• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Credits
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Composition and production of deflourinated...
 Deflourinated superphosphate for...
 Deflourinated superphosphate with...
 Trials with dairy cattle inland,...
 Deflourinated superphosphate with...
 Discussion of results
 Summary and conclusions














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 401
Title: Defluorinated superphosphate for livestock
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027304/00001
 Material Information
Title: Defluorinated superphosphate for livestock
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 15 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Becker, R. B ( Raymond Brown ), 1892-1989
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1944
 Subjects
Subject: Superphosphates -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Animal nutrition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: R.B. Becker ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027304
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925209
oclc - 18232127
notis - AEN5856

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Foreword
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
    Introduction
        Page 5
    Composition and production of deflourinated superphosphate
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Deflourinated superphosphate for cattle under range conditions
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Deflourinated superphosphate with beef cattle on improved pastures
        Page 10
    Trials with dairy cattle inland, and near salt water
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Deflourinated superphosphate with swine
        Page 13
    Discussion of results
        Page 14
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 14
        Page 15
Full Text



August, 1944


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
HAROLD MOWRY, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA






DEFLUORINATED


SUPERPHOSPHATE

FOR LIVESTOCK


R. B. BECKER, GEORGE K. DAVIS, W. G. KIRK,
R. S. GLASSCOCK, P. T. Dix ARNOLD and J. E. PACE












Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 401











BOARD OF CONTROL

H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
M. L. Mershon, Miami
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University3
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield. M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.'
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor'
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor'
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor'
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers
K. H. Graham, LL.D., Business Managers
Claranelle Alderman, Accountants

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRONOMY

W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist2
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associate
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Associate
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Assistant
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant

ANIMAL INDUSTRY

A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist1 a
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandmans
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologists
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian'
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist'
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.'
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy Mfg.
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husbandman
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.s
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
C. L. Comar, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.'
0. K. Moore, M.S., Asst. Poultry Husb.'
J. E. Pace, B.S., Asst. An. Husbandman4
S. P. Marshall, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition

ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL

C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist1
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Assistant


ECONOMICS, HOME

Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
Ruth O. Townsend, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist


ENTOMOLOGY

J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associates
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant


HORTICULTURE

G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturists



PLANT PATHOLOGY

W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist'1
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist



SOILS

F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Chemist1 3
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
L. E. Ensminger, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist'
R. A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Biochemists
G. T. Sims, M.S.A., Associate Chemist
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Microbiologist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor6
Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor



1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F
In Military Service.
On leave.















BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY

J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
W. C. McCermick, B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush.
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.4
R. C. Bond, M.S.A., Asst. Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Milton
Ralph L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist


CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED

A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist'
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Asso. Horticulturist


EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE

R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist'
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.I., Sugarcane
Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.'
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.'
R. A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
E. C. Minnum, M.S., Asst. Truck Hort.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist


SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD

Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
H. I. Borders, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.


W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE

Clement D. Gordon, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry
Geneticist in Charge2

RANGE CATTLE STA., ONA

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Asso. Agron., Wauchula
Gilbert A. Tucker, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'


FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg

M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charges

Plant City

A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist

Monticello

S. 0. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist'

Bradenton

J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Horticulturist in
Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
D. B. Creager, Ph.D., Plant Path., Gladiolus
A. L. Harrison, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist

Sanford *

R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
J. C. Russell, M.S., Asst. Entomologists

Lakeland

E. S. Ellison, Meteorologists a
Warren O. Johnson, Meteorologist2

1 Head of Department.
2In cooperation with U. S.
a Cooperative. other divisions, U. of F.
4 In Military Service.
SOn leave











FOREWORD
The value of bonemeal as a source of phosphorus in feeding
livestock has been recognized for about a century. When bone-
meal became practically unavailable under wartime conditions,
the situation soon was called to the attention of the Experiment
Station staff by cattlemen and the feed industry. Several state
and federal agencies participated in arranging a speedy solution
to the problem. With the aid of the Agricultural Committee
of the State Defense Council a survey was made of facilities
available in the phosphate industry and conferences were ar-
ranged for representatives of interested agencies-the State
Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Adjustment Agency,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension Service,
and the Florida Feed Dealers Association-to consider possible
ways of correcting the phosphorus shortage.
Phosphate producers having facilities for defluorination were
approached concerning their willingness to process a feeding
grade of natural phosphate. The process was based on research
work done by their chemists and investigations of state and
federal agencies.
Superphosphate was released from government contract for
experimental use. State Department of Agriculture and Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station workers conferred concerning
desirable standards for the finished product.
The Experiment Station undertook to answer practical ques-
tions concerning use of defluorinated superphosphate with poul-
try, cattle and swine. Florida Press Bulletin 597 released in
April, 1944, dealt with defluorinated superphosphate in chick
rations. The present assembled papers contain observations
with cattle and swine.
HAROLD MOWRY,
Director










DEFLUORINATED

SUPERPHOSPHATE FOR LIVESTOCK


CONTENTS
Page
Composition and Production of Defluorinated Superphosphate ............. 6
Defluorinated Superphosphate for Cattle under Range Conditions............. .
Deluorinated Superphosphate with Beef Cattle on Improved Pastures. 10
Trials with Dairy Cattle Inland, and near Salt Water............................ 11
Defluorinated Superphosphate with Swine.......................... ................. 13
Discussion of Results .......... .... ........................... .... 14
Summary and Conclusions .... .... ..................... 14

INTRODUCTION
Certain soils provide insufficient amounts of some essential
mineral elements to provide proper nourishment for animals that
consume the forage plants growing thereon. The minerals that
may be low in these forages are common salt, calcium, phos-
phorus, iron, copper and cobalt, or certain combinations of them,
depending on the particular soil and upon feeding or manage-
ment practices with the livestock. It has become common prac-
tice in parts of the Southeast to provide animals with mineral
supplements including 1 or more of the following: Common salt,
steamed bonemeal, and a salt-iron-copper-cobalt supplement
known commonly as "salt sick" mineral.
Conditions in 1943 and early in 1944 caused a scarcity of
steamed bonemeal which is important as a source of phosphorus
and calcium for cattle, goats, sheep, and swine. Lack of calcium
has been shown to limit milk production and cause depletion and
weakness of bones; it is a cause of milk fever in heavy produc-
ing cows recently fresh. Phosphorus shortage is evidenced in
low milk yields, depletion and weakness of bones, and inefficient
conversion of surplus nutrients into body fat.
Natural sources of calcium and phosphorus have been used
with livestock for over a half-century. When natural phosphates
were fed to animals for sufficient time, certain characteristic
symptoms commonly occurred.1
Appetites were restricted somewhat, and gains in weight were
lower than when steamed bonemeal served as the source of

'Reed, O. E., and C. F. Huffman. The results of a five-year mineral
feeding investigation with dairy cattle. Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul.
105. 1930.
Phillips, P. H., E. B. Hart and G. Bohstedt. Chronic toxicosis in dairy
cows due to the ingestion of fluorine. Wis. Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bul. 123.
1934.










DEFLUORINATED

SUPERPHOSPHATE FOR LIVESTOCK


CONTENTS
Page
Composition and Production of Defluorinated Superphosphate ............. 6
Defluorinated Superphosphate for Cattle under Range Conditions............. .
Deluorinated Superphosphate with Beef Cattle on Improved Pastures. 10
Trials with Dairy Cattle Inland, and near Salt Water............................ 11
Defluorinated Superphosphate with Swine.......................... ................. 13
Discussion of Results .......... .... ........................... .... 14
Summary and Conclusions .... .... ..................... 14

INTRODUCTION
Certain soils provide insufficient amounts of some essential
mineral elements to provide proper nourishment for animals that
consume the forage plants growing thereon. The minerals that
may be low in these forages are common salt, calcium, phos-
phorus, iron, copper and cobalt, or certain combinations of them,
depending on the particular soil and upon feeding or manage-
ment practices with the livestock. It has become common prac-
tice in parts of the Southeast to provide animals with mineral
supplements including 1 or more of the following: Common salt,
steamed bonemeal, and a salt-iron-copper-cobalt supplement
known commonly as "salt sick" mineral.
Conditions in 1943 and early in 1944 caused a scarcity of
steamed bonemeal which is important as a source of phosphorus
and calcium for cattle, goats, sheep, and swine. Lack of calcium
has been shown to limit milk production and cause depletion and
weakness of bones; it is a cause of milk fever in heavy produc-
ing cows recently fresh. Phosphorus shortage is evidenced in
low milk yields, depletion and weakness of bones, and inefficient
conversion of surplus nutrients into body fat.
Natural sources of calcium and phosphorus have been used
with livestock for over a half-century. When natural phosphates
were fed to animals for sufficient time, certain characteristic
symptoms commonly occurred.1
Appetites were restricted somewhat, and gains in weight were
lower than when steamed bonemeal served as the source of

'Reed, O. E., and C. F. Huffman. The results of a five-year mineral
feeding investigation with dairy cattle. Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul.
105. 1930.
Phillips, P. H., E. B. Hart and G. Bohstedt. Chronic toxicosis in dairy
cows due to the ingestion of fluorine. Wis. Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bul. 123.
1934.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


supplementary phosphorus. It was found that fluorine, 1 of the
less common elements, was present in harmful amounts in the
natural phosphate supplement. When natural phosphate was
fed over too long a period, symptoms produced by excess fluorine
included abnormal development of the bones, softening and ir-
regular wear of teeth, roughened hair coat, delayed maturity,
and less efficient utilization of feed consumed. Fluorine may
be essential in extremely limited amounts, but has a cumulative
injurious effect when fed in excess over long periods.
It was known that natural phosphates can be processed by at
least 3 methods to reduce the fluorine content to a level closely
comparable with that of steamed bonemeal and entirely safe for
use in feeding livestock. A fluorine content of less than 0.2 per-
cent is regarded as satisfactory for this purpose.2
The observations reported herein deal with production and
composition of defluorinated superphosphate and determination
of palatable forms in which it can be used with several classes
of livestock under conditions existing in Florida.

COMPOSITION AND PRODUCTION OF DEFLUORINATED
SUPERPHOSPHATE
GEORGE K. DAVIS

Steamed bonemeal is used mainly as a phosphorus supplement
for livestock. It also provides calcium and lesser amounts of
some minor minerals. In a search for a substitute for bonemeal,
it was natural to turn to rock phosphates because of the simi-
larity in proportions and amounts of calcium and phosphorus.
When raw rock phosphate was fed in its natural form, un-
favorable results were obtained with animals, due to the pres-
ence of fluorine in too great amounts. The content of fluorine
varies according to the percentage of phosphate, and the origin
of the natural deposit. Over 40 samples of natural phosphates
obtained in Florida were analyzed by K. D. Jacob and associates
of the United States Department of Agriculture 3 and found to
contain an average of 3.75 percent of fluorine, with a range
between 1.23 and 4.08 percent. Phosphates from such sources
2 Mitchell, H. H. The use of phosphorus-containing substitutes for bone
meal in livestock feeding with particular reference to the fluorine hazard.
Natl. Res. Council Comm. on Anim. Nutr. Rpt. No. 10. 1943.
SJacob, K. D., W. L. Hill, H. L. Marshall, D. S. Reynolds. The com-
position and distribution of phosphate rock with special reference to the
United States. U. S. D. A. Tech. Bul. 364. 89 pages. 1933.






Defluorinated Superphosphate for Livestock


fed to animals over extended periods may well be expected to
produce chronic fluorine poisoning, because fluorine tends to
accumulate in the body when consumed in excess.
At least 3 procedures are used commercially to remove fluorine
from natural phosphates. Phosphoric acid is made from the
phosphates and then converted to mono- or di-calcium phosphate
by adding pure calcium carbonate. Two methods involve treat-
ment of phosphates with heat. When raw rock phosphate is
heated to a high temperature in the presence of water vapor
nearly all of the fluorine is driven off in the volatile form. The
third type of product used in experiments described in this
bulletin is made by heating superphosphate in a rotary kiln at
a temperature sufficiently high to drive off nearly all of the
fluorine. The resulting defluorinated superphosphate is ground
to the fineness desired for a mineral supplement.
Most feeds and drinking water contain fluorine in varying
amounts. The fluorine content of steamed bonemeal is close to
0.05 percent, varying according to the feed and water supplied
to the animals from which the bonemeal was produced. A trace
of fluorine appears beneficial to animals, but when it is consumed
in amounts much higher than in normal feeds its action is detri-
mental.
The Florida Commissioner of Agriculture established a maxi-
mum fluorine level of 0.2 percent, based on evidence from other
stations, when he permitted defluorinated phosphate, defluori-
nated superphosphate and similar phosphorus supplements to
be sold for feeding purposes in Florida.
Three elements are of interest in considering the composition
of defluorinated superphosphate for feeding purposes, namely
phosphorus, calcium and a minimum of fluorine.
The phosphorus content of defluorinated superphosphate, as
produced in Florida, is guaranteed at a minimum of 10.9 percent
of phosphorus (25.0 percent of P205). Actually, the material
used in this work analyzed 12.5 to 14.5 percent of phosphorus,
being well above the guaranteed minimum. Steamed bonemeal
contains approximately 15 percent of phosphorus.
The calcium content of this product is guaranteed to be at least
25.0 percent of calcium (35.0 percent of CaO). Actual variations
were in the range of 25 to 28 percent of calcium. Presumably
these variations are the result of slight differences in the com-
position of the superphosphate which is defluorinated.
The defluorinated superphosphate used in trials with chicks






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


(Florida Press Bulletin 597) contained 0.17 percent of fluorine,
as against a guarantee of not to exceed 0.20 percent. Recent
reports from the producer indicate that improvements in pro-
cessing have enabled him to lower this to between 0.15 and
0.10 percent of fluorine, a level which closely approaches that
of steamed bonemeal.

DEFLUORINATED SUPERPHOSPHATE FOR CATTLE
UNDER RANGE CONDITIONS
W. G. KIRK
Records of mineral consumption have been obtained with a
herd of native and grade beef cattle at the Range Cattle Station
in Hardee County. In 12 months, July 1, 1942, to June 30, 1943,
the average consumption of mineral supplements per animal was
2.70 pounds of common salt, 5.61 pounds of "salt sick" mineral
and 11.93 pounds of mineral supplement A. The mixed supple-
ments were constituted as follows:
"Salt sick" mineral (No. 1) Supplement A
Common salt ................ 100 pounds Bonemeal ...................... 45 pounds
Red oxide of iron ........ 25 pounds "Salt sick" mineral .... 45 pounds
Copper sulfate ........... 1 pound Cottonseed meal .......... 5 pounds
Cobalt sulfate .............. 1 ounce Blackstrap molasses.... 5 pounds

Supplement A was prepared in the belief that more bonemeal
was needed by cattle on the local range than they consumed
when it was fed separately, and that the palatability of the
mineral supplement could be increased by adding small amounts
of cottonseed meal and molasses. It was observed that the cows
invariably consumed Supplement A before eating any appreciable
amounts of common salt or of "salt sick" mineral.
In 1943 when steamed bonemeal became practically unobtain-
able, Supplement B was prepared by replacing bonemeal in
Supplement A with an equal amount of defluorinated superphos-
phate. Observations of the consumption of the supplement con-
taining defluorinated superphosphate were divided into 3 periods.
Mature cows on an unimproved range were given access to both
Supplements A and B for 31 days beginning October 1, 1943.
In this period 24 cows consumed a total of 40.5 pounds of Supple-
ment A and 20.5 pounds of Supplement B. It was noted, how-
ever, that these 24 cows, as well as a mixed herd of cattle on
another range, ate Supplement B readily when Supplement A was
unavailable. Since November 1, 1943, these cows had access
to Supplement B only. Average consumption of Supplement B







Defluorinated Superphosphate for Livestock


(containing 45 percent of defluorinated superphosphate) per cow
for 109 days, beginning November 1, 1943, was 15.26 pounds.
This compares with 9.5 pounds of Supplement A, common salt
and "salt sick" mineral combined, in the corresponding period
of 1942-1943. For a 47-day period beginning February 17,
1943, the average consumption per cow at the Range Cattle
Station was only 0.04 pounds of Supplement A, common salt and
"salt sick" mineral. In the same period in 1944 the cows con-
sumed an average of 0.80 pounds of Supplement B. These data
substantiate observations by cattlemen and at the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station that cattle consume more mineral
supplement during autumn and early winter than at other
seasons.
Additional observations were made by J. R. Gunn, county
agent of Osceola County, on the relative palatability of mineral
Supplements A and B. A 43-day test was made with 25 yearling
heifers on carpet grass pasture, beginning on September 22,
1943. Ten pounds each of Supplements A and B were placed
in adjacent compartments of a mineral box, and no more supple-
ment was provided until these were eaten. Results of 4 suc-
cessive tests are stated in Table 1.
TABLE 1.-CONSUMPTION OF MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS BY 25 YEARLING
HEIFERS WHILE ON CARPET GRASS PASTURE.

Supplement A Supplement B
Length of Test Con- Con-
sumption Time sumption Time
Pounds Days Pounds Days
Sept. 22 to Oct. 4, 1943 .... 10 12 3.3 12
Oct. 4 to Oct. 12 .............. 0 -6.7 8
Oct. 12 to Oct. 16 ................ 10 4 6.6 4
Oct. 16 to Oct. 21 ................ 0 3.4 5
Oct. 21 to Oct. 30 ................ 10 9 10.0 9
Oct. 30 to Nov. 4 .............. 10 1 5 5.0 5

SCattle moved to another pasture.

Supplement A, containing 45 parts of steamed bonemeal, was
slightly more palatable to beef cattle than Supplement B, which
contained 45 parts of defluorinated superphosphate, both at
the Range Cattle Station and in Osceola County. Supplement B







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


was eaten readily, however, when the supply of Supplement A
was exhausted. During the 8 months this material has been
used the condition of the cattle receiving Supplement B has
been to all appearances as satisfactory as those fed bonemeal.
It appears from these observations that defluorinated super-
phosphate can be used in mineral supplements for range cattle
when expedient to do so.

DEFLUORINATED SUPERPHOSPHATE WITH BEEF
CATTLE ON IMPROVED PASTURES
R. S. GLASSCOCK
Fourteen groups of steers on various grazing trials at the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, were
given access to plain defluorinated superphosphate in shel-
tered mineral boxes from August 1 to November 11, 1943.
Previously these cattle had access to and consumed steamed
bonemeal readily, but a further supply of it was unobtainable at
that time. The several improved pastures over which these ani-
mals grazed had been fertilized or unfertilized, depending upon
the forage and the character of the grazing trial involved. All
cattle were receiving, in addition to the defluorinated super-
phosphate, common salt and the "salt sick" mineral, except a
group on fertilized carpet grass and another group on unfertilized
carpet grass. These cattle were receiving common salt only.
Up to November 11, when these grazing trials ended, the cattle
had taken none of the plain defluorinated superphosphate.
During the winter of 1943-1944, 56 steers were grazed on
frosted carpet grass and clover pasture. The areas containing
clover had been fertilized and limed. In addition, the steers
received sorghum silage and a limited amount of mixed ground
snapped corn and soybean oil meal. Previously they received
common salt as a mineral supplement.
Defluorinated superphosphate was mixed with common salt
in 5 proportions and placed before the steers in a 5-compartment
mineral box. The proportions of salt and phosphate and the
preference of steers for them were as follows:

Compartment C D E F G
Common salt, pounds ................... 7 6 5 4 3
Defluorinated super-
phosphate, pounds ......-........... 3 4 5 6 7
Preference by steers .... .......... 1st 2nd 3rd tied for 4th







Defluorinated Superphosphate for Livestock


During a 6-week period the 56 steers consumed all of the
mineral in compartment C. Only a trace was left in compart-
ment D. About 1/2 pound remained in compartment E, while
compartments F and G still contained about 21/2 pounds each
at the end of the trial. Approximately 1 pound of salt was
available for the steers in their regular mineral box which was
consumed within 3 days after the beginning of the trial.
Defluorinated superphosphate proved to be unpalatable for
the cattle to the extent that it was necessary to mix it with
common salt to get them to eat it. Consumption of the mixtures
was directly in proportion to the salt content.

TRIALS WITH DAIRY CATTLE INLAND, AND NEAR
SALT WATER
R. B. BECKER and P. T. DIX ARNOLD
Defluorinated superphosphate is being used in mixed dairy
feeds to replace steamed bonemeal as a safe source of phosphorus
and calcium. When offered separately, it is unpalatable to
cattle.
A palatability trial, extending over 4 months, was conducted
with 24 dairy heifers on pastures at the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station. This station is located on an area in the
middle of the state, where cattle take common salt in rather
liberal amounts. The cattle were on improved pasture-Ber-
muda, carpet, centipede and mixed grasses-which received an
application of "complete" fertilizer in the spring of 1943.
Defluorinated superphosphate was mixed with common salt
in 5 proportions and placed in a 5-compartment mineral box
under a shelter where the heifers had free access to it. At the
same time they continued to have access to common salt and
"salt sick" mineral to which they were accustomed.
The salt-phosphate mixtures in the 5-compartment mineral
box and the order in which the cattle consumed them, were as
follows:
Supplement C D E F G
Common salt, pounds ................... 7 6 5 4 3
Defluorinated super-
phate, pounds ......................... 3 4 5 6 7
Choice of cattle ............................ 1st 2nd 3rd tied for 4th
The heifers showed a decided preference for Supplement C,
consuming nearly all of it before beginning on Supplement D.
The proportions of the No. 1 "salt sick" mineral are stated on page 8.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Supplement E was easily third choice. The heifers expressed
little preference between Supplements F and G, consuming all
of them ultimately. Over the same period, and more as autumn
advanced, the cattle took common salt and No. 1 "salt sick"
mineral from the usual mineral box.
Cattle react differently to common salt as a supplement in
inverse relation to the salt content of feeds and of the water
supply. Since Florida has extensive coastal areas and inlets
adjacent to salt or brackish waters, palatability of the salt-
phosphate supplements was tested on an area adjacent to brack-
ish water. The nearest location for such a test was the dairy
farm of the Florida Deaf and Blind School, near St. Augustine,
where the pastures are close to the salt marsh of the North
River. The site is but a few feet above the level of high tide.
The pasture has shell marl in the subsoil and has been fertilized
especially for clovers. The pasture is a mixture of carpet grass
and clovers. With the consent of Dr. C. J. Settles, President,
and the cooperation of the dairyman, J. 0. Coleman, 2 tests were
conducted with milking and dry cows on the pasture described.
The cows of the Florida Deaf and Blind School dairy had free
access to common salt, steamed bonemeal and "salt sick" mineral
No. 1 in a 3-compartment mineral box. Two other boxes were
placed beside the regular box. The 5 salt-phosphate supplements
tested previously at the Experiment Station were placed in them,
together with No. 2 "salt sick" mineral in which defluorinated
superphosphate replaced the steamed bonemeal. These supple-
ments and choice of dairy cows for them, were as follows:
Salt Sick
Mineral
Supplement C D E F G No. 2
Common salt, pounds .............. 7 6 5 4 3 50
Defluorinated super-
phosphate, pounds .......... 3 4 5 6 7 50
Red oxide of iron, pounds ........ 25
Copper sulfate, pounds ............ 1
Cobalt sulfate, ounces .............. - 1
Choice of cattle ........................ Practically 3rd 2nd Tied for 1st
untouched

This test was repeated in the winter (a total of 4 months
in 2 tests) with identical results.
Comparison of observations obtained near the salt marsh area
with those in the middle of the Florida peninsula is interesting
and of practical importance. Cattle inland preferred the de-
fluorinated superphosphate supplement containing the larger








Defluorinated Superphosphate for Livestock


proportion of salt. The reverse was the case near the brackish
area adjacent to salt water. Based on these observations, it is
recommended that defluorinated superphospate be used in either
of 2 mixtures, namely:


For
General Use
Common salt, pounds ..................................... 2
Defluorinated superphosphate, pounds ........... 1


Near Brackish
Water Areas
1
2


DEFLUORINATED SUPERPHOSPHATE WITH SWINE

J. E. PACE

During the fall of 1943 defluorinated superphosphate was com-
pared with steamed bonemeal in a 75-day trial with 2 lots of
pigs grazing on peanuts. The phosphate replaced steamed bone-
meal in the regular Florida swine mineral. The pigs had free
access to the respective mineral supplements in a covered mineral
box. The supplements contained the following ingredients:


Ingredients
Defluorinated superphosphate ...................
Steamed bonemeal ....................................
Marble dust ..............................
Com m on salt ........ ...... ........ ............
Red oxide of iron ........-..................
Copper sulfate ....... ...........-- ..... ..
C obalt sulfate ...........................................


Florida
Swine Mineral

50 pounds
50 pounds
25 pounds
25 pounds
1 pound
2 ounces


Experimental
Swine Mineral
50 pounds
50 pounds
25 pounds
25 pounds
1 pound
2 ounces


TABLE 2.-GAINS AND MINERAL CONSUMPTION PER PIG IN A 75-DAY
GRAZING TRIAL ON PEANUTS.


Lot 1 Lot 2
Fla. Swine Experimental
Mineral Swine Mineral

(Bonemeal) (Phosphate)


Number of pigs .................................
Average initial weight .......................
Average final weight ...............-.............
Average daily gains ........................
Average mineral consumed per pig ........

Av. daily mineral consumption per pig


96.3
216.8
1.61
3.6

.048


5
pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds

pound


94.8
208.7
1.52
3.0

.040


5
pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds

pound







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Five pigs grazed on each 2-acre field of Florida Runner peanuts
for a period of 77 days. The pigs were purebred Poland-China
or Duroc-Jerseys, divided into lots nearly equal according to
weight, sex and breed.
The mineral supplement containing bonemeal appeared to be
slightly more palatable than that with defluorinated superphos-
phate, and the pigs on the former supplement made slightly
better gains. The differences obtained in this trial, however, are
not sufficient to be significant. Results are presented in Table 2.
The sows and boars in the breeding herd of the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station received the experimental swine
supplement designated above for a period of 4 months. The
swine consumed it readily, indicating that it was palatable.

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Observations concerning consumption of defluorinated super-
phosphate by cattle and swine when given free access to them
under various conditions point to the possibility of utilizing
this product generally. Though the plain product was not
palatable to cattle when offered separately, it is being used
successfully in mixed feeds. Both cattle and swine consumed
mixed supplements in which defluorinated superphosphate re-
placed steamed bonemeal in mineral supplements recommended
previously.
It appears logical that choice of defluorinated superphosphate
or steamed bonemeal will be governed by convenience and by
economic considerations, since animals consume both of them
satisfactorily when offered in appropriate form.
From the standpoint of composition, defluorinated superphos-
phate which is available on the market in Florida is satisfactory
as a source of phosphorus and calcium for use in feeding animals.
The calcium and phosphorus contents average slightly lower than
in steamed bonemeal. The fluorine content of defluorinated
superphosphate approaches that of bonemeal, so that it is con-
sidered satisfactory for feeding purposes.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Defluorinated superphosphate being produced commercially
contains 10.9 to 14.0 percent of phosphorus, 25 to 28 percent of
calcium, and less than 0.2 percent of fluorine. This mineral







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Five pigs grazed on each 2-acre field of Florida Runner peanuts
for a period of 77 days. The pigs were purebred Poland-China
or Duroc-Jerseys, divided into lots nearly equal according to
weight, sex and breed.
The mineral supplement containing bonemeal appeared to be
slightly more palatable than that with defluorinated superphos-
phate, and the pigs on the former supplement made slightly
better gains. The differences obtained in this trial, however, are
not sufficient to be significant. Results are presented in Table 2.
The sows and boars in the breeding herd of the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station received the experimental swine
supplement designated above for a period of 4 months. The
swine consumed it readily, indicating that it was palatable.

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Observations concerning consumption of defluorinated super-
phosphate by cattle and swine when given free access to them
under various conditions point to the possibility of utilizing
this product generally. Though the plain product was not
palatable to cattle when offered separately, it is being used
successfully in mixed feeds. Both cattle and swine consumed
mixed supplements in which defluorinated superphosphate re-
placed steamed bonemeal in mineral supplements recommended
previously.
It appears logical that choice of defluorinated superphosphate
or steamed bonemeal will be governed by convenience and by
economic considerations, since animals consume both of them
satisfactorily when offered in appropriate form.
From the standpoint of composition, defluorinated superphos-
phate which is available on the market in Florida is satisfactory
as a source of phosphorus and calcium for use in feeding animals.
The calcium and phosphorus contents average slightly lower than
in steamed bonemeal. The fluorine content of defluorinated
superphosphate approaches that of bonemeal, so that it is con-
sidered satisfactory for feeding purposes.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Defluorinated superphosphate being produced commercially
contains 10.9 to 14.0 percent of phosphorus, 25 to 28 percent of
calcium, and less than 0.2 percent of fluorine. This mineral







Defluorinated Superphosphate for Livestock


should substitute safely for steamed bonemeal in feeding live-
stock.
Under range conditions cattle consumed satisfactory amounts
of Supplement B, containing 45 parts of defluorinated superphos-
phate, although they showed some preference for Supplement
A, containing steamed bonemeal.
Beef cattle on improved pastures refused to take plain de-
fluorinated superphosphate. They preferred mixtures with a
large proportion of salt over those containing less salt.
Dairy heifers on improved pastures in central Florida chose a
7 :3 mixture of salt and defluorinated superphosphate over 4
others with progressively lesser proportions of salt, while hav-
ing free access to common salt and No. 1 "salt sick" mineral.
Dairy cows on improved pastures adjacent to brackish water
expressed a decided preference for a 3 : 7 mixture of salt and
defluorinated superphosphate and for the No. 2 "salt sick" min-
eral, over 4 other mixtures containing progressively more salt.
They had access to steamed bonemeal, common salt and No. 1
"salt sick" mineral at the same time.
Pigs grazing peanuts ate slightly more of swine mineral con-
taining bonemeal than another group of pigs consumed of swine
mineral with defluorinated superphosphate. They made slightly
better gains also, but the differences were insufficient to be
significant, based on 1 trial. Sows and boars found the experi-
mental swine mineral to be palatable.
Defluorinated superphosphate can be used satisfactorily with
swine, beef and dairy cattle when offered in appropriate form.
Its selection should be governed by convenience and economic
reasons.




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