• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Preface
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Methods
 Survey Results
 Economic impact results
 Conclusion
 Appendix A: telephase survey...






Title: Economic impacts of the Florida environmental horticulture industry, 2000
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027372/00002
 Material Information
Title: Economic impacts of the Florida environmental horticulture industry, 2000
Series Title: Economic information report
Alternate Title: Economic impact of the Florida environmental horticulture industry
Physical Description: vi, 79 p. : map, charts ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hodges, Alan W ( Alan Wade ), 1959-
Haydu, John J
University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Food and Resource Economics Dept., Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: [2002]
 Subjects
Subject: Ornamental plant industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants, Ornamental -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Horticultural products industry -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Alan W. Hodges and John J. Haydu.
General Note: "April 23, 2002."
General Note: Includes 2000 survey questionnaire.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027372
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002829600
oclc - 49745995
notis - ANV9970

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    List of Tables
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Preface
        Page 4
    Acknowledgement
        Page 5
    Introduction
        Page 6
    Methods
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Survey Results
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Economic impact results
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Conclusion
        Page 33
    Appendix A: telephase survey questionnaire
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
Full Text


Economic Impacts of the Florida
Environmental Horticulture Industry in
2005

Sponsored Project Report to the Florida Nursery, Growers and
Landscape Association
by Alan W. Hodges and John J. Haydu


September 2006


"UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences







Economic Impacts of the Florida Environmental Horticulture
Industry in 2005


Sponsored Project Report to the Florida Nursery, Growers and Landscape Association

by Alan W. Hodges, PhD, Associate, and John J. Haydu, PhD, Professor
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Food & Resource Economics Department, Gainesville, FL, and Mid-Florida Research and Education
Center, Apopka, FL
Telephone: 352-392-1881 x312; 407-884-2034 x156
Email: awhodges@ufl.edu; jjh@ifas.ufl.edu

Report available at http://economicimpact.ifas.ufl.edu

Revised September 21, 2006

Table of Contents

L ist o f T ab le s an d F ig u re s................................................................................................. ................ .. 2
E executive Sum m ary ........................................................................................................... ........... 4
A know ledgm ents.............................................................................................................. ........... 5
Introduction: The Florida Environmental Horticulture Industry .................................................... 6
M eth o d s ............................................................................................................................................... 7
Survey D esign and Im plem entation.... ....................................................................... .............. 7
Survey D ata and Econom ic Im pact A analysis ..................................... ....................... .............. 9
S u rv ey R esu lts ................................................................................................................... ............ 13
L longevity of Indu story F irm s ............................................................................... .............. 13
Production Area Managed ................................. ........... .......................... .. 13
E m p loy m en t.................................................................................................................... ............ 14
Sales of Environmental Horticultural Products and Services................................................... 15
M market Channels and Practices for Horticultural Products ........................................ .............. 17
Impacts of Hurricanes on the Environmental Horticulture Industry in 2004 and 2005 .............. 20
Issues and Threats to the Environmental Horticulture Industry ............................................... 22
Financial Borrowing Characteristics and Needs for Wholesale Nurseries............................... 23
Economic Impact Results ..................................... ................................. .. 25
State Im pacts............................... ........................ ........................... 25
R regional and County Econom ic Im pacts........................................ ......................... .............. 27
Impacts on Allied Suppliers for Nursery Producers ................................................. 33
C conclusions ........................................................ ....................... ............................ 33
1









List of Tables and Figures

Figure 1. Value of Florida nursery and greenhouse crops, 1995-2004........................................... 6

Table 1. Number of survey respondents by industry sector and Florida county ............................ 8

Table 2. D isposition of telephone survey calls ..................................... ........................ .............. 9

Table 3. Survey sam ple size and expansion factors........................................................ .............. 10

Table 4. Economic multipliers for the environmental horticulture industry sectors in Florida.......... 10

Table 5. Reported employment and wages paid in the environmental horticulture industry, by
F lorida C county, Jan-Sep ., 2005.......................................... ................................................... 11

Figure 2. Years in business reported by survey respondents .............. ................................... 13

Figure 3. Greenhouse or shadehouse area reported by survey respondents. ................................ 13

Figure 4. Container and field nursery area reported by survey respondents. ............................... 14

Table 6. N ursery production area reported .. ............................................................... .............. 14

Table 7. Employment in the Florida environmental horticulture industry, 2005 ............................ 14

Figure 5. Distribution of respondents by annual sales class........................................... .............. 15

Table 8. Sales reported by survey respondents and estimated total industry sales, 2005................ 15

Figure 6. Distribution of nursery sales by m market region ............................................... .............. 16

Figure 7. Plant product sales by grow ers ......................................................................... .............. 16

Table 9. Sales of specific types of horticultural products and services ....................................... 17

Figure 8. Distribution of nursery product sales by type of customer............................................ 18

Figure 9. Distribution of landscape service sales by type of customer......................................... 18

Figure 10. Distribution of retail horticultural product sales by type of customer............................... 18

Figure 11. Markets for nursery products identified as expanding by survey respondents. ............. 19

Figure 12. M marketing practices used by firms surveyed ................................................ .............. 19

Figure 13. Industry firms directly affected by named hurricanes in 2004 and 2005....................... 20

Table 10. Estimated total losses due to hurricanes in 2004 and 2005. ......................................... 20

2









List of Tables and Figures (continued)

Figure 14. Distribution of product losses due to hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 ............................ 21

Figure 15. Distribution of structural damages due to hurricanes in 2004 and 2005........................ 21

Figure 16. Distribution of cleanup costs due to hurricanes in 2004 and 2005.............................. 21

Figure 17. Distribution of length of business interruption due to hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 ....... 22

Figure 18. Issues rated as "very important" by survey respondents............................................. 22

Table 11. Nursery financial borrowing characteristics and credit needs...................................... 24

Table 12. Summary of economic impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida, 2005
..................................................................................................................................................... 2 5

Figure 19. Trend in value added impacts of the Florida environmental horticulture industry: 1997 to
2 0 0 5 ...................................................................................................... .. .............. 2 6

Table 13. Economic impacts of the Florida environmental horticulture industry in 1997, 2000 and
2 0 0 5 ...................................................................................................... .. .............. 2 6

Figure 20. Employment impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in the top 20 Florida
cou nties, 2 0 0 5 ......................................................................................................... .......... 2 7

Table 14. Sales and output impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida counties,
2 0 0 5 ...................................................................................................... .. .............. 2 8

Table 15. Employment and value added impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida
c o u n tie s . .............................................................................. .............................................. 3 0

Figure 21 M ap of economy ic regions of Florida ..................................... ...................... .............. 31

Figure 22. Employment impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida regions, 2005.
..................................................................................................................................................... 3 2

Table 16. Regional economic impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida, 2005. 32

Table 17. Estimated purchases of supplies by the nursery and greenhouse industry in Florida, 2005
..................................................................................................................................................... 3 2









Executive Summary


The economic impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida in 2005 were evaluated
and compared with results from previous studies done for 1997 and 2000. Telephone and internet surveys
were conducted with over 800 industry firms, including wholesale nurseries, landscape services and
horticultural retailers.
Based on expanded survey results and other secondary data, total industry sales in 2005 were
estimated at $15.24 billion (Bn). Total industry output amounted to $10.39 Bn, with $3.01 Bn for wholesale
nurseries, $5.25 Bn for landscape services, and $2.13 Bn for horticultural retailers, which reflects the average
gross margin on retail sales. Direct employment in the industry was 190,000 fulltime jobs, plus nearly
104,000 temporary, part-time or seasonal jobs.
Economic impacts were estimated with multipliers from a regional input-output model for Florida
developed using the Implan software. Multiplier effects capture activity in other sectors of the Florida
economy in the industry supply chain (indirect effects) and spending by employee households (induced
impacts). Total employment impacts were 319,000 fulltime and part-time/seasonal jobs, including 24,000
jobs created in other sectors of the Florida economy. Total value added impacts of $8.65 Bn included $5.19
Bn in labor income for employee wages, salaries, and business owner (proprietor) income. Fiscal impacts
included $549 million in indirect business taxes paid to local, state, and federal governments. Since the
previous study for the year 2000, total employment impacts increased by 131,000 jobs, or an average annual
compound rate of 11.1 percent, while output impacts increased by $2.4 Bn, or 4.2 percent annually.
Estimates of industry sales, employment and economic impacts were developed separately for all 67
Florida counties and nine regions anchored by the major metropolitan areas, based on their share of total
statewide direct employment. Total employment impacts were highest in the counties of Miami-Dade (40,837
jobs), Palm Beach (23,776), Orange (21,733), Hillsborough (20,410), Broward (18,157), Duval (11,768),
Volusia (10,454), Pinellas (10,208), Lee (10,162), Lake (9,814), Polk (9,532), Collier (9,030), and Seminole
(9,031). Regional employment impacts were highest in the Miami-Ft Lauderdale region (95,202 jobs),
followed by Orlando (86,157), Tampa-St. Petersburg (37,711), Sarasota-Bradenton (35,541), Jacksonville
(22,580), Tallahassee (13,515), Gainesville (12,315), Pensacola (11,839), and Panama City (3,713).
Nursery growers reported managing a total area of 82,440 acres in container, field and greenhouse
production systems. About $1.27 Bn or 42 percent of nursery sales were to markets outside the state,
including other southeast states (14%), the northeast (12%), midwest (8%), west (6%), Canada (1%) and other
foreign countries (1%). The most important plant products were shrubs, representing $578 Mn or 19 percent
of sales, followed by tropical foliage ($437 Mn, 17%), deciduous trees ($389 Mn, 15%), turfgrass ($307 Mn,
10%), liners ($297 Mn, 10%), potted flowering plants ($281 Mn, 9%) and palms ($220 Mn, 7%). Deciduous,
evergreen and flowering trees together represented $670 Mn or 22 percent of nursery sales. Florida native
plants represented about 11 percent of nursery sales. In the landscape services sector, 47 percent of sales were
for landscape installation, 30 percent for landscape maintenance, 10 percent for design (architecture), and 14
percent for other services. In the horticultural retailing sector, 40 percent of sales were for live plants, 31
percent for horticultural supplies, 11 percent for hard goods, and 19 percent for miscellaneous other goods.
Finally, the study evaluated the impacts on the horticulture industry from eight named hurricanes that
struck Florida during 2004 and 2005. Some 79 percent of surveyed firms were adversely impacted by at least
one hurricane. Total damages and losses due to hurricanes were estimated at $2.12 billion, including product
(crop) losses of $1.05 Bn, structural damages of $465 Mn and cleanup costs of $605 Mn. Product losses of at
least $100,000 were sustained by 22 percent of firms, while structural damages and cleanup costs of this level
were suffered by 12 percent and 8 percent of firms, respectively. Nearly half (48%) of firms had their
business interrupted for 3 weeks or more.

Keywords: Florida, environmental horticulture, economic impact, multipliers, output, employment, value
added, Implan, economic region, wholesale plant nurseries, landscape services, horticultural retailers,
marketing, hurricanes.









Acknowledgments


This research project was sponsored by the Florida Nursery, Growers and Landscape Association (FNGLA),
Orlando, Florida, under the leadership of Ben Bolusky, Executive Vice President, and with the support of
FNGLA member chapters: Action Chapter, Central East Coast Chapter, Coastal Springs Chapter,
Frontrunners Chapter, Highlands Heartland Chapter, Lake Region Chapter, Miami-Dade Chapter, Royal Palm
Chapter, Treasure Coast Chapter. Financial support was also provided by Tampa Bay Wholesale Growers,
AgFirst/Farm Credit Bank and Farm Credit Associations of Florida. Development of internet surveys was
assisted by Mohammad Rahmani (UF/IFAS). The telephone surveys were supervised by Chris McCarty and
Scott Richards of the University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research. Critical reviews of
this report were provided by David Mulkey and Tom Stevens (UF/IFAS). Finally, the estimates of industry
values developed in this report were made possible by the hundreds of professional managers in the Florida
Green industry who responded to the internet and telephone surveys.








Introduction: The Florida Environmental Horticulture Industry


The environmental horticulture or "Green" industry encompasses a wide range of businesses,
including wholesale nursery and greenhouse producers, lawn and garden supplies and equipment
manufacturing and wholesale trade, landscape design, installation and maintenance services, lawn and garden
stores, and other retail establishments selling plants and related lawn and garden goods. In terms of overall
industry value, Florida is a leading state, ranked second only to California in the U.S. According to a recent
study' for 2002, Florida's Green industry had total employment impacts of 147,795 jobs, output impacts of
$10.0 billion (Bn) and value added impacts of $7.1 Bn. These results represented significant increases in
Florida since previous studies done for 1997 and 20002.
Nursery plants are one of the largest agricultural commodity groups in Florida, along with fruits,
vegetables and forest products3. According to the Census of Agriculture for 2002, the state of Florida had
over 4,500 commercial nursery and greenhouse farms, with production area of 119,000 acres in the open, and
361 million square feet under glass or other protective cover, total sales of $1.82 Bn, and capital assets in
land, buildings and equipment averaging $610,000 per farm4. According to official USDA time series
statistics5, Florida nursery and greenhouse sales over the past decade have grown by 25 percent in inflation-
adjusted terms, representing a compound annual growth rate of 2.5 percent (Figure 1).
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the economic impacts of the environmental horticulture
industry in Florida for 2005, using methods similar to those employed in previous studies in order to facilitate
comparisons of growth over time.

Figure 1. Value of Florida nursery and greenhouse crops, 1995-2004.
1.7

1.6-
1.56-------------------------- ------------------
S 1.5

S1.4
S1.3 -

c
O
1.2

1.1

1.0
95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04p



Hall, Charles R., Alan W. Hodges, and John J Haydu. Economic Impacts of the Green Industry in the
United States. Hort Technology, vol 16(2), pp 345-353, Apr.-Jun 2006. Report and executive summary
available at http://economicimpact.ifas.ufl.edu.
2 Hodges, Alan W. and John J. Haydu. Economic Impacts of the Florida Environmental Horticulture Industry,
2000. University of Florida/IFAS, Food & Resource Economics Department, Economic Information
Report EI02-3, Apr. 2002. Available at http://economicimpact.ifas.ufl.edu.
3 Hodges, Alan W. and W. David Mulkey. Economic Impacts of Agriculture and Natural Resource Industries
in Florida 2003. Extension document FE627, University of Florida/IFAS, Gainesville, Feb. 2006.
Available at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe627.
4 U.S. Department of Agriculture-National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA-NASS). Census of
Agriculture, 2002. Florida State and County Data, vol. 1, Geographic Area Series, Part 9, AC-02-A-9.
Washington, D.C., June 2004.
5 Jerardo, A. Floriculture and Nursery Crops Situation and Outlook. FLO-2005, USDA-ERS, Washington,
DC, June 2005.







Methods


Survey Design and Implementation

Estimation of the economic value of Florida's environmental horticultural industry was based upon
information obtained from telephone and internet surveys of nursery producers, landscape service firms or
horticultural retailers conducted in late 2005 and early 2006. Information was collected on annual sales,
employment, types of goods or services offered, state and regional trade, types of customers or market outlets,
marketing practices used, and threats to the industry. All survey information concerned business results for
2005. Information on annual sales was collected in terms of ranges of values, to avoid disclosure of sensitive
data. As a special issue for this survey, information was gathered on the effects of hurricanes in 2004-05, in
terms of crop losses, building and equipment damages, repair/cleanup costs, and length of business
interruption. In addition, information was collected on production area, and credit/finance needs for the
nursery sector. Several open-ended questions were presented to gather statements by respondents in their own
words regarding the impacts of their business and issues in the industry.
An internet survey of the members of the Florida Nursery, Growers and Landscape Association
(FNGLA) was conducted from Dec. 1, 2005 to Jan. 23, 2006. Each FNGLA member firm was assigned to the
appropriate survey group based on their primary activity. FNGLA members were contacted by email, and
provided with an electronic link to the online survey. A reminder message was sent to firms that had not
responded to the survey after the first two weeks. Respondents were able to return to the survey to finish or
modify answers until the survey was closed. The internet survey was conducted using an online service that
automatically administers the survey, tracks respondents and records responses (www.SurveyMonkey.com).
A separate telephone survey of the general business population was conducted during March and
April, 2006. The telephone interviews were done under subcontract by the University of Florida, Bureau of
Economic and Business Research, using a computer-assisted system to dial telephone numbers, generate
questions in the proper sequence, and record respondents' answers, as well as information on interview
time/date and the disposition of all calls. Firms contacted for this survey were drawn in random order from
the population lists. A copy of the telephone survey questionnaire is provided in the Appendix. All firms
participating in the survey were qualified as having produced or sold ornamental plants, landscape services or
horticultural goods in 2005, and the individual respondent was qualified as being knowledgeable about the
general business practices and management of the company. In some cases, when a qualified respondent was
not available, the interviewers arranged to call back at another time. FNGLA member firms that had
previously responded to the internet survey were excluded from the telephone survey to avoid duplication.
Listings of firms for the telephone survey were obtained from a variety of sources. For nurseries and
horticultural retailers, a list of firms was obtained from the Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of
Plant Industry. All firms in Florida that produce or sell plant products are legally required to register with this
agency. The eligible population of nursery firms was considered to be those firms which were indicated as
"wholesale" or "wholesale and retail" operations, and had plant inventory of at least 1,000 units. A listing of
Florida landscape services businesses was obtained from a Dun and Bradstreet database, in which firms were
selected based on their Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes (0781, 0782, 0783). The list of firms for
both surveys included 4,477 nurseries, 7,359 retailers (stock dealers) and 8,440 landscape services firms. For
the internet survey, a total of 907 FNGLA member firms were targeted.
A total of 838 firms responded to the surveys, including 434 nurseries, 191 landscape service firms,
and 213 horticultural retailers (Table 1). Responses to the internet survey were received from 250 firms, while
588 firms responded to the telephone surveys. A total of 6,917 telephone calls were attempted for the survey,
of which 8.5 percent were completed or partially completed, 11.8 percent were refused, 22.5 percent had no
answer, busy signal, answering machine, technical problems, or a qualified respondent was not available
(Table 2). Some 57.2 percent of firms called were disqualified for the survey due to non-working numbers,
fax lines, number changed, no eligible respondent, etc.









Table 1. Number of survey respondents by industry sector and Florida county.


County
Alachua
Bay
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
De Soto
Dixie
Duval
Escambia
Flagler
Gadsden
Glades
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake
Lee
Leon
Levy
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Miami-Dade
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Sumter
Suwannee
Volusia
Walton
Out of state or county
not available
Grand Total


Nursery
13
1
3
21
1
3
4
4
7
1
3

7
1

1
1
1
4
1
4
11
23
3

5
1
25
3
3
3
1
8
14
5
77
4

1
4
51
1
39
5
4
14
3
2
5
7
4
3
5
1
10


8

434


Landscape
5
2
3
13

1
1
2
2

1

10
4
2



1

1
2
6




3
5
1


2
6

8
6
1
1
1
16
2
25
3
14
6
1

12
7
1
3


7
1
3


Retail Total
5 23
1 4
3 9
12 46
1
4
4 9
2 8
1 10
1
4
2 2
8 25
6 11
2 4
1 2
1
1
5
2 3
3 8
1 14
14 43
1 4
1 1
2 7
1
12 40
7 15
4 8
1 4
1
2 12
7 27
1 6
13 98
10
3 4
7 9
5
7 74
1 4
14 78
7 15
15 33
4 24
1 5
3 5
7 24
14 28
2 7
2 8
5
1
6 23
1
3 14


191 213 838







Table 2. Disposition of telephone survey calls.
Total All Wholesale
Call Discposition Groups Nurseries Landscapers Retailers
Groups Nurseries
Number of calls
Complete 587 257 126 204
Partial Complete 3 3
Strong Refusal 77 23 25 29
Soft Refusal 737 186 190 361
Answer Machine, Message 373 112 194 67
Language Unable 72 52 5 15
Busy 128 35 40 53
No Answer 600 175 232 193
Technical Phone Problems 4 1 1 2
Cell Phone 16 4 4 8
Callback, Respondent Not Selected 272 61 87 124
Callback, Respondent Selected 91 15 13 63
Total Qualified 2,960 921 917 1,122
Respondent Never Available* 29 6 17 6
Phys/Mentally Unable* 3 2 1
Misc Unable* 9 3 4 2
Non-working Number* 845 166 405 274
Disconnected Number* 687 111 425 151
Number Changed* 33 8 16 9
Business/Government/Other Org* 10 3 3 4
No Eligible Respondent* 1,124 234 452 438
Answer Machine, No Message* 1,061 289 504 268
Fax/Data Line* 154 28 97 29
Institution* 2 1 1
Total Disqualified 3,957 851 1,924 1,182
Total Attempted 6,917 1,772 2,841 2,304
Percent Qualified 42.8% 52.0% 32.3% 48.7%
Disqualifying reason


Survey Data and Economic Impact Analysis

Analysis of the survey data was carried out with spreadsheet software (Microsoft Excel). Descriptive
statistics were computed for each survey variable, including the mean (average), standard error, number of
respondents, and sum of sample values. The value of sales for each firm was estimated at the midpoint value
of the range selected (Table 10), unless a specific value was reported. Sales of specific products or services by
industry firms, and sales by market segment or region, were estimated as a percentage of total sales for each
industry sector. The total value of sales and employment in each industry sector were estimated based on the
following formula: 0, = M, / S P, Q1, where 0, is estimated sales or employment in sector i (nursery,
landscape, or retail), M, is the survey sample sales or employment reported, S, is the number of firms that
reported sales or employment, P, is the population of firms, and Q, is the percentage of firms qualified for the
telephone survey according to the disposition of calls (Table 2). Survey sample numbers and expansion
factors for each industry sector are shown in Table 3. Expansion factors for the nursery sector were computed
separately by firm size class, based upon the Florida Division of Plant Industry inventory numbers: small
(1,000 to 5,000 plant units), medium (5,001 to 50,000 units), large (50,001 to 500,000 units), and very large
(over 500,000 units). Sales expansion factors were 5.5 for nurseries, 18.6 for landscape firms, and 30.6 for
retail firms, while employment expansion factors were 4.6, 14.9 and 18.6, respectively.








Table 3. Survey sample size and expansion factors.


Population
Industry of Firms in
Sector Florida
Florida


Nurseries
Landscape
Retailers
Total


Number Firms
Surveyed
Inter- Tele-
net phone


4,477
8,467
7,359
20,303


Percent of
Firms
Qualified
total telephonee
survey)
434 52.0%
191 32.3%
213 48.7%
838 42.8%


Economic impacts were estimated using a regional input-out model and social accounting matrix
developed using the IMPLANPro software and the associated databases for Florida (2003) licensed from
MIG, Inc. The IMPLAN databases consist of a set of socioeconomic accounts which describe the structure of
the US economy in terms of transactions between households, governments, and 509 industry sectors
classified on the basis of the primary commodity or service produced (NAICS)6. The databases also describe
local or regional economies in terms of industry output, value added, employment, imports and exports. A
variety of statistical sources are used to construct these databases, including the annual and 5-year economic
censuses conducted by the US Commerce Department and US Bureau of Labor Statistics. IMPLANuses a
matrix inversion procedure to develop economic multipliers which reflect the direct, indirect and induced
impacts of specified changes in output or employment for any given industrial sector. Indirect impacts result
from changes in economic activity of other industrial sectors which supply goods or services to the sector
being evaluated. Induced impacts are the result of personal consumption expenditures by industry employees.
The total economic impact is the sum of direct, indirect and induced impacts.
An IMPLAN model for Florida was constructed with all social accounts included, and all parameters
set at default values. Economic multipliers for output (revenue), employment, value added, labor income, and
indirect business taxes were compiled for each sector of the horticulture industry in Florida (Table 4).
Table 4. Economic multipliers for the environmental horticultural industry sectors in Florida.


Multiplier/Effect


Output (sales revenue or
gross margin on sales)

Employment (jobs per
million dollars output)

Value Added (personal
and business net income)

Labor Income (employee
salaries and wages,
business owner profits)

Indirect Business Taxes


Greenhouse
and nursery
production


Direct
Indirect
Induced
Direct
Indirect
Induced
Direct
Indirect
Induced
Direct
Indirect
Induced
Direct
Indirect
Induced


1.000
0.027
1.358
11.9
0.4
14.6
0.959
0.018
0.842
0.377
0.011
0.551
0.014
0.001
0.065


Services to
buildings and
dwellings
(Landscape)

1.000
0.413
1.193
19.2
4.6
13.0
0.515
0.260
0.750
0.410
0.162
0.481
0.018
0.023
0.060


Building
material and
garden
supply stores
(Retailers)
1.000
0.212
1.405
14.9
1.9
15.7
0.778
0.127
0.898
0.463
0.078
0.593
0.145
0.009
0.067


Source: Implan state data for Florida, 2003 (MIG, Inc., Stillwater, MN, Jan. 2006).


6 Implan Professional Social Accounting and Impact Analysis Software, User's Guide, Analysis Guide and
Data Guide, 2nd ed., 1997, MIG, Inc., Stillwater, MN, 378 p. (http://www.implan.com).


Firms
Reporting
Sales

78.6%
77.0%
54.9%
72.2%


Sales
Expan-
sion
Factor
5.5
18.6
30.6


Firms
Reporting
Employ-
ment
94.7%
96.3%
90.6%
94.0%


Employ-
ment
Expan-
sion
Factor
4.6
14.9
18.6








The multipliers capture overall effects of economic activity in the horticulture industry, including
activity in the supply chain by vendors selling inputs to the industry (indirect effects), and the spending by
industry employees (induced effects). The magnitude of the multipliers represents the strength of linkages in
the regional economy to other sectors and institutions, and the share of total inputs provided to industry firms
by other businesses within the region. Economic impacts of each sector of the horticultural industry were
calculated using the direct effects multiplier on local or in-state sales, and the indirect and induced effects
multipliers on non-local or out-of-state sales according to the following formula:
Il= S,x G,x [ A1 + E x ( BIj + C1)];
where Il is total impact for measures (j) of output, employment, value added, labor income, or
indirect business taxes, in each sector (i),
S, is industry sales in sector i,
E1 is the proportion of industry sales exported or shipped outside Florida by sector i,
Al is the direct effects multiplier for measure j in sector i,
Blj is the indirect effects multiplier for measure j in sector i,
Cli is the induced effects multiplier for measure j in sector i,
G, is the gross margin on sales for retailers (retail sector only).

Non-local (export) sales were treated differently because they bring "new" money into the local economy to
expand economic activity7. Total employment impacts were estimated from survey data for the direct effects,
and from multipliers for the indirect and induced effects. Output of the retail sector was taken as the gross
margin on sales estimated using the Annual Benchmark Report for Retail Trade (US Commerce Dept., 2005).
County and regional economic impacts were estimated from totals for the state of Florida, based on
the share of statewide direct employment reported to the Florida Department of Labor for the first three
quarters of 2005 (Table 5). The sector "Services to buildings" included landscaping services, while the sectors
"Lawn and garden stores, "building material and supplies stores", and "florists" represented horticultural
retailers. In some cases where employment was not reported for small counties due to nondisclosure rules,
these amounts were estimated at the statewide average employment per firm.

Table 5. Reported employment and wages in environmental horticulture, by Florida County, Jan-Sep., 2005.
Employment (jobs)
Number Green- Services to Lawn Building Total
County Firms house and buildings and material All Wages Paid
Reporting nurs (incl. garden and Florists Selected ($1000)
Reporting nursery landscape supplies Sectors
production services) stores stores
services) stores
Alachua 271 216 1,301 192 773 93 2,575 44,681
Baker 29 na 45 16 28 na 89 920
Bay 217 na 1,138 50 837 57 2,082 34,858
Bradford 25 36 na 50 na 86 1,738
Brevard 689 76 2,671 190 2,633 157 5,727 104,082
Broward 2,358 467 12,172 326 6,861 464 20,291 357,142
Calhoun 11 na 12 na 39 51 930
Charlotte 224 52 657 61 765 56 1,592 29,038
Citrus 172 29 618 27 578 31 1,282 21,388
Clay 199 na 664 99 850 43 1,656 26,105
Collier 785 459 3,826 200 2,152 155 6,792 147,052
Columbia 44 na 170 35 228 14 447 7,923
Desoto 38 154 62 42 39 297 6,907
Dixie 8 na na na 46 na 46 311
Duval 1,161 247 7,785 219 4,161 269 12,682 231,921
Escambia 319 na 1,510 193 1,543 108 3,354 61,355
Flagler 150 192 660 38 423 30 1,343 24,807
Franklin 16 9 79 8 96 1,756
Gadsden 44 1,304 276 na 57 na 1,637 33,579
Gilchrist 18 na 28 na 41 70 1,096


7 Mulkey, W.David and AlanW. Hodges. Using Implan to Assess Local Economic Impacts. UF/IFAS
Extension Fact Sheet, 10 pages, 2000. Available at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE168.








Employment (jobs)
Number Green- Services to Lawn Building Total
County Firms house and buildings and material All Wages Paid
Reporting nurs (incl. garden and Florists Selected ($1000)
Reporting nursery landscape supplies Sectors
production services) stores
services) stores
Glades 9 na 22 na na 22 373
Gulf 14 29 34 na 64 1,483
Hamilton 9 na na na na na 0 0
Hardee 37 213 62 37 na na 313 5,881
Hendry 44 na 147 19 137 14 317 4,421
Hernando 206 68 951 46 551 48 1,664 28,334
Highlands 152 326 390 90 362 75 1,243 20,818
Hillsborough 1,383 1,706 10,069 358 5,061 248 17,443 326,358
Holmes 13 39 na 34 na 73 800
Indian River 274 na 1,137 62 801 74 2,074 42,965
Jackson 46 47 74 22 277 9 428 7,190
Jefferson 24 146 26 37 26 na 234 3,851
Lafayette 7 na na 64 na 64 1,218
Lake 428 1,194 1,827 218 2,077 116 5,433 106,890
Lee 1,078 963 4,547 181 3,959 155 9,805 212,704
Leon 306 na 2,142 226 1,119 76 3,562 56,061
Levy 39 78 58 18 68 7 228 3,834
Liberty 3 na na na 0 0
Madison 18 61 12 24 66 na 163 2,308
Manatee 488 577 2,176 77 1,206 83 4,118 76,332
Marion 382 179 1,248 171 1,271 78 2,947 50,930
Martin 333 445 1,642 30 1,108 62 3,286 64,361
Miami-Dade 2,325 5,104 12,647 765 7,129 848 26,493 482,658
Monroe 166 na 436 7 446 24 913 18,092
Nassau 89 na 449 14 297 14 774 12,296
Okaloosa 275 na 1,252 67 1,090 133 2,542 40,874
Okeechobee 46 60 235 19 51 na 364 7,560
Orange 1,469 2,899 12,030 254 4,610 308 20,101 387,907
Osceola 306 224 1,706 69 840 38 2,876 49,388
Palm Beach 2,262 1,684 12,993 411 5,191 337 20,616 378,839
Pasco 502 178 2,412 112 1,406 84 4,191 77,614
Pinellas 1,264 55 6,061 222 3,764 253 10,355 184,506
Polk 619 510 2,826 241 2,659 147 6,383 117,836
Putnam 92 268 210 18 363 39 899 13,708
St Johns 213 138 864 165 583 29 1,779 35,381
St Lucie 340 166 1,438 137 1,001 53 2,795 58,253
Santa Rosa 166 72 712 33 746 47 1,610 25,764
Sarasota 853 111 3,916 181 1,882 145 6,236 120,652
Seminole 655 266 3,958 214 3,006 103 7,546 153,403
Sumter 54 218 116 19 149 24 527 9,198
Suwannee 50 40 123 51 136 13 363 5,912
Taylor 23 na 60 na 64 14 138 1,762
Union 10 na 36 na 12 48 375
Volusia 801 2,061 2,441 151 2,349 149 7,151 126,733
Wakulla 21 na 90 na 68 158 2,074
Walton 91 na 458 43 182 33 715 13,288
Washington 16 13 32 na na na 45 658
Total 24,775 23,260 127,744 6,562 78,363 5,367 241,295 4,479,435
Source: Florida Agency for Workforce Innovation, Labor Market Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and
Wages Program (QCEW), Tallahassee, FL.









Survey Results


Longevity of Industry Firms

Most firms surveyed were generally mature businesses, with about 40 to 45 percent of all firms
having been in business for 20 years or more, and another 15 to 30 percent that had 11 to 19 years business
experience (Figure 2). About 20 percent of nursery and retail firms had been in business for one to five years.

Figure 2. Years in business reported by survey respondents.
Percent of Respondents
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%

Less than 1


1-5
1 Nursery
6 Landscape
6-10 E Retail


11 19


20 or more




Production Area Managed

A majority of growers with greenhouses or shadehouse had small production areas (less than 10,000
sq.ft.), while a few had very large areas over 1 million square feet (Figure 3). For container or field production
areas, 3 and 4 percent of respondents reported having more than 100 acres, while 36 percent and 31 percent of
respondents reported having less than 5 acres of production area, respectively (Figure 4). Total production
area reported by survey respondents was 82,440 acres, including 57,843 acres for container production,
23,608 acres for field production, and 989 acres (43.1 million square feet) for greenhouses or shadehouses
(Table 6).

Figure 3. Greenhouse or shadehouse area reported bv survey respondents.


Percent of Respondents
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%

Less than 10,000 54.8

10,000 to 49,000 I31.6%

50,000 to 99,000 14.5%

100,000 to 199,000 14.9%

200,000 to 499,000 12.3%

500,000 to 999,000 8%

1,000,000 or more 1.8%

Refused or Don't know 13.2%







Figure 4. Container and field nursery area reported by survey respondents.


Percent of Respondents
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40%

None

Less than 5

5-9
10-19
Container
20 49
U Field
50 99

100 or more

Refused/Not Available


Table 6. Nursery production area reported.
Type Growing Area Acres
Container 57,843
Field 23,608
Greenhouse/Shadehouse 989
Total 82,440


Employment

Direct employment in 2005 reported by surveyed firms totaled 22,494 persons, including 7,811
employees in nurseries, 5,541 in landscape services, and 9,142 by horticultural retailers, with 15,900 (65%) as
full time employees, and 6,594 (35%) as part-time, temporary or seasonal employees (Table 7). Part-time
employment was reported by 81 percent of nurseries, 78 percent of landscape firms and 88 percent of
retailers. The sample employment figures reported by survey respondents were used to estimate total
employment in the industry according to the expansion factors discussed under methods. Total industry
employment was estimated at 294,179 jobs, including 190,384 fulltime and 103,794 part-time, with 33,435
for nurseries, 87,914 for landscape services and 171,830 for retailers. These employment figures are
significantly higher than the number of employees reported to the Florida Department of Labor for purposes
of unemployment compensation because self-employed persons are not required to report employment and
payroll to the government.


Table 7. Employment in the Florida environmental horticulture industry, 2005
Employment Reported by Survey Total Industry Employment
Industry Sector Respondents (Jobs) (Jobs)*
Fulltime Part-time Total Fulltime Part-time Total
Nursery production 6,230 1,581 7,811 25,659 8,776 33,435
Landscape services 4,004 1,537 5,541 59,513 28,402 87,914
Horticultural retailing 5,666 3,476 9,142 105,212 66,617 171,830
Total 15,900 6,594 22,494 190,384 103,795 294,179
* Estimated based on survey expansion factors (see methods).







Sales of Environmental Horticultural Products and Services


Information on annual sales was reported by 79 percent of nurseries, 77 percent of landscape firms,
and 55 percent of retailers surveyed. Respondents who reported annual sales of less than $500,000
represented 42 percent of nurseries, 38 percent of landscape firms, and 32 percent of retailers surveyed, while
those with annual sales exceeding $10 million were 1.6, 2.5 and 3.3 percent, respectively (Figure 5)
Total annual sales for each industry sector were estimated based on this number of respondents
reporting annual sales in each class, and assuming sales equal to the midpoint value of the range, together
with expansion factors, as discussed under methods. Sales reported by survey respondents were $1.05 billion
(Bn). Total industry sales were estimated at $15.24 Bn, including $3.01 Bn by nurseries, $5.25 by landscape
service firms, and $6.97 Bn by horticultural retailers (Table 8). In the nursery sector, secondary data on sales
of turfgrass and cut foliage (ferns) were included in these estimated sales.
Figure 5. Distribution of respondents by annual sales class
Percent of Respondents
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

less than $100 thousand
$100 to $249 thousand
$250 to $499 thousand
$500 to $999 thousand
SNursery
$1 to $2.4 million Landscape
Landscape
$2.5 to $4.9 million R i
E Retail
$5 to $9.9 million
$10 to $14.9 million
$15 to $24.9 million
$25 million or more
Refusedor Don't know


Table 8. Sales reported by survey respondents and estimated total industry sales, 2005.
Total Sales Tota
Tota Industry
Industry Sector Reported Sales
(Mif \ Sales
(Mn $) (Mn $)*
Nursery production 543.3 3,007.2
Landscape services 282.7 5,254.8
Horticultural retailing 227.6 6,970.6
Total 1,053.5 15,236.5
Estimated based on survey sample expansion factors (see methods).

Sales of industry firms were compiled by market region, including international, national, state, and
local. The local are was defined as the city or county in which the business was located, or within a 50 mile
radius. For nurseries, 32 percent of total sales were to local markets, 26 percent were to other areas within
Florida, 14 percent were to other southeast U.S. states, 12 percent to northeast states, 8 percent to the
midwest, 6 percent to western states, and 1 percent each to Canada and to other foreign countries (Figure 6).
Thus, 42 percent of nursery sales were to markets outside the state and 58 percent were within Florida. For
foliage growers specifically, 13 percent of total sales were to local markets, 12 percent were to other areas
within Florida, 13 percent were to other southeast U.S. states, 30 percent to northeast states, 18 percent to the
midwest, 9 percent to western states, 4 percent to Canada, and 1 percent to other foreign countries. For
retailers and landscapers, most sales were to local or state markets, 99 percent and 88 percent, respectively.








Figure 6. Distribution of nursery sales by market region.
Percent of Sales Reported
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%

Local area 320
Florida 26%|
Southeast states 14%
Northeast states 12%
Midwest states 8%
Western states 6%
Canada 1%
Other foreign countries 1%


Sales of specific types of horticultural products and services are detailed in Figure 7 and Table 9. For
nursery producers, the largest-selling product types were shrubs ($578 Mn), representing 19 percent of total
grower sales, followed by tropical foliage ($437 Mn, 15%), deciduous trees ($389 Mn, 13%), turfgrass ($307
Mn, 10%), liners ($297 Mn, 10%), and potted flowering plants ($281 Mn, 9%). Total sales of trees, including
deciduous, evergreen and flowering trees amounted to $670 Mn or 22 percent of grower sales. Palms were a
major Florida specialty product, valued at $220 Mn, representing 7 percent of grower sales. Sales of
miscellaneous other unspecified plant types amounted to 2 percent. Sales of turfgrass sod valued at $307 Mn
and sales of cut flowers/foliage (ferns) valued at $96 Mn, were taken from separate sources8 because these
were not reported in this survey. Sales of plants native to the State of Florida were valued at $316 Mn or 11
percent of total grower sales.
Figure 7. Plant product sales by growers.
million dollars
0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Shrubs ..... 578
Tropical Foliage 437
Deciduous Trees 389
Turfgrass 307
Line rs 1297
Potted Flowering Plants 2$1
Palms 220
Evergreen trees 147
Flowering trees 133
Cut Foliage or Flowers 96
Ground Covers 66
Other Plants 54


8 Haydu, J.J., L.N. Satterthwaite and J.L Cisar. An economic and agronomic profile of Florida's sod industry in 2003.
Univ. Florida/IFAS Extension document, Apr. 2005, available at http://hortbusiness.ifas.ufl.edu.

Foliage, Floriculture and Cut Greens. Florida Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA, Orlando, May 2005.







For the landscape services sector, landscape installation represented sales of $2.45 Bn, or 47 percent
of total industry sales, while landscape maintenance represents $1.58 Bn or 30 percent, landscape design was
10 percent and miscellaneous other landscape services were 14 percent.
Sales by horticultural retailers included plants valued at $2.75 Bn or 40 percent of total sales, lawn
and garden supplies such as fertilizers and chemicals valued at $2.14 Bn (31%), horticultural hard goods such
as tools and equipment values at $762 Mn (11%), and miscellaneous other horticultural goods valued at $1.31
Bn (19%).

Table 9. Sales of specific types of environmental horticultural products and services
Value Expanded Percent
Sector and Product/Service Reported Value
of Total
(Mn $) (Mn. $)
Nurseries
Shrubs 115.7 578.7 19.2%
Tropical foliage 87.5 437.5 14.6%
Deciduous trees 77.7 388.9 12.9%
Turfgrass* na 307.0 10.2%
Liners 59.4 297.0 9.9%
Potted flowering plants 56.1 280.9 9.3%
Palms 44.0 219.9 7.3%
Evergreen trees 29.4 147.2 4.9%
Flowering trees 26.6 133.3 4.4%
Cut flowers/foliage (ferns)* na 96.2 3.2%
Ground covers 13.2 66.2 2.2%
Other plants 10.8 54.2 1.8%
Total 521.9 3,007.2 100%
Native plants 55.0 316.9 10.5%
Landscape Services
Landscape installation 123.5 2,452.3 46.6%
Landscape maintenance 79.7 1,582.9 30.1%
Landscape design 25.6 509.2 9.7%
Other landscape service 36.0 714.0 13.6%
Total 264.8 5,258.5 100%
Retailers
Live plants 52.9 2,752.5 39.5%
Lawn and garden supplies 41.2 2,144.2 30.8%
Horticultural hard goods 14.6 761.8 10.9%
Other retail goods 25.2 1,312.3 18.8%
Total 134.0 6,970.9 100%
Values for turfgrass and cut flower/foliage were taken from secondary sources.


Market Channels and Practices for Horticultural Products

Sales of Florida horticultural products and services to different types of customers are summarized in
Figures 8 through 10. For nurseries, the most important customers were other growers, representing 22
percent of total sales, re-wholesalers or brokers (21%), and landscape contractors (19%) (Figure 8). Also
important were mass merchandise stores (9%), independent retail garden centers (7%), and interiorscapers
(6%). For landscape firms, the most important customer segments were governments (29%), homeowners
(24%), builders and developers (23%), commercial establishments (12%) and apartments and condominiums
(9%) (Figure 9). For horticultural retailers the dominant market was homeowners, representing 63 percent of
total sales, followed by apartments and condominiums (15%), and commercial establishments (9%) (Figure
10).








Figure 8. Distribution of nursery product sales by type of customer.


0% 5%
0


Percent of Sales Reported
10% 15%
1 1


Other Growers
Re wholesalers
Landscape Contractors
Mass merchandise stores
Independent Retailers
Interiors capers
Landscape Maintenance
Supermarkets
Home Improvement Stores
Homeowners
Builders & Developers
Other Type(s) Customer


21%


19%


9%o
7%
6%
-4%

/2%
/2%

N1%


Figure 9. Distribution of landscape service sales by type of customer.


0% 5%


Percent of Sales Reported
10% 15% 20% 25%


Governments

Homeowners

Builders & Developers

Commercial Establishments

Apartments & condominiums

Other Landscapers

Other Type(s) Customer


29%

24%

23%

12%

9%

3.

11%


Figure 10. Distribution of retail horticultural product sales by type of customer.
Percent of Sales Reported
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%


Homeowners

Apartments & condominiums

Commercial Establishments

Lands capers

Governments

Other Retailers

Other Type(s) Customer


-15%



-5%

M4%

j2%

11%


20%
1


30% 35%


22%


ho~







When nursery respondents were asked to indicate which type of market outlets are expanding, nearly
71 percent answered that "other growers" were a growing market, followed by rewholesalers (52%),
landscape contractors (47%), interiorscapers (25%), and landscape contractors at 24 percent (Figure 11). It is
apparent that the marketing of ornamental plants through brokers and other growers is becoming more
developed in the industry, and that demand from landscape professionals is also strong, while demand from
retailers is growing more slowly. For foliage growers specifically, a similar pattern was observed, with a
somewhat higher percentage of respondents indicating that all of the top-ranked markets were expanding.
Figure 11. Markets for nursery products identified as expanding by survey respondents.


Percent of Respondents
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1


90%


Other Growers
Rewholesalers
Landscape Contractors
Interiorscapers
Landscape Maintenance
Independent Re tail
Mass Merchandise Stores
Home Improvement
Supermarkets
Developers
Homeowners
Other Market


I_______________________________


S
a U


a
r
r
II


All Nursery Products
Tropical Foliage


Marketing practices reported by survey respondents are summarized in Figure 12. The most
commonly reported practices for nurseries were personal selling (57%), trade shows (38%), civic events and
charitable contributions (37%), and trade magazines (33%). For landscapers, the most frequently cited
practices were personal selling (49%), civic event and charitable contributions (35%), print media (31%), and
internet websites (26%). Retailers reported generally higher use of most marketing practices, including civic
event and charitable contributions (67%), print media (54%), internet websites (54%), promotions (46%)
personal selling (43%) and direct mail (41%).
Figure 12. Marketing practices used by firms surveyed.
Percent of Respondents


0% 10% 20% 30%
1 1 1


Personal selling
Salesperson
Promotions
Trade shows
Direct mail
Trade magazine
Print media
Radio, Television
Internet website
Charitable contributions
Other practice


40% 50% 60% 70%
1 1 1 1


* Nursery
* Landscape
E Retail







Impacts of Hurricanes on the Environmental Horticulture Industry in 2004 and 2005

The state of Florida was struck by an unprecedented series of eight major hurricanes during the 2004
and 2005 seasons. These storms did tremendous damage to infrastructure, and caused large losses of products
for sale and to business activity throughout the state's economy, particularly the agricultural sector. Nearly 79
percent of survey firms in the environmental horticulture industry indicated that they were impacted by at
least one of these hurricanes, including 83 percent of nurseries, 67 percent of landscape firms, and 82 percent
of horticultural retailers. The largest percentages of all firms were affected by hurricanes Frances (53%),
Jeanne (44%), Charley (43%), and Wilma (42%) (Figure 13).
Figure 13. Industry firms directly affected by named hurricanes in 2004 and 2005.
Percent of Respondents
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Charley (Aug. 2004)
Frances (Sep. 2004)
Ivan (Sep. 2004)
Jeanne (Sep. 2004) Nursery
Dennis (July 2005) Landscape
Katrina (Aug. 2005) [] Retail
Rita (Aug. 2005)
Wilma (Oct. 2005)
At least one hurricane


Survey respondents were asked to report losses of products (crops), structural damages, cleanup costs,
and length of business interruption, either as a specific value or within a range of values offered. Losses of
products for sale valued at $100,000 or more were reported by 22 percent of all firms, while losses of at least
$1 million were reported by 4 percent of firms, including 7 percent of nurseries (Figure 14). Structural
damages of at least $100,000 were sustained by 12 percent of firms (Figure 15). Cleanup costs of at least
$100,000 were reported by 8 percent of firms (Figure 16). Nearly half (49%) of firms had their business
interrupted for 3 weeks or more (Figure 17).
This information reported by respondents was used to estimate total damages for the entire population
of industry firms. Actual losses incurred were assumed to be at the midpoint of the range of values selected.
Estimated total damages due to the hurricanes during 2004 and 2005 amounted to $2.12 Bn including product
losses of $1.05 Bn, structural damages of $465 Mn and cleanup costs of $605 Mn (Table 10). Total losses
were $964 Mn for nurseries, $675 Mn for landscape firms and $482 Mn for retailers.
Table 10. Estimated total losses due to hurricanes in 2004 and 2005.
Type Loss Nursery Landscape Retail All Sectors
Million dollars
Product (crop) Losses 659.5 273.1 117.8 1,050.4
Structural Damage 183.3 61.2 220.6 465.4
Cleanup Costs 121.5 340.5 143.3 605.3
Total 964.3 674.8 481.8 2,120.9








Figure 14. Distribution of product (crop) losses due to hurricanes in 2004 and 2005.
Percent of Respondents
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45%
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1


None

Less than $1 thousand

$1 to $9 thousand

$10 to $99 thousand

$100 to $499 thousand

$500 to $999 thousand

$1 million or more

Refused or Don't know


r




-U


* Nursery
* Landscape
E Retail


Figure 15. Distribution of structural damages due to hurricanes in 2004 and 2005.


Percent of Respondents
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
1 1 1 1 1


None
Less than $1 thousand
$1 to $9 thousand
$10 to $99 thousand
$100 to $499 thousand
$500 to $999 thousand
$1 million or more
Refused or Don't know


60% 70%
1 1


p


* Nursery
* Landscape
E Retail


Figure 16. Distribution of cleanup costs due to hurricanes in 2004 and 2005.


Percent of Respondents
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%
1 1 1 1 1


30% 35% 40%
1 1 1


None
Less than $1 thousand
$1 to $9 thousand
$10 to $99 thousand
$100 to $499 thousand
$500 to $999 thousand
$1 million or more
Refused or Don't know


r
pr


* Nursery
* Landscape
E Retail








Figure 17. Distribution of total length of business interruption due to hurricanes in 2004 and 2005.


0% 5%
1 1


Not at all

A few days

1 to 2 weeks

3 to 4 weeks

2 to 3 months

4 months or more

Refused or Don't know


Percent of Respondents
10% 15% 20% 25%
1 1


30% 35%









* Nursery
* Landscape
E Retail


Issues and Threats to the Environmental Horticulture Industry

Survey respondents were asked to rate possible threats facing the environmental horticulture industry
in Florida in terms of "not important", "somewhat important" or "very important". Threats that were rated as
"very important" by a majority of respondents were "drought, water availability and water use restrictions"
(57%), "increasing costs of production" (61%) and "increasing energy costs" (53%). In addition, "low prices
for products" was cited as an important concern of nurseries and retailers, "lack of professionalism" was cited
by landscape firms (57%), and "market power of retail chains" was cited by retailers (Figure 18).


Figure 18. Issues rated as "very important" by survey respondents.
Percent of Respondents
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
1 1 1 1 1 1 1


Increasing costs of production
Drought, water use restriction
Increasing energy costs
Lack of professionalism
Low prices for products
General economic recession
Labor shortage
Government regulations
Poor worker education or skills
Market power of large retail chains
Restrictions on availability/use of chemicals
Competition by growers in other states
Competition by plant substitutes


* Nursery
* Landscape
E Retail


I


I I I minor


I









Financial Borrowing Characteristics and Needs for Wholesale Nurseries


The financial needs of wholesale nurseries were assessed in this study at the request of the funding
partners, and results are summarized in Table 11. Some 41 percent of respondents indicated that they do
borrow credit. Among the reasons considered by managers for choosing a particular financial lender, the most
often cited reason was "competitive interest rates", cited by 83 percent of respondents, followed by
"convenient/flexible repayment terms" (47%). Nearly two thirds (63%) of respondents indicated that they
were "very satisfied" with their current lender, 23 percent were "somewhat satisfied", and only 4 percent were
"very dissatisfied" or "somewhat dissatisfied".
Respondents were also asked about and their anticipated credit needs over the next year. Nearly half
(42%) of firms expected their credit needs to remain the same as the previous year, while 26 percent expected
an increased need for credit and 30 percent expected a decreased need for credit. Among the firms reporting
credit needs to increase, an increase of 20 percent or was expected by 40 percent of respondents, while a
similar percentage of respondents expected credit needs to decrease by this amount. When asked about their
use of electronic banking, 53 percent of respondents indicated that they do use electronic banking and 42
percent did not. Finally, in regard to the issue of electronic application for a loan, 28 percent said they would
be interested and 68 percent said "no".








Table 11. Financial borrowing characteristics and credit needs of nurseries.
Percent of
Number
Nursery
Respondents Respondents
Respondents
Does Company Borrow Credit?
Yes 185 40.7%
No 221 48.7%
Don't know/Refused 48 10.6%
Factors for Selecting a Lender
Competitive interest rates 154 83.2%
Convenient/flexible repayment 87 47.0%
terms
Knowledge of the industry 63 34.1%
Operates like a cooperative 34 18.4%
Long term or personal 55 29.7%
relationship with representative
Other reason 8 4.3%
Satisfaction with Lender
Very satisfied 117 63.2%
Somewhat satisfied 42 22.7%
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 7 3.8%
Somewhat dissatisfied 5 2.7%
Very dissatisfied 2 1.1%
Change in Credit Needs Expected Next Year
Increase 47 26.4%
1-5% 5 10.6%
6-10% 4 8.5%
11-15% 7 14.9%
16-19% 8 17.0%
20% or more 19 40.4%
Decrease 53 29.8%
1-5% 4 7.5%
6-10% 11 20.8%
11-15% 3 5.7%
16-19% 3 5.7%
20% or more 21 39.6%
Remain same 76 42.7%
Don't know/Refused 2 1.1%
Consider Electronic Banking
Yes 99 53.5%
No 78 42.2%
Don't know/Refused 3 1.6%
Consider Loan Application on Internet
Yes 51 27.6%
No 126 68.1%
Don't know/Refused 3 1.6%








Economic Impact Results


State Impacts

The economic impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida were estimated using the
IMPLAN input-output regional modeling system, together with survey results for sales, employment, and
regional market flows (see Methods). For the nursery and landscape sectors direct output represents industry
sales, but for the retail sector, output was calculated as the gross margin on sales (30.5%). Indirect and
induced impacts on nonlocal output (export sales) were calculated using Implan multipliers for Florida
(2003).
The total output or revenue impact of the industry in 2005 was estimated at $12.64 billion (Bn),
including $10.39 Bn in direct output impacts of industry sales, plus $100 Mn in indirect impacts from allied
firms that supply inputs to the horticulture sectors, and $2.15 Bn in induced impacts associated with consumer
spending by industry employee households (Table 12). Total output impacts were $4.77 Bn for nurseries,
$5.27 Bn for landscape services firms, and $2.60 Bn for horticultural retailers. Nurseries had significant
indirect and induced impacts associated with the large nonlocal sales.
The total employment impact of the environmental horticulture industry was estimated at 318,573
jobs, including both fulltime and part-time/seasonal, with 53,551 for nurseries, 88,073 for landscape services,
and 176,949 for horticultural retailers (Table 12).
Value added is an important measure of an industry's contribution to a regional economy that
represents the difference between sales revenues and the cost of purchased inputs, and includes the value of
employee wages and benefits, owner's compensation, dividends, capital outlays and business taxes paid. The
total value added impact of Florida's horticulture industry was $8.65 Bn, including $3.98 Bn by nurseries,
$2.72 Bn by landscape services and $1.95 Bn by retailers (Table 12). Total labor income impacts, which are a
subset of value added, were $5.19 Bn. The impact on indirect business taxes paid to state and local
governments was $549 Mn.
Table 12. Summary of economic impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida, 2005.
Indirect
Direct Non- Indirect Induced Total Employ- Value Labor Busiess
Industry Output Local Output Output Output ment Added Income Tax
Sector utput Output Impact Impact Impact Impact Impact Impact Impact
(Mn$) (Mn$) (Mn$) (Mn$) (Mn$) (jobs) (Mn$) (Mn$) (Mn$)

Nursery & 3,007.9 1,270.4 34.7 1,725.4 4,768.0 53,551 3,977.9 1,847.9 125.4
Greenhouse
Landscape 5,258.5 9.0 3.7 10.7 5,273.0 88,073 2,718.2 2,161.1 93.2
Services
Horticultural
Ho rticultural 2,126.0 290.6 61.6 408.1 2,595.9 176,949 1,951.7 1,180.3 330.2
Retailers
Total 10,391.8 1,570.5 100.1 2,145.0 12,636.9 318,573 8,647.8 5,189.3 548.8


Comparison with Previous Studies for 1997 and 2000

In this section, the economic impacts of the Florida environmental horticulture industry in 2005 are
compared with results from previous studies for 1997 and 2000 (Table 13). These three studies were all
conducted using similar, though not identical methods. All values are expressed in 2005 dollars. Total
industry sales increased from $8.35 Bn in 1997 to $15.24 Bn in 2005, which represents a 7.8 percent average
annual compound growth rate during the 8 year period, while growth in sales during the 2000-05 period was
slightly lower at 6.5 percent annually, suggesting that industry growth may be slowing. Sales growth was
highest for the retail sector (11.1%), followed by landscape services (6.5%) and nurseries (4.2%). The total
output impact increased from $8.17 Bn in 1997 to $12.64 Bn in 2005, representing an average annual growth
rate of 5.6 percent. Total employment impacts more than doubled between 1997 and 2005, from 158 to 318
thousand jobs, growing 9.2 percent annually. This large increase was mainly driven by the retail sector, while
employment in the landscape sector was essentially flat. Total value added impacts increased from $5.97 to
$8.65 Bn, or 4.7 percent annually, as charted in Figure 19.








Figure 19. Trend in value added impacts of the Florida environmental horticulture industry, 1997 to 2005.
4.5
4.0
4.5 --Nursery &
mt 3.5
3o greenhouse
3.0
S2.5 ------ Landscape
20 Services

S1.5 -
S1.5 --- -- Retail/Trade
1.0
0.5
0.0
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005


Table 13. Economic impacts of the Florida environmental horticulture industry in 1997, 2000 and 2005.
Average
Annual
Impact / Sector 2005 2000* 1997* Compound
Growth Rate
1997-2005
Sales (million $) 15,237 11,120 8,353 7.8%
Production (nursery & greenhouse) 3,007 2,526 2,164 4.2%
Landscape Services 5,259 3,491 3,185 6.5%
Retail/Trade 6,971 5,103 3,005 11.1%
Direct Output (million $) 10,392 7,735 6,424 6.2%
Production (nursery & greenhouse) 3,007 2,526 2,164 4.2%
Landscape Services 5,259 3,491 3,185 6.5%
Retail/Trade 2,126 1,718 1,075 8.9%
Output Impacts (million $) 12,637 10,285 8,173 5.6%
Production (nursery & greenhouse) 4,768 3,901 3,145 5.3%
Landscape Services 5,273 3,810 3,350 5.8%
Retail/Trade 2,596 2,574 1,678 5.6%
Value Added Impacts (million $) 8,648 7,184 5,973 4.7%
Production (nursery & greenhouse) 3,978 2,826 2,238 7.5%
Landscape Services 2,718 2,391 2,502 1.0%
Retail/Trade 1,952 1,968 1,234 5.9%
Labor Income Impacts (million $) 5,189 4,622 3,931 3.5%
Production (nursery & greenhouse) 1,848 1,805 1,208 5.5%
Landscape Services 2,161 1,592 1,931 1.4%
Retail/Trade 1,180 1,227 792 5.1%
Indirect Business Tax Impacts (million $) 549 519 356 5.6%
Production (nursery & greenhouse) 125 101 67 8.1%
Landscape Services 93 106 91 0.4%
Retail/Trade 330 312 198 6.6%
Employment Impacts (jobs) 318,573 187,860 157,950 9.2%
Production (nursery & greenhouse) 53,551 54,288 44,892 2.2%
Landscape Services 88,073 64,282 89,517 -0.4%
Retail/Trade 176,949 69,290 23,541 28.7%







Regional and County Economic Impacts


Economic impacts of the Florida environmental horticulture industry in 2005 were estimated for
individual counties by allocating total statewide impacts in relation to county-level direct employment
reported by the Florida Department of Labor (see methods). County level impacts are summarized in Tables
14 and 15 and Figure 20. Total industry sales exceeded a billion dollars in the counties of Miami-Dade ($1.98
Bn), Palm Beach ($1.18 Bn), Orange ($1.14 Bn) and Hillsborough ($1.01 Bn). Total output impacts were
highest in the counties of Miami-Dade ($1.87 Bn), Orange ($1.19 Bn), Palm Beach ($1.04 Bn), Hillsborough
($905 Mn), Broward ($725 Mn), Volusia ($582 Mn), Duval ($457 Mn), Lee ($455 Mn), Lake ($405 Mn),
Pinellas ($348 Mn), Collier ($330 Mn), Polk ($315 Mn), and Seminole ($301 Mn). Total employment
impacts were highest in the same counties, but in a slightly different order: Miami-Dade (40,837 jobs), Palm
Beach (23,776), Orange (21,733), Hillsborough (20,410), Broward (18,157), Duval (11,768), Volusia
(10,454), Pinellas (10,208), Lee (10,162), Lake (9,814), Polk (9,532), Collier (9,030), and Seminole (9,031),
as shown in Figure 20. Value added impacts in the top six counties were: Miami-Dade ($1.37 Bn), Orange
($825 Mn), Palm Beach ($684 Mn), Hillsborough ($610 Mn), Volusia ($448 Mn), and Broward ($434 Mn).
In the nursery sector, county level employment impacts were greatest in Miami-Dade (11,741 jobs),
Orange (6,668), Volusia (4,740), Hillsborough (3,925), and Palm Beach (3,873). In the landscape services
sector, county level employment impacts were highest in Palm Beach (8,954 jobs), Miami-Dade (8,716),
Broward (8,388), Orange (8,290), and Hillsborough (6,939). In the horticultural retailing sector county-level
employment impacts were highest in Miami-Dade (20,380 jobs), Palm Beach (10,949), Hillsborough (9,546),
Broward (8,694), and Orange (6,776).


Figure 20. Employment impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in the top 20 Florida counties,
2005.
thousand jobs
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Miami-Dade
Palm Beach
Orange
Hills boroug
Browardi
Duvalt
Volusia U Nursery
Lee N
Pinellas U Landscape
Lake n Retail
PolkR
Collier
Seminole
Sarasota
Leon
Brevard
Alachua
Escambia ,
Marion
Manatee








Table 14. Sales and output impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida counties, 2005.
Sales (million $) Output Impact (million $)
County
Nursery Landscape Retail All Sectors Nursery Landscape Retail All Sectors
Alachua 27.9 53.5 201.5 283.0 44.3 53.7 75.0 173.0
Baker 0.3 1.9 16.8 18.9 0.5 1.9 6.3 8.6
Bay 0.1 46.8 52.8 99.8 0.2 46.9 19.7 66.8
Bradford 0.0 1.5 10.5 12.0 0.0 1.5 3.9 5.4
Brevard 9.8 109.9 199.8 319.5 15.6 110.2 74.4 200.2
Broward 60.4 500.8 342.5 903.7 95.7 502.2 127.5 725.5
Calhoun 0.1 0.5 10.5 11.1 0.2 0.5 3.9 4.6
Charlotte 6.7 27.0 64.0 97.8 10.7 27.1 23.8 61.6
Citrus 3.7 25.4 28.7 57.8 5.8 25.5 10.7 42.0
Clay 0.2 27.3 103.9 131.4 0.3 27.4 38.7 66.4
Collier 59.3 157.4 210.3 427.0 94.1 157.8 78.3 330.2
Columbia 0.1 7.0 36.4 43.5 0.2 7.0 13.5 20.8
DeSoto 19.9 2.6 43.7 66.2 31.5 2.6 16.3 50.4
Dixie 0.1 0.5 4.5 5.1 0.2 0.5 1.7 2.4
Duval 31.9 320.3 229.8 582.1 50.6 321.2 85.6 457.4
Escambia 0.1 62.1 202.9 265.1 0.2 62.3 75.6 138.0
Flagler 24.8 27.2 39.5 91.5 39.3 27.2 14.7 81.3
Franklin 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.4
Gadsden 168.4 11.4 4.5 184.3 267.0 11.4 1.7 280.1
Gilchrist 0.1 1.2 9.0 10.2 0.1 1.2 3.3 4.6
Glades 0.1 0.9 4.5 5.5 0.1 0.9 1.7 2.7
Gulf 0.0 1.2 0.0 1.2 0.0 1.2 0.0 1.2
Hamilton 0.1 1.1 4.5 5.6 0.1 1.1 1.7 2.9
Hardee 27.5 2.6 39.2 69.3 43.7 2.6 14.6 60.8
Hendry 0.1 6.1 19.9 26.1 0.2 6.1 7.4 13.7
Herando 8.8 39.1 48.3 96.2 13.9 39.2 18.0 71.1
Highlands 42.1 16.1 94.5 152.6 66.8 16.1 35.2 118.1
Hillsborough 220.4 414.3 376.1 1,010.8 349.5 415.4 140.0 905.0
Holmes 0.0 1.6 9.0 10.6 0.0 1.6 3.3 5.0
Indian River 0.3 46.8 65.1 112.1 0.4 46.9 24.2 71.6
Jackson 6.0 3.0 23.4 32.5 9.5 3.1 8.7 21.3
Jefferson 18.8 1.1 38.5 58.3 29.8 1.1 14.3 45.2
Lafayette 0.1 0.6 67.5 68.2 0.1 0.6 25.1 25.8
Lake 154.3 75.2 228.8 458.3 244.6 75.4 85.2 405.2
Lee 124.4 187.1 189.6 501.1 197.2 187.6 70.6 455.5
Leon 0.1 88.1 237.2 325.4 0.2 88.4 88.3 176.9
Levy 10.0 2.4 18.9 31.3 15.9 2.4 7.0 25.3
Liberty 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.4
Madison 7.8 0.5 25.2 33.5 12.4 0.5 9.4 22.3
Manatee 74.5 89.5 80.5 244.5 118.1 89.8 30.0 237.9
Marion 23.1 51.3 179.5 253.9 36.6 51.5 66.8 154.9
Martin 57.4 67.5 31.1 156.1 91.0 67.7 11.6 170.4
Miami-Dade 659.3 520.4 802.9 1,982.6 1,045.4 521.8 299.0 1,866.2
Monroe 0.1 18.0 7.3 25.4 0.1 18.0 2.7 20.8
Nassau 0.1 18.5 14.7 33.3 0.1 18.5 5.5 24.1
Okaloosa 0.1 51.5 70.3 121.9 0.1 51.7 26.2 77.9
Okeechobee 7.7 9.7 19.6 37.0 12.2 9.7 7.3 29.2
Orange 374.4 495.0 266.9 1,136.3 593.7 496.3 99.4 1,189.4
Osceola 28.9 70.2 72.1 171.1 45.8 70.4 26.8 143.0
Palm Beach 217.5 534.6 431.3 1,183.4 344.8 536.1 160.6 1,041.5
Pasco 23.0 99.2 117.5 239.7 36.4 99.5 43.8 179.7
Pinellas 7.1 249.4 232.6 489.1 11.3 250.1 86.6 348.0
Polk 65.9 116.3 252.6 434.8 104.5 116.6 94.1 315.1
Putnam 34.7 8.7 19.2 62.5 54.9 8.7 7.2 70.8
28









Sales (million $)


Nursery Landscape


17.8
21.4
9.3
14.3
34.3
28.2
5.1
0.1
0.1
266.2
0.1
0.1
1.6


35.6
59.2
29.3
161.1
162.9
4.8
5.1
2.5
1.5
100.4
3.7
18.8
1.3


County


Output Impact (million $)


All Sectors Nursery Landscape


Retail
173.5
143.8
34.6
190.0
224.2
20.3
53.5
9.0
4.5
158.8
4.5
45.1
9.0


28.2
33.9
14.7
22.7
54.4
44.7
8.1
0.2
0.1
422.0
0.1
0.1
2.6


35.7
59.3
29.4
161.6
163.3
4.8
5.1
2.5
1.5
100.7
3.7
18.9
1.3


Retail All Sectors
64.6 128.4
53.5 146.8
12.9 57.0
70.7 255.1
83.5 301.2
7.6 57.0
19.9 33.1
3.3 6.1
1.7 3.3
59.1 581.9
1.7 5.5
16.8 35.8
3.3 7.3


226.8
224.4
73.2
365.4
421.4
53.2
63.7
11.6
6.0
525.4
8.3
64.0
12.0


St. Johns
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
Washington


Total 3,007 5,259 6,971 15,237 4,768.0 5,273.0 2,595.9 12,636.9


i








Table 15. Employment and value added impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida
counties, 2005.

County Employment Impact (jobs) Value Added Impact (million $)
Nursery Landscape Retail All Sectors Nursery Landscape Retail All Sectors
Nursery Landscape Retail All Sectors Nursery Landscape Retail All Sectors


Alachua
Baker
Bay
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
DeSoto
Dixie
Duval
Escambia
Flagler
Franklin
Gadsden
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Herando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake
Lee
Leon
Levy
Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Miami-Dade
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk


497
5
2
0
175
1,075
2
120
66
3
1,056
2
354
2
569
2
442
0
2,999
1
1
0
1
491
2
156
750
3,925
0
5
107
335
1
2,747
2,215
2
179
0
139
1,327
411
1,023
11,741
1
2
1
137
6,668
514
3,873
409
127
1,173


896
31
784
25
1,841
8,388
8
453
426
458
2,636
117
43
8
5,365
1,040
455
6
190
20
15
20
18
43
102
655
269
6,939
27
784
51
18
10
1,259
3,133
1,476
40
6
8
1,500
860
1,131
8,716
301
309
863
162
8,290
1,175
8,954
1,662
4,177
1,948


5,115
426
1,341
266
5,071
8,694
266
1,625
728
2,637
5,337
924
1,110
114
5,834
5,151
1,003
0
114
228
114
0
114
995
506
1,225
2,398
9,546
228
1,652
595
977
1,714
5,808
4,813
6,021
480
0
639
2,042
4,556
790
20,380
186
373
1,785
497
6,776
1,829
10,949
2,984
5,905
6,412


6,509
462
2,127
291
7,086
18,157
277
2,197
1,219
3,098
9,030
1,043
1,507
125
11,768
6,193
1,900
6
3,304
249
131
20
133
1,528
610
2,037
3,417
20,410
255
2,440
753
1,329
1,725
9,814
10,162
7,499
698
6
787
4,869
5,827
2,944
40,837
488
684
2,649
796
21,733
3,519
23,776
5,055
10,208
9,532


37.0
0.4
0.2
0.0
13.0
79.8
0.2
8.9
4.9
0.2
78.5
0.2
26.3
0.2
42.2
0.2
32.8
0.0
222.8
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1
36.4
0.2
11.6
55.7
291.6
0.0
0.4
7.9
24.9
0.1
204.1
164.6
0.2
13.3
0.0
10.3
98.6
30.5
76.0
872.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
10.2
495.3
38.2
287.7
30.4
9.4
87.1


27.7
1.0
24.2
0.8
56.8
258.9
0.3
14.0
13.1
14.1
81.4
3.6
1.3
0.2
165.6
32.1
14.0
0.2
5.9
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.6
1.3
3.1
20.2
8.3
214.2
0.8
24.2
1.6
0.5
0.3
38.9
96.7
45.6
1.2
0.2
0.3
46.3
26.5
34.9
269.0
9.3
9.5
26.6
5.0
255.9
36.3
276.4
51.3
128.9
60.1


56.4
4.7
14.8
2.9
55.9
95.9
2.9
17.9
8.0
29.1
58.9
10.2
12.2
1.3
64.4
56.8
11.1
0.0
1.3
2.5
1.3
0.0
1.3
11.0
5.6
13.5
26.4
105.3
2.5
18.2
6.6
10.8
18.9
64.1
53.1
66.4
5.3
0.0
7.1
22.5
50.2
8.7
224.8
2.1
4.1
19.7
5.5
74.7
20.2
120.8
32.9
65.1
70.7


121.0
6.0
39.2
3.7
125.7
434.6
3.4
40.8
26.0
43.5
218.7
14.0
39.9
1.7
272.2
89.1
57.9
0.2
229.9
3.2
1.8
0.6
1.9
48.7
8.9
45.4
90.5
611.0
3.3
42.8
16.1
36.2
19.3
307.0
314.4
112.1
19.8
0.2
17.6
167.4
107.3
119.6
1,365.9
11.4
13.8
46.4
20.7
825.9
94.6
684.8
114.6
203.4
218.0








Employment Impact (jobs) Value Added Impact (million $)
County
Nursery Landscape Retail All Sectors Nursery Landscape Retail All Sectors
Putnam 617 145 488 1,250 45.8 4.5 5.4 55.7
St. Johns 316 596 4,405 5,317 23.5 18.4 48.6 90.5
St. Lucie 381 991 3,650 5,022 28.3 30.6 40.3 99.2
Santa Rosa 165 491 879 1,535 12.3 15.1 9.7 37.1
Sarasota 255 2,699 4,822 7,776 19.0 83.3 53.2 155.4
Seminole 611 2,728 5,692 9,031 45.4 84.2 62.8 192.3
Sumter 501 80 515 1,097 37.3 2.5 5.7 45.4
Suwannee 91 85 1,359 1,535 6.8 2.6 15.0 24.4
Taylor 2 42 228 272 0.2 1.3 2.5 4.0
Union 1 25 114 140 0.1 0.8 1.3 2.1
Volusia 4,740 1,682 4,032 10,454 352.1 51.9 44.5 448.5
Wakulla 2 62 114 178 0.1 1.9 1.3 3.3
Walton 1 315 1,146 1,462 0.1 9.7 12.6 22.5
Washington 29 22 228 280 2.2 0.7 2.5 5.4
Total 53,551 88,073 176,949 318,573 3,977.9 2,718.2 1,951.7 8,647.8



Economic impacts were also summarized by regions corresponding to functional economic areas, as
defined by the US Bureau of Economic Analysis based on employee commuting patterns reported in the 2000
Census of population and housing9. A map of the regions is shown in Figure 21 and regional economic
impacts are summarized in Table 16 and Figure 22. Output impacts were highest in the Miami-Ft Lauderdale
region ($4.09 Bn), followed by Orlando ($3.65 Bn), Tampa-St. Petersburg ($1.50 Bn), Sarasota-Bradenton
($1.39 Bn), Jacksonville ($756 Mn), Tallahassee ($540 Mn), Pensacola ($309 Mn), Gainesville ($294 Mn)
and Panama City ($106 Mn). Regional employment impacts followed in a slightly different order: Miami-Ft
Lauderdale (95,202 jobs), Orlando (86,157), Tampa-St. Petersburg (37,711), Sarasota-Bradenton (35,541),
Jacksonville (22,580), Tallahassee (13,515), Gainesville (12,315), Pensacola (11,839), and Panama City
(3,713), as shown in Figure 22. Value added impacts exceeded $2 Bn in the Miami-Ft. Lauderdale region
($2.79 Bn) and Orlando region ($2.59 Bn).


Figure 21. Map of economic regions of Florida.


9 Johnson, K. and J. Kort. Redefinition of the BEA Economic Areas. Survey of Current Business, pp.68-75, Nov. 2004.
Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.


Panamco a V.I



ca-Meau."e Or'anau


S: Peie'su,'
C earw ier


Sarasola
83racenion Li'
FOrT Li.~aeral'e


I. -*








Figure 22. Employment impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida regions, 2005.

thousand jobs
0 10 20 30 40 50


Mfiami-Fort Lauderdale

Orlando

Tampa-St. Petersburg

Sarasota-Bradenton

Jacksonville I Nursery
U Landscape
Tallahassee O Retail

Gainesville

Pensacola

Panama City




Table 16. Regional economic impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida, 2005.
Miami-
Gaines- Jackson- Fort Panama Sarasota- Talla- Tampa-St. Total All
ville ville Lauder- City Bradenton hassee Peters- Regions
dale burg
Sales (million $)
Nursery 43.6 84.9 1,024.2 1,083.1 7.9 9.5 299.2 195.4 259.3 3,007.2
Landscape 73.2 412.2 1,763.9 1,257.1 54.5 161.8 624.8 109.0 802.0 5,258.5
Retail 406.3 558.0 1,868.1 1,804.8 104.8 353.0 778.0 323.3 774.5 6,970.9
All Sectors 523.1 1,055.1 4,656.2 4,145.1 167.2 524.3 1,702.0 627.8 1,835.8 15,236.5
Output Impact (million $)
Nursery 69.1 134.6 1,623.9 1,717.4 12.6 15.1 474.4 309.9 411.1 4,768.0
Landscape 73.4 413.3 1,768.8 1,260.6 54.7 162.2 626.5 109.3 804.2 5,273.0
Retail 151.3 207.8 695.7 672.1 39.0 131.4 289.7 120.4 288.4 2,595.9
All Sectors 293.8 755.7 4,088.4 3,650.1 106.2 308.7 1,390.6 539.7 1,503.7 12,636.9
Value Added Impact (millionS)
Nursery 57.7 112.3 1,354.8 1,432.8 10.5 12.6 395.8 258.5 343.0 3,977.9
Landscape 37.8 213.1 911.8 649.8 28.2 83.6 323.0 56.4 414.6 2,718.2
Retail 113.8 156.2 523.0 505.3 29.3 98.8 217.8 90.5 216.9 1,951.7
All Sectors 209.2 481.6 2,789.6 2,587.9 68.0 195.0 936.5 405.4 974.4 8,647.8
Employment Impact (jobs)
Nursery 776 1,512 18,239 19,288 141 170 5,328 3,481 4,617 53,551
Landscape 1,225 6,904 29,543 21,055 913 2,709 10,464 1,826 13,433 88,073
Retail 10,314 14,164 47,420 45,813 2,659 8,960 19,750 8,208 19,661 176,949
All Sectors 12,315 22,580 95,202 86,157 3,713 11,839 35,541 13,515 37,711 318,573








Impacts on Allied Suppliers for Nursery Producers


The nursery and greenhouse industry purchases large volumes of supplies for production from allied
vendors. The value of inputs to the nursery sector were estimated based on total sales for 2005, together with
information on typical operating expenses 10, as shown in Table 17. Total inputs purchased (excluding labor),
were estimated at $821 Mn, which represented 27 percent of total sales (3.0 Bn). The largest expense item
was for plants and seeds ($292 Mn), much of which was purchased from other nursery growers. Other
expense items included $147 Mn in growing containers, $101 Mn in growing media, $82 Mn in packaging
materials, $81 Mn in fertilizer/lime, and $65 Mn in chemicals (pesticides, growth regulators, etc.), and $53
Mn in miscellaneous other supplies.

Table 17. Estimated purchases of supplies by the nursery and greenhouse industry in Florida, 2005.
Cost as Total
Expense Item Percent of Purchases
Sales ($1000)

Plants and seeds 9.7% 292,372
Containers 4.9% 147,095
Growing media 3.4% 100,767
Fertilizer and lime 2.7% 81,055
Chemicals 2.2% 65,319
Packaging 2.7% 81,510
Other supplies 1.8% 53,115
Total expenses 27.3% 821,232




Conclusions

In this study, telephone and internet surveys were used to document industry sales and employment in
2005 for nursery growers, landscape service firms and horticultural retailers, and a regional economic model
was used to evaluate total economic impacts on the economy of Florida. This research demonstrated that the
environmental horticulture industry in Florida has continued to grow rapidly during the period of 2000
through 2005, driven by strong population growth and housing development. Growth was particularly strong
for the retail sector. Industry sales and employment estimated from survey data were significantly higher than
published values based on secondary statistics, due to better coverage of many small and undocumented
firms. The nursery production sector has significant indirect and induced impacts on other sectors of the
economy associated with sales of plant products to out-of-state markets that bring new money into the state.
Total employment impacts of the environmental horticulture industry in Florida were significantly greater
than for other major agricultural commodities such as forest products and fruits/vegetables, while total output
and value added impacts were comparable. Unlike many other agricultural industries, economic activity in
environmental horticulture is concentrated in urban areas, close to the workforce and markets for landscape
services and retail goods. The economic impacts of the environmental horticulture industry occurred in spite
of the staggering product losses, structural damages, cleanup costs, and business interruption suffered from
hurricanes in 2004 and 2005.




10 Hodges, A.W., L.N. Satterthwaite and J.J. Haydu. Business Analysis of Ornamental Plant Nurseries in Florida, 1998.
Economic Information Report 00-5r, University of Florida/IFAS, Food & Resource Economics Department, Feb. 2001.
Available at http://hortbusiness.ifas.ufl.edu/EIROO-5r.pdf.








Appendix: Telephone Survey Questionnaire


Question HELLO. Hello, my name is I'm
calling from the University of Florida. May I speak
with an owner, manager or person in charge of the
business at this office? INTERVIEWER: PRESS 1 TO
CONTINUE WITH SURVEY. IF ELIGIBLE
RESPONDENT IS NOT AVAILABLE, ARRANGE A
CALLBACK. PRESS CTRL/END TO TERMINATE
CALL. Hello, this is from the
University of Florida. This is not a sales call.
(NOTE TO INT: THIS CALL COULD BE A
PARTIAL-COMPLETE) INTERVIEWER: PRESS 1
TO CONTINUE SURVEY

Question INTRO. The University of Florida is
conducting a 10 minute environmental horticulture
industry survey sponsored by the Florida Nursery
Growers and Landscape Association. Your participation
is voluntary, you don't have to answer any question you
don't want to, and all your answer will be confidential.
(INT: READ ANY OF THE FOLLOWING IF
NEEDED: The purpose of this survey is to evaluate the
economic impacts of the industry. We are collecting
information on the types of products and services
provided, annual sales, employment, regional trade,
marketing channels, threats to the industry, and the
effects of hurricanes. Your answers are confidential;
only averages or totals for all survey respondents will
be disclosed. It is important that you provide
information so that your type of business is represented
in the study.) (INT: PRESS 1 TO CONTINUE)

Question CONSENT. Do you consent to participate in
the survey?
1 Yes
2 No

Question EXIT. Thank you for your time. (INT: PRESS
ANY KEY TO EXIT SURVEY. CODE AS EITHER
A SOFT REFUSAL OR A STRONG REFUSAL
BASED ON WHAT HAPPENED DURING THE
CALL)

Question QUAL. Did this business produce and sell
ornamental plants in 2005?
1 Yes
2 No
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question EXIT 1. Today we are only interviewing
businesses that produced and sold ornamental plants in
2005. Thank you for your time. INT: PRESS ANY
KEY TO END THE SURVEY. THIS WILL BE
AUTOCODED AS NO ELIGIBLE RESPONDENT)

Question QUALIF. Today we are only interviewing
businesses that produced and sold ornamental plants in
2005. Thank you for your time. (INT: PRESS ANY


KEY TO END THE SURVEY. THIS WILL BE
AUTOCODED AS NO ELIGIBLE RESPONDENT)

Question POSITION. What is your position in this
organization?
Owner
Manager
CEO, CFO or COO
Administrative assistant or company employee
Other (please specify)
Don't know
Refused

Question HOWLONG. How many years has this
company been in business?
(0-100)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question PRODUCT. What was the net area, in square
feet, used by your business in 2005 for greenhouse or
shadehouse production?
1 None (not applicable)
2 Less than 10 thousand
3 10 to 49 thousand
4 50 to 99 thousand
5 100 to 199 thousand
6 200 to 499 thousand
7 500 to 999 thousand
8 1 million or more
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question MILLION. Please specify amount to nearest
one-tenth million sq.ft (INT: Read if needed: One
million one hundred thousand square feet would be 1.1
million.)
(0.0 100.0)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question OPEN. What was the net area used, in acres,
by your business in 2005 for open container plant
production?
(0-10000)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question PRO. Which of the following products were
sold by your company in 2005? (INT: READ LIST)
Live plants
Horticultural supplies such as fertilizer, chemicals,
seeds, pots and soil
Horticultural hard goods (tools, irrigation parts,
lawnmowers, etc)
Other (please specify)
Don't know
Refused








Question SALES7. Next, I am going to ask you what
percentage each of the products you selected made up
your total sales last year. Your total percentage of ALL
of the products should add up to 100 percent. (INT:
PRESS 1 TO CONTINUE)

Question PRO1. That's % so far. What was the
percentage of your total 2005 sales for
(0-100)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question OVER100G. The total of the percentages you
gave is %. Would you like to change any of your
answers? (INT: If respondent says yes, go back and
change any answers the respondent wants to change. If
the respondent says no, press Ito continue)

Question CUST2. Which of the following types of
customers were your products sold to in 2005? (INT:
READ LIST)
Homeowners
Apartments and condominiums
Commercial establishments (restaurants, hotels,
office buildings, etc.)
Governments
Landscapers, interiorscapers or lawn maintenance
firms
Other retailers
Other type of customer (please specify)
Don't know
Refused

Question SALES8. Next, I am going to ask you what
percentage each of the customer types you selected
made up your total sales last year. Your total
percentage of ALL of the customer types should add up
to 100 percent. (INT: PRESS 1 TO CONTINUE)

Question ZZ. That's % so far. What was the
percentage of your total 2005 sales to
(0-100)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question OVER100H. The total of the percentages you
gave is %. Would you like to change any of your
answers? (INT: If respondent says yes, go back and
change any answers the respondent wants to change. If
the respondent says no, press 1 to continue)

Question FIELD. What was the net area, in acres, used
by your business in 2005 for field (in ground) plant
production?
(0-10000)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question EMPLOYEE. How many permanent full-time
employees were employed by your business in 2005,


including management and family members working in
the business?
(0-999)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question PARTTIME. How many additional temporary
or part-time employees were employed by your
business in 2005?
(0-999)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question RN. Which of the following services were
offered by your company in 2005?
Landscape design or consulting
Landscape installation
Landscape maintenance
Other service (please specify)
Don't know
Refused

Question SALES3. Next, I am going to ask you what
percentage each of the services you selected made up
your total sales last year. Your total percentage of ALL
of the services should add up to 100 percent. (INT:
PRESS 1 TO CONTINUE)

Question AC. That's % so far. What was the
percentage of your total 2005 sales for
(0-100)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question OVER100C. The total of the percentages you
gave is %. Would you like to change any of your
answers? (INT: If respondent says yes, go back and
change any answers the respondent wants to change. If
the respondent says no, press 1 to continue)

Question CC. Which of the following types of
customers were your products sold to in 2005? (INT:
READ LIST)
Homeowners
Apartments and condominiums
Commercial establishments (restaurants, hotels,
office buildings, etc.)
Governments
Builders or developers
Other landscapers or lawn maintenance firms
Other (please specify)
Don't know
Refused

Question SALES4. Next, I am going to ask you what
percentage each of the customer types you selected
made up your total sales last year. Your total
percentage of ALL of the customer types should add up
to 100 percent. (INT: PRESS 1 TO CONTINUE)








Question JZ. That's % so far. What was the
percentage of your total 2005 sales to
(0-100)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question OVER100D. The total of the percentages you
gave is %. Would you like to change any of your
answers? (INT: If respondent says yes, go back and
change any answers the respondent wants to change. If
the respondent says no, press 1 to continue)

Question RM1. Which of the following geographic
regions were your products sold to in 2005? (INT:
READ LIST)
Local area the city or county, or within a radius of
50 miles
Florida but outside local area
Southeast states except Fla
Other states
Foreign countries
Don't know
Refused

Question SALES6. Next, I am going to ask you what
percentage each of the regions you selected made up
your total sales last year. Your total percentage of ALL
of the regions should add up to 100 percent. (INT:
PRESS 1 TO CONTINUE)

Question GR1. That's % so far. What was the
percentage of your total 2005 sales to
(0-100)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question OVER100F. The total of the percentages you
gave is %. Would you like to change any of your
answers? (INT: If respondent says yes, go back and
change any answers the respondent wants to change. If
the respondent says no, press 1 to continue)

Question AD. Which of the following types of
ornamental plants were grown or marketed by your
company in 2005? (INT: READ LIST)
Deciduous shade trees
Shrubs
Flowering and fruit trees
Evergreen trees
Palms
Tropical foliage
Vines and ground covers
Potted flowering plants and bedding plants
Cut foliage or flowers
Propagating liners, cuttings, or plugs
Turfgrass
Other (please specify)
Don't know
Refused


Question SALES. Next, I am going to ask you what
percentage each of the plants you selected made up
your total sales last year. Your total percentage of ALL
of the plants should add up to 100 percent. (INT:
PRESS 1 TO CONTINUE)

Question WM. That's % so far. What was the
percentage of your total 2005 sales for
(0-100)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question OVER100. The total of the percentages you
gave is %. Would you like to change any of your
answers? (INT: If respondent says yes, go back and
change any answers the respondent wants to change. If
the respondent says no, press 1 to continue)

Question NATIVE. What percentage of your total sales
in 2005 were Florida native plants, (defined as plants
present in Florida prior to European settlement)?
(0-100)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question SERVICES. Which of the following services
were offered by your company in 2005? (INT: READ
CHOICES)
Contract growing
Delivery
Mail order
Horticultural consulting
Landscape design
Landscape installation
Landscape maintenance
Other service (please specify)
Don't know
Refused

Question JB. Which of the following types of
customers were your products sold to in 2005? (INT:
READ LIST)
Other growers
Re-wholesalers or brokers
Landscape contractors
Interiorscapers
Landscape maintenance firms
Independent retail garden centers
Mass merchandise stores
Home improvement centers
Supermarkets
Developers or property managers
Direct to the public
Other type of customer (please specify)
Don't know
Refused

Question SALES 1. Next, I am going to ask you what
percentage each of the customer types you selected
made up your total sales last year. Your total percentage








of ALL of the customer types should add up to 100
percent. (INT: PRESS 1 TO CONTINUE)

Question JD. That's % so far. What was the
percentage of your total 2005 sales to
(0-100)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question OVER100A. The total of the percentages you
gave is %. Would you like to change any of your
answers? (INT: If respondent says yes, go back and
change any answers the respondent wants to change. If
the respondent says no, press 1 to continue).

Question CUSTTYPE. Which of these customer types
do you consider to be expanding? (INT: READ LIST)
Other growers
Re-wholesalers or brokers
Landscape contractors
Interiorscapers
Landscape maintenance firms
Independent retail garden centers
Mass merchandise stores
Home improvement centers
Supermarkets
Developers or property managers
Direct to the public
Other type of customer (please specify)
Don't know
Refused

Question RM. Which of the following geographic
regions were your products sold to in 2005? (INT:
READ LIST)
Local area the city or county, or within a radius of
50 miles
Florida but outside local area
Southeast states except Fla.
Northeast states
Midwest states
Western states
Canada
Other foreign countries (except Canada) (please
specify)
Don't know
Refused

Question SALES2. Next, I am going to ask you what
percentage each of the regions you selected made up
your total sales last year. Your total percentage of ALL
of the regions should add up to 100 percent. (INT:
PRESS 1 TO CONTINUE)

Question GR. That's % so far. What was the
percentage of your total 2005 sales to
(0-100)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused


Question OVER100B. The total of the percentages you
gave is %. Would you like to change any of your
answers? (INT: If respondent says yes, go back and
change any answers the respondent wants to change. If
the respondent says no, press 1 to continue).

Question PRACTICE. Which of the following
marketing practices does your company use to sell
your products? (INT: READ CHOICES)
Personal selling by telephone or personal visit
Commissioned salesperson
Promotions such as price discounts or special
services offered
Trade shows
Direct mail advertising
Trade magazine advertising
Printed advertising media for public such as
magazines,newspapers,brochures
Radio or television advertising
Computer website
Participation in civic events and making charitable
contributions
Other practice (please specify)
Don't know
Refused

Question GROSS. What was your company's gross
sales in 2005?
1 less than $100 thousand
2 $100 to $249 thousand
3 $250 to $499 thousand
4 $500 to $999 thousand
5 $1 to $2.4 million
6 $2.5 to $4.9 million
7 $5 to $9.9 million
8 $10 to $14.9 million
9 $15 to $24.9 million
10 $25 million or more
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question GROSSM. Please specify amount to nearest
$1 million.
(25-100)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question THREATS. Rate the following threats facing
your industry as either very important, somewhat
important, or not important. (INT: PRESS 1 TO
CONTINUE)

Question DH. How important is this threat to your
industry?
1 Very important
2 Somewhat important
3 Not important
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused








Question PSKIP. How important is this threat to your
industry?
1 Very important
2 Somewhat important
3 Not important
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question THREATS 1. Rate the following threats facing
your industry as either very important, somewhat
important, or not important. (INT: PRESS 1 TO
CONTINUE)

Question DH1. How important is this threat to your
industry?
1 Very important
2 Somewhat important
3 Not important
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question HSKIP. How important is this threat to your
industry?
1 Very important
2 Somewhat important
3 Not important
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question BORROW. Does your business borrow
money from financial lenders?
1 Yes
2 No
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question FINANCE. What are the financial institutions
you currently use for borrowing money for your
business? You can tell me up to three names, and
please give them in the order of importance.
(Most important)
(Second most important)
(Third most important)
Don't know
Refused

Question REASONS. Why did you choose your
primary financial institution as your business lender?
(INT: READ CHOICES)
Competitive interest rates
Convenient or flexible repayment terms
Knowledge of the industry
Operates like a cooperative
Long term or personal relationship with lender
representative
Other (please specify)
Don't know
Refused


Question SATIS. How satisfied are you with your
primary financial lender? (INT: READ LIST)
1 Very satisfied
2 Somewhat satisfied
3 Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4 Somewhat dissatisfied
5 Very dissatisfied
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question CREDIT. In the next year, do you expect your
credit needs to increase, decrease or remain the same as
the past year?
1 Increase
2 Decrease
3 Remain the same
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question CREDITCH. By what percentage do you
expect your credit needs to change?
(0-100)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question BANKING. Do you currently use some type
of electronic banking?
1 Yes
2 No
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question LOAN. Would you consider applying for a
business loan electronically on the internet?
1 Yes
2 No
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question HURR. Did your company suffer any crop
losses, structural damages cleanup costs, or business
interruption due to hurricanes in 2004 or 2005?
1 Yes
2 No
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question HURR1. Which of the following named
hurricanes affected your business? (INT: READ
CHOICES)
Charley (Aug 2004)
Frances (Early Sep 2004)
Ivan (Mid Sep 2004)
Jeanne (Late Sep 2004)
Dennis (July 2005)
Katrina (Aug 2005)
Rita (Aug 2005)
Wilma (Oct 2005)
Don't know
Refused









Question HURR2004. How many hurricanes affected
your business in 2004?
( I-4)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question HURR2005. How many hurricanes affected
your business in 2005?
( I-4)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question HURR2. What was the approximate total
value of ornamental crops lost due to the hurricanes) in
2004 and 2005?
0 None (not applicable)
1 Less than $1 thousand
2 $1 to $9 thousand
3 $10 to $99 thousand
4 $100 to $499 thousand
5 $500 to $999 thousand
6 $1 million or more
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question HURRM1. Please specify amount to nearest
one-tenth million dollars. (INT: Read if needed: One
million one hundred thousand dollars would be 1.1
million.)
(0.0 100.0)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question HURR3. What was the approximate total
value of structural damage due to the hurricanes) in
2004 and 2005, including greenhouses, shadehouses,
other buildings, irrigation systems and other
equipment?
0 None (not applicable)
1 Less than $1 thousand
2 $1 to $9 thousand
3 $10 to $99 thousand
4 $100 to $499 thousand
5 $500 to $999 thousand
6 $1 million or more
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question HURRM2. Please specify amount to nearest
one-tenth million dollars. (INT: Read if needed: One
million one hundred thousand dollars would be 1.1
million.)
(0.0 100.0)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question HURR4. What was the approximate total
value of cleanup costs due to the hurricanes) in 2004
and 2005?


0 None (not applicable)
1 Less than $1 thousand
2 $1 to $9 thousand
3 $10 to $99 thousand
4 $100 to $499 thousand
5 $500 to $999 thousand
6 $1 million or more
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question HURRM3. Please specify amount to nearest
one-tenth million dollars. (INT: Read if needed: One
million one hundred thousand dollars would be 1.1
million.)
(0.0 100.0)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question HURR5. How long was your business
interrupted by the hurricanes in 2004 and 2005? (INT:
If the respondent gives an answer that does not fit one
of the categories, read the list)
1 Not at all
2 A few days
3 1 to 2 weeks
4 3 to 4 weeks
5 2 to 3 months
6 4 months or more
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question ELSE. Do you have any additional comments
about how your business affects the economy?
1 Has answer
2 No (none)
-8 Don't know
-9 Refused

Question THANKYOU. That is the end of the survey.
Thank you for your time and cooperation. (INT: PRESS
G TO END THE SURVEY. DO NOT PRESS CTRL
END)




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