• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Abstract
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Background to the survey
 Production of boniato
 The boniato budgets
 Reference






Group Title: Economic information report 175
Title: An agro-economic survey of boniato grown in the Homestead area of southern Dade County, Florida in 1981
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027253/00001
 Material Information
Title: An agro-economic survey of boniato grown in the Homestead area of southern Dade County, Florida in 1981
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: ii, 14 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Van Blokland, P. J
Molina Battle, Mario, 1956-
Publisher: Food & Resource Economics Dept., College of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Sweet potatoes -- Economic aspects -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County   ( lcsh )
Sweet potatoes -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: P. J. van Blokland, Mario Molina-Batlle.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "December 1982."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027253
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001548243
oclc - 22599454
notis - AHG1796

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Abstract
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Background to the survey
        Page 1
    Production of boniato
        Page 2
        Page 3
    The boniato budgets
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Reference
        Page 14
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





P.J. van Blokland
Mario Molina-Batlle


Economic Information


Report


175


An Agro-
Grown


Econor
in the


nic Survey of Bo
Homestead Area


niato
of


Southern Dade


County,


Florida in 1981


d and Resource Economics Department
ege of Agriculture
erative Extension Service
Lute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
rsity of Florida, Gainesville 32611


December 1982
















ABSTRACT


This report presents and discusses two distinct budgets for producing
irrigated boniato in the Homestead area of Dade County, Florida. One budget
is for growing boniato on glade soils, the other on rock soils. Both budgets
are subdivided for farmers owning their packing shed and those farmers that
rent packing facilities.
The daLa for these budgets came from a 1981 survey of 18 growers
representing 40 percent of the boniato acreage. The survey was conducted in
Spanish as this crop is exclusively grown by Cuban immigrants. It was found
that these farmers received little outside information on agricultural
practices, due mainly to the language barrier.
This report will also be available in Spanish.













TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION..................................................... 1

BACKGROUND TO THE SURVEY......................................... 1

PRODUCTION OF BONIATO ....................... ..... .. ........... .. 2

THE BONIATO BUDGETS ................................ .............. 4

LIST OF REFERENCES................ .............................. 14



LIST OF TABLES
Table



1 Representative costs and returns from producing
one acre of irrigated boniato in glade soils,
Dade County, Florida, 1981 .............................. 7

2 Representative costs and returns from producing
one acre of irrigated boniato in rock soils in
Dade County, Florida, 1981 .............................. 10

3 Proportional cost distribution for irrigated
boniato grown on glade and rock soils in
Date County, Florida, 1981 .............................. 13















AN AGRO-ECONOMIC SURVEY OF IRRIGATED BONIATO GROWN BY SPANISH SPEAKING
FARMERS IN THE HOMESTEAD AREA OF DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA IN 1981


P. J. van Blokland and Mario Molina-Batlle


INTRODUCTION


Boniato or sweet potato is one of the major tropical vegetables grown in
[ade County, Florida. Some 11,000 acres of tropical vegetables were produced
in the county in 1980, generating around $30 million in gross farm sales.
Boniato accounts for about half the tropical vegetable acreage and approxi-
mately $13 million of the sales [3]. Practically all the tropical vegetables
and all of the boniato are grown and sold by Cuban immigrants.


BACKGROUND TO THE SURVEY


The information in this report was assembled from a questionnaire
conducted in Spanish, and given to 18 Cuban farmers in the Homestead area of
Dade County in 1981 [5]. The 42 questions were part of a five month survey in
which every farmer was visited at least three times. Fourteen farmers grew
boniato and accounted for 35 percent of the acreage grown in the county. Two
budgets were developed to highlight the differences in costs and returns from
growing the crop on glade or rock soils, the two main soil types in the
Honestead area [4].





P. J. van BLOKLAND is associate professor of food and resource
economics. MARIO MOLINA-BATLLE is a former graduate student in Food and
Resource Economics Deoartment at the University of Florida; this survey was
part of the field work required for his M.S. thesis and partly paid by funds
stemming from RRF Project 1897 (S-129).















AN AGRO-ECONOMIC SURVEY OF IRRIGATED BONIATO GROWN BY SPANISH SPEAKING
FARMERS IN THE HOMESTEAD AREA OF DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA IN 1981


P. J. van Blokland and Mario Molina-Batlle


INTRODUCTION


Boniato or sweet potato is one of the major tropical vegetables grown in
[ade County, Florida. Some 11,000 acres of tropical vegetables were produced
in the county in 1980, generating around $30 million in gross farm sales.
Boniato accounts for about half the tropical vegetable acreage and approxi-
mately $13 million of the sales [3]. Practically all the tropical vegetables
and all of the boniato are grown and sold by Cuban immigrants.


BACKGROUND TO THE SURVEY


The information in this report was assembled from a questionnaire
conducted in Spanish, and given to 18 Cuban farmers in the Homestead area of
Dade County in 1981 [5]. The 42 questions were part of a five month survey in
which every farmer was visited at least three times. Fourteen farmers grew
boniato and accounted for 35 percent of the acreage grown in the county. Two
budgets were developed to highlight the differences in costs and returns from
growing the crop on glade or rock soils, the two main soil types in the
Honestead area [4].





P. J. van BLOKLAND is associate professor of food and resource
economics. MARIO MOLINA-BATLLE is a former graduate student in Food and
Resource Economics Deoartment at the University of Florida; this survey was
part of the field work required for his M.S. thesis and partly paid by funds
stemming from RRF Project 1897 (S-129).









It was found that land availability was crucial to the future of boniato
production. Only one farmer owned any land, and this was less than 10 percent
of the acreage he farmed. All the remainder was rented annually from devel-
opers, who prefer the much better glade soils for development. Consequently
more crops are being produced on the poorer rock soils [5, pp. 21,36]. The
farmers typically cultivate five to 10 widely scattered plots of land, ranging
from 10 to 100 acres in size. Individual farms are therefore spread over a
wide area, and farm sizes range from 30 to nearly 1000 acres. Most of the
farmers live in towns'and commute to their farms.
It was also found that there were vast differences in production
practices, due apparently to the language barrier. Only one farmer spoke
English with any fluency, and 13 spoke none at all. Therefore they did not
use the local extension service. None admitted to borrowing money, which
might have produced more uniformity through agricultural lender recommended
agricultural practices, stating language problems and lack of suitable
collateral [6]. Some relied on traditional Cuban practices; others experi-
mented for themselves. A few farmers followed some recommendations from
Spanish speaking agricultural company representatives. But all willingly
participated in the survey and were enthusiastic that the University of
Florida was interested in their operation.1
The following section emphasizes the wide diversity of practices.


PRODUCTION OF BONIATO


Boniato is planted in regular intervals throughout the year (though less
planting occurs in January and February), depending principally on land avail-
ability, and is harvested six months later. It can be grown on the same land
for two years and then should be rotated with other crops [5, p.92]. All the
18 farmers grew at least three of the four so-called 'Cuban' crops on their
farms (malanga, boniato, calabaza, and yuca), and 10 grew all four. The 14
boniato growers also produced malanga and either calabaza or yuca or both.
Rotation is therefore typically confined to these crops [8].




1Their enthusiasm at having the results of this survey presented to them
in Spanish at a January 1982 meeting in Homestead was patently evident.












The planting material is a cutting taken from a growing crop. These
cuttings are arranged in bundles of 1000 and placed by hand in a furrow
previously opened by a tractor. The cuttings are usually placed seven to 12
inches apart in furrows 50 inches apart. The furrows are then closed by
tractor.
About half the farmers apply around 700 pounds 10-20-20 fertilizer at
planting while the rest wait up to two months after planting before applying a
similar amount. The majority only give two applications, the second between
one to three months after the first, adding up to a total application of 1500
pounds. The first application is always done by tractor, the second usually
by hand or aircraft if the vines have grown sufficiently to be damaged by
tractor application.
Weed control is occasionally by chemicals in the early stages, but later
by two row cultivators. Hand weeding is also important, and most crops need
at least two weedings. Boniato is somewhat susceptible to borers and farmers
use a chemical treatment approved for sweet potatoes. Tractor spraying occurs
from twice a season to once a week and a growing proportion of farmers spray
on a weekly schedule. Irrigation is performed with 90 horsepower diesel pumps
mounted on truck beds, capable of supplying one acre inch per hour. Rock
soils generally receive one acre inch per week, the glade soils a little less.
Boniato matures about six months after planting, but can remain in the
field for at least two months after maturity. The survey showed that
harvesting was dictated by buyer demand rather than crop maturity [5]. There
are few buyers and many sellers, and the farmers make efforts to maintain good
relationships with their buyers.2 The buyers are either local supermarket
owners or brokers supplying markets mainly in New York or Philadelphia.
At the start of harvesting a rotary mower cuts the boniato foliage, and
then a disc breaks down each furrow. The operations are followed by a potato
digger which leaves the roots on the surface. Then hand labour selects and
rough cleans the boniato, and packs it in 50 pound wooden boxes which are
transported by tractor and trailer to the packing house.





2A literal translation of a local phrase is "keep the buyer happy so that
he looks for you again."












Half the farmers in the survey had their own packing houses, albeit very
simple ones. There the boniato is machine washed which removes most of the
loose soil, secondly washes the boniato with circular brushes and thirdly
selects by size and packs them in 50 pound cardboard boxes. The house can
generally produce about 90 boxes per hour and typically needs seven workers.
The price of the 50 pound units of boniato fluctuates enormously. For
example, the wholesale price changed from $7 per box in the third week of
January 1981 to $17 in mid-April and fell to $9 by the end of June [1]. In
the past few seasons, the price has ranged from $5 to $30 [1]. It is diffi-
cult to explain these fluctuations beyond the random boniato imports arriving
in Miami from the Caribbean. But more information is obviously needed.
The previous description provides an outline of the more common
practices. The ensuing individual budgets provide the detail.

THE BONIATO BUDGETS


A representative enterprise budget is based on averages and is simply a
comprehensive list of the items, quantities and costs involved in producing a
product. It often also includes representative yields and prices received for
selling the product. Its purpose is mainly for comparison. So a farmer
should compare his specific costs and returns with this representative budget
and make production and marketing decisions from the results of this compari-
son [2, pp. 61-68].
The two representative boniato budgets (included at the end of the
report) were produced from the economic information provided by the 14 honiato
growers in the survey. The budgets represent the average practices of these
growers, based on 210 acres of boniato grown for one season [5, p 150]. Two
budgets are presented because of the fundamental yield and cost differences
from growing boniato on rock and glade soils.
Table 1 shows that in 1981, farmers would expect a return to their
management of $1160.96 per acre if they owned a packing shed, and $1056.19 if
they rented these facilities. The returns are needed to cover any farm family
labour, capital returns on fixed costs and a return to their managerial
acumen, plus meeting any income taxes. The returns look good but they result
from the reasonable boniato prices that were prevailing at the time of the












survey. If prices fell by half, as is indeed possible during a season, the
above returns would become negative.
However, the present returns show that boniato production on glade soils
is profitable. Expressed per bag, total revenue is $10.50, and operating
costs are $5.03 for the packing house renter and $4.50 for the owner. The
gross margins are then $5.47 and $6.00, respectively. After subtracting fixed
costs of $1.25 and $1.35, the return to management in 1981 was $4.22 per 50
pound bag for the producer renting packing house facilities and $4.65 for the
packing house owner.
Table 2 provides a similar presentation for boniato grown on rock soils.
The returns to management from growing boniato on rock soils also look
good, through these returns are appreciably less than on glade soils. The
rock soil figures per 50 pound bag are as follows. Total revenue is $10.50,
.nd operating costs are $5.79 and $5.27 for the packing house renter and
owner, respectively. Their gross margins are therefore $4.71 and $5.23, and
fixed costs are $1.08 and $1.19 per bag. The renter therefore receives a
management return of $3.63 per bag and the owner $4.04 per bag. The glade
production provides an additional 59j and 61( per bag, respectively, which
converts to nearly $125 per acre for renters and $128 for owners. Yet the
essential difference between these two soils is yield rather than cost. An
additional 40 bags of boniato per acre more than outweighs the marginal cost
increases. It is thus not surprising that farmers perfer to obtain glade soil
for boniato production [7, pp. 12-13].
Several items are interesting in the two budgets and some of these items
are emphasized in Table 3, which presents proportional costs.
Perhaps the most striking finding was the heavy reliance on hand
labour. Hand labour was a main input in the weeding, planting, and harvesting
operations, costing over $400 per acre in both rock and glade soils or about
33 percent of operating costs. (These figures exclude any tractor operator
inputs.) Available labour is therefore crucial to boniato production.
Packing house operations are the most expensive of the operating costs.
The budgets have already shown that owners of packing houses achieve greater
returns than the farmers renting these facilities. However, it was unfortu-
nately more difficult to obtain information on packing house costs and returns
than on any other part of the survey. It may well be that the figures
supplied by the owners are rather more conservative than other figures.








6



In conclusion, the budgets do show that boniato is profitable at the
prices current during the survey. Yet these prices vary tremendously during
the year and will therefore have great effects on managerial returns. This
variation is particularly important for a group of people like the Cuban
farmers who are effectively isolated from much of the rest of the community.
Despite any bilingual skills of their offspring, these farmers are cut off
from information from the local extension service, credit in the local
financial institutions, and good marketing advice. It is to their credit that
they perform so well.












Table 1.


Representative costs and returns from producing one acre of
irrigated boniato in glade soils, Dade County, Florida, 1981


Crop sales
Unit Quantity Price ($/unit) Amount ($)
Boniato 50 lb bag 250 10.50 2625.00


I. FARMER PAYING FOR PACKING HOUSE FACILITIES

OPERATING COSTS

Land preparation

Tractor (135 hp) hours 2.14
Tractor operator hours 2.14
Heavy disc hours 2.14

Planting

Labour seed


selection
Tractor (40 hp)
Tractor operator
Labour planting


Post planting

Fertilizer
Tractor (40 hp)
Tractor operator

'Weed control

Paraquat
Tractor (70 hp)
Tractor (40 hp)
Tractor operator
Hand weeding
Sprayer

Irrigation

Pump
Pump operator


1000s
hours
hours
1000s


lbs
hours
hours


gallons
hours
hours
hours
acres
hours


hours
hours


14.5
1.53
1.53
14.5


1220.
1.11
1.11


0.11
1.11
4.21
5.32
1.
1.11


6.86
6.86


7.72
5.00
1.86


4.86
2.35
5.00
2.53


0.11
2.35
5.00


40.00
3.98
2.35
5.00
126.62
0.56


6.41
4.06


16.52
10.70
3.98
31~ W


70.47
3.60
7.65
36.69
118.41


134.20
2.61
5.55


4.40
4.42
9.89
26.60
126.62
0.62
172.55


43.97
27.85
71.T


Continued












Table 1. Representative costs
irrigated boniato in
(Continued)


and returns from producing one acre of
glade soils, Dade County, Florida, 1981


-- __~ ~ l_~ _irC~--


crop sales

Boniato


Unit
50 lb bag


Quantity
250


Price ($/unit)
10.50


Amount ($)
2625.00


Harvesting
Tractor (70 hp)
Tractor operator
Labour harvesting

Packing house
Container
Equipment rental

Pest and insect control
Chemicals
Tractor (70 hp)
Sprayer
Tractor operator

Vehicles
Truck, 2-ton
Truck, pickup


hours
hours
box



box
box


sprays
hours
hours
hours


miles
miles


5.32
5.32
250.


250
250


10
3.10
3.10
3.10


20
20


Cash expenses
Overhead (5% of cash expenses)
Total cash expenses
Opportunity cost (11% of total cash expenses)
Total operating cost
FIXED COSTS
Tractor (135 hp) hours 2.14
Tractor (70 hp) hours 8.42
Tractor 40 hp) hours 6.85
Irrigation pump hours 6.86
Heavy disc hours 2.14
Sprayer hours 4.21
Digger hours 3.86
Rotary mower hours 0.98


3.98
5.00
0.62


0.45
0.45


80.00
3.98
0.56
5.00


0.14
0.09


10.28
4.92
2.88
0.90
10.70
0.83
0.40
0.88


21.17
26.60
155.00
202.77


112.50
112.50
225.00


80.00
12.33
1.74
15.50
109.57

2.80
1.80

$ 1078.28
53.91
1132.19
124.54
1256.73


22.00
41.42
19.73
6.17
22.90
3.49
1.54
.086


Continued


rr __













Table 1. Representative costs and returns from producing one acre of irrigated
boniato in glade soils, Dade County, Florida, 1981 (Continued)


Crop sales
Unit Quantity Price ($/unit) Amount ($)
Roniato 50 lb bag 250 10.50 2625.00


Truck, 2-ton
Truck, pickup


miles
miles


0.15
0.12
188.57


Land rent acres
Total fixed costs
Total costs ($1256.73 + 312.08)


3.00
2.40
188.57
312.08
$1568.81


Therefore, return to management is ($2625.00 1568.81) = $1056.19

II. FARMER OWNING PACKING HOUSE

OPERATING COST


Substract equipment
rental
Add electricity


bag
hours


250
2.84


0.45
0.06


-112.50
0.19


Cash expenses
Overhead expenses (5% of cash expenses)
Total cash expenses
Opportunity cost (11% of total cash expenses)
Total operating cost (If packing house labour not included
in harvesting, add $89.57)


$ 965.97
48.30
1014.27
111.57

$ 1125.84


FIXED COSTS (based on hours used annually)


Add packing house
equipment
depreciation hours
Add packing house
building
depreciation hours
Add property taxes hours
Total Fixed Costs
Total Costs ($1125.84 + 338.20)


2.84


2.84
2.84


3.33


3.00
0.23


Therefore, return to management is ($2625.00 1464.04) =


9.45


8.52
0.65
338.20
$ 1464.04

$ 1160.96












Table 2. Estimated costs and returns from producing one acre of irrigat
boniato in rock soils in Dade County, Florida, 1981


Crop sales
Unit Quantity Price ($/unit) Amount ($)
Boniato 50 lb bag 210 10.50 2205.00


I. FARMERS PAYING FOR PACKING HOUSE FACILITIES

OPERATING COSTS

Land preparation

Tractor (135 hp) hours 2.04 7.72 15.75
Tractor operator hours 2.04 5.00 10.20
Heavy disc hours 2.04 1.86 3.79
29.74

Planting

Labour seed
selection 1000s 16.25 4.95 80.44
Tractor (40 hp) hours 2.95 2.35 6.93
Tractor operator hours 2.95 5.00 14.75
Labour planting 1000s 16.25 2.95 47.94
150.06

Post planting

Fertilizer Ibs 1396.00 0.11 153.56
Tractor (40 hp) hours 1.29 2.35 3.03
Tractor operator hours 1.29 5.00 6.45
163.04

Weed control

Paraquat gallons 0.11 40.00 4.40
Tractor (70 hp) hours 0.56 3.98 2.23
Tractor (40 hp) hours 3.96 2.35 9.31
Tractor operator hours 4.52 5.00 22.60
Hand weeding acres 1.00 121.49 121.49
Sprayer hours 0.56 0.56 0.31
160.34

Irrigation

Pump hours 7.19 6.41 46.09
Pump operator hours 7.19 4.05 29.19
Continued

Continued












Table 2. Estimated costs and returns from producing one acre of irrigated
boniato in rock soils in Dade County, Florida, 1981 (Continued)


Crop sales
Unit Quantity Price ($/unit) Amount ($)
Boniato 50 lb bag 210 10.50 2205.00


Harvesting

Tractor (70 hp)
Tractor operator
Labour harvesting


Packing house

Container
Equipment rental


Pest and insect control


Chemicals
Tractor (70 hp)
Sprayer
Tracotr operator


Vehicles

Truck, 2-ton
Truck, pickup


hours
hours
box


bag
bag


sprays
hours
hours
hours


5.11
5.11
210.00


210.
210.


9
2.48
2.48
2.48


miles
miles


3.98
5.00
0.62


0.45
0.45


8.00
3.98
0.56
5.00


0.14
0.09


Cash expenses
Overhead expenses (5% of cash expenses)
Total cash expenses
Opportunity cost (11% of total cash expenses
Total operating cost


FIXED COSTS

Tractor (135 hp)
Tractor (70 hp)
Tractor (40 hp)
Irrigation pump
Heavy disc
Sprayer


hours
hours
hours
hours
hours
hours


2.04
7.59
8.20
7.19
2.04
3.04


10.28
4.92
2.88
0.90
10.70
0.83


20.34
25.55
130.20
176.09


94.50
94.50
T8O9.00


72.00
9.87
1.39
12.40
95.66


2.80
1.80
4.60


$ 1043.81
52.19
1096.00
120.56
1216.56


20.97
37.34
23.62
6.47
21.83
2.52


Continued












Table 2. Estimated costs and returns from producing one acre of irrigated
boniato in rock soils in Dade County, Florida, 1981 (Continued)


Crop sales
Unit Quantity Price ($/unit) Amount ($)
Boniato 50 lb bag 210 10.50 2205T0

Digger hours 3.86 0.40 1.54
Rotary mower hours 0.98 0.88 0.86
Truck, 2-ton miles 20 0.15 3.00
Truck, pickup miles 20 0.12 2.40
Land rent acres 1 105.44 105.44
Total fixed costs 225.99
Total costs ($1216.56 + 225.99) $ 1442.55

Therefore, return to management is ($2205.00 1442.55) = $ 762.45

II. FARMER 'OJNIrG PACKING HOUSE

OPERATING COSTS

Subtract equipment
rental bag 210 0.45 -94.50
Add electricity hours 2.39 0.66 0.16

Cash expenses $ 949.49
Overhead expenses (5% of cash expenses) 47.47
Total cash expenses 996.94
Opportunity cost (11% of total cash expenses) 109.66
Total operating costs (If packing house labour not
included in harvesting, add $75.24) $1106.60

FIXED COSTS

Add packinghouse
equipment
depreciation hours 2.39 3.33 7.96
Add packing
house building
depreciation hours 2.39 3.00 7.17
Add property taxes hours 2.39 0.23 0.55
Total fixed costs 249.-7
Total costs ($1106.60 + 249.17) $1355.77

Therefore, return to management is ($2205.00 1355.77) = $ 849.23













Table 3. Proportional cost distribution for irrigated boniato grown on glade
and rock soils in Dade County, Florida, 1981

Operation Glade Rock

------Percent of total cost-------


Land preparation 2 2
Planting 10 8
Fertilizing 11 9
Weed control 11 11
Pest and insect control 7 7
Irrigation 5 5
Harvesting 12 13
Packing house 13 14
Fixed cost 16 20
Opportunity costs
and overhead 13 11

TOTAL 100 100












LIST OF REFERENCES

[1] Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Miami Wholesale
Fruit and Vegetable Report Miami: Federal-State Market News, Jan.-June
1981, and various earlier years.

[2] Kay, Ronald D. Farm Management--Planning, Control and Implementation. New,
York: McGraw Hill, Inc., 1981.

[3] Metropolitan Dade County Cooperative Extension Department. Dade County
Agriculture 1979-80. Miami: Oct. 1981.

[4] Metropolitan Dade County Planning Department. Agricultural Land Use
Planning Project, Report I. Issues and Study Objectives. Miami: June
2, 1980.

[5] Molina-Batlle, Mario. "The Economics of Producing Four Tropical Crops by
Cuban Farmers in the Homestead Area of Florida in 1981". Unpublished
M.S. thesis, Univ. of Fla., 1982.

[6] van Blokland, P. J. Recent Financial Trends on Florida Farms, with a
Background to Florida Agriculture. IFAS Econ. Info. Rpt. 175
Gainesville: Univ. of Fla., 1982.

[7] Introduction to the Malanga, Boniato, Calabaza and
Yuca Based Farming System of the Cuban Farmers in the Homestead Area of
Dade County, Florida 1981. IFAS Econ. Info. Rpt. Gainesville:
Univ. of Fla., 1982.

[8] van Blokland, P. J. and Mario Molina-Batlle. An Agro-Economic Survey of
Malanga Grown in the Homestead Area of Southern Dade County, Florida in
1981 IFAS Econ. Info. Rpt. 169. Gainesville: Univ. of Fla., 1983
forthcoming.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs