• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Abstract
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Executive summary
 Acknowledgements
 Introduction
 Methods and procedures
 Results and discussions
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Reference
 Appendices






Group Title: Economic information report - Food and Resource Economics Department - EI 02-5
Title: A consumer study for the Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027373/00001
 Material Information
Title: A consumer study for the Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Florida
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: v, 41 p. : charts, forms ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wirth, Ferdinand F
University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Food and Resource Economics Department, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Florida Cooperative Extension Services
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: [2002]
 Subjects
Subject: Farm produce -- Marketing -- Evaluation   ( lcsh )
Consumers -- Attitudes -- Florida -- Fort Pierce   ( lcsh )
Market surveys -- Florida -- Fort Pierce   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 27-28).
Statement of Responsibility: Ferdinand F. Wirth ... et al.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "June 2002."
General Note: Includes Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Inc. consumer mail and patron surveys.
Funding: Economic information report (Gainesville, Fla.) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027373
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002830734
oclc - 50191732
notis - ANW1110

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Abstract
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    List of Figures
        Page iv
    Executive summary
        Page v
    Acknowledgements
        Page v
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Background on farmers' markets
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
    Methods and procedures
        Page 5
    Results and discussions
        Page 6
        Farmers' market patron survey
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Fort Pierce resident mail survey
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Reference
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Appendices
        Page 29
        Appendix A: Farmers' market patron survey instrument
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
        Appendix B: Cover letter for resident mail survey
            Page 33
            Page 34
        Appendix C: Resident mail survey instrument
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Appendix D: Mail survey thank-you/reminder postcard
            Page 40
            Page 41
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Ferdinand F. Wirth
Kathy J. Davis
Tara M. Minton


Economic Information
Report EIR 02-5


Jennifer E. Taylor



A Consumer Study for the Downtown
Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Florida


UNIVERSITY OF
"FLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Food and Resource Economics Department
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Florida Cooperative Extension Services
Gainesville, Florida 32611


June 2002


0













A Consumer Study for the Downtown
Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Florida


Ferdinand F. Wirth, Kathy J. Davis, Tara M. Minton
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Food and Resource Economics Department
Indian River Research and Education Center
Fort Pierce, Florida

Jennifer E. Taylor
Florida A&M University
College of Engineering Sciences, Technology and Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida

June 2002


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIlD A j'Aii:itF









A Consumer Study for the Downtown
Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Florida





Abstract

The Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Florida was established with public funds in
1998 and now strives to be self-sustaining. A two-page survey was administered in-person at the
Farmers' Market on three dates during the 2000-2001 Market season. A second survey
instrument was administered by mail in 2001 to a random, stratified sample of 1,500 residents
living within a 15-mile radius of the Farmers' Market. The goal of this research was to identify
the attitudes, perceptions, purchase behavior and characteristics of the current Market patrons
and area residents. Survey results are presented and discussed, and recommendations for
improving Market operation and promotion are provided.

Keywords: Farmers' market, direct marketing, purchase behavior, consumer preference










Table of Contents

List of Tables ....................................................................................................................... iii

List of Figures ............................................................................................................... iv

Executive Summary ...................................................................................................... v

Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................... v

Introduction ................................................................................................. .......... ...........

Background on Farmers' M markets ................................................. ............... 2

M methods and Procedures ....................................... ........................................................ 5

Results and Discussion ................................................................................................ 6

Farmers' M market Patron Survey ............................................................................ 6

Fort Pierce Resident M ail Survey .......................................................................... 15

Conclusions and Recommendations .............................................................................. 25

References ..........................................................................................................................27

Appendices ............................................................................................. ........................29

Appendix A. Farmers' Market Patron Survey Instrument ....................................30

Appendix B. Cover Letter for Resident M ail Survey .............................................. 33

Appendix C. Resident M ail Survey Instrument .................................... ............35

Appendix D. Mail Survey Thank-You/Reminder Postcard ....................................40















ii









List of Tables


Table 1. Patron Survey Response, by Administration Date and Time ......................... 6
Table 2. Characteristics of Farmers' Market Patrons, by Survey Date,
and Area Residents ............................................................ ....................... 7
Table 3. Patrons' Years of Residence in Treasure Coast, by Survey Date ................... 8
Table 4. Patrons' Months of Residence in Treasure Coast each Year, by Survey Date ... 8
Table 5. Patrons' First Discovery of the Market ............................................................. 9
Table 6. Patrons' Method of Market Discovery .................................................. 9
Table 7. Patrons' Number of Trips to the Farmers' Market in the 1999-2000 Season ...10
Table 8. Patrons' Amount of Money Spent per Trip to the Farmers' Market .................. 10
Table 9. Patrons' Number of Trips per Season, by Age Group ..................................... 11
Table 10. Patrons' Amount Spent per Trip, by Age Group ................................................ 12
Table 11. Patrons' Satisfaction with Market Hours, by Survey Time ............................ 14
Table 12. Patrons' Opinion of Season Length, by Date of Survey .................................. 15
Table 13. Characteristics of Farmers' Market Patrons and Area Residents ................. 16
Table 14. Mail Survey Respondents' Years of Residence in Treasure Coast .................. 17
Table 15. Mail Survey Respondents' Months of Residence in Treasure Coast each Year ..17
Table 16. Number of Types of Fresh Fruit or Vegetables Purchased Weekly
by M ail Survey Respondents ............................................................ ......... 18
Table 17. Amount Spent Weekly on Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
by Mail Survey Respondents ................................................ ............... 18
Table 18. Mail Survey Respondents' Mode of Transportation when Shopping
for Food ..................................................................... ..............................18
Table 19. Mail Survey Respondents' First Discovery of the Market ............................. 19
Table 20. Mail Survey Respondents' Method of Market Discovery ................................. 19
Table 21. Mail Survey Respondents who Listen to Radio, by Age ....................................20
Table 22. Mail Survey Respondents who Read Newspaper, by Age ............................. 20
Table 23. Mail Survey Respondents' Number of Trips to the Farmers' Market
in the 2000-2001 Season ................................................. ........................... 21
Table 24. Mail Survey Respondents' Amount of Money Spent per Trip
to the Farmers' M market ....................................................... .................. 21
Table 25. Mail Survey Respondents' Satisfaction with Market Hours of Operation ......... 23
Table 26. Mail Survey Respondents' Opinion of Market Season Length ...................... 24









List of Figures


Figure 1. Patrons' Reasons for Shopping at the Farmers' Market ....................................13
Figure 2. Items Purchased by Farmers' Market Patrons .............................................. 13
Figure 3. Additional Items Desired by Farmers' Market Patrons .....................................14
Figure 4. Mail Survey Respondents' Reasons for Shopping at the Farmers' Market ........ 22
Figure 5. Items Purchased at the Market by Mail Survey Respondents ......................... 22
Figure 6. Additional Items Desired at the Market by Mail Survey Respondents ...............23
Figure 7. Mail Survey Respondents' Reasons for NOT Shopping
at the Farm ers' M market ........................................................................... ......... 24
Figure 8. Ways to Improve Market for Mail Survey Respondents ..................................25









A Consumer Study for the Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Florida

by Ferdinand F. Wirth', Kathy J. Davis2, Tara M. Minton2, and Jennifer E. Taylor3

Executive Summary

There has been a nationwide resurgence of interest in direct markets for fresh fruits and
vegetables as a result of increased consumer interest in health and nutrition. Farmers' Markets
play a critical role in helping small to mid-sized producers gain access to consumers, who see
farmers' markets as a means of gaining access to fresh, high quality foods at lower cost. Farmers
generally view direct marketing as an alternative outlet to increase their income. Many small
producers rely on farmers' markets as their primary sales vehicle.

The Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Inc., located in Fort Pierce, Florida, along the
Indian River Lagoon and adjacent to the Fort Pierce City Marina, was established in 1998. This
research project's goal was to identify the attitudes, perceptions, purchase behavior and
characteristics of the current patrons of the Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Florida,
and residents in the vicinity of the Market. A two-page survey was administered in-person at the
Market on three dates during the October 2000 April 2001 season. A second survey instrument
was administered by mail in July 2001 to a random, stratified sample of 1,500 residents living
within a 15-mile radius of the Farmers' Market.

The principal attractions of the Market are the festive atmosphere and the quality of the products
offered; few patrons are drawn to the Market by convenience or good prices. Fresh produce is
the most popular item at the Market, followed by baked goods. There is a demand for more
seafood, crafts and fresh flowers. Market patrons believe Market prices should not be more than
supermarket prices, so vendors should not expect to command premium prices for their products.
Market patrons are almost exclusively white and over the age of 35, with higher than average
income and education for the area. Older patrons visit the Market most frequently, although they
tend to spend less per Market visit than younger patrons. Seasonal residents visit the Market less
frequently, and spend less per visit, than year-round residents. In general, both area residents
and Market patrons who are dissatisfied with the Market hours of operation think the hours are
too short; the Market should remain open later on Saturdays. A trial season of extended hours,
especially through the lunch hour, is recommended to explore consumer response. There is more
limited support for extending the season, or operating the Market on other days of the week.

Acknowledgments

This research report was made possible by a grant from the Center for Cooperative Agricultural
Programs (CCAP), a joint program of Florida A&M University and the University of Florida,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS).

SAssistant Professor, Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, IFAS, Indian River
Research and Education Ctr, Fort Pierce, Florida; telephone 772-468-3922 xl11, email: FFWirth@mail.ifas.ufl.edu
2 Coordinator of Economic Analysis, Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, IFAS,
Indian River REC, Fort Pierce, Florida
3 Assistant Professor, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, Florida









A Consumer Study for the Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Florida

by Ferdinand F. Wirth', Kathy J. Davis2, Tara M. Minton2, and Jennifer E. Taylor3

Executive Summary

There has been a nationwide resurgence of interest in direct markets for fresh fruits and
vegetables as a result of increased consumer interest in health and nutrition. Farmers' Markets
play a critical role in helping small to mid-sized producers gain access to consumers, who see
farmers' markets as a means of gaining access to fresh, high quality foods at lower cost. Farmers
generally view direct marketing as an alternative outlet to increase their income. Many small
producers rely on farmers' markets as their primary sales vehicle.

The Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Inc., located in Fort Pierce, Florida, along the
Indian River Lagoon and adjacent to the Fort Pierce City Marina, was established in 1998. This
research project's goal was to identify the attitudes, perceptions, purchase behavior and
characteristics of the current patrons of the Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Florida,
and residents in the vicinity of the Market. A two-page survey was administered in-person at the
Market on three dates during the October 2000 April 2001 season. A second survey instrument
was administered by mail in July 2001 to a random, stratified sample of 1,500 residents living
within a 15-mile radius of the Farmers' Market.

The principal attractions of the Market are the festive atmosphere and the quality of the products
offered; few patrons are drawn to the Market by convenience or good prices. Fresh produce is
the most popular item at the Market, followed by baked goods. There is a demand for more
seafood, crafts and fresh flowers. Market patrons believe Market prices should not be more than
supermarket prices, so vendors should not expect to command premium prices for their products.
Market patrons are almost exclusively white and over the age of 35, with higher than average
income and education for the area. Older patrons visit the Market most frequently, although they
tend to spend less per Market visit than younger patrons. Seasonal residents visit the Market less
frequently, and spend less per visit, than year-round residents. In general, both area residents
and Market patrons who are dissatisfied with the Market hours of operation think the hours are
too short; the Market should remain open later on Saturdays. A trial season of extended hours,
especially through the lunch hour, is recommended to explore consumer response. There is more
limited support for extending the season, or operating the Market on other days of the week.

Acknowledgments

This research report was made possible by a grant from the Center for Cooperative Agricultural
Programs (CCAP), a joint program of Florida A&M University and the University of Florida,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS).

SAssistant Professor, Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, IFAS, Indian River
Research and Education Ctr, Fort Pierce, Florida; telephone 772-468-3922 xl11, email: FFWirth@mail.ifas.ufl.edu
2 Coordinator of Economic Analysis, Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, IFAS,
Indian River REC, Fort Pierce, Florida
3 Assistant Professor, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, Florida









Introduction


Direct marketing of food products in the U.S. began to decline with the growth of supermarket
sales in the 1930s, but there has been a recent nationwide resurgence of interest in direct markets,
especially farmers' markets. Direct markets are unlikely to ever replace supermarkets as the
primary food outlet, but direct marketing is a viable alternative for fresh produce. According to
the 2000 USDA Farmers' Market Study, the number of farmers' markets in the United States
increased 63% from 1994 to 2000, with over 2800 farmers' markets operating in the U.S. in
2000; 82% of these were self-sustaining, generating sufficient market income to pay all costs
associated with market operation (USDA/AMS, 2001a).

The growth in farmers' markets has been linked to increased consumption of fresh fruits and
vegetables in the U.S., which is in turn linked to increased consumer interest in health and
nutrition. Total per capital use of commercially produced fruits and vegetables rose 19% between
1982, the year when the U.S. National Academy of Sciences published its report, Diet, Nutrition,
and Cancer, and 1997, despite the fact that fresh fruits and vegetables led retail price increases
for food during this period (USDA/ERS, 1999). In recognition of the importance of farmers'
markets as outlets for agricultural producers, sources of fresh, affordable and healthy products
for consumers, and links between urban, suburban, and rural communities, the U.S. Secretary of
Agriculture proclaimed the week of August 5-11, 2001 National Farmers Market Week
(USDA/AMS, 2001c).

Development of a successful farmers' market is a complex process, dependent to a significant
degree on the simultaneity of the interaction between buyers and sellers. A market becomes
established and expands as growers provide adequate supply, but in order for growers to do so,
they must have the expectation of being able to sell their products (Gray et al., 1998). To be
viable retail outlets in the competitive food sales environment, farmers' markets must be
responsive to customer needs and develop effective marketing strategies and advertising
programs.

The Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Inc. is located in the historic downtown district
of Fort Pierce, Florida, along the Indian River Lagoon and adjacent to the Fort Pierce City
Marina. The city of Fort Pierce has been the seat of St. Lucie County for 100 years. The city has
about 38,000 residents and encompasses more than 20 square miles; over 300,000 people live in
the Fort Pierce metropolitan area (St. Lucie County Chamber of Commerce, 2001). The
population increases substantially during the winter months, and seasonal residents have a
significant impact on the local economy.

The Downtown Farmers' Market was established in 1998 through the combined efforts of the St.
Lucie County Cooperative Extension Service, the City of Fort Pierce, the St. Lucie County
Chamber of Commerce, and Fort Pierce Main Street, Inc., a downtown development program.
The stated purposes of the Market are to: (1) provide a marketing outlet for goods grown in
community gardens and by local small farmers, (2) provide consumers with a place to purchase
quality produce, and (3) attract commerce to downtown Fort Pierce during weekends. During
the first two years of operation the Market was supported through public funds provided by St.
Lucie County and the City of Fort Pierce. These funds were used primarily for publicity and for









the Market manager's salary. The Farmers' Market now strives to be self-sustaining and
independent of local governmental support, and in 2000 achieved non-profit status with the
Internal Revenue Service (Cowles, 2001).

The Market officially opened on the first Saturday in February 1998, and continued every
Saturday morning through April 1998. Since the beginning of its second season, in October
1998, the Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce has operated on Saturday mornings from
8:00 am-12:00 noon, from October through April. The Farmers' Market has been so successful
that it is now featured as a downtown attraction in all official publications promoting the City of
Fort Pierce. The Market primarily features conventionally grown fresh produce, but vendors
also sell organic produce, plants, herbs, baked goods, farmed fish and shrimp, and prepared
foods. The variety of offerings changes throughout the season. The average weekly number of
vendors participating in the Farmers' Market has grown from 21 vendors during the 1998-1999
season to 28 vendors during the 1999-2000 season (Wyner, 2000).

From its inception, the Market has received limited advertising in several local newspapers at no
cost, and has also occasionally paid to advertise special events in the newspapers, typically two
or three times each season. The Market has been promoted on flyers sent to local churches and
organizations, condominium associations, banks, and county officials. Promotional bookmarks
have also been distributed and several signs are posted in the Fort Pierce area during the Market
season. In the 2000-20001 season, the Market purchased radio advertising for the first time,
hoping to attract a broader segment of the community (Mancini, 2002).

This research project was designed to collect and analyze information on the behavior and
characteristics of the current patrons of the Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Florida,
as well as residents in the vicinity of the Market. The project addressed five specific objectives:
1) to analyze patronage trends, including initial discovery of the Market, frequency of Market
visits, Market purchase behavior, and patron attitudes toward products offered at the Market, 2)
to identify the demographic characteristics of consumers at the Market, 3) to identify the
demographic characteristics, perceptions, and attitudes toward the Market of residents located
within a 15-mile radius of the Market, 4) to analyze and compare characteristics of current
Farmers' Market patrons with area residents, and 5) to provide recommendations for improving
Market operation and promotion. The results will assist in the development of more effective
promotion and marketing strategies to increase Market patronage, and indicate changes in
Market operation that will improve customer satisfaction.

Background on Farmers' Markets

Farmers' Markets have long played a critical role in helping small to mid-sized producers gain
access to consumers. Many small producers rely on farmers' markets as their primary sales
vehicle; 19,000 farmers reported selling their produce only at farmers' markets in 2000
(USDA/AMS, 2001a). Others use the markets to supplement their incomes, often turning
marginal operations into profitable ones (Kezis et al., 1998). Farmers' markets also present an
opportunity for smaller producers to gain experience and exposure that may lead to expanded
production and entry into established marketing and wholesale channels (Rhodus et al., 1994).









Since the 1980s, numerous studies have been conducted to characterize the consumers who
frequent farmers' markets, to analyze their purchase behavior and its impact on local economies,
and to identify factors that serve to encourage or discourage visits to farmers' markets and other
direct markets (for example, Eastwood et al., 1998, in Tennessee; Kezis et al., 1998, in Maine;
Lev and Stephenson, 1998, in Oregon; Rhodus et al., 1994, in Ohio; and Toensmeyer and
Ladzinski, 1983, in Delaware). Almost all studies indicated that respondents to mail, telephone,
or in-person surveys concerning farmers' markets are most likely to be white, and from the
higher age, income, and education classifications. This is consistent with the U.S. Department of
Labor report on consumer expenditures in 1999 (U.S. Dept. of Labor, 2001), which indicated
that the greatest expenditures for fruits and vegetables are by white consumers between the ages
of 35 and 64, in professional occupations, and that spending for fruits and vegetables increases
with increasing income and education. Both Kezis et al. (1998) and Rhodus et al. (1994) also
reported that the frequency of market visits increases with age. Most studies showed word-of-
mouth and newspaper advertisement as the primary methods of market discovery, although it is
not clear how aggressively markets are advertised in other media.

Farmers generally view direct marketing as an alternative outlet to increase their income, while
consumers see it as a means of gaining access to fresher, higher quality foods at lower costs
(Govindasamy and Nayga, 1996). By selling directly to consumers, farmers retain much of the
value added to their products through various transportation and marketing activities (Gale,
1997). However, both buyers and sellers incur hidden costs of time and travel associated with
direct marketing. An appropriate pricing and selling strategy is of primary importance for
successful establishment of a farmers' market; prices must be high enough to support sellers yet
low enough to attract buyers. Earlier studies have produced somewhat conflicting information
concerning consumers' perceptions of direct market prices and their willingness to pay for locally
produced goods. Rhodus et al. (1994) found that 67% of shoppers compare farmer's market
prices favorably to supermarket prices, and Blackburn and Jack (1984) found that more than
50% of their survey respondents believed direct market prices to be lower than grocery store
prices. Similarly, Govindasamy and Nayga (1996) reported that 74% of consumers surveyed
expect prices to be lower at direct markets, and Pelsue (1984) found that about 50% of
respondents expect farmers' market prices to be lower than grocery store prices. Toensmeyer
and Ladzinski (1983) found that 'saving money' was among the most frequently cited reasons
indicated by consumers for shopping at a direct market. However, Lev and Stephenson (1998)
found that 80% of consumers interviewed indicated a willingness to pay a premium for locally
produced products; similarly Kezis et al. (1998) reported that only 11% of patrons indicated that
price was an important factor in their decision to shop at the market, with 72% indicating a
willingness to pay more for farmers' market produce. Clearly, sellers at a farmers' market need
to set prices very carefully, in accordance with local patrons' willingness-to-pay.

Studies indicate that consumers are drawn to farmers' markets for a variety of reasons, most
notably the price and quality of the products offered for sale. However, the social and cultural
experience and entertainment value are also important elements of direct marketing activities, for
both buyers and sellers (Gale, 1997). Some consumers are further motivated by a desire to
support local farmers and small farms in general. The relative importance of these four factors
seems to vary. In Lev and Stephenson (1998), consumers indicated they were attracted to the
market by products and atmosphere equally. Kezis et al. (1998) found quality of the products









and support for local farmers were the leading reasons for shopping at the farmers' market, and
that market atmosphere was far more important than price. In Eastwood et al. (1998), the major
reasons cited by consumers were quality of the products, support for local farmers, and price,
with atmosphere less important. Toensmeyer and Ladzinski (1983) and Blackburn and Jack
(1984) reported that support for local farmers and atmosphere appeared to be relatively
unimportant to consumers, while quality of the fruits and vegetables and good prices were the
most frequently cited reasons for shopping at a farmers' market. Differences in the relative
ranking of these principal reasons for shopping at a farmers' market may reflect local social and
cultural influences not apparent from the socioeconomic data reported, or may even reflect
consumer response to the political climate and issues in the news at the time of the survey. Thus
it is extremely important for a farmers' market to regularly assess the perceptions of the local
community and emphasize the features most attractive to their patrons. Consumers consistently
cited inconvenience associated with location or hours of operation as their principal reason for
not patronizing a farmers' market.

Consumers are also willing to travel to patronize farmers' markets. The USDA Agricultural
Marketing Service (USDA/AMS) estimated that a farmers' market draws consumers from within
a 10-mile radius, compared with a 2- to 3-mile radius for a supermarket (Gale, 1997). Rhodus et
al. (1994) found that two-thirds of consumers who shop at a farmers' market typically drive more
than 15 minutes and about one-quarter drive 30 minutes or more, but the most frequent shoppers
live less than 15 minutes from the market. Toensmeyer and Lev (1983) reported that consumers
travel an average of 11 miles to the farmers' market, and Blackburn and Jack (1984) reported
that about 17% of farmers' market shoppers travel more than 25 miles to the market.

Lev and Stephenson (1998) showed that the vast majority of consumers who patronized a
downtown farmers' market came specifically for the market and would not otherwise have been
downtown. In a follow-up study, Lev and Stephenson (2001) concluded that even weekday
markets in the heart of a business district attract new people downtown. This suggests that
farmers' markets may stimulate the local economy indirectly as visitors are drawn to the area.
Kezis et al. (1998) found that consumers usually bring others to the market with them, typically
their spouse, children, or other relatives or friends.

The USDA/AMS (2001b) indicated that 59 farmers' markets were operating in Florida in 2001;
the actual number is likely to be much higher since many small markets may not register with the
Agricultural Marketing Service. About one-half of these are open year-round; the others are
described as "seasonal", although seasons vary widely. The majority of farmers' markets in
Florida are open only one day each week, generally Saturday (USDA/AMS, 2001b). Florida
cities, especially those near the coast, welcome many tourists and visitors each year, as well as
large numbers of older, mostly retired, seasonal residents who retreat to Florida for the winter.
The attitudes and purchase behavior of this group of consumers at Florida's farmers' markets
does not appear to have been studied, although a survey of consumers at a Knoxville, Tennessee
farmers' market indicated that average expenditures of tourists and other patrons were
approximately equal, and that tourists and local shoppers were primarily drawn to the market for
fresh produce (Eastwood and Brooker, 1997).









Methods and Procedures


The project was conducted in two phases, focusing separately on current patrons of the Farmers'
Market and on residents living in the vicinity of the Market. A two-page, 24-question survey
instrument was designed to provide information about current patrons of the Farmers' Market,
including their attitudes, perceptions, purchase behavior, and socioeconomic characteristics
(Appendix A). The patron survey was administered in-person at the Downtown Farmers' Market
of Fort Pierce on three dates in the October 2000 -April 2001 season (November 18, February
10, and April 21), using a mall-intercept technique. The dates were selected to bracket the
principal winter residence period in Fort Pierce, which is Thanksgiving through Easter.

On each of the three patron survey dates, several survey administration sites were established
within the Market area and manned by University of Florida faculty, staff, and volunteers. The
sites were selected on advice from the Market manager, to maximize exposure without obscuring
any vendors or disrupting flow through the Market. On each of the survey dates, the Market
manager made periodic announcements explaining Ithe purpose of the survey and encouraging
patrons to participate. To increase interest, each survey participant was given a free ticket for the
weekly raffle of a basket of Market products. Virtually all Market visitors were approached by
an interviewer and asked to participate in this research, although many declined. After the first
survey date, participants were asked whether they had completed a similar survey at an earlier
date. Fewer than 5% of participants indicated that they had completed the survey more than
once. These repeat respondents were included in the analysis in order to capture any evolution in
behavior or perception; such a small percentage is unlikely to bias aggregate responses.

A second survey instrument, 32 questions in four pages, was designed to provide information
about Fort Pierce area residents, including their familiarity with the Market, perceptions and
attitudes toward the Market, and their socioeconomic characteristics. The two survey
instruments were quite similar although the mail survey contained several questions not included
on the patron survey, the mail survey being somewhat less constrained by time limitations. The
resident survey, including a cover letter (Appendices B and C), was administered by mail in July
2001 to a random, stratified sample of 1,500 residents living within a 15-mile radius of the
Farmers' Market. The sample was selected so that 50%, 25% and 25% of the sample lived
within 0-5 miles, 6-10 miles, and 11-15 miles of the Market, respectively. This sample
stratification technique was chosen to approximately match the distances traveled to the Market
by the Market patrons. A thank you/reminder postcard was mailed to each address five days
after the survey mailing (Appendix D).

Survey data were recorded in an Excel spreadsheet, then imported into an SPSS data file and
analyzed using the SPSS 10.07 statistical analysis software package. As with most survey data,
the variables measured in this study are categorical in nature, either nominal or ordinal.
Variables were tested for association using Chi-square analysis, with normality of the underlying
distributions assumed. Ordinal variables were also examined using the Kruskal-Wallis or Mann-
Whitney non-parametric, rank-based tests. Correlations between ordinal variables were tested
using the Spearman rho coefficient, which is a non-parametric, rank-based measure of
correlation. For the purposes of this report, statistical significance is reported at the 0.05 level.
In some cases, response categories were combined to meet the requirements or increase the









reliability of statistical analysis. Note that in all cases, reported percentages are based on the total
number of valid responses to the survey question, rather than the entire survey sample.
Percentages may not sum to 100.0 % due to rounding.


Results and Discussion

Farmers' Market Patron Survey

The Market operates from 8:00 am until 12:00 noon each Saturday during the season. Patron
surveys were collected at the end of each hour on the three patron survey administration dates.
The number of patron survey respondents, by hour on each date, is shown in Table 1. A total of
973 patrons participated in the survey over the three dates, with 396 (40.7%) participating on
February 10, 2001, during the peak of the winter seasonal resident population. Note that the
number of respondents was greatest between 9:00 and 10:00 on each date, followed by the
interval between 10:00 and 11:00.

Table 1. Patron Survey Response, by Administration Date and Time

time of survey
8am-9am 9am-10am 10am-11am 11am-12noon Total
date of 11/18/00 Count 67 72 70 58 267
survey % within date of survey 25.1% 27.0% 26.2% 21.7% 100.0%
02/10/01 Count 94 133 105 64 396
% within date of survey 23.7% 33.6% 26.5% 16.2% 100.0%
04/21/01 Count 53 106 98 53 310
% within date of survey 17.1% 34.2% 31.6% 17.1% 100.0%
Total Count 214 311 273 175 973
% within date of survey 22.0% 32.0% 28.1% 18.0% 100.0%


Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the Farmers' Market patrons are reported by
survey date in Table 2 and, where possible, comparable statistics for the city of Fort Pierce and
St. Lucie County are shown. Chi-square analysis identified statistically significant differences
between patrons on the three survey dates for several characteristics: age, income, education,
marital status, job status, and distance from the Market. The most striking difference is that
patrons at the Market on the mid-winter survey date in February are more likely to be in the
oldest age category and are more likely to be retired than patrons on either of the other two
survey dates. The differences between the patrons of the Farmers' Market and the residents of
the area are striking. Although the population of Fort Pierce is quite diverse, the Market is
patronized almost exclusively by consumers who are white and over the age of 35, with
education and household income well above the median for the area. This is despite the fact that
most Market patrons (52%) live within five miles of the Market. Unfortunately, due to the very
small number of non-white respondents, it was not possible to analyze the patron survey results
for ethnic or racial differences in preferences or purchase behavior.









reliability of statistical analysis. Note that in all cases, reported percentages are based on the total
number of valid responses to the survey question, rather than the entire survey sample.
Percentages may not sum to 100.0 % due to rounding.


Results and Discussion

Farmers' Market Patron Survey

The Market operates from 8:00 am until 12:00 noon each Saturday during the season. Patron
surveys were collected at the end of each hour on the three patron survey administration dates.
The number of patron survey respondents, by hour on each date, is shown in Table 1. A total of
973 patrons participated in the survey over the three dates, with 396 (40.7%) participating on
February 10, 2001, during the peak of the winter seasonal resident population. Note that the
number of respondents was greatest between 9:00 and 10:00 on each date, followed by the
interval between 10:00 and 11:00.

Table 1. Patron Survey Response, by Administration Date and Time

time of survey
8am-9am 9am-10am 10am-11am 11am-12noon Total
date of 11/18/00 Count 67 72 70 58 267
survey % within date of survey 25.1% 27.0% 26.2% 21.7% 100.0%
02/10/01 Count 94 133 105 64 396
% within date of survey 23.7% 33.6% 26.5% 16.2% 100.0%
04/21/01 Count 53 106 98 53 310
% within date of survey 17.1% 34.2% 31.6% 17.1% 100.0%
Total Count 214 311 273 175 973
% within date of survey 22.0% 32.0% 28.1% 18.0% 100.0%


Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the Farmers' Market patrons are reported by
survey date in Table 2 and, where possible, comparable statistics for the city of Fort Pierce and
St. Lucie County are shown. Chi-square analysis identified statistically significant differences
between patrons on the three survey dates for several characteristics: age, income, education,
marital status, job status, and distance from the Market. The most striking difference is that
patrons at the Market on the mid-winter survey date in February are more likely to be in the
oldest age category and are more likely to be retired than patrons on either of the other two
survey dates. The differences between the patrons of the Farmers' Market and the residents of
the area are striking. Although the population of Fort Pierce is quite diverse, the Market is
patronized almost exclusively by consumers who are white and over the age of 35, with
education and household income well above the median for the area. This is despite the fact that
most Market patrons (52%) live within five miles of the Market. Unfortunately, due to the very
small number of non-white respondents, it was not possible to analyze the patron survey results
for ethnic or racial differences in preferences or purchase behavior.











Table 2. Characteristics of Farmers' Market Patrons, by Survey Date, and Area Residents
Survey Date Survey Date Survey Date Fort Pierce St. Lucie Co.
11/18/00 02/10/01 04/21/01 Residentsa Residentsb


Race/Ethnicity
White
Black
Hispanic
Asian
Other
Sex
Male
Female
Age *
0-20 years
21-35 years
36-50 years
51-65 years
Older than 65 years
.Tarital Status *
Single
Married
Divorced
Widowed
Household Size
One-
Two
Three
Four
Five or More
Income *
SO- $25,000
$25,001 -$50,000
$50,001 $75,000
575,001- $100,000
More than $100,000
Education *
Elementary (0-8)
Some High School
I igh School Grad
Some College
Bachelor's Degree
Adv./Prof. Degree
EmrloyrTment *
Full-Time
Part-Time
Ilomemaker
Retired
Other
Di sincee from nMrket *
0-5 miles
6-10 miles
11-15 miles
More than 15 miles


96.3 %
0.8 %
0.4 %
0.8%
1.6%

35.7 %
64.3 %

0.4 %
3.4 %
29.8 %
39.5 %
26.9 %

13.9 %
71.7 %
8.2 %
6.1 %

12.7 %
62.4 %
12.2 %
9.0 %
3.7 %

12.4%
41.1%
23.0 %
7.2 %
16.3 %

na
2.1%
18.3%
41.5%
17.4 %
20.7 %

40.8 %
9.9 %
5.6 %
42.5 %
1.3%

49.8 %
25.9 %
13.0%
11.3%


95.7 %
1.1%
1.6%
1.1%
0.5 %

32.4 %
67.6 %

0.8%
3.7 %
18.4%
38.7 %
38.4 %

8.8 %
76.3 %
6.1%
8.8%

13.5 %
69.4 %
9.8 %
5.0 %
2.4 %

9.7 %
35,7 %
26.7 %
17.3 %
10.7%

na
1.3%
19.0%
37.0 %
22.8 %
19.8%

28.3 %
7.1%
4.9 %
58.8 %
0.8%

53.3 %
24.7 %
14.2 %
7.9%


94.3 %
1.3%
1.7%
1.3 %
1.3 %

35.8 %
64.2 %

3.7%
5.8%
28.5 %
33.6%
28.5 %

20.9 %
65.5 %
8.1%
5.4 %

17.3 %
57.3 %
11.7%
8.7 %
5.0%

11.3%
37.0 %
23.0 %
14.8 %
14.0%

na
5.2 %
11.8%
34.0%
25.0%
24.0%

36.9 %
9.2 %
5.5 %
43.7 %
4.8%

52.0 %
22.5 %
9.7 %
15.8 %


43.7 %
46.5 %
9.0 %
0.6 %
0.2 %


74.0%
18.6%
6.0 %
1.1%
0.3 %


48.3 % 48.9 %
51.7% 51.1%


30.5 %
17.2 %
18.6 %
13.6 %
20.0%

26.7 %
47.1 %
na
na

na
na
na
na
na

54.0%
28.3 %
11.1%
4.0 %
2.6%

17.2%
23.9%
26.2 %
20.7 %
8.1 %
3.9 %

na
na
na
na
na

na
na
na
na


27.1%
15.9%
20.7 %
15.6%
20.7 %

17.8%
64.1%
na
na

na
na
na
na
na

34.6 %
36.0 %
18.0%
6.8%
4.6 %

8.1%
18.4%
34.3 %
26.3 %
9.0 %
4.0 %

na
na
na
na
na

na
na
na
na


*Differences in Market patron characteristics by date are statistically significant (p=0.05).
" Obtained directly or derived from source: Demographic Report, Fort Pierce (Claritas, Inc., 2000a)
SObtained directly or derived from source: Demographic Report, St. Lucie County (Claritas, Inc., 2000b)


I ......


------










Market patrons were asked the number of years they have lived in the Treasure Coast area (St.
Lucie County and the two neighboring coastal counties, Indian River County to the north and
Martin County to the south) and how many months they reside in the Treasure Coast area each
year (Tables 3 and 4). Again, there are statistically significant differences between the three
survey dates. On the second survey date, in February, 42% of the respondents indicated that they
have lived in the area for five years of less, compared to 26% and 37% of respondents at the
Market in November and April, respectively. Only about one-half (51%) of the patrons at the
Market during the February survey administration indicated that they live in the area more than
seven months each year, in contrast to about three-quarters of the respondents on the earlier and
later survey dates (75% and 73%).

The residence status of the Market patrons is consistent with these results. Of 975 patrons
surveyed, a total of 243 (25%) indicated that they live in another state or country and 151 of
these 243 were interviewed at the Market in February. The state of residence most frequently
identified by non-Floridians was New York, followed by Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and
Michigan. It appears that the Market is well attended by winter residents from northern states,
especially mid-season.

Table 3. Patrons' Years of Residence in Treasure Coast, by Survey Date

lived how long in Treasure Coast
0-5 years 6-10 years 11-20 years 21+ years Total
date of 11/18/00 Count 62 35 62 84 243
survey % within date of survey 25.5% 14.4% 25.5% 34.6% 100.0%
02/10/01 Count 142 51 63 85 341
% within date of survey 41.6% 15.0% 18.5% 24.9% 100.0%
04/21/01 Count 106 39 61 79 285
% within date of survey 37.2% 13.7% 21.4% 27.7% 100.0%
Total Count 310 125 186 248 869
% within date of survey 35.7% 14.4% 21.4% 28.5% 100.0%


Table 4. Patrons' Months of Residence in Treasure Coast each Year, by Survey Date

live how many months in Treasure Coast each )ear
12 months 8-11 months 4-7 months 0-3 months visitor Total
date of 11/18/00 Count 166 16 46 6 10 244
survey % within date of survey 68.0% 6.6% 18.9% 2.5% 4.1% 100.0%
02/10/01 Count 177 14 68 81 35 375
% within date of survey 47.2% 3.7% 18.1% 21.6% 9.3% 100.0%
04/21/01 Count 201 14 48 9 22 294
% within date of.survey 68.4% 4.8% 16.3% 3.1% 7.5% 100.0%
Total Count 544 44 162 96 67 913
% within date of survey 59.6% 4.8% 17.7% 10.5% 7.3% 100.0%










About 60% of the patrons surveyed learned of the Market during its first full season of operation,
1998-1999, with about equal numbers of patrons first learning of the Market in each of the other
two full seasons, 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. Responses are shown in Table 5. As shown in
Table 6, more than one-half (52%) of the patrons surveyed indicated that they first learned of the
Market by word-of-mouth, and about one-third (34%) learned of the Market through the
newspaper. Virtually none of the patrons learned of the Market through radio or television
advertisement. The small signs posted throughout the Fort Pierce area seemed ineffective as a
method of market discovery, with only 5.3% of patrons learning of the Market through signs.
The signs may serve as a weekly reminder for the Market, but that issue was not addressed in the
survey.

Table 5. Patrons' First Discovery of the Market

Percent of
Number of Valid
Patrons Responses
Valid 1998-1999 5
576 60.4
Responses season
1999-2000
177 18.6
season
2000-2001
201 21.1
season
Total 954 100.0
Invalid 21
Total 975


Table 6. Patrons' Method of Market Discovery


Valid word of mouth


Valid word of mouth
Responses fliers

newspaper
radio
television
signs
other
Total


Number of
Patrons
469
16
304
4
1
48
58
900


Percent of
Valid
Responses
52.1
1.8
33.8
.4
.1
5.3
6.4
100.0


Invalid 75
Total 975










Patrons were also asked how many trips they made to the Market during the 1999-2000 season
(Table 7), the most recent full season prior to the dates of the survey, and how much money they
generally spent per trip to the Market (Table 8). Overall, the most frequently indicated number
of trips to the Market in the previous season was 1-5, with $11-$20 typically spent per trip to the
Market and, in general, the amount spent per trip to the Market increases with the number of
trips.

Table 7. Patrons' Number of Trips to the Farmers' Market in the 1999-2000 Season

Percent of
Number of Valid
Patrons Responses
Valid 0 138 14.5
Responses 1-5 354 37.1
6-10 228 23.9
11-20 132 13.9
21+ 101 10.6
Total 953 100.0
Invalid 22
Total 975


Table 8. Patrons' Amount of Money Spent per Trip to the Farmers' Market

Percent of
Number of Valid
Patrons Responses
Valid $0 11 1.2
Responses $1-$10 295 31.5
$11-$20 415 44.3
$21-$30 162 17.3
$31-$50 37 4.0
$51+ 16 1.7
Total 936 100.0
Invalid 39
Total 975


These questions relating to Market visits and purchase behavior are of particular relevance, and
several interesting statistically significant correlations were observed. Using Spearman's rho
coefficient, both the number of trips and the amount spent per trip were found to be correlated
with the age of the patron but, although the number of trips tends to increase with increasing age,
the amount spent per trip tends to decrease (Tables 9 and 10). This means that older patrons visit
the Market more frequently than younger patrons, but spend less at each visit. In particular, note
that 75% of patrons aged 36-50 spend more than $10 per trip, but only 59% of patrons aged 66 or
older spend more than $10. This is especially significant since almost one-third (32.4%) of










Market patrons are in this oldest age group. However, although patrons 66 or older spend the
least per Market visit, they are most likely to visit the Market twenty-one or more times per
season. It should be noted that the information collected in this study is not sufficient to
determine the total spending per season for each age group. It is possible that the greater
frequency of Market visits compensates for the lower spending per visit of the oldest patrons.
Patrons who reside in the Treasure Coast area more than seven months each year tend to visit the
Market more frequently and spend more per trip than seasonal residents or tourists. Not
surprisingly, the amount spent at the Market is also positively correlated with household income
and with household size (higher income groups and larger households spend more per Market
visit). Older patrons report smaller household sizes, so this is a likely explanation for their lower
spending.

Table 9. Patrons' Number of Trips per Season, by Age Group *

# of trips in 1999 season
0 1-5 6-10 11-20 21+ Total
age 0-35 years Count 16 22 6 6 3 53
% within age 30.2% 41.5% 11.3% 11.3% 5.7% 100.0%
36-50 years Count 41 74 60 27 19 221
% within age 18.6% 33.5% 27.1% 12.2% 8.6% 100.0%
51-65 years Count 44 130 79 47 33 333
% within age 13.2% 39.0% 23.7% 14.1% 9.9% 100.0%
66+ years Count 31 103 71 41 40 286
% within age 10.8% 36.0% 24.8% 14.3% 14.0% 100.0%
Total Count 132 329 216 121 95 893
% within age 14.8% 36.8% 24.2% 13.5% 10.6% 100.0%

* Spearman's rho coefficient of correlation = 0.117, significance <0.0005.













Table 10. Patrons' Amount Spent per Trip, by Age Group *

amount spent/trip
0 $1-$10 $11-$20 $21-$30 $31+ Total
age 0-35 years Count 1 14 28 6 3 52
% within age 1.9% 26.9% 53.8% 11.5% 5.8% 100.0%
36-50 years Count 4 49 92 50 21 216
% within age 1.9% 22.7% 42.6% 23.1% 9.7% 100.0%
51-65 years Count 4 94 147 60 21 326
% within age 1.2% 28.8% 45.1% 18.4% 6.4% 100.0%
66+ years Count 2 115 125 35 8 285
% within age .7% 40.4% 43.9% 12.3% 2.8% 100.0%
Total Count 11 272 392 151 53 879
% within age 1.3% 30.9% 44.6% 17.2% 6.0% 100.0%
* Spearman's rho coefficient of correlation = 0.155, significance <0.0005.


Farmers' Market patrons were asked their reasons for visiting the Market, what items they
normally purchase at the Market, and what additional items they would like to see offered at the
Market. Responses are summarized in Figures 1-3. The "fun, friendly atmosphere" was the
reason most often given for shopping at the Market (74%), followed by "quality of the products"
(62%) and "support for local farmers" (58%).

It must be noted that the Market's location and activities highlight the scenic and social
atmosphere aspects of the Market. As noted in the Introduction, the Downtown Farmers' Market
of Fort Pierce is located in a small, grassy park along the Indian River Lagoon and adjacent to
the Fort Pierce City Marina. The park includes a boardwalk along the Indian River, complete
with a small pavilion, benches, and picnic tables. An ever-changing variety of musical groups,
ranging from small jazz ensembles to school bands and church choirs, provide entertainment for
Market patrons.

The relatively low spending rate of the oldest patrons might suggest that these patrons are more
likely than younger patrons to be drawn to the Market primarily by the atmosphere, but no such
relationship was noted. "Good prices" and "convenience" were cited by only 31% and 21% of
patrons, respectively. However, most patrons felt that prices at the Farmers' Market should be "a
little lower than a supermarket" (50%) or "the same as a supermarket" (35%), so patrons are
apparently unwilling to pay a premium for the quality or variety of products offered at the
Market. Patrons are most likely to buy produce (88%) and baked goods (63%), and would like
to be able to buy seafood (51%), crafts (45%), and fresh flowers (42%).




















60.

71



" 2o
40-


20-
--
















100-


80-



60-





o 20
rll


I. 0.


9


S'Os


Figure 2. Items Purchased by Farmers' Market Patrons
























\


4


Figure 3. Additional Items Desired by Farmers' Market Patrons

The Farmer's Market currently operates Saturday mornings, 8:00 am 12:00 noon, from
October through April. Patrons at the Market were asked their opinion of the hours of operation
and the season length. Statistically significant differences were observed in the patrons' opinion
of the Market hours by the time of survey, and in their opinion of the season length by the survey
date. The percentage of patrons who were very satisfied with the hours of operation decreased as
the time of day changed from early to late morning (Table 11). Satisfaction with Market hours is
much lower for patrons at the Market near closing. These patrons may feel pressed for time, or
may be disappointed to find the selection dwindling as vendors begin to close their stalls.
Patrons were also given the opportunity to write in comments concerning Market hours; most
who did so indicated the Market should remain open later, through the lunch hour.

Table 11. Patrons' Satisfaction with Market Hours, by Survey Time
satisfaction with hours of operation
very somewhat somewhat
dissatisfied dissatisfied satisfied very satisfied Total
time of 8am-9am Count 43 5 29 132 209
survey % within time of survey 20.6% 2.4% 13.9% 63.2% 100.0%
9am-10am Count 76 16 38 175 305
% within time of survey 24.9% 5.2% 12.5% 57.4% 100.0%
10am-11am Count 51 15 52 146 264
% within time of survey 19.3% 5.7% 19.7% 55.3% 100.0%
11am-12noon Count 28 20 48 71 167
% within time of survey 16.8% 12.0% 28.7% 42.5% 100.0%
Total Count 198 56 167 524 945
% within time of survey 21.0% 5.9% 17.7% 55.4% 100.0%


N\6










Table 12 provides responding Market patrons' opinions about the Market season. Virtually none
of the patrons felt that the season is too long, but 39% overall indicated that it is too short. Forty-
nine percent (49%) of patrons at the Market on the April survey date, near the end of the season,
felt the season should be longer.

Table 12. Patrons' Opinion of Season Length, by Date of Survey
opinion of season length
should be should be
fine longer shorter Total
date of 11/18/00 Count 168 93 3 264
survey % within date of survey 63.6% 35.2% 1.1% 100.0%
02/10/01 Count 256 125 2 383
% within date of survey 66.8% 32.6% .5% 100.0%
04/21/01 Count 156 150 306
% within date of survey 51.0% 49.0% 100.0%
Total Count 580 368 5 953
% within date of survey 60.9% 38.6% .5% 100.0%



Fort Pierce Resident Mail Survey

The Fort Pierce area resident survey was administered by mail in July 2001 to a random stratified
sample of 1,500 residents living within a 15-mile radius of the Farmers' Market. Of the 1,500
surveys mailed, 180 were undeliverable and 251 were completed and returned, for a response
rate of 19%. Of those responding, 69% indicated they were familiar with the Downtown
Farmer's Market of Fort Pierce, and 78% of those familiar with the Market also shop there.
About 4% of the mail survey respondents indicated that they had completed a patron survey at
the Market; these individuals were not excluded from the analysis.

Various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the mail survey respondents are
presented in Table 13. Those who do shop at the Market (yes) are contrasted with those who do
not shop at the Market (no); note that those who are not familiar with the Market are included
only among ALL survey respondents. Comparable statistics for Market patrons surveyed during
the 2000-2001 season and for residents of Fort Pierce and St. Lucie County are also shown,
where available. The Mann-Whitney statistic indicates that patrons surveyed at the Market tend
to have higher income and education than mail survey respondents in general. In addition, mail
survey respondents who do shop at the Market tend to have higher income than those who do not
shop at the Market; the two groups are not notably different otherwise. As noted for the patron
survey respondents earlier, the mail survey respondents are almost exclusively white and over
the age of 35, despite the diversity of residents in the area.











Table 13. Characteristics of Farmers' Market Patrons and Area Residents
Patron Mail Survey Mail Survey Mail Survey Fort St. Lucie
Survey Respondents Respondents Respondents Pierce Co.
Respondents yes no ALL Residentsa Residentsb
Race/Ethnicity
White 95.4% 94.7% 94.3 % 92.1% 43.7 % 74.0%
Black 1.1% 3.1% 5.7% 5.0% 46.5% 18.6%
Hispanic 1.3% 1.5% 0.0% 1.7% 9.0% 6.0%
Asian 1.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.6% 1.1%
Other 1.1% 0.8% 0.0% 1.2% 0.2% 0.3%
Sex
Male 34.4% 33.8% 28.6% 33.6% 48.3% 48.9%
Female 65.6% 66.2% 71.4% 66.4% 51.7% 51.1%
Age
0-20 years 1.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 30.5% 27.1%
21-35 years 4.3 % 3.1% 13.9 % 7.9 % 17.2 % 15.9%
36-50 years 24.7% 27.1% 19.4% 24.4% 18.6% 20.7%
51-65 years 37.2 % 34.9% 36.1% 32.6 % 13.6 % 15.6%
Older than 65 years 32.2 % 34.9 % 30.6 % 35.1% 20.0 % 20.7 %
Marital Status
Single 14.1% 3.8% 11.1% 6.6% 26.7% 17.8%
Married 71.6% 63.4% 55.6% 61.5% 47.1% 64.1%
Divorced 7.3 % 18.3 % 22.2 % 17.2 % na na
Widowed 7.0% 14.5% 11.1% 14.8% na na
Household Size
One 14.5% 21.4% 19.4% 21.7% na na
Two 63.6 % 53.4 % 58.3 % 50.4 % na na
Three 11.0% 12.2% 13.9% 13.5% na na
Four 7.3% 7.6% 5.6% 7.0% na na
Five or More 3.6 % 5.3 % 2.8 % 7.4 % na na
Income
$0 $25,000 11.0% 17.0% 30.3% 19.8% 54.0% 34.6%
$25,001 $50,000 37.6% 33.9% 39.4% 38.2% 28.3% 36.0%
$50,001 $75,000 24.4% 25.0% 21.2% 24.5% 11.1% 18.0 %
$75,001 -$100,000 13.7 % 12.5 % 6.1% 9.9% 4.0% 6.8 %
More than $100,000 13.3% 11.6% 3.0% 7.5% 2.6% 4.6%
Education
Elementary (0-8) na na na na 17.2 8.1%
Some High School 2.8% 1.6% 2.8% 2.9% 23.9% 18.4%
High School Grad 16.5 % 18.0 % 27.8 % 23.8 % 26.2 % 34.3 %
Some College 37.3 % 38.3 % 41.7% 37.2% 20.7% 26.3 %
Bachelor's Degree 22.1% 20.3 % 5.6% 16.3 % 8.1% 9.0%
Adv./Prof. Degree 21.4% 21.9% 22.2% 19.7% 3.9% 4.0%
Employment
Full-Time 34.4% 41.4% 55.6% 44.2 % na na
Part-Time 8.5% 10.2% 11.1% 9.6% na na
Homemaker 5.3 % 6.3 % 2.8 % 6.3 % na na
Retired 49.6 % 42.2 % 30.6 % 39.2 % na na
Other 2.2% 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.8 %
Distance from Market
0-5 miles 51.9% 46.9% 44.4% 35.7% na na
6-10 miles 24.3 % 35.4 % 33.3 % 35.7 % na na
11-15 miles 12.4% 13.8% 16.7% 20.1% na na
More than 15 miles 11.3% 3.8% 5.6% 8.6% na na
a Obtained directly or derived from source: Demographic Report, Fort Pierce (Claritas, 2000a)
b Obtained directly or derived from source: Demographic Report, St. Lucie County (Claritas, 2000b)










Mail survey respondents were also asked several questions relating to their residence status.
Responses are presented in Table 14 and Table 15. Unlike the patrons surveyed at the Market,
almost one-half (45%) of the mail survey respondents have lived in the area more than 20 years,
and most respondents (91%) indicated that they live in the Treasure Coast area year-round.
These results are consistent among white and non-white respondents and among those who do
shop at the Market and those who do not. This probably relates to the time of year at which the
mail survey was administered. The survey was mailed in July, but most of the area's seasonal
residents arrive for the winter, near Thanksgiving, and leave in the spring, near Easter.

Table 14. Mail Survey Respondents' Years of Residence in Treasure Coast


Number of Mail
Survey
Respondents


Percent of
Valid
Responses


Valid 0-5 years 36 14.7
Responses 6-10 years 31 12.7

11-20 years 68 27.8
21+ years 110 44.9
Total 245 100.0
Invalid 6
Total 251


Table 15. Mail Survey Respondents' Months of Residence in Treasure Coast each Year


Number of Mail
Survey
Respondents


Percent of
Valid
Responses


Valid 12 months 222 91.0
Responses 8-11 months 14 5.7
4-7 months 7 2.9
0-3 months 1 .4
Total 244 100.0
Invalid 7
Total 251


Respondents were also asked some general questions about their food shopping behavior. Most
respondents indicated that they typically purchase 3-4 different types of fresh fruit and
vegetables each week, and spend $5.00-$15.00 on fresh fruit and vegetables. Almost all drive a
car when shopping for food. Responses are summarized in Tables 16-18. No significant
differences were noted between white and non-white respondents, or between those who do shop
at the Market and those who do not.










Table 16. Number of Types of Fresh Fruit or Vegetables Purchased Weekly
by Mail Survey Respondents

Number of Mail Percent of
Survey Valid
Respondents Responses
Valid no fresh fruits or vegs 5 2.0
Responses 1-2 types 33 13.3
3-4 types 102 41.1
5-6 types 71 28.6
7 or more types 37 14.9
Total 248 100.0
Invalid 3
Total 251


Table 17. Amount Spent Weekly on Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
by Mail Survey Respondents

Number of Mail Percent of
Survey Valid
Respondents Responses
Valid $0-$5.00 30 12.1
Responses $5.01-$10.00 71 28.6
$10.01-$15.00 73 29.4
$15.01-$20.00 38 15.3
More than $20.00 36 14.5
Total 248 100.0
Invalid 3
Total 251


Table 18. Mail Survey Respondents' Mode of Transportation when Shopping for Food

Number of Mail Percent of
Survey Valid
Respondents Responses
Valid walk 1 .4
Responses ride a bicycle 2 .8
drive a car or motorcycle 228 93.4
ride with another driver 13 5.3
Total 244 100.0
Invalid 7
Total 251










Respondents familiar with the Market were asked when and how they first learned of the Market.
Responses are presented in Tables 19 and 20. About 77% learned of the Market during its first
full season of operation, 1998-1999, and 19% had learned of the Market in the 1999-2000
season. Slightly less than one-half (46%) learned of the Market through the newspaper and
about one-third (34%) learned of the Market by word-of-mouth; these results are the reverse of
those in the patron survey. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between
familiarity with the Market and regular newspaper reading; about 94% of those familiar with the
Market regularly read a newspaper but only about 83% of those not familiar with the Market
read a newspaper. Like the patrons, virtually none of the mail survey respondents had learned of
the Market through radio or television advertisements. However, younger respondents are
significantly more likely than older respondents to listen to the radio and less likely to read a
newspaper (Tables 21 and 22). This suggests that although the radio has not been an important
source of Market discovery to date, younger families might be targeted by radio advertisement.

Table 19. Mail Survey Respondents' First Discovery of the Market

Number of Mail Percent of
Survey Valid
Respondents Responses
Valid during the first
131 77.1
Responses season (1998-1999)
during the second
33 19.4
season (1999-2000)
during the third
6 3.5
season (2000-2001)
Total 170 100.0
Invalid 81
Total 251


Table 20. Mail Survey Respondents' Method of Market Discovery

Number of Mail Percent of
Survey Valid
Respondents Responses
Valid word of mouth 54 34.2
Responses fliers 3 1.9

newspaper 72 45.6
radio 1 .6
television 2 1.3
signs 18 11.4
other 8 5.1
Total 158 100.0
Invalid 93
Total 251










Table 21. Mail Survey Respondents who Listen to Radio, by Age

listen to radio
no yes Total
age 21-35 years Count 1 18 19
% within age 5.3% 94.7% 100.0%
36-50 years Count 7 52 59
% within age 11.9% 88.1% 100.0%
50-65 years Count 22 55 77
% within age 28.6% 71.4% 100.0%
more than 65 years Count 34 50 84
% within age 40.5% 59.5% 100.0%
Total Count 64 175 239
% within age 26.8% 73.2% 100.0%


Table 22. Mail Survey Respondents who Read Newspaper, by Age

read newspaper
no yes Total
age 21-35 years Count 4 15 19
% within age 21.1% 78.9% 100.0%
36-50 years Count 6 53 59
% within age 10.2% 89.8% 100.0%
50-65 years Count 11 68 79
% within age 13.9% 86.1% 100.0%
more than 65 years Count 2 82 84
% within age 2.4% 97.6% 100.0%
Total Count 23 218 241
% within age 9.5% 90.5% 100.0%


Mail survey respondents familiar with the Market were asked the frequency with which they visit
the Market (Table 23) and the average amount spent per trip (Table 24). Like the Market
patrons, most mail survey respondents reported 1-5 trips to the Market in the 2000-2001 season,
and spend $11-$20 per trip. Note that the mail survey respondents were asked about the number
of trips in the 2000-2001 season, while patrons were asked about the previous 1999-2000 season,
so these responses should not be compared directly.

As in the patron survey, the number of trips tends to increase with increasing age but the amount
spent per trip tends to decrease, and the correlation is statistically significant. For area residents
overall (without regard to age), the amount spent per trip tends to increase as the number of trips
increases.










Table 23. Mail Survey Respondents' Number of Trips to the Farmers' Market
in the 2000-2001 Season


Number of Mail
Survey
Respondents


Percent of
Valid
Responses


Valid 0 6 4.5
Responses 1-5 82 61.7

6-10 27 20.3
11-20 13 9.8
21+ 5 3.8
Total 133 100.0
Invalid 118
Total 251


Table 24. Mail Survey Respondents' Amount of Money Spent per Trip
to the Farmers' Market


Number of Mail
Survey
Respondents


Percent of
Valid
Responses


Valid $0 1 .8
Responses $1-$10 35 27.1
$11-$20 59 45.7
$21-$30 26 20.2
$31-$50 5 3.9
$51+ 3 2.3
Total 129 100.0
Invalid 122
Total 251


Those who indicated that they do shop at the Market were asked their reasons for shopping at the
Market, what items they normally purchase, and what additional items they would like to see
offered at the Market. Their responses are summarized in Figures 4-6. The results are similar to
those of the patron survey administered at the Market. The reasons most frequently cited for
shopping at the Market were "support of local farmers" (66%), "quality of the products" (65%),
and the "fun, friendly atmosphere" (59%). About 43% indicated "good prices" as a reason for
shopping at the Market, and non-white respondents were somewhat more likely than white
respondents to cite this reason. Produce is purchased by almost all respondents (95%), baked
goods by about one-half (52%), and plants are purchased by slightly less than one-half of all
respondents (40%). Most respondents are interested in purchasing seafood at the Market (60%),
and about one-half are interested in purchasing craft items (49%) or flowers (42%).















Inn -.


80
0
o





















100------------------------
60

40.





Co
20)


0 20.
4






"3. H


Figure 4. Mail Survey Respondents' Reasons for Shopping at the Farmers' Market




0)


0
o0


i n
c
0







o. 0N
6% %
%





Figure 5. Items Purchased at the Market by Mail Survey Respondents
C k~ *~

0)ue5 tm ucae tteMaktb alSre epnet


























%4 %1'


U 0-
04 %


Figure 6. Additional Items Desired at the Market by Mail Survey Respondents


Mail survey respondents familiar with the Market were asked to describe their satisfaction with
the Market hours of operation (Table 25) and the length of the Market season (Table 26). About
one-third (37%) of respondents are very dissatisfied or somewhat dissatisfied with Market hours,
compared to about 27% of Market patrons, and 46% think the season should be longer,
compared to about 39% of patrons.

Table 25. Mail Survey Respondents' Satisfaction with Market Hours of Operation


Number of Mail
Survey
Respondents


Percent of
Valid
Responses


Valid very dissatisfied 24 18.3
Responses somewhat dissatisfied 25 19.1
somewhat satisfied 38 29.0
very satisfied 44 33.6
Total 131 100.0
Invalid 120
Total 251


b


\"~










Table 26. Mail Survey Respondents' Opinion of Market Season Length

Number of Mail Percent of
Survey Valid
Respondents Responses
Valid fine 71 53.8
Responses should be longer 60 45.5
should be shorter 1 .8
Total 132 100.0
Invalid 119
Total 251


Mail survey respondents who indicated familiarity with the Farmers' Market (whether they do or
do not shop there) were asked to indicate any reasons for not shopping at the Market (Figure 7),
and ways in which the Market could be improved (Figure 8). "Inconvenient hours" was the most
frequently cited reason for not shopping at the Market (30%), and "close later" was the most
frequently suggested improvement to the Market (49%). Non-white respondents were more
likely to suggest "offer more seafood" as an improvement to the Market than white respondents.
Those who generally do not shop at the Market were more likely to indicate "inconvenient
location" or "prefer another Market" for reasons not to shop there.


It, % % % % 1b % 1% %
S%., %


Figure 7. Mail Survey Respondents' Reasons for NOT Shopping at the Farmers' Market










10 ,.


S 80.
cl
o
(q 60-

40
C'





(% 0



Figure 8. Ways to Improve Market for Mail Survey Respondents


Conclusions and Recommendations

Initial promotion of the Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce appears to have been
successful. Most area residents are familiar with the Market, principally learning of the Market
by word-of-mouth or through newspaper advertisements, and most of those familiar with the
Market shop there at least occasionally. The Market should continue to advertise in local
newspapers, and vendors should urge shoppers to tell their friends and family about the Market.
Advertisement of limited or seasonal products might encourage patrons to visit the Market more
frequently. Younger area residents are more likely to listen to the radio and less likely to read the
newspaper than older residents, so increased radio advertisement might attract younger patrons
to the Market.

The principal attractions of the Market are the festive atmosphere and the quality of the products
offered; few patrons are drawn to the Market by convenience or good prices. Fresh produce is
the most popular item at the Market, followed by baked goods. There is a demand for more
seafood, crafts and fresh flowers. Market patrons believe Market prices should not be more than
supermarket prices, so vendors should not expect to command premium prices for their products
at this time. Advertisements should emphasize the availability of fresh, high quality produce at
reasonable prices. Some promotions should also mention the beautiful setting, friendly
atmosphere, and proximity to downtown shops and restaurants.

In general, both area residents and patrons of the Market who are dissatisfied with the Market
hours of operation think the Market hours are too short, specifically the Market should remain
open later on Saturdays. A trial season of extended hours, especially through the lunch hour, is
recommended to explore consumer response. There is more limited support for extending the
season, or operating the Market on other days of the week.









Patrons of the Market are almost exclusively white and over the age of 35, with higher than
average income and education for the area. Older patrons visit the Market most, although they
tend to spend less per Market visit than younger patrons. Further, patrons who are seasonal
residents visit the Market less frequently and spend less per visit than year-round residents.
Advertising and Market entertainment and activities that serve to attract younger patrons and
families to the Farmers' Market would likely increase Market income. However, the information
collected in this study is not sufficient to analyze total spending by patron age or other
characteristic. Future research should examine total spending per Market season to determine
which patrons provide the greatest Market support overall.

The mail survey response rate for non-white area residents was extremely low, hindering
analysis of their perceptions of the Market and the factors that discourage these residents from
patronizing the Market. It is possible that a wider selection of seafood might draw non-white
patrons, if advertised effectively. The Market should also be promoted through community
centers, and perhaps through churches, in historically black neighborhoods in the area.
Entertainment activities specifically targeted toward black and Hispanic residents may also
increase non-white Market patronage. Future Market consumer research should concentrate on
identifying attitudes and perceptions of non-white Fort Pierce area residents.









References


Blackburn, Kitty Lou, and Robert L. Jack. "Consumers' Opinions, Attitudes and Use of Direct
Markets in West Virginia." West Virginia University, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment
Station, Bulletin 686, March 1984.

Claritas, Inc. "Population Facts Database (Demographic Snapshot Report), City of Fort Pierce."
prepared for St. Lucie County Chamber of Commerce, 2000(a).

Claritas, Inc. "Population Facts Database (Demographic Snapshot Report), St. Lucie County."
prepared for St. Lucie County Chamber of Commerce, 2000(b).

Cowles, Harley. Personal Communication. President, Board of Directors, Downtown Farmers'
Market of Fort Pierce, Inc. 2001.

Eastwood, David B., and John R. Brooker. "Farmers' Markets and Tourism: Some Information
About These Customers at a Regional Farmers' Market." Research Update, Journal of Food
Distribution Research 28, No. 1, February 1997.

Eastwood, D. B., J. R. Brooker, and M. D. Gray. "Consumer Attitudes, Perceptions, and
Behaviors About Locally Grown Fresh Produce: A Case Study of Six Locations in Tennessee."
University of Tennessee, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Tennessee
Agricultural Experiment Station, Research Report 98-09, September 1998.

Gale, Fred. "Direct Farm Marketing as a Rural Development Tool." Rural Development
Perspectives 12, No. 2, June 1997.

Govindasamy, Ramu, and Rodolfo M. Nayga, Jr. "Characteristics of Farmer-To-Consumer
Direct Market Customers: An Overview." Journal of Extension 34, No. 4, August 1996.

Gray, M. D., J. R. Brooker, and D. B. Eastwood. "Consumer Perceptions of Farmers' Markets: A
Case Study." Research Update, Journal of Food Distribution Research 29, No. 1, February 1998.

Kezis, Alan, Thula Gwebu, Stephanie Peavey, and Hsiang-tai Cheng. "A Study of Consumers at
a Small Farmers' Market in Maine: Results from a 1995 Survey." Journal of Food Distribution
Research 29, No. 1, February 1998.

Lev, Larry, and Garry Stephenson. "Analyzing Three Farmers' Markets in Corvallis and Albany,
Oregon." Small Farms Working Group, Oregon State University Extension Service, October
1998.

Lev, Larry, and Garry Stephenson. "Rapid Assessment of Five Oregon Farmers' Markets:
Quantitative Results." Small Farms Working Group, Oregon State University Extension Service
& Oregon Farmers' Market Association, March 2001.

Mancini, Ellen. Personal Communication. Board of Directors, Downtown Farmers' Market of
Fort Pierce, Inc. 2002.









Pelsue, Neil H., Jr. "Consumers at Farmers' Markets and Roadside Stands in Vermont."
University of Vermont, Agricultural Experiment Station, Research Report 41, October 1984.

Rhodus, Tim, Janet Schwartz, and James Hoskins. "Ohio Consumer Opinions of Roadside
Markets and Farmers' Markets." Ohio State University, Department of Horticulture, Report to
the Ohio Rural Rehabilitation Program, Ohio Department of Agriculture, May 1994.

St. Lucie County Chamber of Commerce. "Fort Pierce" online,
http://www.stluciechamber.org/ftpierce.html 2001.

Toensmeyer, Ulrich C., and Kathleen Ladzinski. "Consumer Attitudes Concerning Marketing of
Fresh Fruits and Vegetables through Direct Markets, Delaware." University of Delaware,
Department of Agricultural and Food Economics, Bulletin 443, February 1983.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service. "Farmers Market Facts!."
online @ http://www.ams.usda.gov/farmersmarkets/facts.htm 2001(a).

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service. "Florida Farmers Markets."
online @ http://www.ams.usda.gov/farmersmarkets/states/florida.htm 2001(b).

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service. "2001 National Farmers
Market Week Proclamation." Online at
http://www.ams.usda.gov/farmersmarkets/2001_Proclamation.htm 2001(c).

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. "Food Consumption, Prices, and
Expenditures, 1970-1997." Statistical Bulletin 965, online at
http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/sb965, April 1999.

U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Consumer Expenditures in 1999." Report 949,
online @ http://www.bls.gov/cex/home.htm, May 2001.

Wyner, T. A. Personal Communication. Market Manager, Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort
Pierce, Inc. 2000.









Appendices


A. Farmers' Market Patron Survey Instrument
B. Cover Letter for Resident Mail Survey
C. Resident Mail Survey Instrument
D. Mail Survey Thank-You/Reminder Postcard










Appendix A. Farmers' Market Patron Survey Instrument







,- UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
Ititute of Foo and Agricuturad Sciences


Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Inc.
Patron Survey
April 21, 2001


The Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Inc. is referred to as "the Market" for this survey.
Please circle the most appropriate answer for each question below.


1. How did you first learn about the Market?
Circle only ONE answer.
a. Word of mouth
b. Fliers
c. Newspaper
d. Radio
e. Television
f. Signs
g. Other:

2. When did you first learn about the Market?
a. During the first season (1998-1999)
b. During the second season (1999-2000)
c. During this season (2000-2001)

3. How many trips did you make to the Market
during the October 1999-April 2000 season?
a. 0
b. 1-5
c. 6-10
d. 11-20
e. 21+

4. What are your reasons for shopping at the
Market? Circle all that apply.
a. Quality of the products
b. Support local farmers
c. Fun, friendly atmosphere
d. Health and food safety concerns
e. Convenience
f. Good prices
g. Variety of products
h. Other:

5. What do you typically purchase when
visiting the Market? Circle all that apply.
a. Produce
b. Baked goods
c. Prepared foods and beverages
d. Jellies, jams, and sauces
e. Plants
f. Other:


6. What other items would you be interested in
purchasing at the Market? Circle all that apply.
a. Fresh flowers
b. Herbal products
c. Crafts
d. Seafood
e. Condiments and seasonings
f. Other:

7. On average, how much money do you spend
at the Market per visit?
a. $0
b. $1-$10
c. $11-$20
d. $21 $30
e. $31-$50
f. $51+

8. Compared to prices at the supermarket,
prices at the Farmers' Market should be:
a. Much lower
b. A little lower
c. The same
d. A little higher
e. Much higher

9. How do you feel about the length of the
Market season (October-April)?
a. The season length is fine.
b. The season should be longer.
c. The season should be shorter.

10. How satisfied are you with the Market's
operating hours (8:00am-12:00pm)?
a. Very dissatisfied
b. Somewhat dissatisfied
c. Somewhat satisfied
d. Very satisfied

Comments on Market hours:


Please answer the questions on Page 2.







11. How far do you live from the Market?
a. 0 5 miles
b. 6 10 miles
c. 11 15 miles
d. 16+ miles

12. How long have you lived in the Treasure
Coast area?
a. 0 5 years
b. 6 10 years
c. 11 20 years
d. 21+ years

13. How many months each year do you live in
the Treasure Coast area?
a. 12 months (year round resident)
b. 8 11 months
c. 4 7 months
d. 0- 3 months
e. Visitor or tourist

14. If you are not a Florida resident, in which
state or country do you reside?


15. What is your age?
a. 0 20 years
b. 21 35 years
c. 36 50 years
d. 51 65 years
e. 66+ years

16. What is your gender? Circle only one.
a. Male
b. Female

17. What is your ethnic background?
a. White (Caucasian)
b. Black
c. Hispanic
d. Native American
e. Asian
f. Other:

18. What is your current marital status?
a. Single
b. Married
c. Divorced
d. Widowed


19. How many people live in your household,
including yourself?
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four
e. Five or more

20. Of those who live there, including yourself,
how many are:
10 and under
11 through 18
19 and over

21. What is your primary occupational status?
Circle only ONE answer.
a. Employed full-time
b. Employed part-time
c. Homemaker
d. Retired
e. Student
f. Unemployed

22. What is your educational status?
a. Some high school
b. High school graduate
c. Some college
d. Bachelor's degree
e. Advanced/Professional degree

23. What is your annual household income?
a. $0 $25,000
b. $25,001 $50,000
c. $50,001 $75,000
d. $75,001- $100,000
e. $100,001+

24. Have you answered this survey previously
at the Market? YES NO

Other comments or suggestions for the Market:





Please contact Ferdinand Wirth or Kathy Davis at
(561) 468-3922 if you have any questions or
comments.









Appendix B. Cover Letter for Resident Mail Survey








UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences 2199 South Rock Road
Indian River Research and Education Center Ft. Pierce, FL 34945-3138
http://floridafirst.ufl.edu Tel. (561) 468-3922
Suncom 240-3922
Fax (561) 468-5668
Internet: www.irrec.ifas.ufl.edu
July 20, 2001

Dear Treasure Coast Resident:

The Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce was started in 1998 to provide a way for local residents to
buy fruits and vegetables grown in community gardens and by local small farmers. The Farmers' Market
is located in downtown Fort Pierce, next to the Fort Pierce City Marina, and operates on Saturday
mornings from October through April. The Farmers' Market management wants to improve the market,
and the first step is to get information to help understand and meet the needs of the community.

You are one of a small number of Treasure Coast residents who are being asked to give information on
your knowledge and opinions about the Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce by completing the
enclosed, short survey. Your participation is completely voluntary, and your answers will be kept
confidential. You and your household will not be identified or connected with the questionnaire in any
way. You do not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer. However, in order for the
results to truly represent the needs of all Treasure Coast residents, it is important that each survey be
completed and returned in the enclosed business reply envelope.

The Center for Cooperative Agricultural Programs, a joint program of Florida Agricultural and
Mechanical University (FAMU) and the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
(UF/IFAS), has funded this research study. The results of the study will be used by the market's
management to improve Farmers' Market operations. The information gathered in this study may also be
published in professional journals or presented at scientific meetings, but will not be available as
individual data.

I will be happy to answer any questions you might have about the research project or the survey. Please
write or call. My telephone number is (561) 468-3922, ext. 111.

Thank you for your assistance.

Sincerely,


Ferdinand Wirth, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor









Appendix C. Resident Mail Survey Instrument






,< UNIVERSITY OF
S'FLORIDA Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce, Inc.
Institute of Food and Agricutural Sciences
Consumer Mail Survey


The Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort Pierce is a Saturday morning open-air market located in
historic downtown Fort Pierce, next to the Fort Pierce City Marina. This survey will help the Farmers'
Market to better understand and meet the needs of the community. The survey is intended for the
PRIMARY FOOD SHOPPER in the household, and is completely confidential. Please take a few
moments to answer these questions now.


1. Are you familiar with the Downtown Farmers'
Market of Fort Pierce?
a. No If no, please skip to question #15.
b. Yes

2. How did you first learn about the Fort Pierce
Farmers' Market? Circle only ONE answer.


Word of mouth
Fliers
Newspaper
Radio
Television
Signs
Other (please specify)


3. When did you first learn about the Market?

a. During the first season (1998-1999)
b. During the second season (1999-2000)
c. During the third season (2000-2001)

4. Do you ever shop at the Fort Pierce Farmers'
Market?

a. No If no, please skip to question #13.
b. Yes

5. How many trips did you make to the Market
during the October 2000 April 2001 season?

a. 0
b. 1-5
c. 6-10
d. 11-20
e. 21 or more


6. What are your reasons for shopping at the
Farmers' Market? Circle all that apply.


Quality of the products
Support local farmers
Fun, friendly atmosphere
Health and food safety concerns
Convenience
Good prices
Variety of products
Other (please specify)


7. What do you typically purchase when visiting
the Farmers' Market? Circle all that apply.


Produce
Baked goods
Prepared foods and beverages
Jellies, jams, and sauces
Plants
Other (please specify)


8. What other items would you be interested in
purchasing at the Market? Circle all that
apply.


Fresh flowers
Herbal products
Crafts
Seafood
Condiments and seasonings
Other (please specify)


Page 1 of 4









9. On average, how much money do you spend at
the Market per visit? Circle only ONE answer.


$0
$1-$10
$11-$20
$21-$30
$31-$50
More than $50.00


10. How do you feel about the length of the
Farmers' Market season (October-April)?


The season length is fine.
The season should be longer.
The season should be shorter.


11. How satisfied are you with the Market's
operating hours (Saturday 8:00am-12:00pm)?

a. Very dissatisfied
b. Somewhat dissatisfied
c. Somewhat satisfied
d. Very satisfied

12. Have you previously answered a similar survey
at the Farmers' Market?
a. No
b. Yes

13. What are your reasons for NOT shopping at
the Farmers' Market? Circle all that apply.

a. Inconvenient location
b. Inconvenient hours of operation
c. No transportation
d. High prices
e. Poor quality
f. Limited variety
g. Atmosphere is unfriendly or uncomfortable
h. Vendors do not accept food stamps
i. Vendors do not accept checks
j. Vendors do not accept credit cards
k. Unsanitary conditions
1. Prefer another farmers' market or roadside
stand
m. Other (please specify)


14. Which of the following changes at the Market
would encourage you to shop there more often?
Circle all that apply.


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
1.


Open earlier
Close later
Open more days
Lower prices
Increase parking
Provide transportation
Improve service
Offer more produce
Offer more crafts
Offer more seafood
Offer more prepared foods
Other (please specify)


15. Do you generally read a newspaper?
a. No
b. Yes If yes, which paper do you read
most often?

16. Do you generally listen to the radio?
a. No
b. Yes If yes, which station do you listen
to most often?

17. About how many different types of FRESH
fruits and vegetables do you generally
purchase each week from all sources? Circle
only ONE answer.

a. No fresh fruits or vegetables
b. 1-2 types
c. 3-4 types
d. 5-6 types
e. 7 or more types

18. About how much do you generally spend on
FRESH fruits and vegetables each week from
all sources? Circle only ONE answer.

a. $0-$5.00
b. $5.01-$10.00
c. $10.01 $15.00
d. $15.01 $20.00
e. More than $20.00


Page 2 of 4








19. How far do you live from the downtown
Fort Pierce area? Circle only ONE answer.


0 5 miles
6 10 miles
11 15 miles
More than 15 miles


20. How do you generally travel when you shop
for food? Circle only ONE answer.

a. Walk
b. Ride a bicycle
c. Drive a car or motorcycle
d. Ride with another driver
e. Other (please specify)


21. How many years have you lived in the Treasure
Coast area? Circle only ONE answer.


0 5 years
6 10 years
11 20 years
More than 20 years
Do not live here


22. How many months each year do you live in the
Treasure Coast area? Circle only ONE answer.


12 months (year-round resident)
8 11 months
4 7 months
0 3 months
Occasional visitor or tourist


23. If you are not a Florida resident, in which state
or country do you reside?

24. What is your age? Circle only ONE answer.

a. 0-20 years
b. 21 35 years
c. 36 50 years
d. 51 65 years
e. More than 65 years


25. What is your sex?


a. Male
b. Female

26. What is your ethnic background? Circle only
ONE answer.

a. White (Caucasian)
b. Black
c. Hispanic
d. Native American (American Indian)
e. Asian
f. Other (please specify)


27. What is your current marital status? Circle
only ONE answer.

a. Single (never married)
b. Married
c. Divorced
d. Widowed

28. How many people live in your household,
including yourself? Circle only ONE answer.

a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four
e. Five or more

29. Of those who live there, including yourself,
how many are in each of the following age
groups? (Please indicate a number for each.)

10 years and under
11 years through 18 years
19 years and over


Page 3 of 4








30. What is your primary occupational status?
Circle only ONE answer, please.

a. Employed full-time (including self-
employed)
b. Employed part-time (including self-
employed)
c. Homemaker
d. Retired
e. Student
f. Unemployed


31. What is your highest level of education?
Circle only ONE answer, please.


Some high school
High school graduate
Some college
Bachelor's degree
Advanced/Professional degree


32. What is your annual household income?
Circle only ONE answer, please.


$0- $25,000
$25,001 $50,000
$50,001 $75,000
$75,001- $100,000
More than $100,000


Please add any additional comments or suggestions for the Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort
Pierce:





















Thank you for completing this survey. Your contribution to this research effort is very greatly
appreciated. All answers will be kept strictly confidential. Please return this completed survey
in the Business Reply Envelope provided, or mail the completed survey to:

Dr. Ferdinand Wirth, University of Florida, Indian River REC, 2199 South Rock Road, Fort
Pierce, Florida 34945-3138.


Page 4 of 4









Appendix. D. Mail Survey Thank-You/Reminder Postcard










July 26,2001


Last week a survey asking for your opinions about the Downtown Farmers' Market of Fort
Pierce was mailed to you. You were selected from a random sample of Treasure Coast
residents living within 15 miles of the Farmers' Market.

If you have already completed and returned the survey to me, please accept my sincere thanks.
If not, please do so today. Because it has been sent to only a small sample of Treasure Coast
residents, it is extremely important that your survey also be included in the study.

If by some chance you did not receive the questionnaire, or it got misplaced, please call me
right now at (561) 468-3922 and I will put another one in the mail to you today.

Sincerely,


Ferdinand Wirth




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