• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Abstract
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Methods
 Overall results
 Plant producers
 Horticultural retailers
 Landscape services industry
 Floral import industry
 Institutional consumers
 Household consumers
 Appendix A: Questionnaire for telephone...






Title: Economic impacts of the Florida environmental horticulture industry, 2000
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027372/00001
 Material Information
Title: Economic impacts of the Florida environmental horticulture industry, 2000
Series Title: Economic information report
Alternate Title: Economic impact of the Florida environmental horticulture industry
Physical Description: vi, 79 p. : map, charts ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hodges, Alan W ( Alan Wade ), 1959-
Haydu, John J
University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Food and Resource Economics Dept., Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: [2002]
 Subjects
Subject: Ornamental plant industry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants, Ornamental -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Horticultural products industry -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Alan W. Hodges and John J. Haydu.
General Note: "April 23, 2002."
General Note: Includes 2000 survey questionnaire.
Funding: Economic information report (Gainesville, Fla.) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027372
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002829600
oclc - 49745995
notis - ANV9970

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Abstract
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    List of Figures
        Page v
    Acknowledgement
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        The United States environment horticulture industry
            Page 1
        The Florida environmental horticulture industry
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
    Methods
        Page 5
        Survey populations and sampling
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Survey interviews and respondent qualification
            Page 7
        Survey information collected
            Page 7
        Analysis of survey data
            Page 8
        Other information collected
            Page 9
        Estimation of economic impacts
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
    Overall results
        Page 13
        General characteristics of industry firms and households
            Page 13
        Sales of horticultural products and services
            Page 14
        Geographic distribution of sales
            Page 15
        Horticultural industry customers
            Page 16
        Employment
            Page 17
        Area managed
            Page 17
        Purchases by consumers
            Page 18
        Total economic impacts
            Page 18
            Page 19
        Regional and county economic impacts
            Page 20
        Threats to the horticultural industry
            Page 21
        Impacts of drought on the Florida horticulture industry
            Page 22
            Page 23
    Plant producers
        Page 24
        Population, survey sample and expansion factors
            Page 24
        Plant sales
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Geographic distribution of sales
            Page 26
            Page 27
        Production area managed
            Page 28
        Employment
            Page 28
        Economic impacts
            Page 29
        Regional economic impacts of nurseries
            Page 29
        Services and product features offered
            Page 30
        Impacts of drought on the nursery industry
            Page 31
        Financial borrowing characteristics and needs
            Page 32
            Page 33
    Horticultural retailers
        Page 34
        Population, survey sample and expansion factors
            Page 34
        Product sales
            Page 34
        Retail markets and marketing practices
            Page 34
        Geographic sales
            Page 35
        Retail sales area
            Page 36
        Employment by retailers
            Page 36
        Economic impacts of retailers
            Page 36
        Threats to horticultural retailers
            Page 37
        Impacts of drought on the horticulture industry
            Page 38
            Page 39
    Landscape services industry
        Page 40
        Population, survey sample and expansion factors
            Page 40
        Product and service sales
            Page 40
        Markets for landscape services
            Page 41
        Geographic distribution of sales
            Page 42
        Employment
            Page 42
        Economic impacts
            Page 42
        Threats to the landscape industry
            Page 43
        Impacts of drought on the landscape services sector
            Page 44
    Floral import industry
        Page 45
        U.S. cut flower imports
            Page 45
        The Florida floral import business
            Page 46
        Economic impacts of floral importing
            Page 47
    Institutional consumers
        Page 48
        Population, survey sample and expansion factors
            Page 48
        Value of purchases
            Page 48
        Vendors of horticultural goods and services
            Page 49
        Types of plants purchased
            Page 50
        Factors for purchasing
            Page 50
            Page 51
    Household consumers
        Page 52
        Population, survey sample and expansion factors
            Page 52
        Purchases of horticultural goods and services
            Page 52
        Vendors for horticultural goods and services
            Page 53
        Types of plant products purchased
            Page 53
        Factors for purchasing
            Page 54
            Page 55
    Appendix A: Questionnaire for telephone survey of the Florida horticultural industry and horticultural consumers, 2000
        Page 56
        Horticultural consumers, 2000
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
        Landscape services
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
        Horticultural retailers
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
        Commercial institutional consumers
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
        Households
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida
















Economic Impacts of the Florida Environmental
Horticulture Industry, 2000

Economic Information Report El 02-3
by Alan W. Hodges, PhD, and John J. Haydu, PhD
University of Florida
Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences
Food & Resource Economics Department
PO Box 110240, Gainesville, FL 32611


Author Contact Information
Hodges: tel 352-392-1881 x312; fax 352-392-3646; AWHodges(ufl.edu
Haydu: tel 407-884-2034 x156; fax 407-814-6186; JJH@mail.ifas.ufl.edu


April 23, 2002


UnIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES








Economic Impacts of the Florida Environmental Horticulture Industry, 2000
by Alan W. Hodges, PhD, and John J. Haydu, PhD
University of Florida, Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences
Food & Resource Economics Department, Gainesville

April 23, 2002


Abstract

An economic impact study of Florida's environmental horticulture industry in year 2000 was
conducted with a telephone survey of over 2,200 businesses and households, and the use of regional
economic models to determine the multiplier effect of income derived from outside the region.
Wholesale plant producers, landscape services, horticultural retailers and floral importers had total
sales estimated at $9.91 billion (Bn) and total output of $6.89Bn. Industry output increased by 20
percent from 1997, or 6.7 percent annually in inflation-adjusted terms. Direct employment in the
industry was 158,000 persons, with an additional 5,000 jobs created in other related industries. Total
value added generated was $6.40Bn, including $4.12Bn in labor income, and $462 million in excise
and sales taxes paid to local, state, and federal governments. Purchases of horticultural goods and
services by Florida households and institutions such as hotels, restaurants, and other commercial
buildings, were estimated at $3.31Bn. Plant producers, including nurseries, sod farms, and cut
flower/foliage growers employed 38 thousand persons, managed production area of 173,000 acres,
and sold plants valued at $2.25Bn, of which 41 percent was shipped to markets outside the state.
Landscape businesses employed 61,000 persons, and provided services such as landscape design,
construction, and maintenance and related goods valued at $3.11Bn. Horticultural retailers employed
53,000 persons, managed 82 million square feet of retail sales space, and had total sales of plants
and related horticultural goods valued at $3.64Bn. Floral importers in Miami-Dade County had sales
of $904 million and employed 6,100 persons. In addition, allied suppliers of inputs to the horticulture
sector had sales of $363 million and employment of nearly 5,000 jobs. Personal consumption
expenditures by employees in the horticulture industry and allied businesses generated $1.91Bn in
sales, $1.23Bn in value added income, and provided nearly 25,000 jobs. Industry sales and economic
impact estimates were developed separately for six regions of Florida, and for 13 counties that have
significant nursery industry production, including Miami-Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, Orange, Lake,
Lee, Hillsborough, Manatee, Duval, Volusia, Alachua, Marion and Gadsden. The study also evaluated
the effect of the ongoing severe drought and water use restrictions in Florida, and found that
nurseries and landscape firms experienced a net decrease in sales of $245 million in 2000, while
retailers reported increased sales, particularly for large volume outlets.


Keywords: Florida, horticulture, economic impact, multipliers, output, employment, value added,
Implan, plant nurseries, landscape services, retailers, floral importers, sod farms, cut flowers/foliage,
commercial and institutional consumers, households, marketing, drought.








Table of Contents

Abstract ................................................................. .... i

List of Tables ................................................................ iv

List of Figures ......................................... ...................... vi

Acknowledgments ....................... ........... ....................... vi

1: Introduction ......................... ............ ............................. 1
The United States Environmental Horticulture Industry ................. ..... ..... 1
The Florida Environmental Horticulture Industry ........................... ...... 2

2: Methods ............... ................... ................................. 5
Survey Populations and Sampling ............................................. 5
Survey Interviews and Respondent Qualification ................................. 7
Survey Information Collected ...................... ..................... ..... 7
Analysis of Survey Data ..................................................... 8
Other Information Collected .................................................. 9
Estimation of Economic Impacts ............................................. 10

3. O overall Results ......... ............................................... 13
General Characteristics of Industry Firms and Households ......................... 13
Sales of Horticultural Products and Services ................. ................. 14
Geographic Distribution of Sales ............................................. 15
Horticulture Industry Customers ............................................. 16
Em ploym ent ............................................................ 17
Area M managed ........................................................... 17
Purchases by Consumers ..................... ... ..................... 18
Total Econom ic Impacts ................................................... 18
Regional and County Economic Impacts ...................................... 20
Threats to the Horticulture Industry ........................................... 21
Impacts of Drought on the Florida Horticulture Industry .......................... 22

4. Plant Producers ................ .................................. .. .... 24
Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors .............................. 24
Plant Sales ....... ..................................................... 24
Geographic Distribution of Sales ............................................. 26
Market Channels for Plant Products .......................................... 26
Production Area Managed .................................................. 28
Em ploym ent ............................................................ 28
Economic Impacts ......................................................... 29
Regional Economic Impacts of Nurseries ................... .................. 29
Services and Product Features Offered ................ ....................... 30
Threats to Plant Nurseries .................................................. 30
Impacts of Drought on the Nursery Industry .................................... 31
Financial Borrowing Characteristics and Needs .................................. 32








5. Horticultural Retailers ...................................................... 34
Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors .............................. 34
Product Sales ........................................................... 34
Retail Markets and Marketing Practices ....................................... 34
Geographic Sales ....................................................... 35
Retail Sales Area ..... .................................................. 36
Employment by Retailers ................................................... 36
Economic Impacts of Retailers .............................................. 36
Threats to Horticultural Retailers ............................................ 37
Impacts of Drought on the Horticulture Industry ............. ... ................ 38

6. Landscape Services Industry ..................... .. .. .. .... ................. 40
Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors ................. ........... 40
Product and Service Sales .......................... ...................... 40
Markets for Landscape Services ............................................ 41
Geographic Distribution of Sales ............. ....................... ........ 42
Employment ............................................................ 42
Economic Impacts .................................... ................ 42
Threats to the Landscape Industry .......................................... 43
Impacts of Drought on the Landscape Services Sector .......................... 44

7. Floral Import Industry ...................... ....... .... ................. 45
U.S. Cut Flower Imports ......................... ........................ 45
The Florida Floral Import Business ........................................... 46
Economic Impacts of Floral Importing ........................................ 47

8. Institutional Consumers ................. .......... ................. ........ 48
Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors ........................... 48
Value of Purchases ....................................................... 48
Vendors of Horticultural Goods and Services ........ .......... ............ 49
Types of Plants Purchased ........................ ........................ 50
Factors for Purchasing ......................... ..... ................. 50

9. Household Consumers ........................ ...... .................... 52
Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors ......................... .. 52
Purchases of Horticultural Goods and Services ................... ............ 52
Vendors for Horticultural Goods and Services ............................ . 53
Types of Plant Products Purchased ................ ....................... 53
Factors for Purchasing ................ .... ........................... 54

Appendix A: Questionnaire for Telephone Survey of The Florida Horticultural Industry and
Horticultural Consumers, 2000 .............................................. 56
N urseries ............................................................... 56
Landscape Services .................................................. .. 62
Horticultural Retailers .................................................... 67
Commercial Institutional Consumers ....................................... 72
Households ................... ... .................................. 76









List of Tables

Table 1.1. Florida nursery and greenhouse industry sales, number of farms, and production area, 1997 ...... 2
Table 1.2. Florida floriculture crop wholesale value, 2000 ........................................... 3
Table 1.3. Florida nursery crops: number producers, plants sold, inventory quantity and value, sales, and percent
wholesale, 2000 ......... .......................................................... 3
Table 2.1. Florida horticulture industry group population and survey sample, by county, 2000 ............... 6
Table 2.3. Disposition of telephone calls for the Florida horticulture industry survey, by group (2000) ......... 7
Table 2.4. Annual sales categories and estimated value, Florida horticulture industry survey, 2000 .......... 8
Table 2.5. Survey sample and expansion factors, Florida horticulture industry survey, 2000 ................ 8
Table 2.6. Covered employment and payroll for nurseries, landscape services and horticultural retailers in
selected Florida counties, 2000 .......... ........................................ 9
Table 2.7. Implan multipliers for Florida horticulture industry sectors (1999) ........... .............. 10
Table 2.8. Output, employment and value added total effects economic multipliers for horticulture sectors of
selected Florida counties and regions, 1999 ............................................. 11
Table 3.1. Years in business by Florida horticulture firms and institutions surveyed, 2000 ................. 13
Table 3.2. Number of household respondents surveyed by income range, 2000 ........................ 13
Table 3.3. Number of commercial and institutional respondents by employee size range, 2000 ............ 13
Table 3.4. Distribution of annual sales by surveyed firms, 2000 ............... ... .................... 14
Table 3.5. Sales by Florida horticulture industry, 2000 and 1997, and percent growth .................... 14
Table 3.6. Sales per firm by Florida horticulture firms, 2000 ........................................ 15
Table 3.7. Geographic distribution of sales for the Florida horticulture industry, 2000 .................... 15
Table 3.8. In-region and ex-region output for the Florida horticulture industry, 2000 ...................... 16
Table 3.9. Sales by type of customer for Florida horticulture industry, 2000 ........................... 16
Table 3.10. Employment in the Florida horticulture industry, 2000 ................................. 17
Table 3.11. Area managed by the Florida horticulture industry, 2000 ..... ........................... 17
Table 3.12. Value of purchases of horticultural products and services by Florida institutions and households
surveyed, 2000 ................... ......................................... 18
Table 3.13. Total economic impacts of the Florida horticulture industry, 2000 and change from 1997 ........ 19
Table 3.14. Direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of the Florida horticulture industry, 2000 ........ 20
Table 3.15. Regional and county economic impacts of Florida nurseries, horticultural retailers and landscaped
services sectors, 2000 ...............................................................21
Table 3.16. Threats to the Florida horticulture industry, 2000 ...................................... 22
Table 3.17. Impacts of drought on Florida sales and purchases of horticultural products and services, 2000 .. 23
Table 3.18. Net change in sales of horticultural products and services due to drought, and economic impacts in
the Florida Water Management Districts, 2000 .......................................... 23
Table 4.1a. Distribution of annual sales for Florida nurseries surveyed, 2000 .......................... 24
Table 4.1b. Sales by Florida plant producers, 2000 and 1997, and percent growth ...................... 25
Table 4.2. Ornamental plant sales by Florida producers, 2000 ..................................... 25
Table 4.3. Share of sales of native plants by Florida growers, 2000 ................. .............. 25
Table 4.4. Value of turfgrass varieties produced by Florida sod farms, 2000 .......................... 26
Table 4.5. Regional sales by Florida nurseries, 2000 ............................................26
Table 4.6. Markets for Florida nursery products, 2000 ...........................................27
Table 4.7. Markets for Florida turfgrass, 2000 ............................................ .......27
Table 4.8. Marketing practices and sales of Florida nurseries, 2000 ................................. 28
Table 4.9. Production area managed by Florida growers, 2000 .................................... 28
Table 4.10. Employment by Florida nurseries and sod farms, 2000 .............................. 29
Table 4.11. Total economic impacts of the Florida horticulture production sector, 2000 ................ 29
Table 4.12. County economic impacts of Florida plant nurseries, 2000 ............................... 30
Table 4.13. Product features and services offered by Florida nurseries, 2000 ......................... 30
Table 4.14. Threats to Florida nurseries, 2000 .............. ................................. 31
Table 4.15. Impacts of drought on Florida nursery sales, 2000 ..................................... 31
Table 4.16. Net change in sales and direct economic impacts of drought on Florida nurseries in the Florida
Water Management Districts, 2000 .......... ..... .....................................32
Table 4.17. Financial borrowing characteristics for Florida nurseries, 2000 ........................... 33
Table 5.1. Sales of goods by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000 .................. ............. .. 34
Table 5.2. Florida horticultural retailer firm size distribution, 2000 ................................... 34
Table 5.3. Sales for Florida horticultural retailers by type of customer, 2000 .......................... 35










List of Tables (continued)


Table 5.4. Marketing practices and sales of Florida horticultural retailers, 2000 ........................ 35
Table 5.5. Geographic distribution sales by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000 ......................... 36
Table 5.6. Sales area managed by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000 .............................. 36
Table 5.7. Employment by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000 ................. .................... 36
Table 5.8. Economic impacts of the Florida horticultural retailing sector, 2000 ......................... 37
Table 5.9. County economic impacts of Florida horticultural retailing, 2000 ......................... 37
Table 5.10. Threats to Florida horticultural retailers, 2000 ................. ................... .... ...38
Table 5.11. Impacts of drought on sales by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000 ........................ 38
Table 5.12. Net change in sales and direct economic impacts of drought on Florida horticultural retailers in the
Florida W ater Management Districts, 2000 ............................ ................. 39
Table 6.1. Number and percent of landscape services respondents by annual sales category, 2000 ........ 40
Table 6.2. Sales of products and services by Florida landscape service firms, 2000 .................... 40
Table 6.3. Markets for Florida landscape services, 2000 ........................................ 41
Table 6.4. Marketing practices of the Florida landscape services sector, 2000 ......................... 41
Table 6.5. Geographic distribution of sales by the Florida landscape services sector firms, 2000 ........... 42
Table 6.6. Employment by the Florida landscape services sector, 2000 ............................. 42
Table 6.7. Economic impacts of the Florida landscape services sector, 2000 .......................... 42
Table 6.8. Economic impacts of the landscape services industry in Florida counties, 2000 ................ 43
Table 6.9. Threats to the Florida landscape services industry, 2000 .................................. 43
Table 6.10. Impacts of drought on sales by the Florida landscape services sector, 2000 .................. 44
Table 6.12. Net change in sales and direct economic impacts of drought on the Florida landscape services
sector in the Florida Water Management Districts, 2000 .............. .... .......... 44
Table 7.1. Value of U.S. fresh cut flower imports, 2000 ...... ... .... ....... ..... .... ..... ..... 46
Table 7.2. Value of fresh cut flower imports to the US, by Country, 2000 ............................. 46
Table 7.3. Sales of fresh cut flowers imported, FOB Miami, Florida, 1995-2000 ........................ 47
Table 7.4. Economic impacts of the floral import industry in Florida, 2000. ........................... 47
Table 8.1. Employment by Florida institutional consumers surveyed, 2000 ............................ 48
Table 8.2. Distribution of purchases of horticultural goods and services by Florida institutions, 2000 ........ 49
Table 8.3. Value of purchases of horticultural products and services by Florida institutions, 2000 ........... 49
Table 8.4. Vendors of horticultural goods and services to Florida institutional consumers, 2000 ............ 49
Table 8.5. Purchases of plants by Florida institutional consumers, 2000 ................... ... ... .50
Table 8.6. Factors for purchasing plants by Florida institutions surveyed, 2000 ......................... 50
Table 8.7. Factors for selecting a horticultural vendor by Florida institutions surveyed, 2000 ............... 51
Table 9.1. Number of Florida household respondents by income class, 2000 .......................... 52
Table 9.2. Distribution of purchases of plants, horticultural equipment and services by Florida households,
2000 ......................................................................52
Table 9.3. Value of purchases of horticultural products and services by Florida households surveyed, 2000 .. 53
Table 9.4. Vendors of horticultural goods and services to Florida households, 2000 ..................... 53
Table 9.5. Purchases of plants by Florida households, 2000 ....................................... 54
Table 9.6. Factors for purchasing plants by Florida households, 2000 ................................ 54
Table 9.7. Factors for selecting a horticultural vendor by Florida households, 2000 ..................... 55


List of Figures

Figure 1. Value of U.S. nursery and greenhouse crops, 1991-98 ................................... 1
Figure 2. U.S. per capital expenditures for ornamental plants, 1986-98 ................................ 1
Figure 3. Value of Florida nursery and greenhouse crops, 1991-98 ................................. 2
Figure 4. Florida regions for the horticulture industry ............................................ 11
Figure 5. Value of U.S. cut flower imports, 1991-2000 ..................................... ..... 43
Figure 6. Value of U.S. cut flower imports of major varieties, 1991-2000 ........................ ...... 43



























Acknowledgments


This project was made possible by the financial support of the Florida Nurserymen and Growers
Association, Orlando, Florida, under the leadership of Ben Bolusky, Executive Director. The project
was also sponsored by AgFirst/Farm Credit Bank, represented by Greg Steinmier, Don Rice, and Ron
O'Conner. The telephone surveys were supervised by Chris McCarty and Scott Richards of the
University of Florida's Bureau of Economic and Business Research. David Mulkey of the UF/IFAS
Food and Resource Economics Department provided a technical review of the methodology and
report. Effie Philippakos assisted with data compilation and impact analysis. UF/IFAS county
extension agents who assisted were Liz Felter, Bill Schall and David Palmer. Industry representatives
who participated in focus group sessions included Joe Cialone, Jerry Fry, Tom Beckel, Nancy
McDonald, Bill Dellecker, Walter Williams, Mitch Rabin, Sal Perez, Mike Griss, Jeff Davidson, Ken
Miller, Dick Avery, Randy Wesbay, and Jim Tobaugh.








1: Introduction


The United States Environmental Horticulture Industry


Nursery and greenhouse crops
represent the sixth largest agricultural
commodity group in the United States, with a
farm gate value of $12.12 billion (Bn) in 1998,
and are the fastest growing major segment of
U.S. agriculture1. Between 1991 and 1998,
sales of U.S. nursery and greenhouse crops
increased by 30 percent, or 16 percent in
inflation-adjusted terms (Figure 1), which
represented average annual growth of 2.0
percent. This growth is due to the continued
strong demand for plants, driven by a robust
economy, expansion in housing, and
increasing per capital consumption. Retail
expenditures for plant products in the US
reached $54.79 Bn in 1998, or $203 per
capital. In inflation-adjusted terms, per-capita
expenditures increased by 27 percent
between 1986 and 1998, or 2.1 percent
annually (Figure 2).
Nursery and greenhouse products are
classified as floriculture crops and nursery
crops. Floriculture crops, including annual and
perennial flowering plants, cut flowers and cut
cultivated greens, and foliage plants,
represented $3.93Bn in sales in 1998, while
nursery crops such as woody ornamental
trees and shrubs, sod, and unfinished plant
products represented $8.18Bn in sales or
roughly two-thirds of industry value.


Figure
Value of US Nursery and Greenhouse Crops, 1991-98
12.5 11


12.0

11.5

11.0 -

10.5


10.0 I I I I
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Constant dollar terms, GDP implicit price deflator
Source: USDAINASS/ERS


Figure 2
US Per Capita Expenditures for Ornamental Plants, 1986-98
210 1


200

190
L
. 180

o 170
160
160


150 i1
1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996
Values in constant dollars, GDP implicit price deflator
Source: USDAIERS


1998


I Floriculture and Environmental Horticulture: Situation and Outlook Report, D. Johnson,
USDA/ERS, FLO-1999, Washington D.C., 1999.








1: Introduction


The United States Environmental Horticulture Industry


Nursery and greenhouse crops
represent the sixth largest agricultural
commodity group in the United States, with a
farm gate value of $12.12 billion (Bn) in 1998,
and are the fastest growing major segment of
U.S. agriculture1. Between 1991 and 1998,
sales of U.S. nursery and greenhouse crops
increased by 30 percent, or 16 percent in
inflation-adjusted terms (Figure 1), which
represented average annual growth of 2.0
percent. This growth is due to the continued
strong demand for plants, driven by a robust
economy, expansion in housing, and
increasing per capital consumption. Retail
expenditures for plant products in the US
reached $54.79 Bn in 1998, or $203 per
capital. In inflation-adjusted terms, per-capita
expenditures increased by 27 percent
between 1986 and 1998, or 2.1 percent
annually (Figure 2).
Nursery and greenhouse products are
classified as floriculture crops and nursery
crops. Floriculture crops, including annual and
perennial flowering plants, cut flowers and cut
cultivated greens, and foliage plants,
represented $3.93Bn in sales in 1998, while
nursery crops such as woody ornamental
trees and shrubs, sod, and unfinished plant
products represented $8.18Bn in sales or
roughly two-thirds of industry value.


Figure
Value of US Nursery and Greenhouse Crops, 1991-98
12.5 11


12.0

11.5

11.0 -

10.5


10.0 I I I I
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Constant dollar terms, GDP implicit price deflator
Source: USDAINASS/ERS


Figure 2
US Per Capita Expenditures for Ornamental Plants, 1986-98
210 1


200

190
L
. 180

o 170
160
160


150 i1
1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996
Values in constant dollars, GDP implicit price deflator
Source: USDAIERS


1998


I Floriculture and Environmental Horticulture: Situation and Outlook Report, D. Johnson,
USDA/ERS, FLO-1999, Washington D.C., 1999.








The Florida Environmental Horticulture Industry
Florida is one of the leading states in
the U.S. nursery and greenhouse industry, Figure 3
ranked second to California, with a wholesale
value of $1.28Bn in 1998. Ornamental plants Value of Florida Nursery and Greenhouse Crops, 1991-98
value of $1.28Bn in 1998. Ornamental plants
are one of the largest agricultural commodity 1.30
groups in Florida, together with citrus and
winter vegetables. Florida dominates the US 1
market for tropical foliage crops, with over 85 I
percent of sales. Overall sales for greenhouse .o
and nursery crops by Florida growers 120
increased by 24 percent during the period .0
1991-98, or 10.7 percent in inflation-adjusted
terms, representing annual growth of 1.3 m 1.15
percent (Figure 3).
The most comprehensive profile of the
Florida greenhouse and nursery industry 1.10 '
comes from the U.S. Census of Agriculture 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
mes fm the U.S. Censs of Agriculture Constant dollar terms, GDP implicit price deflator
(1997). The industry in Florida had over 5,000 Source: USDANNASS/ERS
commercial producers, with a production area
of 126,000 acres, including 121,000 acres in the open, and 223 million square feet under protective
cover (Table 1.1). Sales of $1.45 billion included, $843 million for floriculture crops and $528 million
for nursery crops, sod, and other greenhouse and nursery crops.
For the most recent year of secondary data available, 2000, sales of floriculture and nursery
crops produced in Florida were reported by the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service based
on surveys of large wholesale producers (Tables 1.2 and 1.3). Total sales of floriculture crops were
estimated at $798 million (M), including $393M for tropical foliage plants, $142M for potted flowering
plants, $100M for cut cultivated greens, $95M for annual bedding plants, $47M for propagative
materials, $29M for cut flowers, and $13M for herbaceous perennials. Total sales of Florida-grown
nursery crops in 2000 were estimated at $479 million, including $216M for deciduous shrubs and
other ornamentals, $71M for broadleaf evergreens, $52M for deciduous shade trees, and $59M for
propagation materials. These values represented a total of 66 million plant units sold. Plant
inventories totaled 83 million plant units, valued at $569M.

Table 1.1. Florida nursery and greenhouse industry sales, number of farms, and production area, 1997
Sales mr Production area Production Total
Number
Crop Value Farm under protection Area in the Production
($million) s (1000 sq.ft.) Open (acres) Area (acres)
All Nursery and Greenhouse Crops 1,450 5,121 223,439 121,352 126,481
Floriculture 843 2,657 199,473 19,663 24,242
Bedding/Garden plants 155 502 14,762 987 1,326
Cut flowers and greens 175 481 48,615 13,183 14,299
Foliage plants 387 1,454 114,047 4,710 7,328
Potted flowering plants 126 559 22,050 783 1,289
Environmental Horticulture 528 2,779 15,029 98,223 98,568
Nursery crops 385 2,261 14,341 30,161 30,490
Sod harvested 127 166 na 65,185 65,185
Other greenhouse and nursery crops* 14 352 688 2,877 2,893
Includes Christmas trees, mushrooms, vegetable and flower seeds, and greenhouse vegetables. Source:
Census of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service and Economic Research Service, USDA.








Table 1.2. Florida floriculture crop wholesale
value, 2000*
Crop Value
($1,000)
Cut flowers 29,001
Potted flowering plants 141,834
Foliage plants 393,391
Annual bedding plants 94,638
Herbaceous perennials 12,723
Cut cultivated greens 100,080
Propagative materials 47,011
Total 775,854
Expanded wholesale value 798,459
Values represent growers with $100,000+ in annual
sales. Source: Floriculture Crops Report, Sp Cr 6-1
(01) a, USDA/NASS, Washington, DC, April 2002.



Table 1.3. Florida nursery crops: number producers, plants sold, inventory quantity and
value, sales, and percent wholesale, 2000

Number of Number of
Number Trees and Gross Sales Percent of Trees and Inventory
Crop Producers Plants Sold ($1000) Sales at Plants in Value
Producers Pants Sold ($1000) Wholesale Inventory ($1000)
(1000) (1000)
Broadleaf Evergreens 216 14,724 70,822 95 19,642 106,495
Coniferous Evergreens 183 4,215 24,603 97 5,242 29,487
Deciduous Shade Trees 214 1,429 52,439 96 2,850 103,454
Deciduous Flowering Trees 192 880 21,890 97 1,362 33,113
Deciduous Shrubs and Other 414 40,974 215,720 97 49,300 275,337
Ornamentals
Fruit and Nut Plants 74 3,836 17,151 86 5,078 20,995
Transplants For Commercial 9 na 16,710 91 na na
Truck Crop Production
Propagation material 76 na 59,698 99 na na
Total 66,058 479,033 83,474 568,881
Data are for operations with $100,000+ annual sales.
Source: Nursery Crops 2000 Summary, Sp Cr 6-2 (01), National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS),
Agricultural Statistics Board, USDA, Washington, D.C. Aug. 16, 2001.


This study was undertaken to update a previous economic impact study of the Florida
environmental horticulture industry for 19972. The previous study estimated sales of ornamental plant
products by nurseries at $1.46 billion (Bn), sales by horticultural retailers at $1.75Bn, and sales by
landscape services firms at $2.70Bn. Domestic and international exports of horticultural products and
services from the state of Florida amounted to $659M. Total employment by nurseries and landscape
service firms totaled about 33,000 and 87,000 persons, respectively. Florida's single-family
households purchased plants and other horticultural goods and services valued at $2.891 billion, and


2 Economic impact ofFlorida's environmental horticulture industry, 1997. A.W. Hodges and J.J. Haydu,
University of Florida/IFAS/FRED, Economic Information Report EI99-01, March 1999.








maintained a landscape area of 3.08 million acres, while commercial and institutional consumers,
such as hotels, restaurants, schools/colleges, governments, and commercial building managers,
purchased $195 million in horticultural products and services and maintained 1.50 million acres of
landscape. Total economic output associated with the horticulture industries was estimated at $6.36;
billion, including the multiplier effect of indirect and induced impacts of export sales associated with
purchased inputs and employee spending. Total employment associated with the horticulture
industries was estimated at 187,000 jobs. Total value added generated by the horticulture industries
was $5.42 Bn, including personal income of $3.60 Bn, employee compensation of $3.00 Bn, and
indirect business taxes paid amounting to $501 million. Information for the nursery sector on sales,
employment, production area, output and economic value added were estimated for seven regions o
the state. Survey information was also collected on types of services offered and marketing practices
of industry firms, financing of nurseries, trends in business conditions, the mid-term business outlook
and factors considered by consumers for purchase, of plant products and for selection of vendors of
horticultural goods and services.








2: Methods


Survey Populations and Sampling
Estimation of the economic value of Florida's horticultural industries was based primarily upon
information obtained from surveys conducted with five different groups: wholesale nurseries,
horticultural retailers, landscape service providers, residential households, and
institutional/commercial consumers. The wholesale nurseries, retailers, and landscape service firms
represent the primary business sectors of interest, while the household and institutional consumer
sectors were surveyed to provide an independent estimate of consumer demand for horticultural
products and services. Information was collected primarily through telephone interviews. A total of
nearly 2,200 completed surveys included 668 nurseries, 409 landscape service firms, 333
horticultural retailers, 452 institutions, and 321 households. The survey was designed to provide
statistically reliable estimates for 10 selected Florida counties: Miami-Dade, Broward, Palm Beach,
Orange, Lake, Volusia, Hillsborough, Manatee, Lee, and Gadsden. A secondary survey was
conducted by faxing an abbreviated questionnaire to FNGA members to provide additional sampling
certain counties. The survey was designed to provide a 5 percent margin of error at the state level
and a 10 percent margin of error at the county level. The actual number of respondents and the
population of firms in each county and survey group, are shown in Table 2.1.
Listings of businesses or organizations for the survey were obtained from a variety of sources.
A list of certified nurseries and stock dealers (horticultural retailers) was obtained from the Florida
Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry. Any firm which produces or sells plant products
in Florida is required to register with the Division of Plant Industry. The population of nursery firms
was considered to be those firms indicated as "wholesale" or "wholesale and retail" operations, and
having a plant inventory exceeding 1000 units. A listing of Florida landscape services firms and
commercial or institutional consumers in selected businesses were taken from the Reference USA
database, based on standard industrial codes (SIC). The commercial-institutional consumer group
represented businesses or organizations such as primary schools, colleges/universities, restaurants,
hotels, museums/galleries/gardens, religious organizations, local governments, and commercial
building maintenance services. Firms or organizations were randomly selected for the survey from the
listings. The University of Florida Bureau of Economic and Business Research provided a listing of
randomly selected residential households.








2: Methods


Survey Populations and Sampling
Estimation of the economic value of Florida's horticultural industries was based primarily upon
information obtained from surveys conducted with five different groups: wholesale nurseries,
horticultural retailers, landscape service providers, residential households, and
institutional/commercial consumers. The wholesale nurseries, retailers, and landscape service firms
represent the primary business sectors of interest, while the household and institutional consumer
sectors were surveyed to provide an independent estimate of consumer demand for horticultural
products and services. Information was collected primarily through telephone interviews. A total of
nearly 2,200 completed surveys included 668 nurseries, 409 landscape service firms, 333
horticultural retailers, 452 institutions, and 321 households. The survey was designed to provide
statistically reliable estimates for 10 selected Florida counties: Miami-Dade, Broward, Palm Beach,
Orange, Lake, Volusia, Hillsborough, Manatee, Lee, and Gadsden. A secondary survey was
conducted by faxing an abbreviated questionnaire to FNGA members to provide additional sampling
certain counties. The survey was designed to provide a 5 percent margin of error at the state level
and a 10 percent margin of error at the county level. The actual number of respondents and the
population of firms in each county and survey group, are shown in Table 2.1.
Listings of businesses or organizations for the survey were obtained from a variety of sources.
A list of certified nurseries and stock dealers (horticultural retailers) was obtained from the Florida
Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry. Any firm which produces or sells plant products
in Florida is required to register with the Division of Plant Industry. The population of nursery firms
was considered to be those firms indicated as "wholesale" or "wholesale and retail" operations, and
having a plant inventory exceeding 1000 units. A listing of Florida landscape services firms and
commercial or institutional consumers in selected businesses were taken from the Reference USA
database, based on standard industrial codes (SIC). The commercial-institutional consumer group
represented businesses or organizations such as primary schools, colleges/universities, restaurants,
hotels, museums/galleries/gardens, religious organizations, local governments, and commercial
building maintenance services. Firms or organizations were randomly selected for the survey from the
listings. The University of Florida Bureau of Economic and Business Research provided a listing of
randomly selected residential households.









Table 2.1. Florida horticulture industry group population and survey sample, by county, 2000
Sample Number Population
County Nurseries Landscape Retailers Institutions Households Nurseries Ladscae Retailers
Services Services
State of Florida 668 409 333 452 321 3,792 8,465 8,109
Alachua 23 2 3 4 0 88 84 112
Baker 1 0 1 0 1 11 9 9
Bay 1 0 1 3 0 7 44 78
Bradford 0 0 0 0 1 4 6 17
Brevard 3 0 4 4 0 67 343 283
Broward 47 62 42 49 29 267 574 724
Calhoun 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 5
Charlotte 2 0 2 0 0 10 98 57
Citrus 5 0 7 0 0 32 135 76
Clay 6 0 2 1 0 14 52 68
Collier 10 0 6 0 0 73 317 133
Columbia 9 0 0 0 0 24 11 17
DeSoto 0 0 0 1 0 15 26 11
Dixie 0 0 1 0 0 9 1 7
Duval 11 4 17 3 0 45 337 374
Escambia 1 0 0 0 0 16 103 102
Flagler 2 0 0 0 0 4 27 27
Franklin 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 6
Gadsden 6 2 0 8 33 11 16 15
Gilchrist 2 0 1 0 0 12 5 3
Glades 0 0 0 0 0 6 3 1
Gulf 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 4
Hamilton 1 0 0 0 0 7 1 5
Hardee 1 0 0 0 0 34 6 11
Hendry 0 0 0 0 0 20 17 12
Hernando 8 0 2 0 0 30 76 63
Highlands 0 0 0 0 0 53 111 60
Hillsborough 57 46 28 50 30 261 327 534
Holmes 0 0 1 0 00 3 5
Indian River 0 0 0 4 0 29 92 74
Jackson 0 0 0 1 0 3 12 12
Jefferson 7 0 2 1 0 25 6 7
Lafayette 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1
Lake 61 25 16 29 36 199 288 164
Lee 19 46 8 50 31 78 343 245
Leon 2 0 4 0 0 19 95 97
Levy 3 0 0 0 0 19 17 18
Liberty 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Madison 3 0 1 1 0 8 4 8
Manatee 30 17 13 39 33 86 115 158
Marion 17 0 8 0 0 71 350 219
Martin 8 0 0 2 1 61 96 68
Miami-Dade 76 41 24 26 26 612 479 689
Monroe 0 0 0 6 0 12 99 40
Nassau 1 0 0 2 0 9 43 28
Okaloosa 2 0 3 6 0 5 136 75
Okeechobee 1 0 0 0 0 10 26 18
Orange 79 59 46 40 26 370 494 584
Osceola 7 0 4 5 0 31 136 86
Palm Beach 70 77 17 26 27 368 739 488
Pasco 12 0 3 4 0 86 175 191
Pinellas 2 0 3 10 1 69 338 555
Polk 0 0 0 4 0 175 295 297
Putnam 1 0 1 2 0 24 41 91
Santa Rosa 1 0 3 2 0 3 108 49
Sarasota 6 0 5 5 0 52 224 217
Seminole 8 0 9 3 3 58 179 213
St.Johns 0 0 2 0 0 19 72 68
St.Lucie 0 0 1 0 0 25 111 87
Sumter 4 0 0 0 3 21 23 24
Suwanee 4 0 0 0 0 20 13 10
Taylor 2 0 0 1 0 10 8 7
Union 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 6
Volusia 26 27 37 48 35 82 479 362
Wakulla 1 0 0 0 0 3 13 7
Walton 0 0 1 4 0 3 58 19
Washington 1 0 0 1 0 2 13 8








Survey Interviews and Respondent Qualification
Telephone surveys of horticulture industry firms and consumers were performed under
subcontract by the University of Florida's Bureau of Economic and Business Research, during the
period July to October, 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted with a computer-assisted system
that automatically dials telephone numbers, generates questions to ask in the proper sequence, and
records the respondent's answer entered by the operator. The system also recorded information on
interview time elapsed and the disposition of all calls as complete, incomplete, refused, ineligible,
non-working number, no answer, etc.
Firms or households interviewed for the survey were qualified by a series of questions. For
nurseries, retailers and landscapers, the person answering the phone call was asked whether the firm
sold horticultural products or services last year. Households and commercial/institutional consumers
were asked whether they maintained a landscape at their location last year. Respondents were
asked the question "are you knowledgeable about the company's business?" (nurseries, retailers,
landscapers) or "are you knowledgeable about management of the landscape at this location?"
(households, institutions). If this person was not knowledgeable, the interviewer asked to speak with
the appropriate person or arranged for a time to call back if not available. A total of nearly 18,000
telephone calls were made for the survey, of which 12 percent were completed, 0.3 percent were
incomplete interviews, 4 percent were refused, 21 percent had technical difficulties, 50 percent had
no answer or were not available. A total of 66 percent of firms or households that called were
ineligible for the survey under the screening criteria indicated above (Table 2.3).

Table 2.3. Disposition of telephone calls for the Florida horticulture industry survey, by group (2000)
Disposition h e Retailers Landscape Institutions Households All Groups Ca e
Nurseries Service calls Made
Complete 631 332 400 452 320 2,135 12.0%
Partial Complete 7 24 12 .14 57 0.3%
Refused 82 108 86 104 359 739 4.2%
Technical difficulties 438 850 608 255 1,552 3,703 20.9%
No answer, not available 1,116 1,681 2,145 2,233 1,755 8,930 50.3%
Other 336 399 405 465 590 2,195 12.4%
Total Ineligible 1,356 2,014 2,526 2,275 3,498 11,669 65.7%
Total Attempted 2,610 3,394 3,656 3,523 4,576 17,759 100.0%
Percent Ineligible 51.6% 52.0% 67.8% 55.3% 76.4% 65.7%


Survey Information Collected
Survey data was collected for fiscal year 2000. Information collected from the primary
business sectors included annual sales, employment, area managed (nurseries, retailers), types of
horticultural goods or services sold, types of plant products sold, sales to different customer markets,
regional sales, marketing practices, changes in business volume and pricing, the outlook for
business, and financial borrowing practices and considerations (nurseries). Information collected
from the consumer sectors included landscape area maintained, value of purchases of plants, other
horticultural goods and horticultural services, types of plant products purchased, types of vendors
purchased from, and factors considered for purchasing plants and selecting vendors. Information was
also collected for the first time on the effect of drought or water use restrictions on horticultural sales
or purchases. Information on annual sales by commercial firms and value of purchases by consumers
was collected in terms of ranges of values (Table 2.4). Survey questionnaires were developed
separately for each survey group and pretested in personal interviews with industry representatives.
The questionnaires were translated into a computer code for operation of the computer-assisted
telephone interview system. The telephone survey questionnaires for each group are shown in
Appendix A.








Survey Interviews and Respondent Qualification
Telephone surveys of horticulture industry firms and consumers were performed under
subcontract by the University of Florida's Bureau of Economic and Business Research, during the
period July to October, 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted with a computer-assisted system
that automatically dials telephone numbers, generates questions to ask in the proper sequence, and
records the respondent's answer entered by the operator. The system also recorded information on
interview time elapsed and the disposition of all calls as complete, incomplete, refused, ineligible,
non-working number, no answer, etc.
Firms or households interviewed for the survey were qualified by a series of questions. For
nurseries, retailers and landscapers, the person answering the phone call was asked whether the firm
sold horticultural products or services last year. Households and commercial/institutional consumers
were asked whether they maintained a landscape at their location last year. Respondents were
asked the question "are you knowledgeable about the company's business?" (nurseries, retailers,
landscapers) or "are you knowledgeable about management of the landscape at this location?"
(households, institutions). If this person was not knowledgeable, the interviewer asked to speak with
the appropriate person or arranged for a time to call back if not available. A total of nearly 18,000
telephone calls were made for the survey, of which 12 percent were completed, 0.3 percent were
incomplete interviews, 4 percent were refused, 21 percent had technical difficulties, 50 percent had
no answer or were not available. A total of 66 percent of firms or households that called were
ineligible for the survey under the screening criteria indicated above (Table 2.3).

Table 2.3. Disposition of telephone calls for the Florida horticulture industry survey, by group (2000)
Disposition h e Retailers Landscape Institutions Households All Groups Ca e
Nurseries Service calls Made
Complete 631 332 400 452 320 2,135 12.0%
Partial Complete 7 24 12 .14 57 0.3%
Refused 82 108 86 104 359 739 4.2%
Technical difficulties 438 850 608 255 1,552 3,703 20.9%
No answer, not available 1,116 1,681 2,145 2,233 1,755 8,930 50.3%
Other 336 399 405 465 590 2,195 12.4%
Total Ineligible 1,356 2,014 2,526 2,275 3,498 11,669 65.7%
Total Attempted 2,610 3,394 3,656 3,523 4,576 17,759 100.0%
Percent Ineligible 51.6% 52.0% 67.8% 55.3% 76.4% 65.7%


Survey Information Collected
Survey data was collected for fiscal year 2000. Information collected from the primary
business sectors included annual sales, employment, area managed (nurseries, retailers), types of
horticultural goods or services sold, types of plant products sold, sales to different customer markets,
regional sales, marketing practices, changes in business volume and pricing, the outlook for
business, and financial borrowing practices and considerations (nurseries). Information collected
from the consumer sectors included landscape area maintained, value of purchases of plants, other
horticultural goods and horticultural services, types of plant products purchased, types of vendors
purchased from, and factors considered for purchasing plants and selecting vendors. Information was
also collected for the first time on the effect of drought or water use restrictions on horticultural sales
or purchases. Information on annual sales by commercial firms and value of purchases by consumers
was collected in terms of ranges of values (Table 2.4). Survey questionnaires were developed
separately for each survey group and pretested in personal interviews with industry representatives.
The questionnaires were translated into a computer code for operation of the computer-assisted
telephone interview system. The telephone survey questionnaires for each group are shown in
Appendix A.








Analysis of Survey Data
Analysis of the survey data was carried out with spreadsheet software (Lotus 1-2-3, Lotus
Development Corp.). For each survey variable and derived variable, descriptive statistics were
computed, including the mean (average), standard error, number of respondents, and sum of sample
values. The 95 percent confidence interval for the mean was taken as the estimated mean plus or
minus 1.96 times the standard error. The value of sales by each firm were estimated as the lognorm
mean of the distribution within each sales range (Table 2.4), to account for the highly skewed
distribution of firm sizes. Sales of specific products or services by industry firms, and sales by market
segment or region, were estimated as a percentage of total sales for each industry sector, with the
total controlled to the amount estimated from the expansion formula. Similarly, purchases of specific
products or services by consumers, and purchases by type of vendor, were estimated as a
percentage of total purchases, with the total amount controlled.

Table 2.4. Annual sales categories and
estimated value, Florida horticulture
industry survey, 2000
Annual Sales Category Lognormal Mean
Value Estimated
less than $250,000 $124,620
$250,000 to $499,000 $363,700
$500,000 to $999,000 $714,200
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999 $1,391,900
$2,000,000 to $3,999,999 $2,813,400
$4,000,000 to $5,999,999 $4,841,200
$6,000,000 to $7,999,999 $6,832,000
$8,000,000 to $9,999,999 $8,966,500
$10,000,000 or more $16,167,200

Estimates of the total value of sales or purchases for the entire population of firms or
households were based on expansion factors that represent the ratio of the population to the number
sampled, as shown in Table 2.5. Expansion factors were calculated as F = P/S (1 E), where F is
the expansion factor, P is the Florida population, S is the number of firms/households that reported
sales or total value of purchases, and E is the percentage of firms/households ineligible for the
survey. The population of respondents was adjusted down to account for the percentage of firms tha
were ineligible for the survey according to the screening questions discussed above. The populations
of all groups were taken from the source lists, except for households, which was taken from the
Florida Statistical Abstract (UF/BEBR, 2000).

Table 2.5. Survey sample and expansion factors, Florida horticulture industry
survey, 2000
Ineligible Respondents Expansion
SuSrample population Contacts Reporting Factor for
Sury Number Po n C s Sales or Sales or


(percent)


Purchases


Purchases


Nurseries 668 3,888 51.6% 621 3.0
Retailers 333 8,113 52.0% 273 14.3
Landscapers 400 8,467 67.8% 373 7.3
Institutions 452 19,887 55.3% 416 21.4
Households 321 5,881,000 52.0% 309 9136
Total 2,174 1,992








Other Information Collected
Information was collected on Florida sod farms using a separate survey instrument. This
survey also repeated a previous survey conducted for FY 1996, so comparable information was
available for the earlier economic impact study3. Sod farms represent an independent producer group
because they are not certified by the Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry
(FDAC/DPI), and were not included in the nursery survey population list. Non-survey information was
also added on the value of cut flowers and cut cultivated greens from the USDA/NASS4. These
growers are generally not included in the FDAC/DPI certified nursery list, so were not sampled in the
survey.
The value of imported fresh cut flowers shipped through the port of Miami were also included
in this economic impact study for the first time. Information on value of sales, employment, and
warehouse space used by importers were obtained from the Association of Floral Importers of Florida
(Miami), whose members represent approximately 85 percent of the floral import industry in Florida.
The import cost of floral products was obtained from the US Department of Commerce, Customs
Service, National Trade Data Bank (www.usatradonline.com). Import values included the product
itself, plus customs fees, insurance and freight costs. Output of the retail and trade sectors was taken
as the gross margin on sales. For floral importers, a gross margin of 48.5% was calculated based on
the cost of imported product. For the retail sector, gross margin was taken from averages for the
retail sector in Florida reported for the retail industry5.
County level information on employment and payroll expense was compiled for nurseries (SIC
018), retail garden centers (SIC 526), and landscape service firms (SIC 078), from the Florida
Department of Labor, as shown in Table 2.6, to estimate economic impacts for the major counties in
Florida from controlled totals for the state of Florida.

Table 2.6. Covered employment and payroll for nurseries, landscape services and
horticultural retailers in selected Florida counties, 2000
Nurseries Landscape Retail
County Covered Payroll Covered Payroll Covered Payroll
Employment ($1000) Employment ($1000) Employment ($1000)
(jobs) (jobs) (jobs)
Alachua 235 4,138 510 8,279 63 1,146
Broward 526 11,651 3,724 75,633 239 4,874
Duval 408 9,774 2,023 40,397 189 3,455
Gadsden 1,025 20,791 115 2,117 3 47
Hillsborough 1,528 30,116 2,505 51,899 502 10,762
Lake 1,075 22,876 651 11,218 178 3,341
Lee 931 16,460 1,525 33,058 154 3,349
Manatee 647 11,591 804 15,934 98 1,490
Marion 130 2,228 457 7,254 159 2,492
Miami-Dade 4,070 80,952 2,922 58,813 264 6,701
Orange 2,893 61,414 3,293 83,466 143 2,922
Palm Beach 2,204 41,933 6,141 126,132 285 7,088
Volusia 2,297 31,642 762 12,953 140 2,444
Total Florida 23,359 446,371 42.739 871,930 4,646 92,527
Source: Florida Department of Labor, Agency for Workforce Innovation, Office of Workforce
Information Services, Labor Market Statistics, ES-202 Program, in cooperation with the U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

3 Haydu, J.J., L.N. Satterthwaite, and J.L. Cisar. An Economic and Agronomic Profile of Florida's Sod
Industry in 1996. Economic Information Report El 98-7. UF/IFAS/FRED, 23 pages. August, 1998.

4 Floriculture Crops Summary, 2001. Sp Cr 6-1 (01) a.. USDA/NASS. Washington, DC. April 2001.

5 Annual Benchmark Reportfor Retail Trade and Food Services: January 1992 to December 2000. US
Census Bureau, Current Business Reports BR/00-A, Aug. 2001.








Estimation of Economic Impacts
Regional impacts and economic multipliers were developed with an input-out model and social
accounting matrix, IMPLAN Pro software licensed from MIG, Inc, and the associated databases for
Florida, 1999. The IMPLAN databases consist of a set of social/economic accounts which describe
the structure of the US economy in terms of transactions between households, governments, and 528
standardized industry sectors classified on the basis of the primary commodity or service produced
(SIC's)6. The databases also describe local or regional economies, at the county level, in terms of
industry output, value added, employment, imports and exports. A wide variety of statistical sources
are used to construct these databases, including the annual economic censuses conducted by the
US Commerce Department and US Bureau of Labor Statistics. IMPLAN uses a matrix inversion
procedure to develop economic multipliers which reflect the direct, indirect and induced impacts of
specified changes in final demand, output or employment for any given industrial sector. Indirect
impacts result from changes in economic activity of other industrial sectors which supply goods or
services to the sector being evaluated. Induced impacts are the result of personal consumption
expenditures by industry employees. The total economic impact is the sum of direct, indirect and
induced impacts. Multipliers were compiled from IMPLAN for economic output, employment, value
added, labor income, and indirect business taxes. The latter two measures are components of value
added. Economic multipliers represent the strength of backward linkages in the regional economy to
other sectors that supply inputs to an industry.

Table 2.7. Implan multipliers for Florida horticulture industry sectors (1999)
Type/Sector Direct Indirect Induced Total Effects
Effects Effects Effects
Output
Nursery 1.000 0.193 1.124 2.317
Landscape Services 1.000 0.329 1.076 2.405
Retail 1.000 0.123 1.274 2.396
Trade (floral imports) 1.000 0.251 1.166 2.417
Employment (jobs/$million output)
Nursery 13.7 3.0 14.5 31.2
Landscape Services 33.9 4.0 14.0 51.9
Retail 20.3 1.4 17.0 38.7
Trade (floral imports) 9.0 3.0 15.6 27.6
Value Added ($/$output)
Nursery 0.773 0.123 0.713 1.610
Landscape Services 0.626 0.216 0.689 1.531
Retail 0.867 0.074 0.836 1.777
Trade (floral imports) 0,710 0.153 0.765 1.628
Labor Income ($/$output)
Nursery 0.492 0.076 0.462 1.030
Landscape Services 0.417 0.144 0.448 1.009
Retail 0.532 0.046 0.557 1.135
Trade (floral imports) 0.413 0.104 0.511 1.028
Indirect Business Taxes ($/$output)
Nursery 0.012 0.011 0.058 0.080
Landscape Services 0.026 0.013 0.055 0.094
Retail (floral imports) 0.162 0.005 0.062 0.229
Trade 0.147 0.011 0.056 0.214
Source: Minnesota Implan Group (MIG), Inc., Stillwater, MN. 2002.


6 Implan Professional Social Accounting and Impact Analysis Software, User's Guide,
Analysis Guide and Data Guide, 2nd ed., 1997, MIG, Inc., Stillwater, MN, 378 p.
(http://www.implan.com).








Regional models of the Florida economy were constructed with IMPLAN for the state as a
whole, for six regions, and for 13 individual counties. Multipliers for the nursery, retail, landscape
services, and wholesale trade sectors are given in Table 2.7, and for each region in Table 2.8.
Economic impacts of each sector and subregion of the horticultural industry were calculated for each
type of impact using the direct multiplier multiplied against local or state sales, and the total effects
multiplier multiplied against sales outside the region. Non-local sales were treated differently than
local sales because they bring "new" money into the local economy and expand its economic activity
through the multiplier effect7. The total output multipliers were approximately 2.4 for all sectors at the
state level (Table 2.7). In other words, for each dollar of sales to export final demand, a total of $2.4
in economic output activity is generated. Likewise, the employment multipliers indicate that 31 to 52
jobs are generated for each million dollars in non-local output. The output multiplier for individual
counties ranged from 1.5 to 2.3 (Table 2.8). At the individual county level, multipliers were generally
smaller than for the state because the economy is less diverse, and some inputs must be supplied
from outside the region, so there is less impact on local businesses.
Results for each region were computed independently, based on sales, employment, trade
balances, and region-specific multipliers, so the sum of estimated regional impacts may not
necessarily equal the total statewide estimates. Total employment impacts were estimated from
survey data for the direct effects, and from multipliers for the indirect and induced effects. Economic
impact estimates for 1997 were re-stated from the previous study using updated economic
multipliers. Changes in economic activity between 1997 and 2000 were adjusted for inflation by 5.16
percent, using the GDP Implicit Price Deflator (U.S. Federal Reserve Board). The definition of
economic output was changed to represent only the gross margin for the retail sector, to be
consistent with conventions of input-output modeling. Information was added for the sod, cut
flower/foliage and import sectors.

Table 2.8. Output, employment and value added total effects economic multipliers for horticulture
sectors of selected Florida counties and regions, 1999
Outt Employment Value Added
Region or County Output (jobs per million $ output) ($ per $ output)
Nursery Landscape Retail Nursery Landscape Retail Nursery Landscape Retail
North-West 2.106 2.170 2.145 31.8 52.0 36.9 1.700 1.451 1.678
North-East 2.199 2.244 2.330 33.6 54.2 43.1 1.598 1.424 1.738
Central-West 2.172 2.288 2.289 29.3 54.1 40.2 1.648 1.442 1.695
Central-East 2.204 2.307 2.265 29.9 48.6 35.9 1.504 1.463 1.679
South-West 1.924 2.023 2.017 28.4 47.1 33.7 1.464 1.296 1.528
South-East 2.205 2.277 2.284 27.3 47.8 34.3 1.402 1.446 1.705
Alachua 1.981 1.985 2.048 31.1 54.3 38.7 1.602 1.292 1.597
Broward 2.169 2.226 2.337 27.3 47.7 34.2 1.485 1.414 1.737
Duval 2.314 2.261 2.451 38.6 52.5 48.6 1.774 1.446 1.821
Gadsden 1.464 1.598 1.569 28.1 41.8 30.2 1.250 1.064 1.272
Hillsborough 2.181 2.313 2.333 29.9 57.7 47.4 1.653 1.439 1.702
Lake 1.612 1.658 1.619 24.4 48.3 30.6 1.078 1.008 1.249
Lee 1.941 2.017 2.038 30.7 53.5 36.0 1.497 1.271 1.539
Manatee 1.615 1.755 1.713 29.3 72.5 47.3 1.245 1.020 1.309
Marion 1.706 1.698 1.819 16.7 53.9 32.2 1.355 1.042 1.410
Miami-Dade 2.105 2.206 2.165 29.2 46.5 34.0 1.365 1.410 1.632
Orange 2.045 2.082 2.022 26.0 39.4 30.5 1.286 1.321 1.519
Palm Beach 2.077 2.098 2.100 21.9 44.4 30.6 1.263 1.332 1.594
Volusia 1.897 2.037 1.998 30.0 54.5 35.9 1.428 1.294 1.522
Source: Minnesota Implan Group, 2002



7 Mulkey, W.D. and A.W. Hodges. Using Implan to Assess Local Economic Impacts.
UF/IFAS Extension Fact Sheet, 10 pages, 2000 (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FE168).










North-East


North-West


L Central-East


Central-West


South-Westi


South-East


Figure 4. Florida regions for the horticulture industry.








3. Overall Results


This section presents the study's overall findings for all five groups surveyed. Results for each
specific group surveyed are presented in separate chapters of this report.

General Characteristics of Industry Firms and Households
Most firms surveyed were generally mature businesses, with an average age of 15 years for
landscape firms, 19 years for nurseries, 25 years for institutions, and 26 years for horticultural
retailers (Table 3.1).
The average size of surveyed households was 2.93 persons. The annual household income
distribution of respondents is indicated in Table 3.2. The largest share of respondents (43%) stated
that their annual household income fell between $10 and $20 thousand, while 10 percent had
household incomes exceeding $60,000.
The distribution of number of employees for commercial and institutional respondents is
indicated in Table 3.3. The largest share of firms (29%) were small, with 1 to 4 employees, and 30
percent had 50 or more employees.

Table 3.1. Years in business by Florida horticulture
firms and institutions surveyed, 2000
Sector Number Average age
Respondents (years)
Nurseries 616 18.7
Retailers 314 26.3
Landscapers 391 15.0
Institutions 395 24.8


Table 3.2. Number of household respondents surveyed
by income range, 2000
Annual Household Income Number Percent
Range Respondents Respondents
Less than $10,000 35 11%
$10,000 to $19,999 138 43%
$20,000 to $39,999 58 18%
$40,000 to $59,999 52 16%
$60,000 to $79,999 19 6%
$80,000 to $99,999 9 3%
$100,000 or more 4 1%
Not Available 5 2%
Total 320 100%


Table 3.3. Number of commercial and institutional
respondents by employee size range, 2000
Number Employees Number Percent
Range Respondents Respondents
1 to 4 132 29%
5 to 9 67 15%
10 to 19 45 10%
20 to 49 66 15%
50 to 99 53 12%
100 plus 81 18%
Not available 5 1%
Don't know 3 1%
Total 452 100%








3. Overall Results


This section presents the study's overall findings for all five groups surveyed. Results for each
specific group surveyed are presented in separate chapters of this report.

General Characteristics of Industry Firms and Households
Most firms surveyed were generally mature businesses, with an average age of 15 years for
landscape firms, 19 years for nurseries, 25 years for institutions, and 26 years for horticultural
retailers (Table 3.1).
The average size of surveyed households was 2.93 persons. The annual household income
distribution of respondents is indicated in Table 3.2. The largest share of respondents (43%) stated
that their annual household income fell between $10 and $20 thousand, while 10 percent had
household incomes exceeding $60,000.
The distribution of number of employees for commercial and institutional respondents is
indicated in Table 3.3. The largest share of firms (29%) were small, with 1 to 4 employees, and 30
percent had 50 or more employees.

Table 3.1. Years in business by Florida horticulture
firms and institutions surveyed, 2000
Sector Number Average age
Respondents (years)
Nurseries 616 18.7
Retailers 314 26.3
Landscapers 391 15.0
Institutions 395 24.8


Table 3.2. Number of household respondents surveyed
by income range, 2000
Annual Household Income Number Percent
Range Respondents Respondents
Less than $10,000 35 11%
$10,000 to $19,999 138 43%
$20,000 to $39,999 58 18%
$40,000 to $59,999 52 16%
$60,000 to $79,999 19 6%
$80,000 to $99,999 9 3%
$100,000 or more 4 1%
Not Available 5 2%
Total 320 100%


Table 3.3. Number of commercial and institutional
respondents by employee size range, 2000
Number Employees Number Percent
Range Respondents Respondents
1 to 4 132 29%
5 to 9 67 15%
10 to 19 45 10%
20 to 49 66 15%
50 to 99 53 12%
100 plus 81 18%
Not available 5 1%
Don't know 3 1%
Total 452 100%








Sales of Horticultural Products and Services
The percentage of nursery, retail and landscape firm respondents by annual sales class is
given in Table 3.4 For all groups, about half of the respondents were in the small category of less
than $250,000 in annual sales. The percentage of respondents with reported annual sales of
$250,000 to $999,999 was 29 percent for nurseries, 16 percent for retailers, and 28 percent for
landscape firms. The percentage of firms with sales exceeding $1Mn was 17 percent for nurseries,
12 percent for retailers, and 17 percent for landscapers. Annual sales information was not available c
the respondent did not know this for about 7 percent of nurseries, 18 percent of retailers, and 8
percent of landscape firms surveyed.

Table 3.4. Distribution of annual sales by surveyed firms, 2000
Annual Sales Category Nursery Retail Landscape
Percent of Firms
less than $250,000 45% 55% 45%
$250,000 to $499,000 17% 9% 17%
$500,000 to $999,000 12% 7% 11%
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999 11% 4% 7%
$2,000,000 to $3,999,999 3% 4% 5%
$4,000,000 to $5,999,999 2% 0% 1%
$6,000,000 to $7,999,999 0% 1% 1%
$8,000,000 to $9,999,999 0% 1% 0%
$10,000,000 or more 1% 2% 3%
Don't know 1% 11% 2%
Not available 6% 7% 6%
Total 100% 100% 100%

Sales of horticultural products and services in years 2000 and 1997 are summarized in Table
3.5. Total sales by Florida producers, service providers, retail and trade businesses in 2000 were
$9.867 billion (Bn). Sales for the producer sector amounted to $2.251Bn, including nurseries
($1.75Bn), sod farms ($307 million), and cut flowers and cultivated greens ($199Mn). Sales for
landscape firms were estimated at $3.11Bn. Sales for retailers were $3.64Bn. Sales were $904
million for floral importers. Total industry sales increased from $7.092Bn in 1997, representing
growth of approximately 33 percent, or 10.9 percent annually in inflation-adjusted terms. Sales were
increased significantly in all sectors. The very large increase in sales for the retail sector (33%
annually) may represent an underestimate for this group surveyed in 1997, since there was a
relatively small sample.

Table 3.5. Sales by Florida horticulture industry, 2000 and
1997, and percent growth
Percent
Sector Sales 2000 Sales 1997 Annual
($million) ($million) Growth
1997-2000*
Production 2,251 1,837 5.5%
Nursery 1,745 1,463 4.5%
Sod 307 199* 11.6%**
Cut Flowers & Greens 199 175 2.6%
Landscape 3,110 2,704 3.1%
Retail 3,643 1,751 32.6%
Trade (floral imports) 904 800 2.5%
Total 9,867 7,092 10.9%
*Adjusted for inflation using the GDP Implicit Price Deflator.
**Data for 1996; annual growth rate reflects 4 years.








Descriptive statistics for sales by surveyed firms are reported in Table 3.6. Sales per firm
averaged $928,000 for nurseries, $3.55 million (Mn) for sod farms, $935,000 for retailers and $1.14
Mn for landscape firms. The 95 percent confidence interval indicated represents the range in which
95 percent of all firm sales fall. For example, 95 percent of nurseries had sales between $746,000
and $1.11Mn.

Table 3.6. Sales per firm by Florida horticulture firms, 2000
Group Number Average Per Standard 95 Percent
Respondents Firm ($1000) Error Confidence
($1000) Interval ($1000)*


Nursery 621 928 93 1,110--
Sod farms 54 3,548 761 5,040-2,
Retail 273 935 165 1,258--
Landscape 373 1,143 148 1,433--
Total 1,267
* 95 percent confidence interval is the mean plus or minus 1.96 times the
standard error


746
056
313
352


Geographic Distribution of Sales
For purposes of economic impact analysis, sales of horticultural products and services were compiled
by market region. Sales were classified as international, national, state or local, with the local area
defined as the city or county in which the business was located, or within a 50 mile radius (Table 3.7).
For nurseries, $995 million or 56 percent of total sales were to state or local markets, while $749M
(43%) of sales were to national and international markets. For retailers and landscapers, 87 percent
and 92 percent of sales, respectively, were to local or state markets.

Table 3.7. Geographic distribution of sales for the Florida horticulture industry, 2000
Nursery Retail Landscape
Region Percent Total Sales Percent Total Sales Percent Total Sales
Sales ($million) Sales ($million) Sales ($million)
Local area 30.8% 538 74.7% 2,720 80.8% 2,515
State (outside local area) 26.2% 457 12.0% 438 12.6% 393
National (outside Fla.) 42.0% 733 12.3% 448 5.1% 158
International 0.9% 16 1.0% 36 1.4% 45
Total 100.0% 1,745 100.0% 3,643 100.0% 3,110

The information on the geographic distribution of sales, together with other data for sod farms,
cut flowers/greens, and floral importers, was used to estimate in-region and ex-region output for the
horticulture sectors (Table 3.8). In the case of the retail and trade (floral import) sectors, output
represents the gross margin on sales, while for the production sector (nursery, sod farms, cut
flowers/greens) and landscape sector, output is equivalent to sales. In-region output represents the
state and local portion of sales, and ex-region output represents the sales outside the state of Florida
(national and international). Total output was $6.892Bn, with in-region output of $5.210Bn (76%) and
ex-region output of $1.673Bn (24%).


standad erro








Table 3.8. In-region and ex-region output for the Florida
horticulture industry, 2000
In-region Ex-region Total
Sector Output Output Output
($million) ($million) ($million)
Nursery 995 750 1,745
Sod farms 305 2 307
Cut Flowers & Greens 20 179 199
Landscape 2,907 203 3,110
Retail* 947 145 1,093
Trade (floral imports)* 44 395 438
Total 5,219 1,673 6,892
* Output reflects gross margin on sales (see methods).


Horticulture Industry Customers
Sales of horticultural products and services to different types of customers are summarized in
Table 3.9. For nurseries, the most important customers were re-wholesalers or brokers (20%),
landscape service firms (16%), other growers (16%), independent retail garden centers (14%),
developers (12%), and mass merchant retailers (12%), with direct sales to the public and other
customers representing 6 percent. For retailers and landscape firms, the most important customer
segment by far was homeowners, representing 48 percent and 30 percent of total sales, respectively.
Other important customers for retailers and landscape firms were commercial establishments (14%,
17%), apartments and condominiums (11%, 19%), and landscape firms (11%). In addition, builders
and developers were large customers for landscape services (21%).

Table 3.9. Sales by type of customer for Florida horticulture industry, 2000
Percent Percent Estimated
Type of Customer/Sector Firms ee Total Sales
Selling ales $million)
Nursery
Re-wholesalers or brokers 66% 20.4% 356
Landscapers, interiorscapers or lawn maintenance firms 65% 19.8% 345
Growers 61% 16.4% 286
Garden centers and other retailers 42% 14.1% 247
Developers or property managers 33% 11.9% 207
Retail mass merchandisers 23% 11.5% 201
Directly to the public (homeowners) 33% 5.1% 88
Other types customers 5% 0.9% 15
Total 100.0% 1,745
Retail
Homeowners 65% 48.2% 1,755
Commercial establishments (e.g restaurants, hotels, and offices) 49% 13.9% 506
Apartments and condominiums 46% 11.4% 416
Landscapers, interiorscapers or lawn maintenance firms 18% 11.4% 415
Other retailers 13% 8.8% 322
Government organizations 18% 6.3% 230
Total 100.0% 3,643
Landscape
Homeowners 75% 30.1% 936
Builders or Developers 31% 20.7% 643
Apartments and condominiums 45% 19.4% 604
Commercial establishments 58% 16.6% 515
Government organizations 21% 9.9% 307
Landscapers, interiorscapers or lawn maintenance firms 16% 3.4% 104
Total 100.0% 3,110








Employment
Direct employment in Florida's horticultural industry firms in 2000 was estimated at nearly
158,000 persons, as summarized in Table 3.10. This included 35,622 employees in nurseries, 2,410
on sod farms, 60,637 in landscape services, 53,202 by horticultural retailers, and 6,100 by floral
importers, Overall, about 68 percent of employees were full time, and 32 percent were part-time,
temporary or seasonal. These employment figures are significantly higher than the number of
employees reported to the Florida Department of Labor for purposes of unemployment compensation
(see Table 2.6), because the self-employed are not required to report employment and payroll to the
government.

Table 3.10. Employment in the Florida horticulture industry, 2000
Part-time, Share
Sector Full-time temporary or Total fulltime
seasonal
Nursery 27,463 8,159 35,622 77%
Sod Farms 1,889 521 2,410 78%
Landscape 47,433 13,204 60,637 78%
Retail 29,975 23,226 53,202 56%
Floral imports* na na 6,100 na
Total 106,760 45,110 157,970 68%
Data from survey by Association of Florida Importers of Florida


Area Managed
Area managed by horticultural producers, retailers, and commercial/institutional consumers is
summarized in Table 3.11. Total production area was estimated at 173,000 acres, including 70,304
acres for nurseries, 80,347 acres for sod farms, and 22,010 acres for cut flowers/greens. Among
nurseries, there was 22,853 acres in field production, 28,501 acres in open container production, and
18,950 acres (825 million square feet) of covered area in greenhouses or shadehouses. Retail sales
area totaled 1,878 acres (82 million square feet), with 63 percent of this space used for live plants.
Landscape area maintained by selected types of institutions surveyed amounted to 238,612 acres.
Landscape area maintained by households was estimated at 419,000 acres.

Table 3.11. Area managed by the Florida
horticulture industry, 2000
Estimated Total
Type of Area
Area (Acres)
Production area 172,661
Nurseries 70,304
Field nursery 22,853
Open container nursery 28,501
Greenhouse/shadehouse 18,950
Sod farms 80,347
Cut flowers & cultivated greens 22,010
Retail sales area 1,878
Live Plants 1,180
Lawn and garden supplies 196
Lawn and garden hard goods 115
Other goods 387
Landscape area maintained 657,708
Institutions 238,612
Households 419,096








Employment
Direct employment in Florida's horticultural industry firms in 2000 was estimated at nearly
158,000 persons, as summarized in Table 3.10. This included 35,622 employees in nurseries, 2,410
on sod farms, 60,637 in landscape services, 53,202 by horticultural retailers, and 6,100 by floral
importers, Overall, about 68 percent of employees were full time, and 32 percent were part-time,
temporary or seasonal. These employment figures are significantly higher than the number of
employees reported to the Florida Department of Labor for purposes of unemployment compensation
(see Table 2.6), because the self-employed are not required to report employment and payroll to the
government.

Table 3.10. Employment in the Florida horticulture industry, 2000
Part-time, Share
Sector Full-time temporary or Total fulltime
seasonal
Nursery 27,463 8,159 35,622 77%
Sod Farms 1,889 521 2,410 78%
Landscape 47,433 13,204 60,637 78%
Retail 29,975 23,226 53,202 56%
Floral imports* na na 6,100 na
Total 106,760 45,110 157,970 68%
Data from survey by Association of Florida Importers of Florida


Area Managed
Area managed by horticultural producers, retailers, and commercial/institutional consumers is
summarized in Table 3.11. Total production area was estimated at 173,000 acres, including 70,304
acres for nurseries, 80,347 acres for sod farms, and 22,010 acres for cut flowers/greens. Among
nurseries, there was 22,853 acres in field production, 28,501 acres in open container production, and
18,950 acres (825 million square feet) of covered area in greenhouses or shadehouses. Retail sales
area totaled 1,878 acres (82 million square feet), with 63 percent of this space used for live plants.
Landscape area maintained by selected types of institutions surveyed amounted to 238,612 acres.
Landscape area maintained by households was estimated at 419,000 acres.

Table 3.11. Area managed by the Florida
horticulture industry, 2000
Estimated Total
Type of Area
Area (Acres)
Production area 172,661
Nurseries 70,304
Field nursery 22,853
Open container nursery 28,501
Greenhouse/shadehouse 18,950
Sod farms 80,347
Cut flowers & cultivated greens 22,010
Retail sales area 1,878
Live Plants 1,180
Lawn and garden supplies 196
Lawn and garden hard goods 115
Other goods 387
Landscape area maintained 657,708
Institutions 238,612
Households 419,096








Purchases by Consumers
The total value of purchases of horticultural goods and services by households and selected
commercial or institutional consumers in 2000 was estimated at $3.24Bn (Table 3.12). Purchases by
institutions averaged $7,800 and totaled $69 million, including $23Mn (33%) for plants, $21Mn (31%)
for horticultural equipment, and $26Mn (37%) for horticultural services. Purchases by Florida
households averaged $1,122 and totaled $3.17Bn annually, with $1.01Bn (32%) for plants, $1.19Bn
(38%) for horticultural equipment, and $974Mn (31%) for horticultural services.

Table 3.12. Value of purchases of horticultural products and
services by Florida institutions and households surveyed, 2000
Percent Estimated
Respon- Average Percent
Group/Type Respo Respon- Average percent Total Value
dents Respon- Value Total Value Tl
dents ($millions)
Institutions
Plants 416 92% 2,615 32.7% 22.6
Equipment 394 87% 2,574 30.5% 21.1
Services 388 86% 3,166 36.9% 25.6
Total 427 94% 7,800 100.0% 69.3
Households
Plants 309 96% 364 31.7% 1,005.0
Equipment 311 97% 428 37.5% 1,189.0
Services 306 95% 356 30.7% 974.2
Total 316 98% 1,122 100.0% 3,168.1


Total Economic Impacts
Total economic impacts of the horticulture industry on the Florida economy in year 2000 were
estimated using the IMPLAN input-output regional modeling system (see Methods). The total output
impact was estimated at $9.16 billion (Bn), including $6.89Bn in direct output impact from industry
sales, plus $363M in indirect impacts from allied firms that supply inputs to the horticulture industry,
and $1.91Bn in induced impacts associated with consumer spending by industry employees (Tables
3.13, 3.14). Note that the output of the retail and import trade sectors represents only the gross
margin on sales, and the indirect and induced impacts applies only to the portion of output sold
outside the state of Florida. The estimated total output impact increased by $1.187Bn between 1997
and 2000, representing a 26 percent increase, or 8.5 percent annually, in inflation-adjusted terms.
Value added is an important measure of an industry's contribution to a regional economy. It
represents the difference between sales revenues and the cost of purchased inputs, and includes the
value of employee wages and benefits, owner's compensation, dividends, capital outlays and
business taxes paid. The total value added impact by Florida's horticulture industry was $6.40Bn,
including $4.12Bn in labor income (Table 3.13). Value added by the horticultural production, service,
retail, and trade sectors were $2.52Bn, $2.13Bn, $1.08Bn, and $673 million, respectively. Total value
added by allied industries (indirect effects) amounted to $230 million, and value added by employee
spending was $1.23Bn. Indirect business taxes, primarily excise and sales taxes, paid to
governments by the horticulture industry and allied firms were estimated at $462 million. Total value
added impact in 2000 was $1.068Bn greater than estimated for 1997, representing an 6.7 percent
annual increase (inflation-adjusted).
Total employment associated with the horticulture industry was over 192,000 jobs, including
158,000 jobs directly in the commercial horticulture sectors (see Table 3.10), plus an additional 5,000
jobs in the allied supply businesses, and 25,000 jobs as a result of employee personal consumption
expenditures (Table 3.14). Total employment associated with the horticultural production, service,
retail, and trade sectors were 54,000, 64,000, 56,000, and 13,000 jobs, respectively. Total industry
employment increased from 1997 by 13 percent, or 4.4 percent annually.








Purchases by Consumers
The total value of purchases of horticultural goods and services by households and selected
commercial or institutional consumers in 2000 was estimated at $3.24Bn (Table 3.12). Purchases by
institutions averaged $7,800 and totaled $69 million, including $23Mn (33%) for plants, $21Mn (31%)
for horticultural equipment, and $26Mn (37%) for horticultural services. Purchases by Florida
households averaged $1,122 and totaled $3.17Bn annually, with $1.01Bn (32%) for plants, $1.19Bn
(38%) for horticultural equipment, and $974Mn (31%) for horticultural services.

Table 3.12. Value of purchases of horticultural products and
services by Florida institutions and households surveyed, 2000
Percent Estimated
Respon- Average Percent
Group/Type Respo Respon- Average percent Total Value
dents Respon- Value Total Value Tl
dents ($millions)
Institutions
Plants 416 92% 2,615 32.7% 22.6
Equipment 394 87% 2,574 30.5% 21.1
Services 388 86% 3,166 36.9% 25.6
Total 427 94% 7,800 100.0% 69.3
Households
Plants 309 96% 364 31.7% 1,005.0
Equipment 311 97% 428 37.5% 1,189.0
Services 306 95% 356 30.7% 974.2
Total 316 98% 1,122 100.0% 3,168.1


Total Economic Impacts
Total economic impacts of the horticulture industry on the Florida economy in year 2000 were
estimated using the IMPLAN input-output regional modeling system (see Methods). The total output
impact was estimated at $9.16 billion (Bn), including $6.89Bn in direct output impact from industry
sales, plus $363M in indirect impacts from allied firms that supply inputs to the horticulture industry,
and $1.91Bn in induced impacts associated with consumer spending by industry employees (Tables
3.13, 3.14). Note that the output of the retail and import trade sectors represents only the gross
margin on sales, and the indirect and induced impacts applies only to the portion of output sold
outside the state of Florida. The estimated total output impact increased by $1.187Bn between 1997
and 2000, representing a 26 percent increase, or 8.5 percent annually, in inflation-adjusted terms.
Value added is an important measure of an industry's contribution to a regional economy. It
represents the difference between sales revenues and the cost of purchased inputs, and includes the
value of employee wages and benefits, owner's compensation, dividends, capital outlays and
business taxes paid. The total value added impact by Florida's horticulture industry was $6.40Bn,
including $4.12Bn in labor income (Table 3.13). Value added by the horticultural production, service,
retail, and trade sectors were $2.52Bn, $2.13Bn, $1.08Bn, and $673 million, respectively. Total value
added by allied industries (indirect effects) amounted to $230 million, and value added by employee
spending was $1.23Bn. Indirect business taxes, primarily excise and sales taxes, paid to
governments by the horticulture industry and allied firms were estimated at $462 million. Total value
added impact in 2000 was $1.068Bn greater than estimated for 1997, representing an 6.7 percent
annual increase (inflation-adjusted).
Total employment associated with the horticulture industry was over 192,000 jobs, including
158,000 jobs directly in the commercial horticulture sectors (see Table 3.10), plus an additional 5,000
jobs in the allied supply businesses, and 25,000 jobs as a result of employee personal consumption
expenditures (Table 3.14). Total employment associated with the horticultural production, service,
retail, and trade sectors were 54,000, 64,000, 56,000, and 13,000 jobs, respectively. Total industry
employment increased from 1997 by 13 percent, or 4.4 percent annually.









Table 3.13. Total economic impacts of the Florida horticulture industry, 2000
and change from 1997
e Percent Percent Annual
Type/Sector Total Impact a Change Total Change Total
Type/Sector Tota Total Impact
2000 1997-2000* Impact Impact
1997-2000* 1997-2000*
Output ($million)
Production** 3,476 668 23.8% 7.9%
Landscape Services 3,395 405 13.5% 4.5%
Retail 1,296 718 124.4% 41.5%
Trade (floral imports) 997 76 8.2% 2.7%
Total 9,164 1,867 25.6% 8.5%
Value Added ($million)
Production** 2,518 520 26.0% 8.7%
Landscape Services 2,130 (103) -4.6% -1.5%
Retail 1,080 602 125.8% 41.9%
Trade (floral imports) 673 50 8.0% 2.7%
Total 6,401 1,068 20.0% 6.7%
Labor Income ($million)
Production** 1,608 529 49.0% 16.3%
Landscape Services 1,418 (306) -17.7% -5.9%
Retail 669 359 116.0% 38.7%
Trade (floral imports) 424 26 6.6% 2.2%
Total 4,118 609 17.3% 5.8%
Indirect Business Taxes ($million)
Production** 90 29 48.8% 16.3%
Landscape Services 94 14 17.1% 5.7%
Retail 187 96 106.0% 35.3%
Trade (floral imports) 91 4 5.1% 1.7%
Total 462 144 45.2% 15.1%
Employment (jobs)***
Production (nursery, sod) 54,288 7,121 17.8% 5.9%
Landscape Services 64,282 2,887 2.7% 0.9%
Retail 55,874 12,196 96.0% 32.0%
Trade (floral imports) 13,416 434 4.0% 1.3%
Total 187,859 22,637 13.3% 4.4%
* Adjusted for inflation using GDP Implicit Price Deflator.
** Production sector includes nursery, sod, cut flowers/foliage.
***Employment estimates based on survey results for direct employment plus
multiplier effects of export sales. Employment data for 1997 not available for the
retail and trade sectors.








Table 3.14. Direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of the Florida
horticulture industry, 2000
e/Sector Direct Indirect Induced Total
Type/SectImpact Impact Impact Impact
Output ($million)
Production* 2,251 179 1,046 3,476
Landscape Services 3,110 67 218 3,395
Retail 1,093 18 185 1,296
Trade (floral imports) 438 99 460 997
Total 6,892 363 1,909 9,164
Value Added ($million)
Production* 1,740 115 664 2,518
Landscape Services 1,946 44 140 2,130
Retail 948 11 122 1,080
Trade (floral imports) 311 60 302 673
Total 4,944 230 1,227 6,401
Employment (jobs)**
Production (nursery, sod) 38,032 2,780 13,477 54,288
Landscape Services 60,637 808 2,837 64,282
Retail 53,202 199 2,473 55,874
Trade (floral imports) 6,100 1,169 6,146 13,416
Total 157,970 4,957 24,933 187,859
Production sector includes nursery, sod, cut flowers/foliage.
*Employment estimates based on survey results for direct employment plus
multiplier effects of export sales.


Regional and County Economic Impacts
SRegional economic impacts of the Florida environmental horticulture industry are summarized
in Table 3.15 for 13 selected counties and six regions (see Figure 4 for regional definitions). Direct
employment, as reported to the Florida Department of Labor, was highest in the south-east Florida
region (33,543), closely followed by the central-west (30,930), and central-east (29,850) regions, then
by the north-east (17,743), south-west (13,598) and north-west (3,267). Total employment impacts
were highest in the central-cast region (45,320), followed by the southeast (40,597) and central-west
(37,937). Total output impacts regionally were $2.27Bn in the central-east region, $1.96Bn in the
south-east, $1.53Bn in the central-west, $1.10Bn in the north-east, $550Mn in the south-west, and
$229Mn in the north-west. Note that these impacts do not reflect the sod farms and cut flower/foliage
production sectors or the floral import sector.
Economic impacts in the Florida Water Management Districts are also indicated in Table 3.15.
These impacts were estimated by assigning counties to the district with the majority of land area.
Among individual counties, total output impacts were highest in Miami-Dade ($902Mn),
followed by Orange ($911Mn), Palm Beach ($867Mn), Hillsborough ($538Mn), Broward ($510Mn),
Duval ($296Mn), Volusia ($293Mn), Lee ($266Mn), Lake ($234Mn), Manatee ($146Mn), Gadsden
($121Mn), Alachua ($73Mn), and Marion ($69Mn). Sales in each country were proportional to direct
employment, but total output and value added impacts differed based on the makeup of the industry
and its export base.








Table 3.15. Regional and county economic impacts of Florida nurseries,
horticultural retailers and landscaped services sectors, 2000
Employment Sales Output Value Labor
Region or County Impacts es Impacts Added Icome
(jobs) ($million) ($million) Impacts Impacts
($million) ($million)
South-East Florida 40,597 2,025 1,963 1,303 842
Central-West Florida 37,937 2,213 1,530 1,131 724
Central-East Florida 45,320 1,982 2,265 1,540 996
North-East Florida 27,900 903 1,101 742 487
South-West Florida 13,187 806 550 409 262
North-West Florida 3,585 168 229 188 120
Northwest Florida WMD 3,199 149 203 168 108
Suwannee River WMD 1,975 95 130 102 66
St. Johns River WMD 60,731 2,529 2,948 2,002 1,297
Southwest Florida WMD 37,419 2,156 1,492 1,099 703
South Florida WMD 59,331 3,017 2,773 1,880 1,214
Palm Beach 18,157 893 867 558 362
Miami-Dade 18,354 790 902 601 389
Orange 16,303 653 911 587 382
Hillsborough 13,793 727 538 400 257
Broward 10,596 507 510 341 223
Duval 6,739 318 296 209 136
Lee 6,187 314 266 192 124
Volusia 6,225 266 293 219 140
Lake 5,790 261 234 162 103
Manatee 3,350 161 146 102 65
Marion 2,180 133 69 52 33
Gadsden 2,433 91 121 103 67
Alachua 1,792 91 73 55 36



Threats to the Horticulture Industry
Survey respondents were asked to rate possible threats facing the horticulture industry in
Florida on a scale of 1-10, with 10 representing the most severe threat. Results are summarized in
Table 3.16, with the various threats listed in rank order for each industry sector. Some of the threats
that were rated above the midpoint of the scale by all industry sectors included "Drought, Water
Availability and Water Use Restrictions", "Low Prices for Product", "General Economic Recession",
and "Increasing Energy Costs". For nurseries, the top ranked threats, were "Drought, Water
Availability and Water Use Restrictions" (7.9), "Increasing Costs of Production" (7.1), "Low Prices for
Product" (6.4), "General Economic Recession" (6.2), "Increasing Energy Costs" (5.9), "Government
Regulations" (5.9), "Restrictions on Use or Reduced Availability of Chemicals" (5.2), and "Market
Power of Large Retail Chains" (5.0). For the horticultural retailing sector, the top ranked threats were
"Low Prices for Products" (6.5), "General Economic Recession" (6.4), "Lack of Professionalism" (5.8),
"Drought and Water Use Restrictions" (5.7), "Increasing Energy Costs" (5.3), and "Poor Worker
Education and Skills" (5.1). For the landscape sector, the top ranked threats were "Drought and
Water Use Restrictions" (7.3), "Increasing Costs of Production" (6.1), "General Economic Recession"
(6.0), "Low Prices for Product or Service" (5.8), "Lack of Professionalism" (5.7), "Increasing Energy
Costs" (5.5), "Poor Worker Education and Skills" (5.2), and "Government Regulations" (5.0).








Table 3.16. Threats to the Florida horticulture industry, 2000
Threat/Sector Average Score
(scale 1-10)

Nursery
Drought, Water Availability or Water Use Restrictions 7.9
Increasing Costs of Production 7.1
Low Prices for Product 6.4
General Economic Recession 6.2
Increasing Energy Costs 5.9
Government Regulations 5.9
Restrictions on Use or Reduced Availability of Chemicals 5.2
Market Power of Large Retail Chains 5.0
Competition by Growers in Other Areas 4.9
Lack of Professionalism 4.8
Poor Worker Education and Skills 4.7
Labor Shortage 4.5
Competition by Plant Substitutes 3.9
Retail
Low Prices for Products 6.5
General Economic Recession 6.4
Lack of Professionalism 5.8
Drought and Water Use Restrictions 5.7
Increasing Energy Costs 5.3
Poor Worker Education and Skills 5.1
Labor Shortage 4.6
Competition by Plant Substitutes 4.1
Reduced Availability or Restrictions on Use of Chemicals 4.0
Landscape
Drought and Water Use Restrictions 7.3
Increasing Costs of Production 6.1
General Economic Recession 6.0
Low Prices for Product or Service 5.8
Lack of Professionalism 5.7
Increasing Energy Costs 5.5
Poor Worker Education and Skills 5.2
Government Regulations 5.0
Labor Shortage 4.7
Restrictions on Use or Reduced Availability of Chemicals 4.5
Market Power of Large Retail Chains 3.2
Competition by Plant Substitutes 3.0


Impacts of Drought on the Florida Horticulture Industry
Drought and water use issues are of special concern in the horticulture industry. During the
past four years, many areas of Florida have experienced significantly below-normal rainfall.
Anecdotal evidence indicated that many horticulture businesses have suffered severely in this
situation due to limited availability of water for irrigation, water use restrictions, and loss of sales
resulting from lower demand. However, drought could potentially benefit some horticultural business
as a result of demand for replacement plants and water conserving equipment or supplies. As part of
this study, an attempt was made to document the economic impact by asking survey respondents
whether the drought during the last four years had affected their sales or purchases of plants. A
majority of nurseries, landscape firms, and institutional consumers indicated that indeed their sales or
purchases had been affected by the drought, while somewhat less than 50 percent of retailers and
households expressed this opinion (Table 3.17). Among those respondents who indicated that they
had been affected, over three-quarters said that their sales or purchases were decreased rather than








increased. Moreover, for every group, the magnitude of change was greater in the negative direction
than in the positive direction. The percentage change in sales or purchases was multiplied against the
estimated total sales or purchases for each respondent, then expanded and summed together to
reflect the net change in total industry sales or purchases. The net impact for all groups was negative,
except for retailers. Nurseries and landscapers were estimated to have suffered a net decrease in
sales of $61Mn and $184Mn, respectively, while households and institutions reduced purchases by
$109Mn and $3Mn. The retail sector had a somewhat different outcome, with a net increase in sales
of $80million, due mainly to sales growth reported by large volume retail chains.

Table 3.17. Impacts of drought on Florida sales and purchases of horticultural products and
services, 2000
Response/Measure Nurseries Retailers Landscapers Institutions Households
Percent of respondents with sales or purchases of plants affected by drought during the last 4
years
"Yes" (affected by drought) 56.1% 41.1% 56.0% 58.4% 44.9%
"No" (not affected by drought) 41.3% 54.7% 42.3% 39.6% 52.3%
Percent respondents with sales or purchases increased or decreased
Increased 7.0% 15.3% 13.8% 15.5% 17.4%
Decreased 88.2% 79.6% 81.7% 78.8% 77.1%
Average percentage change in sales or purchases
Increased 22.0% 20.8% 14.3% 43.5% 49.3%
Decreased 24.3% 23.5% 33.1% 53.8% 63.0%
Estimated total change in sales or purchases ($millions)
Increased 35.4 234.0 15.36 1.4 96.0
Decreased 96.8 154.4 199.1 4.1 204.7
Net Difference (61.3) 79.5 (183.8) (2.8) (108.7)


The net change in sales of horticultural products due to drought and their economic impacts
on the horticulture industry were estimated separately for the five Water Management Districts of
Florida, which have varying water supply conditions and policies for water use restrictions (Table
3.18). The St. Johns, South Florida, and Southwest Florida Water Management Districts all had
horticulture industry sales exceeding $2Bn. The net change in horticulture industry sales was
negative in all of the Water Management Districts. The largest change in sales due to drought
occurred in the Southwest Florida Water Management Districts, with a loss of $155 million, which
represented approximately 7 percent of total industry sales (see Table 3.15). Horticulture businesses
in the South Florida Water Management District and St. Johns River Water Management District also
experienced significant losses in the nursery and landscape sectors, but these were partly offset by
positive net changes for retailers.

Table 3.18. Net change in sales of horticultural products and services due to drought,
and economic impacts in the Florida Water Management Districts, 2000
Direct Direct Value
Water Net Change in Sales ($million) Employment Added
Management Impacts Impacts
District Nurseries Landscape Retailers All Sectors (jobs) ($million)
Services
Northwest -1.3 na -2.1 -3.4 -34 -1.7
Suwannee River -2.3 na -0.6 -2.9 -42 -2.3
St. Johns River -8.1 -47.2 14.4 -40.9 -1,727 -33.1
Southwest -18.6 -69.0 -67.4 -155.0 -3,183 -77.6
South -33.7 -59.3 116.5 23.5 -1,957 -37.8
All -64.0 -175.5 60.8 -178.6 -6,944 -152.4








4. Plant Producers


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
This section presents information on the plant production sector of the horticulture industry,
including plant nurseries, sod farms, and growers of cut flowers and cut cultivated greens. There was
a total population of 6,656 certified nurseries in Florida in year 2000, according to the Florida Divisior
of Plant Industry. Of these, 3,888 firms were considered to be wholesale commercial operations, with
plant inventory exceeding 1000 units. A total of 668 nursery firms were interviewed in the telephone
survey, of which 621 reported information on sales, 646 gave employment, and 587 reported
production area. Some 48.4 percent of the nursery firms contacted for the survey met the eligibility
criteria that their telephone was a working number and that they had plant sales in year 2000. Total
sales reported by survey respondents were multiplied by 3.0 (expansion factor) to estimate total
industry sales. For the mailed survey of sod producers, a total of 60 firms responded out of a
population of 125 firms, and 54 respondents provided complete information on sales.


Plant Sales
The percentage of nursery firm respondents by annual sales class is given in Table 4.1a.
Forty five percent of respondents were in the small category of less than $250,000 in annual sales, 2,
percent had annual sales of $250,000 to $999,000, and 17 percent of firms had sales exceeding $1
million. Annual sales information was not available or the respondent did not know this for about 7
percent of firms surveyed. Firms with sales exceeding $10Mn accounted for 28 percent of total
industry sales.

Table 4.1a. Distribution of annual sales for Florida nurseries
surveyed, 2000
Annual Sales Range Number of Percent of Percent of
Firms Firms Total Sales
less than $250,000 300 45% 6.5%
$250,000 to $499,000 111 17% 7.0%
$500,000 to $999,000 83 12% 10.3%
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999 74 11% 17.9%
$2,000,000 to $3,999,999 23 3% 11.2%
$4,000,000 to $5,999,999 16 2% 13.4%
$6,000,000 to $7,999,999 3 0% 3.6%
$8,000,000 to $9,999,999 1 0% 1.6%
$10,000,000 or more 10 1% 28.1%
Don't know 10 1%
Not available 37 6%
Total 668 100%

Total sales by Florida producers amounted to $2.251Bn, including nurseries ($1.75Bn), sod
farms ($307Mn), and cut flowers and cultivated greens ($199Mn), as summarized in Table 4.1b.
Sales increased significantly for all Florida plant production sectors between 1997 and 2000, with
overall growth of 5.5 percent annually (inflation-adjusted). Sales growth was substantially higher for
sod, at 11.5 percent annual growth. Note that these estimates include values from other surveys and
secondary data sources.








4. Plant Producers


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
This section presents information on the plant production sector of the horticulture industry,
including plant nurseries, sod farms, and growers of cut flowers and cut cultivated greens. There was
a total population of 6,656 certified nurseries in Florida in year 2000, according to the Florida Divisior
of Plant Industry. Of these, 3,888 firms were considered to be wholesale commercial operations, with
plant inventory exceeding 1000 units. A total of 668 nursery firms were interviewed in the telephone
survey, of which 621 reported information on sales, 646 gave employment, and 587 reported
production area. Some 48.4 percent of the nursery firms contacted for the survey met the eligibility
criteria that their telephone was a working number and that they had plant sales in year 2000. Total
sales reported by survey respondents were multiplied by 3.0 (expansion factor) to estimate total
industry sales. For the mailed survey of sod producers, a total of 60 firms responded out of a
population of 125 firms, and 54 respondents provided complete information on sales.


Plant Sales
The percentage of nursery firm respondents by annual sales class is given in Table 4.1a.
Forty five percent of respondents were in the small category of less than $250,000 in annual sales, 2,
percent had annual sales of $250,000 to $999,000, and 17 percent of firms had sales exceeding $1
million. Annual sales information was not available or the respondent did not know this for about 7
percent of firms surveyed. Firms with sales exceeding $10Mn accounted for 28 percent of total
industry sales.

Table 4.1a. Distribution of annual sales for Florida nurseries
surveyed, 2000
Annual Sales Range Number of Percent of Percent of
Firms Firms Total Sales
less than $250,000 300 45% 6.5%
$250,000 to $499,000 111 17% 7.0%
$500,000 to $999,000 83 12% 10.3%
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999 74 11% 17.9%
$2,000,000 to $3,999,999 23 3% 11.2%
$4,000,000 to $5,999,999 16 2% 13.4%
$6,000,000 to $7,999,999 3 0% 3.6%
$8,000,000 to $9,999,999 1 0% 1.6%
$10,000,000 or more 10 1% 28.1%
Don't know 10 1%
Not available 37 6%
Total 668 100%

Total sales by Florida producers amounted to $2.251Bn, including nurseries ($1.75Bn), sod
farms ($307Mn), and cut flowers and cultivated greens ($199Mn), as summarized in Table 4.1b.
Sales increased significantly for all Florida plant production sectors between 1997 and 2000, with
overall growth of 5.5 percent annually (inflation-adjusted). Sales growth was substantially higher for
sod, at 11.5 percent annual growth. Note that these estimates include values from other surveys and
secondary data sources.








4. Plant Producers


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
This section presents information on the plant production sector of the horticulture industry,
including plant nurseries, sod farms, and growers of cut flowers and cut cultivated greens. There was
a total population of 6,656 certified nurseries in Florida in year 2000, according to the Florida Divisior
of Plant Industry. Of these, 3,888 firms were considered to be wholesale commercial operations, with
plant inventory exceeding 1000 units. A total of 668 nursery firms were interviewed in the telephone
survey, of which 621 reported information on sales, 646 gave employment, and 587 reported
production area. Some 48.4 percent of the nursery firms contacted for the survey met the eligibility
criteria that their telephone was a working number and that they had plant sales in year 2000. Total
sales reported by survey respondents were multiplied by 3.0 (expansion factor) to estimate total
industry sales. For the mailed survey of sod producers, a total of 60 firms responded out of a
population of 125 firms, and 54 respondents provided complete information on sales.


Plant Sales
The percentage of nursery firm respondents by annual sales class is given in Table 4.1a.
Forty five percent of respondents were in the small category of less than $250,000 in annual sales, 2,
percent had annual sales of $250,000 to $999,000, and 17 percent of firms had sales exceeding $1
million. Annual sales information was not available or the respondent did not know this for about 7
percent of firms surveyed. Firms with sales exceeding $10Mn accounted for 28 percent of total
industry sales.

Table 4.1a. Distribution of annual sales for Florida nurseries
surveyed, 2000
Annual Sales Range Number of Percent of Percent of
Firms Firms Total Sales
less than $250,000 300 45% 6.5%
$250,000 to $499,000 111 17% 7.0%
$500,000 to $999,000 83 12% 10.3%
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999 74 11% 17.9%
$2,000,000 to $3,999,999 23 3% 11.2%
$4,000,000 to $5,999,999 16 2% 13.4%
$6,000,000 to $7,999,999 3 0% 3.6%
$8,000,000 to $9,999,999 1 0% 1.6%
$10,000,000 or more 10 1% 28.1%
Don't know 10 1%
Not available 37 6%
Total 668 100%

Total sales by Florida producers amounted to $2.251Bn, including nurseries ($1.75Bn), sod
farms ($307Mn), and cut flowers and cultivated greens ($199Mn), as summarized in Table 4.1b.
Sales increased significantly for all Florida plant production sectors between 1997 and 2000, with
overall growth of 5.5 percent annually (inflation-adjusted). Sales growth was substantially higher for
sod, at 11.5 percent annual growth. Note that these estimates include values from other surveys and
secondary data sources.








Table 4.1b. Sales by Florida plant producers, 2000 and 1997,
and percent growth


Sector


Percent
Sales 2000 Sales 1997 Percent
($miin) f($mii Annual Growth
($million) ($million) Annual Growth
1997-2000*


Nursery 1,745 1,463 4.5%
Sod 307 199** 11.6%**
Cut Flowers & Greens 199 175 2.6%
Total 2,251 1,837 5.5%
* Adjusted for inflation using GDP Implicit Price Deflator
** Data for 1996; annual growth reflects 4 years.


Sales of specific plant products are summarized in Table 4.2. Shrubs and tropical foliage
plants were produced by over 40 percent of survey respondents, while flowering plants, deciduous
trees, evergreen trees, palm trees, and vines or ground covers were produced by at least 30 percent
of respondents. Groups of ornamental plants which represented at least 10 percent of the total
market were shrubs ($356Mn, 16%), tropical foliage plants ($339Mn, 15%), potted flowering or
bedding plants ($313Mn, 14%), and turfgrass ($307Mn, 14%).
Native plants are an important issue for the horticulture industry in Florida. For this study,
native plants were defined as plant species present in Florida prior to European settlement. Some 58
percent of surveyed nurseries indicated that they sold some native Florida plants, and 25 percent of
respondents said that native plants represented more than 20 percent of their sales (Table 4.3).
Estimated total sales of native plants was $100.9 million. This estimate was down slightly from $106
million estimated in 1997.

Table 4.2. Ornamental plant sales by Florida producers, 2000
Type of Plant Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sample Total Sales
Sales ($million)
Shrubs 298 45% 16% 356
Tropical foliage plants 291 44% 15% 339
Potted flowering plants or bedding plants 204 31% 14% 313
Turfgrass* 69 10% 14% 307
Cut foliage or flowers** 31 5% 9% 216
Deciduous shade, flowering or fruit trees 206 31% 9% 191
Evergreen trees 206 31% 8% 176
Palm trees 255 38% 5% 123
Propagating liners, cuttings, or plugs 188 28% 4% 88
Other types of ornamental plants 57 9% 3% 71
Vines or ground covers 218 33% 3% 65
Total Sales (incl. non-survey values) 100% 2,251
Includes values from separate survey. ** Values from USDA/NASS.


Table 4.3. Share of sales of native plants by Florida
growers, 2000
Share of total sales Number Percent
Firms Firms
None 226 36.4%
1% to 5% 107 17.2%
6% to 10% 52 8.4%
11% to 20% 46 7.4%
More than 20% 156 25.1%
Not available or don't know 48 7.7%








Varieties of turfgrass sold by Florida producers are summarized in Table 4.4. By far the most
important turfgrass variety was St. Augustine, with $249 million in sales, representing nearly 83
percent of total industry sales. Of secondary importance were Bahia (6%), Zoysia (5%), Bermuda
grass (4%) and Centipede (2%). Two-thirds (67%) of respondents produced St. Augustine, while 37
percent reported producing Bahia or Bermuda, 22 percent produced Zoysia or Centipede, and 7
percent produced other unspecified grass varieties.

Table 4.4. Value of turfgrass varieties produced by Florida sod farms, 2000
Variety Number Percent Percent Total Estimated
Respondents Respondents Value Total
($million)
St. Augustine 40 66.7% 82.9% 248.5
Bahia 22 36.7% 5.8% 17.3
Zoysia 13 21.7% 4.6% 13.8
Bermuda 22 36.7% 4.4% 13.3
Centipede 13 21.7% 1.6% 4.9
Other 4 6.7% 0.6% 1.8
Total 54 90.0% 100.0% 299.6


Geographic Distribution of Sales
The regional distribution of plants produced by Florida nurseries is summarized in Table 4.5.
Sales were categorized as local (within county or within 50 mile radius), state, national and
international. Among surveyed firms, 90 percent of firms sold products to customers within the local
area, 64 percent sold to customers in the state of Florida outside the local area, 47 percent had sales
to other US states, and 11 percent had sales to other countries. In terms of value of sales, $538 Mn
(31%) were to local markets, $457Mn (26%) were to state markets, $733 Mn (42%) were to US
national, and $16Mn (1%) were international. Sales outside the state of Florida, to national and
international markets, amounted to $749Mn or 43 percent of total nursery sales. In addition, an
estimated 90 percent of cut flowers and cut cultivated greens, valued at $179 million were sold
outside Florida, and $2Mn in sod was sold outside the state.


Table 4.5. Regional sales by Florida nurseries, 2000
Region Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
Local area 600 89.8% 30.8% 538
State (outside local area) 427 63.9% 26.2% 457
Total Local and Within Florida 57.0% 995
National (outside Fla.) 312 46.7% 42.0% 733
International 75 11.2% 0.9% 16
Total National and International 43.0% 750
Total All Regions 100.0% 1,745


Market Channels for Plant Products
Sales of plants to various market channels by Florida nurseries and sod farms are
summarized in Tables 4.6 and 4.7. At least 60 percent of nursery firms surveyed sold to re-
wholesalers, landscape or lawn maintenance firms, or to other growers, while 30 percent or more of
growers sold to retail garden centers, developers, or to homeowners, and 23 percent sold to retail
mass merchandisers. In terms of total value, re-wholesale and landscape were the largest segments
at $356 Mn (20%) and $345Mn (20%), respectively, followed by other growers (16%), retail garden








centers (14%), and developers (12%). Retail mass merchandisers also were a significant market at
$201Mn representing 12 percent of total nursery sales, although it was serviced by a relatively small
number of growers. Of course, re-wholesalers and brokers are market intermediaries that resell to
end users and retail merchants.


Table 4.6. Markets for Florida nursery products, 2000
Market Channel Number Percent
Firms Firms


Percent Estimated
Sales Total Sales
($million)


Re-wholesalers or brokers 442 66% 20.4% 356
Landscapers, interiorscapers or lawn 437 65% 19.8% 345
maintenance firms
Growers 406 61% 16.4% 286
Garden centers and other retailers 277 42% 14.1% 247
Developers or property managers 217 33% 11.9% 207
Retail mass merchandisers 151 23% 11.5% 201
Directly to the public (homeowners) 221 33% 5.1% 88
Other types customers 35 5% 0.9% 15
Total 100.0% 1,745


Markets for Florida turfgrass were dominated by landscape services firms, who purchased an
estimated $158 million in sod, or 53 percent of total value (Table 4.7). Other important types of
customers were retailers (19%) and brokers (18%).

Table 4.7. Markets for Florida turfgrass, 2000
Market Channel Number Percent Percent of Estimated
Respondents Respondents Sales Total Sales
($million)
Landscapers 44 73.3% 52.8% 158.1
Retail Garden Center 17 28.3% 18.6% 55.8
Brokers 24 40.0% 17.9% 53.5
Homeowners 30 50.0% 4.2% 12.5
Other 4 6.7% 3.6% 10.8
Golf Courses 11 18.3% 3.0% 8.9
Total 299.6

Information on marketing practices used by Florida nurseries is summarized in Table 4.8. The
most important marketing practice used was traditional personal selling by telephone or personal visit,
which was used by 48 percent of firms surveyed, and accounted for 42 percent of total sales.
Commissioned salespersons were employed by 8 percent of firms, and accounted for 11 percent of
total sales. Various forms of advertising media were generally used by about 20 to 30 percent of
firms, including trade magazines (27%), printed advertising (20%), direct mail (21%), computer
websites (20%), and radio or TV (4%). Some 26 percent of firms attended trade shows, and some 37
percent of firms participated in civic events or made charitable contributions to promote their
products. Some 18 percent of respondents used other unspecified marketing practices, and 8 percent
indicated that they had no identifiable marketing approach.









Table 4.8. Marketing practices and sales of Florida nurseries, 2000


Practice


Personal selling, telephone or visit
Commissioned salespersons
Printed advertising media
Trade shows
Promotions such as price discounts
Trade magazine advertising
Participation in civic events and
charitable contributions
Direct mail advertising
Computer website
Radio or television advertising
Other
None
Total


Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
323 48% 42% 737
53 8% 11% 198
130 20% 8% 131
174 26% 7% 129
124 19% 6% 106
178 27% 5% 93
250 37% 4% 75


21%
20%
4%
18%
8%


4%
2%
1%
8%
na
100%


74
43
11
148
na
1.745


Production Area Managed
Production area managed by Florida plant producers is summarized in Table 4.9. Total
production area was estimated at nearly 200,000 acres, including 70,304 acres (41%) for nurseries,
80,347 acres (47%) for sod farms, and 22,010 acres (13%) for cut flower and cut cultivated greens
production. The nursery production area was comprised of 22,853 acres (33%) in-ground field
production of woody ornamentals, 28,501 acres (41%) for open container production, 18,950 acres
(27%) for greenhouses and shadehouses.


Table 4.9. Production area managed by Florida growers, 2000
Type of Production Area Respondents Average Standard
Reporting Per Firm Error
(acres) (acres)


Percent of
Nursery
Production
Area


Estimated
Total Area
(acres)


Nurseries 587 37.4 5.8 40.7% 70,304
Field 239 36% 29.9 5.1 13.2% 22,853
Open container 405 61% 22.0 3.6 16.5% 28,501
Greenhouse/shadehouse 321 48% 18.4 4.9 11.0% 18,950
Sod farms 60 857.0 152.0 46.5% 80,347
Cut flowers & cultivated greens** 12.7% 22,010
Total All Producers 647 100% 172,661
Source: USDA/NASS


Employment
Employment by Florida nurseries and sod farms is summarized in Table 4.10. Total direct
employment in nurseries was estimated at 35,622, with 77 percent as full time. Direct employment by
sod farms was 2,410, with 78 percent full time. The numbers of employees per firm averaged 22.5 for
nurseries and 25 for sod farms.









Table 4.8. Marketing practices and sales of Florida nurseries, 2000


Practice


Personal selling, telephone or visit
Commissioned salespersons
Printed advertising media
Trade shows
Promotions such as price discounts
Trade magazine advertising
Participation in civic events and
charitable contributions
Direct mail advertising
Computer website
Radio or television advertising
Other
None
Total


Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
323 48% 42% 737
53 8% 11% 198
130 20% 8% 131
174 26% 7% 129
124 19% 6% 106
178 27% 5% 93
250 37% 4% 75


21%
20%
4%
18%
8%


4%
2%
1%
8%
na
100%


74
43
11
148
na
1.745


Production Area Managed
Production area managed by Florida plant producers is summarized in Table 4.9. Total
production area was estimated at nearly 200,000 acres, including 70,304 acres (41%) for nurseries,
80,347 acres (47%) for sod farms, and 22,010 acres (13%) for cut flower and cut cultivated greens
production. The nursery production area was comprised of 22,853 acres (33%) in-ground field
production of woody ornamentals, 28,501 acres (41%) for open container production, 18,950 acres
(27%) for greenhouses and shadehouses.


Table 4.9. Production area managed by Florida growers, 2000
Type of Production Area Respondents Average Standard
Reporting Per Firm Error
(acres) (acres)


Percent of
Nursery
Production
Area


Estimated
Total Area
(acres)


Nurseries 587 37.4 5.8 40.7% 70,304
Field 239 36% 29.9 5.1 13.2% 22,853
Open container 405 61% 22.0 3.6 16.5% 28,501
Greenhouse/shadehouse 321 48% 18.4 4.9 11.0% 18,950
Sod farms 60 857.0 152.0 46.5% 80,347
Cut flowers & cultivated greens** 12.7% 22,010
Total All Producers 647 100% 172,661
Source: USDA/NASS


Employment
Employment by Florida nurseries and sod farms is summarized in Table 4.10. Total direct
employment in nurseries was estimated at 35,622, with 77 percent as full time. Direct employment by
sod farms was 2,410, with 78 percent full time. The numbers of employees per firm averaged 22.5 for
nurseries and 25 for sod farms.








Table 4.10. Employment by Florida nurseries and sod
farms, 2000
Nurseries Sod Farms
Number Respondents
Full-time 646 60
Part-time 353 16
Average Per Firm (jobs) 22.5 25.0
Full-time 14.6 20.0
Part-time 7.9 5.0
Estimated Total (jobs) 35,622 2,410
Full-time 27,463 1,889
Part-time 8,159 521
Share Full time 77.1% 78.4%


Economic Impacts
Total economic impacts of the plant production sector of the Florida horticulture industry are
summarized in Table 4.11. Total output impacts were estimated at $3.48 billion (Bn), including
$2.25Bn in direct impacts of industry sales, plus $179 million (Mn) in indirect activity associated with
inputs purchased from allied suppliers, and $1.05Bn in consumer spending by industry employees.
Total value added impacts amounted to $2.52Bn, which included $1.61Bn in labor income to
employees and business owners. The industry paid an estimated $90Mn in indirect business taxes to
local, state and federal governments. The production sector employed 38,032 persons directly, plus
over 16,000 in indirect and induced activities.

Table 4.11. Total economic impacts of the Florida horticulture production
sector, 2000
Indicator Direct Indirect Induced Total
Impact Impact Impact Impact
Output ($million) 2,251 179 1,046 3,476
Value Added ($million) 1,740 115 664 2,518
Labor Income ($million) 1,108 71 430 1,608
Indirect Business Taxes ($million) 26 10 54 90
Employment (jobs) 38,032 2,780 13,477 54,288


Regional Economic Impacts of Nurseries
Total economic impacts of the nursery industry are summarized for 13 individual counties in
Table 4.12. These impact estimates were based on covered employment data reported to the Florida
Department of Labor, as a percentage of statewide impact estimates. Miami-Dade was the largest
county for nursery production, with estimated direct employment of 6,460 jobs, total employment
impacts of 9,650, total sales of $316 million (Mn), output impacts of $555Mn, value added impacts of
$361 Mn, labor income impacts of $233Mn, and indirect business tax impacts of $16Mn. Other
important counties with total output impacts exceeding $100Mn were Orange ($438Mn), Palm Beach
($253Mn), Volusia ($209Mn), Hillsborough ($177Mn), Lake ($137Mn), Gadsden ($113Mn), and Lee
($107Mn).








Table 4.10. Employment by Florida nurseries and sod
farms, 2000
Nurseries Sod Farms
Number Respondents
Full-time 646 60
Part-time 353 16
Average Per Firm (jobs) 22.5 25.0
Full-time 14.6 20.0
Part-time 7.9 5.0
Estimated Total (jobs) 35,622 2,410
Full-time 27,463 1,889
Part-time 8,159 521
Share Full time 77.1% 78.4%


Economic Impacts
Total economic impacts of the plant production sector of the Florida horticulture industry are
summarized in Table 4.11. Total output impacts were estimated at $3.48 billion (Bn), including
$2.25Bn in direct impacts of industry sales, plus $179 million (Mn) in indirect activity associated with
inputs purchased from allied suppliers, and $1.05Bn in consumer spending by industry employees.
Total value added impacts amounted to $2.52Bn, which included $1.61Bn in labor income to
employees and business owners. The industry paid an estimated $90Mn in indirect business taxes to
local, state and federal governments. The production sector employed 38,032 persons directly, plus
over 16,000 in indirect and induced activities.

Table 4.11. Total economic impacts of the Florida horticulture production
sector, 2000
Indicator Direct Indirect Induced Total
Impact Impact Impact Impact
Output ($million) 2,251 179 1,046 3,476
Value Added ($million) 1,740 115 664 2,518
Labor Income ($million) 1,108 71 430 1,608
Indirect Business Taxes ($million) 26 10 54 90
Employment (jobs) 38,032 2,780 13,477 54,288


Regional Economic Impacts of Nurseries
Total economic impacts of the nursery industry are summarized for 13 individual counties in
Table 4.12. These impact estimates were based on covered employment data reported to the Florida
Department of Labor, as a percentage of statewide impact estimates. Miami-Dade was the largest
county for nursery production, with estimated direct employment of 6,460 jobs, total employment
impacts of 9,650, total sales of $316 million (Mn), output impacts of $555Mn, value added impacts of
$361 Mn, labor income impacts of $233Mn, and indirect business tax impacts of $16Mn. Other
important counties with total output impacts exceeding $100Mn were Orange ($438Mn), Palm Beach
($253Mn), Volusia ($209Mn), Hillsborough ($177Mn), Lake ($137Mn), Gadsden ($113Mn), and Lee
($107Mn).








Table 4.12. County economic impacts of Florida plant nurseries, 2000
County Total Direct Total Sales Non-Local Output Employment Value


Miami-Dade
Orange
Palm Beach
.Volusia
Hillsborough
Lake
Gadsden
Lee
Broward
Manatee
Duval
Alachua
Marion


Employment ($million)
(jobs)


6,460
4,901
3,346
2,525
2,403
1,826
1,659
1,314
930
925
780
330
178


Output Impacts
($million) ($million)


216
189
83
95
50
78
69
45
11
29
3
13
6


555
438
253
209
177
137
113
107
59
63
42
29
13


Impacts Added
(jobs) Impacts
($million)


9,650
7,185
4,444
3,777
3,269
2,778
2,256
1,942
1,085
1,241
843
538
232


361
276
151
160
146
93
98
85
42
51
38
24
10


Labor
Income
Impacts
$million)


233
177
96
102
93
59
63
54
27
32
25
16
7


(


Services and Product Features Offered
The services and product features offered by Florida nurseries surveyed are summarized in
Table 4.13. The most common service offered by nurseries was delivery, provided by 63 percent of
firms. Contract growing was offered by 33 percent of firms. Horticultural consulting, landscape
design, and landscape installation were offered by at least 20 percent of firms. The most common
product feature offered by nurseries was plant identification or care tags (37%), while packaging was
provided by 21 percent of firms and decorative containers by 18 percent. Nearly half (49%) of firms
indicated that they had no special product feature to offer customers.

Table 4.13. Product features and services offered by Florida
nurseries, 2000
Service or Feature Number Percent


Delivery
Plant identification/care tagging
Contract growing
Horticultural consulting
Landscape design
Landscape installation
Packaging
Decorative containers
Mail order
Landscape maintenance services
Other


Respondents
420
249
219
162
140
143
140
120
76
45
60


Respondents
63%
37%
33%
24%
21%
21%
21%
18%
11%
7%
9%


Threats to Plant Nurseries
Nurseries surveyed were asked to rate possible threats facing their industry on a scale of 1-
10, with 10 representing the most severe threat. Results are summarized in Table 4.14 in rank order
of perceived importance ratings. The top ranked threats, were "Drought, Water Availability and Water
Use Restrictions" (7.9), "Increasing Costs of Production" (7.1), "Low Prices for Product" (6.4),
"General Economic Recession" (6.2), "Increasing Energy Costs" (5.9), "Government Regulations"
(5.9), "Restrictions on Use or Reduced Availability of Chemicals" (5.2), and "Market Power of Large
Retail Chains" (5.0).


Indirect
Business
Tax
Impacts
($million)
15.5
12.6
6.5
6.3
4.6
3.1
2.6
3.2
1.3
1.5
0.7
0.8
0.3









Table 4.14. Threats to Florida nurseries, 2000
Threat


Number
Respondents


Drought, Water Availability or Water Use Restrictions
Low Prices for Product
Restrictions on Use or Reduced Availability of Chemicals
Government Regulations
Increasing Costs of Production
Competition by Plant Substitutes
Competition by Growers in Other Areas
Market Power of Large Retail Chains
Lack of Professionalism
General Economic Recession
Labor Shortage
Poor Worker Education and Skills
Increasing Enerav Costs


624
604
622
615
625
585
622
614
591
613
616
611
620


Impacts of Drought on the Nursery Industry
Drought and water use issues are of special concern in the nursery industry. Survey
respondents were asked whether the drought during the last 4 years had affected their sales of
plants. A majority of firms (56%) indicated that their sales or purchases had been affected by the
drought while 41 percent said they had not been affected (Table 4.15). Among those respondents
who indicated that they had been affected, 88 percent said that their sales were decreased and 7
percent said they were increased. Moreover, the magnitude of the average decrease (24%) was
greater than the average increase (22%). The percentage change in sales or purchases was
multiplied against the estimated total sales or purchases for each respondent, then expanded and
summed together to reflect the net change in total industry sales or purchases. Nurseries were
estimated to have suffered a net decrease in sales of $61 million.

Table 4.15. Impacts of drought on Florida nursery sales, 2000
Response/Measure Value (Percent)
Number and percent of firms affected during the last 4 years
"Yes" 356 (56.1%)
"No" 262 (41.3%)
Number and percent of firms with sales increased or
decreased
Increased 25 (7.0%)
Decreased 314 (88.2%)
Average percentage change in sales
Increased 22.0%
Decreased 24.3%
Estimated total change in sales ($millions)
Increased 35.4
Decreased 96.8
Net Change (61.3)

The total economic impacts of the horticulture industry and the net change in sales of
horticultural products due to drought were estimated for the five Water Management Districts of
Florida, which have varying water supply conditions and policies for water use restrictions (Table
4.16). The net change in nursery sales was negative in all of the Water Management Districts. The
largest change in sales due to drought occurred in the South and Southwest Florida Water
Management Districts, with losses of $34Mn and $19Mn, respectively.


Average
Score
(scale 1-10)
7.9
6.4
5.2
5.9
7.1
3.9
4.9
5.0
4.8
6.2
4.5
4.7
5.9


Standard
Error Score


0.11
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.10
0.12
0.11
0.13
0.13
0.11
0.12
0.12
0.12


--








Table 4.16. Net change in sales and direct economic impacts of
drought on Florida nurseries in the Florida Water Management
Districts, 2000
Net Change in Direct Direct Value
Florida Water Sales Due to Employment Added
Management District Drought Impacts Impacts
($million) (jobs) ($million)
Northwest -1.3 -21 -1.2
Suwannee River -2.3 -39 -2.1
St. Johns River -8.1 -136 -7.5
Southwest -18.6 -312 -17.3
South -33.7 -566 -31.3
Total -64.0 -1073 -59.4


Financial Borrowing Characteristics and Needs
The financial needs of wholesale nurseries were assessed in this study at the request of the
funding partners, and results are summarized in Table 4.17. Half of respondents indicated that they
do not have a regular financial lender, 41 percent had one lender, and 9 percent had two or more
lenders. Among the reasons considered by managers for choosing a particular financial lender, the
most often cited reasons were "long term or personal relationship with the lender" and "convenience
or flexibility of repayment terms", both cited by 24 percent of respondents. The next most important
reasons were "competitive interest rates" (22%), "knowledge of the industry" (16%) and "operates
like a cooperative" (12%). A majority of respondents (55%) indicated that they were "very satisfied"
with their current lender, 21 percent were "somewhat satisfied", and only 6 percent were
"somewhat..." or "very dissatisfied". Respondents were also asked about their anticipated credit
needs over the next year. A majority of firms (50%) expected their credit needs to remain the same
as the previous year, while 21 percent of firms expected an increased need for credit and 20 percent
expected a decreased need for credit. Among the firms expecting credit needs to increase or
decrease, the average magnitude of the increase was 27 percent, and the average decrease was 34
percent. When asked about their use of electronic banking, 79 percent of respondents indicated that
they do not use electronic banking and 19 percent did. Finally, in regard to the issue of electronic
application for a loan, 43 percent said "yes" they would be interested, 40 percent said "no", and 17
percent did not know or did not have an answer available.








Table 4.17. Financial borrowing characteristics for Florida nurseries, 2000
Measure Number Percent
Respondents Respondents
Number Lenders Used
One 263 41.1%
Two 50 7.8%
Three 8 1.3%
Four 1 0.2%
Five 0 0.0%
None 322 50.3%
Don't know 18 2.8%
Not available 37 5.8%
Total 640 100.0%
Reasons for Choosing Lender
Long term or personal relationship 188 24.2%
Convenient or flexible repayment terms 183 23.6%
Competitive interest rates 167 21.5%
Knowledge of the industry 123 15.9%
Operates like a cooperative 88 11.3%
Other factor 27 3.5%
Satisfaction with Primary Financial Lender
Very satisfied 172 55.0%
Somewhat satisfied 67 21.4%
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 17 5.4%
Somewhat dissatisfied 11 3.5%
Very dissatisfied 8 2.6%
Don't know 11 3.5%
Not available 27 8.6%
Expectations for Credit Needs Next Year
Expect credit needs to increase 67 21.4%
Expect credit needs to decrease 63 20.1%
Expect credit needs to remain same 157 50.2%
Don't know 9 2.9%
Not available 17 5.4%
Average percent credit needs to increase (%) 67 26.6%
Average percent credit needs to decrease (%) 63 34.1%
Do you currently use some type of electronic banking?
Yes 123 19.4%
No 499 78.6%
Don't know 9 1.4%
Not available 4 0.6%
Would you consider applying for a loan electronically?
Yes 67 42.9%
No 63 40.4%
Don't know 9 5.8%
Not available 17 10.9%








5. Horticultural Retailers


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
A population of 8,113 horticultural retailing firms "nursery stock dealers" in Florida in 2000 wa
reported by the FDAC, Division of Plant Industry. Total of 333 firms were interviewed for the survey,
of which 273 reported sales information and 281 reported employment. Some 48 percent of firms
contacted met the eligibility criteria of having sales in the past year. An expansion factor of 14.3 was
used to estimate total industry sales from the survey results.

Product Sales
Total retail sales of plant products and related horticultural goods in Florida in 2000 were
estimated at $3.64 billion (Bn), including $1.18Bn for plants (32%), $799 million (Mn) for horticultural
supplies (22%), $359Mn for lawn and garden hard goods (10%), and $1.30Bn for other types of
goods (36%), as summarized in Table 5.1. Live plant sales were reported by 45 percent of retailers
surveyed, while horticultural supplies and hard goods were reported by 18 and 14 percent,
respectively. The average sales per firm surveyed was $935,000. A majority of firms (55%) reported
total sales of less than $250,000, 16 percent had sales of $250,000 to $1 million, and 12 percent had
sales of $1Mn or greater (Table 5.2). Firms with sales exceeding $10Mn accounted for 44 percent of
total industry sales.


Table 5.1. Sales of goods by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000
Type of Good Number Percent Percent
Firms Firms Sales


Estimated
Total Sales
($million)


Live Plants 150 45.2% 32.4% 1,182
Horticultural supplies 58 17.5% 21.9% 799
Lawn and garden hard goods 45 13.6% 9.9% 359
Other goods 86 25.9% 35.8% 1,303
Total 100.0% 3,643

Table 5.2. Florida horticultural retailer firm size distribution, 2000


Annual Sales Category


less than $250,000
$250,000 to $499,000
$500,000 to $999,000
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999
$2,000,000 to $3,999,999
$4,000,000 to $5,999,999
$6,000,000 to $7,999,999
$8,000,000 to $9,999,999
$10,000,000 or more
Don't know
Not available
Total


Number Firms
Surveyed
182
31
22
12
14
1
2
2
7
36
23
332


Percent
Firms
55%
9%
7%
4%
4%
0%
1%
1%
2%
11%
7%
100%


Percent Total
Sales
8.9%
4.4%
6.2%
6.5%
15.4%
1.9%
5.4%
7.0%
44.3%


Retail Markets and Marketing Practices
Sales by horticultural retailers to different types of customers are indicated in Table 5.3.
Homeowners were by far the largest market segment for retailers, with 65 percent of firms reporting
sales to this segment, and representing 48 percent of total sales. However, nearly half of retailers
also sold to commercial establishments (e.g restaurants, hotels, and offices) and to apartments and
condominiums, representing 14 percent and 11 percent of total sales, respectively. Sales were also








5. Horticultural Retailers


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
A population of 8,113 horticultural retailing firms "nursery stock dealers" in Florida in 2000 wa
reported by the FDAC, Division of Plant Industry. Total of 333 firms were interviewed for the survey,
of which 273 reported sales information and 281 reported employment. Some 48 percent of firms
contacted met the eligibility criteria of having sales in the past year. An expansion factor of 14.3 was
used to estimate total industry sales from the survey results.

Product Sales
Total retail sales of plant products and related horticultural goods in Florida in 2000 were
estimated at $3.64 billion (Bn), including $1.18Bn for plants (32%), $799 million (Mn) for horticultural
supplies (22%), $359Mn for lawn and garden hard goods (10%), and $1.30Bn for other types of
goods (36%), as summarized in Table 5.1. Live plant sales were reported by 45 percent of retailers
surveyed, while horticultural supplies and hard goods were reported by 18 and 14 percent,
respectively. The average sales per firm surveyed was $935,000. A majority of firms (55%) reported
total sales of less than $250,000, 16 percent had sales of $250,000 to $1 million, and 12 percent had
sales of $1Mn or greater (Table 5.2). Firms with sales exceeding $10Mn accounted for 44 percent of
total industry sales.


Table 5.1. Sales of goods by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000
Type of Good Number Percent Percent
Firms Firms Sales


Estimated
Total Sales
($million)


Live Plants 150 45.2% 32.4% 1,182
Horticultural supplies 58 17.5% 21.9% 799
Lawn and garden hard goods 45 13.6% 9.9% 359
Other goods 86 25.9% 35.8% 1,303
Total 100.0% 3,643

Table 5.2. Florida horticultural retailer firm size distribution, 2000


Annual Sales Category


less than $250,000
$250,000 to $499,000
$500,000 to $999,000
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999
$2,000,000 to $3,999,999
$4,000,000 to $5,999,999
$6,000,000 to $7,999,999
$8,000,000 to $9,999,999
$10,000,000 or more
Don't know
Not available
Total


Number Firms
Surveyed
182
31
22
12
14
1
2
2
7
36
23
332


Percent
Firms
55%
9%
7%
4%
4%
0%
1%
1%
2%
11%
7%
100%


Percent Total
Sales
8.9%
4.4%
6.2%
6.5%
15.4%
1.9%
5.4%
7.0%
44.3%


Retail Markets and Marketing Practices
Sales by horticultural retailers to different types of customers are indicated in Table 5.3.
Homeowners were by far the largest market segment for retailers, with 65 percent of firms reporting
sales to this segment, and representing 48 percent of total sales. However, nearly half of retailers
also sold to commercial establishments (e.g restaurants, hotels, and offices) and to apartments and
condominiums, representing 14 percent and 11 percent of total sales, respectively. Sales were also








5. Horticultural Retailers


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
A population of 8,113 horticultural retailing firms "nursery stock dealers" in Florida in 2000 wa
reported by the FDAC, Division of Plant Industry. Total of 333 firms were interviewed for the survey,
of which 273 reported sales information and 281 reported employment. Some 48 percent of firms
contacted met the eligibility criteria of having sales in the past year. An expansion factor of 14.3 was
used to estimate total industry sales from the survey results.

Product Sales
Total retail sales of plant products and related horticultural goods in Florida in 2000 were
estimated at $3.64 billion (Bn), including $1.18Bn for plants (32%), $799 million (Mn) for horticultural
supplies (22%), $359Mn for lawn and garden hard goods (10%), and $1.30Bn for other types of
goods (36%), as summarized in Table 5.1. Live plant sales were reported by 45 percent of retailers
surveyed, while horticultural supplies and hard goods were reported by 18 and 14 percent,
respectively. The average sales per firm surveyed was $935,000. A majority of firms (55%) reported
total sales of less than $250,000, 16 percent had sales of $250,000 to $1 million, and 12 percent had
sales of $1Mn or greater (Table 5.2). Firms with sales exceeding $10Mn accounted for 44 percent of
total industry sales.


Table 5.1. Sales of goods by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000
Type of Good Number Percent Percent
Firms Firms Sales


Estimated
Total Sales
($million)


Live Plants 150 45.2% 32.4% 1,182
Horticultural supplies 58 17.5% 21.9% 799
Lawn and garden hard goods 45 13.6% 9.9% 359
Other goods 86 25.9% 35.8% 1,303
Total 100.0% 3,643

Table 5.2. Florida horticultural retailer firm size distribution, 2000


Annual Sales Category


less than $250,000
$250,000 to $499,000
$500,000 to $999,000
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999
$2,000,000 to $3,999,999
$4,000,000 to $5,999,999
$6,000,000 to $7,999,999
$8,000,000 to $9,999,999
$10,000,000 or more
Don't know
Not available
Total


Number Firms
Surveyed
182
31
22
12
14
1
2
2
7
36
23
332


Percent
Firms
55%
9%
7%
4%
4%
0%
1%
1%
2%
11%
7%
100%


Percent Total
Sales
8.9%
4.4%
6.2%
6.5%
15.4%
1.9%
5.4%
7.0%
44.3%


Retail Markets and Marketing Practices
Sales by horticultural retailers to different types of customers are indicated in Table 5.3.
Homeowners were by far the largest market segment for retailers, with 65 percent of firms reporting
sales to this segment, and representing 48 percent of total sales. However, nearly half of retailers
also sold to commercial establishments (e.g restaurants, hotels, and offices) and to apartments and
condominiums, representing 14 percent and 11 percent of total sales, respectively. Sales were also








5. Horticultural Retailers


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
A population of 8,113 horticultural retailing firms "nursery stock dealers" in Florida in 2000 wa
reported by the FDAC, Division of Plant Industry. Total of 333 firms were interviewed for the survey,
of which 273 reported sales information and 281 reported employment. Some 48 percent of firms
contacted met the eligibility criteria of having sales in the past year. An expansion factor of 14.3 was
used to estimate total industry sales from the survey results.

Product Sales
Total retail sales of plant products and related horticultural goods in Florida in 2000 were
estimated at $3.64 billion (Bn), including $1.18Bn for plants (32%), $799 million (Mn) for horticultural
supplies (22%), $359Mn for lawn and garden hard goods (10%), and $1.30Bn for other types of
goods (36%), as summarized in Table 5.1. Live plant sales were reported by 45 percent of retailers
surveyed, while horticultural supplies and hard goods were reported by 18 and 14 percent,
respectively. The average sales per firm surveyed was $935,000. A majority of firms (55%) reported
total sales of less than $250,000, 16 percent had sales of $250,000 to $1 million, and 12 percent had
sales of $1Mn or greater (Table 5.2). Firms with sales exceeding $10Mn accounted for 44 percent of
total industry sales.


Table 5.1. Sales of goods by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000
Type of Good Number Percent Percent
Firms Firms Sales


Estimated
Total Sales
($million)


Live Plants 150 45.2% 32.4% 1,182
Horticultural supplies 58 17.5% 21.9% 799
Lawn and garden hard goods 45 13.6% 9.9% 359
Other goods 86 25.9% 35.8% 1,303
Total 100.0% 3,643

Table 5.2. Florida horticultural retailer firm size distribution, 2000


Annual Sales Category


less than $250,000
$250,000 to $499,000
$500,000 to $999,000
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999
$2,000,000 to $3,999,999
$4,000,000 to $5,999,999
$6,000,000 to $7,999,999
$8,000,000 to $9,999,999
$10,000,000 or more
Don't know
Not available
Total


Number Firms
Surveyed
182
31
22
12
14
1
2
2
7
36
23
332


Percent
Firms
55%
9%
7%
4%
4%
0%
1%
1%
2%
11%
7%
100%


Percent Total
Sales
8.9%
4.4%
6.2%
6.5%
15.4%
1.9%
5.4%
7.0%
44.3%


Retail Markets and Marketing Practices
Sales by horticultural retailers to different types of customers are indicated in Table 5.3.
Homeowners were by far the largest market segment for retailers, with 65 percent of firms reporting
sales to this segment, and representing 48 percent of total sales. However, nearly half of retailers
also sold to commercial establishments (e.g restaurants, hotels, and offices) and to apartments and
condominiums, representing 14 percent and 11 percent of total sales, respectively. Sales were also








significant to landscape services firms, representing 11 percent of total sales, although only 18
percent of firms sold to this market.

Table 5.3. Sales for Florida horticultural retailers by type of customer, 2000
Type of Customer Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
Homeowners 217 65% 48.2% 1,755
Commercial establishments (e.g 161 49% 13.9% 506
restaurants, hotels, and offices)
Apartments and condominiums 153 46% 11.4% 416
Landscapers, interiorscapers or 60 18% 11.4% 415
lawn maintenance firms
Other retailers 42 13% 8.8% 322
Government organizations 58 18% 6.3% 230
Total 100.0% 3,643

Marketing practices used by retailer firms are summarized in Table 5.4. The most important
marketing practices were personal selling and retail salespersons, each accounting for over one third
of total sales (38 and 37 percent respectively). The most commonly used practices, by a majority of
surveyed firms, were retail sales persons, printed advertising, and participation in civic events and
charitable contributions. Other practices used by at least one quarter of firms were direct mail
advertising, promotional discounts, radio or TV advertising, and computer websites.

Table 5.4. Marketing practices and sales of Florida horticultural retailers, 2000
Practice Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
Personal selling by telephone/personal visit 122 37% 38% 1,381
Retail salespersons 183 55% 37% 1,336
Printed advertising media 166 50% 7% 245
Participation in civic events and charitable 182 55% 5% 181
contributions
Direct mail advertising 103 31% 4% 155
Promotions such as price discounts 149 45% 4% 149
Radio or television advertising 89 27% 2% 88
Other 34 10% 2% 59
Computer website 127 38% 1% 48
None 14 4% na na
Total 100% 3,643


Geographic Sales
Regional distribution of sales by Florida retailers are indicated in Table 5.5. Nearly 75 percent
of sales were within the local area, and 12 percent were outside the local area but within Florida, so
only 13 percent of sales were outside the state (national or international). However, some 29 percent
of retail firms did have some sales outside Florida.








Table 5.5. Geographic distribution sales by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000
Region Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
Local area 293 88% 74.7% 2,720
State (outside local area) 141 43% 12.0% 438
Total Local and Within Florida 86.7% 3,158
National (outside Florida) 97 29% 12.3% 448
International 51 15% 1.0% 36
Total National and International 13.3% 485
Total All Regions 100.0% 3,643


Retail Sales Area
Sales area managed by horticultural retailers in Florida totaled 81.8 million square feet (MSF)
(1,878 acres), including 51.4MSF for live plants (63%), 8.5MSF for lawn and garden supplies (10%),
5.0MSF for lawn and garden hard goods (6%), and 16.9MSF for other goods (21%), as summarized
in Table 5.6. The average retail sales area per firm was 21,000 square feet.


Table 5.6. Sales area managed by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000
Type of Retail Area Respondents Average Percent of
Reporting Per Firm Total Area
(sq.ft.)
Live Plants 201 60% 14,847 63%
Lawn and garden supplies 99 30% 4,999 10%
Lawn and garden hard goods 75 23% 3,872 6%
Other goods 121 36% 8,090 21%
Total Retail Area 226 21,010 100%


Estimated
Total
(million sq.ft.)
51.4
8.5
5.0
16.9
81.8


Employment by Retailers
Employment by Florida horticultural retailers is summarized in Table 5.7. Total employment
was estimated at over 53,000 persons, including nearly 30,000 fulltime jobs (56%), and 23,000 part-
time, temporary or seasonal positions. The number of employees per firm averaged 15.1.

Table 5.7. Employment by Florida horticultural
retailers, 2000
Number Average Per Estimated
Respondents Firm (iobs) Total (jobs)
Full-time 281 7.7 29,975
Part-time 226 7.4 23,226
Total/All 15.1 53.202


Economic Impacts of Retailers
Total economic impacts of Florida's horticultural retailers in 2000 are summarized in Table 5.8.
The total output impact was $1.296 billion (Bn), including $1.09Bn in direct impacts, $18Bn in indirect
impacts associated with inputs purchased, and $185Bn in induced impacts of industry employee
personal consumption spending. Note that the output values reflect only the gross margin on sales,
which was estimated at 30 percent, since retailing is regarded as a distribution function. The total
value added impact of $1.08Bn included $669Mn in labor income and $187Mn in indirect business
taxes paid. The total employment impact was 56,000, including nearly 2700 jobs associated with
indirect and induced impacts.
Total economic impacts of the horticultural retailing sector are given for 13 Florida counties in
Table 5.9. Hillsborough county was the largest county for most indicators, with total direct








Table 5.5. Geographic distribution sales by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000
Region Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
Local area 293 88% 74.7% 2,720
State (outside local area) 141 43% 12.0% 438
Total Local and Within Florida 86.7% 3,158
National (outside Florida) 97 29% 12.3% 448
International 51 15% 1.0% 36
Total National and International 13.3% 485
Total All Regions 100.0% 3,643


Retail Sales Area
Sales area managed by horticultural retailers in Florida totaled 81.8 million square feet (MSF)
(1,878 acres), including 51.4MSF for live plants (63%), 8.5MSF for lawn and garden supplies (10%),
5.0MSF for lawn and garden hard goods (6%), and 16.9MSF for other goods (21%), as summarized
in Table 5.6. The average retail sales area per firm was 21,000 square feet.


Table 5.6. Sales area managed by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000
Type of Retail Area Respondents Average Percent of
Reporting Per Firm Total Area
(sq.ft.)
Live Plants 201 60% 14,847 63%
Lawn and garden supplies 99 30% 4,999 10%
Lawn and garden hard goods 75 23% 3,872 6%
Other goods 121 36% 8,090 21%
Total Retail Area 226 21,010 100%


Estimated
Total
(million sq.ft.)
51.4
8.5
5.0
16.9
81.8


Employment by Retailers
Employment by Florida horticultural retailers is summarized in Table 5.7. Total employment
was estimated at over 53,000 persons, including nearly 30,000 fulltime jobs (56%), and 23,000 part-
time, temporary or seasonal positions. The number of employees per firm averaged 15.1.

Table 5.7. Employment by Florida horticultural
retailers, 2000
Number Average Per Estimated
Respondents Firm (iobs) Total (jobs)
Full-time 281 7.7 29,975
Part-time 226 7.4 23,226
Total/All 15.1 53.202


Economic Impacts of Retailers
Total economic impacts of Florida's horticultural retailers in 2000 are summarized in Table 5.8.
The total output impact was $1.296 billion (Bn), including $1.09Bn in direct impacts, $18Bn in indirect
impacts associated with inputs purchased, and $185Bn in induced impacts of industry employee
personal consumption spending. Note that the output values reflect only the gross margin on sales,
which was estimated at 30 percent, since retailing is regarded as a distribution function. The total
value added impact of $1.08Bn included $669Mn in labor income and $187Mn in indirect business
taxes paid. The total employment impact was 56,000, including nearly 2700 jobs associated with
indirect and induced impacts.
Total economic impacts of the horticultural retailing sector are given for 13 Florida counties in
Table 5.9. Hillsborough county was the largest county for most indicators, with total direct








Table 5.5. Geographic distribution sales by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000
Region Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
Local area 293 88% 74.7% 2,720
State (outside local area) 141 43% 12.0% 438
Total Local and Within Florida 86.7% 3,158
National (outside Florida) 97 29% 12.3% 448
International 51 15% 1.0% 36
Total National and International 13.3% 485
Total All Regions 100.0% 3,643


Retail Sales Area
Sales area managed by horticultural retailers in Florida totaled 81.8 million square feet (MSF)
(1,878 acres), including 51.4MSF for live plants (63%), 8.5MSF for lawn and garden supplies (10%),
5.0MSF for lawn and garden hard goods (6%), and 16.9MSF for other goods (21%), as summarized
in Table 5.6. The average retail sales area per firm was 21,000 square feet.


Table 5.6. Sales area managed by Florida horticultural retailers, 2000
Type of Retail Area Respondents Average Percent of
Reporting Per Firm Total Area
(sq.ft.)
Live Plants 201 60% 14,847 63%
Lawn and garden supplies 99 30% 4,999 10%
Lawn and garden hard goods 75 23% 3,872 6%
Other goods 121 36% 8,090 21%
Total Retail Area 226 21,010 100%


Estimated
Total
(million sq.ft.)
51.4
8.5
5.0
16.9
81.8


Employment by Retailers
Employment by Florida horticultural retailers is summarized in Table 5.7. Total employment
was estimated at over 53,000 persons, including nearly 30,000 fulltime jobs (56%), and 23,000 part-
time, temporary or seasonal positions. The number of employees per firm averaged 15.1.

Table 5.7. Employment by Florida horticultural
retailers, 2000
Number Average Per Estimated
Respondents Firm (iobs) Total (jobs)
Full-time 281 7.7 29,975
Part-time 226 7.4 23,226
Total/All 15.1 53.202


Economic Impacts of Retailers
Total economic impacts of Florida's horticultural retailers in 2000 are summarized in Table 5.8.
The total output impact was $1.296 billion (Bn), including $1.09Bn in direct impacts, $18Bn in indirect
impacts associated with inputs purchased, and $185Bn in induced impacts of industry employee
personal consumption spending. Note that the output values reflect only the gross margin on sales,
which was estimated at 30 percent, since retailing is regarded as a distribution function. The total
value added impact of $1.08Bn included $669Mn in labor income and $187Mn in indirect business
taxes paid. The total employment impact was 56,000, including nearly 2700 jobs associated with
indirect and induced impacts.
Total economic impacts of the horticultural retailing sector are given for 13 Florida counties in
Table 5.9. Hillsborough county was the largest county for most indicators, with total direct








employment over 6000 jobs, total sales of $424Mn, and total output impacts of $152Mn. Other
counties with major retailer sales exceeding $100Mn were Palm Beach ($279Mn), Miami-Dade
($264Mn), Broward ($192Mn), Duval ($136Mn), Lee ($132Mn), Lake ($132Mn), and Orange
($115Mn).

Table 5.8. Economic impacts of the Florida horticultural retailing sector, 2000
Type/Sector Direct Indirect Induced Total
Impact Impact Impact Impact
Output ($million) 1,093 18 185 1,296
Value Added ($million) 948 11 122 1,080
Labor Income ($million) 581 7 81 669
Indirect Business Taxes ($million) 177 1 9 187
Employment (iobs)* 53,202 199 2,473 55.874
Note: output and value added impacts reflect gross margin on sales (30%).
** Direct employment estimated from survey, indirect and induced employment
estimated from economic model.


Table 5.9. County economic impacts of Florida horticultural retailing, 2000
County Total Direct Total Non-Local Output Employment Value Labor Indirect
Employment Sales Output Impacts Impacts Added Income Business
(jobs) ($million) (Smillion) ($million) (jobs) Impacts Impacts Tax
($million) ($million) Impacts
($million)
Hillsborough 6,188 424 19 152 6,558 126 78 21.7
Palm Beach 4,075 279 2 86 4,101 74 45 13.7
Miami Dade 3,853 264 44 130 4,521 102 65 15.2
Broward 2,802 192 9 69 2,941 57 36 9.9
Duval 1,986 136 4 46 2,076 39 24 6.8
Lee 1,926 132 0 40 1,931 35 21 6.4
Lake 1,921 132 7 44 2,005 37 23 6.6
Orange 1,680 115 10 45 1,805 37 23 6.1
Marion 1,433 98 1 30 1,444 26 16 4.8
Volusia 1,405 96 9 38 1,542 31 19 5.1
Manatee 857 59 8 23 946 19 12 3.1
Alachua 659 45 1 15 678 13 8 2.2
Gadsden 27 2 0 1 27 0 0 0.1


Threats to Horticultural Retailers
For the horticultural retailing sector, the top ranked threats to the industry were "Low Prices for
Products" (6.5), "General Economic Recession" (6.4), "Lack of Professionalism" (5.8), "Drought and
Water Use Restrictions" (5.7), "Increasing Energy Costs" (5.3), and "Poor Worker Education and
Skills" (5.1), as summarized in Table 5.10.








Table 5.10. Threats to Florida horticultural retailers, 2000
Threat Number Average Score Standard
Respondents (scale 1-10) Error Score
Low Prices for Products 316 6.5 0.17
General Economic Recession 324 6.4 0.16
Lack of Professionalism 324 5.8 0.19
Drought and Water Use Restrictions 324 5.7 0.19
Increasing Energy Costs 323 5.3 0.18
Poor Worker Education and Skills 322 5.1 0.18
Labor Shortage 325 4.6 0.18
Competition by Plant Substitutes 301 4.1 0.17
Reduced Availability or Restrictions 314 4.0 0.17
on Use of Chemicals



Impacts of Drought on the Horticulture Industry
As part of this study, horticultural retailers surveyed were questioned as to whether the
drought during the last four years had affected their sales of plants and other products. A majority of
firms (55%) indicated that their sales were not affected by the drought, and 41 percent of retailers
said they had been affected (Table 5.11). Among those respondents who indicated that they had
been affected, 80 percent said that their sales were decreased and 15 said sales were increased.
Moreover, the average magnitude of decrease was 24 percent and the average increase was 21
percent. The percentage change in sales or purchases was multiplied against the estimated total
sales or purchases for each respondent, then expanded and summed together to reflect the net
change in total industry sales or purchases. The net impact for retailers was a positive $80Mn. This
was the only group that was positively affected, due mainly to sales growth reported by large volume
retail chains.

Table 5.11. Impacts of drought on sales by
Florida horticultural retailers. 2000
Percent of firms with sales affected by
drought during the last four years
"Yes" (affected) 41.1%
"No" (not affected) 54.7%
Percent respondents with sales increased or
decreased
Increased 15.3%
Decreased 79.6%
Average percentage change in sales
Increased 20.8%
Decreased 23.5%
Estimated total change in sales ($millions)
Increased 234.0
Decreased 154.4
Net change 79.5

The net change in sales of horticultural products due to drought and the direct economic
impacts on the horticulture retailing industry were estimated for the five Water Management Districts
of Florida, which have varying water supply conditions and policies for water use restrictions (Table
5.12). The net change in horticulture industry sales was negative in the Northwest, Suwanee River,
and Southwest Florida Water Management Districts. The largest decrease in sales due to drought
occurred in the Southwest Florida Water Management Districts, with a loss of $67 million. However,
retail sales were significantly increased in the South Florida ($117Mn) and St. Johns River ($14Mn)
Water Management Districts.








Table 5.12. Net change in sales and direct economic impacts of
drought on Florida horticultural retailers in the Florida Water
Management Districts, 2000
Florida Water Net Change Direct Direct Value
Management District in Sales Employment Added Impacts
($millions) Impacts (jobs) ($million)
Northwest -2.1 -13 -0.6
Suwannee River -0.6 -4 -0.1
St. Johns River 14.4 89 3.7
Southwest -67.4 -416 -17.5
South 116.5 719 30.3
Total 60.8 375 20.7









6. Landscape Services Industry


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
The landscape services industry includes landscape contractors, lawn maintenance firms,
landscape architects and other miscellaneous services such as arborists and tree trimming (SIC
0781, 0782, 0783). The population of these firms in Florida was 8,467. A total of 400 landscape
service firms were interviewed for the survey, of which 373 provided information on sales and 400
provided employment. Of the 3,656 firms that were contacted for the survey, 67 percent were
classified as ineligible. An expansion factor of 7.3 was used to estimate industry totals from the
survey data.

Product and Service Sales
The distribution of sales by firm size class is presented in Table 6.1. Nearly half (46%) of
firms had less than $250,000 in annual sales, 28 percent had $250 to $999 thousand in sales, 15
percent had $1 to $9.9 million in sales, and 3 percent had $10 million or more in sales. Firms with
sales exceeding $10Mn accounted for 42 percent of total industry sales.

Table 6.1. Number and percent of landscape services respondents
by annual sales category, 2000
Annual Sales Category Number Percent of Percent of


less than $250,000
$250,000 to $499,000
$500,000 to $999,000
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999
$2,000,000 to $3,999,999
$4,000,000 to $5,999,999
$6,000,000 to $7,999,999
$8,000,000 to $9,999,999
$10,000,000 or more
Don't know
Not available
Total


Respondents
186
70
43
30
22
6
4
1
11
10
26
409


Firms
45.5%
17.1%
10.5%
7.3%
5.4%
1.5%
1.0%
0.2%
2.7%
2.4%
6.4%
100.0%


Total Sales
5.4%
6.0%
7.2%
9.8%
14.5%
6.8%
6.4%
2.1%
41.7%


Total sales by Florida landscape services firms in 2000 was estimated at $3.11Bn). Sales of
various goods and services by landscape service firms are detailed in Table 6.2. Landscape
installation services were the largest sales item at $1.19Bn or 38 percent of total sales, followed by
landscape maintenance services at $1.08Bn (35%) and landscape design services at $394Mn (13%).
Sales of live plants and other lawn and garden supplies together amounted to $449Mn or 14 percent
of total sales.


Table 6.2. Sales of products and services by Florida landscape service firms,
2000
Type of Good/Service Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
Landscape installation services 238 58% 38.3% 1,193
Landscape maintenance services 243 59% 34.5% 1,075
Landscape design/consulting services 197 48% 12.7% 394
Live Plants 121 30% 12.2% 380
Lawn and garden supplies 72 18% 2.2% 69
Total 100.0% 3,110









6. Landscape Services Industry


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
The landscape services industry includes landscape contractors, lawn maintenance firms,
landscape architects and other miscellaneous services such as arborists and tree trimming (SIC
0781, 0782, 0783). The population of these firms in Florida was 8,467. A total of 400 landscape
service firms were interviewed for the survey, of which 373 provided information on sales and 400
provided employment. Of the 3,656 firms that were contacted for the survey, 67 percent were
classified as ineligible. An expansion factor of 7.3 was used to estimate industry totals from the
survey data.

Product and Service Sales
The distribution of sales by firm size class is presented in Table 6.1. Nearly half (46%) of
firms had less than $250,000 in annual sales, 28 percent had $250 to $999 thousand in sales, 15
percent had $1 to $9.9 million in sales, and 3 percent had $10 million or more in sales. Firms with
sales exceeding $10Mn accounted for 42 percent of total industry sales.

Table 6.1. Number and percent of landscape services respondents
by annual sales category, 2000
Annual Sales Category Number Percent of Percent of


less than $250,000
$250,000 to $499,000
$500,000 to $999,000
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999
$2,000,000 to $3,999,999
$4,000,000 to $5,999,999
$6,000,000 to $7,999,999
$8,000,000 to $9,999,999
$10,000,000 or more
Don't know
Not available
Total


Respondents
186
70
43
30
22
6
4
1
11
10
26
409


Firms
45.5%
17.1%
10.5%
7.3%
5.4%
1.5%
1.0%
0.2%
2.7%
2.4%
6.4%
100.0%


Total Sales
5.4%
6.0%
7.2%
9.8%
14.5%
6.8%
6.4%
2.1%
41.7%


Total sales by Florida landscape services firms in 2000 was estimated at $3.11Bn). Sales of
various goods and services by landscape service firms are detailed in Table 6.2. Landscape
installation services were the largest sales item at $1.19Bn or 38 percent of total sales, followed by
landscape maintenance services at $1.08Bn (35%) and landscape design services at $394Mn (13%).
Sales of live plants and other lawn and garden supplies together amounted to $449Mn or 14 percent
of total sales.


Table 6.2. Sales of products and services by Florida landscape service firms,
2000
Type of Good/Service Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
Landscape installation services 238 58% 38.3% 1,193
Landscape maintenance services 243 59% 34.5% 1,075
Landscape design/consulting services 197 48% 12.7% 394
Live Plants 121 30% 12.2% 380
Lawn and garden supplies 72 18% 2.2% 69
Total 100.0% 3,110









6. Landscape Services Industry


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
The landscape services industry includes landscape contractors, lawn maintenance firms,
landscape architects and other miscellaneous services such as arborists and tree trimming (SIC
0781, 0782, 0783). The population of these firms in Florida was 8,467. A total of 400 landscape
service firms were interviewed for the survey, of which 373 provided information on sales and 400
provided employment. Of the 3,656 firms that were contacted for the survey, 67 percent were
classified as ineligible. An expansion factor of 7.3 was used to estimate industry totals from the
survey data.

Product and Service Sales
The distribution of sales by firm size class is presented in Table 6.1. Nearly half (46%) of
firms had less than $250,000 in annual sales, 28 percent had $250 to $999 thousand in sales, 15
percent had $1 to $9.9 million in sales, and 3 percent had $10 million or more in sales. Firms with
sales exceeding $10Mn accounted for 42 percent of total industry sales.

Table 6.1. Number and percent of landscape services respondents
by annual sales category, 2000
Annual Sales Category Number Percent of Percent of


less than $250,000
$250,000 to $499,000
$500,000 to $999,000
$1,000,000 to $1,999,999
$2,000,000 to $3,999,999
$4,000,000 to $5,999,999
$6,000,000 to $7,999,999
$8,000,000 to $9,999,999
$10,000,000 or more
Don't know
Not available
Total


Respondents
186
70
43
30
22
6
4
1
11
10
26
409


Firms
45.5%
17.1%
10.5%
7.3%
5.4%
1.5%
1.0%
0.2%
2.7%
2.4%
6.4%
100.0%


Total Sales
5.4%
6.0%
7.2%
9.8%
14.5%
6.8%
6.4%
2.1%
41.7%


Total sales by Florida landscape services firms in 2000 was estimated at $3.11Bn). Sales of
various goods and services by landscape service firms are detailed in Table 6.2. Landscape
installation services were the largest sales item at $1.19Bn or 38 percent of total sales, followed by
landscape maintenance services at $1.08Bn (35%) and landscape design services at $394Mn (13%).
Sales of live plants and other lawn and garden supplies together amounted to $449Mn or 14 percent
of total sales.


Table 6.2. Sales of products and services by Florida landscape service firms,
2000
Type of Good/Service Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
Landscape installation services 238 58% 38.3% 1,193
Landscape maintenance services 243 59% 34.5% 1,075
Landscape design/consulting services 197 48% 12.7% 394
Live Plants 121 30% 12.2% 380
Lawn and garden supplies 72 18% 2.2% 69
Total 100.0% 3,110








Markets for Landscape Services
Sales by landscape service firms to different types of customers are presented in Table 6.3.
Homeowners were the largest customer group, representing sales of $936Mn or 30 percent of total
sales. Builders/developers, apartments/condominiums, and commercial establishments were also
important customers, each representing over $500Mn in sales, or 17 to 21 percent of total sales.
Governments and other landscape service firms were smaller customers, with 10 percent and 3
percent of total sales, respectively.


Table 6.3. Markets for Florida landscape services, 2000
Type of Customer Number Percent
Firms Firms


Percent Estimated
Sales Total Sales
millionio)


Homeowners 306 75% 30.1% 936
Builders or Developers 128 31% 20.7% 643
Apartments and condominiums 185 45% 19.4% 604
Commercial establishments 239 58% 16.6% 515
Government organizations 87 21% 9.9% 307
Landscapers, interiorscapers or lawn 66 16% 3.4% 104
maintenance firms
Total 100.0% 3.110


Marketing practices used by Florida landscape services firms are summarized in Table 6.4.
The most import marketing practice was personal selling by telephone or personal visit, used by 47
percent of firms, and accounting for $1.28Bn or 41 percent of total sales. Commissioned
salespersons were used by only 10 percent of firms, but accounted for $497Mn or 16 percent of total
sales. Other marketing practices commonly used but accounting for less than 5 percent of sales were
printed advertising, used by 26% of firms, participation in civic events and charitable contributions
(36%), direct mail advertising (14%), and trade shows (10%). Also, computer websites were used by
18 percent of firms, but accounted for only 1 percent of sales.

Table 6.4. Marketing practices of the Florida landscape services sector, 2000
Practice Number Percent Percent Estimated


Personal selling by telephone or
personal visit
Commissioned salespersons
Printed advertising media
Participation in civic events and
charitable contributions
Direct mail advertising
Trade shows
Radio or television advertising
Trade magazine advertising
Promotions such as price discounts
Computer website
Other
None
Total


Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
188 47% 41% 1,281


39
105
145

56
38
20
35
41
71
154
47


10%
26%
36%

14%
10%
5%
9%
10%
18%
39%
12%


16%
4%
4%

3%
2%
2%
2%
1%
1%
23%
na


497
138
132

99
57
72
51
22
45
717
na
3.110








Geographic Distribution of Sales
Regional sales by landscape service firms are summarized in Table 6.5. An estimated
$2.52Bn or 80 percent of total sales were within the local area, another 13 percent of sales were
within Florida but outside the local area, and only 6.5 percent of sales were national or international
(outside of Florida).


Table 6.5. Geographic distribution of sales by the Florida landscape
services sector firms, 2000
Region Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
Local area 404 99% 80.8% 2,515
State (outside local area) 104 25% 12.6% 393
Total Local and Within Florida 93.5% 2,907
National (outside Fla.) 27 7% 5.1% 158
International 18 4% 1.4% 45
Total National and International 6.5% 203
Total All Regions 100.0% 3,110


Employment
Employment by the Florida landscape services sector is summarized in Table 6.6. Total
estimated employment in this sector was 60,637, including 46,433 full time, or 78 percent of all jobs,
and 13,204 part-time, temporary or seasonal jobs. The average number of employees per firm was
26.0, with 17.4 as fulltime.


Table 6.6. Employment by the Florida landscape services
sector, 2000


Number
Respondents


Average
Per Firm
(ibnhs


Estimated
Total (jobs)


Full-time 401 17.4 47,433
Part-time 228 8.5 13,204
Total/All 26.0 60,637


Economic Impacts
Total economic impacts of the Florida landscape services sector are summarized in Table 6.7,
The estimated total output impact in 2000 was $3.40Bn, including $3.11Bn in the direct impact of
industry sales, $67Mn in indirect impacts of inputs purchased by the industry from suppliers, and
$218Mn in induced impacts associated with consumer spending by industry employees. Total value
added impacts amounted to $2.13Bn, including labor income of $1.42Bn and indirect business taxes
of $94 million paid to local, state, and federal governments. The total employment impact of the
industry was 64,282 jobs, with 60,637 directly employed in the landscape sector, plus over 3,600 in
indirect and induced employment.


Table 6.7. Economic impacts of the Florida landscape services sector, 2000
Type Direct Indirect Induced Total
Impact Impact Impact Impact
Output ($million) 3,110 67 218 3,395
Value Added ($million) 1,946 44 140 2,130
Labor Income ($million) 1,298 29 91 1,418
Indirect Business Taxes ($million) 80 3 11 94
Employment (iobs) 60,637 808 2,837 64,282








Geographic Distribution of Sales
Regional sales by landscape service firms are summarized in Table 6.5. An estimated
$2.52Bn or 80 percent of total sales were within the local area, another 13 percent of sales were
within Florida but outside the local area, and only 6.5 percent of sales were national or international
(outside of Florida).


Table 6.5. Geographic distribution of sales by the Florida landscape
services sector firms, 2000
Region Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
Local area 404 99% 80.8% 2,515
State (outside local area) 104 25% 12.6% 393
Total Local and Within Florida 93.5% 2,907
National (outside Fla.) 27 7% 5.1% 158
International 18 4% 1.4% 45
Total National and International 6.5% 203
Total All Regions 100.0% 3,110


Employment
Employment by the Florida landscape services sector is summarized in Table 6.6. Total
estimated employment in this sector was 60,637, including 46,433 full time, or 78 percent of all jobs,
and 13,204 part-time, temporary or seasonal jobs. The average number of employees per firm was
26.0, with 17.4 as fulltime.


Table 6.6. Employment by the Florida landscape services
sector, 2000


Number
Respondents


Average
Per Firm
(ibnhs


Estimated
Total (jobs)


Full-time 401 17.4 47,433
Part-time 228 8.5 13,204
Total/All 26.0 60,637


Economic Impacts
Total economic impacts of the Florida landscape services sector are summarized in Table 6.7,
The estimated total output impact in 2000 was $3.40Bn, including $3.11Bn in the direct impact of
industry sales, $67Mn in indirect impacts of inputs purchased by the industry from suppliers, and
$218Mn in induced impacts associated with consumer spending by industry employees. Total value
added impacts amounted to $2.13Bn, including labor income of $1.42Bn and indirect business taxes
of $94 million paid to local, state, and federal governments. The total employment impact of the
industry was 64,282 jobs, with 60,637 directly employed in the landscape sector, plus over 3,600 in
indirect and induced employment.


Table 6.7. Economic impacts of the Florida landscape services sector, 2000
Type Direct Indirect Induced Total
Impact Impact Impact Impact
Output ($million) 3,110 67 218 3,395
Value Added ($million) 1,946 44 140 2,130
Labor Income ($million) 1,298 29 91 1,418
Indirect Business Taxes ($million) 80 3 11 94
Employment (iobs) 60,637 808 2,837 64,282








Geographic Distribution of Sales
Regional sales by landscape service firms are summarized in Table 6.5. An estimated
$2.52Bn or 80 percent of total sales were within the local area, another 13 percent of sales were
within Florida but outside the local area, and only 6.5 percent of sales were national or international
(outside of Florida).


Table 6.5. Geographic distribution of sales by the Florida landscape
services sector firms, 2000
Region Number Percent Percent Estimated
Firms Firms Sales Total Sales
($million)
Local area 404 99% 80.8% 2,515
State (outside local area) 104 25% 12.6% 393
Total Local and Within Florida 93.5% 2,907
National (outside Fla.) 27 7% 5.1% 158
International 18 4% 1.4% 45
Total National and International 6.5% 203
Total All Regions 100.0% 3,110


Employment
Employment by the Florida landscape services sector is summarized in Table 6.6. Total
estimated employment in this sector was 60,637, including 46,433 full time, or 78 percent of all jobs,
and 13,204 part-time, temporary or seasonal jobs. The average number of employees per firm was
26.0, with 17.4 as fulltime.


Table 6.6. Employment by the Florida landscape services
sector, 2000


Number
Respondents


Average
Per Firm
(ibnhs


Estimated
Total (jobs)


Full-time 401 17.4 47,433
Part-time 228 8.5 13,204
Total/All 26.0 60,637


Economic Impacts
Total economic impacts of the Florida landscape services sector are summarized in Table 6.7,
The estimated total output impact in 2000 was $3.40Bn, including $3.11Bn in the direct impact of
industry sales, $67Mn in indirect impacts of inputs purchased by the industry from suppliers, and
$218Mn in induced impacts associated with consumer spending by industry employees. Total value
added impacts amounted to $2.13Bn, including labor income of $1.42Bn and indirect business taxes
of $94 million paid to local, state, and federal governments. The total employment impact of the
industry was 64,282 jobs, with 60,637 directly employed in the landscape sector, plus over 3,600 in
indirect and induced employment.


Table 6.7. Economic impacts of the Florida landscape services sector, 2000
Type Direct Indirect Induced Total
Impact Impact Impact Impact
Output ($million) 3,110 67 218 3,395
Value Added ($million) 1,946 44 140 2,130
Labor Income ($million) 1,298 29 91 1,418
Indirect Business Taxes ($million) 80 3 11 94
Employment (iobs) 60,637 808 2,837 64,282








Total economic impacts of the landscape industry in several major Florida counties are
summarized in Table 6.8. The largest county by all measures was Palm Beach, with an estimated
direct employment of 8,772, total sales of $450 million, and total output impact of $527 million. Other
counties with landscape industry sales exceeding $100Mn were Orange ($298Mn), Broward
($270Mn), Miami-Dade ($210Mn), Hillsborough ($185Mn), Duval ($144Mn), and Lee ($118Mn).


Table 6.8. Economic impacts of the landscape services industry in
County Total Direct Total Sales Non-Local Output Employment
Employment ($million) Output Impacts Impacts
(jobs) ($million) ($million) (jobs)


Palm Beach
Orange
Broward
Miami Dade
Hillsborough
Duval
Lee
Manatee
Volusia
Lake
Alachua
Marion
Gadsden


8,772
5,804
5,260
4,090
3,609
2,809
2,299
1,108
901
780
576
504
147


9,612
7,314
6,571
4,183
3,966
3,820
2,314
1,163
906
1,007
576
504
149


Florida counties, 2000


Value
Added
Impacts
($million)
333
274
241
138
129
132
73
33
28
32
18
15
5


53


Labor
Income
Impacts
($million)
221
182
160
92
86
87
48
22
19
21
12
10
3


Indirect
Business Tax
Impacts
($million)
15.8
14.2
12.9
5.9
5.8
6.3
3.0
1.4
1.2
1.5
0.7
0.6
0.2


Threats to the Landscape Industry
Possible threats to the landscape industry were rated by survey respondents on a scale of 1 to
10, with 10 being the most severe, as summarized in Table 6.9. The top ranked threats were
"Drought and Water Use Restrictions" (7.3), "Increasing Costs of Production" (6.1), "General
Economic Recession" (6.0), "Low Prices for Product or Service" (5.8), "Lack of Professionalism" (5.7),
"Increasing Energy Costs" (5.5), "Poor Worker Education and Skills" (5.2), and "Government
Regulations" (5.0).

Table 6.9. Threats to the Florida landscape services industry, 2000
Threat Number Average Standard
Respondents Score Error Score
(scale 1-10)
Drought and Water Use Restrictions 395 7.3 0.15
Increasing Costs of Production 389 6.1 0.15
General Economic Recession 393 6.0 0.15
Low Prices for Product or Service 387 5.8 0.15
Lack of Professionalism 390 5.7 0.17
Increasing Energy Costs 391 5.5 0.15
Poor Worker Education and Skills 389 5.2 0.16
Government Regulations 390 5.0 0.16
Labor Shortage 392 4.7 0.16
Restrictions on Use or Reduced Availability of Chemicals 378 4.5 0.16
Market Power of Large Retail Chains 376 3.2 0.14
Competition by Plant Substitutes 361 3.0 0.13


S"^ -


---








Impacts of Drought on the Landscape Services Sector
The economic impact of drought on the landscape services sector in Florida was documented
by asking survey respondents whether the drought during the last 4 years had affected their sales. A
majority of landscape firms (56%) indicated that their sales had been affected by the drought (Table
6.10). Among those respondents who indicated that they had been affected, 82 percent said that thei
sales were decreased and 14 said sales were increased, the magnitude of change was greater in the
negative direction (33%) than in the positive direction (14%). The percentage change in sales or
purchases was multiplied against the estimated total sales or purchases for each respondent, then
expanded and summed together to reflect the net change in total industry sales or purchases.
Landscape firms were estimated to have suffered a net decrease in sales of $184Mn.

Table 6.10. Impacts of drought on sales by the
Florida landscape services sector, 2000
Percent respondents had sales affected by
drought during the last four years
"Yes" (affected) 56.0%
"No" (not affected) 42.3%
Percent respondents sales increased or
decreased
Increased 13.8%
Decreased 81.7%
Average percentage change in sales
Increased 14.3%
Decreased 33.1%
Estimated total change in sales ($millions)
Increased 15.36
Decreased 199.1
Net Difference (183.8)

The net change in sales of the landscape services sector due to drought were estimated for the
Water Management Districts of Florida, which have varying water supply conditions and policies for
water use restrictions (Table 6.12). The net change in horticulture industry sales was negative in the
St. Johns, Southwest, and South Florida Water Management Districts, with losses of $47Mn, $69Mn
and $59Mn, respectively. Estimates for this sector were not available for the Northwest Florida and
Suwanee River Districts.

Table 6.12. Net change in sales and direct economic impacts
of drought on the Florida landscape services sector in the
Florida Water Management District, 2000
Net Change in Direct Direct Value
Florida Water Sales Employment Added
Management District ($million) Impacts Impacts
(jobs) ($million)
St. Johns River -47.2 -1680 -29.3
Southwest Florida -69.0 -2456 -42.8
South Florida -59.3 -2111 -36.8
Total -175.5 -6247 -108.9








7. Floral Import Industry


U.S. Cut Flower Imports
The United States now imports
over three quarters of the fresh cut
flowers consumed. Increasing labor and
energy costs for domestic producers and
improved transportation for producers in
developing countries have rendered US
growers less competitive in the
marketplace.
The value of US cut flower
imports has increased from about $360
million in 1991 to over $600 million
during the latter 1990's, in constant
dollar terms, as shown in Figure 5. The
value of major varieties of fresh cut
flowers imported to the US in 2000 are
summarized in Figure 6 and Table 7.1.
The top varieties of imported
flowers were roses ($207Mn), carnations
($91 Mn), chrysanthemums ($73Mn), and
orchids ($5Mn). All other fresh cut
flowers imported were valued at $218
million. In addition, imports of dried, dyed
or otherwise prepared flowers were valued
at $16Mn. Growth of flower imports has
been very strong for the miscellaneous
other category (Fig. 6). Imports of roses
grew during the mid-1990's, but declined ir
1999-2000, while imports of carnations ant
chrysanthemums have slowly declined for
several years.
Imports of fresh cut flowers to the
United States are dominated by a relatively
small number of countries. The leading
country, by far, is Columbia, with $347Mn
in 2000, or 58 percent of total import value,
followed by Ecuador ($89Mn), and the
Netherlands ($71Mn), as summarized in
Table 7.2. Collectively, the countries of
Latin America account for the vast majority
of imported product.


Value of


650


600

550

500

450

400


U.S. Cut


Figure 5
Flower Imports, 1991-2000


91 92 93 94 95 91
Constant 2000 dollars
Source: US Commerce Dept., USDA/ERS


3 97 98 99 00


Figure 6
Value of US Fresh Cut Flower Imports, 1991-2000
250 I Rnose


o
o 150


o
L 100
0
I-
50

0


91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00


-U-
Carnations

Chrysanthemums

Orchids

Others


I I I I I I I I I I


35r0








7. Floral Import Industry


U.S. Cut Flower Imports
The United States now imports
over three quarters of the fresh cut
flowers consumed. Increasing labor and
energy costs for domestic producers and
improved transportation for producers in
developing countries have rendered US
growers less competitive in the
marketplace.
The value of US cut flower
imports has increased from about $360
million in 1991 to over $600 million
during the latter 1990's, in constant
dollar terms, as shown in Figure 5. The
value of major varieties of fresh cut
flowers imported to the US in 2000 are
summarized in Figure 6 and Table 7.1.
The top varieties of imported
flowers were roses ($207Mn), carnations
($91 Mn), chrysanthemums ($73Mn), and
orchids ($5Mn). All other fresh cut
flowers imported were valued at $218
million. In addition, imports of dried, dyed
or otherwise prepared flowers were valued
at $16Mn. Growth of flower imports has
been very strong for the miscellaneous
other category (Fig. 6). Imports of roses
grew during the mid-1990's, but declined ir
1999-2000, while imports of carnations ant
chrysanthemums have slowly declined for
several years.
Imports of fresh cut flowers to the
United States are dominated by a relatively
small number of countries. The leading
country, by far, is Columbia, with $347Mn
in 2000, or 58 percent of total import value,
followed by Ecuador ($89Mn), and the
Netherlands ($71Mn), as summarized in
Table 7.2. Collectively, the countries of
Latin America account for the vast majority
of imported product.


Value of


650


600

550

500

450

400


U.S. Cut


Figure 5
Flower Imports, 1991-2000


91 92 93 94 95 91
Constant 2000 dollars
Source: US Commerce Dept., USDA/ERS


3 97 98 99 00


Figure 6
Value of US Fresh Cut Flower Imports, 1991-2000
250 I Rnose


o
o 150


o
L 100
0
I-
50

0


91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00


-U-
Carnations

Chrysanthemums

Orchids

Others


I I I I I I I I I I


35r0








Table 7.1. Value of U.S. fresh cut flower imports, 2000
Type Value ($1000)
All roses 207,327
All carnations 91,110
All chrysanthemums 73,394
All orchids 4,628
Others 218,330
All fresh cut flowers 594,790
All other cut flowers, dried, dyed, etc. 15,671
Total cut flowers, fresh and prepared 610,461
General imports for consumption. Customs value, excluding
duty, c.i.f., and other import charges. Sources: U.S. Dept. of
Commerce, Customs Service, IM145 Report, and FATUS,
Economic Research Service, USDA.

Table 7.2. Value of fresh cut flower imports
to the US, by Country, 2000
Country Value ($1000)
World Total 594,790
Colombia 347,079
Ecuador 89,114
Netherlands 70,514
Mexico 21,628
Costa Rica 19,390
Canada 16,975
Guatemala 5,437
Israel 4,733
Chile 2,881
Thailand 2,854
Peru 2,467
New Zealand 2,420
Australia 2,364
Italy 1,051
Dominican Republic 997
France 972
South Africa 829
All Others 3,084
Source: US Commerce Dept, USA Trade
Online, Commodity 060310, Cut Flowers and
Flower Buds, Fresh.


The Florida Floral Import Business
Approximately two-thirds of the flowers imported to the US pass through the port of Miami,
Florida. Most flowers are shipped by airfreight, and are handled at special facilities at the Miami
International airport. Fresh cut flowers are the number one import through the Miami airport. There
are 130 importing businesses in this area. Approximately 32,500 boxes daily are processed daily at
facilities occupying 1.4 million square feet of office, warehouse and cooler space (Association of
Floral Importers of Florida). The floral importing industry in the Miami, Florida area employed 6,100
persons, according to surveys.
Sales of fresh cut flowers imported through Miami, Florida are given in Table 7.3. Total sales
in the year 1999-2000 were $904 million, based on surveys conducted by the Association of Floral
Importers of Florida, whose members represent 85 percent of the floral import industry in Florida.








Sales increased steadily from a level of $675 million in 1994-5.


Table 7.3. Sales of fresh cut flowers
imported, FOB Miami, Florida, 1995-2000
Year Sales ($Million)
1999-00 904
1998-99 870
1997-98 860
1996-97 800
1995-96 740
1994-05 675
Source: Association of Floral Importers of
Florida.


The cost of fresh cut flowers imported through Miami in 2000 were $465.5Mn, according to
data from the US Customs Bureau (usatradonline.com). So, the difference between total sales of
$904Mn and cost of imports represents a gross margin or value added of $438.5Mn, or 48.5 percent
of sales. The output of the importing sector is this gross margin. It was assumed that 90 percent of
cut flower sales by Miami importers were outside the state of Florida.


Economic Impacts of Floral Importing
Total economic impacts of the floral importing industry in Florida are summarized in Table 7.4.
Total output impacts were estimated at $997 million (Mn), including $438Mn in direct impacts of the
gross margin on industry sales, $99Mn in indirect impacts of inputs purchased by the industry from
other sectors, and $460Mn in induced impacts of industry employee spending. Total value added
impacts amounted to $673Mn, including $424Mn in labor income and $91Mn in indirect business
taxes paid. Estimated total employment impacts of 13,416 jobs, included indirect and induced
impacts of over 7,000 jobs in addition to the 6,100 jobs directly in the importing sector.


Table 7.4. Economic impacts of the floral import industry in Florida, 2000
Type/Sector Direct Indirect Induced Total
Impact Impact Impact Impact
Output ($million) 438 99 460 997,
Value Added ($million) 311 60 302 673
Labor Income ($million) 181 41 202 424
Indirect Business Taxes ($million) 64 4 22 91
Employment (jobs) 6,100 1,169 6,146 13,416








8. Institutional Consumers


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
This section presents survey results and analysis of the commercial and institutional
consumers of horticultural products and services in Florida. This diverse group includes the
businesses and organizations such as hotels and lodging places, restaurants, hospitals, museums,
office buildings, and local governments (SIC 6553, 7011, 7349, 8062, 8211, 8221, 8412, 8422, 9199]
There were nearly 20 thousand of these firms or organizations in Florida. A total of 452 organization
were sampled for the survey, of which 416 provided complete information on value of purchases of
horticultural products and services. Of the 3,532 organizations contacted for the survey, 45 percent
met the eligibility requirements. An expansion factor of 21.4 was used to estimate total values of this
group based on the survey data.
The size of the organizations surveyed is indicated by the number of employees, summarized
in Table 8.1. Some 44 percent of organizations were small, with less than 10 employees, while 18
percent had 100 or more employees.

Table 8.1. Employment by Florida
institutional consumers surveyed, 2000
Number Number Percent
Employees Respondents Respondents
1 to 4 132 29%
5 to 9 67 15%
10-19 45 10%
20-49 66 15%
50-99 53 12%
100 or more 81 18%
Not available 5 ,1%
Don't know 3 1%
Total 452 100%


Value of Purchases
The distribution of annual purchases of plants, horticultural equipment and services by
institutions is indicated in Table 8.2. For purchases of plants, 21 percent of organizations purchased
less than $100 annually, 23 percent purchased $100 to $499, 14 percent purchased $500 to $999,
and 16 percent purchased $1,000 to $3,999, and 7 percent purchased $4,000 to $9,999, and 11
percent purchased $10,000 or more. For equipment and services, there was a similar distribution,
although for services there was a somewhat wider distribution, with a higher percentage purchasing
both less than $100 (29%) and $10,000 or greater (14%).
Commercial and institutional consumers in Florida addressed by this survey purchased an
estimated $69 million in horticultural goods and services in 2000, including $23 million for live plants
(33%), $26 million for landscape services (37%), and $21 million for equipment (31%), as
summarized in Table 8.3. Organizations purchased an average of $7,800 annually in horticultural
goods and services, with $3,166 in services, $2,615 in plants, and $2,574 in equipment. At least 86
percent of respondents reported purchasing in each category.








8. Institutional Consumers


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
This section presents survey results and analysis of the commercial and institutional
consumers of horticultural products and services in Florida. This diverse group includes the
businesses and organizations such as hotels and lodging places, restaurants, hospitals, museums,
office buildings, and local governments (SIC 6553, 7011, 7349, 8062, 8211, 8221, 8412, 8422, 9199]
There were nearly 20 thousand of these firms or organizations in Florida. A total of 452 organization
were sampled for the survey, of which 416 provided complete information on value of purchases of
horticultural products and services. Of the 3,532 organizations contacted for the survey, 45 percent
met the eligibility requirements. An expansion factor of 21.4 was used to estimate total values of this
group based on the survey data.
The size of the organizations surveyed is indicated by the number of employees, summarized
in Table 8.1. Some 44 percent of organizations were small, with less than 10 employees, while 18
percent had 100 or more employees.

Table 8.1. Employment by Florida
institutional consumers surveyed, 2000
Number Number Percent
Employees Respondents Respondents
1 to 4 132 29%
5 to 9 67 15%
10-19 45 10%
20-49 66 15%
50-99 53 12%
100 or more 81 18%
Not available 5 ,1%
Don't know 3 1%
Total 452 100%


Value of Purchases
The distribution of annual purchases of plants, horticultural equipment and services by
institutions is indicated in Table 8.2. For purchases of plants, 21 percent of organizations purchased
less than $100 annually, 23 percent purchased $100 to $499, 14 percent purchased $500 to $999,
and 16 percent purchased $1,000 to $3,999, and 7 percent purchased $4,000 to $9,999, and 11
percent purchased $10,000 or more. For equipment and services, there was a similar distribution,
although for services there was a somewhat wider distribution, with a higher percentage purchasing
both less than $100 (29%) and $10,000 or greater (14%).
Commercial and institutional consumers in Florida addressed by this survey purchased an
estimated $69 million in horticultural goods and services in 2000, including $23 million for live plants
(33%), $26 million for landscape services (37%), and $21 million for equipment (31%), as
summarized in Table 8.3. Organizations purchased an average of $7,800 annually in horticultural
goods and services, with $3,166 in services, $2,615 in plants, and $2,574 in equipment. At least 86
percent of respondents reported purchasing in each category.








8. Institutional Consumers


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
This section presents survey results and analysis of the commercial and institutional
consumers of horticultural products and services in Florida. This diverse group includes the
businesses and organizations such as hotels and lodging places, restaurants, hospitals, museums,
office buildings, and local governments (SIC 6553, 7011, 7349, 8062, 8211, 8221, 8412, 8422, 9199]
There were nearly 20 thousand of these firms or organizations in Florida. A total of 452 organization
were sampled for the survey, of which 416 provided complete information on value of purchases of
horticultural products and services. Of the 3,532 organizations contacted for the survey, 45 percent
met the eligibility requirements. An expansion factor of 21.4 was used to estimate total values of this
group based on the survey data.
The size of the organizations surveyed is indicated by the number of employees, summarized
in Table 8.1. Some 44 percent of organizations were small, with less than 10 employees, while 18
percent had 100 or more employees.

Table 8.1. Employment by Florida
institutional consumers surveyed, 2000
Number Number Percent
Employees Respondents Respondents
1 to 4 132 29%
5 to 9 67 15%
10-19 45 10%
20-49 66 15%
50-99 53 12%
100 or more 81 18%
Not available 5 ,1%
Don't know 3 1%
Total 452 100%


Value of Purchases
The distribution of annual purchases of plants, horticultural equipment and services by
institutions is indicated in Table 8.2. For purchases of plants, 21 percent of organizations purchased
less than $100 annually, 23 percent purchased $100 to $499, 14 percent purchased $500 to $999,
and 16 percent purchased $1,000 to $3,999, and 7 percent purchased $4,000 to $9,999, and 11
percent purchased $10,000 or more. For equipment and services, there was a similar distribution,
although for services there was a somewhat wider distribution, with a higher percentage purchasing
both less than $100 (29%) and $10,000 or greater (14%).
Commercial and institutional consumers in Florida addressed by this survey purchased an
estimated $69 million in horticultural goods and services in 2000, including $23 million for live plants
(33%), $26 million for landscape services (37%), and $21 million for equipment (31%), as
summarized in Table 8.3. Organizations purchased an average of $7,800 annually in horticultural
goods and services, with $3,166 in services, $2,615 in plants, and $2,574 in equipment. At least 86
percent of respondents reported purchasing in each category.








Table 8.2. Distribution of purchases of horticultural goods and services by
Florida institutions, 2000


Plants


Equipment


Services


Value
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
less than $100 96 21% 90 20% 131 29%
$100 to $499 102 23% 96 21% 54 12%
$500 to $999 63 14% 64 14% 39 9%
$1000 to $1999 39 9% 43 10% 39 9%
$2000 to $3999 33 7% 26 6% 20 4%
$4000 to $5999 13 3% 10 2% 22 5%
$6000 to $7999 13 3% 8 2% 8 2%
$8000 to $9999 6 1% 8 2% 13 3%
$10,000 or over 51 11% 49 11% 62 14%
Don't know 21 5% 36 8% 40 9%
Not available 15 3% 22 5% 24 5%
Total 452 452 452


Table 8.3. Value of purchases of horticultural
Florida institutions, 2000
Item Number and Percent Average
Purchased Respondents Value ($)


products and services by

Percent Estimated
Value Total Value
($millions)


Services 388 86% 3,166 36.9% 25.6
Plants 416 92% 2,615 32.7% 22.6
Equipment 394 87% 2,574 30.5% 21.1
Total 427 94% 7,800 100.0% 69.3


Vendors of Horticultural Goods and Services
Purchases by institutions from different vendors are summarized in Table 8.4. Landscapers
and lawn maintenance firms were the largest type of vendor purchased from, reported by 26 percent
of firms, and accounting for 29 percent of total purchases. Growers and independent retail lawn and
garden centers accounted for 25 percent and 18 percent of purchases, respectively. Garden
departments of chain stores were used by 52 percent of respondents, but accounted for 16 percent of
purchases.

Table 8.4. Vendors of horticultural goods and services to Florida institutional consumers, 2000
Type of Vendor Number and Average Percent Estimated
Percent Value ($) Value Total Value
Respondents ($millions)
Landscapers or lawn maintenance firms 109 26% 8,097 29.1% 20.2
Growers 98 23% 7,740 25.0% 17.4
Independent retail lawn and garden centers 166 39% 3,278 18.0% 12.5
Garden department of chain stores 220 52% 2,147 15.6% 10.8
Brokers or distributors 38 9% 5,461 6.9% 4.8
Other type of outlet 21 5% 7,783 5.4% 3.7
Total 427 100% 7,092 100.0% 69.3








Types of Plants Purchased
Of the $23 million in plants purchased by Florida institutions, 24 percent of the total value
were woody ornamental shrubs, and 16 percent were potted flowering plants or bedding plants, and
both of these types of plants were purchased by about 60 percent of respondents (Table 8.5). Other
types of plants were generally purchased by about 20 to 40 percent of respondents, and their share
of total purchases were palms (13%), turfgrass (12%), vines or ground covers (9%), tropical foliage
(8%), deciduous shade, flowering or fruit trees (6%), cut foliage or flowers (3%), evergreen trees
(3%), and other types of plants (6%).

Table 8.5. Purchases of plants by Florida institutional consumers, 2000
Type of Plant Number and Average Percent Estimated
Percent Value ($) Value Total Value
Respondents ($1000)
Shrubs 246 59% 885 24% 5,606
Potted flowering plants or bedding plants 255 61% 574 16% 3,770
Palm trees 163 39% 738 13% 3,096
Turfgrass 154 37% 732 12% 2,900
Vines or ground covers 132 32% 586 9% 1,991
Tropical foliage plants 134 32% 517 8% 1,784
Deciduous shade, flowering or fruit trees 119 29% 453 6% 1,387
Other types of ornamental plants 30 7% 1,740 6% 1,343
Cut foliage or flowers 124 30% 224 3% 714
Evergreen trees 67 16% 377 3% 649
Total 416 100% 2,171 100% 23,242


Factors for Purchasing
Institutional consumers were asked to rate various factors that might be considered when
purchasing plants and selecting a vendor for horticultural products or services, using a scale of 1 to
10, with 10 being the highest importance. The most important factor specific factor was "durability of
the plant", receiving an average score of 8.9 (Table 8.6). The next most important factors were
"maintenance requirements" (8.3), "product size or shape" (7.7), "price" (7.7), "color" (7.4), and
whether the plant is "native" (7.1). Numerous other miscellaneous considerations were also
mentioned by respondents, including availability, drought resistance, heat tolerance, disease and pesi
resistance, health, water requirements, safety, salt tolerance, wildlife value, cultural significance,
fragrance, plant grade standards, and general hardiness. The average score for these other factors
cited was the highest of all (9.2). The standard errors indicate that these mean ratings do not differ
significantly.


Table 8.6. Factors for purchasing plants by Florida institutions
surveyed, 2000
Factor Number Average Standard
Respondents Score Error Score
(scale 1-10)
Durability 435 8.9 0.08
Maintenance requirements 439 8.3 0.10
Product size or shape 438 7.7 0.11
Price 439 7.7 0.11
Color 440 7.4 0.12
Native plant 427 7.1 0.14
Other factor 105 9.2 0.14








Types of Plants Purchased
Of the $23 million in plants purchased by Florida institutions, 24 percent of the total value
were woody ornamental shrubs, and 16 percent were potted flowering plants or bedding plants, and
both of these types of plants were purchased by about 60 percent of respondents (Table 8.5). Other
types of plants were generally purchased by about 20 to 40 percent of respondents, and their share
of total purchases were palms (13%), turfgrass (12%), vines or ground covers (9%), tropical foliage
(8%), deciduous shade, flowering or fruit trees (6%), cut foliage or flowers (3%), evergreen trees
(3%), and other types of plants (6%).

Table 8.5. Purchases of plants by Florida institutional consumers, 2000
Type of Plant Number and Average Percent Estimated
Percent Value ($) Value Total Value
Respondents ($1000)
Shrubs 246 59% 885 24% 5,606
Potted flowering plants or bedding plants 255 61% 574 16% 3,770
Palm trees 163 39% 738 13% 3,096
Turfgrass 154 37% 732 12% 2,900
Vines or ground covers 132 32% 586 9% 1,991
Tropical foliage plants 134 32% 517 8% 1,784
Deciduous shade, flowering or fruit trees 119 29% 453 6% 1,387
Other types of ornamental plants 30 7% 1,740 6% 1,343
Cut foliage or flowers 124 30% 224 3% 714
Evergreen trees 67 16% 377 3% 649
Total 416 100% 2,171 100% 23,242


Factors for Purchasing
Institutional consumers were asked to rate various factors that might be considered when
purchasing plants and selecting a vendor for horticultural products or services, using a scale of 1 to
10, with 10 being the highest importance. The most important factor specific factor was "durability of
the plant", receiving an average score of 8.9 (Table 8.6). The next most important factors were
"maintenance requirements" (8.3), "product size or shape" (7.7), "price" (7.7), "color" (7.4), and
whether the plant is "native" (7.1). Numerous other miscellaneous considerations were also
mentioned by respondents, including availability, drought resistance, heat tolerance, disease and pesi
resistance, health, water requirements, safety, salt tolerance, wildlife value, cultural significance,
fragrance, plant grade standards, and general hardiness. The average score for these other factors
cited was the highest of all (9.2). The standard errors indicate that these mean ratings do not differ
significantly.


Table 8.6. Factors for purchasing plants by Florida institutions
surveyed, 2000
Factor Number Average Standard
Respondents Score Error Score
(scale 1-10)
Durability 435 8.9 0.08
Maintenance requirements 439 8.3 0.10
Product size or shape 438 7.7 0.11
Price 439 7.7 0.11
Color 440 7.4 0.12
Native plant 427 7.1 0.14
Other factor 105 9.2 0.14








The importance of various factors for choosing a vendor for horticultural products and services
by Florida institutions are summarized in Table 8.7. The top-rated specific factor was "quality.
assurance or satisfaction guarantee" (9.1), closely followed by "service quality" (8.9), "consistent
availability" (8.5), "convenience" (8.3), and "product selection or variety" (8.3). Again, many other
factors were cited by survey respondents, and these were actually the highest rated overall (9.2).


Table 8.7. Factors for selecting a horticultural vendor by
Florida institutions surveyed, 2000


Factor


Number
Respondents


Average
Score
(scale 1-10)


Standard
Error Score


Quality assurance or 432 9.1 0.09
satisfaction guarantee
Service quality 430 8.9 0.10
Consistent availability 431 8.5 0.10
Convenience 430 8.3 0.10
Product selection/variety 426 8.3 0.09
Other factor 125 9.2 0.12









9. Household Consumers


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
According to US Census figures for 2000, there were an estimated 5.88 million households in
Florida. A total of 321 households were interviewed for the survey, from a total of 4,576 households
contacted, of which 24 percent met the eligibility criteria. An expansion factor of 9136 was used to
estimate total value of purchases of horticultural products and services by Florida households based
on the survey data.
The annual household income distribution of respondents is indicated in Table 9.1. The
largest share of respondents (43%) stated that their annual household income fell between $10 and
$20 thousand, while 10 percent had household incomes exceeding $60,000. It appears that this
sample of households was somewhat below average in income compared to other data for Florida
households (Fla. Statistical Abstract, 2000).
The average size of surveyed households was 2.93 persons.


Table 9.1. Number of Florida household
respondents by income class, 2000
Annual Household Number Percent
Income Respondents Respondents
Less than $10,000 35 11%
$10,000 to $19,999 138 43%
$20,000 to $39,999 58 18%
$40,000 to $59,999 52 16%
$60,000 to $79,999 19 6%
$80,000 to $99,999 9 3%
$100,000 or more 4 1%
Don't know 0 '0%
Not Available 5 2%
Total 320


Purchases of Horticultural Goods and Services
The distribution of purchases of plants, equipment and horticultural services by households is
presented in Table 9.2. Ninety six percent of households purchased live plants, lawn and garden
hard goods, and landscape services. For plants, 46 percent of households purchased less than $100
worth annually, while 36 percent purchased $100 to $499, 8 percent purchased $500 to $999, and 6
percent purchased $1000 or more. The distribution was similar for horticultural equipment and
services, however a somewhat higher percentage of respondents purchasing very little services.

Table 9.2. Distribution of purchases of plants, horticultural equipment and
services by Florida households, 2000
Plants Equipment Services
Value Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
less than $100 148 46% 118 37% 180 56%
$100 to $499 117 36% 134 42% 66 21%
$500 to $999 26 8% 32 10% 37 12%
$1000 to $1999 9 3% 16 5% 15 5%
$2000 to $3999 4 1% 8 2% 5 2%
$4000 or over 5 2% 3 1% 3 1%
Don't know 7 2% 5 2% 8 2%
Not available 5 2% 5 2% 7 2%
Total 321 100% 321 100% 321 100%









9. Household Consumers


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
According to US Census figures for 2000, there were an estimated 5.88 million households in
Florida. A total of 321 households were interviewed for the survey, from a total of 4,576 households
contacted, of which 24 percent met the eligibility criteria. An expansion factor of 9136 was used to
estimate total value of purchases of horticultural products and services by Florida households based
on the survey data.
The annual household income distribution of respondents is indicated in Table 9.1. The
largest share of respondents (43%) stated that their annual household income fell between $10 and
$20 thousand, while 10 percent had household incomes exceeding $60,000. It appears that this
sample of households was somewhat below average in income compared to other data for Florida
households (Fla. Statistical Abstract, 2000).
The average size of surveyed households was 2.93 persons.


Table 9.1. Number of Florida household
respondents by income class, 2000
Annual Household Number Percent
Income Respondents Respondents
Less than $10,000 35 11%
$10,000 to $19,999 138 43%
$20,000 to $39,999 58 18%
$40,000 to $59,999 52 16%
$60,000 to $79,999 19 6%
$80,000 to $99,999 9 3%
$100,000 or more 4 1%
Don't know 0 '0%
Not Available 5 2%
Total 320


Purchases of Horticultural Goods and Services
The distribution of purchases of plants, equipment and horticultural services by households is
presented in Table 9.2. Ninety six percent of households purchased live plants, lawn and garden
hard goods, and landscape services. For plants, 46 percent of households purchased less than $100
worth annually, while 36 percent purchased $100 to $499, 8 percent purchased $500 to $999, and 6
percent purchased $1000 or more. The distribution was similar for horticultural equipment and
services, however a somewhat higher percentage of respondents purchasing very little services.

Table 9.2. Distribution of purchases of plants, horticultural equipment and
services by Florida households, 2000
Plants Equipment Services
Value Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
less than $100 148 46% 118 37% 180 56%
$100 to $499 117 36% 134 42% 66 21%
$500 to $999 26 8% 32 10% 37 12%
$1000 to $1999 9 3% 16 5% 15 5%
$2000 to $3999 4 1% 8 2% 5 2%
$4000 or over 5 2% 3 1% 3 1%
Don't know 7 2% 5 2% 8 2%
Not available 5 2% 5 2% 7 2%
Total 321 100% 321 100% 321 100%









9. Household Consumers


Population, Survey Sample and Expansion Factors
According to US Census figures for 2000, there were an estimated 5.88 million households in
Florida. A total of 321 households were interviewed for the survey, from a total of 4,576 households
contacted, of which 24 percent met the eligibility criteria. An expansion factor of 9136 was used to
estimate total value of purchases of horticultural products and services by Florida households based
on the survey data.
The annual household income distribution of respondents is indicated in Table 9.1. The
largest share of respondents (43%) stated that their annual household income fell between $10 and
$20 thousand, while 10 percent had household incomes exceeding $60,000. It appears that this
sample of households was somewhat below average in income compared to other data for Florida
households (Fla. Statistical Abstract, 2000).
The average size of surveyed households was 2.93 persons.


Table 9.1. Number of Florida household
respondents by income class, 2000
Annual Household Number Percent
Income Respondents Respondents
Less than $10,000 35 11%
$10,000 to $19,999 138 43%
$20,000 to $39,999 58 18%
$40,000 to $59,999 52 16%
$60,000 to $79,999 19 6%
$80,000 to $99,999 9 3%
$100,000 or more 4 1%
Don't know 0 '0%
Not Available 5 2%
Total 320


Purchases of Horticultural Goods and Services
The distribution of purchases of plants, equipment and horticultural services by households is
presented in Table 9.2. Ninety six percent of households purchased live plants, lawn and garden
hard goods, and landscape services. For plants, 46 percent of households purchased less than $100
worth annually, while 36 percent purchased $100 to $499, 8 percent purchased $500 to $999, and 6
percent purchased $1000 or more. The distribution was similar for horticultural equipment and
services, however a somewhat higher percentage of respondents purchasing very little services.

Table 9.2. Distribution of purchases of plants, horticultural equipment and
services by Florida households, 2000
Plants Equipment Services
Value Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
less than $100 148 46% 118 37% 180 56%
$100 to $499 117 36% 134 42% 66 21%
$500 to $999 26 8% 32 10% 37 12%
$1000 to $1999 9 3% 16 5% 15 5%
$2000 to $3999 4 1% 8 2% 5 2%
$4000 or over 5 2% 3 1% 3 1%
Don't know 7 2% 5 2% 8 2%
Not available 5 2% 5 2% 7 2%
Total 321 100% 321 100% 321 100%








In 2000, Florida households were estimated to have purchased a total of $3.17 billion (Bn) in
horticultural goods and services, including $1.01Bn (32%) for live plants, $1.19Bn (38%) for lawn and
garden hard goods and equipment, and $975 million (31%) for landscape services (Table 9.3).
Average annual expenditures per households on horticultural goods and services totaled $1,122, with
$364 for plants, $428 for equipment, and $356 for services.

Table 9.3. Value of purchases of horticultural products and services
by Florida households surveyed, 2000
Type Number and Percent Average Percent Estimated
Respondents Value ($) Value Total Value
($millions)


Plants 309 96% 364 31.7% 1,005.0
Equipment 311 97% 428 37.5% 1,189.0
Services 306 95% 356 30.7% 974.2
Total 316 98% 1,122 100.0% 3,168.1


Vendors for Horticultural Goods and Services
Types of vendors from whom households purchased horticultural goods and services are
summarized in Table 9.4. Chain stores were by far the most important type of vendor, patronized by
70 percent of households, and representing $1.46Bn or 45 percent of total purchases. Independent
retailers and landscape service firms were also common vendors, use by 35 percent and 14 percent
of respondents, and representing 19 and 21 percent of total purchases, respectively.

Table 9.4. Vendors of horticultural goods and services to Florida households, 2000
Type of Vendor Number and Average Percent Estimated
Percent Value ($) Value Total Value
Respondents ($million)
Garden department of chain stores 217 70% 691 45% 1,455
Landscapers or lawn maintenance firms 43 14% 1,647 21% 687
Independent retail lawn and garden centers 109 35% 592 19% 626
Brokers or distributors 20 6% 1,358 8% 263
Growers 29 9% 607 5% 171
Other type of outlet 6 2% 638 1% 37
Total 309 1,080 100% 3,240


Types of Plant Products Purchased
Purchases of different types of plants by households are summarized in Table 9.5. Potted
flowering plants or cut flowers were the most commonly purchased item, bought by 61 percent of
households, and representing 20 percent of the total value of plants purchased. Woody ornamental
shrubs, tropical foliage plants, vines or ground covers, and cut foliage or flowers all were purchased
by at least 20 percent of respondents and represented 18 to 10 percent of total plant purchases.
Landscape trees, palms, and turfgrass represented 6 to 9 percent of total value.








In 2000, Florida households were estimated to have purchased a total of $3.17 billion (Bn) in
horticultural goods and services, including $1.01Bn (32%) for live plants, $1.19Bn (38%) for lawn and
garden hard goods and equipment, and $975 million (31%) for landscape services (Table 9.3).
Average annual expenditures per households on horticultural goods and services totaled $1,122, with
$364 for plants, $428 for equipment, and $356 for services.

Table 9.3. Value of purchases of horticultural products and services
by Florida households surveyed, 2000
Type Number and Percent Average Percent Estimated
Respondents Value ($) Value Total Value
($millions)


Plants 309 96% 364 31.7% 1,005.0
Equipment 311 97% 428 37.5% 1,189.0
Services 306 95% 356 30.7% 974.2
Total 316 98% 1,122 100.0% 3,168.1


Vendors for Horticultural Goods and Services
Types of vendors from whom households purchased horticultural goods and services are
summarized in Table 9.4. Chain stores were by far the most important type of vendor, patronized by
70 percent of households, and representing $1.46Bn or 45 percent of total purchases. Independent
retailers and landscape service firms were also common vendors, use by 35 percent and 14 percent
of respondents, and representing 19 and 21 percent of total purchases, respectively.

Table 9.4. Vendors of horticultural goods and services to Florida households, 2000
Type of Vendor Number and Average Percent Estimated
Percent Value ($) Value Total Value
Respondents ($million)
Garden department of chain stores 217 70% 691 45% 1,455
Landscapers or lawn maintenance firms 43 14% 1,647 21% 687
Independent retail lawn and garden centers 109 35% 592 19% 626
Brokers or distributors 20 6% 1,358 8% 263
Growers 29 9% 607 5% 171
Other type of outlet 6 2% 638 1% 37
Total 309 1,080 100% 3,240


Types of Plant Products Purchased
Purchases of different types of plants by households are summarized in Table 9.5. Potted
flowering plants or cut flowers were the most commonly purchased item, bought by 61 percent of
households, and representing 20 percent of the total value of plants purchased. Woody ornamental
shrubs, tropical foliage plants, vines or ground covers, and cut foliage or flowers all were purchased
by at least 20 percent of respondents and represented 18 to 10 percent of total plant purchases.
Landscape trees, palms, and turfgrass represented 6 to 9 percent of total value.








Table 9.5. Purchases of plants by Florida households, 2000
Type of Plant Number and Average
Percent Value ($)
Respondents


Percent Estimated
Value Total Value
($million)


Potted flowering plants or bedding plants 187 61% 116 20% 206
Shrubs 104 34% 183 18% 181
Tropical foliage plants 85 28% 190 15% 154
Vines or ground covers 64 21% 178 11% 109
Cut foliage or flowers 111 36% 94 10% 99
Landscape trees 67 22% 153 9% 97
Palms 44 14% 216 9% 91
Turfgrass 44 14% 151 6% 63
Other types of ornamental plants 28 9% 105 3% 28
Total 309 100% 350 100% 1,028


Factors for Purchasing
Survey respondents were asked to rate the importance of various factors that might be
considered for purchasing of plants on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the highest importance.
These results are presented in Table 9.6. The most important specific factor was "Durability",
receiving an average score of 8.3, followed by "maintenance requirements" (7.5), "color" (7.3),
"product size or shape" (7.0), "price" (6.9), and whether a plant is "native" to Florida (6.4). These
results suggests that consumers are less sensitive to price than quality factors. Numerous other
factors were also mentioned by household respondents, including fertilization and water
requirements, overall health of the plant, tolerance to insects, disease, freezes, salt water and shade,
perennial nature, toxicity and allergens, fruiting for wildlife food, invasiveness and smell, and the
overall rating for these miscellaneous other factors was 8.9.


Table 9.6. Factors for purchasing plants by Florida households, 2000
Factor Number Average Standard
Respondents Score Error Score
(scale 1-10)
Durability 310 8.3 0.13
Maintenance requirements 310 7.5 0.16
Color 310 7.3 0.16
Product size or shape 308 7.0 0.15
Price 312 6.9 0.15
Native plant 295 6.4 0.18
Other factor 89 8.9 0.17


Respondents were also asked about factors considered for selecting a vendor for purchase of
horticultural goods or services, using a similar rating scheme, and these results are presented in
Table 9.7. The top-rated factor was whether the vendor offered a "quality assurance or satisfaction
guarantee" (8.4), followed by "service quality" (8.2), "product selection or variety" (8.0), "convenience"
(7.8), and "consistent availability" (7.7). Again, other miscellaneous factors were cited as the most
important overall (9.1).








Table 9.7. Factors for selecting a horticultural vendor by Florida
households, 2000
Factor Number Average Standard


Respondents


Score Error
(scale 1-10) Score


Quality assurance or 300 8.4 0.14
satisfaction guarantee
Service quality 302 8.2 0.14
Product selection/variety 301 8.0 0.13
Convenience 306 7.8 0.14
Consistent availability 302 7.7 0.15
Other factor 96 9.1 0.18








Appendix A: Questionnaire for Telephone Survey of The Florida Horticultural
Industry and Horticultural Consumers, 2000


Wholesale Nurseries

Question W1. Is this business currently active in producing
and selling ornamental plants?
1 yes
2 no
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W2. What is your position in this organization?
1 has answer
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W3. How many years has this company been in
business?
(1-99)
0 if less than a year
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W4. What was the net area used for plant
production by your business last year (2000), in acres, for
the following three kinds of production facilities?
Field (in ground) production
(0-999)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W4b. Open container production
(0-999)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W4c. Greenhouse or shadehouse production
(0-999)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W5. How many permanent full-time employees
were employed by your business last year, including
management and family members working in the business?
(1-999)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W6. How many additional temporary or part-time
employees were employed by your business last year?
(0-999)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7. Please indicate which of the following types


of ornamental plant products were grown or marketed by
your company last year, and the percentage of your total
sales for each type. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY.
Deciduous shade, flowering and fruit trees
Evergreen trees
Palm trees
Shrubs
Tropical Foliage plants
Vines and ground covers
Potted flowering plants and bedding plants
Cut foliage and flowers
Propagating liners, cuttings, or plugs
Turfgrass
Other (please specify)
None
Don't know
Not available

Question Q. Please indicate which of the following types of
ornamental plant products were grown or marketed by your
company last year, and the percentage of your total sales
for each type. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY.
Deciduous shade, flowering and fruit trees
Evergreen trees
Palm trees
Shrubs
Tropical Foliage plants
Vines and ground covers
Potted flowering plants and bedding plants
Cut foliage and flowers
Propagating liners, cuttingss, or plugs
Turfgrass
Other (please specify)
None
Don't know
Not available

Question W7aa. PLEASE SPECIFY OTHER OPTION
1 enter OTHER
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7a. What percentage of your total sales were
Deciduous shade, flowering and fruit trees
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7b. What percentage of your total sales were
Evergreen trees
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available








Appendix A: Questionnaire for Telephone Survey of The Florida Horticultural
Industry and Horticultural Consumers, 2000


Wholesale Nurseries

Question W1. Is this business currently active in producing
and selling ornamental plants?
1 yes
2 no
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W2. What is your position in this organization?
1 has answer
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W3. How many years has this company been in
business?
(1-99)
0 if less than a year
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W4. What was the net area used for plant
production by your business last year (2000), in acres, for
the following three kinds of production facilities?
Field (in ground) production
(0-999)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W4b. Open container production
(0-999)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W4c. Greenhouse or shadehouse production
(0-999)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W5. How many permanent full-time employees
were employed by your business last year, including
management and family members working in the business?
(1-999)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W6. How many additional temporary or part-time
employees were employed by your business last year?
(0-999)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7. Please indicate which of the following types


of ornamental plant products were grown or marketed by
your company last year, and the percentage of your total
sales for each type. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY.
Deciduous shade, flowering and fruit trees
Evergreen trees
Palm trees
Shrubs
Tropical Foliage plants
Vines and ground covers
Potted flowering plants and bedding plants
Cut foliage and flowers
Propagating liners, cuttings, or plugs
Turfgrass
Other (please specify)
None
Don't know
Not available

Question Q. Please indicate which of the following types of
ornamental plant products were grown or marketed by your
company last year, and the percentage of your total sales
for each type. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY.
Deciduous shade, flowering and fruit trees
Evergreen trees
Palm trees
Shrubs
Tropical Foliage plants
Vines and ground covers
Potted flowering plants and bedding plants
Cut foliage and flowers
Propagating liners, cuttingss, or plugs
Turfgrass
Other (please specify)
None
Don't know
Not available

Question W7aa. PLEASE SPECIFY OTHER OPTION
1 enter OTHER
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7a. What percentage of your total sales were
Deciduous shade, flowering and fruit trees
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7b. What percentage of your total sales were
Evergreen trees
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available








Question W7c. What percentage of your total sales were
Palm trees
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7d. What percentage of your total sales were
Shrubs
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7e. What percentage of your total sales were
Tropical Foliage plants
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7f. What percentage of your total sales were
Vines and ground covers
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7g. What percentage of your total sales were
Potted flowering plants and bedding plants
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7h. What percentage of your total sales were
Cut foliage and flowers
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7i. What percentage of your total sales were
Propagating liners, cuttingss, or plugs
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7j. What percentage of your total sales were
Turfgrass
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W7k. What percentage of your total sales were
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W8. What percentage of total sales were Florida
native plants? (CHOOSE ONE)
1 none
2 1% 5%


36%-10%
4 11%-20%
5 more than 20%
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W9. Which of the following product features are
offered by your company ? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY
Packaging
Plant identification/care tagging
Decorative containers
None
Don't know
Not available

Question W10. Which of the following services are offered
by your company? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY
Contract growing
Delivery
Mail order
Horticultural consulting
Landscape design
Landscape installation
Landscape maintenance
Other feature (SPECIFY)
None
Don't know
Not available

Question W 11. Indicate which of the following types of
customers your products are sold to, and the percentage of
total sales to each type. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY
Other growers
Re-wholesalers or brokers
Landscapers, interiorscapers or lawn maintenance firms
Retail mass merchandisers
Retail garden centers and other retailers
Developers or property managers
Direct to the public
Other type of customer (SPECIFY)
None
Don't know
Not available

Question Q2. Indicate which of the following types of
customers your products are sold to, and the percentage of
total sales to each type. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY
Other growers
Re-wholesalers or brokers
Landscapers, interiorscapers or lawn maintenance firms
Retail mass merchandisers
Retail garden centers and other retailers
Developers or property managers
Direct to the public
Other type of customer (SPECIFY)
None
Don't know








Not available


Question WI laa. PLEASE SPECIFY OTHER OPTION
1 enter OTHER
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question Wl la. What percentage of your total sales were
Other growers
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W1 Ib. What percentage of your total sales were
Re-wholesalers or brokers
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W1 Ic. What percentage of your total sales were
Landscapers, interiorscapers or lawn maintenance firms
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question Wl d. What percentage of your total sales were
Retail mass merchandisers
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question Wile. What percentage of your total sales were
Retail garden centers and other retailers
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W1 If. What percentage of your total sales were
Developers or property managers
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W1 Ig. What percentage of your total sales were
Direct to the public
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W1 Ih. What percentage of your total sales were
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W12. Which of the following marketing practices
does your company use to sell your products, and what
percentage of your total sales are attributed to each


practice? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY
Personal selling by telephone or personal visit
Commissioned salesperson
Promotions such as price discounts or special services
offered
Trade shows
Direct mail advertising
Trade magazine advertising
Printed advertising media for public such as magazines,
newspapers, brochures
Radio or television advertising
Computer website
Participation in civic events and making charitable
contributions
Other practice (SPECIFY)
None
Don't know
Not available

Question Q3. Which of the following marketing practices
does your company use to sell your products, and what
percentage of your total sales are attributed to each
practice? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY
Personal selling by telephone or personal visit
Commissioned salesperson
Promotions such as price discounts or special services
offered
Trade shows
Direct mail advertising
Trade magazine advertising
Printed advertising media for public such as magazines,
newspapers, brochures
Radio or television advertising
Computer website
Participation in civic events and making charitable
contributions
Other practice (SPECIFY)
None
Don't know
Not available

Question W12aa. PLEASE SPECIFY OTHER OPTION
1 enter OTHER
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W12a. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Personal selling by telephone or personal visit
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W12b. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Commissioned salesperson
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available









Question W12c. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Promotions such as price discounts or special
services offered
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W12d. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to
Trade shows
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W12e. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Direct mail advertising
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W12f. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Trade magazine advertising
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W12g. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Printed advertising media for public such as
magazines, newspapers, brochures
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W12h. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to
Radio or television advertising
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W12i. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Computer website
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W12j. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Participation in civic events and making
charitable contributions
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W12k. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to
(1-100%)


-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question CTCHKK. What percentage of your total sales
are attributed to
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W13. Indicate the percentage of your total sale
to the following geographic regions: Local area: the city
county, or within a radius of 50 miles, State: within Flori
by outside local area, National: other US states besides
Florida, and International: foreign countries.
Local area: the city or county, or within a radius of 50
miles
(0-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W13b.
State: within Florida by outside local area
(0-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W13c
National: other US states besides Florida
(0-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W13d
International: foreign countries
(0-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W14. Which of the following categories
represents your company's gross sales in 2000?
1 less than $250,000
2 $250,000 $499,999
3 $500,000 $999,999
4 $1 $1.99 million
5 $2 $3.99 million
6 $4 $5.99 million
7 $6 $7.99 million
8 $8 $9.99 million
9 $10 million or over
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W15. Has the ongoing drought in Florida
affected sales by your business during the last four years
(1998-2001)?
1 yes
2 no








-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W15b. Were sales increased or decreased?
1 increased
2 decreased
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W15c. By what percent have sales ?
range (1-%500)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W15d. Please describe in a few words how the
drought has affected your business.
1 gives description
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W16. Please rate the following threats facing
your industry, on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being "very
important" and 1 being "not important at all".
drought, water availability or water use restrictions
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available


Question W16b.
Low prices for product
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available


Question W16c.
restrictions on use or reduced availability of chemicals
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W16d
Government regulations
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W16e
increasing costs of production
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W16f
competition by plant substitutes
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available


Question W16g
competition by growers in other areas
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W16h
market power of large retail chains
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W16i
lack of professionalism
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W16j
general economic recession
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W16k
labor shortage
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W161
poor worker education or skills
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W 16m.
increasing energy costs
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W17. What are the financial institutions you
currently use for borrowing money for your business? List
in order of importance (SPECIFIC NAMES)
answer 1
answer 2
answer 3
answer 4
answer 5
answer 6
answer 7
answer 8
answer 9
answer 10
The Business doesn't borrow money
don't know








not available


Question W18. What are the reasons for choosing your
primary financial institution as your business lender?
Indicate yes or no for each of the following reasons. INT:
CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY
Competitive interest rates
Convenient/flexible repayment terms
Knowledge of the industry
Operates like a cooperative
Long term or personal relationship with lender
representative
Other (SPECIFY)
don't know
not available

Question W19. How satisfied are you with your primary
financial lender? Choose one of the following:
1 very satisfied
2 somewhat satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
4 somewhat dissatisfied
5 very dissatisfied
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W20. In the next year, do you expect your credit
needs to increase, decrease or remain the same as the past
year? Choose one of the following:
1 increase
2 decrease
3 remain the same
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W20b. By what percent do you expect your credit
needs to change?
(0-%100)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W21. Do you currently use some type of
electronic banking?
1 yes
2 no
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question W22. Would you consider applying for a loan
electronically on the internet?
1 yes
2 no
-8 don't know
-9 not available








Landscape Services

Question HS1. Is this business currently active in providing
horticultural services?
1 yes
2 no
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS2. What is your position in this organization?
1 has answer
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS3. How many years has this company been in
business?
(1-99)
0 if less than a year
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS4. What percentage of your total sales last
year (2000) were for the following types of services or
products: Landscape design or consulting services,
Landscape installation services, Landscape maintenance
services, Live plants, and Horticultural supplies, equipment
or hard goods?
Landscape design or consulting services
(0-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS4b. Landscape installation services
(0-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS4c. Landscape maintenance services
(0-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HC4d. Live plants
(0-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question IHS4e. Horticultural supplies, equipment or hard
goods
(0-100%/o)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS5. How many permanent full-time employees
were employed by your business last year, including
management and family members working in the business?
(1-999)


-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS6. How many additional temporary or
part-time employees were employed by your business last
year?
(0-999)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS7. Please indicate which of the following types
of ornamental plant products were sold by your company
last year, and the percentage of your total sales for each
type. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY
Deciduous shade, flowering and fruit trees
Evergreen trees
Palm trees
Shrubs
Tropical Foliage plants
Vines and ground covers
Potted flowering plants and bedding plants
Cut foliage and flowers
Propagating liners, cuttings, or plugs
Turfgrass
Other (please specify)
None
Don't know
Not available

Question Q6. Please indicate which of the following types
of ornamental plant products were sold by your company
last year, and the percentage of your total sales for each
type. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY
Deciduous shade, flowering and fruit trees
Evergreen trees
Palm trees
Shrubs
Tropical Foliage plants
Vines and ground covers
Potted flowering plants and bedding plants
Cut foliage and flowers
Propagating liners, cuttingss, or plugs
Turfgrass
Other (please specify)
None
Don't know
Not available

Question HS7aa. PLEASE SPECIFY OTHER OPTION
1 enter OTHER
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS7a. What percentage of your total sales were
Deciduous shade, flowering and fruit trees
(1-100%)
-8 don't know








-9 not available


Question HS7b. What percentage of your total sales were
Evergreen trees
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS7c. What percentage of your total sales were
Palm trees ,
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS7d. What percentage of your total sales were
Shrubs
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS7e. What percentage of your total sales were
Tropical Foliage plants
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS7f. What percentage of your total sales were
Vines and ground covers
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS7g. What percentage of your total sales were
Potted flowering plants and bedding plants
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS7h. What percentage of your total sales were
Cut foliage and flowers
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS7i. What percentage of your total sales were
Propagating liners, cuttings, or plugs
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS7j. What percentage of your total sales were
Turfgrass
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS8. What percentage of your total sales are to


each of the following types of customers: Homeowners,
Apartments and condominiums, Commercial
establishments such as restaurants, hotels and office
buildings, Governments, Builders or developers, and Othe
landscapers, interiorscapers or lawn maintenance firms?
Homeowners
(0-%100)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS8b
Apartments and condominiums
(0-%100)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS8c
Commercial establishments such as restaurants, hotels and
office buildings
(0-%100)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS8d
Governments
(0-%100)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS8e
Builders or developers
(0-%100)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS8f
Other landscapers, interiorscapers or lawn maintenance
firms
(0-%100)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS12. Which of the following marketing
practices does your company use and what percentage of
your total sales may be attributed to each practice?
SELECT ALL THAT APPLY
Personal selling by telephone or personal visit
Commissioned salesperson
Promotions such as price discounts or special services
offered
Trade shows
Direct mail advertising
Trade magazine advertising
Printed advertising media for public such as magazines,
newspapers, brochures
Radio or television advertising
Computer website







Participation in civic events and making charitable
contributions
Other practice (SPECIFY)
None
Don't know
Not available

Question Q7. Which of the following marketing practices
does your company use and what percentage of your total
sales may be attributed to each practice? SELECT ALL
THAT APPLY
Personal selling by telephone or personal visit
Commissioned salesperson
Promotions such as price discounts or special services
offered
Trade shows
Direct mail advertising
Trade magazine advertising
Printed advertising media for public such as magazines,
newspapers, brochures
Radio or television advertising
Computer website
Participation in civic events and making charitable
contributions
Other practice (SPECIFY)
None
Don't know
Not available

Question HS12aa. PLEASE SPECIFY OTHER OPTION
1 enter OTHER
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS12a. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Personal selling by telephone or personal visit
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS12b. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Commissioned salesperson

(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS12c. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Promotions such as price discounts or special
services offered
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS12d. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Trade shows
(1-100%)


-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS12e. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Direct mail advertising
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS12f. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Trade magazine advertising
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS 12g. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Printed advertising media for public such as
magazines, newspapers, brochures
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS12h. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Radio or television advertising
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS12i. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Computer website
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS12j. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to Participation in civic events and making
charitable contributions
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS12k. What percentage of your total sales are
attributed to
(1-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS13. What percentage of your total sales were
to the following geographic regions:Local area: the city or
county, or within a radius of 50 miles, State: within Florida
but outside local area, National: other US states besides
Florida, and International: outside United States?
Local area: the city or county, or within a radius of 50
miles
(0-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available







Question HS13b
State: within Florida but outside local area
(0-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS13c
National: other US states besides Florida
(0-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS13d
International: outside United States
(0-100%)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS14. Which of the following categories
represents your company's gross sales of horticultural
products and services in 2000?
1 less than $250,000
2 $250,000 $499,999
3 $500,000 $999,999
4 $1 $1.99 million
5 $2 $3.99 million
6 $4 $5.99 million
7 $6 $7.99 million
8 $8 $9.99 million
9 $10 million or over
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS15. Has the ongoing drought in Florida
affected sales by your business during the last four years
(1998-2001)?
1 yes
2 no
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS15b. Were sales increased or decreased?
1 increased
2 decreased
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS15c. By what percent have sales ?
range (1-%500)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS15d. Please describe in a few words how the
drought has affected your business.
1 gives description
-8 don't know
-9 not available


Question HS 16. Please rate the following threats facing
your industry, on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being "very
important" and 1 being "not important at all".
drought and water use restrictions
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS16b
Low prices for product or service
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS16c
restrictions on use or reduced availability of chemical,
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS16d
increasing costs of production
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS16e
competition by plant substitutes
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS16f
market power of large retail chains
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS16g
government regulations
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS16h
lack of professionalism
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS16i
general economic recession
(1-10)
-8 don't know
-9 not available

Question HS16j




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs