BULLETIN No. 4
STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE,
LAKE CITY, FLA.
REV. JAS. P. DEPASS, DIRECTOR.
TIMES-UNION PUBLISHING HOUSE,
On coming into office as Director of the Experiment
Station, which was January 22d of this year, I received no
notes of unreported experiments from my predecessor, and
hence had no material for Bulletin 4, due January 1st. Hav-
ing had many calls for this Bulletin, and a great many
applications for literature on peach growing, after mature
deliberation, I thought I could not better serve the pub-
lic, supply the missing link between Bulletins 3 and 5, and
meet the requirements of the law, than by giving my experi-
ence of over twenty years in cultivating the peach. While
this Bulletin does not pretend to be an exhaustive treatise of
the subject, it is written in the hope of being of some service
to those who are engaged, or may wish to engage, in the busi-
ness of growing this fruit, either for profit or home consump-
tion. I have now growing on the Station a number of varie-
ties, said to do well in Florida, and shall this fall collect others
from this and other States, and, if possible, from those foreign
countries whose climate and soil induce the hope that their
best varieties may prove valuable acquisitions. In future Bul-
letins, as facts develop, I shall report them, both as regards
the good and the bad, and if I introduce fruit worthy of dis-
tribution among our people, I shall take special care in doing
so. I shall be greatly obliged to any person originating a
new peach to send me samples, for which I am willing to pay,
and will purchase buds or trees of any promising variety for
trial. I shall be obliged also to have my attention called to
any new insect or disease that may affect the peach or any
deciduous fruit in the State.
PEACH GROWING IN FLORIDA.
Before the war the people raised peaches in abundance
for home use, planting in favored spots, such as their gardens,
horse and cow lots, and they rarely missed a crop. After the
war an effort was made to introduce the early and choice sum-
mer varieties of other States, but failure and loss was the re-
sult. There are few, if any, of the most popular varieties of
other States that will succeed in Florida. In consequence of
this failure, the opinion very generally obtained that peaches.
would not grow here, nor was it until the introduction of the
Peen-to, or Peen Tau,* in 1874 or 1875, that public attention
began to be directed to this fruit, and public interest revived
in favor of its cultivation.
THE SOIL ADAPTED TO ITS GROWTH.
Perhaps there is no fruit we have more generally adapted
to our soil than the peach; still it is a known fact that there
are exceptional places where it does not thrive. While no one-
can determine these localities without a trial, still it is well to
note that land which is too thirsty, as well as too wet, is not
suited to the peach, unless water can be supplied in the one
instance, and drainage in the other. The mere fact of land
having a clay sub-soil, or clay in the soil, or an absence of clay
near the surface is no criterion to judge of its adaptability to.
this fruit, or any of the deciduous fruits that grow in our
climate. I have fully demonstrated this in my own experi-
ence, and have seen the tree thrive and fruit in all classes of
soil common to our State. It is a fact, beyond question, that
trees in the same orchard, of the same kind, and, as far as the,
eye can judge, the soil in all essentials similar, receiving the
same treatment, vary both as to growth and fruiting. While
this is rare, still the fact exists, and there is no accounting
for it, so far as I know. But, generally, throughout our
entire State, where proper attention is paid the peach, the
grower will be rewarded for his labor and outlay, if he will
abandon the idea that it does not require either no attention
or too much care, or is overfed or not fed at all.
*Peen-to Is the name among the common classes of China, but the Manda-
rin dictionaries use the words Pien Tau, which means fiat peach.
Whether the land be high or low, hammock or pine, fresh
land is the best, and always the best. Fresh hammock landis not
only costly, but difficult to prepare for an orchard. It is also
hard to work. Pine land can more easily and cheaply be put
in order, and is easier cultivated. It is better to cut the tim-
ber down and dig the stumps, but it is not necessary. The
peach grows among the deadened timber, and does not sustain
as much injury from falling limbs and trees as they decay, or
when the storms come and go, as one might expect. The
Providence that paints the lily and the violet, and watches
over the life of a sparrow, seems to care for the poor man's
orchard, in which lies, in part at least, his resources of daily
life. An orchard looks better clear of timber and stumps, but
these can be removed gradually, as time and opportunity ad-
mit. The hammock is richer, as a rule, in plant food, but the
difference in the cost of clearing and cultivatingis largely in fa-
vor of pine land, even though more fertilizing is necessary
every year; but hammock land needs fertilizing also, and it is
only a question of a few years when the expense in this line
will be equal. While fresh land is always best, still it is not
a necessity. Old land, already devoid of trees and stumps,
with much less trouble and expense, can be prepared for an
orchard. In preparing an old field, first break up thoroughly,.
then check off the distance you wish the trees to stand; dig-
the holes two feet deep by three feet square, and prepare as.
stated under the head of fertilizig, and you can plant in the-
hope of good fruit. Another good plan in preparing old land
is to place in the holes hammock mold, muck, or soil from
the depressions in pine land several weeks before planting, to.
which may be added a pound or two of any complete fertilizer,
or five or ten pounds of compost as per formula under head of
TIME TO PLANT.
The very best time is from the middle of December to the
middle of January. It is much better to plant before than af-
ter this time. In December the tree is dormant or inactive,
and the early varieties, such as the Peen-to type, awake about
the first of January, are in full bloom by the middle of the
month, and begin to put out leaves a week 'or so later. When
the tree is in bloom, or in half leaf, to transplant it is to en-
danger its life or health. When a tree is set back by reason
of too late planting, or becomes sickly through neglect, it is
cheaper and better to dig it up and replace it with another.
This year on the Station, although the season was favorable,
in consequence of late planting, which was done in February,
I lost a large number of thrifty trees, and those which lived,
although well cultivated and fertilized, did not do so well as
they would had they been planted earlier. I feel it a duty to
say, that while there is one chance for deciduous fruits doing
well planted after January, there are at least five against them.
The first effort a peach tree makes in growing, after being dor-
mant, is sending out delicate white, silk-like roots, which, if
exposed to air, wither directly. A tree planted in December
has in a month many of these little feeders, from one to five
inches long, on all its large roots. These rootlets play an im-
portant part in its nourishment, and hence, if dug up when in
bloom or in leaf (for when a tree begins to leaf its roots cease
to grow, nor do they begin to grow again until it is in
full leaf) suffers the loss of these roots, and if a short dry spell
follows, their loss is easily seen in the want of vigor, and often
THE DIEPTHI TO PLANT.'
In dry and sandy soils, trees should be placed deeper than
in wet or stiff land. The roots should be carefully trained in
their natural directions, and the dirt packed around them.
When the hole is filled, if the season is dry, water should be
freely applied. If planted when irrigation is used, or the land
is naturally wet, they ought not to be placed deeper than they
grew in nursery. This is determined by the earth marks
above the roots, and then allowance of an inch or two should
be made for the soil to settle.
Universal experience has demonstrated the absolute ne-
cessity of pruning early and often. In California, where the
peach is developed as near perfection as anywhere on this con-
tinent, some of the most successful growers begin to prune
when the tree is very small. Their plan is to plant the dor-
mant bud, and when it is two feet high to pinch off the top
and cause it to branch. They then rub off the sprouts, saving
five or six wood buds within six inches of the top, and train
these to produce a low head and short body. The object of
pruning is to keep the tree healthy and vigorous. If left alone
it runs to wood, bears only at the ends, and is of little value.
Headed back every year, and limbs which grow too fast pinched
off and made to branch, the peach lives to an old age, and
bears much fruit. The Monthly Monitor, printed at Bronson,
Levy county, Fla., says, in its September issue: "There are
numbers of 'native' trees in this county from fifteen to thirty-
five years old that bear heavy crops of the most delicious peaches
every year." Another tree is reported, thirty-seven years old,
bearing fifteen bushels. Cutting back forces the lateral limbs
to grow, and as the wood made one year is that which brings
the fruit the next, the cutting back must be done. Limbs
which grow down, or too straight, should be cut off; nor
should the branches be allowed to crowd each other. The
most desirable form of tree is either bowl or wine-glass shape.
Old trees that have been neglected should be cut back and
made to put out new wood. This sometimes kills the tree,
but it is better to kill and replace with another, than to let it
live and profit no one. As a rule, bearing trees should be
pruned in early spring, taking off about one-third of the growth
of the previous year. The judgment of intelligent growers,
however, should govern them in this direction, for sometimes
more should be taken off. Summer bearers, if not pruned in
spring, will not fully mature fruit buds for another season.
The fall growth should all be cut off. This is mainly the
cause of winter blooming. This growth, the next year, ma-
tures its buds in early fall; sheds its leaves, and bursts into
bloom after the first cold spell. This growth is produced af-
ter the fruit drops in summer, and has not time to mature fully
This should be regulated by the character of the soil.
Peaches do not require the richest land, nor will they do well
on poor land unless regularly and properly fed. But even the
richest land will soon be exhausted by this greedy feeder, un-
less its strength is sustained by prudent fertilizing.
The great difficulty in the way of growing this fruit in
Florida lies, first, in fertilizing, and, second, in the supply of
water in the dry seasons. Water and fertilizing very greatly
advances the maturity of fruit, and for early varieties this is
exceedingly desirable. In seasons when we have a fine sup-
ply of water the early fruit ripens from two to four weeks
sooner than when the spring is dry. The same is true of late
fruit when the summer is wet. But whether dry or wet, the
tree must be fertilized. If neglected it will take a year, or
longer, after bearing a good crop to recuperate, or to send out
its roots in fresh soil in search of food. Any fertilizer that
possesses the three great elements of plant food, potash, phos-
phoric acid and nitrogen, will serve the purpose. But the
question which will interest the inexperienced grower most is
the cost of fertilizing. Commercial fertilizers are costly, and
are not in the reach of every grower. I have found a compost
of the following proportions to be cheap, and beneficial to
third-class pine land, and prepared in the following way: I
build a pen, and commence the compost by placing in the bot-
tom of it 2,000 pounds of stable or cow manure, (muck may be
used, but it is not as good as either of the other two), 333
pounds each of kainit, cotton seed meal, or crushed cotton
seed, or cotton seed whole, and acid phosphate. Then begin
again with stable manure, and so on. When I complete a
layer I wet it thoroughly, and so on to the top of the pen. Then
I cover the whole with dry dirt, and the pen with a shed. In
a month's time I remove the dirt, 'break the pen and mix, and
then shovel back and wet again, covering with dirt. In an-
other month the fertilizer is ready for the orchard, and when
removed must be well mixed again. The stable manure and
cotton seed or meal will be completely decomposed. Five or
ten.pounds of this compost, well mixed in the hole several
weeks before, either on old or new ground, in which a tree
is to be planted, will give it a healthy start and a vigorous
growth through the year. On a one-year-old tree ten pounds
may be used, and on three or five-year-olds double the amount.
This compost has been found excellent for all kinds of field
and garden crops. It takes time and trouble to make it, but
it saves money, and gives good results. Every farmer and
fruit grower should have a compost pen with a cover to it,
which should receive the refuse of the house and kitchen, es-
pecially of the stove and fireplace, the chicken coop, the sta-
ble and the cow lot. One who is dependent upon his own ef-
forts for success and neglects this, may expect to live poor and
die poor, and'experience the mortification of seeing others
prosper who follow what he neglects.
Lime and copperas may be used with profit around peach
trees. I have tried both, and think that good has resulted
from their use. From one to three pounds of copperas
(sulphate of iron), according to the age of the tree. The lime
may be used in larger quantities. On dry lands the mulching
of trees with pine straw, wire grass, or green moss helps to
retain moisture, and, to some extent, serves as a feeder. The
drawback to mulching is, that it becomes the harbor of such
insects as the gray and black cricket, grasshoppers, beetles and
pumpkin bugs, which feed on the tender shoots and buds. It
is not safe to use fertilizer of any kind when setting a tree. It
should be put in the hole, and well mixed, several weeks be-
fore, and if used at all at planting it ought to be put on top of
WORK IS NECESSARY IN AN ORCHARD.
Weeds and grass must not be allowed to grow. They
choke young trees directly, and are a serious injury to old
ones. The plow and hoe must come into early use. A good
cultivator, after breaking with the plow in early spring, is the
best tool to use. Care should be taken not to break, or jar, or
mutilate the roots of young trees in working, nor should the
dirt be banked on them.
It is the almost universal experience of growers that in
preparing trees for planting they should be freely cut back.
Some contend they ought to be cut back to four feet, and
others to two. I incline to the latter opinion. I am certain
that every inch over four feet left on is a loss. Be careful to
cut away every branch, and leave no fork. It is here that the
borer does much harm. The tree should be trained to five or
six buds within six inches of the top, and all other sprouts
kept pinched off.
Many planters prefer large, well branched trees, but this
is a mistake. A tree dug with the greatest care will have its
roots more or less broken. It is not reasonable, therefore, that
with broken and mutilated roots it can be sustained as before.
Moreover, it is very susceptible to drought, and with a heavy
top in a dry spring will more readily wilt and die than if cut
back freely when planted. To purchasers, I suggest that they
request nurserymen, who know what is best, from long expe-
rience, to prepare their trees as they should be for planting.
This will protect'them from loss, expense in freight and pack-
ing, and they will have better and healthier trees.
THE BEST STOCK ON WHICH TO BUD AND GRAFT,
In Europe the plum is used largely as stock to blui and
graft upon. The object is to get a small tree. In France and
England the peach is not cultivated in open ground to any ex-
tent. They are forced to plant by the side of walls, and to se-
cure small stock the Myrobolan plum is used. This pluin has
been introduced in Florida for the object of avoiding the ray-
ages of the borer and rootknot worm, but it is not a protec-
tion against either. The claims of various plum stocks have
been advocated as better for the peach than its own roots, but
thus far none of them have proven sufficiently successful as to
warrant unqualified recommendation. At present great hopes
are entertained by a few that the Marianna plum will serve as
a protection against the borer and rootknot. This is yet to be
demonstrated, and my experience does not permit me to say
more than it is worthy of further trial. The peach is a coarse
feeder and a rapid grower, and as yet no plum has been found
to keep pace with it. The peach, when budded or grafted on
plum stock, generally outgrows the plum, and the wood does
not heal or adhere as readily as when on its own stock.
A question has been sprung in the Nurserymen's Asso-
ciation whether it is best to grow stock from the seed of
native seedlings or from imported seed, and the advice has
uniformly been to use native seed. The only reason I can see
for this is, that the diseases of more northerly climates may
thus be avoided. The yellows as yet has not made its appear-
ance in our State, so far as I am informed, and such writers
as Downing strongly urge against the planting the seed from
stock in regions where this fatal disease prevails.
Candor compels me to say, that seed from a healthy re-
gion are as good as from Florida, and both philosophy and fact
sustain the opinion. But very great care should be observed,
first, that the seed are from healthy, thrifty trees, and, secondly,
that they have matured well. In importing trees from other
States the risk is very great, and the sock budded may have
in it the germs of a fatal disease; and the buyer is not only a
loser, but he imperils an interest which promises to become one
of Florida's foremost industries. The judgment of some of
the best and most prudent growers is against buying stock for
budding purposes in States north and west of Florida. They
contend that the stock is not so vigorous or healthy as that
grown from seed of our own native varieties. The trouble
lies, doubtless, in the fact that trees taken from nurseries
whose soil is richer and heavier than ours suffer from the
change. If stock has been forced by heavy fertilizing, and
transplanted into thin, light soil, even though it be fertilized,
it will feel the change very quickly. The same is true of ham-
mock land. Trees taken from hammock are not likely to be
vigorous on pine land, and the transplanting them into ham-
mock is only a happy transition to richer food. The prefer-
ence of growers for large stock compels the producer to meet
the demand by forcing his stock by high fertilization. The
large and thrifty-looking tree, grown in rich land, may, for a
while, show better, but good, healthy, medium-sized stock,
under the same attention, will do better in the end.
Suckers should not be allowed to grow, but should be
taken off with a sharp knife close to the root.
Dead limbs and all sickly-looking branches should be cut
Winter blooming is the result of not cutting away the fall
growth in the spring, of. careless work, neglect of fertilizing,
and want of water. The want of water can be supplied, to
some extent, by pruning, work and fertilizing.
Fertilizing can be done any season of the year, but the
best results are obtained by attending to it in January and June.
The distance given to trees in orchard is from twelve to
When irrigation, with sub-drainage, becomes general, and
its advantages demonstrated, deciduous, as well as citrus,
fruits will, doubtless, attain a perfection that will be surpris-
The enemies which trouble us, in my opinion, are very
greatly overestimated as to the injury done by them.
The borer, common to every portion of the State, scarcely
ever injures a tree after it has passed its fourth year. A keen-
bladed knife is the surest, cheapest and quickest way of get-
ting rid-of it. The Entomologist suggests other remedies, to
which I refer the reader.
The curculio is more to be feared, because it does greater
injury than all the others; but it may be gotten rid of, to a
very great extent if the directions given by the Entomologist
are carried out with care. It does not infest East and South
Florida, except generally where there are old-field plum or-
The curled leaf, or, as some term it, "Frenching," does
not harm us, and is very little noticed.
The scale is also very rare. For remedy see article by
Rootknot produced by a diminutive worm, has occa-
sioned widespread alarm among growers of late years. I have
noticed its effects in the knots produced on the roots for years,
but gave it but little attention, as I did not observe any evil
results from it, except in planting young trees.
I have planted thousands ,of trees affected with it in thin
land, but planted them deep, from.eight to ten inches, and
they have lived and thrived as well as others not affected.
This leads me to suppose that possibly this is the best remedy
for and against this enemy. Trees perfectly free from" these
pests have been planted in soil where they were, and in a short
while they were full of them. I would not advise the purchase
of trees thus affected, but I suggest, lest they are in the soil,
that trees be planted deep in high and dry soils. Of course,
on wet lands, unless drained, this would not do. Some have
thought that the use of muck in the holes was a protection.
My opinion is, that the preparation of the soil enabled the
trees to resist the injury from the worm by putting on new
and vigorous roots. The rootknot worm An.guillla is found
more largely in old land, still new land is sometimes infested
with it. In addition to the remedies suggested by the Ento-
mologist, I advise those whose trees are suffering to dig holes.
by the side of them, fertilize them, and, after several weeks,
transplant in these holes, cutting them back freely. If any
one should follow this suggestion, or any remedy recommended
by the Entomologist, I would be pleased to have their experi-
ence reported to me.
VARI TIE S.
I am indebted to the nurserymen of Florida for the names,
in part, of the following list of varieties of the peach.
These will all be planted on the Experiment Farm, and,
after careful testing as to flowering and fruiting, a revised list
will be made showing results, most likely reducing the list now
presented to fewer varieties, with synonyms:
PEEN-TO AND SEEDLINGS OF THE PEEN-TO.-Shape,flat
or globular, mostly semi-cling; ripen from May 1st to June 10th.
SEMI-CLING.-Peen-to, Florida's Own, LaBelle, Southern
Queen, Alpha, Barrs' Daisy, Bidwell's No. 7, Yum Yum, Lot-
tie, Orlando, Maggie, Seminole, June Beauty, Beta, Bidwell's
Late, Bettie, Wonder, King; July 1st to 15th.
FREESTONES.-Waldo Prolific, Angel, Pearson, Kerr's
HONEY AND ITS SEEDLINGS.--Shape oblong, curved;
freestones; ripen from May 15th to July 1st. Ellenora, Early
China, Climax, Pallas, Kite, Early Cream, Horne's Favorite,
HONEY-PEEN-TO CROSSES.-Archer, Alachua, Florida.
CHINESE CLING SEEDLINGS.--Albert Sydney, Countess,
BLOOD PEACHES.-Red Coylon, Indian, Cabler.
AMELIA AND HO0EY CRoss.-Jacienne.
NATIVE CULINGs.-Ripen during June and July. Dowl-
ing's Red, Big Red, Golden Press, Silver Press, LaReine,
Elma, Edith,' Sunset, La Magnifique.
NATIVE FREESTONEs.-Golden Clear, Silver Clear, Per-
fection, Florida Crawford, Paragon, Mammoth, Colossal, Ches-
sers, Victoria, August Early, August Late, Watson's August,
Augustus, Powers' September, Jackson's Prolific, Gibbon's Oc-
tober, My Favorite Yellow, My Favorite White, Thomas' Late.
These freestones ripen from July 1st to October 15th, in about
the order named.
The insects that attack the peach in Florida are not very
numerous, but with the increase in orchards these pests will
most likely become a source of expense and annoyance.
The larvae of the .Sa iinaC exitiosa, usually known as the
borer," is by far the worst enemy of the young tree. Its
habits have been discussed in a former Bulletin by Professor
Ashmead, and I shall give but briefly his conclusion:
There is but one brood within the year.
The moth, or perfect form, issues from the cocoon in
April, when it mates, and during that month lays the eggs,
near the ground, upon the trunk of the tree; the eggs hatch,
penetrate the bark, and begin burrowing in the inner bark.
To prevent the deposit of the eggs then would be a rea-
sonable and practical inference. Various methods have been
proposed, killing up the tree one or two feet in March, wrap-
ping the trunk with tar paper, and coating the trunk with
poisoned whitewash, soap or clayey paints. I prefer this for-
Formula 1. Take one pound of common glue, soak over
night in cold water, then dissolve it in a half gallon of hot wa-
ter, add one ounce. of London purple; stir until the color is
uniform, add hot water until the mixture measures two gallons.
During March remove the soil from the stem and crown
roots, cut out all borers found, and apply the warm glue freely
over the trunk for the lower two feet, at least.
Hill up t'he tree until the earth is above any cut surface
of the trunk, and in most cases trees nearly girdled will soon
repair the damage done by the borer.
Small fires at sunset in the orchard during April will de-
stroy many moths, and this practice is recommended.
The curculio, ('onotrachelus nenuphar, threatens to be the
worst foe to the peach and plum family.
There is some controversy as to its food where fruits are
absent, with the preponderance of opinion that it subsists upon
the foliage of the plum or.peach. My judgment is, that the
latter theory is correct, from experiments made by myself and
others with arsenical poisons.
After hybernation, during the short winter in Florida,
the beetles take wing early in January, and as soon as the
peach blooms fall, the females begin to pierce the fruit, laying
eggs, one in each incision, usually three or four a day, until
the stock of about 100 eggs is exhausted, when she dies.
The eggs hatch into soft, yellowish, footless worms that
gradually reduce the juicy fruit to a mass of filth and rotten-
ness, causing it soon to fall to the earth, where the worms en-
ter and transform, emerging in May or June as perfect bee-
tles. Then they attack the ripening fruit, tearing open the
tender skin, feeding on the sweet pulp, to be followed by
swarms of bees, ants, wasps and weevils, and soon by fungoid
spores that destroy the fruit.
These pests feign death if disturbed, and drop to the
ground, and this habit can be put to use over small areas, or
with choice trees, by violently shaking or jarring the trees,
preferably in the early morning. The beetles can be gathered,
or a flock of chickens will render good service, and soon learn
to haunt the trees during the morning round of visits.
This method is impracticable with large orchards, and
spraying the trees with an arsenical mixture just as the fruit
"sets" has been found very efficacious.
PFonc2lda 2. Stir slowly eight quarts of sifted flour into
eight quarts of cold water, set it on the fire and' stir until it
boils and is thick paste; to this add four ounces of London
purple, mix thoroughly, dilute with water until fifty gallons
Formula 3. Yellow soap, four pounds, dissolve in a gal-
lon of hot water, add four ounces of London purple, mix, di-
lute to fifty gallons with warm water.
Formula 4. I. Three pounds of sal soda, one pint of hot
water, heat; add slowly four pounds of rosin, and gradually
two pints of hot water. When dissolved add hot water to
make five gallons.
II. Sal soda, one pound; arsenic, four ounces; water, half
a gallon; heat. When dissolved add I to II, and dilute
with water to fifty gallons.
Apply these solutions to the tree in a fine spray once, at
the time of the setting of the fruit. I prefer solution 2 for
the curculio alone, but No. 3 for plant lice, and No. 4 for scale
The London purple is cheap, efficacious, distinctive in
color, and very diffusible. More than one pound to 200 gal-
lons of water burns the foliage, the heavy dews and frequent
rains giving it greater continuous action than stronger solu-
tions in other climates.
It is hardly necessary to remark that these are powerful
poisons, and stock should be kept out of orchards after their
use; though applied once to the fruit, at setting, there will
not be a trace of it at maturity, while the beetles eating the
poisoned foliage will be destroyed before they deposit eggs
within the fruit.
The peach louse, Thyzus persicae, is occasionally found
beneath the leaves of tender sprouts, causing them to curl and
die. Spraying with a soap mixture, either formula 3, or a
quarter of a pound of soap to one gallon of hot water is a sure
A scale insect, probably an Aspidiotus or Mytilaspis,
has been reported from some sections as occurring on old
or feeble trees, but I have not observed or investigated it.
It can easily be destroyed by the use of formula 4, applying
twice, at an interval of two weeks between sprayings, in Oc-
tober or February.
Tender shoots of the peach, especially those just starting
from a bud or graft, are often seriously injured by various in-
sects, usually termed pumpkin bugs, chinches, etc. These are
the Raphigaster hilaris, green soldier bug; the Metapodius
femoratus, and Leptoglossus phyllopus, leafy-legs. They punc-
ture the juicy stems, which at once wilt as if scorched. The
damage done is very annoying, and often quite considerable.
The normal food of these bugs is probably some of the sun-
flower, thistle and golden rod family, for they seem to delight
in assembling upon the plants when in bloom. Destroy these
food plants, and spray tender shoots with formula 3, reduced
to half strength, would probably be the best remedy.
Katydids, grasshoppers and crickets are troublesome in
the early spring, before grasses and weeds have started, eating
the foliage and girdling the young stems. In most cases clean
culture, with a flock of chickens and guineas in the orchard,
will prove a remedy, but if not available try Formula 5.
Paris green, one ounce; chopped grass, pea leaves or
peach leaves, eight ounces; syrup enough to make the mass
cohesive. Make into small balls and place under chips or
boards near the trees. Every morning uncover, gather and
burn the crickets, snapping beetles and other insects you will
find. Of course, these should not be fed to poultry.
Termites, white ants, etc., only infest trees that are
planted in proximity to stumps, or in fields covered with pine
Burn stumps, roots, chips and scraps of wood before
planting the trees, but if this cannot be done, clear away the
decaying wood of the tree, and brush with solution No. 3.
The same remedy is available in the case of the black "fire
ant," Solenopsis ryloni. This often attacks young shoots, or.
makes its colonies at the base of trees, and as it both bites and
stings when disturbed, it is not to be despised, and can be de-
stroyed with insect powder, fresh lime, kerosene emulsion, or
by tearing open the hills and saturating the nests with hot
The 1ootknot. This disease in nurseries, or with young
trees, has done considerable damage, and is the source of some
diversity of opinion as to prevention or cure.
The United States Bulletin No. 20, of the Entomological
Department, at Washington, D. C., is a study of the cause
and its habits, and its conclusions are:
The cause is a microscopic nematole worm. This is par-
asitic in a number of native plants along the Gulf coast.
The remedy is to plant non-infected trees in fresh or ster-
ilized soil; to bud or graft into healthy, resistant stock, and
use artificial and strongly potassic fertilizers.
JAS. C. NEAL, M. D.,
ANNUAL REPORT OF EXPERIMENT STATION.
LAKE CITY, FLA, February 1, 1889.
To His Excellency Francis P. Fleming, Governor of Floridul.-
SIR-I have the honor to submit herewith a brief report
of the operations of the Florida Experiment Station, in obe-
dience to the provisions of the Act constituting said Station,
approved by the President of the United States of America,
March 2, 1887.
The changes in the Directorship and Staff occurring so
near the time prescribed for this report, and the confusion in-
cident thereto, have greatly hindered me, so that only a brief
summary of the past and present experiments can be given.
I am, your Excellency, yours obediently,
JAS. P. DEPASS,
Director Florida Experiment Station.
In consequence of the lateness of the season when I as-
sumed control of the Florida Experiment Station, at Lake-
City, Florida, but little has been accomplished in experimenta-
The disadvantages have been almost unsurmountable. Of
the 100 acres of the Experiment Farm, forty or more are with-
in the limits of Lake Alligator, thirty-five are yet original for-
est, and of the remainder nearly one-half is but partially cleared
of roots and stumps.
I will plant from three to six trees of the leading varieties.
of peach, pear, plum, fig, apple, quince, nectarine and apricot,
and a variety of grapes and' strawberries, that may prove of
value in Florida.
These will receive careful tests as to adaptability for this.
climate and soil, and the future will approve or reject the re-
A small nursery of pear and peach stocks has been planted
for experiments in budding and grafting.
The experiments instituted by my predecessor with vari-
ous forage plants, such as timothy, wheat, blue grass and a va-
riety of clovers, have been continued, with very unsatisfactory
results. Such plants as promise well will be given further
time, and, when practicable, correct inference as to their value
will be given in future Bulletins.
The seeds of many new forage plants, such as serradilla,
pitches, lupines and pease have been planted, and ensilage
plants, as teosinthe, millets and various sorghums are being
tested as to growth and availability.
A small herd of Jersey cows are at the Station, and espe-
cial foods, with their effects upon milk and butter, will be a
subject of future investigation.
Small areas of oats, corn, rice, cotton, peas, potatoes and
sugar cane are being planted to ascertain the effects of vary-
ing quantities of fertilizers.
From the lack of suitable apparatus and rooms little has
been done in entomological research, and until both are sup-
plied, little should be expected in this department.
A collection of insects has been begun, and plans formu-
lated for experiments with insecticides, in connection with the
study of the life-history of insects that affect the tobacco plant,
which is the subject selected for this year's work.
There being few published reports on the insects of Flor-
ida, and these not reliable, makes the study of "the habits of
those insects known to be destructive quite an undertaking,
and one that will require the labor of several years at the
In Botany, it is contemplated to investigate the distribu-
tion and habits of our common weeds, and to ascertain their
value in any degree for forage, land improvement, or medicinal
Studies in cross-fertilizing will be carried on whenever
practical, and efforts made to propagate new and valuable
crosses of fruits, vegetables and plants suitable to Florida.
In the Department of Chemistry I submit the report of
Professor J. M. Pickell, Ph. D.
"Soon after the passage of the Hatch Act, March, 1888,
the Board of Trustees of the Florida State Agricultural Col-
lege effected a temporary, or rather preliminary, organization
of the Station. To my duties as Professor of Physics and
Chemistry, at the College, were added those of Chemist at the
Experiment Station. Owing to the small number of teachers
at the College, I taught, in addition to the class in Chemistry,
one in Latin and two in English Grammar. As soon as prac-
ticable, I was relieved of these classes, and, in April, 1888,
was able to do some analyses for the Station. These were
analyses of soils of the Station Farm, and some waters from
Lake City and Jacksonville, Florida. The former were pub-
lished in Bulletin No. 3. *
Up to this time, all Station work had been done in the
College Laboratory. This consisted of two small rooms, and
a very meager outfit of apparatus, the amount of which may
be inferred when I state that the entire cost of chemicals,
apparatus, gasoline machine and fittings, and gasoline, from
November, 1884, to April, 1888, was $1,099.40.
The Laboratory had no supply of water other than as
brought by hand in buckets.
In June, 1888, I was directed by the Board of Trustees
to get up a plan for the building, which should serve as head-
quarters for the Director and Staff of the Experiment Station,
as well as a Chemical Laboratory for the Station, and for Stu-
The building was to cost not less than $5,000 ($3,000 from
the Experiment Fund and $2,000 from the College Fund).
I was engaged until late in the summer on the details of
the plan. The contract was let toward the latter part of July,
the building to be complete by November 15, 1888, but, owing
to the epidemic and the many rainy days, it was not completed
until the middle of December.
The necessity of having an assistant in Chemistry was
shown to the Board of Tfustees at their annual meeting in
June, 1888, and Mr. John J. Earle, a recent graduate of the
University of South Carolina, was employed at the opening of
the fall term, October 5, 1888. Mr. Earle had received good
training in Analytical Chemistry, and. has proven a most in-
dustrious and competent assistant. During the fall and win-
ter many requests for analyses of muck, soils, waters, etc., have
been made, and, as far as practicable, the work has been done,
and the results will be given in future Bulletins.
The new Laboratory is rapidly approaching completion,
and will be the equal, for its size, of any in the South in equip-
ment and personnel."
In conclusion, I may remark that it is the desire of the
Director and his Staff to make this Experiment Station an
eminently practical one in its results to the interests of Flor-
ida. Respectfully submitted.
JAs. P. DEPAss,
FINANCIAL REPORT TO THE TREASURER OF THE UNITED
STATES, FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1888.
EXPERIMENT STATION OF FLORIDA.
April 5-Paid J. Kost, salary, March, $100; salary S. B.
Mann, $15; Elmore Young, work, $3.. $118.00
May 3- J. E. Young, sundries .................... 59.75
3- J. Kost, expenses of Station, April........ 208.32
11-- W. D. Barnes, Trustee, expense of attending
at Lake City .......................... 10.50
11- E. S. Crill, Trustee, expense of attending
meeting at Lake City ................ 10.40
11-- Dorr & Bowen, printing ................... 1.85
20- A. E. McClure ............................ 115.00
June 8- J. Kost, salaries, as per account, and print-
ing Bulletin, No. 1 .................... 007.29
8- A. J. Russell, expenses attending meeting
Trustees at Lake City ................. 10.48
11- J. Kost, lumber and labor ................. 170.84
11- J. E. Young, nails, etc .................... 12.24
11- .1. E. Young, advances for labor........... 93.74
22- H. H. Emmons, lumber and labor......... 268.75
30- Times-Union, publishing Bulletin No. 2... 120.00
30- J. Kost, Director, salary, June ............ 166.66
30- J. Kost, expenses of Station.............. 25.87
30- W. H. Ashmead, salary, June............. 100.00
10- A. H. Curtiss, salary, June ................ 50.00
30- G. T. Maxwell, salary, June ............... 50.00
30- J. F. Appell, salary, June ................. 50.00
30- Parker & Wood, tools ..................... 94.75
July --- J. E. Young, advance for labor............ 92.00
Laboratory building...................... 3,000.00
Apparatus, chemicals, etc., for Laboratory, 1,835.00
Office furniture for Director.............. 250,00
Water works and tax ...... ........... 750.00
One two-horse wagon and mules.......... 450-00
Farm tools ............................... 75.00
Implements on hand ..................... 600.00
One wagon and harness................... 44.75
A. H. Curtiss, salary for May.............. 50.00
G. Troup Maxwell, salary for May........ 50.00
Carpenters' tools for Station ............... 27.60
Two cows for breeding .................... 150.00
Hogs for breeding. ...... . ....... ..... 60.00
Sheep for breeding....................... 100.00
Station Library ........................... 250.00
Clearing land and fencing, etc............. 2,625.00
T iling ........... ........................ 600.00
Dairy and other stock .................... 1,586.11
Total ........... .............. $15,000.00
March-Appropriation General Government U. S........ $7,500.00
April-Appropriation General Government U. S.......... 3,750.00
July-Appropriation General Government U. S.......... 3,750.00
JAS. P. DEPAss, Director.
FlorinH is tie only State east; of the Mississippi River that has
no law for the analysis of c)mmerciil fertilizers. This Stale is,
therefore, an open field for the sale.of anything that anybody may
choose to put upon the market under the name of "fertilizers"
While it is not likely that manufacturers ot well established repu-
tation would go out of their way to produce an inferior article for
this market, still, if in the Frocess of manufacture, they should
turn out a lot, not up to the usual .sLand:rld, Florida provides a
market where this inferiority would never be discovered. However
the matter may stand with the better class of manufacturers, dis-
honest ones, if there be any, can find here a place to carry on their
It will, of course, be impossible tor the station to control this
matter in the absence of a State law; it is, nevertheless, the pur-
pose of the station to publish the results of analyses of fertilizers
sampled from time to time in various parts of the State. Below
are grv en a few such analyses :
Wilcox Fertilizer Co., Savannah Ga., sampled at A. B. Hart's
ware-house, Lake City. February.
Moisture at 1500 10.25
Sulphuric Acid (80) 23.07
No mark on the bags; bought ot W. A. Bours, Jacksonville,
Fla.; sampled at the Experiment Station, Lake City, February.
Moisture at 1500 18.03
Sulphuric Acid 20,35
The ferthlizing ingredient that determines the value kai:-it is
potash. The above samples agree fairly well in this ingredient
with the usual guarantee. As is well known, the principal source
of kainit is the Stassfurt Mine in Germany. This mine was form-
erly worKed mainly for salt of which it contains vast quantities.
Only within the last twenty or thirty years was the presence of
potash in valuable quantities discovered. The unavoidable ad-
mixture of so large a per cent. of salt in kainit is an evil and ren-
ders great discrimination necessary in its use as a fertilizer. Ger-
man agriculturists have discovered the fact that manures contain-
ing large amount of salt, although increasing the quantity of yield,
degrade the quality of certain crops. Thus 'or example, salt
diminishes the per cent. of starch in potatoes, of sugar in beets,
and renders tobacco so poorly combustible as to ill fit it for smok-
ing. On the other hand flax and grasses take well to salt. The
German system of using kainit is, therefore, to apply it to these lat-
ter directly; then the following season, after the salt is assimilated
by the soil, to plant to potatoes, beets, tobacco or other crops that
especially need and are improved by potash. Another of their
methods of utilizing the potash in kainit is to apply it first to the
pea which is ploughed under; and the land then planted to such
crops as they may wish. Until experiments have determined defi-
nitely the best method for Florida soils, it is undoubtedly safest to
compost the kainit.
Paine's Florida Vegetable Food-Sample sent in by Capt. C.
A. Finley, Lake City, February. No guarantee on sacks.
Moisture at 1000 17.o0
Total Phosphoric Acid 16.53
Soluable Phosphoric Acid (in water) 10,17
Insoluble Phosphoric Acid (in citrate of Am'a) 2.27
Reverted Phosphoric Acid 4.09 .
This fertilizer is very rich in phosphoric acid, poor
in ammonia and very poor in potash.
BLOOD AND BONE.
Bought at Jacksonville, Fla., of Armour & Co., sampled at the Ex-
periment Station, Lake City. No guarantee on sacks.
Moisture at 1000 9.75
Phosphoric Acid (total amount) 9.34
(Soluble in water) .34
(insoluble in am'nia citrate 4.65
This is a highly ammoniated manure.
From J. J. Inglis & Co., Madison, Fla., sampled at the Experi-
ment Station. No guarantee on sacks.
Organic and volatile matter 53.10
Phosphorio Acid 6.15
This is a fairly good fertilizer.
MUCK, MARL AND SOILS.
Muck-Sent on from Island Lake, Orange county, Fil., by Miss
Moisture at 1000 46.10
Organi and volatile matter 48.87
Phosphoric Acid .08
Potash and soda .03
Iron and alumnium oxides
Band and insoluble matter
The per cent. of organic matter is large. That of sand, insoluble
and useless matter small; and this may be considered an excellent
quality of muck.
Marl-From the Turnbull Hammock, sent on by Mr. C. D.
PER CR NT
Moisture at 1000 0.64.
Orgauic and volatile matter 2.81'-
Phosphoric Acid .37
Iron and aluminum oxides 1.04
Sand and insoluble matter 51.15:
This marl might be profitably applied to land where lime is
Soil (D) -Low Hammock, sample taken on the Experiment -
tion 1oo yards or so froxi brink of lake. Depth ta'\ abI it 5 -in.- -,
Moisture at 1000 0.59
Organic and volatile matter 2.50
Phosphoric Acid .02
Potash and Soda .10
Iron.and Alumiaum oxides 13
Soil (E)-Low Hammock, taken from near the sam2 spot as
above, Depth to which sample was taken about 2Y inches., Under- .
lain by sand; but the sample judged by the eye seemed to contain little
of that ingredient and much organic matter.
Moisture at 1000 3.87
Organic and Volatile Matter 14.43
Phosplhrio Acid 0.70
Potash and Soda .03
Iron and Aluminum Oxides .49
The above two samples were taken in the virgin forest. Below is
given the analysis of a soil and corresponding sub-soil, taken at the
Station Farm from high, rolling hammock, for many years cleared and
Organic and Volatile Matter 1.27
Phosphoric Acid .OT
Potash and Soda .09
Iron and Aluminum Oxides 33
Organic and Volatile Matter .80
Phosphoric acid .02
Potash and Soda .09
Iron and Aluminum Oxides .28
The striking feature of these soils is the large amount of sand. If
they are compared with each other with reference to the amount of
moisture and organic matter they contain, thus:-
Moisture 0.28 0.51 0.56 3.87
Organic Matter .80 1.27 2,60 14,43
Sand .97.00 96,00 96.00 80,55
it will be observed that the amount of moisture increases as the amount
of organic matter increases, and that it is less, the greater the amount
of sand. Nothing is of greater importance in the treatment of the
sandy soils of Florida than keeping them well supplied with abundance
muck or other vegetable matter. This treatment, not to speak of its
fertilizing value, increases greatly the capacity of the soil to retain
moisture and withstand drought.
Directions for taking samples of soil, water
Great care should be taken that the sample represents affair
average of the substance to be analyzed, and that they be put into
In taking samples of soil avoid fence corners, and spots that have
been enriched above the average by droppings from animals, decayed
logs, stumps, etc. Scrape away the top trash, leaves or mould, make
with a spade a hole five or six inches square. The hole should be sunk
perpendicularly to the surface. From one side of the hole take with a
spade a slice two or three inches thick and down to a depth equalling
the depth of the soil. This will usually be from five to twelve or fif-
teen inches. The point at which the soil ends and where the sub-soil
begins is usually pretty well marked by difference in color or texture of
the soil. Take several samples in this way from different parts of the
field, put them together, thoroughly mix and from the mixture make
up a sample, for analysis, of two or three pounds. In a similar way take
samples of the sub-soil from the same holes from which the soil samples
have been taken. A pint or quart fruit jar is the best and most con-
venient vessel for holding sample. Each sample should have a label,
telling where taken, the nature of the land-pine, nigh or low ham.
Open about every tenth sack, or package of the lot to be sampled;
take from the interior as well as from the ends of each, a pound or so;
mix the portions from the different sacks thoroughly in a clean, dry
box, and from the mixture fill a quart fruit jar and seal so as to be air-
tight. The operation of sampling should be gone through with as
quickly as possible and in such a place and in such a manner as to
prevent the fertilizer from either losing or taking on m oisture. Label
with name and address of sampler brand of fertilizer, manufacturer's
name and address.
Samples of water should always be put into glass bottles or demi-
johns. Too great care cannot be had to thoroughly cleanse the bot-
tles, and to use fresh, clean stoppers. To this end, after the vessel
has been thoroughly cleansed, it should be rinsed a half dozen times
or more with water from the same source as that to be analyzed. The
sample should then be put in, immediately corked and sealed with wax.
Corks should, before using, be soaked for several hours in frequently
changed water from the spring or well to be analyzed. In taking
sample avoid getting mud, sand, and other foreign matter. Not less
than two. gallons should constitute a sample.
If there is any gas in the water, proceed as follows to catch the
gas : Fill a demijohn with water, cork it, insert and uncork with
mouth under water ; if held in this position the gas will rise and
take the place of the water in the demijohn. When full of gas.
cork while under water, and seal with wax.
J. M. PICKELL, Professor of Chemistry and Physics,
JOHN J. EARLE, Assistant Chemist.
NOTE. All samples ot fertilizers, soils, water, cereals and fruits, it
sent prepaid, are analyzed free to the sender on application to the
Director, Rev. Jas. P. DePass, Lake City, Fla.
The unfinished and incomplete condition of the laboratory till
now, has heretofore crippled and limited chemical investigation.
THE HATCH ACT.
AN ACT TO ESTABLISH AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION IN CJN-
NECTION WITH THE COLLEGES ESTABLISHED IN THE SEVERAL STATES
UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF AN ACT APPROVED JULY 2ND, 1862, AND OF
THE ACTS SUPPLEMENTARY THERETO.
SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa-
tives of the United States of America in 6'ongress assembled, That in
order to aid in acquiring and diffusing among the people of the
United' States useful and practical information on subjects connected
with agriculture, and to promote scientific investigation and experi-
ment respecting the principles and applications of agricultural
science, there shall be established, under direction of the college or
colleges, or agricultural department of colleges, in each State or
Territory established, or whic:r may hereafter be established, lu
accordance with an act approved July 2c, 1862, entitled "Act do-
nating lancds of the several States and Terrtories which may pro-
vide colleges tor the benefit ot agriculture and the mechanic arts,"
or any of the supplements to said act, a department to be known and
designated as an "Agricultural Experiment Station:" Provided,
That in any State or Territory in which two such colleges have
been or may be so established, the appropriation hereinafter made;
to such State or Territory shall be equally divided between such col-
leges, unless tle Legislature of such State or Territory shall other-
SEC. 2. That it shall be-ha oije~t and duty of said Experiment
Stations to conduct original researches or experiments on the physi-
ology of plants and animals; the diseases to which they are severally
subject, with the remedies for the same; the chemical composition of
plants at their different stages of growth; the comparative advanta-
ges of i'otative cropping as pursued under a varying series of crops-
the capacity of new plants or trees for acclimation; the analysis of
soils and water; the chemical composition of mnarnes, natural or
artificial, with experiments designed to test their comparative ef-*
fects on crops of different kinds; the adaptation' andl valueof grasses
and forage plants; the composition and digestibilty of the different
kinds of food for domestic animals; scientific and economic questions
involved in the production of butter and cheese; and such other re-
searches or experiments bearing directly on the agricultural industry
ot the United States as may in each case be deemed advisable,
having due regard to tie.varying conditions and needs of the
respective States and Territories.
SEC. 3. That in order to secure, as far as practicable, uniformity
of methods and results in the work of said stations, it shall be the
duty q.fthe oUnied atptes C.mmissioner pf Agripuliur t,q Ifrjai.sh
lorms,'as tar as practicablf for the abzulatin of results of investi:
nations or experimentsi to indicate from time to time such lines)
of inquiry as to him shall seem most important and in general to fur-
nish such advice as will best promote the purposes of this act
It shall be the duty of each of said stations, annually, on or before
the first day of February, to maKo to the Governor of the State
or Territory in which it is located, a full and detailed report of its
operations, a statement of receipts and expenditures, a copy of which
report shall be sent to each of said stations, to the C'ommissioner ot
Agriculture, and the Secretary of the Treasury "jf the United State-
SEC. 4. That bulletins or reports of progress snall be published at
said stations at least once in three months, one copy ,t which shall
be sent to each newspaper in the States or Territories in which they
are respectively located, and to such inuaviduals actually engaged
in warning as may request the same, and as lar as the means ot the,
station will permit. Such bulletins or report, and the annual
reports of said stations shall be transmitted in the mails of the
United States free of charge for postage, under such regulations as
the Postmaster General may from time to time prescriLbe
SEC. 5. That for the purpose of paying the necessary expenses of
conducting investigations and experiments and prinang and dia-
tributing the results as hereinbefore prescribed, .he sum of$15.000
is hereby appropriated to each State, to be specially provided for by
Congress in the appropriations from year to year, and to each Ter-
ritory entitled under the provisions of section eight of this act, out
of any money in the treasury proceeding from the sales of public
lands, to be paid in equal quarterly payments on the first day- o
January, April, July, and October in each year, to the treasurer or.
other officer duly appointed by the governing boards of said college
to receive the same, the first payment to be made on the first day
of October, 1887:Provided,however, that out of the first annual appro
pria tion so received by any Station an amount not exceeding one-
A'fth may be expended in the erection, enlargement, or repair of a
building or buildings-necessary for carrying on the work of such
Station; and thereatteran amount not exceeding five per centutm of
such annual appopriartion may be so expended.
sEC. 6. That whenever it shall appear to the Secretary of the
Treasury, from the annual statement of receipts and expenditures
of any of said stations, that a portion of the proceeding annual ap-
propriation remains unexpended, such amount shall be deducted from
the next succeeding annual appropriation to such station, in order
that the amount of money appropriated to any station shall n6t
exceed the amount actually and necessarily 'required lor its main,
tenance and support.
SEC. 7. That noth1:n in this act s:ha!ii be cons:ruel to impair or
modify the legal relation existing between any ot the said colleges
and the government of the-States or Territories in which they are
SEC. 8. That in Stateu3 living colleges entitled tinder this section
to the benefiLs of this act, and having also agricultiur'l experiment
stations established by law separate troin said colleges such States
shall be authorized to apply such benefits to experiments at stations
established by such States; and in case any State shill have estab
-ished, under provisions of said 'ct of July 2nd af-oresaid. an agri
Scltural department or experimental station in connection with any
university, college o' institution not distinctively an agricultural
college or school, and said States shall have established or shall
here.itter establish a separate agricultural colle'geor school which
shall have connected therewith an experimental larm or stations, the
Legis.ature ot such State may apply in whole or in part the appro
priation uf this act made to such agricultural college or school;
and no Legislature shall, by contract express or implied, disable
itself f from so doing.
SEC. 9. That the grants of moneys authorized by this act are made
subject to the legislative assent of the several States and Territories
to the purposes of said grants: Provilded, That pl.yments of such
installments of the appropriation herein made as shall become du e
to any State before the adjourniment of the regular session1 of th e
Legislature meeting next after the passage of this act shall be mad e
up.n the assent of the Governor thereof, duly certified to the See -
retary of the Teasury.
SEC. 10. Nothing in this act shall be held oi construed as binding
the Uniied States to continue any'payments from the treasury t
mny or all the States or institutions mentioned in this act; but Con-
lress may at. any time amend, suspend or repeal any or all of the
provisions of this act.
Approved Ma:ch 2, 1887.