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HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Report of the director
 Report of the business manager
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering
 Agronomy
 Animal husbandry and nutrition
 Dairy science
 Editorial department
 Entomology
 Home economics
 Horticulture
 The library
 Plant pathology
 Poultry husbandry
 Soils
 Veterinary science
 Central Florida station
 Citrus station
 Everglades station
 Indian River field laboratory
 Plantation field laboratory
 Gulf Coast station
 North Florida station
 Range cattle station
 Subtropical experiment station
 Suwannee Valley station
 West Central Florida station
 West Florida station
 Field laboratories
 Index
 Historic note


FLAG UF



Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027385/00004
 Material Information
Title: Annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1956
Publication Date: 1945-1967
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1931-1967.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002452809
oclc - 12029671
notis - AMF8114
System ID: UF00027385:00004
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending June 30th
Succeeded by: Annual report for

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
    Report of the director
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Report of the business manager
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Agricultural economics
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Agronomy
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Animal husbandry and nutrition
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Dairy science
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Editorial department
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Entomology
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Home economics
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Horticulture
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    The library
        Page 111
    Plant pathology
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Poultry husbandry
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Soils
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Veterinary science
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    Central Florida station
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
    Citrus station
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
    Everglades station
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Indian River field laboratory
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
    Plantation field laboratory
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
    Gulf Coast station
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
    North Florida station
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
    Range cattle station
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
    Subtropical experiment station
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
    Suwannee Valley station
        Page 319
        Page 320
    West Central Florida station
        Page 321
    West Florida station
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
    Field laboratories
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
    Index
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
    Historic note
        Page 352
Full Text
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA









AGRICULTURAL


EXPERIMENT STATIONS










ANNUAL REPORT

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1956








BOARD OF CONTROL
Fred H. Kent. Chairman, Jackson-
ville
J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Ralph L. Miller, Plymouth
James J. Love, Quincy
S. Kendrick Guernsey, Jacksonville
Robert H. Gore, Ft. Lauderdale
J. B. Culpepper, Secretary, Talla-
hassee

EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. W. Reitz, Ph.D., President
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Provost for
Agriculture 3
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Director
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Associate Di-
rector and Argronomist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Assistant Direc-
tor and Horticulturist
R. L. Bartley, B.S., Administrative
Manager 3
G. Freeman, B.S., Superintendent
of Field Operations
W. H. Jones, M.A., Assistant Super-
intendent of Field Operations

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
Agricultural Economics
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural
Economist 3
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agricultural
Economist 3
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agricultural
Economist '
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agricul-
tural Economist
Z. Savage, M.S.A., Agricultural
Economist
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agricultural
Economist
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
Agricultural Economist
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Associate
Agricultural Economist
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate
Marketing Economist 3
C. N. Smith, M.A., Associate Agri-
cultural Economist
E. Thor, Ph.D., Associate Agricul-
tural Economist
G. L. Capel, M.S., Assistant Agri-
cultural Economist
L. A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant
Agricultural Economist
N. K. Roberts, M.S., Assistant Agri-
cultural Economist *
L. A. Reuss, M.S., Agricultural
Economist, USDA 2
1Head of Department
In cooperation with U. S.
SCooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
On leave


J. C. Townsend, B.S.A., Agricultural
Statistician, USDA, Orlando a
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agricultural
Statistician, USDA, Orlando 2
G. A. Rowe, B.S.A., Agricultural
Statistician, USDA, Orlando2
G. N. Rose, B.S., Associate Agricul-
tural Economist, Orlando
C. L. Crenshaw, M.S., Assistant
Agricultural Economist, Orlando
B. W. Kelly, Ph.D., Assistant Agri-
cultural Economist, Orlando
Agricultural Engineering
F. Rogers, M.S.A., Agricultural En-
gineer 1 3
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Associate Agri-
cultural Engineer
J. S. Norton, M.S., Assistant Agri-
cultural Engineer
Agronomy
F. H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist1 '
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
F. A. Clark, M.S.A., Agronomist 2
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Asso. Agron.3
E. 0. Burt, Ph.D., Asst. Agronmist
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Asst. Agro.
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
0. C. Ruelke, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
V N. Schroder, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
A. T. Wallace, Ph., Asst. Agron. 3
I. M. Wofford, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
D. Duncan, Ph.D., Agricultural
Statistician
C. S. Hoveland, M.S., Interim As-
sistant in Agronmony
R. L. Oilman, B.S. Asst. in Agron.
A. A. Cook, Ph.D., Co-operative
Agent, USDA2
K. Hinson, Ph.D., Co-operative
Agent, USDA 2

Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Husb. 1
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., An. Nutritionist3
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 3
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist
A. Z. Palmer, Ph.D., Assoc. Animal
Husbandman
D. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Associate An.
Husbandman 3
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Asst. Animal
Husbandman
G. E. Combs, Jr., Ph.D., Assist. An.
Husbandman
J. P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. Animal
Nutritionist









J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An.
Husbandman 3
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Assistant
Psysiologist3
P. E. Loggins, M.S., Asst. in An.
Husbandry 3
J. T. McCall, B.S., Asst. in Chem.
J. C. Outler, Jr., M.S., Asst. in
Chemistry
Botany
N. J. Scully, Ph.D., Botanist 1 S

Dairy Science
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech. 1 3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husb. '
P. T. Arnold, M.S.A., Assoc. Dairy
Husbandman 3
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Assoc. Dairy
Husbandman 3
L. E. Mull, Ph.D., Assoc. Dairy
Technologist
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Assoc. Dairy
Technologist I
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Assoc.
Dairy Technologist 3
J. M. Wing, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy
Husbandman
Editorial and Mailing
J. F. Cooper, M.S.A., Editor 3
F. B. Borries, Jr., A.B., Assoc. Ed. '
W. G. Mitchell, M.S.A., Asst. Ed.
M. H. Sharpe, Ph.D., Asst. Ed.'
R. E. Hancock, B.A., Inter. Asst. 3

Entomology
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist
J. R. Christie, Ph.D., Nematologist
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Entomologist *
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Asst. Entom.
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Asst. Entom.
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Assistant
Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entom.


O. D.
R. B.
R. O.


Home Economics
Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
French, Ph.D., Biochemist
Townsend, R.N., Asst. in Nu.


Horticulture
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Horticulturist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Hort. 3
A. P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
W. M. Dugger, Ph.D., Assoc. Plant
Physiologist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
In cooperation with U. S.
Head of Department
Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
On leave


C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
M. W. Hoover, Ph. D., Asst. Hort.
T. E. Humphreys, Ph.D., Asst.
Biochemist
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst.
Horticulturist
C. H. Van Middelem, Ph.D., Asst.
Biochemist
B. D. Thompson, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.

USDA Tung Laboratory
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Hort. 2
H. L. Barrows, B.S., Chemist
C. Shear, M.S., Plant Physiologist2

Library
I. K. Cresap, Librarian
L. T. Urschel, M.S., Asst. in Library

Plant Pathology
P. Decker, Ph.D., Plant Path. and
Head
E. West, M.S., Bot. and Mycol.
H. N. Miller, Ph.D., Plant Path.
L. E. Arnold, M.S., Assoc. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant
Pathologist
M. K. Corbett, Ph.D., Asst. Plant
Pathologist
H. H. Luke, Ph.D., Plant Path.

Poultry Husbandry
N. R. Mehrhof, M. Agr., Poultry
Husbandman 1 I
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Poultry
Husbandman I

Soils
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiol-
ogist. 1 3
N. Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chem.
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soils Tech.
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Soil Micro-
biologist 3
G. M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Associate
Soils Physicist
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Assistant Bio-
chemist
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Assistant Soils
Chemist
D. T. Brewer, M.S.A., Assistant Soil
Surveyor
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Assistant
Chemist 3
O. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Assistant Soil
Surveyor









C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Assistant Soil
Microbiologist
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Assistant Bio-
chemist 3
W. K. Robertson, Ph.D., Assistant
Chemist
W. R. Smith, B.S.A., Assistant Soil
Surveyor
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
Chemist
R. G. Leighty, B.S., Assistant Soil
Surveyor 2
T. L. Yuan, Ph.D., Interim Assist-
tant in Soils

Veterinary Science
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinar-
ian1
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinar-
ian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasioto-
gist
M. Ristic, D.V.M., Asso. Pathologist
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Associate
Veterinarian
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Assistant
Parasitologist
J. G. Wadsworth, D.V.M., Assistant
Poultry Pathologist
W. M. Stone, Jr., M.S., Assistant in
Parasitology
A. E. Wade, B.S.P., Research As-
sistant

BRANCH STATIONS

Central Florida Station, Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Direc-
tor in Charge
J. W. Wilson, D.Sc., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Associate
Horticulturist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
B. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Assist-
ant Horticulturist
W. T. Scudder, Ph.D., Associate
Horticulturist
R. B. Forbes, Ph.D., Assistant Soil
Chemist

Citrus Station, Lake Alfred
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director
in Charge
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
R. Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomolog-
ist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
1 Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
On leave


W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Associate Hor-
ticulturist
E. P. DuCharme, Ph.D., Associate
Plant Pathologist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Associate
Chemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Associate His-
tologist *
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Associate Hor-
ticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Associate En-
tomologist
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Associate En-
tomologist-Pathologist
A. H. Rouse, M. S., Associate Pectin
Chemist
I. Stewart, Ph.D., Associate Bio-
chemist
F. E. Fisher, M.S., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Assistant Hor-
ticulturist
W. R. F. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D.,
Assistant Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Assistant
Chemist
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Interim As-
sistant Entomologist
J. R. King, Ph.D., Assistant Entom-
ologist
R. W. Hanks, Ph.D., Assistant Plant
Physiologist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Interim Assist-
ant Biochemist
J. J. McBride, Ph.D., Assistant
Chemist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Assistant
Biochemist
H. 0. Sterling, M.S., Assistant Hor-
ticulturist
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Assistant in
Entomology-Pathology
G. J. Edwards, B.A., Assistant in
Chemistry
T. B. Hallam, B.S., Assistant in
Entomology-Pathology
H. I. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Assistant
in Entomology-Pathology
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Assistant in
Entomology-Pathology
C. D. Atkins, B.S., Collaborator
M. H. Dougherty, B.S., Collaborator
E. C. Hill, B.S.A., Collaborator
E. F. Hopkins, Ph.D., Collaborator
R. L. Huggart, B.S., Collaborator
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Collaborator
A. A. McCornack, M.S., Collaborator
R. R. McNary, Ph.D., Collaborator
E. L. Moore, Ph.D., Collaborator









R. W. Barron, B.A., Collaborator
A. C. Tarjan, Ph.D., Associate Ne-
matologist
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Assistant En-
tomologist
L. M. Sutton, B. S., Assistant in
Entomology-Pathology
F. W. Hayward, Ph.D., Associate
Biochemist
W. H. Kahl, M.S., Assistant Agri-
cultural Engineer
S. V. Ting, Ph.D., Collaborator
R. W. Wolford, M.A., Collaborator

Everglades Station, Belle Glade
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in
Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Tech-
nologist
T. Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural
Engineer
R. S. Cox, Ph.D., Associate Plant
Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Associate Ani-
mal Husbandman
C. C. Seale, Associate Agronomist
R. J. Allen, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant
Agronomist
D. W. Beardsley, M.S., Assistant
Animal Husbandman
H. L. Chapman, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant
Animal Nutritionist
W. G. Genung, M.S., Assistant En-
tomologist
V. E. Green, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant
Agronomist
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Assistant Hor-
ticulturist
D. S. Harrison, M.S.A., Assistant
Agricultural Enginer
C. T. Ozaki, Ph.D., Assistant Chem-
ist
J. N. Simons, Ph.D., Assistant Vi-
rologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Assistant Horti-
culturist
E. D. Harris, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant
Entomologist
H. W. Burdine, M.S., Assistant
Horticulturist

Indian River Field Laboratory,
Fort Pierce
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Associate
Entomologist
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., As-
sistant Soils Chemist
J. P. Winfree, Ph.D., Assistant Soils
Chemist
Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U S.
3Cooperative, other divisions. U. of F.
On leave


Plantation Field Laboratory,
Fort Lauderdale
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Associate Agron-
omist
H. Y. Ozaki, Ph.D., Assistant Hor-
ticulturist
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage En-
gineer 2

Gulf Coast Station, Bradenton
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomolo-
gist
R. O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathol-
ogist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathol-
ogist
D. S. Burgis, M.S.A., Assistant Hor-
ticulturist
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Assistant
Soils Chemist
G. Sowell, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant
Plant Pathologist
A. J. Overman, M.S., Assistant in
Soils Chemistry
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Assistant Horti-
culturist
South Florida Field Laboratory,
Immokalee
D. G. A. Kelbert, Associate Horti-
culturist

North Florida Station, Quincy
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist
in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathol-
ogist
W. H. Chapman, M. S., Agronomist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils
Chemist
F. S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Assistant Ani-
mal Husbandman
T. E. Webb, B.S.A., Assistant Agro-
nomist
A S. Baker, Ph.D., Assistant Soils
Chemist
W. B. Tappan, M.S.A., Assistant
Entomologist
Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Ag-
ronomist
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate
Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate
Agronomist








Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agron-
omist

Range Cattle Station, Ona
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S.A., Assistant Soil
Technologist
J. E. McCaleb, Ph.D., Assistant
Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, M.S., Assistant Ani-
mal Husbandman

Sub-Tropical Station, Homestead
G. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director
in Charge
R. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Pathol-
ogist
F. B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomol-
ogist
J. L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Associate Soils
Chemist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Associate Hor-
ticulturist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Assistant
Chemist
R. B. Ledin, Ph.D., Assistant Hor-
ticulturist
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Assistant Hor-
ticulturist

Suwannee Valley Station, Live Oak
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate
Agronomist in Charge

West Central Florida Station,
Brooksville
M. W. Hazen, M. S., Animal Hus-
bandman in Charge

West Florida Station, Jay
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director
in Charge
R. L. Jeffers, Ph.D., Associate
Agronomist

1 Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave


FIELD LABORATORIES
Potato, Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathol-
ogist in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticultur-
ist
D. L. Myhre, Ph.D., Assistant Soils
Chemist
D. M. Morris, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant
Entomologist
Pecan, Monticello
J. R. Large, M.S., Associate Plant
Pathologist
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Associate En-
tomologist 2
Strawberry, Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathol-
ogist
Watermelon and Grape, Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Plant Patholo-
gist in Charge
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horti-
culture
N. C. Schenck, Ph.D., Assistant
Plant Pathologist
Weather Forecasting, Lakeland
W. O. Johnson, B.A., Meterologist in
Charge. 2
D. C. Russell, B.S., Associate Met-
eorologist 2
J. D. Cox, Assistant Meteorologist 2
H. W. Davis, Assistant Meteorolo-
gist 2
R. H. Dean, Assistant Meteorolog-
ist 2
J. G. Georg, Assistant Meteorolo-
gist 2
B. H. Moore, A.B., Assistant Met-
eorologist. 2
N. Norman, B.S., Assistant Me-
teorologist 2
R. T. Sherouse, Assistant Meteor-
ologist 2
H. E. Yates, Assistant Meteorolo-
gist 2
C. R. Byrd, Assistant Meteorolo-
gist 2









Annual Report, 1956


CONTENTS


Report of Director .........................
Report of the Business Manager ....
Agricultural Economics ..................
Agricultural Engineering ................
A gronom y .......................................
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition .
D airy Science ..................................
Editorial Department ....-................
Entom ology .............--- ....- ..--
Home Economics ................... ........
Horticulture .............-........
The Library ...................................
Plant Pathology .......................-.
Poultry Husbandry .....................
S oils ............... ..... ....... .
Veterinary Science .....................
Central Florida Station ...........-.
Citrus Station .........--... .......-
Everglades Station ............ ...--
Gulf Coast Station ..........................


Page
-..-.-..-.- ...- .....- ... ... .... ... 8
--. ..- ...- ....-..... 12
-..-..-..-- ...... ....... 15
-....-. ..-..- .. ...- 29
........ --... .... ...... 36
-.... -.-.. -. -. ... .. ..- 57
... ... ............ 71
...... ...-.. ....- 75
........-.. ........ ... 83
.-.--.-.- .....- .. .... ...... 89
..- --- .- .. .. ... .....- 92
.................. .. .................. 111
.................................... 112
..................................... 119
............................-........ 123
.................................... 141


South Florida Field Laboratory .................--
North Florida Station .-.......... .... ..- ...--.. ..-
M obilewiU nits ........-..... .....- ..- ..- ..... ....
Range Cattle Station ................. ..- .....- ...--.- ..
Subtropical Station ..........-.. .. .... -....... .
Suwannee Valley Station .............................. ...-. .... ...
W est Central Florida Station .......- ......- ........
W est Florida Station ............. ---- ... ..... ....
Federal-State Frost Warning Service .............................
Potato Investigations Laboratory ...............................
Strawberry Invpstigations Laboratory ......................
Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory .-.....


............. ....... 148
.....-..-. ............ 156
-....- .. ... .-----..- 213
.....- .......- ....- 252
........ ............ 277
----........ 278
.....-..---- 286
........-..-....- 291
...- ..- ..-- -..- 298
.-. ... ...--..-.. 319
......... .......... 321
.. ...- .. ..... 322
-.- .. ..- ..- .... 327
. ....... ... --..... 329
...-.. ............. 335


1


_








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

THE CHANGING FACE OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
Research in agriculture in the early days was almost entirely in the
area of crop and animal production. Disease and insect problems were so
basic and of such primary importance that a research worker, working
alone and with relatively simple equipment, could solve problems that took
much of the gamble out of the actual productive process. The early de-
mand in Florida was for this kind of work, including, of course, comparable
research effort on the need for fertilizer testing, variety testing, pasture
development and other production problems. Agriculture in Florida was
stabilized and increased greatly as a result of such research.
Within the last 20 to 30 years, many developments have taken place
which complicated the agricultural research picture. Labor costs have sky-
rocketed following the industrial development of the country. This lent
impetus to the acceptance of the tractor and of other mechanical needs on
the farm. This, in turn, encouraged larger scale farming, and cut costs of
production. Inefficient operations were frozen out in many cases, and direct
competition lowered prices received. With increased labor costs, market-
ing and shipping costs also rose in proportion, and, to cap the climax,
developments in processing on many foods found acceptance from the
housewife and further reduced the farmers' share of her dollar expenditure.
A farmer or rancher in this day has to understand all of these things as
well as the impact of government controls. No longer is farming a profes-
sion at which an amateur or uneducated man can automatically make a
living by using the methods of his father and grandfather. Today's suc-
cessful farmer must be highly intelligent and competently educated-
through either formal education or experience, or preferably both. A little
good luck can also be an asset.
With all of this, the farmer has remained an entrepreneur. He has con-
tinued to be served in terms of his research needs by public research
agencies. He is fully able to judge for himself the results of the research
done, and this gives a continuing challenge and stimulation to the research
man.
All of these factors have wrought continuing change in the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations. Instead of the simple, early research
program on basic production problems, the research reported in this An-
nual Report includes work on problems of marketing, by-product develop-
ment, land and water utilization, processing of foods and fibers and har-
vesting and shipping, in addition to increasingly complex production prob-
lems. Much of the present research program is now "team" research,
with specialists from several departments and stations working together in
a coordinated effort to secure useful, complete answers to the problems
facing our modern agricultural industries. We believe that this is a sound
and productive research approach. We believe further that it will help to
keep Florida's agricultural industries in a position of leadership in the
nation.
CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS
Some progress was made toward construction of all buildings author-
ized by the 1955 session of the Legislature. Of these, five had progressed
to the stage of awarding construction contracts, or to actual construction.
Contracts were let for both the new office building and the combined
greenhouse at the Sub-Tropical Station.









Annual Report, 1956


The machine storage and meeting building at the Range Cattle Station
was approximately 70 percent completed by June 30, 1956.
At the Everglades Station the new animal feeding shelter has been
started, with pilings in place and material for construction on hand.
Finally, the superintendent's cottage at the new Horticulture Unit of the
Main Station was estimated to be 60 percent complete by the end of the
year.

STAFF CHANGES

Appointments

Herbert L. Chapman, Jr., Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Everglades Sta-
tion, July 1, 1955.
Marion F. Oberbacher, Interim Assistant Plant Physiologist, Citrus Station,
July 1, 1955.
Roger Burr Johnson, Assistant Entomologist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1955.
Thomas Elder Humphreys, Assistant Biochemist, July 1, 1955.
Tzu Liang Yuan, Interim Assistant in Soils, July 1, 1955.
Ruth O. Townsend, Assistant in Nutrition, July 1, 1955.
Troy Luther Brooks, Interim Assistant in Pathology, Citrus Station, July
1, 1955.
Carroll M. Geraldson, Assistant Soils Chemist, Gulf Coast Station, July 1,
1955.
George Ernest Combs, Assistant Animal Husbandman and Assistant Pro-
fessor, September 1, 1955.
Herbert Hodges Luke, Plant Pathologist (USDA), September 1, 1955.
Larry Matthew Sutton, Assistant in Entomology-Pathology, Citrus Station,
September 1, 1955.
Thomas Bancroft Hallam, Assistant in Entomology-Pathology, Citrus Sta-
tion, September 1, 1955.
Robert William Hanks, Assistant Plant Physiologist, Citrus Station, Sep-
tember 1, 1955.
Gene A. Rowe, Agricultural Statistician, September 2, 1955.
Vincent N. Schroder, Assistant Agronomist, October 1, 1955.
Jules P. Winfree, Assistant Soils Chemist, Everglades Station, October 17,
1955.
William Burgess Tappan, Assistant Entomologist, North Florida Station,
November 1, 1955.
Armen Charles Tarjan, Associate Nematologist, Citrus Station, Novem-
ber 1, 1955.
Donald S. Hudson, Interim Assistant Agricultural Economist, November
1, 1955.
Franklin Henry White, Assistant Bacteriologist, November 15, 1955.
Howard William Burdine, Assistant Horticulturist, Everglades Station, De-
cember 1, 1955.
Walter T. Scudder, Associate Horticulturist, Central Florida Station, De-
cember 1, 1955.
Aaron Sidney Baker, Assistant Soils Chemist, North Florida Station, De-
cember 1, 1955.
Monroe Cornealous Lutrick, Assistant Agronomist, West Florida Station,
January 1, 1956.
Emmett Dewitt Harris, Jr., Assistant Entomologist, Everglades Station,
January 1, 1956.
Harry William Schroeder, Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, Jan-
uary 1, 1956.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


David G. A. Kelbert, Associate Horticulturist, South Florida Field Labora-
tory, January 1, 1956.
James Alvis Wolfe, Interim Assistant in Agronomy, January 1, 1956.
David Beattie Duncan, Statistician and Professor of Statistics, January
1, 1956.
Carl Rufus Byrd, Assistant Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Service,
January 2, 1956.
Richard B. Forbes, Assistant Soil Chemist, Central Florida Station, Feb-
ruary 1, 1956.
Luther C. McRae, Jr., Interim Assistant in Bacteriology, February 1, 1956.
Norman C. Schenck, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Watermelon and Grape
Lab., February 1, 1956.
Frederick W. Hayward, Associate Biochemist, Citrus Station, March 1,
1956.
William Henry Kahl, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Citrus Station,
March 15, 1956.
Dale N. Norris, Jr., Assistant Entomologist, Potato Investigations Lab.,
March 26, 1956.
Thomas Edward Freeman, Assistant Plant Pathology, April 1, 1956.
Elwyn Sprieull Holmes, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, April 1, 1956.
Robert E. Hancock, Interim Assistant Editor, April 2, 1956.
Rowland Richards, Entomologist (USDA), June 1, 1956.
Donald Stowe Hudson, Interim Assistant Agricultural Economist, June
1, 1956.
Promotions
Willard Merwin Fifield, Provost, June 1, 1955.
Howard N. Miller, Plant Pathologist, July 1, 1955.
Ivan Stewart, Associate Biochemist, Citrus Station, July 1, 1955.
Louis C. Kuitert, Entomologist, July 1, 1955.
Roy W. Harkness, Associate Chemist, Sub-Tropical Station, July 1, 1955.
Luther C. Hammond, Associate Professor & Associate Soils Physicist, July
1, 1955.
James Clyde Driggers, Poultry Husbandman and Professor of Poultry Hus-
bandry, July 1, 1955.
James Richard Iley, Interim Assistant in Agronomy, July 1, 1955.
Ralph D. Dickey, Horticulturist, July 1, 1955.
H. W. Lundy, Associate Agronomist in Charge, Suwannee Valley Station,
July 1, 1955.
Joseph R. Beckenbach, Director, July 1, 1955.
Roger William Bledsoe, Associate Director and Agronomist, July 1, 1955.
Phares Decker, Interim Head and Plant Pathologist, August 1, 1955.
John W. Sites, Assistant Director and Horticulturist, October 1, 1955.
William Freeman Newhall, Assistant Biochemist, Citrus Station, January
1, 1956.
Phares Decker, Plant Pathologist and Head, February 1, 1956.

Resignations
William Smith Greig, Horticulturist (USDA), June 30, 1955.
Frank J. Reynolds, Association Horticulturist, Citrus Station, July 30, 1955.
E. W. Swarthout, Associate Poultry Pathologist, June 30, 1955.
Frasier T. Galloway, Agricultural Statistician, July 15, 1955.
Malcolm R. Bedsole, Jr., Assistant in Agronomy, Everglades Station, July
19, 1955.
Matthew Drosdoff, Soil Scientist (USDA), August 31, 1955.









Annual Report, 1956


James Barnett Weeks, Assistant in Entomology-Pathology, Citrus Station,
August 31, 1955.
Marion Francis Oberbacher, Interim Assistant Plant Physiologist, Citrus
Station, August 31, 1955.
Clyde C. Helms, Jr., Assistant Agronomist, Watermelon & Grape Lab., Sep-
tember 15, 1955.
Eldon Dee Smith, Assistant Agricultural Economist, September 28, 1955.
Clarence E. Skillman, Assistant Meteorologist, Weather Forecasting Serv-
ice, October 31, 1955.
James Richard Iley, Interim Assistant in Agronomy, October 31, 1955.
Austin Griffiths, Jr., Assistant Horticulturist, November 12, 1955.
David Stanley Prosser, Jr., Assistant Engineer, Citrus Station, November
30, 1955.
Frederick Bauries Thompson, Jr., Assistant in Library, Citrus Station, De-
cember 14, 1955.
Todor Manoloff Dobrovsky, Assistant Entomologist, Potato Investigations
Lab., December 16, 1955.
Harry William Schroeder, Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus Station, January
1, 1956.
Walter Reuther, Head Professor and Horticulturist, January 31, 1956.
Frank Beale Borries, Associate Editor, March 25, 1956.
Harold L. Moreland, Jr., Assistant Editor, April 30, 1956.
James Alvis Wolfe, Interim Assistant in Agronomy, May 1, 1956.
Donald Stowe Hudson, Interim Agricultural Economist, June 15, 1956.
Orlando Earl Cruz, Assistant Soils Surveyor, June 30, 1956.

Retirements
George D. Ritchey, Agronomist Emeritus, Suwannee Valley Station, June
30, 1955.
William B. Tisdale, Plant Pathologist Emeritus, August 1, 1955.









REPORT OF THE BUSINESS MANAGER

SUMMARY OF OBJECT CLASSIFICATION 1955-56


Salaries and Wages ..................

Travel ...................................

Transportation of Things ......

Communications .................

Heat, Light, Power, etc. ..........

Rental ...........................

Contractual Services ..-----.........

Supplies and Materials -.......-----

Equipm ent ............................

Refunds ..........................

Total Disbursements ................

Balance 6/30/56-..-..........-----....

Total ....... .... .... ... .....


Hatch Fund


$ 15,000.00




















15,000.00




$ 15,000.00


Adams Fund


$ 15,000.00




















15,000.00



$ 15,000.00


Purnell
Fund


$ 59,851.65




















59,851.65

148.35

$ 60,000.00


Bankhead-
Jones
Fund

$ 42,715.66

284.18



10.00





26.75

3,674.08

1,075.54



47,786.21

599.90

$ 48,386.11


Research
Marketing
Act

$146,699.30

10,345.49

98.48



1,132.07



2,768.58

28,397.55

44,088.29

3,962.59

237,492.35

19,904.65

$257,397.00


Grand
Total


$279,266.61

10,629.67

98.48

10.00

1,132.07



2,795.33

32,071.63

45,163.83

3,962.59

375,130.21

20,652.90

$395,783.11


I






SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES 1955-56


Salaries and Wages-...... .........
Professional Services.---.. ..........
Travel..--......................
Transportation of Things-........
Communications.......................
Heat, Light, Power, etc..-........-
Rent......................................---
Printing.......... .............
Contractual Services..............
Supplies and Materials ..............
Equipment....... ...... .........
Land and Buildings.......--.......
Total Disbursments...............
Balance 6/30/56-................
Total............................... .........


Fla. Agr.
Experiment
Stations
$2,284,210.31
8,885.67
97,288.74
2,744.56
27,133.92
38,513.86
8,824.92
17,023.62
52,959.23
255,187.47
98,210.75
24,960.03
2,915,943.08
234,262.92
$3,150,206.00


I SpeSpecia Special I Special
South Fla. I WatermelonI Soils
Field I and Grape Analysis
Laboratory Laboratory Laboratory
$ 3,250.02 $.......-....... $ 3,950.00
...... ..... .. .. ..... ------.-. ---.. ---- -
594.47 -- ..... ... 80.40

S4.25 ......... .......
................- ... .- ---- ------------
................ .. .. .. ------ ---...
4.25 .-----. ......----
-------------- ----------------
| ..-... ......... .. 196.36
18.00 ..........- 687.64
2,463.78 .. 6,763.96
.. ...... ..52. I
J -- -- -- -- -- ----------------- -
6,330.521 ............. 11,678.36
12,669.481 10,000.001 9,321.64
S$19,000.00 $10000ooo.oo00 $21,000.00


Special
Special Foundation
Spreading Herd TOTAL
Decline Improvement
$15,732.27 $............. $2,307,142.60
.-........-.... .... 1-. ..... 8,885.67
648.49 341.65 98,953.75
-...... .......-...... 2,744.56
............... ...-....-..- .. 27,133.92
..........-.. ... .......... 38,513.86
231.00 ................ 9,060.17
-...... -... ... ......... 17,023.62
............ ...... ........ 53,155.59
5,204.52 ........ 261,097.63
6,835.39 ................ 114,273.88
....-.-...-. | ...........-.... 24,960.03
28,651.67 341.65 2,962,945.28
16,748.33 9,658.35 292,660.72
$45,000.00 $10,000.00 $3,255,606.00


SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES 1955-56


Salaries and Wages.......................
Travel........................ .......
Transportation of Things.........
Communications...................
Rent and Utility Service........
Printing & Publications-................
Contractual Services---.............
Supplies and Materials................
Equipment....--. ........... .......
Land and Buildings-. ............
Total Disbursements ................
Balance 6/30/56...............................
Total......... .........................


Incidental
Fund

$102,402.44
5,560.70
1,001.48
1,055.49
14,194.74
69.48
12,126.10
144,750.60
29,470.30
697.00
311,328.33
63,220.93
$374,549.26


State
Funds

$2,316,028.27
98,953.75
2,744.56
27,133.92
47,574.03
17,023.62
53,155.59
261,097.63
114,273.88
24,960.03
2,962,945.28
292,660.72
$3,255,606.00


Grants and
Donations

$100,105.14
7,569.07
321.98
87.43
237.88
21.61
3,960.16
19,889.73
28,170.12

160,363.12
162,209.01
$322,572.13


Sub-Total

$2,518,535.85
112,083.52
4,068.02
28,276.84
62,006.65
17,114.71
69,241.85
425,737.96
171,914.30
25,657.03
3,434,636.73
518,090.66
$3,952,727.39


Less
Weather
Forecasting
$ 5,600.00
11,757.97
------..--------

5,358.99
..... -... ... I -
192.89
485.36
714.52

24,109.73
704.79
$24,814.52


TOTAL

$2,512,935.85
100,325.55
4,068.02
28,276.84
56,647.66
17,114.71
69,048.96
425,252.60
171,199.78
25,657.03
3,410,527.00
517,385.87
$3,927,912.87


L








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations






SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES 1955-56


Grants and Total
Donations


Salaries and Wages ...................... $100,105.14 $100,105.14
Professional Services ..............-- .........
Travel ............................ ......... 7,569.07 7,569.07
Transportation of Things .......... 321.98 321.98
Communications .................... .87.43 87.43
Rental ........-............... ..... ...... ... ...237.88 237.88
Printing .-..- ................... 21.61 21.61
Contractual Services .................. 3,960.16 3,960.16
Supplies and Materials ............... 19,889.73 19,889.73
Equipment .............-... ........ 28,170.12 28,170.12
Lands and Building ................. ..........
Transfers ........... ... ... ..... .......... ... ..... ......
Total Disbursements ...-.............. $160,363.12 $160,363.12
Balance 6-30-56 ............................. 162,209.01 162,209.01

Total .............-....... ............. $322,572.13 $322,572.13




SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES 1955-56


SIncidental


Fund Total

Personal Services ......................... $102,402.44 $102,402.44
Professional Services .....................
Transportation of Things .............. 1,001.48 1,001.48
Travel .................................... .......... 5,560.70 5,560.70
Communications ................. ........-.... 1,055.49 1,055.49
Heat, Light, Power, etc .-............. 6,511.49 6,511.49
Rent ............................... .... 7,683.25 7,683.25
Printing ........ ................................. 69.48 69.48
Contractual Services.................. 12,126.10 12,126.10
Supplies and Materials ................. 144,750.60 144.750.60
Equipment .................................. 29,470.30 29,470.30
Land and Structures .................... 697.00 697.00
Transfers ....... ...-........... .... .......... ..-- .. ........


Total Disbursements .....................
Balance 6-30-56 ........ ............


$311.328.33
63,220.93


Total ............... .... .. .|........ .......$374,549.26


$311,328.33
63,220.93

$374,549.26


1
I









Annual Report, 1956


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Research was conducted on 30 projects. Five of these were closed dur-
ing the year and three were initiated. The new projects are concerned with
the impact of industrialization on small farmers, estimating the produc-
tion of beans by objective methods and economics of the cage-layer enter-
prise of the poultry industry.
Substantial industry grants were received toward the end of the year
for pursuing specialized research in the areas of crop estimates of citrus
and vegetables, demand studies for tomatoes, the impact of the pink to-
mato enterprise on the Florida tomato industry and consumer information
on avocados and limes. The grants were from the Growers Administrative
Committee, the Florida Tomato Committee, the Avocado Administrative
Committee and the Lime Administrative Committee. These grants total
$56,500.

FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS IN FLORIDA
State Project 154 H. G. Hamilton
Except for obtaining data on the financial status and operating prac-
tices of approximately 20 citrus cooperatives, the project was inactive dur-
ing the year.

FACTORS AFFECTING COSTS AND RETURNS IN FLORIDA
CITRUS PRODUCTION
Purnell Project 186 Zach Savage
The usual routine field work of closing accounts for 1954-55 was done
and accounts were opened for 1955-56. Reports for 1953-54 were completed
and copies made in processed form. Each enterprise report included data
with two 5-year averages for all groves of the group, individual season
averages for the seasons of 1951-52, 1952-53 and 1953-54, and 1953-54 data
for the corresponding individual enterprise. These reports were made by
age of tree, variety and kind of citrus. There were eight early-orange re-
ports, 10 midseason orange, 12 late orange, seven seedy grapefruit, nine
seedless grapefruit, six tangerine, and five Temple orange reports, making
a total of 57 different reports. The per acre costs averaged 7 percent
higher in 1953-54 than in the previous season, but per-box costs averaged
19 percent lower, due to increased yields. Yields averaged 30 percent
higher in 1953-54.
Factors arrived at over the period of these accounts were used in for-
mulating estimated cash costs per acre and per box by seasons from 1931-32
to date. This was done at the insistence of some of the industry for data
that would apply by kinds of citrus for all trees of four years of age and
older. In order to conserve space, these data are here shown in 5-year
averages and on a seasonal basis for the most recent three seasons for
oranges, grapefruit and tangerines on a per-box basis:
Per Box Costs of Production
Season Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines
1931-36, 5-season averages ......-----..... $ .60 $ .53 $ .71
1936-41, 5-season averages -------......---...- .50 .34 .64
1941-46, 5-season averages .........-.... .55 .36 .74
1946-51, 5-season averages ------........--- .67 .57 .82
1951-52, 1-season averages ................. .65 .68 .91
1952-53, 1-season averages ............-----. .73 .53 .84
1953-54, 1-season averages ....---.......---.. .59 .45 .83









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY,
ITS POSSIBLE INHERITANCE, AND DEPRECIATION IN
FLORIDA DAIRY HERDS
State Project 345 A. H. Spurlock
Records of inventory values, life spans and causes of losses were ob-
tained from seven dairy herds and added to results previously summarized.
The life span of 2,318 cows averaged 6.7 years, or about 4.7 years of
usefulness in the milking herd. Disposals increased rapidly after the first
year in the herd, and after three years only two-thirds of the origi-
nal number of animals remained. After eight years in the herd 87
percent of the original number was gone. Cows reaching age 10 had
a life expectancy of 1.8 years and averaged 11.8 years of life.
Live disposals from the herd were principally because of low produc-
tion, mastitis and udder troubles, and reproductive troubles. These three
reasons were responsible for about 59 percent of the live disposals. Twelve
percent were sold for unstated reasons.
Deaths from all causes accounted for about 14 percent of all losses.
(See also Project 345, Dairy Science).

CROP AND LIVESTOCK ESTIMATING ON FLORIDA FARMS
WITH EMPHASIS ON VEGETABLE CROPS
State Project 451 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw and J. B. Owens1
During the 1955-56 season preliminary estimates of acreages planted and
for harvest, and forecasts of production were made on six fall, 14 winter,
and 11 spring vegetable crops for fresh market. Acreages and produc-
tion of cucumbers grown specificately for pickles and snap beans and to-
matoes utilized in processing were estimated. Data for these estimates
and for truck crop news notes were obtained by personal interviews and
observations, by mailed schedules and by telephone. Twenty-six regular
and special Truck Crop News and/or Acreage and Production reports were
released and approximately 28,000 copies were distributed.
A survey under way at the beginning of the fiscal year was continued
to determine, from farmers' final records, acreage and production by coun-
ties and areas and the over-all value of the various commercial vegetable
crops. Records and farmers' estimates were taken on approximately 223,-
000 acres planted. The seasonal averages so obtained were weighted
against recorded utilization, mainly shipments by counties plus in-state
utilization in processing and local consumption, to determine the accuracy
of the 1954-55 current State estimates and forecasts and to revise them
when necessary.
These revisions covered an estimated 386,450 acres planted and 366,450
acres for harvest (including fall, winter and spring squash not currently
estimated), with an estimated f.o.b. value of $184,086,000. These revised
estimates, with comparisons, and data on carlot and carlot equivalent ship-
ments were released in an annual statistical summary, "Florida Vegetable
Crops, Volume XI, 1955." Approximately 1,300 copies have been distributed.
A similar survey of final acreage and production was under way at the
close of the fiscal year. Data developed were used as a basis for back-
ground information in the report of the Florida Agricultural Outlook Com-
mittee's annual appraisal of agricultural production for 1955-56, and will
be used in a similar appraisal for 1956-57.

1Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.









Annual Report, 1956


COSTS OF PRODUCTION AND RETURNS ON
VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA
State Project 480 D. L. Brooke
Field schedules of costs of production and returns on vegetable crops
for the 1954-55 season were obtained from growers representing 19 per-
cent of the acreage planted during the season. All of the more important
vegetable crops in the major producing areas were included in the sample.
Summaries by crops and areas for the season, together with a five-year
average of costs and returns, were completed. A mimeographed publica-
tion, "Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in Florida, Volume X"
(Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 56-7), was prepared and mailed
to grower-cooperators, county agents and interested industry people.
Crop summary tables by major producing areas for the 1954-55 sea-
son were incorporated in the mimeographed publication "Florida Vegetable
Crops Volume XI," in cooperation with leaders of State Project 451.
Costs generally have continued to increase as farmers are paying more
for labor and other items used in crop production. Yields were generally
good in 1954-55 and prices were higher, resulting in more consistent
profits than in the 1953-54 season.
Increases in per-acre costs of producing vegetables of more than 10
percent in 1954-55 above the five-year average were noted for snap beans
in the Everglades, pole beans in Dade County, cabbage in the Everglades
and Hastings areas, sweet corn in Dade County, cucumbers in Alachua
County, and tomatoes in Dade County. Decreases in per-acre costs of
more than 10 percent were noted only for lima beans in Alachua County,
cucumbers in Wauchula, squash in Dade County and tomatoes in the Sum-
ter County and Wauchula areas.
Above-average yields and prices resulted in a generally profitable year
for celery growers, the first in five seasons for many. Yields in 1954-55
ranged from 40 to 100 crates above the five-season average. Season aver-
age f.o.b. prices ranged from $2.29 per crate in the Everglades area to
$2.58 in the Sanford area. This was $0.33 and $0.71 per crate higher than
season average prices a year earlier in the same areas.
Snap bean growers in the major areas fared relatively worse in 1954-55
than in the previous season. Yields were higher in the Alachua and Ever-
glades areas but lower in the Sanford area. Generally lower season average
f.o.b. prices were experienced in all areas except Pompano, resulting in
lower profits per unit and per acre.
Cabbage growers had a good year in 1954-55. Yields and prices were
above those of 1953-54 and the five-season average 1950-51 to 1954-55.
Everglades and Hastings growers reported an average net return of
$0.05 per sack, as compared to a loss of $0.54 and $0.31 per sack, respec-
tively, in 1953-54.
Sweet corn growers reported lower costs per unit in 1954-55, primarily
because of increased yields over 1953-54. Prices generally were as good or
better than 1953-54 and most areas reported a profit from sweet corn.
Only the Everglades area showed an average loss and this was less than
that of the previous year.
Irish potato growers received relatively high prices for their product
in 1954 55. This, coupled with excellent yields, resulted in profits for all
areas reporting.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


COSTS AND FACTORS AFFECTING COST OF MARKETING
CITRUS FRUITS IN FRESH AND PROCESSED FORM
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 486 Eric Thor, A. H. Spurlock
(Regional SM-4) and H. G. Hamilton
Figures on costs of picking and hauling citrus fruit, obtained from 37
firms, averaged as follows:
Picking oranges, 28.93 cents per 1 3/5-bushel box; picking grapefruit,
20.91 cents; and picking tangeries, 64.72 cents. Hauling from the grove
to the plant cost 9.38 cents per box. Specialized dealers also had an ad-
ditional cost of 2.36 cents per box for procurement and sale of fruit.
Costs of packing and selling Florida citrus fruit per 1 3/5-bushel equiva-
lent by type of container for 43 packing houses during the 1954-55 season
were as follows: Oranges, 1 3/5-bushel wirebound box, $0.89; 1 3/5-bushel
standard box, $1.40; 4/5 bushel fiberboard box, $1.05; 8 lb. mesh bag, $1.26;
5 lb. mesh bag, $1.50; bulk-in-trucks, $0.49. Grapefruit, 1 3/5 bushel
wirebound box, $0.80; 1 3/5-bushel standard box, $1.22; 4/5 bushel fiber-
board box, $0.93; 8 lb. mesh bag, $1.19; 5 lb. mesh bag, $1.40; bulk-in-
trucks, $0.37. Tangerines, 4/5 bushel wirebound box, $1.43; 4/5 bushel
standard box, $1.79.
Processing costs for 1954-55 were studied at 17 firms which packed 70
percent of the single strength juices and sections and 46 percent of the
orange concentrate. Average costs for processing single strength orange
juice in 12/46 cases, sweetened, was $1.33; grapefruit sections in 24/303
cases, sweetened, $2.23; orange concentrate in 48/6 cases, unsweetened,
$1.73; and per gallon, excluding materials and selling, $0.33.
Costs for processing juices increased slightly from the preceding sea-
son, but sections and concentrates decreased by a small amount.
Results of the year's work were distributed to citrus dealers, packers
and processors in three mimeographed releases: (1) Costs of Packing and
Selling Florida Fresh Citrus Fruits, 1954-55; (2) Costs of Picking and
Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits, 1954-55 Season; (3) Costs of Processing,
Warehousing and Selling Citrus Products, 1954-55 Season.
This project is conducted cooperatively with the Farmer Cooperative
Service, USDA.

CONSUMER PATTERN FOR CITRUS FRUIT
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 519 M. R. Godwin, L. A. Powell, Sr.
(Regional SM-4) and H. G. Hamilton
This project was closed as of February 1956, following the publication
of Bulletin 567, Economic Relationships Involved in Retailing Citrus
Products.
COORDINATED SELLING OF CITRUS FRUIT
State Project 520 H. G. Hamilton
This project was inactive during the year except for the reviewing of a
manuscript by highly trained specialists in futures trading. This project
is in cooperation with Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA.

PART-TIME FARMING IN FLORIDA
Purnell Project 579 D. E. Alleger
A manuscript, Rural Farm Retirement, has been prepared for publica-
tion as a Station Bulletin. The project will now be terminated. The fac-
tors which affected the economic contributions from retirement farming








Annual Report, 1956


(net farm earnings) were determined by regression analyses. Net farm
earnings, age, annual retirement income and education were treated as
continuous variables, and disability, former farming experience, types of
farming, and reasons for farming, which were statistically significant, as
discontinuous variables.
The net effect of age upon net farm earnings was negative. Age itself,
under average conditions, virtually forced retirees between 75 and 85 to
discontinue farming. The effect of retirement income was also negative,
with net farm earnings dropping consistently as retirement income in-
creased. On the other hand, the effect of education was direct and positive.
Retirees with former farming experience or those who engaged in non-
gardening types of agriculture, or who farmed for economic reasons, real-
ized higher net farm earnings than their opposites. Yet retirement farm-
ing appeared to be a means for attaining personal adjustment to retire-
ment, a goal which often took precedence over economic returns from
farming.
MARKETING MEAT ANIMALS IN FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 602 W. K. McPherson
(Contributing to Regional Project SM-7)
An analysis of the buying practices of 38 of the 86 state-inspected live-
stock slaughtering plants in Florida revealed that:
1, 52 percent of the cattle, 5 percent of the calves and 23 percent of
the hogs acquired were purchased directly from farmers.
2, 43 percent of the livestock purchased direct from farmers were
bought on the carcass grade and weight basis.
3, Large slaughtering firms will send a buyer to a farm to bid on cattle
if 20 or more head are offered for sale, whereas small firms frequently send
buyers to bid on smaller lots.
4, Many packers base their price offers for livestock on quotations
published in The National Provisioner, The Drovers Journal and the
Packers Daily Record.
Data obtained were used in assisting the Florida State Marketing Bu-
reau to establish market news reports on the direct sale of cattle in Florida.

AN ANALYSIS OF PRESENT AND POTENTIAL UTILIZATION OF
LAND FOR GRAZING AND ALTERNATIVE USES IN
CENTRAL FLORIDA
Purnell Project 619 L. A. Reuss,2 N. K. Roberts
and R. E. L. Greene
A manuscript entitled "Improved Pastures for Beef Production in Cen-
tral Florida-The Economics of Establishing and Fertilizing Them" was
prepared. This report brings to the rancher by illustration and example
(1) the principle of yields of beef increasing at a decreasing rate with in-
creased fertilization of grasses, (2) the types of information needed and
techniques for preparation of ranch budgets, (3) the economic principles
involved in marginal analysis of beef production, and (4) the effect on
returns of differences in ranch resources, level of management and atti-
tudes toward risk.
A companion manuscript entitled "Costs of Clearing Land and Estab-
lishing Improved Pastures in Central Florida" was substantially completed.
This work indicates that ranchers in Central Florida tended to clear and
improve first those sites with few trees and stumps. Clearing of land

2 Production Economics Research Branch, ARS, USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and establishing of improved grass were proceeding rapidly prior to the
slump in beef prices beginning late in 1951. Estimated costs per acre for
clearing land, preparing the seedbed, adding soil amendments and seeding
forage plants ranged from $33 to $89 in Pasco County, depending largely
upon the density of cover of trees and plants which had to be eradicated.
Opportunities for ranchers to have land cleared, limed and fertilized by
producers of watermelons, vegetables or Alyceclover reduced costs in some
cases, as also did the sale of lightwood stumps and pulpwood.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ELEMENTARY FUNC-
TIONS OF PACKING AND HANDLING FLORIDA CITRUS
FROM THE TREE THROUGH THE PACKINGHOUSE
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 626 Eric Thor and G. L. Capel'
(Regional SM-4)
Least cost combinations of the available technologies have been syn-
thesized into two types of model packinghouses: (1) single-unit packing-
house (a packinghouse possessing only one complete packing unit) and (2)
a two-unit packinghouse (a multi-unit packinghouse possessing two com-
pletely independent packing units). Short-run packinghouse cost curves
have been developed for varying capacity rates per hour for each type of
packinghouse. The short-run costs have been used to approximate long-
run cost functions. Costs of the model packinghouses have been com-
pared with the average costs of the type of packinghouse most commonly
used. Costs were estimated for the three types of packinghouses within
the same institutional framework regarding prices of the productive fac-
tors, production standards, rates of output, seasonal variations, type of
fruit, type of pack, and level of efficiency.
From the analyses, it is apparent that there are two pronounced types
of long-run economies possible in the operation of Florida citrus pack-
inghouses: (1) those which would result if packinghouses shifted from
the conventional field-box automatic-dump method to the lower cost
methods available, without changing the scale of the packinghouse; and
(2) economies which might result from consolidation and expansion. The
difference in costs between the single-unit conventional packinghouse and
the single-unit model packinghouse is roughly $0.13 per box for packing-
houses with capacity rates of approximately 300 boxes per hour. This dif-
ference decreased gradually as the size of the packinghouse increased, with
a difference of approximately $0.10 per box for packinghouses within the
range of 450 to 750 boxes per hour. The difference between the long-run
cost curve of the two-unit model packinghouse and the conventional pack-
inghouse increased from approximately $0.10 per box for packinghouses
with capacity rates of 400 to 450 boxes per hour to roughly $0.13 per box
for packinghouses with capacity rates of 600 to 750 boxes per hour. In-
creasing the scale of the conventional type packinghouse from 200 boxes
per hour within a season volume of 120,000 boxes to 750 boxes per hour
with a season volume of 720,000 boxes reduced the average cost ap-
proximately $0.36 per box. Difference between average cost of a 200-box-
per-hour packinghouse with a season volume of 120,000 boxes and that
of a 750-box-per-hour with a season volume of 720,000 boxes for the sin-
gle-unit model packinghouse is approximately $0.20 per box. Increasing
the size of the two-unit model packinghouse from 400-box-per-hour ca-
pacity with a season volume of 250,000 boxes to a 750-box-per-hour capacity
with a season volume of 720,000 boxes reduced average cost $0.12 per box.

3 Market Organization and Costs Branch, AMS, USDA.








Annual Report, 1956


PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRO-
DUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL AND
NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 R. E. L. Greene
This experiment is designed to study variations in beef production, using
a cow-calf operation on a year-round basis, for different pasture programs
and breeding systems. During the year data were summarized showing the
annual costs and returns on the various programs for the period October
1, 1954, to September 30, 1955. As in past years to make the results
applicable to commercial operations, the various costs were calculated on
the basis of the level of experimental practices being used. However, the
costs of performing the various operations were charged at about what it
would cost to perform them on a commercial operation.
As indicated in previous reports, the job of comparing costs and returns
has been made more difficult because of the variation in percent of cows
calving on each program. An indication of the amount of beef that must be
produced to cover the cost of each program was obtained by dividing the
cost of each program by selected prices per pound for beef. On a per-acre
basis, Program 6 at $85 was most expensive and Program 8 (including acres
of unimproved pasture) at $17 was least expensive. In each of the three
years that costs have been summarized, relative positions of the cost per
acre of each program have remained the same. The pounds of beef per
acre at 14 cents per pound necessary to cover cost have varied from about
123 pounds for Program 8 to around 650 pounds for Program 6.
(See Project 627, An. Husb., Ag. Eng., Soils and Agron.)

ECONOMY OF MARKETING AND METHODS OF HANDLING
SWEET CORN FOR LONG DISTANCE SHIPMENTS
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 630 A. H. Spurlock
(Regional SM-8)
In May 1955 a typical shipment of fancy sweet corn from Belle Glade,
Florida, to Baltimore, Maryland, sold at retail for $3.87 per 5-dozen crate.
Of this amount, retailing cost was $1.12 per crate, wholesaling $0.24 and
transportation $0.81, making the equivalent f.o.b. price in Belle Glade
$1.70. From this amount, local marketing charges of $0.33 and harvesting
and packing deductions of $0.70 left a gross return to the grower for pro-
duction of $0.67 per crate, or 17 percent of the consumer price.
A report on "Margins and Costs in Marketing Florida Sweet Corn"
was issued as U. S. Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication
No. 719, April 1956.
(See also Project 630, Horticulture.)

IMPROVING METHODS AND PRACTICES IN HARVESTING,
HANDLING AND PACKING EARLY IRISH POTATOES
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 638 R. E. L. Greene, G. L. Capel
(Contributing to Regional Project SM-9) and Fred Anderson
Work is being carried on in cooperation with the Agricultural Marketing
Service, Market Research Division, Horticultural Crop Sections, Market
Organization and Cost Branch, and Quality Maintenance and Improvement
Section, Biological Service Branch, USDA. Attention was given to analyz-
ing data and completing the first phase of the project which was devoted
to a study of mechanical harvesting and bulk handling of potatoes in

4 Market Organization and Costs Branch, AMS, USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Florida and Alabama. Work was also begun on a study of the organization
and operations of potato packinghouses.
The amount of potatoes dug per hour is the most important factor af-
fecting the cost per unit of harvesting and handling potatoes with mechani-
cal equipment. Cost per unit is only about half as much at a high rate of
harvesting as it is at a low rate. This means that farmers who are using
mechanical equipment should strive to eliminate or reduce the effects of
those factors that reduce rate of harvesting. Operators of packinghouses
should provide adequate equipment for receiving potatoes hauled in bulk.
The digging and packing of potatoes should also be coordinated so bulk
trucks lose a minimum of time at the packinghouse waiting to unload and
thus not make it necessary to stop the harvester because trucks are not
available.
During the year work was begun on a study of the organization and
operation of potato packinghouses. Twenty packinghouses were studied,
two in the Fort Myers area, eight in Dade County and 10 in the Hastings
area. Houses studied were selected to represent different sizes and methods
of handling potatoes.
Before the packing season began a detailed drawing was made of each
house showing size of house and arrangement and location of equipment.
During the harvest season a research team visited each of the packing-
houses. A detailed description was made of the operation of the house
and data were obtained on the number of workers, use of labor and other
miscellaneous information. Each house was visited also at the end of the
packing season to get information on total pack for the season, amount of
various items of expenses and investment in buildings and equipment.
Calculations will be made to show the cost of operating packinghouses
of various sizes and a comparison of cost for different methods. The data
will be used as a basis for suggesting ways and means of increasing the
efficiency of operations.
This is a cooperative project with Agricultural Engineering.

EFFECTS OF ENTERPRISE ADJUSTMENTS AND IMPROVED MAN-
AGEMENT PRACTICES ON FARM INCOMES IN NORTH FLORIDA
Purnell Project 647 M. A. Brooker and R. E. L. Greene
Only a limited amount of work was done on this project. There were
101 tractors on the 132 farms for which information was obtained. Each
tractor was classified according to size based on the Nebraska tractor tests.
The tractors were divided into four size groups. A summary was made of
the amount of use and cost per hour of operating tractors in each of the
size groups. Some progress was made also in analyzing the data on irriga-
tion cost.

EFFECTS OF INTER- AND INTRA-MARKET COMPETITION
ON MILK PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION
IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 651 W. K. McPherson and E. E. Brown
None of the requisites of a purely competitive market were found in
central and south Florida's whole milk industry in 1952. A more com-
petitive economic environment can be created by establishing (1) minimum
prices for all classes of milk, (2) economic marketing areas, (3) market-
wide pools and (4) pricing formulas, and providing producers with com-
plete market information.









Annual Report, 1956 23

THE LEGAL ASPECTS OF FARM TENANCY IN FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 656 J. R. Greenman
(Regional S-11) and H. G. Hamilton
A manuscript entitled "The Laws of Farm Tenancy and Sharecropping
in Florida" was revised and sent to the publications committee. This pub-
lication sets forth the laws of farm tenancy and sharecropping in Florida
as found in the Florida Statutes, the Florida Constitution and in the re-
ported cases of the Supreme Court of Florida and other states. It is writ-
ten with a view giving farmers and those who serve farmers a better
understanding of the nature of the farmer's rights, obligations and legal
problems in entering into and participating in a tenancy or sharecropping
arrangement.
A manuscript entitled "Inheritance Laws Affecting Florida Farms and
Farm Families" was also prepared in cooperation with Professor Kenneth
Black of the Law College. This bulletin sets forth the Florida laws of
inheritance with special reference to farm property and farmers. It should
be useful to farmers and those who serve farmers in giving them a better
understanding of how property is distributed in the absence of a will and
how a will may be used to accomplish the desires of the deceased.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEMAND FOR FROZEN ORANGE
CONCENTRATE PRODUCED IN FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 664 M. R. Godwin, L. A. Powell, Sr.,
(Regional SM-4) and H. G. Hamilton
This study is based on data obtained in 10 retail food stores in the Lower
Delaware Valley area of Pennsylvania and New Jersey during a nine-week
period terminating on August 7, 1954. Customers were subjected to test
prices of 8.5, 10.5, 13.5, 16.5 and 20.5 cents per 6-ounce can under carefully
controlled conditions.
Analysis of the data reveals that customers are more responsive to
price changes for frozen orange concentrate at low prices than at high
prices. Above a retail price of about 12.5 cents per can customers re-
sponded to price changes by changing their purchase rates by a less than
proportionate amount. At prices below this level customers responded to
price changes by making larger than proportionate changes in their pur-
chase rates.
The total retail revenue derived from the sale of frozen orange concen-
trate increased as prices moved in either direction from a level of about
12.5 cents per 6-ounce can. The largest total revenue was obtained at the
highest test price of 20.5 cents per can.
Further analysis will be conducted for the purpose of determining the
competitive relationships among different brands of frozen orange concen-
trate, and to determine the degree of substitution between frozen concen-
trate and other citrus products under varying relative price conditions.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ELEMENTAL FUNC-
TIONS OF PACKING, SHIPPING AND HANDLING FLORIDA CITRUS
FROM THE PACKING LINE TO THE RETAIL STORE
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 665 Eric Thor and G. L. Capel4
(Regional SM-4)
A detailed cost analysis of hauling fruit in bulk from Florida packing-
houses and placing in consumer-sized bags prior to delivery to retail stores
SMarket Organization and Costs Branch, AMS, USDA.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


shows a saving of approximately 4.5 cents per 1 3/5-bushel box equivalent
over the conventional method of packing fruit in bags in Florida and then
hauling to Northern markets. If the fruit is hauled to market in bulk and
conveyed into boxes and delivered to the retail store, the saving is about
30 cents per 1-3/5 bushel box equivalent over the logical alternative of
handling in 1 3/5 bushel wirebound boxes from the packinghouse to the
retail store.
Preliminary results of this study were reported to the Southeastern
Short Course on Waste and Spoilage of Perishable Products at Gaines-
ville, Florida, on November 18, 1955, and published in Marketing Activities,
USDA.

MARKETING CHARGES AND RETURNS FROM FLORIDA
VEGETABLES BY TYPES OF FIRMS AND METHODS OF SALE
(Classification 1. Marketing Costs, Margins and Efficiency)
AMA Project 666 D. L. Brooke, C. N. Smith
(Title II, ES-235) and H. G. Hamilton
The first tabulations on average prices of tomatoes by grades and sizes
for the seasons 1951-52 through 1953-54 have been given a preliminary
summarization. The data indicate that buyers' preference is for sizes 5 x 6
and 6 x 6 in 1, 2 and combination grade tomatoes. Highest f.o.b. prices
were paid for 6 x 6 tomatoes in the 1951-52 and 1952-53 seasons, averag-
ing $4.65 and $5.12 per bushel, respectively. In 1953-54 size 5 x 6 tomatoes
averaged $6.11 per bushel, or $0.60 per bushel higher than the f.o.b. price
for size 6 x 6 in the three top grades. Average prices paid for size 6 x 7
tomatoes ranged from $0.72 to $0.92 per bushel below that paid for size
6 x 6 in the three seasons. Size 7 x 7 prices ranged from $1.22 to $1.62
per bushel lower than prices of size 6 x 7. Size 7 x 8 prices were $0.64 to
$1.09 below those of 7 x 7 during the period studied. F.o.b. prices of size
7 x 8 tomatoes averaged $1.87 per bushel in 1951-52, $2.09 per bushel in
1952-53 and $2.10 per bushel in 1953-54.

MARKETING PRACTICES OF FLORIDA FLOWER AND
ORNAMENTAL PLANT GROWERS
(Classification 1. Marketing Costs, Margins and Efficiency)
AMA Project 679 C. N. Smith and D. L. Brooke
(Title II, ES-236)
Analysis of gladiolus sales data showed substantial variations in the
pattern of consignment shipping to various wholesale markets. Differences
in the grade composition of flowers shipped to various markets were also
noted. IBM cards with data on price, grade, variety and other character-
istics of gladiolus shipments to the New York City wholesale market have
been processed. Analysis of the remaining data will be continued.
During the year a survey of the marketing practices of the Florida
chrysanthemum industry was made. This rapidly expanding phase of
Florida's floricultural industry sustained a 50-fold increase in acreage
from less than five acres in the 1949-50 season to more than 230 in 1955-
56. Cash receipts to growers in the 1955-56 season were estimated at ap-
proximately $3,800,000. Most chrysanthemum cut flowers are sold through
wholesale commission florists. Three-fourths of the pompon harvest and
93 percent of standard chrysanthemums were sold through wholesale com-
mission florists in the 1954-55 season. The remainder were sold direct to
wholesale and retail florists, local buyers and other outlets.








Annual Report, 1956


Chrysanthemum growers reported more price variability in sales made
to wholesale commission florists in large metropolitan markets such as
New York, Chicago and Philadelphia than in those sales made to smaller
markets. On the average, higher net prices were reported as being re-
ceived for flowers sold on an f.o.b. basis than on those which were con-
signed.

METHODS OF ESTIMATING FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION
State Project 685 B. W. Kelly and C. L. Crenshaw
The revised frame count, the limb count and the fruit size surveys were
again conducted during the 1955-56 season. October estimates of orange
and grapefruit production for the season were made, using the ratio method
of relating current data to historical and expanding by last season's pro-
duction. The resulting forecasts were within 3 percent of actual produc-
tion for both oranges and grapefruit, but the sampling errors were
somewhat larger, being on the order of 7 percent.
Exploratory work in the area of estimating fruit droppage was also
begun. Droppage data were collected for the purpose of designing a suit-
able sample for estimating the average number of fruit per tree that drop
between September and harvest. This information should be useful in cor-
recting fruit counts made in August and September for fruit losses dur-
ing the season.
The scope of work under this project will be expanded considerably
during the 1956-57 season in order to reduce sampling errors. This ex-
pansion is made possible by funds provided on a matching basis by the
Growers Administrative Committee and the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture.
ESTIMATING SNAP BEAN ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION
State Project 697 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw,
B. W. Kelly, and J. B. Owns'
This project was closed September 30, 1955. No work was done on it
during the fiscal period.

EXPANDING THE MARKET FOR FLORIDA FLORICULTURAL
AND ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9), Project 700 C. N. Smith and D. L. Brooke
(Regional SM-12)
Work during the fiscal year consisted of an analysis of the data ob-
tained on pompon chrysanthemum sales in a group of grocery super-
markets in Nashville, Tennessee, during the spring of 1955. A plan to
test the efficiency of various advertising and promotion techniques on the
introduction and movement of flowers was formulated. Arrangements
were made to conduct such a study in a group of stores but the experi-
ment had to be called off because of circumstances which prevented the
grocery firm from cooperating.

ECONOMICS OF FLORIDA DAIRY FARMING
State Project 701 Eldon Smith, N. K. Roberts
and H. G. Hamilton
Work was undertaken on the economics of dairy pastures in Florida
by the budget approach. However, because of resignations and the in-
5 Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ability to secure replacements, the project has been inactive since Septem-
ber 1.
CENSUS OF CITRUS GROVES IN FLORIDA
State Project 720 B. W. Kelly
Field enumeration of citrus groves was resumed the third week in
September 1955. Work continued throughout the fruit season with an
average of about 20 men being used and when work was suspended the
first week in May, 16 million trees had been enumerated.
Work has been completed in Broward, Collier, Dade, Hendry, High-
lands, Lake, Lee, Pinellas and Polk counties. The enumeration in Brevard,
Hardee, Indian River, Manatee, Orange, Pasco, Putnam and St. Lucie
counties has been started but is not yet finished. This group of counties
is, on the average, two-thirds done.
A total of 30 million trees has now been counted, leaving about 11
million more to do. The, census should be completed during the coming
season.
Cooperating agencies are Florida Citrus Mutual, Florida Citrus Com-
mission, State Plant Board of Florida, State Department of Agriculture
and U. S. Department of Agriculture.

POTATO HANDLING MACHINERY
State Project 730 R. E. L. Greene
This study is designed to develop and test mechanical equipment to be
used at packinghouses packing potatoes hauled in bulk. Better equip-
ment is needed so that vines, weeds, grass and clods loaded with the pota-
toes can be more easily removed. Special equipment also is needed for
transferring potatoes hauled in bulk from the bulk bodies to temporary
storage bins. Additional work was done on the experimental dirt elimina-
tor in an attempt to solve some of the mechanical problems that developed
in the operation of this equipment. A special conveyor was also built
to be tested in filling bins in the Hastings area. (See also Proj. 730,
Agricultural Engineering.)

A STUDY IN THE USE OF RESOURCES IN AREAS OF RURAL
UNDEREMPLOYMENT AND LOW FARM PRODUCTIVITY
Purnell Project 744 D. E. Alleger
Based on the criteria of the value of agricultural products sold per farm,
the majority of the farms in northwestern Florida are low-income farms.
The study seeks to determine why farms in some areas remain low-income
farms from one decade to the next, and what effect industrialization has
upon farming in a low-income farm area. The industrialized Pensacola
area (Escambia and Santa Rosa counties) was selected for comparative
study against a rural farm area (Holmes and Walton counties).
To date 206 farm records have been taken. Farms were selected from
a sample based upon the USDA master sample design. Data relating to
land holdings of corporations were tabulated from county tax rolls for
nine of the ten counties west of the Apalachicola River. Corporate owner-
ship of non-public rural land ranged from 12 percent in Holmes County
to 66 percent in Bay County. No other data have been summarized to date.

AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF THE CAGE LAYER ENTERPRISE
State Project 745 R. E. L. Greene and D. L. Brooke
Fifty-three farmers with cage layer enterprises in nine West Florida
counties were surveyed and data were obtained on size of cage enter-








Annual Report, 1956


prises, number, size and investment in buildings and equipment, manage-
ment practices, marketing practices and other information. Records were
also obtained for 33 of these farms showing egg production, receipts and
expenses for the poultry year September 1, 1954, to August 31, 1955.
A preliminary analysis of the data showed that there was an average
of 1,772 cages on the farms studied. Total cost per dozen for producing
eggs averaged 44 cents. Feed was the most important item of cost, labor
second and depreciation third. During the year studied returns per dozen
of eggs averaged only 42 cents. Egg prices during this year averaged
lower than for any period since 1946. Only on the large farms were re-
turns enough to cover all items of cost.
Further analysis of the factors affecting production efficiency is being
made. This analysis will include such items as production per bird, feed
conversion, marketing efficiency, utilization of capacity, investment in the
poultry operation and others.

ESTIMATING VEGETABLE ACREAGE AND SNAP BEAN PRODUC-
TION IN THE POMPANO AREA OF FLORIDA BY OBJECTIVE
MEASUREMENTS ON A PROBABILITY SAMPLE
State Project 748 G. N. Rose, C. L. Crenshaw,
B. W. Kelly, J. B. Owens and J. M. Torrance
An area sample approach was instigated in an attempt to estimate, by
objective means, the acreage of the important vegetable crops grown in
the Pompano farming area of South Florida.
A sample consisting of 50 40-acre blocks was designed and periodic visi-
tations were made to those sample blocks to ascertain the proportion of
each sample block used for growing vegetable crops. Analysis of these
data indicated that in order to estimate the crop within the desired de-
gree of accuracy, more effort should be made to deleate from the sample
area all land not being used for vegetable farming. Otherwise, the size
of sample will have to be increased substantially in order to estimate the
total crop for the area with the degree of accuracy desired.

MISCELLANEOUS
Trends in Number, Size, Type and Value of Farms in Florida.-
From 1940 to 1954 the number of farms in Florida decreased by 8 percent.
There was a slight increase from 1950 to 1954. There were considerable
decreases, particularly in some counties, in northeast and northwest
Florida and increases in central and south Florida. From 1940 to 1954
acreage in farm land doubled and acres in crops increased by 10 percent.
The value of land and buildings per farm rose 450 percent from 1940 to
1954. "Recent Trends in Number, Size, Type and Value of Farms in Flor-
ida" was published as Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report No. 56-8
(L. A. Reuss).
Trends in Cucumber Production, Prices and Shipment.-The acreage
planted to cucumbers has doubled and production has tripled in the past 15
seasons. During the 5-season period ending with the 1954-55 season, the
annual harvest of cucumbers averaged 3,164,000 bushels from 16, 140 acres,
or 190 bushels per acre, while the value of the crop was $8,942,000.
Costs of growing cucumbers have been increasing. Per-unit costs of
growing vary inversely with yield, being high when yields are low and
vice-versa.

6 Agricultural Estimates Division, AMS, USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


A report giving data on many phases of the Florida cucumber industry
for a period of years was issued-"Statistics on Production Shipments and
Prices of Florida Cucumbers," Agricultural Economics Series Mimeo Report
56-9 (D. L. Brooke).
Trends in Potato Production, Prices and Shipment.-Yields of potatoes
have more than doubled in the last 20 years. The average acreage of pota-
toes for the five-year, period 1950 to 1954 was 30,000 acres, or only 11
percent more than average of 27,000 acres for the period of 1935 to 1939.
However, average production in the 1950-54 period was 7,748,000 bushels,
as compared with 3,277,000 bushels for the 1935-39 period. From 1946 to
1955 the price of Florida potatoes was equal to or above parity only two
years. "Statistics on Production, Shipment and Prices of Florida Potatoes"
was released as Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 56-3 (R. E. L.
Greene and W. E. Black).
Competition for Florida Fruit and Vegetable Crops.-The tabulation
of weekly carlot shipments of specified fruits and vegetables from Florida,
other states and foreign countries during the Florida shipping season give
some indication of the degree of competition from these sources. Com-
petition from foreign sources has decreased during the past five seasons
for Florida tomatoes and increased for cucumbers. Shipment data indi-
cate decreasing competition for Florida grapefruit and oranges from Cali-
fornia, Arizona and Texas since 1951. California shipments of celery and
green corn have been increasing during the Florida season. Florida ship-
ments of most vegetables have been increasing for several seasons. This
indicates that Florida is obtaining a larger share of the fresh fruit and
vegetable market. "Florida Truck Crop Competition," Agricultural Eco-
nomics Mimeo Report 56-1 (D. L. Brooke).
Movement of Citrus Trees from Nurseries.-During the 1954-55 season
1,445,932 orange, 90,426 grapefruit, 186,357 mandarin, 71,559 lime, 63,333
lemon and 46,035 tangelo trees were moved from nurseries to groves. The
trend of movement for all types of citrus trees, except grapefruit, has been
upward since the 1948-49 season. The total movement of all citrus trees
in 1954-55 was 12 percent higher than for any previous season. "Move-
ment of Citrus Trees from Florida Nurseries, July 1, 1928 to June 30, 1955"
was released as Agricultural Economics Mimeo Report 56-4 (Zach Savage).
Problems of the Florida Grapefruit Industry.-A careful analysis from
secondary data indicates that the major marketing problem of the grape-
fruit industry is a decline in the demand for this product. The first step
to the solution is to find out the reasons for this decline (H. G. Hamilton,
M. R. Godwin, L. A. Powell, Sr., and G. L. Capel).








Annual Report, 1956


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Research was continued on potato harvesting and handling machinery
and irrigation of pastures and flue-cured tobacco. New research studies
were begun on curing bright leaf tobacco and the development of adequate
sampling procedures for mixed fertilizers. Additional shop machinery was
installed to make the Agricultural Engineering Research Laboratory
suitable for farm machinery research and development.
In a joint undertaking with the Agronomy Department, 30 laboratory
tobacco curing units were built and equipped with controls and instrumen-
tation for controlling and indicating both temperature and relative hu-
midity. The cost of these curing units was approximately $9,000.

FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 555 J. M. Myers
Three irrigation, four fertility and four plant population rates were
tested on flue-cured tobacco plots at Gainesville in 1955.
The irrigation rates and irrigation management procedures were the
same as those reported in the 1955 annual report. For a 12-week period
beginning with the transplanting date, March 25, rainfall totaled 9.0 inches.
In 19 applications 12.92 inches of irrigation water was applied to the
"high" rate, 10.19 inches in 15 applications to the "medium" rate and 4.98
inches in eight applications to the "low" rate during the 12-week period.
Rainfall distribution was generally poor with about one-half of the total
amount falling during the twelfth week. During April and May there was
a period of 31 consecutive days without rainfall.
The four fertilizer rates were 1,200, 1,500, 1,800 and 2,100 pounds of
4-8-10 fertilizer per acre in two applications: one-half immediately before
transplanting and one-half two weeks after transplanting. Plant popula-
tions used were 5,000, 7,500, 10,000 and 12,500 plants per acre.
With irrigation the "medium" rate produced highest yield and highest
percentage of high quality and returned the highest gross dollar value per
acre. There was an opposite relationship in yield and quality response to
fertilizer treatments. The highest fertility rate produced highest yield
and poorest quality, while the lowest fertility rate produced lowest yield
and highest quality. There was no significant difference in gross value of
the tobacco produced among the four fertility levels. Considering yield,
quality and value, 10,000 plants per acre appeared to be the best plant
population for the 1955 crop.
(See also Proj. 555 AGRONOMY.)

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRO-
DUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL AND
NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project.627 J. S. Norton
The irrigated program in this experiment is a clover-grass mixture re-
ceiving a high level of fertilization. Because of failure of the irrigation well
at a critical time, the irrigation phase of this project was suspended during
the year. (See also Proj. 627, AGRI. EC., AGRON., AN. HUSB. and NUTRI. and
SOILS.)









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


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Fig. I.-Effect of irrigation on total yields, quality and value of irrigated
tobacco.








Annual Report, 1956 31

PASTURE RENOVATION
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 661 J. M. Myers and J. S. Norton
Weather conditions were less favorable during all the seasons of 1955
than during the two previous years for this experiment. The experimental
procedure for the 1955 calendar year was the same as that used during the
previous year and described in the 1954 annual report.
Response to renovation treatments by Pangola and Coastal Bermuda
was different from that of Bahia. Pangola and Coastal Bermuda gave
most response where an intensive annual fall cultivation was used, employ-
ing a field cultivator or a modified rotary tiller, which removed from 30 to
50 percent of the sod. Increased clover population, the result of these
treatments, was probably responsible for some of the response. Also, some
recovery of Coastal Bermuda was noted in areas that had been taken over
by centipedegrass. A light to medium cultivation using a field chopper
or a modified anhydrous ammonia applicator that destroyed about 15 per-
cent of the sod gave best results on Bahia. When more intense cultivation
was used, this grass failed to produce a complete cover until late in the
season.
This project is closed with this report. (See also Proj. 661, AGRON. and
ANI. HUSB. and NUTRI.)

PASTURE IRRIGATION ON FLATWOODS SOILS
State Project 684 J. S. Norton and J. M. Myers
Yield data from five clippings taken between June 24 and November 4,
1955, continued the trend of previous summer and fall production records.
The plots receiving phosphorus and potassium, but no nitrogen, produced
about one ton of dry forage per acre during the four-month period. There
was no consistent relationship between yield and quantity of irrigation
water applied.
The plots receiving all three of the major elements produced approxi-
mately three times as much forage as those not receiving nitrogen. In this
case, however, there was a relationship between yield and amount of irri-
gation water applied. The higher water rates resulted in lower yields than
were obtained from the low water rate and non-irrigated plots. This in-
verse relationship between yield and irrigation amount was due to the better
stands of clover on the plots receiving the most water. Because the pres-
ence of clover reduced the grass population and because clover grows at a
relatively slow rate during hot weather, total production was less.
The pangolagrass-clover plots that received nitrogen were very slow in
recovering in the spring of 1955, but by July fairly good stands had become
established. In spite of the satisfactory stands of pangolagrass, the bahia-
grass outproduced it by 35 percent from June 24 to November 4.
Clover production in the spring of 1956 was better in the pangolagrass
plots than in the bahiagrass because severe winter killing of pangolagrass
left the surface bare, permitting rapid growth of the clover after it got
started. However, due to winter killing, the amount of pangolagrass pro-
duced by May 31 was small. Some bahiagrass plots had produced three tons
of dry forage by that date, while the average yield for the 84 bahiagrass
plots receiving nitrogen was 3,400 pounds per acre.
In every clover season so far, clover production has been highest on the
medium and high water rates. (See also Proj. 684, SOILS.)








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Fig. 2.-A load of potatoes with a large amount of soil and trash.

POTATO HANDLING MACHINERY
State Project 730 J. S. Norton and J. M. Myers
During the 1956 potato harvesting season the inclined-belt type trash
eliminator for removing vines, grass and soil from potatoes was tested fur-
ther. Several modifications had been made on the 1955 model in an attempt
to improve it mechanically.
One difficulty encountered in 1955 was the problem of keeping the elimi-
nator belt in alignment. To correct this a "C"-section V-belt was cemented
to the under side of the eliminator belt along the entire length of its center-
line. Grooves to receive the V-belt were machined around the centers of
the drive pulley and tail pulley. The thought was that the V-belt would
remain in the groove and prevent the flat belt, which was 4 feet wide and
18 feet long, from running to the side. The eliminator was operated satis-
factorily over a three-week period with no difficulty experienced in main-
taining belt alignment. It was found, however, that the V-belt had to be
riveted to the flat belt, in addition to being cemented, in order to prevent
separation of the two belts.
The experimental eliminator was equipped with legs made from tall hy-
draulic jacks which would permit rapid tilt adjustment. These provisions
for simple and rapid adjustment of the tilt will make the machine more ef-
fective.
Another improvement over the 1955 model was the replacement of the
plywood sheet under the belt with small rollers to provide a support for the
belt. Use of the rollers reduced the load on the motor by eliminating the









Annual Report, 1956 33

effect of friction that normally occurred between the belt and the plywood
sheet. The rollers will also increase the life of the eliminator belt.
The clod and trash eliminator was operated satisfactorily in the Hast-
ings area for a two-week period. Conditions were similar to those in 1955,
with the potatoes that were run over the eliminator containing fairly
large quantities of trash and fine soil. About 95 percent of this extraneous
material was removed by the eliminator, even when it ran as high as 15 to
20 bushels in a 200-bushel load.
From Hastings the eliminator was taken to St. Elmo, Alabama, where it
was tested for its effectiveness as a clod eliminator. Figure 3 shows the
eliminator in operation at a packinghouse in Alabama where a crew of 10
,was being used to pick out the clods. Under similar conditions, a crew of
four using the eliminator could remove the same amount of clods in 75 per-
cent of the time.
The eliminator was not as effective in removing clods as in removing
vegetative material in the Hastings tests. However, it did remove prac-
tically all the vegetative material and fine soil and about 70 percent of the
clods delivered onto it. Two people are required to operate the machine.
Two additional ones can pick out the extraneous material the machine
fails to remove. (See also Proj. 730, AGRI. ECON.)

DEVELOPMENT OF ADEQUATE SAMPLING PROCEDURES
FOR MIXED FERTILIZERS
State Project 753 J. M. Myers
Modifications of the present official tool for sampling mixed fertilizers
were made and several new sampling tools were constructed. All modi-

Fig. 3.-The experimental separator removes a good part of the dirt and
trash from potatoes at the packinghouse.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


fied tools and new tools have been or are being tested in the laboratory by
the Soils Department to determine their accuracy in obtaining a repre-
sentative sample from certain mixed fertilizers.
Modifications of the official sampling tool involved changing the taper
of the point on the penetrating end and adding a sharpened flange along
the edge of the slotted opening in the tube. The new tools, the open-end
type, were made of tapered stainless steel tubing. The penetrating ends of
the tools were cut at different angles to facilitate penetration and to pro-
vide a cutting edge when rotated in the fertilizer sample.
An analysis of data from completed tests lends encouragement to the
possibility of developing a tool or procedure for reducing the error in fer-
tilizer sampling. However, it is too early to make definite conclusions.
Much information is being gained on the principles involved in the per-
formance of the various sampling tools that have been tested. (See also
Proj. 753, SOILS.)

CURING BRIGHT LEAF TOBACCO GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT
LEVELS OF NITROGEN

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Proj. 758 J. M. Myers
Studies have been started to determine the best procedures for curing
tobacco during the yellowing stage when grown under different levels of
nitrogen (12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 pounds of N per acre), five yellowing
temperatures (80, 90, 95, 100 and 110 degrees F.) and five yellowing
relative humidities (80, 85, 90, 95 and 99 percent). Up to the time of this
report, 30 laboratory curing units have been constructed, indicating and
control equipment has been installed and two curings have been completed.
It is too early to evaluate the effect of treatment variable, but indications
are that the performance of the laboratory curing units is satisfactory. (See
also Proj. 758, AGRONOMY.)

IRRIGATION OF TEMPORARY PASTURES FOR DAIRY CATTLE

State Project 772 J. M. Myers
A study of irrigated and non-irrigated alfalfa-clover-oat pastures for
dairy cattle was begun September 15, 1955. Irrigation water was applied
by sprinkler during the first two months after planting, when approxi-
mately 75 percent of the available moisture at field capacity had been used
from the top 12 inches of soil. For the remainder of the producing period,
water was applied when approximately the same moisture level was
reached in the top 18 inches of soil.
Rainfall for the period September 15, 1955, to June 30, 1956, totaled
24.01 inches. This was below average but distribution was good. There
were periods in October, March and May-June when the pasture plants
on the non-irrigated pasture showed symptoms of a critical moisture short-
age. Thirteen irrigation applications varying in amount from 0.72 inch
to 1.27 inches and totaling 13.16 inches were required to maintain the de-
sired soil moisture level in the irrigated pasture.
The quality, amount and distribution of feed obtained by dairy heifers,
and the botanical composition and seasonal distribution of forages from
the irrigated and non-irrigated pastures, are reported by the Dairy Science
and Agronomy Departments under Project 772. (See also Proj. 772,
DAIRY SCIENCE and AGRONOMY.)








Annual Report, 1956 35

MISCELLANEOUS
Horizontal Silos in Florida.-A preliminary survey indicated that hori-
zontal silos were being used in more than 40 counties in the state. They
ranged from simple earth mounds and trenches to more elaborate bunkers
and trenches. The sizes ranged from 70 to 2,750 tons. A study is under way
at this time to determine practical construction, operational methods and
silage feeding techniques for the various types of horizontal silos. (E. S.
Holmes and J. M. Myers.)









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


AGRONOMY

The new Farm Laboratory building, with equipment for drying forage
and grain samples and an air-conditioned seed storage vault, has been
completed and is being put to good use. A multiple unit tobacco curing
barn, recently completed, is being used for a new project on curing methods.
Additional items of equipment for chemical analysis of plant samples, for
measuring micro-climatic factors and for irrigation of field plots were
acquired.
New work was begun on micro-climatic and other environmental fac-
tors in relation to crop production, and on effects of temperature and
humidity in the tobacco curing barn on quality of tobacco.

PEANUT BREEDING FOR SUPERIOR TYPES FOR
MARKET AND FOR LIVESTOCK FEED
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 20 W. A. Carver
The performance of Florida-bred varieties and common runner peanuts
in the Florida variety tests for the year 1955 and for the period 1949-1955
are shown in the table below.

Percent Yield Sound
Year Percent Sound and and Mature Seed
Or Years Seed Damage Mature Seed Lbs./A. Percent

Dixie J 1955 0.54 72 1 2,466 109
Runner ...... 1949-1955 1.95 69 1,649 116
Early 1955 0.92 74 2,928 129
Runner -...... 1949-1955 1.76 71 1,825 129
Florispan | 1955 2.98 72 3,376 149
Runner ....... 1949-1955 2.62 73 2,241 158
Common 1955 2.53 69 2,264 100
Runner ... 1949-1955 3.76 G6 1,417 100


Florispan Runner will probably continue to be planted by some farm-
ers but on reduced acreage because of a lower support price. It will be
grown for the general market, for feeding on the farm or for the boil-
ing trade.
Late plantings in June and July produced consistently better quality
seeds when stack cured, but yielded consistently lower. Florispan Runner
and a jumbo runner-type peanut were planted in this experiment. Late June
or early July plantings, combined with close-row and hill spacings, appear
to be practical in Central Florida.
Regional peanut variety tests of runner and Virginia types were con-
ducted at Gainesville in cooperation with the USDA.

VARIETY TEST WORK WITH FIELD CROPS
Hatch Project 56 I. M. Wofford and
J. R. Edwardson
The yield of sweet sorghum varieties was highest for late-maturing
strains, intermediate for medium-late strains and lowest for early strains.
Sart yielded significantly more green forage than five other varieties
tested.









Annual Report, 1956 37

Results of variety trials again show millet yields twice as much green
and dry forage per acre as sudangrass.
Combine Schrock and Sagrain varieties were highly resistant to bird
damage. Average grain yield of 25 hybrids was 23.7 bushels per acre, while
average grain yield of the two bird-resistant varieties was 5.5 bushels per
acre. The highest yielding hybrid produced 49.1 bushels per acre.
This project is being closed with this report. The work will continue in
part under a new project.

PASTURE GRASS AND LEGUME RESPONSES TO VARIOUS
FERTILIZER AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 295 D. E. McCloud, C. S. Hoveland,
J. M. Creel, Jr., and H. C. Harris
The experiment to determine the effects of applying extremely high
rates of nitrogen fertilizer to pangola and Coastal bermudagrass is being
continued. In 1955, the second year after establishment, yields of dry
forage from bermuda ranged from 2,000 where no nitrogen was applied
to 20,000 pounds per acre for an annual application of 1,540 pounds of
nitrogen per acre. Fig. 4 shows the difference in color and growth at two
nitrogen levels. Very little response was obtained from different levels
of potassium and phosphorus.


-3 --

MAY

1956

----... -----------














Fig. 4.-Coastal bermudagrass at first harvest. On left, 4 pounds and
right, 60 pounds of nitrogen per two weeks applied year round. Yields were
increased 450 percent by additional nitrogen. Note also the darker green
color of highly fertilized grass.

Maximum yield for pangolagrass was only 3,829 pounds for the
highest rate of nitrogen. IPangola plots receiving the highest three rates
of nitrogen were completely killed during the winter 1954-55. Winter kill-
ing was almost complete for the highest four rates in 1955-56.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Samples of roots taken in the fall indicate that for pangolagrass the
amount of roots per acre decreased as the rate of nitrogen application
increased. Root yields for pangola grass range from 7,581 pounds per acre
for grass receiving no nitrogen down to 1,366 pounds for grass receiving
1,540 pounds of nitrogen annually. Bermudagrass did not show any ef-
fect of winter killing. Nor did it show the reduction of roots when nitro-
gen was increased. Further studies are being made concerning the rela-
tionship between nitrogen fertilization and winter killing.
Five bahiagrass varieties fertilized at 70, 140 and 280 pounds of nitro-
gen per acre continue to show Pensacola bahiagrass to be superior at
all levels of nitrogen fertilization.
A new experiment was started in flatwoods soil near Gainesville to test
the response of Midland, Suwannee and Coastal bermudagrasses to nitro-
gen. Five levels of nitrogen are being used: 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 pounds
annually. The first clippings from this experiment indicate that Coastal is
superior to the other two varieties.

SCREENING FORAGE AND COVER CROP INTRODUCTIONS
FOR ECOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS AND USE IN FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 297 I. M. Wofford,
(Contributing to Regional Proj. S-9) D. E. McCloud, and F. H. Hull
The 158 introductions from 15 foreign countries and all five continents
were evaluated in a propagation nursery at Gainesville. These were started
in soil flats and transplanted to the field nursery to be screened for gen-
eral climatic adaptations. Thirty-six introductions were well adapted to
Florida's climate. Of these the following are among the more promising
new introductions: Alysicarpus rugosus (P.I. 189,492) from India;
Aeschynomene americana (P.I. 219,826), Crotalaria incana (P.I. 219,835),
Crotalaria saltina (P.I. 219,837), Crotalaria usaramsensis (P.I. 219,838),
all from Ceylon; Crotalaria mucronata (P.I. 189,272) from Africa; and
Eleusine coracana (P.I. 196,849) from Ethiopia.
An introduction of Cynodon dactylon (no P.I. number) from Egypt
has been placed in the turf management program as a'possible lawn grass.
Another introduction, Glycine-javanica (No. P.I. number) from Southern
Rhodesia, is being tested for possible use in a weed control project at
Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.
Seed increases were made for the Regional Plant Introduction Station
and for distribution to branch stations for further testing.
This project is being closed with this report. The work will continue in
part under a new project.

FORAGE AND PASTURE GRASS IMPROVEMENT
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 298 W. A. Carver
F. H. Hull

The bahiagrass variety test plots were clipped six times in 1955. The
narrow-leafed selection number R41E, which previously had shown toler-
ance to cool weather, produced slightly more forage in both early and late
season clippings than Pensacola bahiagrass. The broad-leafed types Ar-
gentine bahiagrass, P.I. 158,822 and P.I. 162,902, produced poorly in the
early spring and yielded less total forage than Pensacola. But all excelled
Pensacola in the November clipping. The following table shows the relative

7 Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch. ARS, USDA.









Annual Report, 1956


yields in percentage for the early and late clippings and for total yield of
forage.

Green Forage Yield in Percent
Clipping Pensacola R41E Argentine P.I. P.I.
158,822 162,902

November 7 100 111 112 181 119
April 13 ........ 100 109 17 3 None

For all six
clippings 100 79 96 90 55



EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF FORAGE AND COVER CROP
LEGUMES OTHER THAN CLOVERS AND LUPINES
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 301 J. R. Edwardson,
E. S. Horner, and F. H. Hull
Papago winter peas and Madison vetch were the top forage-producing
varieties in their respective tests.
Yield comparisons between a promising Crotalaria introduction, C.
mucronata, and commercial Giant Striata are being initiated this year.
Mass selection in alfalfa for forage and seed productivity and longevity
was continued. A few plants with very good seed-producing ability were
found.
FLUE-CURED TOBACCO IMPROVEMENT
Adams Project 372 Fred Clark
Selected lines from the 1954 tests were planted with and without irriga-
tion in 1955. Two tests were made on non-irrigated soil which was heavily
infested with nematodes. The irrigated test was on soil only moderately
infested with nematodes. Varietal resistance was different at different
locations. Many lines that did not survive the tests have been discarded.
Yields for the resistant lines ranged from 1,146 to 2,800 pounds per acre.
Thirty-one new Bel-Fa lines were tested. These lines have multiple re-
sistance to root-knot, root rot, mosaic and wildfire. Root-knot re-
sistance was good for most of the lines and yields ranged from 1,600 to
2,800 pounds per acre. The most resistant plants were saved for further
testing. Several of the lines being tested have very good quality, necessary
for good flue-cured tobacco. Yield and quality evaluation tests are be-
ing continued.
CORN BREEDING
Purnell Project 374 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
An experimental hybrid, Florida 5002, the result of three cycles of
selection for combining ability with Fit x Fo, gave good results in 1955.
It produced 4.6 bushels (7 percent) more grain on the average than Dixie
18 in tests at 18 locations in Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and
South Carolina. This difference is highly significant. At Gainesville, where
most of the selection was done, Florida 5002 yielded from 15 to 20 percent
more than Dixie 18 in several different tests.
Further evidence of the efficiency of recurrent selection for combining
ability was obtained in another experiment. The second cycle test
s Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA.








40


Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


crosses averaged 21 percent more grain than those of the first cycle where
an inbred line (specific) tester was used, and 18 percent more where a
composite (general) tester was used.
Dixie 18 was again the leader in the commercial variety tests. (See
also Project 374, NO. FL. and w. FL. STATIONS.)

EFFECT OF Cu, Mn, Zn, B, S, AND Mg ON THE GROWTH OF GRAIN
CROPS, FORAGE CROPS, PASTURES AND TOBACCO


Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 440


H. C. Harris, R. L. Gilman,
V. N. Schroder and Fred Clark


Mineral analyses of the foliage of lupines and corn grown at the green-
house on Blanton fine sand, level phase, from the Live Oak Station, have
been completed. An unbalanced nutrient supply seemed to greatly alter
the chemical composition of the plant. For example, a lack of molybdenum
increased the sulfur content of lupines but decreased the nitrogen, while
a lack of sulfur decreased the nitrogen but increased the potassium con-
tent. A deficiency of zinc, potassium, sulfur or phosphorus greatly in-
creased the percentage of nitrogen in the corn. The calcium and mag-
nesium values for these crops seemed to be somewhat more uniform than
the nitrogen, sulfur, potassium and phosphorus content.
Floriland oats, Dixie 18 corn, Pensacola bahiagrass, pangolagrass and
Coastal bermudagrass were grown at the greenhouse in five similar
experiments on Leon fine sand from the Beef Research Unit area. As
would be expected, the addition of such major elements as nitrogen,
potassium and phosphorus increased growth of these crops. The sulfate
ion in the fertilizer treatment had a marked beneficial effect on the
growth of all these crops. A little copper greatly increased the foliage
growth of oats (Fig. 5) and corn, and seemed to help Pensacola bahiagrass
start off more rapidly.







SI










i-i




Fig. 5.-Oats grown on soil from the Beef Research Unit area. Fertili-
zation complete, including minor elements, except as indicated. Left to
right: no SO.; low N; complete; no Cu; low K.









Annual Report, 1956 41

Studies conducted on boron-deficient tobacco tissue show an increase
in the percent of amino nitrogen in the soluble fraction of deficient tissue.
Paper chromatography of the free amino acids shows a relative accumula-
tion of glutamic acid and of the total for glycine, aspartic acid and
arginine.

PERMANENT SEEDBEDS FOR TOBACCO PLANTS
State Project 444 Fred Clark and C. E. Dean
Plots which had been treated continuously with calcium cyanamid
and/or Nugreen since 1944 were treated with methyl bromide to control
nutgrass. Excellent control of nutgrass was obtained by applying 1.5
pounds of methyl bromide for every 100 square feet of bed.
Peat moss, vermiculite, sheep manure, Florahome peat and chicken
manure were added to the plots treated with methyl bromide to increase
the soil organic matter and to improve the water-holding capacity. Seed-
ling counts were made when the plants were about the size of a dime. The
area treated with vermiculite produced 67 plants per square foot of bed
space, while the peat moss and sheep manure areas produced 61 and 54
plants, respectively. The check plots averaged 11 plants per foot. Root
systems on the plants grown in the vermiculite and peat moss treated plots
were very good.
Antibiotics were tested for blue-mold control in both dust and spray
applications. Concentrations of the materials in dust form varied from
0.1 to 0.8 percent. These concentrations were tested at three levels; 10,
15 and 20 grams per square yard. Two antibiotics were used as sprays,
both being applied at the rate of 3, 6 and 9 grams per gallon of water.
The 0.2 and 0.4 percent concentrations of dust gave good results at the
levels of 10 and 15 grams per square yard. Three grams of 15 percent
wettable powder per gallon at the rate of 5 to 6 gallons per 100 square
yards of bed space gave very good control.
An experiment was initiated to study the effect of heat and light on
the growth of tobacco seedlings. First year results are reported in a thesis
by A. M. Pettis in June 1956. This experiment is being continued.

IMPROVEMENT OF OATS, RYE, WHEAT AND BARLEY THROUGH
BREEDING FOR DESIRABLE AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
AND RESISTANCE TO DISEASE
Bankhead-Jones (Section 9) Project 487 A. T. Wallace
Oat nurseries were grown at Gainesville, Leesburg, Belle Glade and
Ft. Lauderdale for the purpose of developing new varieties adapted to
these specific areas. At all locations, new lines out-performed the cur-
rently recommended varieties. The following number of lines were se-
lected at the different stations for further testing: Leesburg, 23;
Belle Glade, 15; Ft. Lauderdale, 16; Gainesville, 64. In the variety
tests, Seminole was the top producer in the grain nursery, Floriland in
the forage nursery. Because of a severe outbreak of mildew, the highest
yielding wheat varieties were those not normally adapted to Florida. No
lines in the wheat breeding nursery were entirely free of mildew.
Barley lines which are resistant to spot blotch, a major disease lim-
iting barley production in Florida, have been obtained. Some of these
lines produced as much as 40 bushels of grain per acre. In addition, inter-
specific rye-wheat crosses were made for the purpose of developing a male-
sterile line. In cooperation with the North Florida Station, a new line
of rye, number 8-21, will be named and released in the fall of 1956.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


In order to develop a more effective breeding program, a number of
experiments were conducted. The significant results from these follow:
Seminole and Floriland oats when clipped down to three-inch heights at
monthly intervals produced 41 percent more forage than when clipped at
weekly intervals. Results indicate that the monthly and weekly clipping
intervals were equally effective in reducing the subsequent grain crop.
Floriland produced 46 percent more forage than Seminole, while Semi-
nole produced 70 percent more grain than Floriland following the clipping.
Clipping experiments indicated that the performance of a single F2
plant of oats in the production of forage when grown alone is no indi-
cation of its progeny's performance when grown in plots. The probable
explanation for this is that the heritability of forage production is very
low. Attempts are being made to obtain heritability estimates of forage
production in oats. Visual scoring of oat lines for forage production and
then computing the regression of the scores on the clipped weights of the
lines reduced the mean square for lines by 75 percent. From other experi-
ments, the correlation between the accumulated scores in one experiment
and the accumulated clipping weights in another experiment for the same
lines was 0.72. These data indicate that for a rough estimation of forage
production, scoring is effective. In a greenhouse test for aphid resistance,
one oat line showed slightly more resistance than the most resistant va-
riety known. Normal chromosome associations were observed in smears
of root tips from crown rust-resistant mutants obtained from progeny of
irradiated Southland. Most of the rust-resistant mutants showed a degree
of sterility. For the purpose of determining if beneficial micromutations
for grain yield can be induced and accumulated, two experiments involv-
ing recurrent selection with and without irradiation have been initiated.
One is with oats, a self-pollinated crop; the other is with rye, a cross-
pollinated crop. It is still too early to report any results from these
experiments. It has been determined that heat unit requirements
for oats to head vary with location within the state, year, date of
planting, clipping intensity and variety. Analysis of oat grain yield
data collected from seven locations over a period of three years shows that
the year-to-year component of variance is much larger than the location-
to-location component. (Project is closed with this report. The work will
be continued under a new project. See also Proj. 487, PLANT. PATHO.; Proj.
260, N. FLA. STA.; Proj. 662, EVERGLADES STA.; and Proj. 596, W. FLA. STA.)

NUTRITION AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PEANUT

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 488 H. C. Harris, R. L. Gilman,
V. N. Schroder and Fred Clark

Early Runner peanuts were grown at the greenhouse on Blanton fine
sand, level phase, from the Live Oak Station. This soil tested relatively
low in all available nutrients. The peanuts were grown under controlled
conditions in large soft glass containers. A variety of nutrient treatments
was applied at two different locations: in the fruiting area and in the
deeper rooting zone.
A moderate amount of calcium applied to the fruiting zone produced
good peanuts, but when the same amount was applied to the root zone the
yield was poor. An application in both areas was no better than the one
in the fruiting zone. Potassium, boron and sulfur greatly increased the
yield of nuts. A number of nutrient treatments, including molybdenum, in-
creased foliage yield; but there was no direct relation between foliage
yield and peanut yield.








Annual Report, 1956


Fertilization had a marked effect on the grades of peanuts. When cal-
cium was not applied to the fruiting zone, the grades were poor. Many of
the peanuts grown without a boron application had hollow hearts. The
inside of these nuts ranged from a slightly off-color to rotting (Fig. 6). The
result was a very low yield of sound peanuts. The controls had a trace of
hollow-heart. As far as the authors know, this kind of result for
boron on peanuts has not been reported. It is not certain whether the
Early Runner variety is especially susceptible or whether there are some
other complicating factor or factors not understood.


Fig. 6.-Top row, sound peanuts; bottom row, damaged heart condition of
many peanuts where boron was not applied.

Treatments did not greatly affect the chemical composition of the sound,
mature, shelled peanuts. Perhaps sulfur had the most striking effect in this
respect. Sulfur-deficient peanuts were low in oil, sulfur and nitrogen, and
high in phosphorus and potassium. Calcium was not affected.

CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO


Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 537


Fred Clark


Six insecticide formulations were tested under uniform cultural prac-
tices. Yields varied from 1,125 to 1,180 pounds of tobacco per acre, with
gross values ranging from $458 to $525 per acre. There were no significant








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


differences in yield or dollar value. Project is being closed with this report.
(See also Project 537, ENTOMOLOGY.)

FERTILIZATION AND CULTURE OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

Hatch Project 555 Fred Clark, H. C. Harris
and C. E. Dean

Experiments dealing with fertilizers, irrigation, fumigation, rates of
planting and sucker control were continued with the following results.
In 1955 four fertilizer treatments-1,200, 1,500, 1,800 and 2,100 pounds
per acre-and four plant populations-5,000, 7,500, 10,000 and 12,500 plants
per acre-were tested with three rates of irrigation-4.0, 8.0 and 11.6
inches. Total rainfall during the growing and harvest season was nine
inches. Irrigation water totaled 4.98 inches in eight applications, 10.19
inches in 15 applications and 12.92 inches in 19 applications for the low,
medium and high treatments, respectively. Medium irrigation produced
the highest yield-2,362 pounds per acre with 73.3 percent of the total
tobacco yield being excellent quality. Gross value of this tobacco was
$1,173 per acre.
Maximum yield and quality were obtained from the 7,500 and 10,000
plant per-acre populations. Per-acre yields were 2,182 pounds for the 7,500
plants and 2,319 pounds for 10,000 plants, with gross return of $1,089 and
$1,168 per acre, respectively.
Yields of tobacco per acre ranged from 2,135 pounds for 1,200 pounds
of fertilizer to 2,264 pounds for 2,100 pounds of fertilizer. Gross return per
acre varied only slightly, being $1,056 for 1,200 pounds per acre and $1,085
for 2,100 pounds per acre. The percent of high quality tobacco was pro-
gressively lower-74.8 to 67.8 from 1,200 pounds to 2,100 pounds of fer-
tilizer per acre.
Maleic hydrazide was tested for sucker control and was found to give
good results with proper application.
EDB-40, EDB-85 and DD were tested as soil treatments for nematode
control and produced favorable results. Nemagon used in this same test
gave very poor results. (See also Proj. 555, AGR. ENG.)

BREEDING IMPROVED VARIETIES OF WHITECLOVER,
REDCLOVER AND SWEETCLOVER

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Proj. 600 E. S. Horner and F. H. Hull
A strain of red clover resistant to powdery mildew has been developed.
Selection for persistence is being continued in this strain, but little progress
has been made in obtaining plants which will live through the summer on
Leon fine sand.
The prospect for developing a persistent strain of whiteclover seems
good. Two clones lived through the summers of 1954 and 1955. Fifty addi-
tional clones were established from plants which lived through the summer
of 1955 and made good fall growth.
Floranna sveetclover and commercial Hubam were tested for forage
production at two locations near Gainesville. On Arredonda loamy fine
sand Floranna produ_ d 46 percent more forage than Hubam at the first
clipping (March 30). There was no difference at the second clipping. The
test on Leon fire s-nd was not harvested because of failure to obtain a
good stand on the Hubam plots.








Annual Report, 1956


IMPROVEMENT OF LUPINES BY BREEDING FOR YIELD AND
INSECT AND DISEASE RESISTANCE
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 612 J. R. Edwardson and F. H. Hull \
The top forage yield in lupines was produced by imported yellow Weiko
III.
Lambert's "virus-resistant" yellow lupine stocks failed to show field re-
sistance to the virus. Fourteen species were susceptible to the virus; L.
hartwegii exhibited virus symptoms in foliage but produced abundant seed.
No virus resistance was found in the X- generation of irradiated yellow
lupine seed.
Chromosome numbers in the following species have been found to be:
L. lutcus n = 26; L. luteus var. amaryllis n = 26; L. hartwegii n = 25;
L. truncatus n = 24; L. elgans n = 24.
Virus inclusion bodies have been found in white lupine.
Forbes transfer of white flowers, white seed coat to Borre sweet blue
lupine did not reduce forage yield. (See also Projects 612 and 742, PLANT
PATH. and Proj. 612, N. FLA. STA.)

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF PRO-
DUCTION ON FLATWOODS SOILS OF CENTRAL AND
NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 D. E. McCloud, C. S. Hoveland,
and H. C. Harris
Eight pasture programs containing pangolagrass and Pensacola bahia-
grass with and without clover and at several levels of fertility were grazed
in a cow-caif operation. During the 1955 season, the third year of the
study, half of the pangola pastures were replanted to Coastal bermuda to
study this grass and to improve seasonal distribution of forage. Yields of
forage, consequently, were low this season, varying from 2,551 to 9,705
pounds of dry herbage per acre.
Mineral and feed analyses of the forage from the different pastures were
continued in 1955. Forage from the all-grass pastures with low fertiliza-
tion was generally low in protein and the minerals. These values for the
all-grass pastures with high fertilization were usually relatively high, com-
paring favorably with those for the clover-grass mixtures. (See also Proj.
627, AN. HUSB. and NUTR., SOILS, AGR. ENG. and AGR. ECON.)

EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF TURFGRASSES
FOR FLORIDA
State Project 652 G. C. Nutter
Bermudagrasses.-Adaptation studies were continued and additional
data collected on 84 bermudagrass selections planted in 1953, and main-
tained under different mowing heights and fertility levels. Selections out-
standing in performance during the year were F.B. numbers 5, 6, 8, 12,
17, 30, 42, 43, 49, 52, 57, 61, 62, 64, 66, 76, 77, 78, 79 and 80.
An experimental putting green completed in the spring of 1955 was
planted to five leading putting green bermudagrasses, including Everglades
1, Bayshore, Tiffine, Tifgreen and Florida 50. During the period of estab-
lishment Tifgreen, Florida 50 and Everglades 1 were superior in perform-
ance to Bayshore and Tiffine.
Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Zoysiagrasses.-Classification was continued on 50 selections of zoysia-
grasses planted as two-inch plugs during the spring of 1955. Data were
collected on rate of coverage, density, maximum height, texture, growth
habit and seeding tendencies. Outstanding for rate of spread were F.Z.
numbers 4, 31, 32, 36, 40, 42, 43 and 45, while F.Z. numbers 8, 11, 39, 41 and
46 exhibited superior frost resistance.
St. Augustinegrasses.-Evaluations continued on a St. Augustinegrass
testing nursery planted in 1953. Outstanding selections during the year in-
cluded F.A. numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15, 16 and 20. F.A. 20 was the outstand-
ing fine texture selection, while F.A. 4 showed best winter color and vigor
among the coarser selections.
Centipedegrass.-F.C. selection 6, a green stem selection by Ritchey, was
the outstanding centipedegrass selection during the past year. In general,
however, centipedegrass performance was below other grass species tested.
Miscellaneous Grasses.-F. M. selections 7 and 10 (Paspalum spp.) con-
tinued to provide superior density and winter color among 26 selections
of miscellaneous low maintenance grasses. Common carpetgrass provided
good cover during the growing season but performed poorly during the
winter, due to poor frost tolerance. Pensacola bahiagrass continued to per-
form as well as or better than other commercial bahiagrass varieties.

PASTURE RENOVATION

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 661 I. M. Wofford

Pangolagrass and Coastal bermudagrass pasture sods gave most re-
sponse when using treatments which removed from 30 to 50 percent of
the sod. The resulting increase in clover population probably added to this
response. Treatments which destroyed about 15 percent of the sod gave
best results on Pensacola bahiagrass.

Fig. 7.-Zoysiagrass testing nursery. Fifty selections of zoysiagrass are
evaluated for growth rate, texture, growth habit, seeding tendency, frost
tolerance, disease resistance and other characteristics.








Annual Report, 1956


This project is being closed with this report. See also Project 661, AGR.
ENG. and AN. HUSB. and NUTR.

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID
PESTS OF TURFGRASSES
State Project 678 G. C. Nutter
The agronomic phases of this project were inactive this year. (See Proj.
678, ENTOMOLOGY, SUB-TROP. STA. and GULF COAST STA.)

SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN ROOT RESERVES
OF CERTAIN SANDHILL PLANTS
State Project 691 H. C. Harris, Frank Woods'1
and Walt Hopkins"
Studies on the available carbohydrates and nitrogen content of oak
roots and wiregrass roots at different times of the year were continued. So
far, results are not conclusive. (See also Proj. 691, SOILS.)

HERBICIDAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN PEANUTS AND OATS
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Proj. 694 E. 0. Burt
(Regional S-18)
Peanuts were planted on two different dates. Twenty herbicides were
used at different rates as pre-emergence treatments for weed control. In
addition to the pre-emergence treatments, DNBP was used at different
rates as post-emergence treatments. On the first planting date the following
herbicides, when used pre-emergence and at the respective rates in pounds
of active ingredients per acre, gave excellent weed control with little or
no injury to the peanuts: DNBP 6, 9, and 12; "Karmex" DW -z and 1;
SPCP 12 and 16; CDAA 4, 8, and 12; CDEA 8 and 12; CDEC at 8 and 12;
"Niagara 5518" 12; "Niagara 5519" 8 and 12; "Niagara 5520" 12; and
"Niagara 5521" 8 and 12. On the second planting date the following treat-
ments gave equally good results: CDAA 8, CDEC 8 and 12; and "Niagara
5521" 12. As a result of 3.10 inches of rainfall immediately following treat-
ment, most of the treatments in the second planting date gave less satis-
factory weed control and more damage to peanuts, compared to the same
treatments in the first planting date.
Post-emergence applications of DNBP at rates of 11 to 41/ pounds per
acre resulted in kill of all broadleaf weeds, moderate to severe foliage burn
of grasses and slight to moderate temporary foliage burn of peanuts. The
higher the temperatures at time of application the greater the injury of
DNBP to all plants. Whether the peanut leaves were open or closed had
little effect upon the degree of injury from DNBP treatments.
Post-emergence treatments with different herbicides indicate that the
best time to treat oats is when they are in the 3- to 4-leaf stage, although
treatments made at the 2- to 3-leaf stage, or when the oats were beginning
to joint, gave nearly as good results. The ester formulation of 2, 4-D at
the rate of 12 lb., the amine formulation of 2, 4-D at rates of %/2 to 2 lbs.,
and DNBP at the rate of 1 lb. per acre gave very good to excellent control
of weeds with little or no injury to oats. Other treatments did not give-as
good control of weeds or resulted in at least temporary injury to oats.
The amine and ester formulations of MCP were less toxic to weeds than
were the amine and ester formulations of 2, 4-D.

'o Cooperative with East Gulf Coast Branch, Southern Forest Experiment Station.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF FLORIDA FORAGE
CROPS TO ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Proj. 743 D. E. McCloud, C. S. Hoveland,
(Regional S-12) O. C. Ruelke and H. C. Harris
Temperature.-A laboratory method for testing cold resistance of forage
grasses has been developed. Results show that this test will detect sea-
sonal changes in cold resistance of a forage plant. Differences in plant
varieties with respect to cold tolerance can be detected. Similarly, cold
resistance differences between plant species, or between different plant
parts, can be ascertained.
Previous observations have shown that cold injury to pangolagrass was
much more severe following high rates of nitrogen fertilization. This test
will be used to evaluate the effects of fertilization and management prac-
tices on cold tolerance of forage crops.
Water.-A duplicate evapotranspiration installation was put in opera-
tion at Belle Glade, in cooperation with the Eve:glades Station. The Iirst
year's data gave the following relationship between water use and mean
daily temperature: Inches Daily Potential Evapotranspiration = KWT-32
K = .07, W = 1.02, T = mean daily temperature F. Water use at this
location appears to be within the available energy limitation. Advective
heat transfer is not a disturbing factor at the Belle Glade location.
Using the daily evapotranspiration concept and daily precipitation, ap-
plied to 50-year past weather records, agrohydrologic balance has been
computed for Gainesville, Florida. Crop water deficit, useful to the irriga-
tion engineer, and water lost by percolation, a measure of leaching poten-
tial, likewise can be calculated. A further extension of the concept, based
on long-time climatological records, provides the expected frequency and
intensity of drouths. At Gainesville short duration drouths, up to five
days, a:e most frequent during the sarnmer and least likely in winter. Long
droughts are most frequent in the fall season. A 70-day fall drouth is ex-

Fig. 8.-The irrigated portion of the 648 plots in the oat management
study. Bamboo stakes with colored tips indicate the height at which plants
are cut.









Annual Report, 1956


pected at Gainesville once every 50 years. This is a much better charac-
terization of drouth with respect to crop plants than is presently available.
Management.-Clipping studies with pearlmillet showed that the se-
verity of defoliation, or height of stubble left, had a minor effect on forage
yields and protein content. Close cutting in itself did not reduce forage
yield or protein content. The chief factor affecting yield and protein con-
tent was the height of the plants when cutting was begun. Frequent clip-
ping (clipped whenever the plants reached 12 to 18 inches tall) helped to
maintain a higher protein content through the season.
A similar type of field clipping experiment was conducted with three oat
varieties (Fig. 8). Lowest forage yields were obtained from plants clipped
continuously at 6 inches with a 2-inch stubble and 18-inch plants clipped
back to leave a 9-inch stubble. With irrigation, highest forage yields oc-
curred where plants were clipped back to 5 inches each time they reached
12 inches. On unirrigated plots 12-inch plants with a 2-inch stubble gave
better results. In general, irrigation increased oat forage yields by one-
third. Arlington outyielded Floriland and Seminole varieties in every
clipping treatment.

DISEASE AND AGONOMIC ADAPTATION
STUDIES ON CASTORBEANS
State Project 751 A. A. Cook"
Summer field plantings at Gainesville were inoculated with various path-
ogenic organisms to evaluate varietal resistance and agronomic accept-
ability. Dry weather prevented sufficient disease development, as well as
yield, for reliable comparisons.
Marked differences between some castorbean varieties were found as a
result of greenhouse inoculations with tobacco ring-spot virus.
No varietal resistance was found in greenhouse inoculations of castor-
bean with Cercospora ricinella.
Predisposition was found to decidedly alter disease development of bac-
terial leafspot of castorbean, but the work was not completed.
Field plantings of sesame were encouraging, but more extensive agro-
nomic information is needed before the crop can be recommended.

HERBICIDAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN CORN AND SOYBEANS
.State Project 747 E. 0. Burt
Twelve herbicides and three herbicidal combinations were used at dif-
ferent rates as pre-emergence, early post-emergence, and/or late post-
emergence treatments on corn. Pre-emergence applications of DNBP at 6
pounds active ingredient per acre, the low volatile ester of 2,4-D at 2 pounds
per acre, and "Karmex" DW at 1 and 2 pounds per acre resulted in good to
very good control of both broadleaf and grass weeds with little or no injury
to corn. Several post-emergence treatments gave satisfactory control of
broadleaf weeds, poor control of grasses, and little or no injury to corn. A
combination of DNBP at 1.5 pounds per acre and "Karmex" DW at 0.5
pound per acre gave excellent control of weeds with slight temporary in-
jury to corn.
Thirteen herbicides were used as pre-emergence treatments for weed
control in soybeans planted on two different dates. On the first planting
date only SPCP at 8 pounds active ingredient per acre gave satisfactory re-
.sults. On the second planting date excellent weed control with little or no

11 Cooperating with Field Crops Research Branch. ARS. USDA.








50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

injury to soybeans was obtained with the following: SPCP at 4, 8, and 12
pounds per acre; CIPC at 3, 6, and 9 pounds per acre; CDAA, CDEA,
CDEC, each at 8 pounds per acre; "Karmex" DW at y4 pound per acre;
and DNBP at 3 pounds per acre. Better weed control from treatments ap-
plied on the second planting date was due largely to higher soil moisture
following treatment.
Post-emergence applications of DNBP at rates of % and 1.5 pounds
per acre resulted in good to excellent control of broadleaf weeds with little
or no injury to soybeans.

CURING BRIGHT LEAF TOBACCO GROWN UNDER
DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Proj. 758 Fred Clark, J. M. Myers
and H. C. Harris

Work under this project was begun during the spring of 1956. The
principal objective is to study curing procedures for tobacco grown with
different levels of nitrogen. Five nitrogen (N) levels are being tested: 12,
24, 48, 96 and 192 pounds per acre. Five yellowing temperatures: 80, 90, 95,
100 and 110 degrees. Fahrenheit are tested with 80, 85, 90, 95 and 99-
percent relative humidities. Thirty small laboratory curing units have been
constructed and 15 combinations of the above treatments are being tested.
Each treatment is replicated twice in the curing barns. This year's results
are incomplete.
(See also Proj. 758, AGR. ENG.)

MEASUREMENT OF METEOROLOGICAL ELEMENTS
OF THE MICROCLIMATE
Hatch Project 760 D. E. McCloud and V. N. Schroder
Much time and effort over many years have been expended in making
standard meteorological observations. Yet these records are of limited
value to argiculturists because climatic elements surrounding crop plants
are quite different from those in standard shelters.
The object of this project is to determine the magnitude of temperature,
moisture and wind variations in the crop environment as these factors in-
fluence crop response, as well as to relate these conditions to observations
in a standard shelter.
This is a new project and work to date consists of equipping a mobile
microclimatic laboratory so that crop weather relations can be studied in
the field.

BREEDING AND EVALUATING NEW VARIETIES
OF SOYBEANS FOR FLORIDA
State Project 761 Kuell Hinson"
Soybean varieties and F2, F4 and FP breeding lines were brought to
Gainesville from the Delta Branch Experiment Station, Stoneville, Missis-
sippi, to start the breeding program. Of the 1,820 F4 plant-rows and 164 F,
plots grown, 256 were selected for further testing. Most selections appear
to surpass the presently grown varieties in agronomic characters and main-
tain comparable yields. The selections will be tested against standard varie-
ties for yield in 1956.
In the regional soybean variety tests, varieties which matured during
the last two weeks of October (medium maturity) yielded best. Recom-
12 Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA.









Annual Report, 1956 51

mended varieties for the state were among the highest in yield, with an
average of 35.6 bushels per acre in experimental plots.
One hundred twenty-five soybean introductions were evaluated for their
utility in the breeding program. Some introductions had moderate nema-
tode resistance, but none was immune.

THE INTERRELATION OF ENVIRONMENT TO THE PHYSIOLOGY
AND CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS. II. ORGANIC ACID METABOLISM
OF PLANTS IN RELATION TO MINOR ELEMENT NUTRITION.
Hatch Project 766 V. N. Schroder, H. C. Harris
and R. L. Gilman
This project was started February 1, 1956. Several species of plants
have been grown under both normal and deficient conditions in the green-
house using nutrient solution cultures. Separation and identification of the
organic acids are being made by chromatographic means. Efforts to im-
prove the accuracy of the quantitative measurements are being continued.

IRRIGATION OF TEMPORARY PASTURES FOR DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 772 D. E. McCloud
This is a new project designed to study the botanical composition,
amount and seasonal distribution of forage available to dairy heifers from
irrigated and non-irrigated alfalfa clover-oat pastures. Forage samples are
taken at about two-week intervals to determine the yield of forage from
each species in the pasture mixture. Samples are taken in both grazed
and ungrazed areas to determine forage consumption by the dairy heifers.
Since this study is just beginning, results are not yet available. This
project should provide information on the contribution of individual species
in pasture mixtures and allow a more intelligent compounding of such
mixtures. (See also Proj. 772, DAIRY SCIENCE and AGRI. ENG.)

MISCELLANEOUS
Sea Island and Other Long Staple Cotton."-No plantings of the Sealand
variety were made on the Florida Stations in 1955. Yield trials of five
strains of Coastland sea island and related cottons were conducted on the
Station farms at Gainesville and Sanford. Seed cotton production was high
and somewhat similar at both locations, ranging from 1,497 to 2,064 pounds
per acre. Lint percentage ranged from 36 to 41 and bolls to the pound
varied from 104 to 127. All available seed of the Coastland variety was
planted in Central Florida for increase during the 1955 season. (W. A.
Carver, J. W. Wilson and F. H. Hull.)
Crop Management.-For the eighth consecutive year, when Dixie 18 corn
followed bitter blue lupine no significant increases in grain were obtained
from 40 pounds each of P0s5 and K20 nor from 40 pounds of N alone or with
P and K. The eight cultural treatments previously used were discontinued
this year.
Seven thousand plants per acre appeared to be the optimum rate of
planting for Dixie 18 corn, where rates from 4,000 to 11,500 plants were
studied. There was no significant difference in yield of Dixie 18 when
planted at 15-day intervals from February 15 to May 1.
Date-of-planting studies indicated that the optimum time to plant soy-
beans is the first of June. Late-maturing strains yield well when planted
13 Cooperative with Field Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


two weeks earlier and early maturing strains two weeks later. No signifi-
cant yield increases were obtained from applications of fertilizer and lime
in tests at the Suwannee Valley Station. Yields of seed were slightly
higher when soybeans followed lupine instead of oats as a green manure
crop. No yield differences were obtained from applications of fertilizer to
the cover crop as compared with fertilizer applied to the soybeans. (I. M.
Wofford, E. S. Horner and H. W. Lundy.)
Control of Nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus L.).-Seventy different treat-
ments consisting of herbicides alone and in combination with tillage were
used in an effort to control nutgrass. Disking following treatment increased
the effectiveness of most of the herbicides. Among the most effective treat-
ments were combinations of amino triazole at the rate of 2 pounds active
ingredient per acre with each of the following: Dalapon at 10 lb./A, 2,4-D
at 2 lb./A, TCA at 20 Ib./A and diuron at 20 Ib./A. These herbicidal treat-
ments were applied June 7, the area was disked June 27, a second applica-
tion at the same rates was made July 19 and the area was again disked July
29. When all factors are considered, the best treatments were a combina-
tion of disking and the low volatile esters of 2, 4-D at the rate of 2 pounds
(71 percent kill of nutgrass) and 4 pounds (83 percent kill of nutgrass) acid
equivalent per acre, repeated at 10- to 20-day intervals for a total of three
diskings and two herbicidal applications. (E. O. Burt.)
Control of Some Common Lawn Weeds.-Creeping beggarweed (Mei-
bomia purpurea Mill.) and oxalis (Oxalis spp.) were killed by an application
of the low volatile esters of 2, 4, 5-T at the rate of 1 pound acid equivalent
per acre. Neither the amine nor the ester formulation of 2, 4-D was effec-
tive in killing the above weeds. Black medic (Medicago lupulina L.) and
dichondra (Dichondra carolinensis Mich.) were killed by either the amine
or low volatile ester formulation of 2, 4-D at the rate of 1 pound acid
equivalent per acre. (E. O. Burt.)
Control of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers.).-An application of
the sodium salt of Dalapon at the rate of 25 pounds active ingredient per
acre combined with amino triazole at the rate of 3 pounds active ingredient
per acre resulted in 99 percent kill of bermudagrass. The area was plowed
and disked 12 days following herbicidal treatment. (E. O. Burt.)

Fig. 9.-Manilagrass (Zoysia matrella) turf badly infested with sting
nematode (Belonolaimus gracilis). Square in left foreground treated with
commercial material.












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.. S.;-- .: _+*-. -. .
. ...- ..... A .. .
~T~3rtam
: ~ i~i~r :~~ jjF14 1








Annual Report, 1956


Irrigation of Field Crops.-During the summer of 1955 a pilot experi-
ment was conducted to measure crop response to irrigation along with
increased fertilization on four field crops, corn, peanuts, soybeans, and
pearlmillet. Corn yields were increased by 87 percent and peanut yields
were very slightly decreased. Soybeans and pearlmilllet yields were
slightly increased.
On the basis of these results, corn was selected for more intensive inves-
tigation. A complex shifting box design was selected for the 1956 corn
experiment. A total of 648 plots covering 71/2 acres was needed to study
the four irrigation levels, three planting dates, nine plant spacings, nine
rates of nitrogen fertilization and three replications. (D. E. McCloud, I. M.
Wofford, and E. S. Horner.)
Lawn Management Studies.-In overall performance tests last year on
established lawngrasses maintained at four fertility levels and three heights
of cut, manilagrass (Zoysia matrella) and an improved lawn bermuda-
grass (Florida number 8) were superior, followed in order by Bittter Blue
St. Augustinegrass, centipede, Pensacola bahia and carpet.
Height of cut and fertility level interactions were evident. High yearly
levels of fertilizer continue to cause reduction in stand and to increase weed
invasion with carpet and centipede. Winter fertilizer, in particular, is
detrimental to these grasses. On the other hand, winter fertilization im-
proves the winter color and performance of bermudagrass and manilagrass
and to a lesser extent, St. Augustine and bahia. (G. C. Nutter.)

Fig. 10.-Collecting clippings for quantitative evaluation of turf per-
formance. The study is designed to determine the effect of three fertilizer
rates and four frequencies of application on the year-around performance
of Bayshore and Everglades No. 1 bermudagrass putting green turf.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Nematode Investigations in Turf.-Surveys continued during the past
year indicated the ring nematode (Criconemoides spp.) to be more wide-
spread in turf than previously reported.
Studies initiated last year on the control of nematodes in established
St. Augustinegrass turf were continued. Four rates each of three com-
mercially prepared materials (Nemagon, Nemakril and VC-13) were applied
in drench form on a mixed nematode population consisting of lance, dagger
and stubby-root nematodes. Turf condition ratings and nematode counts
were taken periodically for a year following treatment.
Turf condition improved following treatment with all materials tested.
However, there was not a clear-cut relationship with nematode population.
Some selectivity was evident among chemicals in their effect upon the
various nematodes. Population behavior varied drastically with season
among the three nematode species.
To date these studies indicate strong need for expanded research in
biology, cultural and environmental relationships of the various parasitic
nematodes and on host preference and susceptibility. Studies are needed on
the relationship between nematode population and host damage.
To expand study along these lines, research grants were accepted from
the U. S. Golf Association and from Goodrich, Shell and Virginia-Carolina
Chemical companies. (See also Project 695, ENTOMOLOGY. G. C. Nutter.)
Nutrition of Turfgrasses.-A. Effect of frequency and rate of fertiliza-
tion on the year-around performance of bermudagrass putting green turf.
Three rates of N, P and K (0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 pounds per 1,000 square
feet) were applied each at four frequencies (weekly, biweekly, monthly
and bimonthly) to Bayshore and Everglades 1 bermudagrass putting green
plots. Quantity (clippings) and quality (density, color, general condition)
evaluations were made periodically. (See Fig. 10.)
Varietal differences were outstanding. Bayshore produced significantly
more clippings, yet was inferior to Everglades 1 in turf quality for all
treatments. In general, the 1.5 pound rate of application produced most
clippings and highest turf quality, while the biweekly application frequency
gave best performance except for seasonal interaction in the case of the
Bayshore variety.
This study points out that yield should not be considered singularly
as a reliable criterion of overall turf performance.
B. Preliminary investigations of soil reaction-minor element relation-
ships in turfgrasses.
Bermuda, centipede, manila (Zoysia matrella) and St. Augustine were
grown separately in pots adjusted to three pH levels (approximately 4.5,
6.5 and 8.5). Six minor element treatments (Cu, Zn, Mn, B, Fe, Ck) were
added to each series.
Bermuda and centipede exhibited a wide range of tolerance to soil re-
action. In contrast, St. Augustine and manilagrass performed poorly at
the low pH levels, improving in growth and condition as the pH was raised
to 8.0. (See Fig. 11.)
Additions of boron and copper reduced growth of St. Augustine at the
lowest pH, while zinc produced a similar effect on manilagrass.
At the low pH only an iron deficiency was apparently induced on St.
Augustine and centipedegrass in the presence of other minor elements.
No minor element deficiencies were noted at the higher pH levels on any
grass, with the possible exception of iron deficiency on the fast-growing
bermudagrass. (G. C. Nutter.)








Annual Report, 1956


Date of Planting Studies with Vegetative Turf Grasses.-Beginning in
January 1955 and again in 1956, plots of bermuda, centipede, manila
(Zoysia matrella) and St. Augustinegrass were planted every 40 days to
study the effect of date of planting on growth characteristics and rate of
coverage. Plots four-by-four feet square were planted with a single
four-inch plug of the respective grasses. Data were collected every 10 days
on condition and coverage.


Fig. 11.-Relationship of soil reaction to performance of four turfgrasses.

For the first five planting dates the average number of days required
to cover were bermudagrass 102 days, centipedegrass 149 days, St. Augus-
tinegrass 163 days and manilagrass 351 days. The February 20 planting
date produced the fastest rate of coverage with bermuda and centipede,
while the March 30 planting grew fastest in the case of manila and St.
Augustine. (G. C. Nutter.)
Maleic Hydrazide as a Growth Retardant on Two Southern Turf-
grasses.-Bahiagrass is becoming more widely used in Florida as a low
maintenance turfgrass. However, this grass has the serious disadvantage
of producing tall, rapid-growing seed spikes for several months during the
summer season, creating a mowing problem. This experiment was con-
ducted to determine if maleic hydrazide would be effective in reducing
vegetative growth and seed head production in a mixed bahiagrass-St.
Augustinegrass turf.
Treatments arranged in a Latin square design were 0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0
and 10.0 pounds per acre of maleic hydrazide (acid equivalent) applied as
the sodium salt. One hundred gallons of water per acre were applied at a
pressure of 40 p.s.i. Humidity was high during and following treatment.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Four weeks after treatment determinations were made for height of
grass, turf condition and degree of seed head production. Two weeks later
clipping tests were conducted and dry weights determined for the mixed
vegetation.
Results of the height measurements were highly significant for bahia
and significant for St. Augustine. The 10-pound treatment produced a 40
percent reduction in growth for both grasses, while the 5-pound treatment
reduced growth 31 percent for bahia and 25 percent for St. Augustine.
Reduction in dry weight was significant-35 and 83 percent, respectively,
for the 5 and 10-pound treatments.
Seed head production was very significantly affected in both grasses.
The 5 and 10-pound treatments reduced seed head formation 65 and 92
percent, respectively, for bahiagrass and 88 and 100 percent, respectively,
for St. Augustine.
Results of the treatment on turf condition were highly significant for
St. Augustine but not significant for bahia. The 10-pound treatment in-
duced serious chlorosis in St. Augustine, while some injury to bahia was
evidenced in the form of anthocyanin discoloration. With the 5-pound
treatment injury was evident but not serious. Pensacola bahiagrass was
less affected by the treatments than common bahia.
The 1.25 and 2.5-pound treatments were not considered practically effec-
tive in reducing either vegetative or reproductive growth. In fact, some
stimulus was believed evident from the 1.25-pound treatment. (G. C.
Nutter.)

Fig. 12.-Ten pounds per acre of maleic hydrazide reduced seed head
formation an average of 92% on bahiagrass while producing no significant
injury to the turf.








Annual Report, 1956


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION


The Nutrition Laboratory, a baby pig experimental barn, a sheep
experimental barn, a metabolism building and a building to house rabbits
were completed. These facilities will enable the Department to enlarge
its research program. The new Nutrition Laboratory includes special facili-
ties for enzyme and radioactive isotope work.
Grants-in-aid have been received from Lederle Laboratories, Eli Lilly
and Company, Chas. Pfizer and Company, Swift and Company, The Na-
tional Cottonseed Products Association, The Nutrition Foundation, U. S.
Atomic Energy Commission, U. S. Public Health Service, Coronet Phos-
phate Company, The Soft Phosphate Institute and the Sugar Research
Foundation. These grants, which totaled $63,669 last year, have enabled
the department to expand many of its investigations on vitamins, minerals,
antibiotics, proteins, meats, breeding, physiology and nutrition with beef
cattle, swine and sheep. All grants have been used to expand work that is
useful to Florida livestock producers.
A flock of Hampshire and Rambouillet sheep was added this year. A
sheep unit was developed and a research program with sheep is underway.
Five new projects were initiated during the year. These include studies
on the nutritional requirements of baby pigs, production of early spring
lambs, genetics of dwarfism in cattle, the nutritional value of new feeds and
the nutritional requirements of rabbits. During the past year the responsi-
bility for conducting nutrition and feeding research with rabbits was turned
over to this department. This is the reason for constructing a small
building to house rabbits and the initiation of a project on feeding rabbits.
The department has continued its cooperation with various other de-
partments and with branch stations throughout Florida. Samples of feed,
submitted from scientific investigators in Costa Rica, Paraguay, Venezuela
and Cuba have been analyzed. The results of the analyses have added
to the information secured in Florida concerning the interrelationships of
mineral elements and the availability of feed nutrients to cattle. Many
of the staff have also judged livestock shows and helped breeders in Central
and South American countries with their livestock procurement and pro-
duction problems.

MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATTLE
Purnell Project 133, G. K. Davis, R. L. Shirley, W. G. Kirk", R. B.
Becker", P. T. Dix Arnold", S. P. Marshall", J. P. Feaster, J. T. McCall,
L. R. Arrington, and J. C. Outler, Jr.
Fluorosis in cattle and the related problems of the level of fluorine in
drinking water sources, level of fluorine in forage and level of fluorine in
the tissues of animals has continued as an important part of this project.
Levels in drinking water have been found which range from less than 1
part per million to over 400 ppm. Values in forage have ranged up to
100 ppm. Bones and teeth of animals suspected of fluorosis have been
found to contain fluorine in excess of 7,000 ppm.
Work with copper toxicity has been renewed because of the increased
incidence in the state of this condition that has been brought on by the
Cooperative with Dairy Science, Range Cattle and Everglades Stations.









58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

inclusion of high levels of copper in feeding programs. It appears that at
least 59 percent of animals fed 1 gram of copper sulfate per 100 pounds of
live weight per day will develop fatal copper toxicosis within three to five
months. Studies on the relationship of copper to other mineral elements
has indicated a relationship of this element to potassium which may prove
to be the key to the development of quick death or heart failure in cattle.
Cobalt deficiency has been observed in cattle on legume pastures.
This is a condition not previously observed, but accounted for by the fact
that in these legumes the level of cobalt was as low as 0.01 ppm in the
dry matter, a level comparable to the low levels in non-legumes.
Phosphorus deficiency continues to be the principal factor in cattle
production in many parts of Florida. Experimental studies indicating that
low levels of phosphorus depress growth, lower milk flow, lead to bone
fractures and eventual death have again been confirmed in practical ex-
perience.
Studies with radioactive tracers including cobalt-60 have shown cattle
have a higher requirement for vitamin B-12 than some other livestock
and one of the effects of high molybdenum in feed is to reduce the forma-
tion of vitamin B-12 within the rumen. Where cobalt intake is margi-
nal, the presence of molybdenum in the diet may prevent vitamin B-12
formation and precipitate a cobalt deficiency.
Studies have continued on the availability of phosphorus from different
sources in feed supplements. They indicate that phosphorus from soft
phosphate is almost as available as phosphorus from defluorinated phos-
phate. The level of fluorine in soft phosphate prevents its use in large
quantities under Florida conditions. Using different sources of phosphate
as fertilizers may give varying results, depending upon the nitrogen level
in the soil. With low levels of nitrogen, lower levels of phosphorus may be
satisfactory for the restricted plant growth and provide at least a minimum
level for cattle on these pastures if adequate feed is available.
In cooperative work at the Dairy Research Unit, evidence has been
accumulated during the past year to indicate that a level of iron below
10 per cent of red oxide of iron in the mineral supplement may result in
reduced hemoglobin in cattle in this area. The relationship between manga-
nese and poor breeding history is being continued. Initial results indicated
that in heifers with a poor conception record, manganese in the liver
was low. In a study of the relationship between protein and the utilization
of trace elements, it appears that increasing protein in the diet gives a meas-
ure of protection against high levels of fluorine. (See Proj. 133, EVERGLADES
STATION.)

INVESTIGATION OF MINERAL NUTRITION PROBLEMS OF
LIVESTOCK THROUGH THE USE OF LABORATORY ANIMALS
Purnell, Project 346 G. K. Davis, J. P. Feaster, J. T. McCall,
L. R. Arrington and R. L. Shirley

Early work indicated that the level of some of the trace elements in the
diet, such as manganese, copper and molybdenum, had an effect upon the
activity of oxidation-reduction enzymes of muscle and heart-muscle tissue.
Work with laboratory animals and with tissues from swine and steers,
slaughtered at the Meats Laboratory, has shown that the greatest effect
upon oxidation-reduction enzymes occurs as a result of changes in the
energy level of the diet of these animals. Work with rats has shown that
the enzyme content and activity of rat tissues parallels those observed in









Annual Report, 1956


large animal tissues under similar conditions. Using rats as experimental
animals, it was observed that the availability of phosphorus from different
phosphate sources, such as defluorinated phosphate, dicalcium phosphate
and colloidal phosphate, is not the same or in the same order as is the
availability from these materials when fed to cattle. Cattle appear to be
able to use the phosphate in colloidal and defluorinated phosphates more
readily than rats.
In the study of the effect of molybdenum upon the utilization of vita-
min B-12, it has become apparent that the level of protein is a critical fac-
tor in determining the action of molybdenum. Low levels of protein intake
greatly intensify the action of molybdenum. High levels of protein in the
diet counteract to a considerable degree the adverse effect of molybdenum
upon copper and vitamin B-12 utilization in rats. Carotene, the precursor
of vitamin A, does' not increase the toxicity of molybdenum in the diet,
even though this had been suggested by the observation that green forages
containing molybdenum are somewhat more toxic than dry forages con-
taining the same amount of molybdenum. Rabbits placed on a high molyb-
denum diet developed on albuminuria as a part of the molybdenum toxi-
city. This emphasizes the relationship between molybdenum toxicity and
protein metabolism. Work has been initiated with sulfur-35 and with
methionine in an effort to determine the relationship between molybdenum
and methionine in protein metabolism.

HERBAGE COMPOSITION AND ANIMAL RESPONSE AS
INFLUENCED BY PASTURE MANAGEMENT
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Project 356 G. K. Davis and J. T. McCall

Over 700 individual samples of pangolagrass (Digitaria decumbens) have
been analyzed and evaluated in regard to the influence of season of the
year, type of soil and fertilizer practice. These factors have been related
to cattle performance on these pastures. Results indicate that, regardless
of fertilizer or management program, the protein level of pangolagrass goes
through regular cycles with peaks in the spring and early fall. Nitrogen
application increases these peaks, but does not prevent the protein from
dropping to low levels in late winter or to medium low levels in early
summer. As a result of fertilizer applications pangolagrass has proved
particularly adaptable to increased cattle performance. This is because
pangolagrass utilizes fertilizer rapidly and reaches the point of diminish-
ing returns from fertilizer application at a much higher level than other
species which have been studied, including native range, bermudagrass and
bahiagrass.
Under this project and in cooperation with R. B. Becker of the Dairy
Department, investigations have been made of silages prepared from forage
materials, with some indication that by incorporating a product such as
citrus pulp to absorb the moisture and retain the soluble protein, the protein
loss usually experienced when young, rapidly growing grass is ensiled can
be prevented.
Copper and cobalt values of forage increase when phosphorus and nitro-
gen supplements are applied before the spring peak of growth, but do not
show a similar increase when fertilizer is applied at other times of the year.
Nitrate levels in various forages, especially fescue (Festuca elatior) may
approach toxic levels under management practices which do not take into
account weather conditions and their relation to time of harvest.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


USE OF CITRUS AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS
FOR FEEDING SWINE

State Project 540 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs
Three experiments have been conducted to study the possible value of
adding a fraction of citrus oil (d-limonene and various derivatives) to the
ration of growing-fattening swine. The oil did not improve weight gains
or feeding efficiency, nor did it have a clear-cut beneficial effect from the
standpoint of reducing internal parasites.
A preliminary test on the use of poultry by-products meal and feather
meal as sources of protein for the weanling pig has given promising results.
A creep feeding test involving "C" sugar (an unrefined grade of sugar
from Cuba) indicated that it was a very suitable feed ingredient for suck-
ling pigs.

SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDS FOR SOWS DURING
GESTATION AND LACTATION
State Project 542 H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs
An experiment designed to study the value of adding zinc (12 ppm) to
the ration of gestating-lactating sows has been completed. The zinc sup-
plementation did not favorably influence the reproductive performance of
the sows.

ROUGHAGES FOR MAINTENANCE AND GROWTH OF
BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA
State Project 543 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and T. J. Cunha
This project was inactive and was closed October 31, 1955.

LOSS OF NUTRIENTS FROM DEFROSTED FROZEN MEAT
BY EXUDATION
State Project 546 A. Z. Palmer and T. J. Cunha
This project was inactive during the year and is now being closed.

TRANSFER OF MINERAL ELEMENTS THROUGH THE PLACENTA
AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN THE FETUS
Adams Project 566 G. K. Davis, J. P. Feaster, L. R. Arrington
and J. T. McCall
The level of protein in the diet of pregnant females may be as important
as the level of trace elements, within certain limits, in facilitating the trans-
fer of trace elements across the placenta as part of the nutrition of the
developing young. When diets low in protein were fed to pregnant rats, an
increased level of molybdenum severely depressed the availability of phos-
phorus to the developing fetus. Using radioactive sulfur-35, it was possible
to demonstrate that a low protein intake depressed the availability of
sulfur-35 to the developing fetus. This is of particular importance, inas-
much as sulfur is necessary for the formation of cartillage which deter-
mines the shape and formation of bone.
Results of experiments under this project have emphasized the im-
portance of protein as well as of trace elements in the diet of the female
during the latter part of pregnancy to insure normal development of the
fetus. When normal and high protein diets are fed to pregnant rats, levels
of molybdenum which caused a toxic condition with low protein diets did









Annual Report, 1956


not affect the transfer of manganese or phosphorus across the placenta nor
their distribution in the fetus.

INFLUENCE OF BREED COMPOSITION AND LEVEL OF NUTRITION
ON ADAPTABILITY OF CATTLE TO CENTRAL
FLORIDA CONDITIONS
State Project 615 M. Koger
For this report, see Proj. 615, Range Cattle Station.

PASTURE PROGRAMS AND BREEDING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF
PRODUCTION ON FLATWOOD SOILS OF CENTRAL
AND NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
State Project 627 M. Koger
This year's results continued the same general trends indicated in past
years. The most significant result from the different pasture programs
has been the superior performance of pastures containing clover over all-
grass pastures. The weaning weights of calves from clover pastures was
442 pounds and those from all-grass programs 418 pounds. Conception
rate in nursing cows on clover and all-grass pastures was 93.5 percent and
26.3 percent, respectively. Growth rate in replacement heifers and in
yearling steers was higher in animals on clover pastures, as was body
weight of mature cattle. Furthermore, cattle on most of the clover pastures
wintered in satisfactory condition without supplemental feed, while cows
on grass pastures received 1 pound of cottonseed meal per head daily for a
period of 100 days.
In breeding studies to date, crossbred calves sired by British bulls on
grade Brahman cows have gained slightly more on pasture and significantly
more in the feed lot than calves sired by Brahman sires on similar cows.
The crossbred calves have also had higher market grades at all stages of
development. (See also Proj. 627, SOILS, AGRON., AGR. ENG. and AGR. ECON.)

SELECTION OF CATTLE ADAPTED FOR BEEF PRODUCTION IN
SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES"
State Project 629 M. Koger
(Contributing to Regional Project S-10)
Foundation herds of approximately 30 cows of Angus, Brahman, Bran-
gus, Hereford and Santa Gertrudis cattle have been established during re-
cent years. The herds have not been in existence long enough for all to ac-
climate or for trends to be definitely established.
In 1955, weaning percentages for the different breeds were for Angus,
S6; Brahman, 70; Brangus, 66; Hereford, 79; and Santa Gertrudis, 64.
Weights of calves at 180 days for the respective breeds were 323, 330, 358,
297 and 419 pounds. Production per cow bred was 294, 226, 218, 210 and 253
pounds, respectively.

A COMPARISON OF THE CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF
PUREBRED BRAHMAN, PUREBRED BRITISH
BREEDS AND THEIR CROSSES
State Project 631 A. Z. Palmer and M. Koger

The slaughter and carcass characteristics of 67 steers of purebred
Brahman, 3/ Brahman-1/4 Shorthorn, 12 Brahman-1/ Shorthorn, 1/ Brah-
5 Cooperation with Animal and Poultry Husbandry Research Branch. ARS, USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


man-3/, Shorthorn and purebred Shorthorn breeding were investigated over
a four-year period. Data collected over the first three years have been sta-
tistically analyzed; fourth year data are now in the process of being
analyzed.
The findings to date indicate that steers with a predominance of Brah-
man blood are less tender, have smaller digestive tracts, smaller livers,
heavier hides, greater length of hind leg, a higher combined percentage
of high priced primal cuts (round-rib and loin) and a higher cooler shrink.
Steers with half or more Shorthorn blood graded significantly higher on
the rail, had larger kidney knobs and a higher percentage of fat in the
prime rib. Tenderness scores by taste test panel and by shear test machine
showed that the steers with half or more Shorthorn blood were more ten-
der than the steers with a predominant amount of Brahman blood. (See also
Proj. 631, RANGE CATTLE STATION.)

PASTURE RENOVATION

Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Proj. 661 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and T. J. Cunha
The Animal Husbandry and Nutrition phase of this project, conducted
cooperatively with the Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy Depart-
ments, has been inactive during the past year. The project is closed with
this report. (See also Proj. 661, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING and AGRON-
OMY.)

IMPROVEMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF REPRODUCTION
IN BEEF COWS
State Project 709 A. C. Warnick, M. Koger,
A. Z. Palmer and M. Ristic

The effect of a low level of an estrogen (10 mg. daily diethylstil-
bestrol) on reproductive performance of low-fertility, brucellosis-free
heifers and cows was studied. These results were compared to fertilization
rate and embryo survival in parous fertile cows and two-year-old virgin
heifers. Cows on the stilbestrol experiment were bred to fertile bulls and
slaughtered 34 days later. All cows fed stilbestrol came into heat, while
25 percent of the control cows failed to show estrus by 31 days of breeding.
There was no significant difference in the percentage of cows with normal
embryos in the stilbestrol-fed females (33 percent) and in the control fe-
males (38 percent). The fertilization rate in those cows that returned in
heat and were rebred was 80 percent in control cows, compared to 17 per-
cent in stilbestrol-fed cows. This would suggest that stilbestrol may inter-
fere with ovulation or fertilization of the ova. The low-fertility cows at
the Belle Glade Station fed stilbestrol had 25 percent normal embryos, com-
pared to 33 percent for control cows. Diethylstilbestrol showed no ad-
vantage in reducing early embryonic death.
The percentage of parous fertile cows with normal embryos 34 days
after breeding was 89 percent, while 75 percent of the two-year-old cross-
bred heifers had normal embryos at this stage when bred to fertile bulls.
Nine percent of the two-year-old heifers did not come into heat during
a. 67-day breeding season, which indicated delayed puberty (first estrus)
could account for failure of some heifers to conceive. Embryonic mortality
was a major cause of reproductive failure in low-fertility cows and was
relatively unimportant in parous fertile cows and two-year-old heifers. (See
Proj. 709, VETERINARY SCIENCE.)


I









Annual Report, 1956


EFFECT OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION OF PASTURE FORAGE
UPON FERTILITY IN BEEF CATTLE

State Project 710 A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges, Jr.,
M. Koger and T. J. Cunha
British breed heifers 15 months old were individually fed various levels
of protein from 100, 62, 28 and 7 percent of the recommended requirements
to study reproduction, blood constituents and weight changes. Aver-
age daily gains or losses in weight on the various levels of protein for a
112-day period were 1.1, 0.8, 0.0 and 0.7 pounds, respectively. Appetite was
adversely affected after 56 days on the two lower levels. The hemoglobin
level, percent of total blood cells and total serum protein began to decrease
after 56 days in heifers on the two lower levels. At the end of 84 days the
total serum protein in heifers receiving 7 percent of recommended protein
was 16 percent below the control animals. All heifers showed estrus on
the control ration, while only 75 percent came into estrus on the two middle
levels and no heifers showed estrus on the lowest level of protein.
Three-year-old crossbred heifers grazing all-grass pastures and supple-
mented with cottonseed meal during their first two winters had 88 percent
live calves born, while comparable heifers with no cottonseed meal had 50
percent live calves born. Also, the average calving date was 38 days later
in those heifers on grass without a protein supplement. Reproductive rate
was comparable in heifers on clover-grass pasture with and without cotton-
seed meal supplement.
On all-grass pasture, 20-month-old crossbred heifers which received a
protein supplement of cottonseed meal during their first two winters were
102 pounds heavier than comparable heifers which received no protein
supplement. Heifers that grazed on the clover-grass pastures and received
cottonseed meal were 23 pounds heavier than similar heifers with no pro-
tein supplement. The age at first estrus was earlier in heifers on grass
pasture that received the protein supplement compared to heifers which
received no protein supplement.
Weanling heifers on grass pasture and receiving cottonseed meal dur-
ing the winter gained 51 pounds more through June 13, 1956, than heifers
getting no cottonseed meal. Similar heifers on clover-grass pasture that
received cottonseed meal gained 69 pounds more than similar heifers that
received no protein supplement. The heifers that received the protein were
reaching puberty earlier than heifers getting no protein.

REPRODUCTION PHENOMENA IN ABERDEEN ANGUS,
BRAHMAN AND HEREFORD CATTLE

State Project 716 J. F. Hentges, Jr., and A. C. Warnick
A comparison of the reproductive performance in Aberdeen Angus,
Brahman and Hereford cattle was made.
The average age at puberty (first estrus) was 332 days for Aberdeen
Angus, 429 days for Herefords and 567 days for Brahmans. The range
of ages at puberty were from 294 to 370 days for Aberdeen Angus, 339 to
501 days for Herefords and 452 to 784 days for Brahmans. The reasons for
the variation are under study.
The average interval from parturition to first estrus was 52 days in
Aberdeen Angus, 54 days in Herefords and 55 days in Brahmans. The range
in intervals to postpartum estrus was from 17 to 81 days in Aberdeen An-
gus, 25 to 94 days in Herefords and 42 to 69 days in Brahmans.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


HERITABILITY OF PERFORMANCE ESTIMATES ON
ABERDEEN ANGUS, BRAHMAN AND HEREFORD CATTLE


State Project 717
A comparison of
year is as follows:





Birth weight ........

Weaning weight ..

Weaning grade ....

Weaning type ......


J. F. Hentges, Jr., and M. Koger
the relative breed performance data for the current


Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
Maies
Females


Cow weight at weaning ........

Average weight two-year-old
heifers ............ .......... ....

Average weight
yearling heifers .....................

Percent calf crop ...................


Aberdeen
Angus

58.8
55.1
551.5
450.9
8.9
9.5
11.7
11.8


975.5


948.8


688.1

96.6


Brahman

66.5
62.0
488.3
396.7
10
10
11.3
11


1,037.5


None


744.0

50.0


Herefords

63.7
64.1
487.5
436.9
9.6
9.7
12.5
12.1


1,023.8


991.6


712.5

92.5


VITAMINS, ANTIBIOTICS AND UNIDENTIFIED
FACTORS IN SWINE NUTRITION


State Project 718


H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs and
T. J. Cunha


An extensive study involving feeding trials and tissue analyses revealed
that the presence of chlortetracycline in the ration of the young pig tended
to spare the dietary requirement for pantothenic acid.
A study designed to determine the value of erythromycin, penicillin V
and combinations of the two antibiotics as supplements in the ration of
growing-fattening pigs yielded no positive results.
An unidentified growth factor supplement (Pfizer fermentation factor)
proved ineffective when added to a corn-soybean oilmeal ration completely
fortified with all nutrients known to be required by the pig.
A palatability test has demonstrated very clearly that young pigs dis-
like the taste imparted to feeds by the antibiotic, erythromycin.

SUPPLEMENTS AND BY-PRODUCT FEEDS FOR BEEF CATTLE


State Project 721


J. F. Hentges, Jr., and T. J. Cunha


The value of aureomycin and diethylstilbestrol for fattening steers, heif-
ers and cull calves was determined in three experiments completed during
the current year. In a study of four lots of six yearling steers each, it was








Annual Report, 1956


shown that the addition of diethylstilbestrol and an aureomycin-deithylstil-
bestrol combination to a basal steer fattening ration resulted in faster
weight gains, more feed consumption, more efficient feed utilization, higher
carcass grades and no visible undesirable side effects. In a study of four
lots of five individually fed heifers each, it was shown that heifers receiv-
ing 30 milligrams aureomycin per live hundredweight gained faster than
S heifers receiving a 10 milligram level. Gains were greatest when the
aureomycin was fed only during the first five weeks of the trial. A com-
bination of 30 milligrams aureomycin per live hundredweight and 10 milli-
grams diethylstilbestrol daily gave faster gains than aureomycin alone. In
a third experiment, four lots of seven cull calves were fed rations con-
taining none, 10, 30 and 50 milligrams of aureomycin per live hundred-
weight. The most effective level from the standpoint of weight gains and
efficiency of feed utilization was the 30 milligram level.

INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF NUTRITION ON THE REPRODUCTIVE
PERFORMANCE OF SWINE
State Project 725 A. C. Warnick and H. D. Wallace

The average age and weight at first estrus of 28 gilts on a limited
energy ration (approximately 50 percent of full-fed group with equivalent
amounts of protein, vitamins and minerals) was 218 days and 161 pounds,
compared to 194 days and 194 pounds for 26 gilts on full-feed on pasture.
There was 1.5 more ova shed at the second estrus compared to first estrus
on both rations. There was 11.1 ova shed at second estrus on the limited
ration and 13.1 ova at second estrus on the full-fed ration. The fertilization
rate on both rations was comparable at 99 percent. The average number
of live embryos at 25 days after breeding was 10.4 on the limited and
10.1 on the full-fed ration. However, the number of live pigs farrowed was
9.0 and 8.7 for limited and full-fed gilts, respectively. The prenatal death
between breeding and farrowing was 19.9 percent on the limited ration
and 33.6 percent on the full-fed ration. These data indicate that a ration
which is beneficial for early puberty and a high ovulation rate in gilts is
probably not conducive to maximum prenatal survival.

REPRODUCTIVE PHENOMENA IN HAMPSHIRE AND
SOUTHDOWN SHEEP
State 733 P. E. Loggins, A. C. Warnick and
T. J. Cunha
An unusual sex ratio limited the comparisons between breeds. The Hamp-
shire lambs were all ewes and the Southdown lambs were all rams in 1955.
The 1956 lamb crop in the Hampshire and Southdown flocks was 37.5 per-
cent and 21.4 percent, respectively. The year before, these same flocks had
166 and 87 percent lamb crops, respectively. The low percentage of lambs
born in 1956 may have been influenced by the 28-day phenothiazine drench-
ing program used to control internal parasites for 5 months previous to and
during the breeding season. There was only a slight variation in reproduc-
tion phenomena between the Hampshire and Southdown flocks. Puberty
in four Southdown ram lambs was reached at eight months at an average
weight of 72 pounds; two Hampshire ewe lambs reached puberty at an
average age of nine months and at an average weight of 80 pounds. The
semen quality in a Hampshire ram was found to be, highest during the
months of June, October and November.








Florida Agricultural E'xperiment Stations


NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF PIGS WEANED
AT AN EARLY AGE
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Proj. 738 G .E. Combs, H. D. Wallace and
T. J. Cunha
An experiment was initiated to determine the value of using the baby
pig's serum alkaline phosphatase activity as an index to individual varia-
tion in rate of growth and efficiency of feed utilization.
Blood serum was obtained by heart puncture from 431 pigs when they
were one day and seven days of age. The serum was then frozen and phos-
phatase determinations on these samples are now in progress.

FEEDING WASTE BEEF TALLOW TO PEANUT-FED
SWINE TO HARDEN THEIR FAT
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Proj. 739 A. Z. Palmer, H. D. Wallace,
T. J. Cunha and R. L. Shirley
Thirty-nine crossbred pigs were divided into five lots according to sex,
weight and age for feeding tests on pasture. Average initial weights were
54, 53, 53, 53 and 53 pounds in lots I, II, III, IV and V. Average final
weights were 199, 194, 202, 223 and 219 pounds. Lot I, the "soft" control lot,
was hand-fed peanuts in shell from the initial to the final weight. Lot V,
the "hard" control lot, was self-fed a corn-soybean oilmeal ration from
initial to final weight. Test lots II, III and IV were hand-fed peanuts in
shell from initial to average weights of 163, 148 and 119 pounds and then
self-fed the hardening ration to final weight. The hardening ration con-
tained 18% crude protein and 15% beef tallow. Carcasses from lot I were
oily, while those from lot V were hard and medium hard. Carcasses from
lots II, III and IV graded an average of soft, soft and medium soft.
Iodine numbers were determined on leaf, clear plate and intermuscular
fats and reflected differences proportional to the pounds of "soft" gain and
the pounds of gain made on the hardening rations. The high tallow-high
protein ration did improve carcass quality, although the hardening effect
was not of practical magnitude. Pigs in test lots II, III and IV gained ap-
preciably faster and more economically on the high energy-high protein
ration that followed the peanut feeding period than either the "soft" con-
trol or the "hard" control lots at comparable weights.

PRODUCTION OF EARLY SPRING LAMBS IN FLORIDA
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Proj. 740 P. E. Loggins, M. Koger,
(Contributing to Regional Project S-29) A. C. Warnick and T. J. Cunha
An extensive study was designed to determine methods by which
earlier spring lambs can be produced in Florida. The facilities and flocks
necessary to initiate this study have been obtained. The 30 yearling
Hampshire and 30 yearling Rambouillet ewes will be placed in the breed-
ing program July 1, 1956. Checking the flock prior to the breeding season
showed the Hampshire to be anestrus while the five Rambouillet were in
estrus up to June 15.

GENETICS OF DWARFISM IN BEEF CATTLE
State Project 752 M. Koger, A. C. Warnick
(Contributing to S-10) and J. F. Hentges
A study was made on the different forms of dwarfism which occur in
the various breeds and strains of beef cattle in Florida to determine the
genetic and anatomical relationships of the various types.


I








Annual Report, 1956


The study was conducted on dwarf animals of Angus, Hereford, Short-
horn, Brahman and cattle of various combinations of breeds, which were
collected from breeders throughout the state. Additional dwarfs were ob-
tained from a test herd maintained at the Purebred Beef Unit, for the pur-
pose of testing herd sires. This study was conducted during 1955 and 1956.
Results from the genetic part of this study showed: (1) The snorter
Hereford and snorter Angus are due to the same gene. (2) The long-headed
Hereford and the snorter Angus are apparently unrelated. (3) The long-
headed Hereford appears to be different from the long-headed Angus. (4)
The midget in Brahmans appears to be related genetically to the long-
headed Angus. (5) Apparently the midget in Brahmans is caused by an
incompletely dominant or a recessive trait with variable penetrance. Addi-
tional test matings should be made to determine the genetic composition of
the midget Brahman and the long-headed Angus.
Results from the anatomical part of this study showed that all snorter
dwarfs had an internal hydrocephalic condition and the centrum of the
lumbar vertebrae were beaded. These conditions appeared in some of the
other types of dwarfs, but usually to a lesser degree and the two conditions
in combination were not consistently found in all animals of any type
other than the snorters.
Virgin and non-parous heifers treated with pituitary gonadotrophin did
not become pregnant.

THE NUTRITIONAL AVAILABILITY OF COMPONENTS OF
LIVESTOCK FEEDSTUFFS
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Proj. 755 G. K. Davis, L. R. Arrington,
J. C. Outler and J. T. McCall
In the study of the availability of phosphorus in the feed of cattle, soft
phosphate with colloidal clay, defluorinated phosphate and dicalcium phos-
phate manufactured from rock phosphate, along with reagent phosphates,
have been subjected to irradiation in the pile at Oak Ridge to convert the
phosphorus to phosphorus32. This has provided a label within the natural
compounds that can be followed through the digestive tract, and the utili-
zation by animals can be observed. These products have been evaluated in
cattle and in laboratory animals.
The first results have shown that laboratory animals and cattle differ
very markedly in their utilization of phosphate from soft phosphate and de-
fluorinated phosphate. Cattle are much better equipped to use the phos-
phate from soft phosphate with colloidal clay than are rats, at least for
the duration of short-term feeding trials. In other experiments with feed
ingredients, investigations have been carried out with sugar cane bagasse
pith and ammoniated sugar cane bagasse pith. Paralleling work at the
Range Cattle Station where feeding trials have been conducted by Dr. W. G.
Kirk and work with small animals and with artificial rumen techniques
have shown that the ammonia from ammoniated sugar cane bagasse pith
is converted by rumen bacteria into protein that can be used by cattle and
that sugar cane bagasse pith can be utilized in amounts equivalent to
roughage normally consumed as hay. The preliminary results indicate that
sugar cane bagasse pith mixed with molasses and ammoniated sugar cane
bagasse pith may be satisfactory feed ingredients for cattle.

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF RABBITS
State Project 768 L. R. Arrington and G. K. Davis
In initiating this project, a breeding colony of New Zealand White
rabbits has been established, housing facilities have been provided and a








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


portion of other necessary equipment has been obtained. Experimental ra-
tions are being developed for use in studying nutritional requirements of
rabbits and in evaluating the feeding value of Florida-produced feeds.

MISCELLANEOUS

Management of Sheep in Florida.-A 28-day drenching program using
phenothiazine to control the internal parasites in sheep was started on
April 22, 1955. The use of a free choice mixture of 9 parts salt and 1 part
phenothiazine was discontinued. After five months on this treatment,
the flock was found to still be heavily infested with internal parasites and
extreme cases of anemia were detected. Five lambs were lost during this
period. The use of copper sulfate and nicotine sulfate as a means of treat-
ment was found to be effective. A low lambing percentage was obtained
from this flock. (P. E. Loggins and T. J. Cunha.)
"C" Sugar as a Beef Cattle Feed.-Two experiments were conducted to
determine the feeding value of "C" sugar for wintering beef calves. A pre-
liminary tolerance test revealed that weaned calves could consume up to
five pounds per head daily before scouring occurred. Another preliminary
test compared a daily feed of four pounds of "C" sugar with four pounds
of ground corn for wintering steer and heifer calves. Weight gains and
other criteria were the same for each group, indicating that feeding values
were equal under these conditions. (J. F. Hentges, Jr.)
Comparative Value of Cottonseed Meal-Urea Protein Supplements Fed
at 24- 48- and 72-Hour Intervals.-Cottonseed meal-urea supplements were
fed to three lots of seven heifers each during a 119-day wintering trial. All
lots were fed a full feed of millet silage, but the protein supplement was fed
at the rate of 1 pound every 24 hours (Lot I), 2 pounds every 48 hours
(Lot II) and 3 pounds every 72 hours (Lot III). The urea consumption per
animal was 28.6, 57.2 and 85.8 grams per feeding of protein supplement, re-
spectively, for Lots I, II and III. Average daliy gains were 0.51, 0.44 and
0.42 pounds, respectively, for Lots I, II and III. (J. F. Hentges, Jr.)
Grass Silage for Wintering Beef Cows.-Feeding trial data and preser-
vation costs were obtained on pangolagrass silage by using wintering cows
and silage from an upright silo and a self-feeding bunker silo.
Comparative preservation costs were $8.10 per ton for the upright and
$10.04 for the bunker. Feeding trial data revealed a $7.92 labor and truck
cost for silage from the upright silo as compared to a $0.98 cost for silage
from the bunker. These costs, when added to the feed bill, made the total
wintering cost $7.74 per cow higher for the lot fed silage from the up-
right silo.
Comparative data were collected on the limiting of silage consumption
from a bunker silo by decreasing the stanchion space per cow from one
foot to six inches. Little difference in consumption was noted but the
smaller stanchion space allotment permitted a saving of $1.00 per head
on wintering costs. (J. F. Hentges, Jr.)
An Assay of Pituitary Glands for Gonadotrophin Potency in Cattle and
Swine.-The use of homogenized, wet, anterior pituitary glands showed
greater gonadotrophin potency than desiccated dried glands from cattle
and swine when tested on day-old White Leghorn male chicks. Anterior
pituitary glands from barrows contained greater gonadotrophin activity
than glands from nonpregnant or pregnant sows. An equivalent weight of 9
milligrams of dried pituitary material appeared to be the best amount for
sensitivity of activity in swine. Eighteen milligrams of dried tissue, which
was equivalent to 310 grams of fresh tissue in the cow, was the most sen-








Annual Report, 1956


sitive dosage for detecting differences in gonadotrophin activity. (A. C.
Warnick and M. Koger.)
High Level Copper Feeding for Growing-Fattening Swine.-Two experi-
ments have been conducted. In the first, a level of 250 ppm of copper,
added as copper sulfate, caused the death of two animals, reduced gains and
feed conversion markedly and generally proved quite unsatisfactory. In
the second experiment, levels of 100, 150 and 200 ppm of added copper were
studied. Gains were increased some at all levels of supplementation, but the
most effective levels were 100 and 150 ppm. No deaths were caused from
the copper supplementation. Studies are still in progress to determine
if the high copper feeding may affect the keeping and curing qualities of
pork. (H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs.)
Stringhalt in Cattle.-As animals with this condition become available at
the Range Cattle Station and are sent to slaughter, bone samples have been
secured for analyses of composition of the bone, and morphological obser-
vations on the shape of the femur which permits the upward luxation of
the patella, commonly termed "stringhalt" in cattle. The data secured to
date indicate that there is no measurable change in the bone composition
and that probably the change in the shape of the bones is as much heredi-
tary as it is associated with unusual stress conditions. (G. K. Davis and
W. G. Kirk.)
Analysis of Feeds and Related Materials.-More than 5,000 feed samples
and animal tissues were analyzed. Development of a rapid method for
determining nitrate in forages provided a tool for determining nitrate in
many samples submitted from various parts of the state where nitrate poi-
soning was a problem. An improvement in the method for determining
fluorine in bone and forage samples has permitted a much more rapid de-
termination of this element than has been possible in the past. By arrange-
ment with the Everglades Station, a snectrograph has been installed in the
Animal Nutrition Laboratory and is being used to evaluate mineral inter-
relationships. (G. K. Davis and J. T. McCall.)
Influence of Stilbestrol Feeding on Slaughter and Carcass Characteris-
tics of Beef Steers.-Twenty-three steers from the North Florida Station,
the Rangle Cattle Station and the Purebred Unit were fed rations with and
without stilbestrol. Stilbestrol was fed at the rate of 10 and 20 mg. daily.
Slaughter data were collected at time steers were killed and carcass data
were collected after a 48-hour chill, at which time steaks were removed
for organoleptic and shear tests for tenderness values.
The study has shown insignificant differences between groups in dress-
ing percent, percent hide, percent liver or breaking strength of leg bones.
Differences in carcass grade, amount or distribution of fat, color of fat
and lean and firmness of fat and lean as observed visually were not sig-
nificant.
Differences in carcass length and length and circumference of the leg
were insignificant. Tenderness values by a taste panel and shear values
showed only insignificant differences between treatments. (A. Z. Palmer
and J. F. Hentges.)
Comparison of Effects of Feeding Cottonseed Meal and Soybean Oil
Meal on Pork Carcass Firmness and on Freezer Storage Quality of Ground
Pork.-Two lots of pigs were fed from weaning weight to an average
slaughter weight of 182 pounds. Lot I received a ration containing 79
percent ground corn, 19 percent soybean oil meal and 2 percent trace
mineralized salt. Lot II was fed a ration consisting of 78 percent ground
corn, 20 percent degossypolized cottonseed meal and 2 percent trace








70 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

mineralized salt. After slaughter, the carcasses were chilled for 48 hours
at 34 F.
Differences in carcass firmness were not significant between the lots as
judged by manual firmness tests. Lot differences in keeping quality of
ground pork stored at 100 F. were determined by taste panel and by the
2 Thiobarbituric acid test for rancidity. Though not analyzed statistically,
preliminary data indicate that Lot II pork has a slight advantage in
freezer storage quality over Lot I pork. (A. Z. Palmer, H. D. Wallace and
T. J. Cunha.)
Effect of Aureomycin (Chlortetracycline) on Keeping Quality of Ground
Beef Stored at 400 and 0 F.-Aureomycin was added to ground beef at the
rate of 10 ppm. Control ground beef came from the same carcasses
as the ground beef to which aureomycin was added. The control and
aureomycin ground beef was packaged and stored at 400 F. and at 0 F.
Ground beef stored at 400 F. was tasted by the panel periodically to de-
termine the effect of the added aureomycin on freshness. It was found
that while the control ground beef was sour in flavor after five days
storage and putrid in flavor after seven days storage, ground beef con-
taining aureomycin was entirely fresh and edible after nine days storage.
Ground beef stored at 0 F. is still in storage. (A. Z. Palmer and J. F.
Hentges.)








Annual Report, 1956 71



DAIRY SCIENCE

Work at the Dairy Research Unit at Hague has been devoted to ex-
periments with pasture programs and home-grown roughages. A new
system has been installed for the bulk handling of milk. It includes a 500-
gallon stainless steel refrigerated tank and a 1,000-gallon stainless steel
insulated tank truck. A program using artificial insemination has been
initiated. Frozen semen is used. A new low-temperature refrigerator has
been secured for storing semen. The refrigerator will maintain tempera-
tures as low as -120 F.

ENSILABILITY OF FLORIDA FORAGE CROPS
State Project 213 R. B. Becker, J. M. Wing, P. T. Dix Arnold
and G. K. Davis"6
Crops tested in experimental pilot silos during the year included Jackson
soybeans and Hairy Peruvian alfalfa. Chopped soybeans were ensiled in
these ways: plain; with added dried citrus pulp, or with sodium meta-
bisulfite. Six silos were filled with chopped alfalfa; plain, with added
ground snapped corn, dried citrus pulp, sodium metabisulfite or with
"citrolas"-a combination of citrus pulp dust and citrus molasses. Four
dry cows received the silage from each silo as their only feed. Fecal
samples were obtained for digestibility estimates by the chromogen ratio
technique.
The silages with added citrus pulp or ground snapped corn were eaten
in slightly larger amounts than those with bisulfite or plain.

FACTORS AFFECTING BREEDING EFFICIENCY, ITS POSSIBLE
INHERITANCE AND DEPRECIATION IN FLORIDA
DAIRY HERDS
State Project 345 R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold
Seven cooperating Florida herds contributed records of breeding inven-
tory, replacement and causes of turnover of cows in dairy herds. Over 70
artificial breeding organizations cooperated, giving information concerning
bulls in artificial service. Aid was given also by the National Association
of Artificial Breeders and the breed associations. (See Proj. 345, AGRICUL-
TURAL ECONOMICS.)

POST-PARTUM DEVELOPMENT OF BOVINE STOMACH COMPART-
MENTS AND OBSERVATIONS ON SOME CHARACTERISTICS
OF THEIR CONTENTS
State Project 564 S. P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold,
R. B. Becker and J. M. Wing
This project was inactive during the year.

EFFECTS OF ANTIBIOTICS AND CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS ON
MICROORGANISMS IN MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Proj. 571 H. H. Wilkowske, W. A. Krienke
and E. L. Fouts
Certain time-saving features have been incorporated in the micro-
biological test for antibiotics in milk. Although these features more nearly
make the test suitable for milk receiving line operations, the test still
16 Cooperative with Animal Husbandry and Nutrition.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


requires several hours to complete. A penicillin sensitization case was
studied. The person was unusually sensitive at levels considerably below
0.1 unit per ml. Fermentation of dairy products is not affected at this
low level. A fermentation problem in a commercial plant was studied.
The cause of the trouble was identified as bacteriophage active against
lactic streptococci used in manufacturing buttermilk and cottage cheese.
Antibiotics added to milk before pasteurization at levels of 10, 1 and 0.1
units of penicillin (or biological equivalents of aureomycin, streptomycin
or terramycin) did not increase the rate of microorganism inactivation
during pasteurization.
This project is terminated with this report.

STUDY OF PRODUCTION, REPRODUCTION AND CONFORMATION
OF THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT
STATION DAIRY HERD
State Project 575 P. T. Dix Arnold, S. P. Marshall
and R. B. Becker

During the year 33 cows completed official production records with an
average of 8,800 pounds of milk and 464 pounds of butterfat on a mature-
equivalent basis when milked twice daily for 305 days.
The official Jersey classification average was 81.75.
The Holstein-Friesian heifers obtained in 1955 have produced beyond
expectation, although none have completed 305 days in lactation.
Forty-one animals passed their period of usefulness and were sold for
slaughter. Six were transferred to the Department of Veterinary Science
for studies of animal diseases.

EFFECT OF AUREOMYCIN FEEDING UPON PERFORMANCE
OF DAIRY CALVES
State Project 594 S. P. Marshall, P. T. Dix Arnold,
and J. M. Wing

Sixteen calves fed from birth through 60 days of age on milk contain-
ing 5 mgs. of aureomycin hydrochloride per pound plus hay and concen-
trate gained an average of 50.0 pounds. An equal number of control ani-
mals made average gains of 45.8 pounds. Six of these calves that had re-
ceived aureomycin in their milk were fed from 60 to 90 days on concen-
trate and hay. They gained an average of only 20.5 pounds during this
period, as compared with an average of 36.8 pounds for six comparable
animals that had received milk not containing aureomycin hydrochloride.
After aureomycin feeding was discontinued, some of the calves de-
veloped diarrhea, the hide became thickened, the haircoat grew rough, and
the animals were unthrifty.
This project is terminated with this report.

UTILIZATION OF TEMPORARY PASTURES BY DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 633 S. P. Marshall and P. T. Dix Arnold
Dairy heifers grazing a mixture of hairy Peruvian alfalfa, California
burclover, Kenland redclover, whiteclover and oats from December 1, 1954,
through September 20, 1955, gained an average of 755 pounds per acre of
pasture. Daily gains averaged 1.32 pounds, which was 145 percent of the
normal growth rate. The animals obtained an average of 5,227 pounds of
total digestible nutrients per acre from the pasture.
This project is terminated with this report.









Annual Report, 1956 73

INFLUENCE OF DIETARY PYRIMIDINE RIBOSE NUCLEIC ACID
AND SOME OF ITS PROBABLE PRECURSORS OF DAIRY CALVES
State Project 636 J. M. Wing
Jersey heifers which received supplementary potassium orotate and
methionine between the ages of nine and 12 months gained an average of
115 pounds and required 3.1 pounds TDN per pound gained. This com-
pares with control-group means of 100 pounds gained and 3.5 pounds TDN
per pound of gain.
This project is terminated with this report.

IMPROVED PERMANENT PASTURES FOR GROWING
DAIRY HEIFERS
State Project 637 S. P. Marshall
Coastal bermudagrass-whiteclover pasture was grazed rotationally from
March 8 through November 5, 1955. The heifers obtained an average of
5,375.2 pounds of total digestible nutrients and gained an average of 714.3
pounds in body weight per acre of pasture grazed. Their average daily
gain of 1.11 pounds was 121 percent of the normal growth rate.
This project is terminated with this report.

SUB-NORMAL MILK: ITS PRODUCTION, CORRECTION
AND UTILIZATION
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Proj. 667 R. B. Becker, P. T. Dix Arnold,
J. M. Wing, W. A. Krienke, L. E. Mull,
H. H. Wilkowske and E. L. Fouts
Feeding Trials.-Cows fed a ration in which dried brewers grains and
citrus and beet pulps replaced all leafy roughages produced milk with a
somewhat lower fat content than cows on rations containing leafy rough-
ages. In each instance the rations were balanced nutritionally according
to Morrison's standard. The drop in fat content came in 10 to 25 days and
averaged 1.0 percent.
Milk Composition and Dairy Products Studies.-The skimmed sub-nor-
mal milk from these experimental animals was used to manufacture cot-
tage cheese, condensed milk and ice cream. Little, if any, difference was
noted between this cottage cheese and that made from normal milk.
Condensed milk (36 percent solids) made from skimmed sub-normal
milk showed much more lactose crystallization and sedimentation when
held at 320 F. than condensed skim milk from the control samples.
The use of condensed milk from sub-normal skimmed milk in ice cream
resulted in a product which became oxidized and very unpalatable in three
months at -5 F. Control samples did not develop the off-flavors.

AGITATION OF MILK
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Proj. 732 L. E. Mull and E. L. Fouts
One-thousand-gallon volumes of milk were allowed to cream without
agitation at 38 F. for 18 hours. Efficiency and rate of mixing of in-
dividual tanks of milk by mechanical and by air agitation were determined.
Samples taken at 10-second intervals indicated that the mechanical agi-
tator remixed the milk to a uniform butterfat content in slightly less time
than air agitation. After uniform butterfat content was attained both
methods maintained uniform distribution during processing.
A standard ll;-inch sediment disc placed in the air distribution line
became darkened after air was forced through it for one hour by the com-
pressor. High magnification failed to show any visible particles of sedi-
ment on the disc.









74 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

IRRIGATION OF TEMPORARY PASTURES FOR DAIRY CATTLE
State Project 772 S. P. Marshall
Grazing was begun November 3 on irrigated alfalfa-clover-oat pasture
and November 17 on the non-irrigated plot. During the periods through
June 13, 1956, the irrigated pasture furnished 461 heifer days of grazing
per acre, while the non-irrigated supplied 268. The animals on irrigated
pasture gained an average of 615.3 pounds and obtained 4,138.5 pounds
of total digestible nutrients per acre. Those on non-irrigated pasture
gained an average of 422.3 pounds in body weight and obtained 2,622.4
pounds of total digestible nutrients per acre. Growth rate of heifers on each
pasture was faster than normal. (See Proj. 772, AGRI. ENG. and AGRON.)
MISCELLANEOUS
Green Chopped Forage for Dairy Cows.-Cows in dry lot consumed a
daily average of 110 pounds of first and second cutting green-chopped
alfalfa. They produced an average of 34.5 pounds of milk daily and were
fed 1 pound of concentrates for each 3 pounds of milk.
When third and fourth cutting alfalfa was fed once daily on drought-
affected pastures of only fair quality, the estimated consumption was 55
pounds per cow. When fed twice daily, it was estimated that cows ate
75 pounds each. Milk production was affected favorably. (P. T. Dix
Arnold.)
Methylating Compounds in Calf Rations.-Supplementary methionine
and betaine alone and in combination failed to affect growth and ef-
ficiency of feed conversion in young calves. (J. M. Wing.)
Acidity Testing of Chocolate Milk and Chocolate Mix.-The pink end-
point of phenolphthalein in titratable acidity determinations of chocolate-
flavored dairy products is obscured by the brown color to the extent that
reliable values are not possible. An improvement in reliability is attained
by a modified procedure. This consists of additions of the standard alkali
in 0.2 ml. increments at the "expected" end-point, followed by very
thorough mixing. The indicator solution is then added so that it remains
on the surface of the test sample. Several samples may need to be titrated
to arrive at the exact end-point. (W. A. Krienke.)
Basic Viscosity of Ice Cream Mixes.-The agitator mechanism of a
Waring blendor was fitted to the lid of a glass food jar. The jar used was
70 mm. in diameter and 100 mm. deep. The rubber ring in the lid was re-
placed by a rubber disc. Then small holes were drilled in the side of the
lid, just at the edge of the rubber disc.
In ope-ation, the jar is filled completely with mix. As the lid agitator
assembly is closed down on the jar in sealing it the displaced mix over-
flows and any air that would have been trapped by the lid is vented
through the small holes in the lid. This assures absence of air for the
mixing operation. The assembly is then inverted and placed on the Waring
blendor stand.
A mixing time of 10 seconds was found to be sufficient to obtain
"basic viscosity" of gelatin mixes. (W. A. Krienke and H. B. Young.)
Variegated Honey Ice Cream.-An injection-type material having a
pleasing honey flavor and of proper consistency for ice cream was prepared
by blending honey, sugar (sucrose), hydrophylic colloid and water.
Consumers reported that the unique built-in sundae feature of the
variegated honey ice cream added greatly to the eating enjoyment of this
new product. A variation in the injection material resulted by the addition
of finely chopped coconut. (W. A. Krienke.)









Annual Report, 1956


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

Work of the department was handicapped through changes in per-
sonnel, two members of the staff having accepted higher pay at other loca-
tions.
However, the research periodical which has been contemplated for sev-
eral years was launched on January 1, 1956, and has attracted favorable
attention among Florida farm people and in agricultural circles elsewhere.
It is issued quarterly.
A part-time staff artist, long needed, was employed. The Editor and
three assistants work half time for the Agricultural Extension Service,
while one assistant is employed full time by the Station.

PUBLICATIONS

Only about half the usual number of manuscripts were received and
printed. New bulletins numbered eight, of which five were technical and
three popular in nature. They ranged in size from 32 to 92 pages and in
edition from 5,000 to 20,000 copies, totaling 403 pages and 74,000 copies.
One popular bulletin, 24 pages in length, was revised and reprinted in a
20,000 quantity. Bulletins printed included:
Bul. Title Pages Edition
567 Economic Relationships Involved in Retailing Citrus
Products by L. A. Powell, Sr., and Marshall R. God-
w in (T) ...................................... ............ 88 5,000
568 Experiments with Napier Grass, by Roy E. Blaser,
G. E. Ritchey, W. G. Kirk and P. T. Dix Arnold (T) 32 5,000
569 Relation of Calcium, Phosphorus and Protein De-
ficiencies in the Immature Rat to Defects in Growth
and Skeletal Development of the Mature Animal, by
R. B. French, O. D. Abbott and Ruth O. Town-
send (T) ............. ....... ................................ 36 6,000
570 Pectinesterase and Pectin in Commercial Citrus
Juices as Determined by Methods Used at the Citrus
Experiment Station, by A. H. Rouse and C. D.
Atkins (T) ..................... .. ........ ... ............. 19 5,000
571 Ornamental Vines for Florida, by R. D. Dickey,
Erdman West and Harold Mowry ..................................... 72 20,000
572 Yield and Quality of Flue-Cured Tobacco as Affected
by Fertilization and Irrigation, by Fred Clark, J.
Mostella Myers, Henry C. Harris and R. W. Bled-
soe (T) ...... ................................ ..32 6,000
573 Insect Pests of Flue-cured Tobacco and Their Con-
trol, by L. C. Kuitert and A. N. Tissot........................ 34 12,000
574 Mango Growing in Florida, by George D. Ruehle...... 90 15,000
506R Know Your Fertilizers (revised) .................................. 23 20,000
Eight new circulars totaling 125 pages were printed, the quantity be-
ing 99,500 copies. Here is the list:









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Circ. Title Pages Edition
S-85 Adult Mosquito Control in Yards, Homes, Groves
and Other Areas, D. O. Wolfenbarger.............--.............. 14 25,000
S-86 Conrtol of Moles, A. N. Tissot-...............-- ...-..........-.. 8 20,000
S-87 Control of the Pocket Gopher or "Salamander,"
A N Tissot ................................-. ..... ................. 10 15,000
S-88 Indexes of Volume of Agricultural Commodities
Produced in Florida 1910-1954, A. H. Spurlock............ 39 6,000
S-89 Steer Fattening Trials in North Florida, F. S.
Baker, Jr. ......... ................. -.................. 10 6,000
S-90 Operation and Power Requirements of Tractors and
Related Equipment for Citrus Production, D. S.
Prosser, Jr. ........ ....... .................................................. 12 10,000
S-91 Insects and Other Pests of Gladiolus and Their Con-
trol, E. G. Kelsheimer .....................- ............ ....... .... 24 10,000
S-92 Florigreen, A Disease-resistant Pole Bean, J. M.
W alter and A. P. Lorz ..................... ................. ... 8 7,500

The six-page press bulletin, List of Bulletins, was issued twice in
quantities of 2,500 and 2,000, and the staff list was printed once, 3,000
copies. One subject matter press bulletin, four pages, was reprinted in
a 25,000 quantity.
Sunshine State Agricultural Research Report, 20 pages with cover in
color, made its bow in January 1956 and a second issue was printed in
April. Ten thousand copies constituted the run each time. It is sent to
anyone requesting to be placed on the mailing list, and carried articles re-
porting research results, experiments under way and a few projects con-
templated.
RADIO AND TELEVISION

The Station staff of practically all departments continued to partici-
pate in television shows over WFLA-TV in Tampa. The shows are weekly,
with Agricultural Extension Service and Station personnel alternating.
Station staff members staged 23 shows and joined with Extension workers
in staging three others. Many of the shows were live, but film is being used
more and more for these shows and to be made available to other stations.
The daily Florida Farm Hour over WRUF continued to be a major
radio outlet. Station staff members made 216 talks on this, exclusive of
the weekly questions and answers feature which consisted of over half
Station material.
One-hundred thirteen of the talks made over the Farm Hour were revised
and sent to 51 other Florida radio stations as Farm Flashes. The Editors
also sent 45 tapes to six Florida, radio stations and these contained 73 talks
by Station staff members. Material sent weekly to a wire service for sup-
plying Florida radio stations and bi-weekly direct to 37 stations also in-
cluded much material supplied by and quoting Station workers.

SERVICE TO NEWSPAPERS AND FARM PAPERS

Service to newspapers was continued on about the same basis as for-
merly. The weekly clipsheet printed and distributed by the Agricultural
Extension Service carried from one to four or five stories relating to the
Experiment Station or its workers each week. This is supplied primarily









Annual Report, 1956


to weekly newspapers, but goes also to county agents, agriculture teachers,
and to daily papers requesting it.
One or two stories a week were released to daily newspapers through
a wire service. Many weekly "skeleton" stories sent county agents to be
filled in and released quoted Station staff members. On numerous occa-
sions farm page editors of dailies were assisted in collecting and writing
feature stories relating to various departments and branches of the Ex-
periment Station.
Farm journals continued to make generous use of copy prepared by
Station editors, 14 of them printing 46 articles or items that total 1,260
column inches of space.
Four Florida journals printed 30 articles, 768 inches; two Southern jour-
nals printed eight articles, 229 inches; and eight national farm papers, seed
journals and related publications printed eight items, 263 inches.

THE JOURNAL SERIES
Staff members continued to send a large number of papers to scientific
journals throughout the country. These were edited and given numbers in
our journal series before being sent to the journals. Tne count of articles
printed in the scientific journals during the year reached 88.
244. Phytoseiidae (Acarina) Associated with Citrus in Florida, by Martin
H. Muma. Entomological Soc. of Am. 48:4 July 1955.
274. The Elfect of Stalk Height on Yields of Corn in Tropical Areas, by
Victor E. Green, Jr. Inter-Am. Inst. of Ag. Sci. 45:3 July-Sept. 1955.
278. Some Ecological Studies on the Twice-Stabbed Lady-Beetle, Chilo-
corus stigma Say, by Martin M. Muma. Annals of Entom. Soc. of Am.
S 4U:6 PP4i3-498. Nov., 1955.
S312. The Relative Effectiveness of Foliar Applications of Several Manga-
nese Sources in Correcting Manganese Deficiency. Proc., Am. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 65 PP 313-316 1955.
320. The Influence of Light on Development of Tomato Fruits, by V. F.
Nettles, C. B. Hall, and R. A. Dennison. Proc., Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci.
65. PP 349-352, 1955.
321. Tolerance to Ethylene or Various Types of Citrus Fruits, by W. Grier-
son and W. F. Newhall. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 65 PP 244-250. 1955.
322. Residue Studies of Toxaphene, Parathion and Malathion on Some
Florida Vegetables, by R. E. Waites and C. H. VanMiddlem. Jour. of
Econ. Ento. 48:5. Oct., 1955.
327. An Evaluation of Large Lysimeters for Fertility Studies with Sandy
Soils and Pasture Grasses, by G. M. Volk, Proc., Soil Sci. of Am. 20:1.
Jan., 1956.
338. Effect of Differential Supplies of Nitrogen, Potassium and Calcium
on Quality and Yield of Gladiolus Flowers and Corms, by S. S Woltz.
Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 65 PP 427-435. 1955.
339. Uptake of Molybdenum from Everglades Peat by Several Grasses
and by White Clover, by Nathan Gammon, Jr., J. G. A. Fiskel, and
G. A. Mourkides. Proc., Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 19:4. Oct., 1955.
340. Study of the Properties of Molybdenum in Everglades Peat, by J. G.
A. Fiskel, G. A. Mourkides and Nathan Gammon, Jr. Proc., Soil Sci.
Soc. of Am. 20:1. Jan., 1956.
351. Nematodes Associated with Injury to Turf, by J. R. Christie, J. M.
Good, and G. C. Nutter. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. 14. 1954.









78 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

352. Subsidence in the Florida Everglades, by John C. Stephens. Soil Sci.
Soc. of Am. 20:1. Jan., 1956.
354. Control of the Corn Earworm in Florida, by John W. Wilson. Jour.
Econ. Ento. 48:4: 442-444. 1955.
355. Environmental Factors Influencing Vascular Browning of Tomato
Fruits by C. B. Hall and R. A. Dennison. Proc. Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci.
65: 353-356. 1955.
356. Insecticide Residues on Vegetables, by C. H. VanMiddlem and R. E.
Waites. Proc., Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 65: 365-370. 1955.
357. The Removal of Insecticide Residues from Fresh Vegetables with
Detergent Washings, by B. D. Thompson and C. H. VanMiddlem.
Proc., Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 65: 357-364. 1955.
363. Application of Variance Components to Horticultural Problems with
Special Reference to a Parathion Residue Study, by R. H. Sharpe and
C. H. VanMiddlem. Proc., Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 66: 415-420. 1955.
366. Influence of Certain Vitamin K Compounds on Lactic Acid Develop-
ment in Milk, by H. H. Wilkowske, W. A. Krienke, L. R. Arrington,
and E. L. Fouts. Jour. of Dairy Sci. 38:10. Oct., 1955.
370. Factors Contributing to the Natural Control of Citrus Insects and
Mites in Florida, by Martin H. Muma. Jour. Econ. Ento. 46:4:432-
438. Aug., 1955.
372. The Effect of Particle Size of the Active Ingredient in DDT Dust on
Corn Earworm Control, by J. W. Wilson. Ento. Soc. of Am. 48:4:
416-418. Aug., 1955.
381. Lady Beetles (Coccinellidae) Found on Citrus in Florida, by M. H.
Muma. Fla. Entomologist. XXXVIII:3. Sept., 1955.
382. Reductions of Insecticidal Residue on Mature Green-wrap Tomatoes,
by D. O. Wolfenbarger and C. H. VanMiddlem. Jour of Econ. Ento.
48:6: 744-746. Dec., 1955.
386. The Influence of Maturity and Storage Treatment Upon Ascorbic
Acid Content of the Seeds of Southern Peas, by M. W. Hoover, Food
Research 20. 1955.
388. Placental Transfer of Calcium"5 in the Rat, by J. P. Feaster, Sam L.
Hansard, J. C. Outler and G. K. Davis. Jour of Nutrition. 58:3.
March, 1956.
389. Experimental Feeding of Low Level Phenothiazine to Florida Cattle,
by W. R. Dennis, L. E. Swanson, and W. M. Stone. Vet. Med. 50:9:
379. Sept., 1955.
390. The Pepper Vein Banding Virus in the Everglades Area of Southern
Florida, by J. N. Simons. Pythopathology 46:1: 53-57. Jan., 1956.
391. How Well Do Auctions Discover the Price of Cattle? by W. K. Mc-
Pherson. Jour. of Farm Economics 38:1. Feb., 1956.
392. The Influence of Aureomycin on the Growth and Carcass Character-
istics of Swine Fed Restricted Rations, by H. D. 'Wallice .. I i.Ic-
Kigney, A. M. Pearson, and T. J. Cunha. Jour. of Animal Sci. 14:4.
Nov., 1955.
393. A Rapid Colorimetric Method for the Simultaneous Determination
of Total Reducing Sugars and Fructose in Citrus Juices, by S. V. Ting.
Analytical Chem. 4:3: 263. March, 1956.
394. The Influence of Soil Profile Characteristics and Nutrient Concentra-
tions on the Fungi and Bacteria in Leon Fine Sand, by W. G. Blue,
C. F. Eno, and P. J. Westgate. Soil Sci. 80:4. Oct., 1955.









Annual Report, 1956 79

395. Some Effects of Temperature Upon the Growth of Southern Peas, by
M. W. Hoover. Proc., Am. Soc. for Hort. Sci. 66: 308-314. 1955.
397. Control of Bacterial Spot in Tomato Fields with Streptomycin-Ter-
ramycin Sprays, by R. A. Conover, P1. Dis. Reporter. 39:8. Aug., 1955.
398. Statewide Chinch Bug Tests on Lawns in Florida, by S. H. Kerr.
Jour. Econ. Ento. 49:1: 83-85. Feb., 1956.
399. Inhibitory Substances in Milk, by H. H. Wilkowske and W. A.
Krienke. Jour. Milk & Food Tech. 18:10. 1955.
400. Control of Helminthosporium Blight Diseases on Corn in Southern
Florida, by R. S. Cox. Pythopathology 46:2: 112-115, Feb., 1956.
401. Urea Nitrogen and Sandy Soils by G. M. Volk. Agr. Chem. Sept.,
1955.
402. Influence of Dietary Energy Level on the Succinoxidase and Lactic
Dehydrogenase of the Heart of Pregnant Swine, by R. L. Shirley, J. F.
Easiey, C. E. Haines, A. C. Warnick, H. D. Wallace and G. K. Davis.
Jour. Ag. and Food Chem. 4:1: 68. Jan., 1956.
404. Studies in Plot Techniques for Oat Clipping Experiments by A. T.
Wallace and W. H. Chapman. Agronomy Jour. 48: 32-35. 1956.
405. Livestock and Grain Market Reports-They can be improved, by
W. K. McPherson. Jour. of Farm. Econ. 38:1. Feb., 1956.
406. A Chlorosis Produced by Fluorine on Citrus in Florida, by I. W.
Wander and J. J. McBride, Jr. Sci. 123:3204. Nov., 1955.
407. The Role of the Burrowing Nematode and Meadow Nematode in Avo-
cado Decline, by T. W. Young and Geo. D. Ruehle. Plant Dis. Re-
porter 39:11. Nov., 1955.
409. Oktone for Pre-Emergence Chemical Weed Control in Crucifers, by
D. S. Burgis. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
410. The Use of Calcium for Control of Blossom-end Rot of Tomatoes, by
C. M. Geraldson. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
411. An Unusual Method of Passing the Summer by an Anthomyiid,
Hylemya lupini (Coq.), by L. C. Kuitert and F. E. Guthrie. Jour. of
Eco. Entomology. 49:2: 248-250. April, 1956.
412. Experiments with Some Mosquito Repellents for Corn Earworm
Control on Sweet Corn, by John W. Wilson and W. H. Thames. Fla.
Ento. 39:1. March, 1956.
413. Quality of Florida Sweet Corn as Affected by Marketing Practices,
by R. K. Showalter and W. S. Grieg. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68.
1955.
414. Molybdenum Deficiency of Hibicus, by P. J. Westgate and H. N.
Miller, Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
415. Purification of Crude Hesperidin, by R. Lcndrickson and J. W. Kes-
terson. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1055.
416. Immunity of the Lychee to the Burrowing Nematode, by E. P. Du-
Charme and R. F. Suit. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
417. Determination of Cloud Retention in Frozen Concentrated Orange and
Grapefruit Juices with Various Colorimeters, by C. D. Atkins, A. H.
Rouse, and E. L. Moore. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
418. Root Development of Contender Snap Beans, by Paul Zopf, Jr., and
V. F. Nettles. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


419. Water Table Fluctuation and Depth of Rooting of Citrus Trees in the
Indian River Area, by Herman J. Reitz and W. T. Long. Proc., Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
420. Investigations with Antibiotics for Control of Bacterial Diseases of
Foliage Plants, by H. N. Miller, Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
421. Effects of Sidedressing and Foliar-nutritional Sprays on Yield of
Potatoes at Hastings, Florida, by E. N. McCubbin, D. L. Myhre and
G. M. Volk. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
422. Influence of Temperature on Growth of Mango Pollen, by T. W.
Young. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
423. Burrowing and Meadow Nematodes on Avocados and Mangos, by
T. W. Young and Geo. D. Ruehle. Proc., FIa. State Hort. Soc. 68.
1955.
424. Copper Availability in High Copper Soils, by J. G. A. Fiskel and P. J.
Westgate. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
425. Mist Propagation Studies with Emphasis on Mineral Content of
Foliage, by R. H. Sharpe. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
426. Spraying Sweet Corn for the Control of Northern Corn Leaf Blight,
by D. S. Harrison and R. S. Cox. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68.
1955.
427. The Effects of Applied Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potash on Yield
and Growth of Peppers, by H. T. Ozaki, C. T. Ozaki and M. G. Hamil-
ton. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
428. Effectiveness of the Pull and Treat Method for Controlling the Bur-
rowing Nematode on Citrus, by R. F. Suit, E. P. DuCharme and Troy
L. Brooks. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
429. A Chlorosis Produced by Fluorine on Citrus in Florida, by I. W.
Wander and J. J. McBride, Jr. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
430. Methods for Estimation of Insoluble Solids in Citrus Juices and Con-
centrates, by A. H. Rouse and C. D. Atkins. Proc., Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 68. 1955.
431. Antibiotic Control of Cucumber Downy Mildew, by D. M. Coe. Proc.,
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
432. Injuries to Potato Tubers Caused by Wireworms and Nutgrass, by
T. M. Dobrovsky. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
433. Factors Determining the Effects of Various Fertilizer Materials on
Acidity in the Soil Profile, by Gaylord M. Volk. Proc., Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
434. Juice Content in Early Ruby Red Grapefruit, by E. J. Deszyck and
J. W. Sites. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
435. The Purple Mite and Six-spotted Mite Situation in 1955, by Robert
M. Pratt. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
436. Factors Influencing the Absorption of Zinc by Citrus, by Ivan Stew-
art, C. D. Leonard and George Edwards. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc.
68. 1955.
437. Timing of Oil or Parathion Sprays for Control of Purple Scale in
the Indian River Area, by W. T. Long, Herman J. Reitz, and W. L.
Thompson. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
438. Parathion can be Used with Lime-Sulfur, by Roger B. Johnson and
J. J. McBride, Jr. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.









Annual Report, 1956


439. Sub-Soil Drainage as a Factor in the Spread of the Burrowing
Nematode, by E. P. DuCharme. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
440. Determination of Artificial Coloring Agents on Orange Products, by
S. V. Ting. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
442. Progress Report on Research with Miticides, by Roger B. Johnson
and W. L. Thompson. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
444. Progress Report on Treating Citrus Trees in Place to Control Bur-
rowing Nematode, by R. F. Suit and Troy L. Brooks. Proc., Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
445. Chilled Citrus Products, by F. W. Wenzel, E. L. Moore, C. D. Atkins
Roger Patrick and R. L. Huggart. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 63.
446. Longevity of Chelated Iron Treatments Applied to Citrus Trees, by
C. D. Leonard and Ivan Stewart. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
447. Characteristics of Six-Fold Frozen Concentrated Orange Juices, by
Roger Patrick and R. L. Huggart, Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68.
1955.
448. A Comparison of Two Commercial Methods for the Production of
Citrus Oils in Florida, by J. W. Kesterson and R. Hendrickson. The
Am. Per. and Essen. Oil Review. 63: 35-38. 1956.
454. Nitrogen Sources as Related to Yield and Quality of Hamlin Oranges
(a Ten-year Summary), by John W. Sites, I. W. Wander and E. J.
Deszyck. Proc., Fla. State Hort. Soc. 68. 1955.
457. The Magnesium Status of Soils in the Suwannee Valley Area of
Florida, by W. G. Blue and Charles F. Eno. Soil Sci. 82:1: 51-61.
July, 1956.
462. Corn Earworm Populations on Sweet Corn in Central Florida During
the Growing Seasons of 1954 and 1955, by John W. Wilson. Jour.
Ec. Ento. 49:4: 493-495. August, 1956.
466. Actinobacillosis L. An Evaluation of Cultural Characteristics of Se-
lected Strains of Actinobaccilus Lignieresi, by M. Ristic, M. Herz-
berg, D. A. Sanders and J. W. Williams. Am. Jour. of Vet. Research.
17:64: 555-562. July, 1956.
470. Chinch Bug Control Tests-1955, by S. H. Kerr. Fla. Ento. 39:2:61-64.
June, 1956.
474. Elsinoe and Sphaceloma in Florida I, by Albert S. Muller. Plant Dis.
Reporter. 40:3. March 15, 1956.
477. Progress in the Control of Bacterial Spot of Pepper in South Flor-
ida, by R. S. Cox. Plant Dis. Reporter. 40:3. March 15, 1956.
479. Colonial and Antigenic Variations of Vibrio fetus, by M. Ristic, M.
Herzberg, and D. A. Sanders. Am. Jour. of Vet. Res. 17:65: 803-809.
Oct., 1956.

POPULAR ARTICLES AND MIMEOGRAPHED MATERIALS
Staff members other than Editors continued to send large numbers of
articles to farm journals, particularly in Florida. These were edited be-
fore being mailed only on request of the author and in few instances. A
recapitulation reveals that there were 201 popular articles by staff mem-
bers printed in farm journals during the year, occupying 431 pages.
Departments and other units continued to issue mimeographed reports
on various subjects where it was deemed inadvisable to print at this time.
There were 68 of these reports issued, covering 603 pages, with 20,650
copies processed.








82 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION ON AGRICULTURAL
RESEARCH RESULTS"
State Project 670 William G. Mitchell
Two surveys were made to test the size of the audience and the ef-
fectiveness of the weekly TV feature presented by the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Stations and the Florida Agricultural Extension Service
over Station WFLA-TV in Tampa. One survey of a rural area was con-
ducted by personal interview. The other inquired into the value of the
program in the Tampa telephone exchange area. Both used a random
sample of the population.
Forty home demonstration club women made the interviews in the rural
survey in 10 counties in the WFLA-TV viewing area. Of 400 question-
naires given out, 206 were completed in acceptable form. Only TV homes
were approached in this survey. Twenty-eight percent of all questioned
said they were watching our program on the day of the survey. Of those
watching, 81 percent could tell the subject of the show, and 69 percent
could recall what agency presented it. Fifty-one percent of those watching
television that day reported they usually watch our show. Finally, 22 per-
cent of all questioned claimed often to have used information gained on
this show.
In the urban area survey, 420 phones were called during the hour after
the show was off the air. Two hundred and thirty six calls were com-
pleted. Results showed that the program had an audience rating of 10.7
in this urban area, compared with a rating of 28 in the rural area. Of the
group watching our program on the day of the urban survey, 73.7 percent
could recall the subject of the program, but only 21 percent remembered
what agency presented the show.

17 Aided by a grant from the National Project in Agricultural Communications.









Annual Report, 1956


ENTOMOLOGY

The project on tobacco insect pests was closed and a bulletin based on
that work was published. A new tobacco project will be concerned prin-
cipally with subterranean pests and the influence of cultural practices on
their incidence and control. The project on pests of woody ornamentals
was revised and more emphasis now is placed on phytotoxic effects of
pesticides on the plants. A new project was set up to study the influence
of climatic factors on pesticide residues on vegetables. Another new
project is concerned with insect contamination in corn meal and grits.
Two projects are in cooperation with USDA. Several others were coopera-
tive with workers in other divisions of the Stations.
Three Orlyt-type greenhouses were constructed during the year. Two
are being used for nematode work and the third for pesticide residue in-
vestigations.

CONTROL OF THE PECAN NUT CASEBEARER
State Project 379 A. M. Phillips
This project was continued at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory, in
cooperation with the Entomology Research Branch, Agricultural Research
Service, USDA.
In the regular experiment designed to study the influence of time of
application on effectiveness of nut casebearer sprays, parathion, experi-
mental material No. 7744 and ryanacide 100 were applied on two dates:
June 11 and 15, 1956. Only 4.5 percent of the nut clusters in the unsprayed
plots were infested. The insecticides reduced this infestation by 100, 95.6
and 98.6 percent, respectively, for the first date and 91, 100 and 100
percent for the second date.

CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID PESTS OF
WOODY ORNAMENTALS
State Project 531 L. C. Kuitert and S. H. Kerr
This project, revised during 1955, puts special emphasis on gathering
phytotoxicity information. The woody plants on which observations were
made included: Ixora coccinea, Neanthe bella (palm), Feijoa sellowiana,
Buxus microphylla (Japanese boxwood), Polyscias balfouriana (Aralia),
Podocarpus macrophylla, Ardisia crispa, Tibouchina sp. (princess flower)
and Cocculus laurifolia. Materials applied included sprays of malathion,
toxaphene, Aramite, Thimet, oil emulsion and the nemacides V-C 13 and
Nemagon.
Parathion and demeton were applied as both sprays and soil drenches.
High concentration sprays of parathion, malathion, Aramite and oil emul-
sion injured some plants. There has not yet been time to try more normal
dosages of all the materials that caused injury at high concentrations, but
Aramite still caused some injury to new leaves of feijoa and the unopened
fronds on the palms at a lower dosage of 2 pounds of 15 percent wettable
powder per 100 gallons.
In cooperation with the Horticulture Department, the Entomology De-
partment is handling the pesticidal application phase of a test on the effect
of nemacidal soil drenches on the production of rose blooms. No phytotox-
icity or effect on bloom production has been noted but the data are incom-
plete. (See also Project 52, HORTICULTURE.)









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 5) Proj. 537 L. C. Kuitert and A. N. Tissot
Harvest of the 1955 tobacco test crop was incomplete at time of last
report. Per-acre yields and values for the tobacco harvested from plots
receiving the various insecticide treatments were as follows: Endrin 1
percent dust, 1,126 pounds, $484; TDE 5 percent dust, 1,163 pounds, $481;
endrin spray, 1,158 pounds, $526; TDE spray, 1,181 pounds, $490; malathion
spray, 1,154 pounds, $459; check, 1,137 pounds, $485. This project was
closed June 30, 1956. Bulletin 573, based on work done under this project,
was published in May 1956. (See Proj. 537, AGRONOMY.)

INTRODUCTION AND TESTING OF NECTAR-AND POLLEN-
PRODUCING PLANTS IN FLORIDA
State Proj. 583 F. A. Robinson
Only those plants that had been good nectar producers in previous years
were tested. One-half acre each of Dixie reseeding crimson clover, Tri-
folium rubrum L., Floranna annual sweetclover, Melilotus alba Desv., and
White Dutch clover, Trifolium repens L., was planted. The first two clovers
again yielded large quantities of nectar. For some unexplained reason
White Dutch clover yielded nectar for the first time in five years of test-
ing. Eight white tupelo, Nyssa ogeeche Marsh., and two water tupelo,
N. uniflora Wangenh., planted in 1951 near Bivans Arm, bloomed this
spring and set several hundred fruits. One hundred tupelo seedlings, one-
year-old, were planted and have made rapid growth. Two hundred seed-
lings of yellow poplar, Liriodendron tulipifera L., planted in the fall of 1955,
have also grown rapidly. The poplars will be distributed to beekeepers for
planting.
Nectar samples were collected from several plants by centrifuging. Then
the amount and sugar concentration of the nectar were measured. In
all instances the concentration was higher and the volume lower than last
year's measurements on the same flowers. The average increase in sugar
concentration was 7.47 percent and the average decrease in quantity was
21 percent.
The effect of varying amounts of lime, nitrogen, phosphorus and potas-
sium in the soil on nectar secretion of balsam (touch-me-not) and snap-
dragon growing in a greenhouse was tested. Data from these tests indi-
cated that the lime and phosphorus treatments increased the amount of
nectar secreted by the balsam plants, but none of the treatments had any
effect on nectar production by snapdragons.
Pollination tests were made on crimsonclover. Seed yield from plots
open to bees was 292 pounds per acre. Where bees were excluded, 24
pounds were produced.
Pollination studies on Ponkan and Tangelo varieties of citrus showed
that self-pollination by honeybees did not affect the number of fruit set.
Cross-pollination by hand with pollen from the valencia orange resulted
in a significant increase in fruit set.

CONTROL OF HICKORY SHUCKWORM ON PECANS
State Project 597 A. M. Phillips
This project was carried on at the Pecan Investigations Laboratory in
cooperation with the Entomology Research Branch, Agricultural Research
Service, USDA.









Annual Report, 1956 85

Under conditions of a very heavy infestation (99.7 percent of the
nuts on unsprayed trees were infested), two, three and five applications of
EPN at two- and three-week intervals gave fair control of the shuckworm.
When 64.0 percent of nuts on unsprayed trees were infested, two and three
late applications of EPN effectively controlled shuckworm. Parathion plus
DDT gave fair control, but this combination was not as effective as EPN.

CONTROL OF INSECTS AND RELATED PESTS OF PASTURES
State Project 616 A. N. Tissot, L. C. Kuitert and R. E. Waites
This project was inactive during the year. See Proj. 616, HORTICULTURE
and GULF COAST, EVERGLADES, RANGE CATTLE and N. FLA. STATIONS.

PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON VEGETABLES
State Project 650 R. E. Waites
Foliar sprays of demeton and Chlorthion, emulsifiable concentrates, at
2 and 4 ounces and 6 and 12 ounces active ingredient per acre, respectively,
were applied to mustard January 13 and 25. Demeton-treated samples taken
at 4 hours and 7 and 14 days after last application showed residues rang-
ing from 2.06 to 7.48, 0.79 to 2.55 and 0.36 to 0.72 ppm, respectively. Sam-
ples of Chlorthion-treated plants taken at 4 hours and 3 and 7 days after
last application showed residue ranges of 2.40 to 6.69, 0.33 to 1.08 and 0.00
to 0.25 ppm, respectively.
Sprays of DDT and malathion, emulsifiable concentrates, each applied
at 8 and 16 ounces active ingredient per acre, were used on collards Feb-
ruary 2 and 10. DDT-treated samples taken at 3, 7 and 14 days after last
application showed residue ranges of 14.80 to 34.50, 7.10 to 18.60 and 1.28
to 6.67 ppm, respectively. Malathion-treated samples taken 3 days after
the last application showed residues no higher than 3.91 ppm.
A spray of DDT, emulsifiable concentrate, at 16 ounces active ingredi-
ent per acre was applied to lettuce February 2 and 10. Samples taken 3, 7
and 14 days after the last application showed residue ranges of 17.20 to
19.60, 13.20 to 15.70 and 5.93 to 8.53 ppm, respectively.
Spray applications of demeton and Chlorthion, emulsifiable concentrates,
at 2 and 4 ounces and 6 and 12 ounces active ingredient per acre, respec-
tively, were made on snap beans April 27 and May 3 and 14. Demetton-
treated samples taken at 4 hours and 3 and 7 days after last application
showed residue ranges of 0.25 to 0.57, 0.20 to 0.45 and 0.10 to 0.50 ppm,
respectively. Samples of Chlorthion-treated plants taken at 4 hours and
3 days after last application showed residue ranges of 0.25 to 0.77 and
0.00 to 0.10 ppm, respectively. The leaves of bean plants sprayed with
Chlorthion became chlorotic and distorted within two days after treatment.
Recovery from this condition was slow and incomplete.
Emulsifiable concentrates of four insecticides were applied as foliar
sprays on lettuce May 17 and 28. Materials used and amounts of active in-
gredients per acre were as follows: demeton, 2 and 4 ounces; Chlorthion,
12 ounces; Guthion, 12 ounces; and Thimet 16 ounces. Samples of demeton-
treated plants taken at 24 hours and 3, 4 and 14 days after last applica-
tion showed residue ranges of 3.40 to 6.83, 2.80 to 6.44, 1.05 to 3.95 and
0.42 to 2.17 ppm, respectively. Chlorthion-treated samples taken at 24
hours and 3 and 7 days after last application showed residue ranges of
6.27 to 8.33, 3.35 to 4.85 and 0.32 to 0.66 ppm, respectively. Analyses of the
Guthion- and Thimet-treated samples have not been completed.
Four insecticides were applied on strawberries March 14 and 26. Emul-
sifiable concentrates of DDT and demeton were used at 16 and 4 ounces









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of active ingredient per acre, respectively, and wettable powders of para-
thion and malathion at 2, 4 and 8 ounces, respectively. Captan, wettable
powder, was used in all sprays at the rate of 1 pound active ingredient per
acre to control leaf spot. The analyses for residues have not been com-
pleted. (See also Proj. 650, CENT. FLA. and GULF COAST STATIONS and
POTATO INV. LAB., and Projs. 690 and 699, HORT.)

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECTS ATTACKING CRUCIFEROUS
CROPS IN FLORIDA
State Project 669 L. C. Kuitert
This project was inactive during the year. (See Proj. 669, GULF. COAST,
CENT. FLA. and EVERGLADES STATIONS and POTATO INV. LAB.)

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF INSECT AND ARACHNID
PESTS OF TURF GRASSES
State Project 678 ,S. H. Kerr and L. C. Kuitert
Tests concerning the control of chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber,
were conducted at Tampa and Ft. Lauderdale. A factorial design contrast-
ing granular and emulsion concentrate formulations of parathion, DDT,
lindane and malathion was used. Results showed there was no practical dif-
ference between the granular and emulsion concentrate formulations. Mala-
thion failed to give satisfactory control. Although statistical analysis
showed that average reduction in chinch bug numbers by lindane was not
significantly different from that by parathion and DDT, lindane's per-
formance was not as impressive because of its erratic control and the
resulting high numbers of insects in some lindane plots. All treatments
except malathion formulations still showed satisfactory average control
four weeks after application. Only DDT-treated plots did not have much
increase in numbers of chinch bugs after six weeks.
In a test concerning the control of ground pearls, Margarodes meri-
dionalis Morrison, on centipede grass in Gainesville, no significant dif-
ferences were shown among treatments of parathion, demeton and AC
12008. In the spring of 1956 the treatments were renewed with V-C 13 and
Thimet (AC 3911) as added materials. Counts to determine the effect of
the treatments have not been made yet. Some observations on the biology
of this insect were made, with special reference to time and appearance of
adults and rate and number of eggs laid. (See also Proj. 678, GULF COAST
and SUB-TROPICAL STATIONS and AGRON. DEPT.)

IDENTITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL NEMATODES
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Proj. 695 J. R. Christie
Eight hundred ninety root and soil samples were processed and exam-
ined. The examinations involved identification of the plant parasitic species
present and determination of their abundance by estimates or counts. Of
the samples examined, 380 were in connection with nematode injury to
turf, 252 pertained to nematodes infesting ornamentals and 258 were for
other purposes.
Continued investigation of nematode injury to turf has not changed the
general picture but has emphasized the prevalence and importance of lance
nematodes as parasites of our common lawn grasses.
A critical study was made of lance nematodes found associated with
injury to turf in Florida. Specimens from one collection were compared
with those from another and these, in turn, with the original description









Annual Report, 1956


of Hoplolaimus coronatus. While differences were encountered, these did
not appear to be sufficiently constant or of such magnitude as to indicate
that more than one species was included. No convincing evidence was found
that this species should not be regarded as Hoplolaimus coronatus Cobb.
(See Miscellaneous, AGRONOMY.)

INFLUENCE OF SOIL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON NEMATODES
IN FLORIDA SOILS
State Project 698 J. R. Christie
As a background for future studies regarding the effects of certain
vegetable-pasture rotations on population levels of plant parasitic nema-
todes, a survey at the Indian River Field Laboratory involved examination
of 155 soil samples. The kinds of nematodes found and the number of
samples in which each occurred were as follows: Stubby-root nematode
(Trichodorus sp.), 68; spiral nematodes (Rotylenchus spp. and Helicoty-
lenchus spp.), 24; sheath nematodes (Hemicycliophora spp.), 13; sting
nematode (Belonolaimus gracilis Steiner), 7; lance nematode (Hoplolaimus
coronatus Cobb), 7; awl nematode (Dolichodorus heterocephalus Cobb),
5; stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus sp.), 4; ring nematodes (Cricone-
moides spp.), 4; meadow nematode (Pratylenchus sp.), 3; dagger nema-
tode (Xiphinema sp.), 2.
For all these nematodes, the incidence of their occurrence in the samples
examined was low. For all except the stubby-root and spiral nematodes it
was unusually low. In general, the infested samples contained the nema-
todes in small numbers, but to this there were occasional exceptions. (See
Proj. 712, INDIAN RIVER FIELD LAB. and Proj. 698, SOILS.)

NEMATODE STUDIES AND CONTROL ON ORNAMENTAL
FOLIAGE PLANTS
State Project 729 S. H. Kerr and J. R. Christie
Continuing the studies begun last year, materials with nematocidal po-
tential were screened for phytotoxicity on Philodendron cordatum and San-
severia zeylanica. The tests were conducted in a greenhouse on plants in
four-inch pots. The materials used and the rates per acre were: 50 percent
Nemagon emulsion concentrate, 8 gallons; V-C 13 emulsion concentrate, 27
gallons; 46 percent parathion emulsion concentrate, 2.5 gallons; and 26
percent demeton emulsion concentrate, 2 quarts. The drenches were ap-
plied in an amount of water proportionate to 75 gallons per 1,000 square
feet, and Nemagon and V-C 13 treatments were immediately followed by
an equal amount of plain water.
No symptoms of phytotoxicity were noted. (See Proj. 729, PLANT
PATH.)

EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON INSECTICIDE RESIDUES
ON VEGETABLE CROPS
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 746 R. E. Waites
Twelve cages four feet square by two feet high were constructed to
study the effect on insecticide residues of sun, rain and wind, individually
and in combination with each other. A maximum-minimum thermometer,
hygrothermograph, rain gauge and pyroheliometer were procured and have
been calibrated to aid in the study of climatic factors. A greenhouse has
been constructed and preparations are now in progress for growing test








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


plants. Also in progress is the development of the "brine shrimp" bio-
assay method for determining amounts of residues on vegetable crops.

INSECT CONTAMINATION OF CORN MEAL AND GRITS
PROCESSED IN FLORIDA
State Project 778 H. E. Bratley
This project was activated less than two months ago. Twenty-seven
lots of samples obtained from 21 distributors came from 18 Florida mills
and one in South Georgia. Material from one of the five packages of corn
meal or grits constituting each sample lot was examined for insect con-
tamination. Live larvae were found in two packages. Two others con-
tained webbing material. Several packages had minute insect fragments,
indicating that insects were ground with the corn. The remaining sam-
ples have been placed in storage under various conditions for further
study.

INFLUENCE OF CULTURAL PRACTICES ON THE INCIDENCE AND
CONTROL OF INSECT INFESTATIONS IN FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Hatch Project 780 L. C. Kuitert and A. N. Tissot
This project, activated only one month ago, is concerned principally
with subterranean tobacco pests. Work to date has been restricted to
general observations of tobacco plantings for the presence of pests and
making plans for the experimental plot setup.

MISCELLANEOUS

Nematocide Test.-Two new nematocides, provided by the Diamond
Alkali Company for testing and designated "PRD" and "ORD", are said
to be halo-thio compounds and relatively non-phytotoxic. Both are nearly
insoluble in water and most of the common solvents. They were pro-
vided for testing as a dust in pyrophyllite. In exploratory greenhouse
tests, both appeared to be effective nematocides. When mixed with nema-
tode-infested soil at the rate of 2 grams active ingredient per cubic foot,
"PRD" in two weeks nearly eradicated sting nematodes, lance nematodes,
stubby-root nematodes and other miscellaneous species. At this rate of
application, the chemical had no obvious effect on the growth of corn.
"ORD" has not yet been tested on living plants. (J. R. Christie.)









Annual Report, 1956


HOME ECONOMICS

This is the final report of the Department of Home Economics, estab-
lished in 1925. As of July 1, 1956, this Department was incorporated in
the recently established Department of Food Technology and Nutrition.
During the year, two projects have been completed and are being replaced
by others that will continue the work on human nutrition.

EFFECT OF DIETARY PRACTICES AND PREVIOUS ILLNESSES ON
CARPAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN
Purnell Project 568 0. D. Abbott, R. O. Townsend
and R. B. French
Roentgenograms were made of the hands of 782 white and 174 colored
children of ages 6 to 12 years, inclusive. From these films the osseous de-
velopment expressed in terms of maturity of each carpal and distal
epiphysis of the ulna and radius was assessed. The significance of these
assessments was evaluated by an analysis of variance. This analysis shows
that the races differ significantly in relation to maturity of the wrist and
epiphysis in favor of the colored children. Sexes also differ significantly,
in favor of the girls. The approximate percentages of mature carpals were
49 percent for the white and 70 percent for the colored children; and 47
percent for the boys and 72 percent for the girls. In the age groups 7-8,
8-9 and 9-10, the percentages of children with mature carpals were 54,
62 and 63 percent, respectively. The degree of mineralization expressed as
percentage of the maximum shows that white girls are more highly
mineralized than white boys, while the reverse is true for colored children.
A few cases of retardation could be traced to previous illnesses, but the
major cause was malnutrition.
With the recognition that malnutrition is the determining factor in
retarding skeleton development in children and also their progress in
school, the need for an adequate diet and better food habits is re-empha-
sized. Moreover, weaknesses in youthful skeletal structure may be the
underlying cause of crippling trauma and deformities of later life. This
project is closed with this report.

THE EFFECT OF CAROTENE OR VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN
YOUNG RATS ON SUBSEQUENT LIFE PATTERN
Purnell Project 569 R. B. French, O. D. Abbott
and R. O. Townsend
Young rats depleted of their vitamin A reserves were fed at several sub-
minimal as well as higher levels of vitamin A. Differential blood counts
were made monthly for a year, along with measurement of the average
diameter of lymphocytes to see if blood count changes responded in any
graded fashion to changes in level of vitamin A intake. The blood pictures
of the animals that received the various levels of vitamin A checked closely
with those of the controls. Only when classical symptoms of vitamin A
deficiency showed did the blood picture change to a low polymorphonuclear
count with an increase also in the proportion of large lymphocytes. Para-
doxically, the increase in proportion of large lymphocytes coincided with a
marked decrease in average diameter of the lymphocyte from about 10 to
8 microns. The apparent discrepancy is explained by the fact that in ani-
mals showing vitamin A deficiency symptoms, all lymphocytes, both small








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and large, average about one-fifth smaller in diameter than when the rat
does not show the classical symptoms.
Roentgenograms of vitamin A-deficient young rats revealed bones of
normal length, except for the femur. The femur measured one-sixth longer
than controls of the same size. These rats, after being fed adequate vitamin
A to maturity, gave femur and pelvic measurements that fall within the
range of normal animals.
Weights taken both at the time of and six months after realimenta-
tion on minimal or above levels of vitamin A showed no correlation when
plotted against length of life of the rat. Weanling male rats fed the
deficient diet under the same conditions as weaning females showed signs
of major deficiency of vitamin A before the females. In addition, the
males were much more apt to die when realimented on a good diet than
were the females. Perhaps the growth urge of the male still needed a
larger quota of vitamin A than did the female, even though both were in
a state of severe malnutrition.

NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY OF THE YOUNG RAT IN RELATION TO
SUBSEQUENT MALFORMATION OF BONES
Purnell Project 570 R. B. French, O. D. Abbott
and R. O. Townsend
This is a final report on this project, which was summarized in last
year's Annual Report. The results have been published in Bulletin 569,
Relation of Calcium, Phosphorus and Protein Deficiencies in the Immature
Rat to Defects in Growth and Skeletal Development of the Mature Animal.
The bulletin explains how a short temporary deficiency of minerals in the
diet of the young rat is associated with profound injuries found in the
skeleton as the rats grow older. It is planned to carry on work on cer-
tain aspects opened up by this project, particularly to see if it is possible
to ameliorate, by means of special diets, such a defect as over-calcified
joints, for example.

EFFECT OF DIETARY PRACTICES ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE
SKELETON OF AGED MEN AND WOMEN
Purnell Project 625 0. D. Abbott, R. O. Townsend,
R. B. French and P. H. Harison, M.D.'8
As reported previously, the skeletal structure of the aged men and
women showed direct relationship to the intake of calcium. Further in-
vestigation has now been made of the demineralization changes in the
bones and of the soft tissue calcification shown in films of the pelvis and
chest. The degree of loss of bone mineral was expected to be best visualized
in the ends of the long bones which, before maturity, are referred to as
the growing ends, and in the weight-bearing joints. Roentgenograms were
then made of the knee joints, the distal end of the femur and the proximal
end of the fibula and tibia of 22 selected subjects. Wide variation in de-
gree of demineralization was found which could not be explained by diet
or known pathology. There appeared to be, however, a relationship be-
tween bone loss of mineral and calcified areas in the soft tissue anatomy.
In the politeal space of the knee there was calcification of lymph nodes
and in 67 percent of the subjects, plaque formation in the arterial branches.
Physical examination and investigation of personal histories revealed that
some individuals had previous diagnosis of arteriosclerosis, others of

Is Cooperative with resident physician, Penney Farms, Florida.








Annual Report, 1956


hypertension. In others there was thickening and inelasticity in the walls
of the palpable superficial arteries.
Generalized arteriosclerosis may be present for long periods without
well defined symptoms until the intellectual processes and other functions
of the body are reduced in efficiency and produce senility. Current re-
searches are investigating the sclerotic changes in the arterial walls in re-
lation to dietaries high in fat. The loss in bone mineral and concurrent soft
tissue deposition herein observed merits further study.
Cases showing the arterial changes, the demineralization process in the
bones and the intake of dietary fat have been selected. The effectiveness
of reducing the fat in the diet and treatment with vitamin A palmitate or
with plant sterols is contemplated.

DIETARY HABITS AND KIDNEY FUNCTION OF THE AGED
Purnell Project 757 0. D. Abbott, R. O. Townsend
and R. B. French
Routine analyses have been made on the urine of the 325 residents
of the Memorial Home Community at Penney Farms. With few excep-
tions color, appearance, specific gravity and pH values were within the
normal ranges. Approximately 78 percent were negative as to albumin,
14 percent showed traces and the remaining 8 percent showed amounts
suggestive of pathological conditions. Approximately 83 percent were
negative for sugar, 15 percent showed traces, while the remaining 2 percent
had significant amounts and were from known diabetics.
Microscopic examination of the centrifugal specimens demonstrated
a larger amount of amorphous material in the urine than is considered
normal in younger age groups. Uric acid and calcium oxide crystals were
the types most often noted in quantities indicative of possibility or warning
of calculus formation. Epithelial cells that are abundant in nephritic con-
ditions were found in a few cases. Hyaline casts found in the mildest
type of renal damage were frequently noted. Granular, pus and blood casts
were found in three males and two females, indicating nephritic conditions
of pathological importance.
Chromatography provided a rapid method for the determination of
anmino acids in the urine of this group. Alanine was always present, with
serine and glycine occurring together in the same sample or sometimes
separately. Phenylanine and B-alanine occurred occasionally. Valine and
leucine were separate and easy to identify. Dibasic amino acids mi-
grated close together. One or more of these acids could always be iden-
tified. Among these acids, results on asparagine, hydroxy proline were
not constant. They occurred as diffuse yellow or brown spots and were
not uniform in appearing with procedure used. An unidentified spot ap-
peared at RF 10 when cystine or cysteine was present, or both were
present.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


HORTICULTURE

More than 100 acres of land were cleared at the new Horticultural
Unit farm. Two new buildings-an equipment and storage shed and a
greenhouse-were constructed and roads and fences were built. The farm
was used for experimental work with spring crops.
Investigations of special interest to the horticultural industries of the
state were continued. Several new promising breeding lines were developed
for several crops.
TUNG PRODUCTION'"
Hatch Project 50 R. D. Dickey and F. S. Lagasse
Results of the hybridization work are not promising. The Aleurites
montana x A. fordi hybrid F, and F2 trees are highly unfruitful. Their
fruits have the shape and structure of the mu-oil, a serious disadvantage
because the seeds are smaller than tung and the inner hull is very hard
and woody. Commercial dehulling equipment used for tung fruit will not
remove the mu-oil seed from its hard, woody, inner hull. Also, they are
intermediate in cold-hardiness between the parent species. Since the
hardiest tung clones have not given the desired resistance to cold injury,
the reduced hardiness of the hybrid populations is a serious disadvantage.
Though the hybrid F, and F. trees have flowered later than tung in the
Gainesville area, their flower buds are as susceptible to cold injury by
late spring frosts as those of tung. This project is closed with this report.

NATIVE AND INTRODUCED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS
Hatch Project 52 R. D. Dickey and S. E. McFadden, Jr.
Among the plant introductions grown for two years or longer and
evaluated for possible landscape usage in northern Florida, seven flow-
ering shrubs which have proved most satisfactory are being recom-
mended for planting. Three of these are evergreen, spring-flowering
shrubs with low maintenance requirements, four are shrubs flowering
throughout the growing season but having higher maintenance require-
ments. They are members of the genera Hypericum, Vaccinium, Hibiscus
and Rosa.
A system for container-production of rose plants is being tested. Evalu-
ation of rootstock for use in propagation of rose plants is in progress.
The possibility of commercial cut-flower production of roses out-of-doors is
being investigated. Yield data from two cultural experiments with the red-
flowered, commercial cut-flower variety, Happiness, will give some indi-
cation of the quantity and quality of flowers that can be harvested during
one year from established plantings of this variety grown outdoors in
Florida.
A physiological disorder of young seedlings of the queen palm (Are-
castrum romanzoffianum Becc.) did not respond to treatment with copper,
boron or molybdenum applied singly or to zinc, manganese and iron in
combination.
Information obtained over several years on the botany, cold require-
ments, landscape uses and culture of woody ornamental vines grown in
Florida has been published as Experiment Station Bulletin 571. (See also
Proj. 531, ENTOMOLOGY.)
'- In cooperation with Horticultural Crops Research Branch, ARS, USDA.








Annual Report, 1956


VARIETY TESTS OF MINOR FRUITS AND ORNAMENTALS
State Project 187 R. H. Sharpe
Peaches.-Selection and breeding work has been very encouraging dur-
ing the past season. About 80 trees of the Southland x Hawaiian F. popu-
lation cropped heavily. At least 10 of these were superior to any present
varieties of peaches available for central Florida, ripening during May
when no fresh peaches were available on the markets. Yellow flesh
types that are larger and firmer are still needed, however, for distant
markets.
As larger populations appear essential to get all the desired characteris-
tics in a single variety, about 2,000 seeds were harvested for future work.
Some additional hybrids between low-chilling Florida varieties and more
Northern types such as Maygold and Southland were also made and about
150 seeds harvested.
The peach introduced from Okinawa continues to be outstanding for
root-knot nematode resistance. It fruited heavily the past season and
seeds were distributed to other sections for testing as a stock. It has a very
low chilling need and should be well-adapted for growing in the southern
part of the state. Distribution of trees has been made to interested
cooperators for further trial and to serve as seed sources.
Blueberry.-Breeding and selection work has been continued with em-
phasis on crossing Florida evergreen blueberry with northern highbush
and rabbiteye types. A few hybrids of much interest for further breeding
have been obtained. About 2,000 seedlings of rabbiteye blueberry were
fruited with 15 selections saved for further test.

VEGETABLE VARIETY TRIALS
State Project 391 V. F. Nettles, L. H. Halsey and
F. S. Jamison
Cucumbers.-The varieties Marketer, Palomar and Ashley were rated
the best in replicated trials when yield, color, shape and uniformity of
fruit were considered. Stono, although a high yielder, had poor fruit color.
Two new lines in the replicated trial, SC 50 C7 and SC 50 E4, were out-
standing in their resistance to downy mildew.
Lettuce.-Seventeen varieties and/or strains of head lettuce were
grown in replicated trials. No differences in yield of marketable heads
of lettuce were found in the 10 strains of Great Lakes, of which no out-
standing strain was observed. Eleven other varieties of the leaf and cos
types were grown for observation.
Onions.-Growth and yield variations occurred within each plot of the
replicated test. However, all white-skinned USDA breeding lines observed
produced more marketable onions than the white-skinned commercial va-
riety Eclipse. No differences in yield were found between the varieties
Excel and Granex.
Southern Peas (Fall 1955).-Running Acre and breeding line 6-4-4-210
(vine growth habit) and Dixielee and breeding line 16-10-210 (semi-vine
growth habit) were compared at 6, 12 and 18-inch spacings in the row.
The closer spacing yielded more whole-pod peas than the wider spacings.
Vine growth habit varieties were better than semi-vine varieties. Breed-
ing Line 6-4-4-210 was superior to Running Acre, but there was no differ-
ence between Dixielee and B. L. 16-10-210.
In a separate planting, four varieties of Southern pea were observed
for yield at snap, green-shell and dry maturity stages. Alabama Crowder








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


appeared to be best adapted to harvest at any one of the three stages
of maturity, compared with California No. 5 Blackeye and breeding lines
28-19100 and 8-4-4-4-1210.
Spring 1956. Four bush, seven semi-vining and three vining type
varieties were compared at 6, 12 and 18-inch spacings in the row. There
was no difference in yields between spacings except that yield was lower
at 18-inch spacing for California No. 5 Blackeye. Yields of vining varie-
ties were much lower than those of bush and semi-vining types. Within
each growth habit type at least one breeding line was superior to standard
commercial varieties in yield of marketable whole pods. Although shell-out
percentages were somewhat lower with several of the new lines, the ease
with which they could be shelled by hand would place them at an ad-
vantage over certain standard varieties.
Wide variations occurred between varieties and breeding lines with
respect to yields of snap maturity peas. Mississippi Crowder (Miss. S-1)
and breeding line 8-4-4-4-210 were best in this respect. Very little dif-
ference was noted between varieties in yields of completely dried pods.
Sweet Corn.-The trial with this crop consisted of 10 varieties planted
in a replicated test. The varieties Prosperity, Tempo, KVF 54-65 and
Golden Hybrid 2057 produced as many ears as Golden Security.
Sweet Potatoes.-Varieties grown in a replicated trial were Unit No.
1 Porto Rico, Heart-o-Gold, Earlyport, Georgia Red, Goldrush and B-5999.
Heart-o-Gold was the only variety that produced a larger yield of U. S.
No. 1 sweet potatoes than the standard Unit No. 1 Porto Rico.
Tomatoes.-Southern Tomato Exchange Program (STEP).-Six varie-
ties and breeding lines were superior to Rutgers in yield of marketable,
mature-green fruits; Homestead 2, STEP 174, STEP 190, STEP 218, More-
ton Hybrid, and STEP 209, in that order. STEP 250 was inferior to
Rutgers. A rather high percentage of fruits of Moreton Hybrid were
cracked and much sun-scalding occurred due to its size. More large toma-
toes were produced by STEP 209 and STEP 218 than by the other varieties.
Approximately one-third of the fruits of these two lines were size 5 x 6 or
larger. Homestead 2 and STEP 174 were the best in this trial.
Among 44 varieties and breeding lines included in STEP observational
plots the outstanding lines were STEP 194, STEP 253, STEP 265, STEP
273, STEP 278 and All America Selection 55-V-02.
Other Species.-Vegetables grown in observational planting to compare
commercial varieties and to observe All America selections included beets,
bush beans, carrots, mustard, okra, shallots, spinach and watermelons.
(See Proj. 391, CENT. FLA., EVERGLADES, GULF COAST and SUB-TROP. STA-
TIONS and POTATO INV. LAB.)

VEGETABLE BREEDING; EMPHASIZING TABLE LEGUMES
Purnell Project 501 A. P. Lorz
English Peas.-Approximately 250 pounds of the new Emerald variety
and a similar quantity of seed of Fla. No. 2 breeding line have been pro-
duced and stored for foundation material and for further testing. Fla. No.
2 is a high-quality, dark-green type suitable for the home garden and for
home freezing. A preliminary experiment using cultural conditions ordi-
narily employed for the production of commercial processing peas indi-
cated that this method of culture can be used in Florida, but the economics
of production for Florida as a consuming market remains to be established.









Annual Report, 1956


Progenies of Emerald crossed with several other advanced breeding lines
are the basis for further selective breeding.
Beans.-Wax bean types 101-B and 101-W are being further increased
for re-entry in the Southern Cooperative Trials, where 101-B received an
overall preference rating of third among 21 entries. Three new selections-
two wax and one green-excelled either of the 101 lines in appearance in
the 1956 spring season. Other objectives involve breeding to establish (1)
a determinate white-seeded, mosaic-resistant, Tendergreen type suitable
both for the fresh market and for processing; (2) a Blue Lake type pod on
a plant with bush habit and (3) one or more determinate bush types with
high-borne pods well spread over the plant for high mechanical picking
efficiency. Pole bean breeding involves (1) the maintenance of a small
foundation stock of Fla. 501 pending the testing of other similar lines
having better appearing pods; (2) establishment, cooperatively with the
Gulf Coast and Sub-Tropical Stations, of crosses between McCaslan and
Florigreen or the latter's rust-resistant sister lines in an effort to combine
the earliness, productivity, dark-green pod color, rust and mosaic resist-
ance of Florigreen with the superior wind-resistance of McCaslan, and (3)
establishment of crosses designed to develop: (a) A short-podded Blue
Lake type for whole processing; (b) a stringless rust-resistant round-
podded type suitable for both fresh market and processing, and (c) one or
more typical Blue Lake lines with the rust-resistance of Florigreen.
Material is available from Phaseolus Vulgaris x P. xanthotrichus and
P. lunatus x P. polystachyus and Phaseolus sp. for future selection and
breeding with one objective, to establish a hypogeal germinating lima type.
Two advanced breeding lines of lima beans are being maintained, as well
as certain miscellaneous bean types, until other phases of the program
will permit their future development.
Southern Peas.-About 15 advanced breeding lines are being tested,
either at Gainesville alone or else in connection with the Southern Coopera-
tive Trials. Numerous other lines are developing out of crosses designed to
combine the best traits of the lines already established. In these lines are
represented blackeyes, creams and crowders with characteristics indicating
suitability for commercial processing, dry seed production for human, stock
and poultry consumption, cover-crops, forage, possibly honey production
and for use as a green-shelled vegetable, as well as a substitute for snap
beans. Yields in excess of 20 and as high as 40 bushels of dry seed per
acre have been obtained.

TESTING MISCELLANEOUS FRUITS AND NUTS
State Project 553 R. H. Sharpe and R. D. Dickey
See Project 553, West Florida Station, for this report.

FERTILIZATION OF PECANS
Hatch Project 565 R. H. Sharpe and Nathan Gammon, Jr.,2-
Heavy drop of nuts in some areas in June was found to be associated
with shallow soils. Complete crop loss and some dieback occurred where
mottled clay layers were found at 18 to 24 inches. Some injury occurred
even on soils with 30 to 36 inch depths to mottled layers. To avoid such
drought injury, pecan plantings should not be made on soils which are
poorly aerated in the upper three to four feet.

20 Cooperative with Soils.








Florida Agricuitural Experiment Stations


A leaf symptom known as "mouse ear" (Fig. 13) has been found to
be associated with low manganese content of foliage. Though of minor
commercial importance, severe leaf and tree injury occurs in coastal areas
and some home trees.
Good yields were obtained in most experimental plots. High nitrogen
or nitrogen plus potassium have been beneficial, while use of lime or gyp-
sum has not increased yields.

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON PRODUCTION AND
QUALITY OF CERTAIN NUT AND FRUIT PLANTS

Adams Project 599 R. H. Sharpe
Pecan Nut Thinning.-Sprays of 20 ppm 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic
acid in early June thinned crops on heavily loaded Curtis, Randall and
Success pecan trees. In a few cases sprayed trees produced more final
yield because limb breakage on unsprayed trees was excessive. Where limb
breakage was not serious the average yields were 152 pounds per tree for
sprayed and 190 pounds for check trees.
No visible injury to foliage was observed.
There were no significant differences in percent kernel due to spraying,
all nuts being of good quality. There was an average 4% increase in in-
dividual nut weight on sprayed trees.
The reduction of the 1955 crop due to spraying had a significant effect
on the biennial bearing habit. Sprayed trees set an estimated one-third to
one-half crop in 1956, compared to none on check trees.

Fig. 13.-Pecan leaves exhibiting typical "mouse ear" manganese
deficiency symptoms.









Annual Report, 1956


CONTROL OF INSECTS AND RELATED PESTS OF PASTURES
State Project 616 C. H. Van Middelem
There are no residue data to report under this project during the past
year. (See Proj. 616, Ent., and EVERGLADES, GULF COAST, N. FLA. and
RANGE CATTLE STATIONS.)

ECONOMY OF MARKETING AND METHODS OF HANDLING SWEET
CORN FOR LONG DISTANCE SHIPMENTS"
Bankhead-Jones (Sec. 9) Project 630 R. K. Showalter and
(Regional SM-8) L. H. Halsey
Sugars were determined in sweet corn obtained at shipping points in
Florida and stores in Baltimore, Maryland, over an eight-week period in
1955. At time of harvest, sugar decreased markedly with increased matur-
ity. In Baltimore stores the sweet corn that had good handling had twice
as much sugar as the corn in stores where it was poorly handled.
Pericarp content, moisture, succulence and kernel size were determined
on 100 lots of sweet corn from various growers in the Belle Glade area, in
cooperation with E. A. Wolf of the Everglades Station. These quality
measurements were made after storage and on freshly harvested corn of
three varieties at four stages of maturity.
The pericarp ranged from 0.86 percent in immature ears to 1.82 per-
cent in over-mature ears at harvest. A marked increase in pericarp con-
tent was found in ears stored for one and two days at room temperatures,
but no change in pericarp occurred during 1 to 20 days storage at 35-
40' F. or in cracked ice. Seneca Chief variety had less pericarp and was
more tender than Golden Security or experimental hybrid No. 3. However,
Golden Security was more succulent and had a higher moisture content
than the other two varieties.
A laboratory model hydrocooler was constructed in cooperation with
J. M. Myers of the Agricultural Engineering Department. Crates of sweet
corn entirely submerged in the hydrocooler lost heat more rapidly than
those in a shower of 33 water.
Preliminary studies on vacuum cooling in a commercial installation at
Oneco and a laboratory model at Belle Glade revealed that sweet corn can
be satisfactorily precooled in wooden or fiberboard containers. Cob tem-
peratures averaged 60 after present commercial hydrocooling, while
vacuum cooling reduced the temperatures to 400 in the same period. The
appearance of the corn after vacuum cooling was not changed, despite
losses of 5 percent moisture. Wetting the corn before vacuum cooling had
little effect on the rate of cooling, but did retard wilting and denting dur-
ing storage. (See also Proj. 630, AGR. ECONOMICS.)

REMOVAL OF INSECTICIDE RESIDUES FROM HARVESTED FRESH
VEGETABLES
State Project 632 B. D. Thompson
and C. H. Middelem
This project was inactive during the year and is closed with this report.

THE INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION ON TOMATO FRUIT DISORDERS
State Project 640 C. B. Hall and R. A. Dennison
In a greenhouse experiment at Gainesville there was no effect of dif-
ferent levels of nitrogen in the nutrient solution on vascular browning of
tomato fruits.
21 In cooperation with the Biological Sciences Branch. AMS. USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Tomato fruits from the Homestead area affected with gray-wall were
found to be significantly higher than non-affected fruits in nitrogen, total
pectin and acid-soluble pecttin. There was no difference in potassium,
calcium, magnesium and phosphorus contents.
The effect of virus on the incidence of gray-wall was studied in coopera-
tion with Dr. M. K. Corbett of the Plant Pathology Department (see Proj.
741, PLANT PATHOLOGY.)
Calcium deficiency symptoms with tomato plants seemed to be related
to flower formation. Plants which had only 12.5 ppm of calcium available
in the nutrient solution showed symptoms of calcium deficiency at time
of appearance of the first inflorescence. The plants temporarily recovered
until the period during which the second and third inflorescences became
visible, at which time the growing points died. At higher calcium levels,
the deficiency symptoms appeared at the time the second or third in-
florescences became noticeable.

MATURITY AS RELATED TO QUALITY OF TOMATOES FOR THE
FRESH MARKET
Purnell Project 641 R. K. Showalter and L. H. Halsey
The effect of tomato size in determining maturity was studied on 17
crates of Homestead and Rutgers tomatoes, in cooperation with D. G. A.
Kelbert of the Gulf Coast Station. Green tomatoes of five commercial sizes
were hand-sized, then ripened at 65 to 70oF. Generally, the smallest toma-
toes required the longest time and the largest tomatoes the shortest time
to ripen. Thus, the mean days to ripen one lot was 17 days for the 7x8's
and 7x7's; 15 days for the 6x7's; 13 days for the 6x6's; and 12 days for the
5x6's.
Variation in size produced little variation in firmness of the tomatoes
when measured with a compression-type pressure tester. Thus 7x7's
averaged 15.3 lbs.; 6x7's, 15.0 lbs.; and 6x6's, 15.4 lbs.
Preliminary studies were made in a tomato packing plant with auto-
matic vibrating and volume fill equipment. The containers were uniform-
ly filled to a 1.0 to 1.5 inch bulge and a variation of two pounds in weight
without human labor or noticeable bruising of the tomatoes. Data ob-
tained from a shipping test to Nashville and a ripening room test of
tomatoes from machine vs. hand-filled containers showed little difference
in condition of the packages or bruising of the tomatoes.

RELATIONSHIP OF HEREDITY TO THE RIPENING PERFORMANCE
OF TOMATOES
Adams Project 642 L. H. Halsey and F. S. Jamison
Tomatoes of five varieties and breeding lines harvested at the turning
stage of maturity were handled through a commercial packinghouse or
were given simulated handling treatments, then allowed to ripen. Effects
of handling and ripening ability were determined. Breeding lines CAStW-
80-3, CAStW-131-12 and STEP 250 were equal to Jefferson and Manalucie
with reference to the amount of tissue damage sustained during handling
operations. Fruits of Manalucie, CAStW-131-12 and STEP 250 were
slightly firmer than those of Jefferson and CAStW-80-3. Correlation of
firmness with damage was almost nil ("r" = -.17). Tomatoes of all
varieties ripened to acceptable red color.
Tomatoes of Rutgers, Homestead, Manalucie, Jefferson, CAStW-80-3
and STEP 250 were harvested at the mature-green stage of maturity.









Annual Report, 1956 99

Fruits reaching turning stage of color development at two-day intervals
after harvest were allowed to ripen and then were scored for firmness,
visual color and objective color when ripe. All varieties attained an ac-
ceptable red color, except CAStW-80-3 and STEP 250, which had a slight
orange appearance. Fruits of Manalucie were firmer than those of the
other varieties, but were more severely damaged by bruising injury. (See
Proj. 398, GULF COAST STA.)

POST-HARVEST EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE, LIGHT, STORAGE
ATMOSPHERE AND HUMIDITY ON TOMATO QUALITY
Adams Project 643 V. F. Nettles, R. A. Dennison and C. B. Hall
Considerable difference was found in the pectinesterase activity and
firmness of various tomato varieties and breeding lines. Firmness and high
enzyme activity were not related.
Storage of turned fruits at 400F. for two and four days followed by
seven days at 70F. resulted in softer fruits than storage at 70F. alone.

PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON VEGETABLES
State Project 650 C. H. Van Middelem
This project was completely revised during the year. The revision will
more satisfactorily provide information on residues remaining on fresh
vegetables in compliance with the tolerances established under the Miller
Amendment or Public Law 518. All the non-systemic insecticide residue
experiments conducted in cooperation with Station entomologists and
analyzed at Gainesville are reported under this project. Table 1 condenses
the results obtained from these residue experiments:

INFLUENCE OF MATURITY AND ENVIRONMENT UPON QUALITY
OF VEGETABLES OF THE LEGUME FAMILY
State Project 653 M. W. Hoover
Effects of maturity and storage upon quality of frozen Southern peas
were determined by subjective and objective quality measurements. Peas
that contained 65 to 70 percent moisture were preferred by the taste panel.
A rapid decline in quality of peas occurred as storage time increased and
with higher temperatures. Peas that were harvested green and stored prior
to freezing reached a point that was considered unacceptable after three
days at 100 degrees F., six days at 70 degrees, and 13 days at 55 degrees.
Those stored fresh at 40 degrees F. were graded fair to average in quality
after 14 days.
Frozen green beans of sieve size 3 were preferred over larger or smaller
beans of both the Seminole and Tendergreen varieties. The average crude
fiber in the pericarp of the Seminole bean (sizes 1 through 6) was 11.0 per-
cent, as compared to 13.0 percent for Tendergreen beans. The chlorophyll
content of the Seminole variety green bean decreased with maturity from
6.5 mg. per 100 grams (fresh weight) in sieve size 1 to 2.5 mg. for size 6.
There was a decrease in chlorophyll content of beans of the Tendergreen
variety from 5.9 mg. per 100 grams for size 1 to 2.7 in size 6.

EFFECTS OF THE TIME AND RATE OF APPLICATION OF
FERTILIZERS ON VEGETABLE CROPS
State Project 673 R. A. Dennison and C. B. Hall
A study was made of the growth and yield of strawberries as influenced
by rates of application of nitrogen. phosphorus, potash and lime in the