<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Table of Contents
 Report of the director
 Report of the administrative...
 Agricultural economics departm...
 Agricultural engineering depar...
 Agronomy department
 Animal husbandry and nutrition...
 Botany department
 Dairy science department
 Editoral department
 Entomology department
 Food technology and nutrition...
 Fruit crops department
 Library department
 Ornamental horticulture depart...
 Plant pathology department
 Poultry husbandry department
 Soils department
 Vegetable crops department
 Veterinary science department
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Everglades station
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Range cattle station
 Sub-tropical station
 Suwannee valley station
 West Central Florida station
 West Florida station
 Field laboratories
 Index
 Historic note














Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00006
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1958
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00006
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Report of the director
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Report of the administrative manager
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Agricultural economics department
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Agricultural engineering department
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Agronomy department
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Animal husbandry and nutrition department
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Botany department
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Dairy science department
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Editoral department
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Entomology department
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Food technology and nutrition department
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Fruit crops department
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        U. S. field laboratory for tung investigations
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
    Library department
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Ornamental horticulture department
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Plant pathology department
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Poultry husbandry department
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
    Soils department
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Vegetable crops department
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Veterinary science department
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Central Florida station
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    Citrus station
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
    Everglades station
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Indian River field laboratory
            Page 292
            Page 293
            Page 294
            Page 295
            Page 296
            Page 297
            Page 298
            Page 299
            Page 300
            Page 301
        Page 288
        Plantation field laboratory
            Page 302
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        South Florida field laboratory
            Page 325
            Page 326
            Page 327
    North Florida station
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
    Range cattle station
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
    Sub-tropical station
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
    Suwannee valley station
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
    West Central Florida station
        Page 375
    West Florida station
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
    Field laboratories
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
    Index
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
    Historic note
        Page 412
Full Text
w", "I

4
I "A
RVEltSrrY OF MOMA

GAINESVILLik FLORWA










AGRICULX


1EXPERIWNT STATIONS











ANNUAL. REPOR T.

FOR: THE, kSCAL., YEAR. ENwNG.11.

JUNE 3105-194






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA









AGRICULTURAL

EXPERIMENT STATIONS











ANNUAL REPORT

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING

JUNE 30, 1958














CONTENTS


Report of the Director -........ ........ ....... ...........
Report of the Administrative Manager .........-...--
Agricultural Economics Department -..--.......................
Agricultural Engineering Department ............... ..........
Agronomy Department -............. ............---. .... .....
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department ..................
Botany Departm ent .............. .. .... ......... .....-- .
Dairy Science Department ................... ...... .. ....-
Editorial Departm ent ............ .- ......... ...- ...-
Entomology Department ......................--- ......-
Food Technology and Nutrition Department .....................
Fruit Crops Department ...................................... --...
U. S. Field Laboratory for Tung Investigations ... -......
Library Department .............. ....--- ...- .....--.
Ornamental Horticulture Department ..............................
Plant Pathology Department ..... .............- ...-...-
Poultry Husbandry Department ...................................
Soils D epartm ent ...................................... ..-- .......
Vegetable Crops Department ... ................................. -. ..
Veterinary Science Department ...............................
Central Florida Station .............. ...--...-- .
Citrus Station ..... .... ... .... .... ......... -
Everglades Station ..... ...... ... -......--- ----- -
Indian River Field Laboratory ............... ......
Plantation Field Laboratory ............................... .....--
Gulf Coast Station ..... ......... ....... .. .......... ......
South Florida Field Laboratory ....................................
North Florida Station .. ... ... .................. .
Range Cattle Station -.......--....... ..........--
Sub-Tropical Station .. ...... ..-- ......... .. ----
Suwanee Valley Station ................................ ...
West Central Florida Station ...................... ............-
W est Florida Station ..................... ... ............ .....
Field Laboratories ................ ................ ............
Federal-State Frost Warning Service ..................
Potato Investigations Laboratory ................................
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory .............................
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory ........


Page
-.-.- ....- 11
... ----------- 16
----------- 18
..................... 34
...- ..- .... .. 45
............ 61
... ............. 75
..-..------- 80
-- -----..-- 86
-------.. ... 96
................. 106
............ .. 116
......... ..- 120
..............- .. 123
...-...---.......- 125
.. ................ 136
............... .. 145
....- ........- ... 150
... .............. 167 /
................ 175
.. ...............--. 183
.. ................ 197
................ -. 260
................... 292
.......-....-... ... 302
...........--...-- 307 L
.-. ..-- ..- .... -- 325
-...-....-- 328
.. ................ 342
...-............ 351
.................... 372
.................- 375
.................... 376
......-............. 386
...- ... 386
.................. 389
...- ...-... .~.-... 394
............... ..... 396







BOARD OF CONTROL
James J. Love, Chairman, Quincy
Ralph L. Miller, Orlando
J. J. Daniel, Jacksonville
Joe K. Hays, Winter Haven
W. C. Gaither, Miami
S. Kendrick Guernsey, Jacksonville
James D. Camp, Ft. Lauderdale
J. Broward Culpepper, Executive Director, Tallahassee

EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., President"
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for Agriculture"
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Director
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Associate Director
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assistant Director
A. T. Wallace Ph.D., Geneticist in Charge, Plant Science Unit
D. R. Bryant, Jr., A.B., Administrative Manager3
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Superintendent of Field Operations
W. H. Jones, M. Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Operations

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
Agricultural Economics
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist31
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist3
J. R. Greenman, B.S.A., LLB., Agricultural Economist3
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricultural Economist"
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
A. H. Spurlock. M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
L. A. Reuss, M.S. Agricultural Economist. USDA2
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate Agricultural Economist'
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate Marketing Economist'
C. E. Murphree, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist"
G. N. Rose, B.S., Associate Agricultural Economist, Orlando
C. N. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist
G. L. Capel, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA'
L. A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist'
J. C. Townsend, B.S.A., Agricultural Statistician. USDA, Orlando3
G. A. Rowe, B.S.A., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
J. B. Owens, B.S., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando'
C. L. Crenshaw, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Orlando
F. W. Williams, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist
L. V. Dixon, M.S.A., Assistant in Research, USDA2
K. M. Gilbraith, M.S.A., Assistant in Research, USDA2

Agricultural Engineering
F. Rogers, M.S.A. Agricultural Engineer1,
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
E. K. Bowman, B.S., Associate Industrial Engineer, USDA2
E. S. Holmes, M.E., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
G. E. Yost, B.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA'

Agronomy
F. H. Hull, Agronomist'
K. W. Butson, M.S., State Climatologist, USDA2
Head of Department.
In cooperation with U. S.
SCooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
SOn leave.
Cooperative, State Citrus Commission.








W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
F. Clark, M.S.A., Associate Agronomist
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist3
E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist"
D. B. Linden, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist3
O. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist3
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
G. M. Prine, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
P. L. Pfahler, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
A. J. Norden, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
K. Hinson, Ph.D., Co-operative Agent, USDA2

Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman"
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist3
M. Koger, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman"
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist"
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist"
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman'
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman'
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman"
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Associate Physiologist3
G. E. Combs, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman'
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman"
J. T. McCall, M.S., Assistant in Chemistry
C. B. Ammerman, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist

Botany
G. R. Noggle, Ph.D., Botanist'3
W. M. Dugger, Jr., Associate Physiologist
H. J. Teas, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist

Dairy Science
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist"
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman'
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist3
P. T. D. Arnold, M.S.A., Associate Dairy Husbandman'
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Associate Dairy Technologist3
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Associate Dairy Husbandman'
B. J. Liska, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Technologist"
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Husbandman"

Editorial
J. F. Cooper, M.S.A., Editor and Head"
W. G. Mitchell, M.S.A., Assistant Editor"
C. A. Stookey, B.S.A.E., Assistant Editor
M. E. Saturn, B. S., Assistant Editor

Entomology
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist'
J. R. Christie, Ph.D., Nematologist
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist
1 Head of Department.
SIn cooperation with U. S
: Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
SOn leave.
Cooperative, State Citrus Commission.








H. E. Bratley, Assistant Entomologist
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Assistant Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Food Technology and Nutrition
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biochemist1'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulturist3
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
R. J. Vilece, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist'
R. O. Townsend, R.N., Assistant in Nutrition

Fruit Crops
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist1'
H. L. Barrows, M.S., Chemist, USDA
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturist, USDA
C. B. Shear, M.S., Plant Physiologist, USDA
J. S. Shoemaker, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Associate Horticulturist
R. H. Biggs, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist

Library
I. K. Cresap, Librarian
A. C. Strickland, Assistant Librarian
J. L. Tyson, Assistant in Library

Ornamental Horticulture
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Horticulturist"'3
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Horticulturist
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Associate Turf Technologist
J. N. Joiner, M.S., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist'
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph. D., Assistant Horticulturist
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist

Plant Pathology
P. Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist'"
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, USDA
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. West, M.S., Botanist and Mycologist"
R. C. Orellana, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist, USDA
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
M. K. Corbett, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
S. A. Ostazeki, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist, USDA
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist

Poultry Husbandry
N. R. Mehrhof, M. Agr., Poultry Husbandman"''
R. H. Harms, Ph.D., Associate Poultry Husbandman'
F. R. Tarver, Jr., M.S., Assistant Poultry Husbandman'
C. R. Douglas, B.S., Interim Assistant in Poultry Husbandry

Soils
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist'1
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soils Technologist
SHead of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
SOn leave.
SCooperative, State Citrus Commission.







G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. G. Blue, Ph. D., Associate Biochemist'
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist"
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Associate Soil Microbiologist
J. G. A. Fiskell, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist3
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Associate Soils Physicist3
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Associate Soil Surveyor
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
W. T. Jacobs, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Interim Assistant Chemist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Interim Assistant in Soils3
R. F. Christman, B.S., Interim Assistant in Soils

Vegetable Crops
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist1,
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist3
G. J. Stout, Ph.D., Horticulturist"
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

Veterinary Science
W. R. Pritchard, Ph.D., Veterinarian1'3
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
M. Ristic, D.V.M., Pathologist
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist'
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Veterinarian"
L. J. Corbo, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
D. D. Cox, Ph.D., Assistant Parasitologist
F. H. White, Ph.D., Assistant Bacteriologist
W. E. Thompson, M.S., Assistant in Bacteriology
W. M. Stone, Jr., M.S., Assistant in Parasitology

BRANCH STATIONS
Central Florida Station, Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist

Citrus Station, Lake Alfred
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Chemist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
R. Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. W. Feldman, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist (S.P.B.)
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
1 Head of Department.
In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave.
5 Cooperative, State Citrus Commission.








H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
W. Grierson, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Associate Histologist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist-Pathologist
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Associate Pectin Chemist
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
I. Stewart, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Associate Nematologist
F. E. Fisher, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist
C. I. Hannon, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Assistant Chemist
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
P. J. Jutras, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
H. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
D. W. Kretchman, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
J. J. McBride, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
H. I. Holtzberg, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
R. M. Keen, M.A., Assistant in Library
L. M. Sutton, B.S., Assistant in Entomolgy-Pathology
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
R. W. Prevatt, M.S.A., Assistant in Horticulture (S.P.B.)
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Chemist'
E. F. Hopkins, Ph.D., Plant Physiologist"
R. R. McNary, Ph.D., Biochemist5
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Chemist"
G. E. Coppock, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer5
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Associate Chemist5
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Assistant Chemical Engineer5
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Assistant Bacteriologist"
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Assistant Chemist5
A. A. McCormick, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist5
M. F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist"
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist5
R. W. Barron, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry5
Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 507, Ft. Pierce
M. Cohen, Ph. D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
R. R. Hunziker, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. R. King, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Everglades Station, Belle Glade
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
T. Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Animal Husbandman
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engineer
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer, USDA
M. H. Byrom, M.S., Agricultural Engineer, USDA
H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Animal Nutritionist
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
1Head of Department.
"In cooperation with U. S.
a Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4On leave.
SCooperative, State Citrus Commission.







C. C. Seale, D.I.C.T.A., Associate Agronomist
D. W. Fisher, M.S., Associate Agronomist, USDA
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Associate Horticulturist
T. E. Summers, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist, USDA
H. D. Whittemore, B.S.A.E., Associate Agriculture Engineer, USDA
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
J. F. Joyner, Assistant Agronomist, USDA
W. J. Wiser, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist, USDA
H. W. Burdine, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
N. L. Chin, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
W. G. Genung, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
E. D. Harris, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
D. S. Harrison, M.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
R. E. Hellwig, B.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
H. E. Ray, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. N. Simons, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
F. E. Van Nostrand, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
D. E. Seaman, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist, USDA
P. L. Thayer, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
F. D. Wilson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Geneticist, USDA
J. P. Winfree, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 507, Ft. Pierce
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Entomologist
A. E. Kretchmer, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist'
R. E. Stall, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
Plantation Field Laboratory, Ft. Lauderdale
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
H. A. Weaver, M.S., Associate Agricultural Engineer, USDA
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist

Gulf Coast Station, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Bradenton
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
D. G. A. Kelbert, Associate Hoticulturist
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
A. J. Overman, M.S., Assistant Soils Microbiologist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
J. P. Jones, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
South Florida Field Laboratory, Immokalee
P. H. Everett, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Chemist

North Florida Station, Quincy
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist in Charge
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
F. S. Baker, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Animal Husbandman
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Assistant Entomologist
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
T. E. Webb, B.S.A., Assistant Agronomist'
Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
1 Head of Department.
SIn cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
t On leave.
Cooperative, State Citrus Commission.







Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Range Cattle Station, Ona
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman
R. J. Bullock, B.S.A., Interim Assistant in Soils

Sub-Tropical Station, Route 2, Box 508, Homestead
G. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
F. B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
J. L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. M. Baranowski, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
R. B. Ledin, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. A. McFadden, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist

Suwannee Valley Station, Box 630, Live Oak
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist in Charge

West Central Florida Station, Brooksville
W. C. Burns, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman Acting in Charge

West Florida Station, Route 3, Jay
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
R. L. Jeffers, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist

FIELD LABORATORIES
Potato, Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
D. L. Myhre, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist

Pecan, Monticello
J. R. Large, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Associate Entomologist2

Strawberry, Plant City, Box 2386, Lakeland
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Watermelon and Grape, Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
H. A. Peacock, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
W. C. Adlerz, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture

SHead of Department.
In cooperation with U. S.
: Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
On leave.
5 Cooperative, State Citrus Commission







Weather Forecasting, Lakeland
W. O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in Charge2
L. E. Hughes, M.S., Associate Meteorologist2
D. C. Russell, B.S., Associate Meteorologist2
H. W. Davis, Assistant Meteorologist2
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorologist"
J. G. Georg, Assistant Meteorologist2
B. H. Moore, B.A., Assistant Meteorologist2
P. A. Mott, Assistant Meteorologist2
O. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant Meteorologists
R. T. Sherouse, Assistant Meteorologist2
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorologist2
L. L. Benson, Assistant Meteorologist2

1 Head of Department.
SIn cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave.
5 Cooperative, State Citrus Commission










REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS
At the Main Station in Gainesville 12.7 acres plus $20,000 were traded
for 66.63 acres to be used for expansion of the beef cattle research and
other research programs. Also, a new Irradiation Facility was com-
pleted and over 6,000 Curies of cobalt-60 have been placed in position
for use in basic research studies in the plant and animal sciences. Final
tests and critical adjustments are now in progress and it is anticipated
the facility will be in full operation in late summer of 1958.
The cold storage and low humidity rooms with covered packing plat-
form at the Horticulture Unit near Gainesville are about 50 percent
complete.
Preliminary plans only for the Agricultural Plant Science Unit No.
2 have been completed.
The addition to the Indian River Field Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, is in
the final stage of planning.
The Watermelon and Grape Laboratory has been relocated six miles
south of Leesburg on 165 acres of land. A new laboratory and office
building and other facilities have been completed; moving was effected
May 7, 1958.
Because of the curtailment of the capital outlay program of the state
during the period of reduced income, the Cabinet has not released funds
appropriated for the following Experiment Station buildings:
Agricultural Plant Science No. 2 ---------- $570,000
(Preliminary planning release of $2,400 has been
made)
Addition to Citrus Station Production Research Building-- 65,000
Machinery and Truck Storage at Everglades Station--- 13,000
Remodeling Building No. 1 at Citrus Station ---- 15,000
Pole Barn at Dairy Unit near Hague -------- 15,000
Horticultural Unit irrigation equipment ----------- 12,700
Superintendent's house and sheds at South Florida
Field Laboratory, Immokalee ..... -------------- 16,000
Land purchase and sheds of Gulf Coast Station,
Bradenton -.... ......----------- 25,000
Land purchase at Potato Investigations Laboratory,
Hastings ----------------- --------------- 15,000
While a delay in the capital improvements of the Stations will affect
the progress of the research program somewhat, it is recognized that a
sound fiscal program in Florida is of utmost importance.
Numerous other physical improvements in facilities and equipment
of less than $10,000 each have enabled the various stations and depart-
ments to conduct a very effective and comprehensive research program.

RESEARCH PROJECTS
The research program of the Agricultural Experiment Stations is
administered through a procedure in which specific research projects
are planned and conducted. This is a well recognized approach to a
sound research program. New problems are constantly occurring as
agriculture continues to grow and expand. To keep ahead of the many
new and constantly occurring problems, a certain amount of flexibility
in the research program is desirable. To cope with the many changes,







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


it is necessary and desirable to initiate new lines of work as occasion
demands. In this way the overall research program of the Stations has
enabled the research staff to give outstanding service to growers, ranch-
ers and related agricultural industries throughout the state. Also, this
system permits continuation of many basic research projects over long
periods, so necessary in fundamental studies.
All research projects under which work was done during the past
year are reported under the appropriate headings. At the close of the
year there were 366 projects underway, with investigations touching on
practically all segments of Florida's agricultural industry. Of these 12
are regional and interregional, conducted in cooperation with other
states. During the year 32 projects were terminated and 48 new projects
were initiated. Basic research continues to receive increasing attention,
since such work is vital to the welfare of Florida as well as the nation.
Such basic research should ultimately lead to the development of new
products, processes, industries and more efficiency for the benefit of
all phases of Florida agriculture from producer to consumer.

COOPERATIVE RESEARCH
An effective State-wide agricultural research program requires con-
siderable cooperation of various individuals. Many of the research proj-
ects are prepared by staff members of two or more departments, branch
stations or field laboratories. The team approach toward the solution
of a problem is important in the present era of high specialization.
The project work of each individual research worker is reported under
his respective department, branch station or field laboratory. The co-
operative work of others is appropriately footnoted at the end of each
specific project.
To obtain complete information concerning a specific product, process
or problem, the reader should consult the index under the various sub-
jects of interest.
To encourage cooperation of individuals in given fields, work con-
ferences are conducted during the year. Ideas are exchanged, work
plans coordinated and research results evaluated. Separate conferences
include researchers in animal husbandry, entomology, vegetable crops,
agronomy, plant pathology and weed control. Also, there is a constant
exchange of ideas and information on an informal basis by all staff
members.
Field days, short courses and conferences are held by various de-
partments, branch stations and field laboratories, at which time demon-
strations, research underway and results are reported. The public is
cordially invited and urged to attend these meetings.

PLANT SCIENCE RESEARCH UNIT
A total of $570,000 was appropriated by the 1957 Legislature for the
construction of a Plant Science Research Unit. The unit will consist of
a number of controlled-environment growth rooms and research labora-
tories for basic research on plants and on plant-pest relationships.
Five committees representing all parts of the Station were appointed
to plan the various parts of the unit. Some members visited laboratories
and growth room facilities at other institutions. Dr. F. W. Went, head
of the Phytotron at California Institute of Technology, was brought to
the campus as a consultant for planning the growth rooms. Plans de-
veloped by the committee were assembled and turned over to the archi-
tect and he prepared preliminary plans. However, because of present







Annual Report, 1958


economic conditions, detailed planning and actual construction have
had to be deferred.
Thus the Plant Science Research Unit has no projects, but the cobalt-
60 irradiator, which has been constructed, has been assigned to it. See
Project 848 (Botany, Agronomy, Fruit Crops, Ornamental Horticulture,
Plant Pathology and Vegetable Crops Depts.) for details on the construc-
tion of the cobalt-60 irradiator.
Dr. Alvin T. Wallace was promoted on February 1, 1958, from As-
sociate Agronomist in the agronomy department to Geneticist in Charge
of the Plant Science Research Unit.

SECTION OF STATISTICS
In 1957 the Legislature approved the establishment of a section of
Statistics at the Main Station. It is intended to serve the entire research
staff in designing experiments and analyzing research data using IBM
equipment already available. The section will handle statistical interpre-
tation of biological investigations throughout the Station system. This
is an essential tool to modern research which will result in more eco-
nomical methods of experimentation, relieve research men of routine
calculations and provide expert consultation to all research personnel
in planning research. Personnel in this section will also conduct original
research in the field of statistics.
A well qualified and experienced statistician, Dr. A. E. Brandt, has
recently been appointed to head this section and will report for duty
November 1, 1958. It is expected that soon after his arrival the other
authorized positions in this section will be filled and the program will
be underway without further delay.

STAFF CHANGES 1957-58
Appointments
W. R. Pritchard, Veterinarian and Head, Dept. of Vet. Sci., July 1, 1957.
Charles A. Stookey, Asst. Editor, July 1, 1957.
Glen Ray Noggle, Professor and Head, Dept. of Botany, July 1, 1957.
William R. Smith, Asst. Soils Surveyor, Soils Dept., July 31, 1957.
Wallace T. Jacobs, Jr., Asst. Soil Surveyor, Soils Dept., Aug. 1, 1957.
Bernard J. Liska, Asst. Dairy Technologist, Dairy Dept., Sept. 1, 1957.
Robert H. Harms, Assoc. Poultry Husbandman, Poultry Dept., Sept. 1,
1957.
Willie E. Thompson, Asst. Bacteriologist, Vet. Science Dept., Sept. 1,
1957.
L. J. Corbo, Asst. Virologist, Vet. Science Dept., Sept. 1, 1957.
Pierre J. Jutras, Asst. Agri. Engineer, Citrus Station, Sept. 1, 1957.
D. B. Linden, Asst. Agronomist, Dept. of Agronomy, Sept. 1, 1957.
Rodrigo Conzalo Orellana, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Plant Path. Dept.
(USDA) Sept. 1, 1957.
Charles F. Hinz, Int. Asst. Biochemist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Sept. 15, 1957.
Danny D. Cox, Asst. Parasitologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Sept. 16, 1957.
Floyd W. Williams, Asst. Economist, Agri. Economics Dept., Sept. 16, 1957.
Clyde E. Murphree, Assoc, Economist, Agri. Econ. Dept., Sept. 16, 1957.
Carroll R. Douglas, Int. Asst. Poultryman, Poultry Dept., Sept. 21, 1957.
Earl K. Bowman, Industrial Engineer, Assoc., Agri. Eng. Dept. (USDA)
Oct. 1, 1957.
Nai Lin Chin, Asst. Chemist, Everglades Station, Oct. 1, 1957.
Lonnie L. Lasman, Int. Asst. Economist, Agri. Econ. Dept., Nov. 1, 1957.
Robert H. Biggs, Asst. Biochemist, Fruit Crops Dept., Nov. 1, 1957.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Gilbert E. Yost, Asst. Agri. Engineer, Agri. Eng. Dept. (USDA) Dec. 1,
1957.
Gordon M. Prine, Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., Jan. 1, 1958.
William D. Moore, Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station (USDA) Jan. 1,
1958.
Marion F. Oberbacher, Asst. Plant Physiologist, Citrus Station (USDA)
Jan. 1, 1958.
Glenn E. Coppock, Assoc. Agri. Engineer, Citrus Station (USDA) Jan. 1,
1958.
Mills H. Byrom, Agri. Engineer, Everglades Station (USDA) Jan. 1, 1958.
Donald W. Fisher, Assoc. Agronomist, Everglades Station (USDA) Jan.
1, 1958.
T. L. Summers, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station (USDA)
Jan. 1, 1958.
Homer A. Weaver, Assoc. Agri. Engineer, Everglades Station (USDA)
Jan. 1, 1958.
Hiram D. Whittemore, Assoc. Agri. Engineer, Everglades Station (USDA)
Jan. 1, 1958.
F. D. Wilson, Asst. Plant Geneticist, Everglades Station (USDA) Jan. 1,
1958.
William J. Wiser, Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Station (USDA) Jan. 1,
1958.
Donald E. Seaman, Asst. Plant Physiologist, Everglades Station (USDA)
Jan. 1, 1958.
J. Frank Joyner, Asst. Agronomist, Everglades Station (USDA) Jan. 1,
1958.
Robert E. Hellwig, Asst. Agri. Engineer, Everglades Station (USDA)
Jan. 1, 1958.
Margaret E. Saturn, Asst. Editor, Jan. 6. 1958.
P. H. Everett, Asst. Soils Chemist, South Florida Field Lab., Feb. 1, 1958.
Warren Clifford Adlerz, Asst. Entomologist, Watermelon Lab., Feb. 1,
1958.
C. B. Ammerman, Asst. Animal Nutritionist, An. Husb. Dept., Feb. 1,
1958.
Paul L. Thayer, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, Feb. 1, 1958.
R. W. Prevatt, Asst. in Horticulture, Citrus Station (USDA) Feb. 15, 1958.
Allan J. Norden, Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., Mar. 16, 1958.
Dale Warren Kretchman, Asst. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, Apr. 1, 1958.
Albert C. Strickland, Asst. Librarian, May 1, 1958.
Paul L. Pfahler, Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept. (State Plant Bd.)
May 19, 1958.
Russell F. Christman, Int. Asst. in Soils, Soils Dept., June 1, 19'58.
Albert W. Feldman, Plant Pathologist, Citrus Station (USDA) June 1,
1958.
John Paul Jones, Asst. Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Station, June 16,
1958.
Promotions
Lewis Roberts Arrington, Assoc. Animal Nutritionist, An. Husb. Dept.,
July 1, 1957.
G. C. Nutter, Assoc. Turf. Technologist, Ornamental Hort. Dept., July 1,
1957.
Charles Floyd Simpson, Veterinarian, Veterinary Sci. Dept., July 1, 1957.
Herbert L. Chapman, Jr., Assoc. An. Nutritionist, Everglades Station,
July 1, 1957.
Ralph Wyman Kidder, An. Husbandman, Everglades Station, July 1, 1957.
T. L. Yuan, Int. Asst. Chemist, Soils Dept., Sept. 1, 1957.







Annual Report, 1958


Alvin T. Wallace, Geneticist in Charge, Plant Science Facility, Feb. 1,
1958.
Transfers
J. W. McAllister, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept. to Ag. Extension Service,
July 1, 1957.
M. H. Sharpe, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept. to Ag. Extension Service,
July 1, 1957.
Jasper N. Joiner, Asst. Horticulturist, Ag. Ext. Serv. to Asst. Horti-
culturist, Ag. Exp. Station, Ornamental Horticulture Dept., Sept. 1,
1957.
David R. Bryant, Jr., Purchasing Dept. to Administrative Manager of
Ag. Exp. Sta. and Ag. Ext. Serv., Feb. 1, 1958.

Resignations
James R. Raymond, Assoc. Industrial Engineer, Agri. Engineering Dept.
(USDA), July 12, 1957.
John S. Norton, Asst. Agri. Engineer, Agri. Engineering Dept., July 15,
1957.
Lillian T. Urschel, Asst. Librarian, July 17, 1957.
W. R. Smith, Asst. Soils Surveyor, Dept. of Soils, July 31, 1957.
W. R. Dennis, Asst. Parasitologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., July 31, 1957.
James F. Lee, Asst. Agri. Engineer, Agri. Engineering Dept. (USDA),
Aug. 15, 1957.
John M. Creel, Int. Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., Aug. 20, 1957.
W. H. Kahl, Asst. Agri. Engineer, Citrus Station, Aug. 21, 1957.
Robert B. Doty, Asst. Bacteriologist, Vet. Sci. Dept., Aug. 31, 1957.
M. W. Hoover, Asst. Horticulturist, Food Tech. Dept., Aug. 31, 1957.
J. Clyde Driggers, Poultry Husbandman, Poultry Dept., Aug. 31, 1957.
Rowland Richards, Entomologist, Vet. Sci. Dept. (USDA), Sept. 1, 1957.
D. E. McCloud, Assoc. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., Sept. 30, 1957.
R. S. Cox, Assoc. Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station, Sept. 30, 1957.
W. H. Kelly, Int. Asst. Soils Chemist, Soils Dept., Sept. 30, 1957.
Grover Sowell, Jr., Asst. Plant Pathologist, Gulf Coast Station, Oct. 31,
1957.
V. L. Mote, Int. Asst. Economist, Agri. Economics Dept., Dec. 31, 1957.
D. M. Norris, Jr., Asst. Entomologist, Potato Lab., Jan. 6, 1958.
Robert L. Gilman, Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., Mar. 31, 1958.
R. L. Bartley, Administrative Manager, April 30, 1958.
D. T. Brewer, Asst. Soils Surveyor, Soils Dept., May 15, 1958.
William D. Moore, Plant Pathologist, Everglades Station (USDA), June
30, 1958.
Retirements
Ouida D. Abbott, Home Economist, Food Tech. Dept., Feb. 28, 1958.
Lillian E. Arnold, Assoc. Botanist, Botany Dept., May 16, 1958.
Thomas Bregger, Physiologist, Everglades Experiment Station, June 30,
1958.








REPORT OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGER

SUMMARY OF
STATE FUNDS EXPENDITURES 1957-1958


Salary & Wages .---------.
Travel --------
Transportation of things -----
Communications ------
Utilities ---------- -------
Rental ---------------
Printing ---------
Contractual Services ------
Supplies & Materials -----------
Equipment ------
Land & Bldg. ----------

TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS --
Plus Certifications Forward --

TOTAL 1957-58 DISBURSEMENTS

BALANCE 6/30/58 Salary
OE
OCO --


Fla. Agri.
Experiment
Stations

$3,068,315.58
132,531.32
19,473.03
19,599.77
53,730.34
17,938.45
36,156.20
94,381.37
426,236.19
163,350.75
14,000.30

4,045,713.30
113,327.82

4,159,041.12

128,802.83
98,191.70
10,983.17


Special Special
Citrus Tomato
Crop Crop

$23,254.65 $14,400.00
13,309.65 11,999.20
609.90

--- -- 609-

1,308.41 -- -
305.30 187.64
594.41 -- ---


38,772.42 27,196.74



38,772.42 27,196.74

3,845.35 750.00
3,451.64 53.26
(369.41) -- --


Total
State
Funds

$3,105,970.23
157,840.17
19,473.03
20,209.67
53,730.34
17,938.45
36,156.20
95,689.78
426,729.13
163,945.16
14,000.30

4,111,682.46
113,327.82

4,225,010.28


133,398.18
101,696.60
10,613.76


Incidental


$ 72,239.35
1,546.19
1,615.69
660.10
6,315.59
5,760.49
55.15
17,197.09
135,962.95
56,617.92
22,542.20

320,512.72
19,583.52

340,096.24

6,771.15
46,253.85
26,462.28


Grants
And
Donations

$127,459.63
7,839.87
1,546.25
37.80
140.49
190.31
6,459.22
25,250.05
62,883.99
23,105.08

254,912.69



254,912.69

46,795.02
49,301.42
43,990.87

$395,000.00


Total
State .
Funds

$3,305,669,21
167,226.23
22,634.97
20,869.77
60,083.73
23,839.43
36,401.66
119,346.09
587,942.13
283,447.07
59,647.58 (

4,687,107.87
132,911.34

4,820,019.21 8.

186,964.35
197,251.87
81,066.91


$4,397,018.82 $45,700.00 $28,000.00 $4,470,718.82 $419,583.52


TOTAL


$5,285,302.34







SUMMARY OF
FEDERAL FUNDS EXPENDITURES 1957-58


Salaries & Wages ----
Travel
Transportation of things -- -
Communications -- ---
Utilities
Rental ---------.----- --
Printing
Contractual Services
Supplies & Materials --
Equipment---
Land & Building ..


TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS --
Plus Certifications Forward


TOTAL 1957-58 DISBURSEMENTS


BALANCE 6/30/58 Salary
OE
OCO --


TOTAL


HATCH


$302,007.25
1,885.08
376.24
28.55
2.37

40.03
1,140.07
8,379.79
64,273.89
27,726.61


405,859.88



405,859.88



703.63
33,570.45


$440,133.96


R. R. F.


$40,765.99
7,297.10
47.77
--- ---- -- -
133.10

141.59
507.71
6,794.07
7,990.93
1,611.52


65,289.78



65,289.78


737.21
1,119.99
133.87


$67,280.85


A. M. A.


$15,114.42
77.65
463.26



1,721.57
837.52



18,214.42



18,214.42


285.58




$18,500.00


GRAND
TOTAL
FEDERAL FUNDS

$357,887.66
9,259.83
887.27
28.55
135.47

181.62
3,369.35
16,011.38
72,264.82
29,338.13


489,364.08



489,364.08


1,022.79
1,823.62
33,704.32


$525,914.81






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

Research was conducted on 38 projects. Work was initiated on two
new projects. One of these was in the area of demand and the other in
cost of marketing. Five projects were closed.

FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
State Project 154 H. G. Hamilton
Financial statements, operating statements by departments, volume
of business, pool analysis, number of members and other data related to
the operations of cooperatives were obtained for the 1956-57 season for
approximately 20 citrus cooperatives. These data are similar to data
collected each year for many years and are essential in determining
factors that make for success or failure of cooperative associations.

FACTORS AFFECTING COSTS AND RETURNS IN FLORIDA
CITRUS PRODUCTION
Hatch Project 186 Zach Savage
The usual routine field and office work of handling and processing
accounts was performed. Average cost per acre of all groups was 5
percent lower than for the previous season. Yield per acre in 1955-56
on all groves was down 18 percent from the previous season. This re-
sulted in an increase in cost of 26 percent per box. Net returns averaged
a 1 percent decrease per acre but were up 22 percent per box.
Labor, power and equipment costs per acre continued to increase and
were 13 percent higher than the previous season. Money spent for ferti-
lizer materials was down 7 percent from the previous season and down
16 percent from 1953-54. Money spent for spray and dust materials per
acre was down 14 percent from the previous season and down 26 per-
cent from 1953-54.
Efficient fruit production operations usually mean better than average
yield and fruit prices. Grove records indicate that each grove actually
is different from every other grove and should be treated as a separate
entity through close study coupled with good records. Each practice
should be considered separately on each grove in the light of known
conditions, and practices and adjustments made accordingly for a more
efficient operation.
Some of the most efficient producers have been and still are operat-
ing without irrigation. This is an expensive operation. Circumstances
alter cases somewhat, but generally most nonirrigated groves have been
netting as much or more per acre than comparable groves with irrigation.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY,
ITS POSSIBLE INHERITANCE AND DEPRECIATION IN
FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
State Project 345 A. H. Spurlock
Records of inventory values, life span and causes of losses were ob-
tained from five dairy herds and added to results previously summarized.
The life span of 2,740 cows averaged 6.7 years of usefulness in the
milking herd. Disposals increased rapidly after the first year in the
herd and after three years only two-thirds of the original number of
animals remained. After six years in the herd only 31 percent remained.
Cows reaching age 10 had a life expectancy of 1.8 years and averaged
11.8 years of life.








Annual Report, 1958


Disposals of animals while still living were principally for low pro-
duction, mastitis and other udder trouble, and reproductive trouble.
These three reasons were responsible for 73 percent of the live disposals.
About 10 percent were sold for unstated reasons.
Deaths from all causes accounted for 14 percent of all disposals.
(See also Project 345, Dairy Science Dept.)

CROP AND LIVESTOCK ESTIMATING ON FLORIDA FARMS,
WITH EMPHASIS ON VEGETABLE CROPS
State Project 451 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw
and J. B. Owens1
This project is conducted in cooperation with and under the super-
vision of the Agricultural Estimates Division, Agricultural Marketing
Service, USDA, Orlando, Florida.
During the fiscal year 1957-58 preliminary estimates of acreages
planted and for harvest, and forecasts of production were made on 6
fall, 14 winter and 11 spring vegetable crops for fresh market. Addi-
tional estimates were made of cucumbers contracted for pickles and
spinach contracted for processing. Also equivalent acreages of beans
and tomatoes were estimated for processing. Except for tomatoes (see
Project 822), data for making these estimates, forecasts and truck crop
comments were obtained by personal interviews, mailed schedules and
telephone calls.
The year was characterized by oft repeated record low temperatures
and excessive rains. These extremely adverse weather conditions re-
duced production to record low shipments for long periods, caused re-
peated replantings of many crops and delayed crop progress in general.
Thirty-one periodic and special reports of these estimates, forecasts
and news comments were released and approximately 34,300 copies
distributed.
The fiscal year began with a survey of the 1956-57 season's produc-
tion in progress. The purpose of this survey was to determine, from
actual records and grower estimates, average yields obtained and prices
received in the various producing areas of the state. Approximately
253,000 acres planted, or 57 percent of the total, were covered in the
survey. These data, when weighed against recorded county shipments,
in-state processing and estimated local consumption, formed the basis
for making county and area estimates as well as adjusting state seasonal
estimates and monthly prices received. Resulting revisions, including
fall, winter and spring squash not currently estimated, totaled 444,700
acres planted and 397,750 acres for harvest, with an estimated produc-
tion valued at $162,663,000.
An annual statistical summary of these estimates with comparisons
and county shipments was released. This bulletin is entitled "Florida
Vegetable Crops," Volume XIII, 1957. Approximately 1,400 copies have
been distributed.

COST OF PRODUCTION AND RETURNS ON
VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA
State Project 480 D. L. Brooke
The cost of producing vegetables in Florida increased in 1956-57 over
the previous season and the most recent five-season average. Per acre
increases in cost of 1 to 17 percent over the 1953-57 average were noted
1 Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


in two-thirds of the combined crops and areas. Increases in cost over
the 1955-56 season were evident in more than 50 percent of the crop
and area summaries. There were decreases in per-acre costs of 1 to 12
percent under the five season and 1955-56 average in 30 percent of the
cases.
Yields were generally below those of the 1955-56 season. Decreases
of more than 10 percent in yields per acre were noted for more than half
of the crop and area summaries. Yields on Irish potatoes were 11 to 39
percent lower in 1956-57 than in 1955-56 in four principal producing
areas. Tomato yields in 1956-57 were from 4 to 22 percent below the
previous season's average in five major areas. Green pepper yields were
below the 1955-56 level by 30 to 50 percent in two areas. Some portion
of these lower yields may be attributable to low prices and resulting
crop abandonment.
Despite higher costs and somewhat lower yield in 1956-57, net returns
to growers were above those of 1955-56 in 57 percent of the crop and
area summaries. Only 39 percent showed actual per acre losses on crops.
Lower than average yields and prices for Irish potatoes in the 1956-
57 season resulted in losses in four producing areas. On the average,
Everglades potato growers lost $56 per acre and Dade County growers
$134 per acre.
Lower than average yields and prices for tomatoes in the Dade, Im-
mokalee-Fort Myers and Wauchula areas added up to average grower
losses of $63, $35 and $29 per acre, respectively. On the other hand,
staked tomato growers in the Manatee-Ruskin area and irrigated, ground-
grown tomato producers in the Marion-Sumter area had a very profitable
1956-57 season. The latter areas shipped the bulk of their production
during the spring season when demand was active and prices relatively
high.
Celery growers found the 1956-57 season more profitable than that of
1955-56 in all areas. While costs were slightly higher or yields lower in
three of the four major areas, better prices for celery increased grower
profits in 1956-57.
The mimeographed "Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in
Florida, Volume XII," (Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 58-8)
was released. Crop summary tables for the 1956-57 season were in-
corporated in the mimeographed "Florida Vegetable Crops, Volume
XIII," in cooperation with leaders of State Project 451.

COSTS AND FACTORS AFFECTING COST OF MARKETING
CITRUS FRUITS IN FRESH AND PROCESSED FORM
Hatch Project 486 A. H. Spurlock and
(Regional SM-4) H. G. Hamilton
Costs of picking and hauling citrus for 34 firms, 1956-57, averaged as
follows per 13/5 bushel box:
Picking oranges, 31.3 cents; picking grapefruit, 23.5 cents; and pick-
ing tangerines, 74.0 cents. Hauling from the grove to the plant cost 9.3
cents per box. Specialized citrus dealers also had an additional cost
of 2.4 cents per box for procurement and sale of fruit.
Costs of packing and selling Florida fresh citrus fruit per 1/5 bushel
equivalent for 43 packinghouses, 1956-57 season, were as follows:
Oranges, 13/5 bushel wirebound box, $1.06; 13/5 bushel standard box,
$1.51; 4/5 bushel wirebound box, $1.41; 4/5 bushel fiberboard box, $1.16;
8-lb. mesh bag, $1.26; 5-lb. mesh bag, $1.53; bulk-in-truck, $0.47. Grape-
fruit, 13/5 bushel wirebound box, $0.90; 13/5 bushel standard box, $1.33;
4/5 bushel fiberboard box, $1.05; 8-lb. mesh bag, $1.22; 5-lb. mesh bag,







Annual Report, 1958


$1.47. Tangerines, 4/5 bushel wirebound box, $1.55; /Vs bushel wirebound
flat box, $1.57. Bulk fruit eliminated in the packinghouse cost $0.17
per box for handling all types. Fruit direct from grove to cannery
averaged $0.06 per box.
Processing costs for 1956-57 were studied at 19 firms which packed
single strength juice, sections and concentrates. Analysis of the data is
about complete.
Results of the year's work were distributed to citrus dealers, packers
and processors in two mimeographed publications for 1956-57: (1) "Costs
of Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits," (2) "Costs of Packing
and Selling Florida Fresh Citrus Fruits."
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Farmer Cooperative
Service, USDA, and is terminated with this report.
MARKETING MEAT ANIMALS IN FLORIDA
Hatch Project 602 W. K. McPherson and L. V. Dixon2
SM-7
The price buyers offer and the price sellers ask for cattle depends to
a large extent upon how accurately they are able to estimate the grades
of carcass the animals will produce. Information is sorely needed on
the accuracy with which buyers and sellers of live cattle can estimate
the meat grade of the carcasses produced from these animals after
slaughter. Research during the past year has demonstrated the necessity
for a statistically designed experiment to estimate the magnitude, direc-
tion (underestimates or overestimates) and variability of errors of esti-
mate made by graders of live animals. Preliminary analyses of selected
observations on several graders of live animals suggest that in using the
characteristics of live animals as indicators, their accuracy of estimating
the meat grade may vary considerably among breeds of cattle, grades
of cattle and cattle fed different rations. The class of animal (steer,
heifer, cow, calf) and the conditions under which the live-graders work
also may tend to influence the characteristics of the errors of estimate.
AN ANALYSIS OF PRESENT AND POTENTIAL UTILIZATION OF
LAND FOR GRAZING AND ALTERNATIVE USES IN
CENTRAL FLORIDA
Hatch Project 619 L. A. Reuss" and
R. E. L. Greene
Interest in land clearing methods and costs continues in Florida,
due to continued expansion in acres cleared for both agricultural and
non-agricultural purposes. During recent years rates charged by cus-
tom land developers have increased. Per acre costs have increased less
than custom rates because of the stabilizing influences of more efficient
equipment and more experienced machine operators.
During the year work was continued on review and revision of a
manuscript entitled "Costs of Clearing Land and Establishing Improved
Pastures in Central Florida." This manuscript has been approved for
publication.
Data collected in this study indicate that in Central Florida when
native rangeland is converted to improved pasture there is an increase
in per-acre inventory value of $40 to $150 per acre. Investment in live-
stock also increases, as does annual operating expense. Increases in
production, in terms of pounds of beef per acre required to break even,
vary directly with the increase in annual costs and inversely with
changes in the price per pound of beef. Unfavorable production con-
2 Cooperative with Marketing Research Division, AMS, USDA.
a Cooperative with Farm Economics Research Division, ARS, USDA.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


editions, high development costs or low beef prices will substantially
reduce the chance of increased net returns from improved pastures.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ELEMENTAL
FUNCTIONS OF PACKING AND HANDLING FLORIDA CITRUS
FROM THE TREE THROUGH THE PACKINGHOUSE
Hatch Project 626 George L. Capel'
(Regional SM-4)
The two unpublished manuscripts reported in the 1957 annual report
were submitted for publication as Experiment Station Bulletins. This
project is terminated with this report.

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL AND
NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to study variations in beef production,
using a cow-calf program on a year-round basis, for different pasture
programs and breeding systems. During the year data were summarized
showing the annual costs and returns on the various programs for the
period October 1, 1956, to September 30, 1957. A summary was also made
of costs and returns for each program based on the average inputs and
production of beef obtained for each program during the first years of
the experiment. In each case the various operations were charged at
about what it would cost to perform them on a commercial operation.
On the average, production of beef per cow on clover pastures was
about 70 pounds more than that on grass pastures, due mainly to a dif-
ference in reproduction efficiency. The cost per pound of producing
beef was consistently higher on grass pastures than on clover pastures.
For the five-year summary, Program 5 (an all-clover program of inter-
mediate level of fertility) with a net return of $1.75 per acre was the
only program on which the value of beef produced was more than the
estimated net costs of production.
(See also Project 627, Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Animal
Husbandry and Nutrition, and Soils Dept.)

ECONOMY OF MARKETING AND METHODS OF HANDLING
SWEET CORN FOR LONG DISTANCE SHIPMENTS
Hatch Project 630 A. H. Spurlock
(Regional SM-8)
The economic phase of this project has been inactive during the past
year, except for revision of a manuscript covering results. (See also
Project 630, Food Technology Dept.)

IMPROVING METHODS AND PRACTICES IN HARVESTING,
HANDLING AND PACKING EARLY IRISH POTATOES
State Project 638 R. E. L. Greene, G. L. Capel
and Fred Anderson
The main effort on this project was to continue the analysis of the
data collected on a study of potato packinghouses in Florida and Ala-
Cooperative with Market Organization and Costs Branch, Marketing Research
Division, AMS, USDA.
6Cooperative with Market Organization and Costs Branch, Marketing Research
Division, AMS, USDA.







Annual Report, 1958


bama. Manuscripts were prepared dealing with quality and cost of
harvesting potatoes with mechanical equipment.
The cost per 100 pounds of packing potatoes when packed in 50-pound
bags was 52.25 cents in Dade County, 45.65 cents in the Hastings area
and 54.94 cents in Alabama. When packed in 100-pound bags, the cost
was 36.43 cents in the Hastings area and 43.49 cents in Alabama.
Normally, cost of labor accounted for 33 to 40 percent of potato packing
costs.
The use of mechanical equipment for harvesting and handling pota-
toes is increasing in the Hastings area. Since the costs were not large,
growers have owned more conventional diggers than were needed to
harvest the acres of potatoes grown. However, because of the large
investment in a unit of mechanical equipment, as the number of ma-
chines increases, the problem of getting more equipment than is neces-
sary will become important. With mechanical equipment the lowest
harvesting costs will be obtained only if the amount of equipment
used is that needed to harvest the total acreage of potatoes grown in
the area. If the present trend in the use of mechanical equipment con-
tinues, the necessity of growers considering joint ownership or custom
harvesting will increase.

EFFECTS OF ENTERPRISE ADJUSTMENTS AND IMPROVED
MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON FARM INCOMES
IN NORTH FLORIDA
Hatch Project 647 R. E. L. Greene
This project was inactive, except for completion of a manuscript
on cost of operating tractors. During the coming year a manuscript will
be prepared based on the data in a doctor's dissertation entitled 'Opti-
mum Farm Programs in Columbia and Suwannee Counties, Florida."

EFFECTS OF INTER- AND INTRA-MARKET COMPETITION
ON MILK PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION
IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH FLORIDA
Hatch Project 651 W. K. McPherson
No new data were collected during the year. Work was continued
on completion of a manuscript.

THE LEGAL ASPECTS OF FARM TENANCY IN FLORIDA
Hatch Project 656 J. R. Greenman
and H. G. Hamilton
A manuscript entitled "Inheritance Laws Affecting Florida Farms
and Farm Families," prepared in cooperation with Professor Kenneth
Black of the Law College, has been further revised and is ready for
publication. This manuscript sets forth the Florida laws of inheritance
with special reference to "farm properties and farmers." It should be
useful to farmers and those who serve farmers in giving them a better
understanding of how property is distributed in the absence of a will
and how a will may be used to accomplish the desires of the deceased.
Preliminary work has been done on a proposed study entitled "Alter-
native Arrangements for the Control, Development and Use of Water
in Florida." This preliminary work has included a review of all the
laws, establishing agencies for the control, development and use of
water in the State of Florida, a listing of the agencies doing such work
and an enumeration of their powers.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Future work on this study will involve an economic analysis of the
water problems and problem areas in Florida and an analysis of the
alternative laws, agencies and other means for the control, development
and use of water. Publications based upon this study should enable
farmers to have a better understanding of their rights, obligations and
alternative solutions for problems involved in connection with water.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DEMAND FOR FROZEN ORANGE
CONCENTRATE PRODUCED IN FLORIDA
Hatch Project 664 M. R. Godwin, L. A. Powell, Sr.,
(Regional SM-4) and H. G. Hamilton
A knowledge of the nature of the demand for the various types of
citrus products would assist firms and industry organizations in decid-
ing the optimum allocation of fruit among its alternative uses. An
understanding of the nature of the demand for frozen orange concen-
trate provides part of this total informational requirement.
This study is based upon data from the artificial manipulation of
the price of frozen orange concentrate and the measurement of customer
purchase responses to varying price situations. Tests were conducted
in 10 retail food stores in Pennsylvania and New Jersey over a nine-
week period during the summer of 1954.
Variation in customer purchases rates in response to the induced
prices indicated that customer sensitivity to price changes declined
continuously as prices increased from the lowest to the highest test level.
At a statistically derived price of about 12 cents per 6-ounce can, a
1 percent change in the price of frozen orange concentrate resulted in
an inverse change of the same amount in the purchase rates of cus-
tomers. At test prices below 12 cents consumers became increasingly
sensitive to price changes; while at prices above this level consumers
became progressively less sensitive to price changes.
The elastic character of the demand for frozen orange concentrate in
the low price ranges suggests that it may not be in the interest of the
concentrate industry to attempt to increase revenue during periods of
long supply by reducing the quantity marketed.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 589, "Consumer
Reaction to Varying Prices for Frozen Orange Concentrate," was released.
It presents findings of the study and an interpretive investigation of
their implications from the standpoint of merchandising and pricing
policies of the concentrate industry. A manuscript, "Experimental
Pricing as an Approach to Demand Analysis (A Technical Study of the
Retail Demand for Frozen Orange Concentrate)," also has been for-
warded to the printer. It presents a technical treatment of the data-
generating method and the analytical procedure employed.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ELEMENTAL
FUNCTIONS OF PACKING, SHIPPING AND HANDLING
FLORIDA CITRUS FROM THE PACKING LINE
TO THE RETAIL STORE
Hatch Project 665 George L. Capel '
(Regional SM-4)
"Costs for Handling Florida Oranges Shipped in Consumer Bags and
in Bulk," Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 58-12, was released.
This report contains an analysis of the cost of packing 5- and 8-pound

SCooperative with Market Organization and Costs Branch, Marketing Research
Division, AMS, USDA.







Annual Report, 1958


bags of oranges in Florida packinghouses and delivering them to market
receiver's warehouses, as compared with loading the oranges in bulk
trucks and packing the consumer bags in the market. There was little
difference in costs between the two methods, assuming that the market
receiver handled 50,000 13/5 bushel box equivalents of oranges in bags,
However, the bulk shipping method had lower costs of $12,500 for hand-
ling 5-pound bags or $5,000 for 8-pound bags, assuming the market re-
ceiver handled 300,000 1-3/5 bushel box equivalents. This project is
terminated with this report.

MARKETING CHARGES AND RETURNS FROM FLORIDA
VEGETABLES BY TYPES OF FIRMS AND
METHODS OF SALE
(Classification 1. Marketing Costs, Margins and Efficiency)
AMA Project 666 D. L. Brooke, C. N. Smith
(ES-235) and H. G. Hamilton
Analysis was substantially completed on the tomato phase of this
study. F.o.b. sales accounted for 80 percent and consignment sales for
15 percent of the annual Florida volume from 1951-52 through 1953-54.
Grower returns were generally lower for consigned sales than for f.o.b.
type sales. Negative returns for small sizes were noted primarily among
the U.S. Combination and U.S. No. 2 tomatoes. It appeared that, in
many instances, tomatoes of the smaller sizes and lower grades should
have been packed only on order and in the cheaper containers.
Markets of the Northeastern area of the United States purchased
about 50 percent of Florida's annual volume, and preferred sizes 6x7
and smaller in the U.S. Combination and U.S. No. 2 grades. Midwestern
markets purchased about one-fourth of the Florida crop and indicated
a preference for larger sizes and slightly higher grades. The Southeast
purchased one-fifth of the Florida tomatoes annually, preferring the
larger sizes and lower grades. Western and Southwestern markets pre-
ferred larger sizes and best grades but purchased only 3 percent each
of the Florida volume. Canadian markets absorbed 4 to 7 percent of
the Florida volume, preferring the smaller sizes and lower U.S. grades.
Prices of tomatoes tended toward two peaks during the season; one
during fall crop harvest in November and December and the second
during early spring harvest in March and April. Lowest prices were
likely to occur in January and June and appeared to be directly related
to the volume of competing tomatoes from foreign and domestic sources.

MARKETING PRACTICES OF FLORIDA FLOWER AND
ORNAMENTAL PLANT GROWERS
(Classification 1. Marketing Costs, Margins and Efficiency)
AMA Project 679 C. N. Smith, D. L. Brooke,
(ES-236) H. G. Hamilton, Tze-I. Chiang,
C. A. Nicholls, and R. H. Brewster
A doctoral dissertation and a master's thesis on the marketing prac-
tices of the fern industry and foliage plant industry, respectively, were
completed and accepted. In addition, two Agricultural Economics mime-
ographed reports giving preliminary results on the studies concerned
with the marketing of these products were released, "A Preliminary
Report on Marketing Florida Ferns" (Report 58-3) and "The Florida
Foliage Plant Industry" (Report 58-10).







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Data obtained from foliage plant growers indicated that the industry
had net sales in excess of $10,000,000 in 1956. This compared with an
approximate $2,000,000 value reported by the Census of Agriculture in
1949. Growers utilized 549 acres of open field and lath and cloth houses
plus 36 acres in greenhouses for producing foliage plants in 1957. Sales
made to out-of-state greenhouse operators for growing on and resale
accounted for 28 percent of the total value in 1956. Nearly a fourth of
all sales were made to variety stores. A number of outlets, including
brokers, retail florists, jobbers and grocery stores, handled the remaining
marketing of foliage plants. A third of all foliage plant sales were
those of Philodendron cordatum. All species of philodendron accounted
for half the total sales of the Florida foliage plant industry. San-
sevieria, pothos, nephthytis and ficus were other leading foliage plants
sold. (Results of the fern study were noted in the previous Annual
Report.)
Additional data relating to the marketing of gladiolus were collected.
These data will be analyzed and a report prepared during the next
fiscal year.

METHODS OF ESTIMATING FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION
State Project 685 J. C. Townsend, Jr.,
C. L. Crenshaw and B. W. Kelly
The 1957-58 season saw a continuation of the collection of volume
data by frame, limb and drop counts with monthly size determinations.
The mid-December freeze and subsequent freezes caused considerable
losses to fruit. Measurements and drop counts were continued in an
effort to measure freeze losses. Results of these drop counts on early
and midseason oranges were complicated by the utilization of fallen
fruit. However, late orange drop counts, when compared with normal
and the result subtracted from the original production estimate, resulted
in an estimate very close to actual.
The original October production estimates were made from these
data, using a ratio method of relating count data to historical data.
The limb count sample groves were used in sampling the quality of
the fruit remaining after the severe December freeze.
A survey of the frontal three rows of trees on the entire 1,500-mile
route was made to determine the extent of freeze damage to trees.
Work on this project is made possible by funds provided on a match-
ing basis by the Growers Administrative Committee and the Agricul-
tural Marketing Service, USDA.

EXPANDING THE MARKET FOR FLORIDA FLORICULTURAL
AND ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Hatch Project 700 C. N. Smith and D. L. Brooke
(Regional SM-12)
Short supplies of cut flowers because of freeze damage resulted in
the cancellation of a planned experiment concerned with merchandising
flowers through retail food stores.
Experimental shipments of flowers, using various cooling methods,
are made from Florida shipping points to New York City in cooperation
with the Agricultural Engineering and Ornamental Horticulture de-
partments. One of these shipments was followed through to terminal
distribution points in New Jersey and Long Island.
Observations were made of the methods utilized by two large food
Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.







Annual Report, 1958


organizations in the New York and Philadelphia areas in merchandising
flowers. A number of ideas for the improvement of merchandising
techniques were noted. Nevertheless, reports by these stores and prev-
ious experience gained in this project indicates that expanded flower
sales in supermarkets will likely come about as a result of distribution
to more stores rather than the handling of a large volume of flowers
in a small number of stores. (See also Project 700, Ornamental Horti-
culture Dept.)

ECONOMICS OF FLORIDA DAIRY FARMING
State Project 701 N. K. Roberts and H. G. Hamilton
Further analysis of the data obtained on 105 dairy farms reported
on last year reveals that where a milk quota assignment tends to fix
size of herd in the short-run, flexible herd and land management
practices are as important to profits as production costs and milk prices
change. Pasture improvement resulted in increased realized yields in
the Florida peninsula, but at a decreasing rate which makes it profitable
under most conditions to have a combination of native and improved
pastures. The native-improved pasture combination depends on improve-
ment and maintenance costs and prices of substitute feeds and other
income-producing products.

CENSUS OF CITRUS GROVES IN FLORIDA
State Project 720 J. C. Townsend, Jr.,
and B. W. Kelly
The enumeration of Florida citrus tree population was completed in
the fall of 1957. A little over 45.7 million trees were recorded, of which
43.8 were in commercial groves. County data by variety and age (bear-
ing and non-bearing) were published in a preliminary report. Much
data on age, rootstock, disease, etc., need to be published.
The freeze of December 1957 and other low temperatures in January
and February 1958 point up the need to develop a plan to keep the tree
count up to date. A preliminary survey of tree loss and damage, made
in April 1958, indicates the actual death loss of one to two percent of the
trees and that 15 to 20 percent of the bearing surface might be affected
for 1958-59.
Cooperating agencies: Florida Citrus Mutual, Florida Citrus Com-
mission, State Plant Board, State Department of Agriculture and Crop
Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.

A STUDY IN THE USE OF RESOURCES IN AREAS OF RURAL
UNDEREMPLOYMENT AND LOW FARM PRODUCTIVITY
Hatch Project 744 D. E. Alleger
No work was done on this project during this fiscal period. The
leader of the project was on leave and it was not possible to obtain a
replacement for him.

AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF THE CAGED-LAYER ENTERPRISE
State Project 745 R. E. L. Greene and
D. L. Brooke
This project was inactive during the year.
s Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ESTIMATING VEGETABLE ACREAGE AND SNAP BEAN
PRODUCTION IN THE POMPANO AREA OF FLORIDA
BY OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENTS ON A
PROBABILITY SAMPLE
State Project 748 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw,
B. W. Kelly and J. B. Owens '
This project was inactive and is closed with this report.

DISTRIBUTION OF CITRUS PACKINGHOUSE COSTS
Hatch Project 782 A. H. Spurlock and
(Regional SM-4) G. L. Capel 1
A manuscript describing the methods developed for allocating citrus
packinghouse costs by factor-ratios was mimeographed and distributed
to citrus packers. This project has been closed.

AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF GRADE AND SIZE
STANDARDS FOR FLORIDA TOMATOES
State Project 787 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley
The tomato industry in Florida is currently operating under a market-
ing agreement program designed to control the quality of tomatoes
moving into consumption channels. This project is designed to provide
information regarding the economic significance which consumers attach
to differences in grades and sizes of Florida tomatoes.
In the Spring of 1957 10 retail food stores in the New York City
metropolitan area were employed to conduct tests in which consumer
preferences were measured for various sizes of Florida tomatoes. Both
U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 grade tomatoes were used in the tests. The
commercial size comparisons tested for both grades were:
5x6:6x6 5x6:7x8
5x6:6x7 7x8:6x7
7x8:7x7
On the basis of these market tests it was found that:
1. Large sized tomatoes were preferred over small sized ones.
2. Customers attach little importance to size differences in tomatoes
unless the difference is a large one.
3. Customers appear somewhat more discriminating with respect
to sizes of U.S. No. 1 tomatoes than for U.S. No. 2 tomatoes.
4. In order to affect the rate at which customers purchase tomatoes,
a size change approximately one-half the total size range is required.
The results of this work were published in Agricultural Economics
Report 58-5, "Preference for Sizes of Florida Tomatoes," December, 1957.

THE ECONOMIC EFFECT OF PINK TOMATO SHIPMENTS
UPON THE FLORIDA TOMATO INDUSTRY
State Project 788 M. R. Godwin
Owing to the adverse weather conditions during the tomato produc-
ing season and the resultant shortage in the tomato crop, this project
was inactive during the year.
9Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.
10 Cooperative with Market Organization & Costs Branch, AMS, USDA.








Annual Report, 1958


AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE FLORIDA
HONEY INDUSTRY
Hatch Project 791 H. G. Hamilton and F. J. Hoffer
Data from 6,760 sales invoices of 10 firms packing and selling Florida
honey were processed and transferred to IBM data forms. Tabulation
of these data for analysis is in progress. Analyses will include the costs
of packing, time of marketing by sizes of pack and quantities sold,
market distribution, transportation and other costs and net returns to
packers.

RESPONSE OF FARM INCOME TO CHANGES IN RESOURCE USE
ENGENDERED BY ACREAGE CONTROL AND
PRICE SUPPORT PROGRAMS
Regional Research Project 796 L. A. Powell, Sr., H. G. Hamilton,
(IRM-1) C. E. Murphree and F. W. Williams
Through October effort was concentrated on the development of
models for analyzing experimental production data for tobacco and in-
come and production data from farm records. With the departure of the
leader of the project, on leave of absence, and resignation of the statis-
tician with whom he was collaborating, the emphasis was shifted to a
survey of producers in the flue-cured tobacco area of North Florida.
Information pertaining to costs, production practices and reaction to the
tobacco program was obtained from approximately 175 farmers. The
analysis currently underway will show the relative distribution of costs
between large and small producers when acreage allotments are reduced
in order to control supply.
A preliminary investigation relative to revising the project to include
a more detailed analysis of the distribution of the cost of acreage control
and price support programs has been made.

CONSUMER USES AND OPINIONS OF FLORIDA AVOCADOS
State Project 801 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley
The upward trend in production of avocados in Florida poses a
problem with respect to the efficient marketing of future crops. This
study is designed to provide information useful in implementing a more
effective program of market expansion for avocados through promo-
tional activities.
During the past year an analysis was made of data obtained from
a consumer survey of 1,738 households in Dayton, Ohio. In this survey
homemakers were asked to convey their familiarity with, use patterns
of and opinions about avocados. Interviews were obtained from a prob-
ability sample of homemakers in three selected income areas of the city.
The problem involved in the market expansion of avocados is closely
related to the extent to which they are presently known and used. Only
one-third of the families surveyed had purchased them for home con-
sumption prior to the interview. About one-fifth of the respondents
were totally unfamiliar with this fruit. The use of avocados was some-
what more characteristic of high than of low income families. Among
the users, the consumption rate was extremely low.
Among the important factors which appear to affect the low rate
at which avocados are consumed are a dislike of the taste of this fruit
and a general lack of consumer familiarity concerning ways in which
the avocado can be prepared for serving.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


A preliminary statistical report, "Consumers' Use of and Opinions
About Avocados," was prepared in October 1957.

CONSUMER USES AND OPINIONS OF FLORIDA LIMES
State Project 814 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley
Producers and marketing agencies for Florida limes have little in-
formation regarding the basic character of the market for their product.
A knowledge of use patterns, opinions and attitude of consumers regard-
ing limes as well as operational problems encountered by retailers
will assist in developing better marketing procedures and formulating
promotional programs.
Based on visits to the three metropolitan markets of New York, Chi-
cago and St. Louis in the spring of 1957, efforts devoted to this study
have consisted of developing a research approach involving a survey
of both consumers and retail food stores. Information obtained from
consumers will be used to determine the relation between various family
characteristics and the use patterns for limes and to ascertain what con-
sumers regard as quality attributes for this fruit. Retail food stores will
be surveyed to determine the availability of Florida limes and the
various merchandising and marketing practices.
Development of a survey questionnaire and a sample design is cur-
rently in progress.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM FOR ESTABLISHING
THE SHORT-RUN PRODUCTION OUTLOOK
FOR FLORIDA TOMATOES
State Project 822 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw and J. B. Owens '
The purpose of this project is to give the Florida tomato grower and
personnel of allied industries accurate and current information regard-
ing tomato plantings, condition and progress of the crop throughout the
growing and harvesting season.
This was accomplished by obtaining planting data for Florida toma-
toes by areas of production on a weekly basis. The information was
summarized and a weekly report was made, beginning August 14, 1957,
and ending June 17, 1958. In addition to the plantings data, comments
on current conditions and progress and current and historical shipment
data were presented for appraisal and comparative purposes. Also, tem-
perature and rainfall data for key points throughout the state were
included in these reports. At the end of the 1957-58 season, about 1,100
growers and other interested persons were receiving these reports.

AN APPRAISAL OF THE ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND
PROBLEMS OF LOW INCOME RURAL AREAS IN
NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
Hatch Project 826 L. A. Reuss, K. M. Gilbraith "
and R. E. L. Greene
The objectives of this study are (1) to determine and analyze forces
and conditions that operate to depress the economic welfare of residents
of low income rural areas in North and West Florida and (2) to formu-
late and evaluate alternative measures for promoting economic develop-
ment in these areas.
1 Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.
1 Cooperative with Farm Economics Research Division, ARS, USDA.








Annual Report, 1958


Work on the first phase of the study was undertaken to describe
and classify conditions and resources of the area. Since the desired data
about the characteristics of the rural people and the nature and use of
their resources were not available, it was decided to make a survey of
rural households in that area. During the year field work was completed
for a study in which schedules or memorandums were obtained by
personal interview for all households located in randomly selected block
samples in the openly settled countryside of 20 counties. Records were
obtained for 748 households, of which 511 were white and 237 colored.
Complete data on income were obtained for 730 households, 368 of
which were classified as farm and 362 as rural non-farm. The average
cash family income for all households was $2,430. For the households
classified as farms, one-fourth of the cash family income was from farm
sources and slightly over one-half from non-farm employment.
In any program to raise the income and the level of living of the
people in the area, the characteristics of the human resources must be
given careful consideration. Of the households surveyed, 36 percent of
the family heads were 60 years of age or older and 21 percent under 40
years old. In about one-third of the households the size of the family
was two members or less. On the other hand, about one-third of the
households had five or more members in the family. Thirty-seven per-
cent of the families had no male able-bodied workers between 14 and
64 years of age. Eight percent of the family heads had no schooling, 28
percent only one to four years and only 12 percent 12 years or more.

A STUDY OF THE COMPETITIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
FLORIDA AND CALIFORNIA CELERY
AMA Project 856 M. R. Godwin and
(ES-504) A. H. Spurlock
Producers and shippers of Florida celery are faced with the necessity
of assessing market conditions not only in the light of their own supply
situation but also from the standpoint of the market competition which
they must face from concurrent production in California. This project
is directed at describing the competitive relationship between Florida
and California celery in the midwest United States.
Data necessary for the statistical determination of the nature of the
competitive relationship between Florida and California celery during
the late spring were generated by employing matched-lot techniques in
nine retail food stores in the Chicago metropolitan area. Displays of
size 21/2 U. S. No. 1 Florida and California Pascal celery were main-
tained in the test stores for a period of 41/ weeks, and price differences
between the two displays were introduced in accordance with an experi-
mental design predetermined to meet the informational requirements
of the problem. A total of nine combinations of price relationships were
tested:
Treatment Florida California Treatment Florida California
Price Price Price Price
(cents per stalk) (cents per stalk)
1 29 39 6 25 31
2 29 35 7 21 39
3 29 31 8 21 35
4 25 39 9 21 31
5 25 35
The field work was completed on June 12, 1958, and an analysis of
the data is currently in progress.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


COSTS AND EFFICIENCY IN HANDLING
FLORIDA CITRUS FRUITS
Hatch Project 895 A. H. Spurlock, H. G. Hamilton
(Regional SM-4) and G. L. Capel1
Index numbers of costs of packing and selling citrus fruits by 43
packinghouses for 1956-57 were constructed. These more adequately
measure relative efficiency of each house, regardless of the container
used or method of allocating costs.
For all fruit handled, which includes packed fruit, eliminations and
fruit direct from grove to cannery, packing and selling costs varied from
19 percent below the average to 30 percent above. Nineteen of the 43
firms were within 5 percent of the average cost.
Packing cost only, excluding selling, administrative and certain other
costs, showed a wider variation, ranging from 26 percent below to 62
percent above average. If one firm in an unusual situation were elimi-
nated, then packing costs went to only 17 percent above average.
Packinghouse labor varied from 26 percent below to 16 percent above
average, with 18 firms within 5 percent of the average cost.

THE IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF EXTERNAL QUALITY
FACTORS IN FLORIDA AVOCADOS HAVING ECONOMIC
SIGNIFICANCE TO THE CONSUMER
AMA Project 899 M. R. Godwin
(ES-505)
This project was approved too late in the period for work to be done.

MISCELLANEOUS
Florida Agricultural Production Index.-Index numbers measuring
the total volume of agricultural production in Florida by groups of pro-
diucts have been revised and brought up to date. Total production was
approximately the same in 1957 as in 1956, or 2.7 times as large as in
the 1935-39 period. Production of cotton, tobacco and truck crops de-
creased in 1957, but increases were shown by grains, milk, poultry pro-
ducts, meat animals and citrus fruit. Milk increased 10 percent during
1957. The original indexes appear in Circular S-88. (A. H. Spurlock.)
Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries.-Movement of citrus trees
from Florida nurseries set a new record during the period of July 1,
1956, to June 30, 1957. The movement was 2,195,035 trees, an increase
over the previous season of 14 percent. This movement was 215 percent
of the 1928-56 average and 155 percent of the 1950-55 average. Ninety
percent of these trees was orange-Temples included- as compared to
71 percent for the 28 seasons and 72 percent for the five-year average.
Grapefruit trees made up 2 percent of the 1956-57 movement, 17 percent
for average and 15 percent for the 1950-55 period.
Lemon stock was used most during the past four seasons and in-
creased each season. Sixty-nine percent of the movement in 1956-57
was on lemon stock. Sour orange was second in importance, cleopatra
third and sweet seedling fourth. These four stocks made up 98 percent
of movement. (Zach Savage.)
Competition for Florida Fruit and Vegetable Crops.-The degree of
competition which Florida faces is provided by tabulating weekly carlot
shipments of selected fruits and vegetables from Florida, other states
and foreign countries during the Florida shipping season. Such data are
13 Cooperative with Market Organization and Costs Branch, AMS, USDA.







Annual Report, 1958


valuable to growers and extension workers in determining the more
desirable production periods during the Florida season. They are also
available to industry groups in the preparation of statistics for hearings
on freight rates and marketing agreements and in establishing annual
movement patterns of Florida crops. Allied service industries may find
them valuable in planning peak movement and supply requirements.
"Florida Truck Crop Competition" was published as Agricultural Eco-
nomics Mimeo Report 58-4. (D. L. Brooke.)
Cull Tomato Disposal in Dade County.-The increasing press of pop-
ulation upon land in south Dade County made the disposal of packing-
house eliminations of tomatoes a health problem. Therefore, the tomato
industry is seeking new uses and alternative methods of disposal of cull
tomatoes. The economic phase of this study concerned the annual volume
of culls for disposal, the feasibility of their being processed into cattle
feed and alternative methods and costs of disposal.
The annual volume of culls for disposal is estimated at 20.3 percent
of the annual marketed production in Dade County. Disposal by process-
ing would yield an estimated 2,200 tons of dry feed for cattle feeding.
A processing plant would require a drying capacity of 8,640 pounds of
cull tomatoes per hour to handle anticipated peak loads. Costs of hauling
culls to a processing plant or open-pit disposal area ranged from $0.50
to $3.50 per 6 cu. yd. load with a maximum haul of seven miles. (D. L.
Brooke and G. L. Capel.)
Freeze Damage Survey.-The Governor's Freeze Damage Task Force
enlisted the aid of 55 leading organizations and individuals in Florida
agriculture in obtaining freeze damage information. The consulting
services of two members of the Department of Agricultural Economics
were used in compiling the data received. As a result, on January 30,
1958, the "Report of the Governor's Freeze Damage Task Force," sum-
marizing agricultural and related industry conditions following the
December and early January freezes and flooding rains and setting forth
12 recommendations for action, was presented to Governor Collins.
(D. L. Brooke and J. R. Greenman.)
Rural Land Prices.-Around several of the rapidly growing urban
areas in the state the price of agricultural land has risen above the
level upon which farmers can earn a reasonable return producing cattle.
In many instances farmers are selling this land to speculators. The
speculators in turn are (1) renting or leasing back until it is profitable
for the owners to develop it for non-agricultural uses, (2) raising cattle
or other agricultural commodities to minimize losses or (3) allowing the
land to remain idle. As yet, there is no clear-cut evidence indicating that
the price of ranch land in the more rural areas of the state has risen
above the price of ranch land elsewhere, when the prices are compared
on the basis of the productivity of the land in terms of pounds of beef
per acre. (W. K. McPherson.)
Land Prices in Palm Beach County, Florida.-The price of land in
Palm Beach County, Florida, is determined by (a) amount of land
available, (b) demand for its products, (c) technology employed in
production, the risk and uncertainty of its use, (d) terms for which
credit is available and (e) in the case of organic soils, the rate of sub-
sidence. The interplay of these forces caused land prices to rise rather
sharply between 1943 and 1955. During this period average price of land
in the southwestern portion of the county rose from $24.14 to $205.00 per
acre; in the southeastern vegetable area of the county from $21.21 to
$157.00 per acre; and in the northeastern part of the county from $3.70
to $85.00 per acre. (Roy L. Lassiter, Jr., and W. K. McPherson.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

New research projects on tobacco irrigation and gladiolus processing
were initiated. Considerable progress was made in the development of
a mixed fertilizer sampling tool and a cabbage harvesting aid. Tests
have proven both to be quite satisfactory. Research was continued on
pasture irrigation, curing bright leaf tobacco, machinery for filling and
unloading horizontal silos, the effect of forced air movement on dry lot
feeder steers and mechanical equipment for harvesting and handling
vegetables. USDA personnel in the Department worked on citrus and
potato packinghouse problems.

FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 555 J. M. Myers
The objective of the agricultural engineering phase of a tobacco irri-
gation experiment begun this year was to gather information basic to
the design of an economical irrigation system. Earlier experimental re-
sults from this project have furnished information on the amount of
water to apply and the proper time of application for maximum yields
of high quality tobacco.
Since it is generally not feasible to irrigate all of a crop at one time,
the design engineer must determine the investment that should be made
in each irrigation system to give the largest net return.
An experimental design involving three irrigation treatments and a
check-(1) a rate designed to replenish soil moisture by irrigation ap-
proximately four days after rainfall or irrigation, (2) seven days, (3) 10
days and (4) no irrigation-was initiated to study the problem. That
the results could be applied broadly, all four irrigation treatments were
tested with four levels of fertility and 10 varieties of tobacco commonly
grown in Florida.
During the period up to July 1, 1958, the nonirrigated tobacco had
received 17.51 inches of rainfall. The irrigated plots had received, in
addition, 6.52, 4.31 and 3.97 inches of irrigation water in 10, five and
three applications for the four-, seven-, and 10-day moisture deficiency
accumulations, respectively.
With harvesting approximately half completed, indications are that
the no-irrigation treatment is producing the largest yield, but quality is
poor. The irrigation treatments appear to be yielding less tobacco but
the quality is good. This response is considered normal for the 1958
growing season, during which large amounts of fertilizer nutrients were
probably leached below the effective root zone by several heavy rain-
falls. However, at other times during the season rather severe drought
symptoms appeared in the nonirrigated or inadequately irrigated areas
due to insufficient soil moisture. (See also Project 555, Agronomy Dept.
and Suwannee Valley Station.)

PASTURE PROGRAM AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL
AND NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 J. M. Myers
The primary responsibility of the Agricultural Engineering Depart-
ment is the management of the irrigation phase of this experiment.
It was impossible the carry out the irrigation phase of the experiment
in 1957 because of a failure of the water supply and inadequate irriga-







Annual Report, 1958


tion equipment. This situation has been remedied by the addition of
equipment. Also, the procedure for determining the irrigation interval
has been modified to take into fuller account the effect of water table
on availability of soil moisture.
The present procedure is to take weekly soil samples to a depth of 18
inches and analyze them for moisture content. An irrigation cycle will
begin when it is determined from these samples that a soil moisture
deficit of one inch of water below field capacity, is present in the top
18 inches of soil. Subsequent irrigation cycles are started when it is
estimated by McCloud's Evapotranspiration Formula (KWT.32, where K
= 0.07, W = 1.02 and T = the monthly mean temperature for Gaines-
ville), that one inch of water has been used from the soil. These cycles
are continued until interrupted by rainfall.
During most of the past year heavy and frequent rainfalls have
maintained the water table at a high level in the irrigated pastures, thus
precluding the need for supplemental irrigation, except for two appli-
cations in October and November 1957 and one in June 1958. It appears
that irrigation has not significantly increased production so far this
year. (See also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agronomy, Animal
Husbandry and Nutrition, and Soils Departments.)

DEVELOPMENT OF ADEQUATE SAMPLING PROCEDURES
FOR MIXED FERTILIZERS
Hatch Project 753 J. M. Myers
Several open-end tapered tube fertilizer sampling tools were tested
in comparison with a number of official and modified official sampling
tools. Results of these tests, when sampling bagged goods, showed
"Florida tool E" to be superior to all other tools tested in giving an
unbiased estimate of the nitrogen content of two difficult-to-sample
fertilizer mixtures.
"Florida tool E" is a fabricated 26-gage stainless steel tube with a 1
inch taper per foot of length. The penetrating (smaller) end of the tube
is approximately 1% inch in diameter and the tube is 18 inches long.
The large end is fitted with a 1/ by 1 inch brass bushing to absorb the
force of a hammer that is used to drive the tube into the fertilizer. An
electric hammer equipped with a head made of pressed fiber bonded
with glue appears satisfactory for forcing the tube into the fertilizer.
Work has been started to develop a satisfactory method of sampling
fertilizer mixtures after they have been loaded into the bins of trucks
for bulk transportation. An experimental procedure has been developed
and tools have been constructed for studying this problem, but to date
research data are too meager to evaluate. (See also Project 753, Soils
Department.)

CURING BRIGHT LEAF TOBACCO GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT
LEVELS OF NITROGEN
Hatch Project 758 J. M. Myers
Research studies of temperature and relative humidity conditions
within tobacco barns during the coloring stage of curing show that a
definite relationship exists among quality, yellowing temperature and
level of nitrogen fertilization. This relationship is shown in Figure 1.
Tobacco fertilized with 24 pounds of nitrogen per acre exhibits highest
quality when yellowed at a temperature of 1050 F., while tobacco ferti-
lized with 96 pounds of nitrogen per acre cured into highest quality
when yellowed at 95' F. Tobacco fertilized with 48 pounds of nitrogen
per acre produced highest quality when yellowed at 100 F. The quality







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of this tobacco was depressed when it was yellowed at either 1050 F. or
950 F.






0








Z











95 100 105
TEMPERATURE, DEGREES E
a-
Uo



0
o 0.55



-IC









TEMPERATURE, DEGREES F
Fig. 1.-Effect of temperature during the coloring stage of curing on
quality of tobacco grown with three levels of nitrogen.

Leaf maturity or ripeness at time of harvest appears to be a most
dominant factor affecting quality of cured leaf. An experiment to deter-
mine some of the relationships among curing environments, levels of
nitrogen fertilization and ripeness at time of harvest has furnished in-
formation on this subject. Some results of this study are given in Fig-
ures 2, 3 and 4. Figure 2 shows that "ripe" tobacco (harvested at time of
optimum ripeness) produced better quality than tobacco harvested seven
days before full ripeness or seven days after full ripeness for all three
levels of nitrogen fertilization tested. Figure 3 shows ripeness is still
the dominating factor when tested with relative humidities of 75, 85 and
95 percent during the coloring stage of curing. The same general re-
sponse is found in Figure 4, which shows a maturity and coloring tem-
perature relationship.
Mature tobacco grown with a good soil fertility and moisture environ-
ment appears to yield better quality when colored with a yellowing
temperature of 100, F. and relative humidity of 85 percent. Very few,







Annual Report, 1958


if any, tobacco curing barns in Florida are equipped so that this condi-
tion can be controlled during the entire coloring period of curing. A
tobacco curing barn on the Main Station farm at Gainesville has been
equipped with relatively low-cost automatic controls to maintain these
conditions. Although it is too early to fully evaluate the performance
of this barn, results obtained with the first two curings have been en-
couraging. (See also Project 758, Agronomy Department.)






0.60








S0.55
n0



-IJ
09
.J



i3
Z





(I
0.50
-J


0
Z


-J
0.50

RIPE(+) 7 Days RIPE RIPE (-)7 Days

MATURITY AT HARVEST
Fig. 2.-Effect of levels of nitrogen fertilization and maturity at harvest
on value of cured leaf.

IRRIGATION OF TEMPORARY PASTURES FOR DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 772 J. M. Myers
This project, now in the third year, is a study of the value of irriga-
ted and non-irrigated alfalfa-clover-oat pastures. The procedure of ir-
rigation management was the same this year as that outlined in the 1956
Annual Report.
Rainfall, which totaled approximately 54 inches, was adequate to
maintain the desired soil moisture level during the entire year, except
for a short period in June 1958 when it was necessary to make one ir-
rigation application.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


0.60




R
a:
^ RIPE (-)7 Doys

0.55 7 Da

_J
0

Z
w
.J

S0.50

75 85 95
PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY,
TEMPERATURE 100
Fig. 3.-Effect of relative humidities during coloring stage of curing and
maturity at harvest on value of cured leaf.

Because the need for irrigation was so limited this year, a favorable
response from irrigation is not expected. Cold weather during the winter
and an unusually high water table during the months of February,
March and April retarded alfalfa growth to the extent that total pro-
duction this year on both the irrigated and nonirrigated treatments is
likely to be considerably lower than in either 1956 or 1957. (See also
Project 772, Dairy Science and Agronomy Departments.)

HORIZONTAL SILOS IN FLORIDA: TYPES FOR EACH AREA AND
MACHINERY FOR HANDLING AND FEEDING OUT
State Project 799 E. S. Holmes and J. M. Myers
Detailed information was gathered on the harvesting and filling of
12 horizontal silos. The silos under study were the same as those used
in 1956, except for two that were no longer in operation for which two
similar ones were substituted. The types studied were two earth bank







Annual Report, 1958


bunkers, three concrete lined bunkers, three earth trenches, two con-
crete lined trenches and two wooden bunkers. As in 1956, the equipment
used for the least expensive filling operation consisted of: three wheel-
type tractors (one to operate the harvester and two to pull wagons and
pack silage); one power take-off forage harvester; and two self-unload-
ing wagons. Aiding to the significance of this finding is the fact that
three of the other operations with a harvesting cost of less than $2 per
ton used this same collection of equipment. This study reveals that the
cost of silage making is affected greatly by amount and cost of the
equipment, efficiency in its use and the crop being harvested. When
harvested with similar equipment, grasses were more than twice as ex-
pensive to ensile as grains. Fully mature grasses caused more equip-
ment breakdowns and were more costly to harvest than those grasses
cut in the seed dough stage.






o 0.60

0

(.


U() RIPE -) 7 Days

S0.55
o
;
z

W
_i
-J


0.50


95 100 105
TEMPERATURE. DEGREES E
Fig. 4.-Effect of temperature during coloring stage of curing and ma-
turity at harvest on value of cured leaf.

An analysis was made to determine the efficiency of the "feed-out"
operation for each of the above silos. Millet silage fed by two men using
a flat bed truck and a tractor with front end lift fork was least efficient.
The most efficient "feed-cut" operation, based on comparable tonnage,








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


involved two men using pitchforks to load millet silage into a flat bed
truck. "Feeding out" operations where commercial horizontal silo un-
loaders were being used were also very efficient, costing only a few
cents per ton more than the lowest cost hand operation.

SPOILAGE IN HORIZONTAL SILOS
WINTER 1957-1958






_J
30



.0-





0_

SAND BANK WOODEN CONCRETE LINED EARTH TRENCH WOVEN
BUNKERS BUNKERS BUNKERS OR TRENCH FENCE
Fig. 5.-Percent spoilage of silage in several different types of horizon-
tal silos.

Moisture content analyses were made of ensilage during each har-
vesting operation to determine the relationship moisture content might
have to spoilage. On an oven-dry basis moisture content varied from
51.5 to 78.5 percent. It was found that the percent of spoilage is a func-
tion of depth of silage and degree of compaction rather than type of
silo. The amount of spoilage varied from 4.5 to 23.0 percent and is
shown in Figure 5.
During the "feed-out" operation samples were taken of the silage to
check the density. Comparable materials, packed with track tractors,
were less dense than those packed with rubber-tired tractors. The densi-
ty varied from top to bottom in the silo as much as 20 pounds per cubic
foot. The density of corn silage varied from 48.7 to 52.8; millet, 34.6 to
40.7; and pangolagrass, 49.1 to 49.6 pounds per cubic foot when packed
with wheel-type tractors. Only one silo filled with grain sorghum was
checked. It had a density of 48.0 pounds per cubic foot. Silage from the
deep silos was more dense than that from shallower ones.

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AS AN AID TO THE HARVESTING AND
HANDLING OF CABBAGE, CUCUMBERS, TOMATOES AND OTHER
VEGETABLES HANDLED IN A SIMILAR MANNER
State Project 811 E. S. Holmes
The harvesting aid machine tested in 1956-57 was changed to incorpo-
rate the harvesting and packing operations into one unit. The new unit
consisted of two 20" horizontal conveyor belts with an 18' span; a short
horizontal forward moving transfer belt and a 9' inclined cleated belt;







Annual Report, 1958


and a 10'3"x 11'0" platform. A rack for empty box storage was located
on the front of the harvesting aid. Figure 6 shows machine in operation.
During the 1957-58 cabbage season three independent field tests of
the machine were made. Concurrently two machines built by growers,
and deviating from the above machine in that one used a receiving
hopper in place of the horizontal conveyor belts and the other used a
revolving drum to move the cabbage from the pickers to the packaging
crew, were tested also. Table 1 shows results of field tests comparing
the experimental machine with hand harvesting and also the farm-built
machines. All tests shown in Table 1 were made in fields yielding 75
to 85 boxes of cabbage per acre.
The harvesting aid machine was tested in a field of low-yielding
cauliflower and appeared satisfactory insofar as rate of harvest and me-
chanical injury were concerned. Eighty-nine boxes were harvested over
five acres in two hours. In another test with the machine eggplants were
harvested at a rate of 63 boxes (1 3/5 bushels) per hour.

TABLE 1 MACHINE VERSUS HAND HARVESTING OF CABBAGE 1958
(BoxES PER HOUR PER WORKER)


Machine


Experimental Machine
Experimental Machine
Experimental Machine
Thigpin Machine
Campbell Machine


(Test #1)
(Test #2)
(Test #3)


Machine Harvest

6.35
7.10
10.00
5.50
4.60


Hand Harvest

3.90
3.47
5.00
2.40
3.90


At present the machine can be recommended for harvesting cabbage,
but further research will be necessary before it can be recommended
for other crops. (See also Project 811, Vegetable Crops Department.)

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL
AIR MOVEMENT ON CATTLE FATTENING IN DRY LOT
State Project 842 E. S. Holmes
On June 14, 1957, an experiment was initiated at the North Florida
Experiment Station to study the effect of artificial air movement on

Fig. 6.-Harvesting aid machine operating in cabbage field near Hastings.


ri~a~i~c~t'
zA







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


steers fattening in dry lot. Two pens of eight steers weighing approxi-
mately 778 pounds per steer were selected for the study. One pen was
equipped with a fan to force air movement and the other was used as
the control pen. An air switch was used to operate the fan when
the ambient air temperature was above 750 F. Temperatures were re-
corded at various points in both pens throughout the summer. When the
fan was running, the air temperature at all recorded points in the fan-
cooled pen was from 1 to 2 degrees F. cooler than in the check pen, ex-
cept in the afternoons when the fan was in the sun. Then the fan pen
was about 1 degree F. warmer than the check pen. Periodic air velocity
measurements revealed an air movement of approximately 100 feet per
minute in the fan-cooled pen during periods when there was no record-
able air movement in the check pen.
Steers in the fan-cooled pen consumed slightly more feed and made
larger gains than the check pen. However, the cost per pound of gain
was somewhat higher for the fan-cooled steers. The higher cost was due
to the added expense for fan operation and the slightly lower feed utili-
zation efficiency of the fan-cooled animals. Heavier carcasses coupled
with a higher carcass grade resulted in a $3.32 per head higher net re-
turn for the steers fattened in the fan-cooled pen.
In a similar test conducted in cooperation with the Norris Cattle
Company, in which comparisons were made of two feeder lots of 60
steers each, fan cooling did not show any advantage. The fan-cooled
lot of steers gained less weight during the first 30 days of the test, but
during the second 30 days they gained about 1V pound per animal more
per day than the check lot. For the total test period of 60 days the fan-
cooled lot of steers gained an average of 2.0 pounds per day, while the
check lot gained an average of 2.16 pounds per day per animal. This
test was made in open pens partly covered with snow fence for shade.
The fan used 938 KWH of electricity during the test period and was in
operation only when the outside temperature was above 800 F.
During the summer of 1958 the test will be repeated with approxi-
mately the same procedure as described above except that water will
be automatically sprayed on the animals in the fan-cooled pen when
the relative humidity drops below 50 percent and the temperature is
above 80 F. (;See also State Project 842, North Florida Station.)

GLADIOLUS PRECOOLING AND TRANSIT INVESTIGATIONS
Hatch Project 860 E. S. Holmes and J. M. Myers
The object is to investigate the effect of precooling and transit re-
frigeration on flower quality and to determine associated operating
cost. Because of the scattered locations of the various items of equip-
ment needed for this experiment, and the several geographical areas of
gladiolus production, it has been necessary to conduct a number of
somewhat isolated experiments to gather the desired information. Figure
7 shows some of the instruments used for the experiment.
The first phase of the experiment was to analyze the steps in proc-
essing and shipping gladioli from the time they are cut from the field
until they reach the market, and to determine where the flowers were
exposed to environments that were serious detriments to the retention
of quality. The most serious places found were in the packinghouse
when temperatures were high, and in transit when the flowers had not
been precooled.
Considerable heat could be removed from the flowers while they
were being graded and packed if these operations were done in an air







Annual Report, 1958


conditioned packinghouse. When handled in a normal manner, approxi-
mately four hours were required to reduce the temperature of warm
(900 F.) flowers to room temperature (680 F.) in an air conditioned
packinghouse. Flower temperature studies during transit revealed that
as much as 24 hours may be required for non-precooled flowers to be
cooled to 50* F. in an ice bunker refrigerated truck.
Another factor that may be significant to quality retention is the
excessive rate of dehydration that takes place when flowers are exposed
to high temperatures. It was found that comparable spikes lost moisture
approximately eight times faster at 89 F. than they did at 500 F.
An extensive experiment was conducted in April at Bradenton to
determine the value of hydracooling spikes in the field immediately
after cutting as an aid to preserving quality. Results revealed no bene-
ficial or harmful effects from hydracooling. There were indications,
however, that buds of spikes cut early in the morning remained tighter
in storage than those cut in mid-morning.
Replicated tests were made at Hastings, Florida, with the variety
June Bells in May and Spic and Span in June, to determine the effect
of hydracooling and fungicidal dip on flower quality. One lot of flowers
was treated immediately after grading and the other six hours after
grading. Results indicate that late season flowers were definitely injured
by both hydracooling and fungicidal dip treatments. The injury was
hidden and probably would not normally manifest itself until the flow-
ers were in the hands of the florist. The primary symptom of the injury
was failure of the central florets on the spike to open. (See also Project
860, Ornamental Horticulture Department and Gulf Coast Station.)

Fig. 7.-Instrumentation facilities for measuring temperature inside
gladiolus stems and florets.

14.4Ll~~'







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


MISCELLANEOUS
Water Table Control and Seepage Irrigation in Flatwoods Soils.
Plans are underway to study the sub-surface movement of water in
flatwoods soils. The objective is to obtain basic information for use in
designing irrigation, water table control and drainage systems for flat-
woods soils.
Two areas are being used. One has four foot deep open ditches spaced
200, 133 and 67' apart and a pumping system for filling, draining and
controlling the water level in these ditches. In the other area water will
be controlled with a system of plastic-lined mole drains placed 10' apart
and 18 and 30 inches deep. (See also Miscellaneous, Soils Department.)
(J. M. Myers.)
Lightning Protection of Citrus. Investigations were made of vari-
ous citrus groves, to determine the extent of lightning damage. Damage
varied from severe in some locations to practically nothing in others.
Damage was measured in two large groves and found to average about
10 trees killed per 100 acres per year. A standard protection of one
lightning arrestor installation per half acre of grove would cost about
$30. When considering the rate of tree loss due to lightning and the cost
of protection, it does not appear economically feasible to attempt any
installations of protective equipment at this time. Information collected
on this subject was presented in detail at a regular meeting of the Flor-
ida Citrus Production Managers. (E. S. Holmes.)
Automation in Feed Handling. Investigations were made into feed
mixing and handling by Florida dairymen. Little or no automation is
being used. Study of the problem revealed that considerable time would
be required to design and install equipment necessary for automation in
dairy feed handling. Further work with this problem will be carried on
as time permits. (E. S. Holmes.)







Annual Report, 1958


AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT

Breeding of pasture grasses has been expanded with the appointment
of Dr. D. B. Linden in a new position, joint with the College of Agri-
culture. Dr. Linden will use irradiation as a tool in grass improvement.
Drs. G. M. Prine, A. J. Norden and P. L. Pfahler have been secured to
fill vacancies on the staff arising from resignations and from the trans-
fer of Dr. A. T. Wallace to the Plant Science Unit.
Three small Orlyt greenhouses were purchased to supplement field
testing and provide for artificial crossing of legumes and grasses. A
concrete block chamber 10x24x8 feet equipped with air conditioning
and adequate lighting for plant growth was built. It has been very use-
ful for growing extra generations of oats, lupines and other winter or
cool weather crops in the warm seasons to accelerate breeding programs.
Good progress has been made with the various research projects as
reported below.
Severe drouth occurred in the first half of June, although total rain-
fall from January 1 through June was about nine inches above the long-
time average.

PEANUT BREEDING FOR SUPERIOR TYPES FOR
MARKET AND FOR LIVESTOCK FEED
Hatch Project 20 W. A. Carver
The Florida-bred peanut varieties Dixie Runner and Early Runner
continue to excel in seed quality all other runner varieties and new
runner lines tested. However, in yielding ability, varieties have been
found that excel them. In yield, N. C. 2 excelled Dixie Runner by 18
percent and Early Runner by 2 percent over the four-year period 1954
through 1957. In contrast, the seed damage of N. C. 2 in these tests was
6.19 times more than that of Dixie Runner and Early Runner. Florispan
Runner produced 14 percent more peanuts per acre than N. C. 2 and
had only 2/9 as much seed damage. All peanuts were cured in stacks.
Florida 392, a new hybrid line having heredity of Florispan Runner
and Jumbo Runner, is being further selected for improvement in seed
quality and uniformity. Several new hybrid lines are now under test.
Among these lines are bunch and runner plant habit and N. C. Runner,
Spanish and Jumbo seed size.

PASTURE GRASS AND LEGUME RESPONSES TO VARIOUS
FERTILIZER AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Hatch Project 295 G. B. Killinger and H. C. Harris
Coastal and Suwannee bermudagrassses yielded 20,500 pound of dry
forage per acre with 240 pounds of applied nitrogen and 7,000 pounds
with 30 pounds of nitrogen. Under the same treatments, Midland ber-
mudagress yielded only 13,000 and 5,000 pounds, respectively, of dry
weight forage.
NK-37 bermudagrass failed to furnish any dry forage because of
Helminthosporium and Pythium diseases.
Under uniform clipping and fertilization treatment, the following
red clover varieties were considered superior: Louisiana red strain 1,
Nolins, certified Pennscott, certified Port Gibson, Reinholdt and cer-
tified Kenland.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Foundation Floranna sweet clover outyielded, by 30 percent, com-
mercial Floranna, which in turn outyielded commercial Hubam by 20
percent.
Arizona Chilean, Pilca Butta, Caliverde, African and Hairy Peruvian
proved to be the highest yielding alfalfa varieties during the 1957-58
season.
Ronphagrass, a new hybrid perennial from Africa, failed to produce
as much forage during the 1957-58 season as either oats or rye when
grown on a sandy soil.

EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF FORAGE AND COVER
CROP LEGUMES OTHER THAN CLOVERS AND LUPINES
Hatch Project 301 J. R. Edwardson, E. S. Horner
and F. H. Hull
Crotalaria spectabilis seed was irradiated previously in an attempt
to induce alkaloid-free mutations, as this species is toxic to animals.
Progeny of these irradiated seed are being examined in the field and in
the greenhouse for possible beneficial mutations. One suspected alkaloid-
free mutant has been found; laboratory tests to test it further have not
been completed.
Crotalaria mucronata (P. I. 198001) outyielded commercial C. striata
at Gainesville and the Suwannee Valley Station, but the difference was
significant only at Gainesville (9.2 tons versus 7.9 tons per acre green
weight). Romack was the highest yielding variety in the USDA winter
pea clipping test, while Lana led the vetch clipping test.
Mass selection in alfalfa was continued in an attempt to develop a
variety with better persistence than is available in commercial varieties.
No test of progress has been made.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IMPROVEMENT
Hatch Project 372 Fred Clark
A tobacco having nematode resistance is the primary object of this
project. However, work includes research for multiple resistance to
blackshank, granville wilt and fusarium wilt. There are more incidences
of the latter diseases in the presence of nematodes. Tobaccos having
multiple resistance are being screened for root-knot resistance in two
nematode-infested areas. Forty-one of the 1956 hybrid lines were tested
and examined for both meadow and root-knot nematode infestations.
More uniform resistance is being obtained than in previous years' tests.
Leaf sizes and shapes are also more uniform in appearance than in
earlier work. Yields ranged from 800 to 1,800 pounds per acre, with
several lines producing high yields of good quality. Backcrosses will be
made on those lines having high resistance and poor quality. Some
chemical leaf quality evaluations are being made.
Twenty-four varieties of tobacco were tested. Yields ranged from
1,494 to 2,600 pounds per acre, and gross values ranged from $770 to
$1,486 per acre.
CORN BREEDING
Hatch Project 374 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
Studies to determine the relative effectiveness of three diverse test-
ing methods in recurrent selection for increased hybrid vigor were
continued. These methods consist of (1) selection for specific combining







Annual Report, 1958


ability, using an inbred line tester; (2) selection for general combining
ability, using a composite with a wide genetic base as the tester; and
(3) selection for vigor of inbred lines per se, as contrasted to testing
hybrids with methods (1) and (2). Significant advances in yield have
resulted from each method during three cycles of selection over a six-
year period, but no trend indicating that one method is appreciably
more effective than another is apparent. The experiment will be con-
tinued for at least two additional cycles before final evaluation is made.
Progress in the third cycle of methods (1) and (2) above, and also
in the fourth cycle of a different recurrent selection experiment, was
less than anticipated. There are several possible explanations for this
decline in rate of progress, among which inadequate precision in test-
ing and variety x year interaction appear to be the most likely. Variety
x year and variety x location interactions were not statistically signifi-
cant in tests of 50 hybrids at four locations for two years. However, a
correlation analysis of yields for the two years (r = 0.54) showed that
only about 29 percent of the variation in the tests could be accounted
for by year-to-year agreement in yields of the hybrids. The unac-
counted-for variation evidently came mainly from experimental error.
These results indicate that three-year cycles of selection, with two years
of testing, may be more effective in the long run than two-year cycles
with one year of testing.
Preliminary evaluation of about 300 new lines was completed. Sev-
eral of these lines have promise as possible parents of new hybrids.
Florida 200, Dixie 18, Lee and Coker 811 were the leading hybrids
among 23 entries in the commercial hybrid tests. (See also Project 374,
West Florida, North Florida and Suwannee Valley Stations.)

EFFECT OF Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S AND Mg IN THE GROWTH OF
GRAIN CROPS, FORAGE CROPS, PASTURES AND TOBACCO
Hatch Project 440 H. C. Harris, V. N. Schroder
and Fred Clark

Previous reports have indicated how important copper and boron
are for white clover when grown at the greenhouse on Leon fine sand.
In addition to these elements, molybdenum increased the growth of
lupine. Copper also increased the yield of several non-legumes. Results
this year have dealt with chemical analyses of plant material produced
in the above-mentioned experiments.
A marked deficiency of almost any nutrient, when the other nutri-
ents are present, tends to produce plant material with an abnormal
mineral composition. For example, copper deficiency for the non-
legumes gave plant material high in nitrogen and potassium. A sulfur
deficiency of these plants resulted in a high nitrogen content, and a
nitrogen deficiency gave a high sulfur content. The lack of a liberal
application of nitrogen did not affect the mineral composition of legumes
in the same way as non-legumes, since nitrogen was fixed by the legume
organisms. Sulfur deficiencies of legumes resulted in a low nitrogen
content. The legume grown without an application of molybdenum
were also low in nitrogen. The results suggest that mineral analyses
of the plant material alone help very little in explaining the nutrient
situation.
Carbohydrates have been determined for some of the samples, and
indications are that some treatments have a marked effect on the amount
present.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


PERMANENT SEEDBEDS FOR TOBACCO PLANTS
State Project 444 Fred Clark
The object of this project is to determine if tobacco plants can be
grown successfully in permanent sites. The areas of study included are
fumigation, fertility, organic matter in soil and disease control.
Several organic matter constituents were used following methyl
bromide fumigation. Chicken and sheep manure, peat moss, vermiculite
and peanut hay have all been used successfully. Finely screened peanut
hay was very good this year, producing 395 setting plants to 137 from
the untreated plot.
Crag Mylone, Vapam, VPM and Kil-Drench were tested again this
year. Crag Mylone, Vapam and VPM controlled weeds more successfully
than Kil-Drench. Plant growth was retarded by all materials, probably
a result of extremely cold and wet weather which did not permit proper
release of material from the soil.
Blue mold did not occur in the plant beds this year, and as a result
no fungicide comparison could be made. (See also Project 444, Suwan-
nee Valley Station.)

NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PEANUT
Hatch Project 488 H. C. Harris, V. N. Schroder
and Fred Clark
Early Runner peanuts were grown in two field experiments to de-
termine whether hollow-heart defect occurred under field conditions.
The fertilizers were prepared from relatively pure materials. One of the
experiments was conducted on the Station Farm at Gainesville, while
the other was conducted at Branford, Florida. The hollow-heart defect
occurred only at Branford. Boron (colemanite) in the fertilizer pre-
vented the abnormality.

FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
Tobacco was grown on five different grass sods (Pensacola bahia,
Argentine bahia, pangola, Leesburg bahia and Lassiter bahia). Pensa-
cola bahiagrass sod produced over 300 pounds more tobacco than Ar-
gentine bahiagrass or the check plot. Tobacco quality was good, and
the gross return from Pensacola bahiagrass was $200 more per acre
than from the check plot.
Plant populations from 5,000 to 12,500 plants per acre resulted in
yields of 1,284 (5,000), 1,312 (7,500), 1,482 (10,000) and 1,644 (12,500)
pounds per acre. Quality was reduced by nearly $.05 per pound from
the 12,500 plant population.
Telone and Dorlone were tested with Dowfume 85 and DD for
nematode control. All fumigated plots averaged approximately 100
pounds more tobacco than the untreated plot. (See also Project 555,
Agricultural Engineering Department and Suwannee Valley Station.)

BREEDING IMPROVED VARIETIES OF WHITE,
RED AND SWEET CLOVER
Hatch Project 600 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull"
Breeding for increased persistence and disease resistance in white
and red clover was continued. Six white clover clones which had good
1 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.







Annual Report, 1958


summer live-over and vigorous fall growth in previous tests are being
retested, along with 60 new clones from various sources. There appears
to be a good possibility that an improved variety can be derived from
these clones.
Selection for increased vigor and biennial growth habit in a powdery
mildew-resistant strain of red clover (previously developed under this
project) was continued with no new results.

IMPROVEMENT OF LUPINES BY BREEDING FOR FIELD
AND INSECT AND DISEASE RESISTANCE
Hatch Project 612 J. R. Edwardson and F. H. Hull "
Testing the effectiveness of borders on the control of bean yellow
mosaic virus in sweet yellow lupine was continued. Again infection prior
to or during the earliest part of the seed-setting period has been dem-
onstrated critical in regard to seed production.
Eight hundred and six imported lines, varieties and species of the
genus Lupinus were screened for reaction to bean yellow mosaic virus
in the greenhouse. Two species (unidentified), G-619 and G-180, have
desirable reactions to virus infection. G-619 has a 2 n chromosome
number of 52. Crosses between these two lines and Weiko III sweet
yellow lupine are being attempted.
Bitter blue plants apparently resistant to Botrytis species, as identi-
fied by S. Ostazeski, were selected and crossed with other blue lines
in 1958. (See also Project 612, North Florida Station, and Projects 612
and 742, Plant Pathology Department.)

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL
AND NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 G. B. Killinger and H. C. Harris
At the end of the 1957 season five years' data had been collected on
eight pasture programs, and detailed plans were made for revision of
the project.
Forage quality for 1957 was generally equal or superior to the prev-
ious four years, as evidenced by chemical composition.
In spite of a dry fall in 1956 the clover on grass-clover mixed pro-
grams grew rapidly, and yields of oven-dry forage were over 12,000
pounds per acre on the better programs. Rainfall was above average
for the year with 53.6 inches of precipitation compared to a 51-year
average of 50.7 inches for October through September, inclusive.
Coastal bermudagrass continued to make good yields. However, there
was some loss of stand, and both Pensacola bahiagrass and pangolagrass
outyielded it in certain programs.
Mineral and protein analyses were made on the forage. Protein was
increased with applications of nitrogen fertilizer and calcium, phos-
phorus and potassium increased as rates of phosphorus and potassium
fertilization were increased.
The better grass-clover programs furnished nearly year-around clover
grazing for the first time in the experiment. (See also Project 627,
Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineering, Animal Husbandry
and Nutrition, and Soils Departments.)
1Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stattons


SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN ROOT RESERVES
OF CERTAIN SANDHILL PLANTS
State Project 691 H. C. Harris, Frank Woods
and Walt Hopkins "
Samples of turkey oak, bluejack oak and wiregrass roots taken at
regular intervals for a period of three years have been analyzed for
available carbohydrates and total nitrogen. Indications are that root
reserves of available carbohydrates are low at the time the plants bud.
Any program designed to kill these trees should take this point into
consideration.

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
TO ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES
Regional Research Project 743 G. M. Prine, C. S. Hoveland
(Regional S-12) O. C. Ruelke, H. C. Harris
and L. S. Dunavin, Jr.
Temperature.-The influence of nitrogen fertilization and manage-
ment on forage yields and winter survival of bermudagrass (Cynodon
dactylon), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) and pangolagrass (Digitaria
decumbens) was studied.
Time of application and amount of nitrogen fertilizer, as well as
amount of plant cover going into the winter, materially affected winter
injury and yield of certain perennial grasses. In general, total seasonal
yields of forage were nearly doubled when nitrogen rates were increased
from 100 to 400 pounds per acre for the year. Winter injury to pangola-
grass was greatest where high levels of nitrogen were used. Winter
injury was more prevalent throughout pangolagrass treatments follow-
ing the extremely cold winter of 1957-58. Injury in late fertilized
reserved forage plots was not as much as it was in similar treatments
the previous year.
The average increase in weight of dry matter harvested from the
first cutting following a spring application of 50 grams per acre gib-
berellic acid to Coastal and Suwannee bermudagrasses, Pensacola and
Argentine bahiagrasses and pangolagrass under simulated continuous
grazing management and various fertility levels was 480 pounds, or
a 24.6 percent increase. The average increase in weight of dry matter
harvested from the fifth cutting, which followed a fall application of
gibberellic acid, was 367 pounds, and where both spring and fall appli-
cations were made, it was 384 pounds (Fig. 8). Application of gibberellic
acid did not increase overall total season yield of forage, but did increase
the amount of forage available during critical forage production periods
in early spring and late fall. Gibberellic acid gave no noticeable effect
on winter kill of the grasses. The percentage of crude protein was de-
creased in gibberellic acid-treated grasses, but the yield of crude protein
per acre was increased over untreated grasses, due to higher forage
yields.
Work has been carried on in developing portable cold chambers. A
series of tests has been made with these chambers to determine their
adaptability to environmental research. Present indications are that
the temperature cannot be controlled precisely in these chambers.
Management.-Clipping studies with Starr pearlmillet indicate the
value of closer row spacings. Nineteen-inch rows gave some of the
highest yields and yet allowed cultivation for weed control. Stubble
e1 Coperative with East Gulf Coast Branch, Southern Forest Experiment Station.







Annual Report, 1958 51

height left after removing forage had little effect on yield, except in
the seven-inch row spacing where the 18-inch stubble materially re-
duced production. Forage yields were sharply reduced when plants
were clipped continuously when 12 inches tall to leave a four-inch
stubble. These studies indicate that pearlmillet should be at least 18
inches tall before grazing or cutting is begun.
Studies on the time to plant pearlmillet show that planting made in
March are more productive than later one. Early plantings last as long
as late plantings if proper grazing or cutting management is practiced.
Water.-Evapotranspirometers for measuring potential evapotrans-
piration from grass sods have been placed in operation at Lake Alfred,
Quincy, Belle Glade and Gainesville. Plans are to install evapotranspiro-
meters at Jay also. The evapotranspiration data obtained will be used
to determine irrigation needs of crops and to evaluate some of the
existing formulas for estimating evapotranspiration.
Light.-Sixteen strains of white clover were evaluated for blossom-
ing habit in Central Florida. The four strains-Nolins Improved, Ala
Lu, Louisiana White and S-1, which consistently produced the most
blossoms per acre-were also among the highest yielding strains. Strains
of white clover of Northern origin may fail to bloom and reseed under
Florida day length conditions.

Fig. 8.-Gibberellic acid significantly increased early spring and late
fall yields of grasses.



D0 g Ki ; I D I -



PER ACRE ACID ,L )
P PLI[ EARLY SPRING
AN:, LATE FALL_






/


I







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


HERBICIDAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN CORN AND SOYBEANS
State Project 747 E. 0. Burt
Corn.-Two experiments were conducted to determine effective and
economical herbicidal treatments for control of weeds in field corn. In
both experiments an application of simazin at the rate of 1 or 2 pounds
per acre or EPTC at 5 pounds per acre as pre-emergence treatments to
corn resulted in almost complete control of broadleaf and grass weeds
throughout most of the growing season, with no apparent injury to corn
at any stage of growth. EPTC at the rate of 10 pounds per acre gave
equally as good results in one experiment, but resulted in slight tem-
porary injury to corn in a second test. Sesone at the rate of 3 pounds
per acre, CDAA and CDEC each at 6, 9 and 12 pounds per acre, two
low volatile ester formulations of 2, 4-D at rates of 1 and 2 pounds per
acre and combinations of DNBP and CIPC each at 4 and 6 pounds per
acre gave satisfactory control of weeds for three to five weeks with
little or no injury to corn.
An application of 0.5 inch of simulated rainfall resulted in a slight
increase in the herbicidal activity of DNBP and sesone.
Post-emergence applications of DNBP at the rate of 3 or 4/2 pounds
per acre gave almost complete control of broadleaf weeds and very
good control of grasses, with slight temporary injury to corn.
Soybeans.-Three herbicides, each at three different rates, were used
pre-emergence with three varieties of soybeans. Lee, Jackson and Clem-
son NS-4 gave significantly higher yields when treated with sodium
PCP at rates of 8, 12 and 16 pounds active ingredient per acre than the
hoed check plots, with the exception of the 16-pound rate on Jackson.
CIPC at rates of 6, 9 and 12 pounds per acre resulted in yields equal
to or slightly exceeding yields of hoed check plots, except in Lee plots
treated at the high rate of this chemical. EPTC at rates of 3, 6 and 9
pounds per acre resulted in significantly lower yields of Lee, Jackson
and Clemson NS-4 than the hoed check plots.

CURING BRIGHT TOBACCO GROWN UNDER
DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN
Hatch Project 758 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
Five nitrogen levels were tested as in 1956. In addition, tobacco from
three nitrogen levels, 24, 48 and 96 pounds per acre, was tested at three
maturities-overripe, ripe and green. These maturities were cured with
five humidity and temperature variables. The effect of the curing en-
vironment on leaf quality was very evident, with the interactions of
temperature x nitrogen, temperature x maturity, humidity x nitrogen
and humidity x maturity most effective with ripe tobacco.
The value of tobacco fertilized with 48 pounds of nitrogen ranged
from $49.60 for harvested green tobacco to $60.60 per cwt. for harvested
ripe tobacco when cured at 1000 F. and 85 percent relative humidity.
Harvested overripe tobacco averaged $58.50 per cwt. from the same
curing treatment.
Samples of tobacco were submitted to a cigarette manufacturer for
both physical and chemical desirability. Only the overripe and ripe
tobacco, fertilized with 48 and 96 pounds of nitrogen per acre, was ac-
ceptable. Twelve and 24 pounds of nitrogen per acre caused a slick and
immature appearance, while the 192 pounds of nitrogen per acre pro-
duced a brown, lifeless quality and made the tobacco appear sunbaked.
All coloring temperatures above 100 F. and humidities above 85 per-
cent appeared to be detrimental to quality. Development of cercospora







Annual Report, 1958


and brown leaf spots was reduced at the higher leaf coloring tempera-
tures. (See also Project 758, Agricultural Engineering Department.)

MEASUREMENT OF METEOROLOGICAL ELEMENTS
OF THE MICROCLIMATE
Hatch Project 760 G. M. Prine, V. N. Schroder,
K. D. Butson and 0. C. Ruelke
Progress was made on further development of the mobile microclimate
laboratory. A large truck was obtained to give more space for instru-
ment installation, and a portable generator was installed to give away-
from-power-line operation.
Temperature.-Temperatures were measured in a vertical profile at
four inches below the soil surface; at the soil surface; and at 3, 12 and 60
inches above the soil surface in plots of Pensacola bahiagrass, pangola-
grass, oats, blue lupine and bare soil. A grass cover kept the soil
surface warmer at night and cooler during the day. The lowest tempera-
tures were usually observed at the 3-inch height. During some periods
the temperatures at the 3- and 12-inch heights were below freezing and
the temperature at the 60-inch level was above freezing. In one case
the temperature at 3-inches was 16 degrees lower than at 60 inches.
Carbon Dioxide.-Preliminary measurements made with the in-
frared gas analyzer have not revealed any significant changes in the
carbon dioxide content of the air surrounding corn plants in the field.
Replenishment of the carbon dioxide used in photosynthesis is evidently
quite rapid with even slight wind movement.
Radiation.-Continuous measurement of net radiation was made over
a Pensacola bahiagrass sod. The net radiation values are useful in deter-
mining the effect of advective heat transfer upon the operation of
evapotranspirometers by the energy balance method.
Light.-Preliminary measurements of daylight illumination in a well-
fertilized, thick stand of silking corn showed a range in illumination from
250 foot candles above bottom leaves in dense shade to 12,000 foot
candles above top leaves exposed to direct sunshine. Light intensity
measurements made at different times of the day and under different
conditions of cloud cover indicate that many times during heavy over-
cast and in the early morning and late afternoon the photosynthetic
rate of corn plants may be low because of inadequate light.

BREEDING AND EVALUATING NEW VARIETIES
OF SOYBEANS FOR FLORIDA
State Project 761 Kuell Hinson "
Soybean breeding lines and varieties were evaluated for yield in
replicated plots at three locations and in unreplicated observation plots
at two additional locations. Genetic studies and disease ratings were
made at Gainesville.
Significant differences in reaction to root-knot nematodes were ob-
tained in the soybean germ plasm collection from which approximately
two-thirds of the most susceptible lines had been eliminated in a screen-
ing test the previous year. These results give confidence that sources
of practical field resistance are included in the material now available
for breeding work and the most resistant types are being identified.
Genetic studies on seed size indicate that a minimum of four gene
pairs are responsible for the difference in size of CNS-4 (14 gms./100)
17 Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.
18 Cooperative with Crops Research Division. ARS. USDA.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and Biloxi (26 gms./100). The F2 distribution is skewed to the right,
indicating either geometric gene action or partial dominance of genes
for small seed size. No association was found between seed size and
seed color or plant height.
Jackson, the variety recommended for production in north central
Florida, was again the highest yielding commercial variety in tests at
Gainesville. However, eight Florida selections were significantly better
than Jackson in yield at one or more locations in north central Florida
and three were better in the combined results of three locations. Highly
significant variety x location interactions were obtained for three groups
of breeding lines tested at three locations.
Lee yielded significantly better than Jackson and at least equal
to CNS-4 on muck soil at Zellwood. The performance of unreplicated
observation plots indicate that advanced generation breeding lines now
being tested will be superior to Lee on muck soil.

INTERRELATION OF ENVIRONMENT TO THE PHYSIOLOGY
AND CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS. II. ORGANIC ACID
METABOLISM OF PLANTS IN RELATION
TO MINOR ELEMENT NUTRITION
Hatch Project 766 V. N. Schroder and H. C. Harris
Oats and ronphagrass were grown in pots of soil at the greenhouse
and treated with gibberellic acid. The oats responded within a few
days with a large increase in height, but ronphagrass gave no distinct
response. However, no differences due to treatment could be found in
the weights of the tops or roots or in the organic acids or nitrogen
content of either oats or ronphagrass.
As a continuation of previous work, additional plants were grown
in soil, sand and solution culture in an effort to determine more speci-
fically the role of certain elements. It was found that shortages of major
elements, as well as minor elements, caused changes in the amounts of
the organic acids being investigated, and indications are that disease and
unfavorable growing conditions also may affect results.

EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED PLANT SPECIES
AND VARIETIES
Hatch Project 767 G. B. Killinger, J. R. Edwardson,
(Regional S-9) W. A. Carver, A. J. Norden
and F. H. Hull
The highest yielding grain sorghum hybrids tested near Gainesville,
Live Oak and Ocala were Dekalb D-50, Texas 610 and Texas 601. High-
est yields for all tests were at Live Oak with D-50 producing 45.2
bushels; Texas 610, 42.0 bushels; and Texas 601, 34.4 bushels per acre. A
bird repellent dust has been developed which is completely effective in
repelling birds from sorghum heads. This dust contains dried blood
(10%), bentonite (50%), anthraquinone (20%) and red cement pigment
(20%).
Margo sesame produced 558 pounds of seed per acre in a variety
trial near Gainesville and was the highest yielding of all tested varie-
ties. In the 1956 trials Margo yielded 542 pounds of seed per acre and
was ranked fourth, while Blanco ranked first. Blanco ranked third in
yield for 1957. Three fungus diseases-Corticium rolfsii, Fusarium sp.
and Alternaria sp.-and bacterial disease, Pseudomonas sesami, caused
severe damage to sesame during 1957.







Annual Report, 1958


Over 400 species of grasses and legumes including many Digitaria
and Paspalum species were planted for evaluation. Several Andropogon
species from Oklahoma looked promising, with considerable cold re-
sistance and high yielding qualities in evidence. More testing is neces-
sary to check on persistence and palatability.
Five bermudagrass intraductions, including Giant Starr, Medium
Starr and some soft texture types, were planted to evaluate for possible
use in bermudagrass improvement through hybridizing.
Sixteen introductions of Pennisetum glaucum and eight of P. spica-
tum were planted in 1957 from open-pollinated seeds from the 1956
planting. Less cross-pollination was evident in the spicatums. The best
materials for further improvement work appear to be spicatums and
natural crosses of spicatums on glaucums.
In a bahiagrass variety trial it is evident that narrow-leafed bahia-
grasses such as the Pensacola strain are crowding out the broadleafed
types.

IRRIGATION OF TEMPORARY PASTURES FOR DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 772 G. B. Killinger
Forage samples were taken from irrigated and unirrigated alfalfa-
clover-oat pastures on the Dairy Unit starting in early January 1958.
Seven samplings for yield and botanical composition were made between
January and June 16. During January, February and early March
numerous low temperature (freezing) periods occurred and forage yields
were low. For the 512-month period 5,465 pounds per acre of dry weight
forage were produced on the irrigated and 3,542 pounds on the unirri-
gated pastures. On the irrigated pastures 73 percent of the forage was
alfalfa, 22 percent oats and 5 percent clover, while the unirrigated forage
consisted of 58 percent alfalfa, 24 percent oats and 18 percent clover,
By early April most of the oats had been grazed out and most of the
remaining vegetation was alfalfa with some increase in clover. Weeds
were not serious, although percentagewise weeds increased from late
April until mid-June. Oats furnished the bulk of grazing only during
January. (See also Project 772, Dairy Science and Agricultural En-
gineering Departments.)
INFLUENCE OF CULTURAL PRACTICES ON THE
INCIDENCE AND CONTROL OF INSECT INFESTATIONS
IN FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 780 Fred Clark
This project has not been completely established. However, tobacco
has been planted for test purposes, and until now participation has been
limited to growing tobacco for testing insecticides. Several agronomic
crops, particularly the sod and forage type grasses, are to be included
in the cultural practices. (See also Project 780, Entomology Depart-
ment.)

SMALL GRAIN IMPROVEMENT BY BREEDING AND SELECTION
Hatch Project 783 A. T. Wallace
Oats. In the oat breeding program, variety tests for grain and
forage yields were conducted. Floriland was the highest forage producer
and Seminole was the superior grain-producing recommended variety.
In the advanced breeding line tests, 21 lines produced more forage than
Floriland and 71 produced more grain than Seminole. In a preliminary
test, long-panicled lines produced more grain than short-panicled lines.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


First year's data were collected in an experiment designed to obtain
estimates of the additive variance and genotype-by-year and by-location
variance for forage and grain yields. Another year's data will be neces-
sary before these can be interpreted. In another experiment, progeny
were increased which now can be used to obtain estimates of epistatic
variances. Two lines of oats which are very susceptible to gray speck
disease (low manganese deficiency symptoms) were isolated. Crosses
and the F2 seed have been produced for segregation studies.
Rye. The uniform rye clipping nursery was conducted and Gator
was the superior recommended variety. The selected lines from the ex-
periment testing the effectiveness of recurrent selection for low and
high forage production were recombined for starting a new cycle. To
continue the program for developing inbred lines of rye, about 1,000
plants were selfed. A gametocide, a, b, dichloroisobutyrate, effective on
cotton, was sprayed on rye at two concentrations when the plants were
at four levels of maturity. None of the treatments inhibited pollen pro-
duction. In the experiments to induce male sterility by transferring
the chromosomes of rye to wheat cytoplasm, the first backcross progeny
were grown and exhibited, in pollen fertility tests, 9.5 per cent fertility,
while the Fls exhibited only 1.1 per cent fertility. The chromosome num-
bers in the backcross progeny ranged from 21 to 28. Progress apparently
is being made in this direction. Additional backcrosses were made.
Wheat. The southern wheat yield test was grown along with 74
introductions and selections. Bledsoe was the highest producing recom-
mended variety.
Barley. A number of disease-resistant advanced breeding lines
were clipped. The highest yielder produced only about two-thirds as
much forage as Floriland oats and about half as much forage as Gator
rye. Attempts are being made to induce mutations in barley with ultra-
violet light. By removing the coleoptile and the first and second foliage
leaves, the growing point of the embryo can be exposed. Preliminary
cytological studies show that the epidermal cells of the growing point
are being damaged by the ultraviolet light.
Irradiation. Equal numbers of progeny from neutron irradiated
and non-irradiated populations of Floriland oats and Gator rye were
grown and selected for two generations. All abnormal types were elimi-
nated. In the third year 324 lines from each population of oats and 225
lines from each population of rye were yield-tested using lattice designs.
The genetic variance of the irradiated population of oats was 6.6 percent
larger than that of the non-irradiated population. Although the means
of the two oat populations were the same, individual lines in the irra-
diated population were superior to any in the non-irradiated population.
The genetic variance of the irradiated population of rye was 68 percent
less than that of the non-irradiated population, while the mean was
only 24 percent less. The increased genetic variance of the irradiated
oats indicates that beneficial mutations were induced in some of the
polygenes. No doubt similar mutations were induced in the rye, but
since rye is a diploid, this may indicate that the harmful effects of in-
duced mutations were stronger than the beneficial effects. Since oats are
polyploids, this difference may explain why selection was able to im-
prove the population in the presence of harmful mutations. The selec-
ted lines in all populations have been recombined to initiate a new cycle
testing the effectiveness of inducing beneficial mutations among the
polygenes.
To induce mutations in the self-sterility alleles in rye, seed were
irradiated with six doses of gamma rays. The progeny from the seed







Annual Report, 1958


receiving 3,000 roentgens were far more self-fertile, producing eight
times as many self-fertile heads, than any other dose. Additional re-
search will be necessary to determine if mutations were induced in the
self-sterility alleles.
Two hundred thirty-three plants that exhibited resistance to crown
rust race 290 were selected in the field from irradiated Floriland oats
progeny. The progeny from these plants were given additional testing
in the seedling and mature stages. The resistance appeared to be "ma-
ture plant" type. It is, however, sufficiently good to be used in a prac-
tical breeding program. These irradiated progeny were also segregating
for some other characters. Straight awns were dominant and segregated
differently from other awn type inheritance reported, while sucker
mouth was recessive and acted normally. The progeny showed frequent
chromosome aberrations which may explain the abnormal inheritance.
(See also Project 783, Plant Pathology Dept. and North Florida Station.)

SUPPLEMENTARY HEAT AND LIGHT FOR THE
PRODUCTION OF TOBACCO SEEDLINGS
State Project 794 Fred Clark and E. S. Saunders
Two soil heat treatments and six types of seedbed covers with two
planting dates are being tested to determine their affects on growth,
yield and quality of tobacco. The two soil heat treatments, using electric
heating cables as source of heat, were continuous heat controlled at
600 F. and stress heat controlled at 65 F. and turned on only when the
air temperature went below 40 F. The six types of seedbed covers
consisted of 22 x 28 mesh cheesecloth, 2 mil natural polyethylene film,
fiberglass, 4 mil clear vinyl film, 20 x 20 mesh natural lumite saran
and 18 x 14 mesh natural lumite saran.
Field plot results on yield and quality are not complete. However,
during this season which was extremely cold, the continuous heat, stress
heat, vinyl, polyethylene and fiberglass gave faster growth than the
cheesecloth checks or sarans. In the plots planted December 30, the
continuous heat, vinyl and polyethylene treatments reduced the grow-
ing period in the bed from 99 days for the cheesecloth to 78 days. In the
plots planted January 20, the polyethylene and vinyl treatments gave
best results, reducing the growing period from 94 days to 64 days.
Portable freezing chambers were used to determine the effects of
extreme cold on growth, flowering and quality of tobacco. The treat-
ments used were 39 F., 32 F. and 25 F. The plants were subjected to
these temperatures during different stages of growth. Results are not
complete at this time.

EFFECTS OF SIMULATED RAINFALL ON THE
HERBICIDAL ACTIVITY OF DNBP AND 2,4-DES
Regional Research Project 839 E. 0. Burt and E. G. Rodgers
(Regional S-18)
Three greenhouse studies were designed to show the effects of vary-
ing rates and sequences of simulated rainfall on the downward move-
ment of DNBP applied at 12 pounds active ingredient per acre and
2,4-DES at 4 pounds active ingredient per acre on Lakeland and Green-
ville sandy loam soils as factors influencing the activity of these two
herbicides on weeds and peanuts. Two inches of rainfall every seven
or eight days caused more downward leaching of both herbicides than
did one inch, whether in one application or two or more split applica-
tions. Slight stand reduction of peanut plants and more abnormal







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


seedlings suggested that downward movement of the herbicides by rain-
fall was more pronounced during the first week after planting than
from later rainfall. 2,4-DES appeared to move downward more readily
than DNBP, or was more toxic than DNBP upon contact with the de-
veloping peanut and weed seedlings in both soil types.
Leaching of 2,4-DES, as indicated by increased stunting of peanuts,
was greater in a sandy soil (Lakeland fine sand) than is a sandy loam
soil (Greenville fine sandy loam).
DNBP was more effective than 2,4-DES in preventing the appear-
ance of weed seedlings. Results indicate that some rainfall (one inch
or less) within two weeks after an application of 2,4-DES is desirable
for satisfactory weed control.
Peanuts treated with DNBP consistently showed approximately 10
percent higher green and dry weights per pot, when harvested 57 days
after planting, than when treated with 2,4-DES. Approximately 15
percent more green and dry weights of peanut plants were produced
on the Greenville than on the Lakeland soil. The double irrigation rate
also resulted in higher weights.

PLANT IMPROVEMENT WITH GAMMA RADIATION
Hatch Project 848 A. T. Wallace
All of the effort under this project has been spent designing and
building a cobalt-60 irradiator. The construction has been under the
supervision of Dr. H. Teas of the Botany Department. (See also Project
848, Botany, Fruit Crops, Plant Pathology, Ornamental Horticulture and
Vegetable Crops Departments.)

FORAGE AND PASTURE GRASS IMPROVEMENT BY BREEDING
Hatch Project 850 W. A. Carver, D. B. Linden
and F. H. Hull
Selection for pearlmillet improvement is being conducted in hybrid
material coming from crosses and intercrosses involving Pennisetum
glaucum and P. spicatum. The characters sought are high forage yield,
late maturity, good tillering habit, large seed head and large seed, high
germinating seed and good seedling vigor. Inbred lines of pearlmillet
are also being started, and crosses are being made on a cytoplasmic
male sterile line secured from the Georgia Experiment Station.
Efforts were made in 1957 to cross pearlmillet with napiergrass pol-
len. These efforts will be continued in 1958. Attempts will be made
also in 1958 to cross giant bermudagrass types to common bermudagrass.
Seventy-five introductions of Digitaria species obtained from the
Plant Introduction Nursery and Tifton, Georgia, are being grown to
evaluate them as possible breeding parents. Pangolagrass is being
treated with colchicine to induce chromosome doubling as a means of
obtaining viable pollen of this species. An intensive irradiation experi-
ment using vegetative cuttings of pangolagrass is planned as soon as
the cobalt-60 source is in operation.

HERBICIDAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN PEANUTS
Sate Project 886 E. 0. Burt
Pre-emergence.-Two experiments were conducted at Gainesville to
evaluate the effectiveness of 52 herbicidal treatments for pre-emergence
weed control in peanuts. In both experiments the following treatments,
in pounds of active ingredient per acre, gave very good weed control







Annual Report, 1958


with little or no injury to peanuts: DNBP, 9 and 12; diuron, 1; 2,4-D,
1 and 2; 3,4-DMB, 8; 3Y9, 2; 2,4-D amide, 1 and 2; CDEC, 8 and 12;
EPTC, 21/2; 2,4-DEB, 4 and 6; NPA, 8; and combination of DNBP 6 and
CIPC 6.
In the first experiment the following treatments, in addition to those
listed above, gave very good weed control with little or no injury to
peanuts: Sesone, 6; 3,4-DMB, 2; 3Y9, 4; 2,4-D amide; CDEC, 4; and
simazin, %2.
In the second experiment the following treatments, in addition to
those listed under both experiments, gave very good control of weeds
with little or no injury to peanuts: DNBP, 6; sesone, 2 and 4; diuron,
2; SPCP, 16; 3Y9, 1; EPTC, 5 and 10; 2,4-DEB, 2; and NPA, 2 and 4.
Other treatments did not give satisfactory weed control and/or seriously
injured peanuts.
At Live Oak and Marianna DNBP at 9 pounds per acre and sesone
at 2 and 4 pounds per acre gave very good results. For the past three
years sesone has resulted in better weed control at Live Oak and Mari-
anna than at Gainesville.
A comparison of rainfall and herbicide toxicity data indicate that
with low soil moisture near the surface, sesone is less phytotoxic than
with high soil moisture. High rainfall (six inches or more) within two
weeks after application of DNBP on sandy soils may leach the chemical
sufficient to decrease its herbicidal effectiveness. Rainfall of high in-
tensity apparently did not reduce the weed control effectiveness of
sesone significantly, but did result in injury to peanuts in the form of
temporary stunting or even stand reduction. DNBP and especially
sesone gave best results under conditions of frequent rainfall of low
intensity.
Post-emergence.-DNBP at 3 pounds per acre, either alone or in
combination with sesone at 2 pounds per acre, is a very promising post-
emergence treatment for control of weeds in peanuts. DNBP killed all
annual broadleaf and annual grass weeds if applied when the weeds
were in the two to three leaf stage. Temporary leaf burn to peanut
plants resulted from this treatment, but the plants recovered, resulting
in higher yields than in plots that received normal cultivation. (See
also Project 886, North Florida Station, Mobile Unit No. 3 and West
Florida Station.)
MISCELLANEOUS
Climatological Analysis.-The placing of historical weather data on
punched cards, under a cooperative agreement between the University
of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Agronomy Department and
the United States Weather Bureau, continued at an accelerated pace.
Weather data for 33 stations, 32 in Florida and Brewton, Alabama,
have been punched for the period 1931 through 1957. Records prior to
1931 also have been punched for several of these stations. Data punched
include the daily maximum temperature, the daily minimum tempera-
ture and the 24-hour rainfall amounts. The stations were selected on
the basis of record quality, and geographically and climatologically rep-
resent the various crop production regions of Florida.
The United States Weather Bureau has furnished all weather records
and blank cards for punching the records prior to July 1948. The
Weather Bureau has also furnished the punched cards containing the
records from July 1948 through December 1957. The University of
Florida Statistical Laboratory, under contract from the Agronomy
Department, has punched the IBM cards for the period prior to July
1948 and will perform the calculations required during subsequent







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


analyses. To date, more than 350,000 cards are available for analysis.
Emphasis during the remainder of this project will be placed upon
the analysis of the data on cards. Preliminary analysis indicates the
usefulness of this technique for determining temperature and drought
hazards to crop production. (G. M. Prine and K. D. Butson".)
Corn Culture Experiment.-A study of corn spacing, nitrogen fer-
tilization, data of planting and irrigation was continued for the second
year. Spacings ranged from 33.0 to 8.7 inches between plants in 38-
inch rows (5,000 to 19,000 plants per acre); nitrogen rates were from
40 to 460 pounds per acre; planting dates were February 28, March 21
and April 11; no irrigation was required in 1957. Analysis of the 1956
and 1957 data combined showed that for maximum yield, under the
conditions of this experiment, the optimum treatment was planting
about March 1 at 17,000 plants per acre with 360 pounds of nitrogen
fertilization and irrigation when needed. Dixie 18 and Florida 200 varie-
ties were used, and phosphorus and potassium were supplied in adequate
amounts. From the farmer's viewpoint the most economical treatment,
assuming no severe drought and no deficiency of other fertilizer ele-
ments, is estimated to be about 11,000 to 15,000 plants per acre with
nitrogen applications of 100 to 160 pounds of N per acre. (E. S. Horner,
D. E. McCloud and John Creel.)
Control of Weeds in Citrus Groves.-The use of herbicides to control
weeds in citrus groves has been under trial for two years. These tests
have been conducted primarily for control of perennial grasses such as
bermudagrass, torpedograss, pangolagrass, guineagrass and maiden cane.
Results from 14 experiments conducted in Marion, Lake and Volusia
counties indicates that dalapon and diuron are very promising herbicides
for controlling weeds in citrus groves. Two or three applications of
dalapon at the rate of 2 to 5 pounds of commercial material per applica-
tion were highly effective in killing annual as well as perennial grasses.
Diuron at the rate of 8 to 12 pounds of commercial material per acre
shows considerable promise for controlling all weeds except deep-rooted
perennial vines. Excellent results also have been obtained when a
combination of dalapon and diuron was used.
The above treatments resulted in apparently little or no injury to
mature citrus trees in a good growing condition. Young trees were more
susceptible to herbicidal injury than were older trees. Tests indicate
that weak trees, whether due to poor nutrition, damage from insects,
diseases or frost, will not tolerate as much chemical as healthy, rapidly
growing trees. Herbicidal injury to citrus trees was more severe under
conditions of high rainfall and/or coarse textured soils than with low
rainfall and/or heavy soils.
Dalapon persisted in the soil for about two to four weeks, after which
annual weeds became established. Diuron, at the rates used, prevented
weeds from becoming established for a period of six to 12 months.
Neither dalapon nor diuron has label approval for use on citrus in
Florida. Therefore, the use of these materials on mature trees may result
in the fruit being withdrawn from the market by the Food and Drug
Administration. (E. O. Burt, in cooperation with Extension Citriculturists
and County Agricultural Agents.)
19 Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.







Annual Report, 1958


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
DEPARTMENT

Research was conducted on 29 projects. A new project on the effect
of gamma radiation of the pregnant female on reproduction was
initiated. Another project was begun to determine the effects of federal
grades and marbling on beef tenderness. Studies are also underway
to develop a new method for measuring beef tenderness.
The first five-year phase of the Beef Research Unit project was
completed and the project outline has been revised. An Experiment
Station publication is being prepared summarizing results.
Grant-in-aid funds from 16 different commercial companies, founda-
tions, etc., totaling approximately $80,000 were obtained.
The Department has continued its cooperation with other depart-
ments and branch stations in nutrition, meats, physiology, genetics and
breeding studies. Many of our staff also have judged livestock shows
and helped breeders in Central and South America with their livestock
procurement and production problems.

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE
Hatch Project 133 George K. Davis, R. L. Shirley, W. G.Kirk'2,
R. B. Becker, L. R. Arrington J. P. Feaster,
J. T. McCall and C. B. Ammerman
Investigations under this project have pointed up the importance of
the protein level in the diet of livestock when consideration is given to
either deficient or toxic levels of trace elements such as copper. It
further has become evident that the level of protein in the diet and
perhaps the source of protein may influence markedly the interrelation-
ships between the different trace elements and the macro elements such
as calcium and phosphorus. There is some evidence that this effect of
protein is not due to any single amino acid such as methionine.
Normal values for blood calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and hemo-
globin have been established in cooperation with the Dairy Research
Unit and the Range Cattle Experiment Station.
In the continuing study of the role of copper in animal metabolism,
work with potassium and manganese had indicated that both of these
elements will influence the requirements for copper. High levels of
potassium apparently increase the need for copper, whereas high levels
of manganese may decrease copper requirement.
The work with rumen fistula cattle has been expanded during the
year and studies are being made on the relationship between the various
mineral elements and fiber digestion in the rumen. Cooperative with
the Dairy Research Unit, a study of the level of iron in the mineral
supplement seeks to determine the most advantageous level to use under
Florida conditions. (See also Project 133, Everglades Station.)

INVESTIGATION OF MINERAL NUTRITION PROBLEMS OF
LIVESTOCK THROUGH THE USE OF LABORATORY ANIMALS
Hatch Project 346 George K. Davis, J. T. McCall,
J. P. Feaster, L. R. Arrington and C. B. Ammerman
The resistance of rats and other laboratory animals to copper toxicity,
the tolerance to molybdenum in the diets, the need for vitamin E and
o2 Cooperative with Dairy Science Dept. and Range Cattle Station.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


changes in the enzyme content of the tissues have been shown to be
markedly influenced by the level of casein in the diet. Low levels of
this protein have resulted in much more severe deficiency and toxicity
conditions than occur at a normal level of protein in the diet. Increased
levels of casein, up to 25 percent of the diet, have protected these ani-
mals from abnormal levels of copper and molybdenum and deficiencies
of vitamin E, and have resulted in increased levels of oxidative enzymes
within the tissues.
Work continues on the relationship between copper and zinc and the
factors which influence absorption of these two elements from the in-
testinal tract. A study has been conducted for several years on the
relationship between high levels of fluorine intake in the form of soft
phosphate with colloidal clay upon the longevity of rats. Rats fed 5.8
percent soft phosphate in the diet, which means a diet containing more
than 5,000 ppm of fluorine, have lived an essentially normal life span.
At present rats are being fed fluorine from calcium fluoride to com-
pare the toxicity of the two different sources of this toxic element.

HERBAGE COMPOSITION AND ANIMAL RESPONSE AS
INFLUENCED BY PASTURE MANAGEMENT
Hatch Project 356 George K. Davis, J. T. McCall,
Mary Redmond and Ed Newman
The results of the analysis of over 2,000 samples of pasture grasses
have been placed on IBM cards and a statistical evaluation is being
prepared.
Nitrate poisoning in cattle has led to a study of the nitrate com-
position of pasture grasses as influenced by nitrate fertilizers, weather
conditions and nitrate spray applications. The tolerance of cattle for
nitrate is much higher when on pasture than when given the same
amount of feed as dry feed in twice-a-day feeding.
Cooperative work with the Dairy Research Unit on the composition
of silage as prepared in the small experimental silos has emphasized
the value of incorporating absorbent materials such as citrus pulp into
the silage. This absorbent material retains much of the soluble nutrients
which would be lost otherwise. The acquisition of a bomb calorimeter
has resulted in the initiation of studies on the energy relationships of
forages for livestock.
(See also Project 213, Dairy Science Department.)

THE USE OF CITRUS AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL
BY-PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING SWINE
State Project 540 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs, Jr.
No work has been conducted under this project during the year.

SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDS FOR SOWS DURING
GESTATION AND LACTATION
State Project 542 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs, Jr.
Three separate trials with a total of 56 sows and gilts were conducted
to determine the supplementary feeding value of triiodothyronine for
sows during early lactation. Triiodothyronine is a thyroid-stimulating
compound. It was hoped that its use might increase milk production
during this early growing period and thereby facilitate early weaning.
The compound was fed at a level of 600 mg. per ton of feed. In all







Annual Report, 1958


three trials small but not significant improvements in weaning weights
were observed due to the treatment. In two of the three trials more
pigs were weaned per litter from the treated sows. A significantly
larger weight loss was observed during the experimental period for
the treated sows in all trials. These results indicate that triiodothyronine
may have value as a lactation stimulant, but further work is required
to determine optimum level of administration and optimum duration of
administration.

TRANSFER OF MINERAL ELEMENTS THROUGH THE PLACENTA
AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN THE FETUS
Hatch Project 566 J. P. Feaster, George K. Davis,
L. R. Arrington and J. T. McCall
The protein level of the diet has a marked influence on the level of
sulfur which is transferred to the developing fetuses. In studies carried
on during the past year, it has been possible to demonstrate that the
influence upon sulfur transfer across the placenta and the accumulation
of sulfur in the developing young are not limited to sulfur-containing
amino acids, but are influenced also by other amino acids in the diet.
A study of the blood proteins in rats on high and low levels of pro-
tein intake, by paper electrophoresis, showed that the protein level did
not influence the five component fractions which were separated. There
was strong evidence that the kidney exerts a selective sulfur retention
in rats on low protein intake. Studies have been initiated on the transfer
of iron, using radioactive iron", across the placenta.

INFLUENCE OF BREED COMPOSITION AND LEVEL OF
NUTRITION ON ADAPTABILITY OF CATTLE TO
CENTRAL FLORIDA CONDITIONS
State Project 615 M. Koger
The Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department phase of this
project was inactive this year. (See also Project 615, Range Cattle
Station.)

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION IN FLATWOOD SOILS OF CENTRAL
AND NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 M. Koger
This completed the fifth and final year of the first phase of a co-
operative project with the departments of Animal Husbandry, Soils,
Agronomy, Agricultural Engineering, and Agricultural Economics. Re-
sults are being summarized.
Some of the major findings are: Inclusion of clover in pastures re-
duced the cost of beef production due to improved carrying capacity of
pastures, better distribution of feed and reduced need for supplemental
feeding during the winter months, and reduced fertilizer costs. During
the first three years of the trial reproductive efficiency of cows on clover
pastures was much higher than on all-grass pastures, although this dif-
ference was not evident during the last two years. Grass-clover pastures
fertilized at the rate of 600 pounds of 0-12-12 produced as well as those
which received 1200 pounds of 0-12-12 annually. The average cost per
pound of producing beef on the all-grass pastures was approximately
the same for the three fertilizer levels used in this trial. Winter-kill of







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


pangolagrass under grazing was progressively more severe each year
of the trial. Pangolagrass has practically disappeared from all pastures
which had good stands of clover and from all-grass pastures which re-
ceived 120 pounds of N. annually.
Results from mating four breeds of bulls to Brahman-native cows
showed a significant difference, with the breed of sire ranking in
descending order as follows for weight of calf at weaning: Hereford,
Shorthorn, Angus and Brahman. Grade of calf ranked by breed of sire
was Hereford, Angus, Shorthorn and Brahman. In feed lot performance
of steers, as measured by returns, the Hereford ranked high, followed
by Shorthorn, Angus and Brahman.
(See also project 627, Soils, Agronomy, Agricultural Engineering,
and Agricultural Economics Departments.)

SELECTION OF CATTLE FOR BEEF PRODUCTION IN
SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES
State Project 629 M. Koger
The Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department phase of this proj-
ect was inactive during the year. (See also Project 629, West Central
Florida Station.)

A COMPARISON OF THE CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS
OF PUREBRED BRAHMAN, PUREBRED BRITISH
BREEDS AND THEIR CROSSES
State Project 631 A. Z. Palmer, M. Koger and R. L. Shirley
From Range Cattle Experiment Station herds 204 progeny have been
slaughtered during the past two years in a study of the effects of age at
time of slaughter, carcass grade and/or marbling and genetic back-
ground on tenderness in beef. Slaughter and carcass measurement data
were recorded. Progeny tested were sired by 21 different bulls, 15 of
which sired four or more progeny tested to date.
Preliminary data indicated that several bulls sired progeny that were
above average in tenderness in contrast to other bulls that sired progeny
below average in tenderness. Tenderness improved somewhat with an
increase in grade. As age increased there was a slight decline in tender-
ness. In many instances tenderness or toughness did not follow expec-
tancies for the various grade-age groups.
Highly significant correlation coefficients of -.679 and -.284 were
obtained between grade and tenderness on between sire and within sire
bases, respectively. This was expected, since it appeared that bulls siring
the more tender animals were also siring those possessing gradability.
Thus, it may be theorized that two genetic factors are in play one
concerning tenderness per se and the other concerning gradability or
marbling. If such is the case, these two genetic factors could occur to-
gether in an animal, thus explaining the high relationship obtained thus
far in this study between grade and tenderness, in contrast to much
lower correlation coefficients obtained in other studies at the Florida
Experiment Station as well as the Cornell and Texas stations.
The relationship between age and tenderness was not apparent when
all progeny were considered. However, when considering just the prog-
eny of one sire, the highly significant correlation of -.372 was found
between age and tenderness. This would indicate that within the progeny
of one sire, as animals get older there is a tendency for them to become
less tender.







Annual Report, 1958


Preliminary heritability estimate of beef tenderness was calculated
on the 15 sires with four or more progeny. The heritability estimate in-
dicated that, in general, heritability of beef tenderness must be high.
(See also Project 631, Range Cattle Station.)

IMPROVEMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF REPRODUCTION
IN BEEF CATTLE

State Project 709 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger, A. Z. Palmer and M. Ristic
A study of percentage pregnancy in 8,786 cows on ranches through-
out the state and 2,684 cows in Experiment Station herds was made from
1953 to 1957. The percentage of pregnant females was approximately 20
percent higher in two-year-old heifers, and in three and four-year-old
lactating cows in Experiment Station herds compared to commercial
ranches. The low pregnancy rate in cows on commercial ranches prob-
ably indicates a lack of nutrition in young heifers so they do not come
into estrus at two-years. Lactating commercial cows have a 20 percent
lower pregnancy rate than nonlactating cows of the same age.
Differences in percent pregnancy among the five years varied from
67 to 77, with indications of alternate-year reproduction in the cows.
A comparison of pregnancy rate within herds and years in cows of
British breeding and Brahman breeding indicated that lactation had
more inhibition on pregnancy in the Brahman cows. This difference
could be explained in part by higher milk production in the Brahman
breed and less selection pressure for a high reproductive rate for a long
period.
Nonlactating Florida range cows grazing on improved pastures are
bred earlier in the breeding season than lactating cows. Cows grazing
grass pastures had a 90-day interval from calving to first breeding, while
similar cows grazing clover-grass pastures had a 72-day interval.

EFFECT OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION OF PASTURE
FORAGE UPON FERTILITY IN BEEF CATTLE
State Project 710 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger and T. J. Cunha
Of two-year-old heifers fed 0.96 and 0.74 pounds daily of estimated
digestible protein, 70% had normal embryos 44 days after first or second
breeding, while similar heifers fed 0.46 and 0.38 pounds daily of esti-
mated digestible protein 40% had normal embryos at 44 days. There is
an indication that low levels of protein intake in yearling and two-year-
old heifers reduces the amount of luteinizing hormone in the anterior
pituitary gland.
Weight loss in either three-year-old or eight-year-old lactating cows
is less when they are getting three pounds daily of alfalfa meal as part
of the protein supplement, compared to similar protein intake from the
cottonseed oil meal, citrus pulp and grass hay. Lactating cows getting
only 50 percent of their protein intake ate less grass hay and three-
year-old heifers lost 84 pounds and eight-year-old cows 152 pounds.
The percentage of pregnant animals was higher in both heifers and cows
when they received the alfalfa meal.
None of the lactating heifers on the 50 percent protein intake came
into heat or ovulated. Fifty-three percent of the lactating cows became
pregnant, while only 18 percent of the lactating heifers were pregnant,
indicating more stress of lactation on reproduction in the younger
heifers.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


REPRODUCTION PHENOMENA IN ABERDEEN ANGUS,
BRAHMAN AND HEREFORD CATTLE
State Project 716 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and A. C. Warnick
A summary of data collected during the three years of this project
showed that Brahman heifers (Bos indicus) did not exhibit estrus until
several months after Angus or Herefords (Bos taurus) maintained on
the same plane of nutrition. The interval from parturition to first post-
partum estrus was about the same for cows of these breeds and species
within each year. Variations in age of puberty and interval from par-
turition to first estrus were observed from year to year and appeared
correlated with forage availability and quality. A study of this aspect
of this project is being continued under new State Project 867. This
project is closed with this report.

HERITABILITY OF PERFORMANCE ESTIMATES ON ABERDEEN
ANGUS, BRAHMAN AND HEREFORD CATTLE
State Project 717 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and M. Koger
Comparative breed performance data were compiled on registered
Angus, Brahman and Hereford cattle maintained under similar environ-
mental conditions for the fourth consecutive year. The extent and ac-
curacy of performance testing was increased by taking data on nursing
calves during a creep feeding period which was started at an average
age of four months and continued to weaning. The Angus calves were
smallest at birth while the Herefords were heaviest. Brahman calves
gained 0.5 pounds per day faster than the Angus and Herefords during
the nursing period. During the feeding period the Brahman and Angus
male calves gained 1.9 pounds per day while the Herefords gained 1.7
pounds per day. The Brahman heifer calves gained 1.9 pounds per day
while the Angus heifers gained 1.5 and the Hereford heifers 1.4 pounds
per day. Brahman calves had a slightly higher estimated slaughter
grade at weaning than Angus calves and excelled the Herefords by more
than one-third of a slaughter grade. Little difference in reproductive
efficiency was observed among breeds.

VITAMINS, ANTIBIOTICS AND UNIDENTIFIED
FACTORS IN SWINE NUTRITION
State Project 718 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs, Jr.,
and T. J. Cunha
Pigs fed hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid, gained slightly faster than
control pigs, but the difference was not significant. The efficiency of feed
conversion was approximately the same. A series of experiments de-
signed primarily to test the supplementary value of mycostatin, an anti-
fungal type antibiotic, for growing pigs has yielded essentially negative
results. However, an experiment conducted at the state prison farm at
Raiford has shown that a combination of terramycin and mycostatin
produced a marked beneficial effect during the finishing period of swine
fed garbage. A series of tests concerned with the low-level continuous
feeding of piperazine, phosphate, and anthelmintic, has yielded interest-
ing results. The piperazine has improved gains consistently, but this
improvement appears not to be related to its worming action, as meas-
ured by intestinal ascarid counts at slaughter. Another series of experi-
ments has investigated the possible growth promoting value of triiodo-
thyronine for growing pigs. Thus far this thyroid stimulating agent has







Annual Report, 1958


not produced consistent or conclusive effects on gains, feed conversions
or carcass quality.

SUPPLEMENTS AND BY-PRODUCT FEEDS FOR BEEF CATTLE
State Project 721 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and T. J. Cunha
Four lots of yearling beef heifers were fed Coastal bermudagrass hay
grown under two rates of nitrogen fertilization and harvested at two
different times. The grass was grown at the Suwanee Valley Station and
was fertilized with 50 and 100 pounds of nitrogen per acre. One-half of
the grass in each fertilizer treatment was harvested before frost (Octo-
ber), while the remainder was harvested after a killing frost (Decem-
ber). The only supplemental feed was trace mineralized salt and steamed
bone meal offered free-choice. The heifers fed hay from the low nitrogen
treatment cut after frost lost 31 pounds of body weight during a 70-day
trial, while all other lots gained from 0.41 to 0.74 pounds per day, which
is considered adequate for wintering open yearling heifers.
Digestion trials revealed lower digestible energy and lower digestion
coefficients for crude protein, crude fiber and nitrogen-free extract in
hays on the lower nitrogen treatments. Hay from the low nitrogen
treatment cut after frost had a 14.9 percent lower digestion coefficient
for protein than that cut before frost. (See also Project 404, Soils Dept.
and Suwanee Valley Station.)

THE INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF NUTRITION ON THE
REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SWINE
State Project 725 A. C. Warnick and H. D. Wallace
Thirty-six Duroc-Spotted Poland China crossbred gilts averaging
100 pounds were assigned to one of three systems and levels of feeding
on the basis of age, litter and weight, to study puberty, ovulation rate
and prenatal survival after breeding. One-third of the gilts received a
full-fed energy ration and one-third received a limited-fed energy ra-
tion (approximately 50 percent of the full-fed group). One-third of the
gilts were on the limited-fed ration until 12 days after puberty, then
switched to a full-fed ration to breeding, then put on the limited-fed
ration from breeding to 25 days and then put on the high energy ration
to 105 days of gestation. One-half of the gilts on each ration were killed
at 25 days postbreeding and one-half killed at 105 days after breeding.
All gilts were fed on a dirt dry lot.
The gilts on the full-fed ration attained puberty 12 days earlier and
weighed 17 pounds more than gilts on the limited ration. Ovulation rate
was slightly stimulated by full feeding the gilt for approximately eight
days before breeding. There was a tendency for more loss of complete
litters on the limited-fed energy rations, while gilts on the full-fed ra-
tions had an increase in death of partial litters. More prenatal death
occurred before 25 days than between 25 and 105 days on all rations.

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF PIGS WEANED AT AN
EARLY AGE
Hatch Project 738 G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace and T. J. Cunha
Previous reports have indicated that pigs two or three weeks of age
do not possess adequate amounts of certain digestive enzymes. The ef-
fects of adding pepsin, pancreatin, animal diastase, sucrase and various
combinations of these enzymes to rations composed essentially of sugar







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and/or corn in combination with dried skimmilk, soybean oil meal,
feather meal and poultry meat meal were extensively studied. Pigs
fed the enzyme-supplemented rations consistently gained more rapidly
and efficiently than control pigs, but the differences were not significant.
In another series of experiments an attempt was made to increase
feed consumption and rate of gain by utilizing the glucostatic theory of
appetite control. Tolbutamide and insulin were used as the hypoglycemic
agents, and while insulin was effective in this respect, neither was
effective in stimulating feed consumption or rate of gain.
A study designed to establish the phosphorus requirement of baby
pigs was initiated recently. The first experiment, concerned primarily
with the formulation of a low phosphorus ration, is in progress.

FEEDING WASTE BEEF TALLOW TO PEANUT-FED SWINE
TO HARDEN THEIR FAT
Hatch Project 739 A. Z. Palmer, H. D. Wallace,
T. J. Cunha and R. L. Shirley
Two feeding trials were completed during the last year of this study.
In the first trial the use of a hardening ration containing 18 percent
protein and 22 percent saponified beef tallow (equivalent to 15 percent
tallow) proved ineffectual for practical purposes, although a hardening
effect was shown by refractive index values.
In the second trial acidulated coconut oil soapstock was used as the
hardening ingredient of the hardening ration. Results were similar to
those in the first trial. Feeding, slaughter and carcass data were tabu-
lated and analyzed statistically.
This year's work verifies trials of the previous year: improved feed
conversion results from feeding a high-energy, high-protein diet to pigs
previously fed peanuts for varying periods. Using high levels of waste
fats in some feeds was shown to have possibilities.

PRODUCTION OF EARLY SPRING LAMBS IN FLORIDA
Hatch Project 740 P. E. Loggins, M. Koger,
(Regional S-29) A. C. Warnick and T. J. Cunha
This study was continued with straight-bred Hampshire, Rambouillet
and Florida native ewes being compared for earliness of lambing and
productivity. Visectomized rams were used from May 24 to July 1,
1957, and all three breeds of ewes were found to be in anestrous. The
average date of first estrus in the breeding ewes was as follows: Hamp-
shires, August 1; Rambouillet, July 19; and Florida natives, July 23.
Ewe lambs did not show estrus during the breeding season (July 1
through September 30, 1957). The lambing percentages for the 1958
lambing season were as follows: Hampshires, 37 percent; Rambouillets,
79 percent; and Florida natives, 91 percent, with average limbing dates
of January 6, February 2 and December 21, respectively. The rams were
used in a continuous mating program for the 90-day breeding season,
with an average number of services per ewe; Hampshire, 2.3; Rambouil-
let, 3.1; and Florida natives, 1.1. Semen quality studies on rams checked
were highest prior to and during the early part of the breeding season.
Sterility was a problem in the Rambouillet rams.
The lambs were weaned and graded on May 20, 1958, with an average
grade of low good. The average weaning weights were: Hampshires, 74
pounds; Rambouillets, 59 pounds; and Florida natives, 61 pounds. Ewes
were checked 48 hours after weaning and it was found that 55 percent
of the Hampshires, 100 percent of the Rambouillets and 100 percent of







Annual Report, 1958


the Florida natives with weaned lambs were lactating. The Hampshire,
Rambouillet and Florida natives flocks sheared an average wool clip of
5.9, 8.3 and 4.5 pounds, respectively. The Hampshire wool graded in the
one-fourth blood, Rambouillet in fine wool and the Florida natives in
the low one-fourth blood.

GENETICS OF DWARFISM IN BEEF CATTLE
State Project 752 M. Koger, A. C. Warnick and
(Regional S-10) J. F. Hentges, Jr.
Physiological studies conducted on carrier and non-carrier cattle
revealed that the mean corpuscular volume and ribonucleic acid content
of the plasma protein were significantly higher in carrier animals. A
highly significant difference in the desoxyribonucleic acid content of the
plasma protein obtained from dwarf-carrier and assumed non-carrier
animals was noted. Also, cerebrospinal fluid pressure measurements
taken at the atlas-axis junctura showed a highly significant difference
between the carrier and non-carrier groups. In all cases there were
varying degrees of overlap in responses of the two groups, which pre-
vented differentiation of the carrier and non-carrier groups with an
acceptable degree of accuracy.
Results from the genetic investigations showed:
The midget condition in Brahman cattle appears to be inherited as
a recessive trait, although the possibility of an incompletely dominant
condition has not been eliminated.
The offspring from a midget Brahman x snorter Hereford mating was
a stillborn calf that resembled an extreme snorter type dwarf, which
indicates the gene or genes for the midget condition in Brahman cattle
may be related to the dwarf genes observed in other breeds.
It was shown that a small compact animal known as the guinea in
heterogeneous crossbred and Florida native cattle is the heterozygote
for a lethal achondroplastic "bulldog" gene. This suggests that the
guinea is descendant of Dexter cattle which are known to have been
introduced into Florida.
The introduction of the snorter Hereford dwarf gene into a hetero-
geneous population produced offspring which were more compact, lighter
in weight and higher in slaughter grade than calves sired by non-carrier
bulls mated to comparable females.

THE NUTRITIONAL AVAILABILITY OF COMPONENTS
OF LIVESTOCK FEEDSTUFFS
Hatch Project 755 George K. Davis, L. R. Arrington,
C. B. Ammerman and J. T. McCall
Defluorinated phosphate, dicalcium phosphate and colloidal phos-
phate have been activated in the reactor at Oak Ridge and the radio-
active products fed to cattle and rats to study the relative availability
of the phosphate of these different sources. Results have indicated that
cattle may be able to use colloidal phosphate and defluorinated phos-
phate reasonably well and, at least in the case of defluorinated phos-
phate, very successfully.
Work with sugar cane bagasse pith and sugar cane bagasse has been
continued and additional work started in cooperation with the Range
Cattle Station. This work has indicated that pith and bagasse have
some feed value and serve as good carriers of molasses. Bagasse pith
that had been ammoniated was compared with bagasse pith to which







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


urea was added. Results indicated an advantage to the product with
urea added. The problem in connection with sugar cane bagasse has
been that of palatability, and work this year indicates that citrus pulp
mixed with bagasse results in a feed that is quite palatable to yearling
cattle. Balance studies are being conducted with this product and will
be continued during the coming year.
A trial with iron aluminum phosphate has shown that the phosphorus
in this compound is practically unavailable to young growing rats.

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF RABBITS
State Project 768 L. R. Arrington and G. K. Davis
Nutritional studies with rabbits were complicated during the year by
outbreaks of enteritis which necessitated some investigation of this prob-
lem. Post-mortem examinations of sick animals did not reveal any con-
sistent findings as a possible cause of enteritis. The use of nitrofurazone
in the feed and drinking water provided some control and studies will
be continued to further evaluate the effectiveness of this new project.
Rations containing 16, 20 and 24 percent protein were fed to lactat-
ing does with young and growing rabbits after weaning. Results indi-
cated that 20 percent protein in the diet increased gains slightly over the
16 percent ration, but 24 percent protein in the diet did not improve
gains over the 20 percent protein diet.
Data from feed efficiency measurements to date have shown 3.4
pounds of feed were required to produce a pound of fryer rabbit at
eight weeks of age. These data represent studies with New Zealand
white rabbits and include feed of doe and litter from time of breeding
until the litters were weaned. Feed conversion by Dutch rabbits was
less efficient than that by New Zealand rabbits.
Data are being collected on (1) the value of Hairy indigo and citrus
pulp in the rabbit ration, (2) the effect of early weaning upon weight
gains of fryer rabbits, (3) the effect of litter size upon weaning weight
and (4) the effect of age upon feed conversion.

INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION, BREED, AGE AND SEX ON
RESPIRATORY ENZYMES IN THE TISSUES OF
CATTLE, SWINE AND SHEEP
State Project 805 R. L. Shirley, G. K. Davis, H. D. Wallace,
A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges, Jr.,
A. Z. Palmer and P. E. Loggins
A. Twenty Hereford heifers at two years of age were divided into
four equal groups and fed rations containing 1.41, 1.14, 0.90 and 0.77
pounds of crude protein per day. After receiving the rations for 160
to 180 days, they were slaughtered. Succinoxidase decreased (P<0.05)
in the heart, but increased (P<0.05) in the muscle as dietary protein
was decreased. The heart had about three times as much lactic dehy-
drogenase as the muscle. Xanthine oxidase activity was greater (P<0.01)
in the liver of heifers fed the three lower levels of protein. Ribonucleic
(RNA) and desoxyribonucleic (DNA) acids in the heart and gracilis
muscle were not affected by diet. (In cooperation with Dr. Warnick,
Dr. Hentges, E. Bedrak, J. F. Easley and Fay Warner.)
B. Sixteen cows of various Brahman-British crossbreeding were
divided about equally into three dietary groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3
were fed 0.87, 1.25 and 3.0 pounds cottonseed meal, and 42, 56 and







Annual Report, 1958


70 pounds of pangolagrass silage, respectively. They were fed these
rations for about three months before calving, and three months after-
wards. Then the cows and calves were placed on mixed grass-clover
pasture for about four months before being slaughtered.
The rations were found to have no effect on glycogen and lactic acid
in the heart, liver and gracilis muscle, and RNA and DNA and phos-
pholipid phosphorus in the heart and muscle. The cows had more
(P<0.01) glycogen in the liver and muscle, less (P<0.01) RNA and
DNA in the heart and muscle and less (P<0.01) phospholipid phosphorus
in the heart than their calves. (In cooperation with Dr. Warnick, Shirley
Oelze and Fay Warner.)
C. Thirty-three heifers of Brahman-Shorthorn crossbreeding were
slaughtered at about 18 months of age. Those of standard grade had
more (P<0.05) DNA in the heart than those of good and choice grade.
These grades had no effect on the DNA of the muscle or the RNA of
the heart and muscle. There were nine, seven, eight and seven animals
of 6:2, 5:3, 4:4 and 1:7 Brahman-Shorthorn crossbreeding, respectively.
They were found not to vary in the RNA and DNA of the heart and
muscle. (In cooperation with Dr. Palmer, Dr. Kirk, F. M. Peacock and
Fay Warner.)
D. Thirty-seven swine were divided about equally into four dietary
groups when they weighed 52 to 63 pounds and continued on the rations
until they weighed 190 pounds, when they were slaughtered. The rations
consisted of 14 and 20 percent levels of protein, each with and without
75 mg of triodothyronine per day. The dietary treatments were found
not to affect lactic acid, glycogen, succinoxidase, lactic dehydrogenase,
RNA and DNA in the heart and liver. (In cooperation with Dr. H. D.
Wallace, Charles Norris, James Carpenter, J. F. Easley, Shirley Oelze
and Fay Warner.)
E. Weanling rats were divided into six dietary groups and fed 0,
2 and 10 percent fat, each with and without (3) micro gm of biotin per
day. After five to seven weeks it was found that biotin increased oxa-
lacetic carboxylase activity in the liver of the rats fed the 0 and 2 per-
cent fat diets (P<0.05). Biotin had no effect on the heart. The 10 percent
fat dietary groups had more (P<0.01) enzyme activity in the kidney.
(In cooperation with J. F. Easley.)

EFFECT OF HORMONES ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF
REPRODUCTION IN BRITISH AND BRAHMAN BEEF CATTLE
Hatch Project 809 A. C. Warnick and M. Koger
Thirty-five heifers are being studied to determine the effect of proges-
terone hormone on ovulation and estrus in two-year-old heifers. Eleven
Hereford, 12 Brahman x Shorthorn and 12 Brahman heifers are included
in the comparison. All Hereford and crossbred heifers have been in
heat or have corpora lutea on the ovaries, while only two brahman
heifers have corpora lutea on the ovaries. All heifers have been on
adequate and similar nutrition for the last nine months.

CONTROL OF INTERNAL PARASITES OF SHEEP
State Project 815 P. E. Loggins
The Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Department phase of this
project was inactive during the year. (See also Project 815, Veterinary
Science Department.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


NUTRITIVE VALUE AND STORAGE CHARACTERISTIC OF
COBALT-60 IRRADIATED FOODS AND FEEDS
Hatch Project 849 G. E. Combs, J. P. Feaster,
A. Z. Palmer and G. K. Davis
Active research connected with this project will be initiated when
the irradiation facility being constructed is completed. (See also Project
849, Food Technology and Nutrition Department.)

INFLUENCE OF DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL ON PHYSIOLOGICAL
PHENOMENA IN BEEF CATTLE
State Project 867 J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. C. Warnick
and R. L. Shirley
Hereford and Brahman females of two age groups weanlingg calves
and bred two-year-old heifers) were fed rations providing approximately
100 percent and 50 percent of recommended protein allowances. Bred
heifers on the low protein intake gained 0.2 pounds per day less than
those receiving adequate protein. Herefords on both protein levels had
100 percent calf crops, while both Brahman groups had 66.7 percent
calf crops. The quantity and butterfat content of milk from the Brahman
was higher than that from Herefords. Brahmans had higher red and
white blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular
volumes and blood volumes. Weanling calves on two levels of protein
intake have produced hematological and weight data similar to those
recorded for the two-year-old heifers.

FACTORS AFFECTING SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS GRADES
OF BEEF CATTLE
State Project 884 A. Z. Palmer
Feeding trials are currently in progress relative to the effects of
plane of nutrition during wintering on subsequent carcass grade of
animals finished in dry lot. Slaughter and carcass data as yet have not
been obtained in this study. (See also Project 884, Range Cattle Station.)

MISCELLANEOUS
Free-Choice Feeding Vs. a Complete Mixed Ration for Finishing
Market Swine.-Two experiments have been completed and summarized
as An. Husb. Mimeo. Series Nos. 58-1 and 58-2. In the first experiment
a complete mixed ration produced more rapid gains than a feeding pro-
cedure in which ground corn meal and a protein supplement were offered
free-choice. However, the free-choice fed pigs were more efficient feed
converters and thus returned more profit per animal. In the second
experiment the pigs on the complete mixed ration again gained con-
siderably faster, but in this case were also more efficient in feed con-
version and returned more profit per animal.
A group of pigs fed supplement and ear corn free-choice made the
poorest gains, required the most feed per pound gain and returned the
least profit; thus indicating that grinding of hard flinty varieties of corn
such as are common in Florida may be worthwhile when it is to be used
in the finishing ration of swine. (H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs, Jr., J. W.
Hunt and C. E. Haines)
Influence of Cooling Growing-Finishing Swine on Gains and Feed
Conversion.-Two experiments have been completed and summarized as
An. Husb. Mimeo. Series No. 58-3. In a drylot experiment very favor-
able results were obtained by the use of a fine mist spray. Tempera-








Annual Report, 1958


tures were quite warm during the finishing period and it was observed
that most of the response from the spray occurred during this period.
In the second experiment, which was conducted on millet pasture and
involved the use of a garden sprinkler for cooling purposes, no im-
provement in gains or feed conversion was recorded. A probable
explanation for these results was the relatively cool temperatures and
excessive precipitation which prevailed during the experimental period.
It is concluded that an effort should be made to cool swine, particular-
ly during the finishing period. The use of a fine mist spray worked
very well in this study. This method requires much less water than the
sprinkling method and is quite efficient in the cooling process. (H. D.
Wallace, G. E. Combs, Jr., and C. E. Haines.)
Future Studies on the Use of Soybean Oil Meal for Pigs Hogging
Off Corn.-An experiment has been completed and summarized as An.
Husb. Mimeo. Series No. 58-4. Animals self-fed a protein supplement
consisting of soybean oil meal diluted with 8 percent of mineral gained
more rapidly and efficiently than pigs hand-fed the same mixture. Hand
feeding the protein supplement once every two days produced essentially
the same results as hand feeding the supplement once daily. Vitamin
supplementation did not produce more rapid or efficient gains. (H. D.
Wallace, W. F. Davis and G. E. Combs, Jr.)
Summer Lamb Feeding in Florida.-The lambs from the 1957 lambing
crop were not marketable as fat spring lambs since they lacked enough
weight and finish. To determine if good summer gains could be obtained,
the lambs were randomly placed on a 120-day feeding period beginning
June 1. The lambs in Lots 1, 2 and 3 were fed in dry-lot and Lot 4
on millet, pangola and Coastal bermudagrass pastures. Lots 1, 2 and 3
received Alyce clover hay free-choice. Results of gains are reported
in the following table.

Lot 4
Lot 2 Pheno-
Lot 1 1 + Pheno- Lot 3 thiazine +
Control thiazine + 2 + Aureo- Salt Mixture
Salt mycin Fed on
Mixture Pasture
Number of lambs.---- 9 9 10 22
Average initial weight 52 46 56 63
Average final weight-.- 79 77 84 79
Average daily gain .- 0.22 0.25 0.23 | 0.13
Death losses ----- 0 0 1 11

(P. E. Loggins, M. Koger, A. C. Warnick and T. J. Cunha.)

Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Molybdenum Toxicity in the Rat.-
Approximately 280 rats were used to study the possible protective
effect of vitamin E on molybdenum toxicity (at the 100 and 500 ppm
dietary level), with 8.6 percent casein and 9.6 percent casein-yeast diets.
Male rats appear to receive considerable protection at the 100 ppm,
but not at the 500 ppm level of molybdenum. (R. L. Shirley.)
Cull Tomatoes as Animal Feed.-The availability of dried cull toma-
toes from the Homestead area resulted in a request from the Dade
County Tomato Committee for digestibility studies with cattle using
this product. As a result, these studies have been set up and this pro-
duct is being studied with respect to its value as a feed for cattle. (G. K.
Davis and C. B. Ammerman.)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Analysis of Feeds and Related Materials.-In addition to the analyses
performed on feeds, tissues and other products associated with projected
work, numerous samples are received from all parts of the state and
many parts of the world. During the past year nearly 600 such samples
were received, with an average of five different analyses performed
on each. There has been an increasing interest in the trace element
composition of feed products and the spectrograph has been used ex-
tensively. Of particular interest has been the determination of man-
ganese in samples from Paraguay and Kenya Colony, Africa. Values
have been obtained which exceed 4,000 ppm and which certainly indi-
cate the possibility of toxic levels of this element occurring in pasture
forages. (J. T. McCall and G. K. Davis.)
Stringhalt Cattle.-Femurs and patellae from six animals exhibiting
signs of stringhalt or upward luxation of the patella were secured,
photographed, measured and analyzed in accumulating data to determine
the characteristics of this change which occurs in cattle, and also in an
effort to relate this to the genetic background of the cattle. (G. K. Davis
and W. G. Kirk.)
Simple Correlations Between Factors Related to Beef Tenderness.-
A total of 452 carcasses from six different methods of production were
used in this study. Factors studied in relationship to tenderness were
those of federal grade, degree of marbling and ether extract in the
longissimus dorsi. Tenderness was determined by taste panel and
Warner-Bratzler shear methods of shortloin steaks broiled to an internal
temperature of approximately 165F.
Highly significant correlation coefficients were obtained between all
factors studied. However, the following conclusions seem to be justified:
federal grade of a carcass was not a good indication of beef tenderness,
as it accounted for only 7.7 percent of the variations in tenderness as
determined by a panel. Degree of marbling in the longissimus dorsi,
though highly significantly correlated with tenderness, was not a good
indication of tenderness, as it accounted for only 10.7 percent of the
variations in tenderness as determined by panel. (A. Z. Palmer, H. L.
Chapman, W. G. Kirk and M. Koger.)
Slaughter, Carcass and Tenderness Characteristics as Influenced by
Feed Intake of Steers Fed Chlortetracycline and/or Diethylstilbestrol
on Pasture and in Drylot.-One hundred and twenty-eight steers were
fed in a split-split-plot design. Half were fed on pasture and half in
drylot. One half of each of these two groups received a full feed of
concentrates and the remainder were restricted to six pounds of con-
centrate per day plus silage or pasture ad lib. Steers on each of these
four feeding programs were subdivided into four lots of eight steers
each. One lot received 90 mg. of aureomycin per ster daily in the ration,
one lot received 10 mg. of stilbestrol and one lot received stilbestrol
plus aureomycin, while the control lot received no additives.
Percentages of hide and liver, yield, cooler shrinkage, carcass length,
thickness of chuck, length of leg, circumference of round, carcass grade,
marbling, area and ether extract of the longissimus dorsi muscle at the
13th rib and tenderness by shear and panel were obtained. Feeding
aureomycin or stilbestrol showed no significant effect on any trait.
Steers fed on pasture had larger circumference of round, larger rib eye
area and a lower panel tenderness score. Limited feeding increased
percentage of hide and cooler shrinkage, whereas it decreased liver
weight per unit of live weight, yield and all carcass measurements ex-
cept length. Limited feeding lowered carcass grade, marbling, area and
ether extract of the longissimus dorsi muscle, and tenderness by shear
test. (A. Z. Palmer and H. L. Chapman, Jr.)








Annual Report, 1958


BOTANY DEPARTMENT

Miss Lillian E. Arnold, Associate Botanist and Curator of the Her-
barium, retired on May 15, 1958, after over 30 years of service. Miss
Arnold will be replaced by Dr. Daniel B. Ward, a recent graduate of
Cornell University.

EFFECTS OF BIOCIDAL MATERIALS ON THE
PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS
Hatch Project 728 W. M. Dugger, Jr., and T. E. Humphreys
Work on this project consists of three major lines.
A. Investigations on the mechanism of action of 2,4-dichlorophe-
noxyacetic acid (2,4-D) have been continued. Previous studies had
shown that 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP, a compound that uncouples oxidative
phosphorylation), although it inhibited the oxidation of exogenous
glucose by the control corn roots, had little or no effect when 2,4-D or
indoleacetic acid (IAA)-treated roots were used. This effect of dinitro-
phenol has now been shown to be due primarily to an inhibition of
uptake of the exogenous substrate (e.g., glucose) by the roots. The
2,4-D treatment resulted in a decrease or abolishment of this dinitro-
phenol inhibition of substrate uptake. How dinitrophenol inhibits sub-
strate uptake or why 2,4-D treatment abolished this inhibition is not
known.
Studies on isolated enzymes or enzyme systems have been carried
out. In most cases enzymes extracted from 2,4-D-treated tissues had
essentially the same activity as those from the control tissues. Further-
more, the addition of 2,4-D (10-"-10-3 M) to enzymes extracted from
the control tissues had no effect on the subsequent activity of the
enzymes. There was one notable exception however. Mitochondria
isolated from 2,4-D-treated tissues oxidized reduced diphosphopyridine
nucleotide at rates 1.5 to three times as high as the rates obtained with
mitochondria from control tissues.
B. An environmental growth room of limited climatic control has
been put in operation within the past year. The room is 10 by 20 feet,
with 110 slim line T-8 fluorescent tubes and 24 100-watt incandescent
lamps placed 612 feet from the floor. The fluorescent lamps are supplied
with 360 cps single phase current by G. E. Static Frequency Multipliers
which increase the light intensity in the control room to approximately
2,500 foot-candles. The control room is cooled by a three hp. air condi-
tioner. An automatic sand culture system has been installed in the room
to control the nutrient supply (see Figure 9). Day length and nutrient
supply are controlled through time clocks and electrical valves.
Tomato plants were used first to study the potential of the room
for future work. The tomato plants grew rapidly and had the appearance
of field-grown plants. Because of the excess heat generated by the
lamps, the temperature could not be controlled to the extent desired.
This could be corrected by separating the lamps from the growth
chamber by glass or sheet plastic. Lamp efficiency is greatly decreased
at the temperature desirable for plant growth, and such a separation of
the plants and lamps would be advantageous. Another necessary modi-
fication would be the better distribution of the entering air.
C. The general problem of the synthesis, transformation and trans-
port of sugars in plants (An. Report 1956, 1957) and the nutritional and
environmental factors that influence these processes has been expanded.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The first phase of this work has been concerned with methods of enzyme
preparations and assay. The following enzyme catalyzed reactions are
considered important in sugar synthesis and the interconversions ot
sugars.
1. Uridine-5-triphosphate (UTP) + glucose-1-phosphate (G-l-P)
\ Uridine-diphosphoglucose (UDPG) + pyro-
phosphate (PP)
2a) UDPG + fructose UDP + sucrose
2b) UDPG + fructose-6-phosphate '- UDP +
sucrose-phosphate
Reaction 1 is catalyzed by the enzyme UDPG-pyrophosphorylase and
reaction 2 by the enzyme UDPG-fructose transglycosylase. These en-
zymes have been prepared from pea seeds and seedlings and sugar cane
leaves, roots and stalks. Recently a method was found that would give
active preparations of both enzymes in a single extract from pea seeds
and young sugar cane seedlings.
The enzymes that catalyze reactions 1 and 2 can be assayed by
separate methods. Recent work on this project has shown that both
enzymes can be assayed in a single extract. This method is based on
the use of the enzyme UDPG-dehydrogenase which catalyzes the follow-
ing reaction.
3. UDPG + 2DPN (diphosphophyridine nucleotide)
\ UDPGlucuronic acid + 2 DPNH
The use of this method for assaying the enzymes UDPG-pyrophos-
phorylase and UDPG-fructose transglycosylase will facilitate greatly
future studies of the factors influencing sucrose synthesis in plants.

BIOSYNTHESIS OF LYSINE AND TRYPTOPHAN
Hatch Project 810 H. J. Teas
A combined genetic and physiological approach to determining how
higher plants biosynthesize the essential amino acids lysine and trypto-
phan is underway. The small crucifer, Arabidopsis thaliana, which can
be cultured under sterile conditions, has been grown and a radiation
screening program initiated to find tryptophan-or lysine-requiring mu-
tants.
The role of serine as a precursor of trytophan has been indicated
by tentative paper chromatographic demonstration of serine-derived
radiocarbon label in tryptophan from corn embryo homogenates. How-
ever, anthranilic acid, a precursor of tryptophan in microorganisms, was
not found to be converted to tryptophan. Anthranilic acid and indole-
glycerol, the former in radiocarbon labeled form, have been prepared
Fig. 9-Two and one-half-month old tomato plants grown in the "lim-
ited controlled" environment room located in Gainesville. The lower
crock is the 25-liter reservoir of nutrient solution which supplies the
two liter jug (black jug behind crocks) through a valve. At controlled
time intervals the upper crock containing the plants in sand is supplied
the two liters of nutrient solution via a plastic tube and delivery ring
under low pressure head. Drainage out of the upper crock is effected
by a plastic tube leading to the reservoir. The system is automatic with
the nutrient level in the reservoir maintained by daily additions of de-
ionized water.





Annual Report, 1958


fY I`


I,1


ji. 0O


:-.,_,z





























Fig. 10.-Aerial view of completed, landscaped cobalt-60 irradiation
facility.

biosynthetically by the use of mutant microorganisms. Paper chromato-
graphic checks were carried out on two plant species that are known to
accumulate indole.

Fig. 11.-Irradiation facility (unloaded), with lid in place, as though
treating experimental plant material. (Worker is not present when treat-
ment is given.)




*rI





a~i 4rt.


fc '








Annual Report, 1958


PLANT IMPROVEMENT WITH GAMMA RADIATION
Hatch Project 848 H. J. Teas
The cobalt-60 gamma irradiation facility which was licensed last
year has been constructed (Fig. 10) and 6,400 curies of radioactive co-
balt loaded into the irradiator. The facility, the largest agricultural ir-
radiation unit in the country, consists of a radiation pit 30 feet in di-
ameter and a maze entrance driveway, all with 12-foot-high earth
backfilled walls. The irradiator itself, which contains the cobalt-60,
is kept in a 13-foot-deep water-filled tank below the center of the radi-
ation pit.
For exposure of experimental materials (Fig. 11) the irradiator is
raised into the radiation pit by means of a motor controlled from the
operating house over 100 feet away. The irradiator is hollow so that
samples up to about 8 inches in diameter and 12 inches long can be ir-
radiated in an intense, relatively uniform field. In addition, this multi-
purpose irradiator can be used as a source of medium and low level ra-
diation doses for objects as large as trees that can be brought in by
truck. Safety precautions follow U. S. Atomic Energy Commission regu-
lations. The system includes a separate radiation-activated alarm system
and a radiation rate meter to allow measuring theamount of radiation
samples received as the material is irradiated. (See also Project 848,
Agronomy, Fruit Crops, Plant Pathology, Ornamental Horticulture and
Vegetable Crops Departments.)

MISCELLANEOUS
Chemical Modification of the Ageotropic Response in the Snapdragon
and Gladiolus.-Investigation of hormonal control of the ageotropic
bending of floral spikes of snapdragons was continued and additional
trials were made using gladiolus spikes.
Seven varieties of snapdragons were tested to determine whether
the chemical used inhibits the normal opening of the buds after the
spikes are cut. In all cases the florets continued to open after treatment.
During the course of these tests it was noted that small bends present
in the spike at the time of treatment did not straighten out as did the
checks. This finding may provide the basis for explaining the difference
between the very effective laboratory treatments and the variable bend-
ing control that was obtained in simulated commercial shipments from
Chicago and Long Island.
The trials with gladiolus indicated that concentrations of N-l-naph-
tlylphthalamate strong enough to control ageotropic bending of the
spikes had several detrimental effects on the shelf-life of the flowers.
In the variety Spic and Span the pink color was bleached from the
flowers and in the varieties Hopman's Glory and Valaria the flowers
failed to open. (H. J. Teas.)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


DAIRY SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

The Dairy Research Unit at Hague has continued a research program
to attempt to provide solutions to problems encountered by all types of
dairy farming operations in the state. Chopping green feed and hauling
it to the cows in the lot has been found to have some important advan-
tages over grazing for milking cows. Irrigation of temporary pastures
for heifers also proved to be a profitable operation. Improved methods
of raising calves were developed. Fresh and frozen semen both were
found to be satisfactory.
Some land was cleared near the main barn to provide closer-in
pastures and crop land to simplify farming operations and to reduce the
amount of walking by cows to and from pastures. Six Brown Swiss
heifers were secured as foundation animals.
At the Dairy Products Laboratory studies were continued with the
newly developed fermentation apparatus designed to study the growth
of dairy culture organisms under varying conditions. Dr. B. J. Liska
joined the staff and is working on the continuous fermentation problem.
Some new refrigeration facilities have been added which will permit
studies of dairy products storage at temperatures lower than normally
used. Some Florida-grown fruits including certain new strains of black-
berries were found to be satisfactory for flavoring ice cream.

ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project 213 R. B. Becker, J. M. Wing and P. T. Dix Arnold
Four pilot silos were filled with pearlmillet, one plain and three
with preservatives. Average daily consumption of the finished silages
per cow were: plain millet silage, 75 pounds; millet plus ground snapped
corn, 83 pounds; millet plus sodium metabisulfite, 84 pounds; and millet
plus dried citrus pulp, 112 pounds. Rain while filling silos affected the
accuracy of weights of forage ensiled as well as consumption rates of
the finished silage.
Four pilot silos were refilled this spring with plain oats in the pre-
dough stage. Additives of ground snapped corn, dried citrus pulp and a
molasses-bagasse mixture were used separately. Feeding trials will be
conducted in 1958. (See also Proj. 356, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Department.)

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY
ITS POSSIBLE INHERITANCE, AND DEPRECIATION IN
FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
State Project 345 R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold
Records of breeding and cow disposals were accumulated from five
cooperating Florida dairy herds.
Cooperation was continued also with bull studs in the United States
and Canada, studying useful life span and causes of turnover. Records
were analyzed of bulls born over the 10-year period 1942-1951, obtained
when under three years old. Usefulness of 460 bulls was terminated for
natural causes, 317 were culled as unsatisfactory or replaced by better
bulls and 225 bulls regarded as satisfactory were still in service at the
close of 1957. Of the 460 bulls, 230 left the studs while under five years
old and before they could be proved.
The 225 bulls yet alive averaged 7.11 years of age. Their expected
average future usefulness was estimated at 3.38 years, based on the ex-







Annual Report, 1958


perience with bulls obtained at similar ages, whose artificial use termi-
nated in 1956 and 1957. This estimate would place the anticipated aver-
age life of these 225 bulls at about 10.48 years. Over 45 percent of these
1,002 young bulls proved desirable for artificial use during their natural
lives. (See also Project 345, Agricultural Economics Department.)

POST-PARTUM DEVELOPMENT OF BOVINE STOMACH
COMPARTMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS ON SOME
CHARACTERISTICS OF THEIR CONTENTS
State Project 564 S. P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold and R. B. Becker
In the study of characteristics of stomach compartment ingesta of
growing dairy calves, dry matter determinations were made on the con-
tents of the rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum of 18 calves.
Average dry matter content of stomach ingesta of these calves was as
follows: rumen, 16.18 percent; reticulum, 11.30 percent; omasum, 22.38
percent; and abomasum, 15.30 percent. The principal change in dry
matter of ingesta occurred in the abomasum. During the first 60 days of
age when the calves were receiving milk along with hay and concen-
trate, the dry content of the abomasum was high, averaging 20.43 per
cent. When milk was removed from the diet, the dry matter percentage
dropped and during the 70- to 220-day age period averaged only 13.74
percent. The higher dry matter content of the abomasum observed dur-
ing the milk feeding period was due to the retention of considerable
amounts of curd during the approximate seven-hour interval following
milk feeding when the samples were collected.
This project is terminated with this report.

STUDY OF PRODUCTION AND CONFORMATION OF THE FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION DAIRY HERD
State Project 575 P. T. Dix Arnold, S. P. Marshall and R. B. Becker
This project involves records of the entire herd except while animals
are on separate specific projects.
During the year 45 cows completed official production records in their
respective breeds. No official type rating was conducted in the herd dur-
ing the past year.
Thirty-six cows and 14 heifers were sold for slaughter and two cows
died. Udder troubles and reproductive difficulties were the principal
causes for disposal. Six Brown Swiss heifers were purchased as a foun-
dation of this breed in the Station Herd.

SUB-NORMAL MILK:
ITS PRODUCTION, CORRELATION AND UTILIZATION
Hatch Project 667 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, J. M. Wing.
W. A. Krienke, L. E. Mull and E. L. Fouts
Milk which was low in solids-not-fat has been reported from several
Florida counties. A field survey of some dairy herds indicated the cause
to be partly nutritional and partly because a large proportion of the
milk was from cows normally not producing milk of a normal solids-
not-fat content. Milk low in butterfat was reported sometimes.
Feeding Trials.-Two separate feeding trials were conducted with
four cows on the sub-normal solids-not-fat phase; nine cows for the sub-
normal butterfat phase and two cows as controls for both groups. The
sub-normal butterfat group received experimental rations of concen-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


trates. The sub-normal solids-not-fat group received some roughages
and concentrates, but intake of total energy was limited to 75 percent
of calculated requirements. After a 10-day preperiod in most cases the
experimental rations were fed for three months and then the groups
were returned to full rations similar to the controls.
Milk Composition and Dairy Products Studies.-Extremely cold and
wet weather influenced composition of the milk from the two control
cows, and doubtless also that from the cows on the experimental rations.
Some cows on the subnormal fat phase decreased little in butterfat per-
centages, but one cow dropped from an average of 5.5 percent to a
15-day average of 3.0 percent. Specific gravity of her milk increased
from 1.0325 to 1.0338 in the same period.
The butterfat percentage in milk from the low solids-not-fat cows
changed little or increased slightly. Specific gravity of their milk
dropped materially. The milk of two cows decreased from near 1.034
to about 1.031, accompanied by a decrease in casein content. Freezing
points of the milk did not change.
When milk low in solids-not-fat was skimmed and made into cottage
cheese, there was low yield of poor quality curd that required more
careful handling than that from normal skimmilk.

IRRIGATION OF TEMPORARY PASTURES FOR DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 772 S. P. Marshall
Grazing was begun on irrigated and unirrigated alfalfa-clover-oat
pastures December 31, 1957, in the study of benefits in animal gains and
total digestible nutrients that may be derived by irrigating this pasture
mixture. The botanical composition of the pastures was studied and for-
age samples were taken for chemical analyses. Damage to the for-
age caused by recurring freezes necessitated removal of all animals from
both pastures from February 7 through March 17, 1958.
During the periods that the pastures were grazed through June 18,
1958, the irrigated provided 285 heifer days of grazing per acre and the
unirrigated furnished 173. Heifers grazing the irrigated pasture gained
an average of 412 pounds and obtained an average of 2,620 pounds of
total digestible nutrients per acre from it during these periods. Those
on unirrigated pasture gained an average of 308 pounds and derived
an average of 1,846 pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre from
the pasture. Daily gains of the heifers averaged 1.5 pounds for those
grazing the irrigated pasture and 1.8 pounds for those grazing the unirri-
gated. (See Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy Departments.)

MEDICATED FEEDS FOR DAIRY CALVES
Hatch Project 781 J. M. Wing, E. L. Fouts, R. B. Becker
and P. T. Dix Arnold
Small amounts of chemotherapeutic substances often are added to the
feed of young calves to help overcome low-level infections. The purpose
of this work was to determine whether the effects of some of these medi-
caments are additive, synergistic or antagonistic, and to determine the
effects of some new additives. Environmental conditions were favorable
and control calves gained 130 percent of normal. Mean gains of six
calves per group on medicated feeds compares percentagewise with the
controls as follows: aureomycin, 105.5; isoniazid, 105.5; aureomycin +
isoniazid, 120.4; procain penicillin, 117.6; isoniazid + penicillin, 117.6;
penicillin + para amino salicylic acid (PAS), 101.9; terramycin, 112.4;







Annual Report, 1958


terramycin + PAS, 112.9; terramycin + isomazid, 104.4; PAS + aureo-
mycin, 103.6. No significant differences in efficiency of feed conversion
or height at withers were observed.
Mixtures of PAS with penicillin or aureomycin, or isoniazid with
terramycin are undesirable in calf feed mixtures, but each supplement
alone is beneficial. Isoniazid and aureomycin appeared to be synergistic.

CONTINUOUS FERMENTATION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
Hatch Project 790 B. J. Liska, W. A. Krienke, L. E. Mull
and E. L. Fouts
A stainless steel pipe assembly and necessary controls for the con-
tinuous automatic propagation of lactic cultures was reported on in the
1957 annual report. This system made it possible to grow dairy cultures
at their maximum growth rates and to investigate the various bacterio-
logical principles involved.
Work to improve the system for the continuous propagation of lactic
cultures was continued. Two identical fermentors made from stainless
steel beakers are being used instead of the original stainless steel pipe
assembly. Their capacity is approximately 1,000 ml. each. Agitation is
provided with laboratory stirrers operated at controlled speeds. These
assemblies, with double air traps on the outlet tubes, have reduced
greatly the problem of coliform contamination.
Trials have been made using skimmilk heated at 150' F. for 30 min-
utes, 170 F. for 15 seconds, 190 F. for 30 minutes and 200 F. for one
hour. This is to determine whether heat treatments low enough to pre-
serve the coagulating properties of the milk will destroy the spoilage
organisms which are able to grow during the fermentation.
The fermentation systems have been operated for 7 to 10 days using
pasteurized skimmilk (1680 for 15 sec.) at temperatures from 70' F. to
90' F. without having off-flavors in the product leaving the fermentor at
pH 5.3-5.4. This product when incubated at 90 F. for an additional 45
minutes formed a good firm curd.
Growth rates for lactic cultures were lower in pasteurized milk
(168' F. for 15 sec.) than in milk heated at 180' for one hour or milk
heated at 121' C. for 15 minutes.

MISCELLANEOUS
Effect of a High Fiber Concentrate Feed on Young Calves.-Low-
fiber rations are generally recommended for young calves, but no evi-
dence that they are necessary has been published. Between the ages of
four and 60 days, one member of each of eight pairs of young calves
received in addition to the basal milk diet a complex calf concentrate
containing 6.9 percent fiber. The experimental pair mates were fed a
simple cow-herd mixture containing 13.9 percent fiber. All calves were
normal and no significant differences were observed with respect to
growth, feed consumption, general health or efficiency of feed utilization.
Complex feed mixtures do not appear to be necessary for young calves.
(James M. Wing.)
Full Use of Colostrum in Calf Feeds with Normal and High-Solids
Skimmilk.-Considerable effort has been devoted to developing a sys-
tem for raising calves with a minimum of whole milk. Observations on
the entire herd showed that full use of colostrum by freezing temporary
surpluses can eliminate the need for any marketable milk in calf ra-
tions. The basal milk diet for all calves at the Dairy Research Unit is:
birth through four days, pure colostrum; five through 21 days, % colos-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


trum and 1/ reconstituted skimmilk (13 percent solids); 22 through 60
days, skimmilk.
High solids milks usually cause digestive troubles in young calves,
but the effect of colostrum with such milks has not been studied previ-
ously. Six pairs of new-born calves were fed the basal ration, but the
skimmilk for one member of each pair contained 20 rather than 13 per-
cent solids. Experimental/control comparisons are as follows: gain in
weight, 70/50 lbs.; gain in height, 10.7/9.7 cms.; feed consumption by
groups, hay 94.4/63 lbs.; concentrates, 171/353 lbs.; TDN per pound
gained, 1.5/1.7 lbs. When used in an extended colostrum regimen, high
solids milk offers a simple and safe means of insuring a high dry mat-
ter intake by young calves, but it reduces the tendency of young calves
to consume concentrate feeds. (James M. Wing.)
Effect on Milk Production of Supplementing Thyroprotein Feed to
Cows on a Liberal Forage Dietary.-Thyroactive supplements have
caused sluggish cows to maintain satisfactory production for reasonable
periods, but previous work was not done under conditions which were
comparable to recommended grazing practices for Florida herds.
Four sluggish cows were fed thyroactive supplements and their rec-
ords were compared with their previous performance and with records
of two comparable control cows. Only one cow consistently consumed
the supplement; it seemed unpalatable to all the others. There were no
significant differences evident from either previous performance of the
supplemented cows or performance of controls.
Under conditions of this work, it seems doubtful that thyroactive sup-
plementation is beneficial. (J. M. Wing and J. P. Boggs.)
Green Chopped Forage for Dairy Cows.-Green chopped alfalfa has
been fed as previously to supplement permanent pastures. Following
extremely cold weather in the spring, it furnished an abundance of pala-
table succulent roughage before permanent pasture plants were ready
to graze and continued to provide a considerable part of the forage for
the cattle until early June. Offerings of green chopped fed were ad-
justed to the availability of pasture, varying from 50 to 100 pounds daily
per cow. (P. T. Dix Arnold.)
Rapid Cooling of Cultured Buttermilk.-Due to the high viscosity of
cultured buttermilk, the product is difficult to cool by the conventional
method. Trials were conducted on rapid cooling by use of a continuous
ice cream freezer.
At the time of breaking the "set" (coagulated skimmilk), a calcu-
lated amount of 20 percent homogenized fresh cream (for finished
product of 2 percent fat) was frozen to a slush with a continuous ice
cream freezer. When slushed, the cream was diverted into the "set" and
the entire mixture was circulated through the freezer (returning to the
vat) until the temperature was lowered to 360 F. (about 25 minutes re-
quired). During 14 days of refrigerated storage viscosity and acidity in-
creased slightly. No wheying off occurred. Flavor and body were excel-
lent. The study is being continued. (L. E. Mull and W. A. Krienke.)
Frozen Storage of Lactic Cultures.-Lactic cultures were propagated
in the usual manner in 10 percent reconstituted non-fat dry milk heated
at 121 C. for 15 minutes. On the last transfer the cultures were diluted
1-10 with sterile 10 per cent NDM and stored at -10 to -15 F.
At two-week intervals, samples of each culture were thawed at 400
F. and 70' F. Plate counts and activity tests were performed to deter-
mine suitability of freezing cultures diluted 1-10 to reduce harmful
effects of acid present.







Annual Report, 1958 85

Lactic cultures treated in this manner remained viable after six
months storage. The thawed cultures used at the rate of 1 percent as
inoculum gave an acidity of 0.70 to 0.78 after 16 hours at 70" F. After
the second transfer they were as active as cultures transferred daily
over the same period. (B. J. Liska.)
Effect of Penicillin on Morphology of Lactic Acid Organisms.-Lactic
acid cultures were grown in the presence of various concentrations of
penicillin to determine if changes in morphology would occur. Using a
Streptococcus thermophilus culture in an active state of growth, con-
centrations of penicillin from 0.02 U/ml to 1.0 U/ml caused marked
changes in cell shape after one hour of contact at 32' C. Normally
S. thermophilus is a small coccus. When a rapidly dividing culture is in
contact with small concentrations of penicillin, the S. thermophilus cells
enlarge three to four fold, become football-shaped and take on a darker
stain with methylene blue.
Other lactic cultures as Leuconostoc dextranicum and Streptococcus
lactis react to penicillin in a similar manner. These cultures are slower
in growth and require higher concentrations of penicillin to show this
effect. (B. J. Liska.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

Where formerly practically all editors had been jointly employed
with the Agricultural Extension Service, on July 1, 1957, the Editor and
one assistant were placed on joint appointments and provision was made
for two assistants to be paid wholly by the Experiment Station. Since
January 1, 1958, for the first time in several years, the department has
been fully staffed. While space is still at a premium, equipment needs
are being fairly adequately met.

PUBLICATIONS
Publications work continued to expand and more color is being used
to present illustrations that clearly show the subjects. The Station has
printed its first book, a 200-page treatise on citrus insects, diseases and
nutritional disorders, with 117 four-color illustrations. It is being sold
at $4.00 a copy, just slightly more than the cost of printing. The edition
was 15,000.
Nine new bulletins covering 281 pages were printed, the total quan-
tity being 91,000 copies. One 32-page bulletin was revised and printed,
the run being 5,000 copies. Seventy-six thousand copies of eight new cir-
culars covering 103 pages were printed also. Following is a list of bulle-
tins and circulars printed:
Pages Edition


Bul. 588 A Study of Wrist Development of School
Children by Sex, Age and Race, by O. D.
Abbott, R. O. Townsend, R. B. French
and V. Chew (technical) ......---.---
Bul. 589 Consumer Reaction to Varying Prices for
Frozen Orange Concentrate, by Marshall
R. Godwin and L. A. Powell, Sr. -
Bul. 590 Agronomic Studies of Fiber Plants-
Jute, Sisal, Hemp, Furcraea, Hemp and
Other Miscellaneous Types, by C. C.
Seale, J. F. Joyner, and J. B. Pate _- .-
Bul. 591 Insects and Mites Found on Florida Cit-
trus, by James T. Griffiths and W. L.
Thompson ------- -
Bul. 592 Experimental Pricing as an Approach to
Demand Analysis-a Technical Study of
the Retail Demand for Frozen Orange
Concentrate, by L. A. Powell, Sr., Wil-
liam G. O'Regan and Marshall R. God-
win -- -----. .... -----.- -------------- ----
Bul. 593 Tobacco Seed Storage for 25 years, by
Randall R. Kincaid (technical) ---
Bul. 594 The Barbados or West Indian Cherry, by
R. Bruce Ledin ---.-----......-----------
Bul. 595 Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants, by L.
C. Kuitert .---- ... ----- ---
Bul. 596 Factors Affecting the Incidence and Con-
trol of Northern Corn Leaf Blight in
Sweet Corn Production in the Ever-
glades, by R. S. Cox and D. S. Harrison
(technical) -- ------ ---


18 5,000


27 6,000



27 10,000


25,000


44 5,000

9 5,000

28 10,000

52 25,000


20 5,000







Annual Report, 1958


Bul. 511A Naringin, a Bitter Principle of Grape-
fruit (reprinted) --
Book Florida Guide to Citrus Insects, Diseases
and Nutritional Disorders in Color, by R.
M. Pratt and Others
Cir. S-100 Poisonous Plants Around the Home, by
Erdman West ..------
Cir. S-101 Cause and Control of Blossom-end Rot
of Tomatoes, by C. M. Geraldson ----
Cir. S-102 Indicator Papers for Detecting Damage
to Citrus Fruits, by W. Grierson -
Cir. S-103 Magnolia, a New Variety of Cigar-Wrap-
per Tobacco, by Randall R. Kincaid -
Cir. S-104 Irrigate Tobacco on Schedule, by J. Mos-
tella Myers and Fred Clark--
Cir. S-105 Thirty- Three Years of Belle Glade
Weather, by Darrell E. McCloud and
Dalton S. Harrison
Cir. S-106 The Winter Feeding of Standard Utility
and Cull Summer Beef Calves for
Slaughter, by J. F. Hentges, Jr., W. D.
Fletcher and T. J. Cunha ---
Cir. S-107 A Trash and Clod Eliminator for Pack-
inghouses Handling Mechanically Har-
vested Potatoes, by J. S. Norton, R. E. L.
Greene and J. M. Myers ---.-


32 5,000


15,000


40 20,000

8 15,000

4 7,500

6 5,000

11 10,000


10 6,000



11 7,500



13 5,000


The quarterly research journal, Sunshine State Agricultural Research
Report, was continued, each of the four issues being 200 pages, with
10,000 copies run. It continued to draw a favorable response.

BROADCASTING ACTIVITIES
Releases for radio and television broadcasting were expanded with
the addition Feb. 10, 1958, of United Press to the weekly mailing of the
farm roundup copy and also the weekly news releases. Distribution of
these over its wire services was continued by the Associated Press, giv-
ing practically saturated coverage of Florida radio stations. Farm flashes
-about five minutes daily for five days a week-were continued to 52
Florida radio stations, 104 of these releases being based on information
by Station workers.
Five radio stations were supplied 112 talks, interviews and special
features by Experiment Station workers through our tape service. Work
was started on production and distribution of one minute informational
and promotional spot announcements for radio stations.
The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, the University of Florida radio
station, continued to be a major radio outlet. In 309 broadcasts, 176
talks were made by Experiment Station staff members other than Edi-
tors. The Farm Question Box, using questions answered by Station and
Extension workers, was presented 50 times by the Experiment Station
Editor.
The Assistant Editor continued to produce about one sound motion
picture film a week for television use, and approximately half of those
produced concerned Experiment Station personnel. This year he pro-
duced 24 shows dealing with Experiment Station staff members and







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


these were presented in 77 showing over five television stations. They
were used in 16 other showings as straight motion pictures.
Most of them concerned timely information and suggestions, four
were of the newsreel type, and three were "visits" to North Florida,
Range Cattle and Gulf Coast stations.

NEWSPAPER AND FARM JOURNAL MATERIALS
News stories were supplied frequently to Associated Press and United
Press wire services for distribution to daily papers. While no record
was kept, these averaged more than two a week.
Farm page editors and special correspondents of some dailies were
assisted in obtaining news stories, feature articles and photographs deal-
ing with research work and research results.
With the beginning of this fiscal year the Agricultural Extension
Service changed from a printed weekly clipsheet to a mimeographed
weekly news service, but this service continued to carry articles about
Experiment Station workers and their research and timely suggestions
to weekly newspapers throughout the state.
Occasionally, farm papers reprinted articles carried in the Station's
quarterly Sunshine State Agricultural Research Report, and they printed
numerous articles by staff members other than Editors.
Farm journals continued to make generous use of materials supplied
by Experiment Station Editors. One Assistant Editor had a page or more
each month in one Florida magazine devoted to ornamentals and tropi-
cal living. A recapitulation reveals that four national farm magazines
printed four articles for 120 column inches, and four Florida farm publi-
cations published 29 articles for 965 column inches by Station Editors.

THE JOURNAL SERIES
Articles by staff members were sent to technical publications in ever-
larger numbers. Each article was edited and assigned a Journal Series
number, and reprints were ordered and distributed after it was printed.
Following is a list of 128 Journal Series articles published during the
fiscal year:
332. Effect of Stage of Gestation on Succinoxidase Activity of Fetal and
Maternal Swine Hearts, by R. L. Shirley, R. N. Fitzwater, H. W.
Newland and G. K. Davis. Proc. Soc. of Exp. Biol. and Med. 96: 238-
239. 1957.
343. A Virus Disease of Lupines Caused by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus,
by M. K. Corbett. Phytopathology 48:2:86-91. Feb. 1958.
349. A Relation of Acidity to Variation in Browning of Canned Grape-
fruit Sections During Storage, by R. L. Huggart, F. W. Wenzel and
E. L. Moore. Food Tech. 11:12:638-641. 1957.
403. Distribution of Ca45 in the Tissues of a Steer Fed Grass From
Land That Received Labeled Fertilizer, by R. L. Shirley, W. K.
Robertson, J. T. McCall, J. R. Neller and G. K. Davis. Jour. of the
Fla. Acad. of Sci. 20:2:133-136. 1957.
408. Reducing Losses in Ethylene Degreening of Tangerines, by W.
Grierson and W. F. Newhall. Proc. of Amer. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 67:
236-243. 1956.
472. Soil Microbiological Trends and Their Relation to the Growth of
Celery and the Nutrient Status of the Soil, by Charles F. Eno,
Philip J. Westgate and William G. Blue. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. 16:
165-175. 1956.







Annual Report, 1958


480. Hereditary Resistance to Tobacco-Mosaic Virus in Tomato, by
James M. Walter. Phytopathology 46: 9: 513-516. Sept. 1956.
483. Control of Blossom-end Rot of Tomatoes, by Carroll M. Geraldson.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 69: 309-317. 1957.
505. Chemical Weed Control for Gladiolus, by S. S. Woltz. Amer. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 69:549-555. 1957.
508. The Effect of 2,4-dichloroprophenoxyacetic Acid on the Respiration
of Etiolated Pea Seedlings, by T. E. Humphreys and W. M. Dugger,
Jr. Plant Physiology 32: 6: 530-536. Nov. 1957.
519. Effect of Nitrogen on Root Development of Valencia Orange Trees,
by Harry W. Ford, Walther Reuther and Paul F. Smith. Amer. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 70:237-244. 1957.
520. A Method of Propagating Citrus Rootstock Clones by Leaf Bud
Cuttings, by Harry W. Ford. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 69:204-207. 1957.
527. The Influence of Boron on Starch Phosphorylase and Its Signifi-
cance in Translocation of Sugars in Plants, by W. M. Dugger, Jr.,
T. E. Humphreys and Barbara Calhoun. Plant Physiology 32:4:
364-370. July 1957.
528. Comparison of Surface and Subsurface Placement of Superphos-
phate on Growth and Uptake of Phosphorus by Sodded Grasses in
Soils of High Phosphate-Fixing Capacity, by J. R. Neller and C. E.
Hutton. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 49: 347-351. 1957.
541. Plant Populations, Date of Planting and Nitrogen Levels for Field
Corn, by I. M. Wofford, E. S. Horner and D. E. McCloud. Soil Sci.
Soc. Fla. 16: 352-359. 1956.
542. The Effect of Progesterone on Gains and Egg Formation in 16-Week-
Old Pullets, by S. A. Duchaine, J. Clyde Driggers and A. C. War-
nick. Poultry Science 36:5. 940-43. Sept. 1957.
570. The Culture of Rice on Organic Soils A World Survey, by V. E.
Green, Jr. Agron. Jour. 49: 468-472. 1957.
571. Effect of Boron on Peanuts, by Henry C. Harris and R. L. Gilman.
Soil Science 84:3: 233-242. Sept. 1957.
572. Factors Affecting Calcium Nutrition of Celery, Tomato and Pepper,
by C. M. Geraldson. Proc. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. 21:6: 621-625. 1957.
573. A Study of Some Laboratory Methods for Determining Calcium
and Magnesium, by H. L. Carver and W. K. Robertson. Soil Sci.
Soc. Fla. 16: 258-271. Nov. 1956.
575. The Effect of Various Soil Treatments on the Manganese Content
of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco Leaves, by B. D. Hurley, W. L. Pritchett
and H. L. Breland. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. 16: 230-237. Nov. 1956.
576. The Relationship of Leaf Position (Priming) to Yield and Compo-
sition of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco, by H. L. Breland, R. R. Kincaid,
and W. L. Pritchett. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. 16: 238-248. 1956.
577. Some Economic Aspects of Formulating Water Policy, by W. K.
McPherson. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. 16: 102-109. 1956.
578. The Effect of Rates of Irrigation, Fertilizers and Plant Spacings on
the Yield And Quality of Flue-Cured Tobacco in Florida, by Fred
Clark and J. M. Myers. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. 16: 249-257. 1956.
580. Physiological Genetics, by Howard J. Teas. Ann. Revs. of Plant
Physiology 8: 393-412. 1957.
586. The Utilization of Water by Agriculture in Florida, by J. M. Myers
and T. C. Skinner. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. 16: 96-101. 1956.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


587. The Effect of Several Herbicides on Pasture Grasses, by J. E. Mc-
Caleb and D. W. Jones. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. 16: 294-296. Nov. 1956.
588. The Comparative Rate of Nitrification by Anhydrous Ammonia,
Urea and Ammonium Sulfate in Sandy Soils, by C. F. Eno and W.
G. Blue. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. 21:4: 392-396. July- Aug. 1957.
589. Cultivation at 370C. of a Trypanosome (Trypanosoma theileri) from
Cows with Depressed Milk Production, by Miodrag Ristic and
William Trager. Journal of Protozoology 5:2: 146-148. 1958.
590. Weed Control Problems in Florida Citrus Groves, by W. A. Siman-
ton and J. R. King. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. 16: 297-304. 1956.
591. Abundance of Aphids and Caterpillars in Commercial Cabbage
Fields in the Vicinity of Sanford, Florida, by John W. Wilson. Fla.
Entomologist 40:3: 96-101. Sept. 1957.
593. An Aceto-Osmium Method for Demonstrating Nematodes in Citrus
Roots, by A. C. Tarjan and H. W. Ford. Stain Technology 32:4:
171-174. July 1957.
594. Control of Citrus Fruit Russet in Florida with Zineb, by Fran. E.
Fisher. Phytopathology 47:7: 433-437. July 1957.
597. Effect of Storage Treatment on Growth and Flowering of Tulips in
Florida, by R. D. Dickey. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 70: 461-477. 1957.
598. The Characteristics of Agglutinating Antigens of Vibro fetus Vari-
ants: I. Effects of Heat and Formalin on Serological Activity, by
M. Ristic, F. H. White, R. B. Doty, M. Herzberg, and D. A. Sanders.
Am. Jour. of Vet. Res. 18:69: 764-770. Oct. 1957.
599. Effects of Feeding Aureomycin to Dairy Calves, by S. P. Marshall,
J. M. Wing and P. T. D. Arnold. Jour. of Dairy Science 40:10:
1242-1249. Oct. 1957.
600. A New Insect Host Relationship, by R. A. Morse and S. H. Kerr.
Fla. Entomologist 40:3: 77-80. Sept. 1957.
603. Effect of Para Amino Salicylic Acid and Chlortetracycline Alone
and in Combination on Dairy Calves, by J. M. Wing. Jour. of An.
Science 16:4: 854-857. Nov. 1957.
605. Use of Chelates in Citrus Production in Florida, by Ivan Stewart
and C. D. Leonard. Soil Science 84:1: 87-97. July 1957.
606. Boron Contamination of Soil Samples Collected in Paper Bags,
by H. W. Winsor. Soil Science 84:5: 389-394. Nov. 1957.
607. Detection of Anaplasma marginale by Means of Fluorescein Labeled
Antibody, by M. Ristic, F. H. White and D. A. Sanders. Am. Jour.
of Vet. Res. 18:69: 924-928. Oct. 1957.
608. Crimped Oats for Dairy Cattle, by R. B. Becker, P. T. D. Arnold,
J. M. Wing, J. T. McCall and G. K. Davis. Jour. of Dairy Science
40:12: 1550-1553. Dec. 1957.
609. Local Lesions and Cross-Protection Studies with Yellow Bean
Mosaic Virus, by M. K. Corbett. Phytopathology 47:9: 573-574.
Sept. 1957.
610. Pathological Changes Associated with Dictyocaulus Viviparus
(Bloch) Infections in Calves, by C. F. Simpson, A. E. Wade, W. R.
Dennis and L. E. Swanson. Am. Jour. of Vet. Res. 18:69: 747-755.
Oct. 1957.
611. Determination of the Chemical Oxygen Demand of Citrus Waste
Water, by R. R. McNary, R. W. Wolford and M. H. Dougherty.
Sewage and Industrial Wastes 29:8: 894-900. Aug. 1957.







Annual Report, 1958


612. Methods of Analyzing Soil Extracts for Potassium, Calcium and
Magnesium Using the Beckman D. U. Flamephotometer, by A. S.
Baker. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. 16: 272-282. 1956.
618. Influence of Maturity and Storage on the Seed Shell-out of Southern
Peas, by M. W. Hoover. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 70: 291-296. 1957.
620. An Evaluation of Ten Phosphorus Sources by Growth of Four
Field Crops, by W K. Robertson and C. E. Hutton. Agron. Jour.
50: 24-28. 1958.
622. Infectivity of Colonial Variants of Vibrio Fetus Strains for the
Chick Embryo, by F. H. White, M. Ristic and D. A. Sanders. Am.
Jour of Vet. Res. 19:70: 205-208. Jan. 1958.
623. Effect of Cortisone on the Mechanism of Anaplasma Immunity in
Experimentally Infected Calves. I. Hematological and Immunosero-
logical Studies, by M. Ristic, F. H. White, J. H. Green and D. A.
Sanders. Am. Jour. of Vet. Res. 19:70: 37-43. Jan. 1958.
624. Effect of Cortisone on the Mechanism of Anaplasma Immunity in
Experimentally Infected Calves. II. Pathological Studies, by M.
Ristic and W. L. Sippel. Am. Journ. Vet. Res. 19:70: 44-50. Jan.
1958.
625 Continuous Automatic Propagation of Dairy Cultures, by H. H.
Wilkowske and E. L. Fouts. Jour. of Dairy Science 41:1: 49-56.
Jan. 1958.
626. An Emended Description of the Marine Nematode Genus Halenchus
Cobb, 1933 (Tylenchinae), by A. C. Tarjan. Jour. of Fla. Acad.
Sciences 20:2: 121-125. 1957.
627. Methods of Compensating for Land Owners' Damages Attributed to
Public Control of Water Levels; A Case Study of the Islands in
Lake Okeechobee, Florida; by R. L. Lassiter, Jr., and W. K. Mc-
Pherson. Jour. of Land Econ. 34:1: 38-43. Feb. 1958.
628. Effect of Method of Feeding Methionine and Potassium Orotate to
Young Calves, by J. M. Wing. Jour. of Dairy Science 40:12: 1617-
1620. Dec. 1957.
629. The Influence of Certain Antibiotics on the Palatability of Swine
Rations, by D. C. Tomlin, H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs, Jr.,
Jour. of An. Science 17:1: 42-46. Feb. 1958.
630. Anthracnose, An Undescribed Disease of Celery in the Everglades,
by R. S. Cox. Plant Dis. Rep. 41:9: 790-793. Sept. 15, 1957.
631. Feeding and Reproduction of the Nematode Hemicycliophora par-
vana, by J. L. Ruehle and J. R. Christie. Proc. Helminthological
Soc. of Wash. 25:1: 57-60. Jan. 1958.
632. Establishment of the Parasite Anagyrus Antoninae in Florida for
Control of Rhodesgrass Scale, by D. D. Questel and W. G. Genung.
Fla. Ento. 40:4: 123-125. Dec. 1957.
633. Observations of the Effect of Fungicides on Gray Mold and Leafspot
and on the Chemical Composition of Strawberry Plant Tissues, by
R. S. Cox and J. P. Winfree. P1. Dis. Reptr. 41:9: 755-759. Sept. 15,
1957.
634. Post-Harvest Chemical Treatment for the Control of Strawberry
Fruit Rots, by B. D. Thompson. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 71:224-230.
1958.
635. A New Genus, Pseudhalenchus (Tylenchinae: Nematoda) with
Description of Two New Species, by A. C. Tarjan. Helminthological
Soc. of Wash. 25:1: 20-25. Jan. 1958.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


636. Color Development Characteristics of Several Tomato Varieties,
by L. H. Halsey and F. S. Jamison. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 71: 344-
348. 1958.
637. Morphological and Serological Characteristics of Fresh Isolates of
Vibrio Fetus and Other Vibrios Inhabiting the Bovine and Ovine
Genital Tract, by M. Ristic. F. H. White and R. B. Doty. Amer.
Jour. Vet. Res. 19:70: 90-107. Jan. 1958.
638. Recent Developments on the Control of Foliar Diseases of Tomatoes
in South Florida, by R. S. Cox and N. C. Hayslip. P1. Dis. Reptr.
41:10: 878-883. Oct. 15, 1957.
639. Studies on Corn Earworm Control in the Everglades, by Emmett
D. Harris, Jr. Fla. Ento. 41:1: 17-22. March 1958.
641. Fungicides for the Control of Early Blight of Celery, by J. F. Darby.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 134-136. 1957.
642. Residues Resulting from Application of Demeton to Cabbage and
Celery, by John W. Wilson and C. H. Van Middelem. Jour. Econ.
Entom. 51:2: 175-178. Apr. 1, 1958.
643. Factors Affecting the Results of Corn Earworm Control Studies,
by Emmett D. Harris, Jr. Fla. Ento. 41:2: 51-60. June 1958.
644. Chemicals Which Act as Combination Herbicides, Nematocides
and Soil Fungicides: I. Effect on Field-seeded Tomatoes, by D. S.
Burgis and A. J. Overman. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 137-139.
1957.
645. Fruit Piercing Moth, Gonodonata nutrix (Cramer), Attacks Oranges
in Florida, by John R. King and W. L. Thompson. Fla. Ento. 41:2:
61-65. June 1958.
646. The Internal Color and Carotenoid Pigments of Florida Red and
Pink Grapefruits, by S. V. Ting and E. J. Deszyck. Amer. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 71: 271-277. 1958.
648. Nitrate Accumulation in Everglades Forages, by A. E. Kretschmer,
Jr. Agron. Jour. 50: 314-316. June 1958.
649. Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilization of Potted Chrysanthemums,
by S. S. Woltz. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 346-350. 1957.
650. Three Years' Bush Snap Bean Variety Trials on Sandy Soils of
Lower East Coast, by H. Y. Ozaki. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70:
113-115. Oct. 1957.
651. Further Studies of the Phytotoxicity of Pesticides to Ornamental
Plants, by S. H. Kerr and E. W. McElwee. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 70: 379-380. 1957.
653. Procedures Used for Rapid Evaluation of Citrus for Resistance to
Certain Endoparasitic Nematodes, by Harry W. Ford and William
A. Feder. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 71: 278-284. June 1958.
654. Influence of Bacterial Soft Rot, Depth to Water Table, Source of
Nitrogen, and Soil Fumigation on Production of Lettuce in the
Everglades, by J. P. Winfree, R. S. Cox, and D. S. Harrison. Phyto-
pathology 48:6: 311-316. June 1958.
655. Row Orientation and Its Effect on the Growth of Celery and Certain
Soil Factors, by Charles F. Eno and Philip J. Westgate. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 70: 115-120. 1957.
656. Chemicals Which Act as Combination Herbicides, Nematocides and
Soil Fungicides: II. Effect on Soil Microorganisms, by A. J. Over-
man and D. S. Burgis. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 139-143.
Oct. 1957.







Annual Report, 1958


657. Okinawa Peach Shows Promising Resistance to Root-Knot Nemw-
todes, by R. H. Sharpe. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 320-322. 1957.
658. Composition and Organoleptic Evaluation of Portions of Celery
Stalks, by C. B. Hall. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 204-208. 1957.
659. Comparison of Broadcast and Row Fertilization for Potatoes on
Kanapaha Fine Sand, by John G. A. Fiskell and W. K. Robertson.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 96-103. 1957.
660. Bionomics of Southern Potato Wireworm, Conoderus falli Lane.
I. Life History in Florida, by D. M. Norris, Jr. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 70: 109-111. 1957.
661. Virus Diseases of Gladiolus in Florida, by R. F. Bozarth and M. K.
Corbett. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 364-370. 1957.
662. 'Soft-nose', a Physiological Disorder in Mango Fruits, by T. W.
Young. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 280-283. 1957.
663. Five Year Summary on Fungicidal Control of Watermelon Foliage
Diseases, by N. C. Schenek and J. M. Crall. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 70: 107-109. 1957.
664. Preliminary Studies on the Utilization of Cull Tomatoes, by Mau-
rice W. Hoover and R. A. Dennison. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
70: 211-214. 1957.
665. Current Information Relating to Barriers for the Burrowing Ne-
matode, by R. F. Suit and T. L. Brooks. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
70: 55-57. 1957.
666. How Burrowing Nematodes Affect Citrus Roots, by E. P. DuCharme.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 58-60. 1957.
667. Some Possible Cases of Insect Resistance to Insecticides in Florida,
by W. G. Genung. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 148-152. 1957.
668. Effect of Plant Spacing on Yield and Plant and Ear Characteristics
of a Single and Double Eared Sweet Corn Hybrid, by Emil A. Wolf
and Howard W. Burdine. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 90-93. 1957.
670. Thimet Plus Oil Emulsion Controls Tea Scale, by L. C. Kuitert.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 370-372. 1957.
671. Iron Chlorosis in Avocados, by Roy W. Harkness and J. L. Malcolm.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 297-300. 1957.
672. Experimental Results of the Control of the Cabbage Looper Dur-
ing the 1956-57 Growing Season, by John W. Wilson, D. O. Wolfen-
barger, et al. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 156-161. 1957.
673. Occurrence of Wood Pocket (Blotch), Chimeric Breakdown, and
Endoxerosis in Florida, With Particular Reference to the Variety
Tahiti (Persian) Lime, by L. C. Knorr and J. F. L. Childs. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 75-81. 1957.
674. Soil Soluble Salts Determination of and Association with Plant
Growth, by C. M. Geraldson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 121-
126. 1957.
675. Effects of Amine-type 2,4-D Hormone Sprays on Yield, Skin-color
and Skinning of Red Pontiac Potatoes, by E. N. McCubbin. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 93-96. 1957.
676. Pregelation in Bitter Orange Marmalade Bases, by A. H. Rouse
and C. D. Atkins. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 223-228. 1957.
677. Some Factors to Consider in Determining Clarification in Frozen
Orange Concentrate, by C. D. Atkins, A. H. Rouse and E. L. Moore.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 185-188. 1957.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


678. Phosphatic Insecticides Mixed with Oil Emulsion for Scale Control
and Their Effect on Fruit Quality, by W. L. Thompson and E. J.
Deszyck. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 31-38. 1957.
679. Chemical Analysis of Citrus Bioflavanoids, by R. Hendrickson and
J. W. Kesterson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 196-203. 1957.
680. Comparison of Experimental Miticides for the Control of Purple
Mite, Metatetranychus citri (McG.), on Citrus, by John R. King
and Roger B. Johnson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 69-75. Oct.
1957.
681. Effect of Wetting and Top Icing Upon the Quality of Vacuum-
Cooled and Hydrocooled Sweet Corn, by R. K. Showalter. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 214-219. 1957.
682. Irrigation Experiments With Tomatoes on a Rockdale Soil, by
John L. Malcolm and Roy W. Harkness. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
70: 126-133. 1957.
683. Effect of Pack-Out on Growers' Profits, by W. Grierson. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 21-28. 1957.
684. Preliminary Studies on Cooling Florida Oranges Prior to Packing,
by W. Grierson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 264-272. 1957.
685. Summer Cover Crops in Potato Production, by D. L. Myhre. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 104-106. 1957.
686. Note on the Selection of Types of Certain Nematode Species, by
A. C. Tarjan. Nematologica 3: 79-80. 1958.
687. Relation Between Moisture Conditions and Rust Mite Infestations,
by Robert M. Pratt. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 48-51. 1957.
688. Effect of Date of Packing on Quality of Canned Grapefruit, by
R. L. Huggart, F. W. Wenzel and E. L. Moore. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 70: 188-192. 1957.
689. Zineb Controls Citrus Rust Mite, by Roger B. Johnson, John R.
King and J. J. McBride, Jr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 38-48.
1957.
690. Chemical Modification of Geotropic Bending in the Snapdragon,
by Howard J. Teas and Thomas J. Sheehan. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 70: 391-398. 1957.
691. Sansevieria for Ornamental Use, by F. D. Wilson, C. C. Seale and
J. F. Joyner. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 70: 354-359. 1957.
696. Titres of 3 Nonpersistent Aphid-borne Viruses Affecting Pepper
in South Florida, by John N. Simons. Phytopathology 48:5: 265-
268. May, 1958.
697. Residue Studies of DDT and Malathion on Turnip Tops, Collards,
Snap Beans and Lettuce, by Robert E. Waites and C. H. Van
Middelem. Jour. of Eco. Ento. 51:3: 306-308. June 1958.
701. Feather Meal as a Source of Protein for Growing-Finishing Swine,
by G. E. Combs, W. L. Alsmeyer and H. D. Wallace. Jour. of An.
Science 17:2: 468-472. May, 1958.
703. The Effects of Soil Applications of Ten Chlorinated Hydrocarbon
Insecticides on Soil Microorganisms and the Growth of Stringless
Black Valentine Beans, by Charles F. Eno and Paul H. Everett.
Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 22:3: 235-238. May-June 1958.
716. Maneb-Oil Injury to Grapefruit, by Fran E. Fisher. P1. Dis. Reptr.
42:2: 266-267. Feb. 1958.







Annual Report, 1958


721. Tomato Ringspot Virus Associated with Stunt or Stub Head Disease
of Gladiolus in Florida, by R. F. Bozarth and M. K. Corbett. P1.
Dis. Reptr. 42:2 217-267. Feb. 15, 1958.
725. Wild Grasses as Possible Alternate Hosts of "Hoja blanca" (White
Leaf) Disease of Rice, by Victor E. Green, Jr., and Joseph R.
Orsenigo. P1. Dis. Reptr. 42:3: 342-345. March 15, 1958.
727. Utilization of Citrus By-Products, by J. W. Kesterson and R.
Hendrickson. Economic Botany 12:2: 164-185. April-June, 1958.
732. The Burrowing Nematode, Radopholus similis, in Roots of Crotalaria
spectabilis, by Harry W. Ford and Chancellor I. Hannon. P1. Dis.
Reptr. 42:4: 461-463. April 15, 1958.
740. Extent of Suspectibilty Within Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L., to
Root-Knot Nematodes, by T. E. Summers, J. B. Pate and R. D.
Wilson. P1. Dis. Reptr. 42:5: 591-593. May 15, 1958.
742. Root-Knot Nematodes, A Serious Problem of Kenaf in Florida, by
T. E. Summers and C. C. Seale. P1. Dis. Reptr. 42:6: 792-810.
June 15, 1958.
743. Observations on Fungous Diseases of Rice in Florida, by Victor E.
Green, Jr. PI. Dis. Reptr. 42:5: 623-628. May 15, 1958.
747. Resistance of Hibiscus eetveldianus to Root-Knot Nematodes and
the Possibilities of Its Use as a Source of Resistance in Kenaf,
Hibiscus cannabinus L., by J. B. Pate, T. E. Summers and M. Y.
Menzel. PI. Dis. Reptr. 42:6: 796-797. June 15, 1958.
750. Comparative Effects of Fumigation with Chloropicrin and Methyl
Bromide on Mineralization of Nitrogen in Everglades Peat, by
J. P. Winfree and R. S. Cox. P1. Dis. Reptr. 42:6: 807-810. June
15, 1958.

DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION ON
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH RESULTS
State Project 670 William G. Mitchell
This project was inactive during the year.







96 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ENTOMOLOGY DEPARTMENT

Work was continued on 14 research projects and two additional ones
were set up. Several members of the department participated in the
new Station-wide insecticide testing project. A new project concerned
with unfruitfulness in tangelos was initiated in cooperation with the
Citrus Station. The two projects on pecan insects are terminated with
this report, but some phases of the work will continue under a more
comprehensive project soon to be activated.
Control experiments on chinch bugs resulted in two additional ma-
terials being recommended for the control of this serious pest of St.
Augustinegrass. A new approach was made to the control of tobacco
pests when Bacillus spores, applied in a spray, were tested against tobacco
hornworms and budworms. Control tests on beans, corn and tobacco
showed that a new material, N-methyl-l-naphthyl carbamate (Sevin),
was very effective in controlling Mexican bean beetles, corn earworms,
budworms and hornworms.
The unusually cold winter of 1957-58, with severe freezes in Decem-
ber, January and February, seriously disrupted much of the field work
on pests of vegetables, ornamentals and honey plants, as well as pesticide
residue studies. There was even some injury to plants in inadequately
heated greenhouses.
Two new Orlyt green houses will aid materially with research on
ornamentals, vegetables and honey plants.

CONTROL OF THE PECAN NUT CASEBEARER
State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
This project was continued at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory in
cooperation with the Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Re-
search Service, USDA.
Control measures for the nut casebearer are applied during spring
and early summer when the insect is most active. Due to other basic
research studies in the spring of 1958, work on this project was restricted
to making field observations on the activity and prevalence of first
generation larvae.
This will be the last report under this project. Research on the nut
casebearer will be included in a more comprehensive new project which
will cover all of the common pecan pests.

CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID PESTS OF
WOODY ORNAMENTALS
State Project 531 L. C. Kuitert and S. H. Kerr
Sprays containing American Cyanamid 12880 were effective against
tea scales infesting camellias and citrus whiteflies infesting gardenias.
Treatment was made with a three-gallon compressed air sprayer. The
same material, applied with a 15-gallon power garden sprayer, gave
good control of the scale, Phenacaspis natalensis Ckll., infesting mag-
nolias (M. grandiflora). The material was especially effective against
males and immature female scales. No phytotoxic effects were observed
on these plants or on azaleas and roses.
Potted camellia plants were dipped in sprays containing American
Cyanamid 12880, Dibrom, Trithion and parathion to compare them for
effectiveness in controlling tea scales. Trithion gave control comparable







Annual Report, 1958


to that obtained with parathion; Dibrom was ineffective and American
Cyanamid 12880 caused partial defoliation.
Sprays containing demeton, Aramite, Kelthane and Thimet gave good
control of light to medium infestations of two-spotted spider mites in-
festing roses. Kelthane and Aramite also gave good control when the
mite population was relatively high and increasing, but demeton and
Thimet were not effective under these conditions. Kelthane was superior
to Aramite in residual qualities. (Se also Project 889, Entomology
Department.)

INTRODUCTION AND TESTING OF NECTAR AND POLLEN
PRODUCING PLANTS IN FLORIDA
State Project 583 F. A. Robinson and B. G. Watson
The work this year consisted largely of making observations on the
growth of established honey plants and measurements of their nectar.
Two rapidly growing seven-year-old everflowering locust trees, Robinia
pseudoacacia L., now about 25 feet tall, again produced large quantities
of nectar. Twenty-five locust seedlings planted in 1957 survived, and
the largest is now about 10 feet tall. The white tupelo, Nyssa ogeeche
Marsh, and water tupelo, N. uniflora Wangenh., near Bivan's Arm con-
tinued to make excellent growth, and 25 of the trees bloomed in the
spring of 1958. Four fall-blooming elms, Ulmus parvifolia L., bloomed
in the fall of 1957 for the first time. No honeybees were observed at
their blooms, and attempts to obtain nectar from the flowers were
unsuccessful. A field of white Dutch clover, Trifolium repens L., which
secreted sufficient nectar to attract honeybees in 1956 and 1957 produced
only minute quantities of nectar this year and was not attractive to
honeybees. The planting of Japanese buckwheat, which repeatedly re-
seeded itself since 1956, was destroyed by cold during the winter of
1957-58.
Balsam (touch-me-not) plants were grown in a greenhouse equipped
with a humidifying unit to study the effect of atmospheric humidity on
nectar secretion. Nectar collected from flowers developing under levels of
humidity ranging from 45 to 88 percent showed sugar concentrations of
29.33 to 32.65 percent. The plants were killed by cold when only four
series of nectar samples had been obtained. There was no indication
of any correlation between humidity and amount or concentration of
nectar.

CONTROL OF HICKORY SHUCKWORM ON PECANS
State Project 597 A. M. Phillips
This project at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory was in coopera-
tion with the Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research
Service, USDA.
Three applications of EPN at two-week intervals gave good control
of the shuckworm on the Mahan variety when 86.1 percent of the nuts
on upsprayed trees were infested. Under the same conditions Guthion
gave only fair control and Thiodan gave no control of the shuckworm.
On the Moore variety when 44.5 percent of the nuts on unsprayed trees
were infested, three applications of EPN gave excellent control of the
shuckworm and three applications of a combination spray of EPN and
malathion, each at half strength, gave good control. On both varieties
three applications of these insecticides were more effective than two.
During the spring of 1958 work was continued on attractants for
shuckworm moths and preliminary cage tests were made with 39 addi-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


tional materials. Six of the more attractive ones, together with 10 ma-
terials from the 19'57 test, warrant further study.
Cage tests in 1957 showed that the shuckworm moths lived an aver-
age of 4.4 days without food or water. There was very little increase in
longevity when food mixed with water was made available to them.
The average numbers of days that the moths lived with the various
foods were as follows: sugar, 5.6; honey, 5.9; sugar and yeast, 5.8; honey
and yeast, 5.3; yeast, 4.0; and water alone, 5.4. Attempts to obtain eggs
from captive moths were unsuccessful, except in one case out of 41
trials, and that individual laid only a few eggs.
This will be the last report on this project. Research on the hickory
shuckworm will be included in a more comprehensive new project
which will include all of the common pecan pests.

CONTROL OF INSECT AND RELATED PESTS OF PASTURES
State Project 616 A. N. Tissot, L. C. Kuitert and R. E. Waites
The Entomology Department phase of this project was inactive this
year. (See also Project 616, Food Technology and Nutrition Department
and Gulf Coast, Everglades, Range Cattle and North Florida Stations.)

PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON VEGETABLES
State Project 650 R. E. Waites
Three foliar sprays of demeton emulsifiable concentrate, each at
8 ounces active ingredient per acre, were applied to snap beans, peppers
and tomatoes. Snap beans sampled six days after the last application
showed residues ranging from 0.32 to 0.45 ppm. Peppers sampled 21
days after the last application showed residues ranging from 0.08 to
0.12 ppm and tomatoes yielded residues of 0.17 ppm 28 days after.
One application of demeton at 8 ounces active ingredient was applied
as a soil drench to peppers and tomatoes at transplant time. Peppers
sampled 42 days after application showed residues ranging from 0.57
to 0.94 ppm and tomatoes showed residues of 0.35 to 0.54 ppm 35 days
after.
Peppers treated with three foliar sprays of DDT, each at 8 ounces
active ingredient per acre, yielded residues of only 0.81 ppm when
sampled four hours after the last application.
Four spray applications each of DDT and parathion emmusifiable con-
centrates, at 8 and 2.4 ounces active ingredient per acre respectively,
were made on turnips and mustard. Samples taken 14 days after the
last application showed DDT residues of 6.0 ppm on turnips and residues
ranging from 5.0 to 7.2 ppm on mustard. Samples of parathion-treated
turnips and mustard taken 11 days after the last application yielded
residues ranging from 0.10 to 0.31 ppm and 0.43 to 0.71 ppm, respectively.
Three spray applications of Thimet emulsifiable concentrate, each at
16 ounces active ingredient per acre, were made on snap beans. Samples
taken 14 days after the last application showed residues of 0.61 to 0.75
ppm.
Three spray applications of toxaphene emulsifiable concentrate, each
at 1.5 and 3.0 pounds active ingredient per acre, were made on head
lettuce. Samples taken 21 days after the last application yielded residues
ranging from 0.09 to 0.64 ppm and 2.26 to 6.41, respectively. (See also
Project 650, Food Technology and Nutrition Department, Central Florida,
Everglades and Gulf Coast Stations, and Potato Investigation Laboratory,
and Project 699, Food Technology and Nutrition Department.)







Annual Report, 1958


BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECTS ATTACKING
CRUCIFEROUS CROPS IN FLORIDA
State Project 669 L .C. Kuitert
Turnips, mustard and collards were planted in October 19'57 for use
in aphid control experiments. Good control of a mole cricket infesta-
tion, which caused severe damage to seedling plants, was obtained with
a bait containing 2.5 percent toxaphene and 2 percent chlordane. Some
aphids were observed during the growing period, but neither aphids
nor other pests became numerous enough for control tests. (See also
Project 669, Central Florida, Everglades and Gulf Coast Stations and
Potato Investigation Laboratory.)

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECT AND
ARACHNID PESTS OF TURF GRASSES
State Project 678 S. H. Kerr and L. C. Kuitert
Tests on the control of chinch bugs in St. Augustinegrass were con-
ducted in Sarasota, Boca Raton, Lauderdale-by-the-Sea and Jacksonville.
Thimet, Dylox, DDT, Diazinon, C&C 8305 and V-C 13 were tried on a
large scale and the first four materials also were used in one versus
two applications. Dylox did not hold up to the promise of earlier tests.
It can give a substantial reduction in chinch bugs, however, if carefully
put on in two applications. Ten pounds actual DDT per acre failed to
control chinch bugs in Sarasota, although it worked well there four
years previously. The phosphatic insecticides. (except Dylox) performed
well at all locations. One application of most materials gave satisfactory
control over the six or eight weeks of observations, but Diazinon had
to be applied twice with a 1V2-2 week interval for good results. As a
result of these and earlier tests, V-C 13 and Diazinon have been added
to the list of recommended insecticides for chinch bug control.
Thiodan, toxaphene, endrin and aldrin were screened on a smaller
scale. None of them gave effective control.
Tests were continued on ground pearl plots set up in 1955. In the
spring of 1957 parathion plots were retreated with a dosage of 10 pounds
actual parathion per acre and the demeton plots with 22 pounds actual
demeton per acre. In the fall, samples were taken from these plots as
well as the V-C 13 and check plots. The only material which has con-
sistently reduced the numbers of ground pearls over the three years
of testing is V-C 13. Even this material cannot be considered really
effective, as large numbers of insects survived. There was no improve-
ment in the appearance of the grass from the use of any of the
pesticides. (See also Project 678, North Florida and Subtropical
Stations.)

IDENTITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL NEMATODES
Hatch Project 695 J. R. Christie
During the two and one-half year period, January 1954 to June 1958
inclusive, a total of 1,008 samples of turf have been examined for nema-
todes. These were collected in many parts of the state, usually from
turf where the grass was making unsatisfactory growth and where
there was reason to suspect nematode damage. Almost without excep-
tion these turf samples harbored plant parasitic nematodes, usually
several kinds. It is doubtful if any lawn, whether the grass is healthy
or otherwise, is ever completely free of them. Damage to the roots of
the grass usually is caused by the simultaneous feeding of several dif-