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|Table of Contents|
|Report of the director|
|Report of the business manager|
|Animal husbandry and nutrition|
|Food technology and nutrition|
|Central Florida station|
|Indian River field laboratory|
|Plantation field laboratory|
|Gulf Coast station|
|South Florida field laboratory|
|North Florida station|
|Range cattle station|
|Suwannee Valley station|
|West central Florida station|
|West Florida station|
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|Table of Contents|
Table of Contents
Report of the director
Report of the business manager
Animal husbandry and nutrition
Food technology and nutrition
Central Florida station
Indian River field laboratory
Plantation field laboratory
Gulf Coast station
South Florida field laboratory
North Florida station
Range cattle station
Suwannee Valley station
West central Florida station
West Florida station
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1957
Report of the Director ................................ ..- -....
Report of the Business Manager ........... -----.
Agricultural Economics ...........- ...- ....--- ...-. .-
Agricultural Engineering ..............
A gronom y ............----.... --- .----...- -- ------
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition .....................--.-----
B otany ................. -- ...........- ......- .... -- --
D airy Science ............... --- ...- ....-- ... ...-- --
Editorial Department ...............-.. -.-.-... --. -
Entom ology ................---....... ... -...--- ------------
Food Technology and Nutrition .......................---
Fruit Crops ............... ...... -.. --- -.-.-- -
U. S. Field Laboratory on Tung Investigations
Library ......................... .- ........-- ..-..---.--
Ornamental Horticulture ............... -- .. ..--..-
Plant Pathology ......... ...--. ..- ...... .- ..-........--.-
Poultry Husbandry -.. ......- ..- ..-- ..----.--
Soils .- .......... ...- ... ...... ..- ...- ...- ......-- -. -
Vegetable Crops ...........------ -----
Veterinary Science --.......--
Central Florida Station ...........- ......-- ... ....-- .
Citrus Station ...............-.-.- --. --.-. -. ..-. -----.-.-
Everglades Station ...............-.. .. --....--. ---.-
Indian River Field Laboratory ................ --.
Plantation Field Laboratory ............... -.-.-.---.
Gulf Coast Station .... .................. ...
South Florida Field Laboratory ....................
North Florida Station ..... .- ...- .....- .. ... .... -
Range Cattle Station ........-..-.- .....- ...- ... ...- .... ...
Sub-Tropical Station ..........-.... .. -.------..------.
Suwannee Valley Station .-....-- .....-..- .....--- .--.- .---.-
W est Central Florida Station .........-- .......... --..-
W est Florida Station ....... ... -......-..-.- .... ...--.
Federal-State Frost Warning Service ...................
Potato Investigations Laboratory ................----....
Strawberry Investigations Laboratory .............-...--
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory
-. .------- 14
.-... ...-- ..-.- 33
-.-.- ...-..-- 55
-- --- 67
---.-.- ..-.-- 77
.......... -- .- ..- .- 87
-- .. ........ 109
....-...- ..-.-.. .- 117
-......-.-.. -.. 125
. I......-........ -- 136
--------- ----- 159
........... ..- 177
.... .-...-....- 188
....... ............. 275
-.---- -. ..-..... 285
.. ..-- .. ....- 293
..... ....--...... 319
..... ............... 359
-- ...- ......-- 362
...-.-- ..-.. .- ..-.. 371
BOARD OF CONTROL
Ralph L. Miller, Chairman, Orlando
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville
J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
S. Kendrick Guernsey, Jacksonville
James J. Love, Quincy
J. Broward Culpepper, Executive Secretary, Tallahassee
J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., President"
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for Agriculture '
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Director
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Associate Director
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assistant Director and Dairy Technologist
R. L. Bartley, B.S.E., Administrative Manager 3
G. R. Freeman, M.S.A., Superintendent of Field Operations
W. H. Jones, M.Agr., Assistant Superintendent of Field Operations
MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist "
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricultural Economist
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist"
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate Agricultural Economist
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Associate Agricultural Economist
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate Marketing Economist
C. N. Smith, M.S., Associate Agricultural Economist
G. L. Capel, Ph.D., Assistant Agricultural Economist, USDA
L. A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist
L. A. Reuss, M.S., Agricultural Economist, USDA 2
G. A. Rowe, B.S.A., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
J. C. Townsend, B.S.A., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
J. B. Owens, B.S., Agricultural Statistician, USDA, Orlando
G. N. Rose, B.S., Associate Agricultural Economist, Orlando
C. L. Crenshaw, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Orlando
F. Rogers, M.S.A., Agricultural Engineer1'
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Associate Agricultural Engineer
E. S. Holmes, M.E., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
J. S. Norton, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
J. R. Raymond, Associate Industrial Engineer, USDA "
J. F. Lee, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, USDA '
F. H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
K. W. Butson, M.S., State Climatologist, USDA'
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist"
F. Clark, M.S.A., Associate Agronomist
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
E. G. Rodgers, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
O. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
V. N. Schroder, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
R. L. Gilman, M.S., Assistant in Agronomy
K. Hinson, Ph.D., Co-operative Agent, USDA 2
J. M. Creel, B.S.A., Interim Assistant in Agronomy
SHead of Department 3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
2 In cooperation with U. S. On leave
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman1
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
M. Koger, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman 3
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Associate Animal Husbandman"
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Associate Physiologist
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman
G. E. Combs, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Animal Husbandman
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman
J. T. McCall, M.S., Assistant in Chemistry
J. C. Outler, Jr., M.S.A., Assistant in Chemistry
W. M. Dugger, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Physiologist
H. J. Teas, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist'
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman"
P. T. D. Arnold, M.S.A., Associate Dairy Husbandman
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Associate Dairy Husbandman
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Associate Dairy Technologist
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Assistant Dairy Husbandman
Editorial and Mailing
J. F. Cooper, M.S.A., Editor and Head ;
W. G. Mitchell, M.S.A., Assistant Editor
M. H. Sharpe, Ph.D., Assistant Editor"
J. W. McAllister, B.S., Assistant Editor
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist1
J. R. Christie, Ph.D., Nematologist
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist'
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant Entomologist
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Assistant Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
Food Technology and Nutrition
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Biochemist
0. D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Economist
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
M. W. Hooever, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Horticulturist
R. O. Townsend, R.N., Assistant in Nutrition
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist and Head
H. L. Barrows, M.S., Chemist, USDA
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturist, USDA '
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Associate Horticulturist
C. B. Shear, M.S., Plant Physiologist, USDA
J. S. Shoemaker, Ph.D., Horticulturist
I. K. Cresap, Librarian
L. T. Urschel, M.S., Assistant Librarian
J. L. Tyson, Assistant in Library
SHead of Department 3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
In cooperation with U. S. 4 On leave
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Horticulturist'
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Horticulturist
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Assistant Turf Technologist
T. J. Sheehan, Ph.D., Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist
P. Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist1 :
E. West, M.S., Botanist and Mycologist"
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist, USDA -
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. E. Arnold, M.S., Associate Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
M. K. Corbett, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
T. E. Freeman, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman 1
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Poultry Husbandman
F. R. Tarver, Jr., M.S., Assistant Poultry Husbandman 3
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist '
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soils Technologist
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist'
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist 3
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Associate Soil Microbiologist
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist'
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Associate Soils Physicist
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Associate Soil Surveyor
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
D. T. Brewer, M.S., Assistant Soil Surveyor
W. H. Kelly, Ph.D., Interim Assistant Soil Chemist
W. R. Smith, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Interim Assistant in Soils
W. H. Thames, Jr., M.S., Interim Assistant in Soil Microbiology
G. C. Horn, Ph.D., Interim Assistant Soil Surveyor
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist "
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian 1
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
R. Richards, B.A., Entomologist, USDA '
M. Ristic, D.V.M., Pathologist
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Associate Veterinarian
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Assistant Parasitologist
F. H. White, Ph.D., Assistant Bacteriologist
R. B. Doty, M.S., Assistant in Bacteriology
W. M. Stone, Jr., M.S., Assistant in Parasitology
1Head of Department Cooperative, other divisions. U. of I.
SIr cooperation with U. S. I On leave
Central Florida Station, Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
Citrus Station, Lake Alfred
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Chemist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
R. Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
A. H. Krezdorn, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
W. R. F. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Associate Histologist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist-Pathologist
A. H. Rouse, M.S., Associate Pectin Chemist
I. Stewart, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist
A. C. Tarian, Ph.D., Associate Nematologist
F. E. Fisher, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Physiologist
C. I. Hannon, Ph.D., Assistant Nematologist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Assistant Chemist
R. R. Hunziker, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
W. H. Kahl, M.S., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
J. R. King, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Interim Assistant Biochemist
J. J. McBride, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Assistant Biochemist
A. P. Pieringer, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Assistant in Chemistry
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
L. M. Sutton, B.S., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Assistant in Entomology-Pathology
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Collaborator
R. W. Barron, B.A., Collaborator
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Collaborator
R. M. Keen, Assistant in Library
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Collaborator
E. F. Hopkins, Ph.D., Collaborator
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Collaborator
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Collaborator
R. R. McNary, Ph.D., Collaborator
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Collaborator
1 Head of Department 3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
2 In cooperation with U. S. On leave
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Collaborator
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Collborator
Everglades Station, Belle Glade
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
T. Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engineer
R. S. Cox, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist
J. R. Orsenigo, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Associate Animal Husbandman
C. C. Seale, D.I.C.T.A., Associate Agronomist
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer, USDA 2
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Associate Horticulturist
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
D. W. Beardsley, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman
H. W. Burdine, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Animal Nutritionist
W. G. Genung, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
E. D. Harris, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
D. S. Harrison, M.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Engineer
H. E. Ray, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
J. N. Simons, Ph.D., Assistant Virologist
J. D. Winfree, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 507, Fort Pierce
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Entomologist
M. Cohen, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
A. E. Stall, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
Plantation Field Laboratory, Fort Lauderdale
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
Gulf Coast Station, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Bradenton
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. 0. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
G. Sowell, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
A. J. Overman, M.S., Assistant Soils Microbiologist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
South Florida Field Laboratory, Immokalee, Florida
D. G. A. Kelbert, Associate Horticulturist
North Florida Station, Quincy
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist in Charge
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
A. S. Baker, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
F. S. Baker, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Animal Husbandman
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Assistant Entomologist
T. E. Webb, B.S.A., Assistant Agronomist'
Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
1Head of Department
SIn cooperation with U. S.
a Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave
Range Cattle Station, Ona
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. J. Bullock, B.S.A., Interim Assistant in Soils
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Assistant Animal Husbandman
Sub-Tropical Station, Route 2, Box 508, Homestead
G. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
F. B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
J. L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Associate Soils Chemist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist
R. B. Ledin, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
L. A. McFadden, Ph.D., Assistant Horticulturist
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
R. M. Baranowski, M.S., Interim Assistant Entomologist
Suwannee Valley Station, Box 630, Live Oak
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist in Charge
West Central Florida Station, Brooksville
W. C. Burns, M.S., Assistant Acting in Charge, USDA 2
West Florida Station, Route 3, Jay
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
R. L. Jeffers, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
M. C. Lutrick, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
D. L. Myhre, Ph.D., Assistant Soils Chemist
D. M. Norris, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist
J. R. Large, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Associate Entomologist 2
Strawberry, Plant City (Box 2386,. Lakeland)
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Watermelon and Grape, Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture
H. A. Peacock, Ph.D., Assistant Agronomist
Weather Forecasting, Lakeland
W. O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in Charge 2
D. C. Russell, B.S., Associate Meteorologist'
H. W. Davis, Assistant Meteorologist
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorologist
J. G. Georg, Assistant Meteorologist
B. H. Moore, B.A., Assistant Meteorologist
P. A. Mott, Assistant Meteorologist2
0. N. Norman, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist'
R. T. Sherouse, Assistant Meteorologist 2
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorologist
L. L. Benson, B.S., Assistant Meteorologist
1 Head of Department I Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
SIn cooperation with U. S. 4 On leave
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR
Appropriations made for capital additions in the Experiment Station
system by the 1955 Legislature have significantly improved and enlarged
the staff, facilities, and plant. These will be reported below. Since this
list is extensive, and since significant research results are being reported
elsewhere, a summary of these results will be omitted in this section this
However, two new steps have been taken by the Station Directors which
should result in a more efficient and better coordinated program.
The first of these is the setting up of annual meetings of the Directors
with the staffs of each Branch Station, Field Laboratory and Main Station
Department. These meetings are held for the purpose of keeping the
morale of the research personnel at a high level and improving program
by giving members of the research staff an opportunity to ask questions,
to make suggestions direct to the Directors, and to discuss agricultural
problems of the area. The research program is not reviewed at these
meetings, since project outlines, publications and reports keep the Directors
current on this program.
The second innovation is the holding of semi-annual meetings of all
Station, Field Laboratory and Department Heads with the Directors. One
meeting a year is held at the Main Station at Gainesville; the other at
one of the branch stations. Policy, business office procedures, budget prep-
aration and research planning are discussed at these meetings.
Both of these innovations are proving very helpful to the overall re-
search programs of the Stations because of the opportunities afforded for
discussion and better acquaintance within the staff.
A major reorganization has been effected at the Main Station, brought
about by an enlarged program in the horticultural sciences. The teaching,
research and extension functions have been combined in newly organized
departments of Fruit Crops, Ornamental Crops, Vegetable Crops and Food
Technology and Nutrition. The small research department of Home Eco-
nomics was consolidated with the newly created Department of Food Tech-
nology and Nutrition.
Also, the formerly all-College of Agriculture Department of Botany
was enlarged and developed into a combined Experiment Station-College
The reports of these departments are included in this Annual Report for
the first time.
CAPITAL AND PHYSICAL IMPROVEMENTS
The new agricultural building, Dan McCarty Hall, was completed and
occupied in the fall of 1956. This major facility provided much needed space
for teaching personnel and teaching laboratories. Also, it houses some re-
search and extension personnel. For the first time research, teaching and
extension personnel of a few departments were consolidated in one build-
ing. Some other departments have the teaching part of their staff in Dan
McCarty Hall while research and extension staff members are scattered
in various buildings.
The move of some departments into Dan McCarty Hall permitted much
needed expansion of other departments located in Newell and Rolfs Halls.
While excellent progress has been made in major buildings, space is still a
serious problem and several temporary office buildings have been re-repaired
and continue to be used. In Rolfs Hall the Administration and Business
offices were provided with additional floor space and the Herbarium expanded
to double the former floor space.
10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
The Horticulture Unit located a few miles northwest of Gainesville is
now in full operation as a joint facility for the departments of Fruit Crops,
Ornamental Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Soils and Vegetable Crops. A
foreman's cottage has been completed, the permanent irrigation lines have
been extended, and additional land cleared and prepared for planting.
The Agronomy Department has built a new storage shed adjacent to
the Agronomy greenhouse, erected a greenhouse on the Main Station farm
for small grains research and installed a new 10-inch irrigation well on the
Main Station farm, with pump, shelter, and portable pipe.
The Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition completed during
the year an Animal Physiology barn for studying the effect of hormones
and other treatments on the physiology, fertility and reproductive ability
of beef cattle.
At the Dairy Research Unit located at Hague, a three bedroom cottage
was constructed. A bunker silo 60' x 20' x 5' to hold 200 tons silage was
constructed. Four acres of new land were cleared. Equipment for a green
chopping and feeding program was secured, including a forage chopper,
two self-unloading wagons and six portable forage bunkers.
The Entomology Department acquired a new storage shed at the Honey
Plant area which will provide safe and weather-proof protection for ma-
chinery, dusters, sprayers and other equipment and supplies. A new potting
shed located in the Honey Plant area will be used in connection with green-
house work. This shed includes pot storage, soil sterilization and other
The Plant Pathology Department completed a laboratory at the virus
research unit. This air-conditioned room contains the spinco centrifuge and
is used for the pure culture and preparation of viruses. Two greenhouses
21 x 14 feet were obtained, one for small grains research and the other for
legume investigations. An additional laboratory was equipped for turf
grass investigations in Building 866.
The Zellwood farm of The Central Florida Station was greatly improved
through the cooperation of Mr. Hodges, Chief Engineer, and the Zellwood
Drainage District. Drainage and irrigation ditches were dug and all ma-
terials for doubling the size of the storage building were supplied by the
district. Through the Seminole County Farm Bureau, the necessary pockets
and irrigation pump to give good control of the water tables on the entire
property were obtained.
During the year the Citrus Station accomplished practical completion
of the contract work on the new Production Research Building. Also com-
pleted was the installation of 1,800 feet of transit water main at the new
grove site, nine miles north of Haines City on U. S. Highway 27. The fer-
tilizer and insecticide storage shed was wired for provision of lights and
electric power in this facility and fruit storage room was insulated to pro-
vide better temperature control. Work underway, but not completed as
the year ended, includes the construction of two aluminum greenhouses,
building of a separate facility for chromatographic analysis, installation
of utility lines to the new Production Building, and modification of the steam
lines running to the Administration Building.
At the Everglades Station a new animal feeding shelter was constructed
during the year. This facility consist of a 70' x 70' concrete slab with in-
dividual holding pens, a roofed area of 70' x 30', and built-in watering
troughs and feed racks. New pasture holding pens and a loading ramp
have been set up at the northeast corner of the Everglades Station farm to
be used for special studies. A 7,500-gallon pump was installed at the south
end of the main drainage ditch and a control installed in the ditch at the mid-
point of section 10. An experimental 96-foot bunker type silo has been
Annual Report, 1957
built across the fence line dividing two large pastures. The equipment
maintenance shop was remodeled to provide twice as much floor space in
this important facility.
Studies on the degumming of soft fibers have been greatly facilitated
by purchase by the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund of
digesters, a heavy duty centrifuge, a Clark mixing picker, a Mudrick con-
denser and a Billingsley extractor. This industrial type equipment has
been installed in an addition to the fiber research building. This now per-
mits the setting up of an in-line process of fiber handling from the un-
cleaned and unstapled ribbons all the way through the final process of
At the Cortez farm of the Gulf Coast Station, an additional 13 acres
have been cleared and will be planted for the first time this fall.
Physical improvements at the South Florida Field Laboratory near Im-
mokalee are well under way. The State Road Department has completed
paving of an access road extending approximately one-fourth mile from
State Highway 29 to the building site. Construction of the office-laboratory
building and the equipment-storage shelter is 90 percent completed. Eighty
acres of land have been fenced and fencing of the remaining 240 acres of
laboratory property is nearing completion. An eight-inch well has been
drilled to provide water for irrigation. Considerable difficulty has been en-
countered in locating properly qualified personnel to direct the research
program. However, the services of an experienced farm foreman are now
At the Range Cattle Station near Ona a building for machinery storage
and meetings was completed. A 200-ton bunker-type silo was constructed.
Cattle numbers increased from 990 to 1,016 during the year. The Hardee
County Commission assisted with building a road to the feed and hay stor-
age, hay drier and machinery storage buildings. A new hard surface road
on the eastern boundary of the station gives a direct highway connection
to Arcadia and points east and south.
The Sub-Tropical Station at Homestead acquired a new office build-
ing which includes three offices occupied by three of the horticulturists and
library, conference room, studio, and dark room. The building is complete
and occupied but still lacks some furniture. A new head house is 90 per-
cent completed and two greenhouse units have been purchased but not
erected. Also completed is a new soils laboratory housed in the fertilizer
and seed storage building.
At the Potato Investigation Laboratory at Hastings seven acres of old
land were leveled and sloped three to four inches per 100 feet, and 300 feet
of irrigation pipe and fittings were installed to provide more suitable areas
for conducting experimental work.
The Watermelon and Grape Laboratory is undergoing consolidation and
a major move. Approximately 165 acres of land were acquired six miles
south of Leesburg for the relocation of the physical facilities of the lab-
oratory and farm. Wells were drilled at both laboratory and farm sites,
and pump houses and fencing are in the process of construction.
WEATHER SUMMARY FOR MAIN STATION
Temperatures remained well within the historical data limits during the
year. On the Experiment Station Farm, the first Fall freezing temperature
was noted on November 10; the last in Spring occurred on March 10. The
lowest temperature during the year was 21o on November 28th.
Total rainfall was 49.30 inches, approximately 2.50 inches below the
1931-1955 average. Below average monthly rainfall was the rule from July
through February and included a protracted drought from about mid-
12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
October until mid-February. The period November through January, with
only 0.77 inch of rain, is the driest such period since records began in 1898.
Monthly rainfall was average or above for March through June. May was
notably abnormal: more than double average rainfall was recorded and
measurable amounts occurred on 20 of the 31 days. On the average, meas-
urable rainfall occurs on only eight days in May.
A. A. Cook, Asst. Plant Path., Plant Path. Dept., July 1, 1956.
R. B. Doty, Asst. in Bacteriology, Dept. of Vet. Sci., July 1, 1956.
C. S. Hoveland, Int. Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy, July 1, 1956.
R. R. Hunziker, Asst. Soils Chemist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1956.
L. A. McFadden, Asst. Horticulturist, July 1, 1956.
G. F. Schotten, Assistant Editor, Editorial, July 1, 1956.
J. S. Shoemaker, Horticulturist, Dept. of Fruit Crops, July 1, 1956.
F. R. Tarver, Jr., Asst. Poultry Husb., Poultry Dept., July 1, 1956.
W. H. Kelly, Int. Asst. Soils Chemist, Soils Dept., July 16, 1956.
H. J. Teas, Assoc. Biochemist, Dept. of Botany, Aug. 1, 1956.
H. E. Ray, Asst. Chemist, Everglades Station, Aug. 1, 1956.
R. M. Baranowske, Int. Asst. Entomologist, Sub-Tropical Sta., Oct. 1, 1956.
K. D. Butson, State Climatologist, Dept. of Agronomy (U.S. Weather Bu-
reau), Oct. 1, 1956.
P. A. Mott, Asst. Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Ser. (USWB), Oct. 1,
L. L. Benson, Asst. Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Ser. (USWB),
Nov. 1, 1956.
M. Cohen, Asst. Plant Path., Citrus Station, Nov. 1, 1956.
G. C. Horn, Int. Asst. Soils Surveyor, Soils Dept., Dec. 1, 1956.
A. E. Stall, Asst. Plant Path., Everglades Station, Jan. 1, 1957.
H. Peacock, Asst. Agronomist, Watermelon & Grape Lab., Jan. 1, 1957.
R. J. Bullock, Int. Asst. in Soils, Range Cattle Station, Feb. 1, 1957.
W. C. Burns, Asst. An. Husb., Acting in Chg., West Cen. Sta., Feb. 1, 1957.
J. M. Creel, Int. Asst. in Agronomy, Dept. of Agronomy, Feb. 1, 1957.
J. W. McAllister, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., Feb. 1, 1957.
J. R. Orsenigo, Asst. Horticulturist, Everglades Station, Feb. 1, 1957.
W. H. Thames, Jr., Int. Asst. in Soil Microbiology, Soils Dept., Feb. 1, 1957.
F. E. Van Nostran, Asst. Plant Path., Everglades Station, Feb. 1, 1957.
F. O. Holmes, Consultant in Virology, Citrus Station, March 1, 1957.
J. F. Lee, Asst. Agr. Engr., Agr. Engr. Dept. (USDA) March 27, 1957.
J. R. Raymond, Assoc. Industrial Engr., Ag. Engr. (USDA) March 27, 1957.
L. E. Hughes, Assoc. Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Ser. (USWB)
April 1, 1957.
R. M. Keen, Asst. in Library, Citrus Station, April 1, 1957.
A. H. Krezdorn, Assoc. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, April 1, 1957.
W. F. Spencer, Assoc. Soils Chemist, Citrus Station, April 1, 1957.
R. C. Koo, Asst. Soils Physicist, May 1, 1957.
W. G. Blue, Assoc. Biochemist, Dept. of Soils, July 1, 1956.
R. E. Caldwell, Assoc. Chemist, Dept. of Soils, July 1, 1956.
J. F. Darby, Assoc. Plant Path., Cen. Fla. Sta., July 1, 1956.
R. A. Dennison, Biochemist and Head, Dept. of Food Tech., July 1, 1956.
E. P. DuCharme, Plant Pathologist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1956.
C. F. Eno, Assoc. Soils Microbiologist, Dept. of Soils, July 1, 1956.
J. G. Fiskell, Assoc. Biochemist, Dept. of Soils, July 1, 1956.
Annual Report, 1957
H. W. Ford, Assoc. Horticulturist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1956.
C. M. Geraldson, Assoc. Soils Chemist, Gulf Coast Sta., July 1, 1956.
V. E. Green, Jr., Assoc. Agronomist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1956.
W. F. Grierson-Jackson, Assoc. Chemist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1956.
C. B. Hall, Assoc. Hort., Dept. of Food Tech., July 1, 1956.
N. C. Hayslip, Entomologist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1956.
J. F. Hentges, Assoc. An. Husb., Dept. of An. Husb., July 1, 1956.
E. S. Horner, Assoc. Agronomist, Dept. of Agronomy, July 1, 1956.
F. S. Jamison, Horticulturist and Head, Dept. of Vegetable Crops, July 1,
J. W. Kesterson, Chemist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1956.
E. W. McElwee, Orn. Hort. and Head, Dept. of Orn. Hort., July 1, 1956.
R. G. Leighty, Assoc. Soils Surveyor, Dept. of Soils, July 1, 1956.
P. E. Loggin, Asst. An. Husb. and Nutr., July 1, 1956.
L. E. Mull, Dairy Technologist, Dept. of Dairy Husb., July 1, 1956.
A. J. Overman, Asst. Soils Microbiologist, Gulf Coast Station, July 1, 1956.
M. Ristic, Pathologist, Dept. of Vet. Sci., July 1, 1956.
W. K. Robertson, Assoc. Chemist, Dept. of Soils, July 1, 1956.
R. K. Showalter, Horticulturist, Dept. of Food Tech., July 1, 1956.
J. L. Tyson, Asst. in Library, Library, July 1, 1956.
L. T. Urschel, Asst. Librarian, Library, July 1, 1956.
A. T. Wallace, Assoc. Agronomist, Dept. of Agronomy, July 1, 1956.
A. C. Warnick, Assoc. Physiologist, Dept. of An. Husb., July 1, 1956.
E. A. Wolf, Assoc. Horticulturist, Everglades Station, July 1, 1956.
H. J. Reitz, Horticulturist in Chg., Citrus Exp. Sta., Jan. 1, 1957.
H. H. Wilkowske, Asst. Director, March 1, 1957.
J. W. Sites, Asst. Director to Horticulturist and Head, Fruit Crops Dept.,
March 1, 1957.
C. T. Ozaki, Asst. Chemist, Everglades Sta., July 31, 1956.
D. B. Duncan, Statistician, Agronomy Dept., Aug. 31, 1956.
J. G. Wadsworth, Asst. Poultry Path., Vet. Sci. Dept., Sept. 5, 1956.
N. J. Scully, Botanist and Head, Botany Dept., Sept. 6, 1956.
V. L. Guzman, Asst. Horticulturist, Everglades Sta., Sept. 8, 1956.
M. W. Hazen, An. Husb. in Chg., West Cen. Fla. Sta., Sept. 9, 1956.
J. D. Cox, Asst. Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Serv. (USWB), Sept.
C. R. Byrd, Asst. Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Serv. (USWB), Oct.
R. E. Hancock, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., Nov. 15, 1956.
I. M. Wofford, Asst. Agronomist, Agronomy Dept., Dec. 11, 1956.
E. Thor, Assoc. Ag. Econ., Ag. Econ. Dept., Dec. 31, 1956.
D. W. Jones, Asst. Soil Technologist, Range Cattle Sta., Jan. 31, 1957.
I. W. Wander, Soils Chemist, Citrus Station, Jan. 31, 1957.
B. W. Kelly, Asst. Agr. Economist, Agr. Econ. Dept., April 30, 1957.
N. K. Roberts, Asst. Agr. Economist, Agr. Econ. Dept., June 25, 1957.
D. W. Beardsley, Asst. An. Husb., Everglades Sta., June 30, 1957.
C. S. Hoveland, Int. Asst. in Agronomy, Agronomy Dept., June 30, 1957.
J. C. Outler, Jr., Asst. in Chemistry, An. Husb. Dept., June 30, 1957.
G. F. Schotten, Asst. Editor, Editorial Dept., June 30, 1957.
A. F. Camp, Vice Director in Charge, Citrus Experiment Station, Dec. 31,
K. W. Loucks, Collaborator, Citrus Experiment Station, March 1. 1957.
REPORT OF THE BUSINESS MANAGER
SUMMARY OF OBJECT CLASSIFICATION 1956-57
Salaries and Wages ............................
Travel ................... .... .................
Transportation of Things .....................
Com munications ........................................
Heat, Light, Power, etc. ..........................
R ental .................. .... ... .....................
Printing ............. ..... ................
Contractual Services ................................
Supplies and Materials ......................
Total Disbursements .......................... .
Balance 6/30/57 ...............................
Total ..... ............................... ...................
REPORT OF THE BUSINESS MANAGER
SUMMARY OF OBJECT CLASSIFICATION 1956-57
-----------. ....... .
SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES 1956-57
Salaries and Wages -.........-- ...... $2,473,125.61
Travel ......................................... 105,368.85
Transportation of Things .......... 3,006.84
Communications ............................ 34,248.25
Rent and Utility Service ............ 57,192.61
Printing and Publications .......... 24,722.67
Contractual Services .................. 59,678.32
Supplies and Materials .............. 316,846.67
Equipment ...........-...................... 148,661.35
Land and Buildings .................... 17,865.98
Total Disbursements .................... 3,240,717.15
Plus Certifications Forward ...... 98,581.41
Balance 6/30/57 .........-............ 15,412.34
Total .............. .. .................. .. $3,354,710.90
SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES 1956-57
Salaries and Wages ...........
Travel ...... ...................
Transportation of Things -
Rent and Utility Service ......
Printing and Publications ....
Contractual Services ............
Supplies and Materials ......
Land and Buildings ...........
Total Disbursements ........
Plus Certifications Forward
Balance 6/30/57 ...............
T otal ............ .. .... ..........-
$ ...- ...........
16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES 1956-57
Salaries and Wages .................
Professional Services ...............
T ravel .................. ..............
Transportation of Things .......
R ental ........... ....- .... ...........
P rinting ...................................
Contractual Services ............
Supplies and Materials .............
Equipm ent ................ .........
Lands and Buildings ...............
Transfers --........--. .
Total Disbursements ................
Balance 6/30/57 ........................
T otal .............. .... ...
SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES 1956-57
Personal Services .......................
Professional Services .......
Travel ........ ...... ........ .......
Transportation of Things ..........
Heat, Light, Power, etc. ...........
R ent .............- -.......... .. ........
Printing ....................... ..... --..
Contractual Services ..........------
Supplies and Materials ............
Equipm ent ..... -............................
Land and Structures ............
Total Disbursements ..................
Plus Certifications Forward ......
T otal ...............
- - -- - - -- - -- - - --. -
Annual Report, 1957
Research was conducted on 38 projects during the year. Work was
initiated on nine new projects. Three of these were in the area of demand,
one in cost of marketing, two in marketing organization and distribution,
and three in the area of production economics. Two projects were closed.
FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
State Project 154 H. G. Hamilton
The membership of six cooperatives was studied to determine the extent
to which they were satisfied with the operations of the central association
which handled the fruit sales and other services of the local associations.
In general, there was a high degree of satisfaction among the members as
to the operations of the central association on matters in which they were
informed. However, members of local associations were not well informed
on many operations of the central association. This suggests the need for
improving the methods of keeping members informed of the association
FACTORS AFFECTING COSTS AND RETURNS IN
FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION
Hatch Project 186 Zach Savage
The usual field work of closing accounts for 1955-56 was performed and
accounts set up for 1956-57. Tabulations for 1954-55 were made consisting
of 8 early orange, 10 midseason orange, 11 late orange, 6 seedy grape-
fruit, 9 seedless grapefruit, 7 tangerine, and 4 Temple orange, making a
total of 55 tabulations, representing 145 citrus accounts. These tabula-
tions were made by age of tree, variety, and kind of citrus.
The per-acre costs for all varieties and kinds of bearing ages were 10
percent higher in 1954-55 than in the previous season, but per-box costs
were 38 percent higher due to higher per-acre costs and a 20 percent de-
crease in yield. Returns per box were 25 percent higher, but returns per
acre were one percent lower. Net returns per acre decreased 36 percent
per acre and 18 percent per box.
The average cost of spray and dust materials per acre more than doubled
over the past six seasons. This cost was $20.36 in 1954-55, with 6 percent
of the groves receiving no spray or dust. Results by method of control of
insects and diseases for the 10-year period of 1943-53 on a per-acre basis
with interest on the grove investment omitted were:
Spray and Dust Cash Cash
Control Yield Apply Mtls. Total Cost Cost
No spray or dust -..... 341 $ 0.00 $ 0.00 $ 0.00 $133.96 $292.29
Sulfur only .............. 335 8.24 7.31 15.55 136.96 281.79
Sulfur and oil ........ 379 20.30 14.74 35.04 155.38 318.37
Other controls .......... 364 22.54 24.55 47.09 202.20 252.80
. 355 $12.77 $11.64 $24.41 $157.12 $286.63
18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY,
ITS POSSIBLE INHERITANCE, AND DEPRECIATION IN
FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
State Project 345 A. H. Spurlock
Records of inventory values, lifespans and causes of losses were obtained
from six dairy herds and added to results previously summarized.
The lifespan of 2,525 cows averaged 6.6 years, or about 4.6 years of use-
fulness in the milking herd. Disposals increased rapidly after the first year
in the herd and after three years only two-thirds of the original number
of animals remained. After six years in the herd only 31 percent of the
number remained. Cows reaching age 10 had a life expectancy of 1.8 years
and averaged 11.8 years of life.
Disposals of animals while still living were principally for low produc-
tion, mastitis and other udder trouble, and reproductive troubles. These
three reasons were responsible for 72 percent of the live disposals. About
13 percent were sold for unstated reasons.
Deaths from all causes accounted for 14 percent of all disposals.
(See also Project 345, Dairy Science.)
CROP AND LIVESTOCK ESTIMATING ON FLORIDA FARMS
WITH EMPHASIS ON VEGETABLE CROPS
State Project 451 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw
and J. B. Owens
During the fiscal year 1956-57 preliminary estimates of acreages planted
and for harvest and forecasts of production were made on 6 fall, 14 winter,
and 11 spring commercial vegetable crops for fresh market. Also esti-
mated were acreages and production of cucumbers grown specifically for
pickles, and production of snap beans and tomatoes utilized in processing.
Except for tomatoes, data for making these estimates and forecasts, as
well as information for truck crop news releases, were obtained by field
observations and personal interviews, mailed schedules and telephone.
Data relating to tomato production were obtained as outlined in Project 822.
A survey under way at the beginning of the fiscal year was continued to
determine from final records, acreage and production by areas and counties,
as well as the average price received for the various vegetable crops.
Farmers' estimates and records were taken on approximately 210,000 acres
planted during the previous season. These seasonal averages were weighted
against recorded utilization, mainly shipments by counties plus local con-
sumption and instate utilization for processing, thereby forming the basis
for any necessary revisions of the fall, winter, and spring estimates. Pre-
liminary revisions are usually made shortly after the close of a season.
These 1955-56 season revisions covered an estimated 415,400 acres planted
and 383,550 acres for harvest (including fall, winter and spring squash not
currently estimated) with an estimated f.o.b. value of $180,732,000.
Releases during the year consisted of an annual summary, entitled
"Florida Vegetable Crops, Volume XII," of which approximately 1400 copies
have been distributed. Twenty-five regular and special Truck Crop News
and/or Acreage and Production reports were released and approximately
24,000 copies were distributed.
Data developed through this project were used as a basis for background
information in the report of the Florida Agricultural Outlook Committee's
annual appraisal of agricultural production in 1956-57, and will be used
again in a similar appraisal for 1957-58.
1 Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.
Annual Report, 1957
COSTS OF PRODUCTION AND RETURNS ON
VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA
State Project 480 D. L. Brooke
Field schedules of costs of production and returns on vegetable crops
were obtained from growers representing 22 percent of the acreage planted
during the 1955-56 season. Thirteen vegetable crops in one or more of the
major producing areas were included in the sample. Summaries by crops
and areas for the season, together with a five-year average of costs and
returns, were completed. A mimeographed release, "Costs and Returns
from Vegetable Crops in Florida, Volume XI," (Agricultural Economics
Mimeo Report 57-6), was prepared and mailed to grower-cooperators, county
agents, and research, extension, and interested industry people.
Crop summary tables for the 1955-56 season were incorporated in the
mimeographed publication, "Florida Vegetable Crops, Volume XII," in co-
operation with the leader of State Project 451.
The cost of producing vegetables in Florida increased only slightly in
1955-56 over the previous season and the most recent five-season average.
Yields, too, changed relatively little from the previous season's average.
Profits were generally lower than those of the 1954-55 season and the 1952-
Increases in the per-acre costs of producing vegetables of more than 10
percent in 1955-56 above the five-season average were noted only in the
Alachua area for lima beans, peppers and eggplant. Labor, seed and plants
were the most significant items of increased cost.
Decreases in per-acre costs of more than 10 percent were noted for to-
matoes in the Immokalee area and green peppers in the Pompano area.
Lower spray and labor costs were the most significant items for these areas.
Celery growers experienced a relatively unprofitable season in 1955-56.
Yields were 3 to 16 percent lower than in 1954-55. Prices in 1955-56 aver-
aged from $0.41 per crate lower in the Oviedo area to $0.84 per crate lower
in the Sarasota area than a year earlier. There was some abandonment
of celery acreage as a result of low prices.
Irish potato growers had another good year. Yields were above the most
recent five-season average in most areas and costs increased only slightly.
Average f.o.b. prices of $3.50 or more per hundredweight in all areas re-
sulted in relatively good grower profits for the season.
Despite the fact that Florida produces 65 percent of the nation's egg-
plant, grower experience with this crop is relatively poor. Production costs
are high because of heavy labor and material requirements. Yields of more
than 500 bushels per acre are necessary if profits are to be expected from
season average f.o.b. prices of $1.25 to $1.75 per bushel.
Sweet corn continues to be a relatively profitable crop for many growers
in the important Everglades and Pompano areas. With average yields of
175 or more crates per acre, per-unit costs of production are sufficiently low
that profits generally result. Areas with yields of less than 150 crates per
acre find the crop a source of little income during the average season. This
was as true in 1955-56 as it has been in prior seasons.
COSTS AND FACTORS AFFECTING COST OF MARKETING
CITRUS FRUITS IN FRESH AND PROCESSED FORM
Hatch Project 486 A. H. Spurlock, Eric Thor and
(Regional SM-4) H. G. Hamilton
Costs of picking and hauling citrus fruit for 36 firms, 1955-56, averaged
as follows per 13/5 bushel box:
20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Picking oranges 30.5 cents; picking grapefruit 21.7 cents; and picking
tangerines 66.4 cents. Hauling from the grove to the plant cost 9.5 cents
per box. Specialized citrus dealers also had an additional cost of 2.4 cents
per box for procurement and sale of fruit.
Costs of packing and selling Florida fresh citrus fruit per 1% bushel
equivalent for 42 packinghouses, 1955-56 season were as follows: Oranges,
1% bushel wirebound box, $0.96; 1% bushel standard box, $1.45; % bushel
wirebound box, $1.32; % bushel fiberboard box, $1.09; 8 lb. mesh bag, $1.23;
5 lb. mesh bag, $1.50; bulk-in-trucks, $0.40. Grapefruit, 1% bushel wire-
bound box, $0.87; 1% bushel standard box, $1.30; % bushel fiberboard box,
$1.00; 8 lb. mesh bag, $1.17; 5 lb. mesh bag, $1.43. Tangerines, % bushel
wirebound box, $1.45; % bushel wirebound flat box, $1.47. Bulk fruit
through the packinghouse cost $0.15 per box for handling all types. Fruit
direct from grove to cannery averaged $0.06 per box.
Processing cost for 1955-56 were studied at 16 firms which packed 68
percent of the state's total single strength juice and 42 percent of the
frozen orange concentrate. Average costs for processing single strength
orange juice in 12/46 cases, sweetened, was $1.38; grapefruit sections in
24/303 cases, sweetened, was $1.34; orange concentrate in 48/6 cases, un-
sweetened, $1.81; and per gallon, excluding materials and selling, $0.34.
Results of the year's work were distributed to citrus dealers, packers
and processors in three mimeographed publications for 1955-56: (1) Costs
of Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits, (2) Costs of Packing and
Selling Florida Fresh Citrus Fruits, (3) Costs of Processing, Warehousing
and Selling Citrus Products.
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Farmer Cooperative
COORDINATED SELLING OF CITRUS FRUIT
State Project 520 H. G. Hamilton
Results of the research on this project were published during the year
as marketing research report number 156, Agricultural Marketing Service,
USDA, entitled, "Possibilities for Futures Trading in Florida Citrus Fruit
Under the present marketing system the possibilities of futures trading
in citrus fruits or citrus fruit products are unfavorable for the following rea-
sons: (1) The various phases of production and marketing citrus and citrus
products are vertically integrated. Under this situation the number of buy-
ers and sellers would be small. (2) The processed products of citrus are
marketed under brand names which have significance in buying and selling.
Furthermore, there is no well organized spot market for citrus processed
products in bulk form. (3) At present market information, while fairly
well distributed to the industry, is not distributed so as to be readily avail-
able to speculators. (4) The high degree of concentration of control enables
price risk to be distributed over a large number of items at several levels
of trading, which means that shifting of price risk is less necessary than
in the case of some commodities.
This project is in cooperation with Agricultural Marketing Service and
Farmer Cooperative Service, USDA, and is terminated with this report.
MARKETING MEAT ANIMALS IN FLORIDA
Hatch Project 602 W. K. McPherson and L. V. Dixon
During the year work progressed on the manuscript entitled, "Price of
Beef Cattle and Calves in Florida."
Annual Report, 1957
A detailed outline of an inquiry into methods of price discovery for
cattle in the Miami area has been developed. Preliminary work on this
phase of the project is under way.
AN ANALYSIS OF PRESENT AND POTENTIAL UTILIZATION OF
LAND FOR GRAZING AND ALTERNATIVE USES IN
Hatch Project 619 L. A. Reuss," N. K. Roberts
and R. E. L. Greene
The review and revision of a manuscript entitled, "Pangolagrass Pas-
tures for Beef Production in Central Florida-A Method of Determining
the Economics of Establishing and Fertilizing Them," was completed during
the year. It was published as Station Bulletin 585. This publication pro-
vides information that should be helpful to ranchers and agricultural work-
ers in better appraising the economics of the use of fertilizer.
Custom land developers in Central Florida were interviewed to deter-
mine trends in land clearing operations and costs during the period 1952-56.
These data were incorporated in the manuscript prepared for publication
under the title, "Costs of Clearing Land and Establishing Improved Pastures
in Central Florida." In recent years land has been cleared mainly for citrus
groves, truck crops and subdivisions. Some of the land cleared for truck
crops is converted to improved pastures a year or so later. Practically the
only land cleared for direct use in improved pastures has been on large
ranches where the operators have their own land clearing equipment. Data
collected during the year indicate rising per-acre land clearing costs in
AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ELEMENTAL
FUNCTIONS OF PACKING AND HANDLING FLORIDA CITRUS
FROM THE TREE THROUGH THE PACKINGHOUSE
Hatch Project 626 Eric Thor and
(Regional SM-4) G. L. Capel '
Manuscripts were prepared which set forth the results of this project.
"The Use of Packing Labor in Florida Citrus Packinghouses," Agricultural
Economics Mimeo Report 57-8, was released in June 1957. This report deals
primarily with the labor requirements for packing citrus fruits into shipping
containers according to type of container, type of fruit and size of fruit.
A second manuscript was prepared and revised on comparative costs of
alternative methods of unloading and handling of box materials, assembling
and supplying boxes to packers, and closing, transporting, and loading
packed boxes. A third manuscript was prepared and revised dealing with
the effect upon costs of scale of operation, bulk handling from the grove
to the packinghouse, and the number of packing units.
PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL AND
NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to study variations in beef production, using
a cow-calf program on a year-round basis, for different pasture programs
and breeding systems. During the year data were summarized showing the
'Cooperative with Farm Economics Research Division, AES. USDA.
. Cooperative with Market Organization and Costs Branch, AMS, USDA
22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
annual costs and returns on the various programs for the period October 1,
1955, to September 30, 1956. Costs were calculated on the basis of the level
of experimental practices being used with the various operations charged
at about what it would cost to perform them as a commercial operation.
On a per-acre basis, as has been true in previous years, Program 8 with
a cost of $13.37 (including acres of unimproved pasture) was the lowest in
cost and Program 6 with a cost of $91.89 was the highest. At 14 cents per
pound, the amount of beef per acre necessary to cover cost of production
varied from 96 pounds for Program 8 to 656 pounds for Program 6.
Only on three programs of intermediate levels of fertility-Program 4,
as one-third clover, two-thirds grass program; Program 5, an all-clover
program, and Program 8, a combination clover and nature pasture program
-was the value of beef produced more than the estimated net cost of pro-
(See also Project 627, Agronomy, Agricultural Engineering, Animal
Husbandry and Nutritions, and Soils).
ECONOMY OF MARKETING AND METHODS OF HANDLING
SWEET CORN FOR LONG DISTANCE SHIPMENTS
Hatch Project 630 A. H. Spurlock
The economic phase of this project has been inactive during the past
year. (See also Project 630, Food Technology.)
IMPROVING METHODS AND PRACTICES IN HARVESTING,
HANDLING AND PACKING EARLY IRISH POTATOES
State Project 638 R. E. L. Greene, G. L. Capel
and Fred Anderson
During the 1955-56 season, work was begun on a study of the organiza-
tion and operation of potato packinghouses. Work sampling data were
obtained for 20 packinghouses in Florida-2 in the Fort Myers area, 8 in
Dade County and 10 in the Hastings area.
An attempt was made to get additional observations in the Hastings
area on the use of labor in packing 10-pound bags. The study of packing-
houses was extended to Alabama and data were collected from a sample of
six houses in that area. This afforded an additional opportunity to get in-
formation on methods and costs of packing consumer size bags. Several
of the houses studied in Alabama packed a fairly large volume in 10-pound
The collection of data was completed for the packinghouses studied in
Florida. Analysis of the data on costs of packing and on labor requirements
was carried on. Preliminary results showed that 31 percent less labor was
required to fill and weigh 100-pound bags when the bags were filled on the
scales rather than set off to be weighed; 28 percent less labor was required
for 50-pound bags. Transporting 100-pound and 50-pound packed bags
on conveyors required 46 and 55 percent less labor than by hand trucks.
Analysis of the data for houses in both Florida and Alabama will be
continued. Calculations will be made to show the cost of operating pack-
inghouses of various sizes and a comparison of cost for different methods.
The data will be used as a basis for suggesting ways and means of increas-
ing the efficiency of operations.
Market Organization and Costs Branch, Market Research Division, Agricultural Market-
ing Service, USDA.
Annual Report, 1957
EFFECTS OF ENTERPRISE ADJUSTMENTS AND IMPROVED
MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON FARM INCOMES
IN NORTH FLORIDA
Hatch Project 647 R. E. L. Greene
Analysis of the data collected in the study was continued. In 1952, there
were 101 tractors on the 132 farms from which records were obtained.
The tractors were classified according to size-small, intermediate and
medium-based on the Nebraska Tractor Tests. Average hours operated
were 656 for small tractors, 773 for intermediate tractors and 876 for
medium size tractors; the average cost per hour was 59, 68 and 73 cents
for the three groups, respectively.
A manuscript entitled "Optimum Farm Programs in Columbia and
Suwannee Counties, Florida," was prepared. Results of this study show
that farmers in this area can increase their production from crops and live-
stock by adopting more approved practices and also raising the level of
practices. On many farms incomes could be increased 50 to 100 percent
or more if the operators had adequate capital and adopted an optimum com-
bination of enterprises.
EFFECTS OF INTER- AND INTRA-MARKET COMPETITION
ON MILK PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION IN
CENTRAL AND SOUTH FLORIDA
Hatch Project 651 W. K. McPherson
This year's activities consisted of work on a manuscript dealing with
competitive conditions in the whole milk industry of Central and South
Florida in 1952. The important results of the research have been given in
THE LEGAL ASPECTS OF FARM TENANCY IN FLORIDA
Hatch Project 656 J. R. Greenman
(Regional S-11) and H. G. Hamilton
A manuscript entitled "The Laws of Farm Tenancy and Sharecropping
in Florida" was revised and published during the year. This publication
sets forth the laws of farm tenancy and sharecropping in Florida as found
in the Florida Statutes, the Florida Constitution and in the reported cases
of the Supreme Court of Florida and other states. It is written with a view
toward giving farmers and those who serve farmers a better understanding
of the nature of the farmers' rights, obligations and legal problems in en-
tering into and participating in a tenancy or sharecropping arrangement.
A manscript entitled "Inheritance Laws Affecting Florida Farms and
Farm Families" that was prepared in cooperation with Professor Kenneth
Black of the Law College has been in the process of revision for publication.
This bulletin sets forth the Florida laws of inheritance with special refer-
ence to farm property and farmers. It should be useful to farmers and
those who serve farmers in giving them a better understanding of how
property is distributed in the absence of a will, and how a will may be used
to accomplish the desires of the deceased.
Preliminary work was done for a manuscript to be entitled "Water Laws
Affecting Florida Farmers." This publication should enable farmers to
have a better understanding of their rights and obligations in connection
with the use of water.
24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
CHARACTERISTICS OF DEMAND FOR FROZEN ORANGE
CONCENTRATE PRODUCED IN FLORIDA
Hatch Project 664 M. R. Godwin, L. A. Powell, Sr.,
(Regional SM-4) and H. G. Hamilton
This study is based on data obtained in 10 retail food stores in the Lower
Delaware Valley area of Pennsylvania and New Jersey during a nine-week
period terminating on August 7, 1954.
A manuscript entitled "Consumer Reaction to Varying Prices for Frozen
Orange Concentrate" has been prepared and forwarded to the printer. In
addition to setting forth the results of a series of pricing tests for orange
concentrate, the manuscript interprets the implications of the findings with
respect to pricing and merchandising policies for the industry.
Another manuscript entitled "Experimental Pricing as an Approach to
Demand Analysis (A Study of the Retail Demand for Frozen Orange Con-
centrate)" has been prepared and is now in the hands of the Publications
Committee. This manuscript consists of a technical treatment of the data-
generating method and the analytical procedure utilized in the study.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ELEMENTAL
FUNCTIONS OF PACKING, SHIPPING AND HANDLING
FLORIDA CITRUS FROM THE PACKING LINE
TO THE RETAIL STORE
Hatch Project 665 Eric Thor and
(Regional SM-4) G. L. Capel *
A limited amount of work was done on this project during 1956-57 in
preparing a manuscript on the cost of moving oranges in bulk from Florida
to distant markets.
MARKETING CHARGES AND RETURNS FROM FLORIDA
VEGETABLES BY TYPES OF FIRMS AND
METHODS OF SALE
(Classification I. Marketing Costs, Margins' and Efficiency)
AMA Project 666 D. L. Brooke, C. N. Smith
(ES-235) and H. G. Hamilton
Data from 22 organizations on sales of tomatoes by grade and size for
the three seasons 1951-52, 1952-53 and 1953-54 are being analyzed. An
analysis of f.o.b. prices paid for tomatoes by grade for all types of sales in-
dicates that prices paid for tomatoes of the combination grade averaged
from 3 to 9 percent lower than prices paid for U. S. No. l's in the three sea-
sons studied. Prices paid for U. S. No. 2's averaged 39 to 43 percent lower
than those paid for U. S. No. l's.
Prices paid for the different grades of the same size tomatoes and for
different sizes of the same grade were not consistent between seasons.
Geographic preferences, seasonality of prices and type of sale by grade
and size are factors which may affect the noted differences.
An analysis of volume of sales by grade and size indicated considerable
uniformity in shipments of sizes within grade and grades within sizes for
the three seasons. Shipments of combination grade averaged three-fifths of
the total volume in the seasons studied. Shipments of U. S. No. l's were
about 8 percent and of U. S. No. 2's, 25 percent of the total volume. From
36 to 39 percent of the volume by grade were size 6 x 7. Size 6 x 6 was
second in importance with 25 percent U. S. No. l's, 31 percent combinations
and 36 percent U. S. No. 2's by volume.
Cooperative with Market Organization and Costs Branch, AMS, USDA.
Annual Report, 1957
Data on the volume of sales in different type containers indicated a
definite trend away from the use of the 60-pound nailed crate and 30-pound
lug for tomatoes. The 60-pound wirebound and the 40-pound cardboard
container are gaining in general usage. More than half of the shipments
in the 1953-54 sample were in wirebounds as compared to less than 45 per-
cent in 1952-53. The proportion of the samples volume shipped in lugs
decreased by more than 50 percent in the seasons studied.
The data in this study indicated that for sales in all types of containers
and of all grades with the possible exception of lugs in 1952-53, tomatoes sold
on an f.o.b. basis returned a higher price to growers than consigment sales.
For lugs in the first three grades in 1952-53 consignment sales averaged a
higher price per bushel of tomatoes than f.o.b. sales. Further analysis of
daily prices indicated that there are times during the season when consign-
ment sales return prices equal to and above f.o.b. sales of comparable grades
and sizes. Consignment sales appear to be used most frequently when
supplies are heavy and prices are naturally depressed. They are also used
as a market clearing mechanism and when successful are of benefit to
growers in that the industry realizes a larger total return. Consigned sales
represented only about 16 percent of the total volume in 1952-53 and 25
percent in 1953-54. Consigned sales volume of U. S. No. l's is less than for
combinations of U. S. No. 2's.
MARKETING PRACTICES OF FLORIDA FLOWER AND
ORNAMENTAL PLANT GROWERS
(Classification I. Marketing Costs, Margins and Efficiency)
AMA Project 679 C. N. Smith, D. L. Brooke, H. G. Hamilton,
(ES-236) Tze-I. Chiang, C. A. Nicholls and R. H. Brewster
Research has been concerned with the market organization and selling
practices of the fern, foliage plant and gladiolus industries. Field studies
have been conducted to obtain data on the marketing practices of growers
of these commodities.
A preliminary analysis of data on the fern industry indicated that some
400 Asparagus plumosus fern growers now sell about $3,500,000 worth of
fern sprays per year. These ferns are produced in slat houses and ham-
mocks on more than 2,000 acres of land. Leading producing areas are in
Volusia, Lake, Seminole and Putnam counties. Nearly half of the more
than 400,000,000 fern sprays marketed in the 1955-56 season were reported
sold on an f.o.b. basis to wholesale florists. One-fourth of the total quantity
was sold by consignment to wholesale commission florists; the remaining
fourth was sold directly to retail florists. Railway express was the major
shipping method used. Distribution was made to receivers over most of
the nation throughout the course of the year. In addition to Asparagus
plumosus ferns, growers reported the sale of more than $100,000 worth of
Analysis of data on marketing foliage plants and gladiolus will be con-
tinued during the next fiscal year.
METHODS OF ESTIMATING FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION
State Project 685 B. W. Kelly and C. L. Crenshaw
The revised frame count, the expanded limb count and fruit size surveys
were again carried out during the 1956-57 season. Field work on the initial
surveys was started August 1 and completed in time for the October 1 fore-
cast of production. These estimates of production were made, using ratio
method of relating current data to historic. As near as can be determined
26 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
at this time (harvest not completed), the initial forecast of oranges will be
within 2 percent of actual production, and grapefruit 7 percent. The in-
crease in size of sample of the limb count has further reduced the sampling
A fruit droppage count was conducted monthly on an operational basis
and results will be analyzed.
The expansion of this work is made possible by funds provided on a
matching basis by the Growers' Administrative Committee and the Agri-
cultural Marketing Service, USDA.
This project is in cooperation with Agricultural Estimates Division,
EXPANDING THE MARKET FOR FLORIDA FLORICULTURAL
AND ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Region Research Project 700 C. N. Smith and D. L. Brooke
Experiments were conducted in two cooperating retail grocery stores
to test the effect of various display and selling practices on the rate of sale
of cut flowers. Pompon chrysanthemums packaged in transparent wrap-
pers, with blooms covered, kept in better condition and outsold those pack-
aged in parchment paper with blooms open.
Efforts to develop an improved method of displaying cut flowers resulted
in the design of a pan-insert and a wire mesh cover for use with store gro-
cery carts. Flower stems are inserted in the pan containing water or water-
soaked oasis; the mesh cover keeps the flowers standing in an orderly man-
ner. Utilizing the cart to display flowers makes it easy for produce per-
sonnel to push the vehicle into the cooler at night, thereby lengthening
the marketable life of the flowers. It also permits store personnel to shift
the display easily to advantageous locations. In addition, it presents an
attractive appearance to consumers. Although the cart shows much promise
as a display device for cut flowers, further research efforts are required to
adapt it for commercial use. (See also Project 700, Ornamental Horticul-
ECONOMICS OF FLORIDA DAIRY FARMING
State Project 701 N. K. Roberts and H. G. Hamilton
Data obtained from 105 dairy farms reveal the following practices with
respect to pasture: (1) Dairymen had, on the average, 1.6 acres of pasture
per cow and only one-half of this was improved pastures. (2) Many dairy-
men did not adjust their barn feeding as pasture growth changed. (3)
Only one half of the dairymen followed rotational grazing programs. (4)
Improved pastures were clipped on the average of twice a year, but only a
small number made any effort to store excess grass as hay or silage. (5)
Only one third of the pasture area received fertilization. The rate of ferti-
lization averaged 600 pounds of 6-6-6 fertilizer per acre for the acreage
receiving fertilizer. On the basis of estimates, it is believed that pastures
contributed about 13 percent of the total feed requirements.
Further study is being made by an application of marginal analysis to
determine specifically the desired stocking rate for pastures and profits from
pastures as feed and milk prices change.
CENSUS OF CITRUS GROVES IN FLORIDA
State Project 720 B. W. Kelly
Field enumeration of citrus trees was resumed in September 1956 and
continued through June 1957. The work was practically completed in all
Annual Report, 1957
the major citrus counties. Preliminary reports were published for 17
counties early in June, with others nearly completed.
It is expected that better than 40 million trees will be counted. Data
will be summarized and published in the fall of 1957.
Cooperating agencies: Florida Citrus Mutual, Florida Citrus Commission,
State Plant Board, State Department of Agriculture and Crop Estimates
Division, AMS, USDA.
POTATO HANDLING MACHINERY
State Project 730 R. E. L. Greene
This study is designed to develop and test mechanical equipment to be
used at packinghouses packing potatoes hauled in bulk. The advent of
mechanical harvesting equipment has created a number of problems for
both farmers using harvesters and operators of packinghouses receiving
potatoes in bulk.
In houses where potatoes are placed in temporary storage before they
are packed, one distinct problem is the transferring of the potatoes hauled
in bulk from the bulk bodies to temporary storage bins. This problem is
especially difficult with bins in use at present because of the distances that
the potatoes have to be raised and lowered in getting them into the bin.
During the year, a special flat-bottom temporary storage bin was de-
signed and tested. The experimental bin required less elevation to get the
potatoes in it, thereby requiring less expensive equipment for filling. This
project is closed with this report. (See also Project 730, Agricultural
A STUDY IN THE USE OF RESOURCES IN AREAS OF RURAL
UNDEREMPLOYMENT AND LOW FARM PRODUCTIVITY
Hatch Project 744 D. E. Alleger
No work was done on this project during this fiscal period. The leader
of the project was on leave and it was not possible to obtain a replacement
AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF THE CAGED-LAYER ENTERPRISE
State Project 745 R. E. L. Greene and D. L. Brooke
During the 1955-56 fiscal period 53 farmers with caged-layer enterprises
in nine West Florida counties were surveyed and data obtained on size of
cage enterprise, number and size of buildings and equipment and investment
in them, management practices, marketing practices and other information.
Records were obtained for 33 of these farms showing egg production, re-
ceipts and expenses for the poultry year September 1, 1954, to August 31,
1955. Analysis of these records was completed during the year and a report
prepared entitled, "A Study of the Caged-Layer Enterprise in West Florida,"
The economic situation during the period studied was an adverse one for
the poultryman producing eggs. Prices received for both poultry and eggs
were low in relation to prices paid for feed and other items. On the farms
where records of costs and returns were obtained, consumption of mash and
grain averaged 83.5 pounds per layer per year and labor 1.39 hours per bird.
The total costs per year of keeping 100 birds were $706 and returns $672.
During the year total returns per 100 birds failed by $33 to cover all costs
but returns to labor were $62 per 100 birds. Of the total costs of keeping
100 birds, feed accounted for 59.5 percent, flock depreciation 13.9 percent
28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
and labor 13.5. Eggs sold per hen averaged 191 for the year. The net cost
per dozen eggs sold averaged 43.04 cents.
The most important factors affecting returns on these farms were
size of the layer enterprise, price received per dozen for eggs sold and
pounds of mash and grain consumed per dozen of eggs sold. There was an
intercorrelation between size of farm, cost of feed and price received per
dozen of eggs sold that affected many of the relationships in this study.
ESTIMATING VEGETABLE ACREAGE AND SNAP BEAN
PRODUCTION IN THE POMPANO AREA OF FLORIDA
BY OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENTS ON A
State Project 748 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw,
B. W. Kelly and J. B. Owens
This project was inactive during the year.
DISTRIBUTION OF CITRUS PACKINGHOUSE COSTS
Hatch Project 782 Eric Thor and
(Regional SM-4) G. L. Capel
A detailed system was developed for allocating costs in Florida citrus
packinghouses by factor-ratios. A manuscript was prepared which illus-
trates the system with examples. In addition to the detailed system, a
simplified outline was developed for use by packinghouse firms which do not
have detailed cost records.
AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF GRADE AND SIZE
STANDARDS FOR FLORIDA TOMATOES
State Project.787 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley
A study to determine the consumer preferences for different sizes of
Florida tomatoes was conducted in the New York City metropolitan area
during a two-week period beginning May 13 and ending May 25, 1957. Ten
retail food stores were employed to conduct tests involving five size compari-
sons of both U. S. No. 1 and U. S. No. 2 Grade Florida tomatoes. The size
comparisons tested were:
7x8 : 7x7
In all cases the competitive displays of tomatoes were kept comparable with
regard to volume displayed and quality of the product. Detailed daily sales
and loss records were kept in each store, along with supplementary infor-
mation regarding store sales by departments and store customer counts.
Observations were taken also of the behavior of customers while buying
from the competitive displays of tomatoes. These observations provide data
on the extent to which customers made comparisons when selecting tomatoes
from one or both of the displays, the quantity of tomatoes purchased per
customer, the number of tomatoes handled or inspected in the course of mak-
ing a purchase and other relevant factors.
An analysis of the data generated by the matched-lot store tests and
obtained through the use of observation techniques is currently under way.
6 Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.
7 Cooperative with Market Organization and Costs Branch, AMS, USDA.
Annual Report, 1957
THE ECONOMIC EFFECT OF PINK TOMATO SHIPMENTS
UPON THE FLORIDA TOMATO INDUSTRY
State Project 788 M. R. Godwin
Preliminary examinations of the various ramifications of the problem at
which this project is directed were initiated during the year. These con-
sisted of visitations to growers, shippers, buyers and repackers of Florida
tomatoes. Three field trips into the tomato producing areas of Florida and
two trips to major terminal markets were made for this purpose. The infor-
mation obtained by informal investigation procedures on these and future
trips will serve as a basis for an evaluation of the problem and the develop-
ment of refined study procedures.
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE FLORIDA
Hatch Project 791 H. G. Hamilton and Eric Thor
Data for computing the cost of packing honey by kind of container was
obtained for 10 firms packing and selling Florida honey.
Data from approximately 7,500 sale invoices were obtained which show
prices received for honey by kind of container, kind and grade of honey,
transportation cost and destination of honey. These data are being pre-
pared for IBM analysis.
RESPONSE OF FARM INCOME TO CHANGES IN RESOURCE USE
ENGENDERED BY ACREAGE CONTROL AND
PRICE SUPPORT PROGRAMS
Regional Research Project 796 L. A. Powell, Sr., and
(IRM-1) H. G. Hamilton
This study is concerned with appraising the effect of changes in farming
operations induced by acreage control and price support programs on the
net income of tobacco, cotton and peanut producers.
Work on this project, thus far, has been largely of a preliminary nature.
Attention has been directed primarily toward the development of analytical
procedures. A model has been devised for analyzing experimental produc-
tion data for tobacco. Another model to deal with income and production
data from farm records is under construction.
CONSUMERS' USES AND OPINIONS OF FLORIDA AVOCADOS
State Project 801 M. R. Godwin and W. T. Manley
A total of 1,745 household interviews was obtained in Dayton, Ohio,
during the period November 23, 1956, to January 12, 1957. The question-
naire employed in these interviews was designed to provide the following
information regarding Florida avocados: (1) familiarity of consumers with
avocados; (2) frequency and method of use; (3) recent use experiences;
(4) preferences with regard to shape and degree of firmness; (5) opinions
regarding food value and price.
The sample was so designed that an approximately equal distribution of
interviews was obtained from low, medium, and high income households.
Individual households, within the three income groups, were selected in a
qualified random manner, inasmuch as complete city blocks were selected
randomly in the sampling procedure. The sample was designed to facilitate
an analysis of avocado consumption among segments of the population
rather than as a basis for generalization about the population as a whole.
An analysis of the data is currently under way.
30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
CONSUMERS' USE OF AND OPINIONS ABOUT FLORIDA LIMES
State Project 814 M. R. Godwin
To obtain background information regarding marketing practices, extent
of distribution, and wholesaling and retailing problems, field trips were
made to the metropolitan markets of New York, Chicago and St. Louis
during May and June, 1957. Information obtained through visitation to
the markets will be employed to develop a research approach during the
THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM FOR ESTABLISHING
THE SHORT-RUN PRODUCTION OUTLOOK
FOR FLORIDA TOMATOES
State Project 822 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw,
J. B. Owens '
A running inventory of acreages of tomatoes planted in Florida was
ascertained on a weekly basis during the 1956-57 crop year. These data
were collected on an area basis and weekly reports, consisting of data on
plantings designated as seeded or set, pertinent concurrent comments on
growing conditions, crop progress and historical and current shipment data
for comparisons, were issued beginning August 28, 1956, and terminating
May 21, 1957. These reports were made to 840 tomato growers and per-
sonnel of allied industries.
AN APPRAISAL OF THE ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND
PROBLEMS OF LOW INCOME RURAL AREAS IN
NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
Hatch Project 826 L. A. Reuss and
R. E. L. Greene
Objectives of this study are (1) to determine and analyze forces and
conditions that operate to depress the economic welfare of residents of low
income rural areas in North and West Florida, and (2) to formulate and
evaluate alternative measures for promoting economic development in these
areas. The project was initiated on December 31, 1956. It represents a
research undertaking indirectly related to the Rural Development Program
and to the various economic development and resource use adjustment pro-
grams sponsored by Florida agricultural workers and civic leaders.
In the first phase of this study there is a need to describe and classify
the conditions and resources of the area, including trends indicating prog-
ress or retrogradation in the solution of problems. At present a survey is
about half completed of households located in a random selection of 138
block segments located in 20 counties in the open agricultural areas of
North and West Florida. In the survey, information is being obtained
concerning items such as the following: (1) characteristics of the popula-
tion such as sex, age, and health; (2) land resources, including acres, use,
ownership and related factors; (3) other capital resources such as build-
ings, machinery and livestock; (4) selected items of farm income and ex-
pense; (5) financial position and credit situation; (6) information concern-
ing off-farm employment and opportunities; and (7) attitudes of the people
concerning their problems, solutions and outlook. The analysis of these
data will be used in developing studies to help in evaluating alternative
measures for promoting the economic development of the areas.
s Cooperative with Agricultural Estimates, AMS, USDA.
SCooperative with Farm Economics Research D'ivision, ARS, USDA.
Annual Report, 1957 31
A STUDY OF THE COMPETITIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
FLORIDA AND CALIFORNIA CELERY
AMA Project 856 M. R. Godwin and
(ES-504) A. H. Spurlock
Since this project was not approved until June 18, 1957, no work was
done on it during this fiscal period.
Florida Agricultural Production Index.-Index numbers of the volume of
agricultural production in Florida were revised for recent years and brought
up to date. The original indexes appear in circular S-88. (A. H. Spurlock.)
Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries.-The movement of citrus
trees from Florida nurseries to Florida destinations at 1,932,637 trees
reached a new high during the period July 1, 1955, to June 30, 1956. This
movement was 3/10 of 1 percent higher than the previous season. Orange
trees made up 85.3 percent of the total movement; grapefruit, 3.1; tan-
gerines, 1.5; other mandarines, 4.1; limes, 1.4; lemons, 1.5; tangelos, 2.1;
and other citrus, 1.0 percent. Late varieties constituted 59 percent of the
movement of orange trees. Grapefruit tree movement at 59,101 was the
lowest of the 28 seasons of record, 1928-56. Fifty-five precent of the grape-
fruit trees moved in 1955-56 were red and pink varieties. "Movement of
Citrus Trees from Florida Nurseries, July 1, 1928, to June 30, 1955" was
released as Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 57-5. (Zach Savage.)
Watermelon Production in Florida.-A compilation and analysis of the
available statistics on watermelon production in Florida, Georgia, and South
Carolina was prepared and released for the use of growers and industry
representatives. It was presented by them as supporting data at the Inter-
state Commerce Commission hearing on crosswise loading of watermelons
and the USDA hearing on a proposed watermelon marketing agreement.
"Statistics on Production, Shipments, and Prices of Florida Watermelons"
was released as Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 57-1. (D. L. Brooke.)
Competition for Florida Fruit and Vegetable Crops.-The tabulation of
weekly carlot shipments of specified fruits and vegetables from Florida,
other states, and foreign countries during the Florida shipping season gives
some indication of the degree of competition which Florida faces from these
other sources. Such data are particularly valuable to industry groups in
the preparation of statistics for hearings on freight rates and marketing
agreements and in establishing annual movement patterns of Florida crops.
They also furnish growers a means of determining the more desirable pro-
duction periods of the Florida season. "Florida Truck Crop Competition"
was published as Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 57-2 (D. L. Brooke.)
Florida Celery Situation.-A review of the past 10 years of celery pro-
duction and prices in Florida was prepared for a meeting concerned with
the needs for further research in the industry. Increasing mechanization
and higher yields per acre have, to some extent, offset a downward trend
in Florida celery prices in recent years. Variations in production costs be-
tween areas have resulted in some shifts in acreage to the areas of lowest
relative cost. Florida production increased 57 percent in seven seasons.
California's production, our principal competition in the market, has in-
creased 70 percent since the 1947 season. (D. L. Brooke.)
Land Prices in Palm Beach County.-The changes that have been taking
place in the prices of Palm Beach County land since 1940 are generally at-
tributed to changes in the supply of and demand for land of the kind found
in that county. More particularly, these changes are associated with
32 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
changes in the demand for the products of the land, the risk and uncer-
tainty facing producers, availability of credit and drastic changes in tech-
nology. Publications that have been released are: (1) "An Analysis of the
Trends in Land Prices and Values in Palm Beach County," Central and
Southern Florida Flood Control District, West Palm Beach, Florida. (2)
"Land's All Sold," The Florida Cattleman, May 1957. (W. K. McPherson
and R. L. Lassiter, Jr.)
Water Conservation.-Florida's major water problems are essentially the
problems associated with building and operating the facilities that will make
an ample supply of water resources available at the time, the place and in
the degree of purity needed to make water most useful. Publications that
have been released are: (1) "Can Water Be Allocated by Competitive
Prices?", Journal of Farm Economics, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 5, December
1956, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series, No. 514.
(2) "Some Aspects of Formulating Water Policy," Soil and Plant Science
Society of Florida Proceedings, 1956. (W. K. McPherson.)
Annual Report, 1957
The scope of the agricultural engineering research program was broad-
ened during the year. New engineering research is being developed in
the general fields of ornamental horticulture, vegetable crops and animal
industry. Under new projects, information has been gathered on precooling
and transit refrigeration of gladioli; effect of artificial air movement on
cattle fattening in dry lot; procedures and machinery for filling and un-
loading horizontal silos; and mechanical equipment for harvesting and
Research was continued on projects dealing with potato harvesting and
handling machinery, irrigation of pastures, curing bright-leaf tobacco, and
development of fertilizer sampling tools. Several significant findings have
been made under these projects and are reported herein.
USDA personnel has been added to the department for the first time.
They are making progress in the development of improved procedures for
processing and packing citrus fruits. The findings from this research may
have practical application in the vegetable industry also.
FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 555 J. M. Myers
The agricultural engineering phases of this project were sharply cur-
tailed during the year. The tobacco irrigation guide for estimating the
amount and frequency of irrigation, developed by research under this proj-
ect, has been observed in practical use with apparent success.
Further investigations of tobacco irrigation are planned to determine the
optimum irrigation equipment requirements for this relatively high value
crop. (See also Project 555, Agronomy and Suwannee Valley Station.)
PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL
AND NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 J. S. Norton
This project is in cooperation with the departments of Agricultural Eco-
nomics, Agronomy, Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, and Soils. The irri-
gated program in this experiment is a clover-grass mixture receiving a high
level of fertilization.
The program received adequate irrigation during 1956. However, it
ranked fourth in forage production per acre, second in pounds of beef
produced per acre and seventh in average weaning weight of calves. From
this it would seem that irrigation was not beneficial during 1956. (See also
Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agronomy, Animal Husbandry and
Nutrition, and Soils.)
PASTURE IRRIGATION ON FLATWOODS SOILS
State Project 684 J. S. Norton and J. M. Myers
Field work was discontinued on this project at the end of the 1955-56
season. A manuscript giving results of the project from January 1, 1953,
to July 1, 1956, is being prepared. The project is closed with this report.
(See also Project 684, Soils.)
34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
POTATO HANDLING MACHINERY
State Project 730 J. S. Norton and J. M. Myers
Two phases of potato handling were dealt with during the 1957 harvest-
ing season. The first was a study of the use of flumes for conveying pota-
toes from temporary storage bins to the grading machinery in the packing-
house. There has been widespread interest in flumes, as emphasized by the
increase from one flume in the Hastings area in 1955 to more than 20 in
1957. In view of this interest, it was decided that it would be well to pre-
pare some information on flumes to be made available to people in other
areas of the state. Therefore, the manuscript of a circular on design of
flumes has been prepared and submitted for publication.
The second phase of potato handling was the development of a tem-
porary storage system that would lend itself more readily to storage of
mechanically harvested potatoes than the systems now in use. Bins appear
to be the only practical temporary storage facility for mechanically har-
vested potatoes. Use of bulk trucks for storage is not practical because
of the relatively large number that would be required by each farmer when
a packinghouse is handling more than one farmer's potatoes. The bins
now in use for potato storage have hopper bottoms and are about 15 feet
high at the outside. This height makes it extremely difficult to get the
potatoes from the bulk trucks into the bins without causing excessive bruis-
ing. The height of the bins also makes it necessary to use expensive ele-
vators to fill the bins.
It was apparent that if the side of the bin was not so high, it would be
less difficult to fill and less expensive machinery would be required. The
obvious way to build a lower bin was to put a flat bottom in it. However,
this created a problem of how to get the potatoes out of it. One solution
was to flush them out with water. It was felt that this system would work
effectively in conjunction with a flume where the water could also be used
to deliver the potatoes to the grading machinery.
A flat bottom bin with a capacity of 400 bushels was constructed and a
ramp was built up to the end of it so that when a bulk truck was backed
up to it the unloading conveyor extended over the side of the bin. A con-
veyor seven feet long was installed in the bin. The potatoes were dis-
charged from the truck onto this conveyor which, in turn, was used to pile
them in the bin. The end of the bin toward the flume had gates which, when
open, allowed the potatoes to flow into the flume. When the gates were
first opened on a full bin the potatoes flowed out by gravity. After they
stopped flowing, a stream of 200 gallons of water per minute was directed
on the remaining potatoes until all had been flushed out of the bin. With
this system it was possible to empty the bin at a rate of 575 100-pound bags
The manuscript for a circular giving design details for the flat-bottom
bin storage system has been prepared and submitted for publication.
This project is closed with this report. (See also Project 730, Agricul-
DEVELOPMENT OF ADEQUATE SAMPLING PROCEDURES
FOR MIXED FERTILIZERS
Hatch Project 753 J. M. Myers
Additional improvements were made during the year in the design and
operation of the open-end tapered fertilizer sampling tool. The two major
changes in the tool that appeared to have most merit were enlarging the
diameter of the tube and adapting it for use with a reciprocating electric
It was observed during early experiments that an unusually small sample
Annual Report, 1957
was obtained from a small bore tool that was pushed by a steady uniform
force into a batch of mixed fertilizer. This was an indication that the fric-
tion at the end of the tool, along with the fertilizer inside the tube and that
outside the tool, was too much to allow the free entry of the sample. It
was also observed that this difficulty could be reduced by increasing the
diameter of the tapered tube and forcing the tool into the fertilizer mixture
with sharp taps from a hammer instead of a steady force.
Three new tools were built with advantage taken of these improvements.
The new tools were equipped with hammer attachments in order that an
electric hammer could be used to furnish the driving force, thereby causing
a full size sample to enter the tube.
These sampling tools, along with several other types, were tested on
lots of mixed fertilizer in both bulk and bagged form. It was noted that
the hammering action caused the fertilizer sample to enter the tube freely.
In most cases, the tube was filled to the depth of penetration.
The hammering action also aided tool penetration into bags where damp-
ness had caused the fertilizer to "set" and into bags that were tightly com-
pressed by the weight of other bags stacked on top. (See also Project 753,
CURING BRIGHT-LEAF TOBACCO GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT
LEVELS OF NITROGEN
Hatch Project 758 J. M. Myers
Results of one year's study to determine the best procedure for yellowing
tobacco grown with different amounts of nitrogen indicate that both tem-
perature and relative humidity within the curing barn are important factors
influencing quality of the cured leaf. There are indications that the temper-
ature used for yellowing is more critical for tobacco grown with high nitro-
gen fertilization than for tobacco grown with low nitrogen fertilization.
Tobacco produced on plots with 96 pounds of nitrogen applied per acre
(high rate) had a value of 46.15 cents per pound when cured with a yel-
lowing temperature of 900 F. and 49.50 cents per pound when yellowed at
1000 F. Plots with 24 pounds of nitrogen (low rate) had practically the
same value, 51.45 and 51.90 cents per pound when cured with these same
Effects of humidity variations on quality were not as pronounced as
were those of temperature variations, although certain trends were ob.
served. Tobacco grown on plots given medium nitrogen fertilization (48
pounds N per acre) and cured with a yellowing temperature of 95 F. had
Fig. 1.-General view of the 30 laboratory units used for
tobacco curing research.
36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
a value of 52.90, 50.00 and 47.90 cents per pound when treated with relative
humidity variables of 80, 90 and 99 percent. The lowest quality being as-
sociated with the highest relative humidity in this test indicates the reason
for poor quality when tobacco is overcrowded in curing barns. Overcrowd-
ing reduces effective ventilation which, in turn, permits the accumulation
of high humidity air within the barn. There were also results indicating
the desirability of maintaining a lower relative humidity during yellowing
for tobacco grown with high nitrogen fertilization than for tobacco grown
with low nitrogen fertilization.
For the 1957 season, modifications were made in the curing barns (see
Fig. 1) to improve control and regulation of humidities and temperatures.
The scope of the project was enlarged to obtain more information on yellow-
ing at the higher temperatures and at lower relative humidities, and to
study the relationship of maturity at time of harvest to curing practices.
(See also Agronomy Project 758.)
IRRIGATION OF TEMPORARY PASTURES FOR DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 772 J. M. Myers
This study of irrigated and non-irrigated alfalfa-clover-oat pastures be-
gun in September 1955 was continued. The same general procedure of
irrigation management was used. Grazing from the 1955 planting was
terminated in September 1956 and a new planting was made the same
Rainfall for the fiscal year totaled approximately 40 inches, about 20%
below normal. Distribution was good except for the late fall and early
winter months. Rainfall totaled .29 inch between October 23 and February
18. This 118-day period of below normal rainfall made necessary the ap-
application of 10.26 inches of irrigation water in eight applications, to main-
tain the desired soil moisture level in the irrigated pasture. Total irriga-
tion for the year was approximately 21 inches in 15 applications. Growth
response from irrigation was excellent. On several occasions during the
long dry period, however, before sufficient forage could be accumulated for
grazing to begin, either cold weather or disease or both would interrupt
or kill growth, so that the start of grazing had to be delayed until February
20. Nevertheless, the irrigated pasture produced sufficient forage for graz-
ing 51 days earlier than the non-irrigated.
An analysis of soil moisture determinations revealed that this type of
pasture used water from the 1-6", 6-12", 12-18" and 18-24" strata of soil
at approximately the same rate when moisture was readily available. Also,
this same analysis failed to reveal any indication that irrigation, as man-
aged in this experiment, tended to retard root activity or reduce the depth
of root penetration. (See also Project 772, Dairy Science and Agronomy.)
HORIZONTAL SILOS IN FLORIDA: TYPES FOR EACH AREA AND
MACHINERY FOR HANDLING AND FEEDING OUT
State Project 799 E. S. Holmes and J. M. Myers
Information was gathered on the filling and "feeding-out" operations of
12 horizontal silos during 1956. The silos studied consisted of five earth
bank bunkers, two concrete block bunkers, three timber bunkers, two con-
crete lined trenches and one earth trench. The equipment used by the least
expensive filling operation studied consisted of: three wheel-type tractors,
one pulling the forage harvester and the other two pulling wagons; one
power take-off forage harvester, and two home built self-unloading wagons.
The average cost of filling this silo was $1.66 per ton of silage. The cost of
silage making was affected most by the amount and cost of equipment used,
efficiency in its use and the material being harvested. With equipment of
Annual Report, 1957
a similar nature, grasses were approximately twice as expensive to make
into silage as grains.
The most expensive "feeding-out" operation cost $3.83 per ton for labor
and machinery. The silage was millet and bahiagrass and was "fed-out"
by two men with pitchforks and a dump truck. The least expensive feed-
out operation, based on comparable tonnage, was $0.65 per ton for labor and
machinery. The silage was corn and was "fed-out" by one man, one wheel-
type tractor, one tractor lift fork and one self-unloading wagon.
Commercial silo unloaders were found to be economical in horizontal
silos of 400 tons or more capacity. One type of unloader proved to be su-
perior in leaving a smooth surface, which, in turn, minimized spoilage while
STACK CONCRETE LINE EARTH WOVEN FENCE
SAND BANK BUNKERS WOODEN BUNKER SIO BUNKER OR TRENCH TREND BUNKER
Fig. 2.-Concrete lined bunkers, sand bank bunkers and wooden bunkers
had least spoilage among horizontal silos tried.
Figure 2 shows the percent of spoilage for 23 silos as measured during
the "feed-out" period. In all cases, the amount of spoilage increased with
an increase in the air exposed surface. Exposure to air was the main reason
for the wide variation in spoilage in similar type silos. Other observed
causes for spoilage were: (1) inadequate packing, (2) length of cut too
great, (3) rainfall inadequately drained off surface during storage, (4)
improper moisture content of ensilage material and (5) slow filling rate.
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AS AN AID TO THE HARVESTING
AND HANDLING OF CABBAGE, CUCUMBERS, TOMATOES
AND OTHER VEGETABLES HANDELD IN
A SIMILAR MANNER
State Project 811
E. S. Holmes
During 1956, the Agricultural Engineering Department built a harvest-
ing-aid machine to be used in harvesting cabbage, cucumbers and other
38 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
vegetables harvested in a similar manner. The machine was built on a
channel iron frame base and consisted of two 12" horizontal conveyor belts
-covering a total row width of 17 feet; a short horizontal forward moving
transfer belt; and an 8' inclined lift cleated belt. The machine had two
wheels mounted to allow a horizontal width adjustment of from 36 to 84
inches. The machine's vertical clearance varied from 28 to 40 inches. The
conveyors are powered by a 21 horsepower gasoline engine. The machine
performed satisfactorily in harvesting cabbage, cauliflower and cucumbers,
but was unsatisfactory in harvesting savoy. The heads of savoy were too
large for the 12" transfer conveyor and tended to lodge on turns. The
workers were able to harvest cabbage at only a slightly faster rate when
using the machine than by hand harvesting. The significant difference was
in the damage. In harvesting cauliflower, the machine performed satis-
factorily, but no comparisons as to rate harvested were made with a hand
In harvesting cucumbers, a small sacking platform was added to the
machine and a small experimental plot was partly machine harvested and
partly hand harvested. The hand pickers harvested at a faster rate in
four of five tests. The machine pickers were observed as doing considerably
less labor and, since these were only short duration tests, no conclusions
can be drawn for extended picking periods. The rate of harvest by both
methods was directly related to the yield. For hand picking, the rates for
three harvests were 235 It per hour (1,700 lb/acre yield), 890 lb per hour
(3,420 lb/acre yield) and 530 It per hour (1,990 tb/acre yield). Consider-
able knowledge was gained on harvesting these vegetables during the year.
However, a number of machine revisions and more detailed tests will be
necessary before it can be recommended.
Three cucumber harvesting machines, built by vegetable growers and
tested in commercial use, showed considerable merit in increased picking
rates (compared to hand picking), but showed more damage. (See also
Project 811, Vegetable Crops.)
A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF
ARTIFICIAL AIR MOVEMENT ON CATTLE
FATTENING IN DRY LOT
State Project 842 E. S. Holmes
On June 14, 1957, a fan for cooling dry lot feeder steers was put into
operation on eight steers averaging 778.8 pounds in weight, at the North
Florida Station feeder barn. An air switch was installed to operate the
fan when ambient air temperatures were above 75 F. A similar installa-
tion was made at the Anthony Farms of the Norris Cattle Company, using
60 steers averaging 856.2 pounds in weight. Two fans equipped with air
switches were set to start the fans at 80 F. In both tests, comparable lots
of cattle are being treated in the same manner except for artificial ventila-
tion. At the North Florida Station, records are being kept on the tempera-
tures of the air in both pens and the rate of natural air movement in the
non-ventilated pen. The amount of the electricity used by the fans is
measured for both tests. Spot checks are being made on the amount of
water used by the two lots of animals at the North Florida Station.
At the time of this report, no conclusions can be drawn on the effect of
artificial air movement on feeder steer gains, eating habits, etc.
Precooling and Transit Refrigeration of Gladioli.-Preliminary investi-
gations of the effect on quality and operating cost by various methods of
Annual Report, 1957
precooling and transit refrigeration of gladiolus spikes were begun during
Records made from a typical trailer truckload of gladioli en route to
New York City revealed that ice bunker refrigeration kept the temperature
of precooled flowers at approximately 500 F. during transit. Twenty-four
hours, or about one-half the shipping time, were required for this type of
refrigeration to reduce to 500 F. the temperature of a non-precooled hamper,
placed in the center of a precooled load. Thus, if a temperature (50 F.)
that is generally accepted by the industry as suitable for preserving quality
is to be maintained during transit, precooling may become a necessary proc-
Temperature variations were found to be large within a standard card-
board hamper of gladioli during precooling. After six hours in a cold
room, at 34-37 F., with mechanical air circulation within the room, the
temperature in the center of the stem, between the two lower florets, was
550 F.; midway the length of the stem it was 480 F., and near the base of
the stem, it was 39 F. After 16 hours in the cold room, there was still a
temperature differential of 5 F., with the base temperature 37 F.
It was found that better refrigeration efficiency was obtained by pre-
cooling the flowers before placing them in the shipping hampers. Also,
it was found that the temperature of precooled flowers could be main-
tained longer if they were packed in non-ventilated hampers. It may be
economically feasible for some processing installations in Florida to put
these procedures into operation.
Several lots of gladioli were precooled by the vacuum process with no
apparent injury to the florets. The required precooling time, by this
method, was approximately 15 minutes. Precooling time in the cold room
was also reduced by using a small fan to force cold air through filled ham-
Fig. 3.-New self-propelled harvesting machine for low-growing crops
requiring hand picking. Note six seats for workers to lie in semi-prone
40 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
pers. This method reduced the precooling time from approximately five
hours to 20 minutes.
Tests to find the resistance to crushing of various shipping cartons being
used by the gladiolus industry revealed that certain wooden cartons offered
approximately the same resistance to crushing as standard cardboard car-
tons. The resistance of cardboard cartons to crushing was reduced approx-
imately 17 percent by placing them in a wet cold storage room for 48 hours.
(E. S. Holmes and J. M. Myers.)
Machinery for Assisting Hand Operations in the Production of Straw-
berrys and Other Low-Growing Truck Crops.-A survey of some of the prob-
lems associated with the production of strawberries was made in the Plant
City area in December 1956. As a result, it was determined that it might
be of considerable assistance to the strawberry producers if a machine could
be developed that would render the tasks of hoeing, weeding and picking
the berries less arduous and back tiring.
It seemed that a main problem in developing such a machine was in de-
signing comfortable seats for the workers and still permit maximum output
on the part of the workers. It was decided that a seat providing support
for the worker to lie over to one side in a semi-prone position may meet
this requirement. Such a seat was developed and a self-propelled machine
equipped with six of the seats. This machine (Fig. 3) was tested for its
utility in picking strawberries in the Plant City area. Basically it was
satisfactory, but it was apparent that some modifications were needed in the
design of both the machine and the seats. The seats were re-designed and
the wheel base on the machine was shortened.
It had been suggested that the machine might increase the picking rate
for bell peppers, so it was tested for this purpose. The workers were en-
thusiastic in their comments, but the relative rates of picking with and
without it have not been determined. However, it is believed that extended
testing of the machine will prove that the seats, as they are now designed,
will permit considerably more output by workers during a normal working
day than is now possible on jobs such as hoeing, weeding, and harvesting of
low-growing truck crops while walking. (J. S. Norton.)
Annual Report, 1957
New projects were started on more basic principles of chemical weed
control, and on irradiation of crop plants to induce valuable genetic muta-
Work was continued on tobacco curing methods, micro-climatic factors,
along with fertilizer practice, irrigation, and rate and date of planting in
relation to yield of various field crops and pastures.
Breeding for improved varieties of tobacco, small grains, peanuts, soy-
beans, corn and various forage legumes and grasses was continued.
PEANUT BREEDING FOR SUPERIOR TYPES
FOR MARKET AND FOR LIVESTOCK FEED
Hatch Project 20 W. A. Carver
A medium large seeded hybrid line, Florida 392, having Florispan Run-
ner and jumbo runner heredity, has equaled Florispan Runner in yield per
acre over a three-year period. The seed quality of 392 has not equaled that
of Dixie Runner but its seed damage has been about one-third that of stand-
ard Virginia type varieties grown with it in variety tests. All varieties were
cured in stacks. Florida 392 is being carried under several lines which differ
in seed size and other characters. All lines are of runner habit. Dixie Runner
and Florispan Runner have been intercrossed and crossed to lines and varie-
ties of different seed sizes. The seed quality of Dixie Runner and the high
yielding ability of Florispan Runner are being sought in the resulting hybrid
lines. Indications are that better progress will be made from these hybrid
selections than can be made by selection within Florispan Runner.
The time-of-planting test at Marianna in 1956 did not show seed quality
advantages for late plantings and the late plantings produced relatively low
yields. The Gainesville time-of-planting test was inconclusive because of
late season dry weather. Mechanical harvesting and artificial drying of
peanuts, which are growing in popularity, make time of planting less im-
portant. (See also Project 596, West Florida Station.)
PASTURE GRASS AND LEGUME RESPONSES TO VARIOUS
FERTILIZER AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Hatch Project 295 D. E. McCloud, J. M. Creel, Jr.,
and G. B. Killinger
Coastal bermudagrass continued to produce high yields of forage in the
third year of continuous high nitrogen fertilization. Over 20,000 pounds
per acre of dry forage were produced on plots receiving 60 pounds nitrogen
per acre bi-weekly.
For the second year pangolagrass was severely winter-killed. At nitro-
gen rates above 400 pounds per acre complete winter killing occurred.
In the 1956 bermudagrass variety-nitrogen fertilization test Coastal out-
yielded Midland at all nitrogen levels. Coastal produced over five tons per
acre of dry forage when fertilized with 400 pounds of nitrogen. Coastal
and Suwannee did not differ significantly in yield. However, Coastal did
become established more rapidly.
In the 1956 bahiagrass variety-nitrogen fertilization test the introduc-
tion P.I. 158,822 and Pensacola were highest yielding. Both of these pro-
duced more than five tons per acre of dry forage with 400 pounds of nitro-
gen. Argentine and P.I. 162,902 were intermediate, and common was the
lowest in season yield. Common bahiagrass produced only two and one-
42 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
half tons of dry forage per acre with 400 pounds of nitrogen. Even at low
levels of nitrogen fertilization common produced only about one-half as
much forage as Pensacola or P.I. 158,822.
FORAGE AND PASTURE GRASS IMPROVEMENT
Hatch Project 298 W. A. Carver and F. H. Hull o
Forage weights were taken in 1955 and 1956 on a bahiagrass yield trial
which contained three broad-leaf or Argentine types and nine narrow-leaf
or Pensacola types. In 1956, weights were taken separately on seedheads
and leaves. The only significant difference was that between groups, broad-
leaf and narrow-leaf. The narrow-leaf types produced higher forage yields
in the early season clippings and also for the season's total. Commercial
Pensacola bahiagrass, used as a check variety, produced 54 percent more for-
age than the broad-leaf types. Lower head yields were made by the broad-
leaf types. The test was planted on a sandy soil of medium fertility. A
complete fertilizer was applied in June at the rate of 400 pounds per acre.
A large number of millet introductions were planted in 1956 for studies
on tillering habit, forage quality and seed production. Commercial cattail
millet was crossed to P.I. 185,462, a good seed producer. Selection will be
made in the hybrid for good tillering habit and high seed yield.
This project was closed June 30 and replaced with a new project, No. 850.
EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF FORAGE AND COVER
CROP LEGUMES OTHER THAN CLOVERS AND LUPINES
Hatch Project 301 J. R. Edwardson, E. S. Horner
and F. H. Hull10
Papago winter peas and Auburn vetch were the top forage producing
varieties in their respective tests.
Crotalaria striata P.I. 198001 yielded significantly more green weight
(0.42 tons/acre) than commercial striata at Gainesville. Yield tests includ-
ing this introduction are being placed at new locations in Florida. Testing
progeny of irradiated C. spectabilis for alkaloid-free mutations is continuing.
The program of mass selection in alfalfa was continued with no new
FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IMPROVEMENT
Hatch Project 372 Fred Clark
One hundred and nine plant selections from the 1955 nematode-resistant
test material were planted in 1956. A yield and quality record was made
on all plant selections. Most of them yielded above the susceptible varieties
of tobacco. Yields ranged from 1,000 to 2,500 pounds per acre. Several
interspecific lines were tested and some of these seem to have good nema-
tode resistance. Weather conditions were very unfavorable for best
growth of plants and for nematode buildup this year. A new 10-inch
well will provide adequate moisture for good growth in future tests and
insure better data.
Hatch Project 374 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
A new yellow corn hybrid, Florida 200, was released to seed producers
for production in 1957. In most respects this hybrid is similar to Dixie 18
in appearance, but it has been higher yielding during the past three years
of testing. In 1956 it produced on the average 59.6 bushels per acre, com-
1x Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USD'A.
Annual Report, 1957
pared with 54.9 for Dixie 18, in replicated tests at eight locations in North
and West Florida.
Tests were made to measure progress in two different recurrent selection
experiments. In the first, where three cycles of selection for combining
ability with F44 x F6 have been completed, the crossbred population result-
ing from each cycle was evaluated by crossing a large number of its plants
with F44 x F6. Yields of the resulting hybrids from the first, second and
third cycles were 52, 54 and 60 bushels per acre, respectively. These results
indicate a gradual increase in combining ability of the crossbreds from one
cycle to the next. In the second experiment, in which a specific (inbred
line) and a general (composite) tester are being compared, two cycles of
selection have been completed. The data to date indicate equally good
progress with each type of tester.
Florida 200, Dixie 18 and Coker 811 were the leaders in the commercial
hybrid tests on the basis of yield, standability and weevil resistance.
The other phases of this project were continued with no new results.
(See also Project 374, West Florida, North Florida and Suwannee Valley
EFFECT OF Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S, AND Mg ON THE GROWTH OF
GRAIN CROPS, FORAGE CROPS, PASTURES, AND TOBACCO
Hatch Project 440 H. C. Harris, R. L. Gilman,
V. N. Schroder and Fred Clark
A survey of plant nutrient deficiencies for virgin Leon fine sand from
the Beef Research Unit area was continued. Floriland oats, Louisiana
white dutch clover, Coastal bermudagrass and sweet yellow lupine were
grown on this soil in low-boron glass containers in experiments at the
In general the major elements, except magnesium, appreciably increased
yields. Sulfur had a pronounced beneficial effect on growth of both legumes
and non-legumes. Nitrogen appeared to increase only the early growth
of the legumes.
An application of copper to the soil markedly increased the growth of
oats again this year.
In the case of clover the copper treatment greatly increased vegetative
and seed yields, and without it the clover appeared to be light in color,
developed mild interveinal chlorosis and tended to wilt more readily on
bright, hot days than other clover plants. An application of boron greatly
increased seed yields of clover and without it the leaves of young plants
were frequently small and irregularly developed and had a dark velvety
A deficiency of either boron or copper decreased seed yields of lupine.
The vegetative growth of lupine was significantly increased by an appli-
cation of molybdenum, copper or boron.
PERMANENT SEEDBEDS FOR TOBACCO PLANTS
State Project 444 Fred Clark
Nugreen (45 percent nitrogen) and calcium cyanamid were applied to
the same areas for the 13th year. Good weed control was obtained. How-
ever, extra watering of the soil was required to reduce toxicity of treatment.
Methyl bromide was used for the control of weeds where several organic
materials were added to the soil (peat moss, sheep manure, vermiculite,
chicken manure, raw peat and peanut hay). All of these proved superior
to the check treatment, while vermiculite, peat moss and chicken manure
were the best three. Better plant root systems were obtained in the organic
44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
plots than in the check plot. Ferbam, zineb, maneb, and streptomycin, as
both dust and wettable powder, were tested for bluemold control. All gave
excellent results this year. The non-treated plots were severely damaged
by bluemold. Streptomycin (15 percent) was tested at 100 and 200 ppm
and as a dust at .02 percent, and this was used at the rate of 2 to 3 pounds
per 100 square yards. Leaf yellowing was not as prominent this year as it
was in previous tests. Crag Mylone, Vapam and UF-85 were tested at
several rates for weed control. Crag Mylone and Vapam will be tested again
next year. (See also Project 444, Suwannee Valley Station.)
NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PEANUT
Hatch Project 488 H. C. Harris, R. L. Gilman,
V. N. Schroder and Fred Clark
The effect of an application of boron to Blanton fine sand, level phase,
on yield and quality of Early Runner and Dixie Runner peanuts was com-
pared in greenhouse experiments. Boron markedly increased the yield of
nuts of both varieties, particularly Early Runner. Without boron the nuts
of both varieties had a large amount of hollow heart defect. This im-
perfection was essentially eliminated by the boron treatment.
FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
Tobacco was grown on seven different grass sods. A fumigant vs. no-
fumigant test was conducted on the sods, and the average yields were 1,143
pounds for fumigation and 1,166 for no-fumigation.
Three rates of fertilizer per acre were also tested on the sods, and aver-
age yields for 1,200, 1,500 and 1,800 pounds of fertilizer were 1,183, 1,138
and 1,145 pounds per acre, respectively. Dollar values per acre for the
three rates of fertilizer were 597, 568 and 572. Yields from the grass sods
varied from 832 pounds for the fallow check to 1,645 pounds per acre for
Two methods of tobacco culture (flat vs. bed) and three fertilizer rates
of 1,200, 1,500 and 1,800 pounds per acre were tested on a Leon fine sand.
Rates of fertilizer had no significant effect within cultural practice. Aver-
age acre yields for fertilizer levels were 1,355 pounds for flat culture and
1,731 pounds for bed culture. Average dollar values per acre were 702
and 954, respectively, or an increase of $252.00 in favor of bed culture.
Plants in the fiat culture were severely damaged from the heavy rains in
Four rates of plants (5,000, 7,500, 10,000 and 12,500) and four fertility
levels (1,200, 1,500, 1,800 and 2,100 pounds per acre) were tested. Highest
over-all yield and quality was obtained from 7,500 to 10,000 plants and
from 1,200 to 1,500 pounds of fertilizer. (See also Project 555, Agricultural
Engineering and Suwannee Valley Station.)
BREEDING IMPROVED VARIETIES OF WHITE, RED AND
Hatch Project 600 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull"
A strain of red clover has been developed which has markedly more
resistance to powdery mildew than Kenland, the most satisfactory commer-
cial variety. However, in a limited yield test Kenland produced 26 percent
more dry matter than the experimental strain.
Testing of white clover clones was continued with no new results.
1 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
Annual Report, 1957
IMPROVEMENT OF LUPINES BY BREEDING FOR YIELD
AND INSECT AND DISEASE RESISTANCE
Hatch Project 612 J. R. Edwardson and F. H. Hull"
The top forage yield in lupines was again produced by imported yellow
A selection originally made in 1954 in bitter blue has been demonstrated
to be resistant to StemphyliumO solani. Resistance is being transferred to
sweet blue lines. Thrips-resistance was found in a "semi-sweet" introduc-
tion from Germany.
Selection for virus resistance is being continued in progeny of irradiated
sweet yellow seed. (See also Projects 612 and 742, Plant Pathology, and
Project 612, North Florida Station.)
PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL
AND NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 D. E. McCloud, C. S. Hoveland,
H. C. Harris and G. B. Killinger
Eight pasture programs containing pangolagrass, Pensacola bahiagrass
and Coastal bermudagrass, with and without clover, and at several levels
of fertility were grazed in a cow-calf operation. During 1956, the fourth
year of the study, growing conditions were generally good for forage pro-
duction on flatwoods soil. Winter temperatures were unusually low during
the first two weeks of January-on eight nights temperatures below 280 F.
were registered. Pangolagrass stands were again injured by winter freezes.
Clover live-over, through the summer months, was unusually good.
Total season forage yields of more than seven tons per acre, oven-dry,
were obtained from the Coastal bermudagrass-clover pasture. In contrast a
yield of only one-half ton per acre was produced in the low fertility Pensa-
cola bahiagrass pastures.
Coastal bermudagrass, established last year, was the highest yielding
grass in every program.
Mineral and feed analyses of the forage in 1956 from the different pas-
tures have been completed. In general fertilization increased the protein
and mineral contents of the forage. Usually analyses of clover for these
constituents give high values. Liberal fertilization made the composition
of the all-grass pastures approach that of the grass-clover mixtures. (See
also Project 627, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineering, Animal
Husbandry and Nutrition, and Soils.)
SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN ROOT RESERVES
OF CERTAIN SANDHILL PLANTS
State Project 691 H. C. Harris, Frank Woods '
and Walt Hopkins "
Evaluations of the nitrogen content of oak roots and wiregrass roots
taken at different times of the year were completed. Available carbohy-
drates have been evaluated for a part of the samples. Conclusions are
pending the completion of the determinations.
HERBICIDAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN PEANUTS AND OATS
Regional Research Project 694 E. 0. Burt
Fifty-one herbicidal treatments were applied pre-emergence to peanuts
planted on two different dates. Rainfall for the first three weeks following
12 Cooperative with East Gulf Coast Branch, Southern Forest Experiment Station.
46 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
treatment totaled 3.12 and 7.17 inches for the first and second plantings,
respectively. The heavier rainfall and the more even distribution of the
rainfall following the second planting resulted in more treatments giving
better weed control in the latter planting. Some treatments resulted in
more injury to peanuts with the higher rainfall. On both planting dates,
the following herbicides at the respective rates of active ingredient in
pounds per acre gave excellent control of annual broadleaf and annual grass
weeds with little or no injury to peanut plants: DNBP alkanolamine salt at
12, CIPC at 12, 2,4-D ester at 2 and 4, PCP sodium salt at 12 and 16, diuron
at 1, 2,4-D amide at 4, and CDEC at 12. EPTC, which was used on the
second planting date only, gave excellent results at the 10-pound-per-acre
Pre- and post-emergence applications of DNBP and sesone at different
rates were made to peanuts planted at five locations in North and West
Florida. Pre-emergence applications of DNBP at rates of six and nine
pounds active ingredient per acre gave excellent control of weeds with no
injury to peanut plants at any location. Pre-emergence applications of
sesone at rates of two and four pounds per acre gave excellent control of
weeds at all locations with no injury to peanuts at four of the five locations.
Both rates of sesone resulted in temporary stunting of peanuts at one
DNBP at the rate of 3 pounds active ingredient per acre was applied
on 15 different dates to peanuts planted on eight different dates. An early
post-emergence application of DNBP killed small annual weeds, with tem-
porary leaf burn to peanut plants. The peanut plants later recovered and
yielded as much as the cultivated plots. For minimum crop injury, the
application should be made before the peanut plants reach a diameter of
three to four inches, at which time the weeds usually have reach the proper
stage of development for effective control by spraying. In general, injury
to peanuts increased and degree of weed control decreased when application
of DNBP was made after peanuts were three to four inches in diameter and
weeds were in the two- to three-leaf stage. Annual grasses were more tol-
erant of DNBP than annual broadleaf weeds.
Research concerning the control of weeds in oats was not conducted
during the year.
This project was closed in April and replaced with a new project, No.
839. (See also Project 839, Agronomy.)
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
TO ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES
Regional Research Project 743 D. E. McCloud, C. S. Hoveland,
(Regional S-12) O. C. Ruelke, L. S. Dunavin, Jr.,
and H. C. Harris
Temperature.-The interactions of temperature, nutrients and manage-
ment on growth of forage crops were clearly shown in yields and percentage
of winter kill in two varieties of bermudagrass, two of bahiagrass, and
especially in pangolagrass. Yields of pangolagrass increased from slightly
more than 7,000 pounds per acre to more than 11,000 pounds per acre when
nitrogen was increased from 100 to 400 pounds per acre without irrigation.
Increasing rates of nitrogen resulted in much more winter injury in pangola-
grass when applied in May, July and September than when applied in May,
June and July, yet total season yields of forage were almost the same.
Areas of forages covered with winter reserves had a higher percentage of
winter injury than areas which had been continuously harvested.
The electroconductivity method for testing cold resistance is being used
to evaluate the physiological responses of these forage crops.
Annual Report, 1957
Since freezing temperatures occur infrequently in Florida, a set of port-
able freezing chambers was developed to create artificial freezes. (See
Fig. 4.) With this equipment freezing research can be vastly accelerated.
ala J -.* '..y.A^, W
4.% f~ -- ;*.-,' S.. v *r.i& V.
*~ Pt *1.* uP
Fig. 4.-Dr. McCloud examines bahiagrass frozen by the new portable
Preliminary research has shown that cool temperatures, far above the
freezing point, are related to reduced growth rates in pangolagrass and
Coastal bermudagrass. Growth was reduced by one-third when the night
temperature was dropped from 70 to 500 F. This may be an important
factor in the slow growth rate of Southern grasses in the spring and fall.
48 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Tests are underway to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on the early
spring and late fall production of forages, as well as physiological responses
to the environment.
Management.-Clipping studies with Starr pearlmillet during 1956
showed that the severity of defoliation, or height of stubble left, exerted
considerable effect on forage yields and protein content. Leaving a high
stubble of 18 inches actually increased forage yields of plants cut when
they were 30 inches tall. Protein yields were influenced to an even greater
extent by proper clipping management. The protein yield per acre was in-
creased considerably by clipping to leave an 18-inch stubble.
Forage yields from pearlmillet grown in 7-, 19- and 38-inch row spacings
showed that the wide-row spacing gave lowest yield, regardless of the
clipping treatment used. No yield increase was obtained from irrigation
Clipping experiments with three varieties of oats showed that forage
yields were markedly reduced by continual clipping of plants back to two
inches when they reached six inches tall. Twelve-inch plants clipped to
leave a five-inch stubble throughout the winter have yielded as much forage
as a two-inch stubble, or more. The value of having a high stubble on oats
was vividly pointed out during freezes this past winter. Leaving a five-
inch stubble after clipping or grazing by sheep resulted in virtually no win-
ter-killing from freezes, whereas closely grazed paddocks or clipped plots
(one- to two-inch stubble) had almost 100 percent kill. Irrigation of oats
with sufficient water to maintain maximum growth resulted in yield in-
creases of 30 to 40 percent.
A soybean forage experiment pointed out the necessity of early planting
in order to achieve good forage yields. Soybeans planted June 7 yielded
144 percent more hay than when planted July 20. A row spacing of 7 or
19 inches was found to be more productive than a 38-inch spacing.
Water.-A net radiometer has just been put into operation to measure
the energy available for evapotranspiration of plants. This will provide a
closer check on evapotranspiration measurements by the energy balance
Light.-Several strains of white clover were evaluated with respect to
the day length necessary for blossoming. Northern strains from Wisconsin,
Idaho, Sweden, Denmark, Ireland and even northern California failed to
bloom under the natural Florida photoperiod. These white clovers would
fail to reseed in Florida.
HERBICIDAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN CORN AND SOYBEANS
State Project 747 E. 0. Burt
Nine herbicides and two herbicidal combinations were applied as pre-
emergence treatments to corn which was planted on two different dates.
Most treatments gave better control of weeds on the second planting date
when rainfall was adequate for good plant growth. The following treat-
ments at the respective rates of active ingredient in pounds per acre gave
very good to excellent control of weeds with no apparent injury to corn:
2,D-4 ester at 2, DNBP alkanolamine salt at 9 and 10, CIPC at 9 and 12,
2,4-D amide at 2 and 4, CDAA at 9 and 12, diuron at 1, simazin at 1 and 2,
and combinations of DNBP and CIPC each at 4 and each at 6 pounds per
The following pre-emergence treatments gave very good to excellent
control of annual weeds with little or no injury to soybeans: CDEC at 4, 8
and 12, CDAA at 4, 8 and 12, EPTC at 5, CDIC at 8 and 12, PCP sodium
salt at 8, 12 and 16, CIPC at 9 and 12, and BCPC at 12 pounds per acre.
Annual Report, 1957
CURING BRIGHT TOBACCO GROWN UNDER
DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN
Hatch Project 758 Fred Clark and H. C. Harris
Five nitrogen levels were tested: 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 pounds per acre.
Five yellowing temperatures, 80, 90, 95, 100 and 110 F., are being tested
with 80, 85, 90, 95, and 99- percent relative humidities. Thirty small labora-
tory curing units were used and 15 combinations of the above treatments
were tested. Each treatment was replicated four times in the field and twice
in the curing barn. Complete results cannot be given. However, wide differ-
ences in size of plants, color of leaf and maturity of leaf were obtained
under field conditions and these contrasting differences extended into the
cured leaf. Cured leaf samples ranged from 1.6 to 3.0 percent nitrogen.
Yields of tobacco ranged from 1,274 pounds per acre for 12 pounds of nitro-
gen to 1,814 pounds for 48 pounds of nitrogen. Average selling price
varied from $0.254 to $0.529 per pound. Acre values ranged from $399 to
$962. Wide differences were noted in physical appearances of leaves when
cured under different temperatures and humidities, particularly in control
of leaf spot organisms. (See also Project 758, Agricultural Engineering.)
MEASUREMENT OF METEOROLOGICAL ELEMENTS
OF THE MICROCLIMATE
Hatch Project 760 D. E. McCloud, V. N. Schroder,
K. D. Butson and O. C. Ruelke
The procurement of instruments and equipping of the mobile micro-
climatic laboratory has proceeded during the year. This laboratory is just
now in pilot operation (Fig. 5).
Preliminary data indicate that wide fluctuations exist in the microcli-
mate surrounding crop plants. With an air temperature of 92 F. at five
feet above the ground (comparable to standard temperatures reported by
U. S. Weather Bureau), the soil surface under a three-inch growth of
pangolagrass was 129 F., or 37 F. hotter! Under an adjoining eight-inch
tall pangolagrass cover the soil surface was 102 F. or 10 F. warmer than
the standard air temperature. Microclimatic conditions over a bare soil
with no plant cover were even more extreme. The soil surface reached
134 F.-42 hotter than standard air temperature.
Under the eight-inch tall pangolagrass cover, the warmest point was
three inches above the soil surface. At this point it was 18 above standard
air temperature. On the other hand, the warmest point under a three inch
pangolagrass cover is at the soil surface. The effect of these high tempera-
tures upon the growing point of the grass may be of considerable impor-
A preliminary study of temperature profiles in pearlmillet plots with
different plant heights and row widths revealed wide temperature varia-
tions. Soil surface temperature under 12-inch-tall pearlmillet in 38-inch
rows was 120 F., or 34 above standard air temperature. Under 30-inch
tall pearlmillet in 19-inch rows the soil surface was 830 F.-3 degrees below
standard air temperature! Soil temperature under this plot at four inches
below the surface was 77 F.
Temperature variations are tremendous in the microclimate. A wider
variation in temperature frequently exists in the first one foot above the
soil surface than exists on a given time over the entire United States.
Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.
50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
These wide temperature variations are definitely important to crop pro-
Fig. 5.-Mobile microclimate laboratory in operation. Wind, temperature
and carbon dioxide measurements are being taken.
BREEDING AND EVALUATING NEW VARIETIES
OF SOYBEANS FOR FLORIDA
State Project 761
Kuell Hinson 1"
An experiment to determine the value of single plant data in selections
from populations in which individual plants differ in height and maturity
was continued for the second year. Results indicate that performance of
single plants is not a good measure of their genotype at any plant spacing
in the row up to 32 inches. Twelve characters were measured, including
yield. Unequal height competition seems to influence the characters most
but maturity differences are also important.
Selections from 1955 plant rows compared very favorably in perform-
ance with established varieties in 1956 yield tests. Yields of the best selec-
tions were above 40 bushels per acre. Many of the late-maturing plant
introductions also appear to be well adapted. Their value is expected to
lie primarily in providing genetic diversity for the breeding program. Va-
rieties and selections of Classes VII and VIII maturity (October 15 to No-
vember 1) are better adapted to this area. The same growth type and ma-
turity range are adapted to the Live Oak area. Earlier maturing varieties
make sufficient growth for good production on muck soil near Zellwood.
Results of a fertility experiment on muck soil were inconclusive. (See also
Project 391, Central Florida Experiment Station.)
14 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
Annual Report, 1957
THE INTERRELATION OF ENVIRONMENT TO THE PHYSIOLOGY
AND CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS. II. ORGANIC ACID
METABOLISM OF PLANTS IN RELATION
TO MINOR ELEMENT NUTRITION
Hatch Project 766 V. N. Schroder, H. C. Harris
and R. L. Gilman
Tobacco, sunflower and St. Augustinegrass have been grown in nutrient
solution culture in the greenhouse to study the effects of various minor
element deficiencies on the organic acid metabolism of these plants. In
addition, oats, lupine and clover have been grown in soil culture. Deficien-
cies of some of the minor elements cause an upset in the ratios of the organic
acids in the citric acid cycle. Other deficiencies do not affect the organic
acid balance, even though total growth of the plants may be greatly re-
duced. Large variations in the ratios of the organic acids are often found
between different parts of the same plant. For example, an analysis of the
interveinal tissue of tobacco leaves is quite different from an analysis of
the entire leaf. It is essential to use a precise sampling technique.
EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED PLANT SPECIES
Hatch Project 767 L. M. Wofford, J. R. Edwardson, W. A. Carver,
(Regional S-9) D. E. McCloud, F. H. Hull,'" G. B. Killinger
and J. M. Creel, Jr.
The yield performance of sweet sorghum varieties was highest for the
later maturing strains. Honey and Sart yielded significantly more silage
than Atlas and Honey Drip.
Grain sorghum variety yield tests showed hybrids yielding significantly
more grain than standard varieties at Live Oak and Gainesville. The
highest yielding hybrid at Live Oak was Dekalb experimental-7 (30.4
bushels per acre); the highest yielding standard variety was Early Hegari
25248 (19.8 bushels per acre). At Gainesville, Texas 601 was the highest
yielding hybrid (25.1 bushels per acre), while Sagrain (12.2 bushels per
acre) was the highest yielding standard variety. Studies on bird damage
control by chemical treatments have been initiated in cooperation with the
Fish and Wildlife Service and the number of yield tests have been increased
Results of variety trials again show pearlmillet to be far superior in
yielding ability to sudangrass, producing two to three times as much green
and dry forage per acre.
More than 300 species or strains of grasses and legumes were planted
for observation. No single species was noted for any superior quality as a
forage or pasture plant.
Uniform variety trials with sesame showed a wide variation in adapta-
tion to Florida conditions. Blanco was the outstanding variety tested in
1956, with a seed yield of 836 pounds per acre.
Sesame varieties Rio and Palmetto produced more seed when planted
in early June than when planted in July. Plants spaced in nine-inch rows
produced more seed than those spaced 19 and 38 inches, respectively.
IRRIGATION OF TEMPORARY PASTURES FOR DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 772 D. E. McCloud and G. B. Killinger
Beginning in February 1956 forage samples were taken for yield and
botanical composition on the irrigated pasture. From February to early
5 Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
52 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
September, the total forage yield was 6,840 pounds dry matter per acre.
This forage consisted of 78% alfalfa, 12% oats, 4% red clover and 6%
On the non-irrigated pasture the total forage yield was 5,631 pounds
dry matter per acre. This forage consisted of 84% alfalfa, 11% oats, 2%
red clover and 3% weeds.
Botanical composition of the forage had a seasonal character. Early in
the year the composition was 60 percent oats and 35 percent alfalfa. By
mid-April the oats had virtually disappeared and the forage was more than
90 percent alfalfa. Weeds were more pronounced after mid-July, as both
oats and alfalfa began to disappear. Redclover, whiteclover and burclover
made an insignificant contribution to forage production.
Forage consumption by grazing animals was measured by differences
between grazed and ungrazed strips. The percentage utilization was quite
high, averaging almost 90 percent for the alfalfa and oats in the spring
season. During the summer 50 to 60 percent of the available alfalfa was
consumed by the grazing animals. (See also Project 772, Dairy Science and
SMALL GRAIN IMPROVEMENT BY BREEDING AND SELECTION 1
Hatch Project 783 A. T. Wallace
Oats.-A new race of crown rust, not specifically identified yet but in the
263-274 group, attacked all oat lines growing in the nursery except 260 lines
from irradiated Floriland and one selection from non-irradiated Floriland.
These plants show mature-plant type resistance to the new race and will
be tested for their seedling reaction. A population of awnless and basal-
hairless mutants from Floriland were susceptible to H. victoria. This is
most unusual because, theoretically, the only oat lines that show suscepti-
bility to H. victoria are lines carrying genes from the Victoria introduction.
These mutants will be investigated further to determine an explanation for
the unusual genetic behavior.
Oat nurseries were grown and clipped at Gainesville, Ona, Belle Glade
and Ft. Lauderdale for developing new varieties adapted to these specific
areas. At all locations, new lines outperformed the currently recommended
varieties. In the clipping nurseries at Gainesville several lines produced
25 percent more forage than Floriland, the recommended variety.
Seminole produced only about 75 percent as much forage as Floriland,
regardless of whether clipped at weekly or at monthly intervals. Seminole,
when clipped monthly, produced 48 percent more forage than when clipped
weekly. Floriland, when clipped monthly, produced 47 percent more forage
than when clipped weekly. These data emphasize the importance of rota-
tional grazing for getting maximum yields of forage from oats. The corre-
lation between actual clipping weights and accumulated visual ratings of
oat lines was 0.85. This correlation is similar in magnitude to those re-
ported last year. This similarity indicates that visual ratings can be used
in selecting lines for high forage production.
Rye.-In the uniform rye forage nursery, Gator, the new variety released
last year, produced 33 percent more forage than Florida Black. In the re-
current selection breeding program for high and low forage production, 840
lines were scored and clipped. Twenty-eight of these had an accumulated
score of 26 or under and 26 had scores of 45 or over. The remnant seed
of these 54 lines will be used for continuing the selection program. The for-
age production of 28 combinations of nine varieties of rye was compared
with their parents' production. Including all clippings, the hybrids aver-
aged producing 15.2 percent more than the parents. Average production of
1o Cooperative with Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
Annual Report, 1957
the hybrids ranged from 95 percent to 132.5 percent of that of the parents.
Specific combinations ranged from 72.5 to 170.4 percent of their parents'
yield. The average production of the hybrids as a percent of the parents'
production for the different dates of clipping were as follows: December 23,
124.3 percent; January 23, 125.3 percent; February 24, 120.9 percent; March
8, 90.2 percent. The low production for the last clipping indicates a par-
tial dominance for earliness among the hybrids. For developing inbred lines
of rye, about 2,000 S1 plants were selfed. The first backcross generation
was obtained from the wheat-rye hybrids backcrossed to rye.
Wheat.-The highest yielding wheat variety in the wheat clipping tests
was Bledsoe, which produced only about one-half that of a good oat or rye
variety. The highest grain producing variety was CI 13,359, a line de-
veloped at Beltsville, Maryland. (See also Project 783, Plant Pathology,
North Florida Station, and Project 662, Everglades Station.)
SUPPLEMENTARY HEAT AND LIGHT FOR THE
PRODUCTION OF TOBACCO SEEDLINGS
State Project 794 Fred Clark and C. E. Dean
Four heat-light treatments together with four dates of planting were
tested to determine their effects on seedling production and on yield, quality
and value of tobacco.
The four planting dates were December 15, January 5, January 27 and
February 15. Effects of the heat-light treatments on yield, quality and
value were for the most part negligible this year. However, plants grown
with heat plus light produced higher yields, while those from heat alone
yielded the highest percentage of quality tobacco. Yields decreased pro-
gressively from the December 15 to February 15 planting date. Acre value
was highest from heat alone, and the February 15 seeding date produced
the highest percentage of quality tobacco.
The effects of field transplanting dates were variable due to seasonal
and climatic factors. Unseasonable cold, heavy rain, wind and hail damaged
the test, and as a result these data do not present an accurate picture of
results which might be expected under more favorable climatic conditions.
THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATED RAINFALL ON THE
HERBICIDAL ACTIVITY OF DNBP AND 2,4-DES
Regional Research Propect 839 E. 0. Burt
Research was initiated on this project, but only preliminary results are
apparent on this date.
PLANT IMPROVEMENT WITH GAMMA RADIATION
Hatch Project 848 A. T. Wallace
This project was approved June 7, 1957. No active work has as yet been
initiated. (See also Project 848, Botany, Fruit Crops, Ornamental Horticul-
ture, Plant Pathology and Vegetable Crops.)
Climatological Analysis.-Under a cooperative agreement between the
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Agronomy Depart-
ment and the United States Weather Bureau, weather data are being placed
on punched cards. Data from four Florida stations-Gainesville, Belle
Glade, Lake Alfred and Quincy-as well as Brewton, Alabama, have now
54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
been punched and processed. These stations were selected to represent
geographically and climatologically the various crop production regions of
The United States Weather Bureau is furnishing all weather records
and blank cards. The University of Florida Statistical Laboratory, under
contract from the Agronomy Department, is punching the IBM cards and
doing the analyses. To date more than 65,000 cards have been completed.
This project is still in initial stages. It is contemplated that analyses
of back weather records will progress as fast as facilities permit until at
least 25 stations have been completed.
A preliminary analysis indicates the usefulness of this technique for
determining temperature and drouth hazards to crop production. (D. E.
McCloud and Keith Butson".)
Corn Culture Experiment.-The top yield in the 1956 corn irrigation ex-
periment was 146 bushels per acre. This high yield was produced with
the new Florida 200 variety by an 11-inch spacing in 38-inch rows, eight
irrigations each of one inch, early (March 6) plantings, and 340 pounds of
nitrogen per acre.
Yields were generally higher when irrigations were applied following a
one-inch deficit. The plots receiving four applications of two inches were
lower yielding. Two applications of four inches produced a smaller yield,
while the non-irrigated plots were lowest in yield.
In 1956 plant spacing had a pronounced effect on corn yield. At the
intermediate nitrogen level (160 pounds per acre), a change in spacing from
32 to 13 inches in the row increased corn yields 32 bushels per acre.
Nitrogen fertilization had a less pronounced effect upon corn yields. At
the intermediate spacing (18 inches), a 240-pound increase in nitrogen gave
a yield increase of only six bushels per acre.
Date of planting had a pronounced effect on yield. Average yield de-
clined as date of planting was delayed after March 1. After March 21
the decline in corn yield was even greater. The April 18 planting gave the
Florida 200 consistently outyielded Dixie 18. (D. E. McCloud, E. S.
Horner and I. M. Wofford.)
Crop Management.-For the ninth consecutive year, when Dixie 18 corn
followed bitter blue lupine no significant increases in grain were obtained
from 40 pounds each of PO25 and KsO nor from 40 pounds of N alone or with
P and K.
Date of planting studies indicated that the optimum time to plant soy-
beans is the latter part of May to the first of June. Yields of seed were
not affected by time of application of fertilizer (fall or spring) or by the
cover crop turned under (oats or lupine). (I. M. Wofford.)
Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cotton.-Yield trials of 10 strains of
Coastal sea island and related cottons were conducted on the Station farms
at Gainesville and Sanford. Yields of seed cotton per acre varied from
2,292 pounds to 1,461 pounds in the Sanford test. Yields ranged from 973
to 845 pounds at Gainesville. The Coastland lines 320 and 160 produced
highest average yields. Root-knot nematodes damaged the cotton in the
Gainesville test. Coastland line 604 showed highest nematode resistance.
(W. A. Carver, J. W. Wilson is and F. H. Hull 1".)
17 Cooperative with U. S. Weather Bureau.
Cooperative with Central Fla. Sta. and Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA.
Annual Report, 1957
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
During the past year a barn for physiology studies has been completed.
This facility will allow us to conduct studies on the effect of hormones on
livestock fertility and production. A small flock of Florida native sheep
was added. They will be used with the present Hampshire and Rambouillet
flocks in research studies.
Research was conducted on 26 projects. Three new projects were initi-
ated, two dealing with studies on the effect of enzymes and hormones on
growth, fertility, reproduction and lactation of livestock. The other in-
volves studies to determine the nutritive value and storage characteristics
of foods and feeds which have been treated with radioactive cobalt-60.
Beef cattle data from Gainesville and the branch stations have been
transferred to IBM cards so that more information can be obtained and
analyzed from these research results. Analytical results obtained with
feeds and animal tissues, including blood, also have been transferred to
IBM cards. This process not only makes possible the statistical analyses of
the results, but it also makes information readily available which might
otherwise be difficult to obtain and evaluate.
The department has continued its cooperation with various other de-
partments and branch stations in nutrition, meats, physiology, genetics and
breeding. Requests for trace element analyses, making use of special tech-
niques developed at the Nutrition Laboratory, have greatly increased and
this year totaled nearly 700 individual determinations. Laboratory, chem-
ical and spectographic analyses have been made on samples sent from
Costa Rica, Cuba, Oregon, Kentucky, Tanganyika and Brazil. These samples
have been particularly helpful to our analytical staff, since they permit
checking of our own results. The department has cooperated also with
Florida Department of Health in regard to the problem of fluorosis in cattle.
Many of our staff have also judged livestock shows and helped breeders in
Central and South America with their livestock procurement and produc-
MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE
Hatch Project 133 G. K. Davis, R. L. Shirley, W. G. Kirk L,
R. B. Becker '", L. R. Arrington, J. P.
Feaster, J. T. McCall and J. C. Outler
In work with large animals this year, zinc has been shown to have an in-
terrelationship with copper in animal metabolism. Data collected thus far
indicate that high levels of copper in the diet will result in reduced zinc
content of the liver.
The cooperative work with the Range Cattle Station on the value of
different sources of phosphate for pasture as reflected in animal response
is now in its tenth year and has provided much valuable information with
regard to the handling of pastures for year-around grazing. Phosphorus
becomes a limiting factor only when nitrogen is adequate and other ele-
ments are available for abundant production of forage. Older animals that
have been well supplied with phosphorus are quite resistant to the develop-
ment of phosphorus deficiency symptoms when a minimum amount of this
element is supplied. On the other hand, young animals and lactating fe-
males are much more susceptible to a phosphorus deficiency condition, as
1' Cooperative with Range Cattle Station and Dairy Science.
56 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
indicated by changes in blood, bone and general performance. In coopera-
tive work with the Dairy Research Unit at Hague, blood hemoglobin levels
in cattle began to drop when the red oxide of iron in the mineral supple-
ment was lowered below 10 percent of the total mineral mixture.
This is part of an animal life-time study of mineral requirements being
conducted with dairy cattle. A further part of this study has indicated that
manganese is low in the reproductive organs of animals that have a poor
breeding history. It has not been possible to determine whether the low
manganese precedes or follows the changes which prevent breeding, but
studies are continuing along this line.
In continuing work with the value of cobalt, it has been found that high
levels of molybdenum prevent the formation of vitamin B-12 from cobalt,
but increased levels of cobalt in the diet up to an intake of 2 milligrams of
cobalt per day will overcome this suppression of vitamin B-12 formation by
molybdenum. (See also Project 133, Everglades Station.)
INVESTIGATION OF MINERAL NUTRITION PROBLEMS OF
LIVESTOCK THROUGH THE USE OF LABORATORY ANIMALS
Hatch Project 346 G. K. Davis, J. P. Feaster, J. T. McCall,
L. R. Arrington, R. L. Shirley and R. Preston
Molybdenum toxicity or copper deficiency conditions in laboratory ani-
mals do not develop as readily as in cattle unless the level of protein is re-
duced from normal levels to levels near those commonly fed to cattle, or
approximately 9 to 12 percent of the diet. This effect of protein on the de-
velopment of molybdenum toxicity has suggested that increasing the level
of protein in the diet of large animals is of value in counteracting molybde-
num toxicity. Work with sulfur and with manganese has indicated that
both of these elements are involved in the metabolism of molybdenum and
copper and are of value at increased levels in preventing molybdenosis.
Fluorine absorption varies markedly with the form of fluorine in the
diet. In work with rats, it has been possible to feed very high levels of
soft phosphate (5.8%) containing 1 percent fluorine without producing ab-
normal changes in the rats that would be expected with fluorosis. Rats fed
these high levels of soft phosphate, and therefore fluorine, showed some
increased growth in the incisors but otherwise grew well and reproduced
normally without showing any other evidence of fluorine toxicity. This has
suggested a need for a reevaluation of fluorine compounds in terms of po-
The level of energy in the diet has a marked effect upon the enzymes of
heart muscle and liver. In studies with the oxidation reduction enzymes of
tissues of small animals, it has been possible to show that on high energy
diets, the enzymes in the tissues are significantly increased.
Rats, which were placed on diets very low in copper and iron but given
access to metallic copper and metallic iron were apparently able to use some
of these elements, probably in the oxidized state, from these sources.
HERBAGE COMPOSITION AND ANIMAL RESPONSE AS
INFLUENCED BY PASTURE MANAGEMENT
Hatch Project 356 G. K. Davis, J. T. McCall and J. Mason
Animal performance is often a first indication of the deterioration of
the value of a pasture, but chemical analysis of pasture herbage for dry
matter, mineral composition and the presence of toxic materials has shown
that cattle often call upon body reserve and, therefore, do not fail as rapidly
Annual Report, 1957 57
as chemical analysis indicates they should. On the other hand, cattle rarely
do as well as the chemical analysis of extremely good pasture indicates
should be possible. During the year, fescue toxicity has been investigated
again, and cooperative work with the USDA Northern Regional Laboratory
at Peoria, Ill., on the toxic agent has been initiated. Under some condi-
tions, cattle exposed to pastures of an almost pure stand of tall fescue may
develop circulatory disturbances which result in dry gangrene of the feet
The incorporation of absorbant ingredients into grass silage improves
the retention of nutrients in the silage and improves the final product.
THE USE OF CITRUS AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS
FOR FEEDING SWINE
State Project 540 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs, Jr.
An extensive feeding study has been completed to determine the feeding
value of "C" grade sugar for the growing-fattening pig. Levels of 10, 20,
30 and 40 percent as a replacement for corn have all proven satisfactory
nutritionally. When a protein supplement and "C" sugar were fed free-
choice, gains were somewhat slower and less efficient.
The feeding value of hydrolyzed feather meal as a protein supplement
for growing pigs has been studied. Pigs responded well to 5 percent feather
meal. When the level was increased to 71/2 percent, performance became
less satisfactory, but this was overcome by lysine supplementation. Pigs
fed 10 percent feather meal performed poorly.
Value of Poultry By-Products in Rations for Young Pigs.-Two experi-
ments were conducted to determine the feeding value of feather meal and
poultry meat meal for pigs approximately 35 days of age. In the first test,
pigs fed a combination of the two poultry by-products had a growth rate
similar to those fed a combination of soybean oilmeal, feather meal and
poultry meat meal but failed to make as efficient use of the feed consumed.
Pigs in the second experiment were given a ration composed essentially of
corn, feather meal and poultry meat meal. After a three-week feeding
period, one-half of these pigs received the basal ration supplemented with
0.4 percent of DL-lysine and DL-leucine and the other half were continued
on the unsupplemented basal ration. The average daily gain and feed re-
quired per pound of gain for the supplemented and unsupplemented groups
were 0.67, 3.07 and 0.45, 4.06, respectively. Results indicate that supple-
mentation with lysine and leucine is of value with swine rations that con-
tain poultry by-products as the major protein source. Further studies will
be necessary to determine which amino acid(s) and in what quantities they
give optimum response.
SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDS FOR SOWS DURING GESTATION
State Project 542 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs, Jr.
The feeding of 200 grams of aureomycin per ton of feed three days pre-
farrowing through seven days post-farrowing to approximately 100 sows
has failed to reduce the incidence of uterine infections, mastitis and poor
Studies on the feeding of high levels of copper to swine during growth
and reproduction have demonstrated that levels of 150, 200, 250 and 300
ppm are in the toxic range, at least for certain animals. Hemoglobin levels
were reduced at the level of 200 ppm and above. Reproduction was poor
when sows were fed 150 ppm and above. Some improvement in gains was
58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
observed when 100 ppm of copper were fed the growing pig but this response
was less than can be obtained by feeding aureomycin and does not comple-
ment the aureomycin effect.
TRANSFER OF MINERAL ELEMENTS THROUGH THE PLACENTA
AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN THE FETUS
Hatch Project 566 G. K. Davis, J. P. Feaster, L. R. Arrington,
J. T. McCall, and J. C. Outler
The level of protein in the diet has a marked influence on the sulfur
metabolism of dam and of fetuses. On a low-protein diet, significantly less
sulfur was deposited in the fetuses. Sulfur deposited in the dams was es-
sentially the same, regardless of the protein level in the diet. The metab-
olism of sulfur was quite different in animals on the different levels of
protein, as indicated by the use of radioactive sulfur. When sulfur-35 was
injected intramuscularly, the radioactive sulfur excreted in the feces was
four times as great in the rats on the low protein as in rats on the normal
protein diet. Urinary excretion, on the other hand, was much higher with
the high protein intakes. With adequate sulfur intakes, the level of pro-
tein intake appears to control the sulfur metabolism of both the dam and
INFLUENCE OF BREED COMPOSITION AND LEVEL OF
NUTRITION ON ADAPTABILITY OF CATTLE TO
CENTRAL FLORIDA CONDITIONS
State Project 615 M. Koger
For this report, see Project 615, Range Cattle Station.
PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS
FOR BEEF PRODUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF
CENTRAL AND NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 M. Koger
During the three years previous to this year's results, cows which grazed
pastures containing clover produced calves which were heavier at weaning
and had higher market scores than calves from similar cows on all-grass
pastures. Nursing cows on clover pastures in the past had a higher concep-
tion rate during the breeding season. During this last year, however, pro-
duction rate and breeding efficiency were similar in all programs. The
reasons for improvement in performance on the all-grass programs are
not known although scattered clover plants appeared in the grass pastures
as a result of liming the pastures in the fall of 1955 and may have influ-
enced results. Differences in weights, or market scores, of calves sired by
Angus, Brahman, Hereford and Shorthorn bulls mated to grade Brahman
cows were not significant this year. Prior to this year, there has been an
advantage for crossbred calves sired by the European bulls. (See also
Project 627, Soils, Agronomy, Agricultural Engineering and Agricultural
SELECTION OF CATTLE FOR BEEF PRODUCTION IN
SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES
State Project 629 M. Koger
(Contributing to Regional Project S-10)
For this report see West Central Florida Station.
Annual Report, 1957
A COMPARISON OF THE CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS
OF PUREBRED BRAHMANS, PUREBRED BRITISH
BREEDS AND THEIR CROSSES
State Project 631 A. Z. Palmer, M. Koger and R. L. Shirley
The slaughter and carcass characteristics of 143 steers, cows and heifers
of known breeding and ages have been studied over a five-year period.
Data collected on 47 steers of the first three years have been statistically
analyzed. The findings to date indicate that steers with a predominance of
Brahman blood have smaller digestive tracts, smaller livers, heavier hides,
longer hind legs, a higher combined percentage of high priced primal cuts
(round, rib and loin) and a higher cooler shrink. Steers with one-half or
more Shorthorn blood graded significantly higher on the rail, had larger
kidney knobs and a higher percentage of fat in the prime rib. Tenderness
scores by taste panel and by shear test machine showed that the steers with
one-half or more Shorthorn blood were more tender than steers with a pre-
dominant amount of Brahman blood.
The effects of age, grade and breeding on tenderness are now being
investigated. (See also Project 631, Range Cattle Station.)
IMPROVEMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF REPRODUCTION
IN BEEF COWS
State Project 709 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger and
A. Z. Palmer
Low fertility cows that were given progesterone therapy had 50 percent
of the animals with normal embryos while antibiotic-treated females had
17 percent with normal embryos and none of the control cows had normal
embryos 34 days after breeding. Only 50 percent of the nonpregnant,
"alternate-year" cows bred to a fertile bull had normal embryos 34 days
following breeding. Failure of estrus and regressing embryos accounted
for the reproductive failure. The total gonadotrophin activity of the an-
terior pituitary gland of first service heifers was slightly higher than parous
fertile cows and low fertility cows. Cows fed diethylstilbestrol had a
higher gonadotrophin activity than cows which received none of the hor-
mone. The level of gonadotrophin hormone was about 25 percent higher
at 34 days than at three days after breeding. (See also Project 709, Vet-
EFFECT OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION OF
PASTURE FORAGE UPON FERTILITY IN BEEF CATTLE
State Project 710 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger and T. J. Cunha
Gains, reproductive performance and feed efficiency were directly related
to protein intake in yearling heifers. Hemoglobin, hematocrit and total
serum protein levels were decreased in these yearling heifers when the
protein intake dropped below 30 percent of their requirements. Gains and
feed efficiency were directly related to protein intake in two-year-old heifers,
while the regularity of estrus was not influenced until protein intake dropped
to 14 percent of their requirements. Pregnant and lactating heifers had
better gains when given adequate protein supplement with grass, hay or
silage, compared to nonsupplemented animals. Weight gains and repro-
duction were better in heifers supplemented with cottonseed oil meal than
nonsupplemented heifers on either clover-grass or grass pastures.
Pregnancy percentage was 60 percent higher in lactating three-year-old
heifers on clover-grass pasture than in similar heifers grazed on grass
60 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
REPRODUCTION PHENOMENA IN ABERDEEN ANGUS,
BRAHMAN AND HEREFORD CATTLE
State Project 716 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and A. C. Warnick
Data were collected on the reproductive performance of Angus, Brahman
and Hereford cattle and calves. The average age at puberty (first estrus)
was 341 days for Angus, 712 days for Brahmans and 356 days for Here-
fords. The range of ages of puberty were from 219 days to 454 days for
Angus, 648 to 758 days for Brahmans and 316 to 400 days for Herefords.
Climatic, nutritional and physiological causes for these differences are under
study. The average interval from parturition to first postpartum estrus
was 64 days in Angus, 77 days in Brahmans and 80 days in Herefords.
HERITABILITY OF PERFORMANCE ESTIMATES ON
ABERDEEN ANGUS, BRAHMAN AND HEREFORD CATTLE
State Project 717 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and M. Koger
Relative breed performance data were compiled on purebred Angus,
Brahman and Hereford cattle and calves which were maintained under
similar environmental conditions. These data will be compiled over a five-
year period for calculation of heritability estimates. During this fiscal year,
Angus calves were smallest at birth but had the highest weaning grade
and type scores. Brahman calves were heaviest at weaning but were lowest
in type score. The Hereford calves were heaviest at birth but were light-
est at weaning. The Brahman cows were heaviest at weaning and the Angus
cows were lightest. Angus cows had the highest percent calf crop while
Brahman had the lowest.
VITAMINS, ANTIBIOTICS AND UNIDENTIFIED FACTORS
IN SWINE NUTRITION
State Project 718 H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs, Jr., and
T. J. Cunha
Studies on the palatability of antibiotics for swine have demonstrated
that aureomycin is preferred over terramycin, penicillin V and erythro-
mycin. Pigs showed no particular dislike for terramycin and penicillin V
but refused completely a ration containing erythromycin.
SUPPLEMENTS AND BY-PRODUCT FEEDS FOR BEEF CATTLE
State Project 721 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and T. J. Cunha
The value of orally administered aureomycin and subcutaneously im-
planted diethylstilbestrol for fattening beef calves and yearling heifers
was studied in two experiments. Forty common and cull beef calves, four
to six months in age, were divided into four lots and fed high concentrate
rations for 70 days. Aureomycin was fed at the following rates per day:
Lot I none, Lot II 25 milligrams, Lot III 75 milligrams and Lot IV 75 milli-
grams for first six weeks only. Five calves from each lot were implanted
with 24 milligrams of diethylstilbestrol. Apparently aureomycin sup-
pressed gains while the diethylstilbestrol improved the rate of gain. No
apparent differences were detected in blood studies. In the second experi-
ment, 33 yearling heifers were divided into three lots and fed high rough-
age rations. Aureomycin was fed at the following rates per day: Lot I
none, Lot II 25 milligrams and Lot III 75 milligrams. Four heifers in each
lot were implanted with 24 milligrams of diethylstilbestrol. The aureo-
mycin treatments did not significantly affect rate of gain while diethylstil-
bestrol increased rate of gain in all lots.
Annual Report, 1957
INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF NUTRITION ON THE
REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SWINE
State Project 725 A. C. Warnick and H. D. Wallace
Eighty-five purebred Duroc gilts were given a full feed on pasture up to
breeding time. At breeding, one half were limited to 50 percent of the
energy of the full-fed group while the other half continued on full feeding.
Within each ration group one half of the gilts received 12.5 mg. of proges-
terone hormone daily equivalent from 3 to 25 days of gestation, while the
others received no progesterone. One third of the gilts were slaughtered
at 25 days of gestation and another third were slaughtered at 40 days of
gestation, while the remaining third farrowed. This technique allows an
estimate of prenatal death at the various stages.
Gilts farrowed late (April 3 to 25) in the season were 23 days younger
and 32 pounds lighter at puberty than gilts farrowed early (Jan. 4 to Feb.
18) in the season. The percent survival based on number of corpora lutea
and fetuses for the various stages was: 25 days 87 percent, 40 days 77
percent, and 114 days parturitionn) 50 percent.
The prenatal survival of all gilts full fed was 72 percent and in limited-
fed gilts was 68 percent. Those treated with progesterone hormone had a
68 percent survival rate of fetuses, while the gilts receiving no progesterone
had a 62 percent survival of fetuses. The gonadothrophin assays of the
anterior pituitary gland showed approximately 30 percent more activity
at 25 days gestation than at three days gestation. However, there was no
difference in gonadotrophin activity per unit of tissue in gilts on full and
NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF PIGS WEANED
AT AN EARLY AGE
Hatch Project 738 G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace and
T. J. Cunha
A series of experiments was designed to study the value of supplement-
ing the rations of 10-day-old pigs with a surfactant and various digestive
enzymes. These supplements were added to rations that contained sugar
or corn, or a combination of the two, as the major source of carbohydrate;
and dried skimmilk, poultry meat meal or feather meal as the main source
of protein. The daily gain and feed efficiency figure indicated that sugar is
more efficiently utilized than corn when dried skimmilk supplies the protein.
The performance of pigs fed rations containing a combination of these
carbohydrates with dried skimmilk was improved by diastase supplementa-
tion. When a combination of poultry meat mial and soybean oilmeal was
used to replace dried skimmilk in a sugar type ration, the performance of
the pigs was improved by the addition of pepsin and pancreatin. A similar
response was obtained when a feather meal-sugar type ration was supple-
mented with various enzymes.
The serum alkaline phosphatase activity of one and seven-day-old pigs
was correlated with their weight at 56 days of age. The magnitude of the
correlation coefficients indicated that phosphatase activity was of little
or no value in predicting the future performance of swine.
FEEDING WASTE BEEF TALLOW TO PEANUT-FED SWINE
TO HARDEN THEIR FAT
Hatch Project 739 A. Z. Palmer, H. D. Wallace,
T. J. Cunha and R. L. Shirley
Sixteen crossbred pigs, selected for uniformity as to breeding and age,
were individually fed in a preliminary study comparing methods of "hard-
62 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
ening" pigs grown out on peanuts. The hardening effects of typical corn-
soybean oil meal ration was compared with the hardening effects of a ration
containing 18.6 percent saponified beef tallow.
Two pigs were used in each of eight treatments. Pigs in Treatment I
were fed a ration made up largely of peanuts from initial to final weight.
Pigs in Treatments II, III and IV were fed peanuts also but were finished
off with 50, 70 and 90 pounds of gain on the ration containing 18.6 percent
saponified beef tallow. Pigs in Treatment VIII were fed the corn-soybean
oil meal ration from initial to final weight.
Slaughter and carcass measurement data are now being analyzed sta-
tistically. Carcass firmness, as measured subjectively and by refractive
index on backfat and leaffat, was improved significantly.
A second and more extensive study using acidulated coconut oil soapstock
in the "hardening" ration is now being completed.
PRODUCTION OF EARLY SPRING LAMBS IN FLORIDA
Hatch Project 740 P. E. Loggins, M. Koger,
(Contributing to Regional Project S-29) A. C. Warnick and
T. J. Cunha
In this study Hampshire, Rambouillet and Florida native yearling ewes
were straight bred to determine earliness of lambing and their productivity.
The Florida native flock was added to this study August 15, 1956. The per-
formance of the Hampshire and Rambouillet flocks during the breeding
season showed the average date of first estrus to be July 29 and July 2,
respectively. The Hampshires required seven-tenths more services per ewe
than the Rambouillets. Night mating groups required more services per
ewe than continuous mating groups in both flocks. Semen quality on rams
checked was highest during July and lowest during September. Flock
comparisons are reported in the following table.
Hampshire Rambouillet Native
Number of ewes per flock .........-...... 26 30 33
Average lambing date ......................- Jan. 4 Dec. 19 Jan. 1
Percent of ewes lambing ..........-.......... 58 90 91
Percent lambs dropped ....................... 62 90 97
Percent lambs alive 24 hours
after birth ................-..-. ............. 38 87 94
Average lamb weight
3-9-57 ....................... .. ...- .... 33 44 30
4-9-57 .......................... ..- .... 47 56 42
The lambs were weaned and graded on May 20, 1957, with an average
grade of utility. Ewes were checked 48 hours after weaning to determine
whether they were lactating. Forty-four percent of the Hampshire, 90 per-
cent of the Rambouillet and 96 percent of the Florida natives were lactating.
The Hampshire, Rambouillet and Florida native flocks sheared an aver-
age wool clip of 4.3, 7, and 3.3 pounds respectively. The Rambouillet wool
graded in the fine, 64's. The Hampshire wool graded in the one-fourth blood,
50's, and the Florida native wool in the common, 44's.
Annual Report, 1957
GENETICS OF DWARFISM IN BEEF CATTLE
State Project 752 M. Koger, A. C. Warnick and
(Contributing to Regional Project S-10) J. F. Hentges
Females of native and Brahman breeding were mated artificially to
dwarf bulls to produce known carriers of mixed breeding. The offspring
of these matings are to be used to investigate the influence of genetic en-
vironment on the expression of the dwarf gene. Additional test matings
between various types of dwarfs and known carriers were made. Results
from these matings indicate that the long-headed Hereford dwarf which
was used in the matings was either a nutritional dwarf or that the dwarf's
gene which he carried was different from those carried by the dwarf females
to which he was mated. Results from mating midget Brahman to snorter
Hereford dwarfs indicate that there is a genetic relationship between the
two forms of dwarfism. The mating produced what apparently was a
snorter dwarf. This suggestion is further supported by the fact that snorter
Hereford bulls mated to grade Brahman cows produce some calves which
resemble the Brahman midget in dwarf characteristics. Midget Brahman
X midget Brahman produced only midget calves, some of which were ex-
treme in characteristics. Similar results were obtained from mating Florida
guinea to guinea.
THE NUTRITIONAL AVAILABILITY OF COMPONENTS
OF LIVESTOCK FEEDSTUFFS
Hatch Project 755 G. K. Davis, L. R. Arrington,
J. C. Outler and J. T. McCall
Reagent grade dicalcium phosphate remains the most available form of
phosphate known for cattle and other species of animals. Under this proj-
ect, various phosphates, including defluorinated phosphate and soft phos-
phate, have been exposed in the graphite reactor at Oak Ridge in order to
form phosphorus-32 from the stable phosphorus present in the phosphates.
Subsequently, the phosphates are used in digestion trials to determine the
availability of the phosphorus for the animals. Defluorinated phosphate is
readily available to cattle. The phosphate from soft phosphate with col-
loidal clay is less available but still is a potential source of phosphate for
livestock under conditions where the level of fluorine can be controlled and
when used with older animals.
Work with sugarcane bagasse pith and with ammoniated sugarcane
bagasse pith has indicated that the pith may replace all other forms of
roughage in the diet of fattening cattle when two-year-old and older cattle
are fed. For younger animals, the pith appears to be less satisfactory.
The nitrogen from ammonia incorporated into the sugarcane bagasse
pith has been somewhat less valuable than nitrogen from urea as a replace-
ment for part of the protein in the cattle diet.
NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF RABBITS
State Project 768 L. R. Arrington and G. K. Davis
Nutritional studies in the production of fryer rabbits have been the
primary objective of research during the year. An experimental ration of
alfalfa, oats, soybean meal and citrus pulp was compared with a commer-
cial rabbit ration in feeding growing young. The average weight of fryers
at eight weeks fed the commercial ration was 3.9 pounds, compared to an
average weight of 3.3 pounds for those fed the experimental ration. Cost
of the experimental ration was much less than the commercial pellets.
64 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Using dried citrus pulp at the rate of 25 percent in the above ration, it
was possible to formulate a ration which was approximately equal in com-
position to the commercial preparation. Citrus pulp was palatable to rab-
bits and results indicate that it is a satisfactory ingredient in the rabbit
ration. Cottonseed meal substituted for soybean meal in the experimental
ration was not satisfactory as a protein supplement. Twenty percent cot-
tonseed meal in the mixture was toxic and caused death in more than 50
percent of the rabbits.
INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION, BREED, AGE AND SEX ON
RESPIRATORY ENZYMES IN THE TISSUES OF
CATTLE, SWINE AND SHEEP
State Project 805 R. L. Shirley, G. K. Davis, H. D. Wallace,
A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges, A. Z.
Palmer and P. E. Loggins
Forty-six swine were fed, from weaning to 220 6 pounds of weight,
three different percentages of "C" sugar (0, 40%, 72% free choice with a
high protein supplement), and a fourth group 40% from 72 to 24 hours
before slaughtering. The last treatment resulted in a highly significant
increase in the succinoxidase activity of the liver, but not in the heart.
Seventeen steers were divided into four dietary groups and fed four pounds
of "C" sugar for 0, 1, 2 and 28 days, respectively. The succinoxidase activity
was lower in the two-day group and higher in the 28-day group than the
controls (P<0.01). The steers exhibited no effect of the sugar on the suc-
cinoxidase of the heart, or on the lactic dehydrogenase of the liver and heart.
Analyses were completed on a three-year study of 49 Brahma and
Shorthorn steers and their %, 1/2 and 1/4 crosses for the influence of breed
and crossbreeding on the succinoxidase of the heart. Average values of
succinoxidase activity expressed as c.mm. of oxygen uptake per mg. nitro-
gen ranged from 299 to 366, but were not significantly influenced by
A study of the succinoxidase of the uteri of pregnant swine fed full
and limited dietary energy, at 25 and 40 days of gestation, with and without
progesterone, resulted in data showing that none of these treatments sig-
nificantly influenced the enzyme activity.
EFFECT OF HORMONES ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF
REPRODUCTION IN BRITISH AND BRAHMAN
Hatch Project 809 A. C. Warnick and M. Koger
A barn with feed storage, laboratory and facilities for handling animals
on an individual basis has been completed and experiments are now getting
Grass Silage for Wintering Beef Cows.-The self-feeding of pangola-
grass silage to gestating and lactating cows has resulted in silage consump-
tion exceeding the optimal amounts necessary for normal reproduction and
lactation. Increasing the feeding groups to one cow for each six inches of
stanchion space failed to limit consumption. Limiting the cows to either
day or night feeding at the silo effectively limited consumption to the de-
sired intake. The group with access to the silo during the night ate one-
third more silage and showed less weight loss than cows with access to the
silo during the day. Cows with access to the silo during both day and night
Annual Report, 1957
ate excessive amounts of silage, as indicated by weight changes and per-
formance. Reproduction and weight changes were satisfactory in all treat-
ment groups. (J. F. Hentges, Jr.)
Finishing Hogs on Millet Pasture.-The planting of millet in rows (38-
inch intervals), which permitted weed control by periodic cultivation, was
a more satisfactory method of seeding than use of the grain drill. For
optimum production of good forage it is necessary to stock millet very
heavily or clip it back regularly.
Restricting the consumption of concentrates to approximately three-
fourths of a full ration failed to reduce the total requirement for concen-
trates and did not improve the quality of carcasses produced with pigs
fed on millet pasture. The full-fed pigs reached market weight two weeks
sooner and considerably less labor was expended in feeding them, due to the
earlier marketing and the use of self-feeders. (H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs,
Jr., A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter.)
Mineral Supplements for Regulating the Consumption of Soybean Oil-
meal by Pigs Hogging-off Corn.-Eighty pigs, fed in four treatment groups,
were used to demonstrate that soybean oilmeal can be satisfactorily self-
fed to swine hogging-off corn if diluted with 8 percent of a mineral mix-
ture (one part each of ground limestone, steamed bonemeal and iodized
The use of ground limestone as a diluent at 8 and 16 percent levels in
soybean meal proved less satisfactory. The 16 percent level of limestone
was particularly undesirable because it induced very heavy and uneconomical
consumption of corn.
The most costly treatment of the four studied was a free choice feeding
of undiluted soybean oilmeal. Pigs ate considerably more than required
to meet their protein needs and thus increased total feed costs. (H. D.
Wallace and G. E. Combs, Jr.)
Clipping the Needle Teeth of Baby Pigs.-Based on accumulated data
and observations made during the course of this study, the clipping of the
needle teeth of newborn pigs appears to be a sound practice for the Florida
swine producer to follow. This conclusion is strengthened by the fact that
most pigs raised in Florida are produced under less sanitary conditions than
prevailed in this experiment. (H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs, Jr.)
Slaughter, Carcass and Curing Characteristics of Swine Fed High Levels
of "C" Grade Sugar During the Growing-Fattening Period.-Seventy-two
weanling pigs were divided into six lots for feeding on pasture. "C" grade
sugar was incorporated into rations at levels of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 percent
for lots one through five, respectively. The sugar was substituted at the
expense of corn in a corn, soybean oil meal and tankage ration; however,
the protein level was maintained at approximately 14 percent. Lot six re-
ceived "C" sugar, protein and mineral supplements free choice. An addi-
tional group of 10 pigs (lot seven) was fed a ration similar to lot one until
they reached market weight and were then given the 40 percent sugar
ration for a 48-hour period followed by a 24-hour period off feed prior to
slaughter. Slaughter and carcass data were accumulated. Curing charac-
teristics of the hams were studied also.
Pigs in lot six had lower dressing percentages and softer carcasses and,
being leaner, yielded a higher percentage of lean cuts. Lots seven and six
had heavier livers. The livers of lot six pigs had a more desirable flavor,
whereas the livers from lot seven pigs were often too sweet, resulting in
lower desirability ratings when tasted. Otherwise, liver desirability in gen-
eral increased proportional to the amount of "C" sugar in the ration. Hamp-
shire carcasses had a higher tissue glycogen level at slaughter and after
48 hours of chilling; they also produced hams with less desirable color.
66 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
The Duroc carcasses showed lower tissue pHs and had a more desirable
cured ham color than Spotted Poland China or Hampshire carcasses. The
feeding of "C" sugar free choice produced hams with a less desirable color
than the feeding of lower levels of "C" sugar. (A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Car-
penter and R. H. Alsmeyer.)
Slaughter, Carcass and Curing Characteristics of Swine Fed High Levels
of Copper During the Growing-Fattening Period.-Forty weanling pigs of
Duroc, Hampshire and Spotted Poland China breeding were grouped into
four lots for feeding. The pigs were fed, on concrete, a corn-soybean oil
meal ration with levels of 0, 200, 150 and 100 parts per million of CuSO,-5HO
for lots one through four, respectively. After reaching market weight, the
animals were slaughtered. Slaughter and carcass data were accumulated.
The hams were cured and the desirability of cured ham color was evaluated
objectively with a Hunter color and color difference meter. Refractive
index data were obtained on fat samples from the ham. Slaughter and
carcass data are currently being analyzed.
There were no significant differences in percentage yield of hams during
the curing and smoking processes. The fat from Duroc pigs was signifi-
cantly firmer than fat from Spotted Poland China pigs, as measured by
refractive index. However, no significant effect of treatment was noted.
There was no significant difference between treatments according to sub-
jective color evaluations, but by use of vectoral sums, it was found that the
Lot Two pigs had less desirable cured ham color than did the remaining
lots. Another expression of objective ham color measurement, a/b (red-
ness/yellowness), showed no significant difference in ham color that could
be attributed to treatment. (A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and R. H.
Effect of Ante-Mortem Injection of Papain on the Tenderness of Mature
Chickens and Beef.-Three preliminary trials have been conducted in which
young roosters were injected with papain in various ante-mortem treatments
to determine the effect of papain on tenderness. In Trial I, eight roosters
of similar breeding and weight were divided into four lots. Lots I, II,
III and IV were injected with 0, 20, 40 and 80 milligrams of papain per bird.
Papain, in distilled water, was injected intraperitoneally 24 hours prior to
slaughter. Due to inconsistencies in roasting, varying results were ob-
tained, although a strong suggestion of a tenderizing effect at the higher
levels was noted.
Ten roosters of approximately 11 months of age were divided into five
lots in Experiment II. Levels of 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg. of papain per
bird were used. Similar techniques of injection and procedure as used in
Trial I were employed. One bird receiving 200 mg. and the four birds
getting the higher levels of papain died prior to kill. The other birds were
killed on schedule and tested. Panel tenderness scores showed a tendency
for the breast meat and the dark meat of the leg to be more tender for the
papain-injected birds than for the controls.
Experiment III contained 50 birds of mixed breeding and various
weights. The birds were injected intraperitoneally with levels of 0, 75, 100,
125 and 150 mg. of papain 12 hours and 24 hours prior to slaughter. Both
the light and dark meats were improved in tenderness proportional to the
level of papain administered.
In a fourth trial, four yearling Hereford heifers were used in tenderness
studies. Two animals were injected with papain at the level of 75 mg. per
kilogram of body weight, 24 hours before slaughter. Broiled steaks as
tested for tenderness by taste panel and by shear tests showed no tender-
izing effect from the papain injection. (A. Z. Palmer, R. H. Alsmeyer and
J. W. Carpenter.)
Annual Report, 1957
Studies have been continued on the physiological actions of biocides.
Previous studies indicated that one of the effects of 2,4-D on plants was to
modify the biochemical pathway by which glucose was metabolized. Addi-
tional evidence has been obtained during the past year to strengthen this
view. It was also found that the organic fungicide, Captan, interferes
with an enzyme system in plants. The work to date on the biocide prob-
lem is consistent with the view that the primary effect of the biocide on
the plant is to modify some specific metabolic pathway. Future work will
be directed toward expanding this viewpoint so that it might be possible to
exploit the biochemical effects of certain biocides to specifically control
With the addition of Dr. Howard J. Teas as Associate Biochemist to the
staff, two new projects have been initiated. One project is concerned with
the problem of the biosynthesis of amino acids in plants. The second
project on "Plant Improvement with Gamma Radiation" is being carried
out jointly with the Departments of Agronomy, Fruit Crops, Ornamental
Horticulture, Plant Pathology and Vegetable Crops.
EFFECTS OF BIOCIDAL MATERIALS ON THE
PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS
Hatch Project 728 W. M. Dugger, Jr., and T. E. Humphreys
A. Previous studies on the role of boron in plants showed that boron affects
the conversion of glucose-1-phosphate to starch. Boron apparently inhibits
the enzyme starch phosphorylase, thereby preventing glucose-1-phosphate
from being converted into starch:
Glucose-1-phosphate --- Starch
In an attempt to gain additional information on this reaction, it was
thought advisable to investigate the influence of boron on the hexokinase
reaction. The enzyme hexokinase catalyzes the following reactions:
Glucose + adenosine triphosphate (ATP) -- glucose-6-phosphate +
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
Hexokinase enzyme was prepared from pea seedlings, the particulate
fraction from the hypocotyls and the soluble fraction from the cotyledons.
In combination with glucose and the necessary cofactors, these enzyme
preparations converted glucose to glucose-1-phosphate. The rate of this
conversion, under any one set of conditions, was a function of the enzyme
activity. In the presence of boron at 0 to 100 mM concentration there was
no change in the hexokinase reaction rate. This lack of effect with boron
was observed also with hexokinase from yeast and tends to strengthen the
hypothesis that the way the element influences translocation of sugars in
plants is by decreasing the enzymatic conversion of glucose-1-phosphate to
starch. With an increase in the steady state concentration of glucose-1-
phosphate, the amount that may be available for other reactions, such as
the synthesis of sucrose or other hexose phosphates, is increased. An in-
crease in these soluble carbohydrates in situ may therefore result in an
increase in translocation from the site of synthesis to some other plant part.
B. Investigations on the mechanism of 2,4-D action have been continued.
Additional evidence indicates that 2,4-D treated seedlings break down glu-
cose during respiration via a different pathway from non-treated seedlings.
Root tips from corn seedlings in the presence of the compound 2,4-dinitro-
68 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
phenol (a phosphorylation uncoupling compound) utilized glucose, pyruvate
or succinate at a reduced rate. If the corn seedlings were pretreated with
2,4-D before adding the dinitrophenol, this inhibition in substrate utiliza-
tion was overcome. Indoleacetic acid-treated seedlings gave similar results.
C. Captan, an organic fungicide used in the control of certain fungal dis-
eases, has been observed to cause a beneficial effect on crop plants. These
effects are other than the control of diseases. The influence of this com-
pound on the physiology of higher plants has been studied. There was no
influence on the gross morphology of pea, corn or squash seedlings treated
with Captan, nor was there an influence on the over-all oxygen uptake of
tissue pretreated with Captan. This was the case for endogenous respira-
tion or when substrate was added. The recovery of C"'O from radioactive
glucose and other substrates, however, was drastically altered. In pea root
tips aerated in a suspension of Captan, the recovery of C"O. from glucose-
C" was increased from 50 to 200 percent, dependent on the concentration of
Captan. When Captan was added to the root tips at the start of a meas-
uring period rather than in the pretreating solution, there was a reverse
effect with an inhibition in the C"0. recovered. This inhibition could be
overcome by adding glucose to the reaction vessels. An analysis of the
inhibition indicates that glucose and Captan compete with one another.
This effect was not, however, on the hexokinase reaction. In vitro studies
showed no influence of Captan on pea hexokinase. With yeast hexokinase
Captan did cause a reduction in activity. This may be one of the differ-
ences in metabolism between fungi and higher plants that accounts for the
fungicidal properties of Captan.
Analyses of plant material, pretreated with Captan, for metabolic inter-
mediates reveal that Captan causes a 70 percent increase in pyruvate con-
tration with approximately 150 percent decrease in acetaldehyde produc-
tion. These analyses are indicative that Captan may bring about its action
on higher plants by interfering with the normal metabolic breakdown of
pyruvate. In vitro studies with mitochondrial preparations from lupine
cotyledons indicate that the oxidation of pyruvate was inhibited by Captan
(3.3 X 10 'M). When cocarboxylase (thiamine pyrophosphate) was added
to the reaction mixture the inhibition was completely overcome. The same
relationship held with the oxidation of cc-keto-glutarate, another cc-keto
acid in which cocarboxylase is necessary for decarboxylative oxidation.
Indications are that Captan interferes with cocarboxylase requiring enzymes.
D. In conjunction with the studies on the mechanism of organic transport
in plants it was necessary to do an analytical study of autoradiographic
techniques as applied to plant tissue. The problem of tissue dehydration
was best solved by using a freeze-drying technique. This method gives good
cytological fixation and prevents leaching of radioactive compounds from
plant tissue. With regard to the autoradiographic techniques studied, it was
found that the use of liquid emulsion to coat the tissue sections was best
from the standpoint that (a) it gives very good resolution, (b) it is by far
less expensive than the other methods, and (c) it presents a relatively simple
technique. The use of stripping film has given almost as good results as
the liquid emulsion technique. Both methods are far superior to the NTB
nuclear plate technique or to the wet process method. Tissue sections of
10 A thickness are the most satisfactory to work with. Tissue cut at 6 ',
or less, are unsatisfactory.
THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF LYSINE AND TRYPTOPHAN
Hatch Project 810 H. J. Teas
This project has been just initiated. Time has been spent on setting up
laboratory facilities and reviewing literature on lysine and tryptophan
Annual Report, 1957 69
biosynthesis. Preliminary experiments have been performed on the fate of
anthranilic acid in plant tissue slices, and paper chromatographic separa-
tions carried out on some compounds that may be involved as precursors of
PLANT IMPROVEMENT WITH GAMMA RADIATION
Hatch Project 848 H. J. Teas
Plans were prepared for a cobalt-60 gamma irradiation facility and a
license to operate the facility was granted by the Atomic Energy Commis-
sion. (See also Project 848, Agronomy, Ornamental Horticulture, Plant
Pathology, Vegetable Crops and Fruit Crops.)
Effects of Gibberellins on Some Flowering Plants.-Chrysanthemums,
stocks, lilies, amaryllis, gloriosa lilies and seeds of several species of an-
nuals were treated with varying concentrations of gibberellic acid. Sprays
and dips containing from 10 to 1000 ppm were tested and 0.1 to 5,ug. amounts
were applied to growing tips.
Chrysanthemums treated while growing under non-photoinductive con-
ditions showed increases in growth as much as 122 percent over the checks
in four weeks. Plants treated during the first week of photoinductive con-
ditions exhibited similar growth responses to those grown under long days
Fig. 6.-Left: Whitetop chrysanthemum treated with gibberellic acid
after bud initiation had taken place showing uneven flowering (left 2.5
micrograms, right 5.0 micrograms). Right: Portrait chrysanthemum
treated prior to the initiation of floral primordia showing differential growth
at flowering (left, control; right, 0.5 micrograms gibberellic acid).
t. '^ X
70 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
(non-photoinductive conditions). Plants treated after being under photo-
inductive day length for more than a week exhibited non-uniform growth.
Occasionally one shoot would elongate much more rapidly than the others,
thus causing uneven flowering. Where elongation was most pronounced
the plants had weaker stems in some cases.
Stocks did not respond to 0.1 to 51g. applications repeated three times
at weekly intervals.
The effects on lilies, gloriosa lilies, amaryllis and tuberoses were not
obvious on this year's growth. However, it is too early to determine effects
of the acid on the bulbs.
Fig. 7.-Shadowgrams of snapdragon flower stems dipped in solutions
for one hour, then held horizontally for 24 hours and shadowed. Left, con-
trol; right, treated with 1 x 10-' M. Alanap.
Annual Report, 1957 71
Annual seeds soaked for 24 or 48 hours in 100 ppm solution germinated
one day earlier than checks. Treated nasturtiums bloomed 10 days earlier
than the non-treated controls. (H. J. Teas and K. J. Howe.)
Chemical Modification of the Ageotropic Response in the Snapdragon.-
An investigation on the hormonal control of bending in the flowers of the
snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus, was conducted. The bending of snap-
dragon flowers when held horizontally for even a few hours limits the mar-
keting of this flower.
It was found that neither the stem tip nor flower bud is required for re-
sponse to gravity. Chemicals were tested by dipping freshly cut flower
stems into solutions for a period of uptake. After this the flowers were
held horizontally by inserting the stems into blocks of moistened oasis, a
plastic foam. The degree of ageotropic curvature was measured on shadow-
grams prepared after 24 hours (Fig. 7). Among a series of growth regu-
lators tested, N-1-naphthylphthalamate (Alanap) was the most effective in
abolishing the gravity response. With this compound ageotropic bending
could be reduced from almost 90 degrees to essentially zero. Indoleacetic
acid and gibberellic acid were partially effective in reversing this effect
of Alanap. (H. J. Teas, cooperative with T. J. Sheehan of Ornamental
72 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
The work at the Dairy Research Unit at Hague has been devoted to
experiments with pasture programs and in the development of a system of
green chopping of roughage and hauling it to the cows. A study was made
to compare fresh and frozen semen in the breeding program. A device has
been developed to study the continuous propagation of dairy cultures.
ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project 213 R. B. Becker, J. M. Wing
and P. T. Dix Arnold
Silages from one pilot silo with plain alfalfa and one with alfalfa with
"citrolas for silage" made during the previous year were fed to four dry
dairy cows. The cows ate an average of 53 pounds each daily of plain alfalfa
silage as compared with 69 pounds of the silage with the "citrolas" added.
The plain silage had a pungent aroma while the other had a mild, slightly
acid aroma. Plastic covers were used over the top of these silages and only
slight spoilage occurred around the edge due to air leakage.
One silo was filled with plain Sart sorgo and the silage was fed 70 days
later. The forage was pithy and settled but little. The sorgo silage was
less palatable than that from alfalfa. Average daily consumption was 50
pounds per cow. Fecal samples were taken to determine digestibility by
the chromogen ratio technique.
FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY, ITS POSSIBLE
INHERITANCE, AND DEPRECIATION IN
FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
State Project 345 R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold
Records of breeding and of cow disposals were accumulated from six
cooperating Florida dairy herds.
Cooperation was continued with bull studs in the United States and
Canada, studying useful lifespan and causes of turnover. Records were
analyzed of 1,073 bulls discarded while usable, 2,859 desirable bulls removed
terminally from artificial service and 254 bulls returned to lighter natural
use. Of 684 desirable bulls born before 1940 the average age at first arti-
ficial use was 7.66 years. They were used for 2.87 years on the average.
Reasons for removal of desirable bulls were reproductive, 56 percent;
physical, 31 percent; and specific disease conditions, 13 percent. The Na-
tional Association of Artificial Breeders contributed to the support of this
investigation. (See also Project 345, Agricultural Economics.)
POST-PARTUM DEVELOPMENT OF BOVINE STOMACH
COMPARTMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS ON SOME
CHARACTERISTICS OF THEIR CONTENTS
State Project 564 S. P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold,
R. B. Becker and H. L. Somers
Studies of stomach compartment development and some characteristics
of their contents were continued with five Jersey male calves between the
ages of 0 and 140 days. Arrangements of five orders of laminae in the
omasum were tabulated.
Annual Report, 1957 73
Although the abomasum is the largest compartment at birth, its sub-
sequent development is relatively slow. The rumen, reticulum and omasum
are smaller and not functional at birth, but develop rapidly during early
life. The ingesta of all compartments was found to be acid; the pH of the
abomasum contents was considerably lower than that of the other compart-
ments. Specific gravity values of omasum and abomasum ingesta were
above unity, while those for the contents of the rumen and reticulum were
below unity after fermentation began.
STUDY OF PRODUCTION, REPRODUCTION AND CONFORMATION
OF THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT
STATION DAIRY HERD
State Project 575 P. T. Dix Arnold, S. P. Marshall
and R. B. Becker
During the year 44 Jersey, Guernsey and Holstein cows finished official
production records averaging 9,559 pounds milk and 429 pounds butterfat
on 305-day mature equivalent basis.
The first Holstein classification was held March 1, 1957. The average
score for 14 cows was 80 percent.
Forty-six animals passed their period of usefulness and were sold for
slaughter, two died and one was transferred to another department. Pur-
chased additions to the herd consisted of six registered Holstein and three
registered Guernsey heifers.
SUB-NORMAL MILK: ITS PRODUCTION, CORRECTION
Hatch Project 667 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold, J. M. Wing,
W. A. Krienke, L. E. Mull and E. L. Fouts
Feeding Trials.-Cows were selected from a group within the first two
months of lactation; two served as controls and 11 constituted the experi-
mental herd. The experimental ration used to induce sub-normal butterfat
content of the milk was similar to that used in the previous trials. Differ-
ent amounts of corn silage constituted the feed variable during the "re-
The butterfat tests of the milks of 10 cows were lowered as much as
1.0 to 3.1 percent in six to 42 days when only bulky concentrates and a
grain mixture constituted the feed intake (one cow failed to respond, the
butterfat test remaining unchanged). When corn silage in amounts of 15,
30 and 45 pounds daily was used in the ration during the "recovery" period,
milk of each cow became normal in butterfat content within 13 to 15 days.
The small declines in daily milk yields during progress of the trials were
no greater than are expected during a normal advancing lactation. The
cow that did not respond by a drop in butterfat test reacted by a consider-
able drop in daily milk yield.
Milk Composition and Dairy Products Studies.-The drop in butterfat
content of the milk took place without any change in solids content of the
skimmilk fractions. The casein content of the skimmilk also remained un-
changed during the period that the butterfat content was lowered.
For the second time (two consecutive annual trials) there was no im-
portant difference in cottage cheese (yield or quality) associated with the
sub-nomal fat content of the milk. The condensed skimmilk and the ice
cream studies yielded results that are inconclusive; ice cream samples are
being held in storage for additional observations.
74 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
AGITATION OF MILK
Hatch Project 732 L. E. Mull and E. L. Fouts
Additional experiments confirmed earlier findings that milk in large
tanks can be agitated satisfactorily for sampling or processing by use of
air or mechanical means. Loss of fat caused by foaming and churning was
not excessive by either type of agitation. It was shown that neither the
air nor the air compressor contributed any visible sediment to the milk when
air agitated. This project is being closed with this report.
IRRIGATION OF TEMPORARY PASTURES FOR DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 772 S. P. Marshall
During the 1955-56 season irrigated alfalfa-clover-oat pasture furnished
grazing 283 days and the unirrigated plot 214 days. Heifers grazing the
irrigated pasture gained an average of 801 pounds and obtained 5,547
pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre grazed. Those on unirrigated
pasture gained an average of 642 pounds and secured 4,344 pounds of total
digestible nutrients per acre grazed. Average daily gain of 1.28 pounds
made by heifers on irrigated pasture was 131 percent of the normal growth
standard and the 1.36 pounds gained by heifers on unirrigated pasture was
140 percent of the normal growth rate.
In 1957 grazing was begun February 20 on the irrigated pasture and
April 12 on the unirrigated plot. During the period through June 12 ani-
mals on the irrigated pasture had obtained 3,274 pounds of total digestible
nutrients and gained 539 pounds per acre. Those on the unirrigated plot
had derived 1,099 pounds of total digestible nutrients and gained 161 pounds
per acre of pasture grazed. The growth rate of heifers grazing each pas-
ture was above the normal. (See also Project 772, Agricultural Engineer-
ing and Agronomy.)
MEDICATED FEEDS FOR DAIRY CALVES
Hatch Project 781 J. M. Wing, E. L. Fouts, R. B. Becker
and P. T. Dix Arnold
Young calves, when on a high colostrum ration with potassium orotate
and methionine as the only supplements, gained 11 percent more than compa-
rable controls. When antibacterial agents were fed in addition to potassium
orotate and methionine, all calves gained more than the controls, as fol-
lows: aureomycin, 9 percent; PAS, 13 percent; isoniazid, 11 percent; erythro-
mycin, 6 percent.
Calves supplemented with antibacterial agents alone gained more than
comparable controls as follows: aureomycin, 8 percent; aueromycin and
PAS, 9 percent; aureomycin and isoniazid, 23 percent; streptomycin, 3
percent; streptomycin and PAS, 17 percent; streptomycin and isoniazid,
13 percent. No significant differences in gains in height at withers and
efficiency of feed conversion were observed.
CONTINUOUS FERMENTATION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
Hatch Project 790 H. H. Wilkowske and E. L. Fouts
A small fermentation system has been devised which can be used for
continuous automatic propagation of dairy cultures. The fermentor is
essentially a circulatory one-inch diameter stainless steel pipe assembly
of 1,000 ml. capacity in which the skimmilk medium is continuously and
slowly circulated. Acidity control is maintained by use of a pH meter and
appropriate meter-relay assembly which activates a solenoid valve con-
trolling the skimmilk inflow.
Annual Report, 1957
The fermentation system has been operated for periods of up to 12
weeks, but not without some difficulties of contamination and undesirable
fermentations. Successful trials with buttermilk cultures, kept free from
contamination for three weeks, have provided information regarding the
throughput rate at various temperatures between 500 and 90 F. At 90-
F. the retention time (growth rate) was 30 minutes. The critical pH level
was 5.3 below which the rate of growth was reduced.
It has been established that dairy cultures can be propagated contin-
uously and automatically without impairment of activity or flavor at con-
stant temperature and pH while in slow motion in a circulating system.
Palatability of Dried Tomato Pulp.-Two lots of dried tomato pulp were
prepared for feeding to dairy cows. Calcium carbonate was used in process-
ing one lot and lime (Ca(OH).) the other. Comparative palatability trials
were conducted with cows after they had consumed the usual offering of
concentrates prior to being milked. Small amounts of each pulp were
offered side by side in the manger to 42 cows. Results were as follows:
Ate both pulps, preferring the dark (lime-treated) pulp ...................... 13
Ate both pulps, preferring the light (CaCO: treated) pulp .................. 5
Ate the dark pulp only ........................................ ..... .... .... 3
A te the light pulp only ...... ...... ........... .... ..... ....-............ 2
Show ed no preference ................................. .. .. ..... .. ... ... ..... 1
A te neither pulp .......1...... ... ..... ......- ... ... ..... 18
Total observations .............................. ..... ..... .- ..- ......... 42
Both pulps were judged to be palatable to dairy cows. There was a
slight preference for the pulp treated with lime over the one treated with
calcium carbonate. (R. B. Becker, cooperative with M. W. Hoover of Food
Technology and Nutrition.)
Green Chopped Forage for Dairy Cows.-Average daily consumption of
chopped green alfalfa, when used as a pasture supplement, varied from 50
to as high as 80 pounds per cow, depending on condition of pasture, mid-
day temperatures and frequency of feeding. Milk production increased,
but not in proportion to increased consumption. (P. T. Dix Arnold.)
Crimped Oats for Dairy Cattle.-Southern-grown oats weighing 34
pounds per bushel were crimped commercially. Samples contained 65 and
68 percent groats, the bran layers of which were broken in crimping. Four
calves, four yearlings and four dry cows were fed chopped Alyceclover hay
and either 2 pounds per calf or 5 pounds of crimped oats daily to each
yearling and cow for 20 days..
Whole or parts of oats were separated from the droppings of each animal
for 10 days, dried, weighed and analyzed. Calves voided 0.42 percent;
yearlings, 0.21 percent and cows, 0.25 percent of the oats consumed. The
proportion of starch and protein was reduced and crude fiber increased in
passing through the animals. Comparing results of similar studies with
whole oats and ground oats at several other stations, it was concluded that
crimping was a satisfactory method of preparing oats as feed for dairy
cattle of all ages. (R. B. Becker, J. M. Wing and P. T. Dix Arnold, coopera-
tive with G. K. Davis and J. T. McCall of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition.)
Modified Phenolphthalein Indicator for Acidity Testing.-In the previous
Annual Report a new procedure was presented for the determination of
titratable acidity of chocolate milk and chocolate ice cream mix. This study
has been continued from the standpoint of the indicator solution.
76 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
When the usual 1 percent Phenolphthalein solution is used as a surface
indicator it spreads very rapidly to the wall of the testing container, making
the end-point observation somewhat difficult. After several trials at modifi-
cation of the indicator solution the following combination of materials was
found to give the desired properties for surface end-point indication when
used on milk, cream, chocolate milk and ice cream mixes: water, 552 ml.;
ethyl alcohol, 400 ml.; glycerol, 35 gr.; sodium carboxymethylcellulose
(CMC), 10 gr.; and phenolphthalein, 3 gr. The phenolphthalein is added
to the mixture of water and alcohol and this is stirred until dissolved. This
is then poured onto the CMC in a beaker and mixing is continued until the
CMC is dispersed. The glycerol is added and thoroughly blended into the
When testing a sample for titratable acidity an estimated quantity of
standard alkali is added and mixed thoroughly into the sample. A small
drop of the modified indicator solution is placed on the surface. If an excess
of alkali was added a second or third portion may be required. If the first
quantity was slightly insufficient, more alkali can be added followed by
thorough mixing and another surface placement of a drop of the modified
indicator. The pink color of the "end-point" will be on the surface. The
method has been checked by use of a pH meter and results were in agree-
ment. (W. A. Krienke.)
Annual Report, 1957
The department was able to secure a small amount of additional space
during the year, making working conditions considerably better. How-
ever, again this year two assistant editors were lost to higher paying jobs
elsewhere, necessitating the hiring of replacements who must become fa-
miliar with the work before they attain their full value. Four of the editors
continued under half time employment with the Agricultural Extension
Service, while one was employed full time by the Station.
BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS
Printing costs continue to rise and the Station spent more on printed
publications than during any previous fiscal year. The cover of one bulletin,
on citrus diseases, carried colored illustrations of the most serious diseases
of fruits, foliage and twigs-a very effective use of colored illustrations to
enable the reader to identify the troubles quickly and accurately.
Thirteen new bulletins and seven new circulars were printed and one
bulletin was reprinted during the year. One of the new bulletins was tech-
nical in nature, the others popular. The new bulletins amounted to 553
pages, with 112,500 copies printed. Following is a list of bulletins printed:
575 Feeding Value of Citrus and Blackstrap Molasses for
Fattening Cattle, by W. G. Kirk, E. M. Kelley, H. J.
Fulford and H. E. Henderson ................... ...... .......
576 Building a Dairy Herd, by P. T. Dix Arnold and
R B B ecker .................................- .... ...... ..
577 Magnesium and Lime Are Needed in the Suwannee
Valley Area, by William G. Blue and Charles F. Eno
578 Factors Affecting the Weaning Weight of Range
Calves, by Fentress M. Peacock, W. G. Kirk and
M arvin Koger ................... ...... ....... ....... ......
579 Equipment for Mechanical Harvesting and Handling
of Irish Potatoes in the Southeast, by J. S. Norton,
R. E. L. Greene and L. J. Kushman ......................
580 Reconnaissance Soil Survey of Kissimmee and Uppei
St. Johns Valleys in Florida, by Ralph G. Leighty,
L. C. Murphree, E. D. Matthews, E. H. Evenson,
S. H. McCollum, Francisco Matanzo, and G. M.
Thom pson ..... ....... ... ........ ..... .... .... ..... ..
581 Design, Analysis and Results of an Experiment on
Response of Pangolagrass and Pensacola Bahiagrass
to Time, Rate and Source of Nitrogen, by A. T.
Wallace, G. B. Killinger, R. W. Bledsoe and D. B.
Duncan ............... ... ... ..... ...... ... ..-----...... ..
582 Field Corn Production in South Florida, by Victor E.
Green, Jr., W. T. Forsee, Jr., Walter H. Thames, Jr.,
and F. T. Boyd .......................... .......... ...............
583 Rural Farm Retirement-A Study of Rural Retire-
ment in Five Florida Counties, by Daniel E. Alleger
584 Value of Oat Pasture for Dairy Cattle, by Sidney P.
M marshall ...... .....----- ..-- --..... ........ ...
78 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
585 Pangolagrass Pastures for Beef Production in Cen-
tral Florida-A Method of Determining the Eco-
nomics of Establishing and Fertilizing Them, by
L. A. Reuss, N. K. Roberts and R. E. L. Greene........ 36 12,000
586 The Laws of Farm Tenancy and Sharecropping in
Florida, by J. R. Greenman and James J. English.... 48 7,500t
587 Handbook of Citrus Diseases in Florida, by L. C.
Knorr, R. F. Suit and E. P. DuCharme ....................... 164 20,000
513 Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle (revised)....... 48 5,000
The seven circulars amounted to 71 pages and 83,000 copies were
printed. Here is a list of the new circulars:
S-93 Chemical Sucker Control for Flue-Cured Tobacco,
by Fred Clark ............... .. ......- ............... ....... 8 8,000
S-94 Gator Rye, by W. H. Chapman, D. D. Morey, A. T.
W allace and H. H. Luke .........................-............... 8 7,500
S-95 Florida 200-A New Yellow Field Corn Hybrid for
North and West Florida, by E. S. Horner, W. H.
Chapman and H. W. Lundy ..................................... 6 7,500
S-96 Insects and Other Pests of Lawns and Turf, by E. G.
Kelsheimer and S. H. Kerr ...................................... 22 30,000
S-97 Controlling Submerged Water Weeds with Emulsifi-
able Solvents in South Florida, by J. C. Stephens,
A. L. Craig and D. S. Harrison ................................... 14 7,500
S-98 Hairy Indigo-A Summer Legume for Florida, by
Alvin T. W allace .....................................--.. ... .... 7 15,000
S-99 Weed Control in Plumosus Fern Under Artificial
Shade, by C. C. Helms, Jr., E. O. Burt and J. M. Crall 6 7,500
The quarterly Sunshine State Agricultural Research Report, begun in
January 1956, was continued with four issues being printed during the fiscal
year. Each issue was 20 pages with 10,000 copies printed. This journal
is finding widespread and enthusiastic acceptance among growers and those
who work with farm people.
RADIO AND TELEVISION SERVICES
Television programs are taking more and more time of the assistant
editor who produces them and the staff members who participate, as more
stations get on the air and become interested in agricultural materials.
The Station now stages most of its television shows on film; of the 26 shows
staged by Experiment Station personnel during the fiscal year, two were
live and 24 were filmed. The films are 15 minutes long. By the end of the
fiscal year, six stations were using our films regularly, four weekly and
two every other week. Thus the same filmed show is used several times.
Also, the Experiment Station editors assisted representatives of other
stations in making a number of short features, making several for the
exclusive use of one TV station on film it furnished for the purpose.
Radio continued to play an undiminished role in the dissemination of
information. The 30-minute Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, the Uni-
versity Station, has been the principal radio outlet for 29 years. In addi-
tion to editorial workers, Experiment Station staff members made 218 6-
minute talks on the Farm Hour during the year. One broadcast was staged
from a field day program on the agronomy farm.
Material based on WRUF talks and other releases was included in copy
for 127 farm flashes sent to 42 other radio stations. Flashes are sent five
Annual Report, 1957
days a week, but copy for many of them comes from the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service or elsewhere.
Experiment Station workers participated in 111 talks on 69 tapes sent
to these five radio stations.
SERVICING NEWSPAPERS AND FARM JOURNALS
The weekly clipsheet printed and distributed by the Agricultural Exten-
sion Service continued to be a medium of distribution for Agricultural Ex-
periment Station news. An average of one or two stories a week went
to the wire services for daily papers. Occasionally, stories were mailed
direct to one or more dailies. Farm page editors and other correspondents
were assisted in securing copy for their pages or their special stories.
"Fill in" or "skeleton" stories were sent to county agents each week, and
many of these were based on suggestions by Station workers.
Farm periodicals continued to make generous use of materials supplied
by Experiment Station editors. From copy they supplied, three Florida
magazines printed 20 articles occupying 564 column inches, one Southern
journal carried seven articles for 168 column inches, and four national peri-
odicals printed four articles that occupied 87 column inches.
Occasionally on request, Station editors helped other staff members with
articles they prepared for popular farm journals.
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL ARTICLES
The Journal Series of scientific articles by staff members continued to
grow, 134 new articles being printed this fiscal year. They occupied 800
pages in numerous scientific journals and 25,775 reprints were purchased.
Following is a list of the Journal Series articles printed during the fiscal
JOURNAL SERIES ARTICLES PUBLISHED PRIOR TO JULY, 1957,
NOT PREVIOUSLY LISTED
282. Characteristics of Concentrates Made From Different Varieties of
Citrus Fruits, by F. W. Wenzel and E. L. Moore. Food Technology
4: 6. 1955.
284. Producing Florida Citrus for Frozen Concentrate, by J. W. Sites and
A. F. Camp. Food Technology. 4: 7. 1955.
288. Some Treatments Influencing the Quality of Florida Frozen Straw-
berries, by M. W. Hoover and R. A. Dennison. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort.
Sci. 65:188-194. 1955.
289. A Rapid Objective Method for the Evaluation of Color in Strawber-
ries, by M. W. Hoover and R. A. Dennison, Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci.
65: 195-198. 1955.
310. Combination of Chemical and Mechanical Weed Control in Three Va-
rieties of Onion in Muck Soils, by E. A. Wolf and V. L. Guzman.
Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 66: 289-292. 1955.
311. Pre-Emergence Weeding with Three Rates of CIPR in Combination
with Post-Emergence Weeding with Pelletized CIPF in three Varieties
of Onions, by V. L. Guzman and E. A. Wolf. Proc. Am. Hort. Sci.
323. Distribution, Availability and Effect on Cation Exchanges of Phos-
phates Added to Lakeland Fine Sand, by W. F. Spencer. Proc. Soil Sci.
Soc. of Am. 21: 2. March-April 1957.
80 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
328. Factors Contributing to the Storage Life of Frozen Concentrated
Orange Juice, by A. H. Rouse, C. D. Atkins and E. L. Moore. Food
Technology. 11: 4:218-221. 1957.
329. Four Years of Soil, Fertility Data from a 5x5x5x2 Factorial Experi-
ment on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam. II. Corn. By C. E. Hutton,
W. K. Robertson and W. D. Hanson. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 20: 4.
337. Molybdenum in Everglades Soils and Plants, by A. E. Kretschmer, Jr.,
and R. J. Allen. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 20: 2. April 1956.
353. Experimental Treatment of Citrus Waste Water by Means of Acti-
vated Sludge, by M. H. Dougherty, R. W. Wolford and R. R. McNary.
Sewage and Ind. Wastes. 27: 7. July 1955.
358. Solubility of Manganese in Florida Soils, by J. G. A. Fiskel. Proc.
Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.
360. Bronzing and Yield of Peppers as Influenced by Varying Levels of
Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization, by C. T. Ozaki and
M. G. Hamilton. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.
361. A Preliminary Survey of the Cobalt Contents of South Florida For-
ages, by A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., V. A. Lazar and K. C. Beeson. Proc.
Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.
364. Comprehensive Review of Soil and Tissue Testing, by Ernest L. Spen-
cer. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.
365. Chelates in the Soil, by Ivan Stewart and C. D. Leonard. Soil Sci.
Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.
367. Use of Nematocides on Established Turf, by Mrs. A. J. Overman. Proc.
Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.
368. The Total Manganese, Copper and Zinc Content of Soils Used for
Citrus Production in Florida, by I. W. Wander. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc.
of Fla. 14. 1954.
371. Relationships Between Plant and Parasitic Nematodes, Pathogenic
Fungi and Ladino Clover Yields in Experimental Pot Studies, by
J. M. Good, Jr., and W. G. Blue. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.
376. Minor Element Response of Vegetables, by P. J. Westgate. Soil Sci.
Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.
377. Manganese Requirements of Potatoes and Tomatoes on Marl Soils, by
John L. Malcolm. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.
378. A Study of Minor Element Application on West Florida Soils, by
C. E. Hutton and W. K. Robertson. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.
379. Non-Citrus Plants in Relation to Spreading Decline, by R. F. Suit,
E. P. DuCharme and T. L. Brooks. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.
380. Nematodes Associated with Citrus in Florida, by E. P. DuCharme and
R. F. Suit. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.
387. The Influence of Micronutrients and Sulfur on the Yields of Certain
Crops, by Henry C. Harris, R. W. Bledsoe and Fred Clark. Soil Sci.
Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.
396. A Low-Cost, Self-Polishing, Fungicidal Water Wax for Citrus Fruit,
by W. F. Newhall and W. Grierson. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 66. 1955.
441. Fungicidal, Herbicidal and Nematocidal Effects of Fumigants Applied
to Vegetable Seedbeds on Sandy Soil, by A. J. Overman and D. S.
Burgis. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
Annual Report, 1957
449. The Phosphorus and Potassium Requirements of Blackeye Peas Grown
on Everglades Peaty Muck Soil, by Charles T. Ozaki. Soil Sci. Soc.
of Fla. 15. 1955.
450. An Evaluation of Some Nitrogen Sources for General Crops Grown
on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam, by W. K. Robertson and C. E. Hutton.
Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 15. 1955.
451. Soil Moisture Measurement for Timing Irrigation, by L. C. Hammond
and Hugh Popenoe. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 15. 1955.
452. Virus Diseases of Lupines in Florida, by M. K. Corbett. Soil Sci. Soc.
of Fla. 15. 1955.
453. Effect of Additions of Sulfur and Gypsum on Availability of Phos-
phorus of Rock Phosphate in Leon Fine Sand, by J. R. Neller. Soil
Science. 82: 2. Aug. 1956.
455. Nitrogen Fertilization of St. Augustine Grass Grown on Davie Fine
Sand, by F. T. Boyd. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 15. 1955.
456. Relationship Between Depth to Heavy Textured Subsoil and Drought
Injury to Pecans, by Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ralph H. Sharpe and
Ralph G. Leighty. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 15. 1955.
458. Mobility of Urea Nitrogen Applied to Florida Soils, by G. M. Volk
and A. W. Sweat. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 15. 1955.
459. Rates and Ratios of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium for White
Clover and Pangola Grass on Rex Fine Sand, by W. G. Blue and
Nathan Gammon, Jr. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 15. 1955.
460. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Production of Pangola Grass
and Bahia Grass, by A. T. Wallace, G. B. Killinger, R. W. Bledsoe and
D. B. Duncan. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 15. 1955.
461. Response of Pecans to Time and Rates of Nitrogen and Potassium
Fertilization, by Nathan Gammon, Jr., and Ralph H. Sharpe. Soil
Sci. Soc. of Fla. 15. 1955.
463. Studies Relating to the Bake-Freezing of Sweet Potatoes, by M. W.
Hoover and G. J. Stout. Food Technology. 10: 6: 250-253. 1956.
464. Effect of Time of Application, Rate and Source of Nitrogen on Corn
Grown on Norfolk Fine Sand, by L. G. Thompson, Jr., and W. K. Rob-
ertson. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 15. 1955.
465. Effect of Particle Size on Availability and Mobility of Fused Trical-
cium Phosphate and Rock Phosphate Compared with Other Phosphates
in Contrasting Soil Types, by J. R. Neller and F. D. Bartlett. Soil
Sci. of Am. 21. 1957.
467. Observations on Rooting Softwood Cuttings of Peach, by R. H. Sharpe.
Proc. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 67. 1956.
468. A Manganese Deficiency of Pecans, by Nathan Gammon, Jr., and Ralph
H. Sharpe. Proc. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 68. 1956.
469. Life Cycles of Four Species of Ladybeetles, by Martin H. Muma.
Florida Ento. 39: 3. Sept. 1956.
473. Cytoplasmic Male-Sterility, by John R. Edwardson. Bot. Rev. 22: 10.
475. Sampling Studies Related to Insecticide Residues on Vegetables, by
C. H. Van Middelem, J. W. Wilson and W. D. Hanson. Jour. of Econ.
Ento. 49: 5:612-615. Oct. 1956.
476. Mineral Composition of Citrus Leaves and Fruit as Associated with
Position on the Tree, by R. C. J. Koo and J. W. Stites. Proc. Am. Soc.
for Hort. Sci. 68. 1956.
82 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
478. The Effects of Ammonium and Nitrate Nitrogen with and without pH
Control on the Growth of Rough Lemon Seedlings, by I. W. Wander
and J. W. Stites. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 68. 1956.
481. Combination of Resistance to Tobacco Etch and Tobacco Mosaic in
Tomato Breeding Stock, by James M. Walter. Phytopathology 46: 9:
517-519. Sept. 1956.
482. Suscepts, Indicators and Filters of the Tristeza Virus and Some Dif-
ference Between Tristeza in Argentina and in Florida, by L. C. Knorr.
Phytopathology 46: 10:557-560. Oct. 1956.
485. Symptomology of Bacterial Spot of Pepper and Tomato in South
Florida, by R. S. Cox, Robert A. Conover and Grover Sowell, Jr.
Phytopathology 46: 10:582-584. Oct. 1956.
486. Irrigation of Permanent Pasture for Lactating Dairy Cattle, by J.
Mostella Myers and Sidney P. Marshall. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
of Fla. 15. 1955.
487. A Subsoiler Attachment for Deep Fertilizer Placement, by William K.
Robertson and W. H. Jones. Jour. Am. Soc. of Agr. Eng. 48: 477-478.
488. Correlation of Occurrence of Potato Virus Y with Areas of Potato
Production in Florida, by J. N. Simons, Robert A. Conover and J. M.
Walter. Plant Dis. Rptr. 40: 6. June 15, 1956.
489. A Labor-saving Device for the Collection of Free-living Nematodes,
by A. C. Tarjan, W. A. Simanton and E. E. Russell. Phytopathology
490. Kinetics of Thermal Destruction of Citrus Tissues in Relation to the
Virus Disease Problem, by W. C. Price and L. C. Knorr. Phytopath-
ology 46. 1956.
491. Physiologic Races of the Burrowing Nematode, Radopholus similis, by
E. P. DuCharme and W. Birchfield. Phytopathology 46: 11:615-616.
492. Three Strains of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Affecting Bell Pepper in the
Everglades Area of South Florida, by John N. Simons. Phytopath-
ology 47. March 1957.
493. The Effect of Ammonium and Nitrate Nitrogen on the Exchange Ca-
pacity of Rough Lemon Roots, by I. W. Wander. Proc. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. of Fla. 15. 1955.
494. Results of Research and Response of Citrus to Supplemental Irriga-
tion, by R. J. Koo and John W. Stites. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc.
of Fla. 15. 1955.
495. The Diacetyl Test as an Aid for Quality Control of Citrus Products.
I. Detection of Bacterial Growth in Orange Juice During Concentra-
tion, by E. C. Hill and R. W. Wenzel. Food Technology. 11: 4. 1957.
497. Parasitism of Adult Turkeys in Florida by Leucocytozoon Smithi
(Lavern & Lucet), by Charles F. Simpson, D. W. Anthony and Frank-
lin Young. Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 129: 12. Dec. 1956.
499. Water Requirements of Field Crops in Florida as Influenced by Cli-
mate, by D. E. McCloud. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. 15. 1955.
500. Sterility in Panolagrass (Digitaria decumbens Stent.), by Anilkumar
A. Sheth, Lillian Yu and John R. Edwardson. Agron. Jour. 48: 505-
501. Progress in the Control of Gray Mold of Tomato in South Florida, by
R. S. Cox and N. C. Hayslip. Plant Dis. Reptr. 40: 8. Aug. 15, 1956.
Annual Report, 1957
502. A Simple Method of Estimating Economic Optimum Applications of
Fertilizer, by W. K. McPherson and Roy L. Lassiter, Jr. Proc. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. 15. 1955.
503. Progress of Citrus Brown Rot in Florida, a Disease of Recent Occur-
rence in the State, by L. C. Knorr. Plant Dis. Reptr. 40: 9. Sept. 15,
504. Effect of Potassium Orotate and Methionine Supplementation on Feed
Consumption and Growth of Dairy Heifers, by J. M. Wing. Jour. of
Dairy Sci. 11: 4: 337-339. April 1957.
506. Response of Warm-Season Pasture Grasses to High Levels of Nitro-
gen, by R. L. Jeffers. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. 15. 1955.
507. The Pathology of Visceral Lymphomatosis in Turkeys, by Charles F.
Simpson, D. W. Anthony and Franklin Young. Jour. Am. Vet. Med.
Assn. 130: 2. Jan. 1957.
509. The Value of Soybean Oilmeal, Low Glossypol (Degossypolized) Sol-
vent Processed Cottonseed Meal, Low Gossypol Expeller Processed
Cottonseed Meal and Various Blends Thereof in the Ration of Grow-
ing-Fattening Swine, by C. E. Haines, H. D. Wallace and M. Koger.
Jour. of An. Sci. 16: 1. Feb. 1957.
511. Effects of Larval Nutrition on the Life Cycle, Size, Coloration and
Longevity of Chrysopa lateralis Guer., by Martin H. Muma. Fla.
Entom. 41. March 1957.
512. Effects of Insecticides and Physical Barriers on Field Spread of Pep-
per Veinbanding Mosaic Virus, by John N. Simons. Phytopathology
514. Can Water Be Allocated by Competitive Prices? By W. K. McPher-
son. Jour. Farm Econ. 38: 5. Dec. 1956.
515. The Influence of Chlortetracycline on the Requirements of the Young
Pig for Dietary Pantothenic Acid, by J. I. McKigney, H. D. Wallace
and T. J. Cunha. Jour. of An. Sci. 16: 1. Feb. 1957.
516. A Redescription of Atylenchuls cecalineatus Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda:
Tylenchinae). Proc. Helminthological Soc. of Wash. 24: 1. Jan. 1957.
517. Chemicals Screened for Systemic Effects Against Spreading Decline
Disease of Citrus, by Harry W. Ford. P1. Dis. Reptr. 40:10. Oct.
518. Research on Improved Merchandising of Agricultural Products, by
Marshall R. Godwin. Jour. of Farm Econ. 38: 5. Dec. 1956.
521. Efficiency of Piperazine Citrate in Removing Worms from the Alimen-
tary Canal of Cattle, by Leonard Swanson, W. M. Stone and A. E.
Wade. Am. Jour. Vet. Res. 130: 6. March 15, 1957.
523. Insect Problems in Production of Southern Peas (Cowpeas), by J. W.
Wilson and W. G. Genung. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
524. Purification of Naringin, by R. Hendrickson and J. W. Kesterson.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
525. Cucumber Fungicides for the West Coast of Florida, by Grover Sowell,
Jr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
526. Crop Production in Soil Fumigated with Crag Mylone as Affected by
Rates, Application Methods and Planting Dates, by D. S. Burgis and
A. J. Overman. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
529. The Possibility of Mechanical Transmission of Nematodes in Citrus
Groves, by A. C. Tarjan. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
530. Virus Ring Spot of Peperomia obtusifolia and Peperomia obtusifolia
var., by M. K. Corbett. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
84 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
531. Evaluation of Control Methods for Blackheart of Celery and Blossom-
end Rot of Tomatoes, by C. M. Geraldson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
532. The Assay of Streptomycin as it Relates to the Control of Bacterial
Spot, by Grover Sowell, Jr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
533. Control of Late Blight of Potatoes with Fungicides at Hastings, Fla.,
by A. H. Eddins. Am. Pot. Jour. 34: 2. Feb. 1957.
534. B-622 as a Control for Gray Leaf Spot of Tomato, by Donald M. Coe
and Robert A. Conover. P1. Dis. Reptr. 40: 12. Dec. 15, 1956.
535. Lime-Induced Manganese Deficiency of Strawberries, by C. B. Hall and
R. A. Dennison. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
536. Observations on Ecphyadophora tenuissima de Man, 1921, by A. C.
Tarjan. Nematologia 2. 1957.
538. A Comparison of Three Clones of Barbados Cherry and the Importance
of Improved Selections for Commercial Plantings, by R. Bruce Ledin.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
539. Response of Lychees to Girdling, by T. W. Young. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
540. Physiologic Races of the Burrowing Nematode in Relation to Citrus
Spreading Decline, by E. P. DuCharme and W. Birchfield. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
543. Effect of Variety and Fresh Storage Upon the Quality of Frozen
Sweet Potatoes, by M. W. Hoover and V. F. Nettles. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
544. Irrigation of Sebago Potatoes at Hastings, Fla., by D. L. Myhre. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
545. Use of Cetain Herbicides in Fields of Growing Tomatoes (Progress
Report), by John C. Noonan. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
546. Timing Fertilization of Citrus in the Indian River Area, by Herman J.
Reitz. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
547. Variety Tests of Commercial Varieties and New Breeding Lines of
Southernpeas, by L. H. Halsey. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
548. The Florida Flower and Nursery Industry, by Cecil N. Smith. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
549. Influence of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potash and Lime on the Growth
and Yield of Strawberries. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
550. Pesticides and Plant Injury, by S. H. Kerr. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
551. Citrus Rootstock Selections Tolerant to the Burrowing Nematode, by
Harry W. Ford. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
552. Storage Studies on 42 Brix Concentrated Orange Juices Processed
from Juices Heated at Varying Folds. II. Chemical Changes with
Particular Reference to Pectin, by A. H. Rouse, C. D. Atkins and
E. L. Moore. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
553. Studies on Chemical Weed Control in Plumosus Fern, by C. C. Helms,
Jr., J. M. Crall, E. O. Burt. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
554. The Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on Pathways of Glucose
Catabolism in Higher Plants, by T. E. Humphreys and W. M. Dugger,
Jr. Plant Phys. 32:2:136-140. March 1957.
555. Twelve Bauhinias for Florida, by R. Bruce Ledin. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
Annual Report, 1957
557. Effect of Thermal Treatment and Concentration of Pectinesterase,
Cloud and Pectin in Citrus Juices Using a Plat-Type Heat Exchanger,
by C. D. Atkins, A. H. Rouse and E. L. Moore. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 69. 1956.
558. Storage Studies on 42 Brix Concentrated Orange Juices Processed
from Juices Heated at Varying Folds. I. Physical Changes and Re-
tention of Cloud, by E. L. Moore, A. H. Rouse and C. D. Atkins. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
559. Effectiveness of Different Zinc Fertilizers on Citrus, by C. D. Leonard,
Ivan Stewart and George Edwards. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69.
560. Quality of Canned Grapefruit Sections from Plots Fertilized with
Varying Amounts of Potash, by F. W. Wenzel, R. L. Huggart, E. L.
Moore, J. W. Stites, E. J. Deszyck, R. W. Barron, R. W. Olsen, A. H.
Rouse and C. D. Atkins. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
561. The Sloughing Disease of Grapefruit, by W. Grierson and Roger Pat-
rick. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
562. Notes on the Use of Systox for Purple Mite Control on Citrus, by
Roger B. Johnson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
563. Long Range Relationships between Weather Factors and Scale Insect
Populations, by Robert M. Pratt. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69.
564. Increased Utilization of Grapefruit through Improvement in Quality
of Processed Products, by F. W. Wenzel and E. L. Moore. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
565. Seasonal Changes in the Juice Content of Pin and Red Grapefruit
during 1955-56, by E. J. Deszyck and S. V. Ting. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Proc. 69. 1956.
566. Reducing Losses in Harvesting and Handling Tangerines, by W. Grier-
son. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
567. Is Stem Pitting of Grapefruit a Threat to the Florida Grower? by
L. C. Knorr and W. C. Price. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
568. Results of Different Seeding and Fertilizer Rates for Potatoes at
Hastings, Fla., by E. N. McCubbin. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69.
569. Chemical Weeding and Thinning When Using Pelletized Vegetable
Seeds, by V. L. Guzman. Weeds 5: 3. July 1957.
574. Progress Report On Greasy Spot and Its Control, by W. L. Thompson,
J. R. King and E. J. Deszyck. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 69. 1956.
579. Two Years' Results from Subsoiling and Deep Fertilization of Corn,
by W. K. Robertson, J. G. A. Fiskel, C. E. Hutton, L. G. Thompson,
R. W. Lipscomb and H. W. Lundy. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 21: 3.
582. Control of Anthracnose on Rough Lemon Seedlings by Fran. E. Fisher.
Plant Dis. Reptr. 41: 2. Feb. 15, 1957.
583. Examination of Coldpressed Florida Orange, Tangerine, Grapefruit
and Persian Lime Oil in Ultraviolet, by J. W. Kesterson, R. Hendrick-
son and G. J. Edwards. Am. Perfumer and Aromatics. April 1957.
584. A Source of Controlled Vacuum for Pipetting Nematodes, by Harry
W. Ford. P1. Dis. Reptr. 41: 2. Feb. 15, 1957.
585. Experimental Leptospirosis in Bovines I. Establishment of Infection
with Leptospira serjoe, by Miodrag Ristic, Mildred M. Galton, L. Mc-
86 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Rae, Dorsey A. Sanders and James H. Steele. Jour. Infectious Dis.
100: 228-240. May-June 1957.
592. Virus Diseases of Peppers in Central Florida-Survey Results 1955,
by C. W. Anderson and M. K. Corbett. P1. Dis. Reptr. 41: 3: 143-145.
March 15, 1957.
595. Effect of Soil pH on the Incidence of Three Soil-borne Diseases of To-
bacco, by Randall R. Kincaid and Nathan Gammon, Jr. P1. Dis. Reptr.
41: 3:177-179. March 15, 1957.
601. Honeybees and the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Spray Program, by Roger
A. Morse and F. A. Robinson. Fla. Entom. 40. 1957.
602. Occurrence of Rangpur Lime Disease in Florida and Its Concurrence
with Exocortis, by H. J. Reitz and L. C. Knorr. P1. Dis. Reptr. April
604. Autoradiography with Plant Tissue, by W. M. Dugger, Jr. Bot. Rev.
23: 6: 351-388. June 1957.
614. Control of Downy Mildew of Lettuce in the Everglades, by R. S. Cox.
P1. Dis. Reptr. 41: 5: 455-459. May 15, 1957.
615. A New Helminthosporium Disease of Bermuda Grass, by T. E. Free-
man. P1. Dis. Reptr. 41: 5: 389-391. June 15, 1957.
616. New Host Records for Elsinoe lepage I Bitanc. & Jenkins, by Morti-
mer Cohen and A. S. Muller. P1. Dis. Reptr. June 15, 1957.
POPULAR ARTICLES AND MIMEOGRAPHED MATERIALS
Staff members other than Editors had 304 articles, occupying 788 pages,
printed in non-technical journals during the year, an increase of 50 per-
cent over the preceding year. Department and other units issued 80 mimeo-
graphed reports in that series, covering 654 pages, with 31,350 copies
processed. This also was a considerable increase over the previous year.
DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION ON AGRICULTURAL
State Project 670 W. G. Mitchell
In disseminating agricultural information, the people primarily con-
cerned with this dissemination-agricultural college editors-should be im-
portant. For this reason, a study was made to determine, if possible, what
educational, personal, and experience qualifications editorial workers should
have for professional quality service. The survey was made by personal
letter. Two groups were questioned. The first group was employers; that
is, those who usually hire editorial workers-deans, directors and head edi-
tors of agricultural colleges, extension services, and experiment stations;
USDA information service heads; and selected newspaper and magazine
editors and TV and radio station personnel. The second group was editorial
Employers ranked an agricultural journalism degree highest as an edu-
cational requirement. Other educational qualifications named in decreasing
order were an agricultural degree with courses in journalism and a journal-
ism major with courses in agriculture. Most employers wanted editors
with experience in the mass media of communications. They also desired
persons with a "farm" background. Most respondents in both groups felt
writing talent and communicating ability and the ability to get along with
Almost half the workers in agricultural communications who answered
felt their training and experience is inadequate for fully professional serv-
ice. But most felt their backgrounds were good.
Annual Report, 1957 87
Facilities at the Horticulture Research Unit were utilized for the first
time by Entomology during the past year, with insecticide residue studies
on crucifers and pest control experiments on sweet corn and snap beans.
Results of pollination studies and preliminary trials with honey processing
equipment look promising. It is expected that these investigations will de-
velop into organized research projects. The project on nectar and pollen-
producing plants was revised. A new project on pests of herbaceous orna-
mentals was initiated. Work was continued on investigations of plant para-
sitic nematodes, tobacco insects, pests of woody ornamentals and turf, and
insects found in corn meal and grits. Two projects on pecan insects are
in conjunction with USDA and several other projects are in cooperation
with members of other units of the Experiment Stations.
CONTROL OF THE PECAN NUT CASEBEARER
State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
This project was continued at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory in
cooperation with the Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research
Work on the nut casebearer is done principally during spring and early
summer when the insect is most active and control measures are applied.
The project was inactive in the spring of 1957 because there were insuffi-
cient nuts to provide infestation records or permit doing control experi-
ments. Control tests will be resumed next spring.
CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID PESTS OF
State Project 531 L. C. Kuitert and S. H. Kerr
Phytotoxicity tests were conducted on a large number of plants in-
cluding: Ixora coccinea L., Ardisia crispa (Lam.) A. DC., Feijoa sellowiana
Berg., Buxus microphylla Sieb. & Zucc., Polyscias balfouriana Bailey,
Neanthe bella 0. F. Cook, Sanseveria zeylanica Willd., and several species
of orchids. Treatments included soil drenches of Nemagon, V-C 13, para-
thion and demeton, and foliage sprays of demeton, chlorobenzilate, Keithane,
ovex, Genite 923, Aramite, Trithion and Mitox. No instances of phytotox-
icity were noted. The recommended dosages of these materials apparently
are safe to use on the plants tested.
In 1955 the Department of Ornamental Horticulture set up a rose experi-
ment in which Happiness variety rose on Manetti rootstock was grown in
four soil types. The Entomology Department superimposed nematocidal
treatments on these soil types to make phytotoxicity observations. The
materials used were Nemagon, parathion and V-C 13. No cases of phyto-
toxicity were observed. The plots treated with the pesticides had an in-
creased bloom production over the check plots. This was most marked
and consistent in the V-C 13 plots.
A study was made to determine the phytotoxicity of insecticides used
in the Mediterranean fruit fly eradication campaign to a group of repre-
sentative ornamental plants. The following plants were tested: Hibiscus
rosa-sinensis L., Trachleosperm m. jasminoides Lem., Codiaeum variegatumn
Blume, Ixora coccinea L., Lantana ccamara L., Plumbago capensis Thunb.,
88 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Viburnum odoratissimum Ker, Murraya paniculata L., Jasminum gracile
Andr., B~.....ir, Il. r spp., Cassia spp., Feijoa sellowiana Berg, Duranta
repens L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Eugenia uniflora L., Philodendron has-
tatum Hort., Gardenia veitchi Hort., Pittosporum tobira Ait., Phoenix can-
ariensis Chabaud., and Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.) D. Don.
The insecticidal treatments consisted of the following materials applied
at the recommended dosage and twice the recommended dosage: parathion
wettable powder plus Staley sauce bait; malathion wettable powder plus
Staley sauce bait; dieldrin granules; and heptachlor granules.
No symptoms of phytotoxicity were noted.
One application of a combination spray containing Thimet and oil emul-
sion (Florida Volck) was very effective in controlling adult and immature
stages of tea scale, Fiorinia theae Green, infesting camellias. Thimet was
used at the rate of 1 quart of 47.5 percent emulsifiable concentrate and the
oil emulsion at 2 quarts per 100 gallons. The treatment was applied about
the time the new growth was beginning to harden. Pretreatment counts
averaged 61.1 percent living adult scales. Three weeks following applica-
tion, the counts averaged 4.2 percent living adult scales. The treatment was
98.9 percent effective in controlling the immature scales. Foliage produced
this year has remained almost free of scales for two months. There was no
evidence of any phytotoxicity.
In further tests on tea scales infesting Camellia sasanqua, Thimet sprays
were superior to Demeton sprays and equal to parathion sprays in controll-
ing the scales.
A wasp which bores into the pith of rose canes, beginning at the cut
ends on recently pruned plants, sometimes is the cause of considerable con-
cern. This insect was identified as Ectemnius texanus ais Pate. (See also
Project 52, Ornamental Horticulture.)
INTRODUCTION AND TESTING OF NECTAR AND POLLEN
PRODUCING PLANTS IN FLORIDA
State Project 583 Frank A. Robinson
A half acre field of white Dutch clover, Trifolium repens L., which in
1956 secreted sufficient nectar to attract large numbers of honeybees for
the first time in five years of observations, again secreted nectar and was
attractive to bees. There was little change in the amount of nectar secreted
per floret, but the average sugar concentration dropped from 40.49 percent
in 1956 to 34.71 percent in 1957. The white tupelo, Nyssa ogeeche Marsh,
and water tupelo, N. uniflora Wangenh., plantings near Bivan's Arm con-
tinue to make excellent growth, and 15 of the trees bloomed this spring.
Two hundred seeds collected from the trees last fall were planted after 60
days storage in cool moist sand. One hundred of these seeds germinated
and are growing well. Of the 200 yellow poplar, Liriodendron tulipifera L.,
seedlings planted in 1953, 125 survived and were planted in a nursery along
the shore of the Jim Woodruff Dam reservoir. Attempts to propagate the
everflowering locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., by seed were at last success-
ful. Thirty-seven seedlings obtained from the 100 seeds planted are grow-
ing rapidly and have reached a height of two to six feet. A one-acre field was
planted to Japanese buckwheat in the fall of 1956. This planting has been
undisturbed except for a light disking when each crop of seed matured. The
buckwheat reseeded well and the fourth crop has just finished blooming.
The effect of high and low levels of humidity on nectar secretion of Jap-
anese buckwheat was tested on plants growing in the greenhouse. This
test was inconclusive and additional tests are being made.
Annual Report, 1957 89
CONTROL OF HICKORY SHUCKWORM ON PECANS
State Project 597 A. M. Phillips
This project was carried on at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory in
cooperation with the Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Re-
search Service, USDA.
Under conditions of heavy infestation when 95 percent of the nuts on
unsprayed trees were infested, three applications of EPN at two-week in-
tervals gave fair control of the shuckworm on Mahan pecans and was
much more effective than either Ryanacide-100 or Sevin (Insecticide No.
7744). Three applications of these insecticides were much more effective
than two. When only 20.1 percent of the nuts on unsprayed trees of the
Moore variety were infested, two late applications of EPN gave good con-
trol of the shuckworm, while Trithion (Stauffer R-1303) gave only fair
Eight species of parasites of the immature stages of the shuckworm col-
lected from mass rearing cages in spring of 1957 were identified as: Larvae-
voridae; Lixophaga meediocris Aid. and Leskiella brevirostris James; Lon-
chaeidae: Gen. & sp. (could not be identified); Ichneumonidae: Calliephial-
tes grapholithae (Cress.), Mastrus? carpocapsae (Cush.) and Gelis sp.;
Braconidae: Macrocentrus instabilis Mues. and Phanerotoma fasciata Prov.
Lixophaga mediocris Ald. was the most abundant, followed closely by
Calliephialtes grapholithae (Cress.), Mastrus? ccrpocapsae (Cush.), and
Macrocentrus instabilis Mues. These parasites destroy large numbers of
the overwintering population of the shuckworm.
In spring of 1957 work was initiated on studies of attractants for shuck-
worm moths. Preliminary cage tests were made with 64 different materials.
Three of these were very attractive to the shuckworm and they and seven
other promising materials will be given further study.
CONTROL OF INSECT AND RELATED PESTS OF PASTURES
State Project 616 A. N. Tissot, L. C. Kuitert and R. E. Waites
This project was inactive. (See also Project 616, Food Technology and
Nutrition and Gulf Coast, Everglades, Range Cattle and North Florida
PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON VEGETABLES
State Project 650 R. E. Waites
Residue tests on lettuce and strawberries were incomplete at the time
of the last report. Results of the analyses are summarized here. Two
foliar applications of Thimet emulsifiable concentrate at 16 ounces active
ingredient per acre made on lettuce and sampled 14 days after the last
application had residues ranging from 5.6 to 9.15 ppm. Sprays of para-
thion and malathion wettable powder, applied on strawberries at 2 and 8
ounces active ingredient per acre and sampled 48 hours after the first appli-
cation, showed residue ranges of 0.70 to 1.00 and 0.75 to 2.51 ppm, re-
spectively. Emulsifiable concentrates of DDT and demeton, used at 16
and 4 ounces of active ingredient per acre on strawberries and sampled five
days after application, showed residue ranges of 3.90 to 4.44 and 0.48 to
0.68 ppm, respectively.
Residue studies included demeton on lettuce, collards, mustard, and
broccoli; Thimet on lettuce and mustard; diazinon on lettuce and collards;
and parathion and DDT on escarole and broccoli.
Four foliar sprays of diazinon, demeton and Thimet emulsifiable con-
centrates at 4, 4 and 16 ounces active ingredient per acre, respectively, were
applied to lettuce. Diazinon-treated lettuce sampled seven days after the
90 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
last application yielded residues of 0.14 ppm. Samples of demeton and
Thimet-treated lettuce taken 21 days after the last application produced
residues of 1.31 and 12.85 ppm, respectively. While no tolerance has been
set for Thimet, the residues on lettuce seem to be quite high.
Four spray applications of demeton and diazinon emulsifiable concen-
trates, each at four ounces active ingredient per acre, were made on col-
lards. Demeton-treated samples taken 21 days after the last application
yielded residues of 2.66 ppm. Diazinon-treated samples taken 14 days after
the last application produced residues of 0.06 ppm.
Three spray applications of Thimet and demeton emulsifiable concen-
trates at 16 and 4 ounces active ingredient per acre, respectively, were
made on mustard. Thimet-treated samples taken 21 days after the last
application showed residue ranges of 3.42 to 5.76 ppm. Demeton-treated
samples contained residues of 1.51 ppm 21 days after application.
Three spray applications of parathion and DDT emulsifiable concen-
trates at 4 and 8 ounces active ingredient per acre, respectively, were made
on escarole. Samples taken seven days after the last application showed
DDT residues of 3.06 to 4.21 ppm, and parathion residues of 0.19 to
Three spray applications of parathion wettable powder, demeton and
DDT emulsifiable concentrates at 2, 4, and 8 ounces active ingredient
per acre were made on broccoli. Parathion-treated samples five days after
the last application showed residues of 0.22 ppm, DDT-treated samples
seven days after application, showed residues of 1.88 ppm, and demeton-
treated samples ranged from 0.59 to 0.85 ppm 21 days after. (See also
Project 650, Food Technology and Nutrition, Central Florida, Everglades
and Gulf Coast Stations, and Potato Investigation Laboratory, and Project
699, Food Technology and Nutrition.)
BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECTS ATTACKING
CRUCIFEROUS CROPS IN FLORIDA
State Project 669 L. C. Kuitert
This project was inactive. (See also Project 669, Gulf Coast, Central
Florida and Everglades Stations and Potato Investigations Laboratory.)
BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID
PESTS OF TURF GRASSES
State Project 678 S. H. Kerr and L. C. Kuitert
In 1956, tests were conducted in Orlando and Daytona Beach with a
large number of newer pesticides to determine their potential in chinch bug
control on St. Augustinegrass lawns. Insecticides which showed little prom-
ise included Phosdrin, chlorthion, Sevin and Guthion. Several pesticides,
including Thimet, V-C 13, Union Carbide Chemicals Company's 8305, Dip-
terex and Diazinon, gave encouraging results and will be tried in larger
scale tests in 1957.
Data from ground pearl control tests on centipedegrass in Gainesville
indicated that Thimet, parathion, demeton, American Cyanimid 12008, and
V-C 13 do not substantially reduce the insect population. (See also Project
678, North Florida and Sub-Tropical Stations.)
IDENTITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL NEMATODES
Hatch Project 695 J. R. Christie
During the past 12 months 699 root and soil samples were processed for
removal and identification of nematodes. Of these, 218 were experimental
and were examined in cooperation with other projects mostly to determine
Annual Report, 1957
the effects of various treatments on nematode populations. Of the re-
mainder, 88 were associated with surveys at the Indian River Field Labora-
tory, 237 were in connection with investigations of nematode injury to
turf, and 156 were examined for miscellaneous purposes.
The examination of soil samples has frequently revealed the presence of
sheath nematodes, Hemicycliophora spp., in large numbers, especially in
samples taken in the vegetable lands of the Sanford and Bradenton areas.
These high populations of sheath nematodes are not, as a rule, widespread,
but are restricted to small areas. A given soil sample may contain enor-
mous numbers while another sample taken only a few feet away may con-
tain none or very few. In laboratory and greenhouse experiments, H.
parvana Tarjan, the predominating species in the Sanford area, fed readily
on the roots of corn and bean, but not on the roots of hairy indigo, Indigo-
fera hirsuta L. The nematodes fed externally near the root tip without
penetrating the root. The most rapid reproduction occurred on corn and
represented an increase from one to about 85 in five months. Neither corn
nor bean developed symptoms of stubby root, indicating that root tips had
not been devitalized. The feeding had not caused necrotic lesions at the
time the roots were examined.
Results from laboratory and greenhouse tests indicate that, of the vari-
ous plant parasitic nematodes found associated with injury to turf, lance
nematodes, Hoplolain.us spp., and spiral nematodes, Rotylenchus spp., are
the most difficult to kill with chemicals. Stubbyroot nematodes, Trichodorus
spp., are somewhat less resistant, while sting nematodes, Belonolaibns spp.,
and dagger nematodes, Xiphinema spp., are comparatively easy to kill. It
seems logical to expect that results obtained with a nematicide of moderate
potency may vary considerably with different kinds of nematodes.
Hairy indigo has been suggested as a root-knot-resistant legume suitable
for growing in Florida. For several years this plant grew on root-knot-
infested land at the Central Florida Station without showing evidence of
galling. Recently instances have come to our attention where hairy indigo
has become severely galled with what proved to be the Javanese root-knot
nematode, Melodigone javanica (Treub) Chitwood. Apparently hairy indigo
is resistant to some, but not all, of the root-knot nematodes that occur in
Florida. (See also Project 698, Soils, and Project 712, Indian River Field
INFLUENCE OF SOIL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
ON NEMATODES IN FLORIDA SOILS
State Project 698 J. R. Christie
Participation in this project consisted of processing soil and plant sam-
ples and determining the number and kinds of plant parasitic nematodes
removed. (See also Project 695, Entomology; 698, Soils; and 712, Indian
River Field Laboratory.)
NEMATODE STUDIES AND CONTROL ON
ORNAMENTAL FOLIAGE PLANTS
State Project 729 S. H. Kerr and J. R. Christie
Caladium tubers were treated and planted in a test to determine the
effects of nematicides on growth of plants and on nematodes associated
with them. Part of the tubers were dipped in liquid preparations before
planting. The remaining tubers were treated by drenching the soil in which
they were planted. In each case, half of the tubers were cut and half were
Nemagon dips prevented growth of the tubers. Where nemagon was
92 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
applied as a soil drench the caladiums grew, although their development
was somewhat retarded. Extremely heavy parathion drenches (10 pounds
actual parathion per acre) slowed the growth of the plants considerably.
At the end of the test the nematode population on the roots was so small,
even in the checks, that no nematode control data could be taken.
This project is closed with this report. (See also Project 729, Plant
EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON INSECTICIDE
RESIDUES ON VEGETABLE CROPS
Hatch Project 746 R. E. Waites
Effects of climatic factors were studied by means of specially con-
structed cages which made it possible to determine the influence of sun,
rain and wind individually and in combination with each other. Cages were
four feet square and two feet high and the wooden framework was partially
or wholly covered with different materials. Cages to study the effects of
sun were enclosed on sides and top with clear cellulose acetate sheeting;
for wind, cages were open on all sides, with felt roofing paper on top; for
rain, the sides and top were of felt roofing paper and the top was removed
at night and on cloudy or rainy days. Cages for the study of combined
effects of sun and rain were open on top, and the sides were covered with
cellulose acetate sheeting; for sun and wind, all sides were open and the
top was covered with cellulose acetate sheeting; for wind and rain, the
sides were open and the top was covered with felt roofing paper and the
top was removed at night and on cloudy or rainy days. For effects of all
factors an area four feet square was marked off with stakes and the
plants were completely exposed.
Turnips and mustard were treated with 5 percent DDT dust at the
rate of 35 pounds per acre and the cages were placed over the plants im-
mediately after treatment. Samples taken 1 hour and 7, 14 and 21 days
after application of the dust were analyzed for residues by chemical methods.
Rain was the most important factor in reducing DDT deposits on turnip
tops during the three-week period after application. Where 0.76 inches of
rain fell during the first week, 74 percent loss of the initial deposit was
attributed to this weather component. A total of 2,773 Langleys of solar
radiation was available to the treated turnips during the first week of the
test, and a residue loss of 56 percent was attributed to this amount of solar
radiation. The loss effected by the wind was less than the initial loss at-
tributed to the rain or sun. In the test with turnips, a total wind of 300
miles caused a loss of 36 percent of the original deposit. In some instances
the interaction of two factors caused a larger loss of deposit than one factor
alone, but in others very little additive effect was found by the combined
action of two factors. Rain and sun appeared to be the most effective com-
bination in reducing DDT residues on crucifers.
The effect of all three weathering components combined was somewhat
more than that of any two, but in many instances not outstandingly more.
Data from the mustard study were not quite parallel to those of the turnip
study but, in general, the trend was the same.
A "brine shrimp" bioassay method for determining amounts of resi-
dues on vegetable crops is under preliminary investigation.
INSECT CONTAMINATION OF CORN MEAL AND GRITS
PROCESSED IN FLORIDA
State Project 778 H. E. Bratley
The corn meal and grits samples mentioned last year were stored under
various conditions and kept under observation. Packages placed in open
Annual Report, 1957
air storage as they were received showed considerable variation in the
incidence of infestation and the severity of damage. The earliest and
heaviest infestations developed in samples from some of the smaller Florida
mills. Samples heated in an oven at a temperature of 130 degrees F. for two
hours and then placed in open air storage remained free of insect damage for
four to six weeks. Examination showed that these infestations developed
from insects which penetrated the package from the outside. Other pack-
ages of the same samples were placed in an ordinary household refrigerator
as they were received. This treatment did not kill the insects or their eggs
in the packages, but greatly delayed their growth and after a year in the
refrigerator a second generation had not developed. Packages in the re-
frigerator having insect damage were from the same mills as those that
showed early and heavy infestation in open storage.
The following insects in the order of predominance were observed during
this investigation: (1) Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hbn.);
(2) red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. (Herbst.) ; (3) corn sap beetle,
Carpophilus sp.; (4) flat grain beetle, Laembophloeus probably testacevs
(F.); (5) saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); book-
lice, few and unidentified; and (7) unidentified mites, occasionally observed.
INFLUENCE OF CULTURAL PRACTICES ON THE INCIDENCE
AND CONTROL OF INSECT INFESTATIONS IN
'Hatch Project 780 L. C. Kuitert and A. N. Tissot
In the spring of 1957 two methods of applying insecticides for the con-
trol of soil-inhabiting pests of newly set tobacco were compared. Wettable
powders or dust concentrates of aldrin, chlordane and endrin were mixed
with the tobacco fertilizer in amounts that gave applications of 2, 4 and 8
pounds active ingredients per acre. Emulsifiable concentrates of the same
insecticides were added to transplant water at 2, 4 and 8 ounces active per
50 gallons, which gave applications of 12, 1 and 2 pounds active per acre.
No ill effects were noted from any of the insecticide-fertilizer combinations.
Aldrin and endrin in the transplant water caused severe injury to the to-
bacco, particularly at the higher rates. No injury resulted from the chlor-
Cutworms, the only pest present in any numbers, were distributed so
unevenly in the field that the comparative effectiveness of the two methods
of application could not be ascertained. A blanket application of a pre-
pared bait containing 2.0 percent of chlordane and 2.4 percent of toxaphene
gave excellent control of the cutworms.
The transplant water test suggested that solvents or emulsifiers, rather
than the insecticides themselves, might have caused the injury. The con-
centrates of aldrin and endrin contained only 2.0 and 1.6 pounds active per
gallon, respectively, while the chlordane concentrate contained 8.0 pounds
active per gallon. Endrin was not available as wettable powder, so a com-
parison of formulations of this material could not be made. Aldrin wettable
powder was compared with aldrin emulsifiable concentrate. Each was used
in transplant water at 14, 1/, 1 and 2 pounds active per acre. No injury
resulted from the wettable powder at any level of application. Injury oc-
curred where the emulsifiable concentrate was used and again damage was
more pronounced from the higher rates.
Field observations and laboratory studies were made on some of the
parasites and predators of hornworms and budworms. Polistes wasps cap-
tured and devoured many second to fourth instar hornworms and late instar
budworms. The influence of these predators was especially noticeable early
in the season. Between May 23 and June 16, 147 last instar budworms were
94 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
collected in the field and taken to the laboratory for rearing. During the
first half of the period 96.5 percent of the larvae were parasitized by the
red-tail wasp, Cardiochiles nigriceps (Vier.). About the middle of the
period parasitization decreased rapidly and during the second half averaged
only 50.5 percent. From May 17 to July 1, 88 last instar hornworms were
collected for rearing. Seven of the larvae were parasitized by a larvaevorid
fly, probably Sturmia protoparcis (Towns.). Life history studies on the
tobacco budworm were in progress at the time of this report.
IDENTITY, BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID
PESTS OF HERBACEOUS ORNAMENTAL PLANTS
State Project 852 S. H. Kerr and L. C. Kuitert
This project was initiated in the spring of 1957. A test is underway on
the caterpillars that attack the blooms of chrysanthemums. Results are
not yet available.
In greenhouse work with chrysanthemums, it was observed that demeton
failed to give satisfactory mite control. Kelthane was substituted and has
given excellent control.
Corn Earworm Control.-Tests were conducted to evaluate the effective-
ness of several insecticides applied with hand equipment for controlling corn
earworms. An early planting of approximately 0.5 acre and a late planting
of 0.37 acre were used. Each plot contained four rows 71 feet in length.
All treatments were replicated four times. About 10 days prior to the
initial earworm treatments an overall application of 10 percent toxaphene
dust was made to the early planting and 2.5 percent aldrin dust to the late
planting for budworm control. All dust treatments were applied with a
crank-type rotary duster and the spray treatments with a three gallon
pneumatic sprayer. Treatments were initiated two days after the first
appearance of silks.
Six applications were made to the early planting at two-day intervals.
Materials used, concentrations, average rates per acre per application and
percentage of worm-free ears for the various treatments were as follows-
DDT 25 percent emulsifiable concentrate, 1 quart plus mineral oil 1 quart
per 36 gallons, 36 gallons per acre, 77.1 percent; Sevin 5 percent dust, 28.5
pounds, 68.2 percent; Dylox 50 percent soluble, 2 pounds plus 1 quart min-
eral oil per 36 gallons, 36 gallons per acre, 66.0 percent; DDT 5 percent
dust, 33.7 pounds per acre, 31.1 percent. In the check only 5.07 percent
of the ears were worm-free.
Five applications were made to the late planting. Due to heavy rains,
it was not possible to adhere to a schedule of two-day intervals. Treat-
ments were delayed one day on three occasions and in the case of the fourth
application the delay was two days. Materials used, concentrations, aver-
age rates per acre per application and percentage of worm-free ears were
as follows: DDT 25 percent emulsifiable concentrate, 2 quarts plus mineral
oil 1 quart per 36 gallons, 36 gallons per acre, 86.5 percent; DDT 5 percent
dust, 40.3 pounds, 45.9 percent; Sevin 5 percent dust, 50.0 pounds, 41.2 per-
cent. In the check 20.0 percent of the ears were worm-free.
The data indicate that earworms are controlled effectively with several
insecticides when conditions permit application at two-day intervals. When
conditions do not permit rigid adherence to a two-day schedule, only the
combination spray of DDT with mineral oil is satisfactory. (L. C. Kuitert.)
Mexican Bean Beetle Control.-Tests were conducted on Cherokee Wax
and Contender bush beans for control of the Mexican bean beetle. Materials
Annual Report, 1957
used and amounts of active ingredient per acre were: Dylox soluble powder,
16 ounces; technical Phosdrin, 5.12 ounces; emulsifiable concentrates of
Sevin, 8 ounces; parathion, 8 ounces; malathion, 16 ounces; 5 percent
Sevin dust; 2 percent parathion dust; and 4 percent malathion dust. Sprays
were applied at the rate of 100 gallons per acre and dusts at approximately
35 pounds per acre.
Due to a heavy rainfall an hour and a half after the application, results
of these tests are not conclusive. However, parathion and malathion dusts,
under these conditions, caused an appreciable reduction in number of beetles
and 5 percent Sevin dust produced an outstanding reduction. (R. E. Waites
and L. C. Kuitert.)
Effect of Adequate Pollination on Some Florida Fruit Crops.-Pollina-
tion studies were continued on the Minneola tangelo variety. Trees caged
with honeybees set no more fruit than caged trees where bees were ex-
cluded. Hand pollinations with pollen from Temple orange flowers resulted
in 50 percent fruit set, and 95 percent of the flowers set fruit when Va-
lencia pollen was used. When tangelo flowers were pollinated with tangelo
pollen, none of the flowers set fruit.
In a fall planting of squash, plots open to honeybees averaged 142.6
pounds. Where honeybees were excluded the yield was zero. In a second
planting made in the spring of 1957, the average yields were 195 pounds
from the plots open to honeybees and 12 pound per plot where honeybees
were excluded. (F. A. Robinson.)
A Comparison of the Efficiency of Different Types of Honey Processing
Equipment.-Preliminary investigations have been initiated to obtain infor-
mation on the efficiency of different types of honey processing equipment.
This study will be concerned primarily with different types of heat ex-
changers, and a pressure sand filter. Work during the past year was largely
confined to designing and building two heat exchangers and a pressure filter.
These units have been tested and will be ready for use when a few minor
modifications have been made. (F. A. Robinson.)
96 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
FOOD TECHNOLOGY AND NUTRITION
Six new projects were started during the year; four on utilization and
quality measurements of Florida horticultural commodities and two in
human nutrition. Utilization studies with cull tomatoes showed that these
fruits can be used satisfactorily in the preparation of livestock feed. X-ray
films of tomatoes and watermelons indicated the maturity of the fruits and
if the melons had any hollow heart. Methods were developed for evalu-
ating the quality of celery. Vacuum cooled sweet corn and celery maintained
good quality provided the commodities were wet before and after cooling.
EFFECT OF CAROTENE OR VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN
YOUNG RATS ON SUBSEQUENT LIFE PATTERN
Hatch Project 569 R. B. French, O. D. Abbott
and R. O. Townsend
Fifty-four mature rats that had been exposed to vitamin A deficiency
when weanlings were given a massive dose of vitamin A orally and subse-
quent change in blood level of vitamin A was followed by hourly analysis.
One-fifth of these rats, as well as one-fifth of the control rats, failed to
show a rise in serum A following the administration of the dose. Evidently,
control of factors such as oxidation by vitamin E and dispersibility by
Tween 20 in water is not enough to insure satisfactory use of the procedure
upon individual animals. The idea had been advanced that animals exposed
to a vitamin A deficiency when young might show impaired absorption of
vitamin A later in life. The data suggest that animals that had been ex-
posed to a vitamin A deficiency were much more apt to show higher serum
vitamin A values than the control rats. Fifty I. U. intake per week was
the minimum level of maintenance for vitamin A. Three thousand I. U.
of vitamin A at one feeding lasted a rat for four and one-half months. This
intake figured to be at the rate of 100 I. U. per week. In weight gained,
this group kept somewhat ahead of those that received 200 I. U. per week.
CONTROL OF INSECTS AND RELATED PESTS OF PASTURES
State Project 616 C. H. Van Middelem
There are no residue data to report under this project during the year.
(See also Project 616, Entomology and Everglades, Gulf Coast, North
Florida and Range Cattle Stations.)
EFFECT OF DIETARY PRACTICES ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF
THE SKELETON OF AGED MEN AND WOMEN
Hatch Project 625 0. D. Abbott, R. O. Townsend
and R. B. French
Investigation has been concentrated on individuals showing bone demin-
eralization and calcified areas in the soft tissue anatomy. Selection of sub-
jects was based on the degree of sclerotic changes in the walls of the pal-
pable superficial arteries and clinical diagnosis of arteriosclerosis or hyper-
tension. Subjects showing definite symptoms of senile mental deterioration
that might preclude inability to follow explicit directions were excluded
from the groups selected for further study and treatment. The object of
this study was to determine the effect of special diet and administration of
certain plant derivatives on these conditions often associated with aging.
Annual Report, 1957
A diet was planned which was low in saturated fat, but contained un-
saturated fatty acids such as linoleic and arachidonic. This diet was sup-
plemented daily with from 50 to 200 mgs. nicotinic acid and with 42 gms.
of cytellin, a plant sterol. As serum cholesterol is usually high in patients
with atherosclerosis, the level of this sterol was determined every three
months and roentgenograms were made every six months. At the end of six
months serum cholesterol values had dropped 20 percent but roentgeno-
grams showed no change in deposits in soft tissue nor in the arterial system.
Later determinations showed further reduction in cholesterol but still no
change in deposits. After 10 months, cytellin was discontinued. The low
fat diet and nicotinic acid regimen will be followed for six months, after
which serum cholesterol levels, soft tissue deposition and physical examina-
tions will again be employed for evaluation of treatment.
Another group showing bone demineralization with excessive deposition
in the joints of the spine and upper and lower extremities which was di-
agnosed as osteoarthritis were given water-soluble hesperidin (hesperidin-
methylene-carboxychalcone) in therapeutic doses as determined by Hart.
Great improvement in symptoms of pain of the freely movable joints has
been noted, while that in the spine has not been as great. Roentgenograms
will be made to determine degree of deposition in the joints at a later date.
A second group with deposits in the joints is being given a combination of
crude hesperidin and naringin with ascorbic acid in comparable dosage. No
improvement of symptoms has been noted. The difference in the effective-
ness of the two products is probably due to differences in solubility.
ECONOMY OF MARKETING AND METHODS OF HANDLING
SWEET CORN FOR LONG DISTANCE SHIPMENTS
Regional Research Project 630 R. K. Showalter
Precooling studies were made with sweet corn to determine the effects
of vacuum cooling, hydrocooling, and top ice versus no top ice during subse-
quent handling. The corn was packed in wirebound crates immediately
after harvesting. The vacuum cooled corn was precooled in a pump-oper-
ated vacuum tube 5 x 31/2 x 31/ feet. The hydrocooled corn was precooled
in a commercial hydrocooler. The storage studies were made in two minia-
ture refrigerated cars which were bunker iced. Corn samples for quality
studies were taken at time of harvest and after 2, 5 and 8 days of storage.
The facilities of the Everglades Station and the Florida Vacuum Cooling
Corporation were utilized over an eight-week period for these tests.
Since vacuum cooling depends upon the evaporation of water, the tests
were designed to find a method which would reduce the water loss to a min-
imum. Four treatments were used with the vacuum cooling: (1) the corn
was wet with water before cooling; (2) the corn was wet after cooling;
(3) the corn was wet before and after cooling and (4) the corn was not
wet. The fifth treatment was the hydrocooled lot. After precooling, one-
half of all the crates were placed in one of the refrigerated cars and covered
with top ice, the other crates were held in the second car at 34-45 F. with-
out top ice.
The cob temperatures of the vacuum cooled corn were reduced from ap-
proximately 90 to 38 F. in 30 minutes, while the cob temperatures of the
hydrocooled corn were reduced to approximately 600 F. in the same time.
During vacuum cooling, the non-wet corn lost from 2 to 6 percent weight
while the corn wet before and after cooling gained weight. Without top
ice, the non-wet corn at the end of five days of storage showed considerable
denting of the kernels and slight wilting of the husks and after eight days
98 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
had lost 8.4 percent weight. The wet corn without top ice was 2 percent
heavier after two days than at harvest and the fresh appearance was re-
tained. With the top ice, the non-wet corn maintained the harvest weight
and after eight days the wet corn was from 5 to 7 percent heavier than at
harvest. With top ice, denting developed only with the non-wet and hydro-
cooled treatments. In all treatments the more mature ears were the most
susceptible to denting, and very little denting of immature kernels was
Little change in succulence and pericarp content of the corn resulted
from the various treatments. This would be expected under the conditions
of continuous adequate refrigeration. The ears which were dipped in water
for one to two minutes before and after vacuum cooling were more succu-
lent than the hydrocooled ears at most examination periods. A taste panel
judged the hydrocooled corn as the lowest in sweetness and succulence
after six days of storage with and without top ice.
Additional studies were made this year on effects of temperature and
time in storage on change in pericarp content. Sixty lots of sweet corn of
four varieties were stored at 40, 60 and room temperature (85 to 900 F.).
The pericarp content increased at the following rates during one, two, and
three days at room temperatures: Golden Security 12, 28 and 43 percent;
Sixtypak 12, 23 and 37 percent; a white narrow-grain variety 25, 52 and 65
percent; and Gold Rush 33 and 48 percent increase during the first and
The increase in pericarp content was much slower at 60, and at 40' F.
there was no increase in the Golden Security and Sixtypak varieties during
six days. The white corn increased 16 percent in six days at 40 F. These
data further substantiate earlier tests in which the pericarp measurements
were found to be an indication of handling practices and time in marketing
THE INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION ON TOMATO
State Project 640 C. B. Hall and R. A. Dennison
The project was inactive and is closed with this report.
MATURITY AS RELATED TO QUALITY OF TOMATOES
FOR THE FRESH MARKET
Hatch Project 641 R. K. Showalter and R. O. Townsend
Inspection of the internal structure of tomatoes by X-ray was initiated
as a possible grading method for separating immature from mature-green
tomatoes. X-ray pictures were made of tomatoes varying from very im-
mature to fully ripe. The formation of the jelly-like substance in the lo-
cules with increasing maturity, which cannot be accurately determined by
external appearance, was indicated on the X-ray films by increasing density.
The contents of the locules in the immature tomatoes were less dense than
the inner walls, but this difference gradually disappeared during maturation.
The ripe tomatoes showed very little contrast between light and dark areas
and absorbed more of the X-rays than the immature fruit.
Puffy locules were most easily penetrated by X-rays and produced
dense, sharply defined areas. If the differences recorded on X-ray film
can be observed on a fluoroscopic screen mounted over a grading belt, a
rapid non-destructive method would be available for determining maturity
and puffiness. (See also Project 641, Vegetable Crops.)
Annual Report, 1957
POST-HARVEST EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE, LIGHT, STORAGE
ATMOSPHERE AND HUMIDITY ON TOMATO QUALITY
Hatch Project 643 C. B. Hall and R. A. Dennison
Mature-green tomato fruits were stored at 700 F. for periods of one,
two and three days with and without exposure to fluorescent light. Fruits
exposed to light for one day had significantly less chlorophyll at the end
of this period than similar fruits held in the dark for one day. There was
no difference in the chlorophyll content of exposed and-tmexp6seedfruits at
the end of two and three days.
The exposed fruits developed more red color than the unexposed fruits
after one, two or three days.
The dry weight of various portions of tomato wall tissue was determined.
The dry weight of the locular walls was less than that of the outer walls.
The stem-end and blossom-end portions of the outer wall tissue were higher
in dry weight than the middle portion.
PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON VEGETABLES
State Project 650
C. H. Van Middelem
All the non-systemic pesticide residue experiments conducted in coopera-
tion with Station entomologists and plant pathologists and analyzed at
Gainesville are reported under this project. Table 1 condenses the pertinent
portions of the field experiments conducted at the various cooperating sta-
tions and the resulting residues obtained by chemical analysis:
TABLE 1.-CONVENTIONAL PESTICIDE RESIDUES FOUND ON AND IN
B: Sweet Corn
0.14 15 1
0.25 3 1
8.08 1 1
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
TABLE 1.-CONVENTIONAL PESTICIDE RESIDUES FOUND ON AND IN
F I Collards
Sun + rain 9.37
Sun + wind 11.69
Rain + wind 9.83
1 Time lapse from last application until sampling.
Range indicates lowest to highest residue concentration.
2 Cooperation W. G. Genung, Everglades Station, Belle Glade.
3 Cooperation E. ID. Harris, Everglades Station, Belle Glade.
4 Cooperation E. G. Kelsheimer, Gulf Coast Station, Bradenton.
G Cooperation R. E. Waites, Main Station, Gainesville.
6 Cooperation D. O. Wolfenbarger, Sub-Tropical Station, Homestead.
7 Cooperation J. W. Wilson. Central Florida Station, Sanford.
s Cooperation J. F. Darby, Central Florida Station, Sanford.
(See also Project 650, Entomology, Central Florida, Gulf Coast and Everglades Stations,
Potato Investigations Laboratory, Projects 690 and 699, Food Technology and Nutrition, and
Project 746, Entomology.)
P, 0 C)
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