• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Fig. 2
 Introduction
 Brief description of the grasses...
 Plan of the experiment
 Management of pastures previous...
 The experiment
 Experimental results
 Management of steers used on grazing...
 Grazing results
 Salt and bonemeal consumption
 Summary and conclusions
 Literature cited














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 289
Title: Pasture value of different grasses alone and in mixture
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027255/00001
 Material Information
Title: Pasture value of different grasses alone and in mixture
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 28 p. : ill., charts ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ritchey, G. E ( George Edgar ), 1888-1960
Henley, W. W
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1936
 Subjects
Subject: Grasses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pastures -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Geo. E. Ritchey, W.W. Henley.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027255
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924367
oclc - 18210150
notis - AEN4985

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Fig. 2
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    Brief description of the grasses used
        Page 6
    Plan of the experiment
        Page 7
    Management of pastures previous to starting the experiment
        Page 8
    The experiment
        Page 8
    Experimental results
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Management of steers used on grazing test
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Grazing results
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Salt and bonemeal consumption
        Page 26
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Literature cited
        Page 28
Full Text

January, 1936


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
WILMON NEWELL, Director





PASTURE VALUE OF DIFFERENT

GRASSES ALONE AND IN

MIXTURE

GEO. E. RITCHEY
Associate Agronomist, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture,
and Florida Experiment Station

W. W. HENLEY
Assistant Animal Husbandman, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 1.-Cattle on experimental centipede grass pasture. Each pasture
area consisted of 3%/ acres.


Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon application to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 289







EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
H. Harold Hume, M.S., Asst. Dir., Research
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Adm.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant E itor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhal!, Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist**
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S.A., Associate*
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman"
R. B. Becker, Ph.D.. Dairy Husbandman
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Asst. Veterinarian
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman
W. W. Henley, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman
Bradford Knapp, Jr., M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
P. T. Dix Arnold, B.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Hushandman
L L. Rusoff, M.S. Laboratory Assistant
Jeanette Shaw, M.S., Laboratory Technician
CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist**
R. M. Barnette. Ph.D., Chemist
C. E. Bell. Ph.D., Associate
R. B. French, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist**
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist**
C. F. Ahmann, Ph.D., Physiologist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist**
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist**
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist and
Associate Head of Department
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Specialist, Fumigation
Research
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist**
George F. Weber. Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistant***
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold. M.S., Assistant Botanist
Stacy 0. Hawkins, M.A., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
SPECTROGRAPHIC LABORATORY
L. W. Gaddum. Ph.D.. Biochemist
L. H. Rogers, M.A., Spectroscopic Analyst


BOARD OF CONTROL
Geo. H. Baldwin, Chairman, Jacksonville
A. H. Blanding, Bartow
A. H. Wagg, West Palm Beach
Oliver J. Semmes, Pensacola
Harry C. Dunean, Tavares
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist
Jesse Reeves. Farm Superintendent
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
W. A. Kuntz, A.M., Assoc. Plant Pathologist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
A. Daane, Ph.D., Agronomist in Charge
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomnlogist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., SugarcanePhysiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Assistant Animal
Husbandman
Ross E. Robertson. B.S., Assistant Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Engineer
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle. Ph.D., Associate Plant
Pathologist
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charge*

FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D,. Asso. Plant Pathologist
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
J. W. Wilson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Monticello
G. B. Fairchild, M.S., Asst. Entomologist***
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
C, C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Sanford
E. R. Purvis, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist,
Celery Investigations
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Ph.D., Meteorologist*
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist*
W. 0. Johnson, B.A., Asst. Meteorologist*
R. T. Sherouse, Asst. Meteorologist*
M. L. Blanc, Asst. Meteorologist*
In cooperation with U.2.D.A.
** Head of Department.
*** On leave.


















CONTENTS
Page

Introduction ...... ..--... ..------. .. .. ... .. ---- ---------------... 5

Brief Description of the Grasses Used.................-.. ---.-- -- .. 6

Plan of the Experiment................................................ 7
Management of Pastures Previous to Starting the Experiment ....... 8

The Experiment...........----............................. 8
Experimental Results........... ...............-..---..- 9
Yields of Herbage ... ..................... .. ............... 9
Nitrogen and Protein Content....................... -......... 14

Management of Steers Used on Grazing Test..................................--- 17
1929 Grazing Season ...... ........- ..- .......... .... 18
1930 Grazing Season................---.--------.....- 18
1931 Grazing Season................... .... -- -------.. 19
1932 Grazing Season ................... ........ ................ 19
1933 Grazing Season .............. ................. 21
Grazing Results............... .. ...........................-------- 21

Salt and Bonemeal Consumption ............ ........ .... ................ 26

Summary and Conclusions........ ............... .... ------....... 26
Literature Cited..... ... .......... ....... .. .... ..... ................--- .....- 28




















Hernando msilmaand 1111

Hernando fine sand

Portsmouth medium sand r 71


Fig. 2.-Pastures used in the grazing experiments. Each one crossed
a running stream.







PASTURE VALUE OF DIFFERENT GRASSES
ALONE AND IN MIXTURE
By GEO. E. RITCHEY and W. W. HENLEY
INTRODUCTION
None of the native grasses of the South are widely used in
improved pastures. Carpet grass and Bermuda grass, the two
most commonly used Southern pasture grasses, were introduced
through unknown agencies many years ago. Other pasture
grasses, including Bahia and centipede, have been introduced
by the United States Department of Agriculture in more recent
years.
All of the introduced grasses which, up to the present time,
have shown signs of being adapted to permanent pastures in
the extreme Southeastern states have come from tropical or
semi-tropical regions outside of the United States. They will
not survive under the low temperatures of the Northern states.
Northern pasture plants on the other hand are not productive
under the continued high temperatures of the Southern states.
Inasmuch as the South presents a longer grazing season and
the grasses are different from those of the Northern areas, the
pasture problems of the South must be studied from the stand-
point of the climate, soil, type of plants and other conditions
peculiar to this part of the country.
Very limited information concerning the relative grazing value
of Southern pasture grasses is available. To obtain this infor-
mation for four of the most promising grasses an experiment
was outlined and a study made of the value of each for grazing
purposes by obtaining the relative yields of grass and relative
amounts of beef produced by these grasses when grazed by
native steers. This bulletin is a report of the findings of this
experiment.
The pastures were established and maintained cooperatively
by the Division of Forage Crops and Diseases of the Bureau of
Plant Industry, U. S. D. A., and the Department of Agronomy
of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station; the steers and
their management were furnished by the Department of Animal
Husbandry of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Acknowledgments are hereby expressed by the writers to W. E. Stokes
and Dr. A. L. Shealy, heads of the Departments of Agronomy and Animal
Husbandry, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, respectively, and
H. N. Vinall, Senior Agronomist, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. D. A.,
for guidance in all phases of this work. Dr. R. B. Becker kept records
regarding mineral consumption by the steers on each pasture. The photo-
graphs were made by the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE GRASSES USED
BAHIA GRASS, Paspalum notatum Flugge.
Bahia grass is a native of Brazil, introduced by the Bureau of
Plant Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture
in 1914. The grass has short, thick stolons and spreads slowly
but the root system is large and once a sod is formed few other
plants are able to encroach upon it. Bahia grass is well adapted
to drier lands such as represented by the pastures. (Fig. 2.)
It does best on productive soils but will make a good sod on poor
soils. The plants are propagated from seed, which is often of
low germination; however, it is not usually difficult to obtain
a stand from a seeding if the land has been well prepared. It
seeds readily in Florida and therefore seed can be harvested
from an established pasture. When a stand becomes established
it will last indefinitely if properly grazed.
BERMUDA GRASS, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Bermuda grass, possibly a native of Southern Asia, is one of
the most common grasses of the South. It is a perennial and
because of rhizomes which are found on the most common type
it is not looked upon by some farmers with favor. It is, how-
ever, one of the good pasture grasses when grown on land to
which it is well adapted. It does best on fertile loam soils.
Bermuda grass responds readily to cultivation and therefore
should not be planted on land which is likely to be put into
cultivated fields, inasmuch as it is difficult to eradicate. Bermuda
grass may be propagated vegetatively or by seed and therefore
is easy to get started in a pasture.
CARPET GRASS, Axonopus compressus (Swartz) Beauv.
Carpet grass, a tropical grass native of the West Indies and
the more tropical portions of South America, was introduced into
the United States more than a century ago but was not recog-
nized as a valuable grazing grass until after the middle of the
nineteenth century. The grass is stoloniferous and spreads
rapidly when growing in good soil. It will do well on any soil
in which the moisture conditions are favorable but is not well
adapted to high, dry sands.
CENTIPEDE GRASS, Eremochloa ophiuroides (Mumo) Hack
Centipede grass is a perennial, stoloniferous grass which was
introduced from China in 1918 by the Bureau of Plant Industry.
The plants spread very rapidly by long stolons which cling closely
to the earth and from these stolons leaves extend three to six
inches above the ground. Later in the year large quantities






Pasture Value of Different Grasses


of scantily filled seed heads are produced. As commercial seed
is not available, planting has to be done vegetatively, which is
expensive, especially when planted for pasture.
The grass is very aggressive and wherever grown in a sod
is usually free from weeds and other grasses. A pasture of pure
centipede needs little mowing, due to the shortness of the leaves
and seed stems.

PLAN OF THE EXPERIMENT

During the years 1924 and 1925, an area of 171/2 acres of
hammock land, growing magnolia, pine and other timber, was
cleared for pasture use. In the spring of 1926 the land was
broken with a turning plow and disked. Later it was cross-
broken, re-disked and thoroughly harrowed with a spike-toothed
harrow.
The land was divided into five equal areas of three and one-
half acres each. These areas ran lengthwise of the land, thus
giving as nearly as possible the same type of soil in each pas-
ture. A stream of running water crossed all pastures, giving
a continual supply of fresh water. The prevailing soil belongs
to the Hernando series, varying from medium to fine sandy
phase (Fig. 2). A small area of Norfolk fine sandy soil lies in
the carpet grass and Bermuda grass pastures and a narrow
strip of Portsmouth soil lies along both sides of the stream.
A gentle slope extends in either direction from the stream,
otherwise the area is comparatively level.
TABLE 1.-GRASSES USED IN THE PASTURES, RATE AND DATE OF PLANTING
OF EACH PASTURE.
Rate Date Area
Grass Planted of in
Per Acre Planting Acres

Bahia.. ...............- ... 12.85 Ib. June 15, 1926 3.5
Bermuda.... ..................... 8.57 Ib. June 11, 1926 3.5
Carpet....................I 12.85 lb. June 10, 1926 3.5
Dallis......... ............. 12.85 lb. June 12, 1926 3.5
Centipede................. Set in rows 5 ft. Oct. 15, 1927 3.5
apart
Mixture
Bahia........ ...... .... -.I 1.43 lb.
Bermuda..............-. 2.14 lb.
Carpet....................... 2.43 lb.
Dallis................. .... 3.43 lb.
Total -..................-......... 9.43 lb. June 16, 1926 3.5

The five areas designated as pastures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 (Fig. 2)
were sown to carpet grass, Bermuda grass, Dallis grass, Bahia





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


grass and a mixture of all four grasses respectively in the late
spring of 1926. The seeding was done in June preceding the
rainy season and cattle were turned on at once. The seed was
not covered except as it was tramped in by the cattle or covered
by rains, this having been found sufficient when seeding is done
on a rather loose seedbed just previous to the rainy season.
Table 1 records the rate of seeding, date of seeding and the
size of area which was sown to each grass.
Within a month after planting, all of the grasses except Dallis
were up nicely and a good stand was obtained. During the
summers of 1926, 1927 and 1928 the pastures were mowed
frequently and were kept well grazed to control weed and grass
growth. This also kept the grass in a vegetative condition.
Dallis grass made a very poor growth during the seasons of
1926 and 1927. The greater portion of the pasture upon which
it was planted, being high and dry, was not adapted to its suc-
cessful growth and a satisfactory sod was not obtained. The
Dallis grass pasture was therefore plowed and disked in Sep-
tember 1927 and set to centipede grass in rows 5 feet apart.

MANAGEMENT OF PASTURES PREVIOUS TO STARTING
THE EXPERIMENT
Each pasture was fenced. The following fertilizer mixture
was applied February 28, 1928, as a top-dressing to all pastures:
Nitrate of soda 25 pounds per acre, cottonseed meal 67, super-
phosphate 100, and muriate of potash 25 pounds per acre.
After the grazing had begun, two applications of 100 pounds
per acre of nitrate of soda were made in May and June, re-
spectively.
THE EXPERIMENT
Beginning with the spring of 1929 each pasture was given
two applications of fertilizer annually as outlined in Table 2.
TABLE 2.-KINDS OF FERTILIZER AND DATES OF APPLICATION, 1929-1933.
First I Second I
Application I Fertilizer Application Fertilizer
1929 February Sodium nitrate May Sodium nitrate
1930 MFearch Sodium nitrate ) May Sodium nitrate
1931 February Sodium nitrate May Sodium nitrate
1932 February I Complete July Sodium nitrate
1933 March Sodium nitrate July | Sodium nitrate

All applications were made as top-dressings. Sodium nitrate
was applied twice a year at the rate of 50 pounds per acre for
each application except in 1932. That year one application of





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


grass and a mixture of all four grasses respectively in the late
spring of 1926. The seeding was done in June preceding the
rainy season and cattle were turned on at once. The seed was
not covered except as it was tramped in by the cattle or covered
by rains, this having been found sufficient when seeding is done
on a rather loose seedbed just previous to the rainy season.
Table 1 records the rate of seeding, date of seeding and the
size of area which was sown to each grass.
Within a month after planting, all of the grasses except Dallis
were up nicely and a good stand was obtained. During the
summers of 1926, 1927 and 1928 the pastures were mowed
frequently and were kept well grazed to control weed and grass
growth. This also kept the grass in a vegetative condition.
Dallis grass made a very poor growth during the seasons of
1926 and 1927. The greater portion of the pasture upon which
it was planted, being high and dry, was not adapted to its suc-
cessful growth and a satisfactory sod was not obtained. The
Dallis grass pasture was therefore plowed and disked in Sep-
tember 1927 and set to centipede grass in rows 5 feet apart.

MANAGEMENT OF PASTURES PREVIOUS TO STARTING
THE EXPERIMENT
Each pasture was fenced. The following fertilizer mixture
was applied February 28, 1928, as a top-dressing to all pastures:
Nitrate of soda 25 pounds per acre, cottonseed meal 67, super-
phosphate 100, and muriate of potash 25 pounds per acre.
After the grazing had begun, two applications of 100 pounds
per acre of nitrate of soda were made in May and June, re-
spectively.
THE EXPERIMENT
Beginning with the spring of 1929 each pasture was given
two applications of fertilizer annually as outlined in Table 2.
TABLE 2.-KINDS OF FERTILIZER AND DATES OF APPLICATION, 1929-1933.
First I Second I
Application I Fertilizer Application Fertilizer
1929 February Sodium nitrate May Sodium nitrate
1930 MFearch Sodium nitrate ) May Sodium nitrate
1931 February Sodium nitrate May Sodium nitrate
1932 February I Complete July Sodium nitrate
1933 March Sodium nitrate July | Sodium nitrate

All applications were made as top-dressings. Sodium nitrate
was applied twice a year at the rate of 50 pounds per acre for
each application except in 1932. That year one application of






Pasture Value of Different Grasses


the same kind of complete fertilizer used in 1928 was made at
the same rate, as a substitute for the spring application of
sodium nitrate.
By the spring of 1929 all of the pastures except the centipede
grass had formed a good sod and were ready to begin the grazing
and yield tests. One plot 20 by 20 feet for determining grass
yields by cuttings was fenced off in each pasture on an area as
nearly as possible representative of the pasture in which it was.
In the spring of 1930 the number of fenced plots in each pasture
was increased to three and reduced in size to 20 by 10 feet.
The plots were moved to a new area each spring, thus the yields
were taken annually from an area which had been grazed the
previous years. Each plot was fertilized the same as the pastures.
The fenced plots in each pasture were clipped with a lawn
mower on the day that the cattle were weighed. The green
clippings were weighed immediately with a sensitive scale and
samples of the grass were put into glass jars and sealed. These
samples were removed immediately from the jars in the labora-
tory, weighed, and placed in a drying oven which was held at
a temperature of 90 to 100 degrees C., for a period of from 18
to 24 hours. The dry weight of each sample was obtained,
percentage of dry weight determined and the yield of dry matter
per acre calculated. Each dried sample was ground and its
protein content determined.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
YIELDS OF HERBAGE
Some exceptionally dry periods occurred during the experi-
ment when the carpet grass thinned out on the higher places
and gave way to weeds and more aggressive grasses. Small
areas of centipede, Bahia and Bermuda crept in and a large
portion of the area became infested with sand spur grass
(Cenchrus echinatus Benth), numerous weeds and other grasses.
The small area of Portsmouth soil along the stream grew a good
heavy stand of carpet grass which crowded out other grasses
and weeds. Carpet grass therefore not being adapted to the
greater portion of the area upon which it was growing, produced
a low yield (Table 3).
The Bermuda grass pasture did not produce a good, well
developed sod, but tended to give way to grasses and weeds
which were more aggressive and better adapted to the type of
soil. This soil was light and sandy and, therefore, not so well





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


suited to Bermuda grass. Areas of Bahia grass and centipede
grass became established and the greater portion of the pasture
contained some sand spur grass. In spite of the thinness of
the sod of Bermuda, this pasture produced a good yield of grass,
as will be seen in Table 3.
TABLE 3.-ANNUAL AND AVERAGE HERBAGE YIELDS OF VARIOUS GRASSES
IN THE FIVE PASTURES, 1929-1933.
Pasture No.
and Pounds per Acre of Oven-Dry Grass
Prevailing ____
Grass 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 IAverage
1-Carpet 612 2,093 1,087 2,433 1,790 1,602
2-Bermuda 2,034 1,891 1,496 2,206 2,115 1,948
3-Centipede ....... 2,165 1,176 1,440 1,354 1,534
4-Bahia 2,056 2,119 1,991 2,651 2,435 2,250
5-Mixture 1,885 1,922 2,026 2,648 2,033 2,103

The Bahia and the centipede pastures both produced a heavy
sod of more or less- pure Bahia grass and centipede grass, re-
spectively, and other grasses and weeds were crowded out. They
were well adapted to the type of soil of the areas upon which
they were located. The centipede grass was a little slow at
starting in spring but made an excellent growth during seasons
of sufficient rainfall. It ceased growth in dry weather and the
cattle grazed it extremely close but as soon as the moisture
became sufficient, good growth was resumed.
Bahia grass started growth earlier in the spring than the
centipede, although grazing became very short on both pastures
during dry periods. The Bahia grew more consistently during
dry periods than did centipede and gave the heaviest annual
yield of any single grass used in the test (Table 3).
The centipede grass pasture was not planted until the fall of
1927,, more than a year later than the other grasses, and had
not produced sufficient sod to start actual grazing records until
the spring of 1930, although it was grazed in 1928 and 1929.
Thus the centipede grass pasture was used in the experiment
only four years while the other four pastures were used five
years. Only four years' data, therefore, are available for the
centipede grass and all records of this pasture are calculated
on the four-year basis.
Bahia grass, Bermuda grass, carpet grass and Dallis grass
were sown in the pasture known as the mixture of grasses.
Except during extremely dry seasons the grasses produced a good
solid sod, which was a satisfactory mixture of Bahia, Bermuda
and carpet grasses. During extremely dry seasons the Bahia






Pasture Value of Different Grasses


was the predominating grass in the mixture. The carpet grass
and Bermuda grass thickened up as soon as the soil moisture
was sufficient to produce the necessary growth. The Dallis grass
failed to establish itself satisfactorily in the sod due to the dry
sandy nature of the land. The three grasses, Bahia, Bermuda
and carpet, produced a good even sod in the pasture of mixed
grasses which was heavy enough to exclude weeds and other
grasses.



















Fig. 3.-Cattle on experimental Bermuda grass pasture. The plot
fenced for clipping is shown.

The yields of oven-dry herbage from the protected plots
showed the highest production by Bahia grass followed in de-
scending order by the mixture, Bermuda grass, carpet and cen-
tipede; average yields for the five pastures were 2,250, 2,103,
1,948, 1,602, and 1,534 pounds per acre, respectively (see Table 3).
The average date of the first cuttings was March 20 and the
last cuttings November 18, making an average of 244 days be-
tween the first and last cuttings and an average total of 10
annual clippings.
The monthly yields of grass from each pasture varied con-
siderably (Table 4 and Fig. 4). The first cuttings in the spring,
as recorded in the table and on the graph, were made on the day
that the cattle were placed on the pastures and therefore rep-
resent the amount of material on the ground at that time.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


i" C///
2 1' / /\ ^








2 4'
0 .1 ,



Mar. Apr. My June July Aug. Sept. ct. Oct. Hr .
20 17 15 12 10 7 4 2 30 1
Fig. 4.-Variations in average yields of oven-dry grass on the five
pastures during grazing seasons 1929 to 1933, inclusive, and average total
monthly rainfall for the same period.

Usually the Bermuda grass plots produced the largest yield
in the first cutting of each season. Most of this, however, was
composed of early weeds and native grasses which were not
present in the other pastures. These were mostly grazed off
by the animals when turned in the pasture and therefore should
be considered as a part of the available feed. With the exception
of Bermuda grass the second cuttings yielded more than the
first. The yields during the second month, represented by the
third cutting, were higher in the case of all grasses except cen-
tipede, which yielded slightly less during this period. The
Bermuda grass and mixed pastures made rapid growth during
the second month. The quantity of growth continued to increase
in all of the pastures until the end of the rainy season. The
Bahia grass, centipede and carpet pastures did not start rapid







TABLE 4.-AVERAGE HERBAGE YIELD OF VARIOUS GRASSES AND THEIR MIXTURES AT VARIOUS TIMES OF THE YEAR AS INDICATED
BY CLIPPINGS FROM THE FIVE PASTURES AT APPROXIMATE DATES INDICATED FOR THE YEARS 1929-1933.


Pasture No. and Kind of Grass


1-Carpet.......... .. .................
2-Bermuda.........................................

3- Centipede ........... ...........................

4- Bahia......... ... ........................
5- M ixture........................................


Mar.


Mar.
20

45

203

38
84
82


Pounds per Acre of Oven-Dry Grass
June I July Aug. Sept. Oct. Oct.
12 I 10 7 4 2 2 30


Nov.
18 Total


62 73 114 196 311 388 261 118 34 1602

109 176 186 209 802 317 296 119 31 1948

81 67 101 214 335 299 281 102 16 1534
103 113 191 356 491 431 324 125 32 2250

83 117 169 279 435 381 382 135 40 2103


TABLE 5.-RAINFALL BY MONTHS FOR THE FIVE-YEAR PERIOD DURING WHICH THE PASTURE EXPERIMENT WAS IN OPERATION.
1929-1933 INCLUSIVE. (RAINFALL IN INCHES.)
Year Jan. I Feb. I March April I May I June July Aug. Sept. | Oct. I Nov. Dec. I Total

1929 ............ 6.33 1.51 4.53 4.24 3.89 7.06 6.24 5.71 8.84 1.31 .25 4.88 54.79
1930 ............ 3.31 3.87 3.21 2.21 3.11 6.57 7.32 6.75 5.65 2.84 2.04 3.22 50.10

1931 ........... 4.14 2.72 5.05 2.83 2.85 1.53 10.35 6.82 1.41 .16 .49 .84 39.19

1932 ........... 1.41 1.90 5.26 1.61 1.21 10.00 3.89 4.78 3.44 1.15 5.89 .37 40.91

1933 ........... 2.86 2.55 3.74 8.40 3.71 1.62 6.27 7.57 8.21 3.24 .59 .56 49.32


Average...... 3.61 2.51 4.36 3.86 2.95 5.36 6.81 6.33 5.51 1.74 1.85 1.97 46.86
_ j I _ _


Apr. ) May
17 1 15






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


growth and heavy increase in production until after the third
clipping, about May 10, when the season became warm with
more abundant rains. The rapid increase in monthly yield con-
tinued consistently until the peak of production was reached.
This peak was reached in August in all of the pastures except
the carpet grass and Bermuda grass pastures, where it was
reached one month later. The seasonal yields of grass in the
centipede and Bermuda pastures present more irregular curves
than the other pastures; however, the general shape of the yield
curves is similar for all of the grasses. The maximum monthly
yields of both the Bermuda and centipede pastures, as repre-
sented by lawn mower clippings, were considerably lower than
those of the other pastures. The highest average monthly yield
was obtained from the Bahia grass pasture in the August cutting,
followed very closely by the mixed pasture in the same month.
After the peak in monthly yields was reached the decline in
yield was exceedingly rapid on the Bahia grass and carpet grass
pastures, Fig. 4. The yield on the centipede grass, Bermuda
grass and mixed grass pastures maintained a higher level for
a period of two months after the rapid decline of Bahia grass
and carpet grass had begun.
The data of Figure 4 show a close correlation between the
production curve for the pastures and the average total monthly
rainfall. Since the period of greatest rainfall in Florida occurs
in midsummer the period of heaviest production for the pastures
occurs in July and August. In the Northern states pastures are
ordinarily most productive in May and June.
NITROGEN AND PROTEIN CONTENT
The samples of grass used in dry weight determinations were
ground and analyzed for protein content. The percentage of
crude protein as determined for each monthly sample is recorded
in Table 6 and the total yield of crude protein per acre for each
month in Table 7.
It will be noted, Fig. 5, that there was a high protein content
of the grass clipped in the spring months with a decided drop
in May at the time of the third cutting. There is usually a
period of dry weather during this season and the leaves and
plant foliage wither and dry, retarding the plant's growth and
throwing it into production of an abnormal supply of lignin and
celluloses and a reduction of nitrogen with a consequent lowering
of the protein content.
The drop in the percentage of crude protein as it occurred at
the third cutting (Table 6) is followed by an abrupt rise in





Pasture Value of Different Grasses


protein content in all pastures except the Bahia grass. After
the mid-season peak is reached there is a decided drop in per-
centage of protein content of all grasses. The seeding stage
begins in July and early August. Leukel et al (1)1 have shown
that as the period of maturity of grasses is approached the per-
centage of nitrogen in the plant is lowered. The period of seed-
ing with all of these grasses continued until fall. Thus the late
1420
Carpet
13,60 ___ Bermda
S--___Centipede
Barnia
.__ Mixture
S \ / \ \


I \-- /' "\"', t
\o / \ \ '' "
\,. // \, "\, \


20 17 15 12 10 7 4 2 30 18
Fig. 5.-Seasonal variation in average percentage of crude protein in
the pasture herbage from the five pastures during grazing seasons 1929-1933.
summer and early fall clippings contained a lower percentage
of nitrogen. As soon as the season for seed production had
passed there was a small growth of vegetative material which
is indicated in the increase of protein in the last cutting of all
pastures except centipede. Centipede grass continues the pro-
duction of seed heads until frost.
The total annual yield of protein expressed in pounds per
1 Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back
of this bulletin.







TABLE 6.-AVERAGE PERCENTAGE OF CRUDE PROTEIN IN THE HERBAGE OF VARIOUS GRASSES AND THEIR MIXTURE WHEN
CLIPPED AT APPROXIMATE DATES INDICATED FROM THE FIVE PASTURES 1929-1933.
Average Percentage Crude Protein in Dry Matter
Pasture No. and Kind of Grass Mar. Apr. May I June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Oct. 1 Nov. Seasonal
1 20 17 `I15 12 | 10 I 7 4 2 30 18 1 average
1-Carpet................................ ..... 13.33 12.71 11.14 13.60 12.15 11.59 10.97 9.60 9.86 10.47 11.25
2-Bermuda............................................. 9.33 11.29 10.65 12.66 13.31 12.29 11.44 9.38 9.77 10.10 11.15
3- Centipede ............................................ 10.53 11.19 8.87 11.39 10.31 8.92 8.09 8.12 7.90 7.44 9.04
4-Bahia............................................. 10.79 12.44 11.84 11.91 11.50 9.98 9.29 9.10 10.05 12.13 10.39
5- Mixture.......................................... 11.96 11.45 11.22 11.91 11.58 10.39 9.37 9.31 9.54 10.63 10.39


TABLE 7.-YIELD OF CRUDE PROTEIN BY THE GRASSES AND THEIR MIXTURES AT VARIOUS TIMES OF THE YEAR CLIPPED FROM
THE FIVE PASTURES ON THE APPROXIMATE DATES INDICATED FOR YEARS 1929-1933.
Pounds Crude Protein per Acre
Pasture No. and Kind of Grass Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Oct. Nov.
120 17 15 12 10 7 14 2 30 18 Total
1-Carpet................................ ... 6.00 7.88 8.13 15.50 23.81 36.06 42.56 25.06 11.63 3.56 180.2
2-Bermuda.................................... 18.94 12.31 18.75 23.56 27.81 37.13 36.25 27.75 11.63 3.13 217.3
3- Centipede ........................................ 4.00 9.06 5.94 11.50 22.06 29.88 24.19 22.81 8.06 1.19 138.7
4- Bahia........................ ...................... 9.06 12.81 13.38 22.75 40.94 48.94 40.06 29.50 12.56 3.88 233.9
5- Mixture................................................ 9.81 9.50 13.13 20.13 32.31 45.19 35.69 35.56 12.88 4.25 218.5
1 ,






Pasture Value of Different Grasses


acre for each year of the experiment is recorded in Table 7.
The highest average total yield of protein for the five years
was obtained in the Bahia grass and the mixed grass pastures,
the yield being about the same in both pastures. The lowest
yields were obtained from the centipede grass pasture. The
yields are calculated on the basis of lawn mower cuttings. Since
centipede grass makes a very dense sod with less upright growth
than some of the other grasses, it is not possible to compare the
yield of centipede grass, when cut with the lawn mower, with
grasses having more upright growth habits (Mayton (2)).
The percentage of protein is much lower in the centipede
grass (Table 6) than in any of the other grasses used in the
test. This, coupled with a lower grass yield, as is measured by
lawn mower clippings, gives a much lower total protein yield
per acre.

MANAGEMENT OF STEERS USED ON GRAZING TEST
The steers used were all raised under Florida range conditions
and brought to the Experiment Station farm in the fall before
they were to be used on the grazing test the following spring.
They were wintered each year under uniform management to
avoid variation in condition as much as possible.
















Fig. 6.-Cattle on experimental carpet grass pasture. Growth of other
grasses is shown.
Twenty steers were used annually during five years of the
test. The steers were placed on the pastures as early in the
season as the growth of the grass would permit. The entire






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


lot of steers was divided each season in such manner as to allow
an equal number of native and grade animals to be placed on
each experimental pasture. It was also attempted to divide the
steers so that the initial weights of the lots would be as uniform
as possible.
Each year Lot 1 was grazed on the carpet grass pasture; Lot 2
on Bermuda; Lot 3 on centipede; Lot 4 on Bahia grass; and Lot
5 on the mixed
grasses. No
supplementary
feeds were used.
1929 GRAZING
SEASON
During the
grazing period
of 1929 five
steers were
grazed on each
pasture except
the centipede
pasture, which
was not grazed
by steers during
this season. Ten
of the steers
were natives,
five were grade
Angus, and five
Fig. 7.-Cattle on experimental Bahia grass pasture. were grade
Herefords. In 1929, grazing was begun March 12. Two steers
died, one in Lot 1 and one in Lot 3. These animals were replaced,
so that data on carrying capacity of the pastures were not
materially affected by the loss. The gains recorded for the steers
that died were calculated by taking the average gain made by
the four steers remaining on each of the pastures.
The steers remained on the pastures until they began to lose
weight consistently in the fall. They were taken off the pasture
and the final weights were recorded November 21. This made
a total of 255 days on pasture.
1930 GRAZING SEASON
The steers used during this grazing season were wintered on
a ration consisting solely of peanut hay. They were dipped at





Pasture Value of Different Grasses


14-day intervals during the tick eradication campaign for the
entire wintering and grazing season. The grazing season began
March 22. Two grade Herefords and two native steers were used
on each of the five pastures. The pastures were short for the
first month of the grazing period and the steers in all five pas-
tures lost weight.
The steers were removed from the pastures and final weight
was taken November 14. This made a total of 238 days on test.
1931 GRAZING SEASON
The steers used in the test were wintered on a ration consist-
ing of peanut hay, ground snapped corn and ground velvet beans.
The steers used this season consisted of 10 grade Angus and
10 natives. They were dipped at 14-day intervals during the
wintering period and up to May in the grazing season. The
grazing period began March 27. Two grade Angus and two
native steers were used on each of the five pastures. They were
removed from the pastures and the final weights were taken
November 12, making a total of 231 days on grazing test.


Fig. 8.-Cattle on the mixture of pasture grasses used in this experiment.
1932 GRAZING SEASON
During this grazing period 10 grade Herefords and 10 native
steers were used. They received a ration consisting solely of
peanut hay during the winter preceding the grazing season.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Both grades and natives made a slight gain during the wintering
period. The grazing period began March 11, 1932.
On July 13, one steer in the centipede grass pasture died. A
steer of about the same weight, raised on the Experiment Station
farm, was placed in the pasture so that the cattle units carried
would be the same, but the monthly gains made by the three
remaining steers were averaged and these averages substituted



Fig. 9.-Average cumulative monthly gains of steers on the
pastures used in the grazing experiment for the years 1929-1933,
inclusive.



















S00ape
/.'"d























-/- -- Bahia
/7,1

















Centipede

mLa. April. Ae ly AJ. ept. Oct. OIt. Nov.
2 17 15 12 10 7 2 30 1
Weighing dates





Pasture Value of Different Grasses


and recorded for the gain made by the steer that died. On
September 24, one steer on the carpet grass pasture broke his
leg and was slaughtered immediately. A grade Hereford heifer
was substituted. The gains of the three remaining steers for
the remainder of the grazing season were averaged and this
average was used as the gain for the steer removed. The steers
were taken from the pastures and the final weights recorded
November 14, making a total of 249 days of grazing.
1933 GRAZING SEASON
During this grazing season 10 grade Angus and 10 native
steers were used. These steers were wintered on a ration con-
sisting of sugarcane silage and cottonseed meal. The grazing
period began March 21. Two grade Angus and two native steers
were used on each of the five pastures. They were removed from
the pastures and the final weights were taken December 1,
making a total of 256 days on pasture.

GRAZING RESULTS
The gains made by the steers were higher per acre on the
centipede grass pasture than on any of the other pastures. The
lowest gains were obtained on the carpet grass pasture. How-
ever, the land was not so well adapted to this grass. There
was very little difference in the pounds of beef produced per
acre on Bermuda grass, Bahia grass, and the pasture of mixed
grasses, as shown in Tables 8 and 9. The relationship of the
seasonal yield of grass to the seasonal gains made by the steers
is shown in Table 10.
The ratio of the yield of grass to the gains made by the cattle
is given in Table 11.
It may be noted that, with the exception of the centipede grass
pasture, the ratios of grass yields (measured by lawn mower
clippings) to cattle gains are very similar. This would seem
to indicate that the relative feeding value, pound for pound,
of the material grazed from the four pastures was similar. The
narrow ratio obtained from the centipede grass pasture should
not be considered to indicate that centipede grass is more nu-
tritious than the other grasses, as the habits of growth of this
grass are such that the lawn mower does not cut close enough
to obtain as much of the grass as do the cattle. One year's data
of the Agronomy Department of the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station as set forth in Table 11 indicate that by using
a plucking method of sampling, the ratio of the yield of the








TABLE 8.-GAINS MADE BY STEERS GRAZED ON VARIOUS PASTURE GRASSES DURING THE FIVE-YEAR PERIOD 1929-1933.


Average I Average
initial final Grazing
Grazing weight weight period


1929 5 Mar. 12-Nov. 21
1930 4 Mar. 22-Nov. 14
1931 4 Mar. 27-Nov. 12
1932 4 Mar. 11-Nov. 14
1933 4 Mar. 21-Dec. 1


Av. 21 steers Mar. 20-Nov. 18


1929 5 Mar. 12-Nov. 21
1930 4 Mar. 22-Nov. 14
1931 4 Mar. 27-Nov. 12
1932 4 Mar. 11-Nov. 14
1933 4 Mar. 21-Dec. 1


Av. 21 steers Mar. 20-Nov. 18


1930 4 Mar. 22-Nov. 14
1931 4 Mar. 27-Nov. 12
1932 4 Mar. 11-Nov. 14
1933 4 Mar. 21-Dec. 1


Av. 16 steers Mar. 20-Nov. 18


No.
steers
per
Year lot


Gain per Gain per G
lot steer


season


pounds pounds days
CARPET GRASS

468.72 633.64 255
552.05 602.90 238
530.80 588.28 231
557.05 689.12 249
499.55 654.55 256


519.11 633.69 246.23
BERMUDA GRASS

397.96 568.62 255
571.20 684.97 238
586.63 711.63 231
523.47 702.05 249
514.15 678.72 256


514.64 664.40 246.23
CENTIPEDE GRASS

526.62 676.22 238
554.15 742.88 231
514.32 733.45 249
507.07 722.80 256


525.59 718.85 243.5


Average
ain per daily
acre gain


pounds


824.6
203.4
229.9
528.3
620.0


481.24


853.4
455.1
500.0
678.3
658.3


629.2


598.4
754.9
875.7
863.2


773.1


pounds


164.92
50.85
57.47
132.07
155.00


114.58


170.66
113.75
125.00
169.58
164.57


149.76


149.60
188.72
218.93
215.80


193.26


pounds


235.6
58.1
65.7
150.9
177.1


137.5


243.8
130.0
142.8
193.8
188.1


179.8


171.0
215.7
250.0
246.6


220.9


pounds


.65
.21
.25
.53
.61


.46


.67
.48
.54
.68
.64


.61


.63
.82
.88
.84


.79










TABLE 8.-GAINS MADE BY STEE


No.
steers Grazing
per season
Year lot


1929 5 Mar. 12-Nov. 21
1930 4 Mar. 22-Nov. 14
1931 4 Mar. 27-Nov. 12
1932 4 Mar. 11-Nov. 14
1933 4 Mar. 21-Dec. 1


Av. 21 steers Mar. 20-Nov. 18


1929 5 Mar. 12-Nov. 21
1930 4 Mar. 22-Nov. 14
1931 4 Mar. 27-Nov. 12
1932 4 Mar. 11-Nov. 14
1933 4 Mar. 21-Dec. 1


Av. 21 steers Mar. 20-Nov. 18


RS GRAZED ON VARIOUS PASTURE GRASSES DURING THE FIVE-YEAR PERIOD 1929-1933.
(Continued)
Average Average I Average
initial final Grazing Gain per I Gain per Gain per I daily
weight weight period lot steer acre gain


pounds


510.62
573.72
574.12
509.12
490.80


521.15


471.64
601.20
517.02
501.62
514.55


518.84


pounds days
BAHIA GRASS

641.64 255
673.25 238
697.02 231
700.80 249
707.02 256


681.93 246.23
MIXED GRASSES

668.98 255
648.70 238
657.47 231
717.02 249
682.47 256


674.64 246.23


pounds pounds


855.1 171.02
398.2 99.55
491.6 122.90
766.7 191.67
864.9 216.22


675.30 160.78


986.7 197.34
190.0 47.50
561.8 140.45
861.6 215.40
671.7 167.92


654.36 i 155.80


pounds


244.3
113.8
140.5
219.1
247.1


192.9


281.9
54.3
160.5
246.2
191.9


S187.0


Pounds


.67
.42
.53
.77
.84


.66


.77
.20
.61
.87
.66


_ .63


I


















TABLE 9.-AVERAGE GAIN FOR FIVE-YEAR PERIOD MADE BY STEERS GRAZED ON PASTURES PLANTED TO DIFFERENT GRASSES.
PERIOD 1929-1933 INCLUSIVE.*


Pounds Gain by Weight Periods


Carpet........... .......... ---..--- -------

Berm uda-........................ ... ..... ...

Centipede-.................. .....-.. ... ..-....

Bahia................-.. .--- -.. -----------

Mixed Grasses........ ----....-- ..-............--


Apr. 17 May 15 June 12


33 21 8

140 54 20

51 116 53

69 22 27

74 70 34


July 10 Aug. 7


68 158

54 120

32 150

97 154

91 147


Sept. 4


140

117

155

142

152


Oct. 2


122

130

160

145

110


Oct. 30 Nov. 18


5 -74

29 -35

77 -21

23 -3

-12 -10


* Approximate weighing dates for five-year period. Average date of placing animals on pasture was March 20.


Tota


1

3 S

3 ^.

5 |

5

sr


<


-------









TABLE 10.-YIELDS OF GRASS FROM THE FIVE PASTURES, AND THE GAINS OF CATTLE ON THE PASTURES FOR THE SAME PERIODS.
FIVE YEAR AVERAGES 1929-1933, INCLUSIVE.


Pasture No., Kind of Grass
and Animals

1- Carpet.. ............. ... ...... .........
Cattle .............. ..... ............ ....


2- Berm uda........................... ..........
C attle ........................................


3-Centipede ..............
Cattle ............. .. ..


4- Bahia....................
Cattle .............


Pounds of Oven-Dry Grass per Acre and Pounds Cattle Gains per Lot


j-







I


82


May
15

73
21


5-Mixture.................... ...........
Cattle .......... .............................


Mar. Apr.
20 17

45 62

33

203 109

140

38 81

51


84 103






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


centipede grass pasture to the gains made by the cattle on that
pasture was comparable to the ratio of the grass yield and
gains of cattle on the Bahia grass pasture.
TABLE 1l.-RATIO OF YIELDS OF DRIED GRASS TO CATTLE GAINS.
Ave. dry
grass yields Ave. cattle Ratio pounds **Ratio
per acre gains mowed grass pounds
Pasture pounds per to pounds plucked grass
lawnmower acre cattle gains to pounds
clippings pounds cattle gains
Carpet........ ..... 1602 137.5 11.69 : 1
Bermuda ........... 1948 179.8 10.83 : 1
*Centipede ......... 1534 220.9 6.99 : 1 15.56 : 1
Bahia.............. 2250 192.9 11.66 : 1 15.67 : 1
Mixed grasses... 2103 187.0 11.25 : 1

Calculated on basis of four-year average.
** Calculated on basis of one year's results.

SALT AND BONEMEAL CONSUMPTION
During the period of grazing, steers on the experimental pas-
tures had access continuously to common salt and finely ground
feeding bonemeal. The record of mineral consumption during
1929 was incomplete, and therefore was not tabulated. During
the following four years, complete records were kept. The aver-
age consumption of salt and of bonemeal per animal is shown
in Table 12.
The medium rate of bonemeal consumption undoubtedly is
related to the fact that these soils, and consequently the grasses,
were slightly low in available phosphorus. Also, the mineral
storage of these steers when turned onto pasture were affected
by the character of the range on which they were raised, and
the fact that a limited amount of concentrates was fed during
the preceding winter.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Four pastures were seeded to pure stands of carpet grass,
Bermuda grass, Bahia grass and Dallis grass and a fifth pasture
to a mixture of all four grasses. The Dallis grass failed to
produce a good stand and was replaced by a planting of centipede
grass. The five pastures were used to determine the relative
value of the four grasses and the mixture.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


centipede grass pasture to the gains made by the cattle on that
pasture was comparable to the ratio of the grass yield and
gains of cattle on the Bahia grass pasture.
TABLE 1l.-RATIO OF YIELDS OF DRIED GRASS TO CATTLE GAINS.
Ave. dry
grass yields Ave. cattle Ratio pounds **Ratio
per acre gains mowed grass pounds
Pasture pounds per to pounds plucked grass
lawnmower acre cattle gains to pounds
clippings pounds cattle gains
Carpet........ ..... 1602 137.5 11.69 : 1
Bermuda ........... 1948 179.8 10.83 : 1
*Centipede ......... 1534 220.9 6.99 : 1 15.56 : 1
Bahia.............. 2250 192.9 11.66 : 1 15.67 : 1
Mixed grasses... 2103 187.0 11.25 : 1

Calculated on basis of four-year average.
** Calculated on basis of one year's results.

SALT AND BONEMEAL CONSUMPTION
During the period of grazing, steers on the experimental pas-
tures had access continuously to common salt and finely ground
feeding bonemeal. The record of mineral consumption during
1929 was incomplete, and therefore was not tabulated. During
the following four years, complete records were kept. The aver-
age consumption of salt and of bonemeal per animal is shown
in Table 12.
The medium rate of bonemeal consumption undoubtedly is
related to the fact that these soils, and consequently the grasses,
were slightly low in available phosphorus. Also, the mineral
storage of these steers when turned onto pasture were affected
by the character of the range on which they were raised, and
the fact that a limited amount of concentrates was fed during
the preceding winter.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Four pastures were seeded to pure stands of carpet grass,
Bermuda grass, Bahia grass and Dallis grass and a fifth pasture
to a mixture of all four grasses. The Dallis grass failed to
produce a good stand and was replaced by a planting of centipede
grass. The five pastures were used to determine the relative
value of the four grasses and the mixture.





















Year


1930
1931
1932
1933

*Average of initial


TABLE 12.-MONTHLY MINERAL CONSUMPTION OF STEERS ON PASTURES.

Average Consumption per 1,000 pounds
Length of average Consumption per animal | live weight
Length of weight* -
grazing of Common Feeding Common I Feeding
season steers salt bonemeal salt bonemeal
days pounds pounds | pounds I pounds pounds

238 610.7 .10 .02 .17 .03
231 612.7 .09 .03 .15 .05 -

249 615.4 .54 .21 .89 .33
256 591.9 .83 .26 1.39 .43

.1 and final weights.


___





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Monthly yields were taken from protected areas in each pas-
ture, nitrogen determinations made and the protein content of
the grasses calculated.
The relative value of the grasses for grazing purposes was
determined by grazing steers on each pasture for a period of
five years.
Yields as measured by lawn mower clippings were highest in
the Bahia grass and mixed grass pastures and lowest in the
pasture of centipede grass.
The yields of grass were heaviest during the rainy season
which is from about the middle of June to about the middle of
September. A sudden drop in yields occurred shortly after the
close of the rainy season.
The highest percentages of crude protein were obtained from
the carpet grass and the lowest from the centipede grass pasture.
The carpet grass did not do well on the type of soil represented
in this test; therefore, the yield was low, which is no indication
that it will not give heavy yields on land adapted to its growth.
It is one of the best grazing grasses on land to which it is adapted.
Cattle made the heaviest gains on the centipede grass and
the lowest gains on the carpet grass pasture.
Mineral consumption by the steers increased in succeeding
grazing seasons, suggesting a possible gradual depletion of min-
eral elements in the soil.
With the exception of the centipede grass pasture, there was
a close correlation between grass yields and cattle gains. The
ratio of grass yields per acre and gains per acre made by the
cattle were comparable except in the case of the centipede grass
pasture. The growing habit of the centipede grass which makes
it impossible to clip a large proportion of the plant is at least
partially responsible for the different ratio obtained on the
centipede grass pasture.

LITERATURE CITED
1. LEUKEL, W. A., J. P. CAMP, and J. M. COLEMAN. Effect of frequent
cutting and nitrate fertilization on the growth behavior and relative
composition of pasture grasses. Florida Experiment Station, Tech-
nical Bulletin 269, page 27, 1934.
2. MAYTON, E. L. Permanent pasture studies on upland soils. Alabama
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 243, page 24, 1935.




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