• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Board of control and staff
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Propagation
 Planting and fertilizing
 Temperature toleration
 Classification
 Native species
 Introduced species
 Cycas and zamia
 Check list of palms in the United...






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 228
Title: Native and exotic palms of Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027261/00001
 Material Information
Title: Native and exotic palms of Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 71 p. : ill., map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mowry, Harold
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1931
 Subjects
Subject: Palms -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by Harold Mowry.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Includes index.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027261
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924075
oclc - 01535585
notis - AEN4679

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Board of control and staff
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    Propagation
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Planting and fertilizing
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Temperature toleration
        Page 12
    Classification
        Page 13
    Native species
        Page 14
        Pinmate or feather-leaved species
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
        Palmate or fan-leaved species
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
    Introduced species
        Page 27
        Pinnate or feather-leaved species
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
        Palmate or fan-leaved species
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
    Cycas and zamia
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Check list of palms in the United States
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Bulletiri 228 May, 1931
(A Revision of Bulletin 184)

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
Wilmon Newell, Director





NATIVE AND EXOTIC PALMS

OF FLORIDA

By HAROLD MOWRY


Fig. 1.-The royal palm, Roystonea regia.

Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the
Agricultural Experiment Station
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA









BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando
A. H. BLENDING, Leesburg FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
W. B. DAVIS. Perry J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STATION EXECUTIVE STAFF
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Asst. Editor
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director IDA KEELING CRESAP, Librarian
H. HAROLD HUME, M.S., Asst. Dir., Re- RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary
search K. H. GRAHAM, Business Manager
S. T. FLEMING, A.B., Asst. Dir., Admin. RACHEL McQUARRIE, Accountant
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor

MAIN STATION-DEPARTMENTS AND INVESTIGATORS


AGRONOMY
W. E. STOKES, M.S., Agronomist
W. A. LEUKEL, Ph.D., Associate
G. E. RITCHEY, M.S.A., Assistant*
FRED H. HULL, M.S., Assistant
J. D. WARNER, M.S., Assistant
JOHN P. CAMP, M.S.A., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Veterinarian in
Charge
E. F. THOMAS, D.V.M., Asst. Veterinarian
R. B. BECKER, Ph.D., Associate in Dairy
Husbandry.
W. M. NEAL, Ph.D., Assistant in Animal
Nutrition
C. R. DAWSON, B.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Investigations
CHEMISTRY
R. W. RUPRECHT, Ph.D., Chemist
R. M. BARNETTE, Ph.D., Associate
C. E. BELL, M.S., Assistant
J. M. COLEMAN, B.S., Assistant
H. W. WINSOR, B.S.A., Assistant
H. W. JONES, B.S., Assistant
COTTON INVESTIGATIONS
E. F. GROSSMAN, M.A., Assistant
PAUL W. CALHOUN, B.S., Assistant


ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
BRUCE McKINLEY, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
M. A. BROOKER, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
OUIDA DAVIS ABBOTT, Ph.D., Head
L. W. GADDUM, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. F. AHMANN, Ph.D., Physiologist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. WATSON, A. M., Entomologist
A. N. TISSOT, M.S., Assistant
H. E. BRATLEY, M.S.A., Assistant
L. W. ZIEGLER, B.S., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
A. F. CAMP, Ph.D., Horticulturist
HAROLD MOWRY, B.S.A., Associate
M. R. ENSIGN, M.S., Assistant
A. L. STAHL, Ph.D., Assistant
G. H. BLACKMON, M.S.A., Pecan Culturist
C. B. VAN CLEEF, M.S.A., Greenhouse
Foreman
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. TISDALE, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
G. F. WEBER, Ph.D., Associate
A. H. EDDINS, Ph.D., Assistant
K. W. LOUCKS, M.S., Assistant
ERDMAN WEST, B.S., Mycologist


BRANCH STATION AND FIELD WORKERS
L. O. GRATZ, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist in charge, Tobacco Exp. Sta. (Quincy)
R. R. KINCAID, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Quincy)
W. A. CARVER, Ph.D., Assistant, Cotton Investigations (Quincy)
RAYMOND M. CROWN, B.S.A., Field Asst., Cotton Investigations (Quincy)
JESSE REEVES, Farm Superintendent, Tobacco Experiment Station (Quincy)
J. H. JEFFERIES, Superintendent, Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred)
GEO. D. RUEHLE, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Lake Alfred)
W. A. KUNTZ, A.M., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Lake Alfred)
B. R. FUDGE, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist (Lake Alfred)
W. L. THOMPSON, B.S., Assistant Entomologist (Lake Alfred)
R. V. ALLISON, Ph.D., Soils Specialist in charge Everglades Experiment Sta. (Belle Glade)
R. W. KIDDER, B.S., Foreman, Everglades Experiment Station (Belle Glade)
R. N. LOBDELL, M.S., Assistant Entomologist (Belle Glade)
F. D. STEVENS, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist (Belle Glade)
H. H. WEDGEWORTH, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist (Belle Glade)
B. A. BOURNE, M.S., Associate Plant Physiologist (Belle Glade)
J. R. NELLER, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist (Belle Glade)
A. DAANE, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist (Belle Glade)
FRED YOUNT, Office Assistant (Belle Glade)
M. R. BEDSOLE, M.S.A., Assistant Chemist (Belle Glade)
A. N. BROOKS, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Plant City)
R. E. NOLEN, M.S.A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Plant City)
A. S. RHOADS, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Cocoa)
C. M. TUCKER, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Hastings)
H. S. WOLFE, Ph.D., Associate Horticulturist (Homestead)
L. R. TOY, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist (Homestead)
STACY O. HAWKINS, M.A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Homestead)
D. G. A. KELBERT, Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Bradenton)
FRED W. WALKER, Assistant Entomologist (Monticello)
D. A. SANDERS, D.V.M., Associate Veterinarian (West Palm Beach)
M. N. WALKER, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Leesburg)
W. B. SHIPPY, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Leesburg)
C. C. GOFF, M.S., Assistant Entomologist (Leesburg)
J. W. WILSON, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist (Pierson)
*In cooperation with U. & Department of Agriculture.
























CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ........ ...... .. ........ ..... ..... ............................... 5

PROPAGATION ......-- --..........-....----....... -.....-............-- 6

PLANTING AND FERTILIZING .. ...... ...... ....--------....---.....----...... 9

TEMPERATURE TOLERATION .. --.- ----................---................. 12

CLASSIFICATION ....-- ....--........ .......... ............. ........................... 13

NATIVE SPECIES ......--....----.--.----. ...---- ..--.------................ 14

Pinnate or Feather-leaved Species ....................... .... .............. 15

Palmate or Fan-leaved Species ..................... ........ ............ ..... 18

INTRODUCED SPECIES --........ ............ ............................................ 27

Pinnate or Feather-leaved Species ............................... ..... ......... 27

Palmate or Fan-leaved Species .....-...-........-----.........-.......... 50

CYCAS AND ZAMIA ---. ...~~.....- .... -........-. ...................... 60

CHECK LIST OF PALMS IN THE UNITED STATES .................... -................... 65









NATIVE AND EXOTIC PALMS

OF FLORIDA

By HAROLD MOWRY

The most tropical portions of the continental United States
are found within the confines of the State of Florida. This
situation makes possible the successful culture of numerous
species of palms under outdoor conditions, where suitable soils,
heavy rainfall, and freedom from severe frosts tend to form an
ideal combination for the growing of palms and other tropical
plants. One of the greatest charms of the tropics is its palm
flora and, since conditions within the state are so favorable for
their growth and culture, palms may very properly be used ex-
tensively in Florida's ornamental plantings.
From the large number of species now growing in the state,
palms suitable for almost any location may be selected, the choice
varying from very dwarf shrubby sorts to magnificent trees
reaching a height of nearly 100 feet. Some are erect in habit
of growth, others leaning; some have but a single trunk while
others have numerous stems forming clumps of different sizes.
Although the greater number of the species are not hardy and
can be grown successfully only in the southern portions of the
state, there are several which may be safely planted to the
northern border. There are without doubt numerous species of
palms which, if introduced, would thrive in some section of
the state and no opportunity should be lost in giving new species
a fair trial. All such importations, however, should be made
through the United States Department of Agriculture that they
may be inspected and treated, if necessary, to protect those we
now have from any insect pest or disease that might otherwise
be introduced.
Palms are ideally suited to planting in groups, as specimens,
or for lining avenues or highways. It is usually necessary to give
the young plants a certain amount of care and attention to get
them established and in thrifty growing condition. Once they
are well established and have attained some size only a small
amount of attention is required.
Since there is no readily available publication on the palms
of Florida, it has been the purpose of the writer to give a list of
most of the palms growing in the state, both native and intro-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


duced, with photographs and descriptions that will enable the
reader to become better acquainted with them. It is quite prob-
able that many species may have been overlooked but it is be-
lieved that most of the species planted in any number are includ-
ed. Florida, it will be noted, has at present within its borders
but a small percentage of the world's 1,200 to 1,500 species.
There are numerous species of palms planted in the state that
are not yet old enough to prove their adaptability, as well as
many that are found in exceptionally limited numbers, and no
attempt has been made to include descriptions or photographs
of any but a small part of these.
Owing to the wide divergence in the nomenclature of various
genera, there may be some criticism of that used, but the inten-
tion has been to give what appeared to be the proper present
usage, the synonym following in parentheses. All of the photo-
graphs were made of palms growing within the state and no
species has been listed knowingly that has not been grown in
Florida.
A check list of palms grown in the United States, both out-of-
doors and in conservatories, is appended.

PROPAGATION

Palms are propagated by seeds, by separation of offshoots
from the main trunk, or by division of root-clumps where several
stems are present. The first is the method most commonly used.
Some species, such as Phoenix dactylifera, put out offshoots near
the base of the trunk, particularly when young, and these may be
separated from the parent plant to form new plants. Others
having several stems, such as Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, may
be divided when the plant is small into several separate plants.
With the majority of the palms, seeds constitute the sole
method by which the plant may be increased. It is usually much
more convenient to propagate from seeds than to make use of
the other methods and, unless there is some particular reason,
it is the best method to follow. Seeds are planted as soon as
possible after maturity. Many retain their viability for a con-
siderable time but a better percentage of germination can be
secured from fresh seeds.
The seeds of most species are best planted in flats or seedbeds,
being covered with soil from a depth of one-eighth to one inch,
the depth depending largely on the size of the seeds. The flats







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


used are shallow boxes provided with holes or cracks in the bot-
tom for drainage. A convenient size is one measuring 16 by 24
inches with a depth of three or four inches. During the winter
months the flats may be placed in full sun in a location protected
from cold winds, but during hot summer months they should be
partially shaded by means of a cloth or slat shade. It is also
advisable to protect them from heavy rains, as some of the seeds
may be washed entirely out of the soil. If desired, an outdoor
sash-covered frame may be substituted for flats for germinating
purposes. With such a frame the seeds may be planted directly
in the soil or the flats may be planted and set within the frame
for protection.
The soil in flats or seedbed should be kept moist but not wet.
Complete drying out of the soil should be avoided as intermit-
tent soaking and drying of the seeds results in poor germination.
Considerable loss from "damping-off" fungi is likely to be ex-
perienced with some species if the soil is kept too wet after seed-
lings have made their appearance.
The time required for germination of palm seeds varies great-
ly with the different species. Some, such as Phoenix and Wash-
ingtonia, require only from three to four weeks. Others, as
those of the Butia australis type, require several months. In-
stances have been known where palm seeds did not germinate
until three and four years after planting.
Seeds of some of the quicker germinating sorts may be planted
directly in the nursery row. When thus planted the seeds should
be sowed much more thickly than the stand required, as the per-
centage which will germinate under uncontrolled field conditions
is usually much less than when planted in flats. Excess plants
resulting may be thinned out readily and transplanted to other
rows.
Seedlings may be potted when an inch or two high or, as prac-
ticed by some, the seeds potted just as soon as sprouted. It is
advisable to pot before much of the root system is developed so
that few rootlets may be lost. With the slower germinating
seeds it is best to remove and pot the plants as they show up
for, with these, germination is very irregular and some seeds of
the same planting may germinate weeks or months ahead of
others. Flats containing seeds of slow germinating species
should not be too hastily thrown out as it occasionally happens
that a high percentage of germination will finally result if ade-
quate time is given.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Potting soil that will give good results can be made of a mix-
ture of sod and stable manure. These should be piled together
for several months so that the whole may become thoroughly
decayed before being used. A small amount of dried blood,
ground steamed bone meal, and tankage may be mixed with the
potting soil as used. Plants should be repotted as soon as the pot
becomes fairly well filled with roots. Care should be exercised
in seeing that plants are repotted before they become root-bound
and stunted.
When a height of eight to ten inches is attained the plants may
be transplanted from the pots to the nursery row. They should
be spaced from two to four feet in the row with rows about four
feet apart. The site chosen for the nursery should preferably
be moist but well drained and of a fairly heavy soil type. Very
light soils should be avoided as it is very difficult, if not im-
possible, to properly ball such soil about the roots when trans-
planting.
Coconuts are planted in rows in semi-shaded seedbeds. A
moist but well drained location should be chosen. The nuts are
placed on their sides and buried only about one-half of their
thickness, the upper portion being fully exposed. They may be
planted very closely, leaving only enough space between so that
they do not touch. Planting in rows permits cultivation to keep
down weeds and to conserve soil moisture. Germination re-
quires from one to five months but the majority should germinate
within four months or less. Transplanting may be done when
the leaf reaches a height of about a foot, even though few or no
roots are in evidence. The plant draws from food stored within
the nut for a considerable period. The use of salt is not neces-
sary in the seedbed nor about large trees to insure germination
or vigorous growth. The tree is one which can withstand salt
water and brackish soils but this does not necessarily mean that
salt is required to insure thrifty plants.
Natural hybridization occurs between some species, which
makes the securing of pure varieties or species difficult and
uncertain. This is particularly true of the Phoenix group and
has made the perpetuation of varieties of the edible date largely
dependent upon offshoot propagation. The methods used in
such propagation are relatively simple. With one, the offshoot
or sucker is partially severed close to the main stem on the under
side. An ordinary flower pot containing some soil is then placed
beneath so that this severed portion is partially within the pot.







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


Soil is then filled in and about the pot, covering the whole lower
portion of the offshoot. This soil must be kept damp. After
several weeks the pot will be found to contain a considerable
root system that has put out from the part of the plant within
the pot. At this time the offshoot can be completely removed
from the tree and the operation is complete. Occasionally off-
shoots are found to be naturally well rooted. These can be suc-
cessfully transplanted by careful treatment in detaching and
digging. Late spring and summer months are best for success-
ful removal of offshoots.

PLANTING AND FERTILIZING

The person who stated that he would rather have a 50 cent
palm planted at a cost of $10 than a $10 palm planted at a cost
of 50 cents most assuredly knew the necessity and value of prep-
aration and care in planting palms. It cannot be stated too em-
phatically that to insure success in planting palms, particularly
on the lighter soil types, adequate preparation for planting must
be made in advance. There are numerous vigorous palms now
growing which had but little care in planting but there are also
numerous ones now needlessly dead from the lack of proper care
in planting.
Under most conditions it is advisable to dig large holes where
palms are to be set, these holes being several times as large as
will be necessary for the planting. The holes are then filled
with a mixture of compost, decayed leaves and grass or other
litter, well rotted manures in fairly large quantities, and some
muck and clay if the soil is quite sandy. The addition of bone
meal and manures is also advantageous. This preparation of
holes should be made two or three months prior to time of plant-
ing so that the whole mixture will have become well.settled and
more or less thoroughly decayed. No burning of roots will fol-
low when fertilizers or manures are added some weeks prior to
the time of planting.
Palms may be planted at any season of the year but the warm,
rainy, summer months are to be given preference. The palms
in this respect resemble the grasses in that at this season they
are making a vigorous root growth and soon recover from the
effects of transplanting. The trees are usually received from the
nursery with a ball of earth about the roots and, if planted with
this ball intact, little loss or setback in growth is experienced.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


In such instances the trees should be planted at least as deeply
as they stood in the nursery but if planted a little deeper no in-
jury will result. Fertile top-soil should be used in filling in the
hole about the plant. A saucer-like depression should be made
to cause rain or irrigation water to run to the plant instead of
away from it. A heavy mulch of thoroughly decayed manure
and straw or leaves should complete the planting. Watering at
the time of planting must not be neglected and the tree must not
be allowed to suffer from lack of moisture during the first sea-
son at least.
In many instances palm seedlings are grown under slat shade
or in other semi-shaded locations. When grown under such
conditions and transplanted to situations exposing them to full
sun it often happens that a high percentage of loss results.
Losses due to this cause may be overcome in large measure by
partial shading of the plants for a time after transplanting.

















Fig. 2.-Method of moving large palms.

Large palms transplanted from the open ground should be
moved preferably during the early part of the summer rainy
season, although they are successfully transplanted any month in
the year. If the character of the soil will permit, a ball of earth,
extending out about a foot from the base of the trunk, should
be moved with the tree. Palm roots, which are extremely num-
erous, do not form new root caps when severed and when a palm
is dug all severed roots, therefore, almost wholly cease to func-







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


tion and new roots must put out to sustain the plant. As this
root growth is comparatively dormant during the winter months
and very active during the summer months the advantage of
summer planting can be seen. If a ball of earth is moved intact
about the base, those short roots just emerging from the base
are preserved intact and their power to function is undisturbed.
Inasmuch as water is taken into the plant through the roots
and given off into the air through transpiration from the leaves,
it would seem advisable to take off some leaves to balance up
somewhat for the loss of roots in digging. Species of the fan-
leaved type seem to require removal of a larger proportion of
leaves than do the feather-leaved to insure against loss in trans-
planting. With the cabbage palmetto it is best when transplant-
ing to remove all of the leaves other than the central one that is
just unfolding. In transplanting the saw palmetto all roots are
severed close to the recumbent stem and all leaves also removed
at the time of digging. This treatment leaves but a piece of
stem, preferably about two feet long, with the bud at one end.
In planting, the whole stem or trunk is buried, almost vertically,
with only the bud exposed.
Extreme caution must be exercised when undermining large
trees to prevent them from falling heavily. Frequently such
falls so injure trees that, regardless of other attention, they do
not survive. The underground portion with its roots should not
be exposed to the sun and wind in moving. This can be avoided
by covering with wet sacks. Palms, the cabbage palmetto in par-
ticular, can be planted deeper than they originally stood.
Thorough and regular watering is required to insure success in
transplanting and large trees must be well braced with either
planks or wires for some months.
Fertilizers derived from organic sources are particularly de-
sirable for palms. Cottonseed meal, ground steamed bone meal,
tankage, blood, guano, and fish scrap are satisfactory, as are
also manures. Tankage, bone, and sheep or goat manures in
combination will tend to keep the palms in a thrifty growing con-
dition. Such fertilizers may be applied during the early spring
and summer months. Ten to twenty pounds of such fertilizer,
widely scattered, is not too much for large specimens. Stable
manures should be applied as a mulch. An application of sul-
fate of potash in late fall is believed to have a hardening effect
in checking growth, which would make the plant less susceptible
to injury by frosts during the winter months.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


When palms are planted on lawns the fertilizers may be ap-
plied by making small holes with a crowbar or like tool around
the tree at some distance from the trunk. These holes can be
about a foot in depth, about two feet apart, and should be placed
out as far as the spread of the leaves. Commercial fertilizers,
as above, are poured into the holes which afterward can be
closed with the heel, leaving the lawn apparently undisturbed.
"Plugging" a lawn for the application of manures about trees
consists in removing a small section of sod and digging out the
soil for a depth of a foot or more. This space is then filled with
rotted stable manure, solidly tramped, and the sod replaced.

TEMPERATURE TOLERATION

To aid in determining those portions of the state to which
the various species of palms are best adapted from the view-
point of minimum temperatures the accompanying map has been
prepared (Fig. 3). It is quite difficult to make a map showing


Fig. 3.-Certain palms are climati-
cally adapted to particular
areas of Florida. For the pur-
pose of this bulletin, the state
has been divided into the three
districts shown here.


absolutely the exact range to which any
given species may be adapted, owing to
the various factors involved, such as
latitude, elevation, proximity to coast,
and water protection, as well as local
influences that include protection af-
forded by overhanging trees, and prox-
imity to or location between buildings.
Again, several mild winters may be fol-
lowed by one more severe which would


necessarily change, for






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


the time being at least, the exact range of some species. The
average or mean temperatures for a number of winters mean
little, as it is the absolute sustained minimum temperatures
which decide conclusively whether or not a given species may be
successfully grown to maturity at a specified location.
On this map the state has been more or less arbitrarily divided
into three general sections-the southern or most tropical; the
central, which is occasionally subjected to a few degrees more
frost than the former; and the northern, which is subject to the
heaviest frosts. These sections have been numbered 1, 2, and 3,
respectively.
Section 1 includes generally the southernmost portions of the
state from about West Palm Beach on the east coast to Punta
Gorda on the west coast, excluding a large portion of the Ever-
glades lying between. There are portions along the east coast
up to and including parts of Merritt's Island and some protected
parts of the west coast above the lines drawn, as well as isolated
areas such as portions of the ridge along the south shore of Lake
Okeechobee and perhaps other small areas, which for some spe-
cies might be included in this section. Section 2 includes that
portion of the state north of No. 1 to a line drawn from Volusia
County across the peninsula to Citrus County. Section 3 in-
cludes all territory lying north and west of Section 2. There
are areas in all sections which are warmer or less susceptible
to frost damage than others. These in the descriptions may be
referred to as 2A and 3A. In the list of palms which follows,
the numbers given in parentheses immediately after the name
denote the area to which the palm in question is probably best
adapted; as Arecastrum Romanzoffianum (1, 2) would show that
this palm could be successfully grown in Sections 1 and 2 as
indicated on the map.

CLASSIFICATION

The palms are monocotyledons belonging to the family Palm-
aceae. They are woody plants having solid stems which are not
differentiated into wood, pith, and bark, and which may be
underground or above, reclining or erect. Some species have
single, upright, or bent stems while others form clumps by
throwing out stolons or suckers from the base. The stem or
trunk is cylindrical and has no leaf-bearing lateral branches,
though a very few species are naturally forked. Very rarely






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


a forked specimen of Sabal palmetto is found but the forking of
this species is no doubt due to an injury to the bud.


i/


Fig. 4.-Types of palm leaves. Palmate or fan-
leaved at the left, pinnate or feather-leaved at
right.


The leaves in
most species
form a compact
crown at the top
of the trunk. Ac-
cording to leaf
type, a 11 palms
may be divided
into two main
classes- pinnate
or feather-leaved
and palmate or
fan-leaved. (Fig.
4). By far the
greater number
of species belong


to the former class. The leaves of seedlings are not divided at
first but as the plant increases in size the leaves show "charac-
ter", that is, the pinnae or segments divide, showing the class
to which the leaf belongs.

NATIVE SPECIES

By far the greater number of the palms native to the United
States are found in Florida. These range in size from dwarf
species, as the Rhapidophyllum, to tall, magnificent trees, of
which the most noted are Roystonea regia, the royal palm, and
Cocos nucifera, the coconut. The most common is the dwarf or
saw palmetto, Serenoa serrulata, which is found on the flatwoods
and sandy soils throughout most of the state. Four species, Sere-
noa serrulata, Rhapidophyllum hystrix, Sabal minor, and Sabal
palmetto, are found in the wild state in the northern sections.
Some of the others are found in the central or southern part of
the state and most of the species in the extreme south and on the
Florida keys.
Some of the native sorts are among the most prized of orna-
mental palms, notably the royal and the coconut. Others used
frequently in ornamental plantings are Rhapidophyllum, Sabal
palmetto, Pseudophoenix, Acoelorraphe, Coccothrinax, and Thri-
nax species. Of these only the first two are hardy enough for


~--~-






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida 15

planting in the northern section, the others being limited to the
more tropical and protected sections of the peninsula. It is, of
course, possible to use any or all of the species in certain loca-
tions as ornamentals but with some this use to good effect is
limited. The dwarf species, as cultivated ornamentals, evidently
thrive best in semi-shaded locations.
The Acoelorraphe, Cocos nucifera, Coccothrinax, and the Thri-
nax species are suited to planting near the coast. The Roystonea
grows best in moist, rich soils but can be successfully grown on
lighter soils if adequate preparations are made prior to planting
(see paragraph on planting and fertilizing) and the tree sub-
sequently kept well supplied with water and fertilizers.
The native genera are divided into the two classes, pinnate or
feather leaved, and palmate or fan-leaved.
A discussion of the various species follows:
PINNATE OR FEATHER-LEAVED SPECIES
Cocos nucifera Linn. Coconut. (1). Extreme southern por-
tion of mainland and keys; probably started by seeds which were
washed ashore. The trees attain a height of 90 to 100 feet with
smooth, erect or leaning trunks 1 to 2 feet in diameter, and much
swollen at the base. The pinnate leaves vary from 12 to 18 feet
in length and have broad leaflets 21/2 to 3 feet long. The heavy
leaf-stalks are 3 to 5 feet in length. The fruits are borne in clus-
ters of 12 to 20.
The coconut palm, with its tall, leaning trunk, immense leaves,
and large fruits, lends a tropical aspect that can hardly be at-
tained with any other plant. Brackish soils or salt spray do not
injure it in the least but the fact that it thrives under these con-
ditions does not necessarily mean that the use of salt about the
tree is required when it is planted farther inland. It is not so
well suited for street planting as some other palms, owing to the
leaning habit of growth, but is entirely satisfactory for other
uses. It appears at its best when planted along a waterfront.
With the exception of the fruits of the double coconut, Lodoi-
cea maldivica, those of the common coconut are the largest of
any of the palm group. They are from 6 to 8 inches in diameter
and 10 to 12 inches in length. The seed or nut is enclosed in a
thick, water-proof husk which is indefinitely impervious to the
action of water. The trees growing near the sea drop the ma-
ture, buoyant fruits into the water below. These are carried
by wind and current to various parts of the world. Some still





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


capable of germination are washed ashore, sprout, and form new
trees, possibly thousands of miles from where they started.
This, in a measure, accounts for the wide tropical distribution of
this palm. The original habitat of the coconut is not definitely
known but is supposed by some to have been in the American
tropics.






...



I \""


rw


Fig. 5.-Coconut palms, Cocos nucifera.






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


The useful products of the tree are many, the chief ones being
copra-the source of a widely used oil-, desiccated coconut, and
fiber. In Florida, other than as a highly valued ornamental, the
coconut is of little or no commercial importance. (Figs. 5 and 6).
















-. --,


Fig. 6.-Coconut palms lend a tropical atmosphere to the
landscaping scheme.

Pseudophoenix vinifera Becc. (Pseudophoenix Sargentii H.
Wendl.). Hog Cabbage Palm. Buccaneer Palm. (1). Few
keys. The trees of this species are erect. They attain a height
of 25 feet and have a smooth, light gray trunk, to 12 inches in
diameter, which is bulged near the middle. The pinnate leaves,
from 4 to 6 feet in length, are dark green above and lighter be-
neath. The leaflets are from 16 to 18 inches in length at leaf
middle and shorter at each end. The leaf-stalks are from 5 to
8 feet long. The orange-scarlet fruits attain a maximum of
3% inch in diameter.
Few trees are left in the original locations, most of them hav-
ing been destroyed or removed to Miami and vicinity as royal
palms. A few of these have survived and the numbers have
been increased further by the addition of seedlings from both
wild and transplanted trees. (Fig. 7).
Roystonea regia (H. B. K.) O. F. Cook. (Oreodoxa regia H.
B. K.). Royal Palm. (1 and 2A). Extreme south and south-
west portions of mainland and a few keys. The royal palm is an






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


erect growing tree which attains a maximum height of 90 to 100
feet. The trunks
are massive, be-
ing in some in-
stances 3 or more
feet in diam-
eter, slightly
bulged or swollen
a b o u t midway,
gracefully taper-
ing from this
swelling both
ways the base
a 1 s o enlarged;
light gray in col-
or and very
Fig. 7.-Buccaneer Palm, Pseudophoenix vinifera. smooth. (Fig. 1.)
The tall, smooth, gray trunk is surmounted by what might be
termed an upper shaft or secondary column, composed of clasp-
ing bases of petioles, bright green in color. Above this is the
massive crown of large, arching, deep green, pinnate leaves
which may attain 12 feet in length. The numerous leaflets
are tapering and 2 to 3 feet in length. The leaf-stalks, 7 to 8
feet long, are smooth and rounded. The fruit .is about 1/2 inch
in length a'nd violet blue in color.
The royal palm is the peer of native palms and equal to any for
ornamental planting. In its native state it is usually found in
moist, rich soils and is best adapted to such locations. It may be
grown in wetter soils than most decorative palms. It can be
successfully grown on higher, drier soil types if holes are prop-
erly prepared for planting by adding large quantities of muck,
manures, or leaf mold.
PALMATE OR FAN-LEAVED SPECIES
Acoelorraphe Wrightii Becc. (Paurotis Wrightii (Griseb.)
Britton). Saw Cabbage Palm. (1). Extreme southern portion
of mainland in swamps and undrained soils. The trees of this
species have slender trunks and are usually found growing in
large clumps which attain a height of 40 feet. The leaves are
fan-shaped, green on both surfaces, 2 to 3 feet in width, divided
about half way into numerous divisions which are in turn deeply
split. The petioles are slender, gradually thickening from leaf






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


to point of at-
tachment, attain-
ing a maximum '
length of 5 feet
and armed their
full length with
heavy, upcurved
spines. The black
fruits are about
1/4 inch in diam-
eter (Fig. 8).
C o c c othrinax
argentia S a r g.
(C. ucunda
(Lodd.) Sarg.).
Silver Palm. (1).
Along Biscayne
Bay and keys.
This species
grows to a height -
of 25 feet. The
trunk is slender,
not exceeding 6
inches in diam-
F. i i Fig. 8.-Acoelorraphe Wrightii, saw cabbage palm.
eter. It is smooth
and slate to brownish-gray in color. The fan-shaped leaves are
thin, glossy, pale green above and silvery beneath. The unarmed
leaf-stalks attain a maximum length of 3 feet. The fruit is about
3/4 inch in diameter and has black flesh. The seeds are channeled.
Another species of Coccothrinax, C. garberi Sarg., a stemless sort
resembling the former but being characteristically smaller
throughout, is sometimes listed as native along Biscayne Bay. It
is possible that this is but a dwarfed form of the previous species.
(Fig. 9.)
Rhapidophyllum hystrix H. Wendl. & Drude. Needle Palm.
Porcupine Palm. (1, 2, 3.). Northern and central sections. The
needle palm is a low-growing, shrubby species which rarely at-
tains a height of over a few feet. The slender trunk usually is
reclining but occasionally is erect. It is loosely covered with
rough fiber. The clustered leaves are mostly erect; cleft into
many divisions which are toothed at ends; dark glossy green






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


above and grayish beneath. The leaf-stalks are very slender
and attain a maximum length of 31 feet. Numerous long,


Fig. 9.-Silver palm, Coccothrinax argentia.


straight, sharp, black spines project from the fiber about the
stem. The fruit is about % inch in diameter; red when mature.
This dwarf palm is very attractive and fits in well in palm
groups where a small palm is wanted. It prefers a fairly moist
soil and some shade. (Fig. 10.)
Sabal minor Pers. (S. Adansonii Guerns. S. glabra (Mill.)







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


Sarg.) Blue-stem. Dwarf Palmetto. (2 and 3). Northern and
central sections. The Blue-stem palmetto is a stemless shrub
having fan-shap-
ed leaves with a
maximum
breadth of about
3 feet, somewhat
wider than long,
deeply cleft into
numerous d i v i-
sions. Leaf-stalks
are smooth, fair-
ly heavy, and
usually erect.
Seed spikes are A
erect, exceeding
the l eaves in Fig. 10.-Rhapidophyllum hystrix, needle palm.
the leaves in
length. The leaves are of a bluish cast, rather stiff, without
filaments or thread-like fibers. Fruits are black, 1/4 to 1/3 inch
in diameter. (Fig. 11.)



















Fig. 11.-Blue-stem palmetto, Sabal minor.

Sabal Jamesiana Sm. (1). South Florida hammocks. James
Palmetto. The James palmetto is a species found in some of the
hammocks of extreme south Florida and has but recently been







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


described as a separate species. It attains a height of some 15
feet and is distinguished mainly by the nearly flat leaf blades
which do not show the characteristic folding of most of the Sa-
bals. The leaf segments are narrow and drooping. (Fig. 12.)


Fig. 12.-Sabal Jamesiana, James' palmetto.


Sabal Etonia Swingle (S. megacarpa Small). Scrub Pal-
metto. (2 and 3). Peninsular section. This species is a shrub
having a recumbent, twisting stem or rootstock. It resembles
S. minor in having deeply cleft, fan shaped leaves but, instead
of being without threads, has numerous filaments. The deep
green leaves attain a breadth of 21/2 feet and have smooth, un-
armed leaf-stalks. The black fruits are usually 3/% inch or more
in diameter.
Sabal palmetto Lodd. (Inodes palmetto 0. F. Cook). Cab-
bage Palmetto. (1, 2, 3). Throughout most of Florida except
extreme western portion.
The cabbage palmetto is normally an erect tree attaining a
maximum height of 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet or







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


less. The trunk is clothed
maining from decayed
leaf-stalks. As the tree
grows older these fall
away, leaving a fairly
smooth, slightly ridged
stem. Very rarely a
specimen is found hav-
ing a branched trunk
due, probably, to an in-
jury to the bud. The
leaves, which are fan-
shaped and shiny, deep
green in color, reach a
maximum length of
about 5 feet and a
somewhat greater
breadth. The leaf seg-
ments are deeply cleft.
The slender, unarmed
petioles attain a length
of 7 feet. The dark col-
ored or black fruits av-
erage about 1/3 inch in
diameter.
The cabbage pal-
metto is found growing


during early life with old "boots" re-


Fig. 13.-The native cabbage palmetto,
Sabal palmetto.


Fig. 14.-A group of Sabal palmettos. Such groups of palms are common
in Florida.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


in marshes, hammocks and sandy soils and, because of this adapt-
ability to varied soil types, can be grown as an ornamental















Fig. 15.-A typical clump of saw palmetto, Serenoa serrulata.
f throughout most sec-
..... tions.
The tree is not dam-
aged by cold in any part
of the state. It is well
adapted for group, speci-
men, or avenue plant-
ing. (Figs. 13, 14, 52,
and 55.)
Serenoa serrulata
(Michx.) Hook. Saw
Palmetto. (1,2,3).
Throughout most of the
state. The saw palmettos
are shrubs, usually with
twisted, recumbent
trunks, b u t specimens
are occasionally found
with erect or inclined
stems. The leaves are
fan-shaped, nearly cir-
.:.: .- .-- cular, deeply cleft into
Fig. 16.-Erect form of the saw palmetto, many divisions. The leaf
Serenoa serrulata. color is generally green
to yellowish-green but in some areas, mainly along the east coast,







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


a high percentage of the plants have a bluish, glaucous foliage
that is in striking contrast to that of plants growing to the
northward and farther
inland. Leaf stalks are
slender, armed through-
out with numerous,
small, very sharp spines.
The black fruit is 1/2 to
7/8 inch in length. (Figs.
15 and 16.)
Thrinax floridana
Sarg. Thatch Palm. (1).
Extreme southwest por-
tion of mainland and
keys. The thatch palm
is a tree attaining a max-
imum height of 30 feet
and a trunk diameter of
6 inches. Leaves are fan-
shaped, more or less cir-
cular in outline, with a
maximum diameter of
about 3 feet. The num-
erous divisions are cleft
half-way or more of the
length of the leaf. They
are shining yellowish-
green above and silvery
gray beneath. Leaf stalk
is 3 to 4 feet in length,
not spiny. The fruits
are 5/6 to 7/16 inch in
diameter with white .. e
flesh. (Fig. 17.) l- -.
T hr in ax keyensis
Sarg. Key Thatch. (1).
Lower Keys. T he key Fig. 17.-Thrinax floridana (T. parviflora),
silk-top thatch.
thatch palm is a stout
tree reaching a height of 25 feet and having a maximum trunk
diameter of 14 inches. A distinguishing characteristic is the
swollen base, sometimes 2 feet in height, composed of matted







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


roots. The leaves are about 31/2 feet wide; divided into many
deeply cleft divisions; shiny light green above, silvery beneath.
The leaf stalk is 3 to 4 feet in length, not spiny. Fruits are
small, 1/4 inch or less in diameter, with white flesh. (Fig. 18.)
Thrinax microcarpa S a r g.
Brittle Thatch. (1). Extreme
Slower end of mainland and keys.
This species is similar to T. key-
ensis b ut attains a slightly
Greater height and is without
the swollen base of exposed
roots. The trunk diameter is
usually not as large. Fruits are
very small, about 1/3 inch in di-
ameter; white fleshed. Small'
considers this species and T.
keyensis to be the same.
Thrinax Wendlandiana Becc.
Thatch Palm. (1). South shore
of mainland and keys. This
palm, 25 to 30 feet in height,
has an erect, smooth, grayish
Fig. 18.-Thrinax keyensis, key trunk which does not exceed 4
thatch
inches in diameter. The leaves
are fan-shaped, not over 3 feet in diameter; pale green both
below and above (they differ from kindred species in not being
silvery below); divided into many deeply cut divisions or seg-
ments. The leaf-stalk is not spiny and attains a length of 4 feet.
Fruits are about 1/4 inch in diameter; white fleshed.
Dr. Small2, after exploration, comparison, and study of the
native Thrinax species, expresses the opinion that the species
given above as T. floridana and T. Wendlandiana are probably
one and the same and that they should rightly be known as
Thrinax parviflora, Silk-top Thatch, first described by Swartz
as from Jamaica and Cuba.
'Small, J. K. The Brittle-Thatch-Thrinax microcarpa. Jour. N. Y.
Bot. Gdn. 32:1-6. 1931.
'Ibid. Silk-top Thatch--Thrinax parviflora. Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gdn.
26:49-54. 1925. Chronicle of the Palms of the Continental United States.
31:57-66. 1930.







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


INTRODUCED SPECIES
PINNATE OR FEATHER-LEAVED SPECIES
Acrocomia spp. These are tall, beautiful, pinnate-leaved
palms well adapted to the southern half of the state. The trunks,
usually bulged, are
armed with black
spines from 1 to 6
inches in length. The
glossy green leaves
with a maximum
length of 15 feet are ,
borne in a thick tuft ;.
at the top of the
trunk, and also are
spiny. Owing to this
spiny character of
the trunk and leaves
this genus is not well
suited to street plant-
ing but for grouping
and specimens it is
v e r y satisfactory.
T he appearance of
the tree while young
is not as attractive as
in older specimens.
The trees thrive on
moist soils but also
grow well on higher
locations.
Acrocomia selero-
carpa Mart. Gru-Gru
Palm. (1). South
America and West
Indies. This species
attains a height of 50 Fig. 19.-Acrocomia totai.
feet. The trunk is
erect and armed with spines 3 to 4 inches in length. The leaves
are green above and ashy beneath. The pinnae attain a length
of 3 feet and a width of 1 inch.
Acrocomia totai Mart. (1 and 2). South America. This







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


INTRODUCED SPECIES
PINNATE OR FEATHER-LEAVED SPECIES
Acrocomia spp. These are tall, beautiful, pinnate-leaved
palms well adapted to the southern half of the state. The trunks,
usually bulged, are
armed with black
spines from 1 to 6
inches in length. The
glossy green leaves
with a maximum
length of 15 feet are ,
borne in a thick tuft ;.
at the top of the
trunk, and also are
spiny. Owing to this
spiny character of
the trunk and leaves
this genus is not well
suited to street plant-
ing but for grouping
and specimens it is
v e r y satisfactory.
T he appearance of
the tree while young
is not as attractive as
in older specimens.
The trees thrive on
moist soils but also
grow well on higher
locations.
Acrocomia selero-
carpa Mart. Gru-Gru
Palm. (1). South
America and West
Indies. This species
attains a height of 50 Fig. 19.-Acrocomia totai.
feet. The trunk is
erect and armed with spines 3 to 4 inches in length. The leaves
are green above and ashy beneath. The pinnae attain a length
of 3 feet and a width of 1 inch.
Acrocomia totai Mart. (1 and 2). South America. This







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


species attains a height of 40 feet. The trunk is erect, bulged,
and spiny. Leaves are
shiny green on both
sides, smaller than A.
sclerocarpa. It is fairly
K hardy, as is shown by a
lar ge specimen now
growing at Federal
Point on the St. Johns
River. (Figs. 19 and
20.)


Fig. 20.-Detail of trunk of Acrocomia.
spines of any of
the species. It
does n o t attain
the height of the
above species and
is found but rare-
ly in the extreme
south.
A c t i n o p h-
loeus Macarthuri
B e c c. (Ptycho-
sperma M a c a r-
thuri H. Wendl.)
(1). Australia.
A n attractive
slender trunked
species reaching a
height of 25 to 30
feet. The pinnate
leaves a r e dark
green. The leaf-
lets are obliquely
cut at ends as if
bitten off. These Fig. 21.-Actinophlo


Acrocomia media 0.
F. C o k. (A. aculeata
Lodd.?). The Corozo
palm of the West Indies;
has a large bulge in its
trunk just above the
ground and the longest


eus Macarthuri, cluster palm.







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


palms as grown are generally rather small, bushy specimens,
suckering freely, and giving rise to several stems. (Fig. 21.)
Adonidia Merrillii Becc. (S.P.I. No. 34732). (1). Philippine
Islands. "A medium-sized palm with graceful, somewhat
curved, pinnate leaves, somewhat resembling the betelnut palm,


but not so tall. The
leaves are rather glau-
cous and the pretty crim-
son fruits are borne just
below the leaves in med-
ium-sized bunches, the
individual fruits being
less than one inch long.
One of the most orna-
m e n t a 1 medium-sized
palms, which thrives re-
markably well in Man-
ila." (E. D. Merrill.)
This palm is well
adapted to the calcare-
ous soils of the lower
east coast as it has made
a thrifty growth in the
U. S. Plant Introduction
Gardens at Chapman
Field, south of Miami.
(Fig. 22.)
Archontophoenix. The


Fig. .



Fig. 22.-Adonidia Merrillii.


species of this genus are very graceful and beautiful, rapid
growing, spineless, pinnate-leaved palms with tall, erect, smooth
trunks marked with rings or scars left from fallen leaves.
The species mentioned below require adequate moisture and
will not thrive on high, sandy soils unless soil is prepared before
planting by addition of composts and the plants are later given
considerable attention in the way of regular fertilization and
irrigation.
There is some confusion as to nomenclature and identification
of this group. It is possible that the true Seaforthia is not in
Florida but it is believed that specimens of Seaforthia elegans
or Ptychosperma elegans are growing in the state. Cook' has
'Cook, O. F. A New Genus of Palms Allied to Archontophoenix. Jour.
Wash. Acad. Sci. 5:116-122. 1915.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


placed many of the supposed Seaforthias in a separate genus-
Loroma.
Archontophoenix Alexandrae H. Wendl. & Drude. (Ptycho-
sperma Alexandrae). Alexander's Palm. (1). Australia.
This species resembles A. Cunninghamii but with leaf divisions
or pinnae somewhat notched at tips. The leaves are green above
and grayish beneath. The palm attains a height of 70 feet and
has a trunk that is enlarged toward the base. (Fig. 23.)
A r chontophoenix
Cunninghamii H. Wendl.
& Drude. (Seaforthia
Selegans Hook.). (1).
SAustralia. This palm is
Commonly known as Sea-
forthia, there b e i n g
Many large specimens in
the southern sections
which are given this
name. The ringed
trunk, combined with
the graceful crown of
leaves, deep green on
both surfaces, attaining
a length of 10 feet, make
this one of the most at-
tractive species. It is also
well adapted to pot cul-
ture.
Areca Alicae Muel. (1
and 2A). Australia. This
Fig. 23.-Archontophoenix Alexandrae.
palm has made a very
satisfactory growth on quite sandy soils. In maturity it may
have several slender stems ranging from 6 to 10 feet in height.
The leaves are 3 to 6 feet in length, the segments broad and
somewhat erect. The appearance of the leaves is quite dis-
tinctive as the leaf segments are more or less erect for about
one-half to two-thirds their length with the ends abruptly droop-
ing. Due to its apparent adaptability and striking foliage it
is a valuable acquisition to any palm collection.
Arecastrum Romanzoffianum Becc. (Cocos plumosa Hook.)
Plumy Coconut. (1 and 2). Brazil. A tall-growing palm with
gracefully arching pinnate leaves and a smooth trunk which







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


has the bases of old leaf-stalks remaining near the top. This
species is particularly attractive and is being widely planted.
It can be used as a substitute for the royal palm on soils un-
suited to that species and since it is much more cold-resistant
has a far greater range of adaptability. It is a thrifty grower,
well adapted to light sandy soils, and is well suited for street,
park, or lawn planting. (Figs. 24 and 25.)
The variety australe, formerly termed by some Cocos flexuosa,
is closely allied to the above type and is probably the one com-
monly referred to
as Cocos plumo-
sa.
Arenga sacch-
arifera Labi 11.
(Saguerus p i n-
natus Wurmb.)
Sugar Palm.
Black-fiber Palm. '
(1). Native of
India and East
Indies. This palm
is a beautiful,
r a p i d-growing
tree that should
be planted to a
greater extent in
the tropical por- --
tions of the state.
It reaches a
height of 40 feet
and has pinnate
leaves attaining
28 feet in length
and 6 feet in
width, the leaf-
lets being 3 feet
in length and
about 3 inches in
width. The stem, Fig. 24.-Arecastrum Romanzoffianum, commonly
known as Cocos plumosa.
while the tree is
young, is covered with the old leaf sheaths and long, black,
coarse fibers. It flourishes best in a rich, moist soil. This palm,






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


where native, is one of the chief sources of sugar, which is
made from sap obtained by cutting the flower spadices. The
fiber about the trunk is also valued, a strong, heavy cordage
being made from it. (Figs. 26 and 27.)
Arikuryroba schizophylla Becc. (Cocos schizophylla Mart.).
(1). Brazil. Arikury Palm. The Arikury palm is a low grow-


Fig. 25.-Arecastrum Romanzoffianum, showing fruit and flowers.






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


ing plant that attains a height of about 8 feet in maturity. Its
stem is usually covered with the remnants of the old leaf-stalks
which are conspicuous because of their vertical position. The
leaves, 6 to 8 feet in length, have numerous drooping leaflets
which are about an inch in width with a very prominent midrib
above. The petioles are armed with short spines. The spadix
is quite long and the seeds which are about the size of a pigeon's
egg are borne in rather heavy drooping clusters. (Fig. 28.)
Attalea Cohune Mart. Cohune Palm. (1). Central America.
The Cohune palm does not attain so great a height as do some
species but its immense, erect, pinnate leaves form a huge crown.
This species is very striking and beautiful but tender and slow-
growing. It is rarely found in the state. The trunk is erect,
without spines, sometimes ringed, and attains a height of 60
feet. The leaves are very erect and have numerous leaflets.
Bactris spp. (1). American Tropics. The Bactris palms are
very rare in Florida but where found seem to be fairly well
adapted but slow-growing. They are of the pinnate-leaved type,
the leaflets resembling those
of the Caryotas in that the
ends have the appearance of
having been torn or bitten
off. There are normally sev-
eral slender, ringed stems or
trunks, heavily armed with
long sharp spines. The leaf-
stalks and the rachis of the
leaves are also quite spiny.
These palms are quite dis-
tinct and attractive but be-
cause of their spiny charac- J.
ter are not suited to planting
in all locations.
Butia spp. (1, 2, 3). This
group, indigenous to South L
America mainly Brazil,
Paraguay, and Argentina-
recently has been segregated
from the genus Cocos. In Fig. 26.-Sugar palm, Arenga
Florida, the species of this saccharifera.
newly formed genus heretofore generally have been considered






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


as a horticultural group under the name Cocos australis type;
the group here being arbitrarily termed the Butia australis type.
The different species do not differ greatly from a horticul-
tural viewpoint, although there are, of course, well defined botan-
i c a 1 distinctions between
Species. For ornamental
planting they are so closely
allied in growth habit,
hardiness, and general ap-
pearance that they are treat-
ed here as a group rather
i than individually. All are
seemingly well adapted to
SFlorida's soils and climate.
The plants have rather
heavy trunks, usually cloth-
ed with the bases of the old
leaves, and do not exceed a
height of 25 to 30 feet. Few,
if any, in Florida have yet
attained a height approxi-
mating that given.
The leaves are pinnate
and recurving which gives
a graceful, arching effect to
the foliage. In most of the
species the leaves are glau-
cous and the palm has a dis-
tinctive bluish cast. Those
Fig. 27.-Detail of trunk and fruit planted in Area 3 have all
cluster of the sugar palm, Arenga proved hardy and for that
saccharifera. area this group is particular-
ly recommended. The habit of growth lends itself best for group-
ing or specimen planting. The following species (Figs. 29 and
52) are given as having been grown successfully in the state:
B. Bonneti (Cocos Bonneti. C. Gaertneri). Bonnet's palm.
B. capitata (Cocos australis. C. coronata). Pindo palm.
B. capitata var. odorata (Cocos odorata).
B. capitata var. pulposa (Cocos pulposa).
B. eriospatha (Cocos eriospatha).
B. Nehrlingiana (Cocos Nehrlingiana).
B. Yatay (Cocos Yatay).
B. Yatay var. paraguayensis.






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


Caryota spp. The fish-tail palms derive their common name
from the peculiar shaping of the leaflets which are fan-shaped,
resembling the tail of a fish. These palms are well adapted to
Florida conditions, being found growing from the lower east and
west coasts to points in the sandy ridge sections of the central
part of the state. This genus is fairly vigorous in growth and
very satisfactory for ornamental planting.


Fig. 28.-Arikury palm, Arikuryroba schizophylla.
Caryota mitis Lour. (1). Southeastern Asia. The trees of
this species are small, never attaining a height of more than
25 feet, the foliage resembling that of C. urens. The plant
suckers freely, giving rise to several smooth, slender stems.
It is not common but should be more generally planted in the
tropical sections. As a specimen plant or in groups it is very
attractive. It prefers fairly moist soils and thrives in marl.
(Fig. 30.)
Caryota urens Linn. Fish-tail Palm. Toddy Palm. Kittul


I~s~Cc~-~- ~ ;) ~L






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Palm. (1 and 2A). Southeastern


Fig. 29.-Butia australis type.


This continues year by
year until the bloom is
produced near the
ground when the plant
dies. The trunk is fair-
ly smooth except for
scars left where old
leaves were attached.
This palm thrives in
moist soils and also on
sandy locations after it
is once well established.
(Fig. 31.)
Chamaedorea s p p.
(1). Central America
and Mexico. The palms
of this genus have very
slender ringed trunks
which somewhat r e-
semble bamboo canes.
The crown roots are


Asia. An attractive palm
growing to a
height of 40 feet
or more. The bi-
pinnate e a v e s
are large and
spreading. The
seeds are borne
on spikes which
hang in long clus-
ters, much r e-
sembling ropes
of large beads.
Flowering begins
at the top of the
tree. The next
blossoming s e a-
son the flower
stalks are pro-
duced lower
down the trunk.


Fig. 30.-Caryota mitis.






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


sometimes exposed as with corn. The pinnate leaves, usually
borne at extreme top of stem, have relatively few divisions.
They should be planted in fairly moist soil in a shaded loca-
tion. (Fig. 32.)
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Wendl. (Areca lutescens). Areca
Palm. Cane Palm.
S(1). Madagas-
car. A low-grow-
ing palm having
.m a n y smooth,
slim, yellow-ring-

gro w into a
clump of great
St beauty. The foli-
age is feathery,
t h e individual
v leaves are long
and gracefully
arched. T h i s
palm, commonly
.called Areca lut-
escens by florists,
is much prized as
an indoor orna-
mental, it being
_A well adapted to
pot culture. For
such use the
plant, with its
many stems and
arching, 1 ig h t,
i feathery foliage,
more or less yel-
low in color, is
v e r y attractive.
Fig. 31.-Fish-tail palm, Caryota urens.
Under normal,
outdoor conditions it reaches a height of about 20 feet and is
very desirable for specimen planting. It prefers a moist soil
and can withstand little frost. (Fig. 33.)
Cocos. This genus previously consisted of numerous species






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


but now includes but one--the coconut (Cocos nucifera).
The division of the genus has placed those formerly included,
other than the coconut, in other genera which include Arecas-
trum, Arikuyroba, Butia, Rhyticocos, and Syagrus.
Dictyosperma album Wendl. & Drude. (Areca alba Bory.)
(1 and 2A). Mauri-
tius. This palm is of
fairly rapid growth
and attains a height
of about 30 feet in
maturity. The trunk
is slender, marked
with rings, and bulg-
ed at the base. The
leaves are pinnate,
about 10 feet long
with drooping seg-
ments 2 to 3 inches
in width. Both the
petioles and leaves
are light green in
color. In the variety
rubrum the plant is a
deeper green and the
veins and petiole
margins have a dis-
tinctly reddish cast.
The reddish colora-
tion tends to disap-
pear with age in the
plant. Both of the
above are very at-
tractive. (Figs. 34
and 35.)
Elaeis guineensis
Jacq. African Oil
palm. (1 and 2A).
Africa. Pinnate-
leaved palms 25 to Fig. 32.-Chamdedorea sp.
30 feet in height
with erect, heavy, ringed trunks. The deep green leaves,
12 to 15 feet in length, have short, spiny leaf-stalks. The pin-






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


nae are numerous,
in width with
prominent light
green or yellow
veins. The trunk
at the base of the
leaves is heavily
covered w i t h
fiber. The fruits
of this palm are
the source of the
palm oil of com-
merce. Although
quite rare in
Florida, it seems
wel 1 adapted
w h e r e growing
and is satisfac-
tory as an orna-
mental. While
young it some-


12 to 15 inches in length and about 2 inches


Fig. 33.-Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, areca or
cane palm.


Fig. 34.-Dictyosperma album.


what resembles the Phoenix
palms. (Fig. 36.)
Gaussia attenuata. L u'm e
Palm. (S.P.I. No. 39189). (1).
Porto Rico. "The tallest of the
Porto Rican palms, reaching a
height of 60 to 100 feet. Its
foliage resembles the royal palm
but is shorter. The trunk never
exceeds 6 to 8 inches in diam-
eter. This palm is found only
on limestone hills and usually
feeds upon nothing but the
humus collected in the cracks of
these rocks. The large bunches
of orange-red berries, which are
the size of a small cherry, are
very attractive." (W. E. Hess.)
At the U. S. Plant Introduction
Gardens at Chapman Field this






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


palm has given evidence of being well adapted to the rocky soils
found on the lower east coast. (Fig. 37.)
Hedyscepe Canterburyana Wendl. & Drude. (Kentia Canter-
buryana F. Muell.) Umbrella Palm. (1). Lord Howe's Island.
A spineless palm having a thick heavy trunk which reaches a
height of 30 feet. The light green, pinnate leaves, borne in a


Fig. 35.-Dictyosperma album var. rubrum.
dense crown at the top of the trunk, are recurving or arched.
It is from this arching that the palm derives its common name.
The pinnae are broad. Although it has been grown successfully
in the open, this palm is seldom seen in cultivation outdoors
but is more common as a house plant.
Heterospathe elata Scheff. Sagisi Palm. (1). Philippine
Islands. A tall, unarmed, graceful palm having a slender, ringed,
erect trunk. The leaves are pinnate, deep-green, slightly arch-
ing, with soft, somewhat drooping pinnae. This palm is very
attractive and is thriving on the soils of the lower east coast.






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


It was introduced by the Office of Foreign Plant Introduction
of the U. S D. A., under their S. P. I. No. 46640. (Fig. 38.)
Howea Belmoreana Becc. (Kentia Belmoreana F. Muell).
Belmore Palm. Curly Palm. (1). Lord Howe's Island. At-
tractive, spineless, pinnate-leaved palms having single, erect,
ringed trunks. The broad leaves, about 7 feet in length, are
plumy and have long, slender petioles. This is one of the most
popular and satisfactory palms used for interior decoration.
It has been spar-
ingly planted out-
doors and where
local conditions
are suitable it is
ver y attractive e
and desirable.
Howea For-
steriana B e c c.
(Kentia Forster-
iana F. Muell.)
Forster Pa 1 m.
Flat Palm. (1).
Lord Howe's Is-
land. This palm
closely resembles
the above species
except for its
longer leaves and
1 e a f segments Fig. 36.-Elaeis guineensis, African oil palm.
Ieaf segments
that have a greater drooping tendency. Blatter' says H. Belmore-
ana has leaves to 7 feet in length while those of H. Forsteriana
are 10 feet or longer, the latter, having the more drooping seg-
ments. Cook' has recently placed Forsteriana in the new genus
Denia. (Fig. 39.)
Hydriastele Wendlandiana H. Wendl. & Drude. (1). Aus-
tralia. The Hydriastele is a rapid-growing, kentia-like palm
having an erect, smooth, spineless, slender trunk. The leaves,
resembling those of the Kentias or Howeas, are pinnate, dark
green in color, and have segments which are toothed at ends.

'Blatter, E. Palms of British India and Ceylon. Oxford Univ. Press.
1926.
'Cook. O. F. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 16:392. 1926. Jour. Heredity
18:397-419. 1927.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


This palm is rarely found but is seemingly well adapted to moist
soils where not subject to frost injury.


.Ii


Fig. 37.-Gaussia attenuata, llume palm.
Hyophorbe spp. Very striking and attractive pinnate-leaved
palms, having smooth, stout, unarmed trunks bulged either near
the base or beneath the leaf cluster. The leaves are borne at
the extreme apex of the stem, the seed clusters well below. The
two species are rather slow-growing, but are well worth the
effort and time required to grow them.






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


Hyophorbe amaricaulis Mart. Bottle Palm. Bitterstem Palm.
(1 and 2A). Native to Mauritius. A somewhat taller-growing
type than H. Verschaffeltii, which has the bulge of the trunk
nearer the base and gives a bottle shape to the stem. There are
usually more leaflets to the leaf, these being somewhat wider
but not so long as in the other species. The petiole is about 12
inches in length.
Hyophorbe 38.-
V e rschaffeltii
Wendl. Spindle
Pal m. Pignut
Palm. (1 a nd
2A). Mauritius.
This is a pinnate-
leaved palm that
does not fail to
attract favorable
comment when
rightly p 1 a c e d
and given proper
attention. T h e
trunk is smooth
with a swelling
or bulge below
leaf cluster. The
leaves are from 3
to 6 feet in
length, with very
short petioles. A
yellow band ex-
Fig. 38.-Heterospathe elata, sagisi palm.
tends the full
length of the leaf blade. The tree thrives in both sunshine and
shade and makes a fairly fast growth. It attains a height of 25
to 30 feet. (Fig. 40.)
Jubaea spectabilis HBK. Coquita Palm. Wine Palm or
Monkey Coconut of Chile. (1, 2, 3?). Chile. A tall, pinnate-
leaved palm, resembling the Phoenix species, with a heavy, spine-
less trunk which is covered with the bases of old leaf sheaths.
The leaves are very large and borne fairly erect, having the ap-
pearance of large plumes in older specimens. This palm is found
the farthest south of any of the New World species. In its native






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


habitat it endures considerable cold and it is quite probable that
if established it would prove well adapted to the northern por-
tions of Florida. Where now growing in the southern area it
is a thrifty grower and seemingly well adapted. (Fig. 41.)


Fig. 39.-Howea Forsteriana, Forster's palm.
Loroma amethystina Cook. (1). Australia. The genus Lo-
roma has been segregated by Cook from the Archontophoenix
or Seaforthia group. This genus to the casual observer is nearly
identical with Archontophoenix but close observation shows
botanical characteristics in the blossom and fruits that are dis-
tinctive.







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


For ornamental planting the difference between this genus
and Archontophoenix is negligible and where a palm of the type
is wanted one will be found as desirable as the other. (Fig. 42.)
Martinezia caryotaefolia HBK. (1). South America. A
beautiful palm, attaining a height of 25 to 35 feet, having
feathery, pinnate leaves 5 to 6 feet in length which resemble
those of Caryota urens. Both the trunk, usually but a few inches
in diameter, and
leaves a r e heavily
armed with numer-
ous sharp, b 1 ack c k
spines. It grows well
in both shade and
full sunshine. (Fig.
43.)
Phoenix spp. The
genus Phoenix or
Date Palm group in-
cludes several spe-
cies, most of which
are found in Florida. I
All are pinnate-leav-
ed palms and very
satisfactory as orna-
mentals. They vary
in type of growth "
from dwarf sorts to
very tall massive
specimens. Som e,
such as P. reclinata,
have several stems
or trunk s, while
others, such as -
P. sylvestris, are sin- Fig. 40.-Hyophorbe Verschaffeltii,
gle stemmed. Still spindle palm.
others, as P. acaulis, are bulbous, stemless types.
P. canariensis, P. sylvestris, and P. dactylifera are probably
the hardiest, the first being planted with safety in most portions
of the northern area. All are much less susceptible to injury
by frosts after they have attained some size and, while small,
should be protected during periods of extreme cold.
The blossoming period of many species of this genus occurs






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


at the same time and has resulted in much intercrossing. This,
coupled with the planting of seed not true to name, has caused
considerable confusion as to the correct identity of many sorts.
Until more detailed descriptions of type specimens, of both true
species and resulting crosses, is made available this confusion
will continue to exist.
Phoenix canariensis Chaub. Canary Date Palm. Canary Is-
lands Date. (1, 2, 3). Canary Islands. The Canary Islands
date is one of the
most satisfactory
and widely dis- i/ .
tribute pa ms -
grown in Florida. 7
It can be safely
planted in nearly
all portions of
the state, being
quite hardy and
seldom injured
by cold. The tree
has a spread of
30 feet and is
tall-growing with
graceful pinnate
leaves and mass- -
ive trunk. It is
entirely satisfac-
tory for street,
park, and lawn
planting. (Figs.
44 and 52.) Fig. 41.--Jubaea spectabilis, coquita palm.
Phoenix d a c-
tylifera Linn. Date Palm. (1 and 2). Arabia and Africa.
This palm is the source of the date of commerce and is supposed
to be the palm of Biblical reference. The long, stiff, grayish-
green, pinnate leaves are attractive on occasional specimens
but this palm can hardly be considered as one of the best for
ornamental planting. Owing to the humid climatic conditions
obtaining on the Florida mainland, the fruit is considered of
little or no value commercially. It is propagated by offshoots
as well as seeds. (Fig. 45.)
Phoenix reclinata Jacq. Senegal Date Palm. (1 and 2). Africa.
A fairly fast-growing palm which throws out many suckers at







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


the base which results in a tree with many trunks. When suck-
ers are kept removed the trunk is somewhat slender and usually
leaning. The leaves are pinnate, bright green, and slightly recurv-
ed. It is best suited for specimen or group planting. (Fig. 46.)
Phoenix Roebelenii O'Brien. Roebelen Palm. Pigmy Date
Palm. (1 and 2A). Southeast Asia. A dwarfed species having
beautiful, finely cut, pinnate, arching, dark green foliage. Plants
of this species seem to thrive best in partially shaded situations
in fertile, well-drained
soils. It is widely used
for indoor decoration. .
(Fig. 47.) 6
P h o e n i x sylvestris
Roxbg. India Date Palm.
Wild Date Palm. (1, 2,
3A). India. A tall, vig-
orous- growing palm
somewhat resembling P.
canariensis b u t with
shorter leaves and a less
massive trunk which at-
tains a greater height. A
distinguishing charac-
teristic of most speci-
mens of this species is
the large mass of expos-
ed roots at the base of
the trunk. The tree is
very symmetrical and -
quite attractive. (Figs.
48 and 52.) Fig. 42.-Loroma amethystina.
Other species in addition to those above mentioned, which may
be found in the state are:
Phoenix acaulis Buch. Without a stem, having a bulb-shaped
trunk; small; very spiny. Native of India.
Phoenix humilis Royle. (P. Ousleyana). Somewhat resem-
bles P. acaulis; small, soft, glossy foliage. China, India.
Phoenix pusilla Gaertn. (P. farinifera Roxb.). Stout, short
trunk; leaves 4 to 5 feet, very spiny. Ceylon.
Phoenix paludosa Roxbg. (P. Siamensis Mig.). Several very
slender trunks, as P. reclinata; to 25 feet or more in height.
India. (Fig. 49.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Phoenix rupicola T. And. Rather slender, single trunk which
attains a height of 15 to 20 feet; bright green, flat, soft leaves.
India. (Fig. 50.)
Phoenix zeylanica Hort. Trunk reaches a height 20 feet;
leaves spiny, light green or bluish. Ceylon. (Fig. 51.)
Roystonea s p p. (Oreo-
doxa). Some of the world's
he t most stately palms are in-
cluded in this genus. Both
R. regia and R. oleracea are
tall and majestic trees hav-
ing a magnificent crown of
broad, dark green, pinnate
leaves. The heavy trunks
are very smooth; gray in
color. The stem of the
former usually has a per-
S ceptible bulge or swelling
near the middle while that
of the latter is without this
swelling. T h r e e species,
regia, Borinquena, and ole-
racea, are well adapted to
the soils and climate of the
southern area. R. regia is
treated separately under the
paragraph dealing with na-
tive species.
Roystonea Borinquena O.
A- F. Cook. (Oreodoxa Borin-
",- quena Reasoner). Porto
Rican Royal Palm. (1). Por-
to Rico. This palm, which
Fig. 43.-Martinezia caryotaefolia. grows up to 35 feet in
height, resembles the native royal palm but has a very pro-
nounced bulge in the trunk which is darker in color than that
of the royal. The seeds are about the same size but narrower.
In its native habitat it is found on limestone soils, thus making
it well adapted to portions of the lower east coast. It will also
probably succeed better on higher soils than will R. regia.
Roystonea oleracea 0. F. Cook. (Oreodoxa oleracea Mart.)
Palmiste. Cabbage Palm. (1). West Indies. This palm is







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


Fig. 44.-The Canary Islands date, Phoenix canariensis, is especially
suited to roadside planting.

the tallest-growing one of the group, reaching a height of 100
feet or more. It, too, greatly resembles the native royal but
attains a much greater height and does not ordinarily have any
bulging of the trunk, the stem being more uniformly cylindrical
throughout. Like the other palms of this genus it cannot be
surpassed f o r
avenue planting.
Syagrus Wed-
deliana B e c c.
(Cocos Weddeli-
ana Wendl.) (1).
Brazil. This palm
has long been
considered as one -
of the best for in- '
d o o r decoration
but in the south-
ern areas it is de-
sirable for out-
d o o r planting
where one of the
smaller palms is MO WO
desired. It a t- _
tains a mature Fig. 45.-Phoenix dactylifera, the date palm.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


height of 7 or 8 feet and has a straight, slender stem. The
leaves are about three or four feet long, divided into numerous
drooping leaflets 5 to 6 inches in length and somewhat darker
green on the upper than the lower surface. (Fig. 53.)

PALMATE OR FAN-LEAVED SPECIES
Chamaerops humilis Linn. Hair Palm. European Fan Palm.
(1, 2, 3,). Native
of southern
Europe. A dwarf,
hardy, s 1 o w-
growing fan
Spalm suited to
Spaces where a
small bushy palm
is wanted. The
leaves, rarely ex-
ceeding 2 feet in
width, are fan-
shaped, quite
stiff, deeply cleft
with the leaf di-
visions slightly
split at the ends.
MR The trunk is
small, seldom
over 2 to 3 feet
in height but in
Fig. 46.--Phoenix reclinata, Senegal date palm. r a r e instances
may attain a height of 15 feet. Suckers are produced rather
freely while the plant is young, which results in most specimens
having several trunks. The leaf-stalks are spiny. This palm
is ideal for grouping as it can be placed very satisfactorily in
situations where a low-growing, compact palm is wanted. (Figs.
54 and 55.)
Corypha elata Roxbg. (1). Southeast Asia. A tall, slow-
growing, fan-leaved palm having a rather stout, ringed trunk
which in its native habitat attains a height of 60 feet or more.
The leaves are very large, with leaf segments deeply divided.
The spiny leaf-stalks are long and heavy. This palm seemingly
would be well adapted to the lower east coast, small specimens
growing there having a thrifty appearance.







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


Latania Loddigesii Mart. (L. glaucophylla Hort.). (1).
Mauritius. A stocky, fan-leaved palm with a heavy bloom on
the leaves which are quite large and of leathery texture. The
edges of the leaf-stalks and leaf divisions have a reddish color.
This palm is slow-growing but because of its distinctive appear-
ance is very attractive. (Fig. 56.)


Fig. 47.-Phoenix Roebelenii, Robelen palm, in the foreground;
Rhapis flabbelliformis in the rear.

Livistona spp. A genus of which several species are probably
in Florida. This group has large, glossy green, fan-shaped leaves
borne on fairly long, more or less spiny petioles. The trunks are
brown, heavy, and marked by rings left by the old leaf-stalks.
More tropical species, rarely seen, are rotundifolia, Jenkinsiana,
olivaeformis, Mariae, Cochinchinensis, and subglobosa, a variety
of chinensis.
Livistona australis Mart. Australian Fan-palm. (1 and 2).
Australia. This species very much resembles the succeeding but
in attaining a maximum height of 80 feet is much taller at ma-
turity. The stem is slender, reddish-brown in color, and marked
with rings of the fallen leaf scars. The petiole is spiny on the
margins and the blade orbicular, some 3 to 6 feet in diameter,







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


and divided to the middle or lower into 30 to 50 single or twice-
cleft lobes that do not droop. Both fruits and seeds are globular,
the former being about 3/ inch in diameter.
Livistona chinensis R. Br. (Latania borbonica Hort.). Chinese
Fan-palm. Chinese Livistona. (1, 2, 3A). China. The Chinese
Livistona reaches a maximum height of about 30 feet and has a
stout stem that is obscurely ringed. The leaves are fan-shaped,
have a definite lengthwise folding along the center, and are di-
vided into some 50 or 60 segments which are distinctly drooping.
The lower part of the petiole is armed with hard, brown spines.
Differing materi-
ally from those
S4 of the above spe-
cies, the fruits
are olive-shaped,
about 5/8 inch
long, a dull blu-
ish-green in col-
or, and contain
an oblong-shaped
seed. This species
is fairly hardy
after attaining
some size, speci-
mens being found
in the extreme
northern part of
4 the state. (Fig.
57.)
Pritchardia
pacifica Seem. &
Wendl. (Styloma
pacifica O. F.
Cook) Fiji Fan
Palm. (1). Fiji
Islands. One of
the most graceful
and handsome of
the fan leaved
palms. The trunk
Fig. 48.-Phoenix sylvestris, India date palm. is erect, smooth,






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


and up to 30 feet in height. The foliage is very attractive, the
leaves being about 3 by 4 feet with spineless leaf-stalks about
3 feet in length. This palm is subject to injury by cold or heavy
winds and should be planted in protected locations. (Fig. 58).
Pritchardia Thurstonii Drude is distinguished from the above
in having leaf segments that are
fewer in number and extend
farther into the leaf blade, .
spadices that are longer than
the leaves, and fruits that are
about 1/4 inch in diameter in-
stead of 1/2 inch. (Fig. 59.)
Rhapis spp. The genus em- -
braces several species of which
two can be considered as fairly
common in Florida. These are
low-growing, fan-leaved plants
with many stems. The stems are
reed-like, not exceeding an inch -
in diameter, and usually clothed
with fibrous material remain-
ing from the old leaf-stelks.
They are very satisfactory as
tub specimens or for grouping
where a low and comparatively
dense mass of foliage is wanted.
Greater thrift seems to be gain-
ed from plantings made in semi-
shaded situations than when
planted in full sunshine.
Rhapis flabelliformis L'Her.
(1 and 2). South China. Fern
Rhapis. Dwarf Ground-rattan.
This species reaches a height of m '
8 or 10 feet and under suitable Fig. 49.-Phoenix paludosa. (Sago
"palm" in the foreground.)
cultural conditions u s u a II y
forms a fairly dense clump. The leaves are deeply cleft, there
usually being from 5 to 7 segments which are slightly drooping
and with ends notched or uneven. (Fig. 47.)
Rhapis humilis BI. Reed Rhapis. (1 and 2). China. The
Reed Rhapis is smaller than the above species, both in height
and leaf size. The leaves are cut into 7 to 10 segments. This




54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station










~'44







-iOr
-s sss_






ffiM BBr,^B


Fig. 50.-Phoenix rupicola.






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


difference in number of leaf segments makes it easily possible
to distinguish between the two species.
Sabal Blackburniana Glazeb. (Inodes Blackburniana O. F.
Cook). Blackburn Palmetto. (1 and 2). Bermuda. A stout
palmetto attaining a height of 40 feet. The erect trunk is
heavy, gray in color, and quite smooth. The fan-shaped leaves
are very large, being slightly shorter in length than the leaf-
stalk. This species is much larger and heavier than the native
cabbage palmetto in both size of trunk and leaf, although not
so tall at maturity. With its immense leaf crown and sturdy,
smooth trunk it is very desirable
and attractive. It thrives on
fairly light soils. (Fig. 60.)
Sabal causiarum Becc.
S (Inodes causiarum 0. F. Cook).
Porto Rico Hat Palm. Yaray.
(1, 2, 3A). West Indies. The
Porto Rico hat palm is one of
the most massive of the pal-
mettos growing in Florida. It at-
Stains a height of 40 feet with a
trunk that will exceed 21/2 feet
in diameter. The heavy, gray-
green, fan-shaped leaves are
from 10 to 12 feet in length, the
in r i petiole being about half the
length. The petiole or leaf-stalk
is deeply concave on the upper
i 51.-Phoenze side. This species is very at-
Fig. 51.--Phoenix zeylanica.
tractive, growing well on sandy
soils, and is well suited to avenue or group planting. (Fig. 61.)
Sabal palmetto Lodd., Sabal minor Pers., and Sabal Etonia
Swingle. See under Native Species.
Trachycarpus Fortunei H. Wendl. (T. excelsus H. Wendl.
Chamaerops excelsa Thunb.) Windmill Palm. Fortune's Palm.
(2 and 3). China and Japan. A slow-growing, very hardy
palm having an erect trunk which is usually covered with the
remains of old leaf sheaths. The leaves are fan-shaped, dull
green in color, finely and deeply cut, and borne in a compact
head. The tips of the segments are usually pendulous. The leaf-
stalk is rough-edged. This species seemingly is not as thrifty
as would be desired in the southern part of the state but is






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 52.-The tall center palm is Phoenix sylvestris; the two to the right,
Phoenix canariensis; to the left is one of the Butia australis type. A
cabbage palmetto is at the extreme right. The low plants are Sago
"palms".
grown with success in the extreme northern portion. (Fig. 65.)
Washingtonia spp. (Neowashingtonia Sudw.). Washington
Palm. (1, 2, 3A). California and Mexico. Tall, erect, fan-
leaved palms that may be grown throughout the state except
perhaps in the coldest portions of the northern area. The trunks


1 -Nr






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


are reddish-brown in color, somewhat bulged at base, an oc-
casional specimen having an exposed mass of roots. The upper
portion is usually covered with persistent bases of leaf stalks
or pendent, dead leaves. The leaves are fan-shaped, cleft about
halfway, light or gray-green in color, 3 to 5 feet across, with


u,,.7~


Fig. 53.-Syagrus Weddelliana.


leaf-stalks to 5 feet in length which are armed with heavy, short,
usually recurved spines. The older dead leaves hang down ver-
tically and to some observers give the tree a shaggy appearance.
The tree after reaching a height of several feet has a crown
of leaves which is small in proportion to the height of the palm






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


and if the trunk is left clothed with the hanging dead leaves, a
better sense of proportion is maintained.
For street planting, where parkway space is limited, the Wash-
ingtonias are well adapted as the spread of the leaf crown is
limited in young plants and, the plants being vigorous growers,
this leaf crown is soon high enough to be out of the way of traffic.
These palms prefer moist soils but can be grown, with proper
preparation and attention, with success on nearly all soil types.


Fig. 54.-Cham~erops humilis, European fan palm.


Of the two species, filifera and robusta, the former is the hardier
and better adapted to dry soils.
Washingtonia filifera Wendl., a native of southern California,


& .

A ;






Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


attains a height
of 50 to 60 feet
and has a maxi-
mum trunk diam-
feet. The large,
eter of about 3
fan-shaped leaves
are of a lighter
or more yellow- 55
ish shade of wil
green than those
of robusta and ".j
the leaf segments
rigid, not droop-
ing. The tip of .
the leaf segment
is typically fray-
ed into a loose, .
erect tuft of 4 .I
many stiff, .
slightly curled,
threadlike fibers
3 to 4 inches in .
length. In gen-
eral appearance Fig. 55.-Sabal palmetto in background, Chamae-
eral appearance rops humilis in foreground.
this species is
more massive
and has a stiffer
and more erect
foliage than does
t h e following.
(Fig. 66.)
Washingtonia
robusta Parish.,
a Mexican indi-
gene, is the spe-
c i e s commonly
found in Florida.
It attains a
greater he i g h t Fig. 56.-Latania Loddigesii.
than the above
but the trunk is of smaller diameter. The leaves, like those of the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


previous species, are divided into numerous bifid segments but
are less deeply cleft. The segment apex, unlike filifera, is without
the tuft of terminal filaments and to the base of the secondary
cleft the lobes are quite flexible and pendulous, particularly on
older trees. (Fig. 64.)

CYCAS AND ZAMIA
Though cycas and zamia are not palms, they are being listed
here, since they
are very satisfac-
Story for inclusion
Switch palm plant-
Sn ings.
These plants
S are interesting in
that they are of
an order which is
ifP the most primi-
tive of living
gymnosperms.
As the term is
used for seed-
id l h l bearing plants
p4 d"" :" they a re dioe-
S cious in that the
microsporo-
Fig. 57.-Livistona chinensis, Chinese fan-palm. phylls and mega-
sporophylls are borne on separate individual plants. Pollination
is effected by wind and it is necessary that plants of both sexes
be planted in close proximity that fertilization may result and
seed be produced. Several months are required for seed germi-
nation in the cycads but this time may be shortened materially
by complete removal of the fleshy seedcoat prior to planting.
Cycas circinalis Linn. Fern "Palm". East India Cycas. (1
and 2A). Southeast Asia and Africa. Plants of this species re-
semble those of C. revoluta but have a softer, more feathery and
fern-like foliage which is usually of greater length. It is con-
siderably the less hardy of the two species. When planted in
partial shade a thriftier growth usually results but it is also
grown in sunny locations. (Fig. 62.)
Cycas revolute Thunb. Sago Cycas. Sago "Palm". (1, 2,







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


3). Japan. This plant, palm-like in general aspect, reaches a
height of about 10 feet. The stiff, pinnate leaves, borne in a
crown at the apex of the trunk, are a deep shining green and are
from 3 to 5 feet in length. The stem is ordinarily simple but
occasionally a branched or forked specimen is seen. The growth
is usually slow. (Figs. 49 and 52.)
Cycas media R. Br., the Nut "Palm", a native of Australia, is
found rarely in the
southern area. It
closely resembles C.
circinalis.
Zamia spp. Comp-
tie. Coontie. Semi-
nole Bread. The
Zamia is a native of
the peninsular por-
tion of Florida. Its
a r g e underground
stems contain a high
percentage of starch
that has long been
utilized as a food by
the Indians. Florida
arrowroot, a com-
mercial name, is the
starchy flour deriv-
ed from these stems.
When brought under
cultivation the plant
thrives and is often
advantageously i n-
cluded in ornamental -
plantings. To a lim-
ited extent the foli--
age is utilized by
florists.
A c c o r d i n g to Fig. 58.-Pritchardia pacifica, Fiji fan palm.
Small', there are in Florida four distinct species of Zamia-
integrifolia, media, silvicola, and umbrosa.
Z. integrifolia Ait. is found in scattered locations in pinelands
"Small, Dr. J. K. Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gdn. 22:121-137, 1921, and 27:121-129,
1926.





62 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station








9s t :




.3!n


L. ..............


. ... ........ ..rVI.,q
.S8ja-M i r.~ m ..i..


Fig. 59.-Pritchardia Thurstonii.


JR;~~]~:







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


from the northern to southern parts of the peninsula, Taylor
County being the point farthest north where reported. The
leaves of this species are variable in length, the longest being
about 3 feet. The narrow, linear leaflets vary in number from
28 to 40 and are from 10 to 16 veined.
Z. silvicola Sm. has erect, rigid leaves to 3 feet in length with
linear leaflet blades which are 14 to 20 veined and slightly
toothed at the apex. The seeds are flattened. It is found in
richer soils of the peninsula.
Z. umbrosa
Sm. has arching
leaves with num-
erous-20 to 30
-veined leaflets
that are some-
what broader at
the apex than
base and are
finely toothed on
the apex. It is a
native of the
hammocks of the
upper east coast.
(Fig. 63.)
Z. media Jacq.,
a native of Cuba
as well as Flor-
ida, is found in
hammocks of the
Fig. 60.-Sabal Blackburniana. Blackburn
lower east coast. palmetto.
palmetto.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The writer acknowledges his indebtedness and expresses his
sincere appreciation to those who have furnished information
pertaining to the location, the identity, or adaptability of various
species within the state; and in particular to Messrs. A. F. Camp,
A. S. Rhoads, H. H. Hume (all of the Station staff), W. M. Bus-
well, and L. R. Warner for numerous photographs. Messrs.
Hume and Buswell, in addition to supplying photographs, have








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 61.-Sabal causiarum. Porto
Rican hat palm.


^.IdI .. d
Fig. 62.-Cycas circinalis, fern
"palm".


Fig. 63.-Zamia umbrosa, comptie or coontie.







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida


been of material assist-
ance in the classification
of several species and
have given valuable criti-
cisms. Free reference
has been made to various
publications of Messrs.
L. H. Bailey, C. S. Sar-
gent, J. K. Small, O. F.
Cook, B. Seeman, H.
Nehrling, and C. T.
Simpson.

CHECK LIST OF
PALMS IN THE
UNITED STATES

The list below includes
those species of palms
growing either in con-
servatories or out of -
doors in the continental
United States. This list,
insofar as it concerns the
palms of the United
States as a whole, is
taken in most part from
the several works of Dr.
L. H. Bailey. The species
preceded by (0) are in-
digenous to Florida;
those preceded by an
asterisk (*), according
to the most reliable in-
formation obtainable,
have been planted in
Florida.


Fig. 64.-Washington'a robusta. With the
old leaves intact this palm has the ap-
pearance of the wild palms in their
Mexican habitat.


Page references are made to those described in this bulletin.








66 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Species Habitat Page
Acoelorraphe Wrightii (A. arborescens. Acan-
thosabal caespitosa. Paurotis Wrightii. P.
androsana) .............................................................Florida, Cuba and
Bahamas .-........ 18
* Acrocomia media (A. aculeata) .................. ...........West Indies ..-....... 28
Acrocomia mexicana ..........-.....-..-.......................-- Mexico
* Acrocomia sclerocarpa ......................-.........- .....Jamaica and
South America.. 27
* Acrocomia totai ..............................................South America ...... 27
* Actinophloeus Macarthuri (Ptychosperma and
Kentia M acarthuri) .......................................---Australia ................ 28
Actinophloeus Sanderiana (Kentia Sanderiana)..Australia
* Actinorhytis callapparia (Areca, Seaforthia,
and Ptychosperma callapparia, Areca co-
coides) ---------.....- -................. .........Malaya
* Adonidia Merrillii (Normanbya Merrillii)........... Philippines ............ 29
Allagoptera (Diplothemium) campestris ............--South America
* Archontophoenix Alexandrae (Ptychosperma
Alexandrae) .--..... .............--... Australia ................ 30
* Archontophoenix Cunninghamiana (Ptycho-
sperma Cunninghamii) ........................................Australia ................ 30
* Areca Alicae ... --......... ....-........................... --Australia ............... 30
* Areca catechu ..................-........- -...... .... ........ ....- Malaya
* Areca concinna ------.....................................-- ...............Ceylon
Areca glandiformis .....................................--- Moluccas
* Areca triandra ....-................................-...... .-- Malaya
* Arecastrum Romanzoffianum (Cocos Romanzof-
flana. Cocos plumosa) .--.................. ........South America .... 30


Fig. 65.-Trachycarpus Fortunei, Fortune's Chusan palm.








Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida 67

Species Habitat Page
* Arecastrum Romanzoffianum var. australe (C.
datil) .............. -............ --------...............................------South America .... 31
* Arecastrum Romanzoffianum var. botryophorum
(C. botryophora) ..---...--..-..--------...---South America
* Arenga Ambong (A. tremula. A. mindorensis)..Philippines
Arenga Engleri ............-...........-............--------.Formosa
* Arenga saccharifera (Saguerus pinnatus) ...........Malaya
* Arikuryroba schizophylla (Cocos schizophylla) .Brazil
* Astrocaryum mexicanum ..-.....---.. -. .....------Mexico
* Astrocaryum Malybo (A. argentium) ...................Columbia
* Attalea Cohune ............---..........----Central America.... 33
* Attalea gomphococca ............-------.. ---...Central America
* Attalea spectabilis (?) ....... .-----------......-Central America
Bactris major (Pyrenoglyphis major) ..................South America
* Bactris horrida (?) ........ .------------.......South America
Balaka perbrevis (Kentia Kersteniana) ...............Fiji
* Balaka Seemannii (Ptychosperma Seemanii).-.....Fiji
* Bentinckia nicobarica (Oranica nicobarica) .....-..Nicobar Islands
Bismarckia nobilis .----........................----......----.... ..Madagascar
* Borassus flabellifer .......................--..................-- ---India
* Brahea calcarea ... -------................... ---............-- Mexico
* Brahea arborea (?) .........-----........................-----...Mexico
.--- --- .--_ ---':_-


Fig. 66.-Washingtonia filifera.








68 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Species Habitat Page
Brahea dulcis --.............--.. .....-............ -Mexico
Brahea Pimo ................. ...-.... ---.. ..-----.---.. Mexico
Brahea serrulata (?) .........................-...--......Mexico
Butia australis ....................................---------------....Brazil .................. 34
Butia Bonneti (Cocos Bonneti. C. Gaertneri)......Brazil ...................... 34
Butia capitata ..................................---- ------....... Brazil ...................... 34
Butia capitata var. odorata (Cocos odorata)-.......Brazil .-........------ 34
Butia capitata var. pulposa (Cocos pulposa)........Brazil ...................... 34
Butia eriospatha (Cocos eriospatha) ....................Brazil ...-.................. 34
Butia Nehrlingiana ........................................-- South America .... 34
Butia Yatay (Cocos Yatay) ..............-.......-.........Argentina .............. 34
Butia Yatay var. paraguayensis .............--.....................--.---... ------- 34
Calamus ciliaris ............... ..................-- ---.. --....East Indies
Calamus rotang ...........-.....-- ....................--- ..India, Ceylon
Caryota mitis (C. sobolifera) ......---................-......Burma, Malaya...... 35
Caryota rumphiana (C. Alberti) .....-------.....................Malay, Java, and
Australia
Caryota urens ............-- ..--.. ------.......... ...... India and Malay.... 35
Caryota plumosa (?) .........................------------- ?
Ceroxylon andicola ---------......----...............---........--........----South America
Chamaedorea Arenbergiana ........----------................... Central America
Chamaedorea corallina ......----...............----.................Central America
Chamaedorea desmoncoides ..................................---- ---- Mexico
Chamaedorea elatior ... ------...... --................ ........-Mexico
Chamaedorea elegans ......---.....---............. .....--.........-- Mexico
Chamaedorea Ernesti-Augusti ...............---...............Mexico
Chamaedorea fragrans .....-----........... ......................Peru
Chamaedorea geonomaeformis .. ------..............................Central America
Chamaedorea glaucifolia ------...............................Central America
Chamaedorea graminifolia ..............-......................Central Amecira
Chamaedorea Martiana -----................--.....----............Mexico
Chamaedorea oblongata ..----...................---.........---Mexico
* Chamaedorea Pacaya --------..................................Central America
Chamaedorea Pringlei --.......-........................... Mexico
Chamaedorea Sartorii ....---.......---..--......................------ Mexico
* Chamaedorea Tepejilote ..............---.................-----Mexico
Chamaedorea Wendlandiana .--...............----........... Mexico
* Chamaerops humilis .------------............Mediterranean region
of Europe .......... 50
Chamaerops humilis varieties under the names
macrocarpa, longifolia, arborea, and elegans
have been planted in Florida.
Chambeyronia macrocarpa .......-----..............................New Caledonia
Chambeyronia Hookeri ........-...... .............
* Chrysalidocarpus lutescens (Areca lutescens)......Madagascar ........-- 37
* Chrysalidocarpus madagascariensis (D y psis
madagascariensis) .................-......-- ............Madagascar
o Coccothrinax argentia (Thrinax argentia) (C.
jucunda) ...............-.. .. ........... ........... Florida and W est
Indies .....--.--. 19
Coccothrinax barbadensis ...........................-------------............West Indies
Coccothrinax argentia garberi ......................--......-Florida ............------... 19
* Coccothrinax Miraguano ...................................------....------Cuba
SCocos nucifera ..........---............................ -- ..Tropics ............15, 38
Colpothrinax Wrightii (Pritchardia Wrightii)....Cuba
Copernicia australis ....................................------...South America
Copernicia cerifera ......-- ...............................----------- South America
* Corypha elata (C. Gebanga) ................------.... Burma and Bengal 50
Corypha umbraculifera ......--- .--------......--Ceylon and India
Cyrtostachys lakka ...-------------.................. ...............Malaya, Borneo
Cyrtostachys rendah ..-........--.....................-.---- Sumatra
* Daemonorops fissus ........--...... ---............---....Borneo







Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida 69

Species Habitat Page
Daemonorops Jenkinsiana .............--- -....------ India
Daemonorops palembanicus ............---------...Sumatra
Deckenia nobilis (Acanthophoenix nobilis) .......--Seychelles
Desmoncus major .. ............ --.....Trinidad
* Desmoncus oxycanthos ....--...........------....Brazil
* Dictyosperma album (Areca alba) .......................Mascarenes ......... 38
Dictyosperma album var. aureum ..---....
Dictyosperma album var. furfuraceum .............
* Dictyosperma album var. rubrum .............--.......--..------- 38
*Elaeis guineensis ..--.................-Africa ......... 38
* Erythea armata (Brahea glauca) .............----Mexico
*Erythea Brandegeei ............-- .--------- ....Mexico
Erythea edulis (Brahea edulis) ..............------
Erythea elegans .................... .....
* Euterpe edulis ............... .... ....-------South America
Euterpe globosa .......... ....-......------...West Indies
* Gaussia attenuata .... ......--. ......----- ....Porto Rico .......... 39
Gaussia princeps .....-...--.....--------. -...Cuba
Geonoma elegans ................. -----.......Brazil
Geonoma gracilis (G. Riedeliana) .........................-Brazil
Geonoma princeps ..--....... .........-- ........Peru
Geonoma Pynaertiana .....................---------...Malaya
Geonoma Schottiana -------..............--- ....Brazil
* Guilielma Gasipaes (G. speciosa. G. utilis. Bac-
tris Gasipaes) ...................... ......Tropical America
Hedyscepe Canterburyana (Kentia Canterbury-
ana) .......... ............ -......Lord Howe Island 40
Heterospathe elata .-...............-- --....... ...---.Philippines ......... 40
Howea Belmoreana (Kentia Belmoreana) ...........Lord Howe Island 41
Howea Forsteriana (Kentia Forsteriana) ...........Lord Howe Island 41
Hydriastele Wendlandiana (Kentia Wendlandi-
ana) ............................... ......Australia ................ 41
Hyophorbe amaricaulis (Areca speciosa) ............Mascarenes ............ 43
Hyophorbe Verschaffeltii (Areca Verschaffeltii)..Mascarenes .......... 43
Hyphaene crinita ... .........................Africa
Hyphaene natalensis -.....-.......- ...........Africa
Hyphaene Schatan ...................---....Africa
Hyphaene thebaica ......---.... .....- ...-- ---...-...Africa
Juania australis ...-....-........--.. ..- ...-Chile
Jubaea spectabilis (Jubaea chilensis) ...................Chile ................... 43
Korthalsia robusta ........ ..-...........-- ....East Indies
Latania Commersonii (L. rubra) .............-.............Mascarenes
Latania Loddigesii (L. glaucophylla) ...--...-.........-Mascarenes .......- 51
Latania Verschaffeltii (L. area) ...................Mascarenes
Licuala grandis (Pritchardia grandis) ....-........New Briton Island
Licuala peltata .......................................India
Licuala spinosa (horrida) .....................................India, Malaya
Licuala Rumphia (?) ----.......................
Linospadix Petrickiana ---............ ........New Guinea
Livistona australis (Corypha australis) ........Australia ............... 51
Livistona chinensis ............. ..........China ................52
Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa ....-..........
Livistona cochinchinensis (L. Hoogendorpii) ........Malaya
Livistona decipiens ..................................
Livistona humilis .............................. ....Australia
Livistona inermis .............. -..........................Australia
Livistona Jenkinsiana .................................... India
Livistona Mariae ..............- .......-........ .........Australia
Livistona rotundifolia (L. altissima) ..................Malaya
Lodoicea maldivica (L. seychellarum) ..........-..-Seychelles ......... 15
Loroma amethystina .. ........... .........ustralia ..--..-..- 44
Martinezia caryotaefolia ................. ................. Tropical America.. 45







70 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Species Habitat Page
Martinezia corallina ............................................Tropical America
*? Nannorrhops ritchieana (Chamaerops ritchie-
ana) ----................................................ ...-------------Baluchistan, Punjab
*? Nipa fruticans ........-- ...........--.....-....-..-...........-.. --- India
Normanbya Normanbyi (N. Muelleri) ......-----............Australia
Phoenix acaulis .......---.............................-.....-.---.......Bengal ....-............... 47
Phoenix canariensis ..................................... .. -- Canary Islands..... 46
Phoenix dactylifera ................................--- ........North Africa ........ 46
Phoenix humilis (P. Ousleyana) ............................India and China.... 47
Phoenix paludosa (P. Siamensis) ..........................India and Indo-
China .................. 47
Phoenix pusilla ..................................... ............. India and Ceylon
Phoenix reclinata (P. spinosa. P. natalensis)......Africa
Phoenix Roebelenii -----..........................-------...........Cochin China -..-... 47
Phoenix rupicola .......................................................India ...................... 48
Phoenix sylvestris .--....--.................................-- --- India ..................... 47
Phoenix zeylanica ................................. .......... Ceylon .................... 48
Phytelephas macrocarpa ... ------............................South America
Pinanga decora ........................ ....................... East Indies
Pinanga Kuhlii ........................................... East Indies
* Pinanga patula --------..................................... .. East Indies
* Polyandococos caudescens (Diplothemium cau-
descens) ------------. ........... Brazil
Pritchardia (Styloma) Gaudichaudii -----...............Hawaii
Pritchardia M artii .....................................................Oahu
* Pritchardia pacifica ................................................Fiji .......................... 52
* Pritchardia Thurstonii .. ----..... --------... iji .......................... 53
SPseudophoenix vinifera (P. Sargentii) ...............Florida and
Bahamas ............ 17
* Ptychoraphis singaporensis (Drymophloeus) ......Malay and
Philippines
Ranevia (Ravenea) Hildebrantii ............................Comoro Islands
Raphia Ruffia ................................ .... ....................Africa
SRhapidophyllum hystrix ........................................ Southeast United
States .................. 19
* Rhapis flabelliformis (R. excelsa) ........................China ...................... 53
* Rhapis humilis .---- ----................ ..China .................... 53
Rhopalostylis sapida (Areca, Kentia, and Eora
sapida) .................................... ............ ............... New Zealand
Rhyticocos amara (Cocos amara. Syagrus
amara) .......-----.-----.... ------.........Jamaica
Roscheria melanchoetes .........................................Seychelles
* Roystonea (Oreodoxa) Borinquena (R. caribaea) Porto Rico .............. 48
Roystonea oleracea ........................................ W est Indies .......... 48
Roystonea princeps ....................-.....................Jamaica
SRoystonea regia ................---- -- .......................Forida and West
Indies ................. 17
* Sabal Blackburniana (S. Mocini) ..........................Bermuda ................ 55
* Sabal causiarum ....................------ ..-- Porto Rico .............. 55
Sabal Deeringiana ........-----......---.. ........................ Louisiana
o Sabal Etonia (S. megacarpa) ---------..................................Florida .................... 22
* Sabal exul ............ --------............. Mexico
* Sabal Ghiesbrechtii (S. palmetto?) ...................
Sabal Jam esiana ............................................. Florida .................... 21
o Sabal minor (S. acaulis. S. Adansonii. S.
glabra) .............---------.............................Southern United
States .................. 20
* Sabal neglecta ....................... ......Santo Domingo
Sabal palmetto .....................................-- Southeast United
States ............... 22
* Sabal texana ................. ...............................Texas and Mexico
Sabal uresana ............................ ............ ................ M exico








Bulletin 228, Native and Exotic Palms of Florida 71

Species Habitat Page
* Scheelia Lardroana ........-....----------.................Tropical America
*Seaforthia elegans (probably Archontophoenix
Cunninghamii) ......................... ....
SSerenoa serrulata (S. repens) -................--Southern United
States ............... 24
Stevensonia Borsigiana ......-.... .....................-Seychelles
Syagrus insignis (Cocos and Glaziova insignis)..Brazil
Syagrus macrocarpa (Cocos macrocarpa) .........Brazil
Syagrus petraea (Cocos petraea) .................Brazil
* Syagrus Weddeliana (Cocos Weddeliana. Glazi-
ova Martiana) ........... .... ........Brazil ...................... 49
Synechanthus fibrosa ....... ........... ........----- Central America
Thrinax floridana .... .................. ....Florida ................. 25
oThrinax keyensis ......................... ...............--.....- Florida ............... 25
Thrinax microcarpa .................................F.lorida .................... 26
*Thrinax Morrisii ................. ........... .Porto Rico
SThrinax Wendlandiana ......................................Florida and Cuba. 26
Thrincom a alta .................... ................... ?
Trachycarpus caespitosus ....................................-Japan
Trachycarpus Fortunei (Chamaerops excelsa.
T. excelsus) ................ ................................. China ................. 55
Trachycarpus Martianus ...................................China and India
Trachycarpus Takil ...........-......................- ...China and India
Trachycarpus Wagnerianus ................................Japan
Trithrinax acanthocoma .....................................Brazil
Trithrinax brasiliensis ..................................... Brazil
Trithrinax campestris .......................................Argentina
Veitchia Joannis (Kentia Joannis) ......-.............Fiji
Verschaffeltia splendid ..................................... Seychelles
W allichia caryotoides ..--...-----... ............. .... ..........-.... Bengal
W allichia disticha ......................-.................. Himalayas
Washingtonia (Neowashingtonia) filifera (W.
filamentosa) ............... ....... .... .....California .............. 58
Washingtonia robusta (W. gracilis) ......................Mexico .................... 59




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