• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 More dairy cattle needed
 Factors influencing the cost of...
 How much should a good cow...
 Improving the herd by selectio...
 Influence of the sire
 Raising heifers
 Improvement in the station...
 Principles of feeding
 Balanced rations for dairy...
 Feed and labor costs and the experiment...
 Hay is not a necessity
 Silage prefereable to hay
 Home-grown feeds necessary
 How feed affects milk
 The milker as a factor in...
 Over-capitalization is possibl...
 Qualifications of a good dairy...
 Some dairy pointers














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 142
Title: Dairying in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027296/00001
 Material Information
Title: Dairying in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. <57>-76 : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1918
 Subjects
Subject: Dairying -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027296
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000922760
oclc - 18162203
notis - AEN3269

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 57
    Table of Contents
        Page 58
    Introduction
        Page 59
    More dairy cattle needed
        Page 59
    Factors influencing the cost of milk production
        Page 60
    How much should a good cow produce
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Improving the herd by selection
        Page 64
    Influence of the sire
        Page 64
    Raising heifers
        Page 65
    Improvement in the station herd
        Page 66
    Principles of feeding
        Page 66
    Balanced rations for dairy cows
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Feed and labor costs and the experiment station
        Page 69
    Hay is not a necessity
        Page 69
    Silage prefereable to hay
        Page 70
    Home-grown feeds necessary
        Page 71
    How feed affects milk
        Page 71
        Page 72
    The milker as a factor in production
        Page 73
    Over-capitalization is possible
        Page 74
    Qualifications of a good dairyman
        Page 74
    Some dairy pointers
        Page 75
        Page 76
Full Text


January, 1918


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Agricultural Experiment Station



DAIRYING IN FLORIDA

By JOHN M. SCOTT


FIG. 17.-Good udder development


Bulletins will be sent free upon application to Experiment Station.
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 142












BOARD OF CONTROL

JOE L. EARMAN, Chairman, Jacksonville, Fla.
E. L. WARTMAN, Citra, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
J. B. HODGES, Lake City, Fla.
J. T. DIAMOND, Milton, Fla.
B2YAN MACK, Secretary, Tallahassee, Fla.
J. G. KELLUM, Auditor, Tallahassee, Fla.

CONTENTS
PAGE
Introduction .......................................... ...... 59
More Dairy Cattle Needed ...................................... 59
Factors influencing the Cost of Milk Production ..................... 60
A Convenient Record Sheet ................................ 61
How Much Should a Good Cow Produce ............................ 61
Florida's Best Jersey Record ............................... 62
Improving the Herd by Selection ................................. 64
Influence of the Sire .......................................... 64
Raising Heifers ................... ........... ............. 65
Improvement in the Station Herd. ............................ 66
Production Increased .................................... 66
Principles of Feeding ....................................... 66
Balanced Rations for Dairy Cows ............................... 67
Rations of Home-Grown Feeds ................. ..... 68
Rations of Purchased Feeds ............................... 68
Feed and Labor Costs at the Experiment Station ................... 69
Hay Is Not a Necessity ................. ....................... 69
Silage Preferable to Hay .............. ...................... 70
Advantages of the Silo ..................................... 70
Home-Grown Feeds Necessary .................................. 71
How Feed Affects Milk ........................................ 71
Feeds with Odors ....................................... 71
Milk A'sor-s Odors ....................................... 72
Some Feeds Affect the Color of Milk ........................ 72
How Feeds Affect Fat .................................. 73
The Milker as a Factor in Production ............................ 73
Over-Capitalization Is Possible ................................. 74
Qualifications of a Good Dairyman ................................ 74
Cow Testing Associations ............................ 75
Som e Dairy Pointers ....................................... .. 75









DAIRYING IN FLORIDA
By JOHN M. SCOTT
Dairying in Florida has not reached the point of greatest de-
velopment. Neither will that point be reached until the proper
feeding and care of dairy animals is understood and practiced.
Both are factors in upbuilding the industry; one being perhaps
of as great importance as the other. For without proper care
and management all results obtained by good feeding may be
lost.
The number of dairy cows in Florida July 1, 1916, as reported
by the Commissioner of Agriculture in his fourteenth biennial
report, was 41,949. The quantity of milk produced by these
cows is reported at 11,090,638 gallons, or a yearly average of
264.4 gallons per head. This average production indicates that
the majority of dairy cows in the State do not produce enough
milk to pay for their feed and care. The methods by which the
standard of production can be raised and the quality of milk
improved deserve careful consideration. Unquestionably, im-
provement can be made; and if the suggestions given in this
bulletin are followed milk production in Florida can be doubled
in ten years' time.
Milk and cream just as good and pure as that in any .other
state can be produced in Florida, altho some contend that our
warm climate is not conducive to producing milk of good quality.
It should be remembered in this connection that sunshine is one
of the best disinfectants to be had and, also, that sand is an ex-
cellent filter. Florida has her share of both sunshine and sand.
This means there should be no dirty, unsanitary barn lots-a
condition often associated with a clay soil. Our mild climate
and the abundance of sunshine means that cows do not have to
be kept in the barn from three to five months of the year, but
that they can be in the open practically every day. This means
healthy cows, which alone is an important consideration.

MORE DAIRY CATTLE NEEDED
The dairy industry in Florida -is hardly begun. While there
are forty thousand so-called dairy cows in the State, perhaps
not more than one-fourth of them produce enough milk to pay
for the feed eaten. Instead of having forty thousand dairy cows,
Florida should have three to four times that number. This does
59









DAIRYING IN FLORIDA
By JOHN M. SCOTT
Dairying in Florida has not reached the point of greatest de-
velopment. Neither will that point be reached until the proper
feeding and care of dairy animals is understood and practiced.
Both are factors in upbuilding the industry; one being perhaps
of as great importance as the other. For without proper care
and management all results obtained by good feeding may be
lost.
The number of dairy cows in Florida July 1, 1916, as reported
by the Commissioner of Agriculture in his fourteenth biennial
report, was 41,949. The quantity of milk produced by these
cows is reported at 11,090,638 gallons, or a yearly average of
264.4 gallons per head. This average production indicates that
the majority of dairy cows in the State do not produce enough
milk to pay for their feed and care. The methods by which the
standard of production can be raised and the quality of milk
improved deserve careful consideration. Unquestionably, im-
provement can be made; and if the suggestions given in this
bulletin are followed milk production in Florida can be doubled
in ten years' time.
Milk and cream just as good and pure as that in any .other
state can be produced in Florida, altho some contend that our
warm climate is not conducive to producing milk of good quality.
It should be remembered in this connection that sunshine is one
of the best disinfectants to be had and, also, that sand is an ex-
cellent filter. Florida has her share of both sunshine and sand.
This means there should be no dirty, unsanitary barn lots-a
condition often associated with a clay soil. Our mild climate
and the abundance of sunshine means that cows do not have to
be kept in the barn from three to five months of the year, but
that they can be in the open practically every day. This means
healthy cows, which alone is an important consideration.

MORE DAIRY CATTLE NEEDED
The dairy industry in Florida -is hardly begun. While there
are forty thousand so-called dairy cows in the State, perhaps
not more than one-fourth of them produce enough milk to pay
for the feed eaten. Instead of having forty thousand dairy cows,
Florida should have three to four times that number. This does
59






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


not mean the State needs a greater number of large dairies, but
that more milk cows should be kept on the small farms.
At present there are about 1,700,000 acres of land under culti-
vation in Florida, making a ratio of one dairy cow to every
forty acres of cultivated land. To supply the demand for dairy
products there should be from three to four good cows for every
forty acres under cultivation. It is not necessary that every
farmer be a dairyman, but every farmer should produce enough
milk and butter on the farm for home consumption thruout the
year. At present it is doubtful whether half the rural homes in
the State are thus supplied with either milk or butter.

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COST OF MILK PRODUCTION
Three factors determine the cost of producing milk: (1) The
amount of milk produced by each cow in the herd, (2) the cost
and quantity of feed consumed by each cow, and (3) the labor
cost of feeding, milking and caring for the herd. With this in-
formation available the dairyman may determine whether he is
producing milk at a profit or at a loss. Without this informa-
tion he can only guess at the economy of operation. With this
data at hand the dairyman can determine, whether each cow is
giving a flow of milk large enough to be profitable, whether the
feed given is producing the results it should, and can check up
his labor account to determine the efficiency of his employes.
The individual cow is the foundation of the successful dairy.
The dairy is a factory and, like all factories, the larger the out-
put the lower the relative cost of production. In dairying it is
not the milking of so many cows that governs the cost of pro-
duction, but how many gallons of milk each cow in the herd puts
into the pail twice each day for at least three hundred days of
the year. In this regard, there is a great difference in cows.
Cows are cows, but not all cows will produce milk three hun-
dred days of the year. This statement applies to all breeds of
dairy cattle. There is only one infallible way to determine
whether a cow is returning a profit and that is from knowing
exactly the amount of milk she produced during the year, and
the cost of that production.
There are several ways of figuring the annual milk production
of a dairy cow. Some dairymen weigh or measure the milk for
two or three successive days about a month after the cow
freshens. If the cow happens to give four or five gallons of milk
a day while on test she is called a four- or five-gallon cow. The







Bulletin 142, Dairying in Florida


real fact may be that she will not produce that amount of milk
daily for more than a month or six weeks. It is also possible
that she will not give milk for more than six months out of the
twelve. To know the producing ability of any cow it is neces-
sary to keep a record of the milk produced each day during the
lactation period. Very few dairymen in Florida appreciate the
importance of milk records.

A CONVENIENT RECORD SHEET
There is a large number of styles of record sheets available for
keeping milk and feed records. Most of these are large and
cumbersome, especially when adapted for twenty-five or more
cows. Figure 18 illustrates a 5 by 8 inch card ruled and printed

COW NO. 59 MILK RECORD OCTOBER 1916
POUNDS
Date A.M. P.M. ate A.M. P.M. Date A.M. P.M. Date A.M. P.M.
S17.2 13.8 9 16.9 13-0 17 175 13.2 s2 175 13.0
2 17.6 14.0 to 173 12.? 18 17.1 12.7 26 18.1 13.7
3 178 12.-8 178 13.0 19 172 12.9 27 177 14.2
4 172 13.4 12 16.9 13.3 20 18.0 13.6 28 18. 13.8
6 16.8 13.6 13 16.9 13.0 211 76 13.5- 29 18.5 1H.
6 17.4 13. 4 14 .4 12.8 22 19.5 13.8 30 18.1 13.4
7 172 131 is15 -2 14.8 23 18.2 14.1 31 17.8 13.
8 I_-R 13.7 i6 17.3 14.5 24 179 15.7
TOTAL FOR MONTH 990.4 POUNI~
Percent Butterfat 4.7 Value of milk at 30 per Gal.33.15
Pounds Butterfat 14.. Cost of feed "
Pound Butter 52.1 Profit 21
Date Served / Served By

FIG. 18.-Milk record card
in such form as to make it very satisfactory for keeping milk
records. With but slight variations, it may be adapted to the
keeping of feed records. Such cards have been used at this
Station for the last year and have been found more nearly satis-
factory than any other record sheet used.

HOW MUCH SHOULD A GOOD COW PRODUCE
Since quantity plays such an important part in the cost of pro-
ducing milk the question may be asked, how much milk must a
cow produce to be considered a profitable dairy cow?
A certain amount of milk being required to offset the cost of






Florida A*gricultural Experiment Station


feed and labor necessary to maintain a cow during the year, it is
evident that she must give an amount greater than that re-
quirement. How much that amount should be will depend on
how much profit the cow is expected to return. If satisfaction
will come thru a very small profit, a cow that will produce 400
gallons of milk a year may be satisfactory. However, it will re-
quire only a small additional amount of feed, and no more labor,
to take care of a cow that will produce 500 gallons or more, and
the cow producing this amount will return a much larger profit
to the owner. Then, too, the calf from such a cow is worth more
than a calf from a cow that produces 400 gallons or less. It is
safe to assert that a cow producing less than 450 gallons of milk
a year will not return much profit to the owner, yet the average
yearly production of all dairy cows in Florida is only 265 gal-
lons. The dairyman who is milking average cows under present
conditions, and depending on the profits from them as a liveli-
hood, is traveling a sure road to the poorhouse.
The writer believes that in time-it may take years-the
average annual milk production in Florida will be increased to
450 or 500 gallons. It is impossible to attain this average in a
year or two, but it can be brought about by the introduction of
new blood into the herds. Good feed and careful management
are also necessary, the one supplementing the other in the pro-
duction of good livestock, whether beef or dairy animals. The
feeding of scrub cows and the "scrub" feeding of good cows are
two of the most common mistakes in dairying.

FLORIDA'S BEST JERSEY RECORD
The fact that a cow is a Jersey or a Holstein is no guarantee
that she will be a good milk producer. A pedigree establishes
only the fact that the animal is of a certain breed and of known
parentage. The value of the cow to the dairyman is based on
her ability to produce milk economically, and if a production or
performance record has been kept he may more readily deter-
mine the animal's value to him. Recognizing this fact, dairy
cow breeders' associations have provided for the designation of
animals of superior merit and are placing them in a class apart
from others of the same breed. This class is known as register
of merit, advanced registry, or some other title decided upon by
the association dealing with cows of the breed concerned. Ad-
mission to this class is gained only by animals of known per-
formance, and the records of this performance-the amount of






Bulletin 142, Dairying in Florida


FIG. 19.-Creole's Lassie Sue No. 306835


milk and butterfat produced within a given length of time-
must be authenticated by disinterested supervision. Such super-
vision is usually delegated to the experiment station or agricul-
tural college in the state in which the cow is owned. The Florida
College of Agriculture is ready to act in that capacity for Florida
owned purebred cows of any breed.
The only Jersey cow bred and raised in Florida that has made
the Register of Merit of the American Jersey Cattle Club is
Creole's Lassie Sue No. 306835 (fig. 19). Her required test be-
gan September 19, 1916 and closed September 18, 1917. In the
365 days she produced 7708.6 pounds, or 896.3 gallons, of milk
end 374.32 pounds of butter fat, or 436.7 pounds of butter.
Bran, velvet-bean meal, cottonseed meal, beet pulp, shorts, pea-
nut meal, corn meal and silage were the feeds used during the
test. The total cost of the feed for the year was $107. The
value of the milk produced was, if figured at 50 cents a gallon,
$448. Deducting the value of the feed leaves a balance over cost
of feed of $341. Or, the feed cost of a gallon of milk was 12
cents. This cow is five years old.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


IMPROVING THE HERD BY SELECTION
One of the chief reasons for the low production record of cows
in Florida is that dairymen in the past have paid no attention
to improving their herds. They have been content to buy ad-
ditional cows when more milk was needed and to sell cows when
a surplus was produced. To build up a profitable herd and to
do it economically thru careful selection will require at least ten
years. This may seem like a long time, but investigation will
show that the most successful dairymen have been in the busi-
ness for a period much longer than that.
The work of increasing the productiveness of a dairy herd
thru selection must begin with the individual as a unit. Cows
with the best performance records are mated to a bull backed
by a line of high-producing ancestors. Even this will not guar-
antee offspring equal to their parents in productiveness, since
the law of chance operates to make results uncertain. However,
the average will be as good as their parents, and some will ex-
ceed their dam's record. These better producers are bred for
further improvement.

INFLUENCE OF THE SIRE
While it is true that by proper selection" the productiveness of
a herd can be greatly increased, it is not enough that dams with
high-producing records be selected. It is just as important that
sires from heavy producers be chosen. They have as much to


FIG. 20.-A good purebred Jersey sire





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


IMPROVING THE HERD BY SELECTION
One of the chief reasons for the low production record of cows
in Florida is that dairymen in the past have paid no attention
to improving their herds. They have been content to buy ad-
ditional cows when more milk was needed and to sell cows when
a surplus was produced. To build up a profitable herd and to
do it economically thru careful selection will require at least ten
years. This may seem like a long time, but investigation will
show that the most successful dairymen have been in the busi-
ness for a period much longer than that.
The work of increasing the productiveness of a dairy herd
thru selection must begin with the individual as a unit. Cows
with the best performance records are mated to a bull backed
by a line of high-producing ancestors. Even this will not guar-
antee offspring equal to their parents in productiveness, since
the law of chance operates to make results uncertain. However,
the average will be as good as their parents, and some will ex-
ceed their dam's record. These better producers are bred for
further improvement.

INFLUENCE OF THE SIRE
While it is true that by proper selection" the productiveness of
a herd can be greatly increased, it is not enough that dams with
high-producing records be selected. It is just as important that
sires from heavy producers be chosen. They have as much to


FIG. 20.-A good purebred Jersey sire






Bulletin 142, Dairying in Florida


do with transmitting the milk-producing ability to the offspring
as have the dams. The testing-out of a sire requires from three
to five years. Very few heifers freshen before they are two
years old. As a rule, a cow with her first calf does not produce
the maximum flow of milk. It may require a second or third
calf before a dairyman would be justified in retaining or dis-
carding the offspring of a sire from his herd. Therefore, in buy-
ing a young bull a long chance is being taken to secure a sire of
good producers. A proven sire will cost more, and is worth
more, than a young, untried sire.
These are some of the uncertainties that confront the dairy-
man in building up his herd by selection. It can be readily seen
why it takes years to build up a productive herd. The truth is,
there is no end to the work. To maintain a good herd means a
constant culling out of the unprofitable cows and the addition
of new heifers which are the offspring of the best producing
cows in the herd.
RAISING HEIFERS
Improving the herd can be done most economically by raising
the heifer calves from the best producing cows, provided a suit-
able sire is used. This is because the purchase of good dairy
cows at a reasonable price is almost impossible. The man who
has a good dairy cow does not care to sell, but is always willing
to sell the poorest cows in the herd. When calves are raised
from the best producing cows one can feel sure of having a
fairly good cow and at the minimum cost.
When buying cows for the dairy, several points should be con-
sidered. One of the first, and an important one, is the cow's


FIG. 21.-Promising Jersey heifers at the Florida Experiment Station





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


health. Unhealthy cows are not desirable. In many cases, their
presence in a dairy is dangerous, due to the probability of
spreading disease not only to the other cows in the herd, but to
persons who use the milk. Other considerations are age, tem-
perament, productiveness, and ancestry.

IMPROVEMENT IN THE STATION HERD
The Experiment Station herd affords a good example of what
can be done by breeding and selecting. These results are cited
because exact records have been kept and the improvement is
known.
Ten years ago the Station herd consisted of twelve cows and
a Shorthorn bull. Two of the cows were purebred Jerseys; the
others were grades. Perhaps all had some Jersey blood in them.
Little money has been spent for cows in the last ten years. The
greater part of the improvement came in keeping the best and
discarding the unprofitable cows. Purebred Jersey bulls have
been used at the head of the herd since 1910. About thirty cows
are now in the herd, and most of them would be classed as good
dairy animals. As a whole, the herd ranks better than any herd
of equal size in the State.

PRODUCTION INCREASED
Not only has the appearance of the herd been improved, but
there has been a very noticeable increase in its productiveness.
The average yearly milk production of the original twelve cows
was 2,600 pounds. From July 1, 1916 to June 30, 1917, twenty-
one cows were milked. The average production for that year
was 4,440 pounds. To state it another way; for the year ending
June 30, 1911, only one cow of the twelve milked produced more
than 4,000 pounds of milk. During the year ending June 30,
1917, fourteen cows of the twenty-one milked averaged more
than 4,000 pounds each.

PRINCIPLES OF FEEDING
The amount of feed consumed, by the dairy herd should be
considered. However, it will be found that cows of equal size
will consume about equal amounts of feed, regardless of the
amount of milk produced. The important consideration in feed-
ing for economical production is to mix the feeds in the right
proportion. This is one part of the work that the majority of
Florida dairymen seem not to understand. Often, the cost of





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


health. Unhealthy cows are not desirable. In many cases, their
presence in a dairy is dangerous, due to the probability of
spreading disease not only to the other cows in the herd, but to
persons who use the milk. Other considerations are age, tem-
perament, productiveness, and ancestry.

IMPROVEMENT IN THE STATION HERD
The Experiment Station herd affords a good example of what
can be done by breeding and selecting. These results are cited
because exact records have been kept and the improvement is
known.
Ten years ago the Station herd consisted of twelve cows and
a Shorthorn bull. Two of the cows were purebred Jerseys; the
others were grades. Perhaps all had some Jersey blood in them.
Little money has been spent for cows in the last ten years. The
greater part of the improvement came in keeping the best and
discarding the unprofitable cows. Purebred Jersey bulls have
been used at the head of the herd since 1910. About thirty cows
are now in the herd, and most of them would be classed as good
dairy animals. As a whole, the herd ranks better than any herd
of equal size in the State.

PRODUCTION INCREASED
Not only has the appearance of the herd been improved, but
there has been a very noticeable increase in its productiveness.
The average yearly milk production of the original twelve cows
was 2,600 pounds. From July 1, 1916 to June 30, 1917, twenty-
one cows were milked. The average production for that year
was 4,440 pounds. To state it another way; for the year ending
June 30, 1911, only one cow of the twelve milked produced more
than 4,000 pounds of milk. During the year ending June 30,
1917, fourteen cows of the twenty-one milked averaged more
than 4,000 pounds each.

PRINCIPLES OF FEEDING
The amount of feed consumed, by the dairy herd should be
considered. However, it will be found that cows of equal size
will consume about equal amounts of feed, regardless of the
amount of milk produced. The important consideration in feed-
ing for economical production is to mix the feeds in the right
proportion. This is one part of the work that the majority of
Florida dairymen seem not to understand. Often, the cost of






Bulletin 142, Dairying in Florida


feeding can be reduced somewhat by changing the proportion
of the feeds used. For instance, some dairymen use bran and
cottonseed meal in equal portions by weight. Feeding cotton-
seed meal and bran in the ratio of 1 to 3 should give as good
results, and at less cost.
The bodies of animals, as well as animal products, are made
up mainly of the following named substances: water, ash, pro-
tein, and fat. These substances occur in the animal body in
varying proportions, depending on the age, condition, treatment,
and other factors. Plants also contain water, ash, fat, and pro-
tein. In addition, plants used to feed herbivorous animals con-
tain a group of substances called carbohydrates (starches
sugar, etc.) which may be converted into fat or energy. Since
the animal body and all animal products are composed of the
same group of substances as contained in feedstuffs, a basis is
had on which to develop the feeding of animals.
Rational feeding of animals is to supply them with these
different elements in sufficient quantity and in the proper pro-
portion for the needs of the body. In such proportion they are
called a balanced ration. An animal can not grow and develop
as it should unless supplied with the proper amounts of the dif-
ferent substances its body needs. There is no one feed, except
milk, that supplies all of the necessary nutrients in the correct
proportion. It is necessary, therefore, to use a mixture of two
or more feeds in order to get best results.

BALANCED RATIONS FOR DAIRY COWS
The following list of balanced rations should be of interest to
all dairymen. The list is separated into two groups; those using
home-grown feeds, and those using purchased feeds. The quan-
tities named in each ration are sufficient for one cow for one day.
No attempt has been made to estimate the cost of any of these
rations, or to say which will be cheapest, as the prices of feeds
vary with the different sections of the State. Each dairyman
can figure for himself which rations will be the best to use.
The two groups of rations are suggested for those who may
not be in position to feed silage to their cows. However, in these
rations silage can be substituted for the hay, in which case it
will be necessary to increase the quantity of protein feed. This
can be done by increasing the amount of cottonseed meal, velvet
beans, wheat bran or shorts as the case may be.-






68 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

RATIONS OF HOME-GROWN FEEDS
(1) Velvet beans in the pod..................... 10 pounds
Japanese cane, cured in shock.............. 10 pounds
Cowpea hay .............................. 8 pounds
(2) Velvet beans in the pod ................... 10 pounds
Cottonseed meal .......................... 2 pounds
Japanese cane ............................ 12 pounds
(3) Velvet beans in the pod.................... 8 pounds
Cowpea hay .............................. 10 pounds
Japanese cane ............................ 10 pounds
(4) Corn ............... .................... 3 pounds
Velvet beans in the pod .................... 7 pounds
Cowpea hay .............................. 9 pounds
Japanese-cane silage ...................... 20 pounds
(5) Velvet beans in the pod .................... 8 pounds
Cowpea hay .............................. 10 pounds
Sorghum, green .......................... 20 pounds
(6) Velvet beans in the pod ................... 8 pounds
Cowpea hay .............................. 8 pounds
Crabgrass hay ........................... 8 pounds
Sweet potatoes (or cassava) .............. 25 pounds
With the exception of ration No. 2 in which cottonseed meal
is used, the foregoing rations are made up of home-grown feeds
or feeds that can be grown at home. Feeds can be grown more
cheaply than they can be bought on the market. In these rations,
cowpea hay can be replaced by an equal weight of beggarweed
hay, velvet-bean hay or any other good legume hay. Which of
these hays should be used will depend largely on the cost in the
market, or rather, on what it will cost to produce it. One may be
so situated as to be able to grow beggarweed hay or velvet-bean
hay to better advantage than cowpea hay. All of the hays in
these rations are considered to be of good quality, cut at the
proper stage of maturity, and properly cured.

RATIONS OF PURCHASED FEEDS
(1) Alfalfa hay ............................ 10 pounds
W heat bran ............................ 41% pounds
Shorts ..................... ........... 41/ pounds
(2) Alfalfa hay ............................ 10 pounds
W heat bran ............................ 9 pounds
Crabgrass hay .......................... 13 pounds
(3) Alfalfa hay ............................ 10 pounds
Shorts ................... ............ 9 pounds
Crabgrass hay .......................... 13 pounds
(4) Alfalfa hay ............................ 10 pounds
W heat bran ............................ 6 pounds
Beet pulp .............................. 10 pounds
(5) W heat bran ............................ 9 pounds
Cottonseed meal ......................... 3 pounds
Cottonseed hulls ........................ 20 pounds
(6) Shorts ............... ............... 8 pounds
Cottonseed meal ....................... 212 pounds
Hay (any non-legume) .................. 15 pounds






Bulletin 142, Dairying in Florida


(7) W heat bran ............................ 6 pounds
Cottonseed meal ......................... 212 pounds
Beet pulp .............................. 10 pounds
Timothy hay ........................... 7 pounds
(8) Wheat bran ............................ 9 pounds
Cottonseed meal ......................... 3 pounds
Japanese cane .......................... 15 pounds
(9) Corn ................... ............... 5 pounds
Cottonseed meal ........................ 212 pounds
Cowpea hay ............................ 12 pounds
Silage .................. ............... 30 pounds
By feeding. properly balanced rations, the cows do better and
put more milk into the pail; the milk is produced at less cost,
and at a greater profit to the dairyman.

FEED AND LABOR COSTS AT THE EXPERIMENT STATION
The cost of producing milk at the Experiment Station for the
year ending June 30, 1917, can be readily determined from the
record cards. The feeds used were bran, cottonseed meal, vel-
vet-bean meal, cornmeal, peanut meal, shorts, and silage. The
larger portion of the feed was, however, cottonseed meal and
bran, fed in the proportion of 1 to 3, and silage.
For the herd of twenty-one cows, the average yearly milk pro-
duction was 516 gallons, and it was necessary that each cow pro-
duce 329 gallons of milk to pay for the feed and labor. The feed
cost alone of a gallon of milk varied from 7.9 cents to 18.2 cents,
varying with the individuals in the herd.
The average labor cost of a gallon of milk was 6.7 cents. This
included all necessary work about the barn, such as milking,
feeding, cleaning out the barn, hauling manure to the fields, etc.
The average total feed and labor cost of producing milk was 19
cents a gallon. These figures do not include taxes, interest on
investment, nor depreciation. Neither do they include the cost
of retailing milk, all of which items should be considered in
establishing the price to the consumer.

HAY IS NOT A NECESSITY
Too many dairymen believe that hay is a necessity in the dairy
ration. It is true that cows can and do consume large amounts
of roughage, but at the price of hay in Florida no dairyman can
afford to use it. He must substitute some cheaper roughage.
Some dairymen buy alfalfa hay at $25 to $30 a ton. As long as
good hay sells at such prices it will not be found an economical:
feed for dairy cows.






Bulletin 142, Dairying in Florida


(7) W heat bran ............................ 6 pounds
Cottonseed meal ......................... 212 pounds
Beet pulp .............................. 10 pounds
Timothy hay ........................... 7 pounds
(8) Wheat bran ............................ 9 pounds
Cottonseed meal ......................... 3 pounds
Japanese cane .......................... 15 pounds
(9) Corn ................... ............... 5 pounds
Cottonseed meal ........................ 212 pounds
Cowpea hay ............................ 12 pounds
Silage .................. ............... 30 pounds
By feeding. properly balanced rations, the cows do better and
put more milk into the pail; the milk is produced at less cost,
and at a greater profit to the dairyman.

FEED AND LABOR COSTS AT THE EXPERIMENT STATION
The cost of producing milk at the Experiment Station for the
year ending June 30, 1917, can be readily determined from the
record cards. The feeds used were bran, cottonseed meal, vel-
vet-bean meal, cornmeal, peanut meal, shorts, and silage. The
larger portion of the feed was, however, cottonseed meal and
bran, fed in the proportion of 1 to 3, and silage.
For the herd of twenty-one cows, the average yearly milk pro-
duction was 516 gallons, and it was necessary that each cow pro-
duce 329 gallons of milk to pay for the feed and labor. The feed
cost alone of a gallon of milk varied from 7.9 cents to 18.2 cents,
varying with the individuals in the herd.
The average labor cost of a gallon of milk was 6.7 cents. This
included all necessary work about the barn, such as milking,
feeding, cleaning out the barn, hauling manure to the fields, etc.
The average total feed and labor cost of producing milk was 19
cents a gallon. These figures do not include taxes, interest on
investment, nor depreciation. Neither do they include the cost
of retailing milk, all of which items should be considered in
establishing the price to the consumer.

HAY IS NOT A NECESSITY
Too many dairymen believe that hay is a necessity in the dairy
ration. It is true that cows can and do consume large amounts
of roughage, but at the price of hay in Florida no dairyman can
afford to use it. He must substitute some cheaper roughage.
Some dairymen buy alfalfa hay at $25 to $30 a ton. As long as
good hay sells at such prices it will not be found an economical:
feed for dairy cows.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SILAGE PREFERABLE TO HAY
Good corn silage can be substituted for hay, and at a big sav-
ing in cost.' Silage can be produced at not to exceed $5 a ton.
When cows are fed a rich, nitrogenous ration, such as is usually
given to dairy cows, it will be found more economical to supply
roughage in a cheaper form-silage, pasture, or soiling crops.
In Florida, cows can have the run of pasture at all seasons.
During the winter they may not get much in the way of feed,
but they get a good deal of dry matter. When feeds of all kinds
were cheaper hay could be fed as a part of the ration, but at
present prices much judgment must be used in combining feeds
so as to get the most for the money spent.
The writer believes that when cows are fed a rich, concen-
trated feed such roughage as alfalfa and clover hay, or even
crab-grass hay, is not necessary; and that a cheaper form of
roughage will give as satisfactory results at much less cost.

ADVANTAGES OF THE SILO
The silo should be considered as important a part of the dairy
equipment as are the cows, and should be one of the permanent
improvements on every dairy farm. Some of the advantages in
using the silo are: (1) The nutrients of the entire crop are con-
served-there is no leaching or shattering of leaves; (2) silage
is of a succulent nature, furnishing pasture conditions during
the winter; (3) it may supplement pastures during a severe or
continued drouth; (4) feed is economically stored in so far as


FIG. 22.-Dairy barn and silos at the Florida Experiment Station






Bulletin 142, Dairying in Florida


space is concerned; (5) there is less loss of feed when stored in
the silo than when stored in any other way; (6) the stock-carry-
ing ability of the farm is increased; (7) feed thus preserved is
palatable and relished by cattle; and (8) silage is economical
and convenient to feed.

HOME-GROWN FEEDS NECESSARY
The raising of crops on the farm suitable for milk production
is an important consideration in economical milk and butter pro-
duction. There is no future in the dairy business in Florida for
the man who buys all his feeds, both grain and roughage. It
may not be possible or profitable to grow all of the protein
necessary for feeding the herd, but it is very necessary that all
silage and other roughage needed be produced on the farm. In
addition to growing crops for silage, a large amount of velvet
beans should be grown for feed. Peanuts is another crop that
is becoming of greater importance as a dairy feed. It is not ad-
visable to feed the entire peanut crop, but rather to exchange
the peanuts for peanut meal and feed this instead of cottonseed
meal. In the past cottonseed meal has been the main protein
feed for dairy cows, but now that the price has been advanced
considerably, dairymen should and must grow velvet beans and
peanuts in larger quantity to supply the necessary protein feed.

HOW FEED AFFECTS MILK
It is well known that a dairy cow must be well fed in order to
produce the maximum flow of milk. Approximately 60 percent
of the feed given is required for maintaining the ordinary func-
tions of the body, and only 40 percent goes to the production of
milk or beef. Hence the necessity for giving a liberal allowance
of feed if the maximum production is to be attained. However,
there is always a wide variation among animals in the amount
of milk produced, and to give more feed than is necessary to at-
tain the maximum milk flow is unprofitable. Some cows pro-
duce only a small amount of milk regardless of any increase in
amount or change in kind of feed given. It is also important
that the feed supplied should be nourishing, easily digested, pal-
atable, succulent and appetizing.

FEEDS WITH ODORS
Feeds that have undesirable odors or a bitter taste must be
fed with care and judgment be exercised or detrimental results






Bulletin 142, Dairying in Florida


space is concerned; (5) there is less loss of feed when stored in
the silo than when stored in any other way; (6) the stock-carry-
ing ability of the farm is increased; (7) feed thus preserved is
palatable and relished by cattle; and (8) silage is economical
and convenient to feed.

HOME-GROWN FEEDS NECESSARY
The raising of crops on the farm suitable for milk production
is an important consideration in economical milk and butter pro-
duction. There is no future in the dairy business in Florida for
the man who buys all his feeds, both grain and roughage. It
may not be possible or profitable to grow all of the protein
necessary for feeding the herd, but it is very necessary that all
silage and other roughage needed be produced on the farm. In
addition to growing crops for silage, a large amount of velvet
beans should be grown for feed. Peanuts is another crop that
is becoming of greater importance as a dairy feed. It is not ad-
visable to feed the entire peanut crop, but rather to exchange
the peanuts for peanut meal and feed this instead of cottonseed
meal. In the past cottonseed meal has been the main protein
feed for dairy cows, but now that the price has been advanced
considerably, dairymen should and must grow velvet beans and
peanuts in larger quantity to supply the necessary protein feed.

HOW FEED AFFECTS MILK
It is well known that a dairy cow must be well fed in order to
produce the maximum flow of milk. Approximately 60 percent
of the feed given is required for maintaining the ordinary func-
tions of the body, and only 40 percent goes to the production of
milk or beef. Hence the necessity for giving a liberal allowance
of feed if the maximum production is to be attained. However,
there is always a wide variation among animals in the amount
of milk produced, and to give more feed than is necessary to at-
tain the maximum milk flow is unprofitable. Some cows pro-
duce only a small amount of milk regardless of any increase in
amount or change in kind of feed given. It is also important
that the feed supplied should be nourishing, easily digested, pal-
atable, succulent and appetizing.

FEEDS WITH ODORS
Feeds that have undesirable odors or a bitter taste must be
fed with care and judgment be exercised or detrimental results






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


will follow. For example, a cow fed onions will produce milk
with a distinct onion flavor. Flavor will also be given to the milk
by feeding cabbage, bitter weeds, turnips, or oats and rye
pasture, especially when grown on rich soil or when it has made
a rank growth. These feeds will not decrease the flow of milk
but they will seriously affect the quality. The difficulty can be
overcome to a certain extent if such feeds are given in small
amounts and immediately before or just after milking. Such
feeds impart the disagreeable flavor to the milk during the pro-
cess of digestion, hence by the next milking time the animal's
system will have absorbed all of the odors and there will be no
odor to the milk.
MILK ABSORBS ODORS
Milk has a peculiar ability for absorbing a great variety of
odors and retaining them. For this reason it is important that
every precaution be taken to have all utensils that may come
into contact with milk scrupulously clean. It is of as much im-
portance to have the surroundings in the barn, the milk room,
or any place the milk may be kept, clean and free from odors.
If this is not done, milk and all milk products may have very
undesirable odors or flavors. For instance, if milk or any dairy
product comes in contact with fish, kerosene, or anything with
a strong, permeating odor the odor will be readily absorbed.

SOME FEEDS AFFECT THE COLOR OF MILK
Some feeds, such as cottonseed meal, when given in liberal
amounts produce milk and cream of a yellow color. Many per-
sons believe the yellow to be an indication of increased "rich-
ness," but this is not true. The percentage of fat in milk can
not-be permanently increased by feeding.
Judging by the color is a poor method of determining the
amount of fat milk contains. If color were a true indicator of
the percentage of fat, it would be an easy matter for the dairy-
man to produce rich or poor milk almost at will. This would not
be true of all cows, as some individuals and some breeds will
produce yellow milk regardless of the feeds given. Other cows
produce a white milk altho it may contain a normal, or even
higher, percentage of fat.
The fat in milk is a mixture of a large number of separate and
distinct fats; oleic, palmitic, myristic, stearic, dioxystearic,
butyric, lauric, caproic, caprylic, and capric. At least six or
eight are present in milk under normal conditions, and under






Bulletin 142, Dairying in Florida 73

other conditions the number may be increased. The palmitic is
present in largest amounts, and assertion has been made that
the coloring matter of the fat is most intimately associated with
it. The yellow pigment of milk is called carotin, which is simi-
lar to the coloring matter found in carrots. The fats differ
chiefly in their hardness or melting point, and in their ability to
produce different flavors in butter.
HOW FEEDS AFFECT FAT
As previously stated, the feeds may and often do change the
color of milk and cream. Certain feeds also have a considerable
influence on the melting point of the butterfat. For example,
cottonseed meal produces a hard fat, while soybean meal pro-
duces a soft fat.
Buttermakers often experience difficulty in working the but-
ter, especially when molding it into prints. Sometimes the but-
ter may be so soft that it is almost impossible to make it into
prints. At other times it may be firm, and show good grain and
texture. This condition is influenced very largely by the feeds
used. The methods used in ripening and churning the product
must also be taken into consideration.

THE MILKER AS A FACTOR IN PRODUCTION
Good cows and good feed are two of the important factors
in profitable dairying, yet a great deal depends on the milker.
Good cows plus good feed plus a poor milker equals failure. To
produce the maximum flow of milk the cow must be milked reg-
ularly at the same hour each morning and night. In addition to
regularity it is important that she be milked dry each time. The
inclination of the cow is to produce no more milk than is needed
by the calf, and cows that have always nursed calves rarely if
ever become good milk producers.
Kindness is perhaps one of the biggest words in dairying. This
applies particularly to the milker. The qualifications of a good
milker are, in short, a liking for the work and a knowledge of
the machines-the cows-he is handling. A man who likes
dairy work and understands the mechanism of the cow is almost
sure to make a good milker. A man with this knowledge knows
that it is not profitable to chase a cow an hour or two each day
with a dog, or to curry her twice a day with a milk stool.
Such treatment is not conducive to the maximum flow of milk






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


OVER-CAPITALIZATION IS POSSIBLE
It is possible to over-capitalize the dairy business, that is, to
have too much invested in equipment, per cow. With the many
new equipment on the market there is a tendency to provide
too expensive buildings and equipment. The equipment should
be as sanitary and as simple as possible. Climatic conditions in
Florida are such that expensive barns are not necessary; the
essential considerations are a good floor, a good roof, and the
sides screened to keep out flies. On a small dairy farm it is easy
to get the business over-capitalized as some of the equipment
necessary for handling a few cows would be sufficient for more
cows than are kept.

QUALIFICATIONS OF A GOOD DAIRYMAN
Dairying is a line of work that few persons are capable of
doing right. It is doubtful if one percent of the Florida farmers
know how to conduct a dairy successfully for profit. The man
capable of producing milk that will meet all sanitary require-
ments, etc., is an unusual agriculturist and is worthy of success
in almost any profession. To be successful the dairyman must
know how to breed animals successfully. He must also know
how to care for and feed them to develop their capacity for milk
production. He must have a good practical knowledge of ani-
mals. He must be observing so that he may note anything un-
usual when looking over his herd. He should recognize and diag-
nose immediately any disturbance in an animal, and remove any
factor that might cause bad milk or decrease its flow. The pro-
ducer of milk must be acquainted with milk and know how to
handle it.
Those who have had experience in handling dairy cows and
have kept records of individual cows in the herd need not be told
that there is a wide variation in the amount of milk and butter
produced by different individuals. It is not uncommon, in fact
it is of common occurrence in a herd of ordinary size, that cer-
tain animals will produce twice as much milk and butter, or
even more, during the year as other animals of the same age, the
same breeding, and with the same amount of feed and care. To
be a successful dairyman advantage must be taken of this wide
variation in production, otherwise milk and butter will not be
produced as economically as they should be.
Altho the amount of milk produced per cow is not the only
factor to be considered in figuring the cost of production, it is.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


OVER-CAPITALIZATION IS POSSIBLE
It is possible to over-capitalize the dairy business, that is, to
have too much invested in equipment, per cow. With the many
new equipment on the market there is a tendency to provide
too expensive buildings and equipment. The equipment should
be as sanitary and as simple as possible. Climatic conditions in
Florida are such that expensive barns are not necessary; the
essential considerations are a good floor, a good roof, and the
sides screened to keep out flies. On a small dairy farm it is easy
to get the business over-capitalized as some of the equipment
necessary for handling a few cows would be sufficient for more
cows than are kept.

QUALIFICATIONS OF A GOOD DAIRYMAN
Dairying is a line of work that few persons are capable of
doing right. It is doubtful if one percent of the Florida farmers
know how to conduct a dairy successfully for profit. The man
capable of producing milk that will meet all sanitary require-
ments, etc., is an unusual agriculturist and is worthy of success
in almost any profession. To be successful the dairyman must
know how to breed animals successfully. He must also know
how to care for and feed them to develop their capacity for milk
production. He must have a good practical knowledge of ani-
mals. He must be observing so that he may note anything un-
usual when looking over his herd. He should recognize and diag-
nose immediately any disturbance in an animal, and remove any
factor that might cause bad milk or decrease its flow. The pro-
ducer of milk must be acquainted with milk and know how to
handle it.
Those who have had experience in handling dairy cows and
have kept records of individual cows in the herd need not be told
that there is a wide variation in the amount of milk and butter
produced by different individuals. It is not uncommon, in fact
it is of common occurrence in a herd of ordinary size, that cer-
tain animals will produce twice as much milk and butter, or
even more, during the year as other animals of the same age, the
same breeding, and with the same amount of feed and care. To
be a successful dairyman advantage must be taken of this wide
variation in production, otherwise milk and butter will not be
produced as economically as they should be.
Altho the amount of milk produced per cow is not the only
factor to be considered in figuring the cost of production, it is.






Bulletin 142, Dairying in Florida


absolutely essential for farmers at the present time to increase
the production per cow; for with even the best of management
the majority of dairy cows in the State are not profitable.
COW TESTING ASSOCIATIONS
Nothing will furnish a greater incentive to increase the pro-
duction of dairy cows than a state, county or community cow
testing association. Following the organization of such asso-
ciations, dairying is put on a business basis. So long as 1he dairy
business is conducted in a haphazard sort of way it will be a
gamble. Few dairymen in the State keep individual production
records, and there is much of speculation in their operations.
With cow testing associations in operation the dairyman
would know the producing ability of every cow in his herd; all
would be on an equal footing. The poor producers would be
eliminated for the reason that they take time, labor, feed and
care which the busy dairyman cannot afford to give them.
Keeping individual records enables the dairyman to cull out the
unprofitable cows. It also indicates the high-producers from
which the calves should be saved to build up the herd.
Keeping a record of the feed consumed and the milk produced
by each individual in the herd is simply putting dairying on a
business basis, which is the only way to conduct any business
economically.
SOME DAIRY POINTERS
1. The individual cow is the foundation of dairying.
2. The dairy is a factory, and like all factories, the larger the
production of each machine (the individual cow) the lower is
the cost of production.
3. Only by keeping- records of production can the value of
individual cows be known.
4. The feeding of scrub cows and the "scrub" feeding of good
cows are two of the commonest mistakes in dairying.
5. Save all heifer calves from the best producing cows in the
herd to replace the unprofitable cows.
6. Use a good sire. Without a good sire improvement in the
herd is impossible.
7. Get rid of the unprofitable cows in the dairy. The milk
scales and Babcock test will point them out.
8. Proof that kindness and regularity in milking and feeding
is appreciated by the dairy cow will be shown in the larger- flow
of milk.





76 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

9. Don't milk average cows. They return no profit. Keep
only the best.
10. Grow plenty of feed for the dairy herd. Feeding from
the sack takes the biggest part of the profits.
11. Every dairyman should have a silo.
12. Good milk cannot be produced in unsanitary surround-
ings.
13. It is not a question of how many cows you can support-
make them support you.
14. Profit by the experience of others. Have the courage to
change faulty methods for better ones.




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