• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Copyright
 Title Page
 Abstract
 Acknowledgements
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Forage production
 Literature cited






Group Title: Economic information report - Food & Resource Economics Department - 271
Title: Forage production costs for south Florida, 1990
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027306/00001
 Material Information
Title: Forage production costs for south Florida, 1990
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: iii, 27 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Prevatt, J. Walter ( James Walter ), 1953-
Mislevy, P ( Paul ), 1941-
Publisher: Food & Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations and Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: [1990]
 Subjects
Subject: Forage plants -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 26-27).
Statement of Responsibility: J.W. Prevatt, P. Mislevy.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Originally published: Gainesville, Fla. : University of Florida. Food and Resource Economics Dept., 1990. (Staff paper ; no. 378)
General Note: "May 1990."
Funding: Economic information report (Gainesville, Fla.) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027306
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001544859
oclc - 21614185
notis - AHF8372

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Abstract
        Page i
    Acknowledgements
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Forage production
        Page 2
        Forage budgets
            Page 3
        Production cost budget
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
    Literature cited
        Page 26
        Page 27
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







J. Walter Prevatt
P. Mislevy .


Economic Information
Report 271


Forage Production Costs for
South Florida, 1990




r "/ Sciece.
i S


.j 'sty of Florida
I


Food & Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations and
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611


May 1990














ABSTRACT


This report contains budgets for selected forage crops used by livestock
producers in south Florida. The budgets reflect the operating and ownership
costs incurred for a certain level of forage production. They include detailed
data on production practices and input requirements for the 20 forages budgeted.

Keywords: forages, budgets, operating costs, ownership costs and production
practices





ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors sincerely appreciate all information and suggestions provided
by the numerous reviewers. In addition, the authors are grateful for the
assistance received from the many agribusiness representatives. Special thanks
is extended to Ms. Mary Lee Huffman for typing the manuscript.














ABSTRACT


This report contains budgets for selected forage crops used by livestock
producers in south Florida. The budgets reflect the operating and ownership
costs incurred for a certain level of forage production. They include detailed
data on production practices and input requirements for the 20 forages budgeted.

Keywords: forages, budgets, operating costs, ownership costs and production
practices





ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors sincerely appreciate all information and suggestions provided
by the numerous reviewers. In addition, the authors are grateful for the
assistance received from the many agribusiness representatives. Special thanks
is extended to Ms. Mary Lee Huffman for typing the manuscript.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................................ ...;...... i

ABSTRACT .............................. .... ......... ........ i

INTRODUCTION ....................................................... 1

FORAGE PRODUCTION .................................................. 2

Forage Budgets......................................... 3
Production Cost Budget ......................................... 3

LITERATURE CITED .................................................... 26

LIST OF TABLES
Table Page

1 Pensacola bahiagrass establishment cost per acre on south
Florida native flatwoods, 1990 ............................... 6

2 Pensacola bahiagrass establishment cost per acre from pre-
viously established South Florida flatwoods, 1990 ............ 7

3 Pensacola bahiagrass annual growing cost per acre on south
Florida flatwoods, 1990 ...................................... 8

4 Digitgrass, stargrass, improved bermudagrass or hemarthriagrass
establishment cost per acre on south Florida native flatwoods,
1990 ................................................. ...... 9

5 Digitgrass, stargrass, improved bermudagrass or hemarthriagrass
establishment costs per acre on previously established south
Florida flatwoods, 1990 ....................................... 10

6 Digitgrass or hemarthriagrass annual growing costs per acre on
south Florida flatwoods, 1990 ................................ 11

7 Stargrass or improved bermudagrass annual growing cost per
acre on south Florida flatwoods, 1990 ......................... 12

8 Aeschynomene overseeding cost per acre into perennial grass
pasture on south Florida flatwoods, 1990 ...................... 13

9 Aeschynomene establishment cost per acre on cultivated south
Florida flatwoods, 1990 ....................................... 14

ii

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................................ ...;...... i

ABSTRACT .............................. .... ......... ........ i

INTRODUCTION ....................................................... 1

FORAGE PRODUCTION .................................................. 2

Forage Budgets......................................... 3
Production Cost Budget ......................................... 3

LITERATURE CITED .................................................... 26

LIST OF TABLES
Table Page

1 Pensacola bahiagrass establishment cost per acre on south
Florida native flatwoods, 1990 ............................... 6

2 Pensacola bahiagrass establishment cost per acre from pre-
viously established South Florida flatwoods, 1990 ............ 7

3 Pensacola bahiagrass annual growing cost per acre on south
Florida flatwoods, 1990 ...................................... 8

4 Digitgrass, stargrass, improved bermudagrass or hemarthriagrass
establishment cost per acre on south Florida native flatwoods,
1990 ................................................. ...... 9

5 Digitgrass, stargrass, improved bermudagrass or hemarthriagrass
establishment costs per acre on previously established south
Florida flatwoods, 1990 ....................................... 10

6 Digitgrass or hemarthriagrass annual growing costs per acre on
south Florida flatwoods, 1990 ................................ 11

7 Stargrass or improved bermudagrass annual growing cost per
acre on south Florida flatwoods, 1990 ......................... 12

8 Aeschynomene overseeding cost per acre into perennial grass
pasture on south Florida flatwoods, 1990 ...................... 13

9 Aeschynomene establishment cost per acre on cultivated south
Florida flatwoods, 1990 ....................................... 14

ii


















Table Page

10 Alyce clover overseeding cost per acre into perennial grass
pasture on south Florida flatwoods, 1990 ...................... 15

11 Hairy indigo overseeding cost per acre into perennial grass
pasture on south Florida flatwoods, 1990 ...................... 16

12 White clover establishment cost per acre on cultivated south
Florida flatwoods, 1990 .................................... 17

13 Ryegrass overseeding cost per acre into perennial grass pasture
on south Florida flatwoods, 1990 .............................. 18

14 Ryegrass establishment and growing cost per acre on cultivated
south Florida flatwoods, 1990 ................................. 19

15 Oat establishment and growing cost per acre on cultivated south
Florida flatwoods, 1990 ....................................... 20

16 Corn forage establishment and growing cost per acre on
cultivated south Florida flatwoods, 1990 ...................... 21

17 Pearl millet establishment and growing cost per acre on
cultivated south Florida flatwoods, 1990 ....................... 22

18 Forage sorghum establishment and growing cost per acre on
cultivated south Florida flatwoods, 1990 ...................... 23

19 Grain sorghum establishment and growing cost per acre on
cultivated south Florida flatwoods, 1990 ...................... 24

20 Sorghum x sudangrass hybrid establishment and growing cost per
acre on cultivated south Florida flatwoods, 1990 .............. 25















FORAGE PRODUCTION COSTS FOR SOUTH FLORIDA, 1990

J. W. Prevatt and P. Mislevy*



INTRODUCTION

Chaotic, complex and challenging are words that describe the unsettled

economic conditions facing Florida forage producers. Oscillating prices for

products due to fluctuating energy costs, interest rates, and inflation have

all added to the risk and uncertainty confronting decision makers on forage

production investments. These unstable economic circumstances coupled with new

technological developments and the usual production obstacles are forcing

producers to take a hard look at their production systems and be increasingly

aware of the factors that may affect the profitability of their agricultural

enterprise.

In order for producers to develop realistic budgets for costs and returns

evaluation, they need data on forage production practices and costs. These

budgets present the basic production practices and the cost information necessary

for producers to make informed management decisions about their forage

production system.

The forage budgets developed in this publication represent estimates of

the costs associated with producing a particular forage using the indicated

production practices. Although an effort was made to ensure that the

budgets are reasonably accurate, individual producers may do things differently.

Because of the wide variation of alternative inputs, locations, and production



*J. W. Prevatt is an Associate Professor, Food and Resource Economics Department,
University of Florida, GCREC-Bradenton, Florida, 34203. P. Mislevy is a
Professor and Agronomist, AREC-Ona, Florida 33865.















systems, it is important for each producer to develop his own budgets and

understand how to utilize them when making management decisions. These general

budgets provide a beginning for the individual who wants to budget his specific

operation.

FORAGE PRODUCTION

Despite frequently changing economic conditions, Florida forage producers

have benefited from past and present forage research efforts which have

developed improved production systems and cultivars. These improved

technologies are helping to overcome major production obstacles such as, disease

and pest control problems, infertile soil, rainfall variability, and a complex

host of other problems.

Florida forage and livestock producers have more flexibility managing

forages than they do livestock. In fact, forage management provides most of the

flexibility that is possible in livestock operations. Decisions about varieties

of permanent forages, use of harvested forages for winter supplementation,

choice of cultural practice alternatives and forage production levels provide

numerous alternatives for forage and livestock producers. Thus, many

considerations are necessary when evaluating and/or developing an efficient and

economical forage production system.

Planning livestock production practices may begin either with the

requirements of the livestock enterprise, or the quantity and quality of forage

production. Both are of major importance and should be thoroughly evaluated to

adequately match forage availability with the needs of the livestock enterprise.

The prudent manager evaluates alternative forage production systems based

on the resources at his disposal (land, labor, capital and management) to

produce feedstuffs for a livestock enterprise. Likewise, after evaluating the

-2-














forage production alternatives, a producer needs to evaluate alternative

livestock production enterprises and systems. The basic objective, of course,

is to select a forage and livestock system that effectively utilizes the

resources and will improve profits. A profitable forage and livestock operation

matches the seasonal forage production, based on quantity and quality, to the

nutritional requirements of the livestock enterprise.

FORAGE BUDGETS

The forage budgets presented in this publication represent those forages

commonly produced in south Florida. The budgets were processed on the

computerized budget generator of the Florida Agricultural and Resource

Management Systems Laboratory (FARM Systems Lab) of the Food and Resource

Economics Department, University of Florida (17). The computerized budget

generator provides consistent and easily modified budgets for the many

production alternatives.

After properly specifying the input information for each forage, the budget

generator developed the forage production cost budgets. Reviewing these

budgets allows the user to identify similarities or differences in his production

system.

PRODUCTION COST BUDGET

The production cost budgets include the operating and ownership costs for

producing each forage. The sum of operating and ownership cost represents the

total cost of producing the forage crop (14). Current information for

calculating operating and ownership costs were furnished by producers,

agri-business representatives and Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

(IFAS) personnel.

The operating costs are those costs that vary with output (yield) during

-3-














forage production alternatives, a producer needs to evaluate alternative

livestock production enterprises and systems. The basic objective, of course,

is to select a forage and livestock system that effectively utilizes the

resources and will improve profits. A profitable forage and livestock operation

matches the seasonal forage production, based on quantity and quality, to the

nutritional requirements of the livestock enterprise.

FORAGE BUDGETS

The forage budgets presented in this publication represent those forages

commonly produced in south Florida. The budgets were processed on the

computerized budget generator of the Florida Agricultural and Resource

Management Systems Laboratory (FARM Systems Lab) of the Food and Resource

Economics Department, University of Florida (17). The computerized budget

generator provides consistent and easily modified budgets for the many

production alternatives.

After properly specifying the input information for each forage, the budget

generator developed the forage production cost budgets. Reviewing these

budgets allows the user to identify similarities or differences in his production

system.

PRODUCTION COST BUDGET

The production cost budgets include the operating and ownership costs for

producing each forage. The sum of operating and ownership cost represents the

total cost of producing the forage crop (14). Current information for

calculating operating and ownership costs were furnished by producers,

agri-business representatives and Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

(IFAS) personnel.

The operating costs are those costs that vary with output (yield) during

-3-















the production period. The operating costs are listed in order of actual field

practice performed. These costs vary depending on the price and quantity of

such inputs as fuel, oil, lubricants, repairs, fertilizers, seed, chemicals,

labor and numerous others.

Ownership costs, however, are unrelated to output and do not vary during

the production period. The ownership costs considered on assets used are

depreciation, insurance, taxes and interest.

Summing the operating and ownership costs results in the total cost of

producing the forage. The total cost may be used by the producer to evaluate

the cost per unit of yield ($/ton) and estimate the forage production cost to

be incurred in order to supply the requirements of the livestock enterprise.

The wide variety of data available from this budget provides a producer

with an excellent information base upon which to make decisions. In addition,

manipulating these data can show the user the dollar differences resulting from

changing some part of his production system.

The production input rates and cultural practices described are estimates

of University of Florida research and extension personnel and growers associated

with forage production. Therefore, producers should consult other local growers

with experience and/or their county extension agent on recommendations for their

area. An annual soil test prior to the production of any crop is highly

recommended to determine the necessary nutrients and quantities, which will have

a direct effect on operating costs.

After the production inputs and practices have been identified, production

budgets may be more easily developed for planning and comparison. A word of

caution: Production cost comparisons for various forages should always take

into consideration both the yield and ~ielity of the forage. Both of these

factors are of major importance in determining which forage produces the lowest














cost feedstuff.

The forage production budgets presented in this paper provide the basic

information for estimating the impact on profits of certain decisions affecting

the agricultural operation. Adjusting and using the forage budgets described

here-in will enable an individual producer to estimate and examine the costs

of his own forage production system. A great deal of attention should be given

to the development of a year-round forage and livestock production system. The

development of budget information will not insure producers a profit, but it

will improve their chances of organizing an efficient and economical enterprise.















Table 1. Pensacola bahiagrass establishment cost per acre on south Florida
native flatwoods, 1990a.


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value

------------------- $ --------------
I. Operating costs:
Custom stump removal Acre 1.00 350.00 350.00
Dolomite Ton 1.00 29.65 29.65
N-P205-K20 (16-8-16)c Cwt 3.00 8.75 26.25
N-P205-K20 (20-0-20) Cwt 2.00 9.81 19.62
Micronutrientsd Lbs 7.00 0.20 1.40
Pensacola bahiagrass seeded Lbs 40.00 1.10 44.00
Machinery Acre 1.00 3.43 3.43
Tractors Acre 1.00 6.78 6.78
Labor Hour 1.40 4.00 5.60
Interest-operating capital Dollar 244.00 0.12 29.20
Total operating costs 515.93

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 15.81 15.81
Tractors Acre 1.00 8.20 8.20
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 28.51

III. Total costs: 544.44


aDry matter yield during establishment year is about
communique with P. Mislevy).

bLand clearing cost may vary depending on the number
physical factors.


0.5 tons/acre (personal


of stumps and other


cFirst application should follow seedling emergence and second application 30
to 50 days thereafter.

dlPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental contents: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mnm 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.

eAdjust seed cost if using 'Argentine' or 'Paraquay 22' bahiagrass; adjust
seed cost and seeding rate (4#/A) for Tifton 9 bahiagrass.














Table 2. Pensacola bahiagrass establishment cost per acre from previously
established south Florida flatwoods, 1990a.


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value

-------------- -----------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 1.00 29.65 29.65
N-P205-K20 (16-8-16)b Cwt 3.00 8.75 26.25
N-P205-K20 (20-0-20) Cwt 2.00 9.81 19.62
Micronutrientsc Lbs 4.00 0.20 0.80
Pensacola bahiagrass seedd Lbs 40.00 1.10 44.00
Machinery Acre 1.00 2.29 2.29
Tractors Acre 1.00 9.40 9.40
Labor Hour 3.71 4.00 14.84
Interest-operating capital Dollar 78.98 0.12 8.81
Total operating costs 155.66

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 13.06 13.06
Tractors Acre 1.00 11.22 11.22
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 28.78

III. Total costs: 184.44


aDry matter yield during establishment year
communique with P. Mislevy).


is about 0.5 ton/acre (personal


bFirst application should follow seedling emergence and second application 30
to 50 days thereafter.

ClPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.

dAdjust seed cost if using 'Argentine' or 'Paraguay 22' bahiagrass; adjust
seed cost and seeding rate (6#/A or more) Tifton 9 bahiagrass.
















Table 3. Pensacola bahiagrass annual growing cost per acre on
flatwoods, 1990a.


south Florida


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value

------ ----------- $ --------------

I. Operating costs
Dolomite Ton 0.20 29.65 5.93
N-P205-K20 (16-4-8)b Cwt 7.00 7.65 53.55
Micronutrientsc Lbs 2.00 0.20 0.40
Machinery Acre 1.00 0.34 0.34
Tractors Acre 1.00 0.00 0.00
Labor Hour 0.12 4.00 0.48
Interest-operating capital Dollar 32.07 0.12 3.64
Total operating costs 64.34

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 0.47 0.47
Tractors Acre 1.00 0.00 0.00
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50

Total ownership costs 4.97

III. Total costs: 69.31


aAnnual dry matter production observed was 5.3 tons per acre at a 3-wk harvest
interval, undergrazing (personal communique with P. Mislevy).

bResearch data indicate that all fertilizer can be applied on bahiagrass in
one application with little effect on seasonal yields (2).

clPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.


-8-















Table 4. Digitgrass, stargrass, improved bermudagrass or hemarthriagrass
establishment cost per acre on south Florida native flatwoods, 1990a.


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value

------------- $ -----------

I. Operating costs:
Custom stump removalb Acre 1.00 350.00 350.00
Dolomite Ton 1.50 29.65 44.48
N-P205-K20 (15--1-15)c Cwt 3.00 9.17 27.51
N-P205-K20 (20-0-20) Cwt 3.00 9.81 29.43
Micronutrientsd Lbs 20.00 0.20 4.00
Sprig, customer Acre 1.00 95.00 95.00
Herbicide Weedmaster(R)f Lbs.act. 1.00 6.09 6.09
Machinery Acre 1.00 1.24 1.24
Tractors Acre 1.00 5.32 5.32
Labor Hour 1.01 4.00 4.04
Interest-operating capital Dollar 283.55 0.12 34.03
Total operating costs 601.14

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 9.04 9.04
Tractors Acre 1.00 6.94 6.94
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50

Total ownership costs 20.48

III. Total costs: 621.62


aDry matter yield during establishment year for digitgrass, stargrass,
improved bermudagrass and hemarthria was 1.0, 1.4, 1.4, and 1.6 tons per acre
(personal communique with P. Mislevy).

bLand clearing cost may vary depending on the number of stumps and other
physical factors.

cFirst application should follow plant emergence and second application 30 to
50 days thereafter.

dlPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.07; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.

eCustom sprig cost includes growing, cutting, baling, and planting costs.

fDO NOT use Weedmaster(R) on hemarthria; use 1 Ib active Banvel(R) herbicide
when plants are 6 to 8 inches tall.
















Table 5. Digitgrass, stargrass, improved bermudagrass or hemarthriagrass
establishment cost per acre on previously established south Florida
flatwoods, 1990a.


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value

--------------- $ -----------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 1.00 29.65 29.65
N-P205-K20 (16-8-16)b Cwt 3.00 8.75 26.25
N-P205-K20 (20-0-20) Cwt 2.00 9.81 19.62
Micronutrientsc Lbs 4.00 0.20 0.80
Sprig, custom Acre 1.00 95.00 95.00
Herbicide Weedmaster(R)e Lbs.act. 1.00 6.09 6.09
Machinery Acre 1.00 2.37 2.37
Tractors Acre 1.00 9.40 9.40
Labor Hour 1.01 4.00 4.04
Interest-operating capital Dollar 95.85 0.12 11.59
Total operating costs 204.81

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 14.33 14.33
Tractors Acre 1.00 12.27 12.27
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50

Total ownership costs 31.10

III. Total costs: 235.91


aDry matter yield during establishment year for digitgrass, stargrass,
improved bermudagrass and hemarthriagrass was 1.0, 1.4, 1.4, and 1.7 tons per
acre (personal communique with P. Mislevy).

bFirst application should follow plant emergence and second application 30 to
50 days thereafter.

CIPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.57; Cu, 3.0.; and B, 3.0%.

dCustom sprig cost includes growing, cutting, baling, and planting costs.

eDO NOT use Weedmaster(R) on hemarthriagrass; use 1 1b active Banvel(R)
herbicide when plants are 6 to 8 inches tall.


-10-















Table 6. Digitgrass or hemarthriagrass annual growing costs per acre on south
Florida flatwoods, 1990a.


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value

------------------- $ ---------------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.25 29.65 7.41
N-P205-K20 (16-8-16)b Cwt 4.00 8.75 35.00
N-P205-K20 (20-0-20) Cwt 2.50 9.81 24.53
MicronutrientsC Lbs 4.00 0.20 0.80
Machinery Acre 1.00 0.34 0.34
Tractors Acre 1.00 0.00 0.00
Labor Hour 0.12 4.00 0.48
Interest-operating capital Dollar 34.28 0.12 4.11
Total operating costs 72.67

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 0.47 0.47
Tractors Acre 1.00 0.00 0.00
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 4.97

III. Total costs: 77.64


aAnnual dry matter production for digitgrass and hemarthriagrass was 3.5 and
7.6 tons per acre, respectively (1, 11).

bFirst application (16-8-16) early spring (March); and second application late
August or early September, when fields do not have standing water.

cIPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.


-11-
















Table 7. Stargrass or improved bermudagrass annual growing costs per acre on
south Florida flatwoods, 1990a.


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value

------------------- $ --------------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.25 29.65 7.41
N-P205-K20 (16-8-16)b Cwt 4.00 8.75 35.00
Ammonium nitrate Cwt 2.00 11.42 22.84
N-P205-K20 (16-8-8) Cwt 4.00 7.80 31.20
Micronutrientsc Lbs 4.00 0.20 0.80
Machinery Acre 1.00 0.34 0.34
Tractors Acre 1.00 0.00 0.00
Labor Hour 0.12 4.00 0.48
Interest-operating capital Dollar 49.04 0.12 5.88
Total operating costs 103.95

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 0.47 0.47
Tractors Acre 1.00 0.00 0.100
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 4.97

III. Total costs: 108.92


aAnnual dry matter production for stargrass and improved bermudagrass was 6.5
and 7.0 tons per acre, respectively (11, 12).

bFirst application (16-8-16) applied in March; second application (ammonium
nitrate) in July; and third application (16-8-8) in early September, when
fields do not have standing water.

CIPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.


-12-














Table 8. Aeschynomene overseeding cost per acre into perennial grass pasture
on south Florida flatwoods, 1990a.


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value

------------- $ --------------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.25 29.65 7.41
N-P205-K20 (0-10-20)b Cwt 3.00 7.44 22.32
MicronutrientsC Lbs 2.00 0.20 0.40
Inoculumd Oz. 2.00 0.75 1.50
Aeschynomene seed in hulld,eLbs 30.00 1.00 30.00
Machinery Acre 1.00 2.20 2.20
Tractors Acre 1.00 2.66 2.66
Labor Hour 0.62 4.00 2.48
Interest-operating capital Dollar 34.49 0.12 4.14
Total operating costs 73.11

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 7.22 7.22
Tractors Acre 1.00 3.47 3.47
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 15.19

III. Total costs: 88.30


aAnnual dry matter production observed was 1.7 tons per acre (5).
Aeschynomene grows best on poorly drained flatwoods soils with no standing
water.

bApply fertilizer when aeschynomene plants reach a height of 4-6 inches.

CIPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.57; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.

dlf two consecutive years of successful crops have been grown on a specific
field, normally inoculum and additional aeschynomene seed are not required the
third or additional years. However, the perennial grass must be kept closely
grazed until aeschynomene seed germinate.

eUse naked seed (5 Ib/acre) only when adequate moisture will be consistently
available for 30 days or mix 3 Ib/acre naked seed with 10 lb/acre seed in
hull. Graze perennial grass to a 2-inch stubble prior to seeding
aeschynomene.

fThe use of a roller chopper during the spring dry season will reduce grass
competition and aid aeschynomene development. However, continued use of a
chopper could reduce the bahiagrass stand.


-13-















Table 9. Aeschynomene establishment cost per acre on cultivated south Florida
flatwoods, 1990a.


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value

------------------ $ --------------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.25 29.65 7.41
N-P205-K20 (0-10-20)b Cwt 3.00 7.44 22.32
Micronutrientsc Lbs 2.00 0.20 0.40
Inoculumd Oz. 2.00 0.75 1.50
Aeschynomene seed in hulld,eLbs 30.00 1.00 30.00
Machinery Acre 1.00 3.78 3.78
Tractors Acre 1.00 5.41 5.41
Labor Hour 0.62 4.00 2.48
Interest-operating capital Dollar 36.65 0.12 4.40
Total operating costs 77.70

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 10.69 10.69
Tractors Acre 1.00 7.05 7.05
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 22.24

III. Total costs: 99.94


aAnnual dry matter production observed was 1.6 tons per acre (9).
Aeschynomene grows best on poorly drained flatwoods soils with no standing
water.

bApply fertilizer when aeschynomene plants reach a height of 4-6 inches.

clPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0.; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.

dlf two consecutive years of successful crops have been grown on a specific
field, normally inoculum and additional aeschynomene seed are not required the
third of additional years. However, the perennial grass must be kept closely
grazed until aeschynomene seed germinate.

eUse naked seed (5 Ib/acre) only when adequate moisture will be consistently
available for 30 days or mix 3 Ib/acre naked seed with 10 Ib/acre seed in
hull. Graze perennial grass to a 2-inch stubble prior to seeding
aeschynomene.


-14-














Table 10. Alyce clover overseeding cost
on south Florida flatwoods, 1990a.


per acre into perennial grass pasture


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value

------------- &--------------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.25 29.65 7.41
N-P205-K20 (0-10-20)b Cwt 3.00 7.44 22.32
MicronutrientsC Lbs 2.00 0.20 0.40
Inoculumd Oz. 2.00 0.75 1.50
Alyce clover seeded Lbs 10.00 0.75 7.50
Machineryf Acre 1.00 2.20 2.20
Tractors Acre 1.00 2.66 2.66
Labor Hour 0.62 4.00 2.48
Interest-operating capital Dollar 23.24 0.12 2.79
Total operating costs 49.26

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 7.22 7.22
Tractors Acre 1.00 3.47 3.47
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 15.19

III. Total costs: 64.45




aAnnual dry matter production observed was 2.0 tons per acre (5).

bApply fertilizer when aeschynomene plants reach a height of 4-6 inches.

CIPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.07; Zn, 7.07; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.

dIf a successful alyce clover crop was grown on a field the previous 2 years,
inoculum can be eliminated in future years.

eGraze perennial grass to a 2-inch stubble prior to seeding alyce clover and
keep grass short until alyce clover seed germinate.

fThe use of a roller chopper during the spring dry season will reduce grass
competition and aid alyce clover development. However, continued use of a
chopper could reduce the bahiagrass stand.


-15-















Table 11. Hairy indigo overseeding cost
on south Florida flatwoods, 1990a.


per acre into perennial grass pasture


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value

------------- $ -----------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.25 29.65 7.41
N-P205-K20 (0-10-20)b Cwt 3.00 7.44 22.32
Micronutrientsc Lbs 4.00 0.20 0.80
Inoculumd Oz. 2.00 0.75 1.50
Hairy indigo seede Lbs 12.00 0.85 10.20
Machineryf Acre 1.00 2.20 2.20
Tractors Acre 1.00 2.66 2.66
Labor Hour 0.62 4.00 2.48
Interest-operating capital Dollar 24.79 0.12 2.97
Total operating costs 52.54

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 7.22 7.22
Tractors Acre 1.00 3.47 3.47
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 15.19

III. Total costs: 67.73




aAnnual dry matter production observed was 1.3 tons per acre (4). Hairy
indigo grows best on well drained and drought soils.

bApply fertilizer when plants reach a height of 4-6 inches.

ClPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.

dlf a successful hairy indigo crop was grown on a field the previous 2 years,
inoculation can be eliminated in future years.

eGraze perennial grass to a 2-inch stubble prior to seeding hairy indigo and
keep grass short until hairy indigo seed germinate.

fThe use of a roller chopper during the spring dry season will reduce grass
competition and aid hairy indigo development. However, continued use of a
chopper could reduce the bahiagrass stand.


-16-













Table 12. White clover establishment cost per acre on cultivated south
Florida flatwoods, 1990a.

Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value

-------------------------------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.33 29.65 9.78
N-P205-K20 (0-10-20)b Cwt 4.00 7.44 29.76
MicronutrientsC Lbs 4.00 0.20 0.80
Inoculum Oz. 2.00 0.75 1.50
White clover seedd Lbs 4.00 2.05 8.20
Irrigation, seepage Acre 1.00 25.00 25.00
Herbicide Eptam(R) Lbs 3.50 3.99 13.97
Machinery Acre 1.00 3.78 3.78
Tractors Acre 1.00 5.41 5.41
Labor Hour 0.62 4.00 2.48
Interest-operating capital Dollar 50.34 0.12 6.04
Total operating costs 106.72

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 10.69 10.69
Tractors Acre 1.00 7.05 7.05
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 22.24

III. Total costs: 128.96


aAnnual dry matter production observed
cropping of white clover, alfalfa, red
area could lead to nematode problems.


was 2.5 tons per acre (8). Continued
clover or sweet clover on the same land


bApply dolomite to maintain a pH range of 6.0 to 6.5.


CIPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.

dAlfalfa and red and sweet clover may also be grown by following these
production practices by seeding 10, 8 and 10 lb per acre, respectively, and
followed by firm soil packing. Annual dry matter production observed for
these forages was 4.5, 2.9, and 1.4 tons per acre, respectively (8). However,
alfalfa grown on flatwood soils will not tolerate wet soil conditions from a
3-inch rainfall.


-17-















Table 13. Ryegrass overseeding cost per acre into perennial
south Florida flatwoods, 1990a.


grass pasture on


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value

-- $-----------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.33 29.65 7.41
N-P205-K20 (16-8-16)b Cwt 4.00 8.75 35.00
Ammonium nitrateb Cwt 3.60 11.42 41.11
Micronutrientsc Lbs 4.00 0.20 0.80
Ryegrass seeded Lbs 20.00 0.38 7.60
Irrigation, seepage Acre 1.00 25.00 25.00
Machinery Acre 1.00 2.20 2.20
Tractors Acre 1.00 2.66 2.66
Labor Hour 0.62 4.00 2.48
Interest-operating capital Dollar 62.13 0.12 7.46
Total operating costs 131.72

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 7.22 7.22
Tractors Acre 1.00 3.47 3.47
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 15.19

III. Total costs: 146.91




aAnnual dry matter production observed was 0.43 tons per acre (3).

bApply 16-8-16 fertilizer after seedling emergence (2 inches); apply 60 Ib
N/acre 30 to 45 days after initial fertilizer application and an additional 60
Ib N/acre 30 to 45 days thereafter.

ClPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.07.; Mn, 7.57; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.

dGraze perennial grass to a 2-inch stubble prior to seeding ryegrass and chop
(roller chopper) perennial grass to suppress growth.


-18-














Table 14. Ryegrass establishment and growing cost per acre on cultivated
south Florida flatwoods, 1990a.


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value


------------ $ ------------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.33 29.65 7.41
N-P20-K20 (16-8-16)b Cwt 4.00 8.75 35.00
Ammonium nitrateb Cwt 3.60 11.42 41.11
Micronutrientsc Lbs 4.00 0.20 0.80
Ryegrass seed Lbs 20.00 0.38 7.60
Machinery Acre 1.00 4.02 4.02
Tractors Acre 1.00 6.34 6.34
Labor Hour 1.32 4.00 5.28
Interest-operating capital Dollar 53.78 0.12 6.45
Total operating costs 114.01

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 10.69 10.69
Tractors Acre 1.00 7.05 7.05
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 22.24

III. Total costs: 136.25


aAnnual dry matter production observed was 2.6 to
(16).


3.3 tons per acre per year


bApply 16-8-16 fertilizer after seedling emergence (2 inches); apply 60 Ib
N/acre 30 to 45 days after initial fertilizer application and an additional 60
lb N/acre 30 to 45 days thereafter.

C1PI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.


-19-















Table 15. Oat establishment and growing cost per acre on cultivated south
Florida flatwoods, 1990a.



Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value


------------- $ -----------

I. Operating costs
Dolomite Ton 0.33 29.65 7.41
N-P205-K20 (16-8-16)b Cwt 4.00 8.75 35.00
Ammonium nitrateb Cwt 3.60 11.42 41.11
Micronutrientsc Lbs 4.00 0.20 0.80
Oat seeded Bu 2.50 7.00 17.50
Machinery Acre 1.00 4.02 4.02
Tractors Acre 1.00 6.34 6.34
Labor Hour 1.32 4.00 5.28
Interest-operating capital Dollar 58.73 0.12 7.05
Total operating costs 124.51

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 10.69 10.69
Tractors Acre 1.00 7.05 7.05
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 22.24

III. Total costs: 146.75




aAnnual dry matter production observed was 2.3 to 3.6 tons per acre (15).


bApply 16-8-16 fertilizer after seedling emergence (2 inches); apply 60 Ib
N/acre 30 to 45 days after initial fertilizer application and an additional 60
lb N/acre 30 to 45 days thereafter.

cIPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.07; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.

dWheat and rye may also be produced by following these production practices by
seeding 2 bushels per acre of each small grain. Annual dry matter production
observed for these forages was 2.0 to 3.3 and 2.5 to 3.6 tons per acre,
respectively (15).


-20-














Table 16. Corn forage establishment and growing cost per acre on cultivated
south Florida flatwoods, 1990a.



Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value


------------------- $ -----

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.33 29.65 9.78
N-P205-K20 (5-10-20)b Cwt 10.00 7.76 77.60
Ammonium nitrateb Cwt 6.00 11.42 68.52
MicronutrientsC Lbs 7.00 0.20 1.40
Corn seed Lbs 21.00 1.30 27.30
Irrigation, seepage Acre 1.00 25.00 25.00
Furadan 10G(R) Lbs 20.00 1.73 34.60
AAtrex(R) Lbs act. 2.00 2.43 4.86
Lasso(R) Acre 2.00 6.00 12.00
Machinery Acre 1.00 3.47 3.47
Tractors Acre 1.00 7.85 7.85
Labor Hour 2.84 4.00 11.36
Interest-operating capital Dollar 141.87 0.12 17.02
Total operating costs 300.76

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 12.47 12.47
Tractors Acre 1.00 10.25 10.25
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 27.22

III. Total costs: 327.98




aAnnual dry matter production observed was 9.6 tons per acre (13).

bApply 5-10-20 fertilizer preplant incorporate; apply 100 Ib N/acre when corn
is 8-12 inches and additional 100 Ib N/acre when corn is 18-24 inches tall.

CIPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.


-21-















Table 17. Pearl millet establishment and growing cost per acre on cultivated
south Florida flatwoods, 1990a.


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value


------------------- $ ---------------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.33 29.65 9.78
N-P205-K20 (10-10-20)b Cwt 5.00 8.35 41.75
Ammonium nitrateb Cwt 1.50 11.42 17.13
Micronutrientsc Lbs 7.00 0.20 1.40
Pearl millet seed Lbs 10.00 0.60 6.00
Irrigation, seepage Acre 1.00 25.00 25.00
Furadan 10G(R) Lbs 20.00 1.73 34.60
AAtrex(R) Lbs act. 2.00 2.43 4.86
Machinery Acre 1.00 3.13 3.13
Tractors Acre 1.00 7.85 7.85
Labor Hour 2.84 4.00 11.36
Interest-operating capital Dollar 81.43 0.12 9.77
Total operating costs 172.63

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 12.01 12.01
Tractors Acre 1.00 10.25 10.25
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 26.76

III. Total costs: 199.39


aAnnual dry matter production observed was 2.5 tons
(6).

bApply 10-10-20 fertilizer as a preplant incorporate
plants are 12-14 inches tall, apply 50 Ib N/acre and
plant stand remains 30 days after grazing commenced,
N/acre.


per acre, single harvest


or at seeding; when
start grazing. If a good
apply an additional 50 Ib


cIPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.07.; Mn, 7.5.; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.


-22-















Table 18. Forage sorghum establishment and growing cost per acre on
cultivated south Florida flatwoods, 1990a.


Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value


------------------ $ ---------------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.33 29.65 9.78
N-P205-K20 (5-10-20)b Cwt 10.00 7.76 77.60
Ammonium nitrateb Cwt 4.50 11.42 51.39
Micronutrientsc Lbs 7.00 0.20 1.40
N-P205-K20 (5-10-20)b Cwt 5.00 7.76 38.80
Ammonium nitrateb Cwt 3.00 11.42 34.26
Forage sorghum seeded Lbs 16.00 0.80 12.80
Irrigation, seepage Acre 1.00 25.00 25.00
Furadan 10G(R) Lbs 20.00 1.73 34.60
AAtrex(R) Lbs act. 2.00 2.43 4.86
Machinery Acre 1.00 1.97 1.97
Tractors Acre 1.00 7.85 7.85
Labor Hour 2.72 4.00 10.88
Interest-operating capital Dollar 155.60 0.12 18.67
Total operating costs 329.86

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 9.46 9.46
Tractors Acre 1.00 10.25 10.25
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 24.21

III. Total costs: 354.07


aAnnual dry matter production observed was 12 to 14
harvests (7).


tons per acre, two


bApply 5-10-20 fertilizer as a preplant incorporate or at seeding; when plants
are 10-12 inches tall, apply 75 lb N/acre; apply an additional 75 lb N/acre
when plants are 18 to 24 inches tall. After initial harvest, apply 25-50-100
Ib/acre N-P205-K20; when regrowth is 24 inches tall, apply 100 Ib N/acre.

ClPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.

dSugar sorghum may also be produced by following these production practices
(seed 12 pounds per acre). Annual dry matter production for sugar sorghum was
11.5 tons per acre (10).


-23-

















Table 19. Grain sorghum establishment and growing cost per acre on cultivated
south Florida flatwoods, 1990a.



Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value


--,---------- $ --..--------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.33 29.65 9.78
N-P205-K20 (5-10-20)b Cwt 8.00 7.76 62.08
Ammonium nitrateb Cwt 7.00 11.42 48.54
Micronutrientsc Lbs 7.00 0.20 1.40
Grain sorghum seed Lbs 16.00 0.88 14.08
Irrigation, seepage Acre 1.00 25.00 25.00
Furadan 10G(R) Lbs 20.00 1.73 34.60
AAtrex(R) Lbs act. 2.00 2.43 4.86
Machinery Acre 1.00 3.13 3.13
Tractors Acre 1.00 7.85 7.85
Labor Hour 2.36 4.00 9.44
Interest-operating capital Dollar 112.71 0.12 13.25
Total operating costs 234.01

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 12.01 12.01
Tractors Acre 1.00 10.25 10.25
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 26.76

III. Total costs: 260.77




aAnnual dry matter production obtained was 5100 lb per acre (7) and total
production (grain and stover) obtained was 7.1 tone dry matter per acre
(personal communique with P. Mislevy).

bApply 5-10-20 fertilizer as a preplant incorporate or at seeding; apply 70 lb
N/acre when plants are 12 inches tall and an additional 70 Ib N/acre when
plants are 24 inches tall.

cIPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.


-24-













Table 20. Sorghum x sudangrass hybrid establishment and growing cost per acre
on cultivated south Florida flatwoods, 1990a.




Your
Item Unit Quantity Price Value Value


------------------- $ ---------------

I. Operating costs:
Dolomite Ton 0.33 29.65 9.78
N-P205-K20 (5-10-20)b Cwt 8.00 7.76 62.08
Ammonium nitrateb Cwt 3.00 11.42 34.26
Micronutrientsc Lbs 7.00 0.20 1.40
N-P205-K20 (20-10-20)b Cwt 4.00 11.01 44.04
Sorghum x sudangrass hyb seed Lbs 16.00 0.40 6.40
Irrigation, seepage Acre 1.00 25.00 25.00
Furadan 10G(R) Lbs 20.00 1.73 34.60
AAtrex(R) Lbs act. 2.00 2.43 4.86
Machinery Acre 1.00 3.13 3.13
Tractors Acre 1.00 7.85 7.85
Labor Hour 2.72 4.00 10.88
Interest-operating capital Dollar 122.14 0.12 14.66
Total operating costs 258.94

II. Ownership costs:
Machinery Acre 1.00 12.01 12.01
Tractors Acre 1.00 10.25 10.25
Real estate taxes Acre 1.00 4.50 4.50
Total ownership costs 26.76

IIl. Total costs: 285.70


aAnnual dry matter production obtained was 10.8 tons per acre,
(7).


two harvests


bApply 5-10-20 fertilizer as a preplant incorporate or at seeding; when plants
are 12 inches tall, apply 50 lb N/acre; and an additional 50 Ib N/acre when
plants are 24 inches tall. Following 30 to 45 days of grazing, apply an
additional 80-4-80 Ib /acre, N-P205-K20.

clPI 303(R) is a micronutrient mix with the following elemental content: Fe,
18.0%; Zn, 7.0%; Mn, 7.5%; Cu, 3.0%; and B, 3.0%.


-25-















LITERATURE CITED


1. Adjei, M. B., P. Mislevy, K. H. Quesenberry, and W. R. Ocumpaugh. 1988.
Grazing frequency effects on forage production, quality, persistence
and crown total non-structural carbohydrate reserves in limpograss.
Soil and Crop. Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 47:233-236.

2. Blue, W. G. and D. A. Graetz. 1977. The effect of split nitrogen
applications on nitrogen uptake by Pensacola Bahiagrass from an Aeric
Haplaquod. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41(5):927-930.

3. Kalmbacher, R. S., P. H. Everett, P. Mislevy and F. G. Martin. 1978.
Methods of over-seeding oats, rye and ryegrass in herbicide-treated
bahiagrass. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Florida Proc. 38:32-36.

4. Kalmbacher, R. S., E. M. Hodges and F. G. Martin. 1980. Effect of
plant height and cutting height on yield and quality of Indigofera
hirsuta. Tropical Grasslands 14(1):14-18.

5. Kalmbacher, R. S., P. Mislevy and F. G. Martin. 1977. Establishment of
three legumes in bahiagrass sod using different herbicides and seeders.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Florida Proc. 37:24-29.

6. Kalmbacher, R. S., D. L. Wright and F. G. Martin. 1982. Evaluation of
sorghum x sudangrass and pearl millet hybrids for forage production at
Ona ARC: 1981. ARC Res. Rept. RC-1982-2. 10 pp.

7. Kalmbacher, R. S., D. L. Wright and F. G. Martin. 1985. Sorghum
Variety Test Results from Ona AREC:1984. AREC Res. Rept. RC-1985-1. 15
PP.

8. Mislevy, P., R. S. Kalmbacher and P. H. Everett. 1981. Cool season
legume production in south central Florida, 1980-81. ARC, Ona Res.
Rept. RC- 1981-9. 12 pp.

9. Mislevy, P., R. S. Kalmbacher and F. G. Martin. 1981. Cutting
management of the tropical legume American Jointvetch (Aeschynomene
americana L.). Agron. J. 73(5):771-775.

10. Mislevy, P., R. S. Kalmbacher, A. J. Overman, and F. G. Martin. 1986.
Effect of fertilizer and nematicide treatments on crops grown for
biomass. Biomass 11:243-253.

11. Mislevy, P., G. O. Mott and F. G. Martin. 1981. Screening perennial
forages using the mob-grazing technique. International Grassland
Congress Proc., Lexington, KY.

12. Mislevy, P., 0. C. Ruelke, and F. G. Martin. 1988. Grazing evaluation
of Cynodon species. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 47:207-212.


-26-

















13. Mislevy, P., R. J. Stephenson, E. S. Homer and F. G. Martin. 1987.
Commercial corn variety test results from south-central Florida, 1987.
AREC Ona Res. Rept. RC-1987-6. 7 pp.

14. Osburn, Donald A. and Kenneth C. Schneeberger. 1978. Modern
Agriculture Management. Reston Publishing Co., Inc., Reston, VA.

15. Stephenson, R. J., F. G. Martin, R. D. Barnett, and R. L. West. 1986.
Small grain forage production: Ona AREC 1985-86. AREC Ona Res. Rept.
RC-1986-7. 5 pp.

16. Stephenson, R. J., F. G. Martin, P. Mislevy, and R. L. West. 1986.
Annual ryegrass production: Ona AREC 1985-86. AREC Ona Res. Rept.
RC-1986-7. 4 pp.

17. Tilley, Marcia and Bryan E. Melton. 1980. A user's manual for the FARM
systems lab livestock budget generator. Economic Information Rept. 139.
Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida,
Gainesville.


-27-




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