• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Review of literature
 Method of procedure
 Experimental results
 Discussion
 Summary and conclusions
 Acknowledgement
 Literature cited
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 654
Title: Pangolagrass hay and silage with cottonseed meal and urea in fattening rations
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027238/00001
 Material Information
Title: Pangolagrass hay and silage with cottonseed meal and urea in fattening rations
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 14 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kirk, W. Gordon ( William Gordon ), 1898-1979
Peacock, F. M ( Fentress McCoughan ), 1922-
Hodges, E. M ( Elver M )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1963
 Subjects
Subject: Pangolagrass -- Silage   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 14.
Statement of Responsibility: W.G. Kirk, F.M. Peacock, E.M. Hodges.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027238
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000929036
oclc - 18353169
notis - AEN9800

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Review of literature
        Page 3
    Method of procedure
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Experimental results
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Discussion
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 13
    Acknowledgement
        Page 14
    Literature cited
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Back Cover
        Page 16
Full Text
















































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University of Florida
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
J. R. Beckenbach, Director, Gainesville


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CONTENTS

Page



REVIEW OF LITERATURE ...- ...... ... ................... ..... .. ........ ..... 3


M ETHOD OF PROCEDURE ............. .. ............. ............ 4


EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ..................................................... 6


D ISCU SSION ....................................... ..... .. ... .... ... ............. 11


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ........... ....................... 13


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............ ... ........... ... ... ....... 14


LITERATURE CITED .--.-- -....... ....... ... ........- .. ... .......- .... 14


A contribution of the Range Cattle Station, Ona.








PANGOLAGRASS HAY AND SILAGE

WITH COTTONSEED MEAL AND

UREA IN FATTENING RATIONS

W. G. KIRK, F. M. PEACOCK, AND E. M. HODGES'

Roughage is essential in steer fattening rations to keep the
digestive system of the animal functioning properly. Under good
management pangolagrass (Digitaria decumbens Stent.) (2)2 is
the most productive grass in central Florida and when used for
either pasture, hay, or silage, makes palatable roughage for
cattle. The object of the three steer feeding trials included in
this report was the determination of the relative value in fat-
tening rations of pangolagrass hay or pangolagrass silage when
combined with concentrate feed containing either cottonseed meal
or a cottonseed meal-urea supplement.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The daily feed allowance and nutrient content of rations re-
quired for fattening yearling cattle as outlined by the Committee
on Animal Nutrition of the National Research Council (hence-
forth referred to as NRC) (1) and by Morrison (6) are in close
agreement. Fattening trials conducted in Florida from 1935 to
1940 show that several Florida-produced roughages can be used
satisfactorily in steer fattening rations (5). These feeds include
sorghum silage, peanut hay, cottonseed hulls, napier grass silage,
sugarcane silage, and fresh cut sugarcane.
Kirk et al (5), in three steer feeding trials of 122 days, found
that rations of pangolagrass hay or pangolagrass silage and cot-
tonseed meal resulted in average daily gains of 1.15 and 1.29
pounds, respectively, with a final slaughter grade of Low Stand-
ard for both lots. Feeding of 3.88 pounds citrus pulp and 3.90
pounds citrus molasses daily per steer in addition to 12.72 pounds
hay or 37.91 pounds of silage and cottonseed meal increased aver-
age daily gains to 1.86 and 1.94 pounds, with final slaughter
grades of High Standard and Low Good. Steers, full-fed, eating
an average of 7.22 to 7.76 pounds citrus pulp and 6.11 to 5.79
pounds citrus molasses daily plus 8.36 pounds hay or 28.44 pounds
SVice-Director in Charge, Assistant Animal Husbandman, and Agron-
omist, Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Florida.
2 Figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


silage and cottonseed meal had average daily gains of 2.27 and
2.40 pounds, respectively, with an average slaughter grade of
Good. These trials showed that feeding steers pangolagrass hay
or silage free choice and full-feeding citrus pulp and citrus molas-
ses resulted in a larger intake of roughage than necessary for
proper digestive functioning and increased TDN requirement
(total digestible nutrients) per unit of gain.
Commercial urea is a synthetic non-protein compound con-
taining, in the pure form, 46.7 percent nitrogen. Feed urea
contains 42 percent nitrogen, or the equivalent of 262 percent
crude protein (nitrogen times 6.25). The value of urea in the
cattle fattening rations has been reviewed by Kirk et al (4).
These investigators found in four 120-day paired feeding trials
in dry lot that replacing 40 percent of the protein from cotton-
seed meal with an equivalent amount of nitrogen as urea in a
ration for fattening calves reduced daily gain 11 per cent and
increased TDN requirement by 7 percent. Gains made by yearl-
ing steers fed cottonseed meal and urea were 7 percent less than
those fed cottonseed meal, and TDN requirements for gains
were 4 percent more.

METHOD OF PROCEDURE
Two lots of steers were fed pangolagrass hay, and two lots
received pangolagrass silage in each of three feeding trials of
120 days. Trial 1 was completed on February 17, 1959; Trial 2
on February 9, 1960; and Trial 3 on February 28, 1961. Eighty-
four yearling steers were fed in the three trials, 20 in Trial 1
and 32 each in Trials 2 and 3. The feed ingredients in each of
the four rations are given in Table 1. All four lots were fed
the same level of either cottonseed meal or a protein supplement
mix containing urea and the same level of citrus pulp and given
citrus molasses free-choice. The protein supplement fed Lots 1
TABLE 1.-INGREDIENTS OF RATIONS FED IN ALL THREE TRIALS

Lot Roughage Protein Citrus Citrus Complete
Number Free-choice Supplement Pulp Molasses Mineral

1 Pangolagrass hay Cottonseed meal full-fed -free-choice-
2 Pangolagrass hay Cottonseed meal-urea full-fed -free-choice-
3 Pangolagrass silage Cottonseed meal full-fed -free-choice-
4 Pangolagrass silage Cottonseed meal-urea full-fed -free-choice-







Pangolagrass Hay and Silage


and 3 was cottonseed meal, while that given Lots 2 and 4 consist-
ed of 50 parts cottonseed meal, 8 parts urea, and 42 parts citrus
pulp, the latter ingredient serving to equalize the nutrients of the
two protein feeds.
Pangolagrass which had received a 9-6-6 fertilizer and a
top-dressing of ammonium nitrate was harvested for hay under
natural drying conditions in early June, and again fertilized with
9-6-6 and harvested for silage in late July or early August. The
grass cut for hay and that harvested for silage were similar in
quality. Silage was cut with a field forage harvester and stored
without wilting or preservative in a bunker-type silo.
Cottonseed meal, 41 percent protein, and feed urea were
purchased as needed from Florida feed dealers. Citrus pulp
and citrus molasses, shown by Kirk and Davis (3) to be excellent
energy feeds, were secured from Florida processors. All lots
of steers had free access to Range Station complete mineral made
up as follows: steamed bonemeal, 28 pounds; defluorinated super-
phosphate, 28 pounds; common salt, 31.21 pounds; red oxide of
iron, 3.12 pounds; copper sulfate, 0.63 pound; cobalt chloride or
sulfate, 0.04 pound; cottonseed meal, 2.00 pounds; blackstrap
molasses, 7.00 pounds.
Feed samples were taken during each trial for chemical anal-
ysis. The average composition of feeds as fed in the three trials
is given in Table 2.

TABLE 2.-AVERAGE PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF FEED INGREDIENTS.

Nitrogen Esti-
Feed Dry Crude Ether Crude Free mated
Ingredient Matter Protein Ash Extract Fiber Extract TDN*

Pangolagrass hay 89.66 8.85 4.89 1.66 31.20 43.06 42
Pangolagrass silage 25.52 1.58 1.55 0.58 8.64 12.01 14
Cottonseed meal 90.57 41.66 5.54 2.00 12.55 28.82 64
Cottonseed
meal-urea 90.41 43.21 4.64 2.21 10.78 29.51 63
-pulp**
Citrus pulp 92.48 6.96 4.90 2.35 11.37 66.90 74
Citrus molasses 62.79 4.08 3.66 0.18 54.87 50

Coefficients of digestion used in estimating TDN were obtained from: Morrisons Feeds
and Feeding for pangolagrass hay (grass straw), pangolagrass silage grassi silage) and
cottonseed meal, 41 percent grade; data in Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bul-
letin 275 were used as a basis for citrus pulp and molasses.
** TD'N for cottonseed meal and citrus pulp in the amount each was used in the cotton-
seed meal-urea-pulp mixture.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Cattle were fed once daily at 8:30 a.m. in unprotected dry-
lot pens. Cottonseed meal or protein feed and citrus pulp were
mixed when fed. Citrus molasses was fed in a separate trough,
hay in slatted feed racks, and silage in rectangular feed bunks.
Sufficient hay or silage was given each morning to last 24 hours,
with some refusal occurring at frequent intervals. Any between-
lot differences in average daily consumption of cottonseed meal
and citrus pulp was due to refusal or to wet feed in rainy weather.
Brahman breeding predominated in the experimental cattle,
with considerable Shorthorn blood and limited amounts of Devon,
Hereford, Angus, and Santa Gertrudis being included. All
steers were well grown and in thin flesh when placed on trial.
There was a preliminary feeding period of four to seven days
which served to accustom cattle to the change from pasture to
dry lot. Weight, age, breeding, feeder grade, and condition were
used as criteria in selecting uniform lots. Individual weights
were taken at the beginning and end and at 28-day intervals
during each trial. Hornflies were controlled with spray when
animals were weighed.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Results of Trials 1, 2, and 3 are presented in Tables 3, 4, and
5. The feeding plan called for giving twice as much citrus pulp
as citrus molasses. However, steers in all trials ate the mixed
concentrate feed before eating citrus molasses, and for this rea-
son, there was frequently some refusal of molasses.
Similar daily gains were made in Trial 1 by Lots 1, 2, and 4,
with Lot 3 averaging 0.23 pound or more lower. Cattle fed hay
obtained 16.5 and 16.9 percent of their TDN from roughage,
while Lots 3 and 4 fed silage obtained 19 and 20 percent, respec-
tively, from this source.
Average daily gains for Lots 1, 2, and 4 in Trial 2 were lower
than in Trial 1, while the average gain for Lot 3 was slightly
greater.
Gains made by Lot 1 in Trial 3 were considerably higher
than for Lots 2, 3, and 4. TDN requirements in all three were
closely correlated with the rates of gain. The percentage of TDN
obtained from both roughage feeds was higher than in the first
two trials for all four lots of steers.
The results of the three trials are summarized in Table 6.
Lot 1, fed hay and cottonseed meal, had the highest average







Pangolagrass Hay and Silage


daily gain, 2.25 pounds, while Lot 2, fed the same roughage and
cottonseed-urea supplement, averaged the lowest, 2.08 pounds.
On an air-dry basis, the average daily feed eaten per steer ranged
from 21.65 pounds to 21.98 pounds, and average daily TDN in-
take ranged from 12.9 pounds to 13.2 pounds. TDN require-
ments per 100 pounds gain ranged from 579 pounds for Lot 1
to 624 pounds for Lot 3, exhibiting the inverse relationship
usually found between these two values.
The average feeder grade for all lots was U. S. Good. The
improvement in slaughter grade was from High Utility at the
beginning of the 120-day feeding period to Low Good at the com-
pletion of the trials. Carcass grade, determined by a federal
grader, averaged U. S. High Standard for all groups. This was
one third of a grade below the slaughter grade estimated for the
live cattle prior to killing.

TABLE 3.-GAINS AND FEED CONSUMPTION BY STEERS FED PANGOLAGRASS
ROUGHAGE AND COTTONSEED MEAL OR COTTONSEED MEAL-UREA SUPPLE-
MENT, TRIAL 1.

Roughage fed .............. Pangolagrass Hay Pangolagrass Silage
Cottonseed Cottonseed Cottonseed Cottonseed
Protein supplement ...... meal meal-urea meal meal-urea

Lot number .................. 1 2 3 4
Number of steers ............ 5 5 5 5
Average daily gain ........ 2.36 2.39 2.13 2.38
Average daily ration,
pounds:
Pangolagrass hay ........ 4.63 5.06 -
Pangolagrass silage .... 18.00 18.31
Cottonseed meal .......... 3.04 3.04 -
Cottonseed meal-urea
supplement* .............. 3.04 3.01
Citrus pulp ................... 9.04 9.04 9.04 9.02
Citrus molasses ............ 4.64 3.87 4.29 3.96
Complete mineral ........ 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.08

Total ......................... 21.37 21.05 34.41 34.38
Total** ..................... 21.95 21.71
Average estimated TDN,
pounds:
Daily per steer ........... 13.0 12.7 13.3 13.1
Per 100 pounds gain .... 550 529 626 550
Percent TDN from
roughage ........................ 16.5 16.9 19.0 20.0

Protein supplement: 50 parts cottonseed meal, 8 parts urea, 42 parts citrus pulp.
** Silage reduced to similar dry matter content as hay (3.25).







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Hauling shrink ranged from 3.03 to 3.87 percent; cattle fed
silage lost the most weight. Average dressing percent based on
liveweight at slaughter plant and warm carcass weight minus 2.5
percent shrink ranged from 59.6 to 60.9.
Mean squares and significant level of daily gain, dressing
percent, and carcass grade of all steers are given in Table 7.
There was no significant difference between roughages or pro-
tein supplements for the factors measured; however, there was
a statistically significant difference between years for rate of gain.
Year x protein and roughage x protein interactions were signi-
ficant at the .05 level of probability for dressing percent.




TABLE 4.-GAINS AND FEED CONSUMPTION BY STEERS FED PANGOLAGRASS
ROUGHAGE AND COTTONSEED MEAL OR COTTONSEED MEAL-UREA SUPPLE-
MENT, TRIAL 2.

Roughage fed .................. Pangolagrass Hay Pangolagrass Silage
Cottonseed Cottonseed Cottonseed Cottonseed
Protein supplement ........ meal meal-urea meal meal-urea

Lot number ..................... 1 2 3 4
Number of steers .............. 8 8 8 8
Average daily gain -....... 2.04 1.93 2.20 1.92
Average daily ration,
pounds:
Pangolagrass hay ........ 5.92 5.85 -
Pangolagrass silage.... 19.24 17.66
Cottonseed meal ......-... 3.07 3.07 -
Cottonseed meal-urea
supplement .............. 3.05 3.07
Citrus pulp ................... 9.10 9.12 9.12 9.12
Citrus molasses ........... 3.98 3.53 4.31 4.36
Complete mineral........ 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03

Total ............................ 22.09 21.58 35.76 34.24
Total ............................ 22.44 22.01
Average estimated TDN,
pounds:
Daily per steer ...-........ 13.2 12.9 13.6 13.3
Per 100 pounds gain .... 647 669 617 696
Percent TDN from
roughage ....... ........... 18.9 19.1 19.9 18.6







Pangolagrass Hay and Silage 9










TABLE 5.-GAINS AND FEED CONSUMPTION BY STEERS FED PANGOLAGRASS
ROUGHAGE AND COTTONSEED MEAL OR COTTONSEED MEAL-UREA SUPPLE-
MENT, TRIAL 3.


Roughage fed .................. Pangolagrass Hay Pangolagrass Silage

Cottonseed Cottonseed Cottonseed Cottonseed
Protein supplement ........ meal meal-urea meal meal-urea

Lot number ..................... 1 2 3 4
Number of steers ............ 8 8 8 8
Average daily gain ........ 2.40 2.02 2.03 2.18
Average daily ration,
pounds:
Pangolagrass hay ........ 7.35 7.37 -
Pangolagrass silage ... 21.4 19.3
Cottonseed meal .......... 3.12 3.13 -
Cottonseed meal-urea
supplement ....-...... 3.13 3.13
Citrus pulp .................... 8.79 8.80 8.62 8.77
Citrus molasses ........... 2.81 3.05 2.56 3.34
Complete mineral ........ 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.04

Total --.......................... 22.08 22.36 35.72 34.58
Total ...................... 20.90 21.22
Average estimated TDN,
pounds:
Daily per steer .......... 13.0 13.1 12.7 12.8
Per 100 pounds gain .... 540 650 623 591
Percent TDN from
roughage ..................... 23.8 23.6 23.7 21.1







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 6.-SUMMARY OF GAINS AND FEED CONSUMPTION BY STEERS FED
PANGOLAGRASS ROUGHAGE AND COTTONSEED MEAL OR COTTONSEED MEAL-
UREA SUPPLEMENT IN THREE TRIALS.


Roughage fed .................

Protein supplement.......

Lot number ......................
Number of steers .-........
Age of steers, months -..
Average weights:
Initial ..................... ....
Final ............ ....-.....
Gain ..........................
Daily gain .....................
Average daily ration,
pounds:
Pangolagrass hay ........
Pangolagrass silage ....
Pangolagrass silage ....
Cottonseed meal ...........
Cottonseed meal-urea
supplement* .........
Citrus pulp ..................
Citrus molasses .........
Complete mineral ........

Total .......................
Total** ........................
Average estimated TDN,
pounds:
Daily per steer ............
Per 100 pounds gain ....
Percent TDN from
roughage ......................
Average grades:
Feedert ..........................
Initial slaughter$ ..........
Final slaughter$ ..........
Carcass ........................
Loss from pens to planttt
Dressing percent ............


Pangolagrass Hay
Cottonseed Cottonseed
meal meal-urea


713
983
270
2.25


6.27


3.08


8.97
3.64
0.02

21.98



13.1
579

20.2

10
5
9
8
3.03
60.78


729
978
249
2.08


6.24




3.07
8.98
3.43
0.02

21.74



12.9
624

20.3

10
5
9
8
3.38
60.68


Pangolagrass Silage
Cottonseed Cottonseed
meal meal-urea


3
21
22

728
982
254
2.12



19.78
6.08
3.08


8.91
3.64
0.02

35.43
21.73


13.2
621

21.1

10
5
9
8
3.73
59.59


4
21
21

742
997
255
2.13



18.46
5.68


3.08
8.96
3.88
0.05

34.43
21.65


13.1
611

19.7

10
5
9
8
3.87
60.88


* Protein supplement: 50 parts cottonseed meal; 2 parts urea and 42 parts citrus pulp.
** Silage reduced to similar dry matter as hay (3.25).
t Feeder grades: 10, Good; 11, High Good.
$ Slaughter and carcass grades: 8, High Standard; 9, Low Good.
It Two hours time and 75 miles from pens.
Based on live weight at plant and 2.5 percent shrink in warm carcass weight.







Pangolagrass Hay and Silage


TABLE 7.-MEAN SQUARES AND SIGNIFICANT LEVELS FOR GAINS, DRESSING
PERCENT, AND CARCASS GRADE OF STEERS FED PANGOLA ROUGHAGE AND
COTTONSEED MEAL OR UREA-PROTEIN FEED.

SGain Dressing Percent Carcass Grade
Source of
Variability D.F. Mn. sq. SL Mn. sq. SL Mn. sq. SL

Year (Y) 2 7792 .05 1 NS 1 NS
Roughage (R) 1 525 NS 7 NS 4 NS
Protein (P) 1 2305 NS 6 NS 0 NS
Y x R 2 1281 NS 0.5 NS 2 NS
Y x P 2 2712 NS 8.5 .05 0.5 NS
Rx P 1 2743 NS 12 .05 0 NS
Y x Rx P 2 3573 NS 3.5 NS 0 NS

Residual 72 1970 2 1.42
(error)



DISCUSSION

The trials were conducted during the cooler part of the year,
being started in October and completed the following February.
Average daily temperature ranged from a maximum of 86.50F
from October 15 to 31, 1959, to a minimum of 45.50 in December
1960. It was not considered necessary to provide shade since
the cattle had considerable Brahman blood and prior to these
trials all animals had been on pasture without shade.
Steers were fed in unprotected pens with exposed feed bunks.
Rainfall during Trials 1, 2, and 3 was 11.14, 13.22, and 7.65 inches,
respectively. There was little if any feed refusal during dry
weather, but considerable roughage and concentrate feed had to
be removed after heavy rains. Refusal was more frequent dur-
ing Trial 2, especially the last two weeks the cattle were on test.
The wet and boggy condition of the pens combined with weather-
induced feed refusal reduced gains during this period.
The nutrients required to fatten yearling cattle according to
the recommendations of the NRC (1), together with average
results of the three trials, are given in Table 8. It is shown
that quality yearling steers weighing 800 pounds, without stil-
bestrol, consuming 22 pounds feed daily, should make an optimum
average daily gain from 2.24 to 2.52 pounds. Further, the ration
should contain 7.5 percent digestible protein and 65 percent TDN;
the daily ration will then provide 1.6 pounds digestible protein
and 14.3 pounds TDN.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 8.-RECOMMENDED NUTRIENTS FOR FATTENING YEARLING STEERS AND
CALCULATED AMOUNTS FED IN THREE TRIALS.

Protein* Protein**
Source of Weight Total
Data Steers Total Dig. Total Dig. TDN* TDN** Feed** Gain**

National Research Council recommendations
800 10 7.5 2.2 1.6 65 14.3 22 2.24 to
2.52


Averages from 3 trials using pangolagrass hay:
Lot 1 848 11.8 7.3 2.6 1.6 59.5 13.1 22 2.25
Lot 2 854 12.1 7.1 2.6 1.5 59.5 12.9 22 2.08

Averages from 3 trials using pangolagrass silage:t
Lot 3 855 10.9 7.2 2.4 1.6 60.6 13.2 22 2.12
Lot 4 870 11.1 6.9 2.4 1.5 60.1 13.1 22 2.13

Percent in ration.
** Average pounds per animal daily.
t On air-dry basis.

The average weight of the 21 steers fed in each of the 4 lots
ranged from 848 to 870 pounds. Rations fed in these trials con-
tained adequate total protein but were from 0.2 to 0.6 percent
low in digestible protein and from 4.4 to 5.5 percent low in TDN.
The intake of TDN per steer on a daily basis was from 1.1 to 1.4
pounds below the level required (1) to promote the best gains.
Only Lot 1, fed pangolagrass hay and cottonseed meal, had an
average daily gain of 2.25 pounds, 0.01 pound above the minimum
NRC figure.
The average daily consumption of roughage on an air-dry
basis ranged from 6.24 to 6.27 pounds for cattle fed pangolagrass
hay and from 5.68 to 6.09 pounds for those fed silage. The mini-
mum requirement for roughage in the ration of fattening cattle
(1) lies between 0.5 and 0.8 pound per 100 pounds live weight.
It is seen from Table 9 that the average amount of air-dried
roughage eaten daily per steer in the three trials varied from
0.65 for Lot 4 to 0.74 pound for Lot 1.
The concentrate-to-roughage ratio ranged from 71:29 for Lot
1, fed hay and cottonseed meal, to 74:26 for Lot 4, fed silage
and urea-protein feed.
Steers fed hay and cottonseed meal gained 0.17 pound faster
on an average daily basis than those fed hay and cottonseed meal-







Pangolagrass Hay and Silage


urea feed. There was no significant difference in gains in the


three trials when steers were fed silage and
meal or a cottonseed meal-urea supplement.

TABLE 9.-ROUGHAGE CONSUMPTION AND PERCENT
OBTAINED FROM EACH FEED.


either cottonseed


CALCULATED TDN


Roughage fed .............................
Lot number ....................................


Total feed per 100 pounds gain* ..
Roughage consumed daily, pounds:*
T otal ........................................ ....
100 pounds live weight ............
Concentrate-to-roughage ratio,*
Total feed ---------....-.... -- ...............
Percent TDN from each feed:
Roughage:
Pangolagrass hay .................
Pangolagrass silage ..............
Concentrate:
Cottonseed meal .....................
Cottonseed meal-urea
supplem ent ..........................
Citrus pulp ............. .....-- ..........
Citrus molasses .....................


Pangolagr


ass Hay Pangolagrass Silage
2 3 4

1,048 1,026 1,016


6.27 6.24 6.09 5.68
0.74 0.73 0.71 0.65

71:29 71:29 72:28 74:26


21.1 19.7


- 15.0 -


13.9 13.3
- 15.0
51.8 51.4


- 14.8
50.1 50.7
13.8 14.8


On air-dry basis.

In two of the three trials cattle fed silage and cottonseed
meal-urea feed, Lot 4, had higher average daily gains than those
fed silage and cottonseed meal. Similar results were obtained in
an 84-day trial completed in December 1954 (5) when steers
fed silage and cottonseed meal-urea feed gained 2.38 pounds per
day, while those fed silage and cottonseed meal gained 2.28
pounds per day and had a higher TDN requirement for gains.
Weight records show that cattle on hay and cottonseed meal
gained faster during the first 60 to 80 days of the trial than those
fed hay and cottonseed meal-urea feed, while there was little
difference in rate of gain of steers fed silage and cottonseed meal
or silage and cottonseed-urea supplement.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Three steer feeding trials of 120 days each were conducted
to compare the value of pangolagrass as hay and as silage in
steer fattening rations. One lot on each roughage was given






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


cottonseed meal and a second lot a cottonseed meal-urea mixture,
with all lots being fed at the same level of protein equivalent.
The cattle were full-fed roughage, citrus pulp, and citrus molas-
ses. Since citrus pulp was more palatable, steers ate only 41
percent as much citrus molasses as citrus pulp.
Steers fed hay and cottonseed meal had an average daily gain
of 2.25 pounds and required 579 pounds TDN per 100 pounds
gain, while those fed silage and cottonseed meal gained 2.12
pounds daily and required 624 pounds TDN.
Steers fed hay or silage and cottonseed meal-urea had aver-
age daily gains of 2.08 and 2.13 pounds, respectively, and required
621 and 611 pounds TDN per 100 pounds gain.
All four lots of cattle in the 120-day feeding period advanced
from High Utility slaughter grade to Low Good. Average carcass
grade for all lots was High Standard. Dressing percent ranged
from 59.59 percent for Lot 3, fed silage and cottonseed meal, to
60.88 for Lot 4, fed silage and protein feed.
Under the conditions of this experiment there was a signi-
ficant difference in rate of gain between years but no significant
difference was shown between the two roughage forms or the
two protein supplements.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Acknowledgement is made to George K. Davis and John T.
McCall for analyzing feed samples.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Committee on Animal Nutrition. No. IV. Nutrient requirements of
beef cattle. National Research Council Pub. 579. Wash. D. C. Revised
1958.
2. Hodges, Elver M., D. W. Jones, and W. G. Kirk. Grass pastures in
central Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 484A. 1958.
3. Kirk, W. G., and George K. Davis. Citrus products for beef cattle. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 538. 1954.
4. Kirk, W. G., F. M. Peacock, E. M. Hodges, and D. W. Jones. Urea and
cottonseed meal in the ration of fattening cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 603. 1958.
5. Kirk, W. G., F. M. Peacock, E. M. Hodges, and J. E. McCaleb. Value of
pangola hay and silage in steer fattening rations. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 621. 1960.
6. Morrison, F. B. Feeds and feeding. 22nd ed. pp. 1087-1093. 1956.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


cottonseed meal and a second lot a cottonseed meal-urea mixture,
with all lots being fed at the same level of protein equivalent.
The cattle were full-fed roughage, citrus pulp, and citrus molas-
ses. Since citrus pulp was more palatable, steers ate only 41
percent as much citrus molasses as citrus pulp.
Steers fed hay and cottonseed meal had an average daily gain
of 2.25 pounds and required 579 pounds TDN per 100 pounds
gain, while those fed silage and cottonseed meal gained 2.12
pounds daily and required 624 pounds TDN.
Steers fed hay or silage and cottonseed meal-urea had aver-
age daily gains of 2.08 and 2.13 pounds, respectively, and required
621 and 611 pounds TDN per 100 pounds gain.
All four lots of cattle in the 120-day feeding period advanced
from High Utility slaughter grade to Low Good. Average carcass
grade for all lots was High Standard. Dressing percent ranged
from 59.59 percent for Lot 3, fed silage and cottonseed meal, to
60.88 for Lot 4, fed silage and protein feed.
Under the conditions of this experiment there was a signi-
ficant difference in rate of gain between years but no significant
difference was shown between the two roughage forms or the
two protein supplements.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Acknowledgement is made to George K. Davis and John T.
McCall for analyzing feed samples.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Committee on Animal Nutrition. No. IV. Nutrient requirements of
beef cattle. National Research Council Pub. 579. Wash. D. C. Revised
1958.
2. Hodges, Elver M., D. W. Jones, and W. G. Kirk. Grass pastures in
central Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 484A. 1958.
3. Kirk, W. G., and George K. Davis. Citrus products for beef cattle. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 538. 1954.
4. Kirk, W. G., F. M. Peacock, E. M. Hodges, and D. W. Jones. Urea and
cottonseed meal in the ration of fattening cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 603. 1958.
5. Kirk, W. G., F. M. Peacock, E. M. Hodges, and J. E. McCaleb. Value of
pangola hay and silage in steer fattening rations. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 621. 1960.
6. Morrison, F. B. Feeds and feeding. 22nd ed. pp. 1087-1093. 1956.

































































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