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Group Title: Economic information report - Food and Resources Economics Department - 233
Title: Revenues and expenditures in Florida a comparison with other states
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027277/00001
 Material Information
Title: Revenues and expenditures in Florida a comparison with other states
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: 20 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Clouser, R. L ( Rodney L )
Publisher: Food & Resource Economics Dept., Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1987
 Subjects
Subject: Revenue -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Finance, Public -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Expenditures, Public -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Rodney L. Clouser.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "May 1987."
Funding: Economic information report (Gainesville, Fla.) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027277
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001547722
oclc - 22579416
notis - AHG1271

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Revenue and expenditures in Florida
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Summary
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





SRodney L. Clouser


Economic Information
Report 233


Revenues and Expenditures


in Florida:


A


with other


Comparison


States


Food E Resource Economics Department
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611


May 1987












ABSTRACT

Revenue and exoendrciture: data for Florida is reported and
compared to other states ir the U.S. for 1982-83. The information
presented is intended for use as a resource tool rather than a
detailed in-depth study. Per capital expenditure levels are
reported For the following categories: secondary schools, police
protection, fire protection, health and hospitals, public
welfare, highways and total expenditures.


Keywords: Revenues, exceditures by states, total expenditures.












REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES IN FLORIDA:

A COMPARISON WITH OTHER STATES






State and local governments have a major influence on

both the local/state economy and the well-being of citizens

who reside in the state. Without the collection and the

subsequent expenditure of revenues units of government would

not be capable of providing services such as police and fire

protection, education, transportation and other various

services demanded by residents.

Discussion of taxes, revenues or expenditures often

leads to heated debate. In many instances disagreements are

the result of misinformation or a general lack of knowledge

concerning the facts. Therefore, the objectives of this

manuscript are (1) to present information on tax revenues

and expenditures in an orderly manner for interested

citizens and public decision makers, and (2) to compare the

incidence of revenues and expenditures by units of Florida

government to other states in the U.S. The manuscript and

information contained within should be used as a resource

document rather than a detailed in-depth study.



Data Sources and Limitations

Data presented in this publication were obtained from

secondary sources for the most recent year available and are

referenced at the end of each table. Data are aggregated in

broadly defined categories to obtain state totals and









-2-


therefore may not match amounts recorded in more detail by

local or state government units.

In most instances data are reported in per capital or

percentage terms (e.g., a percent of personal income).

Although total revenues or total expenditures may be

interesting the concept is not useful for comparison

purposes because size differences are not taken into

account. A large state like Florida would be expected to

raise more revenue and have higher total expenditures than

would a smaller state. Per capital measures eliminate the

effect of size and indicate the impact per resident in each

state.

It should be recognized that equal expenditure levels

between states does not imply equal service levels. The

same dollar expenditure does not necessarily purchase equal

quantities of service nor does it account for different

levels of efficiency among governmental units. For example,

states with large land areas and small populations (e.g.,

Wyoming) might be expected to have higher per capital

expenditures for police protection than more populated

smaller states with larger urban centers. Likewise, the

"state averages" reported here imply that some counties

would spend more and some counties would spend less. For

example, a sparsely populated rural county with a large land

area may pay more per capital for police services than the

statewide average.

Finally, data reported in this text will become more

useful over time as trends in revenues and expenditures are











traced. Data presented in this report coincide with a state

published report, Citizens Choice Amendment 1: Impact on

Florida State Revenues. It was during debate of the

possible constitutional amendment, Citizens Choice on

Government Revenue, that the issue of relative taxes paid by

state residents was raised. Therefore, rather than

establishing trends backwards in time it was decided to use

the information collected and published by the state for

1980, 1981 and 1982 as the basis for this report.



Revenue and Expenditures in Florida



Florida is one of the largest populated states in the

U.S. (Table 1) and ranked seventh nationally with a

population in excess of 10.6 million in 1983. Primarily

because of its size the state ranks sixth in terms of total

personal income (Table 2). However, when size is taken into

consideration Florida's rank drops considerably. Florida's

per capital personal income level in 1984 was $12,763 and was

approximately the U.S. average (Table 3). A review of 1984

per capital income levels indicates that many of the states

ranking higher than Florida are located in the northeastern

U.S. and that Florida per capital personal income is above

the level of most southern states.

In terms of general revenue from own sources (e.g.,

state sales tax, gross receipt taxes, corporate taxes,

property taxes, etc.) at both the local and state level,

Florida collected $1,415 (Table 4) per capital. This is











almost 17 percent less than the national average. However,

there was a tendency for southern states to rank in the

lower one-third of all states for per capital general

revenue of state/local government from own sources. Florida

ranks even lower when general revenue of state/local

government from own sources is evaluated as a percent of

personal income. Only two states in the U.S., Missouri and

New Hampshire, paid a lower percentage\of per capital

personal income for state/local government revenues from own

sources (Table 5). Florida is approximately 15.5 percent

below the U.S. average.

Total per capital general expenditures for state/local

government in 1982-83 for Florida were $1,645 (Table 6) and

this also was 17 percent less than the U.S. average of

$1986. Texas, the southern state most similar to Florida in

population spent $1,731 per capital or about five percent

more than Florida. Table 7 reveals that per capital

expenditures at the state level in Florida were $899. The

$899 per capital expenditure ranked Florida as the fourth

lowest level in the U.S. This state expenditure level was

25 percent below the U.S. average of $1193 and lower than

every southern state except Tennessee ($831).

The remainder of this publication will concentrate on

more specific public services provided by government at both

the state and local level. One of the larger expenditures

of government is for education. Although the education

function spans several different levels (elementary,

secondary, vocational, continuing, higher) states are













probably most involved, in terms of the importance of funds,

nt the elementary and secondary levels. There are several

different methods by which the state/local funding levels

could be evaluated. Most center around the concepts of

average daily membership (ADM), average daily attendance

(ADA), and full-time equivalents (FTE) of students. The

problem is that each state has a different funding formula,

collects different information, and it is difficult to

convert to a common unit (e.g., convert FTE to ADM).

Therefore Table 8 bases comparisons among the states on

total current expenditures as a percent of personal income.

This approach also has its weaknesses but represents a

consistent and available method to compare states. However,

it must be recognized that if a state has half the number of

students of some other state that a smaller percentage of

personal income is required to generate equivalent revenue

amounts per student. Based on this method, Florida expends

about 4.9 percent of total personal income on public

elementary and secondary schools. This is about 19 percent

below the U.S. average and the fourth lowest level in the

U.S. It is also lower than any other southern state.

Another large expenditure category for state/local

government is providing for public safety. Per capital

expenditures for police protection in Florida for 1982-83

were $91.63 (Table 9). This is 20 percent above the U.S.

average ($76.65) and is also greater than per capital

expenditures in other southern states. However, the per

capital expenditure in Florida is less than several other









-6-


large populated areas (NY, California, Washington, D.C.).

It is also less than in the scarcely populated states

(Nevada, Wyoming, Alaska) Expenditures above the U.S.

average in this category are not surprising because of the

relatively large area of the state, a rapidly expanding

population and well documented problems associated with

illegal drugs entering the state. Fire protection is

another important component of public safety. Per capital

expenditures in Florida were $32.42 (Table 10) which was

approximately the national average. Although Florida ranked

at the mean nationally, per capital expenditures were higher

than other southern states.

Health and hospital expenditures by local/state

government were $207 (Table 11) per capital and exceeded the

national average by 10 percent. However, this might be

expected for two reasons. First, Florida has a large

elderly population, and in many instances these individuals

require health care services more often. Secondly, and

related to the first issue, the types of equipment and

services needed are often more expensive as illnesses

associated with age become more frequent.

State and local welfare expenditures per capital in

Florida are the second lowest in the country ($116.52) and

about $135 per capital less than the U.S. average (Table 12).

Most welfare expenditures are funded by the federal

government and include old age assistance programs, aid to

dependent children and aid to the blind and disabled.

State/local funds are most often used to supplement benefits













and provide for general relief programs not covered through

federal programs. Therefore, it is difficult to make

comparisons across states. Cost of living differences may

result in larger payments in some states and other states

may have adopted and supported additional public assistance

programs.

Expenditures on highways by state/local government is

the last specific function to be reviewed. Table 13

indicates Florida residents paid $129 per capital for

highways in 1982-83. This was $28 per capital less than the

U.S. average and Florida had the 10th lowest per capital

expenditure in the country. The only southern states with

expenditures less than Florida's were North and South

Carolina.



Summary

Data from 1982-83 indicated that per capital revenue

collected by state/local government from own sources is

relatively low in Florida compared to other states in the

U.S. Florida per capital revenue collections were $1,415

while the U.S. average was $1,696. Per capital general

expenditures in Florida were $1,645 while the U.S. average

was $1,986. In brief, based on the 1982-83 data, per capital

revenues and expenditures in Florida are below the levels

spent by many other large populous states.









-8-


Table 1. Total resident population, 1983 (in thousands).

California 25,174 Connecticut 3,138
New York 17,667 Arizona 2,963
Texas 15,724 Iowa 2,905
Pennsylvania 11,895 Oregon 2,662
Illinois 11,486 Mississippi 2,587
Ohio 10,746 Kansas 2,425
Florida 10,680 Arkansas 2,328
Michigan 9,069 West Virginia 1,965
New Jersey 7,468 Utah 1,619
North Carolina 6,082 Nebraska 1,597
Massachusetts 5,767 New Mexico 1,399
Georgia 5,732 Maine 1,146
Virginia 5,550 Hawaii 1,023
Indiana 5,479 Idaho 989
Missouri 4,970 New Hampshire 959
Wisconsin 4,751 Rhode Island 955
Tennessee 4,685 Nevada 891
Louisiana 4,438 Montana 817
Maryland 4,304 South Dakota 700
Washington 4,300 North Dakota 680
Minnesota 4,144 D.C. 623
Alabama 3,959 Delaware 606
Kentucky 3,714 Vermont 525
Oklahoma 3,298 Wyoming 514
South Carolina 3,264 Alaska 479
Colorado 3,139 United States 233,981

-------------------------------------------------------------------

Source: Bureau of the Census, Governmental Finances in 1982-83,
page 82 (Total population, July 1, 1983).












Table 2. Total personal income, 1984 (million dollars).

California $371,202.00 Arizona $36,151.00
New York $253,934.00 Iowa $35,382.00
Texan $201,013.00 South Carolina $33,385.00
Illinois $158,876.00 Kansas $32,300.00
Pennylvania $146,545.00 Oregon $31,052.00
Florida $140,082.00 Arkansas $23,033.00
Ohio $132,842.00 Mississippi $22,802.00
New Jersey $116,029.00 Nebraska $19,962.00
Michigan $114,408.00 West Virginia $18,991.00
Massachusetts $85,709.00 Utah $16,074.00
Virginia $74,694.00 New Mexico $14,610.00
Georgia $67,416.00 Hawaii $13,547.00
North Carolina $66,891.00 New Hampshire $12,885.00
Indiana $64,418.00 Maine $12,505.00
Maryland $62,906.00 Rhode Island $12,331.00
Miseouri $60,847.00 Nevada $12,132.00
Wisconsin $59,453.00 D.C. $10,658.00
Washington $55,633.00 Idaho $10,099.00
Minnenota $55,129.00 Alaska $8,739.00
Connccticut $52,221.00 Montana $8,690.00
Tennc::see $49,142.00 North Dakota $8,479.00
Louiriana $48,233.00 Delaware $8,383.00
Colorado $44,004.00 South Dakota $7,813.00
Alabama $39,869.00 Wyoming $6,252.00
Oklahoma $38,438.00 Vermont $5,723.00
Kentucky $38,347.00 United States $3,020,259.00


Sourc-?: Survey of Current Business, August 1985, page 18.









-10-


Table 3. Per capital personal income, 1984.
------------------------------------------


Alaska
D.C.
Connecticut
New Jersey
Massachusetts
California
Maryland
New York
Colorado
Illinois
Delaware
Nevada
Virginia
Kansas
Minnesota
New Hampshire
Hawaii
Rhode Island
Washington
United States
Florida
Michigan
Texas
Wisconsin
Nebraska
Ohio


$17,487.00
$17,113.00
$16,556.00
$15,440.00
$14,784.00
$14,487.00
$14,464.00
$14,318.00
$13,847.00
$13,802.00
$13,685.00
$13,320.00
$13,254.00
$13,248.00
$13,247.00
$13,192.00
$13,042.00
$12,820.00
$12,792.00
$12,789.00
$12,763.00
$12,607.00
$12,572.00
$12,474.00
$12,430.00
$12,355.00


North Dakota
Pennsylvania
Wyoming
Iowa
Missouri
Arizona
Indiana
Oklahoma
Oregon
Georgia
South Dakota
North Carolina
Maine
Louisiana
Vermont
Montana
Tennessee
Kentucky
New Mexico
South Carolina
Idaho
Alabama
Arkansas
Utah
West Virginia
Mississippi


$12,352.00
$12,314.00
$12,224.00
$12,160.00
$12,151.00
$11,841.00
$11,717.00
$11,655.00
$11,611.00
$11,551.00
$11,069.00
$10,850.00
$10,813.00
$10,808.00
$10,802.00
$10,546.00
$10,419.00
$10,300.00
$10,262.00
$10,116.00
$10,092.00
$9,992.00
$9,805.00
$9,733.00
$9,728.00
$8,777.00


Source: Survey of Current Business, August 1985, page 18.
Source: Survey of Current Business, August 1985, page 18.











-11-


Table 4. Per capital general revenue of state and local
government from own sources, 1982-1983.
---------------------------------------------------------------


Alaska
Wyoming
D.C.
New York
Minnsota
New Mexico
Delc.'are
Montnna
Hawvii
Michigan
Wisconsin
Nev Jersey
Nevcda
Orccon
North Dakota
Maryland
Washington
California
Rhode Island
Connecticut
Mannichusetts
Colorado
Nebraska
United States
Kancas
Louisiana


$10,922.97
$3,834.05
$2,505.46
$2,394.16
$2,147.35
$2,027.66
$1, 988. 45
$1,950.07
$1,936.46
$1,905.35
$1,903.50
$1,896.01
$1,883.84
$1,863.49
$1,861.76
$1,852.44
$1,845.91
$1,835.91
$1,821.68
$1,795.86
$1,785.35
-$1,753.42
$1,739.57
$1,696.27
$1,680.91
$1,673.57


Arizona
Iowa
Illinois
Utah
Vermont
Oklahoma
Pennsylvania
Ohio
Texas
Georgia
Virginia
Florida
South Dakota
Maine
West Virginia
Indiana
New Hampshire
Alabama
South Carolina
Idaho
Missouri
North Carolina
Mississippi
Tennessee
Kentucky
Arkansas


$1,647.42
$1,643.79
$1,621.86
$1,543.42
$1,539.81
$1,527.02
$1,526.02
$1,521.99
$1,513.58
$1,508.90
$1,488.63
$1,414.67
$1,410.43
$1,386.92
$1,365.04
$1,337.34
$1,323.68
$1,307.38
$1,286.83
$1,279.18
$1,271.25
$1,261.35
$1,218.59
$1,212.83
$1,198.98
$1,125.17


Source: Bureau of the Census, Governmental Finances in 1982-83,
pages 6-14 (general.revenue from own sources, total),











-12-


Table 5. General revenue of statp and local government from own
sources, 1982-83, as a % of per capital personal income.

Alaska 67.19 % low;i 15.23 %
Wyoming 30.99 % Maryland 15.14 %
New Mexico 22.06 X South Carolina 15.14 %
Montana 20.36 % Alabama 15.12 %
New York 19.44 % Massachusetts 14.77 %
Minnesota 19.22 7 California 14.61 %
Oregon 18.03 % South Dakota 14.59 %
Wisconsin 17.67 % New Jersey 14.49 %
Michigan 17.39 % Kansas 14.29 %
Utah 17.39 % Ohio 14.25 %
D.C. 17.22 % Colorado 14.25 %
North Dakota 17.12 % Idaho 14.17 %
Rhode Island 16.99 % North Carolina 13.95 %
Delaware 16.95 % Pennsylvania 13.93 %
Hawaii 16.62 % Tennessee 13.62 %
Louisiana 16.36 % Oklahoma 13.43 %
Nebraska 16.28 % Kentucky 13.42 %
Vermont 16.20 % Virginia 13.42 %
Arizona 16.19 % Illinois 13.40 .
Washington 15.97 % Indiana 13.35 %
Georgia 15.75 % Arkansas 13.27 %
Nevada 15.72 % Texas 13.25 %
Mississippi 15.67 % Connecticut 13.06 %
West Virginia 15.57 % Florida 12.89 %
Maine 15.34 % Missouri 12.50 %
United States 15.27 % New Hampshire 12.34 %


Source: Ibid., page 77 (all general revenue from own sources)
divided by page 82 (personal income per capital .










-13-


Tahbe 6. Per capital total general expenditures of state and local
government 1982-83.
. . . .. . .. .. . . .. . .. . . .


Alnnka
Wyoring
D.C.
New York
Havnii
Minnesota
Nevnda
New Mexico
Michigan
Orelon
North Dakota
California
Maryland
Delaware
Rhode Island
Wisconsin
Montana
Washington
Louisiana
Macoachusetts
New Jersey
Vermont
Colorado
Iov;a
Connecticut
United States


$8, 662. 30
$3,568.82
$3,560.46
$2,790.19
$2,410.89
$2,404.40
$2,339.78
$2,294.77
$2, 237.91
$2, 236. 93
$2, 234. 24
$2,217.66
$2, 214.70
32, 180. 63
$2, 171.57
$2,154.15
$2,138.91
$2,128.29
$2,118.98
$2,106. 77
$2,086.44
$2,080.86
$2,024.19
$2,016. 19
$1,989.27
$1,985.87


K an sas
Nebraska
Illinois
Arizona
Utah
Ohio
Georgia
Maine
South Dakota
Pennsylvania
Oklahoma
Texas
West Virginia
New Hampshire
Virginia
Alabama
Florida
Idaho
Indiana
Ken tucky
Mississippi
North Carolina
Tennessee
Missouri
South Carolina
Arkansas


$1, 961. 37
$1,899.36
$1,897.02
$1,885.36
$1,855.11
$1,797.39
$1,786.25
$1, 769. 74
$1,768.76
$1,761. 17
$1,753.63
$1,730.51
$1,725.13
$1,721.28
$1,709.93
$1,668.43
$1,644.65
$1,600.20
$1, 591.07
$1,554.03
$1,548.21
$1,496.98
$1,493.36
$1,479.35
$1,447.89
$1,371.75


Source: Ibid., page 77 (total direct general expenditure).










-14-


Table 7. Per capital total general expenditures of state
government for all functions, 1982.
.......................................................................


Alaska
Wyoming
Hawaii
New Mexico
North Dakota
Delaware
Minnesota
California
Rhode Island
New York
Washington
Vermont
Nevada
Louisiana
Massachusetts
Wisconsin
Oregon
Maryland
New Jersey
Michigan
Oklahoma
West Virginia
Utah
Montana
United States
Iowa


$7,547.77
$2,131.54
$1,892.16
$1,744.01
$1,713.27
$1,692.23
$1, 566.55
$1,499.59
$1,480.61
$1,454.20
$1,426.28
$1,409.20
$1,387.35
$1,372.55
$1,354.50
$1,317.87
$1,308.41.
$1,284.43
$1,251.13
$1,242.33
$1,222.08
$1,205.89
$1,202.01
$1,199.04
$1,192.91
$1,183.54


Kentucky
South Dakota
Connecticut
Colorado
Arizona
Idaho
Mississippi
Alabama
Virginia
11 inois
North Carolina
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
Kansas
Georgia
Nebraska
Ohio
Arkansas
Indiana
Texas
Florida
New Hampshire
Tennessee
Missouri


$1, 12.01
$1,154.31
$1,149.75
$1,125.57
$1,112.74
$1,091.27
$1,081.18
$1,080.79
$1,073.62
$1,062.77
$1,052.85
$1,050.71
$1,041.26
$1,030.17
$1, 016.68
$1,011.03
$1,003.98
$964.66
$944.50
$937.73
$926.93
$898.57
$892.37
$830.55
$806.67


Source: Bureau of the Census, State Government Finances in 1982,
pages 12-18 (general expenditure).














Table] 8. Total current experndtul eP 1t.: public elementary and
secondary schools in 1982-83 a a a % o.-t p-ersonal income, 1983.


Ala7ka 11. 8b %
Wyoming 11.64 1%
New Nexico 9. 42
Utah 9.30 %
Montana 8.52 %
Vermont 7. 89 %
Oregon 7.85 %
Iowv 7.47 %
North Dakota 7. 39 %
Arizona 7.34 %
Wicconsin 7. 23 %
West Virginia 7.15 %
Alabama 7.05 %
Michigan 6 92'; %
Oklahoma 6.89 */
Minnesota 6.85 %
Mississippi 6.84 %
Nebraska ,.83 %
Delaware 6. 78 %
Loui -iana 6.70 '
South Carolina 6.55 %
South Dakota 6.51 %
Tex::3 6. 49 %
Colorado 6. 45 %
Washington 6.37 %'
Idaho 6. 33 %


North iCarol.lna 6.1 33 %
New York 6. 32 %*
Indiana 6.23 %
Kentucky 6.21 %
Kansas 6. 21 %
Maine 6.15 %
Arkansas 6.15 %
Rhode Island 6. 14 %
United States 5. 99 %
Ohio 5. 90 %
Maryland 5.77 %
Hawaii 5.62 %
Ieorgia 5.57 %
Virginia 5.54 %
La.lifor nia 5.45 %
Tennessee 5. 45 %
11 no is 5.29 %
Nevada 5. 18 %
P'enn-y lvania 5. 17 %
New Jersey 5.10 %
MXssouri 4.95 %
New Hampshire 4.87 %
Fl or'ida 4.85 %
Massachusetts 4. 56 %
Connecticut 4.49 .
D.C. 4.41 %


Source: Bureau of the Census, Governmental Finances in 1982-83,
page 78 (Total education), divided by Survey of Current
Business, Aguqut 196l-, page 18.










-16-


Table 9. Per capital expenditures of state and local government
for police protection, 1982-83.

D.C. $253.49 Ohio $66.36
Alaska $237.24 Minnesota $66.06
Nevada $117.70 Pennsylvania S62.45
Wyoming $114.82 Montana $61.89
New York $110.02 Virginia $61.53
California $101.30 New Hampshire $59.58
New Jersey $100.22 Texas $59.07
Arizona $98.21 Georgia $58.90
Florida $91.63 Oklahoma $57.76
Illinois $89.88 Kansas $57.34
Wisconsin $87.66 Iowa $57.31
Michigan $86,84 North Carolina $55.72
Maryland $83.26 Idaho $55.68
Colorado $82.67 Vermont $54.18
Delaware $81.03 Nebraska $53.35
Louisiana $79.3b Alabama $52.68
Hawaii $78.81 Tennessee $50.57
New Mexico $78.24 South Dakota $50.06
United States $76.65 Indiana $48.46
Oregon $75.62 South Carolina $47.41
Massachusetts $75.22 North Dakota $46.53
Connecticut $74.11 Maine $44.31
Rhode Island $72.32 M:issisippi $42.06
Washington $71.23 Arkansas $39.11
Missouri $68.07 Kentucky $39.07
Utah $67.13 West Virginia $37.61

Source: Bureau of the Census, Governmental Finances in 1982-83,
page 79 (police protection, direct general expenditure).










-17-


Table 10. Per capital expenditure t of t ate and
for fire protection, 1982-83.

Alaska $113.94 Texas
D.C. $84.06 Mlnnesota
Rhode Island $61.51 Oklahoma
Masachusetts $57.50 Indiana
Nevada $57.30 Tennessee
Nev York $46.45 Utah
Connecticut $45.97 Georgia
Oregon $45.74 Nebraska
California $44.49 Kansas
Washington $40.13 Louisiana
HaVra L1 $38. 81 M1ss ur i
Maryland $36.49 Idaho
Illinois $36.33 Iowa
Wyoming $34.01 Alabama
Michigan $33.86 North Carolina
Ohio $33.31 Vermont
Nev Jersey $33.11 Pennsylvania
New Hampshire $32. 86 Kentucky
Florida $32.42 Montana
United States $32.40 North Dakota
Wisconsin $31.61 Wes.t Virginia
Virginia $31.44 Mississippi
Arizona $31.07 Delaware
Colorado $29.53 South Dakota
New Mexico $28.55 South Carolina
Maine $28. 36 Arkansas


local governments


$27.63
$27.46
$27.08
$26.18
$25.45
$24.48
$24.40
$24.39
$24.24
$23.62
$22. 14
$21.62
$21.35
$20.68
$19.31
$17.54
$17.53
$17.38
$16.89
$16.86
$15.85
$15.85
$15.81
$14.98
$13.69
$13.64


Source: Ibid., page 79 (tlre protection, direct general
expenditure).










- 18 -


Table 11. Per capital expenditures of state and local governments,
health and hospitals, 1982-83.

D.C. S368.94 Colorado $170.79
Georgia $344.74 North Caol ina $167.94
Wyoming $342.72 Rhode Island $166.93
Alaska $293.93 Kansas $165.99
New York $280.01 Washington $165.37
Mississippi $250.39 Missouri $160.25
Nevada $248.09 Oklahoma $158.02
Louisiana $247.14 Virginia $156.24
Alabama $238.1.3 Idaho $155.27
Michigan $237.00 West Virginia $154.94
Iowa $209.98 Arkansas $143.58
South Carolina $208.60 North Dakota $140.49
Florida $207.48 Oregon $135.10
Minnesota $207.24 Connecticut $135.09
Wisconsin $205.98 Arizona $131.02
California $202.27 Pennsylvania $127.46
Massachusetts $197.31 New Jersey $124.49
Tennessee $196.25 Illinois $121.87
United States $188.56 Montana $116.33
Maryland $187.32 Vermont $113.25
Ohio $187.02 Utah $111.30
New Mexico $186.64 Delaware $111.16
Nebraska $183.69 New Hampshire $94.82
Hawaii $180.94 Kentucky $90.42
Indiana $173.70 South Dakota $86.90
Texas $171.23 Maine $76.21

Source: Ibid., page 78 (health and hospitals, total).











-19-


Table? 12. Per capital expenditures of state and local governments
for public welfare, 1982-83.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
D.C. $602.26 Montana $203.71
New York $442.97 Colorado $187.17
Michigan $394.28 Nebraska $184.44
Rhode Island $380.29 North Dakota $180.39
Alarka $376.58 Georgia $178.47
Mascachusetts $368.32 Oregon $174.36
Minnesota $356.07 Indiana $173.87
California $356.06 South Dakota $171.97
Maine $313.94 Arkansas $170.03
Pennsylvania $293.02 Mississippi $169.36
Haw ii $283.18 Virginia $168.69
Connecticut $282.00 Missouri $163.50
Illinois $280.99 New Mexico $159.73
Ohio $267.80 Utah $157.85
Vernont $262.07 Tennessee $156.09
Wisconsin $261.86 West Virginia $152.63
New Jersey $254.54 North Carolina $149.59
United States $251.02 Wyoming $148.84
Iovn $234.97 Alabama $141.33
Maryland $234.10 South Carolina $139.14
New Hampshire $220.33 Nevada $130.60
Oklahoma $216.12 Idaho $130.16
Washington $214.70 Texas $125.82
Louisiana $210.94 Arizona $117.26
Kansas $207.68 Florida $116.52
Kentucky $205.42 Delaware $105.45

Source: Ibid., page 78 (public welfare).
Source: Ibid., page 78 (public welfare).












-20-


Table 13. Per capital expenditures ot state and local government
for highways, 1982-83.
- - - - - -.. .. . . .. . . . .


Alaska
Wyoming
New Mexico
Montana
South Dakota
North Dakota
Iowa
Nevada
Louisiana
Nebraska
Minnesota
Vermont
Washington
Delaware
Kansas


$871.99
$496.41
$283.55
$279.78
$279.16
$266.82
$248.60
$247.13
$246.92
$243.93
$241.19
$239.25
$230.69
$216.74
$216.10


Utah
New York
Georga
Alabama
1llinois
Vi rgini a
Texas
United States
Arizona
H awai i
Arkansas
Pennsylvania
Missouri
New Jersey
Tennessee


New Hampshire $214.54 Connecticut
West Virginia $201.96 Florida
Wisconsin $198.96 Ohio
Maryland $198.28 Michigan
Maine $198.04 Massachusetts
Mississippi $194.63 Indiana
Idaho $192.23 North Carxolina
Kentucky $189.18 D.C.
Colorado $182.75 Rhode Island
Oklahoma $176.51 Calliornia
Oregon $168. 73 South C(arolina

Source: Ibid., page 79 (highways, total).


$167.18
$162. 10
$161.97
$161.77
5159.44
$159.10
$158. 26
$156.66
$152.74
$150.65
145. 12
$143.91
$137. 7
$136.87
$136.44
$131.39
$128.91
$127.86
$120.83
$116.21
$114.46
$114.01
$110.03
$102.07
$101.99
$79. 35
.. .. .. . . .




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