty. Neither
estrus nor ovulation was stimulated following daily injections of 50 mg.
progesterone for 14 days. However, an intravenous injection of unfrac-
ticnated pituitary extract induced ovulation without estrus, but the corpus
luteum did not develop normally. All Hereford (835 pounds) and Brah-
man x Shorthorn (885 pounds) heifers were showing estrus and ovulating
with comparable lengths of the estrus period and cycle.
One half of the Hereford and crossbred heifers received injections of
12.5 mg. of progesterone and half received 50 mg. daily of progesterone
for 14 days beginning on the 14th day of the estrus cycle. Estrus and
ovulation were both inhibited in Herefords during the treatment with
progesterone, while 17% of the crossbred heifers showed estrus and 9%
ovulated during treatment. Eighty-nine percent of the Hereford and cross-
bred heifers came into heat within 10 days or less following the end of
the progesterone injections. Most intervals were between 2 and 5 days

Annual Report, 1959

post-injection. There was little difference in response due to the dosage
of hormone administered on subsequent breeding behavior of the heifers.

State Project 815 P. E. Loggins
This is a cooperative project between the Animal Husbandry and Nu-
trition and the Veterinary Science Departments. Results from the study
are reported under Project 815. Veterinary Science Department.

Hatch Project 849 G. E. Combs, J. P. Feaster,
A. Z. Palmer and G. K. Davis
Soybean meal was irradiated at dosage levels of 5 x 10' rep. and 1 x 10"
rep.; the meal was then incorporated into swine rations so as to form 10
percent of the total ration. A nutritionally adequate ration composed
essentially of yellow corn and soybean meal was also irradiated at a dosage
level of 1 x 100 rep.
Results of a short-term experiment indicate that palatability of the
ration containing irradiated soybean meal (5 x 100 rep.) was adversely
affected. Pigs given a choice preferred the ration which did not contain
the irradiated meal approximately 3 to 1 over the irradiated meal ration;
when not given a choice, the pigs readily consumed the ration containing
irradiated soybean meal.
Irradiation of a complete ration and soybean meal at 1 x 100 rep. re-
sulted in only slight flavor impairment. However, growth rate and feed
efficiency were influenced adversely by the irradiation treatment. Rate and
efficiency of gain were best with pigs fed the non-irradiated ration, followed
by the group fed the ration containing irradiated soybean meal. The pigs
which received the complete ration that was irradiated gained considerably
slower and less efficiently than the other groups. (See also Project 849,
Food Technology and Nutrition Department.)

State Project 867 J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. C. Warnick and R. L. Shirley
Hereford and Brahman females of 2 age groups (lactating cows and
yearling heifers) were fed rations providing approximately 100% and 50%
of recommended protein allowances. Data on determination of estrus by
visual, cervical smear and rectal temperature techniques, as well as the
number of bull services per conception and pregnancy, were obtained. At
calving and subsequent 28-day intervals the lactating cows were suckled
or hand-milked on 2 successive days to determine milk yield.
Protein level of the ration significantly affected calf growth and milk
yield, which were correlated through the first 4 months of lactation. Brah-
mans were significantly superior to the Herefords in milk yield and calf
growth as well as milk protein, solids not fat, fat and total solids. Their
advantages tended to disappear by the third month in all but calf growth
and milk yield. The daily gains of calves over the first 112 days for the
Brahman 100% and 50% groups were 1.74 and 1.23 pounds, while those
for the Herefords were 1.32 and 0.97 pounds, respectively.
The calculated daily dry matter and protein supply from the milk
became inadequate to maintain the calf growth obtained between the
second and third months in all experimental groups, indicating that from

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

the third month the calves must have received much of their nutrients from
Some cows quadrupled the milk yield of others within the same groups,
indicating a potential for improvement of milk production by selection.

State Project 884 A. Z. Palmer
Forty-four weanling heifers of mixed breeding but predominately Brah-
man and Shorthorn crosses were grouped into 4 lots by approximate weight
and breeding. Wintering and feed-lot phases of this study were conducted
at the Range Cattle Station, Ona. The supplementation during the 119-day
winter period was regulated to obtain distinctly different rates of gain
among the 4 lots. The objective of a study from the beef quality stand-
point was to determine the effect of wintering plane of nutrition on subse-
quent marbling response in dry lot. The feed-lot period extended for 140
days and the ration was the same for all lots.
Animals restricted during the wintering period required less feed per
hundred pounds of gain in the feed lot. Lot differences in in-transit shrink,
gastro-intestinal tract weight, fill and caul and ruffle fat lack significance.
Carcasses from the calves wintered on the lower plane of nutrition graded
significantly lower than carcasses from calves wintered at higher planes
of nutrition. Wintering plane of nutrition had a lesser effect on marbling
response in dry lot than did the breeding of the animals. (See also Project
884, Range Cattle Station.)

State Project 906 John P. Feaster and George K. Davis
In a series of experiments with pregnant rats, these animals have been
exposed to full body irradiation by the cobalt-60 irradiator. Irradiation
has been at a level of 200 roentgens total irradiation with injection of
phosphorus3" at various periods of time, following irradiation.
Up to 48 hours after irradiation there was no change in the transfer-
ence of radioactive phosphorus injected intramuscularly as compared to
transference with injection immediately following the irradiation and with
non-irradiated controls. Injection 96 hours after irradiation showed a
sharply increased rate of phosphorus32 transfer. These results indicate that
such sub-lethal levels of radiation probably cause tissue changes which
influence phosphorus transference as they develop following irradiation.
The nature of these changes caused by gamma irradiation is under in-
(Dr. A. T. Wallace, head of the Plant Science Research Unit, cooperated
in his capacity as operator of the Co0o irradiator.)

State Project 922 M. Koger
This project is cooperative between the Department of Animal Hus-
bandry, Glades State Prison Farm and Everglades Experiment Station.
The first experimental matings were made in the spring of 1959. The first
calves will be weaned in the fall of 1960. (See also Project 922, Everglades

Annual Report, 1959

Hatch Project 938 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger and T. J. Cunha
A temperature controlled room that will house 12 heifers is being con-
structed and will be ready to begin the experiment this fall. An outside
control barn is available for 12 heifers and the animals are being selected
for the experiment.

Effect of a Low Protein Intake on Reproduction, Weight and Blood of
Young Beef Bulls.-Young 7-month-old bulls that were fed approximately
30% of their protein requirements with adequate energy, vitamins and
minerals maintained their weight for 5 months, while control bulls getting
100% of their protein requirements with adequate energy, vitamins and
minerals gained 1.3 pounds daily. Blood hemoglobin, hematocrit and serum
protein, volume of semen, semen motility and sperm concentration were
similar for bulls on the two levels of protein during this 5-month interval.
Then, the protein intake on the low protein ration was further reduced to
less than 10% of their protein requirement. This resulted in a very marked
loss in weight and reduced appetite. Blood hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum
protein and sperm concentration also decreased for the protein deficient
bulls. (T. N. Meacham, A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges and T. J. Cunha.)
Simple Correlations between Carcass Grade, Marbling, Ether Extract
of Loin Eye and Beef Tenderness.-Short loin steaks were removed from
536 carcasses of known feeding and management background after the
carcasses had been chilled for 48 to 72 hours after slaughter. The steaks
were cut 1 inch thick and broiled medium well done. Tenderness values as
determined by Warner-Bratzler shear and by taste panel were related to
carcass grade, degree of marbling, area and ether extract of the longissimus
dorsi muscle at the 13th rib. Highly significant coefficients of correlation
were obtained among grade and marbling, ether extract in the L. dorsi
muscle, panel tenderness, shear force values and rib eye area. Grade ac-
counted for around 8% of the variability in panel tenderness. Highly
significant correlations were also obtained among marbling and ether
extract in the L. dorsi muscle, panel and shear force tenderness values,
and rib eye area. Marbling accounted for around 11% of the variability
in panel tenderness. (A. Z. Palmer, R. H. Alsmeyer, J. W. Carpenter, W.
G. Kirk, F. M. Peacock, H L. Chapman, C. W. Burns and M. Koger.)
Value of Added Internal Coloring in Comminuted Meats.-Testing is
currently underway to determine the effects of leanness and internal color-
ing in bologna on consumer preference and rate of deterioration in appear-
ance during storage and display, as compared to deterioration in flavor.
Data are being statistically analyzed. (A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter
and R. H. Alsmeyer.)
An Evaluation of Objective Methods of Measuring Beef Tenderness.-
Two trials were conducted comparing a motorized food grinder-recording
ammeter apparatus and the Warner-Bratzler shear apparatus to a taste
panel of 4 judges as methods of evaluating tenderness of beef. Tenderness
values of the food grinder method were expressed as joules of energy con-
sumed per gram of sample (E/g.). In the first trial 6 adjacent steaks
1 inch thick were cut from 81 short loins. Two adjacent steaks were broiled
and tested by taste panel and Warner-Bratzler shear; 2 adjacent steaks
were broiled and tested by food grinder; and 2 adjacent steaks were tested
raw by the food grinder method. The taste panel was the most repeatable

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

method, closely followed by the Warner-Bratzler shear and the food grinder
using broiled samples. For testing raw samples, the food grinder was
found to be the least repeatable method. A higher relationship was found
between the Warner-Bratzler shear and the taste panel methods than be-
tween taste panel and the food grinder method. The food grinder method
using broiled samples was more highly correlated to taste panel than was
the food grinder using raw samples.
In the second trial cooked samples of 70 roasts of the 6-7-8 rib cut were
evaluated for tenderness by the taste panel, Warner-Bratzler shear and
food grinder methods. Raw samples of 34 corresponding roasts of the
9-10-11 rib cut were evaluated by the food grinder. The Warner-Bratzler
shear method compared more favorably with the taste panel in determining
tenderness than did the food grinder methods. The food grinder method
using cooked samples compared more favorably to taste panel than did
the food grinder using raw samples. Although the data from this investi-
gation shows the Warner-Bratzler shear apparatus to be a more precise
measurement of tenderness than the food grinder, the evidence indicates
definite potentialities of the food grinder method with further development
of apparatus and technique. (A. Z. Palmer and J. A. Emerson.)
Economic Returns from Finishing Steers of Different Breeding on 3 Dif-
ferent Programs.-This study involved a comparison of feeding weanling
calves in dry lot, feeding yearling steers limited grain on spring clover
pasture and feeding long yearling steers in dry lot as methods for finishing
steers from the Beef Research Unit. Feeding yearling steers limited grain
on good clover pastures did not prove profitable because the steers did not
improve in grade enough more than steers on pasture alone to pay for
the grain fed. Feeding weanling calves in the dry lot and marketing at
approximately 10 months of age proved to be highly profitable during
the 3 years during which calves were fed. Grazing the steers until 18
months of age and then finishing for 90 days in the dry lot also proved
profitable, yielding a good return from the pasture used and making a
slight further profit in the feed lot.
Steers out of Brahman x native cows and sired by bulls of 4 different
breeds were used in the study. The cattle were all sold on the basis of
carcass weight and grade. Steers sired by Herefold bulls returned slightly
more than steers sired by Angus or Shorthorn bulls, due to a combination
of satisfactory grade and weight. Angus steers graded higher but weighed
considerably less at slaughter. Shorthorn steers weighed slightly more
but graded lower than Hereford progeny. All of the steers sired by British
bulls showed indications of hybrid vigor and performed better in terms of
both weight and grade than steers sired by Brahman bulls.
This study is being revised to study other methods of finishing steers
from the Beef Research Unit project. (M. Koger.)
Free Choice Feeding vs. a Complete Mixed Ration for Finishing Market
Swine.-One experiment using 39 pigs has been completed this year and
summarized in detail in Animal Husbandry Mimeo Series 59-1. Pigs fed
a complete mixed meal ration gained significantly faster (P .01) and
converted feed to weight gains more efficiently and economically than did
similar pigs fed ear corn and supplement free-choice. (H. D. Wallace,
G. E. Combs and R. B. Christmas.)
Pasture vs. Concrete for Growing-Finishing Swine.-Two experiments
involving a total of 92 pigs compared the relative performance and eco-
nomic aspects of feeding pigs in concrete confinement with feeding them
on pasture. Detailed summaries are available in Animal Husbandry Mimeo
Series 59-3 and 59-6.

Annual Report, 1959

In the first experiment in which pasture pigs grazed lush legume forage,
gains were approximately the same on concrete as on pasture. The value
of the feed replaced per acre of pasture was $12.67 when pigs were full-fed
and $11.78 when they were limited-fed. Pasture production costs were
estimated at $27.90 per acre.
In the second experiment the same type experiment was conducted on
millet pasture and concrete. Pigs fed on pasture gained at approximately
the same rate and converted feed on a par with pigs fed on concrete, indi-
cating no significant saving in feed for the pasture pigs. Costs of pasture
production far outweighed the return. Carcass data indicated that pasture-
fed pigs were somewhat leaner than the pigs fed on concrete. This was
particularly true for the limited-fed pigs on pasture. (H. D. Wallace, G. E.
Combs. R. B. Christmas, G. E. McCabe and A. Z. Palmer.)
Summer Lamb Feeding in Florida.-The 1958 lamb crop was placed on
a 120-day summer feeding trial. This study was a replication of the 1957
trials. The lambs were randomly placed on the study beginning June 1.
The lambs in lots 1, 2 and 3 were fed in dry lot and lot 4 on millet, pangola
and Coastal bermudagrass pastures. Lots 1, 2 and 3 received Alyce clover
hay flee-choice. Results of gains and grades are reported in the following

Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4
Control 1 + Pheno- 2 + thiazine +
thiazine Aureo- Salt Mix-
+ Salt mycin ture Fed on
IMixture Pasture

Number of lambs ........ 11 12 12 12
Average initial weight-. 61 59 61 61
Average final weight 97 93 96 73
Average daily gain ...... .29 .28 .29 .10*
Slaughter grade ......... iChoice- Choice Choice- Good*
Death losses ............... 2 1 0 1

Difference between dry-lot and pasture was highly significant.
(P. E. Loggins.)

High Level Iodine Feeding.-The discovery of certain areas where cattle
were being fed excessively high levels of iodine led to a study to determine
the effects of high level iodine upon reproductive efficiency. Preliminary
results suggest that female rats can conceive and bear normal young but
may be unable to nurse the young when consuming a diet containing as
much as 2,500 ppm of iodine as potassium iodide. Five females receiving
the iodinated diet 12 days before breeding and from the time the males
were removed until littering gave birth to 34 young and raised 3 to 21
days of age. Death of the young usually occurred within 48 hours after
birth. Five control females gave birth to 50 young and raised 39 to 21
days of age. (C. B. Ammerman and G. K. Davis.)
Effect of Ethyl Alcohol in the Diet of Cattle.1"-Low levels of alcohol
had been fed to cattle to study the influence of this compound on the
digestibility of cellulose. Work from other areas had shown that ethyl
alcohol increased the digestibility of certain kinds of poor roughage. This
Cooperative with W. G. Kirk, Range Cattle Station, Ona.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

study has shown that any improvement in digestibility of other feed in-
gredients probably is due to the increased energy coming from the alcohol.
(G. K. Davis.)
High Level Feeding of Soft Phosphate.-In a study of the effect of 5.6%
soft phosphate in the diet upon longevity in rats, animals were placed on
a diet containing this level of soft phosphate and maintained for as long
as they lived. The only evidence of fluorine toxicity was abnormal growth
of the incisor teeth. The average life span of these rats was approximately
normal. These results suggest that the fluorine present in soft phosphate
is not as toxic as the fluorine in sodium fluoride. (L. R. Arrington and
C. B. Ammerman.)
Effect of Cobalt-60 Irradiation upon the Digestibility and Chemical
Breakdown of Cellulose in Various Products.-Bagasse, corn cobs, peanut
hulls and cotton linters have been irradiated in the cobalt-60 irradiator at
levels of 5, 10, 20 and 40 million roentgens. Cellulose from these irradiated
products is being investigated to discover whether the structure of the
material has been altered by the irradiation and whether these changes,
if they exist, will alter the digestibility in either the fistulated steer or
in the artificial rumen. (C. B. Ammerman and G. K. Davis.)
A Comparison of Pelleted and Non-Pelleted Feeds for Beef Cattle and
Calves.-Creep-fed calves fed 70% flaked (steamed rolled) corn and 30%
meal supplement gained faster and required less feed per 100 pounds of
weight gain than calves fed the same corn and supplement pelleted through
a %-inch diameter die. The calves fed the non-pelleted feed scored higher
on slaughter grade at the end of the experiment and returned an average
of $10.00 per head more than calves fed the pelleted feed. In a study
of pelleted and non-pelleted Coastal bermudagrass, the digestibility of
protein was not affected by grinding and pelleting but gross energy and
digestibility of energy were both lower in the ground pelleted forage.
Bloat resulting in death was observed when grass hay ground through a
1/4-inch screen and a concentrate meal were used as sole ingredients for
rations for yearling heifers. (J. F. Hentges, Jr.)
Injectable Iron Compounds for the Prevention of Anemia in Suckling
Pigs.-Four trials involving 381 pigs from 47 litters have been conducted.
Injectable iron, intramuscular or subcutaneous, maintained hemoglobin at
a higher level than was observed for the control groups for all trials. No
anemia symptoms were noted in treated groups, but death losses from
anemia were encountered in untreated animals. Intramuscular injections
of iron-dextran were superior in hemoglobin maintenance to subcutaneous
injections of iron and B1U. Final weights at 8 weeks of age favored the
treated animals in all trials. This method of iron administration permits
a more positive control of anemia than the older well known treatments.
It is somewhat costly at this time but is recommended over the older, less
costly methods when the producer is unable to do a careful and complete
job of administering iron orally. (H. D. Wallace, R. B. Christmas and
G. E. Combs, Jr.)
Effect of Irradiation on the Nutritive Quality of Feeds.-Ground corn
and ground whole oats were irradiated with 5,000,000 roentgens in the
cobalt-60 irradiator to study the effect of this irradiation upon protein and
crude fiber digestibility. In a study with rats to determine the possible
development of toxic or other changes, no definite effects could be determined.
(C. B. Ammerman and G. K. Davis.)

Annual Report, 1959


Hatch Project 728 W. M. Dugger, Jr., and T. E. Humphreys
The Mechanism of Action of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D).-
Previous work indicated that 2,4-D treatment of plant roots caused an
increase in the amount of glucose metabolized through the pentose phos-
phate pathway. This conclusion was verified by comparing the metabolism
of radioactive glucose with that of radioactive gluconic acid. Metabolic
rates were postulated from the yields of radioactive carbon dioxide ob-
tained when glucose or gluconate containing radioactive carbon atoms at
different positions in the molecule were added to the root tissue. After
2,4-D treatment, the root tissue metabolized glucose in essentially the same
manner as gluconic acid. This would be expected to occur if glucose were
metabolized through the pentose phosphate pathway.
It was found that the respiration of 2,4-D treated tissues was inhibited
to only a small extent by Antimycin A, while the respiration of the un-
treated tissues was strongly inhibited by this compound. This gave an
indication that the normal mechanism for hydrogen transport was being
by-passed in the 2,4-D-treated tissues, and perhaps was causing a prefer-
ential oxidation of the coenzyme, triphosphopypyridine nucleotide. The
activation of the pentose phosphate pathway would be expected to
follow under these conditions. The observed results were consistent with
this interpretation and suggest that 1 of the effects of 2,4-D was to modify
the basic mechanisms involved in glucose metabolism.
The Synthesis, Transformation and Transport of Sugars in Plants.-
In the 1958 Annual Report it was reported that methods had been worked
out for the assay of several enzymes involved in sucrose synthesis. These
methods have been used to study sucrose synthesis in sugarcane seedlings
grown under different levels of boron nutrition. The plants were grown
in nutrient solution in the limited climatic control room (Annual Report
1958). One of the intermediates in sucrose synthesis, uridine diphosphate
glucose (UDPG), was found to be synthesized in larger amounts by enzyme
preparations from sugarcane grown with no added boron in the nutrient
solution than that synthesized in plants supplied with boron.
A study was then made of the influence of borate ions on the individual
enzyme systems involved in sucrose synthesis. Homogenates from sugar-
cane seedlings were used. The following reactions were studied:

UDPG + PP UTP + glucose-1-phosphate



SUDP + sucrose


Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

It was found that sucrose synthesis was dependent on adenosine triphos-
phate (ATP), even though 2 of the enzymic reactions (1 and 2) involved
were strongly inhibited by ATP when they were assayed individually.
With ATP present in the reaction mixture more sucrose was synthesized
from a limited concentration of UTP than could be accounted for unless
the uridine moiety was being recycled as indicated in the above series of
reactions. Reaction (1) was catalyzed by UDPG-pyrophosphorylase and
reaction (2) by UDPG fructose transglyolase. Boron stimulated
reactions (1) and (3), but inhibited reaction (2). With boron present
in a reaction mixture containing all the enzymes and intermediates shown
above, the UDPG was maintained at a high level. The results obtained
on UDPG synthesis with the individual enzyme systems do not agree with
those obtained in intact plants.
Project 728 was terminated on July 1, 1959. A new project (Hatch
Project 953, Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates in Plants) will continue many
phases of the research that were carried out under Project 728.
Hatch Project 810 H. J. Teas and T. W. Holmsen
The work on this project has been concentrated on the amino acid
tryptophan rather than on lysine, since the latter compound has been
recently synthesized cheaply enough to be used in animal food supplements.
The formation of tryptophan in higher plants has been studied in enzyme
preparations of seedlings. This work has shown that tryptophan is formed
through the enzymatic condensation of indole and serine by a system de-
pendent on vitamin Be or pyridoxal. Experiments have been carried out
using enzymes from pea and corn seedlings. Minor differences have been
found between the 2 systems.
Purification has been achieved so that tryptophan biosynthesis can be
studied in centrifuged, cell-free preparations and in acetone-dried cyto-
plasm. The enzyme that carries out this synthesis, called tryptophan
synthetase, has been quantitatively characterized for its pH, cofactor, indole
and serine dependencies as well as other features. Previously tryptophan
synthetase had been investigated only in bacteria and fungi, not in higher
plants. Radiocarbon-labeled serine and indole have been used and trypto-
phan isolated by starch and resin column chromatography and character-
ized by chemical tests and micro-biological assay.
Although these enzyme preparations tell us how indole is converted to
tryptophan, they do not indicate how indole itself is formed. No evidence
could be obtained for the participation of anthranilic acid in indole or
tryptophan formation in corn or pea preparations. However, an indication
of the possible role of anthranilic acid is suggested by anthranilic acid
disappearance in homogenates of gardenia flower petals, tested because
gardenia flower essence has been reported to contain indole.
Accumulated mutants of the small plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, are
being classified for determination of their growth requirements in the
search for tryptophan-requiring mutants.
Hatch Project 848 H. J. Teas
The agricultural cobalt-60 gamma irradiation facility was completed
and radiation survey measurements were carried out for reports to the
U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Dose measurements were made by the
use of ion chambers and by ferrous-ferric methods in order to provide a
guide for users of the facility. It was found that the radiation flux within
the irradiator was approximately 2.8 x 105 roentgens per minutes and that

Annual Report, 1959

doses as low as 1.9 r per minute could be obtained. With the completion
of construction and testing, the special role of the Department of Botany
was completed. Operation of the facility is now provided on a routine
service basis for the Agricultural Experiment Stations. (See also Project
848, Agronomy, Fruit Crops, Plant Pathology, Ornamental Horticulture and
Vegetable Crops Departments.)

Chromatographic Studies of Some Alcohol-Soluble Materials in Male
and Female Papaya (Carica papaya) Plants.-The papaya is generally
dioecious but some plants bear perfect flowers. However, all gradations
and variations, sometimes on the same tree, are found between these 2
conditions. Papaya growers have been interested in a method that would
enable them to determine the sex of a seedling without having to grow
it to the flowering condition. In some plants it has been suggested that
the flavonoids are involved in sex determination. We examined the alcohol-
soluble extracts of the leaves of male and female papaya plants (obtained
from Dr. Robert A. Conover of the Subtropical Station) by chromatographic
methods. A number of flavonoid compounds were found but no differences
were noted between the different leaf extracts. (G. Ray Noggle.)
Physiology of Dwarfing in Plants.-A number of quaternary ammon-
ium compounds have been found to retard the elongation of plants. One
of these compounds, 2-isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-methylphenyl 1-piper-
idinecarboxylate methyl chloride (Amo 1618), has been used commercially
to dwarf certain varieties of chrysanthemum. Nothing is known of the
effect of these dwarfing compounds on the metabolic activities of plants.
Preliminary studies have indicated that Amo 1618 may influence the metabo-
lism of methyl groups in Black Valentine beans. There are at least 2
important kinds of reactions involving methyl groups: pectin metabolism
and choline metabolism. Studies on both of these metabolic system are
under way. (G. Ray Noggle.)
Physiology of Geotropic Response in Plants.-Experiments have been
continued on the control of geotropic bending in gladiolus, snapdragons and
corn. Six analogs of N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid have been tested. One
substance, o-chlorophenylphthalamic acid, was found to be most effective
in corn plants and somewhat effective in gladiolus tests, but does not ap-
proach the control of geotropic bending caused by naphthylphthalamate in
the case of snapdragon flowers.
Irradiation of snapdragon inflorescences inhibited their subsequent bend-
ing response to gravity. This finding provides a tool by which radiation
may be useful in the study of physiological control of geotropic response.
Plants with unusual gravity responses are being accumulated and
studied. These include "lazy" corn, a mutation in which gravity response
is lost and the plants grow along the ground; tetraploid buckwheat, in
which the seedlings respond to gravity especially rapidly; water hyacinth,
in which the inflorescence stem is first negatively geotropic then positively
geotropic; a species of Florida milkweed, Asclepias humistrata, in which
the stem is oriented at an angle to the vertical, never upright-some plants
at approximately 45 degrees from the horizontal, others 10 degrees and
others 30 degrees; Auricaria excels, the Norfolk Island pine, in which
rooted lateral branches grow horizontally and produce only horizontal
branches, whereas rooted terminal shoots grow upright and also produce
horizontal branches. (H. J. Teas, T. W. Holmsen and T. J. Sheehan.)

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The Department of Dairy Science embraces the 2 fields of dairying, dairy
husbandry and the manufacture of dairy products. The work relating to
breeding, feeding and reproduction of dairy cattle and the production of
milk is carried on at the Dairy Research Unit at Hague.
The herd consists of approximately 250 dairy animals, including Jerseys,
Guernseys, Holsteins, Brown Swiss and Ayrshires. All breeding is done
artificially, using frozen semen. The farm consists of approximately 1,200
acres, about half of which is cleared for cropping. A green chopping pro-
gram has been introduced to study the possible advantages over the grazing
program formerly used. Dr. C. J. Wilcox was added to this department to
replace Prof. P. T. D. Arnold, who retired June 30, 1959.
The milk produced at the Dairy Research Unit is hauled in a tank truck
to the Dairy Products Laboratory where it is used for teaching laboratories
and for research projects, after which it is processed and bottled for use
at the cafeterias on the campus. Ice cream, cream, chocolate milk and cer-
tain other dairy products also are produced in the laboratory. Experiments
in progress include a study of methods of handling and processing of dairy
products during the manufacture of them. Tests for milk quality and
studies of milk composition are constantly being made.
Dr. B. J. Liska resigned from the dairy manufacturing staff and has
not yet been replaced.

State Project 213 R. B. Becker, J. M. Wing and P. T. Dix Arnold
Three laboratory silos were filled with field-chopped oats harvested in
the "boot" stage at the Dairy Research Unit, as well as 2 plastic bag silos
at the Nutrition Laboratory for digestion trials.
Two of the silos contained plain chopped oats, 2 had zinc bacitracin sus-
pension added, while 1 silo contained 150 pounds of ground snapped corn
per ton of green forage. Aromas of the finished silages were slightly
pungent, mild but not acid, and mildly acid, respectively.
Dairy heifers ate 98 pounds of the plain oats silage per head daily, 87
pounds of oats plus zinc bacitracin suspension and 81 pounds daily of the
oats plus ground snapped corn. These silages were high in moisture, and
weighed 40 to 50 pounds per cubic foot. (See also Project 356, Animal Hus-
bandry and Nutrition Department.)

State Project 345 R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold
Records of breeding and disposals of cows were accumulated from 5
cooperating Florida dairy herds.
The study of useful life span and causes of turnover of bulls in artificial
use was continued with cooperation of bull studs in the United States and
Canada and partial support from the National Association of Artificial
A preliminary life-expectancy table was prepared from 3,841 completed
records of desirable dairy bulls. Some 571 bulls out of service in 1939-1947
were used for an average of 1.72 years, while 3,270 bulls in the 1948-1957
period were used for an average of 3.19 years. This increase of 85% in
average tenure of desirable bulls may be attributable to improved techniques

Annual Report, 1959

as well as to better timing of inseminations, due to better understanding
by members or patrons in reporting the incidence of estrus. (See also
Project 345, Agricultural Economics Department.)

State Project 575 P. T. Dix Arnold, S. P. Marshall and R. B. Becker
This project involves the routine records of production, reproduction
and conformation and the analysis of the records for the management of
the herd. Additional data for animals assigned to specific projects are
included under the various project reports.
A total of 59 cows completed official production records under the rules
of their respective breed associations.
Official type classifications were conducted by judges of the Guernsey
and Holstein associations resulting in average herd scores of 77 and 80'c
Thirty-five cows and 17 heifers were culled and 4 animals died. Repro-
ductive difficulties, udder troubles and low production were the causes for
Six Ayrshire heifers were purchased as a foundation for this breed in
the station herd.

Hatch Project 667 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, J. M. Wing,
W. A. Krienke, L. E. Mull and E. L. Fouts
More adequate feed supplies over the state and better understanding
that underfeeding was 1 cause of subnormal solids-not-fat in milk resulted
in fewer reports of this condition during the past season. The same was
true concerning subnormal butterfat tests.
Feeding Trials.-Two control and 9 experimental cows were used in a
feeding trial concerning solids-not-fat in milk. The rations calculated
monthly met the protein requirements of each cow. Five cows were offered
85% of the TDN needed, while rations for 4 cows provided 75% of TDN
requirements. The rations included corn silage, mixed concentrates and
cottonseed meal when needed.
Slight decreases in percentages of solids-not-fat soon were accompanied
by decreases in body weights and milk yields. These decreases in body
weights and milk yields soon allowed solids-not-fat percentage to return
to previous levels. Over the first 114 days the control cows maintained
weight and decreased 30% in milk yield; the cows on 85% TDN offering
decreased 42% in milk and 16% in body weight, while those on 75% TDN
intakes dropped 65% in milk and 12% in body weight. No decline in per-
centage of butterfat occurred.
The percentages of protein (determined by formol titration) appeared
to be a better measure than solids-not-fat in evaluating the plasma portion
of milk.

State Project 772 S. P. Marshall
Plots of alfalfa-clover-oat pasture were established on flatwoods land
to study the effect of irrigation on yield of total digestible nutrients and

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

body weight gains made by dairy heifers grazing the pasture. Only 1
water application was made on the irrigated plot. Grazing was begun on
each plot December 4, 1958, but was discontinued February 19, 1959, due
to damage of forage stand by excessive soil and surface water as a result
of heavy rainfall.
During the 77-day grazing period heifers on the unirrigated plot gained
121 pounds in body weight and obtained 819 pounds of total digestible nu-
trients per acre from the pasture. Those grazing the irrigated plot gained
109 pounds and derived 814 pounds of total digestible nutrients from the
pasture. Daily gains averaged 1.2 for heifers grazing the unirrigated pas-
ture. Daily gains averaged 1.2 for heifers grazing the unirrigated pasture
and 1.0 for those on the irrigated. This project is terminated with this
(See also Project 772, Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy Depart-
Hatch Project 781 J. M. Wing, E. L. Fouts, R. B. Becker
and P. T. Dix Arnold
This study concerns the effects of various dietary medicaments alone
and in combinations which are likely to be used in concentrate feeds for
calves. Conditions were favorable for rapid growth and the 19 controls,
which included Jersey, Holstein and Guernsey calves, gained an average of
132 percent of normal.
Mean gains for 6 calves per treated group compared percentagewise with
the controls as follows: aureomycin (A), 109; isoniazid (I), 98; para amino
salicylic acid (PAS), 98; guanine (G), 109; methionine (M), 98; hydroxy
analog of methionine, 100; 8 hydroxy quinoline (H), 102; copper citrate
(C), 94; (A plus I), 117; (A plus PAS), 100; (G plus M), 125; (H plus C),
94; (PAS plus C), 100.
No significant differences were observed in height at withers and effi-
ciency of feed conversion. The effect of aureomycin appeared to be en-
hanced by isoniazid and inhibited by PAS. Guanine and methionine ap-
peared to be synergistic. None of the other additives were effective under
conditions of this experiment.

Hatch Project 790 B. J. Liska, W. A. Krienke,
L. E. Mull and E. L. Fouts
The fermentation equipment now in use consists of a 1,000 ml. stainless
steel beaker for the fermenter chamber with the necessary automatic con-
trols. The overflow from the fermenter at pH 5.3 to 5.4 enters a holding
tube of stainless steel pipe (3 inches in diameter.) The partially fermented
milk is held in the holding tube for an additional 4 to 5 hours. Capacity
of the holding tube is 11/2 times the capacity of the fermenter. The proper
level is maintained in the holding tube by using an electronic level control
which operates a peristaltic action pump on the discharge end of the holding
tube. After an additional 5 hour holding time, the pH of the fermented
milk is near pH 4.7 with an aci(fity of 0.85%.
Skimmilk used in this system is given a heat treatment of 185 to 200 F.
for 45 to 90 minutes. At the lower heat treatment some coagulating prop-
erties are retained by the milk. Also pasteurized fresh skimmilk (170 F.
for 15 seconds) has been used in the fermentation system. Using pasteur-
ized skimmilk, a fermentation temperature above 80 F. usually results
in growth of heat-resistant bacteria in the milk.

Annual Report, 1959

Attempts were made to set up a system of water baths to cook the
curd formed in the holding tube. The curd and whey was pumped through
plastic tubing placed in water baths at 100, 110 and 120 degrees F. This
warmed the curd, caused it to shrink, forced the whey from the curd and
made it firm up. This indicated that cooking of the curd while it is in mo-
tion should be possible.
The problem of outside contamination with coliform organisms was com-
pletely eliminated using the present fermentation scheme.

State Project 919 B. J. Liska
Four pure single strains of Leuconostoc citrovorum and 4 pure single
strains of Leuconostoc dextranicum were obtained for this study. Two
single strain Streptococcus lactis cultures were used as control cultures
to determine whether the Leuconostoc cultures were more sensitive or less
sensitive to antibiotics than the S. lactis cultures.
The cultures were propagated in NDM reconstituted to 10% solids and
sterilized at 15 pounds pressure for 15 minutes. This same medium was
used to determine the sensitivity to antibiotics. The various Leuconostoc
cultures were inoculated at a rate of 10% into NDM media containing vari-
ous concentrations of the antibiotics used and incubated at 25 C. for 48
hours. Following incubation standard plate counts using trypticase soy
agar were performed. These plates were incubated at 25 C. for 3 days
and counted.
The antibiotics used were penicillin, aureomycin, terramycin, sigmamy-
cin, streptomycin, bacitracin and chloromycetin. Concentrations of anti-
biotics used varied from 0 to 0.5 units or micrograms per ml.
Results obtained indicate that most of the Leuconostoc cultures used
were more resistant to the antibiotics than the S. lactis. However, results
were not consistent.
It appears that the age of the culture used for inoculum has an effect
on the sensitivity of the culture. Penicillin was the most effective against
the S. lactis cultures. Only 0.15 u/ml. of penicillin was needed to reduce
the count in an S. lactis culture from approximately one billion/ml. to
100,000/ml. Four of the Leuconostoc cultures were not affected by this
level of penicillin. The plate counts of the other 4 cultures were reduced
about 10%. The other antibiotics caused inhibition of both S. lactis cul-
tures and Leuconostoc cultures.
From these preliminary results it appears penicillin would be best for
use in a procedure to count Leuconostoc organisms in mixed strain cultures.
No attempt was made to try to separate the 2 types of cultures using pen-
icillin or the other antibiotics.

State Project 923 J. M. Wing
Total digestible nutrients (TDN) and digestible crude protein (DCP)
were determined on the basis of yield per acre and intake per thousand
pounds of live weight daily by cattle from typical forages used for green
feed. Results are shown in the following table.
Intake of nutrients from these forages is considerably higher than has
been estimated. Thus supplementary feeds need not be complex nor ex-
pensive. Yields may be different in subsequent years, since rainfall was
unusually heavy during the present experiment.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Yield and Nutrient Content of Various Forages.




Forage TD

te clover 2,859.5

ilfa 2,316.8

s 2,920.1
S+ alfalfa 646.6






Daily Consumption per
1,000 Lbs. Body Weight

19.4 5.7

13.8 4.1

9.3 2.0

13.2 3.1

Values for Protein more Desirable than Those for S.N.F. in Evaluating
Milk Plasma.-Increasing interest in the solids of milk other than fat has
been centering in S.N.F. but reference is frequently made to protein as
the important constituent of S.N.F. Some of the new testing procedures
still measure specific gravity, percent S.N.F. being calculated.
Research was undertaken to study interrelationships among milk fat
(Babcock), S.N.F. (calculated from Quevenne lactometer values at 60 F.
after milk was cold 24 hours or longer); protein (Formol titration using
pH meter end-point); chloride (silver nitrate titration), pH (glass elec-
trode) and titratable acidity (pH meter end-point). More than 300 values
of each were obtained (each value being a mean of 6 consecutive single-day
values). More than 1,800 milk samples were analysed during a 10 month
period. These data show that from the lowest to the highest percentage
S.N.F. for these samples (about 8.4 to 10.1%), every increase in S.N.F. is
due to an increase of protein by the same numerical value.
The study is being continued and when concluded a statistical treatment
of all data will be made. (W. A. Krienke.)

Number of





Annual Report, 1959


For the first time in many years it was necessary to hold manuscripts
ready for publication but for which no funds were available. The Depart-
ment's television activities have expanded during the year. Radio and
news work were continued on about a normal basis.


The Agricultural Experiment Station published its second book for
sale, Plant Nematodes, Their Bionomics and Control, by J. R. Christie.
It is selling widely throughout the world, and the Florida Guide to Citrus
Insects, Diseases and Nutritional Disorders in Color, published during the
1958 fiscal year, continues to sell well.
Only 13 new bulletins and 7 new circulars were printed. The bulletins
totaled 632 pages, with 113,000 copies; the circulars, 70 pages, with 48,100
copies. Three of the bulletins were technical, 10 popular in nature. More
use was made of color printing than in any previous fiscal year. One of
the bulletins and 4 of the circulars had 4-color covers.
Publications printed included: Number

Bul. 597 Feed Lot Performance and Carcass Grades
of Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn Steers,
by Fentress M. Peacock and W. G. Kirk....
Bul. 598 Etiology and Control of Celery Diseases in
the Everglades, by R. S. Cox .....................
Bul. 599 Dairy Cattle and Their Care, by P. T. Dix
Arnold, R. B. Becker and A. H. Spurlock....
Bul. 600 Costs of Clearing Land and Establishing
Improved Pastures in Central Florida, by
L A R euss ...................... ........ .. .............-
Bul. 601 Pecan Growing in Florida, by R. H. Sharpe
and Nathan Gammon, Jr .................................
Bul. 602 The Florida Avocado Industry, by George
D R u ehle .......... ... .. .. ................ ......... ....
Bul. 603 Urea and Cottonseed Meal in the Ration of
Fattening Cattle, by W. G. Kirk, F. M. Pea-
cock, E. M. Hodges and D. W. Jones ...............
Bul. 604 A Survey of the Mineral Nutrition Status of
Valencia Orange in Florida, by R. C. J. Koo,
H. J. Reitz and J. W. Sites (Technical) ........
Bul. 605 Insect Pests of the Avocado and Their Con-
trol, by D. O. W olfenbarger ............. ..........
Bul. 606 Economies of Scale in the Operation of Flor-
ida Citrus Packinghouses, by Eric Thor
(T technical) .................. .. ............. ..............
Bul. 607 Irrigation of White Clover-Pangolagrass Pas-
ture for Dairy Cows, by Sidney P. Marshall
and J. Mostella Myers ...................-............
Bul. 608 Agricultural Land Prices in Palm Beach
County, Florida, 1940-1955, by Roy L. Las-
siter, Jr., and W. K. McPherson (Technical)

Pages Printed

16 7,500

29 6,000

55 15,000

40 7,500



16 7,500

59 6,000

51 10,000

31 5,000

23 7,500

76 5,000

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Bul. 609 Comparative Costs of Alternative Methods
for Performing Certain Handling Operations
in Florida Citrus Packinghouses, by George
L. Capel ....................-........-......... ........... 69 6,000
Book Plant Nematodes, Their Bionomics and Con-
trol, by Jesse R. Christie (sale $3.75) ............ 265 8,000
Cir. S-108 Self-Feeding Pangolagrass Silage to Winter-
ing Beef Cows, by Donald L. Wakeman and
James F. Hentges, Jr ............---- ...................... 15 7,500
Cir. S-109 Emerald-A New Early Blight-Resistant
Pascal Celery, by Emil A. Wolf ..... .----.... .. 7 5,000
Cir. S-110 An Experimental Self-Feeding Horizontal
Silo, by J. F. Hentges, Jr., D. L. Wakeman,
T. J. Cunha and J. T. McCall ..----........................ -- 12 7,500
Cir. S-111 Indian River-A New Disease-Resistant To-
mato of General Adaptability, by N. C. Hay-
slip, J. M. Walter and D. G. A. Kelbert ........ 11 7,500
Cir. S-112 Flordagrand-A New Blackberry for Home
Gardens and Local Markets, by J. S. Shoe-
maker, J. W. Wilson and R. H. Sharpe .........-- 8 7,500
Cir. S-113 Florida Pink-A New Gladiolus Variety for
Florida, by R. 0. Magie ....-............-.............-.... 4 7,000
Cir. S-114 Harvesting Cabbage with Mechanical Aids
in Florida, by E. S. Holmes and L. H. Halsey 13 6,000
The quarterly research journal, Sunshine State Agricultural Research
Report, continued to be well received by Florida growers and people work-
ing with them. It consisted of 20 pages each quarter, with 10,000 copies
The Florida Farm Hour over University Radio Station WRUF continued
to be a regular daily program. It was aired from 12:05 to 12:30 p.m. Mon-
day through Friday and from 12:30 to 1 p.m. Saturday by the Agricultural
Experiment Station and Agricultural Extension Service.
Experiment Station staff members other than Editors made 188 broad-
casts. Special features included tape recordings made at 3 branch stations.
The Farm Question Box, broadcast on 51 Tuesday by the Editor, included
questions answered by Experiment Station workers each time.
Farm Flashes copy sent to 52 radio stations for 5 days each week in-
cluded 101 based on Experiment Station material. Each was about 5 min-
utes in length.
Four radio stations received 127 taped features from Experiment Station
Spot announcements for station breaks were sent in increasing number.
A weekly Florida Farm Review about 5 minutes in length was sent to
wire services of Associated Press and United Press International for re-
lease over their teletypes to member radio and television stations, including
practically every station in Florida. All of these included material from
the Experiment Station.

The University's educational television station, WUFT, began regular
broadcasts in November 1958, and the Agricultural Experiment Station and
Extension Service took the period from 8:00-8:30 p.m. each Wednesday,
beginning November 19. Each program consisted of approximately 14

Annual Report, 1959

minutes of film and 15 minutes of live broadcast. Experiment Station
workers and films appeared in at least half of the programs from November
19 to June 30.
The farm program was the first WUFT offering to be chosen for the
Florida ETV network and was broadcast weekly from April 27, 1959, to
June 30 over WJCT, Jacksonville, as well as over WUFT.
Motion picture films of 14 to 15 minutes each were made weekly for
television and other uses. Twenty-four of these involved Experiment Sta-
tion workers alone and 2 included Station and Extension workers. They
were used on from 2 to 7 stations for 106 showings. The same films were
used from 1 to 8 times in a total of 50 other showings.
The weekly mimeographed news service sent to Florida weekly and
some daily newspapers by the Agricultural Extension Service continued to
carry stories based on Experiment Station materials each week. It went
also to farm papers and agricultural workers.
From 1 to 6 or more stories relating to Station work or gatherings were
sent to the wire services serving dailies practically every week. Local cor-
respondents and farm page editors were assisted in obtaining materials for
their papers. A large number of dittoed releases especially for daily pa-
pers were mailed during the year.
Many correspondents picked up material for their own stories at the
various branch stations and field laboratories.
Farm journals throughout the country continued to make generous use
of material supplies by Experiment Station Editors. Four Florida publica-
tions printed 24 articles that occupied 958 column inches; 1 Southern mag-
azine carried 1 6-inch story; and 6 national journals printed 6 stories that
occupied 148 column inches. The totals are 11 journals, 31 articles and
1,112 column inches.
Staff members other than Editors sent a number of articles direct to
farm papers.
Articles by research staff members sent to and printed in scientific
journals continued in slightly increasing number. Those included in the
Journal Series are forwarded by an Assistant Editor and reprints are
ordered when the articles are printed. These Journal Series articles now
number several hundred.
The following articles in this series were printed during the fiscal year:
443. Soil Sampling in Relation to Soil Heterogeneity, by L. C. Hammond,
W. L. Pritchett and Victor Chew. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. Proc. 22: 6:
548-552. Nov. 1958.
510. Effect of Stage of Gestation, Dietary Energy and Progesterone on the
Succinoxidase of Swine, by R. L. Shirley, C. E. Haines, A. C. Warnick,
H. D. Wallace and G. K. Davis. Quar. Jour. Fla. Acad. of Sci. 21:
(3) 281-284. 1959.
513. Predators and Parasites of Citrus Mites in Florida, by Martin H.
Muma. Proc. 10th Inter. Cong. of Ent. 4: 633-647. 1958.
581. The Effect of Movements of Winged Aphids on Transmission of a
Nonpersistent Aphid-Borne Virus, by John N. Simons. Proc. 10th
Internat'l Cong. of Ent. 3: 229-232. 1958.
621. Enzymic Hydrolysis of Naringin in Grapefruit, by S. V. Ting. Agr.
and Food Chem. 6: 7: 546-549. July 1958.
669. Yields and Quality of Peppers as Affected by Ammonium Nitrate and
Sulphate of Potash, by H. Y. Ozaki, H. E. Ray and C. T. Ozaki. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. 17: 210-215. Nov. 1957.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

693. Specific P32 Sorption by Soils, by T. L. Yuan and W. K. Robertson.
Soil Science. 86: (4) 220-225. Oct. 1958.
694. Change of P" Concentration and P"-:P"1 Ratio in Solution, by T. L.
Yuan. Soil Science. 86:(3) 148-151. Sept. 1958.
695. Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper and Zinc in Animal Tis-
tues, by J. T. McCall, G. K. Davis and T. W. Stearns. Analytical
Chem. 30: 1345-47. Aug. 1958.
698. Response of Corn in Superphosphate Placement Experiment, by W. K.
Robertson, C. E. Hutton and L. G. Thompson. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer.
22: (5) 431-434. Sept.-Oct. 1958.
699. Effect of Lime on Some North Florida Soils, by W. K. Robertson,
C. E. Hutton, H. W. Lundy, L. G. Thompson and R. W. Lipscomb.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 17: 72-85. Nov. 1957.
700. Colloidal Properties of Some Florida Soils, by J. G. A. Fiskell, N.
Gammon, T. L. Yuan and 0. Zmeskal. Proc. Amer. Soil Sci. Soc.
22: 4: 339-343. July 1958.
702. Impact of Radiophosphorus on Fertilizer Phosphate Research, by
J. R. Neller. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 17: 146-155. Nov. 1957.
704. Root Growth Responses to Soil pH Adjustments Made with Carbonates
of Calcium, Sodium and Potassium, by Nathan Gammon, Jr. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 17: 249-254. Nov. 1957.
705. The Behavior of Potassium and Potash Fertilizers in Florida Soils,
by Nathan Gammon, Jr. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 17: 156-160.
Nov. 1957.
706. Titration of Potato Virus Y by Aphid Transmission as Affected by
Leaf Development and Supply of Manganese, by J. P. Winfree and
J. N. Simons. Virology 6:(2) 540-544. Oct. 1958.
708. Phosphorus Experiments with Potatoes on the Perrine Marl, by John
L. Malcolm. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 17: 216-218. Nov. 1957.
710. Virus Diseases of Yellow Lupines: Preliminary Investigations on
Control by the Use of Protecting Borders, by M. K. Corbett and
J. R. Edwardson. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 17: 294-301. Nov. 1957.
712. Relationship of Liming to Nutrient Efficiency in Soil-Plant Relation-
ships, by John A. Fiskell. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 17: 48-59.
Nov. 1957.
713. Some Plant Responses and Soil Changes Resulting from Controlled
pH Levels in Experiments with Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco, by Nathan
Gammon, Jr., and R. R. Kincaid. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 17:
287-293. Nov. 1957.
714. Cultural Practices Useful in Growing Corn on South Florida Sandy
Soils, by F. T. Boyd. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 17: 226-230. Nov.
715. The Effect of Lime on Plant Growth and Recovery of Nitrogen from
Anhydrous Ammonia, Urea and Ammonium Nitrate in Acid Sandy
Soils, by William G. Blue and Charles F. Eno. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla. 17: 255-261. Nov. 1957.
717. A Study of Field Sources and Spread of Five Viruses Affecting Central
Florida Peppers, by C. W. Anderson. Phytopathology 49:(2) 97-101.
Feb. 1959.
718. Phosphorus Experiments with Tomatoes on Perrine Marl, by John L.
Malcolm. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 17: 219-225. Nov. 1957.

Annual Report, 1959

719. Liming Experiments and Observations with White Clover on Immoka-
lee Fine Sand, by Albert E. Kretschmer, Jr., Norman C. Hayslip
and Charles T. Ozaki. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 17: 274-286.
Nov. 1957.
720. Derivatives of d-Limonene (I)-Esters of Trans-p-Methane-1,2-Diol,
by William F. Newhall. Jour. Organ. Chem. 23: 1274-1276. 1958.
722. Lungworm Infections in Calves Produced by Subcutaneous Infections
of Larvae, by A. E. Wade and L. E. Swanson. Amer. Jour. of Vet.
Res. 19:(73) 792-793. Oct. 1958.
723. Sampling Mixed Fertilizers, by John G. A. Fiskell, W. H. Kelly and
G. M. Volk. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 17: 198-209. Nov. 1957.
724. Chinch Bug Control Tests 1956-57, by S. H. Kerr and F. A. Robinson.
Fla. Ento. 41:(3) 97-101. Sept. 1958.
727A. Effect of Procain Penicillin, Potassium Para Amino Salicylate, and
Isoniazid on Young Calves, by J. M. Wing. Jour. Dairy Sci. 41:(8)
1112-1113. Aug. 1958.
730. High Protein Peanut Oil Meal with Fish Meal-Fish Solubles Blend
in Broiler Diets, by J. Clyde Driggers and Fred R. Tarver, Jr. Poultry
Sci. 37:(5) 1108-1111. Sept. 1958.
731. The Use of Peanut Oil Meal and Fish Meal-Fish Solubles Blend in the
Diets of Broilers: II. The Effect upon Processing Yields, Fleshing,
Pigmentation and Fat Score, by Fred R. Tarver, Jr., and J. Clyde
Driggers. Poultry Sci. 37(5) 1112-1116. Sept. 1958.
733. The Effect of a Mixture of High-Solids Remade Skimmilk and Colo-
strum on Young Calves, by J. M. Wing. Jour. Dairy Sci. 41:(10)
1434-1438. Oct. 1958.
734. Transmission of Pseudo-Curly Top Virus in Florida by Treehoppers,
by John N. Simons and D. M. Coe. Virology 6:(1) 43-48. Aug. 1958.
735. Protecting Grain Sorghum from Bird Damage, by John R. Edwardson
and Joseph Molyneux. Agron. Jour. 50: 494-495. 1958.
736. Notes on the Biology of the Royal Palm Bug, Xylastodoris luteolus
Barber (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae), by R. M. Baranowski. Annals
of the Entomological Society of America 51:(6) 547-551. Nov. 1958.
739. Observations on Biology and Ecology of Tortrix ivana Fernald as a
Pest of Celery in the Everglades, and Notes on Its Control, by W. G.
Genung and N. C. Hayslip. Fla. Ento. 41:(3) 133-141. Sept. 1958.
741. The Effect of Exogenous Progesterone and Level of Feeding on Pre-
natal Survival in Gilts, by C. E. Haines, A. C. Warnick and H. D.
Wallace. Jour. An. Sci. 17:(3) 879-885. Aug. 1958.
744. Effect of Dietary Protein, Vitamin E and Age on the Lactic Dehydro-
genase and Succinoxidase of the Heart of Rats, by R. L. Shirley and
G. K. Davis. Jour. Nutr. 67:(4) 635-643. April 1959.
745. Studies of Mediterranean Fruit Fly Lures in Florida, by W. A. Siman-
ton. Jour. Eco. Ento. 51:(5) 679-682. Oct. 1958.
748. Palm Insects and Their Control, by D. O. Wolfenbarger. Principes
July 1958.
749. Mite Control in Redworm Beds, by William B. Tappan. Fla. Ento.
42:(1) 32-34. March 1959.
751. Influence of N-(trichloromethlthio)-4-cyclohexene- 1,2-dicarboximide
captain ) on Higher Plants. I. Effect on the Morphology and Gross
Metabolism of Root Tissue, by W. M. Dugger, Jr., T. E. Humphreys
and Barbara Calhoun. Amer. Jour. Bot. 45:(9) 683-687. Nov. 1958.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

752. Influence of N-(trichloromethylthio)-4-cyclohexene-1,2 dicarboximide
captain ) on Higher Plants. II. Effect on Specific Enzyme Systems,
by Thomas E. Humphreys, W. M. Dugger, Jr., and Barbara Calhoun.
Amer. Jour. Bot. 46:(3) 151-156. March 1959.
753. Persistence of Residues of 2,4,5,4'-Tetrachlorodiphenylsulfone in Flor-
ida Citrus Fruit, by J. J. McBride, Jr. Jour. Agr. and Food Chem.
7:(4) 255. April 1959.
755. Aluminum Studies I. Soil and Plant Analysis of Aluminum by a
Modification of the Aluminon Method, by T. L. Yuan and J. G. A.
Fiskell. Jour. Agr. and Food Chem. 7:(2) 115. Feb. 1959.
756. Detection of Color-Add Dye in Coldpressed Orange Oil, by J. W.
Kesterson, R. Hendrickson and G. J. Edwards. Amer. Perfumer and
Aromatics. 29-31. Aug. 1958.
757. The Effects of Two Levels of Energy Intake on Reproductive Phemo-
nema in Duroc-Jersey Gilts, by C. E. Haines, A. C. Warnick and H. D.
Wallace. Jour. An. Sci. 18:(1) 347-354. Feb. 1959.
758. The Gonadotrophic Content of Pituitary Glands from Gilts at Two
Stages of Early Pregnancy and on Two Levels of Energy Intake, by
C. E. Haines and A. C. Warnick. Jour. An. Sci. 18:(1) 355-360.
Feb. 1959.
759. Multiple Variation Including Crown Rust Resistance in Irradiated
Floriland Oats, by W. H. Chapman, H. H. Luke, A. T. Wallace and
A. 0. Lunden. Agron. Jour. 51: 163-165. May 1959.
760. Tobacco Ringspot Virus in Florists' Hydrangea, by C. W. Anderson.
P1. Dis Rept. 42:(8) 932-933. Aug. 15, 1958.
761. Vigna and Crotalaria Viruses in Florida V. Comparative Transmis-
sion Tests with Aphids and Beetles, by C. W. Anderson. Phyto-
pathology 49:(2) 117-118. Feb. 1959.
762. The Nitrogen Status of the Mineral Soils of Florida, by W. L. Pritchett,
C. F. Eno and M. N. Malik. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 23:(2) 127-130.
March-April 1959.
763. Effect of Dietary Protein Level on Several Oxidative Enzymes of the
Heart, Muscle and Liver of Cattle, by R. L. Shirley, E. Bedrak, A. C.
Warnick, J. F. Hentges, Jr., and G. K. Davis. Jour. Nutr. 67:(1)
159-166. Jan. 1959.
764. Growth Potential of Swine as Measured by Serum Alkaline Phos-
phatase, by G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace, W. L. Alsmeyer and M. Koger.
Jour. An. Sci. 18:(1) 361-364. Feb. 1959.
765. The Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and 2,4-Dinitrophenol on
the Uptake and Metabolism of Exogenous Substrates by Corn Roots,
by T. E. Humphreys and W. M. Dugger, Jr. Plant Physiology 34:(2)
112-116. March 1959.
766. A Leafspot of St. Augustinegrass caused by Cercospora fusimaculans,
by T. E. Freeman. Phytopathology 49:(3) 160-161. March 1959.
767. Sulfate Metabolism in Rabbits on High Molybdenum Intake, by J. P.
Feaster and George K. Davis. Jour. Nutr. 67:(2) 319-323. Feb. 1959.
768. Effect of High Molybdenum Intake on the Distribution and Excretion
of Ca" and P12 in the Rabbit, by J. P. Feaster and G. K. Davis. Jour.
Nutr. 67:(2) 325-331. Feb. 1959.
769. Chrysopidae Associated with Citrus in Florida, by Martin H. Muma.
Fla. Ento. 42:(1) 22-29. March 1959.

Annual Report, 1959

771. Cutaneous Lesions on a Porposie with Erysipelas, by Charles F.
Simpson, F. G. Wood and Franklin White. Jour. Amer. Vet. Med.
Assn. 133:(11) 558-560. Dec. 1, 1958.
773. Aluminum Studies II. The Extraction of Soil Aluminum, by T. L.
Yuan and J. G. A. Fiskell. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 23:(3) 202-205.
May-June 1959.
774. Equine Encephalomyelitis in Pheasants in Florida, by Charles F.
Simpson, A. L. Lewis and D. S. Jacquette. Avian Diseases 3:(1)
90-91. 1958.
779. Biological and Ecological Observations on Mydae maculiventris West-
wood, (Diptera: Mydaidae) as a Predator of White Grubs, by W. G.
Genung. Fla. Ento. 42:(1) 36, 37. March 1959.
780. Notes on the Syntomid Moth Lymire Edwardsi (Grote) and Its Con-
trol as a Pest of Ficus in South Florida, by W. G. Genung. Fla. Ento.
42:(1) 40-42. March 1959.
783. Observations on the Occurrence of Milky Disease Among Larvae of
the Northern Masked Chafer, Cyclocephala borealis Arrow, by Em-
mett D. Harris, Jr. Fla. Ento. 42: (2) 81-83. June 1959.
784. Comparison of Field Corn Varieties for Resistance to Corn Earworm
and Stored Grain Insect Injury in the Everglades, by Emmett D.
Harris, Jr., and Victor E. Green, Jr. Fla. Ento. 42:(1) 12-16. March
785. Effects of Fungicide Combinations on Control of Celery Early Blight,
by Frederick E. VanNostran. P1. Dis. Rept. 42:(10) 1107-1110.
Oct. 1958.
786. Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilizer on Fruit
Yield and Composition of Tomato Leaves, by John L. Malcolm. Agr.
and Food Chem. 7:(6) 415-418. June 1959.
787. Cultivation of Trypanosoma theileri in Liquid Medium at 37 C, by
Charles F. Simpson and J. H. Green. Cornell Veterinarian 49:(2).
April 1959.
788. Serpentine Leaf Miner Control on Pole Beans, by R. M. Baranowski.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 29-31. Oct. 1958.
789. Demeton Residues in Collards, Lettuce and Mustard, by C. H. Van
Middelem and R. E. Waites. Agr. and Food Chem. 6:(8) 594-597.
Aug. 1958.
790. Susceptibility of Potato Varieties and Seedling Selections to Corky
Ringspot, by A. H. Eddins. Amer. Pot. Journ. 36:(6) 187-190. June
791. Multiple Virus Resistance in a Strain of Capsicum annuum, by A. A.
Cook and C. W. Anderson. Phytopathology 40:(4) 198-201. April
792. Massive Insecticide Seed Treatment, Wireworm Control and Sweet
Corn Seedling Emergence, by Emmett D. Harris, Jr. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 71: 41-43. Oct. 1958.
793. Recovery of Pepper Plants Injured by Freezes in the 1957-58 Season,
by H. Y. Ozaki. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 43-45. Oct. 1958.
794. Fungicides for the Control of Late Blight of Celery, by J. F. Darby.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 56-59. Oct. 1958.
795. Results of Watermelon Fertilizer Trials at Gainesville and Live Oak
in 1958, by V. F. Nettles and H. W. Lundy. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 71: 13-15. Oct. 1958.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

796. Ultraviolet Absorption Technique to Determine the Naringin Content
of Grapefruit Juice, by R. Hendrickson, J. W. Kesterson and G. J.
Edwards. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 194-198. Oct. 1958.
797. A New Fungicide for Gladiolus Corm Treatment, by R. O. Magie.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 413-416. Oct. 1958.
798. Tests on Chinch Bug and the Current Status of Controls, by S. H.
Kerr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 400-403. Oct. 1958.
799. DDT and Parathion Residues on Florida Sweet Corn, by C. H. Van
Middelem and Emmett D. Harris, Jr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
71: 20-25. Oct. 1958.
801. Oat Selections Resistant to Certain Landhafer Attacking Races of
Crown Rust, by H. H. Luke, W. H. Chapman, A. T. Wallace and P. L.
Pfahler. P1. Dis. Rept. 42:(11) 1250-1253. Nov. 1958.
802. Progress in Controlling Botrytis Disease of Gladiolus, by R. O. Magie.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 406-410. Oct. 1958.
803. Potato Variety Tests at Hastings, by E. N. McCubbin and A. H.
Eddins. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 15-20. Oct. 1958.
804. Development of Temperate-Climate Fruits for Florida, by R. H. Sharpe
and J. S. Shoemaker. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 294-300. Oct.
806. An Endotheliosis in Chickens and Turkeys Caused by an Unidentified
Dietary Factor, by C. F. Simpson, W. R. Pritchard and R. H. Harms.
Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Assn. 134:(9) 410-416. May 1, 1959.
807. Reaction of Zineb with Copper Compounds, Oil Deposits When Applied
with Zineb, and Deposits of Zineb When Applied with a Variety of
Materials, by J. J. McBride, Jr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 118-122.
Oct. 1958.
808. Lithium as a Fungicide on Celery, by J. F. Darby and P. J. Westgate,
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 59-62. Oct. 1958.
809. The Effects of Phosphate and Lime Applications on Growth, Root
Distribution, and Freeze Injury of Young Grapefruit Trees, by W. F.
Spencer. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 106-114. Oct. 1958.
810. Rust Mite Control with Materials Applied in Oil Emulsion, by Roger
B. Johnson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 95-99. Oct. 1958.
811. Freeze Damage to Lychees, by T. W. Young and J. C. Noonan. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 300-304. Oct. 1958.
812. Unfruitfulness in the Orlando Tangelo, by A. H. Krezdorn and F. A.
Robinson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 86-91. Oct. 1958.
813. Comparison of Insecticide Sprays and Granules for Corn Budworm
Control, by D. S. Harrison and E. D. Harris, Jr. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 71: 34-38. Oct. 1958.
814. Hydrocooling Studies with Florida Citrus, by W. Grierson and F. W.
Hayward. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 205-215. Oct. 1958.
815. Causes of Low Pack-outs in Florida Packinghouses, by W. Grierson.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 166-170. Oct. 1958.
816. Finding the Best Lemon for Florida-A Report of Progress I. The
Growing of Lemons in Florida: Historical, Varietal and Cultural Con-
siderations, by L. C. Knorr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 123-128.
Oct. 1958.
817. Finding the Best Lemon for Florida-A Report of Progress II. Use of
Florida Lemons in Frozen Concentrate for Lemonade, by F. W.

Annual Report, 1959

Wenzel, R. W. Olsen, R. W. Barron, R. L. Huggart, Roger Patrick and
E. C. Hill. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 129-132. Oct. 1958.
818. Finding the Best Lemon for Florida-A Report of Progress III.
Evaluation of Coldpressed Lemon Oil and Lemon Bioflavonoids, by
J. W. Kesterson and R. Hendrickson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
71:132-140. Oct. 1958.
819. Finding the Best Lemon for Florida-A Report of Progress IV.
Florida Lemons for Fresh Fruit Use, by W. Grierson. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 71: 140-144. Oct. 1958.
820. Finding the Best Lemon for Florida-A Report of Progress V. Gen-
eral Conclusions Regarding the Best Lemon for Florida, by Herman
J. Reitz. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 144-146. Oct. 1958.
821. Effect of Processing Variables on UV Absorption of Grapefruit Juice,
by R. Hendrickson, J. W. Kesterson and G. J. Edwards. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 71: 190-194. Oct. 1958.
822. Notes on Some Insect Pests Affecting Ornamental Plants and Their
Control, by D. 0. Wolfenbarger. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71:
370-372. Oct. 1958.
823. Soil Applications for Citrus on Acid Sandy Soils, by C. D. Leonard,
Ivan Stewart and George Edwards. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
71: 99-106. Oct. 1958.
824. Marketing Flowers through Mass Outlets, by Cecil N. Smith. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 389-392. Oct. 1958.
828. Effect of Quantity of Roots on Subsequent Growth of Cuttings, by
R. D. Dickey. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 439-441. Oct. 1958.
829. Effect of Urea Nitrogen on Nutritional Leaf Roll of Tomatoes, by
Gaylord M. Volk. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 69-74. Oct. 1958.
830. Chemical Characteristics of Citrus Juices from Freeze-Damaged Fruit,
by A. H. Rouse, C. D. Atkins and E. L. Moore. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 71: 216-220. Oct. 1958.
831. Chemical Control of Weeds in Florida Citrus Grove Ditches, by J. R.
King, W. A. Simanton and D. W. Kretchman. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 71: 157-166. Oct. 1958.
832. Weed Control in Citrus Planting Sites, by W. A. Simanton. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 114-118. Oct. 1958.
833. Mechanization of Citrus Fruit Picking, by P. J. Jutras. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 71: 201-204. Oct. 1958.
834. Virus Diseases Affecting Vegetables in South Florida, by John N.
Simons. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 31-34. Oct. 1958.
835. Occurrence, Distribution and Control of Fuller's Rose Beetle in Flor-
ida Citrus Groves, by John R. King. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
71: 146-152. Oct. 1958.
836. Zingiberaceae for Florida, by T. J. Sheehan. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 71: 382-388. Oct. 1958.
837. Effect of Stabilization Temperature on the Viscosity and Stability of
Concentrated Orange Juices, by George H. Ezell and Robert W. Olsen.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 186-190. Oct. 1958.
838. Investigations for Control of Insects Attacking the Pods of Table
Legumes, by W. G. Genung. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 71: 25-29.
Oct. 1958.
839. Yellow Mottle Decline (Cadang-Cadang) of Coconut, by W. C. Price.
Proc. Caribbean Region Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 6: 1-6. 1958.