• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Copyright
 Title Page
 Abstract
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Background to the survey
 Production of malanga
 The malanga budgets
 Reference






Group Title: Economica information report 169
Title: An agro-economic survey of malanga grown in the Homestead area of southern Dade County, Florida in 1981
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027249/00001
 Material Information
Title: An agro-economic survey of malanga grown in the Homestead area of southern Dade County, Florida in 1981
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: 15 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Van Blokland, P. J
Molina Batlle, Mario, 1956-
Publisher: Food & Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Yautia -- Economic aspects -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County   ( lcsh )
Root crops -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: P. Jon van Blokland, Mario Molina-Batlle.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "October 1982."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027249
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001548241
oclc - 22599501
notis - AHG1794

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Background to the survey
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Production of malanga
        Page 3
    The malanga budgets
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Reference
        Page 15
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





P. Jon van


Blokland


Mario Molina-Batlle


An Agro-Economic
of Malanga Grown


Economic Information
Report 169


Survey
in the


Homestead


Area


of Southern


Dade County, Florida in 1981


/HUME LIBRARY

I.F.A.S- Univ. of Florid 121


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611


October


1982













ABSTRACT

This report outlines the costs and returns from producing
malanga in the Homestead area of Dade County, Florida. The data
came from a 1981 survey conducted among the Cuban farmers growing
this crop. Distinct differences were found between performances
on glade and rock soils. It was also apparent that the farmers
received little outside information on agricultural practices,
due mainly to the language barrier.

This report will also be available in Spanish.














TABLE OF CONTENTS



Page

INTRODUCTION. . . . . ... .. 1

BACKGROUND TO THE SURVEY. . . . . 1

PRODUCTION OF MALANGA . . . . ... 3

THE MALANGA BUDGETS . . . .... 5

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1 Representative costs and returns from producing
one acre of irrigated malanga in glade soils,
Dade County, Florida, 1981. ($/acre). ...... '8

2 Representative costs and returns from producing
one acre of irrigated malanga in rock soils,
Dade County, Florida, 1981. ($/acre). ... .. 11

3 Proportionate costs distribution for irrigated
malanga grown on glade and rock soils in
Dade County, Florida, 1981. (percentages) .... 14













AN AGRO-ECONOMIC SURVEY OF MALANGA GROWN IN THE
HOMESTEAD AREA OF SOUTHERN DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA IN 1981


P. J. van Blokland and Mario Molina-Batlle*

INTRODUCTION

Malanga, a tuber similar to dasheen or taro, is a major component
of the 10,000 acres of tropical vegetables grown in Dade County, Florida,
each year, Revenue from these vegetables generated some $30 million
dollars in farm sales in 1980, and malanga accounted for about half
of the sales and perhaps 40 percent of the tropical vegetable acreage.
Practically all these vegetables are grown and sold by Cubans who emi-
grated to the United States since the early 1960s. The Cubans have
retained their culture and language and are consequently somewhat
isolated from the rest of the agricultural sector of the county.

BACKGROUND TO THE SURVEY


The information in this report was collected from a 42 question
survey presented in Spanish to 18 Cuban farmers in the Homestead area
of Dade County in 1981. The survey took five months and every farmer




*P.J. van Blokland, Associate Professor in the Food and Resource
Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Mario Molina-Batll.e former graduate student, Food and Resource
Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
This survey was part of the field work required for his M.S. thesis
and partly paid by funds stemming from RRF (S-129), 1897.



1Metropolitan Dade County Cooperative Extension Development, 'Dade
County Agriculture 1980.' Miami, Florida, September, 1980.













AN AGRO-ECONOMIC SURVEY OF MALANGA GROWN IN THE
HOMESTEAD AREA OF SOUTHERN DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA IN 1981


P. J. van Blokland and Mario Molina-Batlle*

INTRODUCTION

Malanga, a tuber similar to dasheen or taro, is a major component
of the 10,000 acres of tropical vegetables grown in Dade County, Florida,
each year, Revenue from these vegetables generated some $30 million
dollars in farm sales in 1980, and malanga accounted for about half
of the sales and perhaps 40 percent of the tropical vegetable acreage.
Practically all these vegetables are grown and sold by Cubans who emi-
grated to the United States since the early 1960s. The Cubans have
retained their culture and language and are consequently somewhat
isolated from the rest of the agricultural sector of the county.

BACKGROUND TO THE SURVEY


The information in this report was collected from a 42 question
survey presented in Spanish to 18 Cuban farmers in the Homestead area
of Dade County in 1981. The survey took five months and every farmer




*P.J. van Blokland, Associate Professor in the Food and Resource
Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Mario Molina-Batll.e former graduate student, Food and Resource
Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
This survey was part of the field work required for his M.S. thesis
and partly paid by funds stemming from RRF (S-129), 1897.



1Metropolitan Dade County Cooperative Extension Development, 'Dade
County Agriculture 1980.' Miami, Florida, September, 1980.








was visited at least three times.2 (Only one of these farmers spoke
English with any fluency, and 13 spoke none at all). The survey
covered 40 percent of the malanga acreage grown during that year. A
budget was developed from this survey showing the costs and returns
involved in growing malanga on glade and rock soils, the two main
3
soils of the Homestead area.
It was found that land availability was crucial to the future of
malanga production. Only one of the farmers owned any of his land,
and this was less than 10 percent of his total cultivated area. All
the remainder was rented from developers, mainly on an annual lease,
with little guarantee of renewal. As developers also prefer the glade
soils for development, more crops are being produced on the poorer
rock soils. Thus farmers typically cultivate five to ten widely
scattered blocks of land, ranging from 10 to 100 acres in size.
Individual farmers are consequently spread over a wide area, and farm
sizes range from 30 to nearly 1,000 acres. Most of the farmers live
in towns such as H6mestead, Florida City or Miami, and commute to
their farms.
It was also found that there were huge differences in production
practices. Most farmers, because of the language barrier, did not
use the local extension service. Some relied on traditional Cuban
practices, others experimented for themselves. None of them admitted
to borrowing money which might have produced more uniformity, through
lender insistence on certain managerial practices, stating language
problems and lack of suitable collateral. A few followed some



Molina-Batlle, Mario. "The Economcs of Producing Four Tropical
Crops by Cuban Farmers in the Homestead Area of Florida in 1981,"
unpublished M.S. thesis, Food and Resource Economics, University of
Florida, 1982.

3Metropolitan Dade County Planning Department. "Agricultural Land
Use Planning Project, Report 1. Issues and Study Objectives," Miami,
Florida, June 2, 1980.








recommendations from Spanish speaking agricultural company representa-
tives. But all willingly participated in the survey and were enthusiastic
that the University of Florida was interested in their operation.4
The following section emphasizes the wide diversity of practices.
PRODUCTION OF MALANGA
Malanga is planted in regular intervals from November through June,
depending principally on land availability. The upper section of the
crown of the root is used as planting material, and is selected from
the farmers' previous crop. The crowns are planted 12 inches to 26
inches apart in rows spaced from 16 inches to 60 inches. Planting is
either by hand labour or from a tractor pulled planter.
Nearly two thirds of the farmers used 10-20-20 fertilizer in three
separate applications. The first is one to two months after planting,
with amounts ranging from 200 to 1,000 pounds per acre. The second
application comes one to three months after the first using 400 to 800
pounds per acre. The final treatment, also from 400 to 800 pounds, is
applied one to five months after the second. The first two applications
are typically performed with an International 140, using a one row
spreader. The final application is either by hand or aircraft.
Weeds are a major problem. They are usually sprayed with an eight
row sprayer when the malanga is small. Chemicals are replaced by two
row cultivators and hand weeding as the crop matures. Pests such as
white fly may sometimes attack the malanga though none of the survey
farmers took control measures.
Practically all the malanga is irrigated weekly, applying at least
one acre inch per week in rock and somewhat less in glade soil. This
operation is performed with an overhead pump mounted on a truck bed or
trailer that can irrigate two acres per hour, using a 90 horsepower
diesel engine.


4Their enthusiasm at having the results of this survey presented
to them in Spanish at a January 1982 meeting in Homestead was patently
evident.








Malanga can be harvested about eleven months after planting, but
can remain for around six months in the field after maturity. Therefore,
harvest time depends as much on buyer demand as anything else. The
buyers are usually local supermarket representatives and/or brokers
who typically send the product to New York and Philadelphia.
The malanga is normally harvested with a potato digger, after
the foliage has been cut with a rotary mower and a disc has broken
the furrow down. The one row potato digger brings the roots to the
surface where they are selected, cleaned and packed into 50 pound wooden
boxes by hand labourers that are paid a fixed rate per box. The boxes
are later hauled to the packing shed.
Half of the farmers in the survey had their own packing houses,
albeit very simple ones. The malanga is washed by a machine which firstly
removes most of the loose soil, secondly washes the roots with circular
brushes and thirdly selects by size and packs them all with the help of
hand labourers. A typical machine can produce around 80 finished 50
pound boxes of malanga per hour and needs seven workers.
The buyer tends to dictate the harvesting procedure. His relation-
ship with the farmer is usually a strong one, and the farmer is typically
anxious to retain this relationship. This is not entirely surprising
as there are few buyers and the farm level price can range from $5.00
to $30.00 per 50 pound box during the season.5 The above description
provides an outline of the more common practices. The ensuing individual
budgets provide the detail.
THE MALANGA BUDGETS
There are two basic malanga budgets, one for glade and one for rock
soils, because yields and costs were fundamentally different for each
soil type. Each budget is divided into two sections, according to



5Miami Wholesale Market Information; weekly prices quoted in
Molina-Batlle, Mario. op.cit.









whether the farmer owned his packing shed, or paid for packing services.
All the figures were obtained or calculated from the survey information
provided by the 18 farmers, and represent the average practices of
this group growing 210 acres of malanga in 1981.6
Table 1 presents the representative budget for malanga grown on
glade soils. Table 1 therefore shows that in 1981 farmers would expect
a return to their management of $1,633.72 per acre if they owned a packing
shed. These sums are needed to cover any farm family labour expenses,
a capital return on their fixed costs, a return for their managerial
acumen and to meet any income taxes. The returns look good. But they
result from the reasonable malanga prices that were prevailing at the
time of the survey. As prices can possibly halve during a season the
above returns would become negative.
However, the budget figures do show glade grown malanga to be a
profitable crop. On a per box basis, total revenue is $15.46, opera-
ting costs are $7.25 for the packing house renter, $6.73 for the owner.
This leaves a gross margin per box of $8.21 and $8.83 respectively.7
After deducting fixed costs of $1.40 and $1.52, the return to management
is $6.89 per box for the packing house renter and $7.21 for the packing
house owner.
Table 2 provides a similar presentation for malanga grown on rock
soils.
Again, the returns to management look good, though there is.an
appreciable difference between the returns from glade and rock soils.
The rock soil per box figures are as follows: total revenue is $15.48
per box. Operating costs are $8.89 and $8.40 for packing house renters
and owners respectively, giving them gross margins of $6.59 and $7.08.
The returns to management are $5.04 per box for the renter and $5.47 per



Molina-Batlle, op.cit.

Gross margin = total revenue minus operating costs, and shows what
is remaining to pay for fixed costs and returns to management.









box for the owners. The difference between glade and rock soil producers
is therefore $1.85 and $1.74 respectively. Yet the essential difference
between these two soils is yield rather than costs. An additional
eighty boxes per acre more than outweighs the marginal cost increases.
It is not surprising that farmers prefer to obtain glade soils for
growing malanga.
Several items in the budgets are interesting. Perhaps the most
striking is the amount of hand labour that is used, particularly in
weeding. Weeding is the single most costly operation, constituting 15
percent of total costs on rock soils and 17 percent on glade. Yet
only $7 of the $260 per acre weeding charge is spent on chemicals on
glade soils, and $8 of the $190 charge on rock. Practically all the
costs are incurred in hand weeding. In fact around $700 per acre is
spent on simple hand labour in glade and about $470 per acre in rock
soils, or over a third of total costs in the former case and some 28
percent in the latter. Available labour is therefore crucial to the
malanga production.8
Other major cost items are summarized in Table 3. Most of these
figures are self explanatory. The packing house situation is not so
simple. The budgets not surprisingly show that packing house owners
achieve greater returns than those farmers renting these facilities.
It was however much more difficult to obtain information on packing
house costs and returns than any other part of the survey. Much of
the profitability of this facility depends on throughput. Yet the
owners apparently set one packing charge regardless of an individual
farmer's volume. It may well be that the rewards from owning a packing
shed are rather more conservative than the other figures.
In conclusion, the budgets show malanga to be a profitable enterprise
given the prevailing price levels during the survey. But it must be
re-emphasized that these prices fluctuate enormously, and can therefore



8
van Blokland, P.J. and Mario Molina-Batlle. "Introduction to the
Malanga, Boniato, Calabaza and Yuca Based Farming System of the Cuban
Farmers in the Homestead Area of Dade County, Florida, 1981", submitted
for publication, October, 1982.






7

have devastating effects on management returns. Perhaps the most
striking feature of the study was the realization of the isolation of
these farmers. While their offspring are bi-lingual, few of them speak
any English. They are therefore effectively cut off from information
through the local extension service, from credit in the local financial
institutions and from good marketing advice. It is to their credit
that they perform so well.








Table l.--Representative costs and returns from producing one acre of
irrigated malanga in glade soils, Dade County, Florida, 1981.
($/acre)


Crop Sales
Unit Quantity Price ($/Unit) Amount ($)

Malanga 1st class 50 lb. box 187 18.00 3366.00
Malanga 2nd class 50 lb. box 53 6.50 344.50
Total sales 3710.50

I. FARMER PAYING FOR PACKING SHED

OPERATING COSTS

Land Preparation

Tractor (135 hp) hours 2.48 7.72 19.15
Tractor operator hours 2.48 5.00 12.40
Heavy disc hours 2.48 1.86 4.61
36.16

Planting
Labour seed
selection box 121 0.72 87.12
Tractor (70 hp) hours 2.22 3.98 8.84
Tractor operator hours 2.22 5.00 11.10
Labour planting hours 3.56 4.06 14.45
121.51

Post Planting

Fertilizer
(10-20-20) Ibs 1,885 0.11 207.35
Tractor (40 hp) hours 2.40 2.35 5.64
Plane acres 1 3.00 3.00
Tractor operator hours 2.40 5.00 12.00
227.99

Weed Control

Chemicals gallons 0.18 40.00 7.20
Tractor (70 hp) hours 0.42 3.98 1.67
Tractor (40 hp) hours 11.32 2.35 26.60
Tractor operator hours 11.74 5.00 58.70
Sprayer hours 0.42 0.56 0.24
Hand weeding acres 1 251.69 251.69
346.10









Table l.--continued


Operating Costs Unit Quantity Price ($/unit) Amount ($)


Irrigation

Pump
Pump operator


Harvesting

Tractor (70 hp)
Tractor operator
Labour harvesting


Packing house

Containers, 1st
Containers, 2nd
Packing charge


Vehicles

Truck, 2-ton
Truck, pickup


hours
hours


14.51
14.51


hours
hours
box


box
box
box


miles
miles


5.32
5.32
240


187
53
240


6.41
4.06


3.98
5.00
0.97


1.05
0.37
0.45


93.01
58.91
151.92


21.17
26.60
232.00
280.57


196.35
19.61
108.00
323.96


0.14
0.09


2.80
1.80
4.60


Cash expenses
Overhead expenses (5% of
Total cash expenses
Opportunity cost (11% of
Total operating costs*


cash expenses)

total cash expenses)


FIXED COSTS


Tractor
Tractor
Tractor


(135 hp)
(70 hp)
(40 hp)


Irrigation pump
Heavy disc
Sprayer
Digger
Rotary mower
Truck, 2-ton
Truck, pickup
Land rent


hours
hours
hours
hours
hours
hours
hours
hours
miles
miles
acres


2.48
7.96
13.42
14.51
2.48
0.42
3.86
0.98
20
20
1


$1,492.81
74.64
1,567.45
172.42
1,739.87


10.28
4.92
2.88
0.90
10.70
0.83
0.40
0.88
0.15
0.12
185.00


25.49
39.16
39.51
13.06
26.54
0.35
1.54
0.86
3.00
2.40
185.00
233.26









Table l.--continued


Costs Unit Quantity Price ($/unit) Amount($)


Total costs (1,739.87 + 336.91)


Therefore, return to management is ($3,710.50 2076.78)


II. FARMER OWNING PACKING SHED

OPERATING COSTS


$2,076.78

1,633.72
per acre


Subtract packing
charge box
Add electricity hours
Cash expenses ($1,492.81
Overhead expenses (5% of
Total cash expenses
Opportunity cost (11% of
Total operating cost*


240
3.04
- 108.00 + 0.20)
cash expenses)

total cash expenses)


0.45
0.06


-108.00
0.20
$1,385.01
69.25
1,454.26
159.97
1,614.23


FIXED COSTS (based on hours used annually)


Add packing house equipment
depreciation hours
Add packing house building
equipment hours
Add property taxes hours
Total fixed costs
Total costs ($1,614.23 + 364.35)


3.04

3.04
3.04


10.12


3.33

3.00
0.23


9.12
.70
364.35
1,978.58


Therefore, return to management is ($3,710.50 1,978.58) =

*If packing house labor not included in harvesting, add $90.85,
which represents the prevailing price rate.


$1,731.92










Table 2.--Representative cost and returns of producing one acre of irrigated
malanga in rock soils, Dade County, Florida, 1981 ($/acre).




Crop Sales
Unit Quantity Price ($/unit) Amount ($)

Malanga, 1st class 50 lb. bag 125 18.00 $2,250.00
Malanga, 2nd class 50 lb. bag 35 6.50 227.50

Total sales $2,477.50


I. FARMER PAYING FOR PACKING SHED

OPERATING COSTS

Land Preparation

Rock plow acres
Tractor (135 hp) hours
Tractor operator hours
Heavy disc hours


Planting

Labour and seed
selection box
Tractor (70 hp) hours
Tractor operator hours
Labour planting hours


Post Planting

Fertilizer lbs
Tractor (40 hp) hours
Tractor operator hours
Plane acres


Weed control

Chemical gallons
Tractor (70 hp) hours
Tractor (40 hp) hours
Tractor operator hours
Hand weeding acres
Sprayer hours


1
2.32
2.32
2.32


93.5
2.66
2.66
:4.82


1,771
1.81
1.81
1


0.91
0.37
8.29
8.66
1
0.37


45.42
7.72
5.00
1.86


0.87
3.98
5.00
4.06


0.11
2.35
5.00
3.00


40.00
3.98
2.35
5.00
185.33
0.56


42.42
17.91
11.60
4.32
79.25


81.35
10.59
13.30
19.57
124.81


194.81
4.24
9.05
3.00
211.1T


7.60
1.47
19.48
43.30
185.23
0.21
257.29









Table 2.--continued


Irrigation


Pump
Pump operator


Harvesting


Tractor (70 hp)
Tractor operator
Labour harvesting


Packing house

Container, 1st
Container, 2nd
Packing charge


Unit



hours
hours


hours
hours
box


Quantity


11.81
11.81


-5.40
5.40
160


box
box
box


Price ($/unit)


6.41
4.06


3.98
5.00
0.97


1.05
0.37
0.45


Amount ($


75.70
47.95
T23.65


21.49
27.00
155.20
203.69


131.05
12.95
72.00


Vehicles


Truck, 2-ton
Truck, pickup


miles
miles


Cash expenses
Overhead (5% of cash expenses)
Total cash expenses
Opportunity cost (11% of total cash expenses)
Total operating cost (If packing house labour
included in harvesting,


0.14
0.09





is not
add $60.57)


2.80
1.80
4.60
$1,220.60
61.03
1,281.63
140.98

1,422.61


FIXED COSTS


Tractor (135 hp) hours
Tractor (70 hp) hours
Tractor (40 hp) hours
Irrigation pump hours
Heavy disc hours
Sprayer hours
Digger hours
Rotary mower hours
Truck, 2-ton miles
Truck, pickup miles
Land rent acres
Total fixed costs
Total costs ($1,422.61 + 242.37)


2.32
8.43
10.10
11.81
2.32
0.37
3.86
0.98
20
20
1


10.28
4.92
2.88
0.90
10.70
0.83
0.40
0.88
0.15
0.12
104.39


Therefore, return to management is ($2,477.50 1,664.98) =


23.85
41.48
29.09
10.63
24.82
0.31
1.54
0.86
3.00
2.40
104.39
242.37
$1,664.98
$812.52
per acr(









Table 2.--continued


Unit


Quantity


Price ($/unit)


Amount ($)


II. FARMER OWNING PACKING SHED

OPERATING COSTS


Subtracting packing
charge box
Add electricity hours


160
2.03


0.45
0.06


-72.00
0.13


Cash expenses
Overhead expenses (5% of cash expenses)
Total cash expenses
Opportunity cost (11% of total cash expenses)
Total operating cost (If packing house labour
included in harvesting,


is not
add $60.57)


FIXED COSTS


Add packing house equipment
depreciation hours
Add packing house building
depreciation hours
Add property
taxes hours
Total fixed costs
Total costs ($1,338.85 + 263.19)


2.03

2.03

2.03


3.33

3.00

0.23


Therefore, return to management is ($2,477.50 1,602.04) =


6.76

6.09


0.47
263.19
$1,602.04

$875.46
per acre


$1,148.73
57.44
1,206.17
132.68

$1,338.85









Table 3.--Proportionate costs distribution for irrigated malanga
grown on glade and rock soils in Dade County, Florida,
1981 (percentages).


Operation Glade Rock
S Percent of total cost Percent of total cost


Land preparation 2 5
Planting 6 7
Fertilizing 11 13
Weed control 17 15
Irrigation 7 7
Harvesting 13 12
Packing house 16 13
Fixed costs 17 15
Opportunity costs
and overhead 11 11
1TO 100










LIST OF REFERENCES


[1] Metropolitan Dade County Cooperative Extension Development,
"Dade County Agriculture '1980'. Miami, Florida,
September, 1980.

[2] Metropolitan Dade County Planning Department. "Agricultural
Land Use Planning Project, Report 1. Issues and Study
Objectives", Miami, Florida, June 2, 1980.

[3] Molina-Batlle, Mario. "The Economics of Producing Four
Tropical Crops by Cuban Farmers in the Homestead Area
of Florida in 1981", unpublished M.S. thesis, Food and
Resource Economics Department, University of Florida,
1982.

[4] van Blokland, P.J. and Mario Molina Batlle. "Introduction
to the Malanga, Boniato, Calabaza and Yuca Based Farming
System of the Cuban Farmers in the Homestead Area of
Dade County, Florida, 1981", submitted for publication,
October, 1981.




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