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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 196
Title: Daubentonia seed poisoning of poultry
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027297/00001
 Material Information
Title: Daubentonia seed poisoning of poultry
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 335-342 : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Shealy, A. L
Thomas, E. F ( Ezekiel Fred ), 1902-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1928
 Subjects
Subject: Poultry -- Diseases -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by A.L. Shealy and E.F. Thomas.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027297
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000923503
oclc - 18173716
notis - AEN4054

Table of Contents
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        Page 335
    Credits
        Page 336
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Full Text



Bulletin 196


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION






DAUBENTONIA SEED POISONING

OF POULTRY



By
A. L. SHEALY AND E. F. THOMAS


Fig. 142.-A bird in the later stages of Daubentonia poisoning, just
before death.







Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the
Agricultural Experiment Station
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


April, 1928







BOARD OF
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Leesburg
W. B. DAVIS, Perry


CONTROL
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Talla-
hassee.
J. G. KELLUM, Auditor, Tallahassee


STATION EXECUTIVE STAFF
WILMON NEWELL, D. Sc., Director ERNEST G. MOORE, M. S., Asst. Ed
JOHN M. SCOTT, B. S., Vice-Director IDA KEELING CRESAP, Librarian
S. T. FLEMING, A. B., Asst. to Di- RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary
rector K. H. GRAHAM, Business Manager
J. FRANCIS COOPER, B. S. A., Editor RACHEL MCQUARRIE, Accountant
MAIN STATION-DEPARTMENTS AND INVESTIGATORS


AGRONOMY
W. E. STOKES, M. S. Agronomist
W. A. LEUKEL, Ph. D., Asso.
C. R. ENLOW, M. S. A., Asst.*
FRED H. HULL, M. S. A., Asst.
A. S. LAIRD, M. S. A., Asst.
ANIMAL INDUSTRY
JOHN M. SCOTT, B. S., Animal
Industrialist
F. X. BRENNEIS, B. S.A., Dairy
Herdsman
CHEMISTRY
R. W. RUPRECHT, Ph.D., Chemist
R. M. BARNETTE, Ph. D., Asst.
C. E. BELL, M. S., Asst.
H. L. MARSHALL, M. S., Asst.
J. M. COLEMAN, B. S., Asst.


BRUCE MCKINLEY, B. S. A., Asst.
M. A. BROKER, M. S. A., Asst.
ECONOMICS, HOME
OUIDA DAVIS ABBOTT, Ph. D., Chief
L. W. GADDUM, Ph. D., Asst.
C. F. AHMANN, Ph. D., Asst.
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. WATSON, A. M., Entomologist
A. N. TISSOT, M. S., Asst.
H. E. BRATLEY, M. S. A., Asst.
HORTICULTURE
A. F. CAMP, Ph. D., Asso. Hort.
M. R. ENSIGN, M. S., Asst.
HAROLD MOWRY, Asst.
G. H. BLACKMON, M. S. A., Pecan
Culturist


J. B. HESTER, B. S., Asst. PLANT PATHOLOGY
COTTON INVESTIGATIONS G. F. WEBER, Ph. D., Asso.
W. A. CARVER, Ph. D., Asst. K. W. LOUCKS, B. S., Asst.
M. N. WALKER, Ph. D., Asst. ERDMAN WEST, B. S., Mycologist
E. F. GROSSMAN, M. A., Asst. VETERINARY MEDICINE
RAYMOND CROWN, B.S.A., Field Asst. A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Veterinarian
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL D. A. SANDERS, D. V. M., Asst.
C. V. NOBLE, Ph. D., Ag. Economist E. F. THOMAS, D. V. M., Lab. Asst.
BRANCH STATION AND FIELD WORKERS
W. B. TISDALE, Ph. D., Plant Pathologist, in charge, Tobacco Experiment
Station (Quincy)
Ross F. WADKINS, M. S., Lab. Asst. in Plant Pathology (Quincy)
JESSE REEVES, Foreman, Tobacco Experiment Station (Quincy)
J. H. JEFFERIES, Superintendent, Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred)
W. A. KUNTZ, A. M., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Lake Alfred)
R. L. MILLER, Assistant Entomologist (Lake Alfred)
W. L. THOMPSON, Assistant Entomologist (Lake Alfred)
GEO. E. TEDDER, Foreman, Everglades Experiment Station (Belle Glade)
R. V. ALLISON, Ph. D., Soils Specialist (Belle Glade)
J. H. HUNTER, M. S., Assistant Agronomist (Belle Glade)
J. L. SEAL, Ph. D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Belle Glade)
H. E. HAMMAR, M. S., Field Assistant (Belle Glade)
L. O. GRATZ, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Hastings)
A. N. BROOKS, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Plant City)
A. S. RHOADS, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Cocoa)
STACY O. HAWKINS, M. A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Homestead)
D. G. A. KELBERT, Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Bradenton)
R. E. NOLEN, M. S. A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Monticello)
FRED W. WALKER, Assistant Entomologist (Monticello)
E. D. BALL, Ph. D., Associate Entomologist (Sanford)

*In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture.









DAUBENTONIA SEED POISONING OF POULTRY
By A. L. SHEALY AND E. F. THOMAS
A prominent Florida poultry owner had several hens to die
from some unknown cause during the month of August, 1927.
The owner made several unsuccessful efforts to definitely deter-
mine the cause of death in these birds. Finally, he noticed upon
a post mortem examination the presence of Daubentonia seed
in the digestive tracts of some of these hens. Since all of the
hens that had died showed symptoms of poisoning, the owner
immediately suspected the Daubentonia seed as being respon-
sible for the deaths.
A large quantity of the Daubentonia seed were sent to the
Veterinary Department for use in tests to determine whether or
not these seed are really toxic for poultry and, if found to be
toxic, to determine in a general way the degree of toxicity, i. e.,
whether slightly or extremely toxic. These tests were conducted,
and the results are given under the heading "Experimental
Data" below.
This was the first time that Daubentonia seed poisoning of
poultry had been reported, and no previous work had been done
along this line. The Daubentonia plant is found generally dis-
tributed as an ornamental shrub, and the importance of these
tests was realized.
EXPERIMENTAL DATA
Ten birds were given free access to Daubentonia seed and
allowed to eat as many seed as they desired. These birds began
to show symptoms of poisoning within a few hours after eating
the seed, and within 24 to 72 hours all of the birds on test had
died as a result of the poison. Six birds, used as control birds,
were taken from the same flock as were the test birds and were
kept within the same coop in which the test birds were housed
during the test period with only a wire partition separating
them from the test birds. These control birds remained healthy
'throughout the test. A few days later, these control birds were
used as test birds and were poisoned from eating Daubentonia
seed.
In an effort to determine in a general way the degree of tox-
icity of Daubentonia seed, several birds were fed definite num-
bers of seed. The results of these tests are given below.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Five birds were fed only nine Daubentonia seed each. The nine
seed caused death in three of these birds, while the remaining
two birds showed symptoms of poisoning, yet recovered. The
two birds that recovered from the toxic effects of nine Dauben-
tonia seed died of Daubentonia seed poisoning when fed only
18 seed several days later. When these birds were fed the 18
seed, they had recovered completely from the toxic effects which
resulted from the previous poison-
ing from eating nine seeds.
Eight birds were fed 18 Dauben-
tonia seed each. Six of
these birds died within
one to eight days
after eating the
seed. Two birds re-
covered from the
poisonous effects of
eating this number
of seed. Several
days after they had
Fig. 143.-A bird in the early stages recovered from the
of Daubentonia poisoning. e
poisonous effects,
these two birds were given free access to Daubentonia seed and
after eating several seed, both of the birds died.
Eight birds were fed 36 Daubentonia seed and within one to
six days, six of these birds had died. The two birds that recov-
ered were given free access to the seed several days later and
they died as a result of eating several seed.
Three birds were fed 72 Daubentonia seed with the result
that all three of the birds died of the poisonous effects of the
seed.

SYMPTOMS OF DAUBENTONIA SEED POISONING
The first symptom noted in Daubentonia seed poisoning is
a staggering gait, followed by a drooping of the wings. The'
feathers are ruffled, and the bird shows signs of profound de-
pression, general debility and unthriftiness. The comb becomes
dark purple in color and drops over to one side of the head. Mus-
cular twitching (jerking) is noted over different parts of the
body. A profuse diarrhea is present even in the early stages of







Bulletin 196, Daubentonia Poisoning of Poultry


the disease. When the symptoms are prolonged for three to eight
days, there is a rapid loss of flesh and extreme weakness is
noted. Many seed pass through the digestive tract in an undi-
gested condition, and such seed, when fed to poultry, is also
toxic.
POST MORTEM APPEARANCES
Upon a post mortem examination of a bird that died of Dau-
bentonia seed poisoning the following lesions are noted: an in-
flammation of proventriculus or glandular stomach; the inner
lining of the gizzard is greatly diseased, being extensively ulcer-
ated and in most cases, separates readily from the muscular
structure of this organ; the intestinal tract shows areas of con-
gestion and inflammation.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT
The Daubentonia (Daubentonia longifolia D. C.) also termed
Sesbania, is a native of Mexico, but has become naturalized in
the northern part of Florida. The shrub occurs also in all the
other Gulf states. It is found in abundance in certain places,
particularly in moist locations. During the season of bloom the












e

*




Fig. 144.-Seed pods and seed of Daubentonia. Center pod shows
natural splitting.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


plant is very attractive and has been planted quite extensively
as an ornamental.
It is a large deciduous shrub, attaining a maximum height
of 10 to 12 feet, having a straight woody stem, usually with few
branches near the ground. The leaves
are compound, each having from 12
to 60 oblong leaflets which are about
three-quarters of an inch in length


Fig. 145.-Flower cluster and leaf of Daubentonia.


and tipped with a very short bristle-like point.
The flowers are reddish or scarlet in color, being about three-
quarters of an inch in width, and very much resembling those
of the pea. They are borne in loose, drooping clusters which are







Bulletin 196, Daubentonia Poisoning of Poultry


Fig. 146.-Daubentonia shrub, showing leaves and pods. This plant is often
found in back yards where poultry can get the seeds.

shorter than the leaves. The season of greatest bloom is in late
spring, although flowers are in evidence at intermittent inter-
vals until late summer.
The seed pods, three to four inches in length, are quite dis-
tinctive in that they are 4-angled or 4-winged. These pods, when







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


mature, split lengthwise, exposing several hard, light brown
seeds which are about one-quarter inch in length. The plant
makes a vigorous growth but is short-lived.

PRECAUTIONS NECESSARY TO PREVENT POISONING
Since the seed carries the toxic agent, poisoning in poultry
from this cause can be prevented if the seed pods are picked
and burned before they reach maturity. It is important that the
pods be picked before they are mature, since they split open
very soon after they reach maturity, liberating the seed. The
Daubentonia shrub can be grown as an ornamental provided the
seed pods are destroyed before they are mature. If these pre-
cautions cannot be carried out, then it is highly important that
the shrub not be grown where poultry is apt to have access to
the seed, since its seed are highly toxic for poultry.
Experiments conducted by Marsh and Clawson on feeding
Daubentonia seed show that these seed are toxic for sheep.

SUMMARY
1. Thirty-four birds were used in the course of the tests to
determine if Daubentonia seed are poisonous for poultry and all
of these birds died as a result of eating the seed.
2. Daubentcnia seed are highly toxic for poultry, since as
few as nine seed will cause death.
3. There is an individual variance in resistance to the poison-
ous agent.
4. Death occurs quite soon after the seed are consumed.
5. The Daubentonia shrub is very generally found in Florida.
6. Poisoning from the Daubentonia seed is prevented by
picking the seed pods before they reach maturity.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We wish to acknowledge the kindness of Mr. Harold Mowrv
of the Department of Horticulture in taking the photographs
and in giving the description of the plant.

REFERENCE
MARSH, C. DWIGHT & CLAWSON, H. B.
Daubentonia Longifolia (Coffee Bean), A Poisonous Plant. U.S.D.A.
Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol. 20, No. 6, Page 507.




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