• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Credits
 Errata
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Review of literature
 Experimental, preliminary...
 Experimental main trials
 Experimental results
 Summary
 Acknowledgement
 Literature cited














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 372
Title: Deficiency symptoms in growing pigs fed on a peanut ration
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027302/00001
 Material Information
Title: Deficiency symptoms in growing pigs fed on a peanut ration
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 52 p. : ill., charts ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kirk, W. Gordon ( William Gordon ), 1898-1979
Crown, R. M ( Raymond Merchant ), 1901-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1942
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Deficiency diseases in domestic animals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 52.
Statement of Responsibility: W.G. Kirk and R.M. Crown.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027302
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925173
oclc - 18230226
notis - AEN5817

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Errata
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Review of literature
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Experimental, preliminary trial
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Experimental main trials
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Experimental results
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Summary
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Acknowledgement
        Page 51
    Literature cited
        Page 52
Full Text



Bulletin 372


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA.
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,
WILMON NEWELL, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA





DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS IN GROWING

PIGS FED A PEANUT RATION

W. G. KIRK AND R. M. CROWN



A.
60 -

- 40





0
S20. LoTi LOT LoT LOT4
z

B





0 L'a LoTZa LCoT3a LoT4a iowteeks -.

TIME
Fig. 1.-Growth curves based on average daily gains of pigs during
a 140-day feeding period, A, and a subsequent 48-day feeding period, B.
A.-Lot I received peanuts alone, Lots II, III and IV peanuts supplement-
ed with CaCo3, cod liver oil, and a -combination of CaCo3 with cod liver
oil, respectively.
B.-Each lot was divided into 2 groups of 2 pigs each. One group,
a, received the original ration while the second group, b, received in
addition 2 grams of salt daily per pig.


Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


June, 1942




EXECUTIVE STAFF
John J. Tigert, M. A., LL. D., President
of the University3
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Directors
Harold Mowry, M. S. A., Asst. Dir.,
Research
W. M. Fifield, M. S., Asst. Dir., Admin.4
J. Francis Cooper, M. S. A., Editor8
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor8
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant' Editor3
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers
K. H. Graham, Business Manager3
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant8

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomists
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associates
W. A. Carver, Ph. D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S.. Associate
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Fred A. Clark, B.S.A., Assistant
ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist'1.
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman'
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist'
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.'
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy Mfg.
R. S. Glascock, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst An. Husb.'
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy
Husbandman'
L. L. Rusoff, Ph.D., Asst. in An. Nutr."
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.
0. K. Moore, M.S., Asst. Poultry Husb.
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURE
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist'.,
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
Ruth O. Townsend, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist1
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A.. Asst. Hort.4
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist'
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist2
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologistzs
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.'
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist1,3
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologists
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Associates
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist4
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S.. Asst. Chemist
Thos. Whitehead, Jr., M.S.A., Asst.
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Soil Surveyor
Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Soil Surveyor


BOARD OF CONTROL
H. P. Adair, Chairman. Jacksonville
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee
BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S. Agron. in Charge
R. R. Kinkaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Asso. Agron.
J. H. Wallance, M.A., Asso. Agron.
Elliott Whitehurst, B.S.A., Asst. An.
Husb.4
W. C. McCormick, B.S.A., Asst. An.
Husb.
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.'
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Chg.
V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Associate Ento.
F. F. Cowart, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist*
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Hort.
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Hort., Coastal
EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller. Ph.D., Biochemist in Chg.
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.'
F. S. Andrews, Ph. D., Asso Truck Hort.'
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
in Charge
S. J. Lynch., B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
E. M. Andersen, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husband-
man in Charges
RANGE CATTLE STA., ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph. D., An. Husb. in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Asso. Agron.
Gilbert A. Tucker, B.S.A., Asst. An.
Husb.4
Floyd Eubanks, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
in Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
E. E. Hartwig, Ph.D., Asst. Agron. &
Path.
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Asso. Truck
Horticulturist
Monticello
S. 0. Hill, B.S., Entomologist2 4
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist'
Bradenton
Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D.. Truck Horti-
culturist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
F. T. McLean, Ph.D., Horticulturist
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in
Charge, Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy. Ph.D.. Asso. Plant Path.
Jack Russell, M.S., Asst. Ento.
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologists
'Head of Department
2In cooperation with U. S.
'Cooperative, other divisions. U. of F.
'On leave for military service.


174's r !lsnhwlr A4








ERRATA-Please substitute the following for the comparable lines in Appendix, Table 6, p. 101, Florida Experiment
Station Bul. 367.

Cooperatives I 24 I 95.8 I 87.5 I 4.1 I 4.2 I I 55.5511 99.3 95.8 1.3 I 2.2 |
Individuals 8 25.0 1 1 1 25.0 1 4,1751 9.8 9.8
Independent shippers I 20 I 90.0 1 5.0 I 40.01 10.0 1 35.0 1 64,5541 95.81 1.3 1 19.7 I 8.5 66.3
Brokers and commission I I I
firms ] 6 16.71 16.7 I 222821 1.6 1 1.6'









CONTENTS
Page

Introduction -- -----------.-------------------- 5

Review of Literature --..----------------------- 7

Feeding Peanuts in Dry Lot ----------------------------- 7

Posterior Paralysis in Growing Pigs ..... ..-------------- 8

Calcium and Phosphorus in the Ration ..------- --------------- 9

Experimental, Preliminary Trial ----------------- 11

Method of Procedure --------------- 11

Experimental Results ---------------------------- 13

Gains and feed consumption .------.-- ---------.-_ 15

Specific gravity and breaking strength of leg bones -----..-- 18

The ash, calcium, magnesium and carbon dioxide content
of dry fat-free bones ---------- 21

Discussion ------------------------.------ 25

Salt requirements of growing pigs..-- ---- 25

Calcium and bone quality-------- 25

Experimental, Main Trials..... ---------------------- 26

Method of Procedure for Trials 2, 3 and 4 -------.......... ...---- 26

Experimental Results _.---------- .. ... 29

Gains and feed consumption ... ---------------- -.- 29

Specific gravity and breaking strength of leg bones.......---- 40

The ash, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and carbon
dioxide content of dry fat-free bones ---------------------- 41

Discussion ........---------------------------- 47

Summary ..-.....-------------------------- -.. 47

Acknowledgments ------------.-.......-.....-...-...-....- 51

Literature Cited ------- -. .---._ 52








DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS IN GROWING
PIGS FED A PEANUT RATION

W. G. KIRK and R. M. CROWN'


INTRODUCTION
The estimated acreage of peanuts in the United States for
1937 was 2,562,000 acres (23)-. Of this total, 1,653,000 acres were
harvested for nuts, which left 909,000 acres to be used as feed for
livestock. In Georgia 363,000 acres were used for livestock, while
in Florida and Alabama the acreages for this purpose were
227,000 and 155,000, respectively. With an estimated yield of 600
pounds of nuts per acre, over 545,000,000 pounds of peanuts were
available for feeding livestock.
The soil in many sections of the Southeast is better adapted
for growing peanuts than for other swine fattening crops. In
Florida 75 percent of the peanuts grown are used for hog feed and
it has been estimated that 80 percent of the market hogs are fat-
tened on this crop. Pork from peanut-fed hogs, while soft, is of
excellent quality, and in the peanut areas this crop is considered
more economical and practical than any other crop for swine. In
addition, many of the breeding herds are partially maintained for
several months of the year in the peanut fields.
On Florida farms growing and fattening pigs and lactating
sows frequently develop posterior paralysis, known locally as
"down in the back", when kept in the peanut fields during the
fall and winter months. Early symptoms of this condition are
stiffness and uneven gait. In more advanced cases the hindquar-
ters become paralyzed and coordinated movement is impossible.
Such animals are usually in fair flesh, have good appetites for
some days after the appearance of the posterior paralysis, and
are able to drag themselves considerable distances in search of
feed. Postmortem examinations of pigs in the early stages have
shown the bones to be soft, thin walled, fragile and malformed,
while in more severe cases fractures of ribs, legs and lumbar
vertebrae have been observed frequently.

1Kirk: Animal Husbandman in Charge, Range Cattle Station; Crown:
Formerly Assistant Animal Husbandman.
-Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back
of this bulletin.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Several typical cases of posterior paralysis of pigs have been
observed on farms in Florida. In one instance 20 feeder pigs
were kept in the peanut field from eight to 10 weeks. One pig
became completely paralyzed in the hindquarters, while several
others were partially paralyzed or were stiff and lame. Autopsy
of the paralyzed animal revealed that a lumbar vertebra and
several ribs were fractured and the leg bones were deformed.
The tissues around the kidneys and ureters were heavily in-
fested with kidney worms which the owner believed to be
the cause of the paralysis.
Two of these pigs showing partial posterior paralysis were
brought to the Agricultural Experiment Station at Gainesville
for observation. During a 75-day period one pig was fed peanuts
and common salt, the same kind of feed it had been getting previ-
ously under field conditions. This pig gained 8.5 pounds during the
first 25 days, but weighed less at the end of 75 days than at the
start. Posterior paralysis became more pronounced and finally
the animal did not attempt to use its legs. On autopsy the bones
could be cut easily with a knife.
The second pig was fed a ration which contained an adequate
amount of bone-forming mineral elements. During the 75-day
period this animal gained 43.5 pounds and recovered from the
posterior paralysis. On autopsy the leg bones were found to be
slightly deformed but were strong, thick walled, and dense.
These two pigs were infested heavily with kidney worms.
The pig on the calcium-deficient ration remained completely
paralyzed, while the second, fed adequate amounts of bone-form-
ing mineral elements, recovered. The cause of the paralysis was
the lack of bone-forming minerals, rather than the kidney worms
in the tissues of the loin region.
Few data are available on the effect of supplementing a pea-
nut ration with a single mineral or combination of mineral ele-
ments on the utilization of this important feed crop for main-
tenance, growth and bone development of pigs. The primary ob-
ject of the feeding trials discussed here was to determine how the
mineral deficiencies of peanuts as a feed for growing and fatten-
ing swine could be corrected.






Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 7

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

FEEDING PEANUTS IN DRY LOT
Duggar (7) as early as 1898 showed that feeder pigs required
2.8 pounds of unhulled peanuts per pound of gain when fed in
dry lot. In comparison other groups required 3.7 pounds of corn
and unhulled nuts, equal parts, or 10.7 pounds of corn alone for
each pound of gain. Halverson, Hostetler and Sherwood (12)
fed 289 feeder pigs during a six-year period to determine the rate
and economy of gains when the basal ration of peanuts and a
mineral mixture, consisting of calcium carbonate one part, bone
meal one part, and salt 0.03 part, was supplemented with alfalfa
meal, tankage or fishmeal, and wheat shorts. Their results indi-
cated that a ration consisting of peanuts, mineral mixture and
alfalfa meal provided adequate nutrients to promote rapid daily
gains and economical utilization of feed. There was no apparent
advantage gained by adding animal protein to the ration when the
mineral and vitamin deficiencies of the peanuts were corrected.
Grimes and Salmon (11) in three feeding trials with fattening
hogs found that peanuts and a mineral mixture consisting of
equal parts of air-slaked lime, salt and charcoal made a satisfac-
tory ration. The addition of tankage to the above ration in-
creased the average daily gain, but did not reduce the nutrients
required per pound of gain.
Hankins and Zeller (13) used low grade runner peanuts and
a mineral mixture in two trials, and unshelled peanuts and a
mineral mixture in the third trial as a check ration with feeder
pigs. The second lot of pigs in each of the three trials was fed
the check ration plus tankage. The mineral mixture used in the
first two trials consisted of charcoal 25 parts, salt 6 parts, ground
limestone 6 parts, flowers of sulfur 3 parts, Glauber's salts 6 parts,
copperas 1 part, and raw rock phosphate 3 parts. In the third
trial the mineral mixture consisted of steamed bone meal 50
parts, ground limestone 25 parts, superphosphate 25 parts and
salt 5 parts. Results for the three trials showed that the pigs fed
the check ration made an average daily gain of 0.4 pound and re-
quired 415.4 pounds of peanuts per 100 pounds of gain. In con-
trast the pigs fed tankage in addition to peanuts and minerals
made an average daily gain of 0.89 pound and required only 196.3
pounds of peanuts per 100 pounds of gain. The authors indicate
that tankage corrected the deficiency of the peanuts and mineral
ration for growing pigs which resulted in faster gains and more






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


economical feed utilization. In the first two trials the mineral
mixture fed was comparatively low in calcium and the greater
gain and decreased feed consumption may have been due partly
to the mineral elements in the tankage rather than to the animal
protein fed.

POSTERIOR PARALYSIS IN GROWING PIGS
Connaway (6) in 1920 stated that the causes of posterior par-
alysis in swine are injury, impaction of the bowel, kidney worms,
heavy suckling, and lumbago or rheumatism. He noted that
heavy milking sows fed an unbalanced ration depleted their
skeletal tissues of minerals with the result that they developed
posterior paralysis.
In 1924 Maynard and coworkers (17) showed that when a
growing pig was fed a ration which contained 0.096 percent cal-
cium and 0.58 percent phosphorus it developed stiffness and the
bones were low in ash. Pigs fed a ration which contained from
0.795 to 0.879 percent calcium and 0.70 to 0.81 percent phosphorus
had normal gait. Autopsies and chemical analyses showed that
the bones were hard and dense with a relatively high content of
ash, calcium and phosphorus.
According to Longwell and associates (16), pigs fed a ration
consisting of white corn, buckwheat middlings and tankage had
symptoms of paralysis on the 86th day of the feeding trial.
Postmortem examination revealed fractured vertebrae, beading of
ribs and abnormal calcification of the femurs.
Bohstedt and coworkers (5) in a series of experiments dem-
onstrated that the immediate cause of posterior paralysis in pigs
was fracture of the vertebrae in the lumbar-sacral region of the
spinal column. Posterior paralysis was shown to be associated
with poorly calcified bones caused by a ration low in certain
minerals and vitamins. The weakly constructed lumbar verte-
brae were unable to withstand any sudden severe contraction of
the back muscles. Crushed vertebrae bulged inward, pinching
the spinal cord, which resulted in loss of nerve control and pos-
terior paralysis. The addition of ground limestone to the basal
ration of white corn, wheat middlings, linseed meal and common
salt was consistently the most effective single supplement to
increase rate of gain and prevent posterior paralysis. Adding cod
liver oil to the basal ration increased the rate of growth but pro-
duced bone that was too brittle. When both ground limestone
and cod liver oil were added the pigs made uniform and rapid






Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 9

growth, undisturbed by bone fractures or respiratory infections.
The pigs fed aerated cod liver oil plus the basal ration made rapid
growth but the rate was variable within the group. Several of
these pigs had rough skin and hair, evidence of a deficient ra-
tion. Their bones, however, were only slightly affected. The
addition of alfalfa meal to the basal ration enabled the pigs to
make rapid gains and protected them from stiffness or paralysis.
Fishmeal and tankage both increased the rate of gains and pro-
duced good bone growth, but did not prevent slight stiffness when
pigs were kept inside. The addition of blood meal to the basal
ration produced bones lower in ash and of more variable break-
ing strength than bones from pigs fed the basal ration alone.
Mitchell and McClure (19) made the following statements
concerning the effects of calcium deficiency in rations fed to
growing pigs:
"No deficiency symptoms will appear until defective calcification
of the skeleton has produced bones so fragile that fractures occur, or so
pliable that nerves are not protected against pressure. If fractures occur
in the lumbar vertebrae, the pig suffers from posterior paralysis; the
softening of the ends of the leg bones induces stiffness and lameness."
Fairbanks (10) in 1939 enumerated the factors which influ-
ence the ultilization of calcium and phosphorus by growing pigs
for bone development as ratio of calcium to phosphorus, avail-
ability of the minerals, concentration in the ration, rate of food
consumption, and content of vitamin D in the ration.

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS IN THE RATION
Bethke and associates (3) obtained the most satisfactory re-
sults with growing pigs when the Ca:P ratio was between 1:1
and 1:2 and the feed contained about 0.6 percent of phosphorus.
When the Ca:P ratio was greater than 1:3 the requirement for
vitamin D increased. The results of Dunlop's (8) experiments
indicate that a ration with 0.45 percent calcium, and a Ca:P ratio
of 1:1.3 is optimum for growing, fattening pigs. According to
Bohstedt (4), if there is sufficient protein to balance the ration
there is usually sufficient phosphorus, since there is a close re-
lationship between the phosphorus and protein content of a
feed.
Aubel and associates (2) found that when the level of cal-
cium in the ration of feeder pigs was from 0.69 to 0.80 percent
the minimum requirement of phosphorus was from 0.27 to 0.30
percent. Although normal gains and utilization of feed were ob-
tained when the ration contained 0.23 percent phosphorus, there






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


was not enough to produce bones with as high content of mineral
elements as when 0.27 or 0.30 percent of phosphorus was fed. The
addition of vitamin D to a ration containing 0.30 percent phos-
phorus and 0.84 percent calcium increased the rate and economy
of gains over pigs fed no supplemental vitamin D. The bones of
the pigs fed vitamin D were heavier and stronger and had a high-
er ash content. Later Aubel and associates (1) demonstrated that
the calcium requirements of growing pigs were more than 0.25
percent and less than 0.41 percent when the ration contained 0.30
percent phosphorus and adequate amounts of vitamin D.
Mitchell and coworkers (18) showed that a ration made up
predominantly of corn and containing 0.754 percent of calcium,
sufficient amounts of vitamin D, and 0.34 percent of phosphorus,
would produce adequate growth. The addition of sodium phos-
phate did not improve the power of the ration to promote growth
or bone calcification in young pigs.
Experiments conducted by Loeffel and associates (15) dem-
onstrated that exposure to sunlight was more effective in pro-
ducing high quality bones, as indicated by the ash content and
breaking strength of bones, than was the addition of 0.75 percent
of cod liver oil to the ration.
Weakley and Dustman (24) found that rations deficient in
vitamins A and D had no effect on the calcium, phosphorus and
magnesium content of the bone ash, as compared with bone ash
from pigs fed a "normal" ration. The pigs fed the deficient ra-
tions developed severe symptoms of malnutrition but these ab-
normal conditions were not apparent in the bone ash analyses.
The calcium and phosphorus requirements of growing pigs,
expressed in percent of the dry ration, were indicated by Mitchell
and McClure (19) and Ellis and Zeller (9) to be as follows:


Calcium Content in Phosphorus Content in
Dry Ration Dry Ration
Body Mitchell and Ellis and Mitchell and Ellis and
Weight of Pigs McClure (19) Zeller (9) McClure (19) Zeller (9)
Pounds Percent Percent Percent Percent
30 0.53 0.37 -
50 0.44 0.40 0.29 0.30
100 0.28 0.23
150 0.22 0.30 0.20 0.25
200 0.20 0.18 -
250 0.20 0.20 0.18 0.20





Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 11

These figures indicate that a ration carrying between 0.40 to
0.44 percent of calcium and 0.29 to 0.30 percent of phosphorus will
provide sufficient of these two elements for normal development
of pigs weighing 50 pounds. At 250 pounds weight 0.20 percent
of calcium and from 0.18 to 0.20 percent of phosphorus in the feed
are ample. The optimum ratio of calcium to phosphorus appears
to be less than two times as much calcium as phosphorus for pigs
under 50 pounds and a one to one ratio for pigs above 200 pounds.

EXPERIMENTAL, PRELIMINARY TRIAL
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
The experimental work consisted of a preliminary study last-
ing 188 days, divided into two periods of 140 and 48 days each,
and three subsequent trials lasting 132, 132 and 118 days, respect-
ively. The purpose of the preliminary study was to determine
the effect on growing pigs of a peanut ration supplemented with
calcium carbonate (CaCO3), cod liver oil, and a combination of
these compounds. Results obtained in the preliminary study
formed the basis for the procedure followed in the three subse-
qent trials.
Spring-farrowed purebred Poland China pigs were put on
test May 15, 1936. Sixteen pigs with an average weight of 58.6
pounds were grouped as uniformly as possible into four lots of
four pigs each. Previous to the test period the pigs were on oats
pasture and fed in addition a ration consisting of yellow corn 6
parts, wheat shorts 3 parts, and fishmeal 1 part. To each 100
pounds of this feed was added 2 pounds of a mineral mixture
made up of the following ingredients: steamed bone meal 50
pounds, air-slaked lime 50 pounds, hardwood ashes 50 pounds,
common salt 25 pounds, red oxide of iron 25 pounds, and copper
sulfate 1 pound.
The pigs while on test were kept in concrete floored pens
covered with galvanized roofs. These pens were open on all
sides from a height of 3.5 feet to the roof. The pens were partial-
ly shaded by trees but some direct early morning sunlight as well
as indirect sunlight reached the inside of all of them throughout
the day.
Each pig was weighed on three consecutive days at the be-
ginning and end of the trial and at 28-day intervals throughout
the period. Weekly weights were obtained whenever a more
complete picture of the rate of gain was desired.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The rations fed for the first 140 days of Trial I were as fol-
lows: Lot I, peanuts; Lot II, peanuts, 2 parts3 CaCO3; Lot III,
peanuts, 1 part3 cod liver oil; and Lot IV, peanuts, 2 parts" CaCO.,
1 part cod liver oil.
Physical separation of the peanuts showed the following
composition: Plump kernels 41.30 percent, shrunken kernels
22.01 percent, broken kernels, 34.12 percent, shells and stems 1.48
percent, and foreign material 1.09 percent.
Plump, shrunken and broken peanut kernels furnished 97.43
percent, and shells, stems and foreign material 2.57 percent of the
basal ration. Chemical analysis showed the average composi-
tion of the basal ration on the air-dry basis to be as follows: Dry
matter 93.26 percent, crude protein 28.81 percent, crude fiber 2.86
percent, nitrogen-free extract 15.26 percent, ether extract 41.96
percent, and ash 4.37 percent.
The 4.37 percent of ash contained: Calcium 0.16 percent,
phosphorus 0.44 percent, and magnesium 0.21 percent.
A marble dust product was used as the source of calcium in
Sthe rations fed to Lots II and IV. On a dry matter basis this
product was 99.7 percent CaCO3. A commercial brand of cod
liver oil was added to rations fed to Lots III and IV to insure an
adequate supply of vitamins A and D. The cod liver oil con-
tained from 750 to 1,000 U.S.P. units of vitamin A and from
175 to 225 U.S.P. units of vitamin D per gram.
The percent of calcium and phosphorus and their ratios in
each of the four rations fed in Trial I are given in Table 1. The
rations fed Lots I and III contained 0.16 percent calcium, those
fed Lots II and IV 0.96 percent calcium. All rations contained
0.44 percent phosphorus. Thus the calcium : phosphorus ratio was
1 : 2.75 in the rations fed to Lots I and III, and 1 : 0.46 in the
rations fed to Lots II and IV.

TABLE 1.-CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS AND THEIR RATIO IN RATIONS FED IN TRIAL I.

Calcium
In Peanuts In Supplement Total Phosphorus Ca:P Ratio
percent percent percent percent
Lot I 0.16 0.16 0.44 1 2.75
Lot II 0.16 0.80 0.96 0.44 1 0.46
Lot III 0.16 0.16 0.44 1 2.75
Lot IV 0.16 0.80 0.96 0.44 1 0.46
'In making up the rations in both the preliminary and main feeding
trials the supplements added to the basal ration were in parts per hun-
dred. For instance, when the pigs in Lot II were given 100 parts of pea-
nuts they were fed in addition 2 parts by weight of calcium carbonate.






Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 13

The pigs were fed twice daily. Peanuts were weighed in the
desired amounts as needed. The CaCO3 and cod liver oil were
mixed thoroughly with the peanuts in the correct proportions
just previous to feeding. When CaCO3 alone was added a small
quantity of water was used to secure its even distribution over
the peanuts. Any peanuts remaining in the trough from the
previous feeding were removed and considered as refusal. The
pigs were given the amount of feed they would eat in approxi-
mately 30 minutes.
Water from the city main was kept before the pigs at all
times, but no record was kept of the amount consumed.
The pigs were examined for any abnormalities at time of
slaughter. The humeri and femurs were removed from each
carcass for determinations of specific gravity and breaking
strengths and for chemical analysis. The bones were removed
within an hour after the animals were killed, adhering flesh was
scraped off and each bone was wrapped in cheesecloth and paper
to prevent drying.
The humeri and femurs from two additional pigs of the same
age and breeding as those in the controlled feeding trials were
used in the bone studies. These animals were kept on succulent
pasture and fed a balanced ration containing an adequate supply
of bone-forming elements throughout the entire test period. No
records were kept of the feed consumed or gains made by these
pigs.
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
For the first five weeks of the preliminary trial the pigs re-
fused to eat the peanut shells and stems in their feed but by the
seventh week all this material was eaten readily. At 10 weeks,
while all pigs appeared normal, some exhibited signs of depraved
appetite by eating dung. From this time until the end of the 140-
day period poor appetite, retarded growth, rough skin and hair,
and continued consumption of excreta, both urine and feces, be-
came increasingly apparent. These deficiency symptoms were
similar to those displayed by animals lacking common salt.' To
ascertain if this was the cause, and to obtain some measure of the
effect on the pigs of supplementing the deficient rations with
salt, the four pigs in each lot were divided into two groups of two
pigs each at the end of the 140th day. Salt at the rate of two
grams daily per pig was added to the rations of one group from

4The word "salt" as used throughout the manuscript refers to common
salt.










TABLE 2.-INITIAL AND FINAL WEIGHTS IN POUNDS, GAINS, AND FEED CONSUMED PER
(A, 140-day feeding period; B, 141st to 188th day)


POUND OF GAIN.


Lot No.


Supplements Fed


No. of pigs -----------

Average initial weight ----.------
Average final weight-----
Average gain per pig---------------
Average daily gain per pig---------
Peanuts consumed per pound gain-


I Ia II Ia III IIIa
Cod
CaCO3, Cod Liver
CaCO:, Salt* None and Liver Oil
Salt* Oil and
Salt*


4
58.5
111.0
52.5
0.38
4.05


A, First 140 Days
4

58.4
105.9
45.7
0.34
4.39


B, 141st to 188th Day
No. of pigs --. -----___ 2 2 2


Average initial weight ------ .
Average final weight -----
Average gain per pig..---
Average daily gain per pig ....
Peanuts consumer per pound gain


108.8
119.5
10.7
0.22
4.99


112.8
158.0
45.2
0.94
2.13


103.8
103.3
-0.5
-0.01
79.50**


-- 4

- 59.3
- 117.0
- 57.7
- 0.41
- 3.72


IV
CaCO3,
and
Cod
Liver
Oil


- 4


58.3
107.8
49.5
0.35
4.26


IVa
CaCO1,
Cod
Liver 4
Oil,
Salt*


- a
1-



- ^


2 2 2 2 2
08.0 114.8 119.3 104.0 111.5
58.3 116.5 169.0 109.3 160.3


50.3
0.95
2.04


1.7
1.05
28.20


49.7
0.04
2.00


5.3
0.11
9.68


48.8
1.02
2.14


*Two grams of salt daily per pig.
**Peanuts consumed during the 141st to 188th day.


1
1






Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 15

each lot for an additional 48 days, while the second group con-
tinued to receive the original rations. The pigs fed salt quickly
regained their appetite and thrifty appearance and made satis-
factory gains, while three of the groups fed the original rations
made only slight gains and one group lost weight.
GAINS AND FEED CONSUMPTION
The average gain and feed consumption per pound of gain for
each of the four lots of pigs during the 140-day feeding period
are given in Table 2A. There was a difference of only 0.07 pound
in average daily gains per pig between the slowest gaining lot,
Lot II, receiving peanuts and CaCO3, and the fastest gaining lot
Lot III, receiving peanuts and cod liver oil. The pigs fed peanuts
and cod liver oil required 3.72 pounds of peanuts for each one
pound of gain-the least for any lot. The utilization of peanuts
for gains by any group cannot be considered satisfactory. Figure
1 A shows that the average gains for each lot were fairly uni-
form for the first 16 weeks but decreased slightly during the last
four weeks of the feeding period.
Table 2 B shows that the salt-fed pigs in the four lots during
the 48-day period made an average daily gain of from 0.94 to 1.05
pounds per day, consuming from 2.00 to 2.14 pounds of peanuts
per pound of gain. In contrast the pigs fed the original rations
became more unthrifty and their craving for salt increased. The
pigs in Lots I, III and IV fed the original rations made an average
daily gain of 0.22, 0.04, and 0.11 of a pound, respectively, during
the 48-day feeding period and !required 4.99, 28.20 and 9.68
pounds of peanuts per pound of gain. Those in Lot II fed pea-
nuts and CaCO3 lost on the average 0.01 pound per day and con-
sumed 79.50 pounds of peanuts throughout the 48-day period.
The growth curves for the pigs fed the original rations and those
fed salt in addition are shown in Figure 1 B. The data presented

TABLE 3.-EFFECT OF ADDING SALT DURING THE FEEDING TRIAL UPON WEIGHTS OF
INDIVIDUAL PIGS.

Initial rations Lot I: Peanuts Lot II: Peanuts plus CaCo3
Pig. No. 81 37 64 54
Weight of pig pounds pounds pounds pounds
12th day 58.0 63.0 62.5 75.5
140th day 104.0 96.0* 107.5 129.0*
188th day 113.5 136.0 104.5 189.0
Weight changes in
last 48 days 9.5 40.0* -3.0 60.0*
*Two grams of common salt were added daily from the 141st day to
188th day.





































Fig. 2.-Pigs from Lot 1 fed a basal ration of peanuts for 188 days. Photographs from left to right show pigs on
the 12th, 140th and 188th days of Trial 1. Upper row-pig No. 81 received no salt. Lower row-pig No. 37 received
2 grams salt daily beginning on the 141st day.




















-- ,...t'- ._ -. ..
















Fig. 3.-Pigs from Lot II fed peanuts and CaCo3 for 188 days. Photographs from left to right show pigs on
the 12th, 140th and 188th days of Trial I. Upper row-pig No. 64 received no salt. Lower row-pig No. 54 re-
ceived 2 grams salt daily beginning on the 141st day.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


in Table 2 B and growth curves in Figure 1 B show conclusively
that the pigs were definitely in need of salt at the end of the 140-
day feeding period.
Pictures of two representative pigs from Lots I and II taken
on the 12th, 140th and 188th days of Trial I are shown in Figures
2 and 3. The weights of the pigs at the time the pictures were
taken are given in Table 3. The pictures show that the four pigs
were in good health on the 12th day while by the 140th day all
were noticeably unthrifty. The pigs, whether on a peanut or
peanut and CaCO3 ration, made low gains and had developed
depraved appetites. Beginning on the 141st day pigs No. 37 and
No. 54 were fed two grams of salt daily for 48 days while No. 81
and No. 64 were kept on their original rations. The gains made
during the 48-day feeding period and the pictures taken on the
188th day show a striking difference in wellbeing between the
pigs fed salt and those kept on the original rations. These re-
sults indicate that 2 grams of salt daily will meet the require-
ments of growing pigs.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND BREAKING STRENGTH OF LEG BONES
The physical methods employed to determine bone quality
were measurements of specific gravity and breaking strength.
A Universal Riehle tensile strength machine" graduated to reg-
ister five-pound intervals was used to determine breaking
strength of bones. A three-inch span was used in all tests.
The data given in Table 4 show considerable variation in
specific gravity and breaking strength of the humeri and femurs
of individual pigs within each lot. Averages for the four lots
indicate that the addition of 1 part of cod liver oil decreased the
specific gravity and breaking strength slightly, while 2 parts of
CaCO3 increased both when compared with pigs fed peanuts
alone. The combination of CaCO3 and cod liver oil was the most
efficient supplement but in no case did the specific gravity and
breaking strength of the bones from the test animals equal those
of the outside check group.
The outside check pigs were from the same litter as the pigs
fed in dry lot. They were kept on pasture, fed a balanced ration
and had access to an adequate mineral supplement. No records

'Universal Riehle tensile strength machine located in the Mechanical
Engineering laboratory, College of Engineering, University of Florida,
was used to determine breaking strength of bones.






TABLE 4.-SpEci itc GRAVITY AND BREAKING( SIIREN(;TH oiF HUMIERUS AND 'EhLLR H(t'JM INI1VILDUAL. PI(S AND AV\'RA;ES O R THE FIVE LUTS.


Lot No. Supplement Fed


I None


AVERAGE
II CaCO.,


Pig No. Specific Gravity


23(**)
28
37(**)
81


13(**)
24
54(**)
64


AVERAGE ------
ITT Cod Liver Oil -----



AVERAGE ----
IV CaCO, and Cod Liver Oil



AVERAGE -
V Outside Check .---


Humerus
1.17
1.20
1.15
1.15
1.17
1.19
1.19
1.25
1.16
1.20


22(**) 1.18
27 1.19
75 1.16
77 1.07
1.15
14 1.19
29 1.20
55(**) 1.29
63(**) 1.28
1.24


Femur
1.16
1.19
1.11
1.13
1.15
1.17
1.19
1.23
1.14
1.18
1.20
1.15
1.14
1.10
1.15
1.17
1.21
1.28
1.21
1.22


Final
Breaking Strength* Weight
Pounds Pounds


Humerus
585
545
395
410
484
430
530
835
430
556
510
400
420
400
433
490
450
1,075
650
666


Femur
600
520
455
460
509
455
560
1120
420
639
450
450
320
350
393
460
770
705
840
694


40 1.31 1.30 1,670 1,660
70 1.32 1.31 1,660 1,535


180.
125.5
136.
113.5

127.5
102.
189.
104.5

156.
182.
111.5
121.5

117.
101.5
179.5
141.

260.
260.


Breaking Strength
per 100 Pounds
Live Weight
Pounds Pounds
Humerus Femur
325 333
434 414
291 335
361 405
353 372
337 357
520 549
442 593
411 402
428 475
327 288
219 247
377 287
329 288
313 278


AVERAGE 1.32 1.31 1,665 1,598
(*) Three-inch span was used in all tests.
(**)Fed 2 grams of salt daily during last 48 days of the 188 day feeding period.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


were kept of feed eaten or gains made. The treatment given these
two pigs in the check group was considered optimum for the de-
velopment of high quality bones.
There was a wide range in final weights of pigs within each
lot. The difference was partly due to the greater gains made in
the last 48 days of the trial by the pigs fed salt. Because of this
the breaking strength of a humerus and femur from each pig
and the average for each lot was calculated on the basis of 100
pounds live weight. Table 4 shows that on this basis there was
no change in the order of breaking strength, the pigs fed cod
liver oil had bones with the lowest and the outside check group
the highest average breaking strength.
It is seen from Table 5 that feeding salt for 48 days increased
the average specific gravity of the humeri and femurs for all
lots except those fed peanuts alone. The average specific gravity
of the leg bones from the 8 pigs fed the original rations was 1.16
as compared with 1.20 for the 8 pigs receiving salt in addition.

TABLE 5.-SUMMARY OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND BREAKING STRENGTH OF LEG BONES
FROM PIGS FED THE ORIGINAL RATION FOR 188 DAYS AND THOSE FED SALT FROM
141ST TO 188TH DAY.

Avg. Breaking
Lot. Supplements Average Average Strength
No. to Basal Ration Specific Total Breaking per 100 Pounds
of Peanuts Gravity Strength Live Weight

check salt* check salt* check salt*
I None 1.17 1.15 484 509 404 321
II CaCo, 1.17 1.20 485 710 471 432
III Cod liver oil 1.12 1.18 373 453 270 320
IV CaCo, and Cod
liver oil 1.19 1.27 543 818 504 512
Average 1.16 1.20 471 622 412 396

*Fed 2 grams of salt daily during last 48 days of the 188 day feeding
trial.
The feeding of 2 grams of salt daily to the pigs on the cal-
cium-deficient rations resulted in a small increase in average to-
tal breaking strength of bones. When the peanut ration was sup-
plemented with CaCO3, or CaCO, and cod liver oil, feeding salt
from the 141st to 188th day gave a significant increase in total
breaking strength of bones. The salt when combined with CaCO3,
or CaCO3 and cod liver oil, apparently increased the utilization
of essential bone-forming elements in the ration for the growth
of higher quality bones. The average breaking strength of bones





Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 21

from pigs fed no salt was 471 pounds, while for the pigs fed salt
for the last 48 days of the trial it was 622 pounds.
There was much less variation in average breaking strength
of bones per 100 pounds live weight between the pigs fed the
original rations and those fed salt for the last 48 days than in the
average total strength.

THE ASH, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENT OF
DRY FAT-FREE BONES
The humerus and femur from the left side of each pig were
used for chemical analysis. The method of longitudinal section-
ing described by Neal and Palmer (21) was followed in obtaining
bone samples.
The ash content of the dry fat-free bone samples is given in
Table 6. It will be noted that there was considerable variation
in the ash content of both humerus and femur from pigs within
each of the lots. The average ash content of the bones of pigs
fed peanuts alone was the lowest, being 56.42 percent for the
humerus and 54.28 percent for the femur. There were successive
increases in average ash content when the basal peanut ration
was supplemented with 2 parts of CaCOs in Lot II; 1 part cod
liver oil, Lot III; and 2 parts CaCO3 and 1 part cod liver oil, Lot
IV. The humeri from the pigs in Lot IV had an average ash
content of 63.51 percent and the femurs 65.25 percent. In no
instance did the bone ash from the experimental groups equal
that of the leg bones of the outside check pigs. The humeri from
Lot V contained 66.64 percent and the femurs 67.48 percent ash.
Individual values for the calcium, magnesium, phosphorus
and carbon dioxide content of dry fat-free bones as well as aver-
ages for all five lots are given in Table 6. The addition of 2 parts
CaCO3, Lot II, and 1 part cod liver oil, Lot III, to the peanut ration
increased the average calcium and phosphorus content of the
leg bones as compared with those fed peanuts alone. Supple-
menting the check ration with 2 parts of CaCO3 and 1 part of
cod liver oil, Lot IV, resulted in bone ash with a higher calcium
and phosphorus content than when either was added singly to
the peanut feed. The bone ash from the outside check group of
pigs had the highest calcium and phosphorus content. The range
in average percent of calcium in the dry fat-free humeri and
femurs was from 22.42 and 21.57 percent, respectively, for Lot I
to 25.35 and 24.91 percent for Lot V. With phosphorus the
range was from 10.05 and 9.69 percent for the humeri and femurs,







TABLE 6.-PERCENT OF ASH, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, PHOSPHORUS AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN DRY FAT-FREE BONES.


Lot Supplement Pig No.
Fed


Ash Calcium Magnesium Phosphorus Carbon Dioxide
Humerus Femur Humerus Femur Humerus Femur Humerus Femur Humerus Femur


I None



AVERAGE

II CaCO,



AVERAGE
III Cod Liver Oil



AVERAGE

IV CaCO, and
Cod Liver Oil


AVERAGE

Outside
V Check
AVERAGE


23* 55.94 54.62
28* 58.85 56.11
37 55.75 49.63
81 55.15 56.77
56.42 54.28
13* 55.30 53.88
24 55.61 59.87
54* :. 61.62 61.14
,641 .59.57 63.52
58.03 59.60
22* 56.20 55.28
27* 60.36 63.56
75 62.57 62.72
77 61.53 62.11
60.17 60.92
14 64.85 65.88
29 60.58 65.00
55* 64.56 65.55
63* 64.05 64.58
63.51 65.25
40 67.55 67.57
70 65.72 67.39
66.64 67.48


22.18 21.37
23.75 22.60
22.06 20.07
21.68 22.25
22.42 21.57
21.23 20.69
23.60 21.88
23.80 23.68
25.05 23.22
23.42 22.37

21.26 21.96
23.04 23.85
23.50 24.32
23.65 23.12
22.86 23.31

25.12 24.76
23.28 24.44
24.41 24.39
24.37 24.21
24.30 24.45
25.49 24.99
25.21 24.83
25.35 24.91


0.33 0.29
0.29 0.26
0.22 0.24
0.37 0.36
0.30 0.29
0.24 0.25
0.31 0.29
0.37 0.32
0.37 0.35
0.32 0.30

0.35 0.33
0.38 0.35
0.38 0.39
0.36 0.37
0.37 0.36

0.28 0.30
0.21 0.29
0.24 0.29
0.22 0.20
0.24 0.27
0.27 0.20
0.36 0.25
0.32 0.23


10.01 9.74
10.36 9.85
9.98 9.01
9.84 10.17
10.05 9.69
9.90 9.57
10.60 9.71
10.76 10.83
11.18 10.38
10.61 10.12

10.09 9.86
10.79 11.29
11.19 11.14
11.02 11.04
10.77 10.83

11.51 11.60
10.57 11.47
11.44 11.46
11.33 11.46
11.26 11.50
11.96 11.94
11.59 11.73
11.78 11.84


2.63 2.71
3.20 3.08
2.63 2.10
2.74 2.70
2.80 2.65
2.63 2.72 O
3.12 3.20 ^.
3.54 3.18
3.46 3.46
3.19 3.14
2.62 2.74
2.94 3.22
3.03 3.21 .
2.92 3.16
2.88 3.08

3.29 3.56 c
3.06 3.46 S
3.32 3.41 g-
3.31 3.24 a
3.25 3.42
3.49 3.50
3.52 3.36
3.51 3.43


*Fed 2 grams salt daily during the last 48 days of the 188-day feeding period.






Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 23

respectively, from Lot I to 11.78 and 11.84 percent for the leg
bones from Lot V.
The variation in. the magnesium content of bones of pigs
within each lot was relatively larger than it was with other min-
eral elements studied. The dry fat-free bones from pigs fed pea-
nuts and 1 part cod liver oil, Lot III, had the greatest average
magnesium content while bones with the lowest magnesium con-
tent came from pigs fed 2 parts of CaC03 and 1 part of cod liver
oil.
The range in average carbon dioxide content of the dry fat-
free bones for the five lots was from 2.80 to 3.51 percent for the
humeri and 2.65 to 3.43 percent for the femurs. The pigs fed
peanuts and CaCO3, Lot II and IV, had bones with a higher aver-
age carbon dioxide content than those fed peanuts alone, Lot I,
or peanuts and cod liver oil, Lot III. These data indicate that
supplementing the peanut ration with CaCO increased the car-
bon dioxide content of the leg bones as compared with those fed
no additional calcium. As with calcium and phosphorus, the out-
side check group of pigs had bones with the highest carbon di-
oxide content.
The pigs fed two grams of salt daily during the last 48 days
of the 188-day feeding period have been indicated by an asterisk
in Table 6. The salt-fed pigs on the average made approximately
one pound of gain per day during the last 48 days of the feed-
ing period while those fed the original rations made much slower
gains and two pigs lost weight. The data given in Table 6 show
that the increased rate of gain because of salt supplementation
did not affect the mineral content of the bones.
Table 7 gives the individual values of calcium and phosphorus
and the ratio of these two elements in the bone ash for the 18 pigs
and average values for the five lots. The calcium content of the
ash of bones from pigs fed peanuts alone was higher than that
from the pigs fed peanuts and cod liver oil. The range in aver-
age calcium content of the bone ash for the five lots was from
38.00 to 39.72 percent for the humerus and from 36.92 to 39.76
for the femur. The phosphorus content of the bone ash and the
ratio of calcium to phosphorus in the ash of the humeri and
femurs from the 18 pigs and averages for the five lots are essen-
tially the same. It is evident that the different rations fed to pigs
in dry lot or those kept outside had no appreciable effect upon the
calcium and phosphorus content of the ash as deposited in the
humerus and femur.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 7.-CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS AND THEIR RATIO IN BONE ASH OF HUMERI
AND FEMURS FROM PIGS FED IN TRIAL I.


Lot Supple- Pig

ment
No. Fed No.


Calcium

Humerus Femur
Percent Percent


Phosphorus

Humerus Femur
Percent Percent


Ratio Ca:P

Humerus Femur


23 39.65 39.12

28 40.36 40.28
I None
37 39.57 40.44

81 39.31 39.19
AVERAGE 39.72 39.76


17.89 17.83

17.60 17.55

17.90 18.15

17.84 17.91
17.81 17.86


2.22:1

2.29:1

2.21:1

2.20:1
2.23:1


2.19:1

2.30:1

2.23:1

2.19:1
2.23:1


13 38.39 38.40 17.90 17.76 2.14:1 2.16:1

24 39.42 39.35 17.71 17.46 2.23:1 2.25:1
II CaCO,
54 38.62 38.73 17.46 17.71 2.21:1 2.19:1

64 39.44 38.98 17.60 17.42 2.24:1 2.24:1
AVERAGE 38.97 38.87 17.67 17.59 2.21:1 2.21:1


III Cod 22 37.83 39.73 17.95 17.84 2.11:1 2.23:1
Liver
Oil 27 38.17 37.52 17.88 17.62 2.13:1 2.13:1

75 37.56 38.78 17.85 17.76 2.10:1 2.18:1

77 38.44 37.22 17.91 17.77 2.15:1 2.09:1
AVERAGE -38.00 38.31 17.90 17.75 2.12:1 2.16:1


IV CaCO, 14 38.74 37.58 17.75 17.61 2.18:1 2.13:1
and Cod
Liver 29 38.43 37.60 17.75 17.65 2.17:1 2.13:1
Oil
55 37.81 37.21 17.72 17.48 2.13:1 2.13:1

63 38.05 37.49 17.69 17.75 2.15:1 2.11:1
AVERAGE 38.56 37.47 17.73 17.62 2.17:1 2.13:1


Outside 40 37.74 36.98
V Check
70 38.36 36.85
AVERAGE 38.05 36.92


17.71 17.67

17.64 17.41
17.68 17.54


2.13:1

2.17:1
2.15:1


2.09:1

2.16:1
2.10:1






Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 25

DISCUSSION
Sixteen spring farrowed pigs were divided into four lots of
four pigs each and placed on test on May 15, 1936. There was no
preliminary feeding period on the experimental rations. An ex-
amination of Table 2 and Figures 1, 2 and 3 indicates that none
of the four rations-peanuts alone, peanuts and 2 parts CaCO3,
peanuts and 1 part cod liver oil, peanuts and 2 parts CaCOs and
1 part cod liver oil-fed for the first 140 days of the feeding period
were adequate to promote rapid gains or health in the experi-
mental pigs. All pigs had developed abnormal appetites, were
unthrifty in appearance and made slow gains, all of which were
attributed to salt deficiency.

SALT REQUIREMENTS OF GROWING PIGS
At the end of the 140-day feeding period each lot of four
pigs was divided into two lots of two pigs each. One group in
each instance was fed the original ration while the second group
was fed in addition two grams of salt daily per pig. Supplement-
ing the four rations with salt for a subsequent 48-day period re-
sulted in marked improvement in appetite, general appearance,
and rate and economy of gains. The pigs kept on the original
rations remained unthrifty and failed to utilize their feed effi-
ciently for growth. Feeding two grams of salt corrected the salt
deficiency of the four rations. This conclusion is substantiated
by Sinclair (22), who demonstrated in a series of feeding trials
that 1.7 grams of salt daily was sufficient to meet the require-
ments of growing pigs.
A 48-day period was not considered to be sufficient time to
give an accurate test of the efficacy of salt when added to the
peanut ration. The rate of gain with all pigs during the first
140 days was low. The low gains reduced the requirements for
other mineral elements which might have been insufficient in
some of the rations had the pigs made faster gains. Thus defic-
iency conditions other than those caused by lack of salt did not
develop.
CALCIUM AND BONE QUALITY
The pigs fed peanuts alone or peanuts and cod liver oil
showed weakness of pasterns at the end of the 188-day feeding
trial. In every instance where there had been leg weakness,
autopsy revealed several broken ribs. These two rations con-
tained 0.16 percent calcium which was insufficient (9, 19) for
growing pigs. Poor quality bone was further demonstrated in






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the lower specific gravity and breaking strength of bones from
pigs on calcium-deficient rations as compared with those receiv-
ing 2 parts CaCO3.
The pigs fed peanuts and 2 parts CaCO3, or peanuts and 2
parts CaCO3 and 1 part cod liver oil, had no apparent bone de-
fects. These rations contained 0.96 percent calcium, which gave
a Ca:P ratio of 1:0.46. Bones from these pigs still were inferior
to bones from the outside check group, as indicated by specific
gravity, breaking strength of fresh bones, and the ash, calcium,
and phosphorus contents of dry fat-free bones. The check pigs
were exposed to the sun's rays, kept on pasture and had access
to a complete mineral mixture, factors considered optimal for
the development of high quality bones.
The addition of 2 parts of CaCO3 to the peanut ration ap-
parently made the feed dry and unpalatable and all pigs on this
ration drank large quantities of water during the feeding period.
When 1 part of cod liver oil was combined with the peanuts and
CaC03 the ration became more acceptable to the pigs.
The cod liver oil when fed as the only supplement or when
combined with CaCO3 was responsible for an increase in the
ash content of the dry-fat bones. The magnesium content of the
bones was greatest when peanuts were supplemented with cod
liver oil. Vitiman D supplied in the cod liver oil increased the
utilization of the minerals in the peanuts, as evidenced by bone
ash, but in the absence of adequate amounts of calcium the bone
quality was inferior.
The results obtained in the preliminary trial suggested the
following changes in procedure and rations for subsequent trials:
(1) individual feeding of all pigs in dry lot; (2) feeding salt to all
pigs except those on the check ration; (3) using higher grade
peanuts; (4) reducing the calcium supplement from 2 parts to 1
part.
EXPERIMENTAL, MAIN TRIALS
METHOD OF PROCEDURE FOR TRIALS 2, 3, AND 4
Trials 2, 3 and 4 were conducted on a uniform basis with
respect to rations, supplements fed, method of feeding and gen-
eral treatment of the experimental animals. The procedure out-
lined previously was followed except for the changes noted be-
low. Ten purebred Poland China pigs were fed in dry lot in
each of the three trials. The pigs in Trials 2 and 3 were from
13 to 14 weeks, those in Trials 4 from 14 to 17 weeks of age

















TABLE 8.-CoMPOSIION OF PI'ANUTS FED) IN TRIALS 1, 2, 3, AND 4.


Dry Crude Ether Crude Nitrogen-free
Matter Protein Extract Fiber Extract Ash Calcium Magnesium Phosphorus


percent

93.26

91.50

86.96

94.63


percent

28.81

28.84

26.42

27.52


percent

41.96

45.94

45.74

49.49


percent

2.86

2.18

2.11

2.27


percent

15.26

12.19

10.47

9.58


percent

4.37

2.35

2.22

4.35


percent

0.162

0.060

0.062

0.030


percent

0.206

0.21

0.149

0.135


percent

0.439

0.427

0.397

0.414


Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trial 4






28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

when placed on test. In each of these trials the pigs were di-
vided into five lots of two pigs each. Each pig, however, was
kept in a separate pen and an individual record was kept of all
feed consumed. They were placed in their respective pens six
days previous to the start of the trial, but there was no prelimi-
nary feeding period on the rations given below. The pigs were
weighed on three successive days at the beginning and end of
the trial period, and weekly throughout each test. In preparing
the individual growth curves shown in Figure 4 running aver-
ages" were used.
The following rations were fed in each of the three trials:
Lot I, peanuts'; Lot II, peanuts and salt8; Lot III, peanuts, salt" and
1 part CaCOs"; Lot IV, peanuts, salt8, and 1 part cod liver oil";
Lot V, peanuts, salt8, 1 part CaCO3, and 1 part cod liver oil"; and
Lot VI, outside check-pasture, balanced ration and mineral sup-
plement.

TABLE 9.-CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS CONTENTS AND THEIR RATIOS IN RATIONS FED
IN TRIALS 2, 3 AND 4.

Lot Supple- Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4
No. ments Percent Ratio Percent Ratio Percent Ratio
Fed Ca. P. Ca:P Ca. P. Ca:P Ca. P. Ca:P

I None 0.06 0.427 1:7.11 0.062 0.397 1:6.40 0.03 0.414 1:13.80
II Salt 0.06 0.427 1:7.11 0.062 0.397 1:6.40 0.03 0.414 1:13.80
III Salt
and
CaCO, 0.46 0.427 1:0.93 0.462 0.397 1:0.86 0.43 0.414 1:0.96
IV Salt
and
cod
liver
oil 0.06 0.427 1:7.11 0.062 0.397 1:6.40 0.03 0.414 1:13.80
V Salt,
CaCO,
and
cod
liver
oil 0.46 0.427 1:0.93 0.462 0.397 1:0.86 0.43 0.414 1:0.96

'A running average is obtained by averaging three successive week-
ly weights, the average being applied finally in place of the middle
weight. This becomes a running average when the calculated weights
all were determined in this manner.
'No. 1 Florida Runner shelled peanuts were used in the three trials.
"Each pig fed two grams of salt daily.
'The CaCO, and cod liver oil were from the same source as used in
Trial 1.






Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 29

The most significant difference between the peanuts fed in
Trial 1 and those fed in Trials 2, 3 and 4 was the low calcium
content of those used in the last three trials, as shown in Table
8. In Trial 1 the peanuts had 1.40 percent of shells and stems
and 1.09 percent of foreign material, while the peanuts fed in-
Trials 2, 3 and 4 were free of shells, stems and foreign material.
The phosphorus content of the peanuts fed in Trials 2, 3 and
4 was 0.427, 0.397 and 0.414 percent, respectively. This amount of
phosphorus was considered sufficient for maintenance and
growth. The three rations-Lot I, peanuts alone, Lot II, peanuts
and salt, and Lot IV, peanuts, salt and cod liver oil-were low in
calcium and had an unfavorable calcium to phosphorus ratio, as
shown in Table 9. The addition of one part CaCOs to the rations
fed Lot III, peanuts and salt, and Lot V, peanuts, salt and cod
liver oil, gave a calcium to phosphorus ratio of 1:0.93, 1:0.86 and
1:0.95 in Trials 2, 3 and 4, respectively.
Trial 2 was started on January 22, 1937, Trial 3 on June 15,
1937, and Trial 4 on January 19, 1938. Thus there were two
groups of late fall and one group of early spring farrowed pigs.
Trials 2 and 3 were conducted for 132 days. Trial 4 was dis-
continued at the end of the 118th day because of the debilitated
condition of four pigs.
In each trial two additional pigs from the same litters were
used as outside checks for physical and chemical studies of
humeri and femurs. These pigs were kept on pasture and fed in
addition a ration consisting of yellow corn 90 pounds and tankage
(60 percent protein) 10 pounds. No records were kept of gains
made or feed consumed.
They had access at all times to the following mineral supple-
ment'1 (14): Steamed bonemeal 50 pounds, marble dust or ground
limestone 50 pounds, common salt 25 pounds, red oxide of iron 25
pounds, and pulverized copper sulfate 1 pound.
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
GAINS AND FEED CONSUMPTION
The individual gains and feed consumed per unit of gain for
the 30 pigs fed individually in Trials 2, 3 and 4 and the averages
for the five lots are summarized in Table 10. It will be observed
that there is considerable variation in gains made and feed re-
quired per pound of gain with pigs fed the same rations. The

"Cobalt is now included in the mineral supplement. Either 1.5 ounces
of cobalt chloride or sulfate or 0.75 ounce of cobalt carbonate is used.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


pigs fed peanuts alone, Lot I, made an average daily gain of 0.42
pound and required 3.13 pounds of peanuts per unit of gain. Sup-
plementing the peanut ration with 2 grams of salt daily, Lot II,
or two grams of salt and cod liver oil, Lot IV, increased the
average daily gain to 0.47 and 0.52 pound, respectively, and re-
duced the peanuts required per pound of gain to 2.83 for Lot II
and 2.85 for Lot IV.

TABLE 10.-INITIAL AND FINAL WEIGHTS, GAINS AND FEED CONSUMED PER POUND
GAIN IN TRIALS* 2, 3, AND 4.

Supple- Average Peanuts
Lot Trial ment Pig Initial Final Daily Consumed
No. No. Fed. No. Weight Weight Gain Gain per Lb. Gain
pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds


2 None 65 51.0
2 51 52.5
3 11 58.7
I 3 30 44.7
4 43 51.5
4 55 41.8
AVERAGE 50.0

2 Salt 58 51.5
2 52 52.0
II 3 31 43.0
3 44 52.7
4 12 45.5
4 48 45.3
AVERAGE 48.3

2 Salt and 57 46.5
2 CaC0, 61 51.0
III 3 35 43.5
3 16 48.0
4 15 46.5
4 47 43.5
AVERAGE 46.5


121.5 70.5
105.5 53.0
110.5 51.8
103.5 58.8
95.5 44.0
86.5 44.7
103.8 53.8

111.8 60.3
112.3 60.3
137.0 94.0
107.5 54.8
97.5 52.0
86.0 40.7
108.7 60.4

180.3 133.8
192.3 141.3
183.0 139.5
201.5 153.5
157.5 111.0
126.0 82.5
173.4 126.9


2 Salt and 55 49.0 119.3 70.3
2 Cod 60 51.0 121.5 70.5
IV 3 Liver 39 48.2 157.5 109.3
3 Oil 27 50.7 130.2 79.5
4 50 41.0 75.5 34.5
4 39 50.7 88.0 37.3
AVERAGE 48.4 115.4 67.0

2 Salt 53 45.0 116.3 71.3
2 CaCO, 66 50.5 120.8 70.3
V 3 and Cod 51 55.5 208.5 153.0
3 Liver 40 47.7 140.0 92.3
4 Oil 51 49.0 179.5 130.5
4 45 46.5 140.5 94.0
AVERAGE 49.0 150.9 101.9
*Trials 2 and 3, 132 days; trial 4, 118 days.
**Weighted Averages.


0.53
0.40
0.39
0.45
0.37
0.38
0.42**

0.46
0.46
0.71
0.42
0.44
0.34
0.47**

1.01
1.07
1.06
1.16
0.94
0.70
0.99**

0.53
0.53
0.83
0.60
0.29
0.32
0.52**

0.54
0.53
1.16
0.70
1.11
0.80
0.80**


2.81
3.26
3.44
2.93
3.47
3.00
3.13**

3.16
3.05
2.24
2.99
2.77
3.26
2.83**

2.13
2.07
1.93
1.84
1.94
2.28
2.01**

2.87
2.99
2.19
2.42
4.01
4.35
2.85**

2.62
2.67
1.83
2.22
1.71
2.24
2.14**






Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 31

IOT I- PC NUTZ ALONE:
60 PIG 65 51 11 0 3 55
TRIAL. 2 2 34





120
ioo




4CD

20


LOTm 1-P ENUT$, NaNL AN CaC 3: /







60oPIGNo.57 61 35 6 15
/20
ioo




180- -T ____
60 /GP 55 6/ 39/ / 5 37

TRIAL 2 3 3/ 4


LoTIV- PEA UT Na CL AN Cow L,



60-PIGNaSS 0 9 27 50 39


20 J __
C __ __ I y _


T 1 M E
Fig. 4.-Growth curves showing gains of individual pigs during
three feeding trials. Trials 2 and 3 were of 132 days and Trial
4 of 118 days duration.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The six pigs fed a ration of peanuts, salt and 1 part CaCOs
made an average daily gain of 0.99 pound and consumed 2.01
pounds of peanuts per pound of gain. When the ration consisted
of peanuts, salt, CaCO3 and cod liver oil the average daily gain
was reduced to 0.80 of a pound and 2.14 pounds of peanuts were
required per pound of gain. There was greater variation in rate
and economy of gain of individual pigs in this lot as compared
with those fed the same level of calcium but receiving no cod
liver oil.
The average rate and economy of gains do not give a com-
plete picture of the growth response made by the 30 pigs through-
out the three feeding trials. The individual growth curves, Figure
4, indicate the degree of uniformity of gains made by the six pigs
in each lot. As mentioned previously, the rations fed to Lots I,
II, and IV in the three trials were deficient in calcium as com-
pared with phosphorus while the rations fed to Lots III and V
contained approximately equal and what was considered ade-
quate amounts of calcium and phosphorus for growth.
The growth curves for the three lots on the low level of cal-
cium feeding are of special interest. The pigs fed peanuts alone
made less rapid growth for the first 12 weeks of each of the three
trials than did those receiving the peanut ration supplemented
with salt, or with salt and cod liver oil. Because of their slower
growth they were able to conserve and utilize the limited calcium
in their feed more advantageously for bone and tissue develop-
ment. Thus these pigs continued to gain for a longer period than
did the pigs in Lots II and IV, fed the same level of calcium, and
lost comparatively little during the last weeks of the three feed-
ing trials. These data indicate that supplementing the basal ra-
tion of peanuts with salt and salt and cod liver oil gave a decided
growth impetus, even when the calcium present was insufficient
to meet the combined maintenance and growth requirements of
the pigs. These two rations appeared adequate, as revealed by the
growth response of individual pigs, for 10 to 14 weeks. After this
period there was a sharp decline in gain and within two weeks
all 12 pigs in Lots II and IV failed to gain and of the 12 animals 10
lost weight. This indicated that essential factors other than those
supplied by the salt or combination of salt and cod liver oil were
necessary to correct the nutritional deficiencies of the peanut
ration.
Five of the six pigs fed peanuts, salt and CaCO3 made rapid
and uniform gain. Feed records show that pig No. 47, Trial 4,






Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 33

did not consume as much feed as did his lot mate during the last
four weeks of the trial and consequently failed to gain during this
period.
It is observed in Figure 4 that the addition of salt, CaCO3,
and cod liver oil to the peanut ration did not promote a uniform
growth response. In Trial 3 the growth curves show that there
was considerable improvement in rate of gain of individual pigs
as compared with those fed in Trial 2.
The ration fed to lot V was believed to be the most favorable
for normal development of pigs. Morrison (20) showed that
peanuts are a rich source of crude protein and non-nitrogenous
nutrients and supply an adequate amount of phosphorus. The
added calcium gave a calcium : phosphorus ratio of approxi-
mately 1 : 1. Salt was fed daily, while vitamins A and D were
supplied by the cod liver oil. The daily feed records show that
the two pigs in Trial 2, No. 40 in Trial 3, and No. 45 in Trial 4,
after being on feed from 12 to 14 weeks, consumed less feed and
frequently regurgitated part or all of a meal. Pigs No. 51, Trial
3, and No. 51, Trial 4, never missed a feed and made continuous
gains. Autopsy on pigs No. 40 and No. 45 at the completion of the
trials failed to reveal any gastro-intestinal lesions or other ab-
normalities in the internal organs. There is a possibility that
the oil content of the peanuts and the cod liver oil combined to
make the ration too rich in fat for easy digestion by individual
pigs.
Individual pictures were taken of all pigs at the completion of
Trials 2, 3 and 4. In Figures 5 and 6 are pictures of pigs from the
five dry-lot fed groups and the outside check group of Trial 4. The
inserts in each instance are cross-sections of a humerus and femur.
As observed from the pictures, there is a striking difference in
the state of wellbeing of the various pigs at the end of the 118-
day feeding trial. The representative pigs from Lots I, II and IV
receiving 0.03 percent calcium showed severe symptoms of mal-
nutrition while those with 0.43 percent calcium in their ration,
or receiving a balanced ration and on green pasture, were in ex-
cellent condition with no evidence of any nutritional deficiencies.
The pigs fed the low calcium rations in Trials 2 and 4 were in
a similar unhealthy condition. In Trial 3 none of the pigs on the
low calcium rations showed the extreme calcium deficiencies de-
veloped by the animals in Trials 2 and 4. Two factors may have
prevented the development of extreme nutritional disorders-
the pigs in Trial 3 were farrowed in March and probably had a






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 5.-Representative pigs from Lots I, II and III at the end of
118-day feeding period, Trial 4. Inserts show cross-section of humerus
(left) and femur (right). Upper-pig No. 43 received peanuts alone.
Center-pig No. 12 received peanuts and salt. Lower-Pig No. 15 received
peanuts, salt and CaCo,.


I I I





Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 35


-4


Fig. 6.-Representative pigs from Lots IV, V and VI at the end of
118-day feeding period, Trial 4. Inserts show cross-section of humerus
(left) and femur (right). Upper-pig No. 39 received peanuts, salt and
cod liver oil. Femur so badly fractured a cross-section could not be ob-
tained. Center-pig No. 50 received peanuts, salt, CaCO3 and cod liver
oil. Lower-pig No. 38, outside check, received corn, tankage and a
complete mineral mixture, and was kept on succulent pasture.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


greater store of bone-forming elements in their tissues when
placed on test on June 15, 1937; and, they were exposed to some
summer sunlight which may have made possible a more complete
assimilation of the limited calcium in the peanut ration. Trial 2
was started on January 22, 1937, and Trial 4 on January 22, 1938.
Because of the shorter days the pigs in these trials were not ex-
posed to as much sunlight as were the pigs in Trial 3.
The progressive gross symptoms of calcium deficiency shown
by the pigs on the low calcium rations were stiffness of gait,
rough and enlarged leg joints, difficulty in rising, loss of motor
control of forelegs, posterior paralysis and consequent dragging
of rear quarters, and inability to use either fore or hind legs.
The upper and middle pictures in Figure 5 and the upper picture
in Figure 6 illustrate advanced stages of paralysis.
All pigs on the low calcium rations showed abnormal bone
development of feet and legs. On autopsy, pigs with posterior
paralysis were found to have a fractured lumbar vertebra or
femur. Several pigs had deformed humeri and shoulder blades
and all had fractured ribs. Frequently the articular surfaces
of the leg bones had severe erosion, such as can be seen in
Figure 7.





















Fig. 7.-Left, normal bone showing ball with smooth articular sur-
face; right, deformed bone showing severe erosion of articular surface
of ball.






Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 37

The degree of posterior paralysis appears to be correlated
with the extent of bone deterioration. This is illustrated in the
cross-sections of bones shown in the inserts in Figures 5 and 6.
The bones from pigs partially paralyzed do not have as much
fibrous or osteoid-like growth on the shaft and in the marrow
cavity as do the bones from a pig completely paralyzed. The
femurs from pig 50, completely paralyzed, had deteriorated to
such an extent that a representative sample could not be obtained
for bone analysis. A cross-section of the right humerus from this
pig indicates that in extreme calcium deficiency bone develop-
ment proceeds little beyond laying down fibrous tissue. The
normal bone outline can be distinguished in the mass of cartilage.
The bones
from pigs in
Lots III and IV,
fed 1 part
CaCO,, and
from the outside
check group,
had no abnor-
malities. The
cross-sections of
these bones ex-
hibit a marked
improvement in
quality as indi-
cated by greater
thickness of
shaft wall and
hardness of cut
surface as com-
pared with those
fed calcium-de-
ficient rations.
Fig. 8.--Humerus and femur from pig No. 39
Figure 8 pic- receiving peanuts, salt and cod liver oil for 118
tures a humerus days. Both bones had been fractured and a large
amount of cartilagenous tissue had grown around
and femur from the bone to give support.
pig No. 39. This
pig was fed a ration of peanuts, salt and cod liver oil for 118 days.
The bones had been fractured some time previous to slaughter.
A large amount of cartilaginous tissue had grown around the







TABLE 11.-SPECIFIc GRAVITY AND BREAKING STRENGTH OF HUMERUS AND FEMUR FROM INDIVIDUAL PIGS AND AVERAGES FOR THE Six LOTS. 00


Lot Trial Supplement
No. No. Fed





I 2 None
2
3
3
4
4
AVERAGE

II 2 Salt
2
3
3
4
4
AVERAGE

III 2 Salt and CaCO.,
2
3
3
.4
4
AVERAGE


Pig Final Breaking Strength
No. Specific Gravity Breaking Strength* t per 100 Pounds
SWeight Live Weight


Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Humerus Femur Humerus Femur Pounds Humerus Femur
65 1.14 1.12 295 275 121.5 243 226
51 1.07 1.06 430 195 105.5 408 185
11 1.14 1.10 415 40 110.5 372 36
30 1.14 1.07 280 195 103.5 271 189
43 1.10 1.09 320 130 95.5 337 137
55 1.14 1.10 150** 245 86.5 177 288
1.12 1.09 315 180 301 177


58 1.13 1.12 325
52 1.09 1.08 455
31 1.11 1.10 245
44 1.14 1.11 350
12 1.12 1.12 200
48 1.12 1.10 200
1.12 1.11 296

57 1.19 1.20 665
61 1.20 1.23 589
35 1.21 1.21 590
16 1.22 1.20 600
15 1.18 1.20 520
47 1.20 1.20 650
1.20 1.21 602


205 111.8 291 183
150 112.3 405 134
270 137.0 179 198
220 107.5 323 203
295 97.5 200 295
- 86.0 235 -
224 272 203

640 180.3 369 355
880 192.3 306 458
695 183.0 323 381
655 201.5 298 325
650 157.5 335 419
500 126.0 520 400
660 359 390








IV 2 Salt and Cod Liver Oil
2
3
3


AVERAGE


55 1.17 1.13 225
60 1.08 1.09 195
39 1.13 1.11 380
27 1.12 1.12 395
50 1.10 1.07 230
39 1.13 1.08 195
1.12 1.10 270


*** 119.3
225** 121.5
150 157.5
325 130.2
*** 75.5
*** 88.0
233


189 ***
161 185**
239 94
304 250
305 ***
222 ***
206 176 Q


V 2 Salt, CaCo., and Cod Liver Oil 53 1.14 1.15 370 450
2 66 1.18 1.15 385 300
3 51 1.22 1.20 625 860
3 40 1.19 1.18 480 465
4 51 1.23 1.19 565 630
4 45 1.18 1.16 680 420
AVERAGE 1.19 1.17 519 521


VI 2 Outside Check
2
3
3
4
4
AVERAGE

*3-inch span.


50 1.30 1.37 865 995
59 1.29 1.34 1100 1310
21 1.21 1.21 680 560
28 1.23 1.23 865 855
52 1.34 1.31 790 870
38 1.30 1.27 990 995
1.28 1.29 882 931


**Bone from left side.


184.5 469 539
181.0 608 724
190.0 358 295
185.0 468 462
145.0 545 600
205.0 483 485
488 517


***Both femurs fractured.


116.3
120.8
208.5
140.0
179.5
140.5






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


shaft of the bones which could not be separated without destroy-
ing the wall. The osteoid tissue could be cut easily with a knife.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND BREAKING STRENGTH OF LEG BONES
The physical methods employed to determine bone quality
were specific gravity and breaking strength of a humerus and
femur from the right side of each of the 30 pigs fed in dry lot and
the 6 pigs fed outside. It is evident from the data in Table
11 that the addition of salt or salt and cod liver oil to the peanut
ration, compared with those fed peanuts alone, did not affect the
bone quality as shown by average specific gravity. The average
specific gravity for the humerus for the three lots fed calcium-
deficient rations was 1.12 and for the femur 1.09, 1.11 and 1.10
for Lots I, II and IV, respectively.
There was a great variation in the breaking strength of leg
bones of individual pigs in each of the three lots fed calcium-
deficient rations. When averages for these three lots are con-
sidered, however, there is not a great difference in bone quality
between pigs fed peanuts alone and those fed peanuts supple-
mented with salt. The bones from pigs fed peanuts, salt and cod
liver oil were inferior in quality to those of pigs fed the same
calcium level but receiving no cod liver oil. Three pigs in this
group had fractured femurs and consequently breaking strengths
could not be obtained.
The pigs fed a ration consisting of peanuts, salt and CaCOs,
Lot III, had leg bones with an average specific gravity of 1.20 for
the humerus and 1.21 for the femur. The addition of one part
CaCO3 to the peanut and salt ration resulted in an average
breaking strength of 602 pounds for the humerus and 660 pounds
for the femur. This was more than double the breaking strength
of bones from pigs receiving no supplemental calcium.
Supplementing the basal ration with salt, CaCOs and cod liver
oil, Lot V, resulted in greater variation in specific gravity and
breaking strength of bones as compared with those from the pigs
fed the same level of CaCO3 but receiving no cod liver oil. In
Trial 2 the two pigs in Lot V apparently did not utilize the cal-
cium and phosphorus in their ration for the production of high
quality bones. The specific gravity and breaking strength for
individual bones from this group are much lower than those of
pigs in the following two trials.
The pigs in the outside check lot were fed a balanced ration
and in addition were kept on green pasture and exposed to sun-





Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 41

shine. The bones from this group of pigs were considered to be
normal and were used as a standard in evaluating the effect of
the various rations fed to pigs in dry lot on the physical and
chemical characteristics of their leg bones. The pigs from this
group in Trials 2 and 4 had bones which were higher in specific
gravity and breaking strength than those of any of the groups
fed in dry lot. In Trial 3 there are only slight differences in
specific gravity and breaking strength of bones from pigs in Lots
III, V and VI. The average specific gravity and breaking strength
for the humeri and femurs from the outside check lot are much
greater than for any of the groups fed in dry lot and indicate
that the treatment and the ration of the outside group were su-
perior to those of the other lots for bone development.
There was a great range in final weights of the 36 pigs, and
for this reason the breaking strength per 100 pounds of live
weight was considered to give a more representative picture of
bone quality than total breaking strength. The breaking strength
of bones per 100 pounds live weight for each pig, and averages
for the six lots, were calculated and are presented in Table 11.
These data shdw that computing either on the basis of 100 pounds
live weight or on total weight, bone quality, as indicated by
breaking strength, is the same.

THE ASH, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, PHOSPHORUS AND CARBON DIOXIDE
CONTENT OF DRY FAT-FREE BONES
Longitudinal sections (21) from the right humerus and femur
from each experimental animal, Trials 2, 3 and 4, were used for
chemical determinations. The data for the dry fat-free bone
samples from individual pigs and averages for the six lots are
presented in Table 12. It will be observed that there is consider-
able variation in ash content of humeri and femurs from groups
of pigs fed the same, especially those on the calcium-deficient
rations.
Of the three lots on calcium-deficient rations, those pigs fed
peanuts, salt and cod liver oil had leg bones with the lowest
average ash content, 53.94 percent for the humerus and 51.83 for
the femur. It will be noted that only three femurs were avail-
able for chemical determination, since three pigs had fractured
femurs and hence representative bone samples could not be ob-
tained. The average ash contents of the humeri and femurs in
Lot II, fed peanuts and salt, was 55.21 percent and 52.44 percent,
respectively, while for those fed peanuts alone, Lot I, the average









TABLE 12.-PERCENT OF ASH, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, PHOSPHORUS AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN DRY FAT-FREE BONES.

Lot Trial Supplement Pig Ash Calcium Magnesium Phosphorus Carbon Dioxide
No. No. Fed No. Humerus Femur Humerus Femur Humerus Femur Humerus Femur Humerus Femur


I 2 None
2
3
3
4
4
AVERAGE

II 2 Salt
2
3
3
4
4
AVERAGE


III 2 Salt and CaCO,
rt


Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent
65 56.95 58.85 21.52 22.25 0.34 0.42 10.18 10.59 2.74 2.71
51 54.80 57.71 20.19 20.92 0.25 0.30 9.69 9.92 2.87 2.77
11 57.09 54.12 23.07 21.08 0.27 0.23 10.14 9.60 3.07 2.76
30 60.60 52.72 22.94 20.87 0.22 0.21 10.75 9.33 3.09 2.72
43 60.00 50.65 21.81 18.66 0.27 0.24 10.64 9.13 3.07 3.35 Z.
55 59.81 58.19 21.83 21.18 0.45 0.41 10.79 10.47 2.70 2.67
58.21 55.04 21.89 20.83 0.30 0.30 10.37 9.84 2.92 2.83

58 56.44 50.38 21.01 18.44 0.27 0.22 9.95 8.89 3.01 2.48
52 59.98 50.98 22.52 19.12 0.26 0.23 10.67 9.15 2.97 2.35
31 54.48 54.48 21.04 23.61 0.08 0.35 9.64 11.28 2.79 3.25
44 53.14 53.14 20.92 19.80 0.03 0.08 9.43 9.21 2.67 2.60 Z
12 52.94 52.94 19.19 19.44 0.21 0.22 9.41 9.31 2.66 2.67
48 54.26 45.36 16.96 19.93 0.18 0.23 8.04 9.63 2.32 2.75
55.21 52.44 20.27 20.06 0.17 0.22 9.52 9.59 2.74 2.68

57 63.90 62.30 23.79 23.40 0.33 0.34 11.43 11.08 3.08 3.12


3 35 60.25 59.97
3 16 60.87 58.31
4 15 61.76 64.53
4 47 62.02 57.25
AVERAGE 61.61 60.83


6.11 Z6.U~ 0.6U 0U.2 10.90 11.05 2.88 3.30
23.30 23.48 0.10 0.10 10.62 10.50 3.19 3.33
22.95 22.40 0.26 0.37 10.89 10.39 2.89 2.92
23.67 23.54 0.26 0.23 10.97 11.63 3.10 2.87
23.34 22.42 0.19 0.11 10.81 9.92 3.54 3.41
23.36 23.06 0.24 0.24 10.94 10.76 3.11 3.16








IV 2 Salt and Cod 55 54.91 39.18*
2 Liver Oil 60 54.37 53.15
3 39 56.24 52.76
3 27 52.80 49.59
4 50 50.94 **
4 39 54.36 **
AVERAGE 53.94 51.83

V 2 Salt, CaCO3 53 60.46 61.97
2 and Cod Liver 66 62.16 61.73
3 Oil 51 62.06 62.77
3 40 62.08 57.92
4 51 60.87 61.25
4 45 61.17 60.66
AVERAGE 61.47 61.05

2 Outside Check 50 63.20 64.00
2 59 64.65 65.25
3 21 63.96 65.21
3 28 63.44 62.52
4 38 61.12 61.73
4 52 65.19 64.54
AVERAGE 63.59 63.88


20.50 14.65" 0.19 0.12* 9.82
20.54 19.69 0.26 0.19 9.71
20.95 20.04 0.18 0.37 10.03
19.64 18.98 0.11 0.34 9.42
19.76 ** 0.13 ** 9.31
20.24 ** 0.07 ** 9.56
20.27 19.57 0.23 0.30 9.64


22.96 23.15 0.17 0.25 10.62 10.90
22.93 22.89 0.24 0.19 10.77 10.86
23.41 23.04 0.17 0.23 11.04 11.20
22.85 21.77 0.27 0.20 10.93 10.15
22.74 22.65 0.32 0.26 10.89 11.01
23.14 22.91 0.15 0.30 10.87 10.75
23.01 22.74 0.22 0.24 10.85 10.81

24.59 24.37 0.18 0.26 11.14 11.33
24.88 24.36 0.36 0.26 11.38 11.49
23.56 23.94 0.27 0.27 11.40 11.61
23.21 22.94 0.32 0.35 11.33 11.20
24.58 24.43 0.12 0.19 11.48 11.35
24.25 24.61 0.37 0.39 10.72 10.78
24.18 24.11 0.27 0.29 11.24 11.29


7.06* 2.61 1.73
9.48 2.63 2.58
9.52 2.73 2.36
8.79 2.55 2.56
** 2.84 **
** 2.91 **
9.26 2.71 2.50


3.31 3.37
3.79 3.33
3.06 3.05
3.33 3.19
3.06 3.13
3.25 3.15
3.25 3.15

3.35 3.30
3.50 3.49
3.13 3.23
3.10 2.96
3.44 3.47
3.41 3.56
3.32 3.33


*Not included in average.
**Bones fractured, unable to obtain representative bone sample.









TABLE 13.-PERCENT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS AND THEIR RATIO IN BONE ASH OF HUMERI AND FEMURS FROM PIGS FED IN TRIALS 2,
3 AND 4.


Lot Trial Supplement
No. No. Fed


I 2 None
2
3
3
4
4
AVERAGE


Pig Calcium Phosphorus Ratio Ca:P
No. Humerus Femur Humerus Femur Humerus Femur

Percent Percent Percent Percent
65 37.79 37.80 17.88 17.79 2.11.1 2:12:1
51 36.84 37.55 17.69 17.81 2.08:1 2.11:1
11 40.42 38.94 17.62 17.74 2.29:1 2.20:1
30 37.86 39.59 17.73 17.70 2.14:1 2.24:1
43 36.34 36.85 17.73 18.02 2.05:1 2.05:1
55 35.50 36.40 18.04 18.00 1.97:1 2.02:1
37.46 37.86 17.78 17.84 2.11:1 2.12:1


II 2 Salt
2
3
3
4
4
AVERAGE


58 37.23 36.60
52 37.55 37.52
31 38.61 37.13
44 38.38 38.15
12 36.25 37.06
48 37.39 36.74
37.57 37.20


17.63
17.80
17.69
17.74
17.77
17.73
17.73


17.82 2.11:1 2.05:1
17.96 2.11:1 2.09:1
17.75 2.18:1 2.09:1
17.74 2.16:1 2.15:1
17.74 2.04:1 2.04:1
17.75 2.11:1 2.07:1
17.75 2.12:1 2.09:1


III 2 Salt and CaCO,
2
3
3
4
4
AVERAGE


57 37.24 37.56 17.89 17.79 2.08:1 2.11:1
61 37.96 36.88 17.91 17.66 2.12:1 2.04:1
35 38.67 39.16 17.62 17.50 2.19:1 2.24:1
16 37.71 38.41 17.89 17.81 2.11:1 2.16:1
15 38.32 36.47 17.77 18.03 2.16:1 2.02:1
47 37.63 39.17 17.44 17.33 2.16:1 2.26:1
37.92 37.94 17.75 17.69 2.14:1 2.14:1









IV 2 Salt and Cod Liver Oil
2
3
3
4
4
AVERAGE


55 37.33 37.38
60 37.77 37.07
39 37.25 37.99
27 37.19 38.28
50 37.33 *
39 37.23 *
37.25 37.68


V 2 Salt, CaCO3 and Cod Liver Oil 53 37.97 37.36
2 66 36.89 37.08
3 51 37.72 36.71
3 40 36.81 37.59
4 51 37.35 36.97
4 45 37.83 37.77
AVERAGE 37.43 37.35


VI 2 Outside Check
2
3
3
4
4
AVERAGE


50 38.92 38.07
59 38.49 37.33
21 36.83 36.71
28 36.59 36.70
38 38.97 39.86
52 37.71 37.85
37.92 37.65


17.88
17.85
17.84
17.85
17.59
17.58
17.77

17.56
17.29
17.80
17.61
17.88
17.77
17.56

17.62
17.61
17.82
17.85
17.24
17.61
17.54


18.02 2.09:1 2.07:1
17.83 2.12:1 2.08:1
18.05 2.09:1 2.05:1
17.73 2.08:1 2.16:1
2.12:1 *
2.12:1 *
17.91 2.10:1 2.10:1

17.59 2.16:1 2.12:1
17.59 2.13:1 2.11:1
17.84 2.12:1 2.06:1
17.53 2.09:1 2.14:1
17.79 2.09:1 2.08:1
17.72 2.13:1 2.13:1
17.58 2.13:1 2.12:1

17.70 2.21:1 2.15:1
17.61 2.19:1 2.12:1
17.80 2.07:1 2.06:1
17.92 2.05:1 2.05:1
17.46 2.26:1 2.28:1
17.59 2.14:1 2.15:1
17.58 2.16:1 2.14:1


*Bone fractured, unable to obtain representative bone sample.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ash content was 58.21 percent for the humerus and 55.04 percent
for the femur.
Supplementing the peanut and salt ration with 1 part of
CaC03, Lot III, increased the average ash content of the humerus
to 61.61 percent and of the femur to 60.83 percent. The addition
of 1 part of CaCO3 and 1 part of cod liver oil gave an average ash
content of 61.47 percent for the humerus and 61.05 percent for the
femur. As with specific gravity and breaking strength, the pigs
in the outside check lot had the highest quality bones as indicated
by the increased ash content compared with those fed in dry lot.
The humeri contained on the average 63.59 percent and the fe-
murs 63.88 percent ash, in this lot.
It will be seen from Table 12 that as the ash of the bones in-
creased there was in almost every instance a relative increase in
the calcium, phosphorus and carbon dioxide content. Thus the
dry fat-free bones from pigs fed peanuts, salt and cod liver oil
had the lowest average ash, calcium, phosphorus and carbon
dioxide content, while the bones from the outside check lot had
the highest.
There is greater relative variation in magnesium content of
bones from pigs within a lot than there is between lots. The
bones from pigs receiving peanuts alone had the highest average
magnesium content while those fed peanuts and salt had the low-
est. There appeared to be no correlation between the magnesium
content of the bones and the ash, calcium, phosphorus and carbon
dioxide content, regardless of the rations fed.
The percent of calcium and phosphorus, their ratio in the ash
Af bones from individual pigs, and averages for the six lots are
given in Table 13. Although there are slight variations in the
percent of calcium and phosphorus and the ratio of these two
elements in the bone ash of individual pigs the averages for the
six lots are essentially the same. The average calcium content
of humeri within the various lots ranges from 37.35 to 37.92 per-
cent and the femurs from 37.20 to 37.94 percent. The range in
phosphorus for the humeri is from 17.54 to 17.78 percent and for
the femurs from 17.58 to 17.91 percent. The rations fed influenced
the total ash, calcium, phosphorus and carbon dioxide content of
the dry fat-free bones, but did not affect the amount and ratio
of calcium to phosphorus deposited in the bone ash.






Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 47

DISCUSSION
A summary of the results of Trials 2, 3, and 4, in which 30
feeder pigs were fed individually in dry lot and 6 feeder pigs
were kept outside to serve as standards, is presented in Table 14.
The basal ration consisted of No. 1 Florida Runner shelled
peanuts. This feed was rich in protein and non-nitrogenous nu-
trients. Salt at the rate of two grams daily was given to all dry
lot fed pigs except those in Lot 1, fed peanuts alone. The vita-
min A and D content of two rations was increased by adding one
part of cod liver oil.
The peanuts fed in Trials 2, 3 and 4 contained 0.06, 0.062, and
0.03 percent of calcium, respectively, and 0.427, 0.397, and 0.414
percent of phosphorus. The calcium to phosphorus ratio of the
peanuts fed was 1:7.11 in Trial 2, 1:6.40 in Trial 3. and 1:13.8 in
Trial 4. A ration which provides from 0.40 to 0.44 percent cal-
cium (9, 19) will be adequate for normal development of the
growing pig. These rations contained from 1/7 to 1/14 of the
amount of calcium considered adequate for rapid growth of
feeder pigs weighing 50 pounds, and provided from 1/5 to 1/9
of the requirement of pigs weighing 100 pounds.
The addition of 1 part of CaCO3 increased the calcium con-
tent of the ration to 0.46 percent in Trials 2 and 3 and 0.43 per-
cent in Trial 4. Such rations provided adequate amounts of
calcium (9, 19) and the calcium to phosphorus ratio was within
the optimum range for growing pigs, as shown by experimental
evidence.
The outside check pigs were kept on green pasture and fed a
balanced ration of corn and fishmeal. An adequate mineral
supplement was either mixed with the ration or placed in self-
feeders to 'which the pigs had access. The treatment afforded
these pigs was considered optimum for development of high
quality bones.
SUMMARY
Four feeding trials were conducted with growing pigs during
the period from June, 1936, to May, 1938, to determine wherein
peanuts are deficient as a feed for swine and to compare the
efficacy of different supplements to correct these deficiencies.
The various supplements were evaluated according to their ef-
fect on rate of gain, feed consumption per unit of gain, physical
condition of the pigs, and physical and chemical characteristics
of humeri and femurs.








TABLE 14.-SUMMARY OF TRIALS 2, 3 AND 4 IN WHICH PEANUTS FORMED THE BASAL RATION.


Lot No.


Supplement to
peanut ration

Pigs per lot


I II III IV V VI

Salt and Salt,CaCO3
Salt and Cod and Cod Check: No
None Salt CaCO3 Liver Oil Liver Oil Peanuts Fed

6 6 6 6 6 6


Gains and Feed Consumption in Pounds


Average initial weight
Average final weight
Average total gain
Average daily gain per pig
Peanuts consumed per pound of
gain


50.0
103.8
53.8
0.42


48.3
108.7
60.4
0.47

2.83


46.5
173.4
126.9
0.99

2.01


48.4
115.4
67.0
0.52

2.85


49.0
150.9
101.9
0.80


No record kept
181.8
No record kept
of gains or feed


2.14 consumed


Physical Studies on Leg Bones


Average specific gravity

Average breaking strength*
in pounds
Average breaking strength per 100
pounds live weight, in pounds


Humerus
Femur
Humerus
Femur
Humerus
Femur


1.12
1.09
315
180
301
177


1.12
1.10
296
224**
272
203**


1.20
1.21
602
660
359
390


1.12
1.09
270
233***
206
176***


1.19
1.18
519
521
361
337


1.29
1.27
882
931
488
517








Chemical Studies on Leg Bones


Average percent ash in dry
fat-free bones
Average percent calcium in
dry fat-free bones
Average percent phosphorus in
dry fat-free bones
Average percent carbon dioxide
in dry fat-free bones
Average percent calcium
in bone ash
Average percent phosphorus
in bone ash
Average Ca:P in bone ash



*Three-inch span.
**Average for five bones.
***Average for three bones.
****Average for four bones.


Humerus
Femur
Humerus
Femur
Humerus
Femur
Humerus
Femur
Humerus
Femur
Humerus
Femur
Humerus
Femur


58.21
55.04
21.89
20.82
10.37
9.84
2.92
2.83
37.46
37.86
17.78
17.84
2.11:1
2.12:1


55.21
52.44
20.27
20.06
9.52
9.59
2.74
2.68
37.57
37.20
17.73
17.75
2.12:1
2.09:1


61.61
60.83
23.36
23.06
10.94
10.76
3.11
3.16
37.92
37.94
17.75
17.69
2.14:1
2.14:1


53.94
51.83***
20.27
18.34
9.64
8.71
2.71
2.31
37.25
37.68****
17.77
17.91****


61.47
61.05
23.01
22.74
11.31
10.81
3.25
3.15
37.43
37.25
17.56
17.58


2.10:1 2.13:1
2.10:1**** 2.12:1


63.59
63.88
24.18
24.11
11.24
11.29
3.32
3.33
37.92
37.65
17.54
17.58
2.16:1
2.14:1






50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

1. The addition of CaCO3 or cod liver oil, or a combination
of the two, to the peanut ration did not correct the nutritional
deficiencies of peanuts as feed for swine.
2. Symptoms of salt deficiency are rough skin and hair,
loss of and depraved appetite, and slow and uneconomical gains.
3. Two grams of salt daily appeared to be adequate for
maintenance and growth of feeder pigs weighing 45 pounds at
the start and over 200 pounds at the completion of the feeding
trial.
4. Supplementing the basal ration of shelled peanuts with
salt or a combination of salt and cod liver oil provided the stimu-
lus for more rapid growth during the first 14 weeks of the feed-
ing period. After this time the lack of calcium in the ration
retarded growth and finally caused loss of weight.
5. The faster the growth rate when on calcium-deficient
rations the quicker the calcium reserves in the tissues of feeder
pigs were depleted. Pigs fed peanuts alone made slower but
continuous gains over a longer period than those whose ration
was supplemented with salt or salt and cod liver oil.
6. First symptoms of calcium deficiency when feeder pigs
are fed peanuts and salt are rough skin and hair, swollen joints,
stiffness and lameness. Advanced symptoms are loss of appe-
tite, walking on knees, posterior paralysis and finally complete
paralysis.
7. Autopsy showed that all pigs on calcium-deficient ra-
tions from 118 to 132 days had several fractured ribs. Frequent-
ly the humerus, shoulder blade and femur were deformed and
the articular surfaces of bones showed erosion. Those pigs with
severe posterior paralysis had fractured either a lumbar vertebra
or a femur. In several instances a femur had deteriorated so
badly that a considerable portion of the bone had been absorbed.
Pigs fed 1 part CaCO3 had hard, dense, thick-walled bones with
no indication of weakness.
8. Pigs fed peanuts, salt and CaCOs made the most rapid
and economical gains in one 118-day and two 132-day feeding
trials. These pigs consumed 2.01 pounds of shelled peanuts for
each pound of gain.
9. Variable results in rate and economy of gains were ob-
tained when both CaCO3 and cod liver oil were added to the
peanut and salt ration.






Deficiency Symptoms in Growing Pigs Fed a Peanut Ration 51

10. The bones from the pigs fed peanuts, salt and cod liver
oil were the poorest in quality, as indicated by specific gravity,
breaking strength of fresh bones and calcium, phosphorus, and
carbon dioxide content of dry fat-free bones.
11. The addition of one part of CaCOs to the peanut and
salt ration resulted in bones with a higher average specific grav-
ity and greater breaking strength than did any other supple-
ment. There was little difference in average ash, calcium,
phosphorus and carbon dioxide content of dry fat-free bones be-
tween pigs receiving peanuts and CaCO3, or a combination of
peanuts, CaCO3 and cod liver oil.
12. The most adequate peanut ration for bone development
judged by the physical and chemical tests was inferior for this
purpose to the ration and treatment accorded the outside check
pigs.
13. The rations influenced the total ash and thereby the
total calcium, phosphorus and carbon dioxide deposited in the
dry fat-free bones but did not affect the amount and ratio of
calcium and phosphorus as deposited in the bone ash.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The sincere thanks of the authors are extended to W. L. Sawyer,
Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, who made avail-
able the Universal Riehle strength machine to determine breaking
strength of bones; to W. M. Neal, under whose direction all chemical
analyses were made: to D. A. Sanders, who performed autopsies upon
several of the experimental pigs; to R. B. Becker and A. L. Shealy, who
gave valuable suggestions in carrying out the experimental work and in
the preparation of the bulletin.
Acknowledgment is made of the assistance of George L. Boydston,
O. L. Pippen, O. C. Syfrett and W. C. McCormick in caring for the ex-
perimental pigs.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


LITERATURE CITED
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calcium and phosphorus requirements of growing pigs. Amer. Soc. An.
Prod. Proc. 1940: 311-315.
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requirements in the ration of growing pigs. Kans. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech.
Bul. 41: 3-86. 1936.
3. Bethke, R. M., B. H. Edington, and C. H. Kick. The effect of
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swine. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul 93: 111-134. 1898.
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ments of swine. Jour. Agr. Sci. 25: 22-49. 1935.
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Food and Life U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook: 706-722. 1939.
10. Fairbanks, B. W. The calcium-phosphorus ratio. North Amer.
Vet. 20: 17-21. 1939.
11. Grimes, J. C., and W. O. Salmon. Peanuts for fattening hogs
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