• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Board of control, station...
 Table of Contents
 Important facts
 Introduction
 General geological conditions
 Underground water
 Acknowledgement






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 89
Title: Occurrence and use of Artesian and other underground water
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027247/00001
 Material Information
Title: Occurrence and use of Artesian and other underground water
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 86-113 : ill., map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sellards, Elias Howard, b. 1875
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1907
 Subjects
Subject: Groundwater -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Artesian wells -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: E.H. Sellards.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027247
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000921793
oclc - 18159615
notis - AEN2261

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 86
    Board of control, station staff
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Table of Contents
        Page 89
    Important facts
        Page 90
    Introduction
        Page 91
    General geological conditions
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Underground water
        Page 96
        Surface water
            Page 96
            Page 97
        Groundwater of the limestone
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
        Artesian water and artesian wells
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
        Artesian water in Florida
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
    Acknowledgement
        Page 113
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









BULLETIN NO. 89.


Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station.






Occurrence and Use of Artesian and

Other Underground Water.





E. H. SELLARDS, Ph.D.







The bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida
upon application to the Director of the Experiment Station, Gainesville,
Florida.


E. 0. PAINTER PRINTING CO., DELAND, FLA.


MARCH, 1907.
















BOARD OF CONTROL.

N. P. BRYAN, Chairman .............. Jacksonville, Fla.
P. K. YONGE .......................... Pensacola, Fla.
A. L. BROWN ........................... Eustis, Fla.
T. B. KING ............................. Arcadia, Fla.
J. C. BAISDEN .........................Live Oak, Fla.



STATION STAFF.

P. H. ROLFS, M.S...........................Director.
A. W. BLAIR, A.M..........................Chemist.
JOHN M. SCOTT, B.S ................. Animal Industrialist
E. H. SELLARDS, M.A., Ph.D. .................. Geologist.
E. W. BERGER, Ph.D............. Assistant Entomologist.
H. S. FAWCETT, B.S .......... Assistant Plant Pathologist.
R. Y. WINTERS, B.S................ Assistant in Botany.
K. H. GRAHAM ................ Auditor and Bookkeeper.
R. D. ALGEE ......................... .. Stenographer..
M. CREWS ............................. Farm Foreman.
MRS. E. W. BERGER ....................... Librarian.






























































Figure I.-Principal areas in which flowing wells may be obtained in Florida.

















CONTENTS.



Introduction ................................................ 91
L literature ......................... ............... 91

General Geological Conditions ............................... 92
Formations Represented in Florida. ................. 94
Erosion and Development of Topography ........... 95

Underground Water ....................................... 96
Surface W ater .......................................... 96
Chem ical A nalyses .................................. 97

Groundwater of the Limestone .......................... 98
Origin .............................................. 98
Abundance of Supply ............................... 10I
Escape of the Groundwater ......................... 101
Locating W ells ..................................... 102
Level at Which Water Will Stand in Completed Boring, 102
D epth of Boring ................................... 103
Quality of the Limestone Water .................... 103
Chemical Analyses .......... ....................... 104
Water of the Limestone for Irrigation ............... 105
Contamination of the Water of the Limestone........ Io6

Artesian Water and Artesian Wells ..................... 107
Conditions Necessary for Artesian Pressure ......... Io8
A rtesian Basin ..................................... o8
A rtesian Slope ...................................... Io9

Artesian W ater in Florida ............................. Ino
Chemical Analyses .................................. III
Source of Artesian Water ......................... 112
Height of Flow of Artesian Water ..................... 112
Areas of Artesian Flow ............................. 112

Acknowledgment .......................................... 113

Illustrations-
Figure I, Miap Showing Areas of Artesian Flow in
Florida ......................................... 86
Figure 2, Diagram of an Artesian Basin.............. 108
Figure 3, Diagram of an Artesian Slope.............. Io9



















IMPORTANT FACTS.


i. Florida is abundantly supplied with water.

2. Underground water is available for irrigating purposes in all
parts of the State.

3. The amount of matter held in solution in these waters does
not affect their value for irrigating purposes.

4. Whether a well will flow or not depends on the elevation of
the mouth of the boring.

5. Surface water occurs at varying depth in limited quantity, and
is in imminent danger of contamination.

6. Groundwater of the limestone occurs at greater depths, of
practically inexhaustible supply, and is-in danger of contami-
nation only from natural sinks and from sewage wells.

7. Artesian water usually occurs at greatest depth, and is of
inexhaustible supply.

8. Flowing artesian wells occur only along the coast and at very
low inland elevations.

g. Springs may be supplied from surface water, from water of
the limestone, or from artesian water.














Occurrence and Use of Artesian and

Other Underground Water.


BY E. H. SELLARDS, Ph.D.



The present report is intended as an introduction on the
water supply of'Florida. For the purposes of this bulletin
it has not been possible to make an exhaustive study of the
underground waters of the state. A very considerable amount
of data has been accumulated, however, from various sources,
making it possible to give a brief general account of the water
supply, and to indicate its usefulness for agricultural and other
purposes. Much of the data concerning Alachua, Suwannee,
Marion, Orange, Bradford, and Duval counties is supplied
from unpublished notes made during the summer of 1906
by the writer while acting as Field Assistant for the United
States Geological Survey. The information taken from these
notes is used with permission of the Director of the Survey.
The data relative to Columbia, Clay, St. Johns, Putnam, Volu-
sia, Brevard, St.Lucie, Dade, Lee, DeSoto, Manatee, Hills-
boro, 'Baker,,Hamilton, Leon, and Madison counties have been
obtained from investigations made either especially for this
bulletin, or incidentally in connection with other Station duties
during the past three years. This information has been sup-
plemented, and information regarding other counties in the
state has been obtained from various publications, especially
from Water Supply and Irrigation Papers Nos. 102, 114,
149, and from bulletins of the United States Geological Sur-
vey Nos. 264 and 298.
LITERATURE.
A considerable number of references to the underground
water supply of Florida are to be found in various publications.
The. following, however, include all thought to be essential
to the subject:









Bulletin No. 8g.


Water Supply and Irrigation Papers, U. S. Geol. Sur-.
vey, No. 102, 1904. Deep wells listed by counties, pp. 240-
255; notes on wells, including analyses of numerous samples
of water, pp. 256-264; list of springs of Florida by counties,
pp. 266-269; notes on springs, including analyses of several
samples of water, pp. 270-274; measurement of flow of a few
of the larger springs, pp. 274-275.
Water Supply and Irrigation Papers, No. 114, 1905. Brief
general discussion of the underground water of Florida, in-
cluding a map of the principal artesian areas, pp. 159-163.
Water Supply and Irrigation Papers, No. 149, 1905. List
of wells more than 400 feet deep, by counties, pp. 25-26.
Bulletin U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 84, 1892. General ac-
count of the geology of Florida, pp. 85-158. Underground
water discussed on p. 94.
Bulletin U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 264, 1905. Record of
deep well drilling for 1904. Three wells listed from Florida,
PP. 44-45.
Bulletin U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 298, 1906. Record of
deep well drilling for 1905. List of Florida wells pp. 46-51;
notes on same, pp. 195-199.
Bulletin U. S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Experi-
ment Stations, No. 158, 1906. A brief reference, p. 716, to
the ground water conditions in the Miami limestone.
Geology of Florida in Relation to its Artesian Water Sup-
ply, by E. H. Sellards; Proc. Florida State Hort. Soc. 1906,
pp. 117-121.

GENERAL GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS.

In its general geology Florida is of comparatively simple
structure. The formations of the state have suffered no great
distortion since their deposition, and lie for the most part
either horizontal as formed, or with a slightly accentuated
dip. For a clear understanding of the water supply problem
a conception of the leading features of the geology of the
state is essential, The underlying foundation rock throughout
the state is a massive and very thick limestone. In character
the limestone is soft, granular, and for the most part porous.
That the water moves readily through this limestone in all
directions, is conclusively shown by borings.
Among the conditions which brought about this limestone,









Artesian and Other Underground Water.


as indicated by the rock itself, was clear water free from land
sediment, in which marine life, especially the foraminifera,
abounded. The remains of these animalcules make up the
limestone. This foundation limestone, known in the earlier
writings as Eocene, is now classed as Oligocene. Its former
classification as the Vicksburg limestone has also been ques-
tioned. It has been recently held as probable that it is not
contemporaneous with the Vicksburg, but that it is of a later
date, and very probably rests upon the Vicksburg. The term
Peninsular limestone has been suggested for it by Dall.*
The Peninsular limestone is the one formation known to
extend throughout the state. It lies at the surface in limited
areas, but is for the most part buried at slight or consider-
able depth beneath later deposits. Good exposures are seen in
the central portion of Alachua and in the southern part of
Columbia counties. It is also reported exposed locally through-
out an area extending from Pasco county on the south to
Madison county, or beyond, to the northwest; the largest
exposed areas lying in Pasco, Hernando, west Marion and
Levy counties.
Subsequent deposits, except in the local areas mentioned,
have accumulated upon the Peninsular limestone. Some of
these are of considerable thickness. These succeeding depos-
its are of irregular distribution and of variable character.
Although they reach a considerable thickness, no one of them
extends uninterruptedly throughout the state. They consist
largely of limestones, clays, sandstones, and sands, to which
local formation-names have been applied. The extent and
thickness of the various formations have, however, been but
imperfectly determined. The several formations immediately
following the Peninsular limestone and grouped with it to
make up the Oligocene series of Florida, consist of limestones
and of clays. The Miocene, next above, has an increased
proportion of clay and shales along with some limestone and
sandstone. The principal area of Miocene in Florida is found
along the east coast, beginning at the northern boundary. It
reaches in some localities a thickness of several hundred feet.
The same time-interval is represented in the western part of ,
the state by shallower deposits along the Appalachicola river.
Pliocene deposits, consisting of shell limestones, marls, clays,

*Trans. Wagner Free Institute of Science, Vol. III, pt. VI,
1903, p. 1554.









Bulletin No. 89.


and shales, cover much of the southern end of the peninsula.
Local Pleistocene shell deposits occur, especially in southern
Florida. The surface rock over the extreme southern end of
the Peninsula is apparently Pleistocene. Much of the mantle
of sand that covers the greater part of northern Florida is re-
garded -as also of Pleistocene age.

FORMATIONS REPRESENTED IN FLORIDA.

The Florida deposits are geologically recent, all falling
within the Cenozoic or last of the large time divisions. The
state lies entirely within and is a part of the general coastal
plains deposits. These embrace' a strip along the coast varying
in width, but averaging about one hundred miles and cover-
ing the eastern part of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, all of
Florida, and much of the southern part of Alabama, Missis-
sippi, Louisiana, and Texas. The formations of the coastal
plains area are sedimentary containing much clay and shales
and sandstones, and lie nearly horizontal or with but slight
dip. The sediment forming these deposits came evidently
from higher lands to the north and west. The seas occupying
the present position of Florida, especially that of Peninsular
Florida, were farther removed from the sources of sediment.
Consequently, the proportion of wash from the land was very
much less here than nearer the original shore line, and as a
result an abundant shell life was able to live and secrete a large
amount of carbonate of lime. Hence, Florida is exceptional
among the Gulf states in the large amount of limestone in
contains.
As will be gathered from this brief review, the Florida
Peninsula is believed to have been elevated above the water
level slowly. That the uplifting began at the close of the
formation of the Peninsular limestone is evidenced by the
appearance of the island areas at that time. That the further
elevation was slow, gradual, and for the most part continuous,
is indicated by the successive deposits of later formations
around these island areas. The several formations slope more or
less from the central parts of the state toward the coast. The
foundation limestone, exposed at the surface in inland parts
of the state, is found along the east coast at a variable, but
considerable, depth beneath the surface. To the south and to









Artesian and Other Underground Water.


the south-west this limestone also disappears under later rocks.
The succeeding formations are believed to slope, as a rule, very
gradually from the interior toward the coast.

EROSION AND DEVELOPMENT OF TOPOGRAPHY.

Rock deposits when formed usually lie horizontal or
nearly so, especially when of marine origin. -This is the case
in the Florida series. Such deposits when elevated, unless
violently distorted or folded, form dry land areas which are
either level, with minor irregularities, or have a uniform
Slope. As soon as exposed, however, eroding agencies begin
to develop irregularities in the land surface. Evidence of
violent upheaval, distortion, or folding, other than very mild
flexures, is lacking in Florida. The topographic features of
the state are thus the result of the combined action of the
eroding agencies which have been working since the first
appearance of the Peninsula as dry land. The unusually high
proportion of porous and soluble limestone in the Florida for-
mations has resulted in the development of a topography in
* many respects exceptional and characteristic.
The striking feature is the large part that the dissolving
power of underground water has taken in this development.
In areas of considerable slope, and with more or less imper-
vious soil, in which the surface run-off is great, many conspic-
uous features of topography are determined by the rapid,
downward cutting of the streams and their tributaries. In
this respect, however, Florida is exceptional. The surface
run-off through streams is here at a minimum, or, even over
considerable areas, entirely lacking. Mechanical erosion from
the surface streams is therefore of but slight effect. The
dissolving power of water has on the contrary, operated under
the most favorable conditions.
Surface water passing through decaying vegetable matter,
Stakes with it a smaller or larger quantity of organic acids.
After this matter has passed through the soil into the under-
lying limestone, these acids readily decompose the limestone
and thus cause the water to become charged with calcium car-
bonate. As a result of this decomposition, caverns of vary-
ing size and shape traverse the limestone in every direction, as
is shown by boring of artesian wells. The many depressions
and sinks which have formed and are still forming in the in-









96 Bulletin No. 89.

land areas of the state are also the results of the dissolving
power of the water. Many of the so-called "prairies"-some
of them several miles in extent-are apparently the result of
the same agency acting on a larger scale. Some of the lake
basins, which in many cases differ from the prairies only in
the fact that the outlet is temporarily or permanently clogged,
seem to have had a similar history. The prairies, Or lake
basins, probably mark a local area in which the limestone is
more permeable and more soluble than elsewhere, and has
for this reason been dissolved and carried away more rapidly
than has the surrounding formation.

UNDERGROUND WATER.

The underground water supply of the state is discussed
in the following pages under the heading of "Surface Water,"
"Ground Water of the Limestone," and "Artesian Water."
Surface water is here used in the commonly accepted mean-
ing of the term, as water that occurs near the surface, and
does not include such as occurs upon it in the form of lakes,
ponds, and rivers. This water supply is dependent on the per-
meability of the surface material and an impervious substra-
tum. This surface material may be made up. of sandy clay,
sand, or other porous substances, the water being supplied
from the immediate surroundings of the well.
The term Ground Water of the Limestone is applied to the
constant supply of water found in practically all parts of inland
Florida, where porous limestone occurs. It is the first water
struck in boring into the limestone. The term Artesian Water
is used to designate the flowing water found along the coast.
Inland this same water is found under pressure, but does not
flow on account of the greater surface elevation. Some areas
inland, as for example, along the St. Johns river are suffi-
ciently low to permit flowing artesian wells to be secured., The
terms used are not mutually exclusive, yet seem to be the
simplest terms available. The ground water of the limestone,
for instance, becomes under certain conditions, artesian water.

SURFACE WATER.

Over considerable and irregularly distributed areas of the
state, .sand and clay deposits occur in such association as to
afford water for shallow dug or driven wells. These deposits









96 Bulletin No. 89.

land areas of the state are also the results of the dissolving
power of the water. Many of the so-called "prairies"-some
of them several miles in extent-are apparently the result of
the same agency acting on a larger scale. Some of the lake
basins, which in many cases differ from the prairies only in
the fact that the outlet is temporarily or permanently clogged,
seem to have had a similar history. The prairies, Or lake
basins, probably mark a local area in which the limestone is
more permeable and more soluble than elsewhere, and has
for this reason been dissolved and carried away more rapidly
than has the surrounding formation.

UNDERGROUND WATER.

The underground water supply of the state is discussed
in the following pages under the heading of "Surface Water,"
"Ground Water of the Limestone," and "Artesian Water."
Surface water is here used in the commonly accepted mean-
ing of the term, as water that occurs near the surface, and
does not include such as occurs upon it in the form of lakes,
ponds, and rivers. This water supply is dependent on the per-
meability of the surface material and an impervious substra-
tum. This surface material may be made up. of sandy clay,
sand, or other porous substances, the water being supplied
from the immediate surroundings of the well.
The term Ground Water of the Limestone is applied to the
constant supply of water found in practically all parts of inland
Florida, where porous limestone occurs. It is the first water
struck in boring into the limestone. The term Artesian Water
is used to designate the flowing water found along the coast.
Inland this same water is found under pressure, but does not
flow on account of the greater surface elevation. Some areas
inland, as for example, along the St. Johns river are suffi-
ciently low to permit flowing artesian wells to be secured., The
terms used are not mutually exclusive, yet seem to be the
simplest terms available. The ground water of the limestone,
for instance, becomes under certain conditions, artesian water.

SURFACE WATER.

Over considerable and irregularly distributed areas of the
state, .sand and clay deposits occur in such association as to
afford water for shallow dug or driven wells. These deposits









Artesian and Other Underground Water.


are local and irregular. It is possible from immediately sur-
rounding conditions to determine the probability of obtaining
water from shallow wells. The water reaches these wells by
seepage through the surrounding soil and is likely to vary in
amount with the wetness and dryness of the seasons. The
surface water is usually desirable for boiler use owing to the
small amount of encrusting material present. Under favor-
able conditions large surface wells may give a sufficient and
constant supply for sawmills or for irrigating' purposes.
When surface water is intended for household purposes,
the greatest care should be exercised to prevent local contami-
nation. The conditions under which such a water supply
occur, render it readily susceptible to pollution. Surface wells,
when the water is used for human consumption, should never
be placed near a barn or other out building; nor should the
offal from the house, or other organic material, be thrown near
them. The water being supplied from the immediate sur-
roundings, would carry such impurities into the well. A
well, for instance, passing through sand and terminating in
an impervious clay, would gather water from the surround-
ing area for a considerable distance. Many cases of typhoid
fever and other diseases have been traced directly to contami-
nated surface wells. The fact that the water has been used
for many years without fatal results, does not preclude the
possibility of infectious organisms finding their way into the
well in the very near future. Nevertheless, when properly
located, they often yield an excellent supply of soft, pure
water.
The following unpublished analyses made by Professor
A. W. Blair, Station Chemist, are given as indicating the
general character of the surface water from shallow wells.

SURFACE WELL NO. I. Water from shallow well on the
former campus of the Agricultural College at Lake City.
Parts per
million.
Free ammonia .......................... ooo
Albuminoid ammonia ....... ............. .ooo
Nitrogen as nitrates ..................... .312
Nitrogen as nitrites ..................... .000
Chlorine ............................... 5.o00o
Hardness ............................. 4.620
Total solids ............................ 39.000









98 Bulletin No. 89.

SURFACE WELL NO. 2. Water from dug well 30 feet
deep at San Antonio.
Parts per
million.
Free ammonia ........................... .000
Albuminoid ammonia .............. . .000
Nitrogen as nitrates .............. ..... .ooo
Nitrogen as nitrites .............. ....... .00ooo
Chlorine ............................. II.oo
H ardness .......................... ... 1.156
Total solids ............................ 46.000

SURFACE SPRING. Water from Boulware.Spring, Gaines-
ville (city supply), analysis made by H. Herzog, Jr., 1898.*
Parts per
million.
Free ammonia ............. ....... .. ..043
Albuminoid ammonia . .......... .060
Nitrogen as nitrates .................... Trace
Nitrogen as nitrites ...................... None
Alkaline chlorides (chlorine 4.08) .......... 8.630
Total solids ........................... .76.800
Silica ............. ... .............. 5.210
A lum ina ............................... 3.710
Calcium carbonate ............... ........ 34.8Io
Magnesium carbonate .............. ..... .21.440
Sulphuric acid ............................ ooo
Organic matter ......................... 2.970
Oxygen required to oxidize organic matter.. 1.450

GROUND WATER OF THE LIMESTONE.
ORIGIN.

Water in the limestone is supplied directly by surface rain-
fall. As the surface formations admit water readily, a very
large proportion of the rainfall passes directly into the porous
underlying limestone. Owing to the prevailing level topog-
raphy, the porous surface mantle, and the comparative ab-

*From Water Supply and Irrigation Paper, U. S. Geol. Survey,
No. X02, p. 270.









Artesian and Other Underground Water.


sence of surface streams, the run-off is unusually small.
Very many of the smaller, of the existing surface streams,
flow into one of the numerous sinks and in this way gain
entrance to the ground water horizon. Examples of these
small disappearing streams are common to almost every section
of inland Florida. Falling Creek, in Columbia county, is an
example of a stream, the waters of which have been diverted
from. their former course by the formation of a sink in its bed.
This stream, which formerly discharged its water into the
Suwannee, now empties into the sink. Very commonly, how-
ever, the existence of the sink antedates the existence of
the stream, and is the cause of its development. At a place in
Columbia county, known as High Falls, occurs a good illustra-
tion of a small stream cutting back from and formed as the
result of an existing sink.
The area of west central Alachua county is a good
example illustrating the origin and supply of limestone water.
Throughout this area, surface clay deposits are of but slight
thickness, or absent, the limestone often approaching nearly, or
quite to the surface. The limestone is of a porous nature
allowing ready passage of water. Surface streams are absent.
Practically the entire rainfall enters the limestone at once,
filling it with water to a level determined by the outlet through
springs nearer the coast. Wells entering the limestone obtain
water as soon as the ground water level is passed. To obtain
large supplies of water, however, it is necessary to go into the
limestone below the water level until a solution cavity is
reached, which, since it enlarges the collecting area and allows
ready movement of the water, furnishes the inexhaustible
supplies necessary in mining operations. A very open layer, as
a shell stratum, often serves the same purpose. The ground
water level varies with the wet and dry seasons as much as
five to ten or more feet. The supply of water to the well,
however, is not ordinarily affected.
The plan for constructing wells in the phosphate mining
section of this area offers especially favorable opportunity for
observations on the groundwater conditions. A large pit ten
to twenty feet in diameter is dug down to, or almost to, the,
groundwater level. The pumps are lowered into the pits thus
enabling pumping by direct pressure. From the bottom of
the pit a boring is put down until the desired supply of water








Bulletin No. 89.


is obtained. The three following wells are listed in detail from
unpublished notes made for the U. S. Geological Survey.*

Well No. i-This well is located one mile northwest of
Newberry and is owned by John McDonald. The pit is dug
a depth of thirty-nine feet. The boring reached a depth below
the bottom of the pit of eighty feet. The total depth of the
well is thus one hundred and nineteen feet. Some water was
obtained thirty-eight feet from the surface, but of insufficient
supply. The principal water supply is obtained from a cavity
at the depth of one hundred and nineteen feet. The water
stands as an average about thirty-eight feet from the surface.
The water level varies, however, with the wet and dry seasons
as much as five to eight feet.

Well No. 2.-This well is located two miles northwest of
Newberry and is, owned by C. F. Weston. The pit is dug to
the depth of thirty-eight feet. The boring reaches a depth of
eighty-five feet below the bottom of the pit. The total depth
of the well is thus one hundred and twenty-three feet. Some
water was obtained at thirty-seven feet from the surface. The
principal water supply is obtained, however, from a cavity at
the depth of one hundred and twenty-three feet. The water
stands thirty-seven feet from the surface as an average. The
variation of the water level between wet and dry seasons is
reported as five to eight or more feet.

Well No. 3.-This well is located about one mile west of
Clark, and is owned by the Cummers Lumber Company. The
pit is dug to the depth of forty-four feet. The boring reaches
a depth of sixty-two feet below the bottom of the pit. The
total depth of the well is thus one hundred and six feet. Some
water was obtained at thirty-seven feet from the surface.
The principal supply is obtained from a cavity at the depth of
one hundred and six feet. The water stands at about forty-
seven feet from the surface.

*Published by permission of the Director of U. S. Geol. Survey.









Artesian and Other Underground Water.


ABUNDANCE OF SUPPLY.

The average annual precipitation at Jacksonville for the
twenty years from 1877 to 1896 inclusive, was 53.40 inches.*
This is probably not greatly different from the rainfall
during the same interval throughout the interior of the State.
The rainfall for the State as a whole for the fourteen years
from 1892 to 1905 inclusive, as deduced from the Weather
Bureau reports was an average of 53.12 inches annually, or
approximately 892,1o8,800 gallons per square mile annually.
Of this large rainfall a part is evaporated; a small part is car-
ried directly to the ocean by means of surface streams; a larger
part, however, passes through the surface and enters -the
limestone to supply the limestone water and artesian horizons.

ESCAPE OF THE GROUNDWATER.

The very great quantity thus passing annually into the
limestone implies an equally ready escape of water from it.
Such outlet is found in part in the numerous limestone water
springs around the borders of the highland areas of the state.
Among tip largest of these springs may be mentioned Silver
Spring wtb 'an estimated flow of approximately 370,000 gal-
lons per minute (822 cubic feet per second);** Wekiva
Blue Spring, with an estimated flow of 340,000 gallons
per minute (778 cubic feet per second); Ichatucknee
Spring in Columbia county with an estimated flow of approxi-
mately. 180,000 gallons per minute (403 cubic feet per second) ;
and Newland Spring at Peacock, Suwanee county. Many
smaller springs flow into the Suwanee, Santa Fe, Withlacoo-
chee, and other streams. Silver Spring has been closely ob-
served in its relations to the groundwater of the limestone.
That this spring is an outlet for the groundwater is indicated
by the fact that the level of the groundwater in the surround-
g area is approximately the same as the surface level of
silver Spring. The water in the numerous wells in and near
cala stands approximately forty feet above sea level. The
4Lirface water in Silver Spring is, as indicated on the topo-

S *U. S. Weather Bureau, Bulletin D, 1897, p. 19.
**Water Supply and Irrigation Paper; U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 102,
0. 275 (1904).









Bulletin No. 89.


graphic maps of the U. S. Geological Survey, a little less than
forty feet. above sea level. Prolonged and heavy rains in the
area surrounding Ocala affect the water level in the limestone
throughout the area, and at the same time increase the
volume of flow, and cause a rise in the surface level of Silver
Spring.

LOCATING WELLS.

In locating wells in the limestone area two distinct points
should be considered: First, the depth at which a sufficient
water supply is likely to be obtained; and second, the level
at which the water, when obtained, will stand in the boring.


LEVEL AT WHICH WATER WILL STAND IN COMPLETED BORING.

The water level in the limestone as indicated above does
not conform to local variations in the surface level, but on
the contrary stands at a practically uniform level over consid-
erable areas, regardless of surface topography. The level at
which water may be expected to stand in wells to be bored
may, therefore, be approximately determined fron te level of
the water in those already in use. That the ground water level
is practically uniform over considerable areas may be seen
from the following list of wells in and near Orlando:*
Actual
Water level of
Surface stands below water above
Depth. level, surface, sea level.
San Juan Well ... .487 Ft. 111.12 Ft. 45.1 Ft. 66.02 Ft.
School House Well, 260 110.36 44.77 65.59 "
Lockharf's Well...210 107.93 41.83 66.io "
Well in Ditch 1-2
mile East....... 340 78.95 13.9 65.05 "
Wells at the Sink
I mile East ....140 .. .. ...


*From unpublished notes made for the U. S. Geol. Survey, by
permission of the Director of the U. S. Geol. Survey. The elevations
given are based upon Dictionary of Altitudes, Bull. 274, U. S. Geol.
Survey, in which Orlando (A. C. L. depot) is given as iii feet. The
levels were run for the purpose by County Surveyor Robinson.









Artesian and Other Underground Water.


o03


DEPTH OF BORING.

The depth necessary to go in order to obtain water cannot,
however, be determined from surrounding wells, since as
already explained, while some water is usually obtained upon
reaching the groundwater level, a sufficient supply is often to
be had only upon going deeper into the limestone until either
a cavity or a porous layer is reached. Porous layers as well as
cavities are of irregular occurrence (See p. 95). Wells may
be located within a few feet of each other and yet differ greatly
in depth. This varying depth is illustrated by the Orlando
wells. The four wells, at the "sink" one mile east of Orlando
reached a water cavity at the depth of 140 feet. The well in the
ditch, one-half mile to the west, starting at approximately the
same surface level, encountered no cavity of appreciable size,
but reached at the depth of 340 feet a porous layer, with an
abundance of water. The school-house well, the surface level
of which is approximately 31 feet higher than that of the well
of the ditch, entered a porous water bearing layer at the depth
of 260 feet. The San Juan well, less than one-fourth mile to
the north-west of the school-house well, was put down to the
depth of 487 feet before reaching a layer considered sufficiently
open. The Lockhart well, one-half mile north-west of town,
terminates in a cavity at the depth of 210 feet. The static
head of the water obtained in these wells is practically the same
for all (See table).

QUALITY OF THE LIMESTONE WATER.

The limestone water is usually hard; that is, it holds in
solution certain salts, particularly salts of calcium and mag-
nesium. The salts commonly present are the carbonates and
the sulphates. Calcium carbonate, 'CaCO3 while but slightly
soluble in water, becomes in the presence of an excess of C02
much more soluble, the salt being then held in solution in the
form of bi-carbonate, Ca(HC03)2. Upon heating, however,-
the excess of C02 is driven off, and the calcium carbonate,
therefore, precipitated. The same is also true of the carbonate
of magnesium. 'Hardness caused by the presence of the carbon-
ates is for this reason known as temporary hardness, that is,
hardness partly removed by boiling. Hardness caused by the









104 Bulletin No. 89.

presence of the sulphates, not being affected by boiling, is
known as permanent hardness. For boiler use softening of the
limestone water by chemical treatment is often necessary. The
amount of matter held in solution and the relative amount of
the several salts vary greatly, and a chemical analysis is of
scarcely more than local value. The following analyses are
included as indicating something of the character of the lime-
stone water.

LIMESTONE WATER WELL NO. I. Old city well at Lake
City.*
Parts per
million.
Free ammonia ........................ 7432
Albuminoid ammonia .................. .000
Nitrogen as nitrates ..; ............... .2000
Nitrogen as nitrites ................... .0384
Chlorine ................ .......... 15.oo
H ardness ............................ 98.84
Total solids .......................... 152.00
Suspended matter .. ... .............. None
O dor ............................... N one
Appearance ............. .. ....... Clear

LIMESTONE WATER WELL NO. 2. R. L. Dowling's well,
Live Oak.**
Parts per
million.
Silica .................. ............. 12.9
Iron and aluminum oxides ................. 2.5
Calcium carbonate ....................... 163.2
Lime, calcium sulphate .. ... ..... ... ... 25.5
Magnesium carbonate ..................... 14.9
Sodium and potassium sulphates ........... Trace
Sodium and potassium chlorides............ 17.2
Loss, etc. ................... .... ....... 3.1
Total ............................ ......237.2


*From Water Supply and Irrigation Paper, U. S. Geol. Survey,
No. o02, p. 257.
**Ibid, p. 261.









Artesian and Other Underground Water.


LIMESTONE WATER WELL No. 3. Public well, Dade City.
Unpublished analysis by A. W. Blair, Chemist, Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station.
Parts per
million.
Free ammonia ........................ .000
Albuminoid ammonia ................... .015
Nitrogen as nitrates ..............: ..... 1.44o
Nitrogen as nitrites ..................... .000
Chlorine ........................... 12.
H ardness .............................. 98.26 '
Total solids ........................... 147.00 o
Suspended matter ................. Small amount'
Odor ................................ None

LIMESTONE WATER WELL NO. 4. Well belonging to Dr.
J. F. Corrigan, St. Leo. Unpublished analysis by A. W. Blair.
Parts per
million.,
Free ammonia ......................... .0ooo
Albuminoid ammonia ................... .000
Nitrogen as nitrates ................... .87
Nitrogen as nitrites .................... .ooo0
Chlorine .............................. 8.50
Hardness ............................. 93.06
Total solids ................... .... 136.oo
Suspended matter ................. Small amount
O dor ................................ N one
Appearance ........................ Nearly clear


WATER OF/THE LIMESTONE FOR IRRIGATION. 'i

For irrigating purposes the limestone water meets the es-
sential requirement of an unfailing supply. The quantity
available is not affected by prolonged drought, and it is possi-
ble to determine before the well is bored how high the water
will have to be pumped.
Irrigating from water of the limestone is possible through-
out most of inland Florida. Its practicability is determined by
the distance that the water stands from the surface, and the
cost of maintaining the pumps and other machinery necessary









Bulletin No. 89.


for its distribution. For much of the elevated parts of the
state a cheaper supply for irrigation is often available from
surface wells, or from, lakes and ponds.

CONTAMINATION OF THE WATER OF THE LIMESTONE.

Water of the limestone may under certain circumstances
become contaminated, and precautions should be used to safe-
guard its purity. As has. already been mentioned, many of the
sinks occurring in the limestone areas are passage ways directly
through to the limestone water horizon. It not infrequently
happens that small streams flowing through a town find en-
trance into limestone through these sinks. The subsequent
course of the stream is a matter of more or less conjecture. It
is not probable, however, that such streams continue their
course as independent streams for any considerable distance
after passing the groundwater level. It is much more probable
that the water thus passing into the ground, mingles with the
general supply, and that it is thus disseminated more or less
widely. These streams often receive trash, rubbish, and filth of
various kinds.
Wells, especially those from which a considerable amount
of water is pumped, draw from, a surrounding area of some ex-
tent, and thus receive contaminated water carried by the
streams. The occasional use of bored wells for the disposal
of sewage is open to the same objection. The great danger in
all these cases arises from the fact that impure water is thus
introduced into the general supply without having been suffi-
ciently sterilized by having been exposed to air and sunlight.
Wells in constant use for city supply, ice plants, and other
purposes demanding continuous pumping, or nearly so,
throughout the year, draw water from the surrounding lime-
stone for some considerable distance. Thus, on the basis of the
estimate of rainfall already given (p. iol), the total amount
of water falling annually on an area one-fourth mile square
does not exceed 55,756,800 gallons. But a well supplying 150
gallons per minute and pumped continuously, yields 79,380,000
gallons per year, an amount greater than the annual rainfall on
an area one-fourth mile square. The well must, therefore, draw
from the surrounding area for some appreciable distance. It
is also apparent that a drainage well carrying off a considerable









Artesian and Other Underground Water.


amount of refuse sets up movement in the underground water,
tending in general to spread laterally. It will be evident upon
a moment's reflection that there is the most imminent danger of
contamination of the water wells from such injudicious dispos-
al of sewage.

ARTESIAN WATER AND ARTESIAN WELLS.

The term "artesian" has been variously used by different
writers. Flowing wells first became well known in the pro-
vince of Artois, France, and hence were called "artesian" wells,
and their water "artesian" water. The first meaning of "arte-
sian well," was, therefore, a flowing well; and of "artesian
water," water under sufficient pressure to cause it to flow.
With the extension into other areas of the use of deep wells as
a source of water supply, many instances were found in which
the water, although under pressure, and rising almost to the
surface, would not flow. In some cases perhaps, it would flow
in an area of low surface elevation, and yet fail to flow in a
slightly elevated area near by. Artesian water thus came to
mean water under pressure causing it to rise in a boring when
tapped, regardless of whether or not the pressure was sufficient
to cause the water to rise above the surface level, and hence to
flow. In the same way, and for similar reasons, the term "ar-
tesian well" came to include not only flowing wells, but also,
wells in which the water rises when the water-bearing stratum
is tapped, regardless of whether or not the rise is sufficient to
cause a flow. Occasionally, in popular usage, the term "artesian
well" has been applied to any deep boring, and "artesian wa-
ter," to water from such a well. In this bulletin the
term ARTESIAN is applied to water under pressure, and hence
rising in a boring when tapped. The water may, or may not,
rise to or above the surface. An "artesian well" is any well
reaching to and tapping a stratum bearing such water; a
"flowing well" is an'"artesian well" that gives a surface flow.
This is essentially the usage of these terms as adopted by the
Division of Hydrology, of the U. S. Geological Survey.*


*Water Supply and Irrigation Paper, No. 16o, p. 14.









Bulletin No. 89.


CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR ARTESIAN PRESSURE.

ARTESIAN BASIN.

A variety of conditions in the arrangement and structure
of the underlying deposits may. bring about artesian pressure.
The simplest, and perhaps most efficient, although probably not
the most common, is that of a basin-like arrangement of suc-
cessive pervious and impervious strata. This typical structure,
known as an artesian basin, is shown in the accompanying dia-
gram. It consists of a pervious layer (B), out-cropping at the
surface on either side and sagging at. the middle, above which

o B 3 2 A o








Figure 2.-An artesian basin. A, an impervious confining layer
above; B, porous water bearing layer; C, impervious confining layer
below; I, a flowing artesian well; 2, a non-flowing artesian well;
3, a non-artesian well.

is an impervious or water-tight confining layer (A), and below
which is also an impervious layer (C). Water enters the per-
vious layer at its surface exposures at the sides. The water
collecting in the central part of the basin is under pressure
from the weight of the additional water entering frbm the
sides. Therefore, a well put down to the water stratum in any
part of the basin will obtain artesian water, or waterrmwhich
will rise in the boring. The rise in the boring is determined
by the elevation of the intake area, and can in no case rise
above the elevation of the exposed edges of the stratum. As
a matter of observation, it is found in all cases to rise not
quite so high as the exposed edge of the stratum, the loss being
due to the friction of movement through the rock. This loss
of head due to friction necessarily varies with the texture of









Artesian and Other Underground Water.


the stratum through which it passes. Coarse material results
in less friction than fine.
Whether or not wells put down in the basin will obtain flow-
ing or non-flowing artesian water, depends upon the surface
elevation of the mouth of the well. The diagram, figure 2,
is designed to illustrate a basin in parts of which a flowing
artesian well may be had, while in other parts of greater sur-
face elevation, the wells although obtaining water from the
same stratum will, nevertheless, be non-flowing. The shallow
well, No. 3, ending in the surface deposits illustrates a non-
artesian well.
ARTESIAN SLOPE.
The basin arrangement of strata is not the only possible

Sac a












Figure 3.-An artesian slope, a, artesian water resulting from a
porous layer pinching out between impervious layers; b, artesian
water resulting from a pervious layer grading into a less pervious
condition; c, artesian water resulting from friction of movement of
water through the rock.
structure resulting in artesian pressure. The same result may,
among other ways, be brought about quite effectively by an
inclined porous stratum wedging out between two impervious
strata (a, Fig. 3), or by a pervious stratum grading into an
impervious or less pervious condition (b, Fig. 3). These con-
ditions are often met with in the strata of the Coastal plains.
Not infrequently, a sandstone formation grades off shore into
a finer sandstone, and ultimately into a shale. This condition
comes about naturally through the sorting power of water
acting along what was the coastal line at the time of formation









Bulletin No. 89.


of the strata under consideration. The coarser sand particles
are dropped near the shore and form the sandstone; the finer
sand grains, together with more or less shale, are carried far-
ther out, and form a finer grained sandstone grading ultimate-
ly into a shale. Similarly, a sandstone, or other pervious for-
mation, may pinch out as a result of the thickening of a shale.
The term "artesian slope" has been applied to such an area
to distinguish it from an artesian basin.
The .friction of water threading its way long distances
through the pores of an inclined pervious (c, Fig. 3) forma-
tion may result in an appreciable artesian pressure. That this
is true, may be demonstrated by the following very simple ex-
periment: Fill a tube of any length with sand, and incline
at a convenient angle. The sand of the tube represents the
pervious water-bearing stratum; the tube itself, the impervious
confining strata. Let smaller tubes, placed vertically, be welded
into the larger tube. These verticle tubes represent bored
wells. The water will be found to rise in the verticle tubes,
exhibiting an appreciable artesian pressure due to the friction
of flow through the sand.
The artesian water of the Florida area is clearly not that
resulting from a basin structure, since evidence of such struc-
ture is entirely lacking. The artesian flow evidently results
from some of the other conditions, or combination of condi-
tions, producing artesian pressure.

ARTESIAN WATER IN FLORIDA.

Artesian, or deep-seated water, is as a rule, much more
strongly impregnated with sulphureted hydrogen than is the
water of the limestone. The amount of solids held in solution
is also usually much greater. The deep-seated water occurs at
a greater depth throughout the more elevated interior of the
state than does the limestone water, and can often, perhaps al-
ways, be obtained by going through and casing pff the latter.
Along the coast, and in low lying interior it is the supply
usually -drawn upon. In the flowing areas it is called artesian
water. The greater amount of inorganic matter in artesian
water results from its deeper circulation, the greater distance
of rock traversed, the longer contact with various rocks, and
the greater opportunity for dissolving various salts. The fol-









Artesian and Other Underground Water.


lowing unpublished analyses are supplied by Prof. A. W.
Blair, Experiment Station Chemist:

ARTESIAN WELL NO I. A well 135 feet deep and located
one and one-half miles east of Sanford, owned by Glover &
Key, produces water of the following analysis:
Parts per
million.
Free ammonia ....................... .4016
Albuminoid ammonia ................ Trace
Nitrogen as nitrates ......... ......... None
Nitrogen as nitrites .................. Trace
Chlorine ............................ 415.00
Hardness ........................... 312.12
Total solids ......................... ioo8.oo
Suspended matter .................. .. Very little
Appearance ......................... Clear

ARTESIAN WELL No. 2. A well 160 feet deep located at
New Smyrna, and supplying the city fountain.
Parts per
million.
Free ammonia ....................... .9292
Albuminoid ammonia ................. .0128
Nitrogen as nitrates .................. None
Nitrogen as nitrites .................. None
Chlorine ............................ 1620.00
Hardness ........................... 1063.52
Total solids ......................... 3361.oo
Suspended matter .................. Small amount
Appearance ......................... Clear
T aste ............................... Saline

ARTESIAN WELL NO. 3. One of the wells* supplying wa-
ter to the city of Jacksonville.
Parts per
million.
Free ammonia ........................ .143
Albuminoid ammonia .................. .0044
Silica and insoluble matter .............. 12.568

*The analysis was made by Mr. Albert Ledds in 1898, and fur-
nished by Superintendent R. N. Ellis, of the city water works.


III









Bulletin No. 89.


A lum ina ............................. .810
Carbonate of lime ..................... 66.655
Sulphate of lime .................. ... 64.879
Sulphate of magnesia .................. 50.465
Sulphate of soda ...................... 100.706
Chlorids of soda ...................... 82.948

Total ......................... 384.068

SOURCE OF ARTESIAN WATER.

"The gathering grounds for our artesian water is without
doubt the interior of Florida, and that portion of the costal
plain lying in South Georgia. The groundwater of the lime-
stone, as explained on page ioi, finds its outlet in part
through the many springs bordering the highland areas. Not
all the water entering the limestone, 'however, finds this early
and ready exit. Much of it doubtless reaches a greater depth,
and is added to the water of the next deeper horizon or
horizons, ultimately supplying the artesian water of the coastal
areas.

HEIGHT OF FLOW OF ARTESIAN WATER.

The pressure shown by Florida artesian water results, as
described on page I o, from some one of the conditions found
in an artesian slope, probably largely through the friction of
water threading its way through rock. The source of this
water is, generally speaking, from the interior. The move-
ment of our artesian water is from the interior through porous
beds toward the coast with an ultimate outlet along the coast,
or through springs in the ocean. Under these conditions it
becomes evident that the artesian water of the coast cannot pos-
sibly rise as high as the surface level of the catchment area
from which it comes; that is, the interior coastal plain.

AREAS OF ARTESIAN FLOW.

The East Coast area of artesian flow is broadest at the
north, including much of Nassau, Duval, Clay, and Putnam
counties, and with the exception of local elevated areas, all of
St. Johns county. From this area a narrow strip following









Artesian and Other Underground Water.


the St. Johns River reaches beyond Sanford in Orange coun-
ty. This area has another branch known to extend along the
Atlantic coast to as far south as Palm Beach.
A second flowing area is located along the southern border
of the Gulf, and its outlines are of irregular limits. Many
wells are developed in this area in Manatee county, along the
Manatee River where the water is used extensively for irrigat-
ing purposes. Wells with feeble flow have been obtained on
areas of low elevation at Tampa, at St. Petersburg, and gener-
ally along the coast as far north as Hernando county. It is
only near the sea level in this northward extent of the area
that a flow is to be expected. In DeSoto county flowing
wells occur at Punta Gorda and along Peace Creek to the
north line of the county. In Lee county flowing wells have
been obtained at Fort Myers, along the Caloosahatchee River,
and in the interior southeast of Fort Myers. The southern
extension of the flowing area, as in the case of that of the
East Coast area, is unknown. The water obtained from wells
toward its southern limits is reported to contain considerable
salt. Wells with slight flow are obtained in the lowest surface
elevation about Kissimmee, and elsewhere in Osceola county.
Several flowing wells are known along the Gulf coast of
Western Florida from Franklin to Escambia counties. The
limits of this area are, however, very imperfectly known.




ACKNOWLEDGMENT.

Our thanks are due to Dr. C. L. Crow for reading and
revising manuscript.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs