• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Review of the methods of analy...
 Review of literature
 Experimental procedure
 Presentation of results
 Discussion
 Summary and conclusions
 Literature cited
 Tables














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 356
Title: Distribution and concentration of copper in the newborn calf as influenced by the nutrition of the dam
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027382/00001
 Material Information
Title: Distribution and concentration of copper in the newborn calf as influenced by the nutrition of the dam
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 61 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rusoff, Louis L
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1941
 Subjects
Subject: Calves -- Diseases -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Nutritionally induced diseases in animals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 51-54.
Statement of Responsibility: by L.L. Rusoff.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Originally presented as: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Minnesota.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027382
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924588
oclc - 18219599
notis - AEN5215

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Review of the methods of analyses
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Review of literature
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Experimental procedure
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Presentation of results
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Discussion
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 50
    Literature cited
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Tables
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
Full Text


Bulletin 356


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
WILMON NEWELL, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




Distribution and Concentration
of Copper in the Newborn Calf
As Influenced by the Nutrition
of the Dam
By L. L. RUSOFF








TECHNICAL BULLETIN









Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


April, 1941









EXECUTIVE STAFF
John J. Tigert, M. A., LL.D., President
of the University'
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director3
Harold Mowry, M. S. A., Asst. Dir.,
Research
W. M. Fifield, M. S., Asst. to Director
J. Francis Cooper, M. S. A., Editors
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager3
K. H. Graham, Business Manager3
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant3
MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist1
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist3
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate2
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
Fred A. Clark, B.S.A., Assistant
ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Indus-
trialist3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman'
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist3
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Associate in Dairy
Manufactures
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy
Husbandman3
L. L. Rusoff, Ph.D., Asst. in An.
Nutrition3
O. W. Anderson, M.S., Asst. Poultry
Husbandmans
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.
SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist 1 s
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist3
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Associates
L. H. Rogers, M.S., Asso. Biochemist
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' 3
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ-
omist1
Ruth Overstreet, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D.. Asso. Chemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.3
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Fumigation
Specialist
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Short.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist'
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist2
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist '
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.3
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist


BOARD OF CONTROL
H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee
BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agron. Act. in Chg.
R. R. Kinkaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Elliott Whitehurst, B.S.A., Assistant An.
Husbandman
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Chg.
John H. Jeffries, Asst. in Cit. Breeding
Chas. K. Clark, Ph.D., Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Associate
Entomologist
F. F. Cowart, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Chg.
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
Frederick Boyd, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage En-
gineer2
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.
SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Associate Plant
Pathologist Acting in Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA.,
BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An Husbandman
in Charges
FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
in Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Asso. Truck
Horticulturist
Monticello
Samuel O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist'
Bradenton
Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Truck Horti-
culturist in Charge
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in
Charge, Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologists
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist'

1Head of Department
2In cooperation with U. S.
'Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.









DISTRIBUTION AND CONCENTRATION OF COPPER IN THE
NEWBORN CALF AS INFLUENCED BY THE
NUTRITION OF THE DAM1

By L. L. RUSOFF2


CONTENTS
Page Page
Review of the Methods of Analyses- 6 Copper Content _-..---------- 44
Review of Literature 9 Cpoper and "Salt Sick"_ .. 4 47
Experimental Procedure _-_.-_-- 21 Summary and Conclusions--- 50
Presentation of Results 26 Literature Cited __.-----..... 51
Discussion -_.- --______ 41 Appendix .---... 55
General .- -. -----..... _. ..- 41


INTRODUCTION

Malnutrition of cattle occurs on many of the sandy soils of
Florida. The conditions are due particularly to the inadequacy
of certain minerals in the soils and forage.
One of these conditions, a naturally occurring nutritional
anemia, is known usually as "salt sick", but also as "hill sick",
"scrub sick", "prairie sick", "baysick", "cow sick" or just plain
"sick". Animals in good condition grazing on affected areas
lose flesh rapidly. The main symptoms are: roughness of hair
coat, loss of appetite and of body fat, emaciation, weakness, re-
tarded growth and pale mucous membranes. These animals have
been reported to eat lay, sand, bones, wood, rags and many other
objects, although frequently refusing feed offered to them.
Many animals have died of "salt sick". Post mortem studies
indicate an apparent increase of trabeculae and atrophy of par-
enchyma in the spleen so that it appears fibrous. The heart is
flabby, thin-walled and lacking tone. The liver and kidneys are
paler in color than those of healthy animals.

Acknowledgments.-Thanks are extended to L. H. Rogers and the
staff of the Spectographic Laboratory for making the spectrographic
analyses in this study, and to Dr. R. B. Becker and Dr. W. M. Neal for
assistance in securing experimental material and for helpful criticism
during the progress of this work.

'From a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for
the Doctor of Philosophy degree in the Graduate School of the University
of Minnesota. The experiments were conducted at the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station.
'Dr. L. S. Palmer, major adviser, Division of Agricultural Biochem-
istry, University of Minnesota, contributed many valuable suggestions
and criticisms during the conduct of the work and the preparation of
the manuscript.









DISTRIBUTION AND CONCENTRATION OF COPPER IN THE
NEWBORN CALF AS INFLUENCED BY THE
NUTRITION OF THE DAM1

By L. L. RUSOFF2


CONTENTS
Page Page
Review of the Methods of Analyses- 6 Copper Content _-..---------- 44
Review of Literature 9 Cpoper and "Salt Sick"_ .. 4 47
Experimental Procedure _-_.-_-- 21 Summary and Conclusions--- 50
Presentation of Results 26 Literature Cited __.-----..... 51
Discussion -_.- --______ 41 Appendix .---... 55
General .- -. -----..... _. ..- 41


INTRODUCTION

Malnutrition of cattle occurs on many of the sandy soils of
Florida. The conditions are due particularly to the inadequacy
of certain minerals in the soils and forage.
One of these conditions, a naturally occurring nutritional
anemia, is known usually as "salt sick", but also as "hill sick",
"scrub sick", "prairie sick", "baysick", "cow sick" or just plain
"sick". Animals in good condition grazing on affected areas
lose flesh rapidly. The main symptoms are: roughness of hair
coat, loss of appetite and of body fat, emaciation, weakness, re-
tarded growth and pale mucous membranes. These animals have
been reported to eat lay, sand, bones, wood, rags and many other
objects, although frequently refusing feed offered to them.
Many animals have died of "salt sick". Post mortem studies
indicate an apparent increase of trabeculae and atrophy of par-
enchyma in the spleen so that it appears fibrous. The heart is
flabby, thin-walled and lacking tone. The liver and kidneys are
paler in color than those of healthy animals.

Acknowledgments.-Thanks are extended to L. H. Rogers and the
staff of the Spectographic Laboratory for making the spectrographic
analyses in this study, and to Dr. R. B. Becker and Dr. W. M. Neal for
assistance in securing experimental material and for helpful criticism
during the progress of this work.

'From a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for
the Doctor of Philosophy degree in the Graduate School of the University
of Minnesota. The experiments were conducted at the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station.
'Dr. L. S. Palmer, major adviser, Division of Agricultural Biochem-
istry, University of Minnesota, contributed many valuable suggestions
and criticisms during the conduct of the work and the preparation of
the manuscript.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Calves and first-calf heifers are most affected by the con-
dition of "salt sick", although it has been noted in cattle of all
ages regardless of sex. Sexual characteristics and sexual ma-
turity are delayed in affected animals, and there is a greatly
reduced calf crop on the "salt sick" areas.
The blood of affected animals is low in hemoglobin. The cell
volume sometimes is as little as one-fourth normal and the blood
volume is greatly reduced. Neal and Becker (57)' found that
the amount of hemoglobin per 100 ml. of blood for 12 affected
calves on "salt sick" areas ranged from 3.0 to 9.6 grams, with a
mean of 5.9 grams. The mean for 96 affected yearlings was
found to be about 8.4 grams. Healthy animals in the same herds
where "salt sick" occurred showed a mean hemoglobin content
of about 13.5 grams per 100 ml. of blood. These analyses were
made by the Dare (16) method.
In field trials, Becker, Neal and Shealy (4) have corrected
the condition by the use of ferric ammonium citrate and copper
sulfate as a drench, or with a mineral mixture of 100 pounds of
salt, 25 pounds of red oxide of iron and 1 pound of copper sulfate.
The iron and copper in this mixture are in the proportion of 50
to 1.
Conditions similar to "salt sick" have been encountered in
New Zealand as "bush sickness" or "skinnies"; in southern Scot-
land as "daising", "pining", "pine" and "vinquish"; in Kenya
Colony, East Africa, as "nakuritis"; and in King Island, Tasmania,
as coasty disease". In these places iron was the only supple-
ment used until Underwood and Filmer (78) reported that "en-
zootic marasmus" in West Australia was a cobalt deficiency.
Other conditions placed in this same category since that date are
coasty disease", "pine" and "bush sickness". The iron supple-
ments previously used were effective because of their cobalt
content. Recently, Neal and Ahmann (56) found that cobalt was
effective on certain areas in Florida where iron and copper sup-
plements were ineffective in correcting "salt sick".
Bryan and Becker (10) reported the copper content of the
soils from "salt sick" and healthy areas, determined by the Biazzo
method, to be 3.8 parts per million in the soils from the "salt sick"
areas as compared with 8.0 parts per million in healthy soils.
Rusoff, Rogers and Gaddum (66) found that wire grasses (Aristida

'Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back
of this bulletin.







The Newborn Calf 5

sp.) from both healthy and "salt sick" areas did not show any
appreciable differences in the copper content as determined spec-
trographically. The copper content of the grasses in the healthy
areas ranged from 6.8 to 8.0 parts per million on the dry basis
and for "salt sick" areas from 6.2 to 8.0 parts per million. This
indicates that either the copper content is not proportional in
the vegetation and the soil, or the Biazzo method used for the
soil analyses did not yield comparable results due to its sensitiv-
ity to interfering ions.
No analyses of the copper content of the organs and tissues
of healthy and affected cattle in Florida have been made prior
to this time, due to the lack of a suitable method for the determi-
nation of minute amounts of copper in biological material.
Since calves and first-calf heifers are particularly affected
with "salt sick", it was desirable to study the copper content of
the organs and tissues of newborn calves borne by such animals
to determine the concentration and distribution of copper in the
animal body as affected by this condition. The dams were se-
lected on the basis of their previous nutrition as indicated by
their physical condition during their pregnancy and the history
of the range.
It was hoped that this comparison might be made with two
calves, one from a normal dam and one from a "salt sick" dam.
Later it developed that the initial data were not significant and
two additional calves were secured. However, fewer tissues were
sampled from the additional animals. The four calves were utiliz-
ed to show the variation in concentration of copper in tissues us-
ually analyzed while the initial two animals were used to show
the relative concentration of copper in all the organs and tissues,
many of which are not usually sampled in a comparison between
animals.
In addition, qualitative spectrographic estimations were made
of other trace elements in the organs and tissues of the calves.
It was thought that the distribution and concentration of these
trace elements might give an indication as to which element or
elements might have contributing or supplementary roles in
"salt sick." (It is expected that this material will be presented
in a later bulletin.)
The terms "salt sick" calf and "salt sick" organs and tissues
are used throughout this paper for descriptive purposes to desig-
nate the condition of the dam, rather than the actual condition
of the calf.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


REVIEW OF THE METHODS OF ANALYSES

GENERAL
Preparation of Sample.-A weighed sample of tissue is ashed
by either the wet or dry technique. In wet ashing, hydrochloric
or sulfuric, nitric and perchloric acids are used, depending upon
the size of sample and the subsequent method to be employed.
Dry ashing is usually accomplished in a muffle furnace at high
temperatures in platinum or silica dishes. This method is pre-
ferred because there is no contamination due to the addition of
acids which may carry impurities.
Removal of Copper from Interfering Substances.-In general,
the copper is removed from the interfering substances by pre-
cipitating with ammonium hydroxide or hydrogen sulfide, or by
electrolysis, or dithizone.
Actual Determination of Copper.-Copper is determined by
the usual gravimetric method, or colorimetrically by the addition
of a reagent which forms a colored solution or salt with copper.
A more recent method has been the determination of copper in
fresh material or dry ash by spectrography.

SURVEY OF METHODS
Methods which have been used extensively for the determin-
ation of copper in biological materials may be divided into three
main groups:

CHEMICAL (OTHER THAN COLORIMETRIC)
Gravimetric.-Hydrogen sulfide precipitation of copper as
copper sulfide; weighed as such or else converted to the oxide
before weighing.
Micro-electrolytic-the copper deposited on the electrode is
weighed.
Catalytic.-Catalytic effect of copper on the liberation of
hydrogen, e.g., from peroxide.
Oxidation of cysteine and subsequent measurement of the
oxygen evolved.

COLORIMETRIC
Reagent Color
Ammonia blue
Potassium ferrocyanide purple to brown
Potassium ethyl xanthate yellow







The Newborn Calf


Biazzo (potassium thiocyanate and
pyridine) green
Diethyldithiocarbamate, sodium golden brown
Nitroso chromotropic acid purple permanganate
Diphenyl thiocarbazone yellow brown-purple
M benzaminosemicarbazide red
SPECTROGRAPHIC
Internal standards-silver, cadmium
CRITICISM OF METHODS
The early workers used the gravimetric method for the de-
termination of copper in biological materials, later workers using
the newer and more sensitive colorimetric methods.
Numerous reagents have been suggested for the colorimetric
determination of copper. Yoe (80) and Conn, Johnson, Trebler
and Karpenko (14) have reviewed the colorimetric methods for
determining copper in biological materials.
The colorimetric methods which have been used most by the
recent investigators have been xanthate (69, 73), Biazzo (7, 24,
68), carbamate (11, 51), nitrosochromotropic (12, 2), and dithi-
zone (26). Modification of some of these original methods has
been the use of organic solvents to extract the color which in-
creases the sensitivity and intensifies the color, thus increasing
the range of concentration.
Many investigators have found traces of copper in biological
materials by spectrographic techniques (Wright and Papish, (79);
Fox and Ramage, (29);Sheldon and Ramage, (70); Zbinden, (81);
Blumberg and Rask, (8).) Gerlach and Gerlach (31) proposed a
quantitative spectrographic determination of copper in the ash
of human organs.
Although the colorimetric methods have been very popular,
they are subject to many objections, the most important being
the interference of metals, especially iron.
In animal tissues such as liver and blood, large amounts of
iron interfere with the development of the color and must be
removed. Likewise, according to Ansbacher, Remington and
Culp (2) and Conn, Johnson, Trebler and Karpenko (14), in ma-
terials such as milk and bone, the ash contains large amounts of
Ca3 (P04)2 which precipitates in an alkaline medium and pre-
vents a quantitative removal of copper.
Iron may be removed by adding a small amount of sodium
pyrophosphate in using the xanthate or Biazzo reagents according







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


to Drabkin and Waggoner (20)._ Elvehjem and Hart (23), how-
ever, found that the pH and temperature must be controlled or
a serious loss of copper will result.
Tompsett (76) reported that in the carbamate method the
iron complex is not formed in the presence of pyrophosphate
when pH exceeds 7.5, or in the presence of citrates when the pH
exceeds 9.0.
Haddock and Evers (39) have been able to determine minute
amounts of copper in the presence of iron by adding citric acid
and ammonia to the solution when iron is in the ferric state.
Allport and Skrimshire (1) have determined copper in phar-
maceuticals which are high in iron by extracting the copper from
solution with diphenylthiocarbazone in chloroform and then esti-
mating colorimetrically with dithiooxamide.
As mentioned previously, copper has been separated from
interfering substances by hydrogen sulfide or electrolysis, yet
these methods also have been subject to criticism.
A critical examination of the common methods for copper
analysis by Rusoff and Gaddum (65) showed each to have at
least one of the following faults:
1. There is incomplete recovery of copper when it is pre-
cipitated as copper sulfide or electrolyzed out of solution.
2. The removal of iron and other metals by precipitation
carries down some of the copper.
3. The colors produced with minute amounts of copper are
very difficult to compare and do not follow Beer's Law.
4. The alkalinity or acidity of the solution changes the con-
centration of the color in the organic solvent.
5. There is incomplete extraction of color with the organic
solvent. The color can be intensified by aliquot extractions in
place of the usual total extraction. Time and vigor of shaking
also change the intensity of the color and produce a turbidity.
6. The main objection to all methods is contamination with
copper from reagents and apparatus employed.
Greater accuracy is now being obtained with the colorimetric
methods by making use of photometers in place of the usual col-
orimeter.







The Newborn Calf


REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The literature dealing with the distribution and concentra-
tion of copper in plant and animal tissues, including man, is vol-
uminous. Numerous workers have established without question
the universal presence of small amounts (traces) of copper every-
where in nature. Analyses have been made of the copper con-
tent of the organs and tissues of man, ox, horse, sheep, swine,
dog, guinea pig, rat, and many other animals. Most of the figures
reported have been for the ox and man. Many different methods
of analyses have been used for the determination of copper, and
it should be pointed out that most of the early figures reported
are probably erroneous due to faulty methods. This review will
deal particularly with the distribution and concentration of cop-
per in the bovine.
Sarzeau (67) in 1832 was probably the first investigator to
examine the copper content of cattle tissues. Precipitating the
copper with potassium ferrocyanide and weighing the copper
salt, he reported 3 mg. of copper in 4,286 grams of blood, and 1
mg. of copper per kilogram of fresh ox muscle.
In 1895 Lehmann (49) summarized very completely the inves-
tigations of the copper content of higher animals including man.
Figures for the bovine reported prior to 1895 by different work-
ers showed that the liver contained the highest concentration of
copper, 8.9 mg. per kilogram of fresh tissue; blood, 0.003 to 0.029
mg. for the cow, and 0.7 to 5.6 mg. for the ox; milk, trace to 1.6
mg.; muscle, 1.0 mg.; and calf spleen 3.2 mg. Lehmann's analyses
showed that the liver of the ox had a higher content of copper
than the other organs, and that the liver of the calf contained
more copper than that of the ox. Lehmann used hydrogen sul-
fide for precipitating the copper and weighed the salt as copper
oxide. His figures were as follows: calf liver 51.0 mg. of copper
per kilogram of fresh material, ox liver 22.5 to 34.0 mg., lung 4.0
mg., bile 0.2 to 3.4 mg., blood 0.6 to 0.75 mg., and milk 0.25 mg.
Rost and Weitzel (64) were the first to use an electrolytic
method for determining copper in the tissues of cattle. They
reported 24, 57, and 119 mg. of copper per kilogram of fresh ox
liver.
The early workers attached no significance to the presence
of copper in animal tissues except where it occurred in the lower
animals as hemocyanin. They considered its presence as acci-
dental.







10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

McHargue (52) in 1925 was the first American investigator
to determine copper in the tissues of cattle in an attempt to as-
sociate copper with substances containing the fat-soluble A vita-
min. McHargue first used the colorimetric method (ethyl xan-
thate) for estimating copper. His values arranged in their de-
creasing copper content were: liver of a calf born dead 161.3 mg.
per kilogram of fresh matter, an heart of the same calf 7.6 mg.;
liver of a 5 day-old calf 100.0 mg., and its blood 1.6 mg.; ox liver
12.5 mg., spleen 2.5 mg., lean meat 2.0 mg., and pancreas 1.3 mg.
The liver showed the greatest concentration of copper, and the
values for the young animals were much higher than those of
adult animals. McHargue stated that there was strong evidence
that copper performs important functions in the development of
the embryo, and in growth after birth, because of its greater
concentration in the fetuses of animals. The copper content of
eggs, liver and oil of codfish, tissues of cockerels, turkeys, rats,
and guinea pig fetuses also are reported in this paper.
Gu6rithault (36), using ammonia in an electrolytic colorime-
tric method for copper, found that beef contained 2.1 mg. of cop-
per per kilogram of fresh material and that cow's milk contained
0.6 mg. per kilogram.
McHargue, Healy, and Hill (53) reported 125 mg. of copper
per kilogram of dry calf's liver.
In 1928 Hart et al (40) demonstrated that copper was a nec-
essary supplement to iron for the formation of hemoglobin. This
report and others following it stimulated investigations in the
determination of copper in animal tissues in order to discover its
significance in the animal.
Quam (60), using the xanthate colorimetric method, found
16.0 to 30.0 mg. of copper per kilogram of dry beef liver.
Elvehjem and Lindow (24) described a modification of an-
other colorimetric method (Biazzo). Analyzing beef liver by this
method they found 66.0 mg. of copper per kilogram of dry matter
while the xanthate method yielded 71.0 mg.
Lindow, Elvehjem and Peterson (50) have made an exten-
sive study of the copper content of plant and animal foodstuffs.
Their results, reported in mg. of copper per kilogram of dry mat-
ter, are as follows: calf liver 164.4, calf brain 7.5, beef liver 75.7,
brain 12.0, lung 11.4, casings 8.4, spleen 6.0, kidney 6.0, pancreas






The Newborn Calf


4.0, T-bone steak 4.7, and round bone steak 3.0 mg. Calf liver
contained more than twice as much copper as beef liver, which
contained the highest percentage of copper in comparison with
the other organs analyzed.
Flinn and Inouye (28), using ammonia in an electrolytic col-
orimetric method for copper, found that 1 kilogram of cow's liver
contained 26.0 mg. of copper.
Using the xanthate method, Hellwig and Quam (41) have
studied the copper content of beef tissues. Arranged in order
of decreasing copper content the average values reported are:
liver 16.0 mg. per kilogram of fresh material, which was about
seven times as great as that of any of the other tissues analyzed,
kidney 2.4 mg., heart 2.3 mg. cartilage 2.2 mg., lung 1.9 mg.,
spleen 1.8 mg., bone 1.75 mg., brain 1.7 mg., muscle 1.6 mg., bile
1.8 mg., pancreas 1.3 mg., blood 1.3 mg., tongue 1.2 mg., tallow 1.0
mg., and eyes 0.85 mg. Each of those values is the average of
from three to 11 analyses. The authors point out that a knowl-
edge of the copper content of the feeds eaten by the animals
might explain some of the wide variations obtained, especially
with liver tissue. They suggested that each part of an organ
having a specific function should be analyzed separately. Hellwig
and Quam also investigated the copper content of 11 hog tissues
and pointed out that the liver of this species had six times as
much copper per kilogram of fresh material as any of the other
tissues analyzed. The blood was lowest in copper content with 1.1
mg. per kilogram.
Cunningham (15), using the Biazzo method as modified by
Elvehjem and Lindow (24), reported the copper content of many
organs and tissues of the bovine species, in which were included
an adult animal, a newborn calf, and a calf fetus. The figures
presented for the organs and tissues of the adult animal ranged
from 77.0 mg. to 0.16 mg. of copper per kilogram of dry matter.
The liver contained 77.0 mg., kidney 19.7 mg., heart 15.6 mg., lungs
5.3 mg., salivary gland 6.6 mg., stomach wall 6.5 mg., epidermis
6.0 mg., horn 3.9 mg., dermis 2.3 mg., hoof 2.1 mg., and fatty bone
marrow 0.16 mg.
The range of copper values in the newborn calf was from
470.0 mg. in the liver to 4.8 mg. in the flesh; kidney contained 15.7
mg., heart 14.8 mg., pancreas 5.5 mg., lungs 4.9 mg., and spleen
4.8 mg.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The copper content of the organs from the calf fetus ranged
from 262.8 mg. in the liver to 2.1 mg. in the skin; the heart con-
tained 10.4 mg., kidney 8.5 mg., spleen 5.4 mg., lungs 3.6 mg., and
flesh 2.9 mg.
Cunningham (15) also determined the copper content of or-
gans from many different species in addition to the bovine, name-
ly; man, sheep, horse, pig, dog, cat, rabbit, rat, badger, and domes-
tic fowl. In general, he found that the tissues containing a high
proportion of copper were the liver, kidney, heart, brain, and
hair, while the skin, lungs, pancreas, spleen and flesh contained
a low proportion of copper. In all species studied the adult liver
contained a greater amount of copper than the other adult or-
gans, but less than the livers of newly born animals. This high
proportion of copper in the liver, according to Cunningham, might
be due to filtration from the blood of copper absorbed in the
digestion of feedstuffs. He believed that this storage is necessary
to provide the young animals with a supply of copper over the
suckling period when only insignificant amounts of this element
are available in the diet of milk. He also suggested that it is
possible that copper may fill a small corner in the composition of
protoplasm because of its presence in practically all plants and
animals.
Very little work has been done on the copper content of
bovine organs and tissues since Cunningham's comprehensive
study.
S. Meyer and Eggert (55), using the Biazzo method, reported
57.0 mg. of copper per kilogram of dry beef liver. The total
copper present in the whole liver was 16.0 mg.
Rees (62), using Schonheimer and Oshima's method, reported
24 mg. of copper per kilogram of dry ox liver.
Bence (5), also using the method of Schonheimer and Oshima
(68), reported 50 to 80 mg. of copper in bovine embryos. Thirteen
of the embryos were three to four months old and the age of six
was unknown. Whole embryos three to four months old
ranged from 4.8 to 5.6 mg. of copper per kilogram of body
weight.
Tiede and Chomse (75), using an electrolytic method, re-
ported 1.2xl0-'gm. of copper per gram of bovine teeth. The cal-
culated amount was 12 mg. of copper per kilogram.







The Newborn Calf


Nitzescu and Georgescu (59), using the pyridine sulfocyan-
ide and the nitroso-chromotropic methods, reported 0.14 to 0.18
mg. of copper per liter of bovine aqueous humor.

Gruzewska and Roussel (35) used the benzoin oxime method
to determine the copper content of fetal bovine livers. They re-
ported 9 to 18 mg. per cent copper in fetal livers two to nine
months old, and that the age of the fetus was not a factor in cop-
per content.

Baroni (3) found 0.003 to 0.008 micrograms of copper in a
single retina of an ox eye, and 0.003 to 0.004 micrograms in the
choroid membrane. His method made use of hydro-rubeanic
acid. Tap water was used rather than distilled water, since it
contained less copper.

Kogan and Nasyrova (46) reported in their study of bovine
tissues that adult cow's liver contained the largest amount of

TABLE 1.-THE COPPER CONTENT OF THE LIVERS OF THE FETUS, NEWBORN CALF,
AND CALF OF UNKINOw AGE AS REPORTED BY DIFFERENT INVESTIGATORS.

Copper
Investigator Method Animal Whole
Fresh Dry Organ

LIVER OF FETUS mg./kg. mg./kg. mg.
Cunningham Biazzo fetus 262.8 16.3
(15)
Bence (5) Sch6nheimer fetus
and Oshima (3-4 months) 50-80
Gruzewska and fetus
Roussel (35) Benzoin oxime (2-9 months) 90-180
LIVER OF CALF (newborn)
McHargue (52) Xanthate calf (born dead) 161.3 908
Cunningham(15) Biazzo calf (newborn) 470
LIVER OF CALF (unknown age)
Lehmann (49) HS
Gravimetric calf 51.01
McHargue (52) Xanthate calf (5 days old) 100.0 400.0
McHargue,
Healy and
Hill (53) Xanthate calf 125
Lindow,
Elvehjem
and Peter-
son (50) Biazzo calf 44.1 164.4







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


copper, 113.0 mg. per kilogram of dry weight, the spleen con-
tained the smallest amount 6.52 mg., and the kidneys contained
22.82 mg.

Sjollema (72) in 1938, using the carbamate method, reported
the copper content of the liver, spleen, hair and blood of healthy
cattle in the Netherlands to be much higher than that of animals
suffering from a copper deficiency.

TABLE 2.-THE COPPER CONTENT OF THE VARIOUS ORGANS AND TISSUES OF THE
FETUS AND CALF AS REPORTED BY DIFFERENT INVESTIGATORS.


Investigator Method Tissue


Cunningham
(15)



Bence (5)


Biazzo




Sch6nheimer
and Oshima


Sarzeau (67) Gravimetric
McHargue (52) Xanthate

Lindow,
Elvehjem
and Peter-
son (50) Biazzo
Cunningham
(15) Biazzo


FETUS
heart
kidney
spleen
lung
skin

embryo
CALF
muscle
heart (calf born
dead)



brain

kidney (new-
born)
heart (new-
born)
pancreas (new-
born)
lung (newborn)
spleen (new-
born)
flesh (new-
born)
red bone
marrow
thymus


Copper
Dry Whole
Matter Organ

mg./kg. mg.
10.4 0.086
8.5 0.115
5.4 0.060
3.6 0.087
2.1 0.046

4.8-5.6


1.0

36.4



7.5

15.7

14.8

5.5

4.9

4.8

4.8







The Newborn Calf


The copper content of the livers of the fetus, newborn calf,
and calf of unknown age as reported by different investigators
is presented in Table 1. The copper content of the various organs
and tissues of the fetus and calf as reported by different investi-
gators is given in Table 2. The copper content of adult bovine
livers as reported by various investigators is presented in Table
3. Table 4 gives the copper content of the more commonly anal-
yzed organs and tissues of the adult bovine, namely: heart, lung,
spleen, pancreas, kidney, brain, and flesh. Table 5 presents the
copper content of the miscellaneous tissues of the adult bovine,
namely: cartilage, bone, bile, tongue, tallow, eyes, salivary gland,


TABLE 3.-THE COPPER CONTENT OF
FERENT INVESTIGATORS.


ADULT BOVINE LIVERS AS REPORTED BY DIr-


Copper
Investigator Method Animal Fresh Dry
mg./kg. mg./kg.


Lehmann (49)

Rost and
Weitzel (64)
McHargue (52)
Quam (60)
Lindow,
Elvehjem
and Peter-
son (50)
Elvehjem and
Lindow (24)

Flinn and
Inouye (28)-
Hellwig and
Quam (41)
Cunning-
ham (15)
Meyer and
Eggert (55)
Rees (62)


Kogan and
Nasyrova (46)


H2S Gravime-
tric

Electrolytic
Xanthate
Xanthate



Biazzo

Biazzo
Xanthate

Electrolytic

Xanthate

Biazzo

Biazzo
Sch6nheimer
and Oshima


ox

ox
ox
beef



beef

beef
beef

cow

beef

adult

beef

ox


22.5 34.0

24, 57, 119
12.5
16 30



21.5


113.0


Sjollema (72) Carbamate


cow (healthy)


cow (Cu. deficiency)


100.0, 19.6,
18.6 and 8.0
13.9, 5.2







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


stomach wall, epidermis, horn, dermis, hoof, fatty bone marrow,
teeth, aqueous humor, retina, choroid membrane, and hair.

TABLE 4.-THE COPPER CONTENT OF THE MORE COMMONLY ANALYZED ORGANS AND


TISSUES OF THE ADULT BOVINE AS REPORTED BY DIFE


Investigator Method Animal

HEART


Hellwig and
Quam (41)
Cunning-
ham (15)

Lehmann (49)
Lindow,
Elvehjem and
Peterson (50)
Hellwig and
Quam (41)
Cunning-
ham (15)


McHargue (52)
Lindow, Elveh-
jem and Pet-
erson (50)
Hellwig and
Quam (41)
Cunning-
ham (15)


McHargue (52)
Lindow, Elveh-
jem and Pet-
erson (50)
Hellwig and
Quam (41)
Cunning-
ham (15)
Kogan and
Nasyrova (46)
Sjollema (72)


Xanthate

Biazzo

Gravimetric


Biazzo

Xanthate

Biazzo
I
Xanthate


Biazzo

Xanthate

Biazzo


Xanthate


Biazzo

Xanthate

Biazzo


Carbamate


beef

adult
LUNG
ox


beef

beef

adult
'ANCREAS
ox


beef

beef

adult
SPLEEN
ox


beef

beef


FERENT INVESTIGATORS.

Copper
Fresh Dry

mg/kg. mg./kg.

2.3

15.6

4.0


2.2 11.4

1.9

5.3


1.3 6.5


0.8 4.0

1.3

3.8


2.5 16.6


1.4 6.0

1.8


adult


cow
cow (healthy)
cow (Cu
deficiency)


6.52
33.0-44.0







The Newborn Calf


TABLE 4.-THE COPPER CONTENT OF THE MORE COMMONLY ANALYZED ORGANS AND
TISSUES OF THE ADULT BOVINE AS REPORTED BY DIFFERENT INVESTIGATORS. Cont'd.


Investigator


Lindow, Elveh-
jem and Pet-
erson (50)

Hellwig and
Quam (41)

Cunning-
ham (15)

Kogan and
Nasyrova (46)

Lindow, Elveh-
jem and Pet-
erson (50)

Hellwig and
Quam (41)



Sarzeau (67)
McHargue (52)

Lindow, Elveh-
jem and Pet-
erson (50)



Hellwig and
Quam (41)


Method


Animal


KIDNEY


Biazzo


Xanthate


Biazzo


beef


beef


adult


cow
BRAIN


Biazzo


Copper
Fresh Dry

mg/kg. mg./kg.


1.1 6.0


2.4


19.7


22.82.


2.1 12.0


Xanthate


FLESH


Gravimetric
Xanthate


Biazzo



Xanthate


ox
ox (lean meat)



beef
(round bone
steak)

beef
(T-bone steak)
beef


0.8 3.0



1.2 4.7








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 5.-THE COPPER CONTENT OF MISCELLANEOUS TISSUES OF THE ADULT BO-
VINE AS REPORTED BY DIFFERENT INVESTIGATORS.

Investigator Method Tissue Copper


Hellwig and
Quam (41)


Cunning-
ham (15)


Tiede and
Chomse (75)


Nitzescu and
Georgescu (59)


Xanthate


Biazzo


cartilage
bone
bile
tongue
tallow
eyes


salivary gland
stomach wall
epidermis
horn
dermis
hoof
fatty bone
marrow


Electrolytic teeth


mg./kg. fresh material
2.2
1.75
1.3
1.2
1.0
0.85

mg./kg. dry material
6.6
6.5
6.0
3.9
2.3
2.1

0.16


1.2 x 10-5 gm./gm


Pyridine sulfo-
cyanide and
nitroso-
chromotropic aqueous humor 0.14-0.18 mg./L.
Biazzo aqueous humor 187.56 micrograms/L.


Baroni (3)


Sjollema (72)


Hydro-
rubeanic acid


single retina

choroid mem-
brane


Carbamate hair (healthy
cattle)
hair (Cu de-
ficient cattle)


0.003-0.008 micro-
grams
0.003-0.004 micro-
grams


6.6-10.4 mg./kg.
dry matter
1.8-3.4 mg./kg.
dry matter








The Newborn Calf


The presence of copper in blood has been recognized since
the work of Deschamps (19) in 1848. Table 6 presents the values
of copper for bovine blood as reported by different investigators.


TABLE 6.-THE COPPER CONTENT OF BOVINE BLOOD
INVESTIGATORS.


Type of Blood


AS REPORTED BY DIFFERENT


Copper


Lehmann (49)
McHargue (52)

Grendel (32)
Guillemet (37)
Guillemet (38)






McFarlane (51)
Tompsett (76)

Sjollema (72)


ox whole blood
ox whole blood
calf whole blood
ox whole blood
ox serum
ox whole blood
plasma
serum
red cells (washed)
whole blood
(defibrinated)
ox whole blood
ox whole blood
plasma


ox
(healthy)
ox (Cu de-
ficient)


whole blood

whole blood


p.p.m.
0.7 5.6
1.4
1.6
0.76
0.58 0.82
0.088
0.140
0.120
0.025

0.067
1.85 2.26
1.8 2.23
1.8 2.08

1.0

0.218 0.484


MILK
Interest in the copper content of milk has been revived not
only because of its physiological importance but also because the
presence of copper induces certain off-flavors. It has been sug-
gested that copper might play the role of a catalyst in certain
organic reactions occurring in milk.

Reviews of the literature on the copper content of milk have
been published by Elvehjem (22) and Conn, Johnson, Trebler
and Karpenko (14).

Table 7 gives the values of copper found in milk as reported
by various investigators.


Investigator


Animal








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 7.-THE COPPER CONTENT
GATORS.


OF MILK AS REPORTED


BY DIFFERENT INVESTI-


Investigator


Fleurent and Levi (27)
Supplee and Bellis (73)
Hess, Supplee and
Bellis (43)

McHargue (52)
King and Etzel (45)
Quam and Hellwig (61)

Elvehjem and Lindow (24)
Elvehjem, Steenbock
and Hart (25)
Grendel (33)

Keil and Nelson (44)
Davies (17)

Zondek and Bandmann (82)
McFarlane (51)
Davies (18)
Grimmer (34)
Broek and Wolff (9)
Conn, Johnson, Trebler
and Karpenko (14)

Tompsett (77)
Sylvester and Lampitt (74)
Echave (21)
Krauss and Washburn (47)
McIlroy (54)
Krenn (48)


Milk


raw
raw

raw
pasteurized
raw
raw
raw
pasteurized
raw

raw
raw
pasteurized
raw
raw
pasteurized
raw
raw
raw
raw
raw

raw
pasteurized
raw
raw
raw
raw
commercial
raw


Copper

p.p.m.
1.4
0.2 0.8

0.55
0.6 0.7
0.38
0.4 0.72
0.26 0.52
0.60 1.60
0.126 0.163

0.123 0.184
0.09 0.14
0.16 0.29
0.24
0.15 0.65
0.40 4.0
0.15 0.20
0.068 0.096
0.30 0.75
0.19 0.34
0.028

0.051 0.132
0.088 0.741
0.10 0.16
0.09 0.17
0.31 0.40
0.14 0.17
0.24 0.25
0.2 0.3







The Newborn Calf


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
The procedure adopted to determine the distribution and
concentration of copper in the tissues and organs of the new-
born calves was as follows:
SLAUGHTER OF ANIMALS AND OBTAINING OF TISSUES
Each animal was stunned by a blow on the head and then
suspended with the head down for complete bleeding. The skin
along the neck was trimmed so that the jugular veins and carotid
arteries were exposed; these were severed and the blood was
collected in a bucket. After the animal had bled out, the hide
was removed and the carcass was brought into the laboratory
where it was placed on a wooden table covered with brown Kraft
paper.
The body was then separated into parts, extreme precautions
being taken against any possible contamination. The head, tail
and shanks were removed. The ventral line was cut and the in-
ternal organs and tissues were obtained. The carcass was then
divided into two equal sides by cutting further along the ventral
line and sawing down the spinal column.
One side was completely separated into skeletal and muscu-
lar tissues. The tail and shanks were treated in a similar man-
ner. The skull was separated from the adhering flesh after the
eyes, tongue and brain were removed. All weights of skeletal
tissue and muscular tissue of one side were multiplied by two
to obtain the total weight of these tissues in the carcass.
All tissues and organs were weighed as soon as possible after
removal in order to avoid any loss from evaporation. A sample
of blood was obtained during the bleeding. Tissues which were
not placed in dishes for ashing at the time of slaughter were
stored in a refrigerator in acid-leached glass jars.
TISSUES USED
The following tissues and organs of the normal newborn calf,
E 106, were taken for analyses: endocrine system-pituitary, thy-
roid, thymus, adrenals and testes; nerve system-brain, spinal
cord, eye lens, eye cornea, eye aqueous and vitreous humor, and
sclera and retina; circulatory system-heart, whole blood, blood
serum, red blood cells' and aorta; respiratory system-lung and

'The blood was centrifuged in an acid-leached glass container to
separate the red blood cells from the plasma. The cells were not washed.







22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

trachea; excretory system-kidney, bladder, penis and urine;
digestive system-tongue, esophagus, stomach, stomach contents,
small intestine, large intestine, intestinal contents, pancreas,
liver, gallbladder and bile, and spleen; supporting system-skull
and jaw, teeth, rib, vertebra, carpals and phalanges, tarsals and
phalanges, fore shaft bones (humerus, radius and ulna), rear
shaft bones (femur, tibia and fibula), scapula, pelvis and cartil-
age; miscellaneous-flesh, skin, hoof, fat, bone marrow and hair.
The following tissues of the "salt sick" newborn calf, E 108,
were omitted from those taken for the normal newborn calf: eye
lens, eye cornea, eye vitreous and aqueous humor, and sclera and
retina. The total eye was taken instead of the dissected parts of
the eye. The contents of the stomach and intestines were also
omitted because of the possibility of contamination from ingested
food, since the animal was obtained at two days of age.
The tissues of the normal newborn calf, E 123, analyzed for
copper were: thymus, adrenals, brain, heart, lung, kidney, pan-
creas, liver, gallbladder and bile, spleen and rib.
The tissues of the normal calf, E 125, analyzed for copper
were: brain, heart, kidney, pancreas, liver, gallbladder and bile,
spleen and rib.
CHEMICAL PROCEDURE
Apparatus and Equipment.-All platinum, silica, and glass
equipment and apparatus were leached in 1:1 hot hydrochloric
acid and then rinsed several times with water redistilled from a
silica still. This water contained less than 0.5 parts per million
of copper as determined spectrographically.
The organs and tissues were weighed in leached platinum or
silica dishes and dried at 100 degrees C. for at least 48 hours, and
then ashed in a muffle furnace at a temperature not exceeding
450 degrees C. Whenever possible, the whole organ or tissue
was taken to be ashed. Sometimes it was necessary to wash an
organ with redistilled water to remove adhering blood.
The ash was put in a glass vial, the top of which was covered
with paper, corked, and in this manner was transferred to the
Spectrographic Laboratory.
It should be pointed out that during the ashing a few of the
tissues had a tendency to foam over the side of the dish. This
tendency was experienced in the laboratory previously with cer-
tain tissues, particularly liver, blood, heart, spleen and pancreas.
It was found that this condition could be avoided at times by







The Newborn Calf


using exceptionally large dishes. However, the procedure used
in this work was to heat the dish very carefully with a fine flame
from a micro-burner before ashing in the muffle furnace. By
placing the flame first along the sides of the dish, the organic
matter will rise toward the center of the dish away from the side
being heated. Moving the heat along the side slowly, the swell-
ing or foaming of the organic matter due to gas generation can
be controlled away from the side of the dish. The center of the
dish is the last to be heated. When gas formation ceases, the
foaming stops and the dish is ready to go into the muffle furnace
to complete the ashing which takes from 48 to 96 hours, depend-
ing upon the sample.
QUANTITATIVE SPECTROGRAPHIC MICRO-DETERMINATION
OF COPPER
The method (63) adopted for this investigation was a quan-
titative spectrographic micro-determination of copper in biolog-
ical materials in the range from 0.001 to 0.1 percent by direct arc-
ing of the ash. The probable error of the method is about 5 per-
cent. In some instances there was insufficient ash for the -quan-
titative determination of copper and therefore these tissues were
analyzed for copper by a qualitative spectrographic method,
since this procedure requires less ash.
ANIMALS USED
A. Normal Newborn Calf, E 106.-This calf, presumably
normal, was obtained from the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station dairy herd which is comprised of purebred Jerseys. Its
dam was Florida Victor Beauty 1060102 and its sire was Floss
Duke's Count 357288. The gestation period was 272 days, the
animal being a first calf born on March 6, 1937. The calf was a
bull weighing 54 pounds at birth, which is considered normal for
the breed. The animal was slaughtered a few hours after birth,
at which time it weighed 49 pounds. The calf was not allowed to
receive any nourishment from its mother.
It is the practice with the Station herd to allow the animals
access to a mineral mixture composed of 100 pounds of sodium
chloride, 25 pounds of red oxide of iron and 1 pound of copper
sulfate (iron to copper 50:1), also additional access to salt and
bonemeal to permit normal reproduction and health.
The hemoglobin content of the newborn calves from the
Station herd averages about 11.5 grams per 100 ml. of whole blood







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


by the Newcomer (58) method. This calf showed a hemoglobin
content of 11.3 grams per 100 ml. of whole blood.
B. "Salt Sick" Newborn Calf, E 108.-It was impossible to
obtain a newborn range calf, but a 2 day-old male animal was
obtained from a dam which was classed as "salt sick", as determ-
ined from hemoglobin tests and external appearances. The dam
was wintered on the range without supplementary feed and was
in a condition of "salt sick" (see Fig. 1). The hemoglobin con-



















Fig. 1.-"Salt sick" dam.

tent of the blood was 8.45 grams per 100 ml. of whole blood at the
time the calf was obtained. The hemoglobin content of the calf's
blood was also 8.45 grams as determined by the Newcomer (58)
method.
The calf weighed 45.8 pounds when it was obtained at two
days of age on March 29, 1938. (See Fig. 2).
The soils of the range on which the dam grazed were pal-
metto flatwoods (Leon), Norfolk, with some small cypress pond
areas (Blanton), mainly white and gray sands on which "salt
sick" commonly occurs.
C. Normal Newborn Calf, E 123.-This bull calf, weighing
48 pounds at birth, also was obtained from the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station dairy herd. Its dam was Florida Victor







The Newborn Calf


Fig. 2.-Newborn calf, E 108, from "salt sick" dam.


U. Belle 1124775 and its sire was Floss Duke's Count 357288. The
gestation period was 275 days, the animal being a first calf born
June 6, 1938. The calf was slaughtered a few hours after birth
and had not received any nourishment. The hemoglobin content
of the blood was 8.29 grams per 100 ml. of whole blood by the
Newcomer (58) method.
The dam of this calf grazed on an area where "salt sick"
occurs, although a mineral mixture of iron and copper was avail-
able at all times. During the year 1938 three heifers on this area
showed "salt sickness" and it is possible that the dam was on a
borderline of "salt sick".
D. Normal Newborn Calf, E 125.-This bull calf was obtain-
ed from the dairy herd of the Florida State College for Women
at Tallahassee, Florida. It was born on October 5, 1939, and
slaughtered the next day, not receiving any nourishment during
that time. The weight of the calf at the time of slaughter was
34.2 pounds. The hemoglobin content of the blood was 11.1 grams
per 100 ml. of whole blood by the Newcomer (58) method.
The dam of this calf was raised on an area definitely known
to be free of "salt sick". The soil upon which the dam grazed is







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Orangeburg fine sand, which is classed as healthy. It is believed
that this animal represents as true a normal newborn calf as can
be found in Florida.

PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
The total fresh weight, total dry matter, and total ash in
grams, percentage of moisture and percentage of ash on the fresh
and dry bases of the organs and tissues for the newborn calves,
E 106, E 108, E 123 and E 125, are presented in Tables 8, 9, 10 and
11, respectively.
The total fresh weight in grams, percentage of moisture and
percentage of ash on the dry basis of the various organs and
tisues for the initial calves, E 106 and E 108, are shown arranged
in decreasing magnitude in Appendix Tables I, II and III, re-
spectively.
Table 12 gives the total fresh weight, percentage of moisture
and percentage of ash on the dry basis of the tissues usually an-
alyzed, for all the newborn calves.
The range in values of the fresh weights, percentage of mois-
ture and percentage of ash on the dry basis of the tissues usually
analyzed, for all the calves are shown in Table 13.
1. FRESH WEIGHTS
The weights of the tissues for the normal calf, E 106, ranged
from 6,978.0 grams for the flesh to 0.35 grams for the pituitary
gland, and in the "salt sick" calf, E 108, from 7,682.0 grams for
the flesh to 0.44 grams for the pituitary gland. The weights of
the tissues of normal calf, E 123, ranged from 450.877 grams in the
liver to 1.2998 grams in the adrenal gland. For normal calf, E 125,
the range was from 1,043.0 grams for whole blood to 7.148 grams
in the gallbladder and bile. It is necessary to recall here that
only tissues usually taken for analysis were obtained from these
latter two animals. The pituitary gland was not taken and only
a sample of flesh was obtained so that total fresh weights of
these tissues were not available for these calves for comparison
with the initial animals.







TABLE 8.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL ASH, PERCENTAGE MOISTURE, AND PERCENTAGE ASH (FRESH AND DRY
BASES) OF THE ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL NEWBORN CALF (E 106).

Total Fresh Total Dry Total Ash Moisture Ash Ash
Tissue or Organ Weight Matter (fresh basis) (dry basis)

grams grams grams percent percent percent
Endocrine
Pituitary 0.3544 0.0787 0.0035 77.79 0.98 4.44
Thyroid 4.0036 0.8727 0.0410 78.20 1.02 4.69
Thymus 80.00 22.9242 1.9973 71.34 2.49 8.71
Adrenals 2.4031 0.4715 0.0310 80.38 1.29 6.57
Testes 3.8684 0.6429 0.0432 83.38 1.11 6.71

Nerve
Brain 196.67 71.675 2.5068 63.55 1.27 3.49
Spinal cord and medulla 53.73 14.195 0.8130 73.58 1.51 5.72
Lens 2.583 0.4804 0.0220 81.40 0.85 4.57
Cornea 1.3796 0.1493 0.0119 89.18 0.86 7.97
Aqueous and vitreous humor 6.212 0.1496 0.0672 97.59 1.08 44.92
Sclera and retina 9.9255 1.5472 0.0899 84.41 0.90 5.81
Whole eye (calculated) 20.10 2.3265 0.191 88.43 0.95 8.21

Circulatory
Heart 147.37 31.457 1.5376 78.65 1.04 4.88
Whole blood 1,279.12 214.636 12.556 83.22 0.98 6.03
Blood serum 895.38 54.528 8.972 93.91 1.00 16.47
Red blood cell 383.73 117.001 3.3834 69.51 0.88 2.89
Aorta 20.619 4.1626 0.1592 79.81 0.77 3.82

Respiratory
Lung 274.45 62.895 3.070 77.08 1.11 4.88
Trachea 40.37 8.697 0.5347 78.45 1.32 6.14







TABLE 8.-ToTAt FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL Asa,
BASES) OF THE ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL NEWBORN


PERCENTAGE MOISTURE, AND PERCENTAGE ASH (FRESH AND DRY
CALF (E 108) .-(Continued)


Tissues or Organ


Total Fresh Total Dry
Weight Matter


Total Ash


Moisture


Ash Ash
(fresh basis) (dry basis)


Excretory
Kidney
Bladder
Penis
Urine
Digestive
Tongue
Esophagus
Stomach
Stomach contents
Small intestine
Large intestine
Intestinal contents
Pancreas
Liver
Gallbladder and bile
Spleen
Supporting
Skull and jaw
Teeth
Rib
Vertebra
Carpals
Fore shaft bones
Tarsals
Hind shaft bones
Scapula
Pelvis
Cartilage


grams grams


73.08
14.1985
30.63
248.42

91.26
21.54
236.04
158.0
633.0
143.0
282.0
11.7022
395.71
2.5297
42.64


468.0
46.92
306.0
704.0
292.0
546.0
528.0
750.0
118.0
222.0
58.0


18.050
2.5859
6.7369
4.5023

19.3510
3.7863
40.675
4.4872
117.738
30.530
117.002
2.8623
132.855
0.2738
10.620

264.560
38.140
136.813
283.78
132.064
260.660
220.598
368.100
66.799
92.352
22.939


grams

0.8967
0.1396
0.2572
0.7966

0.9505
0.2214
1.695
1.1067
5.5030
1.2755
3.345
0.1429
5.017
0.0235
0.6707

162.765
31.684
63.403
112.386
51.038
122.642
88.350
175.605
33.184
39.928
0.4649


percent

75.30
81.78
78.00
98.18

78.79
82.42
82.76
97.16
81.40
78.65
58.51
75.54
66.42
89.17
75.09


43.47
18.71
55.29
59.69
55.08
54.26
58.22
50.92
43.39
58.40
60.45


34.77
67.52
20.72
15.96
17.36
22.46
16.73
23.41
28.12
17.98
0.80


percent

1.22
0.98
0.83
0.32

1.04
1.02
0.71
0.70
0.86
0.89
1.18
1.22
1.26
0.92
1.57


61.52
83.07
46.35
39.60
38.64
49.11
40.05
47.70
49.68
43.23
2.02


percent

4.96
5.39
3.81
17.69

5.91
5.84
4.16
24.75
4.67
4.17
2.85
4.99
3.77
8.58
6.31






TABLE 8.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL ASH, PERCENTAGE MOISTURE, AND PERCENTAGE ASH (FRESH AND DRY
BASES) OF TIE ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A NORMAL NEWBORNCALF (E 106).-(Continued)
Total Fresh Total Dry Total Ash Moisture Ash Ash
Tissue or Organ Weight Matter (fresh basis) (dry basis)

grams grams grams percent percent percent
Miscellaneous
Flesh 6,978.0 1,609.13 77.772 76.94 1.11 4.83
Skin 2,255.0 521.58 11.292 76.87 0.50 2.16
Hoof 94.0 53.740 0.9716 42.83 1.03 1.80
Fat 353.0 230.827 1.4756 34.61 0.41 0.63
Bone marrow (hind leg)* 9.7835 3.1302 0.4826 68.00 4.93 15.41
Bone marrow (foreleg)* 6.1760 2.5643 0.3138 58.00 5.08 12.23
Hair* 16.965 11.514 0.4295 32.13 2.53 3.73

Total animal 18,346.41 5,266.37 1,030.94 71.30 5.61 19.57


*These tissues represent sample weights only.









TABLE 9.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL ASH, PERCENTAGE MOISTURE, AND PERCENTAGE ASH (FRESH AND DRY
BASES) OF THE ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A "SALT SICK" NEWBORN CALF (E 108)


Total Fresh Total Dry Total Ash Moisture Ash Ash
Weight Matter (fresh basis) (dry basis)


Tissue or Organ


Endocrine
Pituitary
Thyroid
Thymus
Adrenals
Testes
Nerve
Brain
Spinal cord and medulla
Eye
Circulatory
Heart
Whole blood
Blood serum
Red blood cell
Aorta
Respiratory
Lung
Trachea

Excretory
Kidney
Bladder
Penis
Urine


grams grams


0.4388
4.0557
33.689
2.3030
6.2300

197.98
57.760
24.355

134.94
1,172.64
867.76
304.88
30.278

200.07
43.00


78.610
17.716
15.080
14.608


0.0914
1.0524
6.765
0.4707
1.197

36.698
15.617
2.265


28.215
180.23
62.131
81.40
7.069

53.81
10.376


15.885
3.357
2.871
0.785


grams

0.0046
0.0352
0.5420
0.0317
0.0676

2.575
0.955
0.223


1.445
13.696
8.452
2.6859
0.261

3.225
0.6949


1.027
0.195
0.131
0.557


percent

79.17
74.05
79.92
79.56
80.79

81.47
72.96
90.70

79.09
84.63
92.84
73.30
76.65

73.10
75.87


79.79
81.05
80.96
94.62


percent

1.04
0.86
1.60
1.37
1.08

1.30
1.65
0.91

1.07
1.16
0.97
0.88
0.86

1.61
1.61


1.30
1.10
0.86
0.78


percent


5.12
7.60
13.60
3.30
3.69

5.99
6.70


6.46
5.80
4.56
70.95





TABLE 9.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL ASH, PERCENTAGE ASH, PERCENTAGE MOISTURE, AND PERCENTAGE ASH
(FRESH AND DRY BASES) OF THE ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A "SALT SIcx" NEWBORN CALF (E 108)-(Continued).
Total Fresh Total Dry Total Ash Moisture Ash Ash
Tissue or Organ Weight Matter (fresh basis) (dry basis)

grams grams grams percent percent percent
Digestive
Tongue 105.0 22.081 1.124 78.97 1.07 5.09
Esophagus 34.0 6.800 2.205 80.00 6.48 32.41
Stomach 250.0 40.30 2.072 83.88 0.82- 5.14
Small intestine 444.0 103.40 4.577 76.71 1.03 4.42
Large intestine 201.0 38.793 1.622 80.70 0.80 4.18
Pancreas 15.6622 3.727 0.200 76.20 1.27 5.36
Liver 295.73 74.90 4.285 74.67 1.44 5.72
Gallbladder and bile 7.6219 0.9982 0.098 86.91 1.28 9.82
Spleen 32.392 7.365 0.447 77.26 1.38 6.06


Supporting
Skull and jaw 640.0 504.19 323.32 21.22 50.52 64.12
Teeth 84.0 52.47 41.81 37.53 49.78 79.70
Rib 300.0 202.05 120.15 32.65 40.05 59.45
Vertebra 930.0 506.29 251.47 45.56 27.04 49.71
Carpals 212.0 115.54 59.37 45.50 28.00 51.39
Fore shaft bones 652.0 332.32 199.64 49.03 30.62 60.06
Tarsals 564.0 235.75 131.63 58.20 23.34 55.84
Hind shaft bones 900.0 454.68 273.33 49.48 30.37 60.11
Scapula 154.0 70.42 62.18 54.27 40.38 88.24
Pelvis 206.0 102.54 56.42 50.22 27.39 55.01
Cartilage 25.07 7.145 0.550 71.50 2.19 7.69








TABLE 9.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL ASH, PERCENTAGE ASH, PERCENTAGE MOISTURE, AND PERCENTAGE ASH
(FRESH AND DRY BASES) OF THE ORGANS AND TISSUES OF A "SALT SICK" NEWBORN CALF (E 108)-(Continued).
Total Fresh Total Dry Total Ash Moisture Ash Ash
Tissue or Organ Weight Matter (fresh basis) (dry basis)

grams grams grams percent percent percent
Miscellaneous
Flesh 7,682.0 1,645.48 89.26 78.58 1.16 5.42
Skin 2,340.5 613.67 47.37 73.78 2.02 7.72
Hoof 179.4 121.09 1.586 32.50 0.88 1.30
Fat 120.0 76.63 0.584 36.14 0.48 0.76
Bone marrow* 5.927 1.965 0.992 66.85 16.73 50.48
Hair* 3.713 3.423 0.058 7.82 1.56 1.69
Total animal 18,452.00 5,723.67 1,708.71 69.00 9.31 29.85



Those tissues represent sample weights only.








The Newborn Calf


TABLE 10.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL ASH, PERCENTAGE
MOISTURE, PERCENTAGE ASH ON THE FRESH AND DRY BASES OF THE TISSUES OF
A NORMAL NEWBORN CALF (CALF E 123).

Total Total Total Moisture Ash Ash
Fresh Dry Ash Fresh Dry
Tissue Weight Matter Matter Matter


gm. gm. gm. percent
Thymus 67.885 13.135 1.075 80.66-
Adrenals 1.2998 0.3462 0.0245 73.37
Brain 180.87 23.975 2.345 86.75
Heart 133.837 25.972 1.405 80.60
Lung 245.55 49.257 2.946 79.94
Kidney 79.955 14.920 0.930 81.34
Liver 450.877 124.910 5.930 72.30
Pancreas 18.105 3.710 0.210 76.16
Gallbladder
and bile 1.935 0.3815 0.0202 80.28
Spleen 45.407 10.145 0.625 77.66
Rib* 61.515 34.17 18.718 44.45


percent percent
1.58 8.18
1.88 7.07
1.29 9.78
1.05 5.41
1.20 6.02
1.16 6.23
1.31 4.75
1.16 5.66

1.04 5.29
1.37 6.16
30.43 54.78


* Sample weight.


TABLE 11.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, TOTAL DRY MATTER, TOTAL ASH, PERCENTAGE
MOISTURE, PERCENTAGE ASH ON THE FRESH AND DRY BASES OF THE TISSUES OF
A NORMAL NEWBORN CALF (CALF E 125).

Total Total Total Moisture Ash Ash
Fresh Dry Ash Fresh Dry
Tissue Weight Matter Matter Matter

gm. gm. gm. percent percent percent

Brain 176.95 31.48 2.29 82.21 1.29 7.27
Heart 115.181 35.616 1.303 69.08 1.13 3.66
Kidney 60.577 13.272 0.772 78.09 1.27 5.81
Liver 310.0 74.12 4.28 76.09 1.38 5.77
Pancreas 42.383 24.051 0.293 43.25 0.69 1.22
Gallbladder
and bile 7.148 0.983 0.093 86.25 1.30 9.46
Spleen 37.068 8.171 0.535 77.95 1.44 6.55
Rib* 34.284 17.818 10.307 48.03 30.06 57.85
Blood 1,043.0 234.15 16.92 77.55 0.975 4.34
Flesh* 123.804 25.176 1.443 79.66 1.165 5.73


* Sample weight.










TABLE 12.-TOTAL FRESH WEIGHT, PERCENTAGE OF MOISTURE AND PERCENTAGE OF ASH ON THE DRY BASIS OF TISSUES OF NEWBORN CALVES
AS INFLUENCED BY THE NUTRITION OF THE DAM.
Fresh Weight in Grams
Newborn Gallbladder
Calves Liver Kidney Heart Pancreas Lung Spleen Thymus Flesh Brain Rib Adrenals and Bile Blood
E 106 395.71 73.08 147.37 11.7022 274.45 42.64 80.00 6978.0 196.67 306.0 2.4031 2.5297 1,279.12
E 123 450.87 79.955 133.837 18.105 245.55 45.407 67.885 180.87 61.52* 1.2998 1.9350 --
E 125 310.0 60.577 115.181 42.383 37.068 123.80* 176.95 34.28* ---- 7.148 1,043.0
E 108 295.73 78.61 134.94 15.6622 200.07 32.392 33.689 7682.0 196.98 300.0 2.3030 7.6219 1,172.64
Percentage of Moisture
Newborn Gallbladder
Calves Liver Kidney Heart Pancreas Lung Spleen Thymus Flesh Brain Rib Adrenals and Bile Blood
E 106 66.42 75.30 78.65 75.54 77.08 75.09 71.34 76.94 63.55 55.29 80.38 89.17 83.22
E 123 72.30 81.34 80.60 76.16 79.94 77.66 80.66 86.75 44.45 73.37 80.28
E 125 76.09 78.09 69.08 43.25 77.95 79.66 82.21 48.03 86.25 77.55 .
E 108 74.67 79.79 79.09 76.20 73.10 77.26 79.92 78.58 81.47 32.65 79.56 86.91 84.63
Percentage of Ash (Dry Basis)
Newborn Gallbladder
Calves Liver Kidney Heart Pancreas Lung Spleen Thymus Flesh Brain Rib Adrenals and Bile Blood ?
E 106 3.77 4.96 4.88 4.99 4.88 6.31 8.71 4.83 3.49 46.35 6.57 8.58 6.03
E 123 4.75 6.23 5.41 5.66 6.02 6.16 8.18 9.78 54.78 7.07 5.29 -
E 125 5.77 5.81 3.66 1.22 .- 6.55 5.73 7.27 57.85 9.46 4.34
E 108 5.72 6.46 5.12 5.36 5.99 6.06 8.01 5.42 7.01 59.45 6.73 9.82 7.60
* Sample weight.







The Newborn Calf


TABLE 13.-RANGE IN VALUES FOR FRESH WEIGHTS, PERCENTAGE OF MOISTURE AND
PERCENTAGE OF ASH ON THE DRY BASIS FOR THE TISSUES USUALLY TAKEN OF


NEWBORN
Tissue

Liver
Kidney
Heart
Pancreas
Lung
Spleen
Thymus
Flesh
Brain
Rib
Adrenals
Gallbladder
and bile
Blood


CALVES.
Fresh Weights
grams
295.73 450.877
60.557 79.955
115.181 147.37
11.7022- 43.383
200.07 274.45
32.392 45.407
33.689 80.00
6,978.0 -7,682.0
176.95 197.98
300.0 306.0
1.2998- 2.4031

1.935 7.6219
1,043.0 -1,279.12


Ash (Dry Basis)
percent
3.77 5.77
4.96 6.46
3.66 5.41
1.22 5.66
4.68 6.02
6.06 6.55
8.01 8.71
4.83 5.73
3.49 9.78
46.35 -59.45
6.57 7.07

5.20 9.82
4.34 7.60


The main differences in fresh weight between corresponding
tissues of all calves are shown in Table 14.


TABLE 14.-MAIN DIFFERENCES IN FRESH WEIGHT OF


Calf E 106 Calf E 123
grams grams
395.71 450.877
11.7022 18.105
80.0 67.885


2.52
3.8684
6,978.0


1.935


Calf E 125
grams
310.0
42.383


7.148


CORRESPONDING TISSUES.
Calf E 108
("salt sick")
grams
295.73
15.6622
33.69

7.62
6.300
7,682.0


2. PERCENTAGE OF MOISTURE

The percentage of moisture for the various organs and
tissues of the normal newborn calf, E 106, ranged from 98.18
i.ercent in'the urine to 32.13 percent in the hair, while in the
'salt sick" animal, E 108, the range was from 94.62 percent in
the urine to 7.82 percent in the hair. The percentage of moisture
for the entire calf was 71.30 percent for the normal and 69.00 per-
cent for the "salt sick".
In the normal calf E 123 the percentage of moisture ranged
from 86.75 percent in the brain to 44.45 percent in the rib and in
the normal calf E 125 the range was from 86.25 percent for the
gallbladder and bile to 43.25 percent in the pancreas.


Moisture
percent
66.42 76.09
75.30 81.34
69.08 80.60
43.25 76.20
73.10 79.94
75.09 77.95
71.34 80.66
76.94 79.66
63.55 86.75
32.65 55.29
73.37 80.38

80.28 89.17
77.55 84.63


Tissue

Liver
Pancreas
Thymus
Gallbladder
and bile
Testes
Flesh







36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The main differences in percentage of moisture of corres-
ponding tissues of all calves are shown in Table 15.

TABLE 15.-MAIN DIFFERENCES IN PERCENTAGE OF MOISTURE OF CORRESPONDING
A iSSUES.
Moisture
Tissue Calf E 106 Calf E 123 Calf E 126 Calf E 108 ("salt sick")
percent percent percent percent
Pancreas 75.54 76.16 43.25 76.20
Brain 63.55 86.75 82.21 81.47
Rib 55.29 44.45 48.03 32.68

3. PERCENTAGE OF ASH (DRY BASIS)
In the normal calf E 106, the percentage of ash on the dry
basis for the various organs and tissues ranged from 44.92 percent
for the eye aqueous and vitreous humor to 0.64 percent for the
fat, and in the "salt sick" calf E 108 it ranged from 70.95 percent
for urine to 0.75 percent for fat. The percentage of ash in the entire
normal calf was 19.57 percent and that of the "salt sick" calf 29.85
percent.
For the tissues of normal calf E 123 the range in percentage
of ash was from 54.78 percent in the rib to 4.75 percent in the
liver and for normal calf E 125 from 57.85 percent in the rib to
1.22 percent in the pancreas.
The main differences in percentage of ash of corresponding
dry tissues and organs for all calves are presented in Table 16.

TABLE 16.-MAIN DIFFERENCES IN PERCENTAGE OF ASH OF CORRESPONDING DRY
TISSUES AND ORGANS.
Ash
Tissue Calf E 106 Calf E 123 Calf E 125 Calf E 108 ("salt sick")
percent percent percent percent
Liver 3.77 4.75 5.77 5.72
Kidney 4.96 6.23 5.81 6.46
Heart 4.88 5.41 3.66 5.12
Pancreas 4.99 5.66 1.22 5.36
Lung 4.88 6.02 5.99
Brain 3.49 9.78 7.27 7.01
Gallbladder
and bile 8.58 5.29 9.46 9.82
Whole blood 6.03 .... 4.34 7.60
Bone marrow 15.41 .. 50.48
Esophagus 13.60 ....... 32.00
Blood serum 16.47 ...... 13.60
Testes 6.71 .. 5.64
Stomach 4.16 ...... 5.14
Penis 3.81 .. 4.56
Thyroid 4.69 -- 3.34






The Newborn Calf


4. COPPER CONTENT
Table 17 gives the copper content of the various organs and
tissues of the initial newborn calves, E 106 and E 108. The table
presents the percentage of copper in the ash, parts per million
of copper in dry tissues and milligrams of copper in each organ
and tissue and in the entire animal. Table 18 presents the per-
centage of copper in the ash, parts per million of copper in dry
tissue and the total copper in the tissues usually analyzed, for
all the calves used in this study.
The percentage of copper in the ash, parts per million of
copper in fresh tissue, parts per million of copper in dry tissue
and milligrams of copper in the various organs and tissues of the
normal and "salt sick" calves, E 106 and E 108, arranged in de-
creasing magnitude are presented in Appendix Tables IV to VII,
inclusive.
a. Percentage of Copper.-In the normal calf E 106 the per-
centage of copper ranged from 0.58 percent in the liver to 0.00008-
0.0003 percent in the retina; for the "salt sick" calf E 108 it ranged
from 0.74 percent in the liver to 0.00044 percent in the skull and
jaw; for the normal calf E 123, from 0.97 percent in the liver to
0.0013 percent in the rib and for the normal calf E 125, from 0.80
percent in the liver to 0.006 percent in the rib.
In all calves the liver contained the highest percentage of
copper, the values ranging from 0.58 to 0.97 percent. The kidney,
pancreas, lung, spleen, flesh, brain, adrenals and whole blood
of the "salt sick" newborn calf, E 108, contained a higher per-
centage of copper than corresponding tissues of the other calves.

b. Copper Content of Dry Matter.-In the normal calf E 106
the highest copper content, found in the rib, was 296.6 parts per
million in the dry matter. The next highest copper content, 229.0
parts per million, was found in the liver, and the lowest value, 0.46
parts per million, in the lens. For the "salt sick" calf E 108 blood
serum contained the highest amount of copper with 571.0 parts
per million. The liver contained the next highest amount, 423.3
parts per million. The rib contained only 8.3 parts per million of
copper, and the lowest amount of copper, 0.17 parts per million,
was in the hair. In calf E 123 the copper content ranged from 460.7
parts per million in the liver to 0.7 4.0 parts per million in the
adrenal gland, and in calf E 125 the range was 462.0 parts per
million in the liver to 4.5 parts per million in the pancreas.









TABLE 17.-COPPER CONTENT OF THE TISSUES AND ORGANS OF A NORMAL AND "SALT SICK" NEWBORN CALF.
00
Copper in Ash Copper in Fresh Tissue Copper in Dry Tissue Copper in Whole Tissue
Tissue or Organ Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick" Normal "Salt Sick"
percent percent p.p.m p.p.m. p.p.m. p.m. mg. mg.
Endocrine .
Pituitary* 0.001 0.03-0.08 0.09 3.1-8.4 0.4 15.1-40.2 0.000035 0.0013-0.0037
Thyroid* 0.0008-0.003 0.03-0.08 0.08-0.3 2.6-7.0 0.4-1.4 10.0-26.7 0.0003-0.001 0.10-0.28
Thymus 0.003 0.036 0.7 5.8 2.1 28.8 0.06 0.19
Adrenals* 0.008-0.03 0.08-0.3 1.0-3.8 11.0-41.0 5.2-19.7 53.9-202.0 0.002-0.009 0.025-0.095
Testes* 0.003-0.008 0.03-0.08 0.4-0.9 3.2-8.7 2.0-5.4 17.0-45.2 0.001-0.003 0.02-0.05
Nerve
Brain 0.05 0.10 6.4 13.0 17.4 70.1 1.2 2.6
Spinal cord and
medulla 0.015 0.20 2.3 3.3 8.6 12.2 0.1 0.19 Z.
Lens* 0.001 0.08 -- -- 0.46 0.0002 ---..
Sclera and
retina* 0.0008-0.003 0.08-0.3 -.-.. 3.6-13.4 0.0005-0.002
Cornea* 0.0008-0.003 ..-- 0.07-0.2 --- 0.6-2.4 0.00009-0.0002 -------..-...
Aqueous and
vitreous humor*0.05-0.1 --...-..- 4.4-9.0 --. .. 29.0-58.0 0.04-0.09 -
Whole eye --- 0.0078 0.7 ..-....--.- 7.6 -.---__ 0.17
Circulatory .
Heart 0.06 0.084 6.2 8.9 29.3 43.0 0.9 1.2
Whole blood 0.086 0.52 8.4 60.7 51.8 395.2 10.8 71.2
Blood serum 0.037 0.42 3.7 4.09 60.9 571.0 3.3 35.5
Red blood cell 0.15 0.25 13.2 22.0 43.4 82.5 5.0 6.7
Aorta* 0.005-0.01 0.003-0.008 0.4-0.8 0.2-0.6 2.0-4.0 1.0-2.0 0.008-0.01 0.007-0.02
Respiratory
Lung 0.05 0.07 5.6 11.3 24.4 41.9 1.5 2.2
Trachea 0.044 0.078 5.8 12.6 27.0 52.3 0.2 0.54
Excretory
Kidney 0.037 0.40 4.5 52.2 18.4 258.6 0.3 4.1
Bladder* 0.0008-0.003 0.008-0.03 0.08-0.3 0.88-3.3 0.4-1.6 4.6-17.4 0.001-0.004 0.01-0.06
Penis* 0.008-0.03 0.008-0.03 0.70-2.5 0.7-2.6 3.0-11.4 3.6-13.2 0.02-0.07 n 01-0.03
Urine 0.035 0.0082 1.1 0.64 62.0 58.2 0.3 0.045
* Qualitative estimate for copper





TABLE 17.-COPPER CONTENT OF THE TISSUES AND ORGANSOF A NORMAL AND A "SALT SICK" NEWBORN CALF.-(Continued)


Copper in Ash
Tissue or Organ Normal "Salt Sick"
percent percent


0.084
03 0.008-0.03
0.15


Digestive
Tongue 0.05
Esophagus* 0.0008-0.0(
Stomach 0.075
Stomach
contents 0.0055
Small intestine* 0.055
Large intestine 0.10
Intestinal
contents 0.14
Pancreas* 0.008-0.03
Spleen 0.0086
Liver 0.58
Gallbladder
and bile* 0.005-0.01
Supporting
Skull and jaw 0.003
Teeth 0.0026
Rib 0.064
Vertebra 0.023
Carpals 0.023
Fore shaft bones3.015
Tarsals 0.019
Hind shaft bones3.0092
Scapula 0.016
Pelvis 0.015
Cartilage* 0.008-0.03
Rone marrow 0.041
Miscellaneous
Flesh 0.05
Skin 0.05
Hoof 0.27
Fat** 0.008-0.03
Hair 0.13


Copper in Fresh Tissue
Normal '"Salt Sick"
p.p.m. p.p.m.


Copper in Dry Tissue
Normal "Salt Sick"
p.p.m. p.p.m.


5.2 9.1 29.5 43.3
0.08-0.3 5.1-19.4 0.5-1.7 25.0-97.0
5.4 12.4 31.2 77.1


0.4
4.8
8.9

16.6
1.0-3.6
1.5
73.5


16.5
6.0

10.2-38.3
12.4
107.2


13.6
25.7
41.2

40.0
4.0-15.0
6.3
229.0


70.8
31.4

42.9-160.9
54.6
423.3


4.7
0.01-0.04
0.06
29.1


0.16-0.6
0.4
31.7


0.005-0.01 0.4-0.9 0.6-1.3 4.3-8.6 5.0-9.8 0.001-0.002 0.005-0.009


0.00044
0.00052
0.0014
0.0035
0.0013
0.0017
0.0012
0.00054
0.00052
0.00072
0.046
0.0014

0.078
0.1
0.30
0.12
0.001


10.4
17.5
132.6
36.7
39.9
33.7
31.8
21.5
44.9
27.0
0.6-2.4
20.2

5.6
2.5
27.9
0.4-1.2
20.2


2.2
2.6
5.6
9.4
3.6
5.2
2.8
1.6
2.0
1.9
9.2
2.3

9.0
20.2
26.5
5.8
0.15


18.5
21.6
296.6
91.0
88.8
73.6
76.1
43.9
79.5
64.8
1.6-6.0
63.2

24.1
10.8
48.8
0.5-2.0
63.2


2.8
4.1
8.3
17.4
6.7
10.2
6.7
3.2
4.6
3.9
35.4
7.7

42.3
77.2
39.2
9.1
0.17


4.8
0.8
40.6
25.8
5.8
18.4
6.3
16.1
5.3
5.9
0.04-0.1
0.2**

42.7
5.6
2.6
0.1-0.4**


1.4
0.21
1.7
8.8
0.77
3.4
1.6
1.5
0.32
0.40
0.25
0.014**


Entire Animal


236.5237.01 269.9-271.2


*Qualitative estimate for copper
**Amount in sample taken


Copper in Whole Tissue
Normal "Salt Sick"
mg. mg.

0.5 0.94
0.002 0.17-0.66
1.3 3.1

0.06
3.0 7.3
1.3 1.2


0.16
0.075

0.08-0.3
0.09
0.74







TABLE 18.-COPPER CONTENT OF THE TISSUES USUALLY ANALYZED OF NEWBORN CALVES As INFLUENCED BY THE NUTRITION OF THE DAM.
Percentage of Copper in Ash


Newborn
Calves Liver
E 106 0.58
E 123 0.97
E 125 0.80
E. 108 0.74


Kidney
0.037
0.064
0.04
0.40


Heart
0.06
0.087
0.082
0.084


Pancrea
0.008-0.0
0.008-0.0
0.037
0.08-0.3


is Lung Spleen Thymus Flesh Brain
'3 0.05 0.0086 0.003 0.05 0.05
3 0.044 0.04 0.01 0.048
0.021 0.03 0.032
0.07 0.09 0.036 0.078 0.10
Parts per Million of Copner in Dry Matter


Rib
0.064
0.0013
0.006
0.0014


Adrenals
0.008-0.03
0.001-0.05

0.08-0.3


Gall-
bladder
and Bile
0.005-0.01
0.08-0.3

0.005-0.01


Blood
0.086

0.018
0.52


Gall-
Newborn bladder
Calves Liver Kidney Heart Pancreas Lung Spleen Thymus Flesh Brain Rib Adrenals and Bile Blood
E 106 229.0 18.4 29.3 4.0-15.0 24.4 6.3 2.6 26.6 17.4 296.6 5.0-19.0 4.0-8.0 51.8
E 123 460.7 39.8 47.1 4.0-17.0 26.5 24.4 8.2 46.9 7.1 0.7-4.0 42.0-158.0
E 125 462 23.2 30.0 4.5 13.7 17.2 23.3 34.7 ..--- -- 7.8
E 108 423.3 258.6 43.0 43.0-161.0 42.0 54.6 28.8 42.3 70.1 8.3 53.0-202.0 5.0-9.8 395.2
Milligrams of Copper in Whole Tissue


Newborn
Calves Liver
E 106 29.1
E 123 57.5
E 125 34.2
E 108 31.7


Kidney
0.3
0.6
0.3
4.1


Heart
0.9
1.2
1.0
1.2


Pancreas
0.01-0.04
0.01-0.06
0.10
0.16-0.6


Lung
1.5
1.3
2.2


Spleen
0.06
0.25
0.11
0.4


Thymus Flesh Brain Rib
0.06 42.7 1.2 40.6
0.10 1. 1.1 -
S 0.7 -
0.19 69.6 2.6 1.7


Gall-
bladder
Adrenals and Bile
0.002-0.009 0.001-0.002
0.0002-0.001 0.01-0.06

0.025-0.095 0.005-0.009


Blood
10.8

3.0
71.2







The Newborn Calf


c. Total Copper in Each Organ and Tissue, and in the Body.
-In the entire organ and tissue for the normal calf E 106 the
flesh with 42.7 mg. contained the highest amount of copper, the
rib was next with 40.6 mg., the liver 29.1 mg., and the lowest
quantity was detected in the pituitary gland, 0.000035 mg. For
the "salt sick" calf E 108 whole blood ranked first with 71.2 mg.,
flesh 69.6 mg., skin 47.0 mg., liver 31.7 mg. and the pituitary gland
contained the lowest content of copper, 0.0013 to 0.0037 mg. The
rib of this calf contained only 1.7 mg. of copper. For calf E 123
the liver contained 57.5 mg. of copper and the adrenal gland the
lowest amount with 0.0002 0.001 mg. Of all the organs or tissues
of calf E 125 the liver contained the highest amount of copper
with 34.2 mg. and the pancreas the lowest with 0.10 mg.
The copper content of the entire normal newborn calf, E 106,
was 236.5 to 237.0 milligrams and that of the "salt sick" calf, E
108, was 269.9 to 271.2 milligrams.

DISCUSSION

GENERAL
The stomach contents, intestinal contents, lens, aqueous and
vitreous humor, cornea, and sclera and retina of the "salt sick"
newborn calf E 108 were not obtained for analysis, but the cor-
responding tissues of the normal newborn calf E 106 were an-
alyzed. The normal calf had not suckled prior to slaughter. Its
stomach contents were a light yellowish semi-solid mass and the
intestinal contents were a light yellowish more liquid mass. These
materials were weighed and analyzed. The "salt sick" calf was
two days old when obtained and had had nourishment so that
the stomach and intestinal contents were probably contaminated.
Therefore, no samples of these tissues were taken for analysis.
The various parts of the "salt sick" eye were not dissected as was
done with the normal eye because of the small amount of ash
obtainable. Hence, only qualitative estimates of copper were
possible from these sections of the eye in place of quantitative
determinations. These parts of the normal eye were taken only
for completeness of the presence of copper in the various tissues.
The total fresh weights of the various organs and tissues of
the normal newborn calf E 106 amounted to 40.45 pounds, which
is 13.5 pounds less than its live weight, and the total fresh weights







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of the organs and tissues of the "salt sick" calf were 40.67 pounds
which is 5.13 pounds less than its live weight. These differences
are probably due to the evaporation of water and the loss of blood
during the slaughter of each calf and the obtaining of tissues.
In general, there is fair agreement for most of the values
obtained for the various corresponding organs and tissues from
all calves with respect to fresh weights, percentage moisture and
percentage ash on the dry basis. There are some differences
which are to be expected because of individual variation. The
difference in the percentage moisture of the hair of normal calf
E 106 (32.13 percent) and that of "salt sick" calf E 108 (7.82 per-
cent) may have been caused by the procedure used for these tis-
sues. The hair was washed with redistilled water to remove
any adhering material and dried at room temperature prior to
weighing. Possibly the normal hair was not completely dried at
the time of weighing or else the humidity was high at that time.
It is known, however, that the hair of "salt sick" animals is rough
and dry.
Table 19 gives the percentage of each tissue and organ in the
total body weight of the initial calves, E 106 and E 108, arranged
in descending value for the normal calf, E 106. Examination of
this table shows that the flesh, bone and skin make up approxi-
mately three-fourths of the total weight of the newborn calf
while other tissues and organs make up the remaining fourth.
Tissues and organs of the normal calf, in general, show no appre-
ciable differences in percentage weight with corresponding "salt
sick" tissues and organs, except the thymus, small intestine and
the more watery tissues like the urine, fat, gallbladder and bile.
The thymus of the "salt sick" calf E 108 was very small in size
and weighed one-half as much as the thymus of any of the normal
calves.
Greatest variations were found among the percentages of
ash on the dry basis for corresponding tissues from all calves.
These differences may be significant when the total amount of
an element in an organ or tissue is computed, and may account
for some of the values obtained for similar organs from the
various calves.
The percentage of ash on the dry basis in the aqueous and
vitreous humor of the eye of the normal calf E 106 is exceedingly
high, which is quite surprising since it approaches the value for
bone ash. This fact has since been verified by the author (unpub-








The Newborn Calf


lished report) in subsequent analyses of aqueous and vitreous
humor from a number of bovine eyes. The calculated total ash
(dry matter basis) of the dissected parts of the whole eye for
the normal calf is less than the total ash value for the "salt sick"
TABLE 19.-DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL WEIGHT IN THE BODY OF A NORMAL AND A
"SALT SICK" CALF.


Tissue or Organ

Flesh
Bone
Skin
Whole blood
Blood serum
Small intestine
Liver
Red blood cell
Fat*
Intestinal contents
Lung
Urine
Stomach
Brain
Stomach contents
Heart
Large intestine
Hoof
Tongue
Thymus
Kidney
Spinal cord and medulla
Spleen
Trachea
Penis
Esophagus
Aorta
Hair*
Bladder
Pancreas
Sclera and retina
Bone marrow*
Aqueous and vitreous humor
Thyroid
Testes
Lens
Gallbladder and bile
Adrenals
Cornea
Pituitary
Eye


Percentage of Total Weight
Normal Calf "Salt Sick" Calf
percent percent
38.0 41.6
22.0 24.1
12.3 12.7
6.9 6.3
4.9 4.7
3.4 2.4
2.1 1.6
2.1 1.6
1.9 0.6
1.5
1.5 1.0
1.3 0.08
1.3 1.3
1.0 1.0
0.8
0.8 0.7
0.8 1.0
0.5 0.9
0.5 0.5
0.4 0.1
0.4 0.4
0.3 -0.3
0.2 0.1
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.08
0.1 0.1
0.1 0.1
0.09 0.02
0.07 0.09
0.06 0.08
0.05
0.05 0.03
0.03
0.02 0.02
0.02 0.03
0.01
0.01 0.04
0.01 0.01
0.007
0.002 0.002


* These percentages are calculated from the weight
lyzed rather than from the total quantity.


0.1
of the sample ana-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


whole eye. Thus some major component must be very high in
minerals and this also verifies the above statement concerning
the aqueous and vitreous humor.
In the normal newborn calf E 106 the total percentage of
ash was 5.61 percent on the fresh basis and 19.57 percent on
the dry basis, while the "salt sick" calf E 108 showed 9.31 percent
ash on the fresh basis and 29.85 percent ash on the dry basis.
The "salt sick" calf contained more total ash than the normal
calf. This fact also might influence the amount of copper, or the
amount of any other trace element in the total animal.
COPPER CONTENT
Copper was found in every organ and tissue examined. The
percentage of the total body copper for each organ and tissue
of the initial normal calf, E 106, and of the "salt sick" calf, E 108,
is presented in Table 20. The flesh contained the greatest per-
centage of total copper in the body for the normal calf and whole
blood contained the greatest percentage for the "salt sick" calf.
The pituitary gland contained the lowest percentage for both
calves. The liver, large intestine, heart, tongue, red blood
cells and lung of both calves contained approximately the same
percentage of total body copper. However, all organs and tissues
of the "salt sick" animal, with the exception of the skeletal
structures, bone marrow and urine, contained more copper than
was present in the corresponding tissues and organs of the normal
calf. The total amount of copper in the entire "salt sick" animal,
E 108, nevertheless, was only slightly greater than that of the
normal calf, E 106.
Table 21 shows the copper content of the tissues of the new-
born calf which have been reported by other investigators and
which are compared with the present study. The values for the
normal calves obtained in this study agree favorably with many
of those reported by McHargue (52) and Cunningham (15) for
their animals. Of the organs and tissues compared, the liver
contained the largest amount of copper.
The high copper content found in the rib of the initial normal
calf, E 106, cannot be accounted for by the fact that the dairy
herd at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station has access
to a salt mixture which contains copper because the other tissues
showed no abnormal storage of copper. All of the skeletal struc-
tures of this newborn calf contained more copper than most of
the other tissues and organs.








The Newborn Calf


TABLE 20.-DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL
"SALT SICK" CALF.


Tissue or Organ


Flesh
Rib
Liver
Vertebra
Fore shaft bone
Hind shaft bone
Whole blood
Tarsals
Pelvis
Carpals
Skin
Scapula
Red blood cell
Skull and jaw
Intestinal contents
Blood serum
Small intestine
Hoof
Lung
Stomach
Large intestine
Brain
Heart
Teeth
Tongue
Kidney
Urine
Trachea
Bone marrow*
Spinal cord and medulla
Fat*
Spleen
Thymus
Stomach contents
Aqueous and vitreous humor*
Cartilage*
Penis*
Pancreas*
Aorta*
Adrenals*
Esophagus*
Bladder*
Gallbladder and bile*
Sclera and retina*
Thyroid*
Lens*
Cornea
Pituitary*
Eye*


COPPER IN THE BODY


Normal Calf
percent


18.0
17.1
12.3
10.9
7.7
7.0
4.5
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
2.0
1.4
1.2
1.1
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.08
0.08
0.04
0.04 -0.1
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01 -0.04
0.008 -0.02
0.004 -0.008
0.003 -0.004
0.0008 -0.003
0.0008
0.0004 -0.001
0.0004 -0.0008
0.0002 -0.0008
0.0001 -0.0004
0.00008
0.00004-0.00008
0.00001


-~--~--~-


* Qualitative estimate for copper.


OF A NORMAL AND A

"Salt Sick" Calf
percent
25.7
0.6
11.7
3.2
0.5
1.2
26.6
0.6
0.1
0.2
17.4
0.1
2.5
0.5

13.1
2.7
1.7
0.8
1.1
0.4
0.9
0.4
0.07
0.3
1.5
0.01
0.2
0.005
0.07
0.2
0.1
0.07


0.09
0.004-0.01
0.06 -0.2
0.002-0.007
0.09 -0.03
0.06 -0.2
0.004-0.02
0.002-0.003

0.04 -0.1


0.0004-0.001
0.06




















TABLE 21.-THE COPPER CONTENT OF DRY MATTER OF ORGANS AND TISSUES OF THE NEWBORN CALF USUALLY ANALYZED AS REPORTED
BY DIFFERENT INVESTIGATORS.

Investigator Liver Kidney Heart Pancreas Lung Spleen Thymus Flesh
p.p.m. .p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m pm .p.m. p.p.m. p.p.m.


McHargue (52)
Cunningham (15)
Rusoff (present study)
Normal calf, E 106
Normal calf, E 123
Normal calf, E 125
"Salt Sick" calf, E 108


229
460.7
462.0
423.3


15.7

18.4
39.8
23.2
258.6


14.8 5.6 4.9 4.8 3.5 2.9

29.3 4-15 24.4 6.3 2.6 26.6
47.1 4-17 26.5 24.4 8.2 -- -
30.0 4.5 13.7 17.2
43.0 43-161 42.0 54.6 28.8 42.3
a'







The Newborn Calf


Many investigators who have studied the copper content
of various animal and human tissues have ignored the fact that
the skeletal structures might contain stores of this element.
The liver has been stressed by most of these workers as contain-
ing the highest amount of copper in the body. There have been
a few workers, however, who have pointed out that the bone
may contain copper. Hellwig and Quam (41) reported adult
bovine bone to contain 1.75 mg. of copper per kilogram of fresh
material. Herkel (42) obtained 4.03 mg. of copper per kilogram
of fresh human bone. Chou and Adolph (13) reported 6.5 mg.
of copper per kilogram of fresh adult human bone and 23.1 mg.
of copper for the total bone in the human body. Gerlach (30)
found human bone to contain 1 to 5 mg. of copper per kilogram
of fresh material. Tompsett (77) reported human vertebra to
contain from 1.63 to 4.16 mg. of copper per kilogram of fresh
material, and human rib from 3.71 to 47.70 mg. of copper per
kilogram. Tompsett states, "It appears that the bones may act
as stores for copper". In this study it is noteworthy that the rib
of the normal newborn calf, E 106, also contained more copper
than the liver but the reverse was found with the other calves.
COPPER AND "SALT SICK"
Since copper is one of the elements which has been used as
a preventive of "salt sick", it might be expected that the amount
of copper in the "salt sick" tissues would be less than the quantity
in the normal tissues, yet practically all of the "salt sick" tissues,
with the exception of the skeletal structures, contain more
copper. Examination of the data presented in Table 18 shows
that the values for copper found in the liver and heart of all
calves are in close agreement. The figures for copper in the kid-
ney, pancreas, lung, spleen, thymus, flesh, brain, adrenals and
blood of the "salt sick" calf E 106 are higher than those reported
for any of the three normal calves, E 106, E 123 and E 125.
The total amount of copper in the entire body of the normal
calf E 106 was found to range from 236.5 to 237.0 mg., as com-
pared with the total amount of 269.9 to 271.2 mg. of copper in the
"salt sick" calf. The reason for this range is due to the inclusion
of the qualitative estimates for copper which are presented in
range form. There seems to be sufficient copper present in the
"salt sick" calf as compared to the amount found in the normal
newborn calf. Perhaps some other element or substance is re-
quired along with copper in this respect.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Bennetts and Chapman (6) have reported a copper deficiency
in sheep in West Australia. They found the amount of copper
to be low in the livers and blood of affected ewes as compared
to the normal.

The following data summarize their results:
Tissue Copper Content of Dry matter
parts per million
Normal livers 120.00 360.00
Affected livers 4.00 8.00
Normal blood 0.74 0.87
Affected blood 0.05 0.10
Sjollema (72) reported a copper deficiency among cattle and
goats in the Netherlands. The affected animals grazed on a dry
sandy soil and developed symptoms of diarrhea, loss of appetite,
decreased milk production and a most striking loss of black
color. The condition was prevented by feeding supplements of
copper salts. The liver, spleen, hair and blood of affected animals
contained less copper than those of normal animals. Sjollema's
results are as follows:

Tissue Copper Content of Dry Matter
Healthy Affected
mg./kg. mg./kg.
Liver (cattle) 100.0 13.9
19.6 5.2
18.6
8.0
Liver (goat) 100.0 9.5
6.0
Spleen (cattle) 33.0-44.0 3.15
Hair (cattle) 6.6-10.4 1.8 -3.4

The copper content of healthy cattle and goat blood was
found to be 100 micrograms per 100 c.c. while affected cattle
contained 21.8 to 48.4 micrograms and affected goats 21.1 micro-
grams.

Sjollema points out that although the copper content of the
blood of affected animals is one-third of that of normal animals,
no anemia is present. In this study of newborn calves there are
no such findings. It is known that "salt sick" deficiency affects
yearlings particularly. A study of the distribution and concentra-
tion of copper in those animals may be more significant than in
the newborn calves.







The Newborn Calf


Sjollema (71, 72) reported that the grass and hay on affected
areas were also lower in copper than the forage on the healthy
areas. However, Rusoff, Rogers and Gaddum (66) found that
the forage from both "salt sick" and healthy ranges did not
show significant differences in copper content, yet "salt sick"
has been cured by supplements containing copper.
It is suggested from this study that copper may not be a
factor in the newborn animal, nevertheless the low copper con-
tent of the "salt sick" skeletal structures and high content in
other tissues as compared to normal tissues may be significant.
The Aotal amount of copper found in the entire body of the
normal calf and in the "salt sick" calf was in close agreement,
which might indicate that some other factor may be required
for its utilization. It is possible that cobalt, since it has been
found to be one of the elements involved in a type of "salt sick",
or some other element, may be this factor. Perhaps if the cobalt
content of a ration is adequate, but the copper content is not,
then copper becomes the limiting factor. On the other hand, if a
marginal amount of copper is available but cobalt is not, then
cobalt becomes the first limiting factor and copper is the next.
Methods for determining the cobalt content of various samples
quantitatively are inadequate at present, and therefore the
mineral supplements used in "salt sick" might contain this ele-
ment or some other element, as did the limonite supplements
reported by Underwood and Filmer (78) in cases of "enzootic
marasmus" in West Australia. Then again, iron may be an im-
portant factor in "salt sick". Analysis for this element should be
made of the soils, forage and animal tissues.
In this study, as was also shown by Rusoff, Rogers and
Gaddum (66) in the comparison of the forage from both the
healthy and "salt sick" areas, copper does not seem to be the
limiting factor insofar as the newborn calf is concerned. It ap-
pears that the newborn calf from the "salt sick" dam is not itself
"salt sick". Perhaps in the growing animal or in the adult animal
copper is more essential. More biological work is recommended
before a physiological interpretation of the role of copper in "salt
sick" can be made.







50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1. A comprehensive survey of the literature dealing with
the presence and occurrence of copper in the bovine is presented.
2. A comparison of the copper content of the tissues usually
analyzed of four newborn calves as influenced by the nutrition of
their dams was made by a quantitative spectrographic method.
3. A comparison of the copper content of all tissues and
organs of two of the newborn calves, one from a normal dam
and one from a "salt sick" dam, also was made.
4. Copper was present in every organ and tissue analyzed.
5. The entire normal newborn calf contained 236.6 to 237.0
milligrams of copper and the entire "salt sick" newborn calf
contained 269.9 to 271.2 milligrams.
6. With the exception of the skeletal tissues, practically all
of the "salt sick" tissues and organs contained more copper than
corresponding normal organs and tissues.
7. The organs and tissues of the normal newborn calf ar-
ranged in decreasing order of copper content are: flesh, rib,
liver, vertebra, fore shaft bones, hind shaft bones, whole blood,
tarsal, pelvis, carpal, skin, scapula, blood cell, skull and jaw,
intestinal contents, blood serum, small intestine, hoof, stomach,
large intestine, brain, heart, teeth, tongue, kidney, urine, bone
marrow, spinal cord and medulla, fat, spleen, thymus, stomach
contents, aqueous and vitreous humor, cartilage, penis, pancreas,
aorta, adrenals, esophagus, bladder, gallbladder and bile, testes,
thyroid, lens, cornea and pituitary gland.
For the "salt sick" newborn calf the order is: whole blood,
flesh, skin, blood serum, liver, vertebra, small intestine, blood
cell, hoof, kidney, hind shaft bones, stomach, brain, rib, tarsal,
fore shaft bones, skull and jaw, heart, large intestine, tongue,
carpal, fat, spleen, pelvis, scapula, cartilage, teeth, thymus, spinal
cord and medulla, esophagus, eye, pancreas, thyroid, urine,
adrenal, testes, bone marrow, bladder, penis, aorta, gallbladder
and bile, and pituitary gland.
8. The hypothesis that bone might be a site for copper storage
is supported.
9. The dam's being "salt sick" does not influence copper
storage in the newborn calf.
10. No definite conclusions can be drawn concerning the
role of copper in "salt sick". It is recommended that there be
more biological work before a physiological interpretation of the
metabolism of copper in "salt sick" can be given.
11. A calf from a "salt sick" dam is not itself "salt sick".







The Newborn Calf


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


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The Newborn Calf


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Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


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milch. Klin. Wchnschr. 10: 1528-1531. 1931.








The Newborn Calf 55

APPENDIX
TABLE I.-WEIGHTS OF VARIOUS TISSUES AND ORGANS ARRANGED IN DESCENDING
MAGNITUDE OF A NORMAL NEWBORN CALF AND A "SALT SICK" NEWBORN CALF.


Normal Calf
Tissue or Organ


Flesh -- -
Bone -
Skin -
Whole blood ----
Blood serum --. -
Small intestine _- ----- --
Liver -- --
Red blood cell _--
Fat .---------- ------__-___
Intestinal contents ---_----
Lung ------
Urine in
Stomach ......................
Brain-----
Stomach contents --.--.---
Heart
Large intestine
Tail ....-----..------ ---_
Hoof .--... -
Tongue -_~__
Thymus _-___-_
Kidney -- --
Spinal cord and medulla --
Spleen .
Trachea _--___.__
Penis ---- -
Esophagus --_-----
Aorta ---. -- -
Hair*-------
Bladder ___ --
Pancreas ___-_._. -----.
Sclera and retina -___.-
Bone marrow (hind leg)*
Aqueous & vitreous humor
Bone marrow (fore leg)*
Thyroid ..--..-- ----------
Testes --_- --- __ -
Lens ----
Gallbladder and bile .--_
Adrenals .-....--.._. _._ ..
Cornea ..----_......_--------
Pituitary -- -__
Total animal -..... --


"Salt Sick" Calf
Tissue or Organ


Weight
grams
6,978.0
4,039.0
2,255.0
1,279.0
895.4
633.0
395.7
383.7
353.0
282.0
274.5
248.4
236.0
196.7
158.0
147.4
143.0
108.0
94.0
91.3
80.0
73.0
53.7
42.6
40.4
30.6
21.5
20.6
16.9
14.2
11.7
9.9
9.8
6.2
6.2
4.0
3.8
2.6
2.5
2.4
1.4
0.4
18,346.4


* Those tissues do not represent the
sample weights.


total weight in the body; they are


Flesh .. --
Bone ---------------
Skin -
Whole blood -- ----
Blood serum --
Small intestine ----
Red blood cell -
Liver
Stomach .------ .--
Large intestine -.-----
Lung --_..__._____
Brain
Hoof --------------.. --- -
Heart ------
Fat ------. __..-. .
Tongue _--_--____-...__
Teeth -------
Kidney __-------__-------_-
Cartilage ------. -._____
Spinal cord and medulla-
Trachea -- --- --
Esophagus __ --_
Thymus __---_ --
Spleen _-.......-__ ....---
Aorta
Eye ------------
Bladder -..._..-_..._-.
Pancreas _______-
Penis ----_-------______
Urine
Gallbladder and bile _---
Testes -- -- -
Bone marrow .___
Thyroid .___..._
Hair* ____ ..-. ----____.
Adrenals .- .
Pituitary ... .. -_... __




Total animal ---


Weight
grams
7,682.0
4,458.0
2,340.0
1,172.6
867.7
444.0
304.9
295.7
250.0
201.0
200.1
197.9
179.4
134.9
120.0
105.0
84.0
78.6
59.8
57.7
43.0
34.0
33.7
32.4
30.3
24.3
17.7
15.6
15.1
14.6
7.6
6.2
5.9
4.0
3.7
2.3
0.4




18,452.0








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE II.-PERCENTAGE OF MOISTURE OF VARIOUS TISSUES AND ORGANS ARRANGED
IN DESCENDING MAGNVUDE OF A NORMAL NEWBORN CALF AND A "SALT SICK"
NEWBORN CALF.


Normal Calf
Tissue or Organ Moisture
percent
Urine -----98.18
Aqueous & vitreous humor 97.59
Stomach contents ....--- 97.16
Blood serum ----------.--- 93.91
Cornea ----89.18
Gallbladder and bile ----- 89.17
Sclera and retina 84.41
Testes -83.38
Whole blood ---83.22
Stomach 82.76
Esophagus ---82.42
Bladder -----81.78
Small intestine -- 81.40
Lens 81.40
Adrenals -----80.38
Aorta -----79.81
Tongue 78.79
Heart -----78.65
Large intestine --- 78.65
Trachea 78.45
Thyroid -----78.20
Penis ---- 78.00
Pituitary -----77.79
Lung -------------.-----.. --- 77.08
Skin ------76.87
Pancreas -----75.54
Kidney ------ 75.30
Spleen ------75.09
Spinal cord and medulla_- 73.58
Thymus -----71.34
Red blood cell .----------- 69.51
Bone marrow (hind leg) 68.00
Liver ------66.42
Brain -----------63.55
Intestinal contents --------- 58.51
Bone marrow (fore leg)-_ 58.00
Bone 50.72
Hoof 42.83
Fat ------34.61
Hair .--------------------- 32.13
Teeth --------------------- 18.71
Total animal ---71.30


"Salt Sick" Calf
Tissue or Organ Moisture
percent
Urine ..........----- ---- 94.62
Blood serum --- 92.84
Eye -- ---- 90.70
Gollbladder and bile --- 86.91
Whole blood ....------- 84.63
Stomach ------------- 83.88
Brain .---------------- 81.47
Bladder -.-.---------- 81.05
Penis ... ---------------- 80.96
Large intestine 80.70
Testes ----...------- 80.70
Esophagus -- 80.00
Thymus ----79.92
Adrenals .. ---- 79.56
Pituitary -- 79.17
Heart ------ 79.09
Flesh -------------- --78.58
Spleen -----77.26
Small intestine 76.71
Aorta ----------------76.65
Pancreas --------------76.20
Trachea -------------- 75.87
Liver ---------------- -- 74.26
Thyroid ----74.05
Skin .-.-------------- ----- 73.78
Red blood cell .---------- 73.30
Lung ----73.10
Spinal cord and medulla -. 72.96
Bone marrow -------- 66.85
Kidney .------------ --- 49.79
Bone ------47.98
Teeth ------------------------ 37.50
Fat .------------------------ 36.14
Hoof -....--------------- 32.00
Hair ------------------ 7.82


Total animal --


69.00








The Newborn Calf


TABLE III.-PERCENTAGE OF ASH ON DRY MATTER BASIS OF THE VARIOUS TISSUES
AND ORGANS ARRANGED IN DESCENDING MAGNITUDE OF A NORMAL NEWBORN CALF
AND A "SALT SICK" NEWBORN CALF.


Normal Calf
Tissue or Organ Ash
percent
Aqueous and vitreous humor 44.92
Bone ---- -- -- 41.60
Stomach contents -- 24.75
Urine -._.---- --------------- 17.69
Blood serum -------- 16.47
Bone marrow (hind leg) --- 15.41
Bone marrow (fore leg) -- 12.23
Thymus -----8.71
Gallbladder and bile -------- 8.58
Cornea _..-------------.------ 7.97
Testes ..------------ --- --6.71
Adrenals --- ------ 6.57
Spleen ------- -6.31
Trachea -----6.14
Whole blood --------- ---... -- 6.03
Tongue --------.5.91
Sclera and retina -- 5.81
Esophagus --- 5.81
Spinal cord and medulla-_- 5.72
Bladder -------- 5.39
Pancreas .--------- ------- 4.98
Kidney ------- 4.96
Heart ----------4.88
Lung ---------- 4.88
Flesh ----------- 4.83
Thyroid ------ 4.69
Small intestine 4.67
Lens -------- 4.57
Pituitary -------- 4.44
Large intestine 4.17
Stomach ----- -----4.16
Penis --_.--------------------- 3.81
Aorta ..------------------------ 3.83
Liver --------- 3.77
Hair ---------- 3.73
Brain --------- 3.49
Red blood cell -- 2.89
Intestinal contents ---2.86
Skin ..--------------------- 2.16
Hoof --------------- -------- -- 1.80
Fat -_ -------- 0.64
Total animal --- -_ 19.57


Total animal 29.85


"Salt Sick" Calf
Tissue or Organ Ash
percent
Urine _------- -------------- 70.95
Bone -------- 52.92
Bone marrow ---. --------- 50.48
Esophagus ---._......--------- 32.00
Blood serum --------------- 13.60
Gallbladder and bile ..--- 9.82
Eye ----------- 9.84
Thymus ------- .8.01
Skin ------7.72
Whole blood ---------------- 7.60
Brain ---------- 7.01
Adrenals -.-------------- 6.73
Trachea ..----------------.- -. 6.70
Kidney .......... ..--------- 6.46
Spinal cord and medulla ---- 6.11
Spleen ------- 6.07
Lung --------5.99
Bladder -. ....---- ----- 5.80
Liver ..-.-.-------------- 5.72
Testes --------------- --------5.64
Flesh -------- 5.42
Pancreas --- ---- 5.36
Stomach -------- 5.14
Heart ------- 5.12
Tongue -----5.09
Pituitary ------5.03
Penis ---- -- 4.65
Small intestine_--- 4.42
Large intestine .._._---------- 4.18
Aorta .---------- .--- 3.69
Thyroid ._------- ..--- 3.34
Red blood cell _-- 3.30
Hair -.......... --- ---.----- 1.69
Hoof ._.......--- -- -- 1.30
Fat ----... ---------- 0.76


1


Total animal


29.85







58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

TABLE IV.-PERCENTAGE OF COPPER IN THE ASH or VARIOUS TISSUES AND ORGANS
ARRANGED IN DESCENDING MAGNITUDE OF A NORMAL NEWBORN CALF AND A "SALT


SICK" NEWBORN CALF.
Normal Calf
Tissue or Organ


Liver ... ...-------- 0.5
Hoof ..--________....- 0.2
Red blood cell. ----_.. 0.1
Intestinal contents ---- 0.1
Hair -- -~. __ 0.1
Large intestine --__ --.- 0.1
Whole blood ..__ 0.0
Stomach _.__..... 0.0
Rib --- -..... 0.0
Heart .----.. -___.---.- 0.0
Small intestine _.-..__ 0.0
Flesh .----- 0.0
Skin -----___--- 0.0
Brain ..- -----.___ 0.0
Tongue ----- 0.0
Lung ----------- 0.0,
Aqueous and vitreous
humor* ------------0.0,
Trachea _-_---__---- _~. 0.0
Bone marrow ___ 0.0
Blood serum _- 0.0:
Kidney --_--___-__.._..- 0.0
Urine -- ----_ 0.0;
Vertebra -_-.-.__- 0.0;
Carpals ..-- ... 0.0:
Tarsals ..-----..---------0.0
Scapula --..- .. 0.0
Fore shaft bone -... 0.0
Pelvis .........-- 0.0
Spinal cord and
medulla --------0.0
Hind shaft bone --. 0.0
Spleen ..._---_ ---. 0.0
Penis* -- 0.0
Cartilage* ------ 0.0
Adrenals* ____ 0.0
Pancreas* --- -----0.0
Fat* ---------------- 0.0
Stomach contents -- 0.0
Aorta* -- 0.0
Gallbladder and bile*_ 0.0
Testes* -- 0.0
Skull and jaw -_---_.-- 0.0
Thymus -- 0.0
Teeth _--- ~ 0.0
Lens* --__-____- 0.0
Pituitary* ----- 0.0
Thyroid* ___-__ 0.0
Cornea* ----- 0.0
Bladder* --_---- 0.0
Esophagus* ---- 0.0
Retina* ------------- 0.0


"Salt Sick" Calf
Copper Tissue or Organ Copper
percent percent
8 Liver ---__ -- 0.74
7 Whole blood ---. 0.52
5 Blood serum --...---- 0.42
4 Kidney --- -. 0.40
3 Hoof .---- -. 0.30
0 Red blood cell ----.. -0.25
86 Spinal cord and
75 medulla -..__..-- 0.20
6 Small intestine ----. 0.16
6 Stomach 0.15
55 Fat .-..-----------_-----0- 0.12
55 Brain __--------.------. 0.10
5 Skin .----. -- --. 0.10
5 Spleen -----. 0.09
5 Heart ------ ----0.084
5 Tongue ....-----.-----.- 0.084
Adrenals* -- -0.08 -0.3
5 -0.1 Pancreas* -----0.08 -0.3
44 Flesh -- -----0.078
41 Trachea ----- 0.078
37 Large intestine --.. 0.075
37 Lung -- -- 0.070
35 Cartilage -------- 0.046
23 Thymus ...-----_ ------0.036
23 Testes* _--_..---------- 0.03 -0.08
19 Pituitary* ------------.0.03 -0.08
16 Thyroid* -----------------0.03 -0.08
15 Penis* ----_ 0.008 -0.03
15 Bladder* -------------- 0.008 -0.03
Esophagus* -----...------0.008 -0.03
15 Urine ---- ------0.0082
092 Eye -- -0.0078
086 Gallbladder and bile* 0.005 -0.01
08 -0.03 Vertebra ----- ----0.0035
08 -0.03 Aorta* -- 0.003 -0.008
08 -0.03 Fore shaft bone ----- 0.0017
08 -0.03 Rib ... .-- ----------.-- 0.0014
08 -0.03 Bone marrow -- --.. 0.0014
055 Carpals --0.0013
05 -0.01 Tarsals -- --- 0.0012
05 -0.01 Hair ------ -------0.001
03 -0.008 Pelvis ---___..----. -. 0.00072
03 Hind shaft bone -__-- 0.00054
03 Teeth --.---__--... --0.00052
026 Scapula ------_-.-- -- 0.00052
01 Skull and jaw ---- _.. 0.00044


01
008-0.003
008-0.003
008-0.003
008-0.003
008-0.003


* Qualitative estimation for copper








The Newborn Calf


TABLE V.-COPPER CONTENT OF THE VARIOUS FRESH TISSUES AND ORGANS OF A
NORMAL NEWBORN CALF AND A "SALT SICK" NEWBORN CALF ARRANGED IN
DESCENDING MAGNITUDE.


Normal Calf
Tissue or Organ


Rib ........
Liver _- ----
Scapula _
Carpals -_
Vertebra ______
Fore shaft bone -
Tarsals .... .
Hoof _____
Pelvis
Hind shaft bone ___ -
Hair _______..-----------
Bone marrow
Teeth -
Intestinal contents _--
Red blood cells
Skull and jaw
Large intestine -----
Whole blood _--------
Flesh _.
Brain __
Heart
Trachea -__
Lungs .._____
Stomach
Tongue ----.. .. .
Small intestine
Kidneys _.-.....
Aqueous and vitreous
humor* _
Blood serum
Skin -.--. .--
Spinal cord and
medulla --._______ --
Spleen ..------- -
Adrenals* -_-_----____
Pancreas* --------
Urine __-.... ---.... -
Penis* ---
Thymus --. ... -
Cartilage* --_.....----_-
Stomach contents -.._
Testes* .- -
Gallbladder and bile* .
Fat*
Aorta* --._- ---------__ -
Esophagus* ---
Thyroid* ---
Sclera and retina*
Bladder* --
Pituitary* --- -
Lens* --_----
Cornea* _----
* Qualitative estimation


Copper
p.p.m.
132.6
73.5
44.9
39.9
36.7
33.7
31.8
27.9
27.0
21.5
20.2
20.2
17.5
16.6
13.2
10.4
8.9
8.4
6.1
6.4
6.2
5.8
5.6
5.4
5.2
4.8
4.5

4.4 -9.0
3.7
2.5

2.3
1.5
1.0 -3.8
1.0 -3.6
1.1
0.7 -2.6
0.7
0.6 -2.4
0.4
0.4 -0.9
0.4 -0.9
0.4 -0.9
0.4 -0.9
0.08-0.3
0.08-0.3
9.08-0.3
0.08-0.3
0.09
0.08
0.07-0.2
for copper.


"Salt Sick" Calf
Tissue or Organ Copper
p.pmn.
Liver __ 107.2
Whole blood 60.7
Kidneys -52.2
Blood serum 41.0
Hoof 26.6
Red blood cells __ 22.0
Skin ___20.2
Small intestine ___ 16.5
Adrenals* _-"--_--- 11.0 -41.0
Brain _..- -------- 13.0
Trachea 12.6
Stomach .. 12.4
Spleen -_- 12.4
Lungs __._ 11.3
Pancreas* -_.--.- 10.2 -38.3
Vertebra -____ 9.4
Cartilage ..__. 9.2
Tongue --.---- 9.1
Flesh 9.0
Heart 8.9
Large intestine 6.0
Thymus ___- 5.8
Fat .. ---.. 5.8
Rib ..__- ___.-- 5.6
Fore shaft bone .-- 5.2
Esophagus* _- 5.1 -19.4
Carpals .._~------ 3.6
Spinal cord and
medulla 3.3
Testes* --_-___...-- 3.2 8.7
Pituitary* -.----- 3.1 8.4
Tarsals ___-_-- 2.8
Thyroid* 2.6 7.0
Teeth --- .-- 2.6
Bone marrow ._--- 2.3
Skull and jaw _-__.- 2.2
Scapula ------- 2.0
Pelvis .-----_ .1.9
Hind shaft bone ----- 1.6
Bladder* -----. 0.8 3.3
Eye* ----_ 0.7 2.6
Penis* ---.. -~_._.. 0.7 2.6
Gallbladder and bile*- 0.6 1.3
Urine ----- 0.64
Aorta* ---------------- 0.2 0.6
Hair* ---0.15








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE VI.-COPPER CONTENT OF THE DRY MATTER OF VARIOUS ORGANS AND TISSUES
OF A NORMAL NEWBORN CALF AND A "SALT SICK" NEWBORN CALF ARRANGED IN
DESCENDING MAGNITUDE.


Normal Calf
Tissue or Organ Copper
p.p.m.
Rib 296.6
Liver 229.0
Vertebra 91.0
Carpals -- 88.8
Scapula ----79.5
Tarsals 76.1
Fore shaft bone 73.6
Pelvis .---------64.8
Hair ----------- 63.2
Bone marrow ---63.2
Urine ----62.0
Blood serum -- 60.9
Whole blood --- 51.8
Hoof 48.8
Hind shaft bone ------ 43.9
Red blood cells ..------ 43.4
Large intestine ..---- 41.2
Intestinal contents .-- 40.0
Stomach ---31.2
Aqueous and vitreous
humor* 29.0-58.0
Tongue 29.5
Heart -------------- 29.3
Trachea .-------------- 27.0
Flesh ------ 26.6
Small intestine .------- 25.7
Lungs .----------- 24.4
Skull and jaw ----... 18.5
Kidneys ------- 18.4
Teeth -------- 17.4
Brain --------- 17.4
Stomach contents ----- 13.6
Skin ----------------- 10.8
Spinal cord and
medulla -8.6
Spleen -------.6.3
Adrenals* ----- 5.2-19.7
Pancreas* --- 4.0-15.0
Gallbladder and bile* 4.3- 8.6
Sclera and retina* --5 3.6-13.4
Penis* ------- 3.0-11.4
Thymus ..- --------- 2.6
Testes* ..------- 2.0- 5.4
Aorta* .---- 2.0- 4.0
Cartilage* 1.6- 6.0
Cornea* 0.6- 2.4
Fat* ------ 0.5- 2.0
Esophagus* --- 0.5- 1.7
Bladder* 0.4- 1.6
Pituitary* ----- 0.4
Thyroid* 0.4- 1.4
Lens* -- 0.46


"Salt Sick" Calf
Tissue or Organ Copper
p.p.m.
Blood serum ---.. .- 571.0
Liver -------- 423.3
Whole blood -- 395.2
Kidneys _....------ 258.6
Red blood cells ------- 82.5
Skin ------------ 77.2
Stomach ------. -- 77.1
Small intestine 70.8
Brain .-- 70.1
Urine --------- 58.2
Spleen --- 54.6
Adrenals* -- 54.0-202.0
Trachea -- 52.3
Tongue -- 43.3
Heart ---- 43.0
Pancreas* ---------- 42.9-160.9
Flesh ------- 42.3
Lungs --- 41.9
Hoof ---- 39.2
Cartilage ... --------- 35.4
Large intestine .--- 31.4
Thymus ----- 28.8
Esophagus* -- 25.0- 97.0
Vertebra --- 17.4
Testes* -....5 ..---- -- 17.0- 45.2
Pituitary* -- 15.1- 40.2
Spinal cord and
medulla 12.2
Fore shaft bone ..----- 10.2
Thyroid* .----.-- 10.0- 26.7
Fat ------- 9.1
Rib ... ----- 8.3
Bone marrow -- 7.7
Eye ------- 7.6
Carpals --- 6.7
Tarsals .------- 6.7
Gallbladder and bile*- 5.0- 9.8
Scapula -- 4.6
Bladder* --- 4.5- 17.4
Teeth --------- 4.1
Pelvis ------- 3.9
Penis* ------ -- 3.6- 13.2
Hind shaft bone ----- 3.2
Skull and jaw --------- 2.8
Aorta* ------ 1.0- 2.0
Hair ------ 0.17


* Qualitative estimation for copper.


for copper.


* Qualitative estimation








The Newborn Calf


TABLE VII.-TOTAL AMOUNT OF COPPER IN THE WHOLE TISSUE OR ORGAN OF A
NORMAL NEWBORN CALF AND A "SALT SICK" NEWBORN CALF ARRANGED IN DE-
CREASING VALUE.


Normal Calf
Tissue or Organ

Flesh 42
Rib ---- 40
Liver 29
Vertebra 25
Fore shaft bone --. 18
Hind shaft bone 16
Whole blood --------- 10
Tarsals 6
Pelvis 5
Carpals 5
Skin 5
Scapula ------ 5
Red blood cells ---. 5
Skull and jaw ------- 4
Intestinal contents.-- 4
Blood serum ---..-.. 3
Small intestine ---- 3
Hoof -- 2
Lung 1
Stomach -- 1
Large intestine ---- 1
Brain 1
Heart --- 0
Teeth 0
Tongue -- 0
Kidneys 0
Urine 0
Trachea 0
Bone marrow 0
Fat* 0
Spinal cord and
medulla -- 0
Spleen 0
Thymus 0
Stomach contents 0
Aqueous and vitre-
ous humor* 0
Cartilage* -- 0
Penis* .-- 0
Pancreas* -- 0
Aorta* 0
Adrenals* ---- 0
Esophagus* ------- 0
Bladder* 0
Gallbladder and bile* 0
Testes* ---- 0
Sclera and retina*_ 0
Thyroid* -- 0
Lens* .--------------- 0
Cornea ---_ 0
Pituitary* -- 0

Total calf ----.-- 236
Qualitative estimation


Copper
mg.
.7
.6
.1
.8
.4
.1
.8
.3
.9
.8
.6
.3
.0
.8
.7
.3
.0
.6
.5
.3
.3
.2
.9
.8
.5
.3
.3
.2
.2
.1-0.4

.1
.06
.06
.06

.04-0.09
.04-0.10
.02-0.07
.01-0.04
.008-0.01
.002-0.009
.002
.001-0.004
.001-0.002
.001-0.003
.0005-0.002
.0003-0.001
.0002
.00009-0.000:
.000035

.5-237.0


"Salt Sick" i
Tissue or Organ

Whole blood ----
Flesh ----------
Skin -----
Blood serum .--
Liver -------------
Vertebra
Small intestine -
Red blood cells -
Hoof -------
Kidneys -------
Hind shaft bone --
Stomach ---
Brain ---
Lung ----
Rib ----
Tarsals ----
Fore shaft bone --
Skull and jaw --
Heart -----
Large intestine ------
Tongue
Carpals ------
Fat ------
Trachea ----
Spleen ----
Pelvis ---------
Scapula -.-------
Cartilage ---
Teeth ----
Spinal cord & medulla
Thymus -------.
Esophagus* ----
Eye* ----
Pancreas* ---
Thyroid* ---
Urine -----
Adrenals* ---
Testes* -------
Bone marrow -----
Bladder* ---
Penis* ---
Aorta* ---
Gallbladder and bile*
Pituitary* -----

Total Calf -- 26


2


Calf
Copper
mg.
71.2
69.6
47.0
35.5
31.7
8.8
7.3
6.7
4.7
4.1
3.4
3.1
2.6
2.2
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.2
1.2
0.94
0.77
0.7
0.54
0.4
0.4
0.32
0.25
0.21
0.19
0.19
0.17-0.66
0.17
0.16-0.6
0.10-0.28
0.045
0.025-0.095
0.02-0.05
0.014
0.01-0.05
0.01-0.03
0.007-0.02
0.005-0.009
0.0013-0.0037

9.9 271.2


Sfor copper.




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