• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Board of control and staff
 Table of Contents
 Locker plants and home freezer...
 Advantages of freezing
 Seasonal use of freezers
 Freezing fruits
 Freezing vegetables
 Packages
 Tawing and cooking frozen...
 Freezing other food products






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 441
Title: Freezing fruits and vegetables on Florida farms
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027301/00001
 Material Information
Title: Freezing fruits and vegetables on Florida farms
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 30 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stout, G. J ( Gerald John ), 1901-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1948
 Subjects
Subject: Frozen foods   ( lcsh )
Fruit -- Preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vegetables -- Preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by G.J. Stout.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027301
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925518
oclc - 18254066
notis - AEN6169

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Board of control and staff
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Locker plants and home freezers
        Page 5
    Advantages of freezing
        Page 5
    Seasonal use of freezers
        Page 6
    Freezing fruits
        Page 6
        Strawberries
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Pineapple
            Page 10
        Peaches
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Blackberries and dewberries
            Page 16
        Blueberries
            Page 16
            Page 17
        Muskmelon (canteloupe) and papaya
            Page 18
        Fruit mixtures, fruit cocktail, fruit salad
            Page 18
            Page 19
        Rhubarb
            Page 20
        Citrus fruit
            Page 20
        Guavas
            Page 20
        Freezing vegetables
            Page 21
    Freezing vegetables
        Page 21
        Proper variety and correct stage of maturity
            Page 21
        Scalding or blanching
            Page 22
        Lima beans
            Page 23
        Peas
            Page 24
        Sweet corn
            Page 24
        Cauliflower and broccoli
            Page 25
        Spinach and other greens
            Page 26
        Beets
            Page 26
        Carrots
            Page 26
    Packages
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Tawing and cooking frozen foods
        Page 29
    Freezing other food products
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

































TAW-


I -;







BOARD OF CONTROL
J. Thos. Gurney, Chairman, Orlando
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
J. Henson Markham, Jacksonville
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee

EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President of the
University3
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Provost for Agr.3
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editors
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editors
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers
Geo. F. Baughman, M.A., Business Managers
Claranelle Alderman, Accountants

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier'Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer3
J. M. Johnson, B.S.A.E., Asso. Agr. Engineers
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer
R. E. Choate, B.S.A.E., Asst. Agr. Engineers
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A.E., Asst. Agr. Engineer8

AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist2
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
M. E. Paddick, Ph.D., Agronomist
S. C. Litzenberger, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant

ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M. An. Industrialist'1
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman8
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologists
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarians
L E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husbandmans
P T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.'
C. L. Comar, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.5
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
J. C. Driggers, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Husb.S
Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist
S. John Folks, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.3
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. in Dairy Mfs.
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.3
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian


ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C, V. Noble, Ph.D., Agri. Economist1
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associates
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agri. Economist
H. W. Little, M.S., Assistant

Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statistician'
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician'
J. F. Steffens, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statisticians

ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D..Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist'
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A.. Assistant

HORTICULTURE
G. H. tlackmon. M.S.A., Horticulturist'
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
H. M. Reed, &B.S, Chem., Veg. Proc.
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.., Asso. Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.5
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
L. H. Halsey, B.S.A., Asst. Short.

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist'
Phares Decker, Ph.D., A:,:,. Plant Path.
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist

SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist' 8
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologists
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
R. A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Biochemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asso. Microbiologist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist3
J. B. Cromartie, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asso. Soil Surveyor
V. W. Cyzycki, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor


1Head of Department.
SIn cooperation with U. S.
SCooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
SIn Military Service.
SOn leave.









BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agron.
R. C. Bond, M.S.A., Asso. Agronomist
L. G. Thompson, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Hush.
Kelvin Iorward, M.S., Entomologist

Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Marianna
t. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit. Wewahitchka
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, DeFuniak Springs
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
J. T. Griffiths, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, M.S., Plant Pathologist"
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
James K. Colehour, M.S., Asst. Chemist
T. W. Young. Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S.. Asst. Horticulturist
J. A. Granger, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
Francine Fisher. M.S., Asst. Pl. Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soil Chemist
A. E. Willson, B.S.A., Asso. Biochemist
R. W. Jones, Asst. Plant Path.
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
C. W. Houston, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
R. N. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
E. H. Bitcover, M.A., Soils Chemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist
Joe P. Barnett, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Bowers, B.S., Asst. Chemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist, Con. Res.
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Supervisory Chem.
R. W. Jones, M.S.A., Asst. Plant Path.

EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE

R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
R. S. Clayton. B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.2
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engineer
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. An. Husb.
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Agronomist
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist


J. C. Hoffman, M.S., Asso. Hort.
C. B. Savage, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
D. L. Stoddard, Ph.IY., Asso. Plant Path.
W. A. Desnoyers, B.S., Asst. Hydrologist

SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robt. A. Conover, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
R. W. Harkness. Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
Milton Cobin, B.S., Asso. Hort.

W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
C. D. Gordon, Ph.D., Geneticist in Charge2

RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D.. Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Lodges, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
D. W. Jones, B.S., Asst. Soil Tech.
H. J. Fulford, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
A. Alfred Foster, Ph.D., Asso. Pl. Path.
J. W. Wilson, Sc.I., Entomologist
Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.

WEST FLORIDA STATION, MILTON
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Asso. Agronomist


FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
G. K. Parris, Ph.D.. Plant Path. in Charge

Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist

Monticello
S. O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2 4
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2

Bradenton
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Horticulturist in
Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., Gladioli Hort.
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Path.
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort

Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist2

SHead of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
SCooperative, other divisions. U. of F.
4 In Military Service.
On love














CONTENTS
Page

LOCKER PLANTS AND HOME FREEZERS ........................ ........ ....- 5
ADVANTAGES OF FREEZING .......................................... 5
SEASONAL USE OF FREEZERS ......... ..................... ................. 6
FREEZING FRUITS ........................... ................... .................. 6
Strawberries ........................ ......... ..... ............... 6
Pineapple ........ ............... ---- ... ................ ........................ 10
Peaches .................. .......... ......... .. .......... ............... 10
Blackberries and Dewberries ........- ............. .. ... .............. 16
Blueberries ........ ......... ..... .... ............. .................. 16
Muskmelon (Cantaloupe) and Papaya ....................................... 18
Fruit Mixtures, Fruit Cocktail, Fruit Salad ................ ............... 18
Rhubarb ...................-.....- ............ ....... .................. 20
Citrus Fruit .......... ... ... ..... ....... ............................ 20


Guavas .. .................. -. -. ...........
F ruit Juices ......... .. ..--- ... ..- .. ....- .... .-- ........ ........
FREEZING VEGETABLES ...........-- .... ..... ....... ..--- .... ....... ..
Proper Variety and Correct Stage of Maturity ....................................
Scalding or Blanching .................... .... ......
Snap Beans (String Beans, Wax Beans, Green Beans) ........................
Lim a Beans --- ...--............ ............. ........... ....
Peas .......- -- .......................~...---- ..................
Sweet Corn ... ............... ..... .... ......... ................. ..
Cauliflower and Broccoli .... ........ ............
Spinach and Other Greens .................... .......... ....................
Beets .....-.................................. ....................
Carrots ..-- .... --.-..- -.................................................... .
PACKAGES ............................. ........ ................. ....
THAWING AND COOKING FROZEN FOODS ................ ....... ......... ..........
FREEZING OTHER FOOD PRODUCTS .. .......... .............. ................


20
21
21
21
22
22
23
24
24
25
26
26
26
26
29
29









Freezing Fruits and Vegetables
on Florida Farms
G. J. STOUT 1

Freezing as a means of preserving fruits and vegetables is
becoming more important every year. The advantages of the
method have long been known, but only recently have facilities
been available to farm people of Florida. Practically all the
larger towns and cities, and many of the smaller places, now
have locker plants. Also, with country-wide extensions of
electric power, the number of farm homes being equipped with
their own facilities for freezing and storing products is in-
creasing.
Because the method is quite new many people are not familiar
with the ways of freezing which produce best results. Much
depends on how the processing is done. Excellent food may
become almost inedible if incorrectly handled. If correctly
prepared, frozen fruits and vegetables from the farm kitchen
may be superior to those processed by large commercial estab-
lishments, because the time from harvest to freezer is shorter
for the farm-frozen products.

Locker Plants and Home Freezers
The varieties of fruits and vegetables to use and methods to
employ in their preparation for freezing are very similar for
locker plants and home freezers. The chief differences involve
the quantities that should be frozen and the sizes and types
of packages that may be used. Small freezers are capable of
freezing only a few pounds at a time, larger ones may care for
40 to 50 pounds without over-loading, while locker plants gen-
erally are able to freeze any quantity that a home processor
may wish to prepare. If the home freezer is large, the packages
of many products may be large so that part' of the contents
may be removed and used, leaving the remainder until needed.
This means considerable saving in cost of packages.

Advantages of Freezing
Throughout most of the year, Florida temperatures are too
high for successful storage of perishable products. The cold
1Associate Professor of Horticulture, University of Florida:









Freezing Fruits and Vegetables
on Florida Farms
G. J. STOUT 1

Freezing as a means of preserving fruits and vegetables is
becoming more important every year. The advantages of the
method have long been known, but only recently have facilities
been available to farm people of Florida. Practically all the
larger towns and cities, and many of the smaller places, now
have locker plants. Also, with country-wide extensions of
electric power, the number of farm homes being equipped with
their own facilities for freezing and storing products is in-
creasing.
Because the method is quite new many people are not familiar
with the ways of freezing which produce best results. Much
depends on how the processing is done. Excellent food may
become almost inedible if incorrectly handled. If correctly
prepared, frozen fruits and vegetables from the farm kitchen
may be superior to those processed by large commercial estab-
lishments, because the time from harvest to freezer is shorter
for the farm-frozen products.

Locker Plants and Home Freezers
The varieties of fruits and vegetables to use and methods to
employ in their preparation for freezing are very similar for
locker plants and home freezers. The chief differences involve
the quantities that should be frozen and the sizes and types
of packages that may be used. Small freezers are capable of
freezing only a few pounds at a time, larger ones may care for
40 to 50 pounds without over-loading, while locker plants gen-
erally are able to freeze any quantity that a home processor
may wish to prepare. If the home freezer is large, the packages
of many products may be large so that part' of the contents
may be removed and used, leaving the remainder until needed.
This means considerable saving in cost of packages.

Advantages of Freezing
Throughout most of the year, Florida temperatures are too
high for successful storage of perishable products. The cold
1Associate Professor of Horticulture, University of Florida:






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


vegetable cellar and the out-of-door vegetable pit, so useful to
Northern gardeners, are out of the question here. Spoilage of
garden produce takes place rapidly unless some means of preser-
vation is used. Canning has been the chief alternative, but
uncomfortably hot weather discourages canning and frequent
failures, particularly with vegetables, have meant that large
quantities of valuable food were lost or wasted. Freezing, tlere-
fore, has many advantages for people in Florida.
However, it should be pointed out that freezing does not im-
prove the quality of foods and usually quality is lower after
frozen storage. Therefore, only the best methods of prepara-
tion should be followed, so that as little deterioration as possible
will be caused.

Seasonal Use of Freezers
In most parts of the United States, horticultural products
from the summer gardens are preserved for use in winter, which
in the North is the season of scarcity. However, in many parts
of Florida, garden vegetables are obtainable throughout the
winter, and midsummer is the season of greatest scarcity. The
seasonal supply should be planned accordingly.

Freezing Fruits
Many fruits popular elsewhere are not grown in Florida. On
the other hand, a number of sub-tropical fruits which can be
grown nowhere else in the United States are cultivated here.
Strawberries are available often in bundance and some others,
such as blueberries, blackberries, and peaches, are frequently
obtainable for freezing. Rhubarb, though really a vegetable,
is used entirely as a fruit. It is not commonly grown in Florida
gardens but when it is available it is so easy to prepare and
freeze that some should be included. The guava, lychee, mango,
pitanga, and pineapple also are warm climate fruits which may
be frozen.

Strawberries
The variety obtained from the markets nearly always will
be Missionary. Some other varieties produce a higher quality
frozen product but can be obtained only by growing the fruit
at home. Berries should be ripe but not too soft and should
be frozen as soon as possible after harvesting.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


vegetable cellar and the out-of-door vegetable pit, so useful to
Northern gardeners, are out of the question here. Spoilage of
garden produce takes place rapidly unless some means of preser-
vation is used. Canning has been the chief alternative, but
uncomfortably hot weather discourages canning and frequent
failures, particularly with vegetables, have meant that large
quantities of valuable food were lost or wasted. Freezing, tlere-
fore, has many advantages for people in Florida.
However, it should be pointed out that freezing does not im-
prove the quality of foods and usually quality is lower after
frozen storage. Therefore, only the best methods of prepara-
tion should be followed, so that as little deterioration as possible
will be caused.

Seasonal Use of Freezers
In most parts of the United States, horticultural products
from the summer gardens are preserved for use in winter, which
in the North is the season of scarcity. However, in many parts
of Florida, garden vegetables are obtainable throughout the
winter, and midsummer is the season of greatest scarcity. The
seasonal supply should be planned accordingly.

Freezing Fruits
Many fruits popular elsewhere are not grown in Florida. On
the other hand, a number of sub-tropical fruits which can be
grown nowhere else in the United States are cultivated here.
Strawberries are available often in bundance and some others,
such as blueberries, blackberries, and peaches, are frequently
obtainable for freezing. Rhubarb, though really a vegetable,
is used entirely as a fruit. It is not commonly grown in Florida
gardens but when it is available it is so easy to prepare and
freeze that some should be included. The guava, lychee, mango,
pitanga, and pineapple also are warm climate fruits which may
be frozen.

Strawberries
The variety obtained from the markets nearly always will
be Missionary. Some other varieties produce a higher quality
frozen product but can be obtained only by growing the fruit
at home. Berries should be ripe but not too soft and should
be frozen as soon as possible after harvesting.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


vegetable cellar and the out-of-door vegetable pit, so useful to
Northern gardeners, are out of the question here. Spoilage of
garden produce takes place rapidly unless some means of preser-
vation is used. Canning has been the chief alternative, but
uncomfortably hot weather discourages canning and frequent
failures, particularly with vegetables, have meant that large
quantities of valuable food were lost or wasted. Freezing, tlere-
fore, has many advantages for people in Florida.
However, it should be pointed out that freezing does not im-
prove the quality of foods and usually quality is lower after
frozen storage. Therefore, only the best methods of prepara-
tion should be followed, so that as little deterioration as possible
will be caused.

Seasonal Use of Freezers
In most parts of the United States, horticultural products
from the summer gardens are preserved for use in winter, which
in the North is the season of scarcity. However, in many parts
of Florida, garden vegetables are obtainable throughout the
winter, and midsummer is the season of greatest scarcity. The
seasonal supply should be planned accordingly.

Freezing Fruits
Many fruits popular elsewhere are not grown in Florida. On
the other hand, a number of sub-tropical fruits which can be
grown nowhere else in the United States are cultivated here.
Strawberries are available often in bundance and some others,
such as blueberries, blackberries, and peaches, are frequently
obtainable for freezing. Rhubarb, though really a vegetable,
is used entirely as a fruit. It is not commonly grown in Florida
gardens but when it is available it is so easy to prepare and
freeze that some should be included. The guava, lychee, mango,
pitanga, and pineapple also are warm climate fruits which may
be frozen.

Strawberries
The variety obtained from the markets nearly always will
be Missionary. Some other varieties produce a higher quality
frozen product but can be obtained only by growing the fruit
at home. Berries should be ripe but not too soft and should
be frozen as soon as possible after harvesting.







Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


Remove the hulls or caps, cutting out bad spots and discarding
berries that are too soft or spoiled. Wash thoroughly, changing
water at least 3 times. Lift the berries out of the final wash
water (don't pour it off) so sand will remain in the dish. After
this, the procedure depends on the use which will be made of
the fruit.


Fig. 1.-Strawberries are an excellent fruit for freezing. After being
hulled and washed, each strawberry should be cut once.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


For Shortcake, Dessert Fruit, Pie, or Ice Cream.-These are
the chief uses for frozen strawberries and most of the supply
should be preserved accordingly. Each berry should be cut in
half. Add dry granulated sugar at the rate of 1 pound to 4
pounds of berries and mix thoroughly. Package at once in
liquid-tight container and freeze.


Fig. 2.-Add dry granulated sugar at the rate of 1 part to 4 parts straw-
berries. Mix well but not so vigorously as to crush the berries.








Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


Ice Cream Garnish, or to Use in Making Ice Cream.-As a
special product for use in or on ice cream, the fine aroma of
strawberries can be held longer by increasing the amount of
sugar and at the same time making it possible for this sugar
to penetrate the fruit more completely. The fruit should be


Fig. 3.-An ordinary can filler is helpful in filling cellophane-lined
(heat-seal type) containers. If any juice gets on the top edge of the
cellophane, wipe it off. Otherwise the cellophane will not heat-seal and
the package may leak.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


either put through a colander or ground finely in a food chopper.
Add 2 pounds of sugar to each 3 pounds of berries and mix
thoroughly. This mixture or puree should be packaged into
leak-proof containers and frozen. When used in making ice
cream, the amount of sugar in the recipe can be reduced slightly
because of the large amount in the berries. This mixture is
too sweet for use as dessert fruit or for shortcake.
Strawberry Juice.-This has never become popular as a home
canned product because the flavor is changed in cooking and
the juice soon loses its bright color. However, both flavor and
color are retained very well if the juice is extracted with little
or no heating and stored at low temperatures. Sugar should
be added to suit taste. Glass jar or tin cais make suitable con-
tainers for freezing.

Pineapple
The fruit should be fully ripe before freezing. Prepare as for
use fresh, cutting either into pieces or rings (slices). Place
in package and cover with 40% syrup.2 The flavor of fresh
fruit may be retained for several months by this method.

Peaches
Whenever possible, tree-ripened fruit should be used, though
it is not often obtainable here. Yellow-fleshed varieties are
generally better than white. The Elberta variety is likely to be
the chief one obtainable here in the markets, but Jewel, Waldo,
etc., may be grown at home.
One problem in freezing is to keep the fruit from turning
brown, as freshly cut fruit soon does when exposed to air.
Browning is caused by oxygen from the air coming in contact
with substances in the flesh of the fruit. Not only is the brown
color objectionable but the flavor of browned fruit is most un-
appetizing.
There are 2 ways of preventing browning of frozen peaches.
One method depends on sealing the package quickly and tightly
so no oxygen can get into it. Containers of glass or tin are
most certain to be tight and no air can enter these if they are
properly sealed. The other method depends on the addition of
a chemical substance (sometimes called an anti-oxidant) which
(when added to the mixture) will retard browning. The first
2 Dissolve 2 parts by weight of sugar in 3 parts water for a 40% syrup.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


either put through a colander or ground finely in a food chopper.
Add 2 pounds of sugar to each 3 pounds of berries and mix
thoroughly. This mixture or puree should be packaged into
leak-proof containers and frozen. When used in making ice
cream, the amount of sugar in the recipe can be reduced slightly
because of the large amount in the berries. This mixture is
too sweet for use as dessert fruit or for shortcake.
Strawberry Juice.-This has never become popular as a home
canned product because the flavor is changed in cooking and
the juice soon loses its bright color. However, both flavor and
color are retained very well if the juice is extracted with little
or no heating and stored at low temperatures. Sugar should
be added to suit taste. Glass jar or tin cais make suitable con-
tainers for freezing.

Pineapple
The fruit should be fully ripe before freezing. Prepare as for
use fresh, cutting either into pieces or rings (slices). Place
in package and cover with 40% syrup.2 The flavor of fresh
fruit may be retained for several months by this method.

Peaches
Whenever possible, tree-ripened fruit should be used, though
it is not often obtainable here. Yellow-fleshed varieties are
generally better than white. The Elberta variety is likely to be
the chief one obtainable here in the markets, but Jewel, Waldo,
etc., may be grown at home.
One problem in freezing is to keep the fruit from turning
brown, as freshly cut fruit soon does when exposed to air.
Browning is caused by oxygen from the air coming in contact
with substances in the flesh of the fruit. Not only is the brown
color objectionable but the flavor of browned fruit is most un-
appetizing.
There are 2 ways of preventing browning of frozen peaches.
One method depends on sealing the package quickly and tightly
so no oxygen can get into it. Containers of glass or tin are
most certain to be tight and no air can enter these if they are
properly sealed. The other method depends on the addition of
a chemical substance (sometimes called an anti-oxidant) which
(when added to the mixture) will retard browning. The first
2 Dissolve 2 parts by weight of sugar in 3 parts water for a 40% syrup.







Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


of these methods appears best for home use, though some people
like to add a small amount of anti-oxidant (usually ascorbic
acid) as an additional assurance that browning will not occur,
particularly while defrosting.
Peaches must be soft before using. Sort carefully and leave
any that have hard or green spots on them till another day.
Place 6 to 12 peaches in a wire basket or cheesecloth bag and


Fig. 4.-Scald only a few peaches at a time and cool them immediately.
Scalding kettle at left, cold water at right.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


scald in boiling water for 30 to 45 seconds, then cool immediately
in tap or ice water. The skins should slip off readily after 45
seconds scalding-if they do not the fruit is probably too green
and not yet ready for processing.
The syrup to be used should be prepared several hours in ad-
vance and kept in a refrigerator. A 50% syrup is best and is
made by heating together equal amounts of water and sugar
(1 pound of sugar to 1 pound of water or 1 cup of sugar to 1
cup of water) until the sugar is completely dissolved. The syrup
must be cooled before using, hence the need for preparation
ahead of time. A slightly less sweet syrup can be used, a 40%
one being made by combining 2 pounds of sugar with 3 pounds
of water and heating as explained before.
Ascorbic acid, which is vitamin C in chemical form, may be
added to the cold syrup just before using. Sometimes a mix-
ture of citric acid and ascorbic acid is used because it it some-
what cheaper, but the sour taste of the citric acid is objection-
able. In either case, the quantities recommended by the manu-

Fig. 5.-In freezing peaches, put syrup in the container before you put
the fruit. The amount to use in a pint container is about '% cup, or make
the syrup about % inch deep in the bottom. The amount need not be
exact, for more may be added when the can is nearly full, or some may
be poured off into the next container.







Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


facturer should be observed. Ascorbic acid is not essential
and is expensive, but the quantity required per container is
very small and the cost per pound of frozen fruit should not
be more than 3 to 4 cents.
Place about 1/2 to 3/ inch of syrup in the bottom of the liquid-
tight container in which the peaches are to be frozen. Slice
the peaches directly into this syrup. Some peach halves may be
frozen (not sliced) to use in salads. Keep pressing the pieces
down so they are immediately covered with syrup, adding more
syrup if necessary, or pouring off if there is too much. Fill to
within about 1/2 inch of the top, seal tightly, turn upside down,
and freeze.
Frozen peaches are generally best if eaten before they are
completely thawed but they can be partially thawed before open-
ing the container. If no ascorbic acid was used there may be
some browning if thawing is completed in an open dish, and
if any are left uneaten they cannot be kept in good condition
until the next meal. They may be kept 24 hours or longer after

Fig. 6.-Freezing peaches in a tin can. Add syrup to the can and slice
peaches directly into it.


A-_Bl


San.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


thawing if ascorbic acid was used. However, a small amount
of ascorbic acid can be used in the thawed peaches if and when
it is desired to keep them from browning for a few hours.
Frozen peaches are used as a dessert fruit, in fruit salad, in


Fig. 7.-A cheesecloth bag is best for scalding blueberries. Check
length of scald very carefully. Keep bag moving gently in the boiling
water and remove as soon as any blue color begins to show through the
cheesecloth.






Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms 15
making shortcake or pie, or in other ways. Most people do not
consider them a substitute for canned peaches but rather as a
quite different product. Therefore, people who enjoy canned
peaches should continue to preserve some that way but should
freeze others to provide variety.


~I


9/
(-A


Fig. 8.-After being scalded, blueberries should be cooled for a few minutes
in cold water before being packaged.


! ~9~~ ~~ i *~?Lf
i.
-j~s~c:~t~'


~b~







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Blackberries and Dewberries
Though commonly eaten fresh with cream and sugar as a
dessert fruit, these berries seem too seedy to be used this way
after they have been frozen. Their chief use is in the making
of pies or other cooked foods.
Sort the berries carefully, removing all bruised and decayed
fruit and foreign matter. Wash in 2 or 3 changes of water,
drain, package, and freeze. Sometimes a 50% 3 syrup is poured
over the fruit in the package, or dry sugar may be used 1 part
to 4 parts of berries. Neither of these is necessary and those
with syrup on them are difficult to use in pie because they are
very juicy.

Blueberries
This fruit is found wild in parts of northwestern Florida and
is grown extensively for market over a much wider area. Blue-

3Equal parts by weight of sugar and water.

Fig. 9.-After being scalded and cooled, blueberries are packaged in
tight containers.




















t '


~







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Blackberries and Dewberries
Though commonly eaten fresh with cream and sugar as a
dessert fruit, these berries seem too seedy to be used this way
after they have been frozen. Their chief use is in the making
of pies or other cooked foods.
Sort the berries carefully, removing all bruised and decayed
fruit and foreign matter. Wash in 2 or 3 changes of water,
drain, package, and freeze. Sometimes a 50% 3 syrup is poured
over the fruit in the package, or dry sugar may be used 1 part
to 4 parts of berries. Neither of these is necessary and those
with syrup on them are difficult to use in pie because they are
very juicy.

Blueberries
This fruit is found wild in parts of northwestern Florida and
is grown extensively for market over a much wider area. Blue-

3Equal parts by weight of sugar and water.

Fig. 9.-After being scalded and cooled, blueberries are packaged in
tight containers.




















t '


~







Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


berries are used mainly for making pies or muffins, and occasion-
ally for shortcake or as dessert fruit.
Sort the berries, removing all undesirable fruit. Some green
berries may be left if they are to be used in pie making. Wash,
drain, pack into containers and freeze. Syrup or sugar may be
added but does not improve the product.
The skins of frozen blueberries become slightly tough and
if this is considered objectionable, it may be overcome and at
the same time the berries made less bulky by a short scald.
Place not more than 1 pound of berries at a time in a cheesecloth
bag and immerse in boiling water, moving the bag gently for
about 1 minute or until some blue color begins to show through
the bag. Transfer to cold water for 2 or 3 minutes and then
pack tightly into containers. About 50% more berries can be
gotten into the same size container after this treatment and the
skins will be tender when thawed and cooked.

Fig. 10.-Making fruit cocktail. Muskmelon, peaches, pears, and similar
fruits are sliced or cubed together in a mixing bowl and syrup is added.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Muskmelon (Cantaloupe) and Papaya

Remove the rind and seeds and either cut the flesh into about
1/ inch cubes or make melon balls with a cutter for the purpose.
Pack into liquid-tight containers and cover with 40% or 50% 4
syrup, seal and freeze.

Fruit Mixtures, Fruit Cocktail, Fruit Salad
Many combinations made from different fruits may be frozen
to provide variety or to be used for special purposes. Fruits
which lend themselves particularly well to this practice are
muskmelons, peaches, pears, cherries, pineapples, and straw-
berries. Others which may be used are apples, gooseberries,
bananas, and the citrus fruits, and probably still others that

'A 40% syrup is made by dissolving 2 parts by weight of sugar in
3 parts water. A 50% syrup is made by using equal parts by weight of
sugar and water.

Fig. 11.-Fruit cocktail is thoroughly mixed and dipped into the packages.
Containers must be liquid-tight or syrup will leak out.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Muskmelon (Cantaloupe) and Papaya

Remove the rind and seeds and either cut the flesh into about
1/ inch cubes or make melon balls with a cutter for the purpose.
Pack into liquid-tight containers and cover with 40% or 50% 4
syrup, seal and freeze.

Fruit Mixtures, Fruit Cocktail, Fruit Salad
Many combinations made from different fruits may be frozen
to provide variety or to be used for special purposes. Fruits
which lend themselves particularly well to this practice are
muskmelons, peaches, pears, cherries, pineapples, and straw-
berries. Others which may be used are apples, gooseberries,
bananas, and the citrus fruits, and probably still others that

'A 40% syrup is made by dissolving 2 parts by weight of sugar in
3 parts water. A 50% syrup is made by using equal parts by weight of
sugar and water.

Fig. 11.-Fruit cocktail is thoroughly mixed and dipped into the packages.
Containers must be liquid-tight or syrup will leak out.







Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


have not been tried. An excellent mixture can be made using
only 3 fruits: about 40% sliced peaches, 30% cubed pears, and
30% cubed muskmelon. The flavor of muskmelon is strong,
so not more than 30% should be used in any mixture. However,
practically any combination of fruits that can be served in a
raw fruit salad mixture can be combined and frozen. No treat-
ment is necessary to keep fruits in the mixture from turning
brown. A few small whole strawberries, red cherries, or ripe
gooseberries, help make the mixture more colorful. Apple or
orange, if not used in the mixture, may be added to it just
before serving.
Fruits should be cut up in a large mixing bowl. Dry sugar
can then be added at the rate of 1 pound to 6 pounds of fruit.
A better method is to place the fruit into packages which will
not leak and cover with 40% or 50% syrup. Fruit mixtures are
best if served just before they have completely thawed.


Fig. 12.-Tin cans and glass jars are excellent containers in which to
freeze fruit cocktail.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Rhubarb
Prepare as for pie by washing or peeling off the outer skin
and slicing into pieces 1/2 to 8/4 inch long. Place in containers
and freeze. Friction-lid cans. holding 10 or more pounds, are
often used so the needed amount can be removed and the re-
mainder replaced in the freezer,

Citrus Fruit
Oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines may be frozen for use
during seasons when fresh fruit is not obtainable. However,
tangerines, Temple orange hearts or other citrus, the segments
of which may be left whole, and grapefruit, which can be re-
moved from all adhering membranes, skin, or seeds, are most
commonly frozen.
Tangerines and Temple Oranges.-Peel carefully, leaving as
little as possible of the inner or white part of the peel (rag).
Break the sections apart and pack compactly into liquid-tight
packages, cover with 40% 5 syrup, seal, and freeze.
Grapefruit.-Because most varieties have seeds, it is best to
prepare grapefruit as for the table, cutting in half and removing
seeds. Then, with a spoon, scoop out the flesh and squeeze the
juice into a bowl. If desired, add sugar to taste, but good ripe
grapefruit may not need any sweetening. Package into any good
liquid-tight container and seal. Glass jars and tin cans are very
good for the purpose. Seedless grapefruit may be peeled and
the flesh from each section removed with a knife. These sections
can be packed into a container and covered with sweetened grape-
fruit juice or 40% syrup.

Guavas
To have a quality product, fine-flavored, firm-ripe, thick, meaty
fruit must be used and, furthermore, speed is essential to good
freezing. The method of preparation is simple and easy.
Wash guavas in cold water, peel, cut in halves and remove
seed center with silver spoon. Press the pulp through a sieve
to remove seeds and add pulp to shells (rind), or pack shells
and pulp separately. Cover at once with cold syrup to within
half an inch of top of container and pack mixture immediately
in liquid-tight or in moisture-vapor-proof freezing containers.

'2 parts sugar dissolved in 3 parts water.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Rhubarb
Prepare as for pie by washing or peeling off the outer skin
and slicing into pieces 1/2 to 8/4 inch long. Place in containers
and freeze. Friction-lid cans. holding 10 or more pounds, are
often used so the needed amount can be removed and the re-
mainder replaced in the freezer,

Citrus Fruit
Oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines may be frozen for use
during seasons when fresh fruit is not obtainable. However,
tangerines, Temple orange hearts or other citrus, the segments
of which may be left whole, and grapefruit, which can be re-
moved from all adhering membranes, skin, or seeds, are most
commonly frozen.
Tangerines and Temple Oranges.-Peel carefully, leaving as
little as possible of the inner or white part of the peel (rag).
Break the sections apart and pack compactly into liquid-tight
packages, cover with 40% 5 syrup, seal, and freeze.
Grapefruit.-Because most varieties have seeds, it is best to
prepare grapefruit as for the table, cutting in half and removing
seeds. Then, with a spoon, scoop out the flesh and squeeze the
juice into a bowl. If desired, add sugar to taste, but good ripe
grapefruit may not need any sweetening. Package into any good
liquid-tight container and seal. Glass jars and tin cans are very
good for the purpose. Seedless grapefruit may be peeled and
the flesh from each section removed with a knife. These sections
can be packed into a container and covered with sweetened grape-
fruit juice or 40% syrup.

Guavas
To have a quality product, fine-flavored, firm-ripe, thick, meaty
fruit must be used and, furthermore, speed is essential to good
freezing. The method of preparation is simple and easy.
Wash guavas in cold water, peel, cut in halves and remove
seed center with silver spoon. Press the pulp through a sieve
to remove seeds and add pulp to shells (rind), or pack shells
and pulp separately. Cover at once with cold syrup to within
half an inch of top of container and pack mixture immediately
in liquid-tight or in moisture-vapor-proof freezing containers.

'2 parts sugar dissolved in 3 parts water.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Rhubarb
Prepare as for pie by washing or peeling off the outer skin
and slicing into pieces 1/2 to 8/4 inch long. Place in containers
and freeze. Friction-lid cans. holding 10 or more pounds, are
often used so the needed amount can be removed and the re-
mainder replaced in the freezer,

Citrus Fruit
Oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines may be frozen for use
during seasons when fresh fruit is not obtainable. However,
tangerines, Temple orange hearts or other citrus, the segments
of which may be left whole, and grapefruit, which can be re-
moved from all adhering membranes, skin, or seeds, are most
commonly frozen.
Tangerines and Temple Oranges.-Peel carefully, leaving as
little as possible of the inner or white part of the peel (rag).
Break the sections apart and pack compactly into liquid-tight
packages, cover with 40% 5 syrup, seal, and freeze.
Grapefruit.-Because most varieties have seeds, it is best to
prepare grapefruit as for the table, cutting in half and removing
seeds. Then, with a spoon, scoop out the flesh and squeeze the
juice into a bowl. If desired, add sugar to taste, but good ripe
grapefruit may not need any sweetening. Package into any good
liquid-tight container and seal. Glass jars and tin cans are very
good for the purpose. Seedless grapefruit may be peeled and
the flesh from each section removed with a knife. These sections
can be packed into a container and covered with sweetened grape-
fruit juice or 40% syrup.

Guavas
To have a quality product, fine-flavored, firm-ripe, thick, meaty
fruit must be used and, furthermore, speed is essential to good
freezing. The method of preparation is simple and easy.
Wash guavas in cold water, peel, cut in halves and remove
seed center with silver spoon. Press the pulp through a sieve
to remove seeds and add pulp to shells (rind), or pack shells
and pulp separately. Cover at once with cold syrup to within
half an inch of top of container and pack mixture immediately
in liquid-tight or in moisture-vapor-proof freezing containers.

'2 parts sugar dissolved in 3 parts water.







Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


Glass jars or tin are fine if you have a sealer. Use a sugar
syrup for the guava shells, made by using 3 cups of sugar to
4 cups of water. Heat together until sugar is dissolved and
hold in refrigerator until needed for use. As fast as containers
are filled, place them in the refrigerator to store until they can
be taken to the commercial locker or store in your home freezer.
Here again, speed in getting them into the freezer is important.
Store, after freezing, at 0 Fahrenheit or lower.
The pulp left from seeding may be pureed, the product sweet-
ened and, with lime or lemon juice added, may be frozen to serve
as a delicious frozen dessert without defrosting.
Fruit Juices
Practically all kinds of fruit juices may be frozen, though it
is often questionable economy when canned juices of many may
be bought at prices little above the actual cost of storing frozen
juice.
Citrus juices for freezing should be produced by reaming the
fruit, not by squeezing, for the latter method removes too much
of the rind oil, thus giving an objectionable flavor. The juice
should be handled rapidly and exposed to air no more than
necessary and should be frozen in air-tight containers. Glass
jars, 1 quart size or smaller, may be used if a 1 to 11/2 inch
head space is left for expansion.
Berry and other fruit juices should be made with as little
heating as possible in order to keep the flavor of fresh fruit.
Otherwise, the handling and packaging are much the same as
for citrus juices. Fruit juice is not improved by long storage
and is best if used within 6 months after freezing.
Freezing Vegetables
Vegetables require more time and effort to process for freez-
ing than fruits, but they are also more difficult to can. Spoilage
of canned vegetables may be high unless they are processed
with steam pressure. There is no danger of spoilage of frozen
vegetables, and hence this method of preservation has been
welcomed by farm people. There is, however, the possibility of
much loss of flavor and quality unless vegetables are processed
and frozen correctly.
Proper Variety and Correct Stage of Maturity
While freezing improves the quality of an ice cream mix,
that is about the only product that is really improved by freez-







Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


Glass jars or tin are fine if you have a sealer. Use a sugar
syrup for the guava shells, made by using 3 cups of sugar to
4 cups of water. Heat together until sugar is dissolved and
hold in refrigerator until needed for use. As fast as containers
are filled, place them in the refrigerator to store until they can
be taken to the commercial locker or store in your home freezer.
Here again, speed in getting them into the freezer is important.
Store, after freezing, at 0 Fahrenheit or lower.
The pulp left from seeding may be pureed, the product sweet-
ened and, with lime or lemon juice added, may be frozen to serve
as a delicious frozen dessert without defrosting.
Fruit Juices
Practically all kinds of fruit juices may be frozen, though it
is often questionable economy when canned juices of many may
be bought at prices little above the actual cost of storing frozen
juice.
Citrus juices for freezing should be produced by reaming the
fruit, not by squeezing, for the latter method removes too much
of the rind oil, thus giving an objectionable flavor. The juice
should be handled rapidly and exposed to air no more than
necessary and should be frozen in air-tight containers. Glass
jars, 1 quart size or smaller, may be used if a 1 to 11/2 inch
head space is left for expansion.
Berry and other fruit juices should be made with as little
heating as possible in order to keep the flavor of fresh fruit.
Otherwise, the handling and packaging are much the same as
for citrus juices. Fruit juice is not improved by long storage
and is best if used within 6 months after freezing.
Freezing Vegetables
Vegetables require more time and effort to process for freez-
ing than fruits, but they are also more difficult to can. Spoilage
of canned vegetables may be high unless they are processed
with steam pressure. There is no danger of spoilage of frozen
vegetables, and hence this method of preservation has been
welcomed by farm people. There is, however, the possibility of
much loss of flavor and quality unless vegetables are processed
and frozen correctly.
Proper Variety and Correct Stage of Maturity
While freezing improves the quality of an ice cream mix,
that is about the only product that is really improved by freez-







Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


Glass jars or tin are fine if you have a sealer. Use a sugar
syrup for the guava shells, made by using 3 cups of sugar to
4 cups of water. Heat together until sugar is dissolved and
hold in refrigerator until needed for use. As fast as containers
are filled, place them in the refrigerator to store until they can
be taken to the commercial locker or store in your home freezer.
Here again, speed in getting them into the freezer is important.
Store, after freezing, at 0 Fahrenheit or lower.
The pulp left from seeding may be pureed, the product sweet-
ened and, with lime or lemon juice added, may be frozen to serve
as a delicious frozen dessert without defrosting.
Fruit Juices
Practically all kinds of fruit juices may be frozen, though it
is often questionable economy when canned juices of many may
be bought at prices little above the actual cost of storing frozen
juice.
Citrus juices for freezing should be produced by reaming the
fruit, not by squeezing, for the latter method removes too much
of the rind oil, thus giving an objectionable flavor. The juice
should be handled rapidly and exposed to air no more than
necessary and should be frozen in air-tight containers. Glass
jars, 1 quart size or smaller, may be used if a 1 to 11/2 inch
head space is left for expansion.
Berry and other fruit juices should be made with as little
heating as possible in order to keep the flavor of fresh fruit.
Otherwise, the handling and packaging are much the same as
for citrus juices. Fruit juice is not improved by long storage
and is best if used within 6 months after freezing.
Freezing Vegetables
Vegetables require more time and effort to process for freez-
ing than fruits, but they are also more difficult to can. Spoilage
of canned vegetables may be high unless they are processed
with steam pressure. There is no danger of spoilage of frozen
vegetables, and hence this method of preservation has been
welcomed by farm people. There is, however, the possibility of
much loss of flavor and quality unless vegetables are processed
and frozen correctly.
Proper Variety and Correct Stage of Maturity
While freezing improves the quality of an ice cream mix,
that is about the only product that is really improved by freez-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ing. Rarely is it possible to retain any considerable amount of
the flavor and quality of a fresh vegetable. Some vegetables
become more tough and others become soft or even mushy. If
they are not blanched or scalded correctly, the enzymes or chemi-
cal substances within the product continue to act slowly and
finally give a hay-like or other objectionable flavor. For some
vegetables there is a certain stage of maturity at which they
should be harvested to obtain best results. Also, some varieties
give better results than others.

Scalding or Blanching
A large cooking kettle of at least 12 quarts capacity, and an-
other of similar size for cold water, should be on hand. A kitchen
sink with a stopper can be used for the cold water. A wire
basket of a size which will fit the cooking kettle and a size mesh
that will hold small peas is helpful, though a bag made of
cheesecloth works very well. The heating unit under the cook-
ing kettle should be at least the equivalent of a 2,000-watt electric
heater, otherwise operation will be slow and results erratic.
A clock or watch with a second-hand will be helpful.
Fill the cooking kettle about 2/3 full and bring to a boil. Put
from 1 to 2 pounds of vegetable to be scalded into the wire
basket or cheesecloth bag and lower into the boiling water. Boil-
ing will stop. Watch carefully until it starts again and from
then start timing the length of the scald. Vegetables which are
in large pieces must be scalded longer than small ones and recom-
mendations for each should be checked before proceeding. After
scalding, put into cold water at once and leave only long enough
to cool, otherwise vitamins are lost. Drain off excess water,
package, and freeze at once.

Snap Beans (String Beans, Wax Beans, Green Beans)
Stringless Greenpod, Tenderpod, Tendergreen, and other green-
podded varieties are satisfactory and better than wax-podded.
The youngest and most tender pods are likely to be too soft and
mushy when they are finally cooked for eating. Those that are
fully mature should be used for freezing. Sort, snip, and wash
as necessary. The pods may be cut into short lengths, 3/4 to 1
inch, or they may be cut lengthwise, making what is known as
French-style beans. This style scalds readily and makes an
excellent frozen food. Length of scald is 2 minutes.







Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


Lima Beans

The Fordhook variety is the best bush lima for freezing and
there are several strains of this variety. The small-seeded beans,
sometimes called "baby limas," are of much lower eating quality
and it is questionable whether they should be frozen. Their chief
use is in combination with sweet corn to make succotash. Any
variety of pole lima is good for freezing, provided it is harvested


Fig. 13.-A wire basket is convenient for scalding snap beans. Mark on
kettle indicates water level.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


before the seeds become mature and hard. Shelling is laborious
and some time may be saved by cutting off the edge of each pod
with a floating blade type of knife.
Sort the shelled beans and remove all that are damaged, im-
mature, or over-mature. Scald for 21/2 minutes in boiling water,
cool, drain, package, and freeze.
In the past it has been recommended that lima beans and
some other vegetables, after packaging, should be covered with
a salt brine before freezing. If packages are tight there is noth-
ing to be gained by this treatment and if they are not tight.
the brine will be lost anyway; therefore, freezing in brine is
not recommended.
Pole shell beans, cowpeas, and edible soybeans are treated
the same as lima beans.

Peas
Little Marvel, Blue Bantam, and any of the Laxton varieties
give good results. The very early small-seeded and canning
varieties are disappointing, Alaska being one of the poorest.
Peas should be fully grown but not hard before harvest and
they should be used as soon as possible after harvest. After
shelling, they should be scalded for 1 minute, cooled, drained,
packaged, and frozen as soon as possible.

Sweet Corn
Yellow varieties are generally more desirable than white, and
Golden Cross Bantam appears to be one of the best of the va-
rieties popularly grown in Florida. Carmelcross, Ioana, and
some others are satisfactory but not as good as Golden Cross
Bantam. There are 3 different ways of freezing this vegetable.
Cream Style Sweet Corn.-Remove the husks, silks, and all
pieces of husk, and cut off any places that are worm-damaged.
Scald 3 to 5 minutes in boiling water, remove and cool, and
drain off excess water. Cut off kernels with a sharp knife and
scrape the cob. Package and freeze in tight containers. It
requires about 6 medium size ears to fill 1 pint container.
Whole Grain Sweet Corn.-Prepare and scald as above, but
use a short sharp knife and cut off only 1 or 2 rows of kernels
at a time, and do riot scrape the cob. This will make a uniform
whole grain product. Some people prefer to cut the corn from
the cob before scalding. The cut corn is then placed in a kettle







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


before the seeds become mature and hard. Shelling is laborious
and some time may be saved by cutting off the edge of each pod
with a floating blade type of knife.
Sort the shelled beans and remove all that are damaged, im-
mature, or over-mature. Scald for 21/2 minutes in boiling water,
cool, drain, package, and freeze.
In the past it has been recommended that lima beans and
some other vegetables, after packaging, should be covered with
a salt brine before freezing. If packages are tight there is noth-
ing to be gained by this treatment and if they are not tight.
the brine will be lost anyway; therefore, freezing in brine is
not recommended.
Pole shell beans, cowpeas, and edible soybeans are treated
the same as lima beans.

Peas
Little Marvel, Blue Bantam, and any of the Laxton varieties
give good results. The very early small-seeded and canning
varieties are disappointing, Alaska being one of the poorest.
Peas should be fully grown but not hard before harvest and
they should be used as soon as possible after harvest. After
shelling, they should be scalded for 1 minute, cooled, drained,
packaged, and frozen as soon as possible.

Sweet Corn
Yellow varieties are generally more desirable than white, and
Golden Cross Bantam appears to be one of the best of the va-
rieties popularly grown in Florida. Carmelcross, Ioana, and
some others are satisfactory but not as good as Golden Cross
Bantam. There are 3 different ways of freezing this vegetable.
Cream Style Sweet Corn.-Remove the husks, silks, and all
pieces of husk, and cut off any places that are worm-damaged.
Scald 3 to 5 minutes in boiling water, remove and cool, and
drain off excess water. Cut off kernels with a sharp knife and
scrape the cob. Package and freeze in tight containers. It
requires about 6 medium size ears to fill 1 pint container.
Whole Grain Sweet Corn.-Prepare and scald as above, but
use a short sharp knife and cut off only 1 or 2 rows of kernels
at a time, and do riot scrape the cob. This will make a uniform
whole grain product. Some people prefer to cut the corn from
the cob before scalding. The cut corn is then placed in a kettle







Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


with a small amount of water and brought to a boil, stirring
slowly. Continue heating for 2 minutes, place in cold water,
drain, package, and freeze.
Corn-on-Cob.-This product is not only bulky, requiring a
great deal of freezer space for a small amount of food, but it
is very often a disappointment because of low quality. Do not
freeze a large part of your sweet corn supply this way unless
you are certain that you prefer this method. Unless the entire
cob is heated through during scalding the flavor of cob will
predominate. The scald period must, therefore, be from 8 to
10 minutes in the case of varieties that have small cobs. Va-
rieties with cobs of large diameter should not be frozen at all.
This length of scald cooks the corn completely. Freezing fur-
ther softens the kernels, and heating again afterward is likely to
make the kernels soft, soggy, and generally poor.
Select uniform ears of small diameter, remove husks and
silks, and cut away damaged parts. Place 6 or more ears in a
a cooking kettle, making sure that they are completely covered
with water. Start timing when the water actually boils and
make sure the time is not less than 8 minutes for small ears
and 10 minutes for those of medium size. Cool at least 10
minutes, preferably- in running water or ice water, and drain.
Wrap a meal-size number of ears in a package and freeze, or
wrap each ear in waxed paper and freeze in a large tight con-
tainer such as a lard can.
Corn-on-cob should be thawed before starting to cook it for
the table, otherwise the kernels may be over-cooked while the
middle of the cob is still frozen. It may be boiled or steamed
but baking seems to be most satisfactory. To do this, thaw
the ears first, then butter and salt them and place them one-
layer deep in a flat pan in a medium oven for 15 minutes. They
may be browned under the broiler for a few minutes before serv-
ing if desired. The advantage of baking is that no more water
is added in cooking and this helps keep the kernels from becom-
ing water-soaked and soggy.

Cauliflower and Broccoli
These cool-season crops may be frozen for use during the
summer. They are processed alike and most failures to obtain
good results are due to trying to freeze too large pieces. Whole
heads of cauliflower are easy to cook and attractive to serve
but cannot be frozen satisfactorily.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Prepare as for table use, but cut into pieces no larger than
1 inch in diameter. If there are insects in evidence on the heads,
soak for about 15 minutes in a weak salt brine (11/2 ounces of
salt to 1 quart of water). Scald for about 3 to 4 minutes, cool,
drain, and package. Larger pieces require too long a scald
period, and the outside will be cooked and of poor quality.
Brussels sprouts are frozen the same as cauliflower but heads
or pieces larger than 11 inches in diameter should not be
frozen.
Spinach and Other Greens
Turnip tops, beet tops, swiss chard, collards, kale, spinach,
and some wild plants are popular as greens and may be frozen
by anyone who enjoys them as food. They are bulky products,
requiring considerable freezer space for a small amount of food.
Wash and sort the leaves carefully, lifting them out of the
last wash water so sand will remain in the bottom of the dish.
Place not more than 1 pound at a time into a large quantity of
water (more than 2 gallons if possible), so the leaves may be
spread out in the water. Scalding time is 2 minutes. The chief
difficulty lies in slow heat penetration during scalding if the
leaves are matted or packed together. Cool quickly in running
water. They hold much water and do not drain well, so must
be packaged in water-tight containers, otherwise they will leak.
Beets
Freeze only small, tender beets, less than 11/, inches in dia-
meter. Wash, scald 2 to 4 minutes, cool and freeze whole for
best quality eating. Larger beets may be frozen but they are
of poorer quality and must be cut in slices or pieces and com-
pletely cooked before freezing. Freezing poor quality food is
always questionable economy unless other foods are scarce.
Carrots
Wash, peel or scrape young carrots of any good table variety,
using only those % inch in diameter or smaller; or if larger ones
must be used, cut them into slices 1/4 inch thick. Scald for 3
minutes, cool, and package. Carrots are generally rated among
the least desirable frozen vegetables.

Packages
In frozen food storage packages not only are a costly item
but also are important in determining the quality of food. A






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Prepare as for table use, but cut into pieces no larger than
1 inch in diameter. If there are insects in evidence on the heads,
soak for about 15 minutes in a weak salt brine (11/2 ounces of
salt to 1 quart of water). Scald for about 3 to 4 minutes, cool,
drain, and package. Larger pieces require too long a scald
period, and the outside will be cooked and of poor quality.
Brussels sprouts are frozen the same as cauliflower but heads
or pieces larger than 11 inches in diameter should not be
frozen.
Spinach and Other Greens
Turnip tops, beet tops, swiss chard, collards, kale, spinach,
and some wild plants are popular as greens and may be frozen
by anyone who enjoys them as food. They are bulky products,
requiring considerable freezer space for a small amount of food.
Wash and sort the leaves carefully, lifting them out of the
last wash water so sand will remain in the bottom of the dish.
Place not more than 1 pound at a time into a large quantity of
water (more than 2 gallons if possible), so the leaves may be
spread out in the water. Scalding time is 2 minutes. The chief
difficulty lies in slow heat penetration during scalding if the
leaves are matted or packed together. Cool quickly in running
water. They hold much water and do not drain well, so must
be packaged in water-tight containers, otherwise they will leak.
Beets
Freeze only small, tender beets, less than 11/, inches in dia-
meter. Wash, scald 2 to 4 minutes, cool and freeze whole for
best quality eating. Larger beets may be frozen but they are
of poorer quality and must be cut in slices or pieces and com-
pletely cooked before freezing. Freezing poor quality food is
always questionable economy unless other foods are scarce.
Carrots
Wash, peel or scrape young carrots of any good table variety,
using only those % inch in diameter or smaller; or if larger ones
must be used, cut them into slices 1/4 inch thick. Scald for 3
minutes, cool, and package. Carrots are generally rated among
the least desirable frozen vegetables.

Packages
In frozen food storage packages not only are a costly item
but also are important in determining the quality of food. A






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Prepare as for table use, but cut into pieces no larger than
1 inch in diameter. If there are insects in evidence on the heads,
soak for about 15 minutes in a weak salt brine (11/2 ounces of
salt to 1 quart of water). Scald for about 3 to 4 minutes, cool,
drain, and package. Larger pieces require too long a scald
period, and the outside will be cooked and of poor quality.
Brussels sprouts are frozen the same as cauliflower but heads
or pieces larger than 11 inches in diameter should not be
frozen.
Spinach and Other Greens
Turnip tops, beet tops, swiss chard, collards, kale, spinach,
and some wild plants are popular as greens and may be frozen
by anyone who enjoys them as food. They are bulky products,
requiring considerable freezer space for a small amount of food.
Wash and sort the leaves carefully, lifting them out of the
last wash water so sand will remain in the bottom of the dish.
Place not more than 1 pound at a time into a large quantity of
water (more than 2 gallons if possible), so the leaves may be
spread out in the water. Scalding time is 2 minutes. The chief
difficulty lies in slow heat penetration during scalding if the
leaves are matted or packed together. Cool quickly in running
water. They hold much water and do not drain well, so must
be packaged in water-tight containers, otherwise they will leak.
Beets
Freeze only small, tender beets, less than 11/, inches in dia-
meter. Wash, scald 2 to 4 minutes, cool and freeze whole for
best quality eating. Larger beets may be frozen but they are
of poorer quality and must be cut in slices or pieces and com-
pletely cooked before freezing. Freezing poor quality food is
always questionable economy unless other foods are scarce.
Carrots
Wash, peel or scrape young carrots of any good table variety,
using only those % inch in diameter or smaller; or if larger ones
must be used, cut them into slices 1/4 inch thick. Scald for 3
minutes, cool, and package. Carrots are generally rated among
the least desirable frozen vegetables.

Packages
In frozen food storage packages not only are a costly item
but also are important in determining the quality of food. A






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Prepare as for table use, but cut into pieces no larger than
1 inch in diameter. If there are insects in evidence on the heads,
soak for about 15 minutes in a weak salt brine (11/2 ounces of
salt to 1 quart of water). Scald for about 3 to 4 minutes, cool,
drain, and package. Larger pieces require too long a scald
period, and the outside will be cooked and of poor quality.
Brussels sprouts are frozen the same as cauliflower but heads
or pieces larger than 11 inches in diameter should not be
frozen.
Spinach and Other Greens
Turnip tops, beet tops, swiss chard, collards, kale, spinach,
and some wild plants are popular as greens and may be frozen
by anyone who enjoys them as food. They are bulky products,
requiring considerable freezer space for a small amount of food.
Wash and sort the leaves carefully, lifting them out of the
last wash water so sand will remain in the bottom of the dish.
Place not more than 1 pound at a time into a large quantity of
water (more than 2 gallons if possible), so the leaves may be
spread out in the water. Scalding time is 2 minutes. The chief
difficulty lies in slow heat penetration during scalding if the
leaves are matted or packed together. Cool quickly in running
water. They hold much water and do not drain well, so must
be packaged in water-tight containers, otherwise they will leak.
Beets
Freeze only small, tender beets, less than 11/, inches in dia-
meter. Wash, scald 2 to 4 minutes, cool and freeze whole for
best quality eating. Larger beets may be frozen but they are
of poorer quality and must be cut in slices or pieces and com-
pletely cooked before freezing. Freezing poor quality food is
always questionable economy unless other foods are scarce.
Carrots
Wash, peel or scrape young carrots of any good table variety,
using only those % inch in diameter or smaller; or if larger ones
must be used, cut them into slices 1/4 inch thick. Scald for 3
minutes, cool, and package. Carrots are generally rated among
the least desirable frozen vegetables.

Packages
In frozen food storage packages not only are a costly item
but also are important in determining the quality of food. A







Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


wide variety of packages is now on the market and all are suit-
able for some foods. No one package, however, is satisfactory
for everything. Only a few of the most popular containers,
with their advantages and limitations, are listed here.

Cellophane, Glassine, Waxed Paper, Pliofilm, and Coated Papers
The materials are either used alone as wrapping materials
or are made into bags or liners for other bags or boxes which
serve as protection for these more fragile materials. Their
chief function is to resist loss of moisture from products in
storage. However, there are several different grades of these
materials and some are much more resistant to vapor loss than
others. Pliofilm and some types of cellophane may be heat-
sealed, that is sealed with a hot iron, which is an advantage in
making a tight package. Only the heaviest types of waxed paper
are resistant to moisture loss.
Dehydration, or drying out of foods in the freezer, is one of
the most serious problems and it is difficult to prevent this with
any kind of wrapping material. Metal and glass are the only
practical materials which prevent moisture loss entirely, and
they do it only when perfectly closed or sealed.

Heavily Waxed or Thermo-Plastic (Heat-Seal) Coated
Cardboard Containers
Several types of tapered-round, cylinderical, and oblong con-
tainers are made especially for storage of frozen foods. The
cylinderical type 'may be used 2 or 3 times before discarding
but is difficult to seal tightly. The tapered type is very durable
and seals fairly well, but is wasteful of freezer space. The
oblong and square type boxes pack well in the freezer, making
it possible to store 20 to 30 percent more pounds of food in the
same space. However, most of these are difficult to seal so that
they do not leak, and rarely are they usable more than once.

Metal Packages or Wrappers (Over-Wraps)
A thin aluminum foil wrapper is now available in rolls and
is practically moisture-proof if the edges are sealed properly,
though this is difficult to do at home. Tin cans of various types
are usable for many purposes. Tight friction-lid cans of from
2 quarts to 5 gallons or larger capacity (for example, lard cans)
can be used to good advantage for storing quantities of food






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


in bulk or for storing several smaller packages which themselves
are not moisture-tight.
The type of small tin can sold through mail-order houses and
other stores and used for home canning provides one of the best
containers obtainable at essentially the same price as paper or
other cartons. The usual sizes are No. 2, which holds a little
over a pint, No. 21/2, which holds a little over 11/2 pints, and
No. 3, which holds about 1 quart. They must be closed with a
hand-operated machine which costs from $10 to $20 but they
are then definitely moisture-proof.

Glass Jars
Glass containers of any kind have some disadvantages for
freezer use. Many locker plants will not accept them because
of the danger of breaking in handling. Regular jars such as
are used for home canning do not stack well in the freezer.
Also, the food must be thawed before it can be removed from
the jar. Many home freezer owners have found glass jars very
useful, regardless of these disadvantages. If they are not filled
too full (1 to 11/2 inches of head space allowed for expansion
in freezing) there appears to be no likelihood of glass jars break-
ing during freezing, even when they are used for fruit juices.
There is a tendency, however, for farm people to overdo the
use of glass jars, freezing everything in them. Strawberries and
similar fruit, for example, should be removed from the package
and eaten when not quite completely thawed. Glass jars are not
satisfactory for products of that character. One glass jar
manufacturer has recently put on the market a special glass
freezer jar designed to overcome many of the objections to glass.
These are made without a shoulder at the top and the inside
is slightly tapered so the food can be removed easily while still
frozen. Also the lids are so made that the jars may be stacked.

Labelling
Foods in cellophane or glass containers can. be identified
readily but other packages must be plainly marked. Other
information that is important on a package is the variety that
was frozen and the date. If the processing was any different
from that regularly followed, note should be made so that
another year one may profit by this previous experience.
Many kinds of packages can be written on with waxed crayon,
while others require special marking ink. The laboratory type







Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


of marking crayon writes readily on glass or metal, provided
the surface is dry, and the marks are removed afterward by
washing with warm water and soap. This crayon is very useful
for it will write on waxed surfaces like butter cartons if the
surface is warmed slightly first.

Thawing and Cooking Frozen Foods
Fresh and frozen fruits are used in much the same ways and
serve the same purposes except that frozen fruit is not suitable
for eating out of hand. However, most fruits are best'if they
are used before being completely thawed, particularly if they
are to be served raw. Blueberries and peaches, if used in making
pie, may be placed in the crust while still frozen and often
make a better flavored pie filling because they do not become
so overcooked.
Most vegetables should be removed from the container while
still frozen and should be placed at once in the cooking vessel,
preliminary thawing being unnecessary and undesirable. It
should be remembered that the scalding process has partially
cooked and the freezing process has further broken down the
texture of the vegetable. The final cooking time, therefore,
should be much shorter. It will take longer to bring the vege-
table to boiling because it is frozen, but frozen peas, for ex-
ample, may finish cooking in 3 minutes or less from the time
boiling starts. In a pressure sauce pan frozen peas may cook
in less than 1 minute under pressure. Cooking time must be
carefully checked to secure good eating quality, for overcooking
is ruinous.

Freezing Other Food Products
Freezer storage is useful for many other products.6 A home
freezer serves very well for storage of either home-made or
commercially made ice cream. If a large quantity of ice cream
is made at a time and it is to be stored more than 2 or 3 days,
a stabilizer should be added to the mix before freezing to keep
it from becoming so grainy. The simplest method is to use 1
tablespoon of gelatin to each gallon of ice cream. Mix the
gelatin in a cup half full of milk and set into a dish of hot
water until the gelatin is dissolved. Just before the mix is
to be frozen, pour this gelatin slowly into the ice cream mix,
stirring constantly.
Freezing of meats and poultry is covered in another circular.







Freezing Fruits and Vegetables on Florida Farms


of marking crayon writes readily on glass or metal, provided
the surface is dry, and the marks are removed afterward by
washing with warm water and soap. This crayon is very useful
for it will write on waxed surfaces like butter cartons if the
surface is warmed slightly first.

Thawing and Cooking Frozen Foods
Fresh and frozen fruits are used in much the same ways and
serve the same purposes except that frozen fruit is not suitable
for eating out of hand. However, most fruits are best'if they
are used before being completely thawed, particularly if they
are to be served raw. Blueberries and peaches, if used in making
pie, may be placed in the crust while still frozen and often
make a better flavored pie filling because they do not become
so overcooked.
Most vegetables should be removed from the container while
still frozen and should be placed at once in the cooking vessel,
preliminary thawing being unnecessary and undesirable. It
should be remembered that the scalding process has partially
cooked and the freezing process has further broken down the
texture of the vegetable. The final cooking time, therefore,
should be much shorter. It will take longer to bring the vege-
table to boiling because it is frozen, but frozen peas, for ex-
ample, may finish cooking in 3 minutes or less from the time
boiling starts. In a pressure sauce pan frozen peas may cook
in less than 1 minute under pressure. Cooking time must be
carefully checked to secure good eating quality, for overcooking
is ruinous.

Freezing Other Food Products
Freezer storage is useful for many other products.6 A home
freezer serves very well for storage of either home-made or
commercially made ice cream. If a large quantity of ice cream
is made at a time and it is to be stored more than 2 or 3 days,
a stabilizer should be added to the mix before freezing to keep
it from becoming so grainy. The simplest method is to use 1
tablespoon of gelatin to each gallon of ice cream. Mix the
gelatin in a cup half full of milk and set into a dish of hot
water until the gelatin is dissolved. Just before the mix is
to be frozen, pour this gelatin slowly into the ice cream mix,
stirring constantly.
Freezing of meats and poultry is covered in another circular.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Many confections, including peanuts and other nut meats,
may be frozen, either before or after roasting, and kept until
needed. This is a convenience in a climate as warm and humid
as that of Florida, where chocolate coatings on candy may melt
or nuts lose crispness or turn rancid in a short time.
Butter, if made from pasteurized cream, may be stored for
several months, but should be freshly made when frozen. Home-
made butter should not be stored more than a few weeks. Most
kinds of cheese may be frozen for a few weeks' storage, but
types like cheddar become somewhat crumbly, though the flavor
seems unimpaired.
Many kinds of baked goods may be frozen either as a con-
venience or to conserve what might otherwise be discarded.
Home-made or bakery bread, cakes, or pies may be frozen at
the convenience of the cook or when ingredients for making
are available. Some kinds of pie may be frozen before baking
and the texture of the crust appears better than that of pies
which are baked before freezing and must be thawed afterward.
Home-baked rolls may be prepared ahead of time and thus avoid
the last minute rush of preparation for special occasions. Some-
times they, too, are frozen raw and baked afterward.




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